Timeline Albania

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Medieval clan leader Leke Gukagjini established the Kanun of Leke or Code of Leke in northern Albania. It regulated community life through rules of loyalty and concepts of honor that incorporated both acts of revenge and magnanimous pardon.
 (SFC, 3/5/96, p.A8)
  The Kheg dialect is spoken in the north while the Tosk dialect is spoken in the south.
 (WSJ, 4/2/99, p.A9)

5Mil BC    Lake Ohrid was created about this time. The 18-mile-long mountain lake bordered Albania and Macedonia.
    (SSFC, 8/31/14, p.L3)

1225BC     Earliest known Illyrian king, Hyllus, died.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1000BC    The Illyrians were Indo-European tribesmen who appeared in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula about 1000 BC. Albanians derive their name from an Illyrian tribe called the Arber, or Arbereshë, and later Albanoi, that lived near Durrës.

400BC-300BC     King Bardhylus united Illyria, Molossia (Epirus) and part of Macedonia. The Illyrian kingdom reaches its peak.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

360BC        Perdiccas III, the king of Macedonia in northern Greece, was killed in a battle with Illyrian tribes. His son was an infant so control of the army passed to his younger brother, Philip.
    {Macedonia, Albania, Greece}
    (ON, 4/2011, p.10)

358BC     Philip II of Macedonia marched his men into territories he had ceded to Paionia, Illyria and Thrace, where he routed his enemies and forced them to pledge allegiance to Macedonia.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(ON, 4/2011, p.10)

312BC     King Glauk of Illyria expelled the Greeks from Durrës.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

232BC     King Agron died, the Illyrian throne was occupied by Queen Teuta.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

165BC     Romans captured King Gent of Illyria and sent him to Rome. Illyria went under Roman control.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

44BC        Caesar began building a colony at Butrint, Albania. Titus Pomponius Atticus described the area as "the quietest, coolest, most pleasant place in the world."
    (Reuters, 6/13/06)

1-100        Christianity came to Illyrian populated areas.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

9        Emperor Tiberius of Rome subjugated the Illyrians and divided present day Albania between Dalmatia, Epirus, and Macedonia.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

193        Apr 9, In the Balkans, the distinguished soldier Septimius Seversus was proclaimed emperor by the army in Illyricum.
    (HN, 4/9/99)

300-700    Goths, Huns, Avars, Serbs, Croats, and Bulgars successively invade Illyrian lands.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

395         Division of Roman Empire left lands presently inhabited by Albanians under the administration of the Eastern Empire.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

700-800    Slav tribes settle into the territories of present-day Slovenia, Bosnia, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia, and assimilated the Illyrian populations of these regions. The Illyrians in the south averted assimilation.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

732         Illyrians were subordinated to the patriarchate of Constantinople by the Byzantine Emperor, Leo the Isaurian.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1054        The Roman and Orthodox Churches split decisively. The Orthodox Church did not accept the papal authority from Rome. Christians in southern Albania were left under the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople and those in the north under the pope in Rome.
    (WSJ, 11/14/95, p. A-12)(WP, 6/29/96, p.B7)(www, Albania, 1998)

1081         Albania and Albanians were mentioned for the first time in a historical record by a Byzantine emperor.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1100-1200    Serbs occupied parts of northern and eastern Albanian inhabited lands.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1204         Venice won control over most of Albania, but Byzantines regained control of the southern portion and established the Despotate of Epirus.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1272         Forces of the King of Naples occupied Durrës and established the Kingdom of Arbëria, the first Albanian kingdom since the fall of Illyria.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1385         Albanian ruler of Durrës invited Ottoman forces to intervene against a rival.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1389        Jun 15, The Serbs were defeated by Ottoman Turks in the Battle of Kosovo at the Field of the Blackbirds. In the battle, the Serb prince Lazar was captured by the Turks and beheaded. Lazar's bones were placed in the monastery at Grancanica in Kosovo. Sultan Murad, the Ottoman leader was killed in the battlefield by the wounded son-in-law of King Lazar. Serbs say that Albanians aided the Turkish invaders. Historical evidence shows that both forces were multinational and that Serbs and Albanian fought on both sides. In 1999 Ismail Kadare, Albanian author, wrote "Elegy for Kosovo," in which he retells the story of the battle. Bosnian King Tvrtko and other Balkan princes along with Albanians fought under the command of Serbian Prince Lazar.
    (SFC, 12/29/96, BR p.7)(SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 5/5/98, p.A20)(HN, 6/15/98)(WSJ, 3/25/99, p.A17)(WSJ, 5/7/99, p.A1,18)(SFEC, 7/23/00, BR p.7)

1403         Gjergj Kastrioti (d.1468) was born. He became the Albanian leader known as Skanderbeg.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(HNQ, 10/5/98)

1443        After losing a battle near Nis, Skanderbeg with a group of Albanian warriors defected from the Ottoman army and return to Kruja. Albanian resistance to Turkish rule was organized under the leadership of Skander Beg in Kruja. He was able to keep Albania independent for more than 20 years. A baronial museum in his honor was later was designed by the daughter of Enver Hoxha.
    (CO, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Albania)(WSJ, 4/14/98, p.A21)(www, Albania, 1998)

1444        The Albanian people organized a league of Albanian princes in this year under George Kastrioti, also known as Skanderbeg. As leader of this Christian league he effectively repulsed 13 Turkish invasions from 1444 to 1466, making him a hero in the Western world.
    (HNQ, 10/5/98)(www, Albania, 1998)

1449         Albanians, under Skenderbeg, routed the Ottoman forces under Sultan Murat II.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1468        Skanderbeg (62) of Albania died and the Turks absorbed Albania into the Ottoman Empire. Over the next five centuries most Albanians converted to Islam.
    (CO, Grolier’s / Albania)(www, Albania, 1998)

1478        Ten years after the death of Skanderbeg, his citadel at Kruje was finally taken by the Ottoman Turks and Albania fell into obscurity during several centuries of Turkish rule.
    (HNQ, 10/5/98)(www, Albania, 1998)

1479         Shkodra fell to the Ottoman Turks. Subsequently, many Albanians fled to southern Italy, Greece, Egypt, and elsewhere; many remaining were forced to convert to Islam.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1600-1650     In the early Seventeenth Century: Some Albanians who converted to Islam found careers in Ottoman Empire's government and military.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1600-1800    About two-thirds of the Albanians converted to Islam.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1614        Sulayman Pasha, a Turkish general, named the Tehran (later Tirana) as the capital of Albania after the capital of Iran.
    (SSFC, 12/17/06, p.G5)

1799        Mar 7, In Palestine, Napoleon captured Jaffa and his men massacred more than 2,000 Albanian prisoners.
    (HN, 3/7/99)

1822         Albanian leader Ali Pasha of Tepelena was assassinated by Ottoman agents for promoting autonomy.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1830         1000 Albanian leaders were invited to meet with an Ottoman general who killed about half of them.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1835         The Ottoman Porte divided Albanian-populated lands into vilayets of Janina, Manastir, Shkodra, and Kosova with Ottoman administrators.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1861         The first school known to use Albanian language in modern times was opened in Shkodra.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1878        Mar 3, Russia and the Ottomans signed the Treaty of San Stefano, granting independence to Serbia. With the Treaty of San Stefano (and subsequent negotiations in Berlin) in the wake of the last Russo-Turkish War, the Ottoman Empire lost its possession of numerous territories including Bulgaria, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia. The Russo-Turkish wars dated to the 17th century, the Russians generally gaining territory and influence over the declining Ottoman Empire. In the last war, Russia and Serbia supported rebellions in the Balkans. In concluding the Treaty of San Stefano, the Ottomans released control of Montenegro, Romania and Serbia, granted autonomy to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and allowed an autonomous state of Bulgaria to be placed under Russian control.
    (HN, 3/3/99)(HNQ, 2/23/01)
1878         Mar 3, The Treaty of San Stefano was signed after Russo-Turkish War. It assigned Albanian-populated lands to Bulgaria, Montenegro and Serbia; but Austria-Hungary and Britain blocked the treaty's implementation. Albanian leaders meet in Prizren, Kosova, to form the League of Prizren. The League initially advocated autonomy for Albania. At the Congress of Berlin, the Great Powers overturned the Treaty of San Stefano and divided Albanian lands among several states. The League of Prizren began to organize resistance to the Treaty of Berlin's provisions that affected Albanians.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_San_Stefano)

1878        Jul 13, The Treaty of Berlin amended the terms of the Treaty of San Stefano, which had ended the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. The Congress of Berlin divided the Balkans among European powers.
    (AP, 7/13/97)(HN, 7/13/98)

1881         Ottoman forces crushed Albanian resistance fighters at Prizren. The League's leaders and families were arrested and deported.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1897         Ottoman authorities disbanded a reactivated League of Prizren, executed its leader and banned Albanian language books.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1908         Albanian intellectuals met in Manastir (Bitolja, Macedonia), at the Congress of Manastir to standardize the Albanian alphabet using the Latin script. Up to now, Latin, Cyrillic and Arabic script had been used.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1910        Aug 26, Agnes Gonxhe Bojaxhiu (d.1997), later known as Mother Teresa and care-taker of the poor in Calcutta, was born to an ethnic Albanian family in Uskub (later Skopje, Macedonia). In 1950 she founded the Missionaries of Charity in Calcutta and in 1979 was awarded a Nobel Peace Prize for her work.
    (SFC, 8/26/97, p.C3)(AP, 9/26/04)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mother_Teresa)

1912         May, Albanians rose against the Ottoman authorities and seized Shkup (Skopje, Macedonia).
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1912        Oct 8, Montenegro declared war on Turkey beginning the 1st Balkan War. Balkan League members followed Montenegro 10 days later. [see Oct 18]

