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Biblioteca Nacional (in Portuguese): http://www.bn.br/
Brazil is slightly smaller than the continental
United States. It is Latin America's largest country and the world's
fifth-largest. It covers more than 40% of South America, bordering
every country on the continent except Chile and Ecuador. Capital is
Brasilia, and it has 26 states. Brazil is about 75% Roman Catholic.
Brazil has 27 states which
include a Federal District (Brasilia); Acre (Rio Branco); Alagoas
(Maceio); Amapa (Macapa); Amazonas (Manaus); Bahia (Salvador); Ceara
(Fortaleza); Espiritu Santo (Vitoria); Goias (Goiania); Maranhao
(Sao Luis); Mato Grosso (Cuaiba); Mato Grosso do Sul (Campo Grande);
Minas Gerais (Belo Horizonte); Para (Belem); Paraiba (Joao Pessoa);
Parana (Curitiba); Pernambuco (Recife); Piaui (Teresina); Rio de
Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro); Rio Grande do Norte (Natal); Rio Grande do
Sul (Porto Alegre); Rondonia (Porto Velho); Roraima (Boa Vista);
Santa Catarina (Florianopolis); Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo); Sergipe
(Aracaju); Tocatins (Palmas).
206 indigenous societies, 330,00 Indians,
inhabit Brazil. This included the Waiapi in the northeast; the
Guaran-Kaiowa; Araras; Kaiapo (Kaapor); Korubo; Paracana; Potiguara,
Tembe; Timbira; Xukuru.
(SFEC, 7/27/97, p.D1)(SFC, 10/3/97, p.B5)(SFC, 7/6/98,
p.A10)(WSJ, 8/20/99, p.A1)
260Mil BC Scientists in 2011
reported the discovery of the remains of a saber-toothed vegetarian.
The leaf-crunching animal, about the size of a large dog, lived 260
million years ago in what is now Brazil. Its upper canine teeth were
nearly 5 inches long.
254.7Mil BC In 2012 scientists dated the 40km
Araguainha crater, on the border of Brazilís Mato Grosso and Goias
states, to this time. They believed that the release of oil and gas
from the impact of a meteorite led to the great Permian extinction.
(Econ, 7/27/13, p.64)
110Mil BC In 2002 a pterosaur fossil from this
time was discovered in Brazil that indicated it skimmed over water
for food and had a huge bony crest on its head.
(SFC, 7/19/02, p.A5)
90Mil BC The Baurusuchus salgadoensis lived in an
area of southeastern Brazil known as the Bauru Basin, some 700
kilometers (450 miles) west of modern-day Rio de Janeiro. The
fossilized skeletons appear to be closely related to another ancient
crocodile species, the Pabwehshi pakistanesis discovered in
80Mil BC A land-bound reptile, described as a
possible link between prehistoric and modern-day crocodiles, roamed
arid and hot terrain that became Brazilian countryside about this
time. A fossil of Montealtosuchus arrudacamposi was found in 2004
and displayed in 2008.
48000 BC Charcoal from camp fires in the Pedra
Faruda site of Piaui state were carbon dated in 1987 to about this
(SFEC, 2/20/00, p.A18)
13000 BC Human teeth and skull fragments from the
Pedra Faruda site of Piaui state were carbon dated to about this
time. Niede Guidon began excavations at the site in 1970.
(SFEC, 2/20/00, p.A18)
9500 BC A female skull, aged 20-25, from this
about this time was found near Belo Horizonte in c1995 and named
Luzia. It was found to have characteristics similar to people from
the South Pacific.
(SFC, 5/23/98, p.A13)
1000BC-1000AD A civilization in Amazonia, called
Patiti or Enin by archeologists, dug channels for an elaborate crop
(SFEC, 12/6/98, p.T12)
1250-1400 In the Upper Xingu region of Brazil's
Mato Grosso state thousands of people occupied 19 settlements in 2
clusters over this period according to archeological findings in
(Econ, 9/20/03, p.76)
1492 Research in 2003
indicated that the Kuikuro people in the Amazon basin had a "complex
and sophisticated" civilization with a population of many thousands
prior to this time.
1500 Jan 26, Spanish explorer
Vicente Yanez Pinzon reached the northeastern coast of Brazil during
a voyage under his command. Pinzon had commanded the Nina during
Christopher Columbus's first expedition to the New World.
1500 Mar 9, Pedro Cabral
(~1460-1520), Portuguese navigator, departed to India. He left
Lisbon with 13 ships headed for India and was blown off course.
(WUD, 1994 p.206)(SFC, 4/20/00,
1500 Apr 22, Pedro Alvares
Cabral (c1460-c1526), Portuguese explorer, discovered Brazil and
claimed it for Portugal. He anchored for 10 days in a bay he called
"Porto Seguro" and continued on to India. [see Apr 23]
(WUD,1994, p.206)(AHD, p.185)(TL-MB, 1988,
p.8)(HN, 4/22/98)(SFC, 4/20/00, p.A14)
1500 Apr 23, Pedro Cabal landed
at Terra da Vera Cruz and claimed Brazil for Portugal. The native
population was later estimated to have been from 1 to 11 million
people. [see Apr 22]
(AP, 4/23/98)(SFC, 7/6/98,
1500 Capt. Vicente Yanez
Pinzon, master of the Nina in 1492, is credited with the discovery
of Brazil. He took an opossum back to Europe. It was the 1st
marsupial Europeans saw.
(SFC, 7/1/00, p.B5)
1500-1800 "Chapters of Brazil Colonial History" by
Joao Capistrano de Abreu (1853-1927) covered this period. It was
first published in 1907. The Oxford Library of Latin America
published a new edition in 1998.
(WSJ, 2/3/98, p.A20)
1502 Jan 1, Guanabara Bay was
first encountered by Europeans when one of the Portuguese explorers
Gaspar de Lemos and Goncalo Coelho arrived on its shores. Guanabara
Bay is an oceanic bay located in southeastern Brazil in the state of
Rio de Janeiro. On its western shore lies the city of Rio de
Janeiro, and on its eastern shore the cities of Niteroi and Sao
1502 Portuguese traders took
peanuts from Brazil and Peru to Africa.
(SFEC, 1/10/99, Z1 p.8)
1540 Cabeza de Vaca, a Spanish
conquistador, was appointed governor of the province of Rio de la
Plata. His advocacy of Indian rights caused him to be arrested and
banished to a Spanish outpost in North Africa.
(ON, 10/03, p.5)
1541 When Pizarro's
half-brother prepared to explore the lands east of Quito, Francisco
de Orellana led an advance expedition and wound up exploring the
Amazon basin, following the current to emerge at the mouth of the
river in August 1542. From there, he returned to Spain (by way of
Trinidad), full of tales of riches and strange tribes led by women
like the Amazons of Greek mythology. Orellana died in a return
expedition to the Amazon River four years later.
1541 Cabeza de Vaca, a Spanish
conquistador, became the 1st European to see the Iguacu Falls. He
named the falls Saltos de Santa Maria but the Tupi-Guarani name
(SFEC, 10/8/00, p.17)
1542 Aug 24, In South America,
Gonzalo Pizarro returned to the mouth of the Amazon River after
having sailed the length of the great river as far as the Andes
1543 Sugar cane was introduced
to Brazil about this time. Fermented sugar cane later became the
base for cachaca, a light rum that is the national spirit. Cachaca
is used to prepare the national drink, the caipirinha.
(Hem, 4/96, p.10)
1547 Hans Staden of Germany was
shipwrecked on the Atlantic coast of Brazil. He was later rescued
and in 1557 published an illustrated account of his adventures.
(Arch, 5/05, p.30)
1549 Sao Salvador, later Bahia
in Brazil, was founded by Thome de Souza, Portugalís first governor
of Brazil. Portuguese conquerors founded Salvador.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T8)
1550 African slaves were
shipped to Brazil to work sugar plantations.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
1554 The hamlet of Sao Paulo,
Brazil, was founded by Jesuit missionaries.
(Econ, 9/3/11, p.61)
1556 Jun 16, Pedro Fernandes
Sardinha, The 1st bishop of Bahia, was shipwrecked between the
rivers S„o Francisco and Cururipu and murdered by the Indians. The
Caytes of the Brazilian coast ate the crews of every wrecked
Portuguese ship they found. They ate the first Bishop of Bahia, two
Canons, the Procurator of the Royal Portuguese Treasury, 2 pregnant
women and several children.
1560 The first blacks set foot
(SFC, 9/21/96, p.A8)
1565 Mar 1, Spanish occupier
Estacio de SŠ founded Rio de Janeiro. He destroyed the existing
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(SC, 3/1/02)
1567 Jun 20, Jews were expelled
from Brazil by order of regent Don Henrique.
1570 The Convento de Penha was
built on a 164-meter cliff overlooking Vitoria in the state of
Espiritu Santo, Brazil.
(USA Today, OW, 4/22/96, p.13)
1591 British sailor Anthony
Knivet found himself stranded on Ilhabella island near Santos,
Brazil. He was shipwrecked there after sailing as a crew member of a
5-ship flotilla under Sir Thomas Cavendish. The story of his
adventures was published in 1625 by Richard Hakluyt, a director of
the Virginia Company,
1600-1700 Brazilís Ouro Preto which means Black
Gold in Portuguese, was founded in the 17th century after huge gold
deposits were discovered under its steep hills.
1624 The Dutch conquered
(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T8)
1627 Mar 3, Piet Heyn conquered
22 ships in Bay of Salvador, Brazil.
1636 Nov 17, Henrique Dias,
Brazilian general, won a decisive battle against the Dutch in
1638 Jan 5, Petition in Recife,
Brazil, led to the closing of its two synagogues.
1641 Cristoval de Acuna, a
Jesuit missionary, first wrote about the Amazon River to the king of
(SFC, 12/16/00, p.A22)
1645 Apr 7, Michael Cardozo
became the 1st Jewish lawyer in Brazil.
1654 Apr 26, Jews were expelled
1661 Aug 6, Holland sold Brazil
to Portugal for 8 million guilders.
1695 Nov 20, Zumbi, a Brazilian
leader of a hundred-year-old rebel slave group, was killed in an
ambush in Palmares. He was later honored by a National Day of Black
(SFC, 8/16/01, p.A8)(SSFC, 11/18/12, p.G3)
1696 In the late 1600s the
Xukuru Indians fought the Portuguese to a stand off in what was
later referred to as the "War of the Barbarians."
(WSJ, 8/20/99, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/bhqlp)
1711 Sep 22, French troops
occupied Rio de Janeiro.
1723 Sao Francisco church in
Salvador was completed with its walls lined with gold.
(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T8)
1727 Brazil planted its first
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)
1728 The first diamonds found
in Brazil reached Lisbon, Portugal. [see 1730]
(USA Today, OW, 4/22/96, p.13)
1730 Diamonds were discovered
in Brazil, which became the leading supplier until the 1866
discovery in South Africa. [see 1728]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)
1746 Joaquim Jose da Silva
Xavier, Tiradentes, Brazilís Martyr of Independence, was born.
1756 Feb 7, In Brazil the
Indian Chief Sepe Tiaraju was killed at the hands of Portuguese and
1763 The capital of Brazil was
changed from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro.
(USAT, OW, 4/22/96, p.3)(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T8)
1766-1769 The French expedition of Louis Antoine
de Bougainville sailed on a voyage to circumnavigate the globe.
Botanist Jeanne Baret, disguised as a man, likely collected a flower
(bougainvillea) near Rio de Janeiro that was named after the
1789 May 10, Joaquim Jose da
Silva Xavier, Tiradentes, rebel for Independence, was arrested. He
was betrayed by Joaquim Silverio dos Reis, a participant of the
movement, in exchange of waiving of his due taxes; Silverioís name
is carved in Brazilian History as The Betrayer.
1789 In Brazil poet and dentist
Joaquim Jose da Silva Xavier helped launch the first Brazilian
rebellion against the country's Portuguese rulers.
