Timeline Austria

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180Mil BC    Sediments of this time from a deep sea habitat teeming with life were later pushed up into what became known as the Glasenbach Gorge in the Austrian Alps.
    (Econ, 5/24/14, p.74)

25000BC    In 2005 archaeologists in northern Austria reported finding the remains of two newborns dating back 27,000 years while excavating a hillside near Krems. The newborns were buried beneath mammoth bones and with a string of 31 beads, suggesting that the internment involved some sort of ritual.
    (AP, 9/26/05)

4800BC-4600BC    More than 150 large temples, constructed between during this period, were unearthed in fields and cities in Germany, Austria and Slovakia in 2002-2005. A village at Aythra, near Leipzig in eastern Germany, was home to some 300 people living in up to 20 large buildings around the temple.
    (AP, 6/12/05)

c3300BCE     German hikers Erica and Helmut Simon found a well-preserved prehistoric corpse, later named Otzi (Frozen Fritz), on Sep 19, 1991, in a glacier on the Hauslabjoch Pass, about 100 yards from Austria in northern Italy. It was kept at the Univ. of Innsbruck for study. In 1998 analysis indicated that the Ice Man had internal parasites and carried the woody fruit of a tree fungus as a remedy. Tattoos on the body were also found to be placed over areas of active arthritis. A flint arrow was also found in his back.
    (SFC, 4/27/96, p.A-5)(SFC, 12/25/98, p.A4)(SFEC, 5/7/00, p.T4)(WSJ, 2/3/04, p.A1)

c1000BCE    A Bronze Age salt mine of this time in Hallstatt, Austria, had a pine and spruce staircase that survived into the 21st century.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.10)

193        Apr 9, The distinguished Roman soldier Lucius Septimius Severus was proclaimed emperor by the army at Carnuntum (Austria).
    (www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm)

311        In Austria a Roman gladiator school flourished at Carnuntum 28 miles (45 km) east of Vienna. This was a major military and trade outpost linking the far-flung Roman empire's Asian boundaries to its central and northern European lands. Archeological digging at the site began around 1870 and by 2011 only 0.5 percent of the settlement was excavated.
    (AP, 9/5/11)

899        Dec 8, Arnulf of Carinthia, last emperor of Austria-France, died.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

997        The name "Austria" first appeared in a medieval manuscript.
    (WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A16)

1192        Dec 20, English King Richard I the Lionheart was captured in Austria on his return from the Third Crusade. He was held in a castle above Durnstein, Austria, after disrespecting  local Duke Leopold V. An entire year’s supply of wool from the Cistercian and two other monasteries in England was promised as ransom for the King. It was never paid in full.
    (NG, 5.1988, pp. 569)(http://tinyurl.com/33kall)(SSFC, 8/5/12, p.N4)

1235        Jan 2, Emperor Joseph II ordered the Jews of Galicia, Austria, to adopt family names.
    (MC, 1/2/02)

1267        May 10, Vienna's Catholic church ordered all Jews to wear distinctive garb.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1295        Trieste became a Free Imperial City.
    (www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Rotunda/2209/Trieste.html)

1298        Jun 24, Rindfleish Persecutions: Jews of Ifhauben, Austria, were massacred.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1298        Jul 2, An army under Albert of Austria defeated and killed Adolf of Nassua near Worms, Germany.
    (HN, 7/2/98)

1308        May 1, King Albert [of Austria] was murdered by his nephew John, because he refused his share of the Habsburg lands.
    (HN, 5/1/99)

1312        The Knights Templar were suppressed by Pope Clement at the Council of Vienna. Pressured by King Philip of France, Pope Clement reversed his 1308 decision and suppressed the order.
    (AHD, 1971, p.724)(SC, Internet, 5/12/97)(AP, 10/12/07)

1315        Nov 15, Swiss soldiers ambushed and slaughtered invading Austrians in the battle of Morgarten.
    (HN, 11/15/98)
   
1347-1350    The Black Death: A Genoese trading post in the Crimea was besieged by an army of Kipchaks from Hungary and Mongols from the East. The latter brought with them a new form of plague, Yersinia pestis. Infected dead bodies were catapulted into the Genoese town. One Genoese ship managed to escape and brought the disease to Messina, Sicily. The disease quickly became an epidemic. It moved over the next few years to northern Italy, North Africa, France, Spain, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, Germany, the Low countries, England, Scandinavia and the Baltic. There were lesser outbreaks in many cities for the next twenty years. An estimated 25 million died in Europe and economic depression followed. In 2005 John Kelly authored “The Great Mortality: An Intimate History of the Black Death, the Most Devastating Plague of All Time.”
    (NG, 5/88, p.678)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B1)(SFC, 10/13/11, p.A6)

1365        The University of Vienna was founded by Duke Rudolph IV.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.2)

1386        The counts of Habsburg tried to reach their goals by military force but were again defeated by Swiss forces at the battle of Sempach.
    (http://history-switzerland.geschichte-schweiz.ch/old-swiss-confederacy-1291.html)

1388        The counts of Habsburg tried to reach their goals by military force but were again defeated by Swiss forces at the battle of Naefels.
    (http://history-switzerland.geschichte-schweiz.ch/old-swiss-confederacy-1291.html)

1415        Sep 21, Frederick III, German Emperor (1440-1493), was born in Innsbruck Austria.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1421        May 11, Jews were expelled from Styria, Austria.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1421        May 23, Jews of Austria were imprisoned and expelled.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1429        Jan 10, Order of Golden Fleece was established in Austria-Hungary & Spain.
    (MC, 1/10/02)

1447        The winged altarpiece of Stephensdom in Vienna was completed. The cathedral also contains the tomb of Friedrich III.
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.67)

1477        Future Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, a member of the Habsburg family of Austria, married Mary of Burgundy, heiress of all the Netherlands. Maximilian had given Mary a diamond engagement ring, a practice that soon spread. In 1996 Andrew Wheatcroft wrote a history of the Habsburgs: "The Habsburgs."
    (WSJ, 1/19/96, p.A-12)(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.6)(SFC, 5/28/08, p.G2)

1477        The Seventeen Provinces, a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 16th century, became the property of the Habsburgs. They roughly covered the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France (Artois, Nord) and a small part of Germany.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeeland)

1490        Anne of Brittany married by proxy the recently widowed Maximilian of Hapsburg who had inherited Burgundy and Flanders from his first wife. Brittany was under siege by France and Maximilian failed to send troops in its defense. Anne had her marriage annulled and married the French Dauphin who had been engaged to marry Margaret of Austria, the daughter of Maximilian and Mary of Burgundy. Anne’s portrait was later painted by Jan Mostaert.
    (WSJ, 7/30/97, p.A13)

1490        Linz became the capital of the province of Upper Austria.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.76)

1493        The World Chronicle of Hartmann Schedel is held at the Library of the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.49)

1496        Mar 9, Jews were expelled from Carinthia, Austria.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1498        Emperor Maximilian I relocated his court from Innsbruck to Vienna and brought along the court musicians. He also decided to include boy singers which gave rise to The Vienna Boys School and Choir. In 1918 the Austrian government took control of the court musicians, but not the boys choir, which became a private institution. The boys choir began to give public concerts in 1926. In 2007 the choir accepted its first African-born member, Jens Ibsen (12) of Daly City, Ca.
    (SFC, 12/8/07, p.A8)

1513        Jun 6, Battle at Novara: Habsburgers vs. Valois.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1515        Jul 22, Emperor Maximillian and Vladislav of Bohemia forged an alliance between the Habsburg [Austria] and Jagiello [Polish-Lithuanian] dynasties in Vienna.
    (HN, 7/22/98)

1516        Feb 23, The Hapsburg Charles I succeeded Ferdinand in Spain.
    (HN, 2/23/99)

1519        Jan 12, Maximilian I of Hapsburg (59), Holy Roman Emperor and German Kaiser, died.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(AP, 1/12/98)(PC, 1992, p.170)

1519        Jul 6, Charles of Spain was elected Holy Roman emperor in Barcelona. The Catholic heir to the Hapsburg dynasty, Charles V, was elected Holy Roman Emperor, combining the crowns of Spain, Burgundy (with the Netherlands), Austria and Germany. He was the grandson of Ferdnand and Isabella of Spain.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.162)(NH, 9/96, p.18)(HN, 7/6/98)

1522        Feb 7, Treaty of Brussels: Habsburgers split into Spanish and Austrian Branches.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1523        Hans Judenkonig published in Vienna the first manual of lute playing.
    (TL-MB, p.12)

1526        Ferdinand of Austria was elected King of Bohemia and inaugurated the Austro-Hungarian state.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(WSJ, 7/14/99, p.A23)

1527        Croatia formed a state union with Austria.
    (WSJ, 7/14/99, p.A23)

1529        Oct 15, Ottoman armies under Suleiman ended their siege of Vienna and head back to Belgrade. The Ottomans siege of Vienna was a key battle of world history. The Ottoman Empire reached its peak with the Turks settled in Buda on the left bank of the Danube after failing in their siege of Vienna.
    (WSJ, 3/27/96, p.A-16)(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(HN, 10/15/98)

1536        Feb 25, Jacob Hutter (d.1536), Anabaptist evangelist from South Tyrol, was burned as a heretic in Austria. He had founded of a "community of love" in 1528, whose members shared everything.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jakob_Hutter)

1538        Feb 24, Ferdinand of Hapsburg and John Zapolyai, the two kings of Hungary, concluded the peace of Grosswardein.
    (HN, 2/24/99)

1544        Sep 19, Francis, the king of France, and Charles V of Austria signed a peace treaty in Crespy, France, ending a 20-year war. The Peace of Crespy ended the fighting between Charles V and Francis I. Henry VIII was not consulted. France surrendered much territory and Charles gave up his claim to Burgundy.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(HN, 9/19/98)

1556        Sep 9, Pope Paul IV refused to crown Ferdinand of Austria emperor.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1556        Sep 12, Emperor Charles resigned and his brother Ferdinand of Austria took over. Charles V resigned and ended his days in a Spanish monastery. He bequeathed Spain to his son Philip II, and the Holy Roman Empire to his brother Ferdinand I. A few years of peace in Europe followed. The event formed the basis for a later historical play by Friedrich Schiller, which was in turn used by Verdi for his opera "Don Carlos."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(WSJ, 3/21/96, p.A-12)(MC, 9/12/01)

1562        The Jesuits established a secondary school in Innsbruck. It later became the Univ. of Innsbruck.

c1562        Austrian Archduke Maximilian began breeding Spanish Andalusian horses.
    (SFC, 7/6/02, p.D2)

1568        The Spanish Riding School in Vienna began operating and became world famous for their Lipizzaners, white horses.
    (SFEC, 11/29/98, p.T5)

1571        Oct 7, Spanish, Genoese and Venetian ships of the Christian League defeated an Ottoman fleet in the naval Battle of Lepanto, Greece. In the last great clash of galleys, the Ottoman navy lost 117 ships to a Christian naval coalition under the overall command of Spain's Don Juan de Austria.
    (AP, 10/7/07)(www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-religion/1760264/posts)

1574        A provincial academy was founded in Linz.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.39)

1576        Rudolf II was crowned King of the Holy Roman Empire and moved the Imperial Court from Vienna to Prague.
    (WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)

1578        Don John of Austria died of fever. He was succeeded as Governor of the Netherlands by Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1579        Jan 6, The Union of Atrecht (French: Arras) was an accord signed in Atrecht (Arras), under which the southern states of the Spanish Netherlands, today in Wallonia and the Nord-Pas-de-Calais (and Picardy) regions in France, expressed their loyalty to the Spanish king Philip II and recognized the landlord, Don Juan de Austria. It is to be distinguished from the Union of Utrecht, signed later in the same month. The Peace of Arras ensured that the southern provinces of The Netherlands were reconciled to Philip II. It joined the Low Country Walloons (Catholics) with those of Hainaut and Artois.
    (http://en.allexperts.com/e/u/un/union_of_atrecht.htm)(PCh, 1992, p.200)

1580        Austrian Archduke Karl created a royal stud farm for horses in Lipizza.
    (SFC, 7/6/02, p.D2)

1583        Rudolf II moved the Imperial Court of the Holy Roman Empire from Vienna to Prague.
    (WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)

1585        Archduke Karl II, ruler of Styria, granted the Faculties of Arts and Catholic Theology in Graz an official Univ. charter. He entrusted the Jesuits with the administration.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.53)

1586        Sep 10, Hans Hannibal Hutter von Hutterhofen, Austrian nobleman, was born. Johannes Kepler later drew up his horoscope.
    (SFC, 3/3/99, p.A7)

1600        Hartheim Castle was built at Alkoven in Upper Austria. During WWII it became one of several notorious institutions that Adolf Hitler and his regime turned into the main venues for what they called "euthanasia" and where individuals who did not meet their ideals were gassed or given lethal injections.
    (AP, 11/5/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schloss_Hartheim)

1612-1626     Johannes Kepler, the Imperial Court Mathematician of the Habsburgs, taught at the provincial academy of Linz. Here he published his famous work Harmonices Mundi.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.79)

1622        Paris Lodron, the Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg, founded the Univ. of Salzburg.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.87)

1625        May 15, In Upper Austria 16 rebellious farmers were hanged in Varcklamarkt.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1628        Aug 1, Emperor Ferdinand II demanded that Austria Protestants convert to Catholicism.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1636        Aug 8, The invading armies of Spain, Austria and Bavaria were stopped at the village of St.-Jean-de-Losne, only 50 miles from France.
    (HN, 8/8/98)

1640        Jun 9, Leopold I, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (1658-1705), was born.
    (HN 6/9/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leopold_I,_Holy_Roman_Emperor)

1652        Ferdinand III, the Habsburg monarch of the Holy Roman Empire, arrived in Regensburg for a year-long gathering of the Reichstag, the imperial diet.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.78)

1663        Apr 18, Osman declared war on Austria.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1661-1714     Peter Strudel, Austrian painter, he was a court painter of the Habsburgs and founded an art school that later became the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.47)

1669        Emperor Leopold I sanctioned the foundation of a higher school in Innsbruck, Austria. This is considered to mark the founding of the Univ. of Innsbruck.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.97)

1670        Feb 14, Roman Catholic emperor Leopold I chased the Jews out of Vienna.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1670        Feb 27, Jews were expelled from Austria by order of Leopold I.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1670        Jul 25, Jews were expelled from Vienna, Austria.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1677        Pope Innocent XII confirmed the imperial foundation of the Univ. of Innsbruck in a papal bull that emphasized the Catholic character of the Univ. and decreed that the important chairs of the Faculty of Theology be filled by members of the Jesuit order.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.97)

1678        Jul 26, Joseph I Habsburg, German king, Roman catholic emperor (1705-11), was born.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1683        Feb 12, A Christian Army, led by Charles, the Duke of Lorraine and King John Sobieski of Poland, routed a huge Ottoman army surrounding Vienna.
    (HN, 2/12/99)

1683        Sep 3, Turkish troops broke through the defense of Vienna.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1683        Sep 12, A combined Austrian and Polish army defeated the Ottoman Turks at Kahlenberg and lifted the siege on Vienna, Austria. Prince Eugene of Savoy helped repel an invasion of Vienna, Austria, by Turkish forces. Marco d'Aviano, sent by Pope Innocent XI to unite the outnumbered Christian troops, spurred them to victory. The Turks left behind sacks of coffee which the Christians found too bitter, so they sweetened it with honey and milk and named the drink cappuccino after the Capuchin order of monks to which d'Aviano belonged. An Austrian baker created a crescent-shaped roll, the Kipfel, to celebrate the victory. Empress Maria Theresa later took it to France where it became the croissant. In 2006 John Stoye authored “The Siege of Vienna.”
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.69)(WSJ, 3/27/96, p.A-16)(HN, 9/12/98)(SFEC, 2/6/00, p.A1)(Reuters, 4/28/03)(WSJ, 6/3/03, p.D5) (WSJ, 12/6/06, p.D12)

1686        Jul 8, The Austrians took Buda, Hungary, from the Turks and annexed the country. Hapsburg rule lasted to 1918.
    (HN, 7/8/98)(Sm, 3/06, p.76)

1687        The Austrian Army captured Petrovaradin (Serbia) after 150 years of Turkish control during the Great Turkish War. The Austrians began to tear down the old fortress and build new fortifications according to contemporary standards.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Eug%C3%A8ne_de_Cro%C3%BF)

1689        The Macedonian city of Skopje, under Ottoman rule at this time, was torched by the Austrians.
    (Econ, 1/5/12, p.69)

1692        Oct 18, Charles Eugene de Croy, a field marshal fighting for Austrian forces, laid the cornerstone for a new great fortress at Petrovaradin (later Serbia), built to guard against the Ottoman Turks.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Eug%C3%A8ne_de_Cro%C3%BF)

1692        The Austrian Emperor assumes the patronage of the Vienna art school founded by Peter Strudel and it becomes the Academy of Fine Arts.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.47)

1697        Sep 11, Prince Eugene of Savoy led the Austrians to victory over the Ottoman Turks at Senta (Serbia). This resulted in creating the conditions for the 1699 conclusion of the peace at Karlowitz.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Eug%C3%A8ne_de_Cro%C3%BF)

1697        Sep 20, The Treaty of Ryswick was signed in Holland. It ended the War of the Grand Alliance (aka War of the League of Augsburg,1688-1697) between France and the Grand Alliance. Under the Treaty France’s King Louis XIV (1638-1715) recognized William III (1650-1702) as King of England. The Dutch received trade concessions, and France and the Grand Alliance members (Holland and the Austrian Hapsburgs) gave up most of the land they had conquered since 1679. The signees included France, England, Spain and Holland. By the Treaty of Ryswick, a portion of Hispaniola was formally ceded to France and became known as Saint-Domingue. The remaining Spanish section was called Santo Domingo.
    (www.caribbeanguides.net/hispaniola.htm)(www.jacobite.ca/documents/1697ryswick.htm)

1699        Jan 26, The Treaty of Karlowitz ended the war between Austria and the Turks.
    (HN, 1/26/99)

1701        Sep 7, England, Austria, and the Netherlands formed an Alliance against France.
    (HN, 9/7/98)

1703        Sep 30, The French, at Hochstadt in the War of the Spanish Succession, suffered only 1,000 casualties to the 11,000 of their opponents, the Austrians of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I.
    (HN, 9/30/98)

1704        Aug 13, The Battle of Blenheim, Germany, was fought during the War of the Spanish Succession, resulting in a victory for English and Austrian forces. The Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Austria defeated the French Army at the Battle of Blenheim. In 1705 Joseph Addison wrote the poem "The Campaign" for the Duke of Marlborough to commemorate the military victory over France and Spain at the Battle of Blenheim: "Do you not think an angel rides in the whirlwind and directs this storm."
    (AP, 8/13/97)(HN, 8/13/98)(SSFC, 1/21/01, p.A6)

1705        May 5, Leopold I von Hapsburg (b.1640), Emperor of Holy Roman Empire, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leopold_I,_Holy_Roman_Emperor)

1706        Mar 8, Vienna's Wiener Stadtbank was established.
    (MC, 3/8/02)   

1713        Most European powers vowed to respect the 1713 royal pronouncement of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, called the Pragmatic Sanction, in which he declared that if he had no direct male heir upon his death, his Austrian domains would go to his eldest daughter, Maria Theresa.
    (HNQ, 7/29/99)

1713        The plague in Vienna ended. The Karlskirche Church, designed by Johann Bernard Fischer von Erlach was built to commemorate this event. It is considered to be Vienna's greatest Baroque church.
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.69)

1714        Mar 6, the Treaty of Rastatt ended the war between Austria and Spain. It complemented the Treaty of Utrecht, which had, the previous year, ended hostilities with Britain and the Dutch Republic. The Spanish Netherlands became the Austrian Netherlands, and Spain gave up her possession in Italy, Luxembourg and Flanders. A third treaty, the Treaty of Baden (Sep 7, 1714), was required to end the hostilities between France and the Holy Roman Empire.
    (PCh, ed. 1992, p.279)(http://tinyurl.com/b8uxbje)

1717        May 13, Maria Theresa was born in Vienna. She later became Archduchess of Austria, a Queen of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia, and a Holy Roman Empress.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Theresa_of_Austria)

1717        Aug 22, The Austrian army forced the Turkish army out of Belgrade, ending the Turkish revival in the Balkans.
    (HN, 8/22/98)

1718        Jul 21, The Turkish threat to Europe was eliminated with the signing of the Treaty of Passarowitz between Austria, Venice and the Ottoman Empire.
    (HN, 7/21/98)

1732        Mar 31, Joseph Haydn (d.1809), Austrian composer who helped develop the classical style, was born. In his career he composed 104 symphonies, 82 string quartets and 60 piano sonatas. He also wrote some 175 baritone pieces for his patron, the Hungarian prince Nickolaus Esterhazy, who played the complex stringed instrument. The Canadian scholar David Schroeder wrote: "Haydn and the Enlightenment."
    (CFA, '96,Vol 179, p.42)(WUD, 1994, p.651)(WSJ, 8/26/97, p.A14)(HN, 3/31/98)

1732        The Kaiserbrunn (emperor’s brook) was discovered by Emperor Charles VI while on a hunting expedition. It later supplied over half of Vienna's daily requirement of drinking water, through a 130-km-long, rock-cut tunnel called the First Vienna Mountain Spring Pipeline, constructed in 1873.
    (www.hindu.com/thehindu/mag/2006/12/10/stories/2006121000080200.htm)

1733        Oct 10, France declared war on Austria over the question of Polish succession.
    (HN, 10/10/98)

1737        Jul 18, The Turkish army beat the Austrians in the Battle at Banja Luka.
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1737        Sep 14, Johann Michael Haydn (d.1806), composer and younger brother of Franz Joseph, was born in Austria.
    (http://www.haydn.dk/index.php)

1739        Sep 18, Turkey and Austria signed peace treaty with Austria ceding Belgrade to Turks. [see Sep 23]
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1739        Sep 23, The Austrians signed the Treaty of Belgrade after having lost the city to the Turks.
    (HN, 9/23/98)

1740        Oct 20, Maria Theresa became ruler of Austria, Hungary and Bohemia upon the death of her father, Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI.
    (AP, 10/20/06)

1740        The ignoring of the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 led to the War of the Austrian Succession in 1740. When Charles VI died in 1740, Maria Theresa’s claim was ignored by Elector Charles Albert of Bavaria, Augustus III of Saxony and Poland, and Philip V of Spain, igniting a general European war.
    (HNQ, 7/29/99)

1741        Mar 13, Jozef II, arch duke of Austria, Roman Catholic German emperor (1765-90), was born.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1741        Jun 11, Austria ceded most of Silesia to Prussia by Treaty of Breslau.
    (AP, 6/11/03)

1742        Jan 24, Charles VII was crowned Holy Roman Emperor during the War of the Austrian Succession.
    (AP, 1/24/07)

1742        May 17, Frederick great (Emperor of Prussia) beat Austrians.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1743        Sep 13, England, Austria & Savoye-Sardinia signed the Treaty of Worms.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1744        Nov 25, Austrian forces pillaged and killed Jews of Prague.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1744        The Royal Porcelain Manufactory of Vienna began to use an upside down shield, resembling a beehive, as its emblem. Royal Vienna porcelain was made until 1864.
    (SFEC, 10/9/96, Z1 p.8)(SFC, 10/17/07, p.G2)

1745        Jan 8, England, Austria, Saxony and the Netherlands formed an alliance against Russia.
    (HN, 1/8/99)

1745        Jun 4, Frederick the Great of Prussia defeated the Austrians & Saxons.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1745        Dec 25, Prussia and Austria signed the Treaty of Dresden. This gave much of Silesia to the Prussians.
    (MC, 12/25/01)

1747        Sep 16, The French captured Bergen-op-Zoom, consolidating their occupation of Austrian Flanders in the Netherlands.
    (HN, 9/16/98)

1748        Oct 18, The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle brought the war of Austrian Succession, which began in 1840, to an end and upheld the Pragmatic Sanction.
    (HNQ, 7/29/99)(MC, 10/18/01)

1749        King George commissioned Handel’s "Music for the Royal Fireworks" to highlight the end of the War of the Austrian Succession.
    (WSJ, 6/25/97, p.A20)

1750        The Jesuits at the Univ. of Graz assumed a leading role in the reception of the work of Isaac Newton in Austria.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.53)

1751        Jul 30, Maria A. [Nannerl] Mozart, Austrian pianist, Wolfgang's sister, was born.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1756        Jan 27, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (d.1791) was born on Gertreiderstrasse in Salzburg, Austria, the son of violinist and composer Leopold Mozart. He later played string quartets with Johan Baptist Vanhal, Haydn and Dittersdorf. The young Mozart began composing minuets at age 5 and, with his older sister Marianne, gave concerts in Munich and Vienna from age 6. At 13, Mozart became director of concerts for the archbishop of Salzburg and in 1782 he married Constanze Weber against her father's wishes. Although Mozart gave piano concerts throughout Europe and composed more than 600 works, including 40 symphonies, he and his wife were plagued by debt. When Mozart died in 1791, probably of heart disease, he was buried in an unmarked pauper's grave. It was not until his works were published, in many cases near the end of the 19th century, that Mozart's genius became widely recognized. His works included "The Marriage of Figaro" and "The Magic Flute." In 2005 Stanley Sadie authored “Mozart: The Early Years,” which chronicled Mozart’s life to age 25.
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, Par p.11)(HNPD, 1/26/99)(HN, 1/27/99)(WSJ, 12/8/05, p.D8)