1912        Oct 18, The First Balkan War broke out between the members of the Balkan League-- Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece and Montenegro--and the Ottoman Empire. A small Balkan War broke out and was quelled by the major powers. Albanian nationalism spurred repeated revolts against Turkish dominion and resulted in the First Balkan War in which the Turks were driven out of much of the Balkan Peninsula. Austria-Hungary’s 1908 annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina spurred Serbian efforts to form the Balkan alliance with its neighbors.  As a result of the war on Turkey, Serbia doubled its territory with the award of Northern Macedonia. Albanian leaders affirmed Albania as an independent state. [see Oct 8]
    (V.D.-H.K.p.290)(CO, Grolier’s/ Albania)(HN, 10/18/98)(HNQ, 3/27/99)(www, Albania, 1998)

1912        Nov 28, Albanian delegates at Vlora declared the independence of Albania and established a provisional government. This marked Albania’s Independence Day.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(SSFC, 11/25/12, p.H3)

1912        Dec 25, Italy landed troops in Albania to protect its interests during a revolt there.
    (HN, 12/25/98)

1912        Dec, Ambassadorial conference opened in London and discussed Albania's fate.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1912        European powers awarded Kosovo to Serbia rather than the new Republic of Albania. [see Nov, 1913]
    (SFC, 10/28/00, p.A12)

1913        Feb 26-1913 Mar 6, An Albanian Congress was held in Trieste as the Ottoman Empire broke down. Ismail Qemali served as head of the provisional government of the newly founded Albanian state.

1913        May 30, New country of Albania formed.
    (MC, 5/30/02)
1913        May 30, Conclusion of the First Balkan War. The Treaty of London ended First Balkan War, and the Second Balkan War began.
    (HN, 5/30/98)(www, Albania, 1998)

1913        Jul 30, Conclusion of 2nd Balkan War. [see Aug 10]
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1913        Sep 23, Serbian troops marched into Albania.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1913        Oct 18, Austrian-Hungary demanded that Serbia and Albania leave.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1913        Nov, Treaty of Bucharest ended the Second Balkan War. The Great Powers recognized an independent Albanian state. Demographics were ignored, however, and half of the territories inhabited by Albanians (such as Kosova and Chameria) were divided among Montenegro, Serbia and Greece.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1914        Mar 6, German Prince Wilhelm de Wied was crowned as King of Albania. He was installed as head of the Albanian state by the International Control Commission. His rule ended within six months, with the outbreak of World War I.
    (HN, 3/6/98)(www, Albania, 1998)

1918         Dec, Albanian leaders met at Durrës to discuss Albania's interests at the Paris Peace Conference. When World War I ended the Italian armies occupied most of Albania, and Serbian, Greek and French armies occupied the remainder. Italian and Yugoslav powers began a struggle for dominance over Albanians.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1918        Kosovo became part of the newly created Yugoslavia and was dominated by a Serbian monarchy until WW II.
    (SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)

1919         Serbs attacked Albanian cities; Albanians adopted guerilla warfare. Albania was denied official representation at the Paris Peace Conference; British, French and Greek negotiators decided to divide Albania among Greece, Italy and Yugoslavia. This decision was vetoed by American president Wilson.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1920         Jan, Albanian leaders met in Lushnjë and rejected the partitioning of Albania by the Treaty of Paris. They created a bicameral parliament and warned that Albanians would take up arms in defense of territory.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1920        Feb, Albanian government moved to Tirana, which became the capital.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1920        Sep, Albania forced Italy to withdraw its troops and abandon claims on Albanian territory.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1920        Dec, Albania was admitted to the League of Nations as sovereign and independent state.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1921         Nov, Yugoslav troops invaded Albania; The League of Nations commission forced Yugoslav withdrawal and reaffirmed Albania's 1913 borders.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1921        Dec, The Popular Party, led by Xhafer Ypi, formed a government with Ahmet Zogu as minister of internal affairs.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1922         Aug, The ecumenical patriarch in Constantinople recognized the Autochephalous Albanian Orthodox Church.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1922        Sep, Ahmet Zogu, a tribal warlord, assumed the position of Prime Minister.
    (SFC, 6/27/97, p.A16)(www, Albania, 1998)

1923         Albania's Sunni Muslims broke ties with Constantinople and pledged primary allegiance to native country.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1923        Sep 26, Sir Aubrey Herbert (b.1880), Englishman, died. He worked for Albania’s independence and was twice offered the throne of Albania. He authored the WW 1 journal “Mons, Anzac & Kut."
    (www.ku.edu/carrie/texts/world_war_I/Mons/mons.htm)(Econ, 12/18/04, p.16)

1924         Mar, Zogu's party won elections for the National Assembly, but Zogu stepped down after a financial scandal and an assassination attempt.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1924        Jul, A peasant-backed insurgency won control of Tirana; Fan S. Noli became Prime Minister; Zogu fled to Yugoslavia.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1924        Dec, Zogu, backed by Yugoslav army, returned to power and began to smother parliamentary democracy; Noli fled to Italy.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1926         Italy and Albania signed the First Treaty of Tirana, which guaranteed Zogu's political position and Albania's boundaries.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1927        Mar 10, Albania mobilized under the threat of Serbia, Croatia & Slovenes.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1928        Sep 1, Albania became a kingdom. Ahmed Zogu, a Muslim chieftain, proclaimed Albania to be a monarchy and established himself as “His Majesty King Zog I." Zogu pressured the parliament to dissolve itself, and a new constituent assembly declared Albania a kingdom with Zogu as Zog I, "King of the Albanians." He obtained Italian aid for modernization and weakened the constitution to arrange for his son to succeed him. The National Assembly gave him a title that translates into “prince."
    (CO, Grolier’s / Albania)(SFC, 6/27/97, p.A16)(www, Albania, 1998)(AP, 12/3/11)

1931         In Albania Zog refused to renew the First Treaty of Tirana. Italians continued with political and economic pressure.
    (www, Albania, 1998)
1931        Albania’s King Zog escaped an assassination attempt in Vienna.
    (SFC, 10/28/02, p.A17)

1934        Jun 23, Italy gained the right to colonize Albania after defeating the country.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1934         After Albania signed trade agreements with Greece and Yugoslavia. Italy suspended economic support, then attempted to threaten Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1935         Mussolini presented a gift of 3,000,000 gold francs to Albania; other economic aid followed.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1937        Italy occupied Albania. [see Apr 8, 1939]
    (SFC, 4/5/97, p.A20)

1938        Jan 1, King Zog of Albania met Geraldine Apponyi (1915-2002). They became engaged 10 days later.
    (SFC, 10/28/02, p.A17)

1938        Apr 27, King Zog of Albania married Geraldine Apponyi (22) of Hungary.
    (SFC, 10/28/02, p.A17)

1939         Mar, Mussolini delivered an ultimatum to Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1939        Apr 7, Italy invaded Albania, which offered only token resistance. Less than a week later, Italy annexed Albania. [see Apr 8]
    (AP, Internet, 4/7/99)

1939        Apr 8, Italy, under Fascist dictatorship led by Benito Mussolini seized the country of Albania. The Albanian parliament voted to unite Albania with Italy; King Zog fled to Greece.  [see Apr 7]
    (HN, 4/8/98)(www, Albania, 1998)

1939-1943    During the 4 years of Axis rule the province of Kosovo was annexed to the rest of Albania.
    (WSJ, 4/2/99, p.A9)

1940        Apr 12, Italy annexed Albania.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1940        Oct 28, Italy invaded Greece, launching six divisions on four fronts from occupied Albania. Greece successfully resisted Italy's attack.
    (AP, 10/28/97)(HN, 10/28/98)(MC, 10/28/01)

1940-1944    Britain’s Special Operations Executive, an agency set up by Winston Churchill, carried out operations in Albania to support anti-German partisans. In 2008 Roderick Bailey authored "The Wildest Province: SOE in the Land of the Eagle."
    (Econ, 3/22/08, p.97)

1941        Jan 4, On the Greek-Albanian front, the Greeks launched an attack towards Valona from Berat to Klisura against the Italians.
    (HN, 1/4/00)

1941        Mar 9, Italians launched a large-scale counterattack across the center of the front against Greece, which, despite the superiority of the Italian armed forces, failed. After one week and 12,000 casualties, Mussolini called off the counterattack and left Albania 12 days later.

