Timeline Botswana

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History: http://www.africanet.com/countries/botswana.htm#HISTORY
Botswana is about the size of Texas. Gaborone is the capital.
    (WSJ, 8/29/02, p.A1)(Econ, 3/29/08, p.62)

1830        A French taxidermist stuffed an African Bushman from Botswana and took the body to Europe for exhibition. In 2000 the body was returned from a Spanish museum.
    (WSJ, 10/5/00, p.A1)

1921        Jul 1, Seretse Khama, 1st president of Botswana, was born.
    (http://ubh.tripod.com/bw/skhama.htm)

1950        Laurence Marshall, a former president of Raytheon, took his family to the bush land of the Kalahari Desert in South Africa where they encountered the native Bushmen. The area later became the border of Namibia and Botswana. In 2006 his daughter Elizabeth Marshall Thomas authored ”The Old Way: A Story of the First People.”
    (SSFC, 11/5/06, p.M3)

1966        Sep 30, The Republic of Botswana, a Texas sized country, declared its independence from Britain. Seretse Khama (1921-1980) began serving as the 1st president of Botswana.
    (SFC, 7/1/97, p.A9)(AP, 9/30/06)(http://ubh.tripod.com/bw/skhama.htm)

1967        Diamonds were discovered in Botswana. It was later thought that the deposits would run out by 2030.
    (Econ, 10/24/09, p.59)

1980        Apr 1, The southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) was established by 9 countries with the Lusaka declaration (Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe). The main aim was coordinating development projects in order to lessen economic dependence on apartheid South Africa.  On August 17, 1992, it was transformed into the Southern African Development Community (SADC). By 2008 it included 15 members.
    (www.sadc.int/index/browse/page/52)

1980        Jul 13, Seretse Khama, 1st president of Botswana, died. He made Botswana an increasingly democratic and prosperous country with a significant role in Southern Africa.
    (http://ubh.tripod.com/bw/skhama.htm)

1985        Botswana recorded its 1st AIDS case.
    (WSJ, 8/29/02, p.A4)

1986        May 19, South African commandos struck alleged ANC "operational centers" in Zimbabwe, Botswana, Zambia.
    (www.iie.com/research/topics/sanctions/southafrica.cfm)

1997        Jun 19, In Zimbabwe delegates to the UN Convention on Int’l. Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) approved the applications by Zimbabwe, Namibia and Botswana to sell an annual quota of their collective ivory stockpile, but only to Japan. Trade in ivory was shut down in 1989 due to extensive poaching.
    (SFC, 6/20/97, p.A20)

1997        Jun 19, In Zimbabwe delegates to the UN Convention on Int’l. Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) approved the applications by Zimbabwe, Namibia and Botswana to sell an annual quota of their collective 55 tons of ivory stockpile, but only to Japan. Trade in ivory was shut down in 1989 due to extensive poaching.
    (SFC, 6/20/97, p.A20)(SFC, 4/18/00, p.A9)

1997        Nov 10, Pres. Sir Ketumile Masire announced that he would retire Mar 31 after 18 years as leader. He would be succeeded by Vice Pres. Festus Mogae.
    (SFC,11/11/97, p.A14)

1997        The US Peace Corps left Botswana after 30 years of aiding development. In 2002 the Peace Corps returned to help with the AIDS program.
    (WSJ, 8/29/02, p.A4)

1997-2006    Over 2,000 Bushmen and others moved out of Botswana’s Central Kalahari Game Reserve and in return were given livestock, a small plot of land and some money.
    (Econ, 2/18/06, p.47)

1998        Mar 29-1998 Mar 31, Pres. Clinton visited Botswana and took 2 days off to explore the Chobe National Park, home to 45,000 elephants and other species.
    (SFC, 3/21/98, p.A13)(WSJ, 3/30/98, p.A1)

1998        Sep 21, In Lesotho opposition protestors clashed with South African and Botswanan troops at the royal palace. A faction of the Lesotho army rebelled 11 days ago and deposed the new military leadership. They charged that the May elections swept by the Lesotho Congress party were rigged.
    (SFC, 9/22/98, p.A7)

