Timeline Antarctica

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 The South Pole is 9,370 feet above sea level. This 5th largest continent is 1 1/2 times the size of the US.
 (SFC,12/26/97, p.C22)(SFC, 4/25/01, p.A9)

1Bil BC    A billion years ago several mini-continents collided together to form a super-continent called Gondwana, creating a mountain range at the point of impact. Periods of rifting, some 250 million years ago and again about 100 million years ago, pulled Gondwana apart in tectonic agony. This created a 3,000-km (2,000-mile) fracture in the planet's crust that extends from East Antarctica across the ocean to India. A residual "root," combined with the rifting, helped force up the land that is now East Antarctica. Some 34 million years ago, the mountains became smothered by the East Antarctic icesheet, an area the size of Canada.
    (AP, 11/17/11)

250Mil BC    In 2006 an apparent crater as big as Ohio was found in Antarctica. Scientists thought it was carved by a space rock that caused the greatest mass extinction on Earth about this time.

245Mil BC    Researchers in 2006 said floodwaters likely overflowed river banks in parts of Antarctica about this time, sending water and sand across the landscape and into various animal homes, such as burrows. No animal bones or remains were found inside the burrows, suggesting the burrow dweller must have escaped the deluge. The burrows' sizes and shapes, along with associated scratch marks, are nearly identical to tetrapod burrows found in South Africa also dating to the Triassic.

170Mil BC    In 2004 scientists reported the discovery in Antarctica of primitive sauropod, a plant-eating dinosaur, from this time.
    (SFC, 2/27/04, p.A2)

100Mil BC    In 2011 it was reported that the discovery of a single sauropod vertebra on James Ross Island in Antarctica reveals that these behemoths, which included Diplodocus, Brachiosaurus and Apatosaurus, lived on the continent about 100 million years ago.

70Mil BC    In 2004 scientists reported the discovery in Antarctica of a small meat-eating therapod dinosaur from this time.
    (SFC, 2/27/04, p.A2)

20Mil BC-15Mil BC    In Antarctica a geologic basin formed during a tectonic upheaval that later led to the formation of the sub-glacial Lake Vostok.
    (SFC, 8/2/04, p.A6)

15Mil BC    Lake Vostok became sealed from the surface of Antarctica about this time.
    (Econ, 3/31/07, p.87)

12Mil BC    Studies in 2011 of tiny pollen fossils buried deep beneath the seafloor suggested that the last remnant of vegetation in Antarctica vanished about this time.

1.8Mil BC-1.2 Mil BC    The Ross Sea off Antarctica was 6-7 degrees warmer. This was determined from shellfish fossils and 15 previously unknown species of algae found under the seabed off Cape Roberts.
    (SFC, 1/31/98, p.A10)   

1MilBC        The mean residence time for the water in Lake Vostok was one million years as compared to 6 years for Lake Ontario. Scientists in 1999 discovered living bacteria and theorized that the lake was warmed either by hot magma beneath the Earth's crust or by the downward pressure of ice.
    (SFC, 12/11/99, p.A2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Vostok)

12638BC    A very rapid sea level rise is thought to have occurred 14,650 years ago but details about the event have been unclear. In 2012 scientists said the collapse of an ice sheet in Antarctica about this time might have caused sea levels to rise between 14 and 18 meters (46-60 feet).
    (Reuters, 3/29/12)

11000BC    A meteorite from Mars (ALH 84001), discovered in 1984, landed in Antarctica about this time. It had been knocked into space from Mars around 16 million BC. Scientists in 1996 claimed to have found evidence of organic minerals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in the meteorite that formed some 3.6 billion years ago.
    (SFC, 8/7/96, p.A1,9)(SSFC, 2/19/06, p.M6)

8000BC    About this time the West Antarctic ice sheet started retreating at a rate of about 2 inches per year.
    (SFC, 1/3/03, p.A7)

1773        Jan 17, Captain James Cook became the first person to cross the Antarctic Circle  (66d 33' S).
    (HN, 1/17/99)(MC, 1/17/02)

1820        Jan 30, Edward Bransfield discovered Antarctica and claimed it for the UK.
    (MC, 1/30/02)   

1820        Nov 18, U.S. Navy Capt. Nathaniel B. Palmer discovered the frozen continent of Antarctica.
    (AP, 11/18/97)

1837        French explorer Dumont d’Urville (1790-1842) sailed along a coastal area of Antarctica that he named the Adélie Coast in honor of his wife. He also named the Adelie penguin after his wife.
    (WSJ, 7/1/97, p.A6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dumont_D'Urville)

1838        Aug 18, Six US Navy ships departed Hampton Roads, Va., led by Lt. Charles Wilkes on a 3-year mission called the US South Seas Exploring Expedition, the "U.S. Ex. Ex." The mission proved Antarctica to be a continent. Wilkes was tried in a military court for abuses of power, but was generally acquitted. In 2003 Nathaniel Philbrick authored "Sea of Glory," an account of the expedition.
    (Econ, 11/8/03, p.80)(WSJ, 11/12/03, p.D12)(www.sil.si.edu/DigitalCollections/usexex/)

1838-1842    Lt. Charles Wilkes led a 3-year mission called the US South Seas Exploring Expedition. In 1975 William Stanton authored “The Great United States Exploring Expedition." In 1961 The American Phil. Society published “Titian Ramsay Peale, 1799-1885, And His Journals of the Wilkes Expedition."
    (ON, 3/00, p.9)

1840        Jan 19, Charles B. Wilkes, captain of the US flagship Vincennes, claimed the discovery of Antarctica. Wilkes Land was later named in his honor. The American explorer, born April 3, 1798, coasted along part of the Antarctic barrier from about 150 degrees east to 108 degrees east, the areas that were subsequently named Wilkes Land. Wilkes’ officers disputed the Jan 19 sighting but acknowledged that land was sighted Jan 28 and Feb 15.
    (HNQ, 1/12/99)(ON, 3/00, p.8)