1941        Apr 6, German troops invaded Yugoslavia and Greece. Italian and Albanian forces attacked and jointly occupied Yugoslavia. Germany, with support of Italy and other allies defeated Greece and Yugoslavia.
    (WUD, 1944, p.1683)(SFC, 4/5/97, p.A20)(www, Albania, 1998)

1941        Apr 17, Yugoslavia surrendered to Germany ending 11 days of futile resistance against the invading German Wehrmacht. More than 300,000 Yugoslav officers and soldiers were taken prisoner. Italian and Albanian forces attacked and jointly occupied Yugoslavia.
    (SFC, 4/5/97, p.A20)(AP, 4/17/97)(MC, 4/17/02)

1941        Oct, Josip Broz Tito, Yugoslav communist leader, directed the organizing of Albanian communists.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1941        Nov, The Albanian Communist Party was founded; Enver Hoxha became the first secretary.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1942         Sep, The Communist Party organized a National Liberation Movement as a popular front resistance organization.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1942        Oct, Non-communist nationalist groups formed to resist the Italian occupation.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1943         Aug, Italy's surrender to Allied forces weakened Italian hold on Albania; Albanian resistance fighters overwhelmed five Italian divisions.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1943        Sep, German forces invaded and occupied Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1944         Jan, Communist Partisans, supplied with British weapons, gained control of southern Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1944        May, Communists met to organize an Albanian government; Hoxha became chairman of the executive committee and supreme commander of the Army of National Liberation. Enver Hoxha was the leader of the Balkan nation of Albania from 1944 until 1983. Hoxha, leader of a national liberation movement during Italy’s occupation of Albania in World War II, came to power when the Communist insurgency seized control of the country in 1944, beginning nearly 40 years of harsh Stalinist rule. Albania, which borders on Greece and Yugoslavia, eventually broke with the Soviet Union and later China over ideological issues and by the time of the death of Hoxha in 1983 it had become one of the most politically and socially isolated countries in the world.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(HNQ, 1/11/00)

1944        Jul, Communist forces entered central and northern Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1944        Nov 29, Albania was liberated from Nazi control (National Day). Germans withdrew from Tirana and communists entered the capital. The Communists established a provisional government with Enver Hoxha as prime minister.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(Econ, 3/22/08, p.97)(SSFC, 11/25/12, p.H3)

1944        Dec, A Communist provisional government adopted laws allowing state regulation of commercial enterprises, foreign and domestic trade.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1944-1983    Enver Hoxha was the leader of the Balkan nation of Albania. Hoxha, leader of a national liberation movement during Italy's occupation of Albania in World War II, came to power when the Communist insurgency seized control of the country in 1944, beginning nearly 40 years of harsh Stalinist rule. Albania, which borders on Greece and Yugoslavia, eventually broke with the Soviet Union and later China over ideological issues and by the time of the death of Hoxha in 1983 it had become one of the most politically and socially isolated countries in the world.
    (SFC, 5/29/96, p.A7)(HNQ, 1/29/99)

1945         Jan, The Albanian Communist provisional government of Enver Hoxha agreed to restore Kosova to Yugoslavia under Tito as an autonomous region; Yugoslav leaders brought Kosova under marshal law. Tribunals began in Albania to condemn thousands of "war criminals" and "enemies of the people" to death or prison. The Communist regime began to nationalize industry, transportation, forests, pastures.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(WSJ, 4/2/99, p.A9)(SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)

1945        Dec, Elections were held for the People's Assembly. Only members of the Democratic Front were permitted to participate.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1946        Jul, Albania signed a treaty of friendship with Yugoslavia; Yugoslav advisors and grain began pouring into Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1946        Oct, British destroyers hit mines off Albania's coast. The United Nations and the International Court of Justice condemned Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1946         The People's Assembly proclaimed Albania a "people's republic"; purges of non-communists from government positions began. The People's Assembly adopted a new constitution. Enver Hoxha became prime minister, defense minister, foreign minister and commander-in-chief.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1947        Dec 28, Victor Emmanuel (b.1869-1947), also known as Victor Emmanuel III, King of Italy (1900-1946), Emperor of Ethiopia (1939-1943) and King of Albania (1939-1943), died.

1948        Jun, Cominform expelled Yugoslavia; Albanian leaders launched an anti-Yugoslav propaganda campaign, cut economic ties, and forced Yugoslav advisors to leave. Later on the treaty of friendship with Yugoslavia was abrogated; Hoxha began purging high-ranking party members accused of "Titoism"; Soviet Union began economic aid to Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1948        Nov, Communist Party of Albania renamed itself the Party of Labor of Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1948         Albanian Communist Party leaders voted to merge Albanian and Yugoslav economies and militaries.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1949        Jun 10, In Albania Koci Xoxe, former Communist vice-premier, and a number of other officials were convicted as Yugoslav agents. Xoxe was executed on Jun 11. As arrests continued large numbers of Albanians fled the country.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1191)

1950        Feb 13, Albania recognized Ho Chi Minh’s Vietnamese government, becoming the sixth Eastern bloc country to do so.
    (HN, 2/13/98)

1950         Britain and United States inserted anti-Communist guerillas into Albania; all were unsuccessful.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1952        The Alba Films complex was built to produce Communist propaganda.
    (WSJ, 7/22/98, p.A6)

1955        May 14, Representatives from eight Communist bloc countries: Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland & Romania, signed the Warsaw Pact in Poland. Andras Hegedues signed for Hungary.
    (AP, 5/14/97)(SFC, 10/26/99, p.B4)(MC, 5/14/02)

1960         Albania sided with China on a Sino-Soviet ideological dispute; consequently Soviet economic support was curtailed and Chinese aid was increased.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1961        Apr 9, Zog I (65), [Ahmed Zogu], King of Albania (1925-39), died in exile in France. His son, Leka Zogu, was sworn in as king by the government in exile.
    (SFC, 6/27/97, p.A16)(MC, 4/9/02)

1961        Albanian leader Enver Hoxha broke with Nikita Khrushchev over Khrushchev’s repudiation of Stalin’s legacy. Diplomatic relations were severed and Soviet aid to Albania was ended. For a time Albania found an ally in China.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1967         Hoxha regime conducted a violent campaign to extinguish religious life in Albania; by year's end over two thousand religious buildings were closed or converted to other uses. Albania was declared "the world's first atheist country," religious leaders were imprisoned and executed.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(USAT, 2/11/97, p.5A)(WA, 1997,CD)   

1968        Sep 13, Albania officially withdrew from the Warsaw Pact. Albania had condemned the August Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia.

1974        In Yugoslavia under Tito a decentralized federal system allowed the Kosovo region to develop its own security, judiciary, defense, foreign relations and social control. Mahmut Bakalli drafted a constitution that gave the region a status equivalent in most respects to the other republics of Yugoslavia.
    (SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)(SFC, 11/11/98, p.A16)(www, Albania, 1998)(SFC, 3/27/99, p.A13)

1975        In Albania Enver Hoxha embarked on a massive bunker building program.
    (WSJ, 5/10/99, p.A1)

1976         Dec 28, In Albania the People’s Assembly approved a new constitution and the country became a "people's socialist republic."

1978        Jul 7, China cut off all aid to Albania after a dispute and left it completely isolated.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)(CO, GAAE/Albania)(www, Albania, 1998

1981        Mar 26, Police and Albanian demonstrators battled in Kosovo.

1981        Mar, Kosovar Albanian students organized protests seeking that Kosovo become a Republic within Yugoslavia. The protests were harshly contained by the centralist Yugoslav and Serbian governments.

1985        Apr 11, Enver Hoxha (b.1908), Albania’s Stalinist dictator, died. He was succeeded by Ramiz Alia (b.1925).
    (USAT, 2/11/97, p.A1)(SFC,10/21/97, p.A13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enver_Hoxha)

1987        Dec, Slobodan Milosevic, head of a nationalist faction, staged a palace coup and purged Pres. Ivan Stambolic over his moderate treatment of ethnic Albanians. Milosevic had risen to power as head of Serbia’s Communist Party
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 12/27/96, p.B3)(SFC, 7/24/97, p.C3)

1989         Alia, addressing the Eighth Plenum of the Central Committee, signaled that radical changes to the economic system were necessary.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1989         The Milosevic regime in Yugoslavia made constitutional changes to consolidate power over the provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina. Kosovo, whose 1.9 million people are 90% Albanian, lost its autonomy and was placed under Serbian rule. The constitution passed without the approval of the parliament of Kosova. The Serbs fired most Albanians and closed many enterprises. Muslim unrest followed and Kosovo was occupied. 90% of the population of Kosovo was made up of some 2.2 million ethnic Albanians.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 5/11/96, p.A-10)(WSJ, 8/5/96, p.A13) (SFC,12/10/97, p.C2) (www, Albania, 1998)   

1990         Jan, Demonstrations at Shkodra forced authorities to declare a state of emergency.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1990        Jul, In Albania young people demonstrated against the regime in Tirana, 5,000 citizens sought refuge in foreign embassies. Delegates of the parliament of Kosova declared the independence of Kosova from Serbia. Subsequently Serbia abolished the parliament and government of Kosova, closed down the only Albanian daily, and took over the state-owned television and radio. The Albanians of Kosovo voted for sovereignty and elected a shadow government that was banned by Milosevic. In 1992 Ibrahim Rugova (1944-2006) was elected president and Fehmi Agani was the vice-president.
    (SFC,12/10/97, p.C2)(www, Albania, 1998)(Econ, 1/28/06, p.84)

1990        Aug, The government abandoned its monopoly on foreign commerce and began to open Albania to foreign trade.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1990        Nov, Private religious practice began to be allowed.
    (WA, 1997,CD)

1990        Dec 8, Tirana University students demonstrated in the streets and called for the dictatorship to end. Ramiz Alia met with the students 4 days later; a multiparty system was introduced; the Democratic Party, the first opposition party was established; the regime authorized political pluralism.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(SFC, 12/18/00, p.E2)

1991         Jan, The first opposition newspaper, Rilindja Demokratike, began publishing.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1991        Mar 31, Albania offered a multi-party election for the first time in 50 years. The Labor Party won over 67 percent of votes, while the Democratic Party won around 30 percent.
    (HN, 3/31/98)(www, Albania, 1998)

1991        Apr, Alia was reelected as President. The Assembly passed a law on Major Constitutional Provisions which provided for fundamental human rights and separation of powers and invalidated the 1976 constitution.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1991        Jun 22, An estimated 200,000 Albanians turned out in the capital Tirana to cheer visiting US Secretary of State James Baker.
    (AP, 6/22/01)

1991        Jun, Prime Minister Fatos Nano and the rest of the cabinet resigned after trade unions called for a general strike to protest worsening economic conditions and the killing of opposition demonstrators in Shkodra. The Party of Labor was renamed to Socialist Party of Albania. Albania was accepted as a full member of the CSCE.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1991        Aug, Albania’s People's Assembly passed a law allowing private ownership, foreign investment and private employment of workers. Some 18,000 Albanians crossed the Adriatic to seek asylum in Italy, but most were returned.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1991        Sep, A referendum was held in Kosova. Over 90 percent of voters voted for independence.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1991        Dec, The Democratic Party withdrew ministers after accusing communists of blocking reform. Alia set up a new government headed by Vilson Ahmeti and set March 1992 for new elections.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1991        Archbishop Anastasios (61) was sent to Albania by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople to report on the country's religious situation.
    (SSFC, 7/27/03, Par p.4)