1792 Apr 21, Jose da Silva
Xavier, Tiradentes, considered by many to be Brazil's George
Washington, was drawn and quartered by the Portuguese. He was hung
in Rio de Janeiro. His body was broken apieces. With his blood, a
document was written declaring his memory infamous. His head was
exposed in Vila Rica. Pieces of his body were exposed in the cities
between Vila Rica and Rio, in an attempt to scare the people who had
listened to the independence ideas of Tiradentes.
1796-1799 Baroque sculptor Aleijadinho (Antonio
Francisco Lisboa), completed his greatest work: the sculptures of
Congonhas do Campo, 66 wooden images that include the 12 prophets.
(USA Today, OW, 4/22/96, p.10)
1808 Napoleon chased Portugalís
royal family to Brazil. King Joao VI of Portugal and his court were
installed in Rio de Janeiro by a British fleet.
(Econ, 4/14/07, SR p.5)(Econ, 9/11/10, SR p.3)
1808-1821 Rio de Janeiro was made the capital of
the Portuguese empire.
(USA Today, OW, 4/22/96, p.3)
1809 The Portuguese crown, now
in Brazil, granted authors and inventors exclusive rights to their
works in Brazil fro 14 years.
(Econ, 11/3/12, p.38)
1811-1843 Some 500,000 slaves arrived at Valongo,
Brazilís main landing stage for African slaves. This port area of
Rio de Janeiro was re-discovered in 2010 as the city prepared for
the 2016 Olympics.
(Econ, 1/28/12, p.35)
1813 Georg Heinrich von
Langsdorff was nominated consul general of Russia in Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil. He acquired a farm (named "Mandioca", or manioc) in the
north of Rio and collected plants, animals and minerals. He hosted
and entertained foreign naturalists and scientists, and explored the
flora, fauna and geography of the province of Minas Gerais with
French naturalist Augustin Saint-Hilaire from 1813 to 1820.
1817 The multi-volume "Flora
Brasiliensis" was commissioned by Maximilian I of Austria. The
definitive volume on Brazilian botany was completed in 1906.
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)
1819 Johann Baptist von Spix
discovered the Spix macaw of Brazil (Cyanopsitta spixii). The last
wild Spix macaw disappeared in 2000.
(SFC, 10/7/99, p.A15,18)(SFC, 12/27/00, p.C2)
1821 Anita Ribeiro (d.1849),
later wife of Italian revolutionary Garibaldi, was born in Laguna
(ON, 10/06, p.5)
1822 Sep 7, Brazil declared its
independence from Portugal.
1822-1831 Pedro I ruled Brazil.
(EWH, 4th ed., p.854)
1822-1889 The period of the Brazilian monarchy.
(Hem, 8/96, p.68)
1823 Homosexual acts were
(SFC, 1/11/99, p.A10)
1825 Mar 25, The first
Brazilian Constitution was promulgated by Peter I and solemnly sworn
in the Cathedral of the Empire.
1826 Dom Pedro IV, emperor of
Brazil, attained the Portuguese throne.
(SSFC, 1/28/01, p.T1)
1828 May 18, The Battle of Las
Piedras, ended the conflict between Uruguay and Brazil.
1830-1897 Antonio Vicente Mendes Maciel, aka
Antonio Conselheiro, was born in Quixeramobim, Ceara. He founded the
settlement of Canudos in Bahia that was destroyed by government
(SFC, 10/7/97, p.A14)
1831 Apr 7, Pedro I of Brazil
abdicated in favor of his 5-year-old son, Pedro de Alcantara, Pedro
(EWH, 4th ed., p.855)
1832 Apr 4, Charles Darwin
aboard HMS Beagle reached Rio de Janeiro.
1832 Apr 8, Charles Darwin
began a trip through Rio de Janeiro.
1839 Italian revolutionary
Garibaldi arrived in Brazil to aid the rebels.
(ON, 10/06, p.5)
1839-1908 Joaquin Maria Machado de Assis, mulatto
writer. His novels included "The Posthumous Memoirs of Bras Cubas,"
(1880) and "Dom Casmurro," (1899). The works were republished in
1998 by the Oxford Library of Latin America.
(WSJ, 2/3/98, p.A20)
1847 In Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,
a mansion was donated by a wealthy Brazilian to the government to
serve as a center for the study of indigenous traditions. The Indian
Museum was abandoned in 1977. Indigenous people built hjomes on the
site and in 2013 faced eviction under plans to refurbish the area to
host the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2016 Olympics and the
final match of the 2014 World Cup.
1853-1927 Joao Capistrano de Abreu, historian. He
later wrote "Chapters of Brazil Colonial History, 1500-1800," first
published in 1907. The Oxford Library of Latin America published a
new edition in 1998.
(WSJ, 2/3/98, p.A20)
1864 Oct 7, The USS Wachusett
captured the CSS Florida in a naval engagement fought at the neutral
harbor of Bahia, Brazil. Many of the Confederate crew were ashore at
(AH, 10/04, p.15)
1864 Brazil under Emperor Pedro
II invaded Uruguay. In response Paraguayís Pres. Francisco Solano
Lopez attacked Brazilís province of Matto Grosso.
(Econ, 12/22/12, p.46)
1865 After the American Civil
War some southerners moved to Brazil where slavery was still
(NH, 7/96, p.74,75)
1865-1870 South Americaís War of the Triple
Alliance saw Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay aligned against Paraguay.
The Triple Alliance believed Paraguay was undermining the regionís
political stability. The war ended in crushing defeat of Paraguay
with as much as 90% of its adult male population killed.
(WSJ, 4/10/00, p.A1)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.45)
1866 Mar 1, Paraguayan canoes
sank 2 Brazilian ironclads on Rio Parana.
1866 Henry Wickham (1846-1928)
ventured from Britain to South America hoping to shoot exotic birds
and ship home feathers for ladyís hats. This venture failed as the
birds exploded from the rifle shots. He returned to the Amazon
region and in 1876 gathered seeds of the Hevea brasiliensis tree,
which produced latex. Less than 4% of some 70,000 seeds germinated,
but this was enough to ship seedlings to Ceylon, India, Malaya and
Singapore and begin a global rubber plantation boom.
(WSJ, 2/27/08, p.D10)
1869 Aug 12, In
Piribebuy, Paraguay, 1,600 poorly armed men, many of them mere
children, spent 5 hours resisting the assault of 20,000 allied
Brazilian, Argentine and Uruguayan forces intent on conquest, before
finally being overwhelmed. At the end of the battle, in which the
Hospital de Sangre was burnt down, along with all the wounded
inside, many prisoners were decapitated.
1869 Paraguayís army
surrendered to the Triple Alliance of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay.
Pres. Lopez refused to surrender.
(Econ, 12/22/12, p.46)
1870 Mar 1, Francisco S. Lopez
(43), President of Paraguay (1862-70), was killed in the War of the
Triple alliance. The Brazilian army had cornered him at Cerro Cora.
A rough post-war census counted just 29,000 males over the age of 15
left in Paraguay.
1871 Mar 5, In Brazil Maria do
Carmo Jeronimo was born as a slave in the town of Carmo de Minas in
Minas Gerais state under the rule of Emperor Pedro II. Jeronimo died
in 2000, but the lack of a birth certificate prevented her being
recognized as the worldís oldest woman.
(SFC, 6/16/00, p.A34)
1873 Alberto Santos-Dumont
(d.1932), aviation pioneer, was born.
(SSFC, 6/28/03, p.M1)
1873 Britain sent an agent,
Henry Wickham, to Brazil to get rubber seeds. The Seedlings were
cultivated in Kew Gardens and transplanted to Malaysia.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)
1876 Jun 25, Alexander Graham
Bell demonstrated his telephone at the Centennial Exposition in
Philadelphia. Brazil's Emperor Dom Pedro was among the witnesses.
(SFC, 2/3/97, p.D1)(ON, 1/03, p.5)
1880 Joaquin Maria Machado de
Assis (1839-1908), mulatto writer, wrote "The Posthumous
Memoirs of Bras Cubas." The Oxford Library of Latin America
published a new edition in 1998.
(WSJ, 2/3/98, p.A20)
1883 Sep 21, The 1st direct
US-Brazil telegraph connection was made.
1885 May 18, Eurico Gaspar
Dutra, President of Brazil (1945-50), was born.
1887 Mar 5, Heitor Villa-Lobos,
composer, was born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
(HN, 3/5/01)(MC, 3/5/02)
1888 May 13, Slavery was
abolished in Brazil. Some 4 million slaves had been imported, the
most of any nation in the western hemisphere.
(WSJ, 8/6/96, p.A1)(SS, Internet, 5/13/97)(HN,
1888 In Brazil Joao Batista,
Baron of Drummond, opened a zoo in Rio de Janeiro. To pull in
business he printed animals on tickets and displayed a winning
animal on a flag at the end of the day and paying 20 times the cost
of the ticket. Side betting soon developed.
(Econ, 5/5/12, p.38)
1889 Nov 15, In Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil, Emperor Dom Pedro II was overthrown and military officers
established a republic.
(AP, 11/15/97)(WSJ, 4/6/06, p.D8)
1889 Joaquin Maria Machado de
Assis (1839-1908), mulatto writer wrote " Dom Casmurro." The Oxford
Library of Latin America published a new edition in 1998.
(WSJ, 2/3/98, p.A20)
1889-1937 Prof. John Wirth (d.2002) of Stanford
covered this period of Brazil in his book "Minas Gerais in the
(SSFC, 6/30/02, p.A29)
1890 Feb 20, Giovanni Rossi
left Italy with a group of anarchists, from Genoa, headed
to Palmeiras, Paranŗ, in Brazil, where they established the
anarchist "Cecilia Colony". Its population, primarily male, had
about 300 members. This experiment in anarchist communism and free
love lasted for about five years, running up against not only
material problems, but especially emotional and sexual difficulties.
The colony dissolved in 1894, but Rossi remained in Brazil, in
Taquary, then Rio dos Cedros, as director of an agricultural
research station. He published the book ďLe Paranŗ au 20į
1891 Nov 23, Deodoroda Fonseca,
the 1st president of Brazil, was ousted by a navy revolt.
1893 Sep 6, Floriano Vieira
Peixoto, acting president of Brazil, faced a rebellion by officers
of his navy led by Admiral Custodio Jose de Mello.
(ON, 12/06, p.11)
1893 Oct, Floriano Vieira
Peixoto, acting president of Brazil, contacted his ambassador in
Washington with instructions to buy a fleet of warships for a new
navy. Dr. Salvador de Mendonca soon authorized Charles R. Flint, an
American businessman, to purchase ships and weapons for Brazil. Over
the next 21 days Flint spent $1.5 million acquiring ships and guns
including the new Zalinski dynamite gun.
(ON, 12/06, p.11)
1893 Antonio Vicente Mendes
Maciel, aka Antonio Conselheiro, founded the settlement of Canudos
in the "certao" region of Bahia, Brazil. He was a charismatic
religious leader and established an independent community of some
25,000. the movement favored the deposed monarchy and was crushed by
(SFC, 10/7/97, p.A14)(Econ, 1/10/04, p.74)
1894 Jan, US Rear Admiral
Andrew Benham led a fleet of US Navy ships into the harbor of Rio de
Janeiro escorting American merchants ships. The outgunned Brazilian
rebel fleet made no serious challenge.
(ON, 12/06, p.12)
1894 Feb 13, In Brazil peace
talks between Pres. Peixoto and navy rebels broke down completely
when Admiral Saldanha da Gama led a landing party that stormed a
republican fort at Nictheroy on the Guanabara Bay opposite from Rio
de Janeiro. The rebels were driven back.
(ON, 12/06, p.12)
1894 Mar 13, The Dynamite
Squadron of ships, purchased and outfitted in the US, steamed into
the harbor of Rio de Janeiro. Rebel sailors immediately surrendered
in exchange for safe passage to Argentina aboard Portuguese
warships. The rebellion ended a weeks later when the rebel flagship,
Aquidbada, was captured off Desterro by the American crew of the
Nictheroy, the former Morgan steamship El Cid.