1756-1763    The Seven Years War. France and Great Britain clashed both in Europe and in North America. In 2000 "Crucible of War" by Fred Anderson was published. France, Russia, Austria, Saxony, Sweden and Spain stood against Britain, Prussia and Hanover. Britain financed Prussia to block France in Europe while her manpower was occupied in America.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.223)(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.7)(WSJ, 2/10/00, p.A16)

1757        Jun 18, Battle at Kolin, Bohemia: Austrian army beat Prussia.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1757        Nov 22, Austrians defeated Prussians at Breslau in the Seven Years War.
    (HN, 11/22/98)

1760        Jun 23, Austrians defeated the Prussians at Landshut, Germany.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1760        Aug 15, Frederick II (1712-1786), king of Prussia,  defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Liegnitz.
    (HN, 8/15/98)(WUD, 1994, p.565)

1760        Oct 9, Austrian and Russian troops entered Berlin and began burning structures and looting.
    (HN, 10/9/98)

1760        Nov 3, Following the Russian capture of Berlin, Frederick II of Prussia defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Torgau (Germany).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Torgau)

1762        Aug 5, Russia, Prussia and Austria signed a treaty agreeing on the partition of Poland.
    (HN, 8/5/98)

1762        Oct 5, Gluck's opera "Orfeo ed Euridice" had its premiere at Vienna’s Burgtheater on the namesday of Emp. Francis I. Gluck revised "Orpheus and Euridice" in 1774 for the Paris Royal Opera.
    (WSJ, 4/11/96, p.A-16)(WSJ, 10/21/99, p.A20)(MC, 10/5/01)

1762        Dec 31, The Mozart family moved from Vienna to Salzburg.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1764        Apr 3, Austrian arch duke Jozef crowned himself Roman Catholic king.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1765         Mar 24, Austrian Empress Maria Theresa issued a decree to establish a School for Healing Animal Diseases. This led to the founding of the Univ. of Veterinary Medicine.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.23)

1766        Mar 28, Joseph Weigl, Austrian composer, conductor (Emmeline), was born.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1767        May 13, Mozart's opera "Apollo et Hyacinthus," premiered in Salzburg.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1767        Christophe Willibald Gluck, Vienna court Kappellmeister, composed his opera "Alcestis." It was revised in 1776 for the Royal Paris Opera.
    (WSJ, 10/21/99, p.A20)

1769        Wolfgang von Kempelen of Hungary invented the Automoton Chess Player. It was 1st demonstrated to the Austrian court in 1770. In 2001 the deception was analyzed by James W. Cook in his book "The Arts of Deception." In 2002 Tom Standage authored "The Turk," an examination of the 18th century fascination with automatons.
    (WSJ, 7/12/01, p.A14)(WSJ, 4/12/02, p.W12)

1772         Upon the partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, or simply Galicia, became the largest, most populous, and northernmost province of Austria where it remained until the dissolution of Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galicia_(Central_Europe))

1773        May 15, Prince Clemens Von Metternich (d.1859), Chancellor of Austria, was born in Coblenz. His policies dominated Europe after the Congress of Vienna.
    (HN, 5/15/99)(WUD, 1994 ed., p.903)

1773        The Jesuit Order was abolished at the Univ. of Graz.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.53)

1774        Dec 18, Empress Maria Theresa expelled Jews from Prague, Bohemia and Moravia.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1775        Apr 8, Adam A. earl von Neipperg, Austrian general, Napoleon's wife Marie lover, was born.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1775        Apr 23, Mozart's Opera "Il Re Pastore" was produced (Salzburg).
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1777        May 13, University library at Vienna opened.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1778        The Faculty of Law was established at the Univ. of Graz.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.53)

1780        Nov 29, Maria Theresa Hapsburg (63), Queen of Austria, died.
    (MC, 11/29/01)

1781        May 1, Emperor Josef II decreed protection of population.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1781        May 25, Ferdinand, archduke of Austria-Este, Governor-General (Sicily), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1781        Sep 6, Anton Diabelli, Austria publisher and composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1781        Count Arco, a secretary of Austria’s Archbishop of Salzburg, fired Mozart from the service of the Archbishop. Mozart then began working on his comic opera “The Abduction from the Seraglio,” which premiered the next year.
    (WSJ, 4/25/08, p.W14)

1782        Jul 16, Mozart's opera "Das Entfuehrung aus dem Serail" (The Abduction from the Seraglio) premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1782        The Univ. of Innsbruck was changed to a lyceum with four departments.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.97)

1783        After this year German officially replace Latin as the language of instruction.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.17)

1784        Apr 29, Premiere of Mozart's Sonata in B flat, K454 (Vienna).
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1785        Sep 1, Mozart published his 6th string quartet opus 10 in Vienna.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1787        Feb 18, Austrian emperor Josef II banned children under 8 from labor.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1787        May 28, Johann Georg Leopold Mozart (67), Austrian composer, died.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1787        Aug 10, Mozart completed his "Eine Kleine Nachtmusik."
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1787        Aug 24, Wolfgang A. Mozart completed his viola sonata in A, K526.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1787        Nov 25, Franz Xavier Gruber, Austria, organist and composer (Silent Night), was born.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1788        Dec 18, Camille Pleyel, Austrian piano builder and composer, was born.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1788        The Café Frauenhuber was established in Vienna in what had been a medieval bathhouse.
    (SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C14)

c1789        The Marquis de Lafayette wrote the original version of the Declaration of the Rights of Man. He was appalled by the excesses of the revolution and fled to Austria where he was imprisoned for 5 years.
    (WSJ, 1/15/97, p.A12)

1790        Jan 26, Mozart's opera "Cosi Fan Tutte" premiered in Vienna.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cos%C3%AC_fan_tutte)

1791        Feb 20, Carl Czerny, pianist, composer (Schule der Virtuosen), was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1791        Jul 26, Franz Xavier Wolfgang Mozart, 6th child of Austrian composer WAM, was born.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1791        Aug 4, The chief item in the Peace of Sistova agreement between the Austrian Empire and Turkey was the return of Belgrade to Turkey. The peace initiative resulted from the terms of the Convention of Reichenbach between Prussia and Austria. Belgrade had been taken in 1789 by the Holy Roman emperor Joseph II.
    (HNQ, 6/25/99)

1791        Dec 5, Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died in Vienna, Austria, at age 35. His first opera was "Idomeneo." In 1920 Hermann Abert authored “W.A. Mozart.” In 1991 Georg Knepler authored "Wolfang Amade Mozart," a Marxist view of Mozart in his times. In 1995 Maynard Solomon published a psychoanalytic biography of Mozart. In 1999 Peter Gay authored a Penguin short life of Mozart and Robert W. Gutman authored the comprehensive biography "Mozart."
    (SFEC, 2/2/97, DB. p.54)(AP, 12/5/97)(WSJ, 12/2/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 3/1/08, p.W8)

1791        The lyceum at Innsbruck was again granted University status.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.97)

1792        Feb 7, Cimarosa's opera "Il Matrimonio Segreto," premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1792        Apr 20, France declared war on Austria, Prussia, and Sardinia, marking the start of the French Revolutionary wars.
    (AP, 4/20/97)(HN, 4/20/98)

1792        Nov 6, Battle at Jemappes: French army beat the Austrians.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1792        Dec 12, In Vienna Ludwig Van Beethoven (22) received 1st lesson in music composition from Franz Joseph Haydn.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1793        Mar 5, Austrian troops crush the French and recapture Liege.
    (HN, 3/5/99)

1793        Mar 18, The 2nd Battle at Neerwinden: Austria army beat France.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1794        May 18, The 2nd battle of Bouvines was between France and Austria.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1794        Jun 26, The French defeated an Austrian army at the Battle of Fleurus. The French used a tethered balloon to observe the battlefield and direct artillery fire.
    (www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_fleurus_1794.html)(NPub, 2002, p.4)

1794        Sep 28, The Anglo-Russian-Austrian Alliance of St. Petersburg, which was directed against France, was signed.
    (HN, 9/28/98)

1794-1824    Matthias Schmutzer, artist, produced over 1000 large-format watercolors of specimens from the imperial gardens  of Francis I. In 2006 H. Walter Lack authored “Florilegium Imperiale: Botanical Illustrations for Francis I of Austria.”
    (WSJ, 5/27/06, p.P9)

1795        Mar 29, Beethoven (24) debuted as pianist in Vienna.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1795        Aug 20, Joseph Haydn returned to Vienna from England.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1795        Oct 24, Russia, Austria and Prussia held a convention in Petersburg to finalize the 3rd division of the Polish-Lithuanian Republic. Most of Lithuania with Vilnius went to Russia, Warsaw and the left bank of the Nemunas River went to Prussia and Cracow went to Austria. King Stanislovas Augustas of Poland was forced from his capital and moved to Grodno (Gardinas).
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)(MC, 10/24/01)

1796        Apr 13, Battle at Millesimo, Italy: Napoleon beat the Austrians.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1796        May 10, Napoleon Bonaparte won a brilliant victory against the Austrians at Lodi bridge in Italy.
    (HN, 5/10/99)

c1796        Numbered bank accounts originated during the Hapsburg era.
    (SFC, 6/13/96, p.C2)

1797        Jan 15, In St. Petersburg Russia, Prussia and Austria signed and act that terminated the Lithuanian-Polish state.
    (LHC, 1/15/03)

1797        Jan 14, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated Austrians at Rivoli in northern Italy.
    (HN, 1/14/99)

1797          Jan 31, Franz Schubert, Austrian composer, was born in Lichtenthal, Austria. His works included the C Major Symphony and The Unfinished Symphony.
     (SFEC, 1/5/97, p.B11)(AP, 1/31/98)(HN, 1/31/99)(MC, 1/31/02)

1797        Feb 12, Haydn’s song "Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser," (popularized years later as "Deutschland Uber Alles," by Nazis), premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1797        Apr 18, France and Austria signed a cease fire.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1798        Apr 28, Joseph Haydn's oratorio "The Creation" was rehearsed in Vienna, Austria, before an invited audience.
    (AP, 4/29/07)

1798        The Piber Stud Farm began breeding Lipizzaner horses.
    (SFC, 7/6/02, p.D2)

1799        Mar 12, Austria declared war on France.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1799        Mar 19, Joseph Haydn’s "Die Schopfung," premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1799        Jul 30, The French garrison at Mantua, Italy surrendered to the Austrians.
    (HN, 7/30/98)

1799        Oct 24, Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf (59), Austrian composer, died.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1800        Jun 14, French General Napoleon Bonaparte pushed the forces of Austria out of Italy in the Battle of Marengo. In 2007 the sword he wore was auctioned off for over $6.4 million.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Marengo)(SFC, 6/11/07, p.A2)

1800        Dec 3, Austrians were defeated by the French at the Battle of Hohenlinden, near Munich.
    (HN, 12/3/98)

1801        Apr 12, Josef Franz Karl Lanner, Austrian composer, violist, was born.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1803        Nov 29, Christian Doppler (d.1853), Austrian physicist who discovered the Doppler effect, was born. Hubble used his name for the Doppler Effect, that describes the apparent change in the frequency of a wave depending on whether the wave is approaching or receding.
    (WUB, 1994, p.426)(HN, 11/29/98)

1805        Apr 7, Beethoven conducted the premiere of his "Eroica" symphony. It was 1st published in Vienna.
    (MC, 4/7/02)(WSJ, 5/20/03, p.A1)

1805        Aug 9, Austria joined Britain, Russia, Sweden and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in the Third Coalition against Napoleonic France and Spain.
    (HN, 8/9/98)(HNQ, 10/19/98)

1805        Oct 19, Austrian general Karl Mac surrendered to Napoleon’s army at the battle of Ulm.
    (www.pbs.org/empires/napoleon/n_war/campaign/page_6.html)

1805        Nov 14, Napoleon took control of Vienna, Austria.
    (SFC, 4/26/12, p.A2)(www.pbs.org/empires/napoleon/n_war/campaign/page_6.html)

1805        Nov 20, Beethoven's "Fidelio," premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1805        Dec 2, Napoleon Bonaparte celebrated the first anniversary of his coronation with a victory at Austerlitz over a Russian and Austrian army.
    (HN, 12/2/98)

1806-1813    Trieste was held under French rule.
    (www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Rotunda/2209/Trieste.html)

1808        Mar 27, Joseph Haydn’s oratorio "The Seasons," premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1808        Dec 21, Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 in C Minor and Symphony No. 6 in F Major had their world premieres in Vienna, Austria.
    (AP, 12/22/06)

1809        Apr 10, Austria declared war on France and her forces entered Bavaria.
    (HN, 4/10/99)

1809        Apr 20, Napoleon defeated Austria at Battle of Abensberg, Bavaria.
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1809        Apr 22, At the Battle at Eckmahl Napoleon beat Austrian archduke Karl.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1809        May 12, Napoleon’s troops captured Vienna, Austria.
    (SFC, 4/26/12, p.A2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Wagram)

1809        May 31, Composer Franz Joseph Haydn died in Vienna, Austria on his 77th birthday. When Napoleon’s armies marched into Vienna, the commanding general posted guards in front of Haydn’s house to protect Haydn from trouble, and a young officer was sent to sing for the old man.
    (AP, 5/31/97)(WSJ, 1/8/98, p.A7)

1809        Jul 5-1809 Jul 6, Napoleon beat Austria’s archduke Charles at the Battle of Wagram. He annexed the Illyrian Provinces (now part of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, and Montenegro), and abolished the Papal States.
    (http://tinyurl.com/vx8dk)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Wagram)

1809        Aug 4, Hapsburg Emp. Francis I appointed Count Clemens von Metternich (36) minister of state.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.371)

1809        Oct 8, Hapsburg Emp. Francis I appointed Count Clemens von Metternich (36) foreign minister of Austria.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.371)(ON, 5/04, p.1)

1809        Oct 14, The Treaty of Schönbrunn, also known as the Treaty of Vienna, ended hostilities between France and Austria. This treaty ended the Fifth Coalition during the Napoleonic Wars.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.371)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Sch%C3%B6nbrunn)

1809        Dec 16, Napoleon Bonaparte was divorced from the Empress Josephine by an act of the French Senate. Metternich had convinced Francis I of Austria to offer his daughter Marie Louise as a bride to Napoleon.
    (AP, 12/16/97)(ON, 5/04, p.2)

1810        Salzburg, Austria was annexed by Bavaria during the Napoleonic Wars and the Univ. of Salzburg was suspended. The Univ. of Innsbruck was also abolished and transformed back to a Lyceum.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.87,97)

1811         The Technical Univ. of Graz was founded as a Technical College.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.53)

1812         Nov 29, After a charity concert organized by a group of aristocratic women, Joseph von Sonnleitner, Secretary of the court Theater, founded a Society for the Friends of Music of the Austrian Imperial State. This led to the establishment of a school for voice and a conservatory.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.39)

1813        Jun 26, Metternich met with Napoleon at Dresden and informed him that he must sue for peace if he wanted continued Austrian support.
    (ON, 5/04, p.3)

1813            Aug 26-1813 Aug 27, The Battle of Dresden was Napoleon’s last major victory against the allied forces of Austria, Russia and Prussia.
    (www.napoleonguide.com/battle_dresden.htm)

1813        Oct 16-1813, Oct 19, In the Battle at Leipzig (aka Battle of the Nations) Napoleon faced Prussia, Austria and Russia and suffered one of his worst defeats.
    (DoW, 1999, p.325)

1813        Oct 18, The Allies defeated Napoleon Bonaparte at Leipzig.
    (HN, 10/18/98)

1814        Sep, The Congress of Vienna convened in late September and continued to June 8, 1815. Friedrich von Gentz of Austria served as secretary to the Congress. It was held after the banishment of Napoleon to Elba. The congress aimed at territorial resettlement and restoration to power of the crowned heads of Europe with Prince Metternich of Austria as the dominant figure. Viscount Castlereagh and the Duke of Wellington represented Britain. Alexander I stood for Russia. Talleyrand stood for France. Prince von Hardenberg stood for Prussia. In 2007 Adam Zamoyski authored “Rites of Peace: The Fall of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna.” In 2008 David King authored “Vienna 1814: How the Conquerors of Napoleon Made Love, War and Peace at the Congress of Vienna.
    (Econ, 4/14/07, p.94)(www.bartleby.com/65/vi/Vienna-C.html)(SSFC, 4/6/08, Books p.4)

1814        Dec 24, Austrian Emperor Francis I appointed Joseph Ritter von Prechtl as the first director of the Polytechnical Institute of Vienna.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.23)

1814        In Austria rebuilding began of the 14th century Arenberg Castle following a major fire.
    (SFC, 4/20/09, p.A2)

1815        Jun 8, The Congress of Vienna ended. Negotiations had begun in 1812 to rearrange Europe following the defeat of Napoleon. The final conclave began Nov 1, 1814. In 2007 Adam Zamoyski authored “Rites of Peace: The Fall of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna.”
    (www.victorianweb.org/history/forpol/vienna.html)(WSJ, 8/1/07, p.D7)

1815        Sep 26, Russia, Prussia and Austria signed a Holy Alliance. "Justice, charity and peace" were to be the precepts that guided the Holy Alliance as envisioned by Czar Alexander I of Russia. The alliance of Russia, Austria and Prussia was formed after the downfall of Napoleon and later all European rulers signed the agreement except the prince regent of Great Britain, the pope and the sultan of Turkey. With no specific aims beyond mutual assistance, the provisions of the Holy Alliance were so vague that it had little effect on European diplomacy. Metternich quietly replaced the entire alliance by the purely political alliance of 20 November, 1815, between Austria, Prussia, Russia and England.
    (www.newadvent.org/cathen/07398a.htm)(HNQ, 7/7/98)

1815        Nov 20, The treaties known collectively as the 2nd Peace of Paris were concluded. Austria’s chancellor Klemens von Metternich helped create a “Concert of Europe,” a system by which 4-5 big powers kept miscreants in check and managed the affairs of smaller states for over a decade.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2sqgp9)(Econ, 6/9/07, p.68)(www.newadvent.org/cathen/07398a.htm)

1815-1850    This period is covered on the referenced website.
    (http://www.pvhs.chico.k12.ca.us/~bsilva/projects/austria/austime.html)

1816        The Music Society of Styria established a school for voice.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.62)

1818        Dec 24, Franz Gruber wrote "Silent Night."
    (HFA, '96, p.44)(SI-WPC, 12/6/96)

1818        Dec 25, "Silent Night" by Franz Gruber was performed for the first time, at the Church of St. Nikolaus in Oberndorff, Austria.
    (HFA, '96, p.44)(AP, 12/25/97)

1819        Johann Wilhelm Klein of Vienna, Austria, published a book on training dogs for the blind.
    (ON, 12/03, p.5)

1820        Dec, Franz Schubert composed his String Quartet No. 12 in C Minor (Quartettsatz). It was only introduced to the public in 1867.
    (www.owlhaven.com/schubert/schubertchron.htm)

1821        Mar 26, Franz Grillparzer's "Das Goldene Vliess" premiered in Vienna.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1821        An independent institution for the instruction of Lutheran and reformed theologies was established at the Univ. of Vienna.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.18)

1822        Jul 22, Gregor Johann Mendel (d.1884), Austrian botanist who developed the theory of heredity, was born.
    (HN, 7/22/98)(NH, 6/01, p.30)

1822        Oct 15, Alfred Meissner, Austrian physician and writer, was born.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1823        Dec 20, Franz Schubert's "Ballet-Musik aus Rosamunde," premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1824        Sep 4, Anton Bruckner, composer and Wagner disciple, was born in Austria.
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1825        May 7, Italian composer Antonio Salieri (74) died in Vienna, Austria.
    (AP, 5/7/97)(MC, 5/7/02)

1825        Oct 25, Johann Strauss (d.1899), Austrian orchestra conductor and composer, was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1405)(HN, 10/25/98)

1826        Mar 21, Beethoven's Quartet #13 in B flat major (Op 130) premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1826        The Faculties of Philosophy and Law were reestablished at the Univ. of Innsbruck.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.97)

1827        Mar 26, Ludwig von Beethoven (56), German composer, died in Vienna. He had been deaf for the later part of his life, but said on his death bead "I shall hear in heaven." It was later determined that he suffered from lead poisoning. In 1995 Tia DeNora authored "Beethoven and the Construction of Genius." In 2000 Russell Martin authored "Beethoven’s Hair: An Extraordinary Historical Odyssey and a Scientific Mystery Solved." In 2014 Jan Swafford authored “Beethoven: Anguish and Triumph.”
    (WSJ, 5/29/96, p.A5)(AP, 3/256/97)(HN, 3/26/99)(SFC, 10/18/00, p.A2)(WSJ, 1/17/02, p.A12)(Econ, 9/20/14, p.78)

1827        Mar 29, Composer Ludwig van Beethoven was buried in Vienna amidst a crowd of over 10,000 mourners.
    (HN, 3/29/01)

1827        Aug 22, Josef Strauss, Austrian composer (Dorfschwalben aus Austria), was born.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1827        Emperor Francis I reestablishes the Univ. of Graz.  It thus became known as the Karl-Franzens Univ. in honor of its founder and patron of reestablishment.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.53)

1829        Oct 29, Maria A. [Nannerl] Mozart, Austrian pianist (Wolfgang's sister), died.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1830-1916    Marie Ebner von Eschenbach, Austrian writer: "No one is so eager to gain new experience as he who doesn’t know how to make use of the old ones."
    (AP, 11/6/00)

1831        Nov 14, Ignaz Joseph Pleyel (74), Austrian composer and piano builder, died.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1831        The Austro-Italian insurance company Assicurazioni Generali Austro-Italiche was established.
    (www.generali.ro/eng_despre_noi/istorie.htm)

1836        Jan 27, Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, Austrian writer (masochism), was born.
    (MC, 1/27/02)

1837        Oct 17, Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Austrian composer, died at 58.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1838        Feb 20, Ludwig Boltzmann (d.1906), Austrian atomic physics engineer, was born.  [see 1844]
    (HN, 2/20/98)

1840        May 29, Hans Makart, Austrian painter (Plague in Florenz), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1840         Nov 4, The School for Mining and Metallurgy in the village of Vordernberg was established.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.62)

1841        The Salzburg Cathedral's Music Society founded the Mozarteum to preserve the memory of Mozart and to promote the instruction and performance of music.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.91)

1841        The Johann Maresch pottery company began operating in Aussig, Bohemia (later Usti nad Labem, Czech Rep.). At this time Bohemia was under Austrian rule and the firm used the mark “JM Austria.”
    (SFC, 9/12/07, p.G7)

1842        Apr 29, Karl Millocker, conductor, composer (Beggar Student), was born in Austria.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1843        Apr 14, Joseph Franz Karl Lanner (42), Austria, composer, violist, died.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1844-1906    Ludwig Boltzmann (d.1906), Austrian atomic physics engineer, was born. His Vienna tombstone read "Entropy is the logarithm of probability." [see 1838]
    (WUD, 1994, p.167)(WSJ, 7/28/98, p.A16)

1847        Nov 25, Friederich von Flotow's opera "Martha" was produced in Vienna.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1848        Mar 13, Metternich was overthrown by a mob in Vienna. This ended his career as foreign minister of Austria and Emp. Francis I elevated him to the rank of prince.
    (ON, 5/04, p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lajos_Kossuth)

1848        Mar 15, In Hungary an uprising against Habsburg rule began in front of the national museum in Budapest. This was later remembered as a national holiday.
    (Reuters, 3/15/07)(Econ, 3/24/12, p.52)

1848        Mar 23, Hungary proclaimed its independence of Austria.
    (HN, 3/23/99)

1848        Mar, Italian nationalists celebrated as Austrian forces fled Milan.
    (WSJ, 3/13/09, p.A9)

1848        May 29, Battle at Curtazone: Austrians beat Sardinia-Piemonte.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1848        Jun 17, Austrian General Alfred Windischgratz crushed a Czech uprising in Prague.
    (HN, 6/17/98)

1848        Nov, Emperor Ferdinand abdicated in favor of Franz Joseph.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franz_Josef_of_Austria)

1848        The painter-poet Josef Victor von Scheffel published cynical poems with titles as 'Biedermann's Evening socializing' and 'Bummelmaier's Complaint' in the Viennese satirical magazine 'Fliegende Blätter' (Flying Leaves). These names were combined into the pseudonym 'Gottlieb Biedermaier' by Ludwig Eichrodt, who together with Adolf Kussmaul published poems by the schoolmaster Samuel Friedrich Sauter under this name. The spelling finally changed into 'Biedermeier' in 1869 when Eichrodt published 'Biedermeier's Liederlust'.
    (www.rupertcavendish.co.uk/Biedermeier/WhatisBiedermeier/whatisbiedermeier.htm)

1848        Trieste became a separate Kronland of the Austrian monarchy.
    (www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Rotunda/2209/Trieste.html)

1848        The Austro-Italian insurance company Assicurazioni Generali Austro-Italiche began placing a picture of the winged lion of St. Mark on policies.
    (www.generali.ro/eng_despre_noi/istorie.htm)