1991        As Communism fell apart thousands of Albanians fled their country. They crossed the Adriatic in boats to seek asylum in Italy. Lawlessness and unrest gripped the country. Half the population was unemployed.
    (CO, Grolier’s/ Albania)

1991        Italian authorities allowed several ships with about 25,000 Albanians into the port of Bari. When another wave of immigrants showed up a few months later the policy was reversed and they were sent back home.
    (NG, 5/93, p.104)

1992        Jan 31,The first Miss Albania was crowned.
    (HFA, '96, p.22)

1992        Mar, In Albania the Democratic Party of Sali Berisha was elected with 92 of a 140 seats in the legislature in the midst of economic freefall and social chaos. Restoration of the economy and political system was a major task and foreign assistance was required to maintain the food supply. Berisha, a cardiologist, was elected president.
    (CO, Grolier’s / Albania)(USAT, 2/11/97, p.A1)(www, Albania, 1998)
1992         Mar, Elections were held in Kosova; the Democratic League of Kosova won the majority of votes; the elections were called illegal by the Serbian regime.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1992        Sep, Former President Alia and eighteen other former communist officials, including Nexhmije Hoxha, wife of late dictator Hoxha, were arrested and charged with corruption and other offenses.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1992        The US set up a new Embassy in Tirana and sheltered CIA agents.
    (WSJ, 11/20/01, p.A10)

1992-1999    A fifth of the population left Albania. Most moved to Western Europe to live as undocumented aliens.
    (SFC, 5/11/99, p.A6)
1994        Former president Ramiz Alia, successor of Stalinist dictator Enver Hoxha, was sentenced to 9 years in prison for abuse of power. He was later freed on amnesty and then re-arrested on new charges. He fled the country in Mar, 1997.
    (SFC,10/21/97, p.A13)

1994        Pres. Sali Berisha drafted a constitution that required the head of the Orthodox Church to be born in Albania and live there for 20 years. It was defeated in a referendum.
    (SSFC, 7/27/03, Par p.4)

1995        In Albania businessman Remzi Hoxha was illegally detained along with two other suspects for an alleged plot to to kill Macedonian President Kiro Gligorov during a visit to Albania. Hoxha was never found and was presumed to have died in custody.
    (AP, 11/22/12)

1996        Feb 26, A car bomb in Albania killed 5 people and wounded 30 outside a supermarket in the center of Tirana. Two former senior officials of the disbanded Communist era secret police were arrested shortly after the blast.
    (WSJ, 2/27/96, p.A-1)

1996        May 27, Opposition parties accused the ruling democrats of election irregularities and pulled out of the parliamentary voting process.
    (SFC, 5/27/96, p.A7)

1996        May 28, Sali Berisha, Pres. of Albania, banned an opposition rally. Many who defied the ban were seriously beaten. Berisha was supported by Washington for discouraging the Albanian majority in Kosovo from demanding autonomy from Yugoslavia. He also allowed American military planes to access Albanian air bases.
    (SFC, 5/29/96, p.A7)

1996        Jun 20, In Albania a court convicted 3 top ex-Communist officials for deporting more than 70 dissidents when they headed regional Communist administrations. The European Parliament urged Albania to hold another vote due to balloting irregularities in the May 26 and June 2 elections.
    (SFC, 6/21/96, p.A14)(SFC, 6/22/96, p.A13)

1996        Jul 5, Vital exports from Vlora, Albania, was sending 6 tons a week of live frogs to Lyon, France. “But how long will this resource last?"
    (SFC, 7/5/96, p.A12)

1996        Aug 8, Hourly wages were listed at $0.37 per hour.
    (WSJ, 8/8/96, p.A10)

1996        Oct 21, The ruling Democratic Party claimed a landslide victory in local elections.
    (SFC, 10/22/96, p.B1)

1996        Nov 7, Former Communist secret policemen were blamed for a bomb that injured a top judge and his daughter. The attack came after an appeals court upheld prison sentences against 9 officials of the former Communist regime.
    (WSJ, 11/7/96, p.A1)

1996        Dec, The first anti-government protests due to the collapse of investment funds were staged in Skanderbeg Square in Tirana.
    (SFC, 3/17/97, p.C1)

1997        Jan 19, In Albania, riot police beat demonstrators demanding restitution for money lost in pyramid schemes. Some 20 deposit-collecting companies had come to dominate the economy under Berisha's rule. Some $1.2 billion in Albanians' savings was wiped out.
    (AP, 1/19/98)(WSJ, 4/2/99, p.A9)

1997        Jan 25, In Lushnja thousands of people lost money in pyramid investment schemes and took to the streets in protest. Some one million Kalashnikov rifles were stolen from government depots.
    (SFEC, 1/26/97, p.A14)(SFC, 7/26/97, p.A12)

1997        Mar 1, Albania’s Pres. Sali Berisha said that his cabinet ministers would resign and be replaced by leaders acceptable to the opposition .
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, p.A14)

1997        Mar 2, A state of emergency with a curfew, press censorship and police orders to kill was declared in Albania and at least 4 demonstrators were killed in Vlora in clashes with police.
    (SFEC, 3/3/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 3/5/97, p.A14)

1997        Mar 4, Two Albanian air force pilots diverted their MiG-15 fighter to southern Italy after being ordered to fire on civilians. Tanks were reported in Gjirokastra and in Vlore, the hotel complex owned by Vefa, the biggest investment scheme still officially intact, was destroyed along with 6 factories.
    (SFC, 3/5/97, p.A8)

1997        Mar 9, Albania’s Pres. Sali Berisha proposed a new government of reconciliation to represent all political parties and offered to set new elections.
    (SFC, 3/10/97, p.A8)

1997        Mar 14, Chaos and anarchy spread and some 23 people were reported killed across the country. The US and Italy were airlifting citizens out of the country. Near the Macedonian border a $10 million cigarette plant was burned down.
    (SFC, 3/15/97, p.A10)

1997        Mar 16, Amnesty was granted to 51 people including former premier Fatos Nano.
    (SFC, 3/18/97, p.A11)

1997        Mar 28, The UN Security Council agreed to send a multinational force to Albania to protect the delivery of humanitarian aid.
    (SFC, 3/29/97, p.A10)

1997        Mar 29, Italian rescue workers searched the waters for survivors of a collision of an Albanian patrol boat packed with Albanians and an Italian Navy ship. Arguments raged as to who was at fault and there were 4 confirmed deaths. Albanian prime minister Bashkim Fino demanded an investigation.
    (SFEC, 3/30/97, p.A18)

1997        Apr 30, A huge blast killed 22 Albanians in the village of Selize. They were stripping the bronze casings of mortar shells stored in a cave.
    (SFC, 5/1/97, p.A13)

1997        Jun 12, Violence broke out in Elbasan and 13 people were injured during a campaign stop by Pres. Berisha.
    (SFC, 6/13/97, p.A14)

1997        Jun 26, Gunmen fired at the presidential motorcade of Pres. Berisha, who was on a campaign rally. Three guards were wounded. Nearly 1500 people have been killed since March when protests over the failed pyramid schemes turned into armed rebellion.
    (SFC, 6/27/97, p.A12)

1997        Jun 29, The rival ex-Communists claimed to have beaten Pres. Berisha in the elections. Socialist Party leader Fatos Nano claimed his leftist coalition had won 73 of 115 contested seats. Early returns on a referendum showed voters favoring the return of would-be-king Leka Zogu. Later results showed that the referendum was defeated by a 2:1 margin.
    (WSJ, 6/30/97, p.A1)(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A10)(SFC, 7/4/97, p.A12)

1997        Jun, In Albania Ali Uka, a journalist who criticized the Kosovo Liberation Army, was murdered. Uka was brutally disfigured with a bottle and a screwdriver. Hashim Thaci was his roommate at this time.
    (Econ, 1/29/11, p.50)

1997        Jul 6, Three people died as the 2nd round of elections were completed. The Socialist gained 12 more seats versus 5 more for the Democrats.
    (SFC, 7/7/97, p.A10)

1997        Jul 24, In Albania a 5-month long curfew was lifted and Rexhep Mejdani, the secretary-general of the Socialist Party and former physics professor, was elected President by the Parliament. Since Jan. some 1,800 killings had occurred.
    (SFC, 7/25/97, p.A11)

1997        Jul 25, In Albania the new Socialist led government was sworn in while a gang battle in Berat left 10 people dead.
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.A14)

1997        Aug 12, It was reported that the last Italian peacekeeping troops left but that some Greek troops were still based near Tirana.
    (SFC, 8/12/97, p.A1)

1997        Sep 5, In India Mother Teresa (b.1910), the Calcutta nun who worked on behalf of the destitute, died of heart failure in Calcutta. Britain's Queen Elizabeth II broke the royal reticence over Princess Diana's death, calling her "a remarkable person" in a televised address. In 2003 Albania declared 2004 to be "Mother Teresa Year" and set aside Oct. 19 as a national holiday in her honor. "It is Christmas every time you let God love others through you ... yes, it is Christmas every time you smile at your brother and offer him your hand."
    (SFC, 9/6/97, p.A1)(AP, 9/5/98)(AP, 9/12/03)

1997        Sep 6, Albania’s Socialist government dismissed 17 generals.
    (WSJ, 9/8/97, p.A16)

1997        Sep 18, In Albania a Socialist lawmaker shot and wounded a rival from the opposition Democrats inside the parliament building.
    (WSJ, 9/19/97, p.A1)

