Timeline Bahrain

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http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/bhtoc.html
Bahrain is made up of one large island linked to Saudi Arabia by a 13-mile causeway, plus several smaller islands. Its capital is Manama.
    (Econ, 7/31/04, p.41)(Econ, 9/11/10, p.58)
An early archeological find in Bahrain is a letter of credit carved in stone.
    (WSJ, 4/5/96, p.A-4)

2.2k BC    In what is now Bahrain settlements and temples of the city state of Dilmun, known as the city of the gods in ancient Sumerian literature, were found by Danish archaeologists in the 1950s. A culture contemporary with the city state of Dilmun (now Bahrain) was found in 1959 on the island of Umm-an-Nar off of Abu Dhabi.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.48)

355BC-323BC        The use of coins in Bahrain can be traced back to the days of Alexander the Great according to a history published by the Bahrain Monetary Agency.
    (WSJ, 4/5/96, p.A-4)

1932        May 31, Socal, formerly Standard Oil of California, discovered oil in Bahrain. This was the 1st middle eastern oil discovered by an American firm.
    (SFC, 10/20/04, p.C6)(www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/199901/prelude.to.discovery.htm)

1939        The first Catholic church in the Gulf was opened in Bahrain's capital, Manama.
    (AP, 3/14/08)

1943        Two American oil firms decided to expand their refinery in Bahrain and hired Bechtel. Capacity was doubled to 65,000 barrels per day.
    (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.A8)

1961        Sheik Isa ibn Salman Khalifa became emir upon the death of his father, Sulman.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99, p.D8)

1970        Iran dropped its territorial claims on Bahrain.
    (Econ, 9/11/10, p.58)

1971        Aug 15, Bahrain proclaimed independence after 110 years of British rule. December 16, 1971, is the date of independence from British protection.
    (http://ixpats.com/bahrain.html)

1971        Dec 16, Bahrain, which had declared independence on Aug 15, won independence from British protection.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99, p.D8)(AP, 12/17/02)(http://ixpats.com/bahrain.html)

1973        Oct 16, OPEC, the Arab oil-producing nations, announced they would begin cutting back on oil exports to Western nations and Japan. The next day, the five Arab members of the OPEC committee were joined in Kuwait by the oil ministers of Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Libya, and Syria. The result was a total embargo that lasted until March 1974 and caused oil prices to quadruple.
    (www.harvardir.org/articles/1659/)(AP, 10/17/97)(WSJ, 7/28/03, p.A8)

1973        A new constitution established a Bahrain national assembly.
    (SFC, 12/25/00, p.B2)

1975        The Bahrain national assembly was dissolved.
    (SFC, 12/25/00, p.B2)

1977        Nov 21, The 1st commercial flight of the Anglo-French Concorde jet was from London to Bahrain.
    (www.britishairways.com/concorde/faq.html#4)

1978        May, The Bahrain Telephone Company began operating a commercial cellular telephone system. It probably marks the first time in the world that individuals started using what we think of as traditional, mobile cellular radio.
    (http://tinyurl.com/36e848)

1981        May 25, Sheik Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan (1918-2004), United Arab Emirates President, urged in 5 other Arab monarchies (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia) to form the Gulf Cooperation Council. The unified economic agreement between the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council was signed on 11 November 1981 in Riyadh.
    (Econ, 11/20/04, p.90)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_Cooperation_Council)

1984        Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) members (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia, UAR) agreed on the creation of a two-brigade (10,000 troops) Peninsula Shield Force, based in Saudi Arabia near the Kuwaiti and Iraqi borders.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peninsula_Shield)

1994         Dec 17, In Bahrain Hani al-Wasti (25) and Hani Khamees (26) were the first of more than 40 people killed in the political upheaval among the Shiites.
    (AP, 12/17/02)

1995        The Bahrain parliament was dissolved by the ruling al-Khalifa family.
    (WSJ, 1/3/96, p.A-12)   

1995         Bahrain stored 18 US jets.
    (WSJ, 10/24/95, p.A-1)

1995        Bahrain became the headquarters for the U.S. Navy's 5th Fleet.
    (www.fas.org/asmp/profiles/bahrain.htm)

1996         Jan, Bahrainís ruling al-Khalifa family, followers of the Sunni branch of Islam, put down new protests by dissidents of the Shiite branch.
    (WSJ, 1/3/96, p.A-12)   

1996         Jan, Bahrain Opposition leaders claim that 2,000 people were arrested by government authorities after protesting for the restoration of the parliament.
    (WSJ, 1/25/96, A-1)

1996        Feb, A Bahrain luxury hotel was bombed and 4 people were injured. An Islamic group claimed responsibility.
    (WSJ, 2/12/96, p.A-1)

1996        Mar 27, A dissident was executed in Bahrain for murdering a police officer. It was the first execution in 20 years and set off street battles and arrests.
    (WSJ, 3/27/96, p.A-1)

1996        Jun 3, The Bahrain government said that 29 militants confessed last month to be trained by Iran to topple the ruling Al Khalifa family and install a Shiite Muslim government.
    (SFC, 6/4/96, p.A11)

1996        Jun 10, Iran offered to mediate between Bahrain and its Shiite opposition and denied any involvement in the recent plot to topple the government.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A16)

1996        Aug 22, A new environmental anti-pollution laws went into effect in Bahrain.
    (SFC, 8/22/96, p.E3)

1996        Sep 15, Defense Secretary William Perry was making the rounds among American allies in the Persian Gulf region, seeking additional support for the U.S. stance against Iraq. Bahrain agreed to play host to 26 American F-16 jet fighters.
    (AP, 9/15/97)

1998        Jun 13, It was reported that the Old World Screwworm had broken out in Iraq, Kuwait and Bahrain. 19 people were reported infected by the disease in which carnivorous larvae hatch from eggs laid in broken skin.
    (SFC, 6/13/98, p.A7)

1999        Mar 6, The emir of Bahrain, Sheik Issa bin Salman Al Khalifa (65), a key Western ally who had ruled for nearly four decades, died shortly after a meeting with Defense Secretary William Cohen. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Crown Prince Hamed ibn Issa Khalifa (49). King Hamed al-Khalifa soon ended a 25-year-long state of emergency.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99, p.D8)(AP, 3/6/00)(WSJ, 10/25/01, p.A1)(Econ, 11/25/06, p.46)

1999        Jul 7, The top Bahrain dissident, Sheik Abdul-Ameer al-Jamri, was sentenced to 10 years in prison and fined $15 million after he was convicted of spying and inciting unrest. He was freed the next day with an amnesty.
    (WSJ, 7/8/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 7/9/99, p.A1)

1999        Fall, Princess Meriam Al Khalifia (19) of Bahrain eloped with US Marine Pfc. Jason Johnson (25). Johnson smuggled her into the US. In 2000 she faced deportation by the US State Dept.
    (SFC, 7/22/00, p.A20)(SFC, 7/25/00, p.A5)

2000        Aug 23, In Bahrain a Gulf Air Airbus A320 crashed on approach to Manama and all 143 people aboard were killed including 36 children.
    (SFC, 8/24/00, p.A1)

2000        Dec 24, It was reported that Bahrainís emir, Sheikh Hamad, would allow a vote on a new national charter that would make the country a constitutional monarchy.
    (SFC, 12/25/00, p.B2)

2000        Dec 31, Six Persian Gulf nations (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) signed a regional defense pact.
    (SFC, 1/1/01, p.A10)

2000        Bahrainís Sheikh Hamad emptied the jails of political dissidents, abolished draconian security laws, promised to hold free municipal elections in 2002 and elections for a new parliament in 2003.
    (WSJ, 10/25/01, p.A1)

2001        Sep 23, The 6-member Persian ďGulf Cooperation Council" met in Jidda and pledged support for an intíl. coalition against terrorism.
    (SFC, 9/24/01, p.A7)

2002        Feb 14, Bahrainís Sheikh Hamad bin Isa al-Khalifa declared himself king and approved plans for a constitutional monarchy. Parliamentary elections were scheduled for October and municipal elections in May. Women were to be allowed to vote and stand as candidates for the 1st time. Foreigners would be allowed to vote under certain conditions.
    (SFC, 2/15/02, p.A10)(WSJ, 2/15/02, p.A14)

2002        May 9, Voters cast ballots in elections for 50 municipal seats. Bahraini women were allowed to vote and run for office for the 1st time, though none were elected.
    (SFC, 5/10/02, p.A20)

2002        Sep 14, In Lackawanna, New York, 5 men of Yemeni descent were charged with supporting foreign terrorist organizations. They reportedly were schooled in the tools of terror, including the use of suicide as a weapon, in camps run by Osama bin Laden's al-Qaida network. A 6th member of the cell was arrested in Bahrain.
    (AP, 9/15/02)(SFC, 9/17/02, p.A12)

2002        Oct 24, Bahrain held its first legislative elections in nearly 30 years. Results showed a mix of secularist and Islamic candidates winning seats, with two women securing places in run-off polls. The Shia opposition boycotted the election and this led to a heavily Sunni-dominated parliament.
    (AP, 10/25/02)(Econ, 7/31/04, p.41)

2002        Nov 1, In Bahrain Islamic and secular candidates won run-off votes for seats in the parliament, according to final results. 2 women lost in run-off races.
    (AP, 11/1/02)

2002        Dec 14, Sheik Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, king of Bahrain, inaugurated the first parliament in nearly 30 years.
    (AP, 12/14/02)

2002        The Bahrain constitution decreed by Sheik Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa kept half the legislatureís seats for his appointees and hobbled its power to initiate laws or question officials.
    (Econ, 7/31/04, p.41)

2002        A Singapore company, Events HQ Intíl., set up a summer festival in Bahrain that featured a Russian Buran space shuttle.
    (WSJ, 4/11/05, p.A18)

2003        Oct 2, In Bahrain assailants hurled gasoline bombs at a busload of police officers, wounding five of them.
    (AP, 10/3/03)

2004        Jul 5, US military families planned to leave Bahrain in the next few days following reports terrorists were planning attacks here.
    (AP, 7/5/04)

2004        Aug 23, Electricity went out across Bahrain, snarling rush hour traffic and leaving residents without air conditioning as temperatures climbed toward 130 Fahrenheit.
    (AP, 8/23/04)

2004        Bahrainís population was about 675,000. 70% were Shia under a Sunni royal family.
    (Econ, 7/31/04, p.41)(Econ, 4/5/08, p.52)

2005        May 6, In Bahrain about 5,000 citizens jammed a main road in the capital, waving red and white Bahraini flags in the 2nd rally for constitutional reforms in a month.
    (AP, 5/7/05)

2005        Nov 5, Three Bahraini men returned home after being released from the US military detention facility at Guantanamo Bay. Bahraini authorities vowed to keep pressing Washington to free three remaining detainees.
    (AP, 11/5/05)

2005        Nov 12, In Bahrain a US-backed Mideast democracy and development summit ended in rancor despite adoption of two initiatives that are part of President Bush's push to expand political freedom in a region dominated by monarchies and effective single-party rule.
    (AP, 11/12/05)

2006        Jan 12, In Bahrain an official said Prince Faisal (15), the sixth son of the king, Sheik Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, was killed in an accident while driving a car.
    (AP, 1/12/06)

2006        Mar 10, In Bahrain riot police clashed with demonstrators burning tires and garbage at a suburban shopping center in Manama, and at least 11 people were wounded. The demonstration began as a peaceful protest by about 175 people who were demanding the release of 20 supporters of a cleric who have been detained since Dec 24. The government did not want demonstrations while the tiny island state hosted thousands of foreigners who had come for the Formula 1 Grand Prix on Mar 12.
    (AP, 3/10/06)