1849        Mar 7, The Austrian Reichstag was dissolved.
    (HN, 3/7/99)

1849        Mar 23, Battle of Novara (King Charles Albert of Sardinia vs. Italian republic). Austria’s Gen. Radetzky (83) crushed the Piedmontese forces. Charles Albert abdicated and was succeeded by his son, Victor Emmanuel II, who reigned until 1861.
    (PCh, 1992, p.449)(SS, 3/23/02)

1849        Jun 17, Russian troops invaded Hungary.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.448)

1849        Jul 2, The leaders of the Republic of Rome surrendered to French and Austrian forces. Garibaldi, his wife and some 4,700 men left Rome with the intent to fight a guerrilla war against Austria.
    (ON, 10/06, p.5)

1849        Jul 31, Garibaldi asked San Marino for asylum from Austrian forces. San Marino brokered for Garibaldi’s surrender to Austrian forces. Garibaldi and his wife escaped, and made their way to Ravenna. Anita Garibaldi died enroute. Garibaldi managed to reach safety in the Kingdom of Sardinia.
    (ON, 10/06, p.7)

1849        Aug 9, Russian forces defeated the Hungarians at the Battle of Temesovar.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.448)

1849        Aug 11, Lajos Kossuth, president of Hungary, abdicated in favor of Gen. Gorgey as Russia intervened in the Hungarian revolution.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lajos_Kossuth)

1849        Aug 13, Hungary’s Gen. Gorgey surrendered to the Russian forces. Russia gave Hungary back to Austria.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.448)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lajos_Kossuth)

1849        Aug 28, Venice, under Daniele Manin, surrendered to Austrians under Count Radetsky, following a siege since July 20 after proclaiming independence.
    (HTNet, 8/28/99)(MC, 8/28/01)

1849        Archduke Johann, the Styrian Prince, declared that the Mining Academy in the village of Vordernberg be moved to Leoben.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.65)

1849        In Vienna, Austria, balloonists dropped bombs to break up a revolt.
    (SFEC, 4/11/99, Z1 p.8)

1850        Jul 14, The 1st public demonstration of ice made by refrigeration took place. James Harrison of Australia designed an ice-making machine. It was an improvement on one invented by Jacob Perkins in 1834.
    (MC, 7/14/02)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1850        Aug 22, Nikolaus Lenau (48) (pseudonym of Nikolaus Franz Niembsch), Hungarian-born poet and writer, died in Austria.
    (MC, 8/22/02)(Internet)

1850        In Vienna, Austria, F. Walther re-arranged the reeds of a 3-row diatonic accordion to play a 46 note chromatic scale and created the chromatic button accordion.
    (BAAC, 8/96, p.6)

1851        Responsibility for the Vienna School for Voice and Conservatory was transferred to the state and the city of Vienna.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.39)

1853        Oct 2, Austrian law forbade Jews from owning land.
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1854        Elisabeth of Bavaria (16) married the Habsburg Emp. Franz Josef II (23).
    (WSJ, 12/8/97, p.A13)

1855        May 4, Camille Pleyel (66), Austrian piano builder, composer, died.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1856        May 6, Sigmund Freud (d.1939), father of psychology and the Viennese physician who discovered the unconscious, was born. He treated his hysterical patients by encouraging them to associate freely. He insisted that sexual desires and fears lay just beneath the surface of everyone’s  mind. A biography of Freud was later written by Peter Gay. Freud was the founder of theoretical and clinical psychoanalysis, the first to try to make emotional energies the "object of empirical science." Freud's influence had spread beyond medicine and social science and into contemporary arts. The National Socialists condemned Freud’s theories as a "denial of all moral values" and the embodiment of "the high level of moral dissolution peculiar to Jewry."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.281-282)(SFEC, 1/11/98, BR p.9)(HN, 5/6/98)(HNPD, 3/24/00)

1857        Apr 27, Establishment of Jewish congregations in Lower Austria prohibited.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1857        Jul 15, Carl Czerny (66), Austrian pianist, composer, died.
    (MC, 7/15/02)

1857        Adalbert Stifter (1805-1868), Austrian writer, authored his novel “Indian Summer.” He noted the issue of bureaucracy long before it was covered by sociologists.
    (WSJ, 2/10/07, p.P8)

1857        The Vienna-Trieste railway was completed.
    (www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Trieste)

1857        Ludwig Moser (d.1916) started a glassmaking shop in Carlsbad. The work was intended for royal families around the world and included intricate gold overlay and detailed hand painting.
    (SFC, 3/5/96, z-1 p.2)

1858        Apr 7, Anton Diabelli (76), Austrian publisher, composer, died.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1858        Apr 29, Austrian troops invaded Piedmont.
    (HN, 4/29/98)

1859        Apr 9, Realizing that France had encouraged the Piedmontese forces to mobilize for invading Italy, Austria began mobilizing its army.
    (HN, 4/9/00)

1859         May 3, France declared war on Austria.
    (HN, 5/3/98)

1859        May 9, Threatened by the advancing French army, the Austrian army retreated across the River Sesia in Italy.
    (HN, 5/9/00)

1859        May 10, French emperor Napoleon III left Paris to join his troops preparing to battle the Austrian army in Northern Italy.
    (HN, 5/10/02)

1859        May 20, A scratch force of Austrians collide with Piedmontese cavalry at the village of Montebello, in northern Italy.
    (HN, 5/20/00)

1859        May 28, The French army launched a flanking attack on the Austrian army in Northern France.
    (HN, 5/28/00)

1859        May 30, The Piedmontese army crossed the Sesia River and defeated the Austrians at Palestro, Italy.
    (HN, 5/30/00)

1859        Jun 4, The French army under Napoleon III took Magenta from the Austrian army after a bloody battle in northern Italy.
    (HN, 6/4/99)

1859        Jun 24, At the Battle of Solferino, also known as the Battle of the Three Sovereigns, the French army led by Napoleon III defeated the Austrian army under Franz Joseph I in northern Italy. Some 6,000 men died in the battle and thousands of wounded were effectively abandoned as witnessed by Henri Dunant (31),a Swiss businessman seeking Napoleon for a land development proposal. In 1862 Dunant published “A Memory of Solferino” and began a campaign for a volunteer society to aid wounded soldiers.
    (HN, 6/24/99)(ON, 4/08, p.11)

1859        Jul 8, With the signing of the truce at Villafranca Austria ceded Lombardy to France. France also received Nice and Savoy.
    (HN, 7/8/99)

1859        Jun 11, Prince Metternich (b.1773), Austrian diplomat and statesman, died in Vienna.
    (WUD, 1994 ed., p.903)(Internet)

1860        May 2, Theodor Herzl, journalist, founder (Zionist movement), was born in Austria.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1860        Jul 7, Gustav Mahler, conductor of the Vienna State Opera House, was born in Kalischat, Bohemia, Austria.
    (HN, 7/7/98)(MC, 7/7/02)

1862        May 15, Arthur Schnitzler (d.1931), playwright and novelist (La Ronde), was born in Austria.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Schnitzler)

1862        May 25, Johann N. Nestroy (60) Austrian actor (Einmal Keine Sorgen Haben), died.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1862        In Austria Julius Meinl founded a coffee and food store in Vienna. After 20 years his roasting factory served all of Austria-Hungary. The company developed into a chain and later into the Meinl Bank.
    (Econ, 8/2/08, p.74)(Econ, 8/1/09, p.60)

1864        May 9, Austria and Denmark held a ship battle at Helgoland.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1864        Nov 10, Austrian Archduke Maximilian became emperor of Mexico.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1864        Prussia and Austria snatched Schleswig-Holstein from Denmark. The border was redrawn by plebiscite in 1920. After 1945 Germany and Denmark agreed to recognize the rights of minorities on both sides.
    (Econ, 6/2/12, p.66)
1864        The Imperial State Manufactory Vienna, a maker of porcelains since 1744, closed. The royalty owned firm used the beehive or shield mark.
    (SFC, 10/17/07, p.G2)

1865        Aug 13, Ignaz Semmelweis (b.1818), Hungarian gynecologist, died from an infection in Vienna after being beaten up by warders in an asylum.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ignaz_Semmelweis)(Econ, 3/13/10, p.57)

1866        Jun 15, Prussia attacked Austria.
    (HN, 6/15/98)

1866        Aug 23, Treaty of Prague ended the Austro-Prussian war.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1867        Feb 13, Johann Strauss' "Blue Danube" waltz premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1867        Jun 19, Mexican Emperor Maximillian (35) was executed on the orders of Benito Juarez by a firing squad in Queretaro. The event was immortalized in a painting by Manet.
    (HN, 6/19/98)(SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T10)(PCh, 1992, p.505)(WSJ, 5/5/00, p.17)

1867        Trieste was granted status as an independent province of the Habsburg Empire.
    (http://www.genealogienetz.de/reg/AUT/aut-hun.html)

1867        The Univ. of Applied Arts was established as the Vienna School of Arts and Crafts.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.43)

1867        Maximillian’s wife Carlotta returned to the Miramar Castle just outside Trieste. It had been built for Archduke Maximilian.
    (SSFC, 10/10/04, p.D7)

1868        May 9, Anton Bruckner's 1st Symphony in C premiered.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1869        Oct 1, Austria issued the world's first postal card, the Correspondenz Karte, a plain-line card printed with a 2-kreuzer stamp.
    (Hem, 6/96, p.97)(http://shilohpostcards.com/webdoc2.htm)

1869        Ludwig Karl Kahlbaum in Innsbruck, Austria, described for the 1st time the medical condition of catatonia. He compiled a list of almost 40 signs involving unusual movements. For decades it was thought to be a type of schizophrenia. By 2006 it was still not well understood.
    (SSFC, 12/24/06, p.B6)

1870        Feb 7, Alfred Adler, psychiatrist (Inferiority Complex), was born in Austria.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1870        Mar 6, Oscar Strauss, composer (Ein Walzertraum), was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1870        Jul 21, Josef Strauss (42), Austrian composer (Dynamids), died.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1870        Sep 6, The last British troops to serve in Austria were withdrawn.
    (HN, 9/6/98)

1871        Oct 14, Alexander von Zemlinsky (d.1942), composer (Schneeman), was born in Vienna, Austria. His work included "Frulingsbegrabnis" (a cantata from 1897), "Die Seejunbfrau" (1902-1903), "Eine Florentinische Tragodie" (an opera from 1914-1915), "Symphonic Songs" (1929), and "Der Zwerg" (The Dwarf, an opera from 1921) and 7 other operas.
    (WSJ, 6/11/98, p.A20)(MC, 10/14/01)

1872         April 10, The Polytechnical Inst. of Vienna became the Vienna Univ. of Technology.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.23)

1873        Aug 18, Leo Slezak, Austria tenor, actor (Othello), was born.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1874        Apr 5, Johann Strauss, Jr.'s Opera "Die Fledermaus" was produced in Vienna.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1874        Sep 13, Arnold Franz Walter Schoenberg (d.1951), 12-tone composer, was born in Vienna, Austria. He wrote the book "Style and Idea" and composed such works as the 21 songs of "Pierrot Lunaire" based on a poem by Albert Giraud translated into German by Otto Erich Hartleben, "Moses und Aron," "A Survivor from Warsaw" and "Erwartung."
    (LGC-HCS, 1970, p. 562-575)(WSJ, 8/20/96, p.A8)(WSJ, 8/22/96, p.A12)(MC, 9/13/01)

1874        The Imperial Technical Univ. in Graz became a state institution.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.58)

1875        Feb 2, Fritz Kreisler, violinist, composer, was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1875-1926    Rainer Maria Rilke, Austrian poet. He was born in Prague to German-speaking parents. His works include New Poems (1907), his autobiographical novel: "The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge," and his masterpieces the "Duino Elegies" and "The Sonnets to Orpheus." His mistress was Lou Andreas-Salome, a novelist, essayist and clinical psychologist.  Ralph Freedman wrote a biography of Rilke titled Life of a Poet: Rainer Maria Rilke in 1996. His complete works were published in 1966 and an annotated edition in 1996. In 1997 his early work was published: "Diaries of a Young Poet," translated by Edward Snow and Michael Winkler. On the new year day: "And now let us believe in a long year that is given to us, new, untouched, full of things that have never been, full of work that has never been done, full of tasks, claims, and demands; and let us see that we learn to take it without letting fall too much of what it has to bestow upon those who demand of it necessary, serious and great things."
    (WSJ, 3/19/96, p.A-12)(WSJ, 12/15/97, p.A20)(AP, 1/1/98)

1877        Dec 30, Johannes Brahms' 2nd Symphony in D, premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1878        Mar 3, Russia and the Ottomans signed the Treaty of San Stefano, granting independence to Serbia. With the Treaty of San Stefano (and subsequent negotiations in Berlin) in the wake of the last Russo-Turkish War, the Ottoman Empire lost its possession of numerous territories including Bulgaria, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia. The Russo-Turkish wars dated to the 17th century, the Russians generally gaining territory and influence over the declining Ottoman Empire. In the last war, Russia and Serbia supported rebellions in the Balkans. In concluding the Treaty of San Stefano, the Ottomans released control of Montenegro, Romania and Serbia, granted autonomy to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and allowed an autonomous state of Bulgaria to be placed under Russian control.
    (HN, 3/3/99)(HNQ, 2/23/01)
1878         Mar 3, The Treaty of San Stefano was signed after Russo-Turkish War. It assigned Albanian-populated lands to Bulgaria, Montenegro and Serbia; but Austria-Hungary and Britain blocked the treaty's implementation. Albanian leaders meet in Prizren, Kosova, to form the League of Prizren. The League initially advocated autonomy for Albania. At the Congress of Berlin, the Great Powers overturned the Treaty of San Stefano and divided Albanian lands among several states. The League of Prizren began to organize resistance to the Treaty of Berlin's provisions that affected Albanians.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_San_Stefano)

1878        Jul 13, The Treaty of Berlin amended the terms of the Treaty of San Stefano, which had ended the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. The Congress of Berlin divided the Balkans among European powers. Austria-Hungary and Britain, alarmed at the possibilities of growing Russian power, concluded the Treaty of Berlin, reducing the military and political gains Russia had made with the San Stefano treaty.
    (AP, 7/13/97)(HN, 7/13/98)(HNQ, 2/23/01)

1878        Bosnia came under Austro-Hungarian. This continued until 1918. A representative from Vienna governed the area.
    (Econ, 11/26/05, p.65)(Econ, 10/20/07, p.72)

1879        Oct 2, A dual alliance was formed between Austria and Germany, in which the two countries agreed to come to the other's aid in the event of aggression.
    (HN, 10/2/98)

1880        Aug 25, Robert E. Stolz (d.1976), Austrian composer, conductor, was born. He initially auditioned under Johann Strauss and later became conductor at the Theater-an-der-Wien.
    (WSJ, 12/28/99, p.A16)(MC, 8/25/02)

1880        In Austria Dr. Josef Breuer (1842-1925) found his patient Bertha Pappenheim (aka Anna O), an hysteric woman, was relieved of symptoms after he had induced her to recall unpleasant past experiences under hypnosis. His talk therapy involved some 1,000 hours of treatment. The case introduced Freud to the cathartic method, the “talking cure,” pivotal in his later work.
    (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/79009/Josef-Breuer)(Econ, 3/5/11, p.85)

1880-1942    Robert Musil, Austrian writer. His work included "The Man Without Qualities."
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, BR p.9)

1881        Nov 28, Stefan Zweig (d.1942), poet, essayist, dramatist (Beware of Pity), was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stefan_Zweig)

1881        Dec 8, Vienna's Ring Theater was destroyed by fire and 640-850 people were killed.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

1881        Anton Romako (Vienna) painted "Girl on a Swing (Olga van Wassermann)."
    (SFC, 8/29/01, p.E5)

1881        The area around Bosnia was annexed by the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
    (SFC, 4/15/97, p.A10)

1882        Apr 17, Artur Schnabel, pianist (Beethoven Piano Sonatas), was born in Lipnik, Austria.
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1883        Anton Webern (d.1945), Austrian composer, was born.
    (WSJ, 2/14/00, p.A20)

1884        Jan 6, Gregor Mendel (b.1822), Austrian botanist and Augustine monk, died at age 61. He is considered to be the father of genetics.
    (NH, 6/01, p.30)(MC, 1/6/02)

1885        Feb 9, Alban Maria Johannes Berg, composer, was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1885        May 29, Alfred von Meissner (63), Austrian physician, writer (Ziska), died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1885        Oct 24, Johann Strauss' operetta, "The Gypsy Baron," premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1885        Dec 2, Karl Goldmark's opera "Queen of Sheba," premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1886        Karl von Frisch, Austrian ethologist, was born. In the 1940s he first described the method by which honeybees describe the source of gathered pollen to their fellow bees. The bees perform a dance is that integrates information about the orientation of the sun and the distance to the pollen source.
    (WUD, 1994, p.569)(NH, 9/97, p.60)

1887        Aug 12, Erwin Schrodinger, physicist, was born in Austria.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1887        Oct 6, Maria Jeritza, [Jedlicka], singer (Vienna Opera, Met Opera), was born in Austria.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1887        Nov 14, Bernhard Paumgartner, musicologist, conductor, composer, was born in Austria.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1887        Aloys Zötl (b.1831), Austrian naïve artist, died. Zotl’s paintings included "The Rhinoceros."
    (WSJ, 4/9/03, p.D10)

1887        Geographers of the Austro-Hungarian Empire set fixed points to measure altitude in connection with the European measurement of meridional and parallel degrees. One marker at Rakhiv, Ukraine, was later interpreted to mark the center of Europe.
    (WSJ, 7/14/04, p.A1)

1888        May 10, Maximilian Raoul Walter Steiner (Max Steiner), composer (Gone With Wind), was born in Vienna.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1889        Jan 30, Rudolf (b.1858), Archduke of Austria, and his mistress, Marie Vetschera, were found dead having committed a double suicide overnight. Their story was later depicted by Hungarian filmmaker Miklos Jancso in his film "Vices and Pleasures" (1976).
    (http://tinyurl.com/kkskjkd)(AP, 1/31/14)

1889        Apr 20, Adolf Hitler (d.1945), dictator of Nazi Germany, was born in Braunau, Austria. The German Fascist leader, promised to bring Germany to the promised land on one condition: that the state would have total control over all the organs, organizations, and citizens of the nation.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.309)(AP, 4/20/97)(HN, 4/20/98)

1889        Apr 26, Ludwig Wittgenstein (d.1951), philosopher (Tractatus), was born in Vienna, Austria. He pondered the nature of knowledge and the limits of language. He argued that the criteria for the correct use of any language must be social. "The human body is the best picture of the human soul."
    (SFEC, 10/27/96, BR p.4)(SFC, 1/31/98, p.E1)(WSJ, 8/21/98, p.W13)(AP, 1/3/01)(MC, 4/26/02)

1890        Mar 21, Austrian Jewish communities were defined by law.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1890        Aug 5, Erich Kleiber, conductor (NBC Symphony 1945-46), was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (MC, 8/5/02)

1890        Sep 10, Franz Werfel, author (40 Days of Musa Dagh), was born in Austria.
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1891        Nov 22, Edward L. Bernays (d.1995), public relations pioneer, was born in Vienna, Austria. In 1892 his family moved to New York City.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Bernays)

1891        In Austria Daniel Swarovski invented a machine to cut crystal stones to resemble faceted diamonds. His company prospered and in 2004 the Swarovski company placed a crystal star atop the Christmas tree at Rockefeller Center in NYC.
    (WSJ, 12/22/04, p.A1)

1891-1938    Bergasse 19 in Vienna is where Freud (1856-1939) lived and practiced psycho-analysis until he was forced out by the Nazis.
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.70)(WUD, 1994, p.568)

1892        Feb 16, The opera “Werther” premiered at the Imperial Theatre Hofoper in Vienna. It was composed in 1887 by French composer Jules Massenet based on Goethe’s 1774 novel "The Sorrows of Young Werther.”
    (SFC, 9/17/10, p.F1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Werther)

1892        Mar 9, Joseph Weinheber, Austrian poet, writer (Adel und Untergang), was born.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1892        May 16, Richard Tauber, [Ernst Seiffert], Austria-British, tenor, conductor ("Deine ist mein ganzes Herz"), was born.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1892        Jul 22, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Austrian chancellor, Nazi war criminal, was born.
    (MC, 7/22/02)

1892        Oct 4, Engelbert Dollfuss, Austrian Fascist chancellor, was born. He was killed by Nazis in 1934.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1892        In Vienna the Hotel Bristol opened.
    (WSJ, 9/26/08, p.A20)

1893        Mar 31, Clemens Krauss, conductor (Berlin State Orch-1937), was born in Vienna.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1893        Oct 27, Gustav Mahler (1860-1911), Austrian composer, conducted a revised version of his First Symphony at Hamburg's Ludwig Konzerthaus, still in its original five-movement.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustav_Mahler)

1894        Aug 28, Karl Boehm, Austrian conductor, was born. Famed for his interpretations of Wagner and Beethoven.
    (RTH, 8/28/99)

1894        Roland Paris, Austrian sculptor, was born. He specialized in satirical bronzes and was a student of Henry van de Velde, one of the founders of the Bauhaus.
    (SFC, 9/2/98, Z1 p.6)

1895        Mar 9, Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, Austrian writer (Masochism), died.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1896        Oct 11, Anton Bruckner (b.1824), Austrian composer (Te Deum, Wagner Symphony), died at 72.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anton_Bruckner)

1897        Mar 24, Wilhelm Reich (d.1957), Austrian-US psychoanalyst (character analysis), was born. In 1999 Farrar, Straus & Giroux published: "American Odyssey: Letters and Journals 1940-1947."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1209)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilhelm_Reich)

1897        Apr 3, The Vienna Secession was founded by artists Gustav Klimt, Koloman Moser, Josef Hoffmann, Joseph Maria Olbrich, Max Kurzweil, and others. Although Otto Wagner is widely recognized as a fundamental member of the Vienna Secession he was not a founding member.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vienna_Secession)

1897        May 29, Erich Wolfgang Korngold, movie composer (Violanta), was born in Brno, Austria.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1897        Jun 21, In Austria a giant Ferris wheel, designed by Walter Bassett of England, opened in Vienna. It was built in the Wurstelprater amusement park to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the accession of Emperor Franz Joseph to the Habsburg throne.
    (Econ, 5/31/08, p.71)(http://tinyurl.com/3tawph)

1897        Oct 8, Emperor Karl Joseph I named Gustav Mahler director of Vienna Opera.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1897        Nov 3, David Schwarz of Austria crashed his 156-foot aluminum powered airship with 2 propellers on its maiden flight.
    (ON, 3/03, p.11)

1897        Gustav Klimt (1862-1918) helped found the Vienna Secessionist art movement. He was chosen as its 1st president. It rebelled against the sentimental academic painting of the 19th century.
    (WSJ, 10/22/99, p.W14)(WSJ, 7/11/01, p.A15)

1897-1904    Henry-Louis de La Grange, French writer, focused on these years in Vienna in writing his multivolume biography of Gustav Mahler titled: Vienna: The Years of Challenge. Vol. 1 in English was released in 1973. A 3-volume French edition came out between 1979-1984. A new 4-volume English was launched in 1995.
    (WSJ, 6/9/95, p.A-12)(SFEC, 6/7/98, DB p.37)

1898        Sep 10, Empress Elisabeth of Bavaria (60), Queen of Hungary and wife of Emp. Franz Josef II, was assassinated in Geneva by the Italian anarchist Luigi Luccheni. A 1997 German rock musical,  "Elisabeth," by Michael Kunze and Sylvester Levay was based on her life.
    (EWH, 1968, p.744)(WSJ, 12/8/97, p.A1,13)

1898         Oct 1, The Univ. of Economics and Business Admin. of Vienna was founded as the Imperial-Royal Export Academy.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.27)

1898        Oct 18, Lotte Lenya, actress and singer (Appointment, Semi-Tough), was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1898        In Austria the Secession building was completed and later housed Klimt's Beethoven Frieze in its gilt-domed gallery.
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.69)
1898        Austrian Prince Camillo Heinrich Starhemberg (1835-1900) donated Hartheim Castle as a gift to the Upper Austria Charity Organization. With the help of additional donations, they used the castle from the beginning of the 20th century as a psychiatric institution.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schloss_Hartheim)

1899        May 8, Friedrich August von Hayek (d.1992), Austrian-born British economist, was born. He found solutions to problems proposed by Keynesian economics. He was dedicated to illuminating the problems of socialism and held that inflation, unemployment and recession result from governmental interference. He won a Nobel prize in 1974.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)

1899        Jun 3, Johann Strauss (73), Jr., composer ("Waltz King"), died.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1899        Dec 31, Karl Millocker (57), Austrian conductor and composer, died.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1899        Gustav Klimt painted "Nude Veritas."
    (WSJ, 7/11/01, p.A15)

1899        The railway station of Vienna was built exclusively for Emperor Franz Josef by Otto Wagner.

1900        Jan 13, To combat Czech nationalism, Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary decreed that German would be the language of the imperial army.
    (HN, 1/13/99)