1997        Oct, In Albania Fatos Nano of the Socialist Party was named Prime Minister.
    (SFC, 3/17/98, p.B2)

1998        Jan 23, Troops stormed into Shkorda to end 2 days of looting and burnings. Rioters were demanding the release from jail of 2 men loyal to former Pres. Berisha. Berisha denounced the violence and ties to the jailed men.
    (SFC, 2/24/98, p.A10)

1998        Apr 22, Yugoslavian (Serbian) troops claimed to have killed 23 ethnic Albanian infiltrators in the border region in Kosovo.
    (SFC, 4/24/98, p.A16)

1998        Apr, Ilir Konushevci, a KLA commander, was ambushed and killed outside Tropoja in northern Albania. He had recently accused Xhavit Haliti, a lieutenant of Hashim Thaci, of buying grenades for $2 and selling them to the KLA for $7.
    (SFC, 6/25/99, p.A12)

1998        May 28, NATO Ministers agreed to help Albania and Macedonia strengthen their border patrols.
    (SFC, 5/29/98, p.A16)

1998        Jun 25, Albanian security personnel (SHIK) under CIA guidance arrested Shawki Salama Attiya, a Tirana cell forger. Over the next month they made a successful raids on more suspected members of the Egyptian Jihad terrorist organization. The suspected terrorists were turned over to anti-terrorist officials in Egypt, where they delivered forced confessions following torture.
    (SFC, 8/13/98, p.A16)(WSJ, 11/20/01, p.A1)

1998        Aug 6, NATO set exercises in Albania for Aug 17-22 to show force against the Serb offensive in Kosovo.
    (WSJ, 8/7/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 17, NATO forces began a 5-day exercise in Albania as a threat to Serbia.
    (WSJ, 8/18/98, p.A1)

1998        Sep 12, Democratic Party leader Azem Hajdari was assassinated
    (WSJ, 9/14/98, p.A1)(USAT, 9/15/98, p.12A)

1998        Sep 13, Opposition supporters burned the Tirana office of Premier Nanos and sent the prime minister and his cabinet fleeing.
    (SFC, 9/14/98, p.A12)

1998        Sep 14, In Albania fighting continued in Tirana. Anti-government protestors stormed public buildings and 3 Berisha supporters were killed in a counter-attack.
    (WSJ, 9/15/98, p.A1)(USAT, 9/15/98, p.12A)(SFC, 9/15/98, p.A6)

1998        Sep 15, Sali Berisha surrendered 2 tanks posted outside his headquarters following threats of force. The government declared the unrest an attempted coup and ordered a criminal investigation.
    (SFC, 9/16/98, p.A11)

1998        Sep 28, In Albania Prime Minister Fatos Nano resigned following 2 weeks of rioting. Pandeli Majko (31), general secretary of the Socialist Party, was the party’s candidate for prime minister. The opposition called for an interim government and new elections.
    (SFC, 9/29/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 9/30/98, p.A1)

1998        Nov 22, In Albania the Socialist government claimed to win a referendum on the nation’s first post-Communist constitution.
    (WSJ, 11/23/98, p.A1)

1998        Nov 27, A boat of illegal immigrants from Albania sank off the coast of Italy and at least 3 people were killed including a 1-year-old child. 4 people were missing from the boat that carried 17.
    (SFC, 11/28/98, p.A10)

1998        Dec 3, Yugoslav border guards killed 8 ethnic Albanians as they tried to cross the border into Kosovo.
    (WSJ, 12/3/98, p.A1)

1998        Noel Malcolm published “Kosovo: A Short History," a history of the troubled region and Albania. Malcolm earlier wrote “Bosnia: A Short History."
    (WSJ, 5/5/98, p.A20)(SFEC, 9/6/98, BR p.8)

1999        Feb, Clan leaders in Vlore boasted that two-thirds of all automobiles in Albania were stolen.
    (SFC, 5/11/99, p.A6)

1999        Mar 1, About this time Serb municipal and police officials provided paramilitaries lists with the names and assets of wealthy Albanians and lists of people slated for execution. At least 5 paramilitary groups were in operation and included Arkan's Tigers led by Zeljko Raznatovic and Frenki's Boys led by Franko Simatovic. In 2013 Simatovic and Jovica Stanisic, allies of Pres. Milosevic, were acquitted of setting up and arming Serb paramilitary gangs in Bosnia and Croatia during the Balkan wars.
    (WSJ, 9/1/99, p.A18)(SFC, 5/31/13, p.A3)

1999        Mar 26, Serbian forces rounded up ethnic Albanian villages in Krushe e Vogel, Kosovo. Serb forces herded 114 men and boys into a barn, including a disabled man whose wheelchair was used to block one of the exits. The Serbs then riddled the barn with bullets from automatic weapons before torching it and all those inside. In 2011 a UN court sentenced former Serbian police chief Vlastimir Djordjevic to 27 years in prison for orchestrating the murder of hundreds of ethnic Albanians.
    (SSFC, 9/8/02, p.F1)(AP, 2/23/11)

1999        Mar 29, Albania and Macedonia appealed for help as thousands of refugees fled Kosovo on the 6th day of bombing. NATO said Serbs were targeting ethnic Albanian leadership for executions and the US accused Milosevic of "crimes against humanity."
    (WSJ, 3/30/99, p.A1)

1999        Apr 1, Pres. Rexhep Meidani said NATO should help Kosovo seize independence.
    (WSJ, 4/2/99, p.A9)

1999        Apr 2, Hashim Thaci, a leading nationalist politician, named a new government with himself in charge. Moderates loyal to Ibrahim Rugova were excluded after no candidates were put forth.
    (SFC, 4/3/99, p.A6)

1999        Apr 4, NATO dropped more bombs on downtown Belgrade and said that it would send some 8,000 troops into Albania to help Kosovo refugees. The Freedom Bridge over the Danube at Novi Sad was destroyed. The US announced that it would send 24 Apache helicopter gunships to attack Serbian troops and tanks in Kosovo. Some 30,000 refugees crossed into Albania in the last 24-hour period.
    (SFEC, 4/4/99, p.A1,12)(SFC, 4/5/99, p.A1,10)

1999        Apr 7, In Albania the Israeli government set up a hospital about this time at the Brazde refugee camp, home to some 25,000 refugees.
    (SFC, 4/14/99, p.A12)

1999        Apr 11, Albania decided to hand over control of its airspace, ports and military infrastructure to NATO and to accept more NATO troops.
    (SFC, 4/12/99, p.A17)

1999        Apr 14, Some 3,000 refugees reached the border of Macedonia and another 7,000 were expected. Another 3,000 arrived in Albania. An estimated 18,000 were making their way to Montenegro. Over the last 3 weeks 305,000 arrived in Albania, 121,000 in Macedonia, and 61,000 in Montenegro.
    (SFC, 4/15/99, p.A12)

1999        Apr 16, It was reported that Albanian bandits were victimizing refugees and had robbed border monitors and foreign journalists at gunpoint.
    (SFC, 4/16/99, p.A18)
1999        Apr 16, Thousands of refugees poured out of Kosovo as NATO blasted oil refineries, military barracks and airports around Yugoslavia. At least 5,000 refugees crossed into Macedonia, and 8,000 into Albania. Some 100,000 were believed to be enroute to Macedonia.
    (SFC, 4/17/99, p.A1)

1999        Apr 20, NATO bombing continued in Yugoslavia. The UN refugee agency in Macedonia declared its camps full beyond capacity and left 2,000 to 3,000 refugees at the border. Another few thousand crossed the border to the hamlet of Milana. The border with Albania was again opened but only a few crossed over.
    (SFC, 4/21/99, p.A1,10)

1999        Apr 30, The AP reported that almost every journalist who had gone to the refugee camp at Bajram Curri was robbed.
    (SFC, 5/11/99, p.A6)

1999        May 4, Allied forces bombed fixed and mobile targets and downed a Yugoslav MigG-29. The US considered freeing 2 prisoners of war and another 5,000 refugees crossed into Albania.
    (SFC, 5/5/99, p.A12)

1999        May 5, Two US crew members were killed when an Apache helicopter crashed in Albania during training. Chief Warrant Officer David A. Gibbs (38), of Massillon, Ohio, and Chief Warrant Officer Kevin L. Reichert (28), of Chetek, Wis., crashed in a mountainous region 50 miles from Task Force Hawk base.
    (SFC, 5/5/99, p.A1)(SFC, 5/6/99, p.A10)

1999        May 8, An estimated 7,500 Kosovars crossed the border into Albania.
    (SFEC, 5/9/99, p.A17)

1999        Jun 26, In southern Serbia 3 Albanian-American brothers Illy, Mehmet and Agron Bytyqi, strayed outside of Kosovo's unmarked boundary and were arrested. They spent 15 days in a Serb jail for illegally crossing the border. Upon their release they were taken by two Serb policemen to a training camp in eastern Serbia, where they were summarily executed. In 2001 their bodies were found bound and blindfolded in a trash-filled mass grave near the training camp’s fence. They had left their New York pizza business in 1999 to join Kosovo rebels fighting for secession from Serbia. In 2009 a Serbian war crimes court acquitted two former Serb policemen of collaborating in the execution-style slaying. 
    (AP, 6/11/09)(AP, 9/22/09)

1999        Oct 25, In Albania Prime Minister Pandeli Majko planned to resign due to his loss to become the Socialist Party leader earlier in the month.
    (SFC, 10/26/99, p.B2)

1999        Dec 30-1999 Dec 31, A rubber raft with some 59 refugees capsized while trying to cross the Adriatic between Albania and Italy. One body was found in Jan.
    (SFC, 1/19/00, p.A14)