1901        Robert Falcon Scott made an expedition to the Antarctic. He noted the phenomena called “Earth shadows," where long dark arrows would project into the sky early in the morning. They were later realized by explorer Ernest Shackleton [1914] to be shadows from the peaks of Mt. Erebus cast across the western mountains.
    (WSJ, 7/1/97, p.A6)(WSJ, 4/2/98, p.B1)

1907-1909    Murray Levick was the naturalist on the Ernest Shackleton south polar expedition. [see 1908]
    (NH, 8/96, p.36)

1908        Ernest Shackleton's polar exploration team established a staging platform to Antarctica at Cape Royds, Ross Island. A prefab cabin was built big enough for 15 men.
    (WSJ, 3/30/05, p.D12)

1909        Jan 9, A Polar exploration team led by Ernest Shackleton reached 88 degrees, 23 minutes south longitude, 162 degrees east latitude. They were 97 nautical miles short of the South Pole, but the weather was too severe to continue.
    (HN, 1/9/01)

1909        Jan 16, One of Ernest Shackleton's polar exploration teams reached the Magnetic South Pole.
    (HN, 1/16/00)

1909        Mar 23, British Lt. Shackleton found the magnetic South Pole.
    (HN, 3/23/98)

1909        The Polar exploration team led by Ernest Shackleton abandoned its Antarctic expedition as winter ice formed and left behind 5 crates of whiskey and brandy. An Antarctic Heritage Trust team found the crates in 2006. One crate, labeled Mackinlay's whisky, was recovered in 2010 and shipped to New Zealand for testing.
    (AP, 7/22/10)

1910        Jun 15, The ship Terra Nova departed Cardiff, Wales, on its expedition to the Ross Sea and South Pole. Expedition leader Robert Falcon Scott  joined the ship in South Africa. Herbert Ponting (1870-1935) served as the expedition photographer and cinematographer. In this role, he captured some of the most enduring images of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terra_Nova_Expedition)(SSFC, 11/3/13, DB p.42)

1911        Jan 2, The Terra Nova expedition led by Robert Falcon Scott reached the coast of Antarctica.
    (ON, 6/20/11, p.5)

1911        Jun 27, Appsley Cherry-Gerrard, an English aristocrat and the youngest member of the Robert Falcon Scott South Pole expedition, began a 5 week expedition, lit by 5 hour-days of twilight, hauling a sledge on a hunt for pelican eggs that Scott wanted. He was accompanied by Lt. Henry Bowers and ornithologist Dr. Edward Wilson In 1922 he authored “The Worst Journey in the World." The author was later part of the rescue party that eventually found the frozen bodies of Scott and three men who had accompanied Scott on the final push to the Pole.
    (WSJ, 4/28/07, p.P8)(ON, 6/20/11, p.6)

1911        Oct 19, A team, consisting of Olav Bjaaland, Helmer Hanssen, Sverre Hassel, Oscar Wisting, and Roald Amundsen set out from base camp Framheim on a 2nd to reach the South Pole. They reach the South Pole on Dec 14.

1911        Oct 24, Robert Scott's expedition left Cape Evans for South Pole.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1911        Nov 10, George Levick, a surgeon and the medical officer on Scott's famous 1910-1913 expedition to the South Pole, wrote in Greek (translated here): "This afternoon I saw a most extraordinary site [sic]. A Penguin was actually engaged in sodomy upon the body of a dead white throated bird of its own species. The act occurred a full minute, the position taken up by the cock differing in no respect from that of ordinary copulation, and the whole act was gone through down to the final depression of the cloaca."

1911        Dec 14, Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen became the first man to reach the South Pole, beating an expedition led by Robert F. Scott. The best book on Scott and Amundsen is by Roland Huntford "Scott and Amundsen."
    (AP, 12/14/97)(SFEC, 1/24/99, BR p.1,6)

1912        Jan 16, British explorer Robert Falcon Scott wrote in his diary after reaching the South Pole on January 16, 1912, "Great God this is an awful place and terrible enough for us to have labored to it without the reward of priority." Robert Scott, attempting to lead the first exploration party to the South Pole, wrote the passage after finding the black flag of Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen. Thoroughly demoralized, the five members of the Scott party died during their 800-mile trek back to their base camp. [see Jan 18]
    (HNQ, 7/22/98)

1912        Jan 18, The expedition of British Royal Navy Captain Robert Falcon Scott intended to be the first to reach the South Pole, but when they arrived they found a letter from Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen, who had been there over a month earlier. Scott and his group had set out from a camp in Antarctica 81 days earlier, and on their way back, their supplies ran out. Scott wrote in a diary during the trek, which a search party discovered with the team's frozen bodies in November. Part of Scott's March 29 entry reads, "We shall stick it out to the end, but we are getting weaker, of course, and the end cannot be far." The team had made it to within 11 miles of the camp. Scott's diary ended with, "Last Entry: For God's sake look after our people." [see Jan 16]
    (AP, 1/18/98)(HNPD, 1/18/99)

1912        Feb 15, The Fram reached latitude 78ø 41' S, farthest south ever by ship.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1912        Mar 7, Roald Amundsen announced the discovery of the South Pole [see Dec 14, 1911].

1912        Mar 29, Capt. Robert F. Scott, British pole explorer, storm-bound in a tent near South Pole, made a last entry in his diary: "Last entry. For God's sake look after our people."