1998        Oct 28, The life expectancy was reported to have dropped from 61 in 1993 to 47 to the AIDS epidemic.
    (SFC, 10/28/98, p.A12)

1998        In Botswana Festus Mogae came to power in succession to Sir Ketumile Masire.
    (AFP, 7/15/07)

1999        May 6, Bristol-Myers announced a plan to spend $100 million over the next 5 years in 5 southern African nations, that included Botswana, to fund AIDS research trials.
    (WSJ, 5/6/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 7/7/00, p.A1)

1999        Oct 18, In Botswana election results showed the ruling Botswana Democratic Party of Pres. Festus Mogae won 30 of 40 seats in the National Assembly.
    (SFC, 10/19/99, p.A13)

2000        Feb 26, Heavy rains continued to ravage South Africa, Botswana, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. 33 people were reported dead in the northern province of South Africa and 29 dead in Zimbabwe.
    (SFEC, 2/27/00, p.A22)

2001        Mar 7, Debswana, Botswana’s diamond-mining giant, offered AIDS drug coverage for its 6,000 workers.
    (WSJ, 3/8/00, p.A1)

2001        Jun 4, It was reported that the AIDS HIV-infection rate was 38.5% of Botswana’s adult population.
    (SFC, 6/4/01, p.A10)

2002        Aug, The US Peace Corps returned to Botswana to help with the AIDS crises. One-third of the working population was infected.
    (WSJ, 8/29/02, p.A4)

2002        Some of the former dwellers of Botswana’s Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR) took the government to court, arguing that their relocation was illegal.
    (Econ, 2/18/06, p.47)

2003        Jul 10, Pres. Bush met with Pres. Festus Mogae in Botswana. Bush said that AIDS is "the deadliest enemy Africa has ever faced" and pledged to the nation with the world's highest AIDS infection rate that it would have a strong partner in his administration in fighting the disease.
    (SFC, 7/10/03, p.A8)(AP, 7/10/08)

2003        Aug 30, In Botswana a former bank manager, draped in a ceremonial leopard skin, was installed as the first female paramount chief. Mosadi Seboko took over as the highest-ranking chief of the Balete people.
    (AP, 8/30/03)

2003        Nov 8, The AIDS infection rate in Botswana was reported to be 22% and that few people were taking advantage of treatment programs.
    (SFC, 11/8/03, p.A14)

2004        Nov 1, Botswana voters gave the ruling Botswana Democratic Party 44 of parliament’s 57 seats. Pres. Festus Mogae promised to fight poverty and AIDS.
    (Econ, 11/6/04, p.50)

2004        Eurostar, an Indian-owned diamond cutting and trading company headquartered in Belgium, set up diamond polishing and cutting operations in Botswana.
    (Econ, 3/22/08, p.74)

2005        Jun 28, Swedish truck and bus maker Volvo AB said it will close an assembly plant in Botswana and open a new factory in Durban, South Africa.
    (AP, 6/28/05)

2006        Dec 13, Botswana's High Court ruled that the country's Bushmen were entitled to live and hunt on their ancestral lands in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve, in judgment hailed as victory for the hunters.
    (AP, 12/13/06)

2006        Dec 14, Botswana's government accepted a court order to allow the Bushmen, the nation's last hunter-gatherers, to live on their ancestral lands. But at the same time, officials imposed tough conditions likely to prevent most or all from returning to the central Kalahari. In 2009 6 Bushmen were convicted of illegally hunting gemsbok and eland in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve, where no licenses have issued since 2001.
    (AP, 12/14/06)(Econ, 8/8/09, p.44)

2006        Botswana’s population numbered about 1.6 million.
    (Econ, 7/28/07, p.47)

2007        Jun 2, The UN Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) decided to permit a one-off sale of 60 tons of ivory from Botswana, Namibia and South Africa to Japan, saying it would monitor closely the impact on poaching and population levels.
    (Reuters, 6/3/07)

2007        Jun 14, In the Netherlands four African states (South Africa, Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe), after an 18-year ban, were allowed to put their ivory stocks on the market in a one-time sale as part of a hard-fought compromise reached with other Africans who tried to block the sale. The 171-member Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, or CITES, approved the deal by consensus.
    (AP, 6/14/07)

2007        Jul 15, Botswana's President Festus Mogae (67) announced that he is to stand down next year after a decade at the helm of the diamond-rich southern African nation.
    (AFP, 7/15/07)

2007        Jul, Filming started on the first international movie ever to be shot in Botswana, “The No. 1 Ladies' Detective Agency,” a movie based on Alexander McCall Smith's hit book series of the same name.
    (CSM, 8/1/07)(Econ, 7/28/07, p.47)

2008        Mar 18, In Botswana De Beers and the government set up a Diamond Trading Company (DTC) as a joint venture.
    (Econ, 3/22/08, p.74)

2008        Mar 22, The population of Botswana numbered about 1.8 million.
    (Econ, 3/22/08, p.74)

2008        Apr 1, In Botswana Seretse Ian Khama (b.1953), the half-white son of Botswana’s first president,  was sworn in as president. Festus Mogae retired after 10 years in office.
    (www.voanews.com/english/2008-04-01-voa55.cfm?rss=politics)

2008        Jul 16, The United States signed a pair of agreements to boost trade and investment ties with countries in southern and eastern Africa. These included the Trade, Investment and Development Cooperation Agreement with the Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU), which includes Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland; and the Trade Investment and Framework Agreement (TIFA) with the East African Community, which includes Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda.
    (Reuters, 7/17/08)

2008        Oct 20, Festus Gontebanye Mogae, who led Botswana from 1998 to 2008, was chosen as the winner of the 2008 Ibrahim Prize for Achievement in African Leadership.
    (AP, 10/20/08)

2008        Nov 26, South Africa's health minister said Zimbabwe faced a humanitarian crisis after a major outbreak of cholera, vowing not to turn away anyone who crosses the border for treatment. Botswana's foreign minister said Zimbabwe's neighbors should close their borders in an attempt to bring down Pres. Robert Mugabe, in the strongest call yet for action from Africa.
    (AFP, 11/26/08)

2009        Mar 21, In Botswana Japanese Foreign Minister Hirofumi Nakasone opened a development conference and warned that the global economic crisis would affect Africa for at least two years.
    (AP, 3/21/09)

2009        Mar 27, Southern African countries (Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia) have been hit by the worst floods in years, killing more than 100 people and displacing thousands, as a tropical storm threatened to bring more pain.
    (AFP, 3/28/09)

2009        Apr 6, In Zambia western nations and lending agencies meeting in Lusaka agreed a financing package of more than $1 billion to improve infrastructure in southern and central Africa at an investment conference meant to expand transport links and trade. Britain said it would separately provide 100 million pounds ($149.2 million) to transform the region's infrastructure to increase trade and mitigate the effects of the global financial crisis. New projects will link businesses in 8 African countries: Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, Malawi, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and South Africa.
    (AP, 4/6/09)

2009        Oct 9, Japanese officials said they have obtained rights to develop platinum mines in South Africa and Botswana in a bid to ensure a stable supply of the metal. The government-backed Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp. (JOGMEC) said it has signed a contract with Discovery Metals in Australia to jointly develop nickel and platinum mines in northeast Botswana. It has also inked another deal with Canadian firm Platinum Group Metals to explore for platinum in South Africa.
    (AFP, 10/9/09)

2009        Oct 16, Botswana held parliamentary elections. On Oct 18 the independent electoral commission announced that the governing party, which has been in power for more than four decades, once again swept the elections. The Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) won 45 out of the 57 seats. This paved the way for legislators to select incumbent President Seretse Ian Khama to continue as leader of the world's largest diamond-producing country.
    (AP, 10/18/09)

2009        Botswana’s population stood at about 2 million.
    (Econ, 10/24/09, p.59)

2009        James G. Workman authored “Heart of Dryness: How the Last Bushmen Can Help Us Endure the Coming Age of Permanent Drought.” The book includes a history of the diamond industry in Botswana as well as the story of the Bushmen’s resistance to the government’s efforts to drive them from their traditional homes and ways.
    (SSFC, 8/16/09, Books p.F7)

2010        Jan 6, Zimbabwe state media reported that Zimbabwe Power Company (ZPC) has signed an eight million dollar deal with Botswana to revive a shut-down thermal power station and ease national blackouts.
    (AFP, 1/6/10)

2010        Sep 1, A court in Botswana charged former defense minister Ramadeluka Seretse for failing to disclose his position as a shareholder in a company that was awarded a government contract. Seretse, a cousin of President Seretse Ian Khama, resigned Aug 30 after months of corruption allegations from opposition parties.
    (AP, 9/1/10)

2010        Oct 30, In China Alexandria Mills, a soft-spoken 18-year-old from Louisville, Kentucky, was named the winner in the 60th Miss World Competition, held on Hainan Island. Second place went to Emma Wareus of Botswana, and Adriana Vasini of Venezuela came third.
    (AP, 10/31/10)

2011        Jan 27, An appeals court in Botswana ruled that indigenous dwellers in one of the driest parts of the world can now drill wells for water, overturning an earlier decision that denied them access.
    (AP, 1/27/11)

2011        Apr 18, Botswana nearly 90,000 public sector workers went on strike demanding a 16% pay raise after a 3-year wage freeze. The government proceeded to fire 1,400 striking health care workers including some 50 doctors. After 8 weeks public workers settled for three percent after the government insisted it could not afford a larger increase.
    (Econ, 6/11/11, p.55)(AFP, 7/7/11)(AFP, 6/27/12)

2011        Jun 27, A Botswana's Bushmen spokesman said Bushmen plan to boycott the country's upcoming census in protest at the government's refusal to provide them with a polling station during the last election. Some 100,000 Bushmen remained in southern Africa, spread across Botswana, Namibia and South Africa.
    (AP, 6/28/11)

2011        Sep 23, A Botswana official said labor unions have asked a court to force the government to reinstate nearly 2,600 public services workers fired during the country's first national strike in April.
    (AFP, 9/23/11)

2011        Oct 18, In Botswana 3 French, 3 Swiss and 2 Britons were killed when their Moremi Moremi Air Charters Cessna 208 crashed shortly after take-off from the island of Pom Pom in the Okavango delta in the northern tourist area. 4 passengers survived the crash.
    (AFP, 10/18/11)

2012        Apr 13, Spain's King Juan Carlos (74) was injured while on an expensive elephant hunting trip in Botswana amid the nation's deep financial woes. The accident required a hip replacement and led to scathing criticism amid the nation's deep financial woes.
    (AP, 4/15/12)

2012        Jun 26, Botswana and Namibia inaugurated their links to a 14,000 km (8,700 mile) underground cable system that provides both with faster and cheaper Internet connectivity.
    (AFP, 6/26/12)

2012        Jun 27, Botswana's Court of Appeal temporarily suspended a court order for the government to reinstate some 566 workers who were fired in a massive strike last year.
    (AFP, 6/27/12)

2012        Aug 14, In Botswana the world's leading producer of diamonds De Beers began rough stone sorting, a first step in its transfer from London to Gaborone.
    (AFP, 8/14/12)

2012        Oct 12, In Botswana a judge nullified a customary law that denied women the right to inherit a family home, a decision seen as a crucial step forward for women's rights in the southern African country.
    (AP, 10/12/12)

2012        Nov 29, Botswana said it will ban hunting by 2014 because of fears that the nation is losing its wildlife. Hunts by local communities and with special hunting licenses would still be allowed.
    (AP, 11/29/12)

2013        Aug 6, Botswana said disputed elections won by Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe did not meet acceptable standards and has warned southern African nations against violating commitments to democracy by accepting the result.
    (AP, 8/6/13)

2013        Dec 4, In Botswana the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) said key states, where the illegal ivory trade flourishes, have pledged to take urgent measures to try to halt the illicit trade and secure elephant populations across Africa.
    (AFP, 12/4/13)

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