1999        In 2008 Carla Del Ponte, former chief prosecutor at The Hague, alleged in a book that some 100-300 Kosovo Serbs were kidnapped this year and taken to Albania to have their organs harvested. UN investigators found no substantial evidence to support claims that ethnic Albanian guerrillas killed dozens of Serbs in Kosovo and sold their organs.
    (WSJ, 4/12/08, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/14/08, p.A13)(AP, 4/16/08)
1999        Hashim Thaci, later prime minister of Kosovo, led a group of guerrillas. In 2010 they were accused of killing Serb and other prisoners in Albania for their kidneys. Thaci was also accused of being involved in the region’s heroin trade.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.100)

2000        Nov 29, In Albania police made a brief arrest of President Sali Berisha the day after a riot in Tropoja where 2 people were killed.
    (SFC, 11/30/00, p.C7)

2001        Mar 4, Macedonia sealed its border with Kosovo after 3 soldiers were killed in heavy fighting with ethnic Albanian rebels, led by Ali Ahmeti.
    (WSJ, 3/5/01, p.A1)(Econ, 4/14/12, p.62)

2001        Jun 24, Albania parliamentary elections were marred by violent incidents. The ruling Socialists claimed victory. The Socialists won 41.5 percent and 73 seats, while the Democrats had 36.8 percent and 46 seats.
    (WSJ, 6/25/01, p.A1)(AP, 7/3/05)

2002        Jan 29, Albania’s PM Ilir Meta (32) resigned following months of disputes with party leaders.
    (SFC, 1/30/02, p.A9)

2002        Jun 24, Alfred Moisiu, a 72-year-old retired general and former defense minister, was elected president of Albania by a comfortable majority in parliament. He was the only candidate.
    (AP, 6/24/02)

2002        Oct 22, Geraldine of Albania (87), the wife of King Zog (d.1961), died in Tirana.
    (SFC, 10/28/02, p.A17)

2003        Oct 27, UN police and NATO-led peacekeepers near Pristina, Serbia, arrested 5 former ethnic Albanian rebels for alleged war crimes in Kosovo.
    (AP, 10/28/03)

2004        Jan 9, An inflatable speedboat packed with Albanian migrants trying to sneak into Italy sank in up to 20-foot high waves and strong winds off Albania's coast, killing 21 people.
    (AP, 1/10/04)

2004        Feb 21, In Albania some 6-20 thousand people marched in Tirana in opposition to PM Fatos Nano and his Socialist-led government.
    (SSFC, 2/22/04, p.A3)

2004        Mar 20, NATO-led forces surrounded Kosovska Mitrovica in efforts to separate ethnic Albanians and Serbs and prevent a resurgence of attacks that killed 28 people and wounded 600. Ethnic Albanians looted villages and apartments abandoned by Serb civilians. Some 110 homes and at least 16 Serb Orthodox churches were destroyed by arson.
    (AP, 3/20/04)(Econ, 9/11/04, p.47)

2004        Dec 7, The mayor of Albania's capital Tirana, painter Edi Rama (40), was elected "World Mayor 2004" in an Internet competition organized by a London-based NGO.
    (AFP, 12/7/04)

2004        Dec 28, Albania, Bulgaria and Macedonia gave political support to a $1.2 billion private trans-Balkan pipeline that will allow Russian and Caspian crude oil to avoid Turkish waters.
    (WSJ, 12/29/04, p.A7)

2005        Mar 31, A US C-130 airplane crashed near the remote village of Rovie and all 9 Americans onboard were killed in mountainous southern Albania during a joint exercise.
    (AP, 4/1/05)

2005        Apr 7, Riza Malaj (34), Albania's most wanted man, blew himself about this time up while fishing with dynamite. He lost both hands, badly hurt his eyes and suffered serious wounds all over his body while trying to catch trout.
    (AP, 4/11/05)

2005        Jun 3, Albanian novelist Ismail Kadare (b.1936) won the first international version of Britain's prestigious Man Booker literary prize. Kadare became famous in his homeland with the 1963 publication of his first novel, "The General of the Dead Army" (1963). His other works include "The Concert" (1988) and "The Palace of Dreams" (1981). David Bellos won the accompanying translator’s prize.
    (AP, 6/3/05)(Econ, 9/10/11, p.96)

2005        Jul 3, Albanians held elections for a new parliament.
    (AP, 7/3/05)

2005        Jul 5, Albania's opposition party headed by Sali Berisha, the country's former president (1992-1997), took the lead in parliamentary elections, but foreign monitors criticized the vote as falling short of international standards.
    (AP, 7/5/05)(Econ, 7/25/05, p.43)

2005        Sep 1, Opposition leader Sali Berisha's coalition was officially declared winner of Albania's July 3 parliamentary elections, following weeks of delays in confirming final results.
    (AP, 9/1/05)

2005        Oct, Albania signed a European Commission energy treaty in Athens meant to promote co-operation by setting up a regional energy market.
    (Econ, 1/7/06, p.43)

2005        Nov 1, Albania's armed forces chief said their antiquated air force of Soviet-designed MiG aircraft, which killed 35 Albanian pilots but no enemies, is finally on its way to the museum and the scrapheap.
    (Reuters, 11/1/05)

2005        Nov-2005 Dec, In Albania daily power cuts lasted as long as 18 hours.
    (Econ, 1/7/06, p.43)

2006        Feb 20, UN mediated talks on the future status of Kosovo opened in Vienna as Serbs and ethnic Albanians staked out tough positions. The talks produced no agreement and were scheduled to resume in a month.
    (AP, 2/21/06)

2006        Mar 17, In Vienna, Austria, ethnic Albanian and Serbian officials laid out their demands at UN-mediated talks on the future of Kosovo, one of the most intractable disputes left over from the disintegration of Yugoslavia.
    (AP, 3/17/06)

2006        May 5, The US State Department disclosed that Albania has agreed to take in five Chinese, ethnic Uighur detainees, held at Guantanamo Bay. They were flown to Albania the next day.
    (AP, 5/5/06)(WSJ, 5/6/06, p.A1)

2006        May 7, Vice President Dick Cheney endorsed the NATO membership aspirations of Croatia, Albania and Macedonia.
    (AP, 5/7/06)

2007        Feb 18, Albanians went to the polls in municipal elections. Allegations of vote-rigging flared within a few hours of polls opening, as the opposition accused PM Sali Berisha's Democratic Party of releasing false identity documents to allow some supporters to vote repeatedly. In Tirana Interior Minister Sokol Olldashi (34) faced Socialist Party leader and city mayor, Edi Rama (42).
    (AP, 2/18/07)

2007        Jun 10, President Bush in Albania, the 1st visit there by an American president, said the UN should grant independence quickly to the breakaway Serbian province of Kosovo, and that if Russia continued to block it the West would act. Albania issued three postage stamps with Bush's picture and the Statue of Liberty, renamed a street in front of parliament in his honor, awarded him the highest National Flag medal and Fushe Kruje town council also declared him an honored citizen.
    (Reuters, 6/10/07)(AP, 6/12/07)

2007        Jul 24, Bamir Topi (50), a biologist, was sworn in as Albania's president, promising to help the poor Balkan country to become a member of NATO and the European Union. Topi was elected to a five-year term by parliament on July 20 after some opposition lawmakers ended their coalition's boycott and supported his appointment.
    (AP, 7/25/07)(Econ, 8/18/07, p.43)

2007        Aug 18, It was reported that Albanian migrants sent home almost $1 billion a year to support jobless family members and to build homes. New business was said to be discouraged by blackmail and intimidation from existing firms with licenses going to political cronies in the face of a corrupt judiciary.
    (Econ, 8/18/07, p.46)

2007        Oct 3, Four former officials of Albania's state-controlled oil company, Albpetrol, were arrested on suspicion of theft and abuse of office.
    (AP, 10/4/07)

2008        Mar 6, In Albania a boat carrying partygoers celebrating the birthday of 5-year-old twins sank just after midnight in a lake near the capital, killing 16 people, including the two children.
    (AP, 3/6/08)

2008        Mar 15, In Albania 26 people, including several children, were killed and over 250 injured by a series of large explosions at an army base on the outskirts of the capital Tirana. The explosions began when workers were moving stocks of old Chinese and Soviet shells stored at the base. Some workers were repackaging 40-year-old Chinese-made shells to disguise their origin. In September Kosta Trebicka, a businessman turned whistle-blower, was killed when his jeep crashed on a remote mountain road.
    (Reuters, 3/16/08)(AP, 3/18/08)(Econ, 10/11/08, p.71)

2008        Sep 4, Albanian artist Saimir Strati in Tirana glued 229,764 corks of various shapes and colors over a plastic banner measuring 12.94 meters by 7.1 meters to make the art piece "Romeo with a crown of grapes playing the guitar while dancing with the sea and the sun". He worked 14 hours a day for 28 days to complete his project.
    (Reuters, 9/4/08)

2008        Dec 3, NATO foreign ministers affirmed their support for US plans to install anti-missile defenses in Europe despite Russia's strong opposition. NATO foreign ministers said they expected Albania and Croatia to become the alliance's newest members by April.
    (AP, 12/3/08)

2008        Dec 18, Albania's Defense Ministry said the country is pulling its 218 troops out of Iraq.
    (AP, 12/18/08)

2008        Dec 22, Albania passed a law removing from public posts people linked with the feared former Communist secret police, despite criticism from opposition parties and concerns within the international community.
    (AP, 12/23/08)

2009        Jan 28, Albania awarded a 35-year concession to the British-Swiss Zumax AG group for a euro1.18 billion ($1.55 billion) container terminal for ships in southwestern Albania.
    (AP, 1/28/09)

2009        Feb 22, In Greece Vassilis Palaiokostas (44) and his Albanian accomplice Alket Rizaj staged a 2nd getaway by helicopter. Palaiokostas was serving a sentence for robbery and kidnapping when he first escaped with Rizaj in 2006 in a helicopter. On Nov 16 Alket Rizaj was arrested with a female companion at an isolated house near the town of Marathon.
    (AP, 2/23/09)(AP, 11/16/09)