1912        Nov 12, Robert Scott's diary and dead body were found in Antarctica.
    (MC, 11/12/01)

1912        The Australian Antarctic Expedition of 1911-1914 began using an airplane to tow gear onto the ice in preparation for their sledging journeys. The plane, the first from France's Vickers factory, had not been seen since the mid-1970s, when researchers photographed the steel fuselage nearly encompassed in ice. Australian researchers stumbled on remains of the plane on Jan 1, 2010.
    (AP, 1/2/10)

1914        Aug, Sir Ernest Shackleton (40) left England on a voyage to Antarctica with a 27 man crew on the HMS Endurance. He planned to lead the “Imperial Trans-Continental Expedition," a dog-sled party across the continent.
    (WSJ, 4/2/98, p.B15)(ON, 5/00, p.9)

1914        Dec 5, Sir Ernest Shackleton left South Georgia Island on the HMS Endurance in the Weddell Sea in Antarctica.
    (Hem. 1/95, p. 28)(WSJ, 4/2/98, p.B1)

1915        Jan 18, The HMS Endurance, under Sir Ernest Shackleton and his 27 man crew, froze into the ice of Antarctica. In 1999 Caroline Alexander published "The Endurance: Shackleton's Legendary Antarctic Expedition."
    (Hem. 1/95, p. 28)(WSJ, 4/2/98, p.B1)(SFEC, 1/24/99, BR p.1)

1915        Aug 27, Frank Hurley, photographer, took a picture of the Endurance trapped in the ice.
    (SFEC, 1/24/99, BR p.1)

1915        Oct 27, Ernest Shackleton and the crew of the Endurance abandoned their ship in the Antarctic ice.
    (WSJ, 4/16/99, p.W14)(ON, 5/00, p.10)

1915        Nov 21, The HMS Endurance, under Sir Ernest Shackleton and his 27 man crew, sank in the Weddell Sea of Antarctica. The whole crew escaped on 3 lifeboats that included the “James Caird." They drifted for 5 months and when the ice broke rowed to Elephant Island. Shackleton then rowed the Caird for 800 miles with 5 men to South Georgia Island and returned to pick up the 21 men left behind. Frank Hurley captured the sinking on 35-mm movie film. In 1933 F.A. Worsely, the captain of the Endurance, authored “Shackleton’s Boat Journey." In 1999 Caroline Alexander authored “The Endurance."
    (WSJ, 4/2/98, p.B1,15)(SFEC, 1/24/99, BR p.6)(WSJ, 4/16/99, p.W14)(ON, 5/00, p.10)(WSJ, 4/28/07, p.P8)

1916        Apr 14, Sir Ernest Shackleton and his 27 man crew landed at Elephant Island off the Antarctic Peninsula.
    (ON, 5/00, p.10)

1916        May 8, Sir Ernest Shackleton with 6 men man crew completed a 16-day voyage of 800 miles from Elephant Island to South Georgia Island in the lifeboat James Caird.
    (ON, 5/00, p.10)

1916        May 20, Sir Ernest Shackleton with 2 men reached a whaling station on St. Georgia Island after their ship sank in the ice of Antarctica. Shackleton’s own account of the venture was titled: "South." In 1959 Alfred Lansing wrote “Endurance: Shackleton’s Incredible Voyage." A biography of Shackleton was written in 1985 by Roland Huntford.
    (WSJ, 4/2/98, p.B1)(SFEC, 1/24/99, BR p.6)(ON, 5/00, p.10)

1916        Aug 30, Sir Ernest Shackleton rescued the crew he had left behind on Elephant Island.
    (WSJ, 4/16/99, p.w14)

1919        The documentary film “South" by Frank Hurley was about the Shackelton expedition to the Antarctic.
    (WSJ, 11/8/99, p.A48)

1921        Sir Ernest Shackleton sailed back to South Georgia.
    (SSFC, 5/20/01, p.T11)

1922        Jan 5, Sir Ernest Shackleton (47) died of a heart attack at sea enroute from South Georgia Island to Antarctica. He was buried on South Georgia Island. In 1924 Hugh Robert Mill authored “The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton."
    (ON, 5/00, p.10)(SSFC, 5/20/01, p.T11)

1928        Aug 25, An expedition led by Richard E. Byrd set sail from Hoboken, N.J., on its journey to Antarctica.
    (AP, 8/25/08)

1929        Nov 28, Commander Richard E. Byrd embarked on the first South Pole flight.
    (NPub, 2002, p.12)

1929        Nov 29, Navy Lt. Cmdr. Richard E. Byrd radioed that he'd made the first airplane flight over the South Pole: "My calculations indicate that we have reached vicinity of South Pole." He was wrong [see 1888-1957, Byrd].
    (TMC, 1994, p.1929)(HFA, '96, p.42)(AP, 11/29/97)(NPub, 2002, p.12)

1930        Jan 22, Adm. Richard Byrd charted a vast area of Antarctica.
    (HN, 1/22/99)

1936        Jan 14, American explorer Lincoln Ellsworth and Canadian pilot Herbert Hollick-Kenyon were rescued by the research ship Discovery II. The pair had made the first flight across Antarctica, 2,300 miles from the Weddell Sea to the Ross Sea. They landed when their plane's engine faltered, and waited in the previously constructed shelter at Little America for a month to be picked up. After his earlier attempts to cross Antarctica failed, Ellsworth set out with Hollick-Kenyon in the Northrop Gamma monoplane, Polar Star, and succeeded. Part of the area that Ellsworth and Hollick-Kenyon flew over in 1935 has been named the Ellsworth Highlands.
    (HNPD, 1/14/99)(AH, 2/06, p.14)

1940-1941    A 59-man team under Adm. Richard E. Byrd spent the winter on Antarctica. Dr. Harrison Holt Richardson (d.1999 at 80), was the youngest member of the team and took the first color movies there. This was Byrd's 3rd mission there.
    (SFEC, 8/1/99, p.D8)

c1950        Paul A. Siple, a US Army Major and geographer, and Charles F. Passel, a geologist, measured the heat loss from plastic cylinders filled with water and derived an equation for measuring the body’s heat loss in the wind, the wind chill factor. The derivation was later determined to be inaccurate and in 2000 efforts were made for a new formula.
    (WSJ, 12/18/00, p.A1)