(ON, 12/06, p.12)
1895 Feb 28, Guiomar Novaes,
pianist (Brazilian Order of Merit), was born in Brazil.
1896 Dec 31, The Teatro
Amazonas opened in Manaus. The theater was built by the rubber
barons over 15 years with everything imported from Europe.
(SFEC, 7/16/00, p.T12)
c1896 Police were sent to
Canudos, Brazil, but were repelled by the settlement in what came to
be call the First Military Expedition to Canudos. The government
feared a threat to the national order and sent the Second Military
Expedition of 550 soldiers, who were also repelled by the
settlement. In the Third Military Expedition 1,500 troops under
Colonel Antonio Moreira Cesar, aka The Ground Trembler" and "The
Beheader," were defeated at Canudos and the colonel was killed.
(SFC, 10/7/97, p.A14)
1897 Sep, Antonio Conselheiro,
the founding leader of Canudos, died of dysentery.
(SFC, 10/7/97, p.A14)
1897 Oct 5, In Brazil after 3
failed military campaigns Pres. Prudente de Morais sent 8,000
soldiers with Krupp cannons, dynamite and machine guns in the Fourth
Military Expedition to overcome the settlement of Canudos led by
Antonio Conselheiro. After a 4-month battle government forces
defeated the settlement. In 1902 Euclides da Cunha wrote "Os
Sertoes," (The Arid Region), translated into English as "Rebellion
in the Backlands." In 1981 Mario Vargas Llosa of Peru wrote a
fictional account of the event in the epic work: "The War of the End
of the World."
(SFC, 10/7/97, p.A14)
1897 Belo Horizonte was founded
in the state of Minas Gerais as the first modern planned city of
(USA Today, OW, 4/22/96, p.9)
1900-1973 Maria Martins, Brazilian sculptor. She
was portrayed in a 1934 painting by Marcel Duchamp "Given: 1. The
Waterfall, 2. The Illuminating Gas."
(SFC, 5/2/00, p.D1)
1902 Oct 31, Carlos Drummond de
Andrade, Brazilian poet, journalist and short story writer, was
1902 Euclides da Cunha wrote
"Os Sertoes," (The Arid Region), translated into English as
"Rebellion in the Backlands," on the 1893-1897 events at Canudos led
by Antonio Conselheiro.
(SFC, 10/7/97, p.A14)
1906 David Casement, a British
consul, was sent to Brazil, first as consul in ParŠ, then
transferred to Santos, and lastly promoted to consul-general in Rio
de Janeiro. When he was attached as a consular representative to a
commission investigating murderous rubber slavery by the
British-registered Peruvian Amazon Company, effectively controlled
by the archetypal rubber baron Julio Cesar Arana and his brother,
Casement had the occasion to do work among the Putumayo Indians of
Peru similar to that which he had done in the Congo.
1907 "Chapters of Brazil
Colonial History, 1500-1800" by Joao Capistrano de Abreu (1853-1927)
was first published. The Oxford Library of Latin America published a
new edition in 1998.
(WSJ, 2/3/98, p.A20)
1908 Jun, Japanese immigration
to Brazil began when 781 Japanese arrived on the ship Kasato Maru.
Nearly 800 Japanese set sail on the "Kasato Maru" ship from Kobe in
search of better living conditions and arrived at Santos Port only
to find a grueling life working on farmland.
(SFC, 7/4/00, p.A8)(AFP, 4/24/08)
1908-1998 Silvio Caldas, one of the countryís
best-loved singers, sang in a deep, husky voice. He recorded over
500 records and his favorite was "Chao de Estrelas" by Orestes
(SFC, 2/5/98, p.A21)
1909 Carlos Chagas (1879-1934),
a Brazilian doctor, described how a fatal infection, that became
known as Chagas disease, was transmitted as a single cell parasite,
Trypanosoma cruzi, carried by insects that typically bite their
sleeping victims on the face. In 1921 Chagas won the Nobel Prize in
Medicine. In 2010 scientists at UC San Francisco reported the
development of a protease inhibitor, K777, which appeared to kill
p.36)(SSFC, 2/14/10, p.A20)
1910 In Brazil a 100-kg
aquamarine stone was found whose value in 1996 would exceed US$25
(USA Today, OW, 4/22/96, p.13)
1912 Algot Lange, the son of an
opera singer, authored ďIn the Amazon Jungle.Ē In 1910 he had gone
on an adventure in the upper Amazon between Brazil and Peru and only
survived with the aid of Mangeroma cannibals.
(WSJ, 4/28/07, p.P8)
1914 Feb, In Brazil a 22-man
party, that included former Pres. Theodore Roosevelt, started down
the Rio da Duvida (River of Doubt) in the Amazon Basin for a 2-month
adventure. In 2005 Candice Millard authored ďThe River of DoubtĒ
Theodore Rooseveltís Darkest Journey.Ē
(SSFC, 10/23/05, p.M3)
1915 By this year Malay
plantations produced 107,860 tons of rubber compared with 37,200
tons in Brazil.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)
1916 A Brazilian civil statute
formally enshrined the hierarchical and patriarchal view of family
and sexual relations.
(SSFC, 8/19/01, p.A10)
1917 In Brazil Ernesto de
Santos Donga wrote the song "Pela telefone." It was considered to be
the first recorded samba.
(Wired, 2/98, p.128)
1917 Mar 22, In Brazil Caixa
Economica de Sao Paulo first opened its doors. In 2008 the bank was
bought by Banco do Brazil.
(http://tinyurl.com/2wkhujw)(Econ, 5/15/10, SR
1918 Sep 25, Brazil declared
war on Austria.
1919 May 29, A solar eclipse
occurred that was photographed by two British expeditions, one in
Africa and the other in Sobral, Brazil. Arthur Eddington, British
astronomer, confirmed Einsteinís prediction of the deflection of
light from Principe, a Portuguese island off the Atlantic coast of
Africa. In 1980 Harry Colling and Trevor Pinch published "The
Golem," an account of the expedition. The play ďRose TattooĒ by
Tennessee (Thomas Lanier) Williams was originally titled ďThe
Eclipse of May 29, 1919.Ē
1919 General Electric Corp.
entered the emerging market of Brazil.
(Econ, 11/14/09, SR p.9)
1921 Carlos Chagas (1879-1934),
a Brazilian doctor, won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his 1909
discovery of how a single cell parasite carried by insects
transmitted a disease (Chagas disease) to sleeping victims.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlos_Chagas)(Econ, 4/11/09, p.36)
1925 Mr. Roberto Marinho
(1904-2003) inherited the Rio newspaper O Globo 23 days after it was
founded by his father who suddenly died. He learned the business as
a reporter and editor and took over as editor in chief in 1931. The
operation later expanded to dominate the television market.
(WSJ, 12/4/95, p.A-9)(WSJ, 9/29/99, p.A1)(SFC,
1925 Percy Harrison Fawcett,
former British cricketer and soldier, vanished along with his son
Jack in the Mato Grosso region of Brazil. In 2009 David Grann
authored ďThe Lost City of Z: A Tale of Deadly Obsession in the
1926 Jun 12, Brazil quit the
League of Nations in protest over plans to admit Germany.
1927 Henry Ford obtained a
Connecticut-sized land in the Brazilian jungle and began creating
his Fordlandia factory town for the creation of a rubber plantation
and processing facility to supply his factories with tires and
gaskets. A strike in 1930 wrecked Fordlandia. It was rebuilt and
struggled on for a decade until succumbing to leaf blight and
insects. In 2009 Greg Grandin authored ďFordlandia: The rise and
Fall of Henry Fordís Forgotten Jungle city.Ē
(SSFC, 7/5/09, p.F7)
1928 Carlos Moreira de Castro
(Carlos Cachaca, d.1999 at age 97) helped found the Mangueira samba
(SFC, 8/17/99, p.C2)
1930 Nov 3, Getulio Vargas
(1883-1954) seized power in Brazil on the grounds of election fraud.
He soon put a moratorium on pension payments. From 1930-1934, he was
provisional president and dictator. From 1934-1937, he was
congressionally elected president. From 1937-1945, he was dictator
with the backing of the revolutionary coalition. From 1951 to 1954,
he was popularly elected president.
1930-1954 Prof. John Wirth (d.2002) of Stanford
covered this period of Brazil in his book "The Politics of Brazilian
Development 1930-1954." It won the Bolton Prize in 1971.
(SSFC, 6/30/02, p.A29)
1931 Jun 18, Fernando Henrique
Cardoso was born. He served 2 terms as president of Brazil
(WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)
1931 Oct 12, The Rio de Janeiro
98-foot statue of Christ the Redeemer was unveiled atop Corcovado
Mountain as a belated monument to 100 years of independence from
Portugal (1822). It was designed by Brazilian artist Carlos Oswald
and French sculptor Paul Landowski.
(SSFC, 9/30/01, p.T2)(SFC, 10/14/03, p.D7)
1932 Jul 23, Alberto
Santos-Dumont (b.1873), aviation pioneer, hanged himself in Guaraja,
Brazil after hearing a bomber discharge its load on fellow
countrymen. In 2003 Paul Hoffman authored "Wings of Madness: Alberto
Santos-Dumont and the Invention of Flight."
(SSFC, 6/28/03, p.M1)
1932 Brazilian women won the
right to vote.
(SFC, 9/25/96, p.A1)
1932 Brazil enacted a no-arrest
provision that prohibited voters from being arrested five days
before elections unless they are caught red-handed. It was included
in the Brazilian electoral code after a period in which election
fraud and arrests to intimidate voters were common.
1933 Oct 10, At Rio de Janeiro,
nations of the Western Hemisphere signed a non-aggression and
1937 Mussolini helped inspire
the Estado Novo of Brazilís Pres. Getulio Vargas. The system of
labor and industrial syndicates continued to influence labor
relations to 2007.
(Econ, 4/14/07, SR p.5)
1938 The Cammargo Correa Group
was begun as a family business. It has since mushroomed into a
(USA Today, OW, 4/22/96, p.5)
1939 Brazil established a
714-sq. mile national park at the Iguacu Falls site on the Argentine
(SFEM, 10/8/00, p.15)
1940 Oct 23, Pele, legendary
Brazilian soccer player who scored 1,281 goals in 22 years, was
1940 Brazilís penal code
included Clause VIII in Article 107, which said that a sex
criminalís punishment may be cancelled if the victim subsequently
(WSJ, 7/12/04, p.A1)
1940 The Brazilian Reinsurance
Institute, later called IRB, was founded by Pres. Getulio Vargas.
The self-regulating institution remained a state monopoly into 2006.
(Econ, 1/7/06, p.68)
1941 Jorge Amado (1912-2001),
Brazilian Communist novelist, was exiled to Argentina.
(SFC, 8/9/01, p.D2)
1941 The Brazilian government
founded the steelmaker CSN. It was privatized in the early 1990s.
(Econ, 11/14/09, SR p.10)
1942 Jan, Chile and Argentina
were the only two Latin American countries that did not comply at
once with the Rio de Janeiro Conference recommendation to those
countries who had not already done so to sever diplomatic and
commercial relations with the Axis powers, Germany, Italy and Japan.
Chile eventually broke Axis relations in January 1943 and Argentina
complied in January 1944. The conference of Western Hemisphere
foreign ministers also called for suppression of pro-Axis activity
in the Americas, establishment of an Inter-American defense board
and economic cooperation within the hemisphere.
1942 Feb 23, Stefan Zweig
(b.1881), Austrian Jewish writer (Die Welt von Gestern), committed
suicide with his wife in Brazil. Zweig's nostalgic but rather
impersonal memoirs of the "Golden Age of Security", The World of
Yesterday, was published posthumously in 1943. His last novel (The
Ecstasy of Transformation) was published posthumously in Germany in
1982. In 2008 it was translated into English as ďThe Post-Office
p.W9)(Econ, 5/23/09, p.91)
1942 Aug 22, Brazil declared
war on the Axis powers. She was the only South American country to
send combat troops into Europe.