2006        Mar 30, A cruise boat carrying some 130 people capsized in calm Gulf waters only a few hundred yards off the Bahrain coast. 58 people were killed. In 2007 the owner of a dinner cruise boat was convicted of involuntary manslaughter and sentenced to 10 years in jail.
    (SFC, 3/31/06, p.A11)(AP, 4/2/07)(AP, 5/24/07)

2006        Jun 8, Sheikha Haya Rashed Al Khalifa, a pioneering lawyer and women's rights advocate from Bahrain, was elected UN General Assembly president, the first woman from the Middle East to take the post.
    (AP, 6/8/06)

2006        Jul 30, In Bahrain 16 Indian workers died when a fire broke out in the building where they lived in the capital Manama. The six-storey building housed some 300 workers, mostly Indians, working for a contracting company.
    (AFP, 7/30/06)

2006        Oct 15, Salah Abdulrahim al Blooshi, a former detainee in the US prison at Guantanamo Bay, returned home to Bahrain after being held for five years. Two other Bahrain nationals remain in custody at Guantanamo Bay, where the US holds about 450 men on suspicion of links to al-Qaida or the Taliban.
    (AP, 10/15/06)

2006        Oct 17, Bahrain said Lateefa al-Geood, a British-educated civil servant, has become the first-ever female to serve as an elected member of the parliament. 18 women were among 221 candidates vying for seats in the 40-member assembly in the Nov. 25 vote. Al-Geood was the only candidate who registered to run in her region.
    (AP, 10/17/06)

2006        Nov 25, Bahrain, an island nation of 700,000 citizens, held elections. More than 200 candidates vied for the National Assembly's 40-seat lower house. 40 members of the upper chamber are appointed by King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, who can veto parliamentary legislation. Shiites and opposition members say the system preserves Sunni dominance.
    (AP, 11/25/06)

2006        Nov 26, In Bahrain preliminary results showed Islamist candidates victorious in parliamentary elections, splitting the vote between hardline Shiite and Sunni Muslims while female and liberal candidates fared poorly in the US-allied kingdom.
    (AP, 11/26/06)

2006        Dec 2, In Bahrain the 2nd round run-off election for the lower house of parliament pitted the Shiite-led opposition against Sunnis backed by the island kingdom's government in a tight race. Islamic hardliners dominated the Sunni supporters of Bahrain's government who defeated an opposition led by the kingdom's majority Shiites in parliamentary elections. Ali Salman (41) led Wifaq, the main Shia-based opposition party.
    (AP, 12/2/06)(Econ, 11/25/06, p.46)

2006        Dec 10, The oil-rich Arab states on the Persian Gulf said that they will consider starting a joint nuclear program for peaceful purposes. The six-nation Gulf Cooperation Council included Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain and Oman.
    (AP, 12/10/06)

2006        Dec 18, Sheik Abdul-Ameer al-Jamri (67), a spiritual leader of Bahrain's Shiite opposition, died of heart and kidney failure. He had served in Bahrain's first parliament (1973-75), which was dissolved by the emir. He was jailed for 3Ĺ years (1996-1999) after riots against the country's Sunni leadership.
    (AP, 12/19/06)

2006        In Bahrain Salah al-Bandar, a former government official, said he had confidential government documents revealing a plan to provide Sunnis form other countries with passports in an attempt to turn the Shias into a minority.
    (Econ, 4/5/08, p.52)

2006        A third of the native Bahraini workforce earned less than $600 a month, despite an average per head income of close to $20,000. Shia villages ringing Manama, the main city, suffered power cuts, leaky sewage and crowded schools.
    (Econ, 11/25/06, p.46)

2007        Jan 4, Musir Salem Jawher (28) from Bahrain won the 30th International Tiberias Marathon, around the Sea of Galilee. The Kenyan runner (Leonard Mucheru), adopted by Bahrain 4 years earlier, faced anger from Bahrain for running in an Israeli marathon.
    (WSJ, 4/16/07, p.A1)(www.tiberias-marathon.co.il/en/)

2007        Jul 25, Tony Blair held talks on with the crown prince of Bahrain on his first regional tour as an international envoy for Middle East peace.
    (AP, 7/25/07)

2007        Oct 22, A US Navy sailor allegedly shot and killed two female sailors in the barracks of an American military base in Bahrain.
    (AP, 10/22/07)

2007        Dec 21, Bahraini security forces stormed the houses of the country's most outspoken Shiite opposition group at dawn, arresting at least seven of its members. Shiites account for about 70 percent of Bahrain's 450,000 citizens, but the ruling family is Sunni.
    (AP, 12/21/07)

2007        Dec 22, In Bahrain Security forces conducted sweeps through Shiite villages, arresting several protesters involved in a week of demonstrations against the Sunni-led government.
    (AP, 12/23/07)

2007        Dec 27, In Bahrain more than a dozen people detained during recent Shiite protests were charged with attempted murder, illegal assembly and rioting.
    (AP, 12/27/07)

2007        The parliament of Bahrain passed a non-binding motion banning the use of its territory for any attack on Iran. Bahrain hosted the US 5th fleet.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.78)

2008        Feb 28, It was reported that Aluminum Bahrain BSC had filed suit in federal court in Pittsburgh accusing Alcoa Corp. of a 15-year conspiracy involving overcharging, fraud and bribery.
    (WSJ, 2/28/08, p.A1)

2008        Mar 12, The US Treasury said it blacklisted Future Bank of Bahrain because it is controlled by Bank Melli of Iran, which plays a role in financing Tehranís nuclear and missile programs.
    (WSJ, 3/13/08, p.A3)

2008        Apr 21, The 6-member Gulf Cooperation Council met in Bahrain, along with representatives from Egypt, Jordan and Condoleeza Rice for the US, to discuss diplomatic support for Iraq as well as other issues. Rice failed to secure firm commitments on debt relief for Iraq.
    (SFC, 4/22/08, p.A10)(WSJ, 4/22/08, p.A10)

2008        May 28, Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa al-Khalifa appointed Lawmaker Houda Nonoo, believed to be the Arab world's first Jewish ambassador, as the country's envoy to Washington.
    (AP, 5/29/08)

2008        Nov 9, A Bahrain-based Islamic investment bank unveiled plans for a five-billion-dollar energy sector business hub at Sabratha, Libya.
    (AFP, 11/9/08)

2008        Dec 19, Bahraini security troops fired tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse thousands of protesters demanding Arab governments take action to end the closure of the Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 12/19/08)

2009        Jan 6, Bahrainís credit outlook was downgraded by Moodyís Investors Service amid tumbling crude prices and the global financial crises.
    (WSJ, 1/7/09, p.A7)

2009        Jan 27, In Bahrain police fired tear gas at dozens of rioters as the public prosecutor charged three Shiite Muslim activists with promoting a coup.
    (AP, 1/27/09)

2009        Jan 30, Bahrainís riot police in Manama used rubber bullets and tear gas to disperse protesters angry with perceived government discrimination against the Shiite majority.
    (AP, 1/30/09)

2009        Apr 12, In Bahrain a pardon by King Sheik Hamad bin Isa al-Khalifa led to the release of 178 people imprisoned on security-related charges. Among them were 22 Shiite activists who have been on trial since February on charges of seeking to destabilize the government and promote regime change through terrorism.
    (AP, 4/14/09)

2009        May, The Intíl. Banking Corporation (TIBC), a Bahraini bank owned by the Gosaibi family of Saudi Arabia, defaulted.
    (Econ, 7/11/09, p.65)

2009        Jun 7, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and Saudi Arabia signed an agreement paving the way for a monetary union and plans for a unified regional currency.
    (SFC, 6/8/09, p.C1)

2009        Jun 24, The Gosaibi family of Saudi Arabia held a creditorís meeting in Bahrain. Their representatives revealed that the group owed $9.2 billion to over 120 banks all over the world.
    (Econ, 7/11/09, p.65)

2009        Nov 25, Iran stopped the yacht, ďKingdom of Bahrain," owned by Sail Bahrain as it sailed from Bahrain to the Gulf city of Dubai. It had been due to join the 360-mile (580km) Dubai-Muscat Offshore Sailing Race, which was to begin Nov. 26. Five British sailors were detained.
    (AP, 11/30/09)

2009        Dec 15, In Kuwait Gulf Arab nations put into force a monetary pact, moving a step closer toward the elusive goal of a single regional currency and greater integration between the mainly oil-rich states. The announcement was made by Kuwait's finance minister came as leaders from the six-member Gulf Cooperation Council nations were wrapping up a two-day summit in which they launched a regional electricity project. The GCC groups Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman and Bahrain.
    (AP, 12/15/09)

2009        Bahrainís population was about 800,000. Its GDP per person was $22,000.
    (Econ, 8/15/09, p.42)

2010        Aug 15, In Bahrain four leading Shiite activists were arrested as the kingdom's Sunni leaders try to end violent confrontations between Shiite protesters and anti-riot police. Shiites are a majority in Bahrain, but the oil-rich nation is ruled by a Sunni royal family.
    (AP, 8/15/10)

2010        Aug 17, Bahraini lawyer Mohammed al-Tajir said a total of 10 activists, including eight leading members of the opposition, have been detained since Aug 14.
    (AP, 8/17/10)

2010        Aug 24, Authorities in Bahrain arrested a suspect in the case of Canadian singer Fatima Kama (28), whose body was found stuffed inside a suitcase at London's Heathrow Airport on Jul 17, 1999. The body was found when a member of the public spotted a black suitcase abandoned on the third floor of a Heathrow Airport parking lot.
    (AP, 8/24/10)

2010        Aug 27, Bahrain's public prosecutor banned media from reporting on a prominent Shiite activist and scores of other opposition members detained in an ongoing crackdown ahead of October parliament elections.
    (AP, 8/27/10)

2010        Sep 4, Bahrain state media released the photographs of 23 Shiites ó ranging from opposition figures to professors and taxi drivers ó accused of conspiring to overthrow the government. They include opposition leader Abdul-Jalil al-Singace, whose arrest on Aug. 13 marked the first salvo by officials against members of a Shiite majority, 60-70% of the population being cast as coup plotters who could open the door to Iranian influence.
    (AP, 9/5/10)(Econ, 10/16/10, p.56)

2010        Sep 8, The head of a Bahraini human rights organization says the government has taken over his group and removed him from his post. The government said the group was "only serving one segment of society," referring to the country's majority Shiites.
    (AP, 9/8/10)

2010        Sep 14, Assailants targeting security officials in Bahrain set off an explosion that damaged several parked cars in the first such attack since the country's Sunni-led rulers began a crackdown on suspected Shiite dissidents last month.
    (AP, 9/14/10)

2010        Sep 20, Bahrain stripped Ayatollah Hussein al-Najati, a powerful Shiite cleric with close ties to Iraq, of his citizenship as authorities widened a crackdown against alleged dissidents ahead of next month's elections in the tiny Gulf nation.
    (AP, 9/20/10)

2010        Oct 13, In Bahrain top justice official said 23 Shiite activists, detained in a sweeping crackdown by the country's Sunni rulers, have been charged with terrorism and conspiring against the government.
    (AP, 10/14/10)

2010        Oct 23, Bahrainis voted for the third time since reforms which turned the Gulf state into a constitutional monarchy, with the Shiite majority demanding an easing of the Sunni dynasty's grip on power. The embattled Shiite-led opposition held on to all of its parliament seats in the elections, but fell short of the majority it hoped to win as a show of strength against the island kingdom's Sunni rulers.
    (AFP, 10/23/10)(AP, 10/24/10)

2010        Oct 28, In Bahrain more than two dozen Shiite Muslims accused of plotting against the Sunni rulers described abuses including beatings and electric shocks at a trial observed by US envoys.
    (AP, 10/28/10)

2010        Oct 30, Bahraini voters went to the polls for a run-off poll with three groups, two Sunni Islamist and a leftist alliance, contesting the last seats in parliament. Official results showed pro-government candidates won all nine parliamentary seats. The results gave pro-government Sunni candidates a combined total of 22 seats in the 40-member legislature.
    (AP, 10/30/10)(AP, 10/31/10)

2010        Dec 7, Leaders of six US-allied Gulf Arab nations, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), said they were monitoring with "utmost concern" developments in Iran's disputed nuclear program and issued a thinly veiled warning to their Persian neighbor not to meddle in their internal affairs. The 2-day gathering of leaders from the Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain and Oman followed the publication of leaked US diplomatic memos that revealed deeper concern among Gulf Arab leaders over Tehran's nuclear program than had previously been known.
    (AP, 12/7/10)

2010        Bahrainís population was about 738,000, including some 235,000 non nationals.
    (NYT 2011 Almanac,  p.537)

2011        Feb 11, Bahrain state news agency BNA said the king has ordered that each family in the tiny Gulf monarchy be given $3,000 to mark the 10th anniversary of a national charter for reforms.
    (Econ, 2/19/11, p.53)(http://tinyurl.com/4h7odkv)

2011        Feb 13, Bahrain's security forces set up checkpoints and fanned out on patrols as opposition groups blanketed social media sites with calls to stage the first major anti-government protests in the Gulf since the uprising in Egypt.
    (AP, 2/13/11)

2011        Feb 14, Bahrain's security forces fired tear gas and rubber bullets at thousands of anti-government protesters heeding calls to unite in a major rally and bring the Arab reform wave to the Gulf for the first time. Ali Abdulhadi Mushaima (21) died in today's marches.
    (AP, 2/14/11)(AP, 2/15/11)

2011        Feb 15, In Bahrain thousands of protesters poured into a main square in Manama in an Egypt-style rebellion. Fadel Salman Matrouk was shot dead in front of a hospital where mourners gathered for the funeral of Ali Abdulhadi Mushaima, who died of his wounds a day earlier. King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa made a rare national TV address, offering condolences for 2 deaths, pledging an investigation into the killings, and promising to push ahead with reforms, which include loosening state controls on the media and Internet.
    (AP, 2/15/11)(AFP, 2/15/11)

2011        Feb 16, Bahraini protesters demanding sweeping political reforms from their rulers held their ground in an Egypt-style occupation of the capital's landmark square, staging a third day of demonstrations that have brought unprecedented pressure in one of Washington's most strategic allies in the Gulf.
    (AP, 2/16/11)

2011        Feb 17, Bahrain army patrols and tanks locked down Manama after riot police swinging clubs and firing tear gas smashed into demonstrators, many of them sleeping, in a pre-dawn assault in the capital that uprooted their protest camp demanding political change. At least five people were killed and more than 230 injured.
    (AP, 2/17/11)(AP, 2/18/11)

2011        Feb 18, Bahrain soldiers fired tear gas and shot heavy weapons into the air as thousands of protest marchers defied a government ban and streamed toward the landmark square that has been the symbolic center of the uprising against the Gulf nation's leaders. At least 50 people were wounded.
    (AP, 2/18/11)(SFC, 2/19/11, p.A4)

2011        Feb 19, In Bahrain thousands of singing and dancing protesters streamed back into Manama's central Pearl Square after leaders withdrew tanks and riot police following two straight days of a bloody crackdown by security forces in the tiny monarchy.
    (AP, 2/19/11)

2011        Feb 20, Bahrain's opposition wants the nation's rulers to guarantee they will back up their conciliatory words with actions. At least 7 people have been killed and hundreds injured since the Arab wave for change reached the Gulf last Feb 14.
    (AP, 2/20/11)

2011        Feb 21, In Bahrain a group of young protesters camped out in the capital and called for the ouster of the entire ruling monarchy as part of sweeping demands to call off a weeklong uprising. At least 8 people have been killed and hundreds injured in the clashes since the unrest spilling across the Arab world reached the Gulf last week. A manifesto from a group calling itself "Youth of Feb. 14" ó after the day of the first marches ó apparently sought to raise the stakes of demands ahead of possible talks between the opposition and the monarchy.
    (AP, 2/21/11)

2011        Feb 22, Bahrain's king ordered the release of some political prisoners, conceding to another opposition demand as the embattled monarchy tries to engage protesters in talks aimed at ending an uprising that has entered its second week.
    (AP, 2/22/11)

2011        Feb 23, Bahrain released at least 100 prisoners, including 23 Shiite activists on trial since last year for plotting against the state. Protesters vowed not to budge from Pearl Square, the epicenter of anti-regime demonstrations, despite the release of leading Shiite opposition activists and renewed calls by the king for talks.
    (AFP, 2/23/11)(AP, 2/24/11)

2011        Feb 24, Bahrain protesters showed no sign of retreat as an anti-government uprising entered its 11th day and opposition groups said the state had not yet met their pre-conditions for dialogue.
    (AP, 2/24/11)

2011        Feb 25, In Bahrain tens of thousands of anti-government protesters filled Manama in an attempt to boost pressure for sweeping political concessions before possible talks to end nearly two weeks of demonstrations and clashes in the strategic Gulf island kingdom.
    (AP, 2/25/11)

2011        Feb 26, A prominent Bahraini opposition leader, Hassan Mushaima, returned home from exile and urged the Gulf kingdom's rulers to back up promises of political reform with action. Thousands of protesters marched from the capital's landmark Pearl Square to the prime minister's office, calling for him to resign.
    (AP, 2/26/11)

2011        Feb 27, In Bahrain thousands of protesters streamed through the diplomatic area and other sites, chanting against the country's king and rejecting his appeals for talks to end the tiny Gulf nation's nearly two-week-old crisis.
    (AP, 2/27/11)

2011        Mar 3, Bahrainís Shiite opposition groups, seeking to loosen the Sunni monarchy's grip on power, said they are ready to negotiate with the Gulf nation's rulers about political change after weeks of protests. Clashes between Sunnis and Shiites added to fears that Bahrain could be dragged deeper into a sectarian conflict between Sunnis backing the monarchy and Shiites who represent 70 percent of the population.
    (AP, 3/3/11)(AP, 3/4/11)

2011        Mar 4, In Bahrain thousands of anti-government demonstrators streamed toward the headquarters of state television. Crackdowns by security forces have left seven dead.
    (AP, 3/4/11)

2011        Mar 6, In Bahrain thousands of Shiite opposition supporters blocked the entrance to the prime minister's office but failed to disrupt a government meeting as the campaign for reform in the strategic Gulf nation enters its third week.
    (AP, 3/6/11)

2011        Mar 7, In Bahrain hundreds of members of the Shiite Muslim majority protested outside the US Embassy to appeal for Washington to back their campaign for greater political freedom.
    (AP, 3/7/11)

2011        Mar 10, Bahrain's depleted parliament warned against continued protests near government ministries, calling Shiite rallies for a leadership overhaul in the Persian Gulf kingdom illegal. The parliament has been in limbo since 18 opposition legislators resigned last month to protest the government's deadly crackdown on the demonstrations centered around a tent complex in Pearl Square in Manama.
    (AP, 3/10/11)

2011        Mar 11, In Bahrain security forces backed by pro-government vigilantes battled protesters near the offices and compounds of the ruling family.
    (AP, 3/11/11)

2011        Mar 12, In Bahrain tens of thousands of protesters marched on a royal palace hours after clashes with police injured dozens of activists.
    (AP, 3/12/11)

2011        Mar 13, In Bahrain riot police fired tear gas and rubber bullets at anti-government demonstrators blocking the highway into the capital's financial district and surrounded the protesters' main camp in the capital. More than 200 people were injured there in clashes between riot police and demonstrators.
    (AP, 3/13/11)(AFP, 3/14/11)

2011        Mar 14, In Bahrain a parliament bloc appealed for the king to impose martial law. Some 1,000 Saudi troops entered Bahrain as part of the Gulf countries' joint Peninsula Shield Force.
    (AP, 3/14/11)(Econ, 3/19/11, p.56)

2011        Mar 15, Bahrain's king imposed a 3-month state of emergency and gave the country's military chief wide authority to battle a pro-democracy uprising that has threatened the ruling monarchy and drawn in forces from around the Gulf. Saudi Sgt. Ahmed al-Raddadi was shot and killed by a protester in Manama. At least 200 people were shot and wounded in a Shiite village south of Manama. Two people were killed elsewhere.
    (AP, 3/15/11)(AFP, 3/16/11)

2011        Mar 16, In Bahrain soldiers and riot police expelled hundreds of protesters from landmark square in Manama, using tear gas and armored vehicles to try to subdue the growing movement challenging the 200-year-old monarchy. At least five people were killed as clashes flared across the kingdom. Bahia al-Aradi (51) was driving on a main road in Manama looking for gasoline when she was shot in the head as she approached a military checkpoint.
    (AP, 3/16/11)(AP, 3/22/11)

2011        Mar 17, Bahrain's Sunni monarchy detained at least seven prominent opposition activists. Iran recalled its ambassador to protest the Gulf troops backing the government against the Shiite protests. Dr. Ali al-Iqri, one of Bahrain's acclaimed surgeons who had spoken to media at the height of the unrest, was taken from an operating theater. On Sep 29 al-Iqri was sentenced to 15 years in prison.
    (AP, 3/17/11)(AP, 9/29/11)

2011        Mar 18, Bahrain's Shiites buried their dead amid a continued government crackdown in this Sunni-ruled island nation in the Persian Gulf.
    (AP, 3/18/11)

2011        Mar 19, Bahrain's king pledged to bring reforms and another demonstrator was confirmed to have died in a crackdown on pro-democracy protesters, as international calls mounted for restraint.
    (AFP, 3/19/11)

2011        Mar 20, Bahrain's opposition asked for UN and American intervention in the government crackdown on the Shiite protests trying to loosen the monarchy's grip, in a brief protest in the capital that disbanded before police could arrive to break it up.
    (AP, 3/20/11)

2011        Mar 21, Bahrain's king blamed a foreign plot for his nation's weeks-long unrest, using veiled language to accuse Iran of fomenting an uprising by the Shiite majority in the Sunni-ruled island kingdom.
    (AP, 3/21/11)

2011        Mar 25, Thousands of Bahrainis turned out for a sermon of a major Shi'ite cleric ahead of "Day of Rage" protests planned across the Gulf Arab country despite a ban imposed under martial law. Security forces fired tear gas and pellets at anti-government protesters after a prominent Shiite cleric vowed that their demands for the Sunni monarchy to loosen its grip on power will not be silenced by "brutal force." Activists said one person died.
    (Reuters, 3/25/11)(AP, 3/25/11)

2011        Mar 27, Bahrain's largest Shi'ite opposition group Wefaq accepted Kuwait as a mediator with Bahrain's government to end a political crisis gripping the tiny kingdom.
    (Reuters, 3/27/11)

2011        Mar 28, Bahrain's foreign minister said it was "completely untrue" that Kuwait would mediate to resolve the country's political crisis, a reaction leading opposition group Wefaq said augured badly for any resolution.
    (Reuters, 3/28/11)

2011        Mar 29, Bahrain's 40-member parliament formally accepted the resignations of 11 of 18 Al Wefaq lawmakers from the Shiite opposition, exposing them to prosecution.
    (AP, 3/29/11)(AFP, 3/29/11)

2011        Apr 1, Bahrain Human rights organization and opposition groups said at least 20 people have been killed in total, since protests began February 14 and hundreds of activists have been either detained or questioned since martial law went into effect in mid-March.
    (AP, 4/1/11)

2011        Apr 1, Bahrain human rights organization and opposition groups said at least 20 people have been killed in total, since protests began February 14 and hundreds of activists have been either detained or questioned since martial law went into effect in mid-March.
    (AP, 4/1/11)

2011        Apr 3, Bahraini authorities banned Al-Wasat, the country's main opposition newspaper, in a widening effort to muzzle anti-government media and crackdown on the Shiite opposition in this Sunni-ruled Gulf nation. The Information Ministry agreed to allow the newspaper to resume publishing on April 4 after its editor-in-chief and two other top editors stepped down.
    (AP, 4/3/11)

2011        Apr 5, Bahraini authorities deported two Iraqi journalists working for the opposition's main newspaper. The government had accused Al Wasat newspaper of unethical coverage of the Shiite uprising against the Sunni rulers. At least 27 people have been killed, since the protests began in Bahrain in mid-February.
    (AP, 4/5/11)

2011        Apr 9, In Bahrain 2 supporters of the anti-government movement died in police custody. Human rights blogger Zakariya al-Asheri died under police custody. He was detained in March after authorities imposed martial law to quell Shiite-led protests against Sunni rulers. On Jan 11, 2012, two police officers were charged with beating the blogger with a water hose. Three others were charged with hiding the beatings from prison authorities.
    (SSFC, 4/10/11, p.A4)(AP, 1/11/12)(http://tinyurl.com/7pr4qbw)

2011        Apr 12, In Bahrain Zainab al-Khawaja (27), the daughter of Abdulhadi al-Khawaja (50), a prominent human rights activist, went on hunger strike to protest the arrest of several family members, including her father and her husband, over anti-government demonstrations. At least 29 people have been killed since the protests began on Feb. 14. Detainee Karim Fakhrawy of "Al Wasat" died under police custody.
    (AP, 4/12/11)(http://tinyurl.com/7pr4qbw)

2011        Apr 13, Bahrain's Shiite opposition party said that another one of its supporters, the fourth to date, has died in police custody. Haji Karim Fakhrawi died in "mysterious circumstances," while his relatives pointed to a body covered in bruises saying he had died of torture. The official news agency cited the medical examiner from the army hospital saying Fakhrawi died of kidney failure.
    (AP, 4/13/11)

2011        Apr 14, Bahrain's justice minister said Wefaq, the opposition's main Shiite party, will be dismantled within a month for "threatening peace."
    (AP, 4/17/11)

2011        Apr 16, Bahrain detained Mohammed al-Tajer, a human rights lawyer, and at least two doctors as part of a crackdown on pro-democracy protestors in the Gulf Arab kingdom. Tareq al-Fursani, a gold medalist in several Asian championships, was arrested at his home in a village east of the capital Manama.
    (Reuters, 4/16/11)(Reuters, 4/17/11)

2011        Apr 17, The Bahrain News Agency said 111 employees of the Education Ministry had been punished for participating in the street marches and strikes last month.
    (AP, 4/17/11)

2011        Apr 18, Bahrainís Foreign Minister Sheikh Khaled bin Ahmad al-Khalifa said Gulf troops will stay until its Sunni rulers are satisfied that threats from Iran have eased amid an ongoing crackdown on dissent. He also said Bahrain does not seek to dissolve the main Shiite opposition group Al-Wefaq, and wants it as a "partner for the future."
    (AP, 4/18/11)(AFP, 4/18/11)

2011        Apr 22, Physicians for Human Rights said at least 32 health care professionals in Bahrain have been detained since martial law was declared last month to quell anti-government demonstrations by the country's Shiite majority demanding greater freedoms and equal rights.
    (AP, 4/22/11)

2011        Apr 23, Bahrainís main opposition party said that government authorities have demolished 16 mosques as part of a crackdown on Shiite dissent.
    (SSFC, 4/24/11, p.A6)

2011        Apr 28, A Bahraini military court convicted four Shiite protesters and sentenced them to death for the killing of two policemen during anti-government demonstrations last month. Three other Shiite activists were sentenced to life in prison for their role in the policemen's deaths. On Jan 9, 2012, Bahrain's cassation court annulled the death sentences as well as the life imprisonments and sent to the lower court of appeal.
    (AP, 4/28/11)(AFP, 1/9/12)

2011        May 1, Bahrain's chamber of commerce called on Gulf Arab nationals to boycott Iranian goods and halt financial transactions with Tehran, accusing it of interfering in the country's affairs.
    (Reuters, 5/1/11)

2011        May 3, Bahrainís justice minister said 24 doctors and 23, who treated injured anti-government protesters during months of unrest in the Gulf kingdom, have been charged with acts against the state and will be tried in a military court. Their prosecution began on June 6.
    (AP, 5/3/11)(AFP, 5/4/11)(SFC, 6/7/11, p.A2)

2011        May 8, Bahrain's state news said the Sunni king has ordered a state of emergency to be lifted from June 1, after imposing it in mid-March following weeks of Shi'ite-led street protests in the Gulf Arab kingdom. Opposition leaders appeared in a military court charged as part of a group of 21 with forming a terrorist organization and attempting to overthrow the monarchy.
    (Reuters, 5/8/11)(AFP, 5/8/11)

2011        May 10, In Bahrain Abdulhussain bin Ali Mirza, energy minister and chief executive of the state-owned Bahrain Petroleum Company (BAPCO), said that 293 employees have been dismissed since the king declared martial law on March 15 to quell weeks of demonstrations.
    (AP, 5/11/11)
2011        May 10, The Gulf Co-operation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, Saudi Arabia, UAE) said it welcomed Jordanís request to join the 6-member group. Jordan had first applied for membership in the mid-1980s. The GCC said it would encourage Morocco to also join.
    (Econ, 5/21/11, p.54)(http://abcnews.go.com/Business/wireStory?id=13586238)

2011        May 17, Bahrain's parliament accepted the resignations of the last seven lawmakers of the Shiite opposition in a move that could exacerbate sectarian tensions in the strategic Gulf island kingdom.
    (AP, 5/17/11)

2011        May 19, A Bahraini security court announced the sentencing of a prominent Shiite cleric and eight others to 20 years in prison for the alleged kidnapping of a police officer.
    (AP, 5/19/11)

2011        May 31, Bahrainís King Hamad bin Isa al-Khalifa (61) said he wanted to engage in a national dialogue. Dismissing the government was not an option as Saudis apparently insisted that his uncle Prince Khalifa bin Salman al-Khalifa (75), who has served as prime minister for 40 years, stay in office.
    (Econ, 6/4/11, p.55)

2011        Jun 1, Bahrain ended emergency rule in Manama, but police remained at numerous checkpoints in the city. At least 30 people have been killed since protests began in February.
    (SFC, 6/2/11, p.A3)

2011        Jun 3, Bahraini police fired tear gas and rubber bullets at protesters marching toward the landmark Pearl Square in Manama, two days after authorities lifted emergency rule.
    (AP, 6/3/11)

2011        Jun 11, In Bahrain over 10,000 demonstrators joined the first public rally in months as the main Shiite party urged backers to press ahead for political rights.
    (SSFC, 6/19/11, p.A4)

2011        Jun 12, Bahrain sentenced Ayat al-Qurmezi to a year in prison on anti-state charges, including inciting hatred. She had recited poems critical of Bahrainís rulers.
    (SFC, 6/13/11, p.A2)

2011        Jun 17, In Bahrain thousands of Shiites rallied outside Manama in the second mass demonstration organized by Al-Wefaq opposition group since a mid-March crackdown on pro-democracy protests.
    (AFP, 6/17/11)

2011        Jun 19, In Bahrain lawyers for three former editors of the main opposition newspaper told a court the journalists were tricked into publishing false news about the Sunni monarchy's crackdown on Shiite-led protesters as part of a plot to undermine a key opposition voice.
    (AP, 6/19/11)

2011        Jun 22, Bahrain sentenced 8 prominent Shi'ite Muslim activists and opposition leaders to life in prison on charges of plotting a coup during protests in the Gulf island kingdom earlier this year. Witnesses say Bahrain security forces fired tear gas at protesters after a security court sentenced Shiite activists to life in prison.
    (Reuters, 6/22/11)(AP, 6/22/11)
2011        Jun 22, Bahrain sentenced opposition leader Ibrahim Sharif to five years in prison for plotting to overthrow the monarchy. Sharif was released on June 19, 2015.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibrahim_Sharif)(SSFC, 6/21/15, p.A3)

2011        Jun 29, Bahrainís King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa said an independent commission will investigate allegations of rights violations during anti-government protests and a deadly crackdown in the Gulf kingdom. At least 31 people have died since February when the country's Shiite majority started a campaign for greater freedoms and an end to the Sunni hold on power.
    (AP, 6/29/11)

2011        Jun 30, Bahrain stopped bringing anti-government protesters to trial at a special tribunal with military prosecutors and moved the proceedings to civilian courts. Riot police fired tear gas and stun grenades to disperse thousands of opposition supporters.
    (AP, 6/30/11)(SFC, 7/1/11, p.A2)

2011        Jul 2, Bahrain's Sunni rulers launched landmark reconciliation talks with the opposition, after four months of Shiite-led protests for greater rights and harsh crackdowns on dissent in the strategic Gulf kingdom. Opposition groups could nominate just 35 of the 300 participants. Riot police fired tear gas at anti-government protesters denouncing the reconciliation talks.
    (AP, 7/2/11)(Econ, 7/9/11, p.46)

2011        Jul 5, In Manama, Bahrain, reconciliation talks between the Sunni monarchy and the Shiite opposition started for the first time since the eruption of anti-government protests.
    (AP, 7/6/11)

2011        Jul 6, Human Rights Watch accused Bahrain of carrying out a "campaign of violent oppression" against its citizens and called for an end to abuses.
    (AFP, 7/6/11)

2011        Jul 15, In Bahrain Zainab Hasan Ahmed al-Jumaa (47) suffocated after inhaling tear gas fired by riot police during a demonstration near her home in Sitra, the hub of Bahrain's oil industry.
    (AP, 7/16/11)

2011        Jul 17, Bahrain's main Shiite opposition bloc, Al-Wefaq, said it was pulling out of a national dialogue with the government on political reform because the initiative was not serious.
    (AFP, 7/17/11)

2011        Jul 23, In Bahrain cleric Seyyed Abdullah al-Ghoreifi said authorities have demolished 30 Shiite mosques during their 5-month-old crackdown in the Sunni-ruled Gulf kingdom.
    (AP, 7/23/11)

2011        Jul 28, Bahraini police raided a medical center operated by the Paris-based Doctors Without Borders (MSF) saying it was "unlicensed."
    (AP, 8/4/11)

2011        Jul 29, Bahrain's main Shiite opposition formation slammed the national dialogue's recommendations submitted to King Hamad a day earlier, saying they do not represent its demands or the will of the people. Al-Wefaq reiterated its demands for an "elected government," an "elected parliament which has full legislative powers," and a "fair and independent judicial system" in the Shiite-majority Gulf nation.
    (AFP, 7/29/11)

2011        Aug 30, In Bahrain Shiite human rights activist Abdulhadi al-Khawaja and opposition Haq movement member Abduljalil al-Singace stopped eating in solidarity with detainees held at Bahrain's Dry Dock prison.
    (AFP, 9/3/11)

2011        Aug 31, In Bahrain hundreds of demonstrators made their boldest attempt in months to reclaim control of a central square in the capital Manama, which was the symbolic hub of the protest movement after it began in February. Riot police used buses to block roads and flooded streets with tear gas to drive back the marchers before dawn. Ali Jawad Ahmad (14), died after being hit by a tear gas canister fired at close range by police.
    (AP, 9/1/11)(AP, 9/2/11)

2011        Sep 1, Abdulrahman al-Nuaimi (67), founder of one of Bahrain's leading opposition groups, died after more than four years in a coma. From abroad, he founded an underground resistance group known as the Popular Front for the Liberation of Bahrain, which was inspired by Arab nationalist movements in the 1970s.
    (AP, 9/1/11)

2011        Sep 7, An international panel said more than 100 jailed Bahraini activists  are on hunger strike. They included doctors who treated injured protesters during months of anti-government protests. Bahrain released 7 doctors and 3 ambulance drivers. All doctors and medical staff were now out on bail "pending announcement of verdicts" on Sep 29.
    (AP, 9/7/11)(AFP, 9/8/11)

2011        Sep 14, In Bahrain Sayyed Jawad Ahmed (35) died after inhaling tear gas the previous evening fired at protesters.
    (AP, 9/15/11)

2011        Sep 16, Bahrain security forces clashed with mourners at the funeral of Sayyed Jawad Ahmed, who died 2 days earlier after inhaling tear gas fired at protesters.
    (SFC, 9/17/11, p.A2)

2011        Sep 21, In Bahrain traffic was brought to a crawl on many highways after calls by pro-reform groups to flood the roads with cars in a show of strength before parliamentary elections later this week.
    (AP, 9/21/11)

2011        Sep 24, Bahraini by-elections, boycotted by the Shiite opposition after it walked out of parliament over violence against pro-democracy activists, registered a poor turnout.
    (AFP, 9/24/11)

2011        Sep 25, A Bahraini special court jailed Mahdi Abu Deib, the head of the teachers' union for 10 years, and his deputy Jalila al-Salman, for three years, among other Shiites over their role in anti-regime protests.
    (AFP, 9/25/11)

2011        Sep 29, Bahrain's special security court sentenced a protester, Ali Yousef Abdulwahab al-Tawee, to death for killing a policeman, and gave doctors and nurses who treated injured protesters during the country's uprising earlier this year lengthy prison sentences. Appeals were pending.
    (AP, 9/29/11)

2011        Oct 3, A Bahraini special court jailed 36 Shiites for up to 25 years each in three separate cases related to month-long democracy protests in the Gulf kingdom.
    (AFP, 10/3/11)

2011        Oct 4, A Bahraini security court sentenced 26 activists to prison for their part in anti-government protests, raising to 60 the total number convicted over the past two days in stepped-up prosecutions by the Gulf kingdom.
    (AP, 10/4/11)

2011        Oct 5, Bahrain's security court convicted and sentenced 19 more people to prison terms for taking part in Shiite-led protests against the Gulf nation's ruling Sunni dynasty. The sentences brought the total number this week to at least 81.
    (AP, 10/5/11)

2011        Oct 6, In Bahrain Ahmed Jaber al-Qatan (16) was hit by bird shot used by anti-riot police during a demonstration in western Manama. The interior ministry confirmed his death the next day, saying the youth died of a cardiac arrest.
    (AP, 10/7/11)

2011        Oct 19, The Obama administration said it has agreed to delay a $53 million arms sale to Bahrain because of the kingdomís continuing crackdown on the opposition.
    (SFC, 10/20/11, p.A2)

2011        Nov 5, Bahrain released Zulfiqar Naji (17), an Iraqi football player, as a goodwill gesture to mark a key Muslim holiday. Naji, who played on the junior team for Bahraini club Al Muharraq, was seized from a home in April on suspicion of participating in protests against the Sunni monarchy. Bahrain said it has released more than 300 prisoners in honor of Eid al-Adha.
    (AP, 11/5/11)

2011        Nov 12, The Bahraini interior ministry announced that four members of a cell planning attacks were detained in Qatar and turned over to Manama, while a fifth suspect was arrested in Bahrain. The Sunni-ruled Arab monarchies of the Gulf have repeatedly accused mainly Shiite Iran of meddling in their internal affairs.
    (AFP, 11/13/11)

2011        Nov 18, In Bahrain thousands of Shiite-led protesters calling for greater rights streamed into an area outside the capital Manama.
    (AP, 11/18/11)

2011        Nov 19, In Bahrain Ali Youssef Bagdar (16) died in the early morning after a police vehicle ran him over during a demonstration in the Juffair area of Manama. Dozens were wounded when security forces attacked a funeral procession for the 16-year-old boy.
    (AP, 11/19/11)(AP, 11/20/11)

2011        Nov 21, Authorities in Bahrain said prosecutors have charged 20 members of the security forces for alleged abuse of protesters during a Shiite-led uprising against the Gulf kingdom's Sunni rulers.
    (AP, 11/21/11)

2011        Nov 23, Bahrain riot police fired tear gas and stun grenades at demonstrators after clashes erupted just hours before the release of an independent report into alleged abuses by security forces against the country's majority Shiites, who have opened a sustained uprising for greater rights. Cherif Basiouni, former UN war-crimes lawyer and chair of a 5-person panel, described systematic torture of prisoners by security forces. A $53 million US arms deal with Bahrain is on hold until the upcoming report is examined.
    (AP, 11/23/11)(Econ, 11/19/11, p.60)

2011        Dec 2, It was reported that former British police boss John Yates and US ex-cop John Timoney will oversee reforms to Bahrain's security force after a report found it guilty of human rights abuses. Yates, who quit as head of Britain's Metropolitan police force in July over a phone-hacking scandal, and Timoney, former head of Miami police, were asked to modernize Bahrainís police force in order to meet international human rights standards.
    (AFP, 12/2/11)

2011        Dec 7, Bahrain's Health Ministry said a woman (27), who was seriously hurt during a recent anti-government protest, has died of her injuries. Bahrain halted trial proceedings for over 100 athletes and dropped all charges related to their participation in street protests against the island's Sunni monarchy. It was unclear what will happen to athletes already convicted.
    (AP, 12/6/11)(AP, 12/8/11)

2011        Dec 9, Bahraini security forces fired tear gas, rubber bullets and stun grenades to disperse hundreds of demonstrators in a Shiite neighborhood of the capital Manama.
    (AFP, 12/9/11)

2011        Dec 15, Bahraini security forces used tear gas and stun grenades to try to disperse hundreds of anti-government protesters attempting to march along a highway leading to the island kingdom's capital. Police arrested prominent human rights blogger Zainab al-Khawaja (28). A video posted online showed her being roughed up, handcuffed and dragged away. Zainab al-Khawaja was released on Dec 20.
    (AP, 12/15/11)(AFP, 12/16/11)(AP, 12/21/11)

2011        Dec 16, In Bahrain a protester was killed after reportedly being hit by a police car during a rally.
    (AP, 12/17/11)

2011        Dec 17, Opposition supporters in Bahrain clashed with police for a third straight day along a main highway west of the capital.
    (AP, 12/17/11)

2011        Dec 18, Police in Bahrain fired tear gas at thousands of demonstrators chanting anti-government slogans after the funeral of an elderly man who witnesses say died from tear gas inhalation a day earlier.
    (AP, 12/18/11)

2011        Dec 20, The Bahrain News Agency said the king issued a decree ordering government agencies to reinstate 180 government employees who were fired on suspicion of participating in opposition rallies. Bahraini labor groups claimed up to 2,500 people were purged from jobs during the unrest. The government put the number at 1,623.
    (AP, 12/20/11)

2011        Dec 22, Bahrain's official news agency said 79 education ministry employees who were dismissed from their jobs during months of protests will get their jobs back by January 1.
    (AP, 12/22/11)

2011        Dec 23, Bahrainís security forces firing rubber bullets and tear gas attacked the headquarters of the main Shiite opposition party in Manama after the group challenged a new government ban on its weekly protests. Authorities banned the weekly Friday protests for the first time since emergency laws were lifted in June.
    (AP, 12/23/11)

2011        Dec 31, In Bahrain Sayed Hashim Saeed (15) died after a tear gas canister fired at close range hit him in the chest.
    (AP, 1/1/12)

2012        Jan 1, Riot police in Bahrain fired tear gas, rubber bullets and stun grenades as they clashed with hundreds of opposition supporters, some hurling Molotov cocktails, following the politically charged funeral of a 15-year-old boy. Bahrain's new police chief announced that the kingdom would hire an additional 500 police officers "from all sections of Bahrain society."
    (AP, 1/1/12)

2012        Jan 6, In Bahrain Nabeel Rajab, the president of the Bahrain Center for Human Rights, was reported to have been beaten by members of the security forces during a rally in Manama.
    (AP, 1/6/12)

2012        Jan 7, In Bahrain anti-government protesters converged on the headquarters of the main opposition party, defying a government ban on the gathering and pressing ahead with their campaign for greater political and civil rights for the nation's Shiite Muslims.
    (AP, 1/7/12)

2012        Jan 15, Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa promised that the strife-wracked Gulf nation will move ahead with political reforms that widen the powers of the elected parliament to oversee governments selected by the ruling monarchy.
    (AP, 1/15/12)

2012        Jan 18, Bahraini riot police chased anti-government protesters out of the center of the island kingdom's capital. Authorities the previous day denied the country's main Shiite-backed opposition party, Al Wefaq, permission to hold protests in central Manama.
    (AP, 1/18/12)

2012        Jan 24, In Bahrain at least 41 policemen were injured in clashes with demonstrators.
    (AP, 1/25/12)

2012        Jan 25, Security forces in Bahrain fired tear gas and stun grenade after opposition groups staged a rare march into the center of the capital Manama.
    (AP, 1/25/12)

2012        Jan 26, Bahrain authorities say a detainee has died after being taken into custody a day earlier during clashes between security forces and Shiite-led protesters.
    (AP, 1/26/12)

2012        Jan 29, Bahraini detainees and activists convicted for taking part in anti-government demonstrations last year began a hunger strike protesting a new crackdown on demonstrators.
    (AFP, 1/28/12)

2012        Feb 7, Jailed Bahraini activists ended a hunger strike after eight days of refusing to eat in protest at a new crackdown on demonstrations. A week-long rally called for by the Shiite-led opposition was concluded.
    (AFP, 2/8/12)

2012        Feb 10, In Bahrain tens of thousands of anti-government protesters streamed toward an empty lot dubbed 'Freedom Square' in the village of Miqsha outside the capital Manama. They sought to occupy the site for the one-year anniversary of their uprising in the Gulf kingdom. Three people were severely wounded by tear gas canisters fired at the protesters.
    (AP, 2/10/12)(AFP, 2/11/12)

2012        Feb 11, Bahrain deported two American women accused of aiding antigovernment activists. On Feb 16 the Information Affairs Authority said 6 members of Witness Bahrain, a group monitoring potential human rights abuses, have been deported.
    (SSFC, 2/12/12, p.A6)(SFC, 2/17/12, p.A2)

2012        Feb 13, Bahrain security forces fired tear gas and stun grenades as thousands of protesters tried to occupy Pearl Square in the nation's capital ahead of the one-year anniversary of the Gulf kingdom's Shiite-led uprising.
    (AP, 2/13/12)

2012        Feb 14, Bahraini security forces fanned out in unprecedented numbers as the island nation was marking the one-year anniversary of the Shiite-led uprising against its Sunni rulers. Police arrested some 150 people while dispersing protesters attempting to march on the former Pearl Square.
    (AP, 2/14/12)(AFP, 2/15/12)

2012        Feb 15, Bahraini police fired tear gas and birdshot at pro-democracy protesters and arrested dozens in clashes that raged overnight and into early today, as the kingdom marked the first anniversary of a Shiite-led uprising.
    (AFP, 2/15/12)

2012        Feb 17, Bahrain announced the deportation of four foreign activists for "taking part in illegal demonstrations," bringing to 12 the number expelled over the past week.
    (AFP, 2/18/12)

2012        Mar 9, In Bahrain tens of thousands of anti-government protesters flooded a major highway in one of the largest opposition rallies in months against the Gulf nation's Sunni rulers. Security forces fired tear gas at smaller groups attempting to reach a heavily guarded square that was once the hub of the uprising.
    (AP, 3/9/12)

2012        Mar 13, In Bahrain vandals smashed the windows of one of countryís oldest Shiite mosques and ransacked offices and prayer areas, making sure to pull down some framed parchments with Quranic verses. Shiite clerics claim at least 38 mosques and affiliated sites, such as charity offices, have been destroyed since the revolt began in February 2011.
    (AP, 3/21/12)

2012        Mar 15, Bahrain riot police fired tear gas, stun grenades and rubber bullets at protesters, who were marking the first anniversary of the deployment of a Saudi-led military force in Bahrain.
    (AP, 3/15/12)

2012        Mar 31, Bahraini security forces fired tear gas during clashes with protesters who gathered after authorities acknowledged that gunfire earlier in the day killed Ahmed Ismail (22) during anti-government demonstrations.
    (AP, 3/31/12)

2012        Apr 6, In Bahrain thousands of protesters chanted slogans in support of a jailed human rights activist whose nearly two-month hunger strike has become a powerful rallying point for the tiny nation's Shiite-led uprising against the Sunni monarchy.
    (AP, 4/6/12)

2012        Apr 9, In Bahrain jailed activist Abdulhadi al-Khawaja was feared to have died after Bahraini authorities turned down repeated requests to contact him. A blast injured seven policemen and led to reprisals by Sunni mobs.
    (AFP, 4/9/12)(AP, 4/11/12)

2012        Apr 11, In Bahrain mobs with iron rods and sticks ransacked a supermarket belonging to a major Shiite-owned business group, as part of a spike in violence in the Gulf nation in retaliation for a bomb attack on police.
    (AP, 4/11/12)

2012        Apr 15, Bahrain's Shiite opposition announced a week of daily pro-democracy protests until after the controversial Formula One Grand Prix race scheduled for April 22.
    (AFP, 4/15/12)

2012        Apr 18, The Bahrain Youth Society for Human Rights said the government has arrested about 80 leading democracy activists in an attempt to contain anti-government protests ahead of the April 22 Formula One Grand Prix race.
    (AFP, 4/18/12)

2012        Apr 19, Bahraini police fired buckshot and tear gas to disperse overnight demonstrations in Shiite villages outside the capital Manama ahead of this weekend's Formula One Grand Prix.
    (AFP, 4/19/12)

2012        Apr 20, Bahrain's most senior Shiite cleric, Sheik Isa Qassim, condemned the Sunni rulers for staging the F1 race despite opposition protests. Opposition leaders from Bahrain's largest Shiite bloc, Al-Wefaq, said at least 50 people have been injured in the past two days when security forces fired pellets to disperse protesters on several occasions. Tens of thousands flooded a major highway demanding a halt to the Formula One race.
    (AP, 4/20/12)(SFC, 4/21/12, p.A2)

2012        Apr 22, Bahrain's Formula One Grand Prix went ahead despite a week of daily protests amid rising tensions between the kingdom's Sunni rulers and their majority Shiite population. Protesters burnt tires on the main road linking the capital to Sakhir race track, as security forces stopped dozens of others from marching towards the now demolished Pearl Square in central Manama. The British Channel 4 News crew, including foreign correspondent Jonathan Miller, were arrested while covering a series of Shiite-led anti-government protests. Bahrain had paid $40 million to the sportís governing body to host the race.
    (AFP, 4/23/12)(Econ, 4/21/12, p.63)

2012        Apr 25, In Bahrain an  overnight bomb attack carried out by "terrorists" wounded four policemen in the Shiite-populated village of Diraz. Police also raided 11 homes and arrested six people.
    (AFP, 4/25/12)

2012        May 3, Bahrainís King Hamad ratified amendments to the constitution aimed at defusing unrest in the strategic Gulf state, but the opposition dismissed the extra powers given to parliament as not enough.
    (AFP, 5/3/12)

2012        May 5, Four Bahraini policemen were wounded in a "terrorist" attack in a Shiite village, one of them critically. They had arrived in Bani Jamra before dawn to disperse dozens of protesters, who were blocking roads in the village.
    (AFP, 5/5/12)
2012        May 5, In Bahrain rights activist Nabeel Rajab was detained for releasing tweets deemed insulting to the government.
    (AFP, 5/13/12)

2012        May 14, Liberal civil society groups in Gulf states called on Saudi and Bahraini leaders to postpone plans to announce a union between them, saying such a step must be preceded by a referendum.
    (AFP, 5/14/12)

2012        May 18, In Iran thousands of people demonstrated in Tehran to protest a proposed union of Saudi Arabia and Bahrain.
    (AFP, 5/18/12)

2012        May 27, A Bahrain court sentenced 8 people to prison terms of up to 15 years after they were accused of plotting with suspected Iranian agents to topple the Gulf kingdom's ruling system. They included three activists put on trial in absentia.
    (AP, 5/27/12)

2012        Jun 9, Bahraini police wounded several people when they fired sound bombs, tear gas and bird shot to disperse dozens who protested across several Shiite areas.
    (AFP, 6/9/12)

2012        Jun 14, Bahrain's appeals court acquitted 9 medics and cut the jail terms of 9 others for their role in anti-regime protests last year, in a case widely criticized by rights groups. Two others arrested in the crackdown, who remain at large, did not appeal. Many of the 20 medics, 15 of whom are doctors, alleged they were tortured in prison.
    (AFP, 6/14/12)

2012        Jun 21, Bahraini police said they had arrested five of a group of 20 people wanted over "terror attacks," including for alleged bombings and causing harm to civilians and security personnel.
    (AFP, 6/21/12)

2012        Jun 27, Bahraini police injured Zainab al-Khawaja, a prominent human rights activist, by shooting her in the leg with a tear gas canister.
    (AP, 6/28/12)

2012        Jul 3, Bahraini authorities said they have launched an investigation against 15 police officers over allegations of abuse involving inmates.
    (AP, 7/3/12)

2012        Jul 9, Nabeel Rajab, a prominent Bahraini human rights activist, was found guilty and sentenced to three months in jail on charges linked to anti-government comments he made on social media.
    (AP, 7/9/12)

2012        Jul 18, Bahrainís public security chief Major-General Tariq al-Hassan announced on the arrest of suspect Hussain Isa Mohammed Isa Adam, included in the list of 20 people accused of terrorist blasts.
    (AFP, 7/19/12)

2012        Jul 20, In Bahrain thousands of anti-government protesters clashed with riot police firing tear gas during demonstrations against plans to limit political marches.
    (AP, 7/21/12)

2012        Aug 2, In Bahrain riot police fired tear gas and stun grenades as hundreds of anti-government protesters attempted to block a key highway.
    (AP, 8/2/12)

2012        Aug 7, Bahrain authorities charged 15 policemen with mistreating medics during last year's crackdown on opposition protesters. An independent commission found 3 protesters were shot at close range. Bahrain said in June that 3 police officers would be charged with murder.
    (AP, 8/7/12)

2012        Aug 12, Bahrain sentenced a 19-year-old man two-years in jail for defaming one of the Prophet Muhammad's wives. The court heard how the unnamed man "posted filthy and depraved comments" on a website that slandered Muhammad's wife Aisha.
    (AP, 8/13/12)

2012        Aug 16, Prominent Bahraini human rights activist Nabeel Rajab was found guilty of calling and participating in several illegal gatherings and sentenced to three years in jail. In December an appeals court reduced the his sentence from three years to two.
    (AP, 8/16/12)(AP, 12/11/12)

2012        Aug 17, Bahraini security forces shot dead Shiite teenager, Hussam al-Haddad (16), as a group of protesters attacked police late at night with petrol bombs near the capital Manama.
    (AFP, 8/18/12)

2012        Aug 23, A Bahrain appeals court acquitted activist Nabeel Rajab (48), who had been sentenced to three months in jail for alleged insults issued via Twitter, but he must still serve a three-year term for taking part in protests.
    (AFP, 8/23/12)

2012        Aug 25, In Bahrain a large crowd attacked a police station in the Shiite village of Sitra with petrol bombs, as sporadic protests intensify in the Sunni-ruled Shiite-majority Gulf state.
    (AFP, 8/26/12)

2012        Sep 7, In Bahrain riot police fired tear gas during street clashes with anti-government protesters in the heart of the Gulf kingdom's capital Manama.
    (AP, 9/7/12)

2012        Sep 28, In Bahrain security forces killed a boy (17) during street clashes in Sadad village, southwest of the capital Manama.
    (AP, 9/29/12)

2012        Oct 2, Bahraini police arrested five medical personnel after a court rejected appeals to overturn their convictions for roles anti-government protests last year.
    (AP, 10/2/12)

2012        Oct 5, Bahrain riot police used water cannons and tear gas to disperse hundreds of anti-government protesters trying to reach a heavily guarded site that was once the hub of their uprising.
    (AP, 10/5/12)

2012        Oct 12, In Bahrain riot police fired tear gas and stun grenades in clashes with hundreds of anti-government protesters in the capital Manama.
    (AP, 10/12/12)

2012        Oct 17, Bahrain detained four people for defaming the island's king with Twitter posts in a case that is likely to test the limits of expression in the violence-wracked Gulf nation. The four will be held for seven days pending trial.
    (AP, 10/18/12)

2012        Oct 30, Bahrain imposed emergency-style rules banning all protest gatherings and threating legal action against groups considered backing escalating demonstrations and clashes in the strategic Gulf kingdom.
    (AP, 10/30/12)

2012        Nov 5, In Bahrain a series of bomb blasts Manama killed two people. Four suspects were arrested the next day.
    (AP, 11/5/12)(AP, 11/7/12)

2012        Nov 7, Bahrainís government cited security concerns and revoked the citizenship of 31 men, including exiled political activists and former opposition members of Parliament.
    (SFC, 11/8/12, p.A3)

2012        Nov 26, In Bahrain riot police fired tear gas and stun grenades to disperse thousands of marchers trying to reach a heavily guarded square that was once the hub of their anti-government uprising.
    (AP, 11/26/12)

2012        Dec 16, In Bahrain police fired tear gas at anti-government protesters who took to the streets after King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa called for unity Sunday in a speech for the kingdom's national day.
    (AP, 12/16/12)

2012        Dec 17, Security forces in Bahrain fired tear gas and stun grenades to break up protest marchers after calls by anti-government groups to snarl the Gulf nation's capital with demonstrators to mark an annual commemoration for two protesters killed in 1994.
    (AP, 12/17/12)

2012        Dec 31, Residents of Saudi Arabia, where booze and New Year's celebrations are banned, flooded into neighboring Bahrain in search of festivities to ring in 2013.
    (AP, 1/1/13)

2013        Jan 11, In Bahrain a fire killed 13 people in a migrant labor camp in Manama.
    (AP, 1/12/13)

2013        Jan 24, Bahrain riot police fired tear gas and stun grenades at several hundred anti-government protesters whose chants included calls to reject proposed talks aimed at easing nearly two years of unrest in the Gulf nation.
    (AP, 1/24/13)

2013        Jan 25, In Bahrain hundreds of anti-government protesters clashed with riot police in Manama after authorities denied a request for a major opposition rally.
    (AP, 1/25/13)

2013        Feb 6, In Bahrain thousands of protesters demonstrated against the Gulf nation's monarchy, less than a week before planned talks aimed at easing a two-year political crisis.
    (AP, 2/6/13)

2013        Feb 10, Opposing factions in Bahrain began talks to ease an Arab Spring conflict that has run longer than Syria's rebellion and is playing out on the doorstep of the US military's main naval base in the Persian Gulf.
    (AP, 2/10/13)

2013        Feb 14, Security forces in Bahrain clashed with anti-government protesters in street battles that left at least one boy dead amid high tensions on the second anniversary of the uprising in the Gulf nation. A 16-year-old male and a policeman were killed on the second anniversary of the Shiite-led uprising.
    (AP, 2/14/13)(AP, 2/15/13)

2013        Feb 15, In Bahrain thousands of anti-government marchers jammed a major highway as clashes broke out for a second day between security forces and protesters marking the anniversary of their uprising.
    (AP, 2/15/13)

2013        Feb 17, Bahrain's interior ministry said police have arrested eight members of an alleged terrorist cell linked to Iran and other countries following widespread clashes in the Gulf nation during protests marking the second anniversary of an Arab Spring-inspired uprising.
    (AP, 2/17/13)

2013        Feb 22, In Bahrain a protester (20) died from a head injury sustained Feb. 14 when he was hit with a tear gas canister fired by security forces.
    (AP, 2/22/13)

2013        Mar 1, A senior Bahrain prosecutor said an appeals court has overturned the acquittal and sentenced the daughter of a jailed opposition leader to three months in prison. Zainab al-Khawaja was convicted of insulting a public employee.
    (AP, 3/1/13)

2013        Mar 11, In Bahrain Yousef al-Muhafedha, acting president of the Bahrain Human Rights Center, was found not guilty of posting inaccurate news on Twitter about some anti-government protests.
    (AP, 3/11/13)

2013        Mar 13, Bahrainís public prosecutor's office said six people have been detained over the last couple of days for allegedly defaming the country's ruler on Twitter.
    (AP, 3/13/13)

2013        Mar 14, In Bahrain thousands of anti-government protesters threw firebombs and stones at riot police and burned tires on the 2nd anniversary of the intervention by a Saudi-led force in the island's crisis.
    (AP, 3/14/13)

2013        Mar 17, In Bahrain 17 suspected anti-government protesters were sentenced to 15-year prison sentences for links to a bombing last year that injured four policemen. 8 of the defendants were in custody, and the others were tried in absentia.
    (AP, 3/17/13)

2013        Mar 26, In Bahrain 13 pro-democracy activists were sentenced to 10 years in prison over allegations that they attacked police officers.
    (SFC, 3/27/13, p.A2)

2013        Mar 28, Bahrain cleared 21 medical personnel of charges linked to anti-government protests, but cases remain open against two others who failed to appear in court.
    (AP, 3/28/13)

2013        Apr 9, Bahrain arrested four suspects after homemade firebombs were hurled the previous evening at the foreign ministry in a possible escalation of anti-government protests.
    (AP, 4/9/13)

2013        Apr 12, In Bahrain thousands of anti-government demonstrators joined a march that included breakaway protests against the scheduled Formula One race later this month.
    (AP, 4/12/13)

2013        Apr 15, Bahrain media said the government has backed proposals to impose penalties of up five years in prison for insulting the Gulf state's king or its national symbols.
    (AP, 4/15/13)

2013        Apr 16, Bahrain police raided a boys' high school in Manama and fired tear gas in clashes with students angry over the arrest of fellow student Hassan Humidan (17) the day before.
    (AP, 4/16/13)

2013        Apr 20, Bahrain authorities foiled possible attacks one day before the kingdom's Formula One race.
    (AP, 4/23/13)

2013        May 5, A Bahrain court sentenced 31 Sitra island protesters, aged 16 to 34, to 15 years in prison each for roles in firebomb attacks against security forces during an anti-government demonstration last year.
    (AP, 5/5/13)

2013        May 22, Bahrain's Interior Ministry said an Iranian drone has been found in the strategic Gulf kingdom.
    (AP, 5/22/13)

2013        May 29, In Bahrain a bombing, described as a "terrorist" attack, wounded seven policemen. Police the next day arrested 3 suspects.
    (AP, 5/30/13)

2013        Jul 4, Bahrain sentenced 29 protesters to one month in prison for trying to enter a heavily guarded area last year that was once the center of the Gulf nation's anti-government uprising.
    (AP, 7/5/13)

2013        Jul 7, Bahrain said twin attacks have left a policeman dead and three injured in the latest sign of targeted strikes by anti-government factions.
    (AP, 7/7/13)

2013        Jul 14, In Bahrain a homemade bomb exploded in Janabiyah, a mostly Shiite area northwest Manama, injuring four policemen.
    (AP, 7/14/13)

2013        Jul 21, Bahrain said authorities have arrested three suspects in connection with a bombing last week outside a mosque near the royal residences. No one was injured in the July 17 blast.
    (AP, 7/21/13)

2013        Jul 28, Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa urged lawmakers to move ahead with proposed harsher measures against escalating attacks by Shiite-led opposition factions, including banning protest gatherings in the capital, after top government officials joined an emergency parliament session to discuss the Gulf nation's nearly 30 months of unrest.
    (AP, 7/28/13)

2013        Jul 31, Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa toughened penalties in anti-terrorism laws before planned anti-government protests this month, approving proposals that have alarmed human rights groups which fear a crackdown on the demonstrations.
    (Reuters, 8/1/13)

2013        Aug 10, Bahrain said it has has deported a US nursery school teacher who wrote articles on social media sites linked to radical groups and for violating the terms of her work permit.
    (Reuters, 8/11/13)

2013        Aug 14, Bahraini protesters clashed with riot police in neighborhoods around the capital. Stores shut their doors amid opposition calls for a general strike, but a tight security clampdown stopped large-scale demonstrations in the city.
    (AP, 8/14/13)

2013        Aug 16, A Bahrain activist said at least 40 prisoners were hurt when security forces used batons, tear gas, pepper spray and stun grenades against inmates protesting over their conditions.
    (Reuters, 8/16/13)

2013        Aug 23, Thousands of Bahrainis were allowed to march peacefully outside Manama calling for democratic reforms, 10 days after police cracked down on scattered protests organized by an online group inspired by recent demonstrations in Egypt.
    (Reuters, 8/23/13)

2013        Sep 24, In Bahrain Taqi al-Maidan (25), an American citizen, was among four suspects sentenced on charges that include trying to kill a policeman. He was sentenced to 10 years in prison.
    (AP, 9/24/13)

2013        Sep 29, A Bahraini court handed jail terms of up to 15 years to 50 Shiites, including a prominent Iraqi cleric, convicted of forming a clandestine opposition group. Some of the 50 people jailed were also convicted of spying for Iran and had planned "vandalism and rioting" with the backing of the Islamic Republic.
    (AFP, 9/29/13)(Reuters, 10/1/13)

2013        Oct 3, A Bahrain court jailed four Shiites for life after convicting them of detonating a bomb targeting police that wounded an Asian man.
    (AFP, 10/3/13)

2013        Oct 7, Bahrain sentenced nine people to life in prison after trial on charges of bomb-making in the restive Gulf nation.
    (AP, 10/7/13)

2013        Oct 10, A Bahraini court sentenced 18 Shiites to between five and seven years in prison after they were convicted of attacking a police station.
    (AFP, 10/10/13)

2013        Oct 22, In Bahrain a teenager was killed when an explosive device he was carrying detonated prematurely as he attempted to stage an attack in the tense Gulf nation.
    (AP, 10/23/13)

2013        Oct 30, Riot police in Bahrain stormed an exhibition dedicated to the Arab Spring-inspired uprising. The raid came two days after the opening of the museum-style hall, which included scenes depicting Bahrain's 32-month unrest, such as protesters killed in clashes, alleged torture inside prisons and demonstrators running from tear gas.
    (AP, 10/30/13)

2013        Nov 3, The head of Bahrain's main opposition group, Ali Salman, was charged with insulting authorities through an exhibition that showed alleged abuses against anti-government protesters. A court sentenced four Shi'ite Muslims to life and six others to 15 years in jail on charges of setting up a militant cell linked to Iran's Revolutionary Guard that aimed at assassinating public figures in Bahrain.
    (AP, 11/3/13)(Reuters, 11/4/13)(SFC, 11/4/13, p.A2)

2013        Nov 24, A Bahraini court sentenced 12 Shiites to 10-year jail terms after convicting them of trying to kill policemen in a village near the capital. State media said authorities have arrested two Gulf citizens who were former Guantanamo detainees on suspicion of preparing a "terrorist act."
    (AFP, 11/24/13)

2013        Dec 11, A Bahraini court sentenced 12 Shiite Muslims to 15-year jail terms for attacking a car warehouse during unrest in the Sunni-ruled kingdom in February 2012.
    (AFP, 12/11/13)

2013        Dec 23, A Bahrain court acquitted two police officers accused of torturing doctors who were detained while treating wounded Shiite protesters in 2011. Sheikha Noura bint Ibrahim al-Khalifa (29), a Bahraini princess, was one of the two police officers acquitted.
    (AP, 12/23/13)(Reuters, 12/27/13)

2013        Dec 28, Bahrainís police arrested Ali Salman (48), head of the main Shiite opposition bloc Al-Wefaq that has spearheaded protests against the authorities in the Sunni-ruled kingdom. Salman was freed the next day but he was forbidden from any travel.
    (AFP, 12/28/13)(AFP, 12/29/13)

2013        Dec 30, Bahraini authorities said they have seized a boat smuggling explosives made in Iran and Syria into the Sunni-ruled kingdom, which quashed a Shiite-led uprising in 2011.
    (AFP, 12/30/13)

2014        Jan 4, Bahrain named Ali Mafoudh al-Moussawi, a Bahraini citizen who lives in Iran, as a main suspect in planned "terrorist acts" and said he and his collaborators had received training and other help from Tehran.
    (Reuters, 1/4/14)

2014        Jan 8, A Bahraini court sentenced 22 Shiites to 15 years in prison over the killing of a policeman and the wounding of another in an attack outside Manama.
    (AP, 1/8/14)

2014        Jan 26, Bahraini police firing teargas and birdshot clashed with stone-throwing protesters in a village west of the capital after the funeral of Fadhel Abbas (20) who died in custody. Abbas was detained on Jan 8 on suspicion of smuggling weapons and explosives and died late on Jan 25.
    (Reuters, 1/26/14)

2014        Feb 14, In Bahrain a blast struck a bus carrying police as anti-government activists clashed with police on the third anniversary of the uprising in the small Gulf island nation. One policeman died of wounds sustained in the bomb blast. 26 people were arrested. Another 29 were arrested a day earlier.
    (AP, 2/14/14)(AFP, 2/15/14)

2014        Feb 15, In Bahrain supporters of the main Shiite opposition bloc joined the anniversary rally called by the opposition Al-Wefaq movement to press its campaign for a constitutional monarchy. Thousands clashed with security forces and brought the streets of Manama to a standstill.
    (AP, 2/15/14)(SSFC, 2/16/14, p.A7)

2014        Feb 26, In Bahrain Jaffar Mohammed Jaffar (23), suffering from sickle-cell anemia, died a week after being taken to the hospital. Jaffar was one of several suspects detained in connection with an operation in December that resulted in the seizure of stocks of weapons and explosives, including some being smuggled in by sea.
    (AP, 2/26/14)

2014        Mar 3, In Bahrain an explosion that went off while policemen were dispersing demonstrators killed three police personnel. 25 people were arrested over the next 24 hours on suspicion of involvement.
    (Reuters, 3/3/14)(SFC, 3/5/14, p.A2)

2014        Mar 5, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain withdrew their ambassadors from Qatar in an unprecedented public split between Gulf Arab allies who have fallen out over the role of Islamists in a region in turmoil.
    (Reuters, 3/5/14)

2014        Mar 10, Two Bahraini suspects, one with a US passport, were arrested after they allegedly "demonstrated and attacked a police patrol using Molotov cocktails and iron bars" in the Shiite village of Maameer.
    (AFP, 3/11/14)

2014        Mar 30, A Bahrain court sentenced 13 people to life in prison for attempting to kill a policeman, attacking a police car and taking part in an illegal protest in March, 2012. One person was sentenced to 10 years in jail in the same case.
    (AP, 3/30/14)

2014        Apr 19, In Bahrain an apparent car bombing killed two people and wounded one in Mughsha, a village west of Manama.
    (AP, 4/19/14)

2014        Apr 29, In Bahrain female activists Nafisa al-Asfoor and Rayhana al-Musawi were convicted, along with three male accomplices in connection with what authorities say was an attempt to bomb last year's Formula One race. No explosives were detonated at the 2013 race.
    (AP, 4/29/14)

2014        May 25, Prominent Bahraini Shiite activist Nabil Rajab issued an appeal for "serious dialogue" in the Sunni-ruled kingdom following his release after serving a two-year jail term.
    (AFP, 5/25/14)

2014        Jun 5, A Bahraini court convicted and sentenced four Shiites to life imprisonment over the death of an Asian man in a Nov 5, 2012, bomb attack in Manama.
    (AP, 6/5/14)

2014        Jul 5, In Bahrain police officer Mahmood Fareed died of wounds sustained in a blast, which occurred the day before in the village of Eker, south of the capital, Manama.
    (AP, 7/5/14)

2014        Jul 7, Bahrain ordered US diplomat Tom Malinowski to leave the country after he met with a leading Shiite opposition group.
    (AP, 7/7/14)(Econ, 7/12/14, p.42)

2014        Aug 6, Bahrain convicted nine opposition activists of various public security charges and stripped them of their citizenship. They received prison terms ranging from seven to 22 years.
    (AP, 8/6/14)

2014        Aug 23, In Bahrain thousands of Shiites protested against what they say are attempts by the Sunni authorities to tip the kingdom's demographic balance in their favor by naturalizing foreigners.
    (AFP, 8/23/14)

2014        Sep 6, A Bahrain court ruled that prominent rights activist Maryam al-Khawaja be kept behind bars for an extra 10 days despite a UN call for her release. She was arrested for assaulting a police officer after arriving at Manama airport on August 30. Khawaja accused police of attacking her at the airport.
    (AFP, 9/6/14)

2014        Sep 23, The United States and its Arab allies bombed Syria for the first time. Bahrain, Jordan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates participated in or supported the strikes against Islamic State targets. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least 70 Islamic State fighters were killed in strikes that hit at least 50 targets in Raqqa and Deir al-Zor and Hasakah provinces. It also said at least 50 fighters and 8 civilians were killed in strikes targeting al Qaeda's Syrian affiliate, the Nusra Front, in northern Aleppo and Idlib provinces.
    (Reuters, 9/23/14)

2014        Oct 14, Bahraini authorities ordered pro-democracy activist Zainab al-Khawaja to be detained for questioning for seven days after a judge accused her of insulting King Hamad by tearing up his picture.
    (Reuters, 10/15/14)

2014        Oct 28, A Bahraini court banned the Gulf state's main opposition movement for three months, just weeks before a parliamentary election the group had already said it would boycott.
    (AFP, 10/28/14)

2014        Nov 2, A Bahraini court freed prominent Shiite activist Nabeel Rajab but barred him from travel until his trial resumes over remarks on Twitter deemed insulting to public institutions.
    (AFP, 11/2/14)

2014        Nov 16, Gulf states agreed to welcome Qatar back to the fold following a row over its support for Islamists. Last March Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and the UAE announced the withdrawal of their envoys from Qatar in protest at its "interference" in their internal affairs by supporting Islamists.
    (AFP, 11/19/14)

2014        Nov 21, In Bahrain activists staged a mock referendum asking residents of Shiite areas if they wanted a new political system under United Nations supervision. Witnesses said police used tear gas to disperse protesters in some Shiite villages ahead of the vote.
    (AP, 11/22/14)

2014        Nov 22, Bahrain voters cast ballots in the island kingdom's first full parliamentary election since Arab Spring-inspired protests. A boycott by the country's opposition overshadowed the vote.
    (AP, 11/22/14)

2014        Nov 29, Bahraini voters returned to the polls for a runoff election being boycotted by the opposition. Pro-government candidates took the majority of contested seats in the parliamentary election.
    (AP, 11/29/14)(AP, 11/30/14)

2014        Dec 1, Bahraini human rights activist Maryam al-Khawaja was jailed for a year in absentia for assaulting two policewomen. His father has been detained since 2011.
    (Reuters, 12/1/14)

2014         Dec 6, Bahrain and Britain said they planned to open a new military camp in Bahrain. This would be Britainís 1st permanent camp in the Middle East region since it officially pulled out from the area in 1971.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lz2apn3)

2014        Dec 8, In Bahrain a Jordanian officer on a security exchange program was killed in the village of Damistan.
    (Reuters, 12/9/14)

2014        Dec 9, In Bahrain an explosion killed a citizen and wounded an expatriate man in the second fatal attack in the Gulf Arab state in two days.
    (Reuters, 12/9/14)
2014        Dec 9, The six-member Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE) agreed to create a joint naval force based out of Bahrain and announced a police force based in Abu Dhabi.
    (SSFC, 12/14/14, p.A22)

2014        Dec 27, Bahrain's main opposition movement Al-Wefaq handed its leader, Sheikh Ali Salman (49), a new four-year stint at the helm of the Shiite group. Wefaq activities have been banned in the Sunni-ruled kingdom.
    (AFP, 12/27/14)

2014        Dec 28, In Bahrain scattered clashes broke out between protesters and government forces after Sheikh Ali Salman, the secretary general of the Shiite opposition al-Wefaq, was detained by the Interior Ministry for inciting hatred against the government.
    (SFC, 12/29/14, p.A2)

2014        Dec 29, A Bahrain court sentenced two Shi'ite Muslim men to death and handed a third a life sentence after they were convicted of killing a policeman. The three were among 12 people charged with a bomb attack last February.
    (Reuters, 12/29/14)

2014        Dec 30, Bahrain security forces clashed with demonstrators outside the home of Sheikh Ali Salman, the detained head of al-Wefaq, the main Shi'ite Muslim opposition group.
    (Reuters, 12/30/14)

2015        Jan 13, A Bahraini court sentenced a former lawmaker from the island kingdom's main Shiite opposition group to six months in jail over a social media posting. Jamil Kadhim was convicted of spreading false information over a tweet alleging that authorities were offering money to encourage candidates to enter parliamentary elections in November.
    (AP, 1/13/15)

2015        Jan 19, Bahrain prosecutors charged Sheikh Ali Salman, the Shiite opposition chief in custody since Dec 28, with attempting to overthrow the regime and sent him to trial despite international calls for his release.
    (AFP, 1/19/15)

2015        Jan 20, A Bahrain court sentenced prominent Shiite activist Nabeel Rajab to six months in prison after it found him guilty of insulting public institutions in his tweets. The ruling was subject to appeal.
    (AFP, 1/20/15)

2015        Jan 31, Sunni-ruled Bahrain said it has revoked the citizenship of 72 people convicted of "harming the interests of the kingdom" in unrest by the Shiite majority since 2011. The official BNA news agency published a list of the 72 people affected by the measure.
    (AFP, 1/31/15)

2015        Feb 1, Outspoken billionaire Saudi Prince Alwaleed bin Talal launched a pan-Arab satellite news channel aimed at challenging established networks in the region. The Bahrain-based Alarab News Channel took to the air, leading with a story about Japanese hostage Kenji Goto.
    (AFP, 2/1/15)

2015        Feb 2, In Bahrain the new Alarab television news channel backed by a billionaire Saudi prince was suspended from broadcasting, just hours after it went on air and carried an interview with prominent opposition activist Khalil al-Marzooq.
    (AP, 2/2/15)

2015        Feb 9, Bahrain said it suspended a new pan-Arab news channel backed by a billionaire Saudi prince within hours of its first broadcast because it failed to obtain a proper license and did not meet anti-terrorist standards. The Alarab network disappeared from TV screens early on Feb 2, a day after its launch.
    (AP, 2/9/15)

2015        Feb 14, In Bahrain protesters took to the streets in predominantly Shiite areas and set tires alight along a major highway to mark the fourth anniversary of widespread protests calling for reform.
    (AP, 2/14/15)

2015        Feb 15, Bahrain said it will send troops to support regional ally Jordan.
    (AP, 2/15/15)

2015        Feb 16, Bahrain said it has deployed fighter planes to help support Jordan, a day after it announced plans to send troops to the kingdom.
    (AP, 2/16/15)

2015        Feb 23, Bahrain said seven people suspected of involvement in deadly bombings targeting security forces have been apprehended.
    (Reuters, 2/23/15)

2015        Feb 26, A Bahraini court sentenced three Shiites to death and jailed seven others for life after convicting them of killing 3 policemen in the Sunni-ruled Gulf state last year. The supreme criminal court also stripped eight of the defendants of their Bahraini citizenship over the March 3, 2014, bombing in a Shiite village.
    (AFP, 2/26/15)

2015        Mar 10, Bahraini security forces tear-gassed and beat inmates at a prison while trying to quell clashes that erupted during family visits, causing some injuries among the detainees.
    (Reuters, 3/10/15)

2015        Mar 12, Bahraini authorities arrested three suspects after a firefight in the capital Manama broke out in the city's busy Juffair district.
    (AFP, 3/13/15)

2015        Mar 16, Bahrain authorities arrested a young man who was trying to smuggle in bomb-making materials from Iraq. He told authorities a relative who lives in Iraq, and wanted on terrorism-related charges, gave him the suitcase to take to Bahrain.
    (AP, 3/16/15)

2015        Mar 22, Bahrain jailed 11 people for 15 years each over an attack on a police station in a Shiite village that left four policemen wounded. A 12th defendant was jailed for seven years The 12 were accused of taking part in an attack in October in the village of Aaly.
    (AFP, 3/22/15)

2015        Apr 27, Bahrain's public prosecutor said that eight men were sentenced to fifteen years in prison for the attempted murder of nine policemen in 2013.
    (Reuters, 4/28/15)

2015        Apr 28, Bahraini authorities said they have arrested 28 people who had been planning attacks in villages in the kingdom. Some of those detained had already been convicted on terrorism charges in absentia and had been sentenced to life terms in jail, while others had their citizenships revoked.
    (Reuters, 4/28/15)

2015        May 31, A Bahraini court jailed six police officers for up to five years after convicting them of torturing inmates, one of whom died.
    (AFP, 5/31/15)

2015        Jun 11, A court in Bahrain handed down sentences of up to life imprisonment against 57 Shiites accused of plotting attacks against police and other targets. Only 33 of the defendants were in custody. The rest were tried in absentia.
    (AFP, 6/12/15)

2015        Jun 16, A court in Bahrain jailed prominent Shiite opposition leader Ali Salman, whose arrest drew US and Iranian condemnation and sparked protests across the tiny but strategic Gulf kingdom.
    (AFP, 6/16/15)

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