1954        Nov 15, 1st regularly scheduled commercial flights over North Pole began.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1954        Ardito Desio (d.2001) became the 1st Italian to reach the South Pole.
    (SFC, 12/14/01, p.A33)

1957        Feb 16, A U.S. flag flew over an outpost in Wilkes Land, Antarctica.
    (HN, 2/16/98)

1957        Mar 11, Richard E. Byrd (68), US explorer (Antarctica), died.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1957        Jul 1, The International Geophysical Year, an 18-month global scientific study, began. 12 nations established over 60 stations in Antarctica. The beginning of international cooperation in Antarctica and the start of the process by which Antarctica becomes "non-national."
    (AP, 7/1/07)(http://tinyurl.com/337joj)

1958        Jan 3, Edmund Hillary reached the South Pole (Antarctica) overland. Hillary was part of a joint New Zealand-British ice trek that drove farm tractors on the Skelton Glacier to the South Pole. He beat Vivian Fuchs to the South Pole by 17 days.
    (SFC, 1/14/99, p.C2)(MC, 1/3/02)

1958        Mar 2, A multinational expedition led by British geologist and explorer Vivian Fuchs (d.1999 at 91) completed the first overland crossing of Antarctica by way of the South Pole in 99 days.
    (SFC, 11/13/99, p.A22)(AP, 3/2/08)

1958        Mar, Charles D. Keeling (1928-2005) installed a gas analyzer on the slopes of Mauna Loa, Hawaii. It gave a reading of 314 ppm for carbon dioxide. It was part of the International Geophysical Year project and the carbon dioxide research was under Keeling. The atmospheric chemist had begun monitoring the pure air at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, and the South Pole. Subsequent CO2 readings indicated climbed steadily and became known as the Keeling Curve. After one year of gathering data it was clear that the whole planet has an annual cycle for photosynthesis and respiration that is visible by measuring carbon dioxide concentration. [See 1988]. 50 years later the CO2 reading was about 387 parts per million.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_David_Keeling)(WSJ, 12/14/07, p.B1)(Econ, 9/17/11, p.89)

1958        Sirs Vivian Fuchs and Edmund Hillary published "The Crossing of Antarctica."
    (SFC, 11/13/99, p.A22)
1958        The Gamburtsev mountains were detected in East Antarctica during the first International Polar Year exploration. The mountains were named after Soviet geophysicist Grigoriy Aleksandrovich Gamburtsev (1903-1955), are 1,200 km (750 miles) long, with jagged peaks up to 2,700 m (8,900 feet) high intersected by deep troughs and valleys. Some 34 million years ago, the mountains became smothered by the East Antarctic icesheet, an area the size of Canada. A billion years ago several mini-continents collided together to form a super-continent called Gondwana, creating a mountain range at the point of impact. Periods of rifting, some 250 million years ago and again about 100 million years ago, pulled Gondwana apart in tectonic agony. This created a 3,000-km (2,000-mile) fracture in the planet's crust that extends from East Antarctica across the ocean to India. A residual "root," combined with the rifting, helped force up the land that is now East Antarctica.
    (AP, 11/17/11)

1959        Dec 1, Representatives of 12 countries signed the Antarctic Treaty in Washington DC setting aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, free from military activity (effective in 1961). It was adopted by the governments of Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, the French Republic, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, the Union of South Africa, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the UK of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the USA [see 1961]. By 2007 45 signatories agreed to suspend territorial claims and disputes, to forego all military and mining activity, and to protect the continent as a natural reserve devoted to peace and science.
    (AP, 12/1/97)(www.aad.gov.au/default.asp?casid=1187)(Econ, 3/31/07, p.86)

1961        The Antarctic Treaty entered into force. It was adopted to put on hold the issue of ownership in the pursuit of peace and science.
    (WSJ, 3/30/05, p.D12)(www.aad.gov.au/default.asp?casid=1187)

1962        Mar 3, British Antarctic Territory was formed.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1962        Mar 4, AEC announced 1st atomic power plant in Antarctica in operation.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1965        The Norwegian whaling stations on St. Georgia Island closed. Some 175,250 whales had been processed there.
    (SSFC, 5/20/01, p.T11)

1978        Jan, Emilio Marco Palma was the first child born on Antarctica.
    (SFEC, 5/28/00, Z1 p.2)

1979        Nov 28, An Air New Zealand DC10 en route to the South Pole crashed into Mount Erebus in Antarctica, killing all 257 people aboard.

1979        Martin Pomerantz (1916-2008, American astrophysicist, built a telescope at the South Pole and propelled the new field of helio-seismology. In 1995 the National Science Foundation dedicated the Martin A. Pomerantz Observatory in Antarctica.
    (SSFC, 11/2/08, p.B3)

1980        Dec 15, Charles Burton (d.2002) and his party arrived at the South Pole on their 3-year journey to follow the meridian line connecting Greenwich to the North and South Poles.
    (SFC, 7/18/02, p.A26)

1982        Mar 20, U.S. scientists returned from Antarctica with the first land mammal fossils found there.
    (HN, 3/20/98)

1983        Jul 21, The coldest temperature ever measured on Earth was -128.6 Fahrenheit (-89.2 Celsius) at Vostok, Antarctica.
    (AP, 7/23/03)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vostok_Station)

1984        Dec 27, Geologist Roberta Score found the Martian meteorite labeled Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 while snowmobiling in the Antarctic. The 4.5 billion year old rock was knocked of Mars by an asteroid some 16 million years earlier and landed in Antarctica some 13,000 years before Score’s find.
    (PacDis, Winter ’97, p.29)(SSFC, 2/19/06, p.M6)