1942 Jorge Amado (d.2001 at 88)
authored his novel "The Violent Land." It focused on the bloody
rivalry of 2 powerful cocoa farmers in the Brazilian frontier.
(SFC, 8/9/01, p.D2)
1942 Companhia do Vale do Rio
Doce, a state mining concern, was founded. It was pivotal in
developing the Amazon Basin.
(SFC, 1/7/97, p.A10)
1943 Jul 19, American planes
sank the German U-513 submarine off the coast of southern Brazil. In
2011 researchers from the Vale do Itajai University found the
submarine off the coast of Santa Catarina state.
1944 Dec 20, In Brazil the
Fundacao Getulio Vargas (Getulio Vargas Foundation, often
abbreviated as FGV or simply GV) was founded as an institution of
higher education. Its original goal was to train people for the
country's public- and private-sector management.
1946 Apr 22, Dectuplets were
born in Bacacay, Brazil, 8 males and 2 females.
1948 The Safra banking family
arrive in Brazil from Lebanon and proceeded to establish one of the
country's biggest banks.
(SFC, 12/4/99, p.A15)
1949 Hans Stern (1922-2007),
German-born jeweler, opened his first H. Stern boutique in Rio de
Janeiro. By 2007 the firm had some 160 boutiques around the world.
(WSJ, 11/3/07, p.A6)
1950 Jun 24, In Brazil the
Maracana stadium in Rio was officially inaugurated for the opening
of soccerís World Cup, the first in 12 years due to WW II.
1950 Jul 16, Brazil, host for
soccerís World Cup, lost the final game to Uruguay 2-1.
1950 Darcy Ribeiro,
anthropologist (1923-1997), wrote "Kadiweu Religion and Mythology."
He studied the Kadiweu and Kaapor Indians of Brazil.
(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A20)
1951 Getulio Vargas, former
autocrat, was elected president of Brazil and ruled to 1954.
(WSJ, 4/6/06, p.D8)(Econ, 4/15/06, p.39)
1951 Darcy Ribeiro,
anthropologist (1923-1997), wrote "Art of the Kadiweu Indians."
(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A20)
1952 Brazilís National Bank for
Economic and Social Development (BNDES) was founded to provide
long-term financing for endeavors that contribute to the country's
1952 Margaret Mee (1909-1988),
botanical artist, left Britain for Brazil and for 3 decades
documented Amazonian rain forest plant life in large watercolors.
(WSJ, 1/26/99, p.A16)(http://tinyurl.com/yafb9m)
1953 Darcy Ribeiro,
anthropologist (1923-1997), founded the Museum of the Indian in Rio
(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A20)
1953 Petrobras was founded as
Brazil produced 2,700 barrels of oil per day and consumed 137,000
per day. In 2006 Brazil became independent from foreign oil.
1953 In Brazil JBS Friboi began
as a butchers founded by Jose Sobrinho in Anapolis, Goias state. By
2011 it was the worldís largest meat producer.
(Econ, 9/24/11, SR p.22)
1953 Volkswagen began
manufacturing cars in Brazil.
(Econ, 11/15/08, SR p.6)
1954 Aug 24, In Brazil Pres.
Getulio Vargas killed himself in the midst of a scandal.
1954 Director Sam Fuller
trekked to the rainforest with a 16mm Bolex, 75 boxes of cigars and
2 cases of vodka hoping to make a film. Producer Darryl Zanuck
called it off. The 1995 documentary film "Tigrero" was made by
Finnish filmmaker Mika Kaurismaki. It covered the 1954 trek into the
Brazilian rainforest by Sam Fuller.
1955 Pres. Juscelino Kubitschek
took office. He vowed to modernize the country and made economic
growth his main goal.
(WSJ, 4/10/00, p.Sp.Adv.)
1956 Apr 12, Henrique da
Rocha-Lima (b.1879), Brazilian scientist, died. Working in Germany,
he with Stanislaus von Prowazek (1875-1915) discovered Rickettsia
prowazekii, the pathogen of endemic typhus, which he named after the
1956 African honeybees were
imported to Brazil by a scientist who let them escape. By 1990 they
had worked their way north to southern Texas and began to spread
across the southwest.
(WSJ, 8/16/06, p.A12)
1957 Darcy Ribeiro,
anthropologist (1923-1997), wrote "Indigenous Language and
Cultures in Brazil."
(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A20)
1957 Roberto Marinho, head of
Rio's O Globo newspaper, won his 1st television concession from
Pres. Juscelino Kubitschek.
(SFC, 8/9/03, p.A14)
1958 Jorge Amado (d.2001 at
88), Brazilian writer, published his novel "Gabriela, Clove and
1958 Leonel Brizola (1922-2004)
was elected governor of Rio Grande do Sul, the youngest state
governor (36) in Brazilian history.
(SFC, 6/24/04, p.B6)
1959 Nov 17, Heitor Villa-Lobos
(b.1887), Brazilian composer, pianist and conductor, died.
1959 The film "Black Orpheus"
was directed by Marcel Camus. It featured the music of Luis Floriano
Bonfa (d.2001 at 78).
(SFC, 1/13/01, p.A24)
1960 Apr 21, Brazil inaugurated
its new capital, Brasilia, transferring the seat of national
government from Rio de Janeiro. Brazilís National Bank for Economic
and Social Development (BNDES), founded in 1952, helped fund its
(USA Today, OW, 4/22/96, p.3)(AP, 4/21/97)(HN,
4/21/98)(Econ, 4/18/09, p.81)
1960-1969 In the 1960s Darcy Ribeiro,
anthropologist (1922-1997), wrote his 6-volume work "Studies
of the Anthropology of Civilization."
(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A20)
1960-1969 Carlos Marighella and Carlos Lamarca
founded revolutionary groups in Brazil during the 1960s and financed
their operations by robbing banks and kidnapped foreign ambassadors
as exchange for jailed colleagues.
(SFC, 6/14/96, p. A17)
1961 Jan, Janio Quadros took
the oath as president of Brazil.
(WSJ, 4/6/06, p.D8)
1961 Aug 25, Brazilian
president Janio Quadros resigned. He was replaced by vice-president
(chblue.com, 8/25/01)(WSJ, 4/6/06, p.D8)
1962 Apr 16, Brazil
nationalized US businesses.
1962 Vinicius de Moraes,
inspired by the stroll of a young woman (18) headed for Copacabana,
wrote a poem that became known as ďThe Girl of Ipanema.Ē It was put
to music by Jaoa Gilberto and Stan Getz and sung by Gilbertoís wife,
Astrud. The song won a Grammy for Record of the Year in 1964. The
young woman, Heloisa Eneida Menezes Paes Pinto, never made a dime
off the song but opened a modeling agency and a clothing store near
(SSFC, 9/30/07, p.G3)
1962 Havaianas, a brand
of rubber and plastic flip-flops, were introduced in brazil. In 1994
Havaianas introduced a new line of one-shade sandals in black, royal
blue, pink and purple and the brand began to gather worldwide
1963 Dec 4, In Brazil Sen.
Arnon de Mello (1911-1983), the father of future president Fernando
Collor, shot and killed Senator Joseph Kairala of Acre in the
Senate, but was never tried. The intended victim was Melloís
political enemy Senator Silvestre Pericles.
1964 Mar 27, In a cable to the
US State Department Lincoln Gordon, US ambassador to Brazil,
requested a naval task force and deliveries of fuel and arms to the
coup plotters "to help avert a major disaster here." US documents
declassified in 2004 showed the extent of American willingness to
provide aid to Brazil's generals during a coup that ushered in 21
years of often bloody military rule.
1964 Mar 31, In Brazil a coup
was put in motion and was over by April 4, when Pres. Goulart fled
to exile in Uruguay. The entire episode was bloodless.
1964 Apr 2, A military coup in
Brazil by Gen. Humberto Castello Branco ousted Pres. Joao Goulart
and altered the traditional power structure. Gen'l. Golbery do Couto
e Silva was a leader in the coup. Business interests led by Jorge
Oscar de Mello Flores (d.2000 at 88) supported the military coup.
(WSJ, 12/4/95, p.A-9)(WSJ, 7/7/99, p.A17)(SFC,
8/3/00, p.D2)(MC, 4/2/02)
1964 Dec 2, Brazil sent Juan
Peron back to Spain, foiling his efforts to return to his native
1964 The Brazilian film "Black
God, White Devil" was directed by Glauber Rocha.
(SFEC, 4/13/97, DB p.44)
1964-1985 A military dictatorship ruled over
Brazil. As many as 353 people died while under custody. The dead of
the leftist opposition were either "disappeared" or registered
as suicides or fatalities from accidents or shootouts.
(SFC, 6/14/96, p. A17)
1965 Brazilís Forest Code of
this year required private landowners to leave to leave forests
standing on part of their farms. In the Amazon this was set at
four-fifths. This particular requirement has never been effectively
1965 Roberto Marinho broke into
Brazilís television industry. By 1995 Rede Globo became the world's
fourth largest TV network.
(WSJ, 12/4/95, p.A-9)
1965 Peru cut a trail through
the jungle to Inapari, its border town across from Assis, Brazil.
(Econ, 3/26/05, p.40)
1966 Jan 11, In Brazil 550 died
in landslides in mountains behind Rio de Janeiro after rain.
1966 The Copan building in Sao
Paulo, Brazil, designed Oscar Niemeyer (b.1907), was completed.
Begun in 1953 the massive residential structure shaped like a wave
became a South American landmark.
1967 Fernando Henrique Cardoso
(b.1931) authored ďDependency and Development in Latin America.Ē
Cardoso later served as president of Brazil.
(WSJ, 4/6/06, p.D8)
1967 Singer-songwriter Caetano
Veloso and Gilberto Gil founded the tropicalista (tropicalismo)
movement. It was a group of singers, artists and radicals that
turned Brazilian culture inside out. They began experimenting with
electric instruments and the rhythms of rock, but in 1970 the
military regime sent them into exile in Europe. In 1997 Caetano
Veloso authored "Tropical Truth: A Story of Music and Revolution in
Brazil." An English translation was made in 2002.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, DB p.58)(Wired, 2/98,
p.129)(SSFC, 11/3/02, p.M3)
1967 Brazil passed legislation
stipulating that journalists must obtain a diploma and register with
the labor ministry, in order to prevent troublemakers from voicing
their opinions. In the name of national security, legislation
censored news media, composers, playwrights and writers and allowed
for the seizure of publications. In 2009 Brazilís Supreme Court
struck down the press censorship legislation.
(Econ, 10/25/08, p.48)(AP, 5/1/09)
1967 Brazil, in an attempt to
foment progress (and diminish regional inequalities), created a tax
free zone was created called Zona Franca de Manaus. Manaus is the
only city in Amazonas where an industrial park has been developed.
1967 Dr. Philip D. Marsden
began fieldwork in Brazil and was named a professor of tropical
medicine at the Univ. of Brasilia, where he became a leading
authority on Leishmaniasis, an often fatal disease borne by sand
1969 Sep 4, In Brazil Fernando
Gabeira helped kidnap the US ambassador in Rio, Charles Elbrick
(d.1983), to protest the military dictatorship. Elbrick was released
unhurt four days later, but Gabeira was banned from entering the US.
1969 The Brazilian film
"Antonio da Mortes" was directed by Glauber Rocha.
(SFEC, 4/13/97, DB p.44)
1969 Embraer SA, an aircraft
maker, was founded by Brazilís military dictatorship in an effort to
develop an aviation industry. The company was privatized in 1994.
(WSJ, 9/13/04, p.A8)(Econ, 9/11/10, SR p.10)
1970-1998 Brazilian Gold miners worked in the
Yanomani reservation near Venezuela beginning in the 1970s and
during this period introduced diseases that cut the Indian
population by more than half.