1900        Apr 25, Wolfgang Pauli, physicist (Nobel 1945), was born in Austria.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1900        The Lohner-Porsche was introduced at the World’s Fair in Paris. The hybrid car relied on batteries and a generator to produce electricity for its motors. Ferdinand Porsche working for Jacob Lohner in Vienna put electric motors into the hubs of the wheels of the Lohner-Porsche.
    (Econ, 4/24/10, p.78)

1901        Feb 17 Gustav Mahler (1860-1911) conducted the Viennese premiere of his Second Symphony, which also saw the first public performance of his early work Das klagende Lied, in a revised two-part form.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustav_Mahler)

1902        Mar 9, Composer Gustav Mahler married Alma Schindler in Vienna.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1902        Apr 8, Josef Krips, conductor (London Symph 1954-63), was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1902        May 3, Walter Slezak, actor (Bedtime for Bonzo, Inspector General), was born in Vienna.
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1902        Jun 23, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy renewed the Triple Alliance for a 12 year duration.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1902        Sep 1, The Austro-Hungarian army was called into the city of Agram to restore the peace as Serbs and Croats clashed.
    (HN, 9/1/99)

1902        Nov 17, Lee Strasberg, acting coach and actor (And Justice for All), was born in Austria.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1902        Nov 22, Emanuel Feuermann, cellist (Chicago Symphony Orchestra), was born in Kolomea, Galicia (under crown of Austria).
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1902        Nov 25, Franz Lehar's opera "Wiener Fraueen," premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1902        Gustav Klimt painted "Portrait of Emilie Flöge."
    (WSJ, 7/11/01, p.A15)

1903        Jan 3, The Bulgarian government renounced the treaty of commerce tying it to Austro-Hungarian empire.
    (HN, 1/3/99)

1903        Feb 11, Anton Bruckner's 9th Symphony premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 2/11/02)
   
1903        Feb 19, The Austria-Hungary government decreed a mandatory two year military service.
    (HN, 2/19/98)

1903        Oct 4, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Austrian Nazi (SS/SD) and successor to Reinhard Heydrich, was born. He was hanged in 1946.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1904-1984    Reverend Karl Rahner, Austrian theologian: "The theological problem today is to find the art of drawing religion out of a man, not pumping it into him."
    (AP, 6/26/99)

1905        Jan 26, Maria Augusta von Trapp (d.1987), Austrian singer, inspired "Sound of Music," was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_von_Trapp)(SSFC, 10/14/07, p.B6)

1905        Dec 5, Otto Preminger, director and producer (Laura, Exodus), was born in Austria.
    (MC, 12/5/01)

1906        Apr 28, Kurt Gödel (d.1978), Austrian mathematician, was born in the Moravian city of Brno. Godel later developed his incompleteness theorem showing that within any logical system, no matter how rigidly structured, there are always questions that cannot be answered with certainty, contradictions that may be discovered, and errors that may lurk.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.340)(SFC, 6/14/05, p.D2)

1906        Felix Salten (1869-1945), Austrian writer, authored the novel “Josephine Mutzenbacher,” the fictional autobiography of a Vienna prostitute, a notorious pornographic novel. In 1923 he authored “Bambi.”
    (Econ, 11/8/08, p.102)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felix_Salten)

1906        The first cornea transplant was performed in Austria by Dr. Eduard Zirm.
    (www.lionseyebank.org/facts.htm)

1907        Apr 29, Fred Zinnemann (d.3/14/97), Hollywood film director, was born in Vienna. His films included "A Hatful of Rain," "The Sundowners," "The Nun’s Story," "From Here to Eternity," "Julia" and "A Man for All Seasons" (1966) with Paul Scofield.
    (SFC, 3/15/97, p.A19)(MC, 4/29/02)

1907        Gustav Klimt (1862-1918) painted the portrait "Adele Bloch-Bauer I.” The painting was stolen in 1938 when the Nazis took Austria. Her niece, Maria Altman (1917-1994), fought for the recovery of family paintings and won their return. In 2006 the portrait sold for a record $135 million to cosmetics magnate Ronald S. Lauder. Adele Bloch-Bauer (d.1925) was the wife of  a Jewish sugar industrialist in Vienna. In 2012 Anne-Marie O’Connor authored “The Lady in Gold: The Extraordinary Tale of Gustav Klimt’s Masterpiece, Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer.”
    (SFC, 6/19/06, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustav_Klimt)(Econ, 2/19/11, p.96)(SSFC, 3/18/12, p.F5)

1907        Adolph Hitler (18) applied to study art in Vienna but was rejected. A pair of his watercolor paintings were reported in 1999 to be in Dubai, UAR, under the ownership of the Bonyad Mostazafan foundation.
    (SFC, 7/6/99, p.C3)

1908        Jan 4, Angela Maria "Geli" Raubal, Austrian nude model, Hitler's cousin and lover, was born.
    (MC, 1/4/02)

1908        Feb 1, Movie producer and animator George Pal was born in Austria-Hungary.
    (AP, 2/1/08)

1908        Apr 5, Herbert von Karajan, Nazi, conductor (Berlin Philharmonic), was born in Austria.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1908        Oct 6, Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1908        Nov 14, Oscar Strauss' musical "The Chocolate Soldier," premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1908        Dec 1, The Italian Parliament debated the future of the Triple Alliance and asked for compensation for Austria’s action in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
    (HN, 12/1/98)

1908        The Karntner-Durchgang is an American Bar in Vienna at the top of Kartnerstrasse designed by architect Adolf Loos.
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.69)

1909        Feb 16, Serbia mobilized against Austria and Hungary.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1909        Mar 6, Gerhart Hauptmann's "Griselda," premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1909        Sep 13, Herbert Berghof, actor (Belarus File), was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1909        Adolf Hitler painted a series of views around Linz, Austria, including the watercolor "Mountain Chapel."
    (WSJ, 7/24/02, p.D12)

1909        Sigmund Freud‘s only visit to the United States was to accept an honorary degree at Clark University in 1909. G. Stanley Hall, the president of the university in Worcester, Massachusetts, had invited Freud to "[set] forth your own views" in a series of lectures at a conference honoring Clark‘s 20th anniversary. Following a visit to New York City, Freud delivered five lectures at Clark, all of them in German. He then went on to visit Niagara Falls and the Adirondacks before returning to Europe.
    (HNQ, 6/4/00)

1911        Jan 22, Bruno Kreisky, bandleader, chancellor (1970-83), was born in Austria.
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1911        May 18, Composer Gustav Mahler (50) died in Vienna, Austria. His wife Alma Schindler married Walter Gropius in 1915. Mahler left his 10th symphony unfinished. A 1996 recording was made based on work by Remo Mazzetti Jr. who in turn based his work on the late Deryck Cooke. In 2004 Cornell Univ. Press published “Gustav Mahler: Letters to His Wife.” In 2010 Norman Lebrecht authored “Why Mahler: How One Man and Ten Symphonies Changed the World.”
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, DB p.52)(AP, 5/18/01)(WSJ, 12/15/04, p.D10)(Econ, 7/10/10, p.81)

1911        Egon Schiele, Austrian expressionist, painted "Dead City III."
    (SFC, 1/9/98, p.A7)

1912        Feb 4, Erich Leinsdorf (d.1993), conductor, was born in Vienna, Austria. Leinsdorf earned a reputation for exacting standards. He published books and essays on musical matters and became a naturalized American citizen in 1942.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erich_Leinsdorf)

1912        Jun 26, Gustav Mahler's 9th Symphony premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 6/26/02)

1912        Nov 24, Austria denounced Serbian gains in the Balkans; Russia and France backed Serbia while Italy and Germany backed Austria.
    (HN, 11/24/98)

1912        Dec 5, Italy, Austria, and Germany renewed the Triple Alliance for six years.
    (HN, 12/5/98)

1912        Gustav Klimt (1862-1918) painted "Adele Bloch-Bauer II.” An earlier portrait Adele Bloch-Bauer was made in 1907. In 2012 Anne-Marie O’Connor authored “The Lady in Gold: The Extraordinary Tale of Gustav Klimt’s Masterpiece, Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer.”
    (SSFC, 3/18/12, p.F5)
1912        Egon Schiele, Austrian expressionist, painted "Portrait of Wally."
    (SFC, 1/9/98, p.A7)

1913        Jan 20, Karl Wittgenstein (b.1847), Viennese industrialist and father of philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), died of throat cancer. In 2009 Alexander Waugh authored “The House of Wittgenstein: A Family at War.”
    (WSJ, 2/28/09, p.W10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Wittgenstein)

1913        Aug 12, Kurt Kaszner, actor (Cmdr Fitzhugh-Land of the Giants), was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1913        Sep 11, Hedy Lamarr, actress, was born in Austria. She featured in numerous minor roles in Austro-German film prior to her 1938 Hollywood arrival and gained significant notoriety for her libidinous 10 nude scene in the Czech film 'Ecstasy' (1932).  She was cast in many romantic films including 'Samson and Delilah' and 'My Favorite Spy' "Any girl can be glamorous. All you have to do is stand still and look stupid"-- Hedy Lamarr.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1913        Oct 18, Austrian-Hungary demanded that Serbia and Albania leave.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1914        Jun 28, Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to Austria-Hungary, and his wife, Sofia, were assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia, by a Serb nationalist. As the royal couple rode through the streets of Sarajevo in an open touring car, seven young radicals from an obscure Serbian-Bosnian nationalist group, called the Black Hand, lay in wait. An initial assassination attempt failed, but a wrong turn brought the car near Gavrilo Princip, who fired two shots at point-blank range into the couple's bodies. Within minutes, both the Archduke and Sophia were dead. Princip was arrested, but political tensions were so high between Austria-Hungary and Serbia that war broke out as a result. Like falling dominoes, international alliances brought one country after another into the conflict. The event triggered World War I. In 2011 Adam Hochschild authored “To End All Wars: A Story of Loyalty and Rebellion.”
    (V.D.-H.K.p.252, 284-285,290)(AP, 6/28/97)(HNPD, 6/28/98)(Econ, 6/4/11, p.93)

1914        Jul 23, Austria and Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia after the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand; the dispute led to World War I.
    (AP, 7/23/98)

1914        Jul 26, Austrian-Hungary condemned a Serbian ultimatum.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1914        Jul 28, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, beginning World War I. The New York Stock Exchange closed for 4 1/2 months.
    (CFA, '96, p.50)(HN, 7/28/98)

1914        Aug 6, Austria-Hungary declared war against Russia and Serbia declared war against Germany.
    (AP, 8/6/00)

1914        Aug 12, Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary.
    (MC, 8/12/02)

1914        Dec 2, Austrian troops occupied Belgrade, Serbia.
    (HN, 12/2/98)

1914        Egon Schiele (b.1990), Viennese artist, made his "Reclining Woman With Raised Chemise."
    (WSJ, 11/19/97, p.A20)

1914        The Mozarteum of Salzburg became a publicly accredited conservatory.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.91)

c1914-1919    Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), Viennese-born philosopher, wrote his "Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus" while serving in the Austrian army during WW I. He had "set out to chart the logical limits of language and ended with poetic gestures toward what words could not capture." In 1996 Marjorie Perloff wrote "Wittgenstein’s Ladder: Poetic Language and the Strangeness of the Ordinary."
    (SFEC, 10/27/96, BR p.4)

1915        Jan 2, Karl Goldmark (b.1830), Hungarian composer (Queen of Saba), died in Vienna.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Goldmark)

1915        May 23, Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary in World War I.
    (AP, 5/23/97)(HN, 5/23/98)

1915        Jun 22, Austro-German forces occupied Lemberg on the Eastern Front as the Russians retreated.
    (HN, 6/22/98)

1915        Aug 5, The Austro-German Army took Warsaw, in present-day Poland, on the Eastern Front.
    (HN, 8/5/98)

1915        Sep 2, Austro-German armies took Grodno, Poland (Belarus).
    (HN, 9/2/98)

1915        Nov 7, An Austrian submarine torpedoed the Italian passenger ship Ancona, and 272 were killed.
    (www.theshipslist.com/ships/descriptions/ShipsA.html)

1915        Egon Schiele made his "Self-portrait With Striped Armlets."
    (WSJ, 11/19/97, p.A20)

1916        Nov 21, Franz Jozef I, King of Austria and Hungary, died.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1916        Egon Schiele, Viennese artist, made his "Reclining Woman Exposing Herself."
    (WSJ, 11/19/97, p.A20)

1916        Charles I took the throne and worked for peace as the Austro-Hungarian empire neared its end. He abdicated at the end of the war in 1918 and died in Portugal in 1922 at age 34. In 2003 the Vatican attributed a miracle to the last emperor of Austria-Hungary, paving the way for the eventual beatification and sainthood of Charles I.
    (AP, 12/21/03)

1917        Mar 23, Austrian Emperor Charles I made a peace proposal to French President Poincare.
    (HN, 3/23/98)

1917        Aug 14, The Chinese Parliament declared war on the Central Powers, Germany and Austria, during World War I.
    (AP, 8/14/97)(HN, 8/14/98)

1917        Oct 24, The Austro-German army routed the Italian army at Caporetto, Italy. In what came to be known as the 1st blitzkrieg German and Austro-Hungarian forces took at least 250,000 Italian soldiers as prisoners on the Isonzo Front.
    (HN, 10/24/98)(SFEC, 7/9/00, p.T14)

1917        Dec 7, The US declared war on Austria-Hungary with only one dissenting vote in Congress and became the 13th country to do so.
    (HN, 12/7/98)

1917        Gustav Klimt, Austrian modernist, created his oil painting "Garden of Flowers."
    (WSJ, 7/17/02, p.D12)

1917        Egon Schiele, Viennese artist, made his "Kneeling Girl Propped on Her Elbows."
    (WSJ, 11/19/97, p.A20)

1918        Jan 25, Austria and Germany rejected U.S. peace proposals.
    (HN, 1/25/99)

1918        Feb 6, Gustav Klimt (b.1862), Austrian Symbolist artist, died. He helped found the Vienna Secessionist art movement (1897) and was chosen as its 1st president.
    (WSJ, 7/11/01, p.A15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustav_Klimt)

1918          Mar 3, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which ended Russian participation in World War I. Germany and Austria forced Soviet Russia to sign the Peace of Brest, which called for the establishment of 5 independent countries: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Ukraine. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which ended Russian participation in World War I, was annulled by the November 1918 armistice. The treaty deprived the Soviets of White Russia.
    (HN, 3/3/99)(LHC, 3/1/03)(AP, 3/3/08)

1918        Apr 15, Clemenceau published secret French-Austrian documents.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1918        Sep 25, Brazil declared war on Austria.
    (HN, 9/25/98)

1918        Oct 18, Czechs seized Prague, renounced Hapsburg's rule and declared independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Masaryk proclaimed the foundation of Czechoslovakia from Pittsburgh, Pa.
    (HN, 10/18/98)(http://tinyurl.com/856hg)

1918        Nov 4, Austria signed an armistice with Allies.
    (HN, 11/4/98)

1918        Oct 31, Egon Schiele (28), Viennese artist, died in the flu epidemic. He produced some 3,000 drawings and 300 paintings in about 12 years.
    (SFC, 10/13/97, p.E3)(MC, 10/31/01)

1918        Nov 3, The Austro-Hungarian Empire dissolved.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1918        Nov 12, Emperor Karl of Austria-Hungary, husband of Zita, relinquished participation in the Austrian state and then fled to Switzerland. Austria became a republic.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_I_of_Austria)(Hem., Dec. '95, p.69)

1918        Dec 1, The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes formed and was ruled by the Serbian Karageorgevic dynasty. It included the previously independent kingdoms of Serbia and Macedonia, the Hungarian-controlled regions of Croatia and Slovenia, the Austrian province of Dalmatia, Carniola and parts of Styria, Carinthia and Istria.
    (AP, 10/3/97)(HN, 10/3/98)(HNQ, 3/26/99)(LCTH, 10/3/99)

1918        Egon Schiele made his crayon sketch: "Edith Schiele on Her Deathbed."
    (WSJ, 11/19/97, p.A20)

1918        Austria enacted legislation to keep artworks from leaving the country.
    (WSJ, 12/9/98, p.A20)

1918        Italy gained Trieste from the Hapsburg Empire.
    (www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Rotunda/2209/Trieste.html)

1918        Vienna became the capital of the Republic of Austria.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.14)

1918        The first democratic elections were held.
    (SFC, 10/25/96, p.A16)

1918        Gustav Klimt (b.1862), artist, died. He helped found the Vienna Secessionist art movement (1897) and was chosen as its 1st president.
    (WSJ, 7/11/01, p.A15)

1919        Apr 3, Austria expelled all Habsburgs.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1919        Jun 20, Treaty of Versailles: Germany ended the incorporation of Austria. [see Jun 28]
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1919        Jun 28, The Treaty of Versailles was signed in France, ending (WW I) World War I. World War I began in 1914 and ended on this date. Germany signed the Treaty of Versailles under protest. Books by participants included "Peacemaking" by Harold Nicolson; "The Economic Consequences of the Peace" by John Maynard Keynes; and "The Truth About the Peace Treaties" by David Lloyd George. In 2000 Richard Holmes authored "The Western Front." Nearly 1 million British died and nearly 2 million each for France, Germany, Russia and Turkey. In 2002 Margaret MacMillan authored "Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World."
    (HFA, ‘96, p.32)(AP, 6/28/97)(HN, 6/28/98)(WSJ, 8/16/00, p.A20)(SSFC, 12/15/02, p.M3)

1919        Sep 10, The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, was signed by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new Republic of Austria on the other.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Saint_Germain)

1919        Austria enacted laws that barred the Habsburgs from public office and resulted in the confiscation of their property.
    (WSJ, 12/8/97, p.A13)
1919        Austria was obliged to pay reparations to countries ravaged by WW I fighting.
    (Econ, 6/23/07, p.97)

1920        Jan 15, The United States approved a $150 million loan to Poland, Austria and Armenia to aid in their war with the Russian communists.
    (HN, 1/15/99)

1920        Oct 10, The Carinthian Plebiscite  determined the border between Austria and the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carinthian_Plebiscite)

1920        Dec 15, China won a place on the League Council; Austria was admitted.
    (HN, 12/15/98)

1920        The 1897 play, "Reigen," by Arthur Schnitzler had its premiere in Vienna. The name meant round dance and represented a circle of sexual encounters and was promptly closed down by police. A 1998 adaptation by David Hare featured Nicole Kidman and Iain Glen in "The Blue Room."
    (WSJ, 12/16/98, p.A21)

1920        In Austria the Salzburg festival began. The annual summer festival grew to become the pole star of the operatic world.
    (Econ, 11/17/12, p.79)
1920        The Graz School for Voice  became a fully accredited conservatory.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.62)

1920-1933    Joseph Roth, Austrian novelist, spent this period in Berlin. In 2002 his writings from this time were translated by Michael Hofmann and published as "What I Saw: Reports From Berlin 1920-1933." His later novel "The Radetzky March covered the waning days of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
    (SSFC, 12/29/02, p.M3)

1921        Feb 26, Karl Menger (b.1840), Austrian economist, died in Vienna. He was the founder of the Austrian School of economics, famous for contributing to the development of the theory of marginal utility. In 1892 he said that the monetization of an economy starts when agricultural communities move away from subsistence farming and start to specialize.
    (Econ, 8/18/12, p.68)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Menger)

1921        Mar 6, Julius Rudel, conductor (NYC Opera), was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1921        May 30, Salzburg, Austria, voted to join Germany.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1921        Economist Ludwig von Mises wrote a full-scale refutation of socialist economics and predicted the precise nature of its failure.
    (WSJ, 1/30/97, p.A16)

1921        The film "Lady Hamilton" starred Liane Haid (d.2000 at 105) of Austria.
    (SFC, 11/30/00, p.C8)

1922        Apr 1, Karl I (b.1887), leader of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, died. Also known in the West as Charles I, he took the throne in 1916 and worked for peace, abdicating at the end of World War I, a few years before his death. In 2004 he was beatified by Pope John Paul VI.
    (AP, 10/3/04)(www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/KarlI/)

1922        Aug 8, Rudi Gernreich, designer (1st women's topless swimsuit, miniskirt), was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (MC, 8/8/02)(Internet)

1922        The Vienna Porcelain Factory began operations. It considered itself to be the successor to the original royal factory (1744-1864).
    (SFC, 10/17/07, p.G2)

1923        May 4, In Vienna, Austria, bloody street battles took place between Nazis, socialists and police.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1923        Aug 29, Alexander Zemlinsky (1871-1942, Vienna-born composer, completed his 45-minute Lyric Symphony for Soprano, Baritone, and Orchestra, in Seven Songs on Poems by Rabindranath Tagore, Opus 18.
    (www.sfsymphony.org/music/ProgramNotes.aspx?id=45152)

1923        Sep, The Int’l. Criminal Police Commission (Interpol) formed in Vienna.
    (www.exxun.com/ekio/io_interpol_2088.html)

1923        Felix Salten (1869-1945) a Viennese Jew, wrote his antifascist allegory "Bambi, A Life in the Woods." It was translated into English by Whittaker Chambers (28) and published by Simon & Schuster in 1928.  In 1942 it was made into an animated Disney film.
    (WSJ, 10/14/97, p.A22)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felix_Salten)

1924        May 2, Theodore Bikel, Austrian-US folk singer, actor (Russians Are Coming), was born.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1924        The Austrian silent film "Hands of Orlac" was made by Robert Wiene. Wiene was the expressionist who made The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari.
    (SFEC, 1/5/97, p.D4)(SFC, 1/7/97, p.E1)(SFC, 1/17/96, p.D7)

1925        Rudolf Steiner (b.1861), Austrian philosopher and educator, died. He was the founder of the spiritual view called anthroposophy which included a complicated theory of child development that formed the basis of the Waldorf method for teaching children.
    (SFC, 10/29/00, p.A7)

1926        Dec 29, Rainer M. Rilke (51), Austrian songwriter and writer (Wise Queen), died.
    (MC, 12/29/01)

1926        Arthur Schnitzler of Austria authored his novel "Traumovelle." English versions were called "Dream Story" or "Rhapsody." It was the basis for the 1999 Kubrick film "Eyes Wide Shut."
    (SFC, 7/24/99, p.B1)

1927        Oct 6, Paul Badura-Skoda, pianist (Mozart specialist), was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1927        Pez candy originated in Austria as a breath mint for cigarette smokers. The name came from "pfefferminz," the word for peppermint in German.  The line was imported to the United States in 1952, when the company decided it could do better with fruit candy dispensed by plastic toys.
    (SFEC, 4/5/98, p.C11)(http://money.cnn.com/2002/06/13/pf/q_pez/)

1828        Nov 19, In Vienna German composer Franz Schubert (31) died of syphilis. In this year he composed his song cycle "Schwanengesang." His work included the C-Major Symphony, string quartets, 3 piano sonatas, and the C-Major String Quartet. Otto Erich Deutsch catalogued his work [hence the "D" numbers] and wrote a documentary biography. In 1997 Brian Newbould wrote "Schubert: The Music and the Man."
    (SFEC, 2/2/97, DB. p.32)(WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 5/13/97, p.A21)(HN, 11/19/00)

1929        Apr 8, Walter Berry, singer, ex husband of Christa Ludwig, was born in Austria.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1929        Oct 3, The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes formally changed its name to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. It included the regions of Serbia, Montenegro, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Macedonia. King Alexander I renamed the Balkan state called the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, Yugoslavia. The Kingdom had been formed on December 1, 1918 and was ruled by the Serbian Karageorgevic dynasty. It included the previously independent kingdoms of Serbia and Macedonia, the Hungarian-controlled regions of Croatia and Slovenia, the Austrian province of Dalmatia, Carniola and parts of Styria, Carinthia and Istria.
    (AP, 10/3/97)(HN, 10/3/98)(HNQ, 3/26/99)(LCTH, 10/3/99)

1930        Apr 1, Cosima Liszt (92), wife of Austrian composer Richard Wagner, died.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1930        Dec 8, Maximilian Schell, Austrian actor and director (Odessa File, Julia), was born.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

1931        In Austria a run on Credit Anstalt bank set off a chain of events that took Britain off the gold standard and raised fears that America might follow. Its failure rippled around the world and intensified the Depression.
    (Econ, 10/04/08, p.83)(Econ, 9/12/09, p.86)
1931        Austria and Germany dropped out of the gold standard. By 1936 the gold standard was dead.
    (Econ, 7/5/14, p.57)

1932        Feb 25, Adolf Hitler of Austria got German citizenship.
    (MC, 2/25/02)

1932        Oct 19, Austria forbade demonstration by Nazis and antifascists.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1932        Joseph Roth (1894-1939), a German-Jewish writer, authored “The Radetzky March,” a novel of the decline of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It was translated into English in 1995. Roth’s 1938 sequel was translated to English in 2013.
    (Econ, 2/2/13, p.74)

1933        Mar 4, Chancellor Dollfuss dissolved the Austrian parliament.
    (www.ad2000.com.au/articles/2005/mar2005p17_1890.html)

1934        Jul 25, There was a Nazi coup in Vienna. Austrian Premier Engelbert Dollfus was shot and killed by Nazis. Hitler murdered Austria's Chancellor Dollfus.
    (WUD, 1994, p.424,1682)(TMC, 1994, p.1934)(HN, 7/25/98)

1934        The music drama "Der Weg Der Verheissung" was created by Kurt Weill, Franz Werfel and Max Reinhardt in exile in Austria.
    (WSJ, 9/4/01, p.A19)

1935        Stefan Zweig (1881-1942), Austrian novelist, wrote the libretto for the opera Die Schweigsame Frau (The Silent Woman) with music by Richard Strauss. It was banned by the Nazis and Zweig was driven into exile.
    (Econ, 5/23/09, p.91)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stefan_Zweig)
1935        Austrian physicist Erwin Schrodinger imagined putting a cat into a sealed box along with a flask of Prussic acid, a radioactive atom, a Geiger counter, an electric relay and a hammer. If the atom decayed, the Geiger counter would detect the radiation and send a signal to trip a relay, which would release the hammer, which would smash the flask and poison the cat. The famous unperformed experiment became known as Schrodinger’s cat.
    (Econ, 10/3/09, p.100)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schr%C3%B6dinger%27s_cat)

1936        Mar 23, Italy, Austria and Hungary signed Pact of Rome.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1936        Jun 12, Karl Kraus (b.1874), Austrian writer and journalist, died. He was known as a satirist, essayist, aphorist, playwright and poet.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Kraus_%28writer%29)(Econ, 10/19/13, p.88)

1937        Feb 14, Austrian leader Schuschnigg threatened to restore the Hapsburg monarchy.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1937        May 28, Alfred Adler (67), Austria psychiatrist (Individual Psychology), died.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1937        Alban Berg (1885-1935), Austrian composer, wrote his opera "Lulu." It was based on two dramas by German fin-de-siecle playwright Frank Wedekind (1864-1918). It tells the story of a sexually attractive dancer who several men and women become obsessed with, often dying as a result, and who ends up as a prostitute murdered by Jack the Ripper.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alban_Berg)(AP, 2/5/10)

1938        Jan 12, Austria recognized the Franco government in Spain.
    (HN, 1/12/99)

1938        Feb 20, Hitler demanded self-determination for Germans in Austria and Czechoslovakia. As Hitler's quest for Lebensraum ("living space") expanded into Czechoslovakia, thousands of Czechoslovakian soldiers and airmen escaped to participate in the liberation of their country.
    (HN, 2/19/98)

1938        Mar 9, In Vienna, Kurt Schuschnigg defied the Nazis calling for a decree on independence.
    (HN, 3/9/98)

1938        Mar 12, Germany invaded Austria after the Austrian Nazi Party invited German troops to march in and the union came to be know as the Anschluss. Hitler took over Austria and a chunk of Czechoslovakia. The Nazis took over Austria and expelled all Jews and other political opponents from the universities.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1682)(TL, 1988, p.111)(TMC, 1994, p.1938)(StuAus, April '95, p.18)

1938        Spring, Cardinal Theodor Innitzer of Vienna met with Hitler and then directed all Catholic clergy and laity to "unconditionally support the great German State and the Fuhrer."
    (SFEC, 9/7/97, BR p.4)

1938        Mar 26, Herman Goering warned all Jews to leave Austria.
    (HN, 3/25/98)

1938        Mar, Within days of the Anschluss squads of Nazis and Austrian museum personnel emptied the Viennese palaces of the Rothschild brothers, Alphonse and Louis. After the war Clarice Rothschild, the widow of Alphonse, recovered much of the collection, which had been hidden in the Alt Aussee salt mines near Salzburg. She was forced to give up many works as "donations" in exchange for export licenses.
    (WSJ, 7/6/99, p.A13)

1938        Apr 6, U.S. recognized the German conquest of Austria.
    (HN, 4/6/98)

1938        Apr 10, Germany annexed Austria.
    (HN, 4/10/98)

1938        Apr 26, Austrian Jews required to register property above 5,000 Reichsmarks.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1938        Aug 7, Nazi's closed the theology department of Innsbruck university.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1938        Aug 28, Mauthausen concentration camp began operating in Austria.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1938        Nov 9, Kristallnacht took place in Germany. Nazi leaders heard that a Jew had shot Ernst vom Rath, a German diplomat in Paris, and ordered reprisals. Nazis killed 35 Jews, arrested thousands and destroyed Jewish synagogues, homes and stores throughout Germany and Austria in what became known as Kristallnacht. 30,000 Jews were sent to concentration camps. The event is depicted by Peter Gay in his 1998 book "My German Question."
    (AP, 11/9/97)(WSJ, 11/3/98, p.A20)(SFC, 11/10/98, p.A12)(SSFC, 11/10/13, DB p.46)

1938        Dr. Feng Shan Ho (d.1997), Chinese consul general in Vienna, rescued thousands of Jews by giving them exit visas after the Nazis annexed the country.
    (SFC, 8/15/01, p.A15)
1938        Freud was convinced to flee Vienna for England after Germany annexed Austria and after his daughter was arrested by the Gestapo and held in custody for a day. He died in London on September 23, 1939.
    (HNQ, 3/24/00)
1938        Austria’s singing von Trapp family escaped from Nazi-occupied Austria and performed concert tours throughout Europe and then a 3-month tour in the America. The family settled in Vermont and opened a ski lodge in Stowe.
    (SFC, 2/24/14, p.C5)

1939        Feb 11, Franz Schmidt (64), Austrian composer, died.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1939        Oct 31, Otto Rank, [Rosenfeld], Austria psychoanalyst (Trauma of Geburt), died.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

c1939-1945    Some 119,000 people died at the Mauthausen Concentration Camp in Austria.
    (SFC, 2/25/00, p.A16)

1940        May-1944 Dec, In Austria approximately 30,000 physically and mentally disabled were killed at Hartheim Castle by gassing and lethal injection as part of the T-4 Euthanasia Program, named after the infamous Berlin address "Tiergartenstrasse 4." The castle was regularly visited by the psychiatrists Karl Brandt, Professor of Psychiatry at Würzburg University, and Werner Heyde.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schloss_Hartheim)

1941        Oct-1941 Nov, Nazi doctor Aribert Heim, dubbed "Dr. Death," worked at the Mauthausen concentration camp near Linz, Austria, as camp doctor. Heim fled Germany in 1962.
    (AP, 8/24/08)

1942        Feb 23, Stefan Zweig (b.1881), Austrian Jewish writer (Die Welt von Gestern), committed suicide with his wife in Brazil. Zweig's nostalgic but rather impersonal memoirs of the "Golden Age of Security", The World of Yesterday, was published posthumously in 1943. His last novel (The Ecstasy of Transformation) was published posthumously in Germany in 1982. In 2008 it was translated into English as “The Post-Office Girl.” In 2014 George Prochnik authored “The Impossible Exile: Stefan Zweig at the End of the World.”
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/szweig.htm)(WSJ, 6/21/08, p.W9)(Econ, 5/23/09, p.91)(Econ, 6/14/14, p.76)

1942        Mar 15, Alexander van Zemlinsky (70), Austrian-US composer (African Dance), died.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1942        May 7, Felix Paul von Weingartner, Austria conductor, composer, died.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1942        Oct 10, 1,300 Austrian Jews were transported to Theresienstadt.
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1942        Joseph Schumpeter (1883-1950), former Austrian minister of finance (1919-1920), authored "Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy," in which he predicted the decline of the family. He introduced here the concept of “creative destruction:” that old ways of doing things are constantly being swept away for new ones.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Schumpeter)(Econ, 11/24/07, SR p.11)

1943        Oct 31, Max Reinhardt, Austrian stage manager (Turandot), died.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1943        Dec 2, 1st RSHA transport out of Vienna reached Birkenau camp.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1943        Sister Restituta Kafka was beheaded by the Nazis for putting up crosses in a hospital. Pope John Paul II planned to beatify her in 1998.
    (SFC, 6/20/98, p.B3)(SFC, 6/22/98, p.A10)

1944        Mar 17, The United States Eighth Air Force bombs Vienna.
    (HN, 3/17/00)

1944        Hans Asperger, Austrian pediatrician 1st described a syndrome (Asperger’s syndrome) that related to autism, which was 1st described in 1943 by psychiatrist Leo Kanner. Symptoms included problems with social interaction.
    (SSFC, 2/2/03, Par p.4)

1945        Mar 29, German SS as well as Hitler Youth members shot at least 57 laborers in woods near the small town of Deutsch Schuetzen, later part of Austria. In 2009 German prosecutors charged a 90-year-old alleged former member of Hitler's SS with 58 counts of murder.
    (AFP, 11/17/09)

1945        Mar 30, The Soviet Union invaded Austria during World War II.
    (AP, 3/30/97)(HN, 3/30/98)

1945        Apr 13, Vienna fell to Soviet troops.
    (HN, 4/13/99)

1945        May 2, The Soviet Union announced the fall of Berlin and the Allies announced the surrender of Nazi troops in Italy and parts of Austria.
    (AP, 5/2/97)

1945        May 5, The 761st Tank Battalion, an all black unit under Gen. Patton, linked with Russian allies near Steyr, Austria.
    (SSFC, 5/30/04, p.B4)
1945        May 5, The Mauthausen Concentration camp in Austria was liberated.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1945        May, In Austria US Army officers and troops plundered a “gold train” on its way to Germany from Hungary that carried gold, jewels, paintings and other valuables seized by the Nazis from Jewish families. A 2001 suit filed in Miami said the army falsely classified it as unidentifiable and enemy property, which avoided having to return the goods to their rightful owners. The suit alleged that the US made no effort to return the goods and lied to Hungarian Jews who sought information about their property after the war. In 2004 the property was estimated to be worth ten times its original $200 million valuation. In 2005 the US government reached a $25.5 million settlement with families of the Hungarian Holocaust victims for distribution to needy Holocaust survivors.
    (AP, 12/20/04)(SFC, 3/12/05, p.A5)
1945        May, The Allies liberated Austria. [May 8 was VE-Day]
    (StuAus, April '95, p.44)
1945        May, The Univ. of Vienna reopened.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.18)

1945        Jul 31, Pierre Laval, premier of the pro-Nazi Vichy government, surrendered to U.S. authorities in Austria; he was turned over to France, which later tried and executed him.
    (AP, 7/31/05)

1945        Oct 8, Felix Salten (b.1869), Austrian writer and the creator of Disney’s Bambi (1923), died in Switzerland. In 1906 he authored the novel Josephine Mutzenbacher, the fictional autobiography of a Vienna prostitute, a notorious pornographic novel.
    (Econ, 11/8/08, p.102)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felix_Salten)

1945        Nov 30, Russian forces took Danzig, and invaded Austria.
    (HN, 11/30/98)

1945        Austria retrieved some 18,000 looted artworks from a US Army depot in Munich. The bulk of them were restituted to former owners over the next 3 years.
    (WSJ, 12/9/98, p.A20)

1945        Some 40,000 anti-Soviet Cossacks, who had surrendered to the British, were turned over to the Red Army. Some 30,000 Yugoslavs were handed over to Tito under the pretense that they were being sent to Italy. The Yugoslavs were locked into trains and taken to Slovenia, where they were shot and buried in mass graves.
    (WSJ, 3/17/98, p.A16)

1945        The far-right Freedom Party was founded.
    (SFC, 10/5/99, p.A10)

1945        Anton Webern (b.1883), Austrian composer, died. He was accidentally shot by an American soldier policing his town.
    (WSJ, 2/14/00, p.A20)

1946        May 13, US condemned 58 camp guards of Mauthausen concentration camp to death.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1947        Jul 30, Arnold Schwarzenegger, 5x Mr. Universe and film star, was born in Thal bei Graz, Austria. In 2003 he was elected governor of California.
    (SSFC, 6/22/03, Par p.4)(Internet)

1947        Paula von Preradovic, Austrian poet, wrote a new Austrian anthem after the old one was pinched by the Germans.
    (Econ, 11/24/07, SR p.3)

1948        Jan 8, Richard Tauber (55), Austria-British tenor, composer (Lehar), died.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1948        Oct 24, Franz Lehar, Austrian-Hungarian composer (Wiener Frauen), died at 78.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1949        Oct 9, In Austria general elections brought losses to both the People’s Party and the Socialists. Many former Nazis rallied behind the  new Union of Independents. The government was composed of a coalition of the People’s Party and the Socialists.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1185)

1949        Maria von Trapp (d.1987), the 2nd wife of Austrian Naval Capt. Georg von Trapp, authored “The Sound of Music.” The story became the basis for the 1959 musical and 1965 film of the same name.
    (SFC, 2/24/14, p.C5)
1949        Leonie Rysanek (d.1998 at 71), singer-actress, made her debut in Innsbruck. She became a leading opera singer and sang in 2,100 performances.
    (SFC, 3/9/98, p.D3)

1951-1969 In Austria 230 people, including some children at a state run orphanage, were subjects of an experiment in which they were injected with the parasite which causes malaria as part of research for a cure against syphilis, long after penicillin was available.
    (AP, 5/2/14)

1952        Emilie Flöge, Viennese fashion designer, died. She was a long time companion of Gustav Klimt. Dr. Wolfgang Fischer later authored "Gustav Klimt and Emilie Flöge, An Artist and His Muse."
    (WSJ, 10/22/99, p.W14)

1953        Robert Musil (d.1942), Austrian author, got published in short form in English his unfinished book "The Man Without Qualities" set in Vienna around 1913. A full 2 volume set ($60) was published in 1995.
    (WSJ, 4/12/95, A-12)

1954        Jan 11, Oscar Straus (83), Austrian composer (The Chocolate Soldier), died.
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1954        Jan 12, Austria's worst avalanche killed 200. 9hrs later a 2nd one killed 115.
    (MC, 1/12/02)

1955        May 15, A treaty was signed in Vienna by the representatives of the four powers and Austria. It formally reestablished the Austrian republic in its pre-1938 frontiers as a “sovereign, independent and democratic state.”
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article-33385/Austria)

1955        Sep 21, The last allied occupying troops left Austria.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1955        Aug 25, Last Soviet forces left Austria.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1955        Oct 25, Austria resumed its sovereignty after the departure of last Allied occupation forces, for 1st time since German occupation of 1938.
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article-33385/Austria)

1955        Oct 26, Austria marked this day as National Day to commemorate the departure of all foreign troops a day earlier.
    (SSFC, 10/20/12, p.N3)
1955        Oct 26, Austria, under request by Russia, promulgated a constitutional law of perpetual neutrality.
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article-33385/Austria)(Econ, 11/24/07, SR p.8)

1955        Nov 5, The new Vienna Opera house opened.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1955        The Austrian Neutrality Pact negotiations led to the pullout of Allied and soviet troops. Rudolf Kirchschlaeger represented Austria.
    (SFC, 3/31/00, p.E5)

1956        Nov, Austria provided humanitarian aid to nearly 200,000 Hungarians fleeing their homeland after Soviet tanks crushed freedom fighters aiming to overthrow repressive communist rule.
    (AP, 10/20/06)

1957        May 12, Erich von Stroheim (b.1885), Austrian-US actor and director, died in Paris. His films included "Grand Illusion," "The Merry Widow," and "Greed." In 2000 Arthur Lennig published the biography "Stroheim."
    (WSJ, 2/23/00, p.A20)(MC, 5/12/02)

1957        Nov 3, Wilhelm Reich (b.1897), Austria-born psychoanalyst, died in the US. His work was based on the sexual energy in people that he called "Orgone." In 1999 Farrar, Straus & Giroux published: "American Odyssey: Letters and Journals 1940-1947."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1209)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilhelm_Reich)

1959        Nov 20, Seven European nations (Austria, Britain, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland) signed the Stockholm Convention to form the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). The organization becoming operative on May 3 1960.
    (www.iceland.org/efta/the-mission/int-organizations/efta/)

1960        May 3, Austria became a founding member of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), along with Britain, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden and Switzerland. The agreement took effect in 1994.
    (Econ, 11/24/07, SR p.7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Free_Trade_Association)

1961        Jun 3, JFK and Khrushchev met in Vienna.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1961        A Vienna Convention barred the taxing of foreign diplomatic staff.
    (AP, 9/15/02)

1963        The Graz Conservatory for Voice became the Academy of Music and Drama.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.62)

1963        In Austria a Vienna Convention produced a treaty that protected the right of individuals jailed in a foreign land to contact their national consulate.
    (SFC, 4/14/98, p.A3)

1964        The Philosophical Faculty resumed teaching at the Univ. of Salzburg.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.87)

1964        The Winter Olympics was held in Innsbruck, Austria.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.95)

1965        The Faculty of Law was established at the Univ. of Salzburg.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.87)

1966        Andreas Rett, an Austrian doctor, first describe the complex neurological disorder that came to be called Rett’s syndrome. The cause was later found to be a mutation in a gene called MeCP2.
    (Econ, 10/21/06, p.90)

1968        Mar 2, In Switzerland the World Ice Pairs Figure Skating Championship in Geneva was won by Lyudmila Belousova and Oleg Protopopov (USSR). The Ladies Figure Skating Championship was won by Peggy Fleming (USA). The Men's Figure Skating Championship was won by Emmerich Danzer (Austria).
    (SC, 3/2/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Figure_Skating_Championships)

1968        In Austria a girl (16) at the state-run home in Tyrol province was reportedly raped by two soldiers and three others defecated on her. She and four other girls were picked out for the soldiers by a female orderly. In 2012 a military commission was been set up to investigate the allegations.
    (AP, 8/20/12)

1970        Mar 1, Kreisky's social-democrats won the Austrian parliamentary election.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3tv72y)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austrian_legislative_election,_1970)

1970        Mar 21, Marlen Haushofer (b.1920), Austrian writer died. Her 1962 novel “The Wall” was her only work translated into English.
    (WSJ, 4/25/09, p.W8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marlen_Haushofer)

1970        Apr 21, Bruno Kreisky (1911-1990) became the 1st socialist chancellor of Austria.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruno_Kreisky)

1970         The Graz Academy of Music and Drama became the University of Music and Drama.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.62)
1970        The Univ. of Klagenfurt in the Carinthia province of Austria was founded.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.73)

1971        Dec 22, The UN General Assembly voted to ratify the election of Kurt Waldheim (1918-2007) of Austria to succeed U Thant as the 4th Secretary-General.
    (AP, 12/22/99)

1971        Dec 28, Maximilian Raoul Walter Steiner (b.1888), Austrian-born American composer, died. He is known best for the score he composed for the classic film “Gone with the Wind” and for the score and hugely popular theme song for the film “A Summer Place.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Steiner)

1971        Ivan Illich (1926-2002), Austrian philosopher, anarchist social critic and former Catholic priest, authored "De-Schooling Society."
    (SFC, 12/4/02, p.A28)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivan_Illich)

1971        Gottfried von Einem (1918-1996), Austrian composer, composed the opera "The Visit of the Old Lady," based on the 1956 play by Friedrich Durenmatt.
    (WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gottfried_von_Einem)

1972        Jan 1, Kurt Waldheim (1918-2007) of Austria began serving as the UN Secretary-General. He continued until Jan 1, 1982.
    (SFC, 12/14/96, p.A1)

1973        Sep 29, Wystan Hugh Auden (b.Feb 21, 1907), English born American poet, critic and playwright (Spain, Platonic Blow), died in Austria after suffering from Touraine-Solente-Gole in which the skin of the forehead, face, scalp, hands, and feet becomes thick and furrowed. He wrote the libretto for Benjamin Britten’s first music drama, "Paul Bunyan." In 1999 Edward Mendelson published "Later Auden," which covered the years 1939-1973.
    {USA, Poet, Austria, Playwright}
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._H._Auden)(WSJ, 1/8/98, p.A7)(SFEC, 4/18/99, BR p.3)

1973        The Univ. of Art and Industrial Design in Linz was founded was established.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.83)

1973        Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989), Austrian zoologist, won the Nobel Prize.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konrad_Lorenz)

1974        The Austria National Gallery bought W. de Kooning's "Woman V" (1953) for $850,000.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3rr4bw)

1974        Rudi Gernreich, Austrian engineer, introduced the first "thong bikini."
    (WSJ, 6/7/99, p.A8)(www.bikiniscience.com/chronology/1970-1975_SS/1970-1975.html)

1974        Rudolf Kirchschlaeger (d.2000 at 85) began serving as president of Austria and continued to 1986.
    (SFC, 3/31/00, p.E5)

1975        Jul 6, Otto Skorzeny (b.1908), German-Austrian SS officer, died. He was the commando leader who rescued Italian dictator Benito Mussolini from imprisonment after his overthrow.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_Skorzeny)

1975        Jun 27, Robert Stolz (b.1880), Austrian composer (Freuhling im Prater), died.
    (http://robert.stolz.free.fr/Biography.htm)

1975        Dec 21, There was a terrorist kidnapping of Saudi oil minister Sheik Ahmed Zaki Yamani and other ministers at the OPEC gathering in Vienna, Austria. Three people were killed and 11 taken hostage. The oil ministers were taken to North Africa in a hijacked plane in a $1 billion ransom drama. Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez, later admitted to planning the attack. In 2001 Germany sentenced Hans-Joachim Klein to 9 years for his role in the attack. Klein had accused Sonja Suder of recruiting him to take part in the bloody Vienna siege. In 2013 Suder was acquitted of having helped Carlos in the OPEC attack. She was found guilty of having aided in three non-deadly explosives and arson attacks in Germany in the late 1970s. 
    (WSJ, 12/4/95, p.B-1)(SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)(SFC, 2/16/01, p.D2)(AFP, 11/12/13)

1975        Das Brucknerhaus, a new concert hall in Linz, Austria, was dedicated to Anton Bruckner, who had played regularly on the organ of the Old Cathedral.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.76)

1976        Dec 7, The UN Security Council endorsed Kurt Waldheim (1918-2007) of Austria for a 2nd 5-year term as UN Secretary-General.
    (www.worldofquotes.com/history/12_7/6/index.html)

1976        A German edition of Robert Musil's diaries was published. In 1999 Philip Payne published an abridged version "Diaries 1899-1942."
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, BR p.9)

1976        The Winter Olympics were again held in Innsbruck, Austria.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.95)

1978        Nov 5, In Austria 50.5% of the voters said no to turning on the Zwentendorf nuclear power plant and the Austrian nuclear power program came to a halt. The plant at Zwentendorf, begun in 1970, was completed at a cost of 8 billion Austrian schillings and was intended to be the first of six Austrian nuclear plants.
    (www.sustainer.org/dhm_archive/index.php?display_article=vn166zwented)

1979        Jun 18, President Carter and Soviet President Leonid I. Brezhnev signed the SALT II strategic arms limitation treaty in Vienna. The agreement set a ceiling on long-range bombers and missiles and limited development to only one new land-base missile system for the duration of the treaty.
    (AP, 6/18/97)(HNQ, 11/15/99)

1979        The UN opened a major branch in Vienna, Austria, as a third world center. It was promoted by Chancellor Bruno Kreisky. The complex cost Austria $880 mil. and was rented to the UN for a nominal annual rent of one dime.
    (SFC, 2/17/96, p.A14)

1981        Aug 14, Karl Bohm (b.1894), Austrian conductor and early Nazi sympathizer, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_B%C3%B6hm)

1981        Friedrich Karl Flick (1927-2006), Austrian billionaire industrialist, became embroiled in a major postwar political party financing scandal (the Flick Affair) when it surfaced that some of his managers had given millions of German marks to German political parties. Flick sold his company to Deutsche Bank in 1985.
    (AP, 10/6/06)
1981        Karlheinz Boehm (1928-2014), Austrian actor and human rights activist, founded the Menschen fuer Menschen ("People for People") aid group dedicated to helping people in Ethiopia.
    (AP, 5/30/14)

1982        Austrian Gaston Glock (b.1929) created his semiautomatic Glock handgun.
    (SSFC, 1/8/12, p.F6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glock_pistol)
1982        Austrian Dietrich Mateschitz (b.1944), who had become aware of "tonic drinks" while traveling in Asia, got the idea for the Red Bull energy drink business while sitting at the bar in the Mandarin Hotel in Hong Kong. In the 1970s T.C. Pharmaceuticals of Thailand, founded by Chaleo Yoovidhya, had formulated an energy drink prototype called Krathing Daeng, or Red Bull in English. Mateschitz and Yoovidhya started selling the drink in Austria in 1987.
    (AFP, 3/17/12)

1983        May 24, Fred Sinowatz (1929-2008)  became Austrian Chancellor and continued for 3 years.
    (AP, 8/12/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fred_Sinowatz)

1984        Oct 23, Oskar Werner (b.1922), Austrian actor (Fahrenheit 451), died of a heart attack.
    (www.filmbug.com/db/330521)

1985        Dec 27, Palestinian guerrillas opened fire inside the Rome and Vienna airports; a total of twenty people were killed, including five of the attackers, who were slain by police and security personnel. Abu Nidal was considered responsible. President Reagan blamed Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi.
    (AP, 12/27/97)(SFC, 8/25/98, p.A6)(NYT, 10/8/04, p.A12)

1985        Kurt Waldheim (1918-2007), former sec-gen. of the UN, authored his autobiography: “In the Eye of the Storm,” as he prepared to run for the presidency of Austria.
    (Econ, 6/23/07, p.97)

1986        Jun 8, Kurt Waldheim, an alleged Nazi, was elected president of Austria.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_Waldheim)

1986        Jul 8, Kurt Waldheim was inaugurated as president of Austria despite controversy over his alleged ties to Nazi war crimes. He was barred from entering the US due to his services as an officer in a German army unit implicated in war crimes in the Balkans. He served to 1992.
    (SFC, 2/17/96, p.A14)(AP, 7/8/97)