1985        The thinning of the ozone layer over the South Pole was first reported.
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.5)

1987        Oct, The iceberg B9 calved from the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctic.

1988        Adventure Network Int’l. began flying tourists to the South Pole.
    (SFC,12/897, p.A18)

1989        Jan 28, In Antarctica an Argentine navy ship, the Bahia Paraiso, was wrecked on rocks next to DeLaca Island, near the US Palmer Station scientific base. It was still leaking diesel fuel in 1996 and had decimated imperial cormorant and kelp gull bird population.
    (SFC, 1/4/97, p.A19)(www.antarcticmarc.com/bahia.html)

1991        Oct 4, In Madrid, Spain, 26 nations, including the United States, signed the Antarctic Treaty, which imposed a 50-year ban on oil exploration and mining in Antarctica. It would be up for review in 2048. China acceded to the treaty in 1983.
    (AP, 10/4/01)(Econ, 11/16/13, p.50)

1992-2000    Some 7.5 cubic miles of the Pine Island Glacier eroded over 8 years.
    (SFC, 2/2/01, p.A14)

1994        Russian scientists detected a large lake beneath 2½ miles of Antarctic ice. It was named Lake Vostok and measured 250km long and 50km wide.
    (SFC, 8/2/04, p.A6)(Econ, 3/31/07, p.87)         

1996        Aug 6, NASA scientists presented evidence that a meteorite from Mars (ALH 84001) that was found in Antarctica in 1984 contained organic minerals such as carbonate globules, magnetite, iron sulfide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In 2001 Imre Friedmann (1921-2007), extreme microbiologist, led a team of researchers to study the same meteorite and claimed conclusive evidence that Mars had been teeming with life 3.5 billion years ago. Researchers in 2007 said the organic material in the rock was made by chemical reactions.
    (SFC, 8/8/96, p.A6)(Econ, 6/30/07, p.96)(Econ, 12/15/07, p.90)

1997        Dec 7, Three skydivers, 2 Americans and an Austrian, died while jumping to the South Pole on a trip organized by Adventure Network Int’l.
    (SFC,12/897, p.A18)

1998        Jan 14, An int’l. agreement on Antarctica took effect that banned mining and oil drilling for 50 years and forbade a wide range of environmental hazards including pesticides and dogs.
    (SFC, 1/17/98, p.C16)

1998        Feb 7, It was reported that the 8,000 Sq. mile Larsen B ice sheet in Antarctica was breaking up due to rising global temperatures.
    (SFC, 2/7/98, p.A5)

1998        Sara Wheeler published “Terra Incognita: Travels in Antarctica."
    (WSJ, 3/27/98, p.W10)

1998        Jul 24, A report on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet in Science said that changes have been detected by satellite that might indicate a future collapse.
    (SFEC, 8/2/98,  p.A4)

1998        Sep, The ozone layer over Antarctica grew to its largest size ever. It opened to 2 1/2 times the size of Europe.
    (SFC, 10/2/98, p.B3)

1999        Jan 13, The expedition to reach the South Pole by Jon Muir, Peter Hillary and Eric Phillips, called in outside support for food.
    (SFC, 1/14/99, p.C2)

1999        Feb 8, A French helicopter crashed in Antarctica and 3 people were killed.
    (SFC, 2/9/99, p.A7)

1999        Sep, The ozone layer over Antarctica was reported to have grown to over 8 million square miles.
    (SFC, 9/8/00, p.A7)

1999        Apr 9, The Antarctic Larson B and Wilkins ice shelves were reported to have lost 1,100 sq. miles due to melting over the last year.
    (SFC, 4/9/99, p.A16)

2000        Mar, An iceberg 183 miles long and 22 miles wide, twice the size of Delaware, broke adrift in the Ross Sea.
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.A8)

2000        May, An Australian astrophysicist died at the Amundsen-Scott Base. It was only the 3rd death at the pole in 35 years. It was only the 3rd death at the pole in 35 years.
    (SFC, 4/25/01, p.A9)

2000        Sep 7, It was reported that the ozone layer over Antarctica had grown to 11 million square miles.
    (SFC, 9/8/00, p.A7)

2001        Feb 11, Ann Bancroft and Liv Arnesen became the 1st women to cross the Antarctic land mass on skis.
    (SFC, 2/13/01, p.D3)

2001        Mar 26, It was reported that scientists had detected high-energy neutrinos for the 1st time in the Antarctic Muon and neutrino Detector Array (Amanda).
    (SFC, 3/26/01, p.A6)

2001        Apr 24, A Twin Otter plane landed at the Amundsen-Scott south Pole Station to pick up Dr. Ronald Shemenski (59), who suffered from a gall bladder attack. A C-130 Hercules from the New Zealand air force rescued 2 Americans from the McMurdo Antarctic Base.
    (SFC, 4/25/01, p.A9)(AP, 4/24/02)

2001        Apr 25, A rescue plane flew out of the South Pole with ailing American doctor Ronald S. Shemenski in the most daring airlift ever from the pole.
    (AP, 4/25/02)

2001        Dec 29, Thousands of Antarctic penguins were reported dead or dying due to giant icebergs that cut the birds off from their food supply.
    (SFC, 12/29/01, p.A2)

2002        Mar 19, Scientists reported that the Larsen B ice shelf, covering some 1,250 square miles, had collapsed into small icebergs over the last 35 days.
    (SFC, 3/20/02, p.A1)

2002        Jun 27, Rescue helicopters from the South African ship Agulhas picked up 21 Russian scientists from the Magdalena Oldendorff, trapped in ice near Antarctica. 1,100 pounds of food was delivered to the remaining 86 people. Another 48 were rescued the next day.
    (SFC, 6/28/02, p.A14)(SFC, 6/29/02, p.A14)

2003        Oct, A storm split apart the world's largest iceberg (B15), about the size of Jamaica, off the coast of Antarctica. It is believed to have caused the deaths of millions of penguins after it blocked access to the sea from the Ross Ice Shelf.
    (SFC, 11/8/03, p.A26)

2003        Dec 20, A rescue team picked up two injured British adventurers after their helicopter crashed in the Antarctic during a round-the world voyage. Jennifer Murray and Colin Bodill, who were attempting to circumnavigate the Earth across both poles, were found "safe and well."
    (AP, 12/20/03)

2004        Jan 10, Fiona Thornewill (37), a British woman, completed her unaided solo hike to the South Pole in record time. She walked 700 miles in 42 days broking the previous record of 44 days for an unaided individual or team for walking or skiing.
    (AP, 1/12/04)

2004        Sep 23, Antarctic researchers reported that the ice cap’s glaciers are now melting twice as fast as in the 1990s and raising sea level.
    (WSJ, 9/24/04, p.A1)

2004        Nov 3, British scientists reported an 89% decline since the 1970s in stocks of Antarctic krill, vital food for marine animals.
    (WSJ, 11/4/04, p.A1)

2004        Walter Dean Myers authored “Antarctica: Journeys to the South Pole."
    (SSFC, 11/14/04, p.E7)
2004        The South Pole Food Growth Chamber began operating. It provided at least one fresh salad a day during the winter months to the staff of the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station.
    (Econ, 12/11/10, TQ p.15)

2005        Sep 16, The UN said the hole in the ozone layer above Antarctica has grown to near record size this year, suggesting 20 years of pollution controls have so far had little effect.
    (AP, 9/16/05)

2005        Sep 19, Rescue teams searched for two Argentine men whose snowmobile plunged into a deep ice crevasse in Antarctica over the weekend, but hopes of pulling them out alive were fading.
    (AP, 9/19/05)

2005        Nov 25, The European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica reported that carbon dioxide in the current atmosphere is greater than at any time during the last 650,000 years.
    (SFC, 11/25/05, p.A1)

2006        Mar 3, Research by NASA showed that shrinkage of the Antarctic ice sheet over the last 3 years has raised global sea level by 1.2 millimeters.
    (WSJ, 3/4/06, p.A1)

2006        Mar 30, Researchers reported in the journal Science that record levels of greenhouse gases may be trapping heat above the ice sheets of Antarctica.
    (SFC, 3/31/06, p.A2)

2007        Jan, In Antarctica the South Pole Telescope (SPT) opened to search signs of dark energy.
    (Econ, 3/31/07, p.87)

2007        Feb 12, A Japanese whaling ship issued a distress signal from Antarctic waters, after it collided with a protest boat trying to save whales from slaughter.
    (AP, 2/12/07)

2007        Feb 15, Officials warned of a potential environmental disaster in Antarctica after fire erupted on a Japanese whaling ship, as the search continued for a missing crewmen from the crippled ship. The next day Japanese officials said the ship posed no environmental threat.
    (AP, 2/15/07)(AP, 2/16/07)

2007        Mar 31, It was reported that Antarctica held about 90% of the world’s ice.
    (Econ, 3/31/07, p.85)

2007        May 17, The journal "Science" reported that Antarctica’s Southern Ocean, a crucial "carbon sink" into which 15 percent of the world's excess carbon dioxide flows, is reaching saturation and soon may be unable to absorb more , a deeply troubling development.
    (AFP, 5/17/07)

2007        Sep 5, The Belgian-based International Polar Foundation unveiled what it claimed to be the world's first zero-emissions polar science station in Antarctica to conduct research on climate change.
    (AP, 9/5/07)

2008        Jan 11, A historic passenger jet flight from Australia to Antarctica touched down smoothly on a blue ice runway, launching the only regular airlink between the continents.
    (AP, 1/11/08)

2008        Jan 12, America formally opened its new $174 million base at the south Pole. It took almost 20 years to design and build.
    (Econ, 1/19/08, p.89)

2008        Feb 28, In western Antarctica a 160-square mile chunk of ice on the edge of the Wilkins ice shelf began collapsing. It had been there for some 1,500 years. In 2010 scientists suggested that break was the result of gravity waves generated by a series of storms on the coast of Patagonia.
    (SFC, 3/26/08, p.A4)(Econ, 2/20/10, p.79)

2008        Dec 16, NASA said satellite data indicated that more than 2 trillion tons of land ice in Alaska, Antarctica and Greenland since 2003 among the latest signs of global warming.
    (SFC, 12/17/08, p.A20)

2008        Dec 20, Militant environmental activists said they had intercepted the Japanese whaling fleet in Antarctic waters and attempted to attack one of the boats with stink bombs.
    (AP, 12/20/08)

2009        Jan 21, Scientists reported that the entire Antarctic continent has been gradually warming since at least 1957.
    (SFC, 1/22/09, p.A10)

2009        Feb 24, A rocket carrying a NASA satellite crashed near Antarctica after a failed launch, ending a $280 million mission to track global warming from space.
    (AP, 2/24/09)

2009        Dec 30, In Antarctica 7 women on a 562-mile trek reached the South Pole, 38 days after they began their adventure to mark the 60th anniversary of the Commonwealth.
    (SFC, 12/31/09, p.A2)

2010        Jan 6, In the waters off Antarctica the trimaran Ady Gil, a Sea Shepherd Conservation Society boat, had its bow sheared off and was taking on water after it was struck by the Shonan Maru 2, a Japanese whaling ship. The trimaran’s 6 crew members were safely transferred to the bob Barker, another of the Society's vessels. The Ady Gil was left to sink the next day after a tow rope snapped and the Bob Barker resumed its pursuit of the Japanese whalers.
    (AP, 1/6/10)(SFC, 1/6/10, p.A2)(AP, 1/8/10)

2010        Jan 16, A small part of Antarctica turned green as the ice-covered continent's biggest wind farm, which can generate enough electricity to power 500 homes, was formally switched on in a joint New Zealand-US project on Antarctica's Ross Sea coast.
    (AP, 1/16/10)

2010        Feb 5, New Zealand explorers said 5 crates of whisky and brandy belonging to polar explorer Ernest Shackleton have been recovered after being buried for more than 100 years under the Antarctic ice. The excavation of the whisky followed the discovery last month of two blocks of butter in an Antarctic hut used by British explorer Robert Falcon Scott on his doomed 1910-12 expedition.
    (AP, 2/5/10)

2010        Feb 6, The anti-whaling ship the Bob Barker and a Japanese harpoon boat collided in the icy waters off Antarctica — the second major clash this year in the increasingly aggressive confrontations between conservationists and the whaling fleet.
    (AP, 2/6/10)

2010        Feb 11, In the Antarctic Ocean Sea Shepherd protesters shot butyric acid, produced from stinking rancid butter, at Japanese whalers to try to disrupt the annual whale hunt. The activists maintained that butyric acid is nontoxic.
    (AP, 2/12/10)

2010        Feb 15, In Antarctic waters Peter Bethune, a member of the US-based Sea Shepherd activist group, jumped aboard the Shonan Maru 2 from a Jet Ski with the stated goal of making a citizen's arrest of the ship's captain and presenting him with a $3 million bill for the destruction of a protest ship last month. The Japanese government said Bethune will be charged with trespassing and assault and tried under Japanese law.
    (AP, 2/16/10)

2010        Feb 12-2010 Feb 13, A massive iceberg, about the size of Luxembourg, struck Antarctica, dislodging another giant block of ice from the giant floating Mertz Glacier and shaved off a new iceberg.
    (AP, 2/26/10)

2010        Feb 27, Militant anti-whalers declared an end to this season's pursuit of Japanese harpoon ships in Antarctic waters, saying it was their most successful and intensely fought campaign so far.
    (AFP, 2/27/10)

2010        Oct 28, A French helicopter crashed in Antarctica during rough weather conditions killing all 4 aboard. The downed AS350 Squirrel helicopter was operated in Antarctica from the French research vessel, L'Astrolabe, which was currently icebound about 230 miles (370 km) northeast of the Dumont-d'Urville station.
    (AP, 10/29/10)(AP, 10/30/10)

2010        Dec 13, A South Korean fishing boat sank in the Antarctic Ocean's frigid waters, with 22 sailors feared killed in the open sea where vessels trawl for deep-water fish. 20 survivors were rescued shortly after the 614-ton vessel went down some 1,400 miles (2,250 km) south of New Zealand. 5 bodies were recovered and 17 men remained missing.
    (AP, 12/13/10)(SFC, 12/14/10, p.A2)

2011        Nov 25, Felicity Aston (33), a British adventurer, set out on skis from the Ross Ice Shelf in a historic solo attempt to cross Antarctica.
    (SFC, 11/26/11, p.A2)

2011        Dec 25, Anti-whaling activists intercepted Japan's harpoon fleet far north of Antarctic waters, with the help of a military-style drone.
    (AFP, 12/25/11)

2012        Jan 4, Anti-whaling activists claimed a small victory in their Antarctic campaign with the discovery of a Japanese harpoon ship.
    (AFP, 1/4/12)

2012        Jan 10, Three Vietnamese crew from a South Korean fishing boat died and seven others suffered burns after a fire broke out on their trawler off Antarctica. the Busan-flagged Jeong Woo 2 was fishing for the rare Patagonian toothfish, along with ray, crab and other bottom fishes.
    (AFP, 1/11/12)

2012        Jan 17, Grant Korgan (33), of Incline Village, arrived at the South Pole on the 100-year anniversary of the Terra Nova Expedition. Korgan, paralyzed in a 2010 snowmobiling accident, used a device called a Sitski to get there. The expedition party included paralympian John Davis, two guides and cinematographers who were shooting for a documentary called "The Push: A South Pole Adventure." The film is expected to be released later this year.
    (AP, 1/18/12)

2012        Jan 23, British adventurer Felicity Aston (34) finished her Antarctic crossing, becoming the first woman to ski across the icy continent alone.
    (AP, 1/23/12)

2012        Jan 26, Two Australian adventurers reached home and made Antarctic history by becoming the first team to travel unaided to the South Pole and back, surviving three months of "extreme hardship." James Castrission (29) an accountant, and Justin Jones (28), a scientist, skied 2,270 km (1,400 miles) to complete the arduous trek. The pair reached had the Pole on December 31.
    (AFP, 1/26/12)

2012        Feb 6, Russian researchers said that they had succeeded in drilling through four km (2.5 miles) of ice to the surface of Lake Vostok, a sub-glacial Antarctic lake which could yield important scientific discoveries.
    (AFP, 2/6/12)(SFC, 2/7/12, p.A7)

2012        Feb 22, Anti-whaling campaigners Sea Shepherd attacked a Japanese whaling ship in the Antarctic Ocean by firing paint bombs at it and trying to jam its propeller with ropes.
    (AP, 2/23/12)

2012        Feb 25, A fire at Brazil's research station in Antarctica killed two navy personnel and forced the evacuation by helicopter of 44 people. The people at the station at the time of the fire were transferred to Chile's Eduardo Frei station.
    (AP, 2/25/12)

2012        Feb 28, A coalition of environment groups called for the world's largest marine reserve to be declared in Antarctica's Ross Sea to prevent "industrial scale" fishing ruining the pristine ecosystem.
    (AFP, 2/28/12)

2012        Apr 6, A Russian-Ukrainian crew of 8 on board the 29-meter Scorpius yacht, that set sail in September on an historic expedition around the South and North Poles, went missing in the Antarctic.
    (AFP, 4/6/12)

2012        Dec 25, The British Antarctic Survey (BAS), an ambitious plan to search for minute forms of life in an ancient lake beneath Antarctica's ice, was suspended because of technical problems.
    (AP, 12/27/12)

2013        Jan 23, A small plane crashed in an Antarctic mountain range while carrying 3 Canadians between scientific research stations on the continent.
    (AP, 1/24/13)

2013        Feb 6, British researchers unveiled the Halley VI Research Station, a futuristic Antarctic research base that can move, sliding across the frozen surface to beat the shifting ice and pounding snow that doomed its predecessors.
    (AP, 2/6/13)

2013        Feb 20, An anti-whaling activist group accused a Japanese whaling vessel of intentionally ramming two of its ships in waters near Antarctica. Japan's Fisheries Agency, however, insisted the protesters were responsible for the collisions.
    (AP, 2/20/13)

2013        Mar 11, A lab analyzing Russian findings of a new form of microbial life in Lake Vostok, a giant freshwater lake hidden under kilometers of Antarctic ice, said it was not new bacteria that generated the signal, but contamination.
    (AP, 3/11/13)

2013        Apr 15, Australian and British researchers reported that the summer ice melt in parts of Antarctica is at its highest level in 1,000 years, adding new evidence of the impact of global warming on sensitive Antarctic glaciers and ice shelves.
    (Reuters, 4/15/13)

2013        Apr 17, A Chinese factory fishing ship caught fire just off the coast of Antarctica and 97 crew members were rescued by a nearby Norwegian vessel as Chile's military mobilized to prevent any environmental damage.
    (AP, 4/18/13)

2013        Apr 21, The Chinese factory fishing ship Kai Xin, that burned last week off Antarctica, sank without anyone on board.
    (AP, 4/23/13)

2013        Jul 16, The countries that regulate Antarctic fishing faced apparent Russian objections and failed to agree on proposals to create giant marine sanctuaries in the continent's oceans.
    (AP, 7/16/13)

2013        Nov 1, In Tasmania int’l. negotiations ended after China, Russia and Ukraine scuttled plans to create the world's largest ocean sanctuary in Antarctica. The sanctuary plans were led by the Antarctic Ocean Alliance which campaigns for protecting the Antarctic seas. For the sanctuary proposals to pass, they needed backing from all 200 delegates from 25 member countries, many of which have conflicting interests.
    (Reuters, 11/1/13)(SFC, 11/2/13, p.A2)

2013        Dec 1, Two Australian scientists and their pilot were injured when their helicopter made an emergency landing in Antarctica, leaving them stranded overnight on the ice.
    (Reuters, 12/2/13)

2013        Dec 7, Two Japanese whaling ships and a surveillance vessel left for the annual hunt in the Antarctic Sea. The three ships departed from the western port of Shimonoseki to join other ships to hunt up to 935 Antarctic minke whales and up to 50 fin whales through March.
    (AFP, 12/7/13)

2013        Dec 13, Prince Harry became the first member of Britain's royal family to reach the South Pole after a three-week charity trek with injured military veterans from Britain, the United States, Canada and Australia.
    (AFP, 12/13/13)

2013        David Day authored “Antarctica: A Biography.
    (Econ, 6/15/13, p.81)
2013        Gavin Francis authored “Empire Antarctica: Ice, Silence & Emperor Penguins."
    (Econ, 10/19/13, p.89)

2014        Jan 2, A Chinese helicopter rescued all 52 passengers from the  MV Akademik Shokalskiy Russian research ship that has been trapped in Antarctic ice since Christmas Eve after weather conditions finally cleared enough for the operation. The passengers were all transported to an Australian icebreaker in the area.
    (AP, 1/2/14)

2014        Jan 5, A US Coast Guard heavy icebreaker left Australia for Antarctica to rescue more than 120 crew members aboard Chinese and Russian icebreakers trapped in pack ice near the frozen continent's eastern edge.
    (AP, 1/5/14)

2014        Jan 7, A Chinese icebreaker and a Russian research vessel -- broke free from thick Antarctic ice where they had been trapped for days.
    (AFP, 1/7/14)

2014        Mar 31, The International Court of Justice ordered a temporary halt to Japan's Antarctic whaling program, ruling that it is not for scientific purposes as the Japanese government had claimed.
    (AP, 3/31/14)

2014        May 12, A NASA study said the West Antarctic ice sheet is starting a slow collapse in an unstopable way.
    (SFC, 5/13/14, p.A4)

2014        Jul 29, Japan announced that it had wrapped up a whale hunt in the Pacific, the second campaign since the UN's top court ordered Tokyo to halt a separate slaughter in the Antarctic. The country's fisheries agency said 115 whales were killed during the two-and-a-half month campaign.
    (AFP, 7/29/14)

2014        Aug 22, It was reported that scientists have discovered a living ecosystem under 2,500 feet of ice in Antarctica’s subglacial Lake Whillans.
    (SFC, 8/21/14, p.D3)

2014        Oct 31, In Australia the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) wound up a 10-day meeting in Hobart without the consensus needed for a deal to conserve and manage the marine ecosystems in the Southern Ocean. China and Russia thwarted an international attempt to create the world’s largest ocean sanctuary in Antarctica.
    (Reuters, 10/31/14)

2015        Jan 6 – 2015 Jan 13, A New Zealand navy patrol boat sneaked up on three suspected poaching ships and took photos and video of the fishermen hauling in prized fish in banned nets from the ocean near Antarctica. New Zealand sent an alert to 190 countries through Interpol, a move it hopes will make it difficult for the three crews to unload their catches.
    (AP, 1/21/15)

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