2009        Apr 1, Albania and Croatia became NATO’s newest members.
    (SFC, 4/2/09, p.A2)

2009        May 2, In Albania Fatmir Xhindi (49), a lawmaker from the main opposition Socialist Party, was shot and killed outside his home in Roskovec. Albania ended communist rule in 1990, but has struggled since then with high unemployment, widespread corruption, dilapidated infrastructure and organized crime.
    (AP, 5/2/09)

2009        May, Chikungunya, a mosquito-born virus endemic to tropical Africa and Asia, was reported to have arrived in Albania and Italy.
    (Econ, 5/23/09, p.83)

2009        Jun 18, In northern Albania an explosive device killed Aleksander Keka (34), a conservative regional leader of Albania's opposition Christian Democratic Party, as he drove near Shkodra, 10 days ahead of the country's parliamentary election.
    (AP, 6/18/09)

2009        Jun 28, Albanians voted in parliamentary elections seen as a crucial test of democracy to prove the Balkan country is ready for EU membership. The governing Democratic Party and the opposition Socialist Party were neck-and-neck in pre-election polls. PM Berisha’s Democrats won 68 seats and allies won 2 seats in the 140-seat parliament.
    (AP, 6/28/09)(SFC, 6/29/09, p.A2)(SFC, 7/27/09, p.A2)

2009        Jun 29, Representatives of a 500-member team from the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) said that despite improvement Albania has not complied with international standards in its parliamentary elections dues to the politicization of the process and the political mistrust.
    (AP, 6/29/09)

2009        Jul 1, Albania's governing Democrats claimed they won weekend parliamentary elections, but the opposition Socialists accused PM Sali Berisha's party of attempting to snatch victory. Near complete results showed the Democrats were ahead by just over one percentage point. It was unclear whether Berisha had secured enough seats in parliament needed to govern alone.
    (AP, 7/1/09)

2009        Jul 4, Albania's opposition Socialists charged that the ruling Democrats were improperly trying to influence the country's lengthy vote count by declaring victory before all ballots from last week's national election were tallied.
    (AP, 7/4/09)

2009        Dec 2, Albania’s PM Sali Berisha announced an agreement to accept former Guantanamo detainees following talks with special envoy Daniel Fried.
    (SFC, 12/3/09, p.A2)

2010        Feb 24, The US got help from Europe in its troubled drive to shut down Guantanamo Bay, as Spain accepted a former inmate from the prison for terror suspects and the tiny Balkan nation of Albania took in three more.
    (AP, 2/24/10)

2010        Apr 30, In Albania tens of thousands of people thronged the main square of Tirana and demanded a partial recount of the election that the opposition claims involved vote-rigging.
    (SFC, 5/1/10, p.A2)

2010        May 1, In Albania 22 opposition Socialist lawmakers and 180 supporters launched a hunger strike to press the government to allow a partial recount of an election they claim was tainted by vote-rigging. The government of PM Sali Berisha, who narrowly won the June 28 general election controlling 75 of parliament's 140 seats, called their demands illegal.
    (AP, 5/1/10)

2010        May 10, Serbian war crimes prosecutors said a mass grave has been discovered in Serbia believed to contain the bodies of 250 ethnic Albanians who were killed in Kosovo during the 1998-99 Serbian crackdown on separatists.
    (AP, 5/10/10)(SFC, 5/11/10, p.A2)

2010        May 11, In Albania Endrit Llambaj (19) stormed into a classroom in the southern town of Elbasan with a handgun and ordered all the students out except 20-year-old Gerta Baja. 3 shots were fired and Baja was found dead at her desk. Llambaj ran away from the school but fatally shot himself a few hundred yards away as police chased him.
    (AP, 5/11/10)

2010        Jul 17, In Albania 14 people died and 12 others were injured, many of them seriously, when a bus fell off a cliff 140 km (87 miles) north of the capital, Tirana.
    (AP, 7/17/10)

2010        Sep 12, In Kosovo a French Gendarme was shot and wounded during clashes between ethnic Albanians and Serbs in the ethnically divided city of Mitrovica as European Union police fired tear gas to disperse the violent crowd.
    (AP, 9/12/10)

2010        Sep 21, The UN’s World Health Organization (WHO) said 40 young Europeans are murdered every day, with Russia, Albania and Kazakhstan having the highest homicide rates for people aged 10-29.
    (AP, 9/21/10)

2010        Dec 22, Albania invited an international investigation into claims it was linked with the trafficking of organs from slain civilians during the war in neighboring Kosovo.
    (AP, 12/22/10)

2011        Jan 14, Albanian Deputy PM Ilir Meta resigned, saying he wanted to fight allegations of corruption, after the release of a videotape appearing to show him lobbying for favors.
    (Reuters, 1/14/11)

2011        Jan 21, In Albania protesters overturned and burned police vehicles and clashed with officers who fought them off with tear gas, rubber bullets and water cannon. Two men were fatally shot in the chest and another died of a wound to the head. Tensions rose sharply last week when Deputy Prime Minister Ilir Meta resigned after a private TV station aired a video that showed him asking a colleague to influence the awarding of a contract to build a power station. A 4th person died of wounds a few days later.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Albanian_opposition_demonstrations)(AP, 1/22/11)

2011        Jan 22, In Albania a political crisis escalated as the government and the opposition traded blame for the deaths of three protests during a violent demonstration against an administration accused of deeply rooted corruption.
    (AP, 1/22/11)

2011        Jan 28, Tens of thousands of Albanians marched through Tirana to honor three opposition supporters shot dead in a protest last week.
    (SFC, 1/29/11, p.A2)

2011        Jan 30, Albanian police said they detained three people suspected of conspiring to murder a top opposition leader at Jan 28 anti-government protest, as the opposition said it would not back down from its campaign against the ruling party for alleged corruption.
    (AP, 1/30/11)

2011        Feb 13, In Macedonia ethnic clashes, mainly Muslim ethnic Albanians and orthodox Christians, broke out at the historic Kale Fortress in a dispute over a new structure being built on the foundations of a 13th-century church. 8 people were injured.
    (AP, 2/16/11)

2011        Feb 16, Albanian lawmakers voted to lift the immunity of Ilir Meta, a former prime minister (1999-2002) accused of corruption, paving the way for him to be investigated in a case that has triggered a severe political crisis.
    (AP, 2/16/11)

2011        Feb 18, Tens of thousands of Albanian opposition supporters marched peacefully through the capital to demand the government resign over corruption allegations, almost a month after four people died when a similar demonstration turned violent.
    (AP, 2/18/11)

2011        Feb 23, The UN Yugoslav war crimes tribunal in the Hague sentenced Vlastimir Djordjevic (62) to 27 years in prison after pronouncing him guilty of murdering at least 724 Kosovo Albanians, as well as committing inhumane acts, persecution and deportations.
    (AP, 2/23/11)

2011        Mar 28, In Albania Alfred Shkurti (45) was convicted of ordering six murders and personally committing a seventh as head of a gang active in Albania, Turkey, Bulgaria, Macedonia and Romania, which trafficked drugs to western Europe. Shkurti was arrested in Turkey and extradited to Albania in 2009 on an international warrant.
    (AP, 3/28/11)

2011        Oct 20, Albanian port authorities said 3 sailors died and five others are missing after their Turkish merchant ship, Reina 1, collided with a passenger ferry and sank in the Adriatic some 20 miles (30 km) from the Albanian port of Durres. No injuries were reported on the ferry Ankara, which had left Durres en route for the Italian port of Bari with about 200 passengers.
    (AP, 10/20/11)

2011        Nov 30, In Albania self-styled king Leka I Zogu (72), the son of King Ahmet Zogu, died. The father had proclaimed himself Albania's monarch in 1928.
    (AP, 12/3/11)

2011        Dec 7, Scotland Yard said Ilir Nazmi Kumbaro (58), a former Albanian intelligence chief, is on the run after failing to attend a Dec 1 extradition hearing in Britain over charges of torture and kidnap in his homeland.
    (AFP, 12/7/11)

2011        Albania’s census reported 2.8 million residents. An estimated 500k lived abroad.
    (Econ, 6/29/13, p.50)

2012        Feb 14, Snow as deep as 15 feet (4.5m) isolated areas of Albania, Moldova and Romania, and helicopters and army trucks were used to deliver food and medicine, and to transport sick people to hospitals. Officials said 5 Romanians died in the past 24 hours due to frigid temperatures, bringing the total to 79 weather-related deaths since the nation's cold spell began.
    (AP, 2/14/12)

2012        Mar 12, In Albania a Tirana court issued guilty verdicts for 19 defendants for the March 15, 2008, explosions that left 26 people dead, sentencing them to between one and 18 years on charges of gross mismanagement and related offenses. 9 others were cleared. Murder charges initially brought against them were dropped.
    (AP, 3/12/12)

2012        May 21, In Albania a bus carrying university students on a pre-graduation trip toppled off a cliff near Saranda killing 12 people and injuring another 21.
    (SFC, 5/22/12, p.A2)

2012        Nov 16, The body of Albania's only post-independence monarch, King Ahmet Zog I, was returned home more than 50 years after he died in exile in France.
    (AP, 11/16/12)

2012        Nov 22, An Albanian court convicted the country's fugitive former intelligence chief of murder for the 1995 death of businessman Remzi Hoxha, a suspect who was illegally detained for an alleged plot to to kill then-Macedonian President Kiro Gligorov during a visit to Albania. Ilir Kumbaro was tried in absentia and also sentenced him to 15 years in prison.
    (AP, 11/22/12)