(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A1)
1971 Mar 19, At least 160
people perished in landslides north of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
1971 Jul 6, In Brazil rubber
tapper Raimundo Irineu Serra (b.1892) died. He founded the Santo
Daime (Saint Gimme) religion. It was based on a shamanic brew of
ayahuasca, a hallucinogenic tea made from the Banisteriopsis caapi
vine and Psychotria viridis leaf.
(Econ, 5/12/12, IL
1971 Brazil passed legislation
limiting the anount of rural land foreigners could buy. In the 1990s
it was deemed incompatible with the new democratic constitution. The
law was revived in 2010 as state-owned firms began buying up vast
tracts of land.
(Econ, 9/24/11, p.48)
1971 Brazilís army discovered
rebel bases in Araguaia, a remote region in the northern jungle
state of Para. They sent more than 10,000 troops to crush the
uprising in the proceeding years. Some 60 rebels were killed, as
well as local civilians, and others were jailed or disappeared.
1972 Singer-songwriter Caetano
Veloso and Gilberto Gil returned to Brazil. Gil then served as
minister of culture in his home city of Salvador.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, DB p.58)
1972 Brazilís rubber-bearing
Madeira-Mamore railway ceased running.
(Econ, 6/3/06, p.34)
1972 The hospital ship S.S.
Hope sailed to Brazil to train doctors and nurses for a year under
(SFC, 9/28/02, p.A17)
1972-1974 A group of rebels formed in the state of
Para, the only rural armed movement against the dictatorship.
(SFC, 6/14/96, p. A14)
1973 Brazilís Agricultural
Research Corp. (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquesa Agropecuaria, aka
Embrapa) was set up as a public company by the ruling generals. It
grew to become the worldís leading tropical research institution.
(Econ, 8/28/10, p.59)
1973 The Arab oil embargo
doubled Brazilís import bill with a year.
(Econ, 11/14/09, SR p.5)
1973 Paraguayís Pres.
Stroessner led a $20 billion joint venture with Brazil to build
Itaipu, at this time the worldís largest hydroelectric dam.
(SFC, 8/17/06, p.A10)
1973-1996 The Pastoral Land Commission, a Catholic
supported human rights group, said that there have been 575 murders
of rural workers over this time in the Para state and only three
trials. One defendant received a suspended sentence and the other 2
escaped from jail.
(SFC, 6/26/96, p.A8)
1974 Mar 15, In Brazil General
Ernesto Geisel (1907-1996) became president and ruled for 5 years.
He gradually ended political repression, lifted press censorship and
allowed political exiles to return. Under his rule the foreign debt
doubled to $43 billion.
1974 Oct 2, Pele (b.1940),
Brazilian soccer player born as Edson Arantes do Nascimento, came
out of retirement to join the NY Cosmos of the North American Soccer
League. Steve Ross (1927-1992), chairman of Warner Brothers and
founder of the Cosmos, offered him a reported $7 million for a
3-year contract. In 2006 Gavin Newsham authored ďOnce in a Lifetime:
The Incredible Story of the New York Cosmos.Ē
1974 Antonio Henrique Amaral of
Brazil painted his "Battlefield," a phalanx of menacing forks with
shreds of banana.
(WSJ, 3/17/00, p.W12)
1974 Brazil opened BR-163, a
1,097-mile unpaved road from Santarem to Cuiaba. Paving of the road
was expected to be completed by 2008.
(Econ, 7/24/04, p.33)
1974 Brazil introduced the 1st
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) in Curitiba.
(SSFC, 8/7/05, p.A11)
1974 In Brazil Rev. Frederick
Birten Morris of the United Methodist Church was arrested. During 16
days in captivity in an army barracks he was beaten and tortured
with electric shocks several times before being released and
deported. In 2008 Brazilís Justice Ministry's Amnesty Commission
decided to compensate him 285,000 reals (US$154,000) plus a monthly
pension of 2,000 reals (US$1,080).
1974 A meningitis outbreak
killed 4,000 people in a few weeks. 90 million people were soon
inoculated by a new vaccine created by the French Merieux
(SFC, 1/27/01, p.A24)
1975 Oct 25, Vladimir Herzog
(b.1937), Croatia-born Jewish journalist, was murdered by Brazilís
1975 Brazilian soccer star Pele
(b.1940) signed a $4.7 million contract with the New York Cosmos.
Pele left the Cosmos in 1977 and 8 years later the team disbanded.
(Econ, 2/16/13, p.32)
1975 In Brazil the military
government launched a "pro-alcohol" program as a source of fuel in
response to the first oil crisis which hit in 1973. The country at
the time was importing 80% of its fuel and suffered in its balance
(WSJ, 6/27/97, p.A9A)
1975 The ďBlack FrostĒ harmed
half of Brazilís coffee trees. In response to the frost groves were
moved north from Parana state.
(WSJ, 5/26/06, p.C5)
1975 An oil tanker from Iraq
dumped nearly 8 million gallons of crude oil into Guanabara Bay and
washed onto Rioís beaches, which closed for 3 weeks.
(SFC, 7/19/00, p.A12)
1975 French retailer Carrefour
began operating in Brazil.
(Econ, 10/10/09, p.68)
1976 Aug 22, In Brazil former
Pres. Juscelino Kubitschek (b.1902) was killed in a car accident. In
2013 an investigation was ordered due to suspicion that his death
was ordered by the military regime.
1976 Dec 6, Joao Goulart
(b.1919), former president of Brazil (1961-1964), died in Argentina.
He was ousted in a 1964 coup and went into exile in Argentina.
1976 Janice Perlman, American
sociologist, authored ďThe Myth of Marginality: Urban Poverty and
Politics in Rio De Janeiro,Ē a look at the favelas (slums) of Rio.
An update followed in 2010.
(Econ, 7/24/10, p.81)
1976 Geníl. Juan Jose Torres,
ousted as president of Bolivia in 1971, was kidnapped by a death
squad in Argentina and killed. He was a victim of the Condor Plan, a
South American military pact between Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia,
Chile and Paraguay to exchange intelligence information and help
each other hunt down suspected leftists.
(SFC, 11/23/99, p.A16)
1976 Italian carmaker Fiat
began manufacturing cars in Brazil.
(Econ, 11/15/08, SR p.6)
1977 Jun 23, The Brazil
congress legalized divorce with a constitutional amendment, despite
opposition from Roman Catholic Church. The amendment would be signed
into law by President Ernesto Geisel.
1977 Dec 9, Clarice Lispector
(b.1920), Ukraine-born Brazilian-Jewish writer, died in Brazil. From
1952-1959 she lived in the US. Her books included ďThe Passion
According to G.HĒ (1964). In 2009 Benjamin Moser authored ďWhy This
World: A Biography of Clarice Lispector.Ē
1977 Dec 26, In Brazil law
#6,515 established the Divorce Act.
1977 The Brazilian film "Dona
Flor and Her Two Husbands" starred Sonia Braga. It was based on a
novel by Jorge Amado.
(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T8)
1977 In Brazil Edir Macedo
(b.1945) founded The Universal Church of the Kingdom of God. In 1990
he bought Rede Record for $45 million. In 2004 Rede Record broadcast
network began expanding into the TV market taking on the dominant TV
Globo. In 2005 the church founded the PRB political party. By 2007
the Pentecostal congregation had 2 million members and had expanded
to over 100 countries.
(SFEC, 9/6/98, p.A19)(Econ, 12/23/06, p.50)(WSJ,
1/5/07, p.A1)(Econ, 1/5/08, p.31)
1978 Jul 3, The Amazon Pact was
established. Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru,
Suriname, and Venezuela signed the Amazon Pact, a Brazilian
initiative designed to coordinate the joint development of the
1978 In Brazil the Jardim
Gramacho landfill sprang up on unstable, ecologically sensitive
marshland overlooking the bay of Rio de Janeiro and, for nearly 20
years, functioned with little or no oversight. In 1996 Rio
authorities stepped in, ending child labor at the site, registering
the catadores and restricting the kinds of trash the dump took in to
just household waste from Rio and four outlying cities. The landfill
closed in 2012 and was transformed into a vast facility to harness
the greenhouse gases.
(AP, 6/1/12)(SFC, 6/2/12, p.A2)
1978-1996 Over 200,000 sq. miles, 12.5%, of the
Amazon rain forest was destroyed.
(SFC, 1/27/98, p.A10)
1979 Feb 7, Josef Mengele
(b.1911), Nazi concentration camp doctor and medical experimenter,
accidentally drowned in Bertioga, Brazil. He was secretly buried in
another man's grave in Brazil. [See Jun 6, 1985] In 1985 his
identity was confirmed by DNA.
1979 Mar 15, In Brazil Gen.
Joao Baptista Figueiredo (d.1999 at 81) began serving as president
and continued to 1985. Aureliano Chaves (d.2003 at 74) served as VP.
Figueiredo was the last of 5 generals to rule during the 1964-1985
dictatorship. He oversaw the transition to democracy begun by his
predecessor Ernesto Geisel. Inflation during his rule rose from 43%
a year to 230% a year when he left office.
12/25/99, p.B4)(SFC, 5/2/03, p.A26)
1979 Aug 28, Brazilís presiding
General Joao Figueiredo declared a reciprocal amnesty law that
prevented the prosecution of soldiers and military agents for acts
of violence during the dictatorship.
(SFC, 6/14/96, p. A17)(Econ, 11/27/04,
1979 The Minimum Critical Size
of Ecosystems Project was established as a collaborative research
project between the Smithsonian Institution and the Brazilian
Institute for Research in the Amazon. It was later renamed the
Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments project.
1980 Jul 9, In Brazil at least
3 and as many as 7 died in a stampede to see the Pope at a stadium
1980 The film "Bye Bye Brazil"
was directed by Carlos Diegues. It brought international recognition
to Brazilian cinema.
(WSJ, 11/17/98, p.21)
1980 In Brazil the Workersí
Party (PT) was founded by a group of people including Luiz Inacio
Lula da Silva and Marina Silva. It later became recognized as one of
the largest and most important left-wing leadership movements of
1980 Inflation in Brazil
reached 110%. The rising cost of imported oil, dating back to 1973,
increased short term foreign debt and heralded a decade and a half
(Econ, 11/14/09, SR p.5)
1980 In Brazil the TAMAR
project to protect sea turtles was begun by Maria and Guy
1981 Mario Vargas Llosa of
Peru wrote a fictional account of the 1893-1897 events at Canudos,
Brazil, in the epic work: "The War of the End of the World."
(SFC, 10/7/97, p.A14)
1981 Silvio Santos, born as
Senor Abravanel, founded Sistema Brasileiro de Televisao and built
it into a large network.
(WSJ, 8/31/01, p.A5)
1982 Jun 8, In Brazil a Vasp
747 crashed in the northeastern city of Fortaleza, killing 137
1982 Leonel Brizola
(1922-2004), former governor of Rio Grande do Sul (1959-1962), was
elected governor of Rio de Janeiro state. He was elected governor
again in 1990.
1983 A severe drought plagued
(SFC, 5/18/98, p.A10)
1984 Feb 25, In Cubatao, Sao
Paulo, Brazil, an explosion from a gasoline leak in a pipeline
burned a nearby shantytown with than 500 deaths.
(HSAB, 1994, p.46)
1984 Benedita da Silva was
elected to the lower house and became the first black woman in the
Brazilian Congress. She later was elected as a senator.
1984 In Brazil the Landless
Rural Workerís Movement (MST) was founded and began winning land by
illegally occupying unused areas. 3% of the nationís 167 million
people owned 66% of the arable land.
(SFC, 6/28/97, p.A10)(SFC, 7/6/00, p.A12)(Econ,
1985 Jan 15, Tancredo Neves
(1910-1985) became the 1st elected president of Brazil in 21 years.
Just one day before he was scheduled to take the oath of office
(March 15, 1985), Neves became severely ill. He suffered from
abdominal complications and developed generalized infections. After
seven operations, Tancredo Neves died on April 21, 1985. He was
succeeded by Josť Sarney, who served to 1990.
1985 Apr 21, Tancredo Neves,
elected president of Brazil on Jan 15, died. Josť Sarney became
1985 Jun 6, Authorities in
Brazil exhumed a body later identified as the remains of Dr. Josef
Mengele, the notorious "Angel of Death" of the Nazi Holocaust near
Sao Paolo, Brazil.
(AP, 6/6/97)(HN, 6/6/98)
1985 Jun 21, American,
Brazilian and West German scientists announced that skeletal remains
exhumed in Brazil were those of Nazi war criminal Josef Mengele.
1985 In Brazil those who could
not read and write were not allowed to vote until this year.
(Econ, 4/14/07, SR p.14)
1985 In Brazil the 535 mile
Carajas train was inaugurated as part of a massive federal
(WSJ, 4/29/99, p.A1)
1985 Marcelo Carvalho de
Andrade (26) of Brazil, mountain climber, former model and surgeon,
came up with a plan to help protect the rain forest while waiting
out a storm on the north face of Argentinaís Aconcagua mountain, the
highest peak in South America.
(SFC, 7/7/99, p.A8)(http://tinyurl.com/22ekjj)
1985 In Brazil Joao Canuto de
Oliveira, trade union leader, was shot to death. In 2003 Brazil
convicted ranchers Adilson Laranjeiras and Vantuir Goncalves de
Paula in the shooting.
1986 The film "The Mission" was
directed by Roland Joffe. It was about Indian and Jesuit relations
in colonial Brazil.
(SFEM, 10/8/00, p.17)
1986 In Brazil Marcelo Carvalho
de Andrade formed Pro-Natura, non-governmental organization
dedicated to saving the rain forests through sustainable
development. The first program was set up in Desengano State Park to
prevent clandestine logging.
(SFC, 7/7/99, p.A8)
1986 Hernandes Filho, a former
Xerox marketing executive, and his wife, Sonia Haddad Moraes
Hernandes, founded the Reborn in Christ Church and rode the wave of
popularity of evangelical churches in Brazil, the world's largest
Roman Catholic country. The couple were arrested in 2007 for taking
a large amount of undeclared cash into the US. Both pleaded guilty
to evading US currency requirements and conspiracy.
(AP, 1/23/07)(SFC, 6/9/07, p.A5)
1986 Brazil chopped 3 zeroes
off its currency in the Cruzado Plan as part of an attempt to reduce
inflation. The official name was the Economic Stabilization Plan but
it was popularly known as the Cruzado Plan because it involved a
change in the name of the currency from Cruciero to the Cruzado,
with 1000 crucieros being equal to one cruzado. Its main
measures were a general price freeze, a wage readjustment and
freeze, readjustment and freeze on rents and mortgage payments, a
ban on indexation, and a freeze on the exchange rate.
(Econ, 11/14/09, SR
1986 In Brazil a financial
scandal led the Bolsa de Valores do Rio de Janeiro (BVRJ) to
(WSJ, 4/10/00, p.Spe.Adv.)
1986 The Commodities &
Futures Exchange (BM&F) of Brazil began trading.
(WSJ, 4/10/00, p.Spe.Adv.)
1986 Brazil began construction
of a rocket base at Alcantara, forcing some 300 local families to
(WSJ, 10/9/08, p.A13)
1988 Feb 24, A week of tropical
rainstorms left at least 275 people dead in Rio de Janeiro state,
1988 Oct 5, Brazil accepted a
constitution that obliged the government to make transfers to the 26
states and protect the jobs of public workers. This created a
difficult environment for the control of spending. The new
constitution also annulled the right of husbands to prohibit their
wives from accepting employment. The new constitution also
recognized Indian rights to reclaim their original lands and to
preserve their way of life. Almost 600 reserves were established,
encompassing 12.5% of Brazilís territory, but many only existed on
paper. The constitution also declared health care to be the right of
the citizen and its provision to be the duty of the state. It also
said Brazil will not develop, deploy or make use of nuclear weapons.
(SFC, 9/25/96, p.A1)(Econ, 9/4/04, p.37)(Econ,
2/4/06, p.36)(SSFC, 6/10/07, p.A15)(Econ, 7/30/11, p.33)(Econ,
1988 Dec 22, Chico Mendes, a
rubber tapper and political and environmental activist, was murdered
in Acre state by a death squad allegedly directed by Hildebrando
(WSJ, 3/16/99, p.A1)(SFC, 12/22/08, p.A17)
1988 Brazil granted Indians
some territory and pledged to demarcate the land within five years.
Hitherto Indians were considered wards of the state and denied full
rights for centuries.
1988 Brazilís National
Institute for Space Research (INPE) began publishing yearly accounts
of deforestation. In 2004 it created the DETER system to alert the
formation of new large-scale deforested areas.
(Econ, 11/2/13, p.21)
1989 May 30, Landless
farmer-workers stormed a farm in the state of Espirito Santo to
pressure for agrarian reform. Jose Machado, the owner, opened fire
with hired guns. Machado and a hired off-duty policeman were killed
and four squatters were injured. In 1997 Jose Rainha, a land reform
advocate, was sentenced to 26.5 years in prison for the killing.
Rainha argued that he was in another state with witnesses and that
the squatters acted in self defense but was still convicted in a 4-3
(SFC, 6/12/97, p.A14)
1989 Sep 3, In Brazil a Varig
737-300 plane crashed in the Amazon jungle with 52 people aboard. 14
died and 34 were injured.
1989 Brazilís United Health
system (SUS) was created from the merger of two state systems.
(Econ, 7/30/11, p.33)
1990 Mar 16, Brazil announced
the Collor Plan. It was a collection of economic reforms and
inflation-stabilization plans carried out during the presidency of
Fernando Collor de Mello, between 1990 and 1992. The plan was
officially called New Brazil Plan. It combined fiscal and trade
liberalization with radical inflation stabilization measures.
(Econ, 11/14/09, SR
1990 Aug, Jose Luiz Santana,
the former president of Brazil's nuclear energy commission, known by
its Portuguese acronym CNEN, said in 2005 that the military was
preparing a test explosion when the program was ultimately
dismantled in August 1990.
1990 Dec 3, President Bush
began a five-nation South American tour as he arrived in Brazil.
1990 In Brazil US pop star
Michael Jackson landed by helicopter at the top of one of Rio de
Janeiroís most notorious favelas and sang ďThey Donít Care About
(Economist, 10/13/12, SR p.18)
1990 Maria das Gracas Marcal, a
2nd generation scavenger, helped found the Street Scavengers
Association. It grew to become a model organization of uniformed
scavengers that collected 15% of the total waste of downtown Belo
1990 Wagner Conhedo, a trucking
operator, obtained a $7 mil loan from Paulo Cesar Farias, campaign
finance chief of then Pres. Collor, to purchase the Vasp SA airline.
Orestes Quercia, governor of the state that privatized Vasp, made
agreement with Conhedo to ease a towering debt burden that later
cost the state millions of dollars when Conhedo fell behind in
(WSJ, 7/1/96, p.A6)
1990 Chico Mendes,
environmental activist and a leader of Amazon rubber tappers in the
state of Acre, was murdered. Darli Alves da Silva and his son,
Darci, were convicted in the murder case.
(SFC, 7/2/96, p.A12)
1990-1993 Witchís Broom disease, a cocoa
destroying fungus, arrived in Brazil in the early 1990s.
(SFC, 9/4/00, p.B10)
1991 Feb 2, Expedito Ribeiro de
Souza, an environmental activist and head of the Farmworkers Union,
was killed. Jose Serafim Sales was convicted for the shooting in
1995 and was sentenced to 24 years in prison. He later escaped. In
2000 rancher Jeronimo Alves Amorim was convicted for ordering the
killing and was sentenced to 19 Ĺ years in prison.
(SFC, 6/8/00, p.A16)
1991 Mar 26, The Treaty of
Asuncion established the southern common market: (Mercado Comun del
Sur) Mercosur, between Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and
Uruguay. They were later joined by associate members Chile (1996),
Bolivia (1997), Peru (2001) and Venezuela (2004). Mexico was granted
observer status in 2004.
1991 Radio La Colifata (Loony
Radio) began broadcasting in Buenos Aires. The weekly radio show was
broadcast from inside a psychiatric hospital.
(SFC, 3/1/01, p.A8)
1991 In Brazil Karen Worcman
(29) helped found the Museum of the Person. By 2009 it was Latin
Americaís largest oral history center.
1991 Arminio Fraga joined
Brazilís central bank as head of intíl. affairs.
(WSJ, 6/2/00, p.A1)
1991 The Amazon forest lost was
3 million acres this year.
(NH, 7/98, p.35)
1992 Jun 12, President Bush,
addressing the Earth Summit in Brazil, declared America's
environmental record "second to none." In a letter to U.S. senators,
Russian President Boris N. Yeltsin said the Soviet Union had shot
down nine U.S. planes in the early 1950's and held 12 American
1992 Jun 14, The Earth Summit
concluded in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The worldís industrial nations
reached an agreement to reduce CO2 emissions, the UN Framework
Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). By 1996 it was clear that the
goals were not being met.
(TMC, 1994, p.1992)(SFC, 7/11/96, p.A10)(AP,
6/14/97)(Econ, 12/5/09, SR p.3)
1992 Sep 29, Lawmakers in
Brazil voted overwhelmingly to impeach President Fernando Collor de
Mello. He was impeached following allegations of corruption in a
kickbacks scandal. The proceedings were largely ignored by the Rede
Globo TV network.
(WSJ, 12/4/95, p.A-9)(AP, 9/29/97)(SFC, 8/31/00,
1992 Oct 2, In Brazil Col.
Ubiratan Guimaraes led the "Carandiru massacre," where 111 inmates
where killed during a raid to quell a prison riot in Sao Paulo.
Guimaraes was convicted in 2001 and sentenced to 632 years in
prison, but awaited a 2nd trial. In 2006 Guimaraes (63) was
murdered at his apartment in Sao Paulo. In April, 2013, 23 police
officers were each sentenced to 156 years in jail. Dozens more faced
(SFC, 9/21/98, p.A14)(SSFC, 7/1/01, p.A18)(AP,
9/11/06)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.48)(SSFC, 8/4/13, p.A4)
1992 Dec 29, Brazilian
President Fernando Collor de Mello resigned.
1992 Paulo Cesar Farias
symbolized the corruption that led to the downfall of the Mello
government. He was treasurer of Melloís presidential campaign and
allegedly took suitcases of cash out of the country on jets that
belonged to his air taxi company.
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A8)
1992 Brazil signed the American
convention on Human Rights.
(SFC, 6/14/96, p. A17)
1992 Guilherme de Padua, TV
soap actor, was charged with the stabbing death of his co-star
Daniela Perez. She was stabbed 18 times with scissors. He originally
confessed but later claimed that his wife, Paula de Alameida Thomaz,
carried out the stabbing in a fit of jealousy. The case finally came
to trial in 1997. He was found guilty and sentenced to 19 years.
(SFC, 1/25/97, p.C1)(SFEC, 1/26/97, p.A15)
1992 Brazilís steel industry
(USA Today, OW, 4/22/96, p.5)
1992 In Brazil Radio La
Colifata, roughly translated as ďcrazy one,Ē began operating in
Buenos Aires to help mentally ill patients communicate with their
peers. Initially taped segments were broadcast, but by 2007 live
programming reached over 30 stations in Argentina and elsewhere in
(SFC, 1/9/07, p.D3)
1992 In Brazil Proheto Tiete
was launched to clean up the San Pauloís Tiete river. In 2006 Janes
Jorge authored ďThe River the City Lost.Ē
1993 Apr 21, Brazil voted
against a monarchy.
1993 July 23, A handful of men
shot and killed 6 children and teenagers at the Candelaria Cathedral
and 2 more at the Museum of Modern Art in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In
1996 one of the four men accused, former police officer Nelson dos
Santos Cunha, confessed to having taken part. About 2,000 children
roam Rioís streets and in 1994, 936 youths under 18 were murdered.
In 1996 a court cleared 2 policemen and another man in killings. Two
other policemen were convicted earlier. In 1997 a court reduced the
sentence of Cunha from 261 years to 18 years. In 1998 Marcos Aurelio
Alcantara (30) was convicted and sentenced to 204 years in jail.
(SFC, 4/28/96, A-14)(SFC, 11/28/96, p.B6)(WSJ,
12/11/96, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/20/97, p.A1)(SFC, 8/27/98, p.A14)
1993 Aug 29, In Rioís Vigario
Geral favela 21 residents were massacred by police to avenge the
killing of 4 colleagues. 52 policemen were accused in the massacre
and in 1997 Paulo Roberto Alvarenga was the first to be tried. He
was sentenced to 450 years in prison but the law limited him to
serve no more than 30 years.
4/28/97, p.A12)(Econ, 4/9/05, p.31)
1993 In Brazil Pres. Itamar
Franco named Fernando Henrique Cardoso as Finance Minister, the 4th
in 18 months. Cardoso enacted the Plano Real economic program and
slashed inflation from 2,700% to 2% in 1998. This success enabled
Cardoso to win elections for president in 1994.
(WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-13)(SFC, 2/26/99, p.E2)
1993 Castor de Andrade (d.1997
at 71), a Rio "godfather," was arrested with 13 other suspected
gaming bosses and convicted of criminal association and forming
armed gangs. Police evidence revealed multi-million payoffs to
congressmen, police chiefs, judges, businessmen, police officers and
the former president Fernando Collor de Mello.
(SFC, 4/14/97, p.A19)
1993 At Carandiru Prison riot
troopers killed 111 inmates in their efforts to quell a rebellion.
(SFC, 1/1/98, p.A14)
1993 In Brazil the Primeiro
Comando da Capital (PCC) was founded at Taubate jail in Sao Paulo
state to fight for prisonerís rights and avenge the massacre by
police of more than 100 prisoners at Carandiru. The PCC grew to
become the countryís most powerful gang.
(Economist, 9/22/12, p.45)
1993 In Joao Pessoa, capital of
Paraiba state, Sen Ronaldo Cunha Lima fired 2 shots at a political
rival in a restaurant.
(WSJ, 3/16/99, p.A1)
1994 Jun 9, Latin American
countries signed the pioneering Convention of Belem, which required
them to educate their people about womenís rights, to fight machismo
and to pass laws to protect women from violence.
(Econ, 9/21/13, p.39)(http://tinyurl.com/ldkqjyk)
1994 Jul 1, Brazil under
finance minister Henrique Cardoso adopted the Real Plan, named for a
new currency fixed to the US dollar with a "crawling peg." Inflation
had hit 7,000% as Cardoso launched the new currency.
(WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-1,13)(WSJ, 4/26/96,
p.A-15)(WSJ, 6/12/97, p.A19)
1994 Jul 17, Brazil defeated
Italy to win its fourth World Cup title.
1994 Oct, Fernando Henrique
Cardoso was elected president.
(USAT, OW, 4/22/96, p.1)
1994 Dec 8, Antonio Carlos
Jobim (67), Brazil composer (Girl From Ipanema), died.
1994 Dec 12, The Brazilian
Supreme Court acquitted former President Fernando Collor de Mello of
the corruption charges that had forced him to resign in 1992.
1994 Brazilís central bank
increased interest rates to nearly 50% in response to the Mexican
debt crises and devaluation.
(Econ, 11/14/09, SR p.5)
1994 Rev. Edward Dougherty, a
priest from New Orleans, became Brazilís first Catholic television
(SFC, 10/3/97, p.B14)
1994 In Brazil Marino Silva was
the first rubber-tapper to be elected to the federal senate. She was
elected on a platform opposing deforestation.
(USAT, 4/22/96, p.4-D)
1994 An investor group led by
Banco Bozano, Simonsen SA, bought the loss-ridden aircraft maker
Embraer SA from the Brazilian government.
(WSJ, 3/21/97, p.A17)(WSJ, 9/13/04, p.A8)
1994 In Brazil some 5,800
square miles were cleared by fire for agriculture and ranching in
(SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T5)
1995 Jan 1, Fernando Henrique
Cardoso took office as Brazil's 37th president. He pushed up
interest rates to 25% and stabilized the economy.
(WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-13)(AP, 1/1/00)
1995 Aug, Pres. Cardoso
introduced Law 9140, which acknowledged military responsibility for
136 deaths under previous governments.
(SFC, 6/14/96, p. A17)
1995 Brazil joined the World
Trade organization (WTO) and accepted intíl. intellectual property
(Econ, 11/3/12, p.38)
1995 Sao Paulo Gov. Mario Covas
(d.2001 at 70) dismissed nearly 200,000 civil servants to pull the
state out of near-bankruptcy.
(SFC, 3/8/01, p.C4)
1995 Geníl. Nilton Cerqueira
and Helio Luz took command of the uniformed police and plainclothes
detectives in Rio de Janeiro where crime was out of control. They
instigated bonuses for bravery under fire.
(WSJ, 9/23/96, p.A1)
1995 Ricardo Correa moved his
shoe operations from Brazil to China. A reduction in trade barriers
in the early 1990s along with an appreciating currency and pressure
from cheap Chinese labor had combined to stagnate Brazilís shoe
exports. By 2008 some 3,000 Brazilians worked in Chinaís
(Econ, 9/13/08, p.75)
1995 The Marinhos family
dominated television in Brazil.
(WSJ, 12/1/95, p.A-10)
1995 Amazon forest lost was 7
million acres this year.
(NH, 7/98, p.35)
1995 Jorge Luiz Fernandez, aka
George the Smotherer, killed two innocent people while trying to
eliminate a witness to a previous murder.
(SFC, 9/21/98, p.A12)
1995 Ten squatters and 2
policemen were killed when some 300 police stormed a squatter camp
near Corumbiarra. In 2000 2 police officers were convicted of murder
and sentenced to 18 and 16 years in prison.
(SFC, 8/19/00, p.A10)
1995 Former Bolivian dictator
Luis Garcia Meza Tejada (1980-1981) was extradited to Bolivia from
Brazil and began serving a 30 year prison sentence, in the same
prison where he once kept his enemies.
1995-1996 Fiat SpA of Italy invested $1 bil over
this period for new engines, updated models, and new projects
(WSJ, 5/30/96, p.A11)
1995-1997 In Brazil Rodrigo Baggio organized
efforts to provide computer education to the children of Rioís
slums. He formed the Committee for Computer Science Democratization,
which had opened schools in 32 Rio slums over the last 2 years.
(SFC, 7/7/97, p.A8)
1996 Jan, In Varginha a trio of
women claimed to have seen an alien being with oily, brown skin and
rubbery limbs. It also had 3 rounded protrusions from an oversized
head and was said to smell very bad.
(WSJ, 6/28/96, p.A1)
1996 Apr 12, Pres. Fernando
Henrique Cardoso signed a decree allowing up to 18,000 inmates of
Brazilís prisons to go free.
(SFC, 4/13/96, p.A-9)
1996 Apr 17, Brazilian police
killed 23 (19) workers who demanded land and injured 50 during a
protest that blocked an Amazon highway in Eldorado dos Carajas. The
governor of the Para state blamed Colonel Mario Pantoja and
suspended him pending an inquiry. Local landowners reportedly paid
Col. Pantoja $85,000 to eliminate 10 leaders of the Landless Rural
Worker's Movement. Over 150 policemen were charged with murder.
Trials of the policemen began in 1999. 2 officers were convicted of
murder. 124 police officers were acquitted in 2002.
(WSJ, 4/19/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 6/26/96, p.A8)(SFC,
7/31/97, p.A10)(SFC, 8/17/99, p.A8)(SFC, 8/20/99, p.D2)(AP, 6/13/02)
1996 Apr 22, Marina Silva was a
Goldman Award winner for her work against deforestation.
(USAT, 4/22/96, p.4-D)
1996 May 22, A consortium led
by Houston Industries, AES Corp., and Electricite de France
purchased control of the state owned electrical utility Light
Servicos de Eletricidade SA for 1.7 bil. Light served 3 million
customers in and around Rio and was snapped up for $2.2 billion.
Service following the divestment was dismal.
(WSJ, 5/22/96, p.A-16)(WSJ, 4/27/98, p.A1)
1996 Jun 3, Korean Samsung
Display Devices will build a plant in Manaus to produce 4 million
picture tubes a year beginning in Jan 1998.
(WSJ, 8/8/95, p. B6C)
1996 Jun, Rudiger Dornbusch,
MIT economist, said that Brazilís real is 30-40% overvalued. He
foresees a possible collapse in 1-2 years.
1996 Jun 11, An explosion
ripped through a mall in Sao Paulo and killed 44 people, more than
100 were injured. A gas leak was thought to be the cause.
(SFC, 6/12/96, p.A8)
1996 Jun 23, Paulo Cesar Farias
was found shot through the heart. The body of his girlfriend was
found nearby at his beach house. TV Globo reported that she shot him
and killed herself.
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A8)
1996 Jun 30, In Acre Itamar
Pascoal was shot to death by Jose Hugo Alves, who fled the scene
with Agilson Santos. A few days later Santos' body turned up in
front of TV Gazeta. His limbs were cut off with a chain saw and his
eyes were carved out. His son (15) was later found burned and
(WSJ, 3/16/99, p.A10)
1996 Jul 6, It was reported
that a Brazilian fisherman, Nathon do Nascimento, choked to death
when a 6-inch fish jumped out of the water and into his throat
during a long yawn.
(SFC, 7/6/96, p.A17)
1996 Aug 12, The government
gave priority status to 42 of 1,500 projects of major public works
in a 4-year plan that will exceed 74 billion reals and create 1.5
(WSJ, 8/12/96, p.A8)
1996 Aug, Yvonne de Mello
received the Intíl. Citizenship Award for her work with abandoned
and runaway kids in Rio de Janeiro.
(Hem., 12/96, p.21)
1996 Sep 21, In Brazil the
first magazine dedicated to blacks, Raca Brasil, sold out 200,000
copies in 5 days.
(SFC, 9/21/96, p.A8)
1996 Sep, The world premiere of
George Coates multimedia work "20/20 Blake" was held at the
Sao Paulo Intíl. Theater Festival.
(SFC, 1/21/96, p.B1)
1996 Sep, The EMB-145, a
50-seat twin-engine jet, was brought out about this time by Brazilís
(WSJ, 3/21/97, p.A16)
1996 Argentina, Brazil and the
US acted to forestall a coup in Paraguay.
(Econ, 6/12/04, p.35)
1996 Brazil introduced
electronic voting. The 2000 national elections became fully
(WSJ, 11/13/00, p.A27)
1996 A liberal youth law was
enacted that shielded children under 18 from prosecution for
virtually any crime, including murder.
(SFC, 12/30/99, p.A18)
1996 A moratorium on new
concessions for logging mahogany and virola wood was enacted.
(SFC, 1/27/98, p.A10)
1996 Official figures showed
that 40% of all Brazilian married women of reproductive age were
(WSJ, 6/13/03, p.A1)
1996-2000 Deforestation of the Amazon region
reached 5 million acres per year.
(SFC, 1/20/01, p.A10)
1997 Jan 4, Some 54 people were
killed during 4 days of torrential rain in the southeastern state of
(SFEC, 1/5/97, p.A13)
1997 Jan 7, It was announced
that the governmentís plan to privatize its 51% of Companhia Vale do
Rio Doce (CVRD) was opposed by former Presidents Jose Sarney and
Itamar Franco, as well as Workersí Party leader Luiz Inacio Lula da
Silva, all candidates in the 1998 elections. Valeís Carajas mine in
Para produced 25% of the worldís iron ore and held reserves for some
(SFC, 1/7/97, p.A10)(Econ, 4/24/10, p.35)
1997 Jan 8, Jose Hugo Alves was
kidnapped near Parnagua, Piaui, following an intensive search by
Hildebrando Pascoal. His body was later found mutilated and dipped
(WSJ, 3/16/99, p.A10)
1997 Feb 17, Darcy Ribeiro,
writer and anthropologist (74), died.
(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A20)
1997 Mar 3, A hidden camera
revealed severe police brutality over three nights at the
intersection of Naval and Jose Francisco Braz streets in Sao Paulo.
The videotape showed 15 people abused by the police and one man shot
dead in a car as it pulled away by officer Octavio Lorenco Gambra,
(SFC, 4/29/97, p.A10)
1997 Mar 4, Brazil Senate
allowed women to wear slacks.
1997 Mar, Pres. Cardoso
announced a $150 million credit line from the World Bank for
infrastructure and the purchase of land for settlements in
(SFC, 6/28/97, p.A12)
1997 Apr 17, In Brazil some
1500 peasants marched 750 miles to Brasilia for land reform and were
joined by some 25,000 trade-union members.
(SFC, 4/18/97, p.A14)
1997 Apr 29, A court injunction
stopped the privatization of the Companhia Vale do Rio Doce, the
huge state-owned mining company. Some 1,000 demonstrators protested
the attempted privatization in downtown Rio de Janeiro.
(SFC, 4/30/97, p.A11)
1997 Apr, In Brazil 2 MST
farmers (Landless Rural Workerís Movement) were killed while tending
fields on the property of the 442,000 acre Giacometti lumber
company. The next day the government announced that the lumber
company would turn over 38,000 acres to 6,000 families. The richest
20% of the people own 88% of the land. The poorest 40% hold only 1%
of the land.
(SFC, 6/28/97, p.A12)
1997 May 7, Brazilís state
mining Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD), incorporated in 1942, was
privatized. In 2006 it acquired Inco, a Canadian nickel producer,
and became the worldís 2nd largest mining company.
(Econ, 4/14/07, SR
1997 Jun 4, Brazilís Senate
approved a constitutional revision to allow office-holders to run
for re-election. This allowed Pres. Cardoso to seek a 2nd term.
(WSJ, 6/5/97, p.A1)
1997 Jun, Police strikes began
in the southeastern state of Minas Gerais over low pay. Though the
strikes were illegal they spread by July to 15 of Brazilís 27
(SFC, 7/23/97, p.A10)
1997 Jul 16, In Recife the
18,000 man police force went on strike. The crime and murder rate
immediately surged and some 3,000 soldiers were called to try to
(SFC, 7/23/97, p.A10)
1997 Aug 9, In Brazil Herbert
Jose de Souza, sociologist, died at age 60 of AIDS that he acquired
as a hemophiliac from contaminated blood. He spent his life fighting
inequality, hunger and police brutality.
(SFC, 8/11/97, p.A15)
1997 Sep 25, It was reported
that local transsexuals could get a free sex-change operation under
new rules that classified the surgery as experimental.
(SFC, 9/25/97, p.A14)
1997 Sep 27, A $350,000
Conselheiro memorial was inaugurated in Quixeramobim in honor of the
founder of the 1893 settlement at Canudos, that was destroyed by
government forces in 1897. It included a garden with 20 sculptures
of Conselheiro and a 5-ton stone- a reminder of the stones he asked
his followers to carry on their heads as an act of penitence.
(SFC, 10/7/97, p.A14)
1997 Oct 2, In Brazil thousands
turned out to greet Pope John Paul II for the start of his 4-day
(SFC, 10/3/97, p.B2)
1997 Oct 3, It was reported
that tuberculosis has killed at least 27 members of the
Guarani-Kaiowa tribe in the past 15 months.
(SFC, 10/3/97, p.B5)
1997 Oct 4, It was reported
that fires in the Amazon had increased 28% over the past year and
that clouds of smoke were thicker and covered more area than those
due to the burning forests of Indonesia.
(SFC, 10/4/97, p.A17)
1997 Oct, The film "The War of
Canudos" was about the 1893-1897 Canudos settlement founded by
(SFC, 10/7/97, p.A14)
1997 Oct 14, Pres. Clinton met
with Brazilís Pres. Cardoso. They signed an agreement for a
partnership to improve education cooperation and a $10 million US
contribution to improve conservation in the Amazon.
1997 Oct 15, In Brazil Pres.
Clinton spoke on free trade at the Mangueira school, a multi-use
training facility for some 2,000 children sponsored by Xerox Corp.
1997 Oct 29, It was reported
that at least 10% of the 2 million square-mile Amazon basin was
destroyed by fire.
1997 Nov 7, It was reported
that there are 12 blacks among the 594 federal lawmakers of Brazil.
The country is 44% black by government count, and 70% black by a
1997 Nov 12, It was reported
that the government has launched an austerity package that will
raise prices and taxes and lead to the dismissal of some 33,000
(WSJ, 11/12/97, p.A1)
1997 Nov 13, A judge ordered
153 police officers and 9 senior officials to stand trial for the
killing of 19 landless peasants in 1966.
1997 Nov 21, It was reported
that new legislation would limit public employees to a total
compensation of $12,000 per month. Also proposed was the elimination
of job protection that could cost 280,000 civil servants their jobs.
1997 Nov, A new sports
magazine, Lance, began publishing. The $43 million project was
founded by 2 leading investment banks, Bozano Simonsen and Icatu,
and Globo, Brazilís largest media organization. Stakes were also
held by millionaire Andre Lara Resende, former banker and economic
advisor to Pres. Cardoso, and Mr. de Mattos, a professional manager.
(FT, 3/4/98, p.17)
1997 Nov, The government began
to force gold miners to leave the Yanomani Indian reservation where
the population was much reduced by disease.
(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A1)
1997 Dec 8, The Inter-American
Commission on Human Rights reported that deaths in Rio, attributed
to police links with the military, averaged 20 a month last year.
1997 Dec 28, Inmates of the
prison in Sorocaba took over and held over 600 hostages. They later
dropped escape demands and agreed to be transported to less crowded
1997 Dec 31, Security forces
ended the 3 day prison rebellion at Sorocaba Prison.
(SFC, 1/1/98, p.A14)
1997 The state of Amazonas
formed the Amazona Filarmonica with a core of musicians from the
former Soviet Union.
(WSJ, 11/23/98, p.A1)
1997 In Sao Paulo, Brazil,
Lourenco "Rambo" Gambra, a policeman, was filmed by an amateur
cameraman stopping cars and extorting money and killing a passenger
in the Naval slum.
(SFC, 9/21/98, p.A14)
1997 Brazilís government
eliminated export taxes on commodities. Costs fell 10-20% creating a
huge stimulus for agriculture. The Asian crises had reduced
commodity demand and the central bank fought to defend the real,
increasing overnight interest rates to an annual 40% and killing
(Econ, 11/5/05, p.74)(Econ, 11/14/09, SR p.5)
1997 Jose Rainha, a land
reform advocate in the Landless Workers Movement (MST), was
sentenced to 26.5 years in prison for the 1989 killing of Jose
Machado Neto. Rainha argued that he was in another state with
witnesses and that the squatters acted in self defense, but was
still convicted in a 4-3 vote. A retrial was scheduled in 2000.
(SFC, 6/12/97, p.A14)(SFC, 4/4/00, p.A10)
1997 Honda Motors planned to
start producing cars in Brazil by this time.
(WSJ, 11/17/95, p.A-11)
1997-1998 Fiat SpA of Italy said it would invest
$1 bil over this period in Brazil for new engines, updated models,
and new projects.
(WSJ, 5/30/96, p.A11)
1997-1998 In Brazil some 39,000 square km. of
Amazonian forest were burned by wildfires.
(Econ, 8/8/09, p.70)
1998 Jan 1, In Brazil the new
law making all Brazilian adults potential organ donors went into
effect. New traffic laws also went into effect. It was reported that
50,000 people die annually from car accidents because drivers
routinely ignore traffic laws.
(SFC, 1/7/98, p.A8) (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T12)
1998 Feb 22, The film ďCentral
StationĒ by Walter Salles won the top prize at the Berlin Film
(SFC, 2/23/98, p.E5)
1998 Feb 22, In Rio de Janeiro
the Palace II, built by Sergio Naya, collapsed during Carnival and 8
people were crushed. The building was built by a construction
company owned by federal deputy Sergio Naya of the Brazilian
Progress Party. Faulty construction was uncovered.
(FT, 3/4/98, p.6)(SFC, 7/8/99,
1998 Mar 17, It was reported
that a 3-month-old fire was raging out of control in the state of
Roraima, home of the Yanomani Indians.
(SFC, 3/17/98, p.B2)
1998 Mar 20, At least 400
firefighters were sent to fight the fires in the northern Amazon.
Firefighters from Argentina and Venezuela were also brought in. A UN
offer of assistance was accepted to combat thousands of fires raging
out of control.
(SFC, 3/21/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 3/23/98, p.A1)(SFC,
1998 Mar 27, Argentina, Brazil
and Paraguay signed a pact to heighten security on their triple
(SFC, 3/28/98, p.A9)
1998 Apr 1, Rains extinguished
more than 95% of the extensive fires in the northern Amazon.
(WSJ, 4/2/98, p.A1)
1998 Apr 15, The prime rate was
lowered from 28% to 23.3%.
(WSJ, 4/17/98, p.A10)
1998 May 8, "Operation Drought"
was launched to airlift food to the drought stricken northeast where
10 million people were threatened with hunger.
(SFC, 5/9/98, p.A12)
1998 May 17, It was reported
that the worst drought since one in 1983 plagued northeast Brazil.
(SFC, 5/18/98, p.A10)
1998 May, Jorge Luiz Fernandez,
aka George the Smotherer, was sentenced to 47 years in prison for 2
murders in 1995. He headed a hit squad of off-duty policemen known
as the "Golden Boys," who singled out criminal suspects and killed
at least 30 people.
(SFC, 9/21/98, p.A12)
1998 May, Chief Xicao Xukuru
(b.1950), top advocate for the Xukuru Indians, was shot dead in
(WSJ, 8/20/99, p.A1,9)
1998 Jun 23, Luiz Jose Costa,
half of the popular country duo Leandro and Leonardo, died of ling
cancer at 36. The duo sold 20 million albums since 1991.
(SFC, 6/26/98, p.D4)
1998 Jul 6, The native
population was estimated to be about 300,000 people in some 200
(SFC, 7/6/98, p.A10)
1998 Jul 25, It was reported
that 5-7% of the drugs in Brazil were faked medicines mostly from
India, China and Pakistan.
(SFEC, 7/26/98, p.A20)
1998 Jul 29, Brazil sold its
Telebras telephone system to intíl. bidders for $19 billion. The 12
subsidiaries were sold one by one while demonstrators protested
saying that Telebras was the property of the Brazilian people.
(SFC, 7/30/98, p.D2)
1998 Sep 3, Moodyís downgraded
Brazilís foreign-currency bonds to single B-2. This led to an 8.6%
drop in Brazilís stock market.
(WSJ, 9/4/98, p.A9)
1998 Sep 4, The Central Bank
raised interest rates from 20 to 30%. The final rate for consumers
reached 150-250% a year.
(SFC, 9/11/98, p.D2)(WSJ, 1/6/98, p.A1)
1998 Sep 4, In Osasco near Sao
Paulo a Universal Church roof collapsed and killed at least 23
people and injured 500.
(SFEC, 9/6/98, p.A19)
1998 Sep 8, In Brazil 110 miles
northwest of Sao Paulo at least 53 people were killed when a truck
carrying flammable liquid exploded on a highway and engulfed 2
chartered buses. 38 people were hospitalized.
(WSJ, 9/9/98, p.A1)
1998 Sep 10, The Sao Paulo
stock exchange fell 15.8% in the afternoon. Earlier in the week the
government announced spending cuts and a plan to halve the budget
deficit, which stood at 7% of GDP.
(SFC, 9/11/98, p.D2)
1998 Sep 11, The Bovespa index
fell to an intraday low of 4575. By Nov 6 it moved back up to 8214.
(WSJ, 11/9/98, p.C1)
1998 Sep, Federal agents in
Alagoas state arