Timeline Angola

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Ency.: http://www.encyclopedia.com/searchresults.aspx?q=angola
USLC:
http://www.loc.gov/collections/country-studies/?q=angola

90Mil BC    Scientists in 2011 reported the discovery a previously unknown, plant-eating dinosaur in Angola that dated to about this time. It was named Angolatitan adamastor. The fossil was found along with fish and shark teeth in what would have been a sea bed 90 million years ago.
    (SFC, 3/17/11, p.A2)(http://tinyurl.com/4k4vtum)

1590        Jul 6, English admiral Francis Drake took the Portuguese Forts at Taag, Angola.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1959        May 25, Khrushchev visited Angola.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1961        Feb 4, In the Portuguese colony of Angola fighting erupted as 3 anti-colonial guerrilla movements battled for independence. Rebels butchered Portuguese settlers, including women and children, on remote Angolan plantations. In revenge, Portuguese militias and troops carried out a vicious campaign of repression, despite pressure from the US and UN to pull out of Africa.
    (SFC, 4/5/02, p.A11)(AP, 12/9/07)(Econ, 9/3/11, p.46)

1970        In Portuguese Angola the father of Michael Durney bought the Mampeza Industrial SARL, a cannery in Benguela. By 1997 under Michael it was processing 5 tons of tuna a day and one tone of sardines and mackerel.
    (WSJ, 11/10/97, p.A17)

1972        Barcelo de Carvalho, aka "Bongo," recorded the album "Angola 72" in the Netherlands. The music’s predominant rhythm is semba, described as the origin of Brazil’s Samba. The album was smuggled into Angola and became very popular but was banned by the government. It was re-released in the US in 1997. One of its songs was featured in the 1997 French film "When the Cat’s Away."
    (SFC,10/24/97, p.E1)

1975        Jun, From June to July the US launched covert operations in Angola to prevent a Communist takeover. In 2002 Dr. Piero Gleijeses authored “Conflicting Missions, Havana, Washington and Africa: 1959-1976."
    (SSFC, 3/29/02, p.A12)

1975        Oct 14, South Africans secretly launched Operation Savannah when the first of several South African columns (task force Zulu) crossed into Angola from Namibia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuban_intervention_in_Angola_(1975-1991))

1975        Oct 23, A Battle between Cuban and South Africa troops took place in Angola.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuban_intervention_in_Angola_(1975-1991))

1975        Nov 10, In Angola the MPLA and Cuban troops warded off the last big attack of the FNLA.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuban_intervention_in_Angola_(1975-1991))

1975        Nov 11, Angola proclaimed independence from Portugal. Civil war began following the 14-year fight for independence. The Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) proclaimed unilateral independence. Jonas Savimbi led UNITA and the FLNA was backed by Zaire.
    (SFC, 6/20/96, p.A10)(SFC, 12/26/98, p.A12)(SFC, 4/19/00, p.A10)

1975-1988    Some 350,000 Angolans died in the Civil War. Cuba sent in 50,000 soldiers to back the MPLA and the USSR contributed billions of dollars. South African troops and US guns and money supported UNITA.
    (SFC, 4/5/02, p.A11)

1977        Rebel forces from Angola swept into Zaire and captured much of the copper-rich Shaba province. Zaire regained control after 3 months with American and other foreign support.
    (SFC, 11/11/96, p.A11)(SFC, 5/17/97, p.A14)

1978        May 4, The South African Air Force (SAAF) engaged in air to ground combat at the Battle of Cassinga in Angola.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_African_Border_War)

1979        Sep 10, Pres. Agostinho Neto (b.1922), Angola’s 1st president, died and Jose Eduardo dos Santos was elected president. Neto was originally embalmed but later cremated.
    (SFC, 8/24/01, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agostinho_Neto)(SFC, 9/10/08, p.A5)

1980        Apr 1, The southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) was established by 9 countries with the Lusaka declaration (Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe). The main aim was coordinating development projects in order to lessen economic dependence on apartheid South Africa.  On August 17, 1992, it was transformed into the Southern African Development Community (SADC). By 2008 it included 15 members.
    (www.sadc.int/index/browse/page/52)

1980        The population of Angola was about 7 million.
    (Econ, 1/30/10, p.55)

1982        In Angola a 520-megawatt hydroelectric plant was inaugurated in Capanda. It was expected to go online in 2009.
    (Econ, 1/5/08, Angola p.4)

1984        Jun 28, In Angola the wife and daughter of activist Marius Schoon were killed by a parcel bomb. It was sent by Craig Michael Williamson (b1949), a former South African police major, who was exposed as a spy in 1980.
    (Econ, 11/6/10, p.74)

1984        South Africa’s ANC executed 7 of its guerrillas by firing squad and sentenced another 8 to death in Angola’s Pango camp.
    (Econ, 1/12/12, p.75)

1988        Mar 22, In Angola the battle of Cuito Cuanavale changed the region's political landscape, accelerating the independence of Namibia and the fall of apartheid in South Africa. While the Cuban and Angolan forces claimed victory, South Africa claimed it lost only 31 soldiers against 4,785 who fell on the other side.
    (AP, 3/22/08)

1988        Jul, The apartheid regime in South Africa, having entered into discussions with the ANC, agreed to elections in Namibia in exchange for the withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola.
    (AP, 3/22/08)

1988        Cuba and South Africa negotiated a mutual withdrawal. The MPLA and UNITA continued fighting.
    (SFC, 4/5/02, p.A11)

1989        Jan 10, Cuba began withdrawing its troops from Angola, more than 13 years after its first contingents arrived.
    (AP, Internet, 1/10/99)

1989        Jun 22, The government of Angola and the anti-Communist rebels of the UNITA movement agreed to a formal truce in their 14-year-old civil war. Some 1.5 million people were killed during this period and over 4 million forced to flee their homes. 
    (AP, 6/22/99)(Econ, 1/30/10, p.55)

1991        May 1, The government of Angola and US-backed guerrillas initialed agreements ending their civil war.
    (AP, 5/1/01)

1991        May 23, Last Cubans troops left Angola.
    (www.iie.com/research/topics/sanctions/cuba.cfm)

1991        May 31, Pres. Jose Eduardo dos Santos signed a peace treaty with Jonas Savimbi of UNITA, ending a 16-year-old Angola civil war. It called for a unified military and democratic elections.
    (AP, 5/31/01)(SFC, 4/5/02, p.A11)

1991        In Angola the Bicesse Accord failed to resolve squabbles and ended with a resumption of war.
    (WSJ, 5/31/00, p.A26)
1991        Fighting between US supported UNITA (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola), and the Marxist MPLA (Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola), ended.
    (SFC, 4/12/97, p.A12)
1991        In Angola Elisol was established as a refuse collection company. In the 1990s it took on the maintenance of sanitation networks.
    (Econ, 1/5/08, Angola p.4)

1991-1999    UNITA rebels in Angola raised an estimated $3-4 billion through diamond sales.
    (SFC, 7/30/99, p.A13)

1992        Angola’s Pres. Jose Eduardo dos Santos and the MPLA beat Jonas Savimbi and UNITA in elections.
    (Econ, 9/4/04, p.48)
1992        In Angola fighting between UNITA and the MPLA resumed when UNITA rejected its political defeat in the country’s first democratic elections. Jonas Savimbi of the Ovimbundu tribe, leader of UNITA, refused to accept defeat.
    (SFC, 4/12/97, p.A12)(SFC, 12/26/98, p.A12)(SFC, 7/14/99, p.A6)
1992        The Angola food company, Angoalissar, was founded by local and int’l. investors.
    (Econ, 1/5/08, Angola p.5)

1993        UN peace talks began in Zambia as fighting continued.
    (SFC, 4/5/02, p.A11)

1993        Arms and an oil embargo was imposed on the UNITA rebels by the UN but it had little effect.
    (SFC,10/30/97, p.A13)

1994        Sep 22, In Tolunda, Angola, faulty brakes caused a train to plunge into a ravine and some 300 people were killed.
    (SFC, 6/4/98, p.A15)(AP, 2/18/04)

1994        Oct 17, Negotiators for the Angolan government and rebels agreed to a peace treaty to end their 19-year civil war.
    (AP, 10/17/99)

1994        Nov 20, The Angolan government under dos Santos and rebels under Savimbi signed a treaty in Zambia to end 19 years of war, even as fighting continued in their homeland.
    (AP, 11/20/99)(SFC, 4/5/02, p.A11)

1994        The Lusaka Protocol called for a halt to the civil war between Unita and the government that had run for 2 decades. The accord called for UNITA to disband its 70,000 man army and hand control of almost half the country to the government. Svimbi was given key posts in the military and Cabinet.
    (WSJ, 10/1/97, p.A16)(SFC, 12/26/98, p.A12)(SFC, 7/14/99, p.A6)

1995        Feb 8, The U.N. Security Council approved sending 7,000 peacekeepers to Angola to cement an accord ending 19 years of civil war.
    (AP, 2/8/00)

1995        Mar 2, Ferry boat sank off Sumbe, Angola, and over 42 people were killed.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1995        Jun 18, A private plane carrying the Angolan soccer team crashed in Luanda, Angola, killing 48 people.
    (AP, 6/18/00)

1997        Feb, The government under Prime Minister Sir Julius Chan hired Sandline Int’l., a company that provides military training and support, to help put an end to the bloody secessionist movement on Bougainville Island. Sandline in turn subcontracted much of the work to the South African mercenary firm Executive Outcomes, known for its effective work in Angola and Sierra Leone.
    (WSJ, 3/4/97, p.A15)(SFC, 3/21/97, p.A20)

1997        Mar 6, In Angola an armed group killed 30 people at a Roman Catholic mission in southern Angola and held 6 missionaries hostage.
    (SFC, 3/13/97, p.A13)

1997        Apr 11, In Angola a national reconciliation governing body was formed that united the MPLA under president Jose Eduardo dos Santos and UNITA under Jonas Savimbi.
    (SFC, 4/12/97, p.A12)

1997        Apr 25, Angola was supporting Kabila’s rebels. The government of Zaire claimed that Angolan troops had invaded near Cabinda.
    (SFC, 4/26/97, p.A10)

1997        May 8, In Zaire rebels were meeting increased resistance from French mercenaries and Angolan UNITA forces. A shortage of cash was also hindering their advance on Kinshasa.
    (WSJ, 5/9/97, p.A1)

1997        May 29, In Angola troops overran the northern part of the country held by the former Unita movement.
    (WSJ, 5/30/97, p.A1)

1997        Aug 28, The UN imposed air and travel sanctions on the UNITA movement in Angola to deter Jonas Savimbi reform increasing tensions.
    (SFC, 8/29/97, p.A16)

1997        Oct 1, It was reported that Unita was demobilizing its soldiers and getting the UN to return them to Unita-held territory, where they could again be mobilized.
    (WSJ, 10/1/97, p.A16)

1997        Oct 12, Angolan troops backed the rebels in an offensive around southern cities. Rebels surrounded Brazzaville and Gen’l. Jean-Marie Tiaffou urged government troops to surrender. There were reports that Angola’s UNITA rebels were backing Pres. Lissouba.
    (SFC, 10/13/97, p.A12)

1997        Oct 29, The UN put new sanctions on the UNITA rebels under Jonas Savimbi for not adhering to the 1994 Lusaka Protocol.
    (SFC,10/30/97, p.A13)

1997-2002    In 2004 a Human Rights Watch report said more than $4 billion in oil revenue disappeared from Angolan state coffers over this period, even as the country was struggling to recover from 27 years of civil war.
    (AP, 1/13/04)

1998        Jan 27, The UN Security Council approved a 3-month extension for peacekeeping operations.
    (WSJ, 1/28/98, p.A1)

1998        Jul 1, The UN imposed sanctions on Unita-held areas due to the former rebels refusal to abide by a 1994 peace accord.
    (WSJ, 7/2/98, p.A1)

1998        Jul 7, In Angola 16 policemen were killed in an ambush by Unita.
    (WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 10, In Angola fighting broke out between government troops and UNITA.
    (WSJ, 8/11/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 24, In Congo some 2,000 Angolan troops captured a coastal naval base and oil port and moved up the Congo River to battle the rebels.
    (SFC, 8/25/98, p.A7)

1998        Aug 27, In Congo Unita forces from Angola joined the rebels, while forces from Namibia fought for Kabila’s regime.
    (WSJ, 8/28/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 31, The ruling party expelled Unita deputies from parliament.
    (WSJ, 9/2/98, p.A1)

1998        Nov 8, In Angola some 50 gunmen dressed in uniforms of the police, government and rebels, attacked the Diamond Works mine at Yetwene. At least 6 workers were killed and dozens were injured.
    (WSJ, 11/11/98, p.A16)

1998        Nov 17, Renewed fighting created some 331,000 refugees since April.
    (WSJ, 11/18/98, p.A1)

1998        Dec 9, In Angola Unita rebels advanced on Cuito after saying they had routed an attack by government forces on their southern stronghold.
    (WSJ, 12/10/98, p.A1)

1998        Dec 14, The British human rights group, Global Witness, reported that in Angola UNITA was selling diamonds to finance its battles against government forces.
    (SFC, 12/15/98, p.C7)

1998        Dec 14, In Angola UNITA rebels launched an offensive at Cuito and Huambo and claimed to have shot down a government jet.
    (WSJ, 12/15/98, p.A1)

1998        Dec 16, UNITA rebels advanced on Cuinji and dozens of civilians were killed at the train station when rebels attacked with automatic weapons and grenades.
    (SFC, 12/17/98, p.C10)

1998        Dec 22, In Angola rebels shelled Kuito. Some 60,000 refugees had fled there to escape fighting elsewhere.
    (WSJ, 12/23/98, p.A1)

1998        Dec 23, In Angola government forces retook the towns of Vila Nova and Caala.
    (SFC, 12/24/98, p.A12)

1998        Dec 24, In Angola a rebel attack on Kuito killed 30 people and wounded 37. 9 of the dead, killed by mortar fire, had sought refuge in a Catholic church.
    (SFC, 12/26/98, p.A12)

1998        Dec 26, In Angola a transport plane with 14 people aboard crashed near Vila Nova, an area of continued fighting. 8 of the passengers were members of a UN Observer Mission. UNITA rebels reportedly held some of the survivors. A rescue team reached the site Jan 8 and there were no survivors.
    (SFEC, 12/27/98, p.A22)(SFC, 12/29/98, p.A8)(SFC, 1/2/99, p.A9)(SFC, 1/9/99, p.A10)

1998        Dec 30, In Angola rebels bombarded Huambo and killed 5 people.
    (SFC, 12/31/98, p.D2)

1998        Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe, chairman of the African body “Organ on Politics, Defense and Security," joined with Namibia and Angola in a war of plunder in Congo.
    (Econ, 3/13/04, p.48)

1999        Jan 2, In Angola rebel forces shot down a UN plane with 9 people shortly after takeoff from Huambo; there were no survivors. The plane was later found with bullets in the tail section and the flight recorders removed.
    (SFEC, 1/3/99, p.A23)(SFC, 1/27/99, p.C10)(AP, 1/2/00)

1999        Jan 4, UNITA rebels denied shooting down 2 UN planes and claimed that there were no survivors.
    (WSJ, 1/5/99, p.A1)

1999        Jan 5, Unita rebels shelled Malanje for a 2nd day. 25 people were killed and 100 wounded.
    (WSJ, 1/6/99, p.A1)

1999        Jan 18, UN leader Kofi Annan recommended that UN military observers leave Angola due to their targeting by the warring sides.
    (SFC, 1/19/99, p.A6)

1999        Jan 21, The UN voted to maintain at least a token presence in Angola.
    (SFC, 1/22/99, p.A12)

1999        Jan 27, Angola admitted that UNITA rebels had taken the northern city of Mbanza Congo.
    (WSJ, 1/28/99, p.A1)

1999        Feb 2, In Angola a chartered Antonov crashed in a Luanda residential area and 28 people were killed.
    (WSJ, 2/3/99, p.A1)

1999        Feb 26, The UN Security Council voted to close its peacekeeping mission in Angola due to the renewed civil war.
    (SFC, 2/27/99, p.A16)

1999        Apr 25, UNITA rebels claimed to control 70% of the country.
    (SFC, 4/29/99, p.D8)

1999        Apr 26, Angola blamed Unita for an attack on a truck convoy that killed at least 25 people. Aid workers questioned whether the rebels were responsible.
    (WSJ, 4/27/99, p.A1)

1999        May 5, The WHO planned a mass vaccination program in Angola following a polio outbreak that killed nearly 50 children and left 700 paralyzed.
    (WSJ, 5/5/99, p.A1)

1999        May 31, It was reported that an estimated 5,000 children lived homeless in the streets of Luanda.
    (SFC, 5/31/99, p.A8)

1999        Jun 1, In Angola UNITA rebels claimed that they killed 49 government soldiers in 4 clashes over the past week.
    (SFC, 6/2/99, p.A13)

1999        Aug 9, Police shut down Radio Ecclesia, a Roman Catholic radio station that was one of the few independent sources of information in the country.
    (SFC, 8/10/99, p.A10)

1999        Nov 15, In Angola the armed forces reported that Jonas Savimbi and his UNITA forces were dislodged from their highland strongholds.
    (SFC, 11/17/99, p.A18)

1999        Dec 26, Government forces with help from Namibian troops captured Jamba and took control of the southern border with Namibia.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.A13)

1999        About 40% of Angola’s budget was devoted to military expenditures. Less than 5% went towards education.
    (SFC, 11/22/01, p.E6)

2000        Feb 5, In Angola a military helicopter crashed and 30 people were killed at Lubango. 12 people survived and 3 Catholic nuns were among the dead.
    (SFC, 2/8/00, p.A14)

2000        Mar 5, In Angola about this time some 500 armed men killed 30 diamond prospectors in Chivungo. UNITA rebels were blamed.
    (SFC, 3/8/00, p.C4)

2000        Mar 15, A UN Security Council panel accused governments of Africa and Europe of violating sanctions against the UNITA rebels.
    (SFC, 3/16/00, p.A14)

2000        Mar, Pres. Blaise Compaore of Burkina Faso and Gnassingbe Eyadema of Togo were reported to have helped Jonas Savimbi of UNITA obtain arms and fuel in exchange for diamonds.
    (SFC, 4/19/00, p.A12)

2000        Jul 18, Rebels abducted 14 church workers and as many as 20 civilians from the Swiss mission of Our Lady of La Salette in Dunde.
    (SFC, 7/20/00, p.C3)

2000        Oct 18, Gunmen attacked 2 buses at Andurie, Angola, and killed dozens of people.
    (SFC, 10/21/00, p.A14)

2000        Oct 31, In Saurimo, Angola, a Russian Antonov 26 charter plane burst into flames after takeoff and all 48 people aboard were killed.
    (SFC, 11/2/00, p.A13)

2000        Nov 15, In Angola an Antonov 24 airplane crashed near Luanda Int’l. Airport and 39-40 people were killed. All Antonovs were ordered grounded in Sept.
    (SFC, 11/16/00, p.A17)(WSJ, 11/16/00, p.A1)

2000        Dec 21, A UN report accused Jonas Savimbi and UNITA rebels of trading diamonds for arms.
    (SFC, 12/22/00, p.A20)

2000        The Angola government agreed to open its oil accounts to the IMF and to redirect revenues from defense to rebuilding. The population was about 13 million.
    (SSFC, 12/24/00, p.B4)

2001        Mar 17, In Angola a small plane crashed into a mountain near Lubango and all but one of 17 people on board were killed.
    (SSFC, 3/18/01, p.S2)

2001        May 5, In Angola Unita rebels attacked Caxito, a town near Luanda, and 79 people were killed. Some 30,000 people fled the area following the attack.
    (WSJ, 5/8/01, p.A1)(SFC, 5/8/01, p.C3)(SFC, 5/11/01, p.D8)

2001        May 24, De Beers suspended investment and prospecting for diamonds in Angola due to lack of clarity over its legal rights. Rebel groups controlled many of the diamond mines.
    (SFC, 5/25/01, p.D6)

2001        Aug 11, In northwestern Angola a train carrying hundreds of refugees and some soldiers hit a mine and derailed. Refugees were machine-gunned and over 252 were killed. Unita forces claimed responsibility.
    (SSFC, 8/12/01, p.A18)(WSJ, 8/13/01, p.A1)(SFC, 8/14/01, p.A6)(SFC, 8/16/01, p.A9)

2001        Aug 18, Some 10,000 people marched in Luanda in a government-organized protest against the Aug 11 train ambush.
    (SSFC, 8/19/01, p.A16)

2001        Aug 23, Angola’s Pres. Jose Eduardo dos Santos (58) announced that he would not run in presidential elections next year.
    (SFC, 8/24/01, p.A16)

2001        Aug 24, Gunmen fired a missile at a passenger bus near Malanje, Angola, and sprayed it with gunfire. At least 50 people, including women and children were killed.
    (SFC, 8/28/01, p.A7)

2001        Sep 1, Gunmen ambushed 2 passenger buses 185 miles south of Luanda, sprayed them with gunfire and ransacked them. 38 people were killed.
    (SFC, 9/4/01, p.B1)

2001        Sep 25, UNITA rebels attacked an electricity substation and plunged Luanda into darkness. The rebels with an estimated 10,000 members under Jonas Savimbi continued operations from the bush with no sign of surrender.
    (SFC, 11/22/01, p.E6)

2002        Feb 22, In Angola government troops reportedly killed UNITA rebel leader Jonas Savimbi (67) in Moxico province.
    (SFC, 2/23/02, p.A1)

2002        Feb 24, Angola’s Pres. Jose Eduardo dos Santos arrived in Portugal to present plans for ending the civil war. Santos was scheduled to meet with Pres. Bush in Washington Feb 26.
    (SFC, 2/25/02, p.A7)

2002        Mar 18, Angola’s army and Unita rebels began cease-fire talks.
    (WSJ, 3/18/02, p.A1)

2002        Mar 30, The Angola government and Unita signed a preliminary cease-fire agreement. The deal carved up the nation’s diamond mines among officials in Luanda and the rebels.
    (SSFC, 3/31/02, p.A12)(WSJ, 4/1/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr 2, The Angola parliament passed an amnesty bill that called for demobilizing rebels and integrating them into the army.
    (WSJ, 4/3/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr 4, The Angola government and Unita signed a cease-fire agreement.
    (SFC, 4/5/02, p.A11)

2002        Apr 26, It was reported that the cease-fire in Angola had opened inaccessible areas and revealed thousands of starving people leaving the war zones.
    (SFC, 4/27/02, p.A11)

2002        Aug 2, The Angolan government and UNITA rebels declared the official end to their nearly three-decade old civil war.
    (AP, 8/2/02)

2002        Aug 13, Angola reported the capture of  Augustin Bizimungu, a key figure in the 1994 Rwandan genocide.
    (SFC, 8/14/02, p.A13)

2002        Aug 15, The U.N. Security Council voted unanimously to strengthen the U.N. presence in Angola to help consolidate peace in the southwest African nation after 27 years of civil war.
    (AP, 8/15/02)

2002        Sep 12, The World Bank pledged $120 million to help Angola rebuild after more than two decades of civil war, but told its leaders they must take measures to dispel suspicion of high-level corruption.
    (AP, 9/12/02)

2002        Dec 9, The UN Security Council lifted 9-year-old sanctions against Angola's UNITA movement, welcoming efforts by the government and the former rebel group to end the country's civil war.
    (AP, 12/9/02)

2002        Angola’s TAAG Airlines lost its monopoly of air transportation and was forced to adopt to new market conditions.
    (Econ, 1/5/08, Angola p.6)

2003        May 6, President Bush lifted Clinton-era sanctions (1993-1998) against Angola's UNITA rebels, citing the end of a quarter-century of civil war.
    (AP, 5/7/03)

2003        May 25, A Boeing 727 chartered by an Angolan company vanished on a flight to either Burkina Faso, South Africa, Libya or Nigeria.
    (AP, 6/11/03)

2003        Jun, In Angola Isaias Samakuva was elected head of UNITA.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3031752.stm)

2003        Dec, Angola's ruling party chose Pres. Jose Eduardo dos Santos as its candidate for the next general election.
    (Econ, 12/13/03, p.8)

2004        Jan 13, A Human Rights Watch report said more than $4 billion in oil revenue disappeared from Angolan state coffers between 1997 and 2002, even as the country was struggling to recover from 27 years of civil war.
    (AP, 1/13/04)

2004        Jan 28-2004 Jan 29, It was reported that Angolan troops and police had driven at least 10,000 Congolese from northern Angola's diamond zones in a bloody month-old campaign.
    (AP, 1/30/04)

2004        Feb 22, In Angola a tanker truck carrying gasoline exploded near the capital of Luanda, killing 18 people and injuring 87.
    (AP, 2/23/04)

2004        Mar 17, Angola decided to reject genetically modified food aid. The decision threatened to disrupt distributions to hundreds of thousands of people.
    (AP, 3/29/04)

2004        Inflation in Angola dropped from 106% in 2002 to 31%.
    (Econ, 9/17/05, p.45)

2005        Mar 22, Officials from the ministry of health and the World Health Organization (WHO) said a deadly hemorrhagic fever that has claimed the lives of 96 people, mainly children, in Angola's northern Uige province has been identified as the rare Marburg virus.
    (www.meritcare.com/news/world/viewarticle.asp?id=18843)

2005        Apr 8, Angola’s death toll from the Marburg virus, which has no effective treatment, rose to 181 with no signs of abating. Doctors without Borders urged the government to close the regional hospital at Uige to help contain the spread. Suspected cases have been identified in 7 provinces.
    (SFC, 4/9/05, p.A8)(SSFC, 4/10/05, p.A5)

2005        May 19, UN health officials said death from the Angola Marburg fever outbreak had exceeded 300.
    (WSJ, 5/20/05, p.A1)

2005        Angola’s economy grew this year by an estimated 15.5%.
    (Econ, 6/24/06, p.51)
2005        A syndicate called China Int’l. Fund or China Sonangol, created by a man named Sam Pa (aka Xu Jinghua), signed contracts giving the company the right to export Angolan oil and act as a middleman between Sonangol and Sinopec. The company operated out of Hong Kong. By 2009 the company had bought the JPMorgan Chase building at 23 Wall Street, NYC. Newbright Int’l., a core company of the syndicate, was 70% controlled by Veronica Fung.
    (Econ, 8/13/11, p.21)

2006        Aug 1, Cabinda, a 7,000 sq-km province of Angola located on the western coast just north of the CongoDRC, signed the “Memorandum of Understanding for Peace in Cabinda" with the government of Angola, granting it “a special statute" and greater autonomy. In 2007 the province pumped over half of Angola’s 1.7 million barrels per day oil production.
    (Econ, 1/5/08, Angola p.8)

2006        Oct 23, Portuguese bank BPI said it will open 30 new branches in fast-growing Angola next year, bringing its total number of outlets in the oil-rich southwestern African nation to 100 by the end of 2007.
    (AP, 10/23/06)

2006        Dec 15, In Kenya 11 African heads of state attending the 2nd International Conference on the Great Lakes Region signed a landmark $2 billion (1.5-billion-euro) security and development pact to forestall fresh violence in the area.
    (AFP, 12/15/06)

2006        Angola’s Gen. Fernando Miala, head of the external intelligence service, alleged that some $2 billion in Chinese money intended for infrastructure projects had disappeared. The general was soon sacked and imprisoned.
    (Econ, 8/13/11, p.22)

2007        Mar 31, Luanda, Angola, built for half a million people was now home for at least 4 million, many of whom fled there during the civil war.
    (Econ, 3/31/07, p.58)

2007        Jun 28, An Angolan Airlines plane crashed into a house on landing, killing at least six people in M'banza Congo, a town about 180 miles north of the capital, Luanda.
    (AP, 6/28/07)
2007        Jun 28, The European Commission said all Indonesian airlines and several from Russia, Ukraine and Angola will be banned from flying to the EU due to safety concerns.
    (AP, 6/28/07)

2007        Jul 20, Angola, Namibia and South Africa launched a joint commission designed to lay the groundwork for a sustainable and environmental approach of their shared fishing grounds in the Atlantic Ocean.
    (AFP, 7/20/07)

2007        Sep 21, Sources said the presumed head of the Nigerian armed group the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), who goes under the name of Jomo Gbomo, has been arrested in Angola.
    (AFP, 9/21/07)

2007        Nov 22, The World Health Organization said nearly 400 people, mostly children, have fallen ill in Angola in what medical investigators suspect is an outbreak of bromide poisoning.
    (AP, 11/23/07)

2007        Dec 5, An international aid organization said Angolan soldiers routinely and repeatedly rape Congolese women who have crossed the border illegally in search of work in the diamond fields.
    (AP, 12/5/07)

2008        Feb 14, Angola extradited Henry Okah, the alleged leader of Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), to Nigeria.
    (AP, 2/15/08)

2008        Mar 29, A police headquarters building in Angola's capital collapsed and at least 24 people were killed.
    (AP, 3/31/08)

2008        Apr 18,     South Africa's main transport union thwarted the delivery of a controversial shipment of Chinese arms destined for Zimbabwe, saying its workers would not offload the cargo. The Chinese ship left the South African harbor and headed for neighboring Mozambique. Angola and Mozambique said the ship is not welcome. China defended the cargo against international criticism.
    (AFP, 4/18/08)(AP, 4/19/08)(AFP, 4/22/08)(SFC, 4/23/08, p.A2)

2008        Sep 5, Angolans voted for the first time in 16 years in a parliamentary election expected to extend the ruling party's hold of more than three decades in the oil-rich African nation. A new quota required 30% of the candidates to be women.
    (AP, 9/5/08)(Econ, 9/20/08, p.76)

2008        Sep 6, Angolan election officials extended voting by a day in the capital, but said the logistical problems that marred the first balloting in 16 years were confined to Luanda.
    (AP, 9/6/08)

2008        Sep 9, Angola's former rebel movement and main opposition party UNITA faced up to a crushing electoral defeat in a landmark peacetime poll in which it won only 10.4% of the vote. The ruling left-wing MPLA (Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola), which has been in power for over three decades, had nearly 82 percent of the votes.
    (AFP, 9/9/08)

2008        Oct 6, In France Jean-Christophe Mitterrand, the son of a late French president, an Israeli-Russian billionaire and 40 other people charged with trafficking arms to war-riven Angola or taking kickbacks faced judges in a long-awaited trial in Paris. Prosecutors alleged that French businessman Pierre Falcone and Arkady Gaydamak, an Israeli tycoon based in France at the time, organized the sale of Russian arms to Angola from 1993-2000, for a total of US$791 million, in breach of French government rules.
    (AP, 10/6/08)

2008        Nov 7, The UN secretary-general joined African leaders to try to end the fighting in eastern Congo, where a fragile cease-fire is close to collapse. A UN official and a peacekeeping officer said Angolan troops are fighting alongside Congolese soldiers battling rebels outside the eastern provincial capital of Goma. The UN official said an unspecified number of Angolans arrived four days ago.
    (AP, 11/7/08)

2008        Nov 12, Angola announced it is mobilizing troops to send to neighboring Congo, heightening fears that the fighting in this central African nation will engulf other countries in the region. North of Kibati the bodies of two dead government soldiers lay in the center of the road beside a rebel checkpoint.
    (AP, 11/12/08)

2008        Dec 17, In Beijing the presidents of China and Angola signed a series of agreements as the oil rich African nation sought greater Chinese participation in its energy and infrastructure development.
    (AP, 12/17/08)

2008        Luanda, Angola, became one of the most expensive cities in the world as office space costs reached $8,000 a square meter and rents for a 2-room apartment downtown reached $15,000 a month. Large oil reserves and diamond mines sparked development in the port with limited seafront land.
    (SSFC, 9/14/08, p.A19)

2009        Mar 12, The UN refugee agency said Angola is launching a fresh effort to bring back refugees still displaced in neighboring African countries, seven years after the end of the civil war in 2002.
    (AFP, 3/12/09)

2009        Mar 20, Tens of thousands of Angolans welcomed Pope Benedict XVI. He urged Angolans to continue on the path of reconciliation after nearly three decades of civil war, saying dialogue could overcome all conflict and tension.
    (AP, 3/20/09)

2009        Mar 21, In Angola Pope Benedict XVI appealed to the Catholics of Angola to reach out to and convert believers in witchcraft who feel threatened by "spirits" and "evil powers" of sorcery. Two people were killed in a deadly stampede that broke out at Luanda stadium a few hours before Pope Benedict XVI addressed young people.
    (AP, 3/21/09)

2009        Mar 27, Southern African countries (Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia) have been hit by the worst floods in years, killing more than 100 people and displacing thousands, as a tropical storm threatened to bring more pain.
    (AFP, 3/28/09)

2009        Aug 9, US Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton arrived in oil-rich Angola to underscore America's presence in one of sub-Saharan Africa's largest energy producers where America is competing with China for resources.
    (AP, 8/9/09)

2009        Aug 20, Angola and South Africa signed a number of trade agreements including cooperation in the oil sector, following major bilateral talks aimed at strengthening economic relations.
    (AFP, 8/20/09)

2009        Oct 14, The Democratic Republic of Congo said it had agreed with Angola to halt tit-for-tat expulsions of each other's citizens as victims told of being subjected to brutal rapes and lootings when they were thrown out by Luanda.
    (AFP, 10/14/09)

2009        Dec 30, An Iraqi official said the Angolan national oil company Sonangol has signed preliminary deals to develop two small oil fields in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 12/30/09)

2010        Jan 8, In Angola hooded gunmen sprayed the Togo soccer team’s bus with gunfire as it traveled through the restive northern Cabinda enclave. The bus driver was killed and 7 others were injured. The attack was claimed by the separatist Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC), which has been fighting for decades for the independence of the oil-rich territory. The next day media officer Stanislas Ocloo and assistant coach Amalete Abalo died from their wounds. Virgilio Santos, an official with the African Nations Cup local organizing committee COCAN, said teams had been told explicitly not to travel to the tournament by road.
    (Reuters, 1/9/10)

2010        Jan 11, Angola said it had arrested two people suspected of taking part in an attack on a bus carrying the Togo national soccer team to the African Nations Cup in which two delegation members were killed.
    (Reuters, 1/11/10)

2010        Jan 19, An Angolan human rights lawyer said that police are rounding up peaceful activists and accusing them of responsibility in a deadly attack on the Togo national soccer team's bus as it headed to the African Cup of Nations tournament.
    (AP, 1/19/10)

2010        Jan 21, Angola's  parliament approved a new constitution under which the president would no longer be directly elected by the people, but would be chosen by the parliament. In effect the leader of the largest party in parliament automatically becomes president. The charter must now be approved by the Constitutional Court, a step seen as a formality. Critics said giving parliament the power to name the president will only further entrench President Eduardo Dos Santos, who has been in power since 1979.
    (AP, 1/22/10)(Economist, 9/1/12, p.52)

2010        Jan, Angola at this time produced about 1.9 million barrels of oil per day. Its reserves were estimated at 13 billion barrels.
    (Econ, 1/30/10, p.55)

2010        May 13, The UN General Assembly approved all 14 candidates for the 14 seats on the 47-member Human Rights Council. Human rights groups criticized the poor human rights records 7 of the candidates: Angola, Libya, Malaysia, Mauritania, Qatar, Thailand and Uganda.
    (SFC, 5/14/10, p.A2)

2010        Oct 26, The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) said at least 30 women were kept as prisoners in a dungeon-like structure and gang-raped over multiple weeks at the Congo and Angola border before being left in the bush without their clothes. The deportees said they were held by Angolan authorities in a dingy building. At least three were killed, including two men and a woman (27) who died after being raped repeatedly.
    (AP, 10/27/10)

2010        Nov 6, United Nations officials said they were investigating reports that some 700 Congolese women were sexually attacked along the country's border with Angola. Many women had said Angolan soldiers were responsible for their attacks.
    (AP, 11/6/10)

2010        Nov 19, In the Republic of Congo 8 countries signed a convention to limit the spread of weapons in central Africa, but three countries opted out. Angola, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, The Republic of Congo, Sao Tome and Principe all signed. Burundi, Equatorial Guinea and Rwanda did not sign.
    (AFP, 11/20/10)

2010        Nov 23, In Angola activist Antonio Paca Panzo was released from jail for lack of evidence after seven months and 12 days. Panzo was arrested in april in the Cabinda region for apparently having T-shirts emblazoned with the faces of four activists who had been arrested in January and were accused of responsibility in a deadly attack on the Togo team bus as it headed to the African Cup of Nations. Panzo was freed because of lack of evidence.
    (AP, 11/30/10)

2010        Dec 14, Angolan President Jose Eduardo dos Santos started a historic first state visit to South Africa, a trip aimed at ending decades-long enmity between two of the region's major economies.
    (AFP, 12/14/10)

2010        Dec 29, An Angolan court sentenced Jean Antuan Pwaty (42) a Congolese citizen, to 24 years in prison following the Jan 8 attack on Togo's national soccer team that killed two people and left eight others wounded including a goalkeeper. Pwaty was convicted of murder, armed rebellion and attempted murder.
    (AP, 12/30/10)

2011        Feb, The population of Angola was about 18 million. Half had virtually no access to health care. 5 million people lived in the capital, Luanda.
    (Econ, 2/12/11, p.53)

2011        Jul 13, German Chancellor Angela Merkel visited Angola and sparked controversy over an offer to sell six to eight patrol vessels to Luanda.
    (AFP, 7/14/11)

2011        Jul 29, Angolan officials said 2 children have died from a wave of mysterious poisonings over the last two days in schools, but police have yet to identify the toxin that has sown panic in the country. Nearly 570 cases have been recorded across the country.
    (AFP, 7/29/11)

2011        Aug 8, Cuban state media reported that Cuba and Angola, long-standing allies, have boosted military cooperation during a visit to the communist-run Caribbean island by Angolan defense officials.
    (AFP, 8/8/11)

2011        Aug 13, Angolan authorities barred activists from entering the country ahead of the annual Southern African Development Community summit that opens Aug 16.
    (AP, 8/13/11)

2011        Aug 25, Human Rights Watch called for Angola to stop forced evictions as the southern city of Lubango threatened to demolish 750 families' houses to make way for a new road.
    (AP, 8/25/11)

2011        Sep 14, An Angolan air force plane crashed as it took off from a central base, killing 30 people including three generals. Six people survived the fiery crash in Huambo province.
    (AP, 9/14/11)

2011        Sep 25, Angolan police broke up an anti-government demonstration 10 minutes after about 100 youngsters began a rally in the capital calling for Pres. Dos Santos to resign.
    (AFP, 9/25/11)

2011        Oct 10, In Angola a Luanda court gave William Tonet, editor of the newspaper Folha 8, five days to pay 10 million kwanzas ($106,000, 77,000 euro) in damages or spend a year in jail for a 2008 article in which he had accused three generals of the Angolan Armed Forces of self-enrichment and power abuse. Over the next week supporters raised $50,000 to pay the fine.
    (AFP, 10/11/11)

2011        Oct 16, Angolan police arrested at least five people during a protest in support of a rapper critical of the government. Some 100 young people protested the disappearance of 5,000 out of the 20,000 copies of Brigadeiro 10 Pacote's new album which were to be sold at a launch. The album calls on President Jose Eduardo Dos Santos, who has been in power since 1979, to step down.
    (AFP, 10/17/11)

2011        Oct 18, Angola’s Pres. Jose Eduardo dos Santos, who has been in power for 32 years, denied his country was a dictatorship, but admitted there was a need for more social dialogue after a series of unprecedented anti-government protests.
    (AFP, 10/18/11)

2011        Dec, The IMF said that an unexplained gap of $32 billion had emerged in the Angola government's accounts from 2007 to 2010, equivalent to 25% of its gross domestic product.
    (AFP, 1/18/12)

2012        Jan 18, Angola's government denied that $32 billion had gone missing from public funds, after the IMF last month raised a flag over a discrepancy in the national books. The government said the discrepancy resulted from "oil revenue being inadequately recorded.
    (AFP, 1/18/12)

2012        Feb 9, The IMF said it has extended its $1.34-billion (one-billion-euro) loan program in Angola to March 30 to allow time for a final review before the last payout.
    (AFP, 2/9/12)

2012        Feb 17, In Angola the Epal water utility in Luanda vowed to repair a burst water main within days, to end severe shortages that have lasted a week across much of the city. Most people in this city of seven million live without running water or electricity.
    (AFP, 2/17/12)

2012        Feb 24, Angola's state oil company Sonangol announced it is withdrawing from a natural-gas project in Iran due to international sanctions over Tehran's nuclear program.
    (AFP, 2/24/12)

2012        Apr 13, In Guinea-Bissau a communique from an unidentified military commander was released claiming soldiers do not want to seize power, but instead were trying to halt an invasion from Angolan troops. The unidentified military commander claimed that Gomes was going to allow troops from Angola, another former Portuguese colony in Africa, to attack military forces in Guinea-Bissau.
    (AP, 4/13/12)

2012        May 17, Angola’s Supreme Court ordered Suzana Ingles to vacate her post leading the National Electoral Commission. the ruling MPLA, in power since independence from Portugal in 1975, has seen few challenges to its power.
    (AFP, 5/19/12)
2012        May 17, Argentina’s President Cristina Kirchner arrived in Angola for a short state visit to push for a deal to exchange her country's food for Angolan oil.
    (AFP, 5/17/12)

2012        Jun 6, Angolan troops, whose presence angered local soldiers and prompted a coup in April, began leaving Guinea-Bissau. The pullout was completed on June 9.
    (AFP, 6/6/12)(AFP, 6/9/12)

2012        Jun 20, Angola police in Luanda dispersed more than 100 protesting war veterans, who claimed they have not received promised payments. State news agency Angop quoted an army statement saying payments were resumed June 15.
    (AP, 6/21/12)

2012        Jul 5, Human Rights Watch criticized Angola for its "alarming" crackdown on anti-government protestors amid a growing public show of dissent in the run-up to next month's elections.
    (AFP, 7/5/12)

2012        Aug 26, Chinese police brought back 37 suspected Chinese gangsters from Angola. They had been arrested for alleged crimes against other Chinese.
    (SSFC, 8/26/12, p.A5)

2012        Aug 31, Angola held its 2nd general election in 20 years. The ruling party was expected to easily hang onto power despite accusations it is corrupt and has mismanaged the country’s oil and diamond riches. President Jose Eduardo dos Santos' ruling party won 72 percent of the national vote assuring his government, in power for 32 years, another five years in power. The electoral commission later said 40 percent of voters abstained.
    (AP, 8/31/12)(AP, 9/3/12)(AP, 9/4/12)

2012        Sep 9, In England a man fell to the ground in the Mortlake neighborhood of West London when a jet passing overhead lowered its landing gear as it neared the runway at Heathrow Airport. The apparent stowaway had no identification papers, just some currency from Angola.
    (AP, 12/10/12)

2012        Angola’s population was about 20 million.
    (Econ, 6/30/12, p.54)

2012        Dec 31, In Angola 10 people, including four children, died in a stampede during a New Year’s Eve religious gathering at a sports stadium in Luanda.
    (AP, 1/2/13)

2013        Feb 11, Angola received a boost to its free speech from the Portuguese courts, which refused to allow Angolan generals to stop the publication of the book “"Blood Diamonds: Corruption and Torture in Angola" by Rafael Marques. It exposed corruption and human rights abuses in the country's lucrative diamond mines.
    (AP, 2/13/13)

2013        May 7, Scientists said Cassava Brown Streak Disease (CBSD) is destroying entire crops of cassava and has spread out of East Africa into the heart of the continent. It is attacking plants as far south as Angola and now threatens to move west into Nigeria, the world's biggest producer of the potato-like root that helps feed 500 million Africans.
    (AP, 5/7/13)

2013        Jun 4, A report by a corruption watchdog group said some $750 million is missing from Angola's treasury from a deal with Russia facilitated by a Swiss bank and a shell company registered in Britain's Isle of Man. Russian and French arms dealers got away with $263 million, Angola's president reportedly stashed away more than $36 million, and three Angolan officials and a former Russian legislator got away with smaller amount. Another $400 million was unaccounted for.
    (AP, 6/4/13)

2013        Sep 30, Angolan authorities suspended a prison director and 15 officials after a video, posted in August, of wardens beating up inmates circulated on social networks.
    (AFP, 9/30/13)

2013        Oct 13, A detachment of Angolan troops crossed into neighboring Congo Republic and detained a group of Congolese soldiers. The incident highlights tensions around Angola's oil-rich Cabinda enclave, which is separated from the rest of Angola and surrounded by Congo Republic and Democratic Republic of Congo. 55 soldiers of the Republic of Congo were released on Oct 18.
    (Reuters, 10/17/13)(AFP, 10/18/13)

2013        Nov 23, Angolan security forces shot and killed Manuel Ganga, one of eight members of Angola's second-biggest opposition party CASA-CE, as he tried to flee detention hours ahead of protests across the country where police detained 292 people. Police fired tear gas and warning shots to disperse hundreds of opposition supporters demonstrating in the capital against the disappearance and possible murder of two anti-government activists. Prosecutors said last week that Isaias Cassule and Antonio Alves Camulingui, who were involved in organizing protests by former presidential guards to demand payment of wage arrears, had been kidnapped and possibly murdered in May 2012.
    (Reuters, 11/23/13)

2014        Jan 18, The 75,000 deadweight ton Liberian-flagged fuel tanker MT Kerala lost contact with its Greece-based owner Dynacom  off the coast of Angola. A pirate attack was suspected making it the most southerly attack to date by pirates off West Africa. On Jan 26 Angola's navy said the crew of the oil tanker had turned off communications to fake an attack.
    (Reuters, 1/22/14)(Reuters, 1/26/14)

2014        Feb 17, Cambodian police arrested two Vietnamese men who were trying to smuggle almost 80 kg (176 pounds) of illegal ivory from Angola.
    (AP, 2/17/14)

2014        Apr 16, The ultra-deep Angolan offshore oil project called Kaombo generated the third huge contract in three days when French group Total picked two firms to carry out underwater engineering worth $3.5 billion.
    (AFP, 4/16/14)

2014        Apr, Angola ranked 179th out of 189 in the World Bank’s latest “ease of doing business" survey. Isabel dos Santos, the daughter of the president and Africa’s first female billionaire, was seen by human rights groups as an indictment of the government system.
    (Econ, 4/12/14, p.42)

2014        May 27, Angolan police beat and detained 20 people protesting at Luanda’s Independence Square against the killing of three activists over the last two years by security forces.
    (Reuters, 5/28/14)

2014        Jul 2, African nations agreed to suspend military operations for six months against Congo-based Rwandan rebels in order to give them more time to lay down their arms. The suspension was announced after a meeting in Angola of foreign ministers from a regional bloc including Angola, Burundi, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo, DRC, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania and Zambia.
    (Reuters, 7/3/14)

2015        Mar 11, In Angola heavy storms hit Lobito late today, sending torrents of water rushing from surrounding hillsides into the town that sits on the coast of the south Atlantic ocean. The death toll in Lobito soon rose to 69, including 36 children.
    (AFP, 3/14/15)

2015        Apr 16, Angola police raided the Seventh Day Light of the World Church in central Huambo province. Police said 13 civilians and 9 policemen were killed during the raid that led to the arrest of sect leader Jose Julino Kalupeteka. The opposition party, UNITA later accused the police of killing 1,080.   
    (AP, 5/3/15)

2015        Apr 30, It was reported that Angola's government has banned nine church groups operating in central Huambo province, where the main opposition party said hundreds were killed this month in a police crackdown on a rebel Christian sect.
    (Reuters, 4/30/15)

2015        The population of Angola was about 15 million.
    (Econ, 5/16/15, p.44)

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