1987        Apr 27, The US Justice Department barred Austrian President Kurt Waldheim from entering the US, saying he aided in the deportation and execution of thousands of Jews and others as a German Army officer during World War II.
    (AP, 4/27/97)

1987        Jun 25, Pope John Paul II received Austrian President Kurt Waldheim at the Vatican, a meeting fraught with controversy because of allegations that Waldheim had hidden a Nazi past. 
    (AP, 6/25/97)

1987        Kurt Waldheim, Austrian president and former U.N. secretary general, was barred from entering the U.S. for his past involvement in Nazi war crimes.
    (HNQ, 10/22/99)

1988        Feb 15, Austrian President Kurt Waldheim vowed in a televised address not to "retreat in the face of slanders" concerning his service for the German Army during World War II.
    (AP, 2/15/98)

1988        Feb 29, A Nazi document was discovered that implicated participation of Austrian president and former U.N. Secretary General Kurt Waldheim in WWII deportations.
    (HN, 2/29/00)

1988        Mar 10, Prior to the 50th anniversary of the Anschluss, Austrian President Kurt Waldheim apologized on his country's behalf for atrocities committed by Austrian Nazis.
    (AP, 3/10/08)

1988        Jun 23, Pope John Paul II began his second papal visit to Austria, where he met with President Kurt Waldheim, despite controversy over Waldheim's alleged involvement in Nazi war crimes.
    (AP, 6/23/98)

1988        Jun 24, Pope John Paul II, on a visit to Austria, condemned Nazism during a stopover at the Mauthausen death camp.
    (AP, 6/24/98)

1989        Feb 12, Thomas Bernhard (b.1931), Austrian novelist and playwright, died. He hated petty and conservative Austrian qualities and was known as a teller of difficult truths. His 1963 novel “Frost” was published in the US in 2006.
    (SSFC, 10/22/06, p.M4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Bernhard)

1989        Feb 27, Konrad Lorenz (b.1903), Austrian zoologist (Nobel 1973), died. He studied instinctive behavior in animals, especially in grey geese and is considered to be the founder of modern ethology. He discovered the principle of imprinting in psychology. His books included “King Solomon’s Ring” (1952).
    (www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0830309.html)

1989        Jul 16, Conductor Herbert von Karajan (b.1908) died near Salzburg, Austria.
    (AP, 7/16/99)

1989        Jul 17, Austria formally applies to join the European Community.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1989/index_en.htm)

1989        Aug 19, The "Pan-European Picnic" helped precipitate the fall nearly three months later of the Berlin Wall. Members of Hungary's budding opposition organized a picnic at the border with Austria to press for greater political freedom and promote friendship with their Western neighbors. Some 600 East Germans got word of the event and turned up among the estimated 10,000 participants. They took advantage of the excursion to escape to Austria.
    (AP, 8/19/09)

1989        Zita, the last Hapsburg empress died.
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.69)

1990        Mar 13, Bruno Bettelheim (86), Austrian-US psychoanalyst, committed suicide. His books included "The Empty Fortress" (1967), on infantile autism and "the Use of Enchantment" (1976), a study of fairy tales. In 1996 Richard Pollak wrote: "The Creation of Dr. B: A Biography of Bruno Bettelheim." In 2002 Theron Raines authored "Rising to the Light: A Portrait of Bruno Bettelheim."
    (SFC, 12/29/96, BR p.1)(SSFC, 9/8/02, p.M4)(MC, 3/13/02)

1990        Jul 29, Bruno Kreisky, Austria’s longest-serving chancellor and an architect of its policy of neutrality, died at age 79.
    (AP, 7/29/00)

1990        Oct 6, Four people were killed in a balloon crash at Gaenserndorf, near Vienna.
    (AP, 2/26/13)

1991        Apr 21, Willi Boskovsky (81), Vienna Philharmonic conductor (New Year's concerts), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willi_Boskovsky)

1991        Jun 9, Pianist Claudio Arrau died in Austria at age 88.
    (AP, 6/9/01)

1991        Chancellor Franz Vranitzky admitted Austrian complicity in the Holocaust.
    (SFC, 2/10/00, p.A13)(SFC, 4/24/00, p.A12)

1991        Joerg Haider resigned as governor of Carinthia after praising Nazi Germany for having a "proper employment policy." By 1996 he led the Freedom Party, Europe’s strongest nationalist party.
    (SFC, 10/25/96, p.A16)

1992        Mar 29, Paul [G J von] Henreid (84), Austrian actor (Laszlo-Casablanca), died.
    (www.pgtw.bc.ca/histor3.htm)

1992        Nov 27, In Austria part of the Vienna Hofburg (Imperial Palace) was destroyed by fire.
    (http://tinyurl.com/93qvm)

1992        Thomas Klestil (1933-2004) became president of Austria.
    (WSJ, 7/7/04, p.A1)

1993        Dec, Vienna Mayor Helmut Zilk (1927-2008), lost part of his hand to a letter bomb. Authorities later tried and convicted right-wing extremist Franz Fuchs of sending pipe and letter bombs targeting refugees and minorities, and officials like Zilk who supported them. Fuchs, dubbed "the Austrian Unabomber," after the American mail-bomber Theodore Kaczynksi, hanged himself in his prison cell in 2000 while serving a life sentence for the string of attacks.
    (AP, 10/24/08)

1993        A new Univ. building was constructed for the Univ. of Music and Drama in Graz in the shape reminiscent of a grand piano.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.62)

1993        A new Jewish Museum opened in Vienna.
    (USAT, 9/24/04, p.3D)

1993        The Bajuvarian Liberation Army began aiming letter bombs against foreigners and figures linked to immigrant or refugee issues.
    (SFC, 10/3/96, p.A14)

1994        Oct 9, In the Austrian parliamentary election 22.6% voted extreme-right. The ruling coalition of the Social Democratic Party and the People’s Party retained a legislative majority but lost 23 seats.
    (www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-768.html)

1994        Oct, Kim Jong Ryul, a North Korean colonel who spent two decades going on European shopping sprees for his country's rulers, faked his death at the end of one of his trips and started a new, secret life in Austria in the hope that the oppressive regime would crumble within years. He left behind a wife and two children. In 2010 Austrian journalists Ingrid Steiner-Gashi and Dardan Gashi authored an account of Ryul’s work for Kim Jong Il.
    (AP, 3/5/10)

1995        Jan 1, Austria, Finland and Sweden joined the European Union. Sweden held their elections to the parliament later that year on 17 September. Austria held its elections on 13 October, 1996 and Finland on 20 October, 1996.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_European_Union)(Econ, 5/1/04, p.26)

1995        Austria established a fund to compensate Holocaust victims with payments limited to $7,000.
    (SFC, 2/10/00, p.A13)

1995        Johan Eliasch (33), Swedish-born English business executive, acquired the financially ailing Head NV from the Austrian government for $1 million plus the assumption of more than $300 million in debt.
    (WSJ, 4/7/07, p.A5)

1996        Jan 20, US Ambassador Swanee Hunt gave the Austrian government a list of sites where weapons were stockpiled by the US in the 1950s as a precaution against a Soviet takeover.
    (FB, 9/12/96, p.A9)

1996        Jun 9, The latest unemployment rate was 4.9%.
    (SFC, 6/9/96, Parade, p.9)

1996        Jun 13, About $150 billion was deposited in 26 million numbered accounts in Austria, a country of 7.5 million people. Many of the accounts were attributed to new Russian immigrants and gangs. The state prosecutor, Wolfgang Mekis, was put behind bars for trying to extort $600,000 from Valentina Hummelbrunner, the onetime receptionist of former Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko.
    (SFC, 6/13/96, p.C2)

1996        Jul 7, The average cost of a Big Mac in Austria was $3.40.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, Parade, p.17)

1996        Aug 31, The country’s first gay wedding took place in the Evangelical Church in Vienna’s Simmering district.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, p.A4)

1996        Sep 13, Pres. Thomas Klestil was admitted to Vienna Gen’l. Hospital for pneumonia.
    (SFC, 9/25/96, p.A10)

1996        Sep 24, Chancellor Franz Vranitzky began as acting head of state.
    (SFC, 9/25/96, p.A10)

1996        Oct 2, The Bajuvarian Liberation Army targeted 8 prominent people including Chancellor Frank Vranitzky.
    (SFC, 10/3/96, p.A14)

1996        Oct 13, In Austria the far-right Freedom party of Joerg Haider received 27.6% of the vote. The Conservative People’s Party led by Foreign Minister Wolfgang Schuessel won with 29.6%, while the Social Democrats got 29.1%.
    (SFC, 10/14/96, p.A12)

1997        Jan 19, Chancellor Franz Vranitzky announced his resignation after 10 years in office.
    (SFC, 1/20/96, p.A13)

1997        Mar 1, It was announced that the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra would allow Ann Lelkes, a harpist who had played with the orchestra for 26 years, to become an official member. There still existed an unofficial but firm policy against admitting members of racial or ethnic minorities.
    (SFC, 3/1/97, p.E1)

1997        Jul 22, A campaign was started to rename all public places named after poet Ottokar Kernstock, the man who wrote the words of the "Swastika Song," the election theme of Adolph Hitler’s Nazis.
    (SFC, 7/23/97, p.A11)

1997        Sep 2, Viktor E. Frankl (b. 1905), psychotherapist, died in Vienna at age 92. He was the author in the 1960s of "Man’s Search for Meaning." He developed logotherapy, a theory whose primary belief is that man’s primary motivational force is his search for meaning. His teachings are called the 3rd Vienna School of Psychotherapy after Freud and Adler. He held that one can discover the meaning of life in 3 different ways: "by creating a work or doing a deed; by experiencing something or encountering someone; and by the attitude we take toward unavoidable suffering." Frankl's autobiography, "Reflections," was translated by Joseph Fabry (d.1999 at 89) and his wife.
    (WSJ, 9/4/97, p.A1)(SFC, 9/4/97, p.C4)(SFC, 5/12/99, p.C6)

1997        Dec 11, From Austria scientists reported in Nature that they had demonstrated a form of tele-transportation. They teleported the physical condition of a photon using a phenomenon called entanglement.
    (SFC,12/11/97, p.A4)

1997         Gordon Brook-Shepherd published "The Austrians."
    (WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A16)

1997        The Austrian film "Tempo" was a first film by Stefan Ruzowitzky and followed the misadventures of a bike messenger in Vienna.
    (SFC, 1/9/98, p.D6)

1997        The Austrian film "The Unfish" was directed by Robert Dornhelm. It was about a woman who sleeps with strangers in the belly of a stuffed whale that was her dead uncle’s circus prop.
    (SFC, 1/9/98, p.D6)

1998        Feb 7, Falco (40), Austrian born pop singer, died while on vacation in an auto crash in the Dominican Republic. His hits included "Der Kommissar," "Rock Me Amadeus," and "Vienna Calling."
    (SFEC, 2/8/98, p.D8)

1998        Mar 2, Natascha Kampusch (10) vanished in Vienna, Austria, on her way to school, triggering a massive search that extended into neighboring Hungary. In 2006 Kampusch, who had been held captive in a cellar, managed to escape. Wolfgang Priklopil (44), her alleged abductor, committed suicide by jumping in front of a train. In 2007 Natascha’s mother, Brigitta Sirny authored: "Desperate Years: My life Without Natascha." In 2008 Herwig Haidinger, the former head of Austria's Federal Criminal Investigations Bureau, accused authorities of ignoring a tip in April 1998 from a local policeman that pointed to Priklopil. He also alleged that Interior Ministry officials refused to look into that accusation once Kampusch reappeared, so to avoid a scandal before parliamentary elections that fall.
    (AP, 8/24/06)(AP, 8/8/07)(AP, 2/11/08)

1998        Mar 27, Ferdinand Porsche Jr., creator of the Porsche sports car, died at age 88 in Zell am See, Austria. He was born in Wiener-Neustadt and moved to Germany with his family after WW I where his father became chief engineer of Daimler-Benz, the manufacturer of the Mercedes Benz cars. He wrote an autobiography titled "Cars Are My Life."
    (SFC, 3/28/98, p.B12)(AP, 3/27/99)

1998        Apr 19, Thomas Klestil (66) was re-elected president, a largely ceremonial post, with 63% of the vote. In Dec he planned to marry a former aide, Margot Loeffler, 22 years his junior.
    (SFC, 4/20/98, p.A10)(SFC, 12/15/98, p.C3)

1998        Apr, Pope John Paul II forced Cardinal Hans Hermann Groer, accused of sexually molesting young boys, to relinquish all duties.
    (SFC, 6/20/98, p.B3)

1998        Jun 19, Pope John Paul II visited Austria for 3 days.
    (SFC, 6/20/98, p.B3)

1998        Jul 3-5, 1998 Vienna celebrated the 400th anniversary of opera.
    (SFEC, 5/10/98, p.T3)

1998        Aug 3, In Austria Hermann Nitsch (b.1938) ignored animal rights protestors and began a 6-day festival during which he planned to kill pigs and bulls and paint pictures with their blood. This was his 100th such performance (named the 6-Day Play after its length) and it took place at his castle, Schloss Prinzendorf.
    (SFC, 8/4/98, p.E3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_Nitsch)

1998        Oct, Austria’s BAWAG bank lost some $600 million following a disastrous bet on the yen. Losses were covered by taking money from the strike fund of OGB, the federation of trade unions that owned the bank. In 2007 Helmut Elsner, head of BAWAG, went on trial along with 8 others including Walter Flottl, the former head of BAWAG, and Flottl’s son, and independent banker who arranged the yen trades.
    (Econ, 7/21/07, p.73)

1998        The Austrian film "The Inheritors" was directed by Stefan Ruzowitzky. It was about a group of peasants who inherit a farm after their employer is murdered.
    (SFC, 11/23/98, p.E1)

1998        In Austria the Vienna based Four Paws animal rights group opened a bear sanctuary for dancing bears and unwanted pet bears.
    (SFC, 7/8/02, p.A3)

1999        Jan 1, The Maastricht Treaty specified that a monetary union will be established by this date, and laid down several criteria that EU nations must fulfill in order to join. Some of the criteria included: maximum budget deficits of 3% of GDP, a cap on government debt of 60% of GDP. The European economic and monetary union (EMU) was scheduled to start with a new "Euro" currency. Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain made the transition. Public use was set for Jan 1, 2002. [see Jan 4]
    (WSJ, 9/25/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 12/5/95, p.A-14)(SFC, 11/16/96, p.A1)(SFC, 1/1/99, p.A8)

1999        Jan 4, The euro, the new money of 11 European nations, got off to a strong start on its first trading day, rising against the dollar on world currency markets and closed in New York at $1.181. A founding principal of the euro area held that national central banks be independent of their governments.
    (SFC, 1/5/99, p.C2)(AP, 1/4/00)(HN, 1/4/01)(Econ, 2/25/06, p.77)

1999        Feb, 22, It was reported that McDonald's had opened new experimental sites dubbed McCafe to compete with the local coffeehouses.
    (SFC, 2/22/99, p.A8)

1999        Feb 23, Heavy rain and snow in the Alps left 5 people dead and 13 missing in Austria, Switzerland, France and Germany. An avalanche in the Austrian Alps at Galtuer killed 9 people and at least 30 were missing. The death toll in Austria rose to 33 by Feb 25.
    (WSJ, 2/23/99, p.A1)(SFC, 2/24/99, p.A8)(WSJ, 2/26/99, p.A1)

1999        Feb 26, In Landeck, Austria, the death toll from recent avalanches reached 37.
    (SFC, 2/27/99, p.A16)

1999        Mar 7, In Austrian state elections the anti-immigration Freedom Party of Joerg Haider won 42.1% of the vote in Carinthia.
    (SFC, 3/8/99, p.A12)

1999        Apr 8, In Carinthia  far-right leader Joerg Haider was elected governor.
    (WSJ, 4/9/99, p.A1)

1999        Apr 15, Austria began accepting refugees from Kosovo. The Austrian Army and Red Cross built a camp for 5,000 refugees in Shkoder, Albania.
    (SFC, 4/27/99, p.A8)

1999        May 29, A multiple vehicle collision set off a 15-hour fire in the Tauern Tunnel and at least 12 people were killed.
    (SFC, 6/3/99, p.C4)

1999        Jun 16, Austria reported that it found animal feed contaminated with Dioxin.
    (WSJ, 6/17/99, p.A18)

1999        Jun 25-27, The Danube Island Festival was billed as Europe's largest youth party.
    (SFEC, 6/13/99, p.T3)

1999        Jul 16-18, In Wiener Neustadt the Woodstock '99 "One World" experienced music festival was projected to have an audience of 250,000.
    (SFC, 1/29/99, p.D9)

1999        Oct 3, The far-right Freedom Party (the Blues) led by Joerg Haider (49) won 2nd place behind the Social Democrats, who won with 33% of the vote. The conservative People’s Party (the Blacks) fell to 3rd place with 27%.
    (SFC, 10/2/99, p.A12)(SFC, 10/4/99, p.A12)(Econ, 11/24/07, SR p.6)

1999        Oct 12, The 3rd place Austrian People's Party refused to revive a coalition with the Social Democrats.
    (WSJ, 10/13/99, p.A1)(SFC, 10/14/99, p.A14)

1999        Oct 29, In Upper Austria police arrested 8 unidentified ringleaders of a neo-Nazi group that planned a political coup.
    (SFC, 10/30/99, p.A13)

1999        Dec 2, An explosion leveled a 3-story apartment building in Wilhelmsberg and 9 people were killed.
    (SFC, 12/3/99, p.D5)(WSJ, 12/3/99, p.A1)(SFC, 12/4/99, p.A14)

1999        Dec 4, In Austria 5 people died and 25 injured when a barrier gave way in a stampede at snow-boarding event in Bergisel Stadium in Innsbruck.
    (SFEC, 12/5/99, p.A26)

1999        Dec 29, In Austria an avalanche killed 9 German tourists hiking near Galtuer. 13 people were buried but 4 survived.
    (SFC, 12/30/99, p.A20)

2000        Jan 6, Two Austrian banks, Bank Austria and Creditanstalt, agreed to a $40 million settlement with an estimated 1,000 Holocaust victims or their heirs for having confiscated their assets.
    (SFC, 1/7/00, p.D2)

2000        Jan 19, In Austria the union-backed Social Democrats and the pro-business Austrian People's Party formed a coalition (the Reds and Blacks) to keep the right-wing Freedom Party of Joerg Haider out of the government.
    (SFC, 1/21/00, p.D2)

2000        Jan 21, In Austria the 2-day old ruling coalition collapsed.
    (SFC, 1/22/00, p.A11)

2000        Jan 31, The European Union warned Austria that its 14 members would diplomatically isolate Austria if the Freedom Party of Joerg Haider entered into a coalition government.
    (SFC, 2/1/00, p.A10)

2000        Feb 1, Wolfgang Schuessel, head of the Austrian People's Party, outlined a plan to Pres. Thomas Klestil to incorporate the Freedom Party.
    (SFC, 2/2/00, p.A18)

2000        Feb 3, In Austria Pres. Thomas Klestil swore in members of the Freedom Party after Joerg Haider signed a declaration accepting Austria's responsibility for Nazi crimes during WW II.
    (SFC, 2/4/00, p.A1)

2000        Feb 4, In Austria the new governing coalition took power and triggered diplomatic sanctions and protests.
    (SFC, 2/5/00, p.A10)

2000        Feb 19, Friedensreich Hundertwasser (b.1928), Austrian architect and artist, died. "If man walks in nature's midst, then he is nature's guest and must learn to behave as a well-brought-up guest," shortened a bit in popular literature to “You are a guest of Nature. Behave.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedensreich_Hundertwasser)

2000        Feb 28, In Austria Joerg Haider, governor of Carinthia, resigned as head of the Freedom Party. His official resignation took place May 1.
    (SFC, 2/29/00, p.A10)(SFC, 5/2/00, p.A10)

2000        Mar 28, In Niedersill, Austria, a massive avalanche killed 11 people.
    (SFC, 3/29/00, p.A15)

2000        May, The Iranian embassy in Vienna granted refuge to Holocaust denier Wolfgang Frohlich.
    (www.adl.org/presrele/holocaustdenial_83/3756_83.asp)

2000        Jul 7, The parliament approved a $415 million fund to compensate Nazi-era victims of forced labor.
    (SFC, 7/8/00, p.C14)

2000        Sep 12, The EU lifted diplomatic sanctions against Austria.
    (SFC, 9/13/00, p.A12)

2000        Oct 8, It was reported that Austria had agreed to pay $400 million to slave and forced laborers sent there by Hitler during WW II.
    (SFEC, 10/8/00, p.A28)

2000        Nov 11, In Austria a fire consumed a cable car crammed with skiers and snowboarders in an Alpine tunnel at Kitzsteinhorn mountain near Kaprun. 155 people, mostly children and teenagers, were killed. In 2008 a settlement provided relatives of the people who died a share of euro13.9 million (US$21.5 million) in compensation,
    (WSJ, 11/15/00, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/16/00, p.A1)(AP, 11/11/05)(AP, 6/17/08)

2000        Nov 19, 4 skiers died in avalanches in the Tyrol.
    (SFC, 11/20/00, p.A10)

2000        Nov 28, Liane Haid, film star, died at age 105. She had starred in 90 films between 1915 and 1942.
    (SFC, 11/30/00, p.C8)

2000        Dec 16, Joerg Haidar, a far-right Austrian leader, visited Pope John Paul II along with a 250 person delegation to present a Christmas tree from Carinthia. This provoked heavy clashes between protesters and police.
    (SSFC, 12/17/00, p.D1)

2001        Mar 25, Elections for Vienna’s City Hall showed Socialists poised to win a controlling majority.
    (SFC, 3/26/01, p.A8)

2002        Jan 1, In Europe 50 billion new euro coins and 14 billion new euro notes began circulating in 12 participating countries in the most ambitious currency changeover in history: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Luxembourg, Spain, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands and Portugal.
    (SFC, 1/2/02, p.A8)(AP, 1/1/03)

2002        Feb 26, A train wreck in Wampersdorf left 7 people dead.
    (SFC, 2/27/02, p.A7)

2002        Jul 27, In Austria a hand grenade exploded in the X-Large Disco makeshift discotheque in Linz, frequented by young Serbian and Croatian immigrants, wounding 27 teenage revelers.
    (AP, 7/27/02)

2002        Sep, In Austria the Ars Electronica Center in Linz held its annual 6-day festival with prizes, installations, lectures, seminars and concerts featuring the latest in digital and electronic media.
    (WSJ, 9/25/02, p.D8)

2002        Nov 24, In Austria Chancellor Wolfgang Schuessel's conservative party made large gains to dominate parliamentary elections.
    (AP, 11/24/02)

2003          Feb 28, In Austria a conservative-led coalition assumed governing power in Austria backed by Joerg Haider’s anti-immigrant party.
    (AP, 2/28/03)

2003        Apr 4, In Algeria 8 Austrian tourists were reported missing. Searchers using camels and helicopters equipped with heat-seeking sensors were already scouring the Sahara Desert for 21 tourists, mostly Germans, who vanished in Algeria over the past six weeks.
    (AP, 4/4/03)(SSFC, 4/6/03, p.A8)

2003        May, Heineken paid $2.2 billion for BBAG, Austria's leading beer maker.
    (Econ, 6/28/03, p.63)
2003        May, A 16th century gold-plated "Saliera," or salt cellar, by Florentine master Benvenuto Cellini, valued at $69.3 million, was stolen from Vienna's Art History Museum by a single thief when guards ignored a burglar alarm. The figurine is later recovered.
    (AP, 2/11/08)

2003        Jul 19, The first Human Tongue Transplant took place in Vienna, Austria. Tongue transplants had been performed for years on animals, but this was the first attempt at transplanting a human tongue. It was carried out at Memorial University Hospital in Vienna, Austria during a 14-hour operation by Dr. Rolf Ewers and eight surgeons. It was performed on an unidentified 42-year-old patient who was suffering from a malignant tumor affecting his tongue and jaw. Doctors believed he would ultimately be able to talk, have feeling and limited movement, but probably won’t regain the sensation of taste.
    (http://tinyurl.com/5ehhps)(http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn3964)

2003        Dec 23, Hans Koller (82), Austrian jazz saxophonist, died. In 1946 he founded the Hot Club Vienna and later launched an international career.
    (SFC, 12/24/03, p.A16)

2003        The first Homeless World Cup tournament was held in Austria with just five countries competing. The project aimed at helping homeless people turn their lives around.
    (AP, 9/29/06)

2004        Mar 7, In Austria Joerg Haider Haider's Freedom Party won 42.4 percent of the vote, compared to just over 38 percent for the rival Socialists in Carinthia province.
    (AP, 3/8/04)

2004        Apr 25, In Austria Heinz Fischer, the candidate of the opposition Social Democrats, defeated Foreign Minister Benita Ferrero-Waldner, a conservative rival backed by right-wing populist Joerg Haider in a presidential election.
    (AP, 4/25/04)

2004        May 31, In Austria a catamaran filled 27 people overturned on Hinterbruehl Grotto, Europe's largest underground lake, drowning 5 people after the boat's railings formed a cage 5 feet down on the lake floor.
    (AP, 5/31/04)

2004        Jul 6, President Thomas Klestil (71), who helped distance Austria from its Nazi past and strengthened the country's ties with emerging Eastern European democracies, died two days before he was to leave office.
    (AP, 7/7/04)

2004        Aug 10, In Austria a bus carrying mostly British tourists veered off a road in the province of Salzburg and rolled down an embankment, killing at least five people.
    (AP, 8/10/04)

2004        Oct 7, Austria's Elfriede Jelinek won the Nobel Prize for Literature for novels and plays that depict violence against women, explore sexuality and condemn far-right politics in Europe. Her books included “The Piano Teacher” (1988), which was adopted for a 2001 film.
    (AP, 10/7/04)(SFC, 10/8/04, p.A4)

2005        Jan 1, Austria was forecast for 2.4% GDP growth with a population at 8.2 million and GDP per head at $39,130.
    (Econ, 1/8/05, p.87)

2005        Apr 26, Actress Maria Schell died in Preitenegg, Austria, at age 79.
    (AP, 4/26/06)

2005        May 11, Lawmakers in Austria and neighboring Slovakia voted overwhelmingly to ratify the new European constitution, giving much-needed support to the charter intended to strengthen the 25-member European Union.
    (AP, 5/12/05)

2005        May 12, Austrian authorities reported the break up a major human trafficking ring led by Romanian, Moldovan and Ukrainian criminals who smuggled more than 5,000 East Europeans to the West, many enduring horrific conditions in tiny hiding spaces in cars, trucks and trailers.
    (AP, 5/12/05)

2005        May 30, In Graz, Austria, the body of a slain infant was found at an apartment complex. 3 more soon discovered: 2 stuffed in a basement freezer, one entombed in a paint bucket filled with concrete and one in a plastic bag beneath debris in a garden shed.
    (AP, 6/3/05)

2005        Jun 18, In Austria an explosion ripped through a pizzeria in a town in the southeastern province of Styria, killing 2 children and injuring 7, in a blast that may have been the result of an attack.
    (AP, 6/19/05)

2005        Jun 21, Austria’s Health Minister Maria Rauch-Kallat announced a cow in an alpine farm Austria has been found to be infected with mad cow disease.
    (AP, 6/21/05)

2005        Jul 4, In Austria  IAEA representatives of more than 100 countries gathered at the UN nuclear agency's Vienna headquarters to consider strengthening international laws meant to safeguard nuclear materials from theft and prevent terrorist attacks on atomic power plants.
    (AP, 7/4/05)

2005        Jun 28, Austria launched an energy exchange to trade carbon allowances in accord with the Kyoto treaty to deal with greenhouse gases.
    (Econ, 7/25/05, p.64)

2005        Jul 8, In Austria an 89-nation UN conference approved broadening a treaty meant to keep nuclear material from the hands of terrorists, opening the way for states to ratify the agreement. The Convention of the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material originally obligated the 112 countries that have accepted it to protect nuclear material during international transport. The amended version expands such protection to materials at nuclear facilities, in domestic storage and during domestic transport or use.
    (AP, 7/8/05)

2005        Aug 11, In Vienna the board of governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) unanimously approved a resolution demanding that Iran suspend all nuclear activities it resumed earlier this week.
    (AP, 8/11/05)

2005        Sep 5, In the town of Soelden, Austria, a 1,500-pound chunk of concrete being used for construction at a ski resort fell from a helicopter and hit a gondola cable, hurling dozens of passengers to the ground and killing 9 Germans. In 2006 the helicopter pilot was convicted of criminal negligence and sentenced to 15 months in prison.
    (AP, 9/5/05)(AP, 6/23/06)

2005        Sep 20, Simon Wiesenthal (96), the Holocaust survivor who helped track down Nazi war criminals following World War II, then spent the later decades of his life fighting anti-Semitism and prejudice against all people, died in Austria. In 2010 Tom Segev authored “Simon Wiesenthal: The Life and Legends.”
    (AP, 9/20/05)(Econ, 9/24/05, p.102)(SSFC, 10/3/10, p.F5)

2005        Sep 26, Archaeologists in northern Austria reported finding the remains of two newborns dating back 27,000 years while excavating a hillside near Krems. The newborns were buried beneath mammoth bones and with a string of 31 beads, suggesting that the internment involved some sort of ritual.
    (AP, 9/26/05)

2005        Oct 17, Commodities brokerage Refco Inc. said it had filed for bankruptcy protection as it struck a deal to sell its core futures brokerage business to a group of private equity investors for $768 million. BAWAG, Austria’s 4th largest bank, gave Refco a top-up loan of 350 million euros just hours before the bankruptcy. In 2007 it was revealed that Wolfgang Flottl, a hedge fund manager, had his investments sour in 1997 causing BAWAG to lose over $1 billion. The losses were hid from auditors for 7 years. Helmut Elsner, former boss of BAWAG (1995-2003), faced charges along with 8 others for the bank’s near collapse.
    (Reuters, 10/17/06)(Econ, 5/6/06, p.72)(WSJ, 1/25/06, p.A1)(Econ, 7/21/07, p.73)

2005        Nov 14, EU Council decision Nr. 2005/815/EB officially gave Vilnius, Lithuania, and Linz, Austria, status as a European Capital of Culture for the year 2009.
    (www.culturelive.lt/en/european_capitals_of_culture)

2005        Nov 17, Austria’s Interior Ministry said British historian David Irving has been arrested on a warrant accusing him of denying the Holocaust. On Dec 20, 2006, a court ruled to release Irving (68) and allow him to serve the rest of his 3 year sentence on probation.
    (AP, 11/17/05)(SFC, 12/21/06, p.A18)

2005        Dec 5, Austria officially finished paying out nearly $350 million in restitution to former slave and forced laborers compelled to work during WW II under Nazi control.
    (SFC, 12/6/05, p.A8)

2005        Dec 15, Dr. Heinrich Gross (90), a psychiatrist who worked at a clinic where the Nazis killed and conducted cruel experiments on thousands of children, died in Vienna. Gross was a leading doctor in Vienna's infamous Am Spiegelgrund clinic.
    (AP, 12/22/05)(SFC, 12/23/05, p.B5)

2005        Dec 29, Hannah Lessing, chief fund overseer, said about 3,000 people have been cleared to receive the first payments from an Austrian fund to compensate Holocaust survivors, and another 3,000 should be approved shortly.
    (AP, 12/29/05)

2006        Jan 7, Heinrich Harrer (93), an Austrian mountaineer and former Nazi who became a friend and tutor of the young Dalai Lama, died. Actor Brad Pitt played Harrer in the 1997 film "Seven Years in Tibet," which was based on Harrer's 1953 memoir of his time in Tibet.
    (AP, 1/7/06)(Econ, 1/21/06, p.83)

2006        Jan 17, Austria said it will honor an arbitration court decision and give five precious Gustav Klimt paintings to a California woman who says the Nazis stole them from her Jewish family.
    (AP, 1/17/06)

2006        Jan 24, Vienna's subway tracks cracked, German authorities shut a key canal to ships after it iced up, and a zoo moved its penguins indoors as a deadly deep freeze tightened its arctic grip on much of Europe.
    (AP, 1/24/06)

2006        Jan 28, A 2-day European conference on the future of the EU ended in Salzburg, Austria. European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso said that Europe must face globalization head-on and not shy away from the issue.
    (AP, 1/28/06)

2006        Jan 30, The University of Vienna announced that it plans to build a new Holocaust research center in honor of the late Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal.
    (AP, 1/30/06)

2006        Feb 20, In Austria right-wing British historian David Irving (67) pleaded guilty to charges of denying the Holocaust and conceded that he was wrong to say there were no Nazi gas chambers at the Auschwitz concentration camp.
    (AP, 2/20/06)
2006        Feb 20, UN mediated talks on the future status of Kosovo opened in Vienna as Serbs and ethnic Albanians staked out tough positions.
    (AP, 2/20/06)

2006        Mar 6, Austrian authorities said several cats have tested positive for the deadly strain of bird flu in their first reported case of the disease spreading to an animal other than a bird.
    (AP, 3/6/06)

2006        Mar 31, In Austria Gertraud Arzberger (33), who stuffed the bodies of two of her four newborn infants in a freezer and entombed two others in plastic buckets filled with cement, was convicted of three counts of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment. Her live-in companion, Johannes Genser (39), was convicted as an accessory and was sentenced to 15 years.
    (AP, 3/31/06)

2006        Apr 7, In Austria a 2-day meeting began in Vienna for European Imams aimed at creating a distinct identity for European Muslims.
    (SFC, 4/7/06, p.A16)

2006        Apr 9, In Austria a gathering of Imams and Islamic leaders urged European governments to launch affirmative action-style programs and streamline citizenship paths to help ease integration for the continent's 33 million Muslims.
    (AP, 4/9/06)

2006        Apr 27, Austria, in its role as current president of the EU, began a poster campaign called "Temptress Europe" designed to reawaken Europeans to the continent's "sensuous" side.
    (AP, 4/28/06)

2006        Apr, A group of Austrian priests launched the Pfarrer Initiative, or pastor initiative, a call to disobedience aimed at abolishing priestly celibacy and opening up the clergy to women to relieve the shortages of priests.
    (AP, 4/5/12)(http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pfarrer-Initiative)

2006        May 11, The EU and Latin America opened a three-day summit in Vienna with over 60 national leaders attending, including Venezuela's fiery, often anti-Washington President Hugo Chavez. Bolivian President Evo Morales said that foreign oil companies would not be compensated for oil and gas resources that have been nationalized, and European Union president Austria called for explanations.
    (AFP, 5/11/06)

2006        May, Austrian financial institutions and the government stepped in to stem a run on BAWAG, Austria’s 4th largest bank. Creditors alleged that BAWAG, owned by the OGB trade union federation, was complicit in the October 2005 bankruptcy of Refco.
    (Econ, 5/6/06, p.72)

2006        Jun 5, Austria’s Bawag PSK bank agreed to pay at least $675 million to avoid prosecution and settle bankruptcy claims for its role in the collapse of Refco Inc, a US commodities brokerage firm.
    (SFC, 6/6/06, p.C6)

2006        Jun 13, In Austria Western countries at a 35-nation UN meeting pushed for consensus on the need for Iran to freeze uranium enrichment, but diplomats said that most nonaligned countries were preparing to endorse Tehran's right to continue the work.
    (AP, 6/13/06)

2006        Jun 21, Scores of students chanting "Bush Go Home!" marched through Austria's capital to protest a visit by President Bush for the annual US-EU summit. The summit produced no breakthroughs but showed Bush moving toward better cooperation with Europe on Iran, energy, climate change and other fronts. Bush accused Iran of dragging its feet on a Western incentive package aimed at getting Tehran to suspend uranium enrichment activity.
    (AP, 6/21/06)(WSJ, 6/22/06, p.A4)(AP, 6/21/07)

2006        Jun 25, It was reported that Iran had purchased 800 high-caliber sniper rifles made by Steyr Mannlicher, an Austrian firm.
    (SSFC, 6/25/06, Par p.7)

2006        Jul 10, Fred Wander (b.1917), writer and Holocaust survivor, died in Vienna. His 1970 novel, “The Seventh Well,” describes his survival. The German edition was translated to English in 2007.
    (SFC, 12/11/07, p.D2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fred_Wander)

2006        Aug 3, Elisabeth Schwarzkopf (90), German-born opera soprano, died in Schrums, Austria.
    (SFC, 8/4/06, p.B9)

2006        Aug 9, Roland Horngacher, Vienna's top police commander, was suspended from duty on suspicion of improperly accepting gifts, including travel vouchers from the former head of an Austrian bank linked to the collapse of U.S. commodities broker Refco Inc.
    (AP, 8/10/06)

2006        Sep 17, In northern Austria a Czech bus veered off a road and into a ditch, killing 4 people and injuring 38.
    (AP, 9/17/06)

2006        Oct 1, Austrians began voting in national elections that could swing the republic back to the political center after more than six years of influence by the extreme right. Without absentee ballots, the Social Democrats won 35.7%, giving it the largest proportion of parliamentary seats. The People's Party, led by Chancellor Wolfgang Schussel, came in second with 34.2%, followed by the Freedom Party, which campaigned on an anti-foreigner platform, with 11.2%. The Greens came in fourth with 10.5%.
    (AP, 10/1/06)(AP, 10/2/06)(Econ, 10/7/06, p.60)

2006        Oct 3, Austria's government resigned, two days after the center-right coalition lost parliamentary elections. It will remain in office until a new government is formed.
    (AP, 10/3/06)

2006        Oct 5, Friedrich Karl Flick (79), Austrian billionaire industrialist, died. His father was convicted at Nuremburg in 1947 of using slave labor in Nazi Germany. In 1981 Flick became embroiled in a major postwar political party financing scandal when it surfaced that some of his managers had given millions of German marks to German political parties. Flick sold his company to Deutsche Bank in 1985.
    (AP, 10/6/06)

2006        Oct, Thousands of centipedes again plagued the western Austrian village of Roens. For the past 6 years the venomous arthropods have invaded the village in the spring and autumn, and scientists have had no explanation.
    (SFC, 10/14/06, p.C8)

2006        Nov 4, Swathes of Austria, Belgium, Croatia, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands and went dark for up to an hour in the late evening as cold Germans rushing to switch on heaters sucked up electricity from Europe's interconnected networks.
    (AP, 11/5/06)

2006        Nov 20, In Austria 35 nations tried to find common ground in a fractious session focusing on what to do about Iran's requests to the UN nuclear watchdog agency for help on projects including building a plutonium-producing reactor.
    (AP, 11/20/06)

2006        Nov 21, In Austria diplomats said most of the 35 nations at a key meeting of the UN nuclear watchdog agency have agreed to deny Iran technical aid for a plutonium-producing reactor.
    (AP, 11/21/06)

2007        Jan 8, Austria's two main political parties, the Social Democrats and the People's Party, agreed to form a new coalition government.
    (AP, 1/8/07)

2007        Jan 22, Scientists warned that glaciers will all but disappear from the Alps by 2050, and that most would be gone by 2037.
    (SFC, 1/23/07, p.A4)

2007        Feb 7, Austrian authorities said they have uncovered a major international child pornography ring involving more than 2,360 suspects from 77 countries, including hundreds in the United States, who paid to view videos of young children being sexually abused.
    (AP, 2/7/07)

2007        Mar 5, in Austria a helicopter and a small plane collided in the air and crashed near a ski slope, killing all eight people aboard the two aircraft.
    (AP, 3/5/07)

2007        Mar 8, In Austria delegates to a 35-nation meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency approved the suspension of nearly two dozen nuclear technical aid programs to Iran as part of UN sanctions imposed because its nuclear defiance.
    (AP, 3/8/07)

2007        Apr 13, An Austrian bank recently bought by a US-led consortium acknowledged it told a Cuban-born client to take her business elsewhere and suggested that Washington's ban on commerce with Cuba was behind the decision.
    (AP, 4/14/07)

2007        Apr 21, Iran signed a major gas development and production agreement with Austrian energy group OMV.
    (Reuters, 4/21/07)

2007        May 4, In Austria a standoff pitting Iran against most others delegations at a 130-nation nuclear conference deepened, with organizers adjourning the third straight session in as many days without breaking a deadlock over the language of the meeting's agenda.
    (AP, 5/4/07)

2007        May 7, In Austria a 130-nation nuclear meeting stalled for its sixth straight day after Iran refused to commit itself to a compromise meant to break a deadlock caused by Tehran's opposition to language of the gathering's agenda.
    (AP, 5/7/07)

2007        May 8, In Austria officials said Vienna's City Hall has launched a "sex hotline" to raise money for the capital's main public library. Callers paid 53 cents a minute to listen to an actress read breathless passages from erotica dating to the Victorian era.
    (AP, 5/9/07)

2007        May 11, Austrian authorities said they have arrested 40 suspects and seized thousands of videos, CDs and DVDs as part of a yearlong crackdown on child pornography. Police in Italy made two arrests in connection with the investigation, which was code-named Operation Max. The server was located in St. Petersburg, Russia, and since has been shut down.
    (AP, 5/11/07)

2007        Jun 1, Rakhat Aliyev, the Kazakh ambassador to Austria until he was dismissed on May 26, was arrested for alleged involvement in the suspected kidnapping of two senior managers of a bank he controls. He appealed to Austrian authorities not to extradite him to his homeland to face kidnapping charges.
    (AP, 6/2/07)

2007        Jun 14, In Austria Kurt Waldheim (b.1918), former UN Secretary-General (1972-1982), died. He was elected Austrian president in 1986 despite an international scandal about his secretive World War II military service for the Nazis.
    (AP, 6/14/07)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.97)

2007        Jul 6, Austrian authorities arrested Michael Berger (35), an investment banker wanted by the FBI, who fled after being convicted of securities fraud in NYC more than five years ago.
    (AP, 7/10/07)

2007        Aug 8, An Austrian federal court rejected Kazakhstan's request to have its ex-ambassador to Austria, a former son-in-law of the Central Asian nation's autocratic president, extradited to face kidnapping charges in his homeland.
    (AP, 8/8/07)

2007        Aug 31, In Vienna, Austria, negotiators from 158 countries reached basic agreement on rough targets aimed at getting some of the world's biggest polluters to reduce emissions of the greenhouse gases blamed for global warming.
    (AP, 8/31/07)

2007        Sep 7, Pope Benedict XVI paid tribute to Holocaust victims, extending his "sadness, repentance and friendship" to the Jewish people as he began a 3-day pilgrimage to Austria.
    (AP, 9/7/07)

2007        Sep 8, In Austria Pope Benedict XVI blasted Europeans for being selfish and not having enough children, in a sermon at the 850-year-old pilgrimage site of Mariazell.
    (AP, 9/8/07)

2007        Sep 11, Keyboardist Joe Zawinul (75), who played with Miles Davis and helped shape jazz fusion with his band Weather Report, died in his native city of Vienna.
    (Reuters, 9/11/07)

2007        Oct 10, Austrian authorities arrested a Turkish-born man (76) suspected of fatally shooting a younger Turkish associate (58) and slicing off the victim's penis in what investigators called an "honor killing."
    (AP, 10/11/07)

2007        Oct 11, Werner von Trapp (91), a member of the Austrian family made famous by the musical "The Sound of Music," died in Waitsfield, Vt.
    (AP, 10/11/08)

2007        In Austria Andreas K. from Wiener Neustadt stumbled onto buried treasure while turning dirt in his back yard. In 2011 Austria's department in charge of national antiquities said the trove, dating back some 650 years, consists of more than 200 rings, brooches, ornate belt buckles, gold-plated silver plates and other pieces or fragments, many encrusted with pearls, fossilized coral and other ornaments.
    (AP, 4/22/11)
2007        Foreign nationals made up nearly 10% of Austria’s population.
    (Econ, 11/24/07, SR p.8)

2008        Jan 8, In Vienna, Austria, a court convicted an accountant of embezzling $1.8 million from the Helsinki Federation for Human Rights to support his mistress, a crime that forced the respected group to fold. The 43-year-old accountant to three years in jail, two of which were suspended. His 31-year-old girl friend was sentenced to two years, 16 months of which could be served on parole.
    (AP, 1/9/08)

2008        Feb 2, An Iraqi government official said Iraq has halted oil exports to Austria's OMV, the leading oil and gas group in central Europe, to protest a deal with the self-ruled Kurdish region.
    (AP, 2/3/08)

2008        Feb 8, In western Austria a fire engulfed a home for the elderly, killing at least 11 people.
    (AP, 2/9/08)

2008        Feb 21, Hans Janitschek (73), an Austrian journalist who spent years as a UN consultant and also served as secretary general of the Socialist International organization, died suddenly at UN headquarters. Janitschek wrote several political biographies, co-authored Waldheim's autobiography and published more than a dozen books.
    (AP, 3/1/08)

2008        Feb 22, In Tunisia 2 Austrian tourists were kidnapped. Al-Qaida in Islamic North Africa later claimed responsibility and warned western tourists to stay away. The 2 tourists were released on October 31.
    (AFP, 3/11/08)(WSJ, 3/11/08, p.A1)(AP, 10/31/08)

2008        Mar 1, A violent storm plagued parts of Europe and deaths rose to 10 after two people in Poland were killed by falling objects because of hurricane-strength winds. Germany reported 2 deaths, the Czech Rep. 2 deaths and 4 more in Austria.
    (AP, 3/2/08)

2008        Mar 12, In Austria a dispute began with the opening of "Religion, Flesh and Power," a collection of about 50 paintings, drawings and sculptures, some with homo-erotic themes, by Austrian artist Alfred Hrdlicka (80). Among them is Hrdlicka's rendition of the Last Supper: a large, loosely rendered black and white etching that shows Jesus and his disciples engaging in sex acts on the table where they shared their final meal before Christ's crucifixion.
    (AP, 4/12/08)

2008        Mar 25, In western Austria some 70 vehicles were involved in a pileup on an autobahn killing one person and injuring at least 37 others.
    (AP, 3/25/08)

2008        Apr 19,     In Austria 3 men posing as policemen were shot along S1 highway, one fatally, when they tried to rob two men who turned out to be real officers.
    (AP, 4/19/08)

2008        Apr 26, In Austria police found a woman (42), missing since 1984, in the town of Amstetten following a tip. Elisabeth said her father, Josef Fritzl, had kept her captive in a cellar for almost 24 years, that he had repeatedly raped her, and that she gave birth to 7 children, one of whom later died. In November Fritzl (73) was charged with murder as well as rape, incest, false imprisonment and slavery. On March 18, 2009, Fritzl pleaded guilty to all charges against him, including homicide, after his daughter appeared unexpectedly in the courtroom. On March 19 Fritzl was convicted of homicide and sentenced him to life imprisonment in a secure psychiatric facility.
    (AP, 4/27/08)(AP, 11/13/08)(AP, 3/18/09)(AP, 3/19/09)

2008        May 14, In Austria investigators discovered the bodies of five people after a man turned up at a Vienna police station saying he had killed his wife and daughter.
    (AP, 5/14/08)

2008        Jul 1, Josef Branis (66) fatally shot four relatives in two houses in the Vienna suburb of  Strasshof after being evicted from his sister's Vienna apartment. He was arrested in August after being on the run for weeks. On Jan 27, 2009, Branis (67) was sentenced to 20 years in prison after pleading guilty.
    (AP, 1/27/09)(www.msnbc.msn.com/id/25495397/)

2008        Jul 4, In Austria 9 people, including a prominent executive who fled to France in an attempt to elude justice, were convicted of criminal charges in a major Austrian bank fraud case linked to the 2005 collapse of New York-based commodities brokerage Refco Inc. Vienna Federal Court Judge Claudia Bandion-Ortner found the defendants responsible for euro1.4 billion (US$1.9 billion) in losses at BAWAG, Austria's No. 4 bank.
    (AP, 7/4/08)

2008        Jul 7, Austria’s ruling coalition crumbled and new elections were expected as early as September. The left-right alliance broke up after 18 months in office.
    (WSJ, 7/8/08, p.A12)(Econ, 7/12/08, p.63)

2008        Jul 9, German investigators carried out raids on 600 homes in Austria, Switzerland and Germany seeking chemicals used to produce an illicit date-rape drug.
    (AP, 7/9/08)

2008        Aug 11, Fred Sinowatz (b. 1929) former Chancellor of Austria (1983 to 1986), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fred_Sinowatz)

2008        Sep 3, Swiss prosecutors said police have broken up an Internet child pornography ring operating in at least four European countries where men exchanged details about their contacts with young girls. In all investigators said they had identified 600 people in Germany, 40 in Austria, 13 in Switzerland and four in Liechtenstein using the forum.
    (AP, 9/3/08)

2008        Sep 28, Austrians voted in parliamentary elections that analysts say could bolster the standing of the country's far-right and give the main ruling parties their worst results in years. The rightist Freedom Party (18%) and the Alliance for the Future of Austria (11%), capitalized on voter discontent and got a combined 29%. The voting age had recently been lowered to 16.
    (AP, 9/28/08)(AP, 9/29/08)(Econ, 10/4/08, p.16, 56)

2008        Oct 11, Austrian politician Joerg Haider (b.1950) died in a car accident while speeding drunk. His far-right rhetoric at times sounded sympathetic to the Nazis and contemptuous of Jews and led to months of international isolation for the Alpine republic. At the time of his death, Haider was governor of the province of Carinthia and leader of the Alliance for the Future of Austria, a party he formed after breaking away from the far right Freedom Party in 2005.
    (AP, 10/11/08)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.99)

2008        Oct 17, The UN added Japan, Austria, Turkey, Mexico and Uganda as members to the 10 non-permanent seats of the Security Council, replacing Belgium, Indonesia, Italy, Panama and South Africa.
    (AP, 10/17/08)

2008        Nov 4, In Austria 2 men and a woman were arrested in the raid in the southern town of Villach. The raid on a suspected gang of international jewel thieves recovered an uncut ruby known as the "Prince of Burma" worth 3.2 million euros ($4.1 million). The ruby along with diamonds and other gems were stolen from a German jewelry dealer in Milan, Italy, in August.
    (AP, 11/6/08)

2008        Nov, The coffin of Austrian billionaire Friedrich Karl Flick (d.2006) was stolen from a cemetery in Velden, southern Austria. Thieves demanded 6 million euros ($9 million) for the coffin's return. It was found in Nov 2009 by private investigators in Budapest. A 41-year-old Hungarian lawyer, identified only as Barnabas Sz., was suspected of masterminding the crime and was in police custody. Four other suspects were still at large.
    (AP, 12/2/09)

2009        Jan 11, Slovakia reopened a nuclear power plant it was forced to shut down as part of its bid to join the European Union, prompting condemnation from neighboring Austria, which described the reactor at Bohunice as unsafe.
    (AP, 1/11/09)

2009        Jan 12, In Nigeria Susanne Wenger (93), Austrian-born sculptress, died. She had been initiated as a Yoruba traditional priestess and was responsible for towering works of art in one of Nigeria's two World Heritage sites.
    (AFP, 1/13/09)

2009        Jan 13, In Austria Umar Israilov (27), a Chechen refugee, was shot dead on a Vienna street. Officials said they had no proof the killing was political, but human rights activists said his death was linked to his opposition to Chechnya's pro-Moscow president. On Jan 28 Austrian authorities arrested seven suspects, all Chechens, in the killing. On February 19 Polish police arrested Turpal Ali J. (31), a man suspected of killing Israilov. In 2010 Austrian investigators concluded that Chechnya Pres. Ramzan Kadyrov ordered the kidnapping of one of his critics and former bodyguards and that Israilov was shot to death when the abduction went awry.  In 2011 an Austrian prosecutor sought life sentences for three Russian men on charges they carried out the murder of the Israilov.
    (AP, 1/28/09)(AP, 2/22/09)(AP, 4/27/10)(AP, 6/1/11)

2009        Jan 21, Germany banned the production, sale or possession of a synthetic marijuana-like drug known as "Spice," effective as of Jan 22, becoming the 4th nation to ban the substance, marketed as an herbal room-freshener, after Austria, the Netherlands and Switzerland.
    (AP, 1/21/09)

2009        Jan 31, The Vatican announced that the Pope has tapped the Rev. Gerhard Maria Wagner (54) to be auxiliary bishop in Linz, the capital of Upper Austria province. Wagner caused a stir in 2005 when he was quoted as saying that he was convinced that the death and destruction of Hurricane Katrina earlier that year was "divine retribution" for tolerance of homosexuals and laid-back sexual attitudes in New Orleans.
    (AP, 2/1/09)

2009        Feb 11, In Austria Mike Brennan, a teacher and former football player from Jacksonville, Florida, working in Vienna, was attacked by two undercover police officers at a subway station. The police did not identify themselves and left Brennan lying on the platform. In 2010 prosecutors charged an undercover policemen with badly beating the black American teacher after mistaking him for a drug dealer. On Jan 11, 2011, a judge convicted an undercover Austrian police officer of attacking Brennan after mistaking him for an African drug dealer and ordered him to pay a euro2,800 ($3,620) fine.
    (AP, 4/27/10)(AP, 1/11/11)

2009        Mar 19, Josias Kumpf (83), a former Nazi concentration-camp guard, was deported from Wisconsin to Austria, despite objections from his lawyer that the guard was simply present at the Trawniki Labor Camp in Poland but committed no acts of persecution [see Nov 3, 1943].
    (AP, 3/20/09)

2009        Mar, The Vienna initiative was drawn up to halt the financial contagion spreading through central and eastern Europe. The IMF and EBRD got the main foreign banks to come together in Vienna and reach a gentleman’s agreement between them and with the international financial institutions.
    (www.ebrd.com/english/pages/news/press/2010/100226a.shtml)

2009        Apr 1, In Austria Julius Meinl V (49), chairman of the Meinl Bank, was arrested in a potential $4 billion fraud case involving a real estate fund created by the bank.
    (WSJ, 4/3/09, p.C1)

2009        Apr 9, Amnesty International said immigrants and ethnic minorities living in Austria are more likely to be suspected of crimes than whites and are regularly denied their right to equal treatment by the country's police and judicial system.
    (AP, 4/9/09)

2009        Apr 29, The WHO raised its alert for swine flu from level 4 to level 5, its 2nd highest alert level. Austria and Germany confirmed cases of swine flu, becoming the third and fourth European countries hit by the disease. US health officials reported that a 23-month-old child in Texas has died from the disease. The World Health Organization called an emergency meeting to consider its pandemic alert level.
    (AP, 4/29/09)(SFC, 4/30/09, p.A8)

2009        May 2, In Austria an avalanche killed 6 hikers not far from the popular Soelden ski resort in the alpine province of Tyrol.
    (AP, 5/3/09)

2009        May 24, In Austria groups of rival worshippers at a Sikh temple in Vienna pulled knives and at least one handgun in a mass fight. 16 people were wounded and one preacher died the next day. The Vienna temple attended by lower-caste Sikhs was attacked by Sikhs from a higher caste who accused preachers of being disrespectful of the religion's Holy Book.
    (AP, 5/24/09)(AP, 5/25/09)

2009        Jun 8, Final results showed a British far-right party won its first-ever parliamentary seats in EU elections. The British National Party, which does not accept nonwhite members and calls for the "voluntary repatriation" of immigrants, won two of Britain's 72 seats in the European Parliament. Austria's Freedom Party, which also campaigned on an anti-Islam platform, more than doubled its share of the vote to 13.1%. Hungary's Jobbik party, which describes itself as Euro-skeptic and anti-immigration and wants police to crack down on what it calls "Gypsy crime," won three of the country's 22 seats and almost 15% of the vote. The Greater Romania Party, which is, among other things, pro-religion, anti-gay and anti-Hungarian, made surprise gains, winning almost 9% of the vote and taking two of Romania's 33 seats. A bloc of center-right parties remained the largest group.
    (AP, 6/8/09)

2009        Jul 13, Turkey and four EU countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary) formally agreed to route the Nabucco natural gas pipeline across their territories, pushing ahead with a US- and EU-backed attempt to make Europe less dependent on Russian gas.
    (AP, 7/13/09)(Econ, 7/18/09, p.47)

2009        Aug 2, In Austria researchers unveiled two piano pieces recently identified as childhood creations by Mozart (1756-1791). He likely wrote the two newly attributed pieces when he was 7 or 8 years old, with his father, Leopold, transcribing the notes as his son played them at the keyboard.
    (www.usatoday.com/life/music/news/2009-08-02-new-mozart_N.htm)
2009        Apr 2, Austrian authorities arrested British-born Julius Meinl V (b.1959), head of Meinl Bank, for suspected breach of trust and deception of investors in a potential $4 billion fraud case involving a real estate fund created by the bank. He had spun much of his family’s property portfolio into Meinl European Land (MEL). By 2007 MEL had lost €1.8 billion in an attempt to support its share price. He was released after posting a €100 million bail.
    (Econ, 8/1/09, p.60)(WSJ, 4/3/09, p.C1)

2009        Sep 18, In Vienna, Austria, a 150-nation IAEA nuclear conference passed a resolution directly criticizing Israel and its atomic program for the first time in 18 years. Iran hailed the vote as a "glorious moment." 49 voted for the resolution. 45 were against and 16 abstained from endorsing or rejecting he document.
    (AP, 9/18/09)

2009        Oct 20, Talks in Vienna meant to persuade Iran to send most of its enriched uranium abroad, and thus delay its potential to make a nuclear weapon, bogged down over fierce Iranian resistance to French participation.
    (AP, 10/20/09)

2009        Nov 17, California Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger visited his native Austria.
    (AP, 11/18/09)

2009        Dec 1, In Vienna Japanese diplomat Yukiya Amano took the helm of the UN atomic watchdog (IAEA), pledging a steady hand to steer the agency through the storm surrounding Iran's nuclear drive. Mohamed ElBaradei (67), the outgoing Egyptian chief of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), handed over his leadership to Yukiya Amano.
    (AP, 11/30/09)(AFP, 12/1/09)

2009        Dec 5, Austrian artist Alfred Hrdlicka (81) died. His controversial works in metal, paint and pencil alienated as much as attracted the public.
    (AP, 12/5/09)

2009        Dec 10, Austria’s parliament passed legislation allowing same-sex couples to enter into civil unions. The bill was slated to become law on Jan 1.
    (SFC, 12/11/09, p.A2)

2009        Dec 14, Austria’s Finance Minister Josef Proell said Austria will nationalize the Hypo Group Alpe-Adria to prevent its collapse. The bank with assets across the Balkans went on to lose $634 million in the first half of 2010.
    (Econ, 9/11/10, p.63)

2009        Dec, Police in Uruguay seized a large amount of cocaine from an anchored yacht as part of an operation dubbed “Balkan Warrior.” 2.7 tons were seized in the operation. In 2010 Serbia indicted Darko Saric, a Serb citizen from Montenegro, and 19 associates of smuggling drugs from South America to Europe. Saric disappeared but financial documents linked him to companies registered in the Marshall Islands and Delaware via the Bank of Cyprus and an Austrian bank in Montenegro, a branch of Hypo Group Alpe-Adria. 
    (Econ, 5/8/10, p.56)(Econ, 9/11/10, p.63)

2010        Jan 14, Austrian scientists stopped a 2-week old avalanche experiment that involved burying pigs in snow and monitoring their deaths, following vehement protests by animal rights activists.
    (SFC, 1/15/10, p.A2)

2010        Feb 16, In Austria 14 countries and the European Commission adopted the Danube River Basin Management Plan, a cleanup plan for the Danube River and its tributaries. Participating countries included Austria, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Montenegro, Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine.
    (AP, 2/16/10)

2010        Mar 12, Austrian government officials said they have identified at least two mass graves of some 70 Nazi victims on property used by the army. The victims were concentration camp inmates and others, all killed by the SS to eliminate witnesses to Nazi atrocities shortly before Soviet troops arrived.
    (AP, 3/12/10)

2010        Mar 23, Austria’s Graz-Seckau diocese said a priest has resigned after admitting he abused a 17-year-old boy. The priest reportedly stepped down of his own accord for the abuse that happened more than 20 years ago on a vacation. 2 other priests have also been suspended as a precautionary measure because one was convicted of committing a homosexual act with a 17-year-old and the other was convicted of exhibitionism in cases dating back about 15 and 20 years.
    (AP, 3/23/10)

2010        Apr 25, Austria's president easily secured a second term, deflecting a challenge by a far-right politician who had criticized the country's anti-Nazi law. Incumbent Heinz Fischer, a Social Democrat, won 78.9 percent of the vote, trouncing his main rival, Barbara Rosenkranz  of the anti-foreigner and anti-European Union Freedom Party, who netted 15.6 percent.
    (AP, 4/25/10)
2010        Jun 25, In Austria the world's largest gold coin has been sold at auction for euro3.27 million ($4 million). The 2007 maple leaf coin with a face value of 1 million Canadian dollars ($960,000) weighed 220 pounds (100 kg) with a diameter of 21 inches (53 cm).
    (AP, 6/26/10)

2010             Jun 27, It was reported that Vienna residents have become victims of burglary in recent weeks. The Austrian interior ministry suspected that many of the burglars were from the Republic of Georgia and were supported by the Georgian Mafia. The alleged local head, a restaurant owner in Vienna, has been arrested. Police suspected the burglaries were part of plan to finance a coup against Georgian Pres. Saakashvili.
            (SSFC, 6/27/10, p.A4)

2010        Jun 29, Rudolf Leopold (85), renowned Austrian museum director and art collector, died. He is credited with assembling the country's largest and most important private art collection.
    (AP, 6/29/10)

2010        Oct 10, In Austria the far-right anti-immigration Freedom party drew 27% of the vote in local elections in Vienna giving them 28 seats in the regional parliament.
    (SFC, 10/11/10, p.A2)

2010        Oct 19, In Austria tens of thousands of students, backed by university staff, marched to demand more money for higher education.
    (SFC, 10/20/10, p.A2)

2010        Oct 21, In Austria Christian Kandlbauer (22), man who was able to drive because of an innovative high-tech artificial arm, died. He had been in intensive care since Oct 19 after his vehicle veered off the road and into a tree. It was unclear whether the crash was caused by problems with Kandlbauer's artificial arms.
    (AP, 10/22/10)

2010        Nov 10, In an extensive interview with the Die Presse daily, Ambassador Kadri Ecved Tezcan said Austria was pushing people of Turkish origin to the fringes of society instead of learning to live with them and benefiting from their skills.
    (AP, 11/10/10)

2010        Dec 3, In Vienna, Austria, the 35-nation board of the International Atomic Energy Agency approved an IAEA-run repository for nuclear fuel, in a move meant to limit proliferation by making domestic uranium enrichment programs superfluous.
    (AP, 12/4/10)

2010        Dec 10, Police in Croatia issued an international arrest warrant overnight for former PM Ivo Sanader, who left the country just as it became clear that prosecutors wanted him investigated and detained on corruption charges. Sanader was arrested on an international warrant in Austria.
    (AP, 12/10/10)(AP, 12/11/10)

2011        Feb 10, Austrian police said vandals have destroyed a 500-year-old grapevine in the village of St. Georgen that was believed to have been a direct ancestor of the popular gruner veltliner wine, known as gru-vee in the US.
    (SFC, 2/11/11, p.A2)

2011        Mar 3, Austria detained Serbian colonel Jovan Divjak (73) on a Serbian warrant. He had defected to Bosnia's army at the start of the conflict between the two sides. Divjak awaited a hearing on whether he should be extradited on suspicion of war crimes.
    (AP, 3/4/11)

2011        May 9, An Austrian court approved the extradition of former Croatian PM Ivo Sanader to his homeland where he is suspected of corruption while in office.
    (AP, 5/9/11)

2011        May 25, Austrian authorities filed incitement charges against a right-wing politician for commissioning a video game that required players to target and stop mosques, minarets and muezzins as they pop up on a screen.
    (AP, 5/25/11)

2011        May, In Austria a 26-year-old, identified only as Yusuf O., was detained on a German arrest warrant. The German national of Turkish descent was suspected of involvement with the German Taliban Mujahideen, a fundamentalist group that prosecutors say seeks to carry out attacks in Afghanistan and Pakistan and found a "religious fundamentalist society" there.
    (AP, 6/18/11)

2011        Jun 16, Austrian police said they have arrested four men suspected of involvement in a terrorist organization that is committed to founding a "religious fundamentalist society" in Afghanistan and responsible for attacks there.
    (AP, 6/16/11)

2011        Jun 20, Austrian police said they have arrested a 25-year-old terrorist suspect identified only as Thomas al-J. in Vienna last week. He allegedly supports the radical Islamist German Taliban Movement and considered a Sept. 11-style attack that would involve flying a plane into the Reichstag, Germany's parliament in Berlin.
    (AP, 6/20/11)

2011        Jul 8, A 225-page international review showing wide variances of Internet freedom gave Finland the best marks for making citizens' access to a broadband connection a legal right. The report was presented at OSCE headquarters in Vienna.
    (AP, 7/8/11)

2011        Jul 29, An Austrian court rejected an extradition request from Serbia for Jovan Divjak, a former general in the Bosniak army, ruling that his right to a fair trial on suspicion of war crimes would be in doubt.
    (AP, 7/29/11)

2011        Aug 25, Austrian officials said they are investigating allegations that a man locked up his two mentally disabled daughters in a small room in their home, sexually abused them for 41 years. The women have accused the 80-year-old of repeatedly raping them between 1970 and May 2011. The alleged victims are now 53 and 45 years old. The Austrian man, held for around two weeks on suspicion that he regularly raped his daughters for 41 years, was freed on Sep 9 after the two women changed their story.
    (AP, 8/25/11)(AP, 9/9/11)

2011        Sep 13, In Austria a 35-nation meeting of the UN nuclear agency adopted a post-Fukushima nuclear safety plan, despite gripes by influential member nations that it to too timid for making compliance voluntary.
    (AP, 9/13/11)

2011        Sep 23, Islamic nations at a 151-nation IAEA conference in Vienna demanded that Israel open its nuclear program to international purview, asserting that its undeclared atomic arms program is a threat to Mideast peace.
    (AP, 9/23/11)

2011        Oct 13, In Austria a Saudi-backed interfaith center, the "King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz International Center for Interreligious and Intercultural Dialogue," was inaugurated in Vienna, igniting debate over the subject of religious tolerance.
    (AP, 10/13/11)

2011        Oct 14, An Austrian court found right-wing politician Gerhard Kurzmann not guilty of charges of incitement for posting a video game called "Moschee Baba," that required players to target and stop mosques, minarets and muezzins as they appear on a screen.
    (AP, 10/14/11)

2011        Oct 17, Austrian officials said an investigation will be launched into claims by 2 women that they and 18 other girls at the Schloss Wilhelminenberg foster home, run by the city of Vienna, were raped in the 1970s. The sisters, now 47 and 49, alleged the abuse began when they were 6 and 8, and ended in their early teens. 343 former foster children who were wards of the city have turned to Weisser Ring, non-governmental victims' organization, with reports of being abused at the Schloss Wilhelminenberg alone since investigations began last year.
    (AP, 10/17/11)(AP, 10/18/11)

2011        Nov 18, In Austria the US and its Western allies bluntly accused Iran of deceiving the world and declared it could no longer dismiss evidence it is working secretly on making nuclear arms.
    (AP, 11/18/11)

2012        Apr 29, In Austria the body of former Libyan oil minister Shukri Ghanem (69), was found floating in the Danube river. Police said he died from drowning.
    (AP, 4/30/12)

2012        Jun 22, Austrian prosecutors filed a criminal complaint against lobbyist Alfons Mensdorff-Pouilly, suspected of bribery and money laundering while working for the British aerospace giant BAE Systems from 2000 to 2008.
    (AFP, 6/22/12)

2012        Jun 27, Austrian police stopped 3 overloaded vans about to ross into Hungary and found them packed with 9.5 tons of stolen garlic, valued at $37,500, apparently coming from Spain.
    (SFC, 6/28/12, p.A2)

2012        Jul 4, Austrian police said they have identified 272 suspects in the country as part of a months long investigation of internet-based child pornography involving 141 nations.
    (AP, 7/4/12)

2012        Jul 18, Austria’s University of Innsbruck said that archeologists found four linen bras dating from the Middle Ages in an Austrian castle. Fashion experts described the find as surprising because the bra had commonly been thought to be only little more than 100 years old as women abandoned the tight corset.
    (AP, 7/19/12)

2012        Oct 14, Austrian daredevil Felix Baumgartner plummeted into the record books, breaking the mark for highest-ever skydive after leaping from a balloon more than 24 miles above New Mexico and going supersonic at Mach 1.24, or 833.9 mph.
    (SFC, 10/15/12, p.A5)

2012        Nov 26, In Austria ceremonies were held to launch a Saudi-sponsored and funded center in Vienna meant to promote dialogue between the world's main religions. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon spoke and urged Israel and Hamas to respect their cease-fire.
    (AP, 11/27/12)

2013        Jan 10, An Austrian court convicted Gottfried Kuessel and two accomplices of glorifying Nazism through a website and sentenced them to prison terms of up to 9 years.
    (SFC, 1/11/13, p.A2)

2013        Jan 20, Austria held a referendum on the future of its army. Austrians voted overwhelmingly to retain their conscript army, with preliminary results showing around 60% rejecting the proposed shift to a professional force.
    (AP, 1/20/13)

2013        May 3, In Geneva, Austria, more than 100 nations concluding a round of global nuclear talks expressed alarm that many nuclear weapons are kept at a high-alert level and are still being modernized, despite a promise to get rid of them.
    (AP, 5/3/13)

2013        Jun 4, Flooding continued along the Danube and other southern European rivers. The dead included 8 people in the Czech Republic, 4 in Germany, 4 in Austria and one in Slovakia.
    (AP, 6/5/13)

2013        Jun 6, Syrian rebels captured a crossing point along a cease-fire line with Israel in the contested Golan Heights. Austria announced that it is withdrawing the country's 377 UN peacekeepers from the Golan Heights after the Syrian conflict briefly spilled over to an area near their position.
    (AP, 6/6/13)

2013        Jun 9, At least 21 flood-related deaths have been reported in central Europe. A week of heavy rains and flooding caused extensive damage in central and southern Germany, the Czech Republic, Austria, Slovakia and Hungary.
    (AP, 6/9/13)

2013        Sep 29, Austrians voted in general elections. The two main centrist political parties scraped together a majority, exit polls showed, enough for their coalition to continue but with the far-right a close third.
    (AFP, 9/29/13)

2013        Oct 9, Austrian Chancellor Werner Faymann's Social Democrats (SPO) got the task of forming a new government and hoped to rebuild their alliance with the conservatives to stave off the eurosceptic far right.
    (Reuters, 10/9/13)

2013        Oct 24, An Austrian student group fighting for online privacy in Europe got the go-ahead for a legal challenge in Ireland's High Court over the transfer of personal data to a US spy agency.
    (Reuters, 10/24/13)

2013        Oct 26, Austrian authorities seized 500 kg (about 1,100 pounds) of cannabis during a routine check on a camping van entering southern Austria from Slovenia. Two Italian men were arrested.
    (AP, 10/27/13)

2013        Nov 4, In Vienna 7 Austrian neo-Nazis were sentenced to up to six years in prison. The members of the so-called Objekt 21, which witnesses linked to an illegal prostitution network, were convicted of "re-engagement with National Socialism" - a crime in Austria since 1947.
    (Reuters, 11/5/13)

2013        Nov 20, The European Commission said Austria should pay a daily fine of more than 40,000 euros ($54,000) for breaking EU policy on renewable energy.
    (Reuters, 11/20/13)

2013        Dec 4, OPEC leaders meeting in Austria agreed to hold its crude production ceiling at 30 million barrels per day despite oversupply concerns and competition from cheaper shale oil.
    (AP, 12/4/13)

2013        Dec 18, In Austria a wave of protests against the new government escalated as tens of thousands of civil servants demonstrated in Vienna for better pay and an end to a hiring freeze.
    (Reuters, 12/18/13)

2014        Jan 11, In Austria two men died after a hand grenade apparently exploded in their Bulgarian-registered car in Vienna.
    (AP, 1/11/14)

2014        Jan 17, Austria's government agreed to raise the wages of its 200,000 civil servants by 1.9 percent this year after big protests against the new government.
    (Reuters, 1/17/14)

2014        Feb 1, Austrian-born actor Maximilian Schell (b.1930), a fugitive from Adolf Hitler who became a Hollywood favorite and won an Oscar for his role as a defense attorney in "Judgment at Nuremberg" (1961), died overnight in Innsbruck.
    (AP, 2/1/14)

2014        Feb 2, Tens of thousands of people are without electricity in Austria, Croatia and Slovenia after icy rain and sleet caused major disruptions. Hundreds of motorists were evacuated overnight from their vehicles in Serbia, where massive snow drifts have caused widespread travel chaos.
    (AP, 2/2/14)

2014        Feb 19, In Austria ambitious nuclear talks between Iran and six world powers entered a second day in Vienna with Tehran's foreign minister saying a deal was achievable.
    (AFP, 2/19/14)

2014        Feb 28, Switzerland, Austria and Liechtenstein moved to freeze assets and bank accounts of up to 20 Ukrainians including ousted president Viktor Yanukovich and his son, after Ukraine's new rulers said billions had gone missing.
    (Reuters, 2/28/14)

2014        Mar 12, Austria arrested Ukrainian businessman Dmytro Firtash at the request of the USA which has been investigating him since 2006. He was suspected of violating laws on bribery and forming a criminal organization in the course of foreign business deals. On March 21 Firtash was released on 125 million-euro ($172.5 million) bail.
    (Reuters, 3/13/14)(AP, 3/21/14)

2014        Apr 9, In Vienna, Austria, Iran and six major powers discussed all important issues on curbing Tehran's nuclear program and planned to begin a new round of negotiations in Vienna on May 13.
    (Reuters, 4/9/14)

2014        Apr 26, In Austria an explosion at a residential building in Vienna killed one person and left an other missing.
    (SSFC, 4/27/14, p.A7)

2014        May 6, Austrian Finance Minister Michael Spindelegger said a group of 11 European Union countries have agreed to introduce a financial transaction tax from 2016 onward.
    (AP, 5/6/14)

2014        May 10, Austrian bearded drag queen Conchita Wurst, the alter ego of 25-year-old Thomas Neuwirth (25), won the Eurovision Song Contest.
    (AP, 5/11/14)

2014        May 29, Karlheinz Boehm (86), an Austrian actor and human rights activist, died. In 1981 he founded the Menschen fuer Menschen ("People for People") aid group dedicated to helping people in Ethiopia.
    (AP, 5/30/14)

2014        Jun 17, Austrian police said a Romanian woman (40) was imprisoned, raped and repeatedly beaten in a house in Styria for more than a month before escaping when her attacker got drunk. Police arrested a Romanian man (49) in connection with the imprisonment and attacks.
    (Reuters, 6/17/14)

2014        Jul 1, In Austria a man accused of traveling to Syria to receive weapons training from Islamist militants was sentenced to 21 months in jail. The verdict was subject to appeals from both the prosecution and the defense.
    (Reuters, 7/1/14)

2014        Oct 13, Austria's top court reduced on appeal to three years a jail term imposed on an Ernst Strasser, an ex-European Parliament member, for offering to propose amendments to laws in exchange for 100,000 euros ($126,830) a year.
    (Reuters, 10/13/14)

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