2013        Apr 9, Albania pledged to hold a historic referendum on whether to scrap waste imports, a money-making program strongly opposed by environmentalists who say the poor Balkan country is already buried under its own trash.
    (AP, 4/9/13)

2013        May 15, Fourteen members of the Mujahedeen-e-Khalq arrived in Albania from Iraq, the first of 210 set to travel to new homes in Albania.
    (AP, 5/16/13)

2013        Jun 22, The UN said another 27 residents of an Iraqi camp housing members of an Iranian exile group have been relocated to Albania.
    (AP, 6/22/13)

2013        Jun 23, Albania held national elections. An exchange of gunfire near a polling station wounded a candidate for parliament and left dead a supporter of a rival party in Lac. On June 26 near complete results showed a 53% victory for the Socialist opponents, headed by former Tirana mayor Edi Rama.
    (AP, 6/23/13)(AP, 6/26/13)

2013        Sep 10, Albania’s President Bujar Nishani named Edi Rama as prime minister, giving him the mandate to create a new Cabinet after a landslide victory by Rama's Socialist Party-led leftist coalition in June elections.
    (AP, 9/10/13)

2013        Oct 2, Albania said it has signed on former British PM Tony Blair as an adviser and lobbyist in its uphill struggle to join the 28-nation EU.
    (AP, 10/3/13)

2013        Oct 8, Albanian police seized more than 1,000 stolen religious and secular pieces of art dating from the 15th to the mid-20th century, and arrested two men suspected of planning to sell them abroad.
    (AP, 10/9/13)

2013        Nov 8, A European Union prosecutor indicted 15 former ethnic Albanian rebels suspected of torturing, mistreating and murdering civilians detained in central Kosovo during the 1998-99 war against Serbia.
    (AP, 11/8/13)

2013        Nov 14, Albania's government faced a growing chorus of opposition to a US request that it take on the job of dismantling Syria's chemical weapons.
    (Reuters, 11/14/13)

2013        Nov 15, Albania’s PM Edi Rama rejected a plan to destroy Syria's chemical weapons, following a direct US request.
    (Reuters, 11/15/13)

2013        Dec 13, The European Union Rule of Law Missio said a suspected mass grave has been discovered at the Rudnica quarry in Serbia believed to contain bodies of ethnic Albanians who were killed during the 1998-99 war between Serbia and Kosovo.
    (AP, 12/13/13)

2014        Jan 27, A bus heading from Athens, Greece, to the Albanian capital of Tirana with 21 passengers on board, was attacked on a highway near the city of Tepelene. A passenger (25) died in the hospital from gunshot wounds. Police soon arrested 4 suspects, aged between 20 and 32, and said they were under the influence of marijuana.
    (AP, 1/29/14)

2014        Feb 8, In Albania a speeding minivan carrying eleven people lost control and hurtled 100 meters down a cliff, killing 6 people and seriously injuring the five others.
    (AP, 2/8/14)

2014        Feb 13, Albanian authorities said they have seized 2 metric tons of marijuana hidden in a rocky part of a bay and destined for Greece or Italy.
    (AP, 2/13/14)

2014        Mar 1, The International Monetary Fund (IMF) said it has agreed to provide a 331 million euros ($457 million) loan over three years to support Albania's economic reforms.
    (AP, 3/1/14)

2014        Mar 11, Albanian authorities arrested seven Muslims, including two imams, for allegedly recruiting men to enlist with rebel groups fighting in Syria. About two-thirds of Albania's 3.2 million inhabitants are Muslims.
    (AP, 3/11/14)

2014        Apr 5, The European Union said it plans to set up an international court in Kosovo to deal with alleged crimes committed by ethnic-Albanian guerrillas during the war with Serbia.
    (AFP, 4/5/14)

2014        May 21, In Albania fourteen fired civil servants launched a hunger strike outside the government headquarters in protest at what they say is a politically motivated cull of workers. They won backing from the main opposition Democratic Party, which accused the Socialist-led government of firing 7,000 people from public-sector posts since coming to power eight months ago.
    (AP, 5/22/14)

2014        Jun 16, In southern Albania hundreds of police, backed by armored vehicles, stormed Lazarat village after suspected marijuana growers allegedly fired rocket-propelled grenades, mortars and machine guns at officers during a drug raid.
    (AP, 6/16/14)

2014        Jun 17, In southern Albania near-continuous gunfire rang out from the lawless village of Lazarat as hundreds more police arrived to battle well-armed marijuana growers who were trying to thwart a government crackdown.
    (AP, 6/17/14)

2014        Jun 20, Albanian police declared victory over drug producers who for more than 15 years had run the southern village of Lazarat as a personal fief, churning out marijuana on an industrial scale untouched by the NATO member state. Police said most of the ringleaders had escaped under cover of night.
    (Reuters, 6/20/14)

2014        Jun 24, The EU set Albania on the road to membership, granting the small Balkan state the status of candidate to join in recognition of recent reforms, while warning the government that progress was conditional on further efforts.
    (Reuters, 6/24/14)

2014        Jun 26, Artan Santo (58), the manager of Albania's fourth largest bank, Credins, was shot dead as he entered his office in Tirana. Santo was well known in the Balkan country for his acting role as a boy who overcame adversity to climb a mountain in the 1970 Albanian film The Courageous.
    (Reuters, 6/26/14)

2014        Sep 1, In Albania the main opposition Democrats started a boycott. This was triggered by a fistfight in Parliament in July when two governing Socialist lawmakers allegedly attacked a Democrat colleague. The Democrats demanded that all legislation of major significance require more than a simple majority of votes.
    (AP, 12/24/14)

2014        Sep 18, Albania's parliament fired Ardian Fullani, the country's central bank governor, following his recent arrest after millions of dollars from the bank's reserves went missing.
    (AP, 9/18/14)

2014        Sep 21, Pope Francis visited Albania and warned that religion can never be used to justify violence.
    (AFP, 9/21/14)

2014        Sep 30, Albania said the World Bank is lending it $150 million (€118 million) to help overhaul its dysfunctional state-run power sector and pay for electricity imports from other Balkan states.
    (AP, 9/30/14)

2014        Nov 10, In Belgrade Serbian PM Aleksandar Vucic and Albania’s PM Edi Rama pledged to put their differences aside and focus on their mutual desire to join the European Union. The detente between the Balkan rivals didn't even last until the end of their joint press conference as they voiced opposing attitudes over Kosovo. This marked first visit to Serbia by an Albanian premier in 68 years.
    (AP, 11/10/14)

2014        Nov 18, In Albania flooding killed 3 people, after torrential rain caused power and water supply cuts and closed schools in the west and south of the country.
    (AP, 11/19/14)

2014        Nov 22, Tens of thousands of Albanians protested the government's economic policies, claiming they are leading to rising taxes and energy prices and high unemployment.
    (AP, 11/22/14)

2014        Dec 24, Albania's main opposition Democrats ended a four-month boycott of Parliament in a deal brokered by two European Parliament lawmakers.
    (AP, 12/24/14)

2015        Feb 6, In Europe floods forced hundreds of people from their homes in Albania and Macedonia. Heavy snow and winds caused traffic havoc in Bosnia, Croatia and Slovenia.
    (SFC, 2/7/15, p.A2)

2015        Feb 10, In Albania two bombs exploded in Tirana early today in what PM Edi Rama described as terror attacks apparently intended to hit back at a government anti-crime drive.
    (Reuters, 2/10/15)

2015        Mar 20, The EU and Balkan countries launched a campaign aimed at stemming the flow of fighters from southeastern Europe to join jihadists in the Middle East. The Balkans are generally considered to include Albania, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, about half of Croatia, Greece, the Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, most of Serbia, and the European part of Turkey.
    (Reuters, 3/20/15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balkans)

2015        Mar 26, Albanian lawmakers voted to lift the immunity of two of their colleagues accused of false testimony claiming that the parliament speaker was behind an alleged assassination plot to kill two deputies. Doshi was expelled from the governing Socialists three weeks ago after claiming Parliament speaker Ilir Meta, a former prime minister, had paid 600,000 euros ($656,000) to have him and an opposition Democratic Party lawmaker killed. Doshi had claimed that Frroku had first told him about the alleged plot.   
    (AP, 3/26/15)

2015        Mar 28, Albania received 266 million euros from the World Bank for its public finances and road maintenance.
    (SSFC, 3/29/15, p.A6)

2015        Apr 2, Albania’s The parliament voted overwhelmingly to lift immunity for Mark Frroku following an international arrest warrant issued for him by Belgian prosecutors relating to the 1999 murder of Aleksander Kurti in Brussels.
    (AP, 4/2/15)

2015        Apr 7, Albania’s PM Edi Rama said the unification of Albania and Serbia's majority-Albanian former province of Kosovo is "inevitable", whether it happens through membership of the EU or not. The suggestion was denounced in Belgrade.
    (Reuters, 4/7/15)

2015        Jun 21, Albania held local elections seen as a test of the Balkan country's fragile democracy as it pushes to join the European Union.
    (AFP, 6/21/15)

2015        Jun 24, Dozens of Albanian police, backed up by two army helicopters, were deployed to Lazarat, a major illegal marijuana-growing village, after gunmen fatally shot policeman Ibrahim Basha (31) and wounded two others. On June 28 police reported the arrest of brothers Arbion Aliko (20) and Alban Aliko (18) suspected in the shooting.
    (AP, 6/24/15)(Reuters, 6/28/15)

2015        Jul 3, The Trans-Adriatic Pipeline project, or TAP, said it has started investing in Albania's infrastructure to prepare for starting construction of the pipeline next year. The 870 km (540 miles) pipeline from the Shah Deniz II field in Azerbaijan will cross Turkey, Greece and Albania and undersea to Italy, and deliver Caspian gas to Europe in early 2020.
    (AP, 7/3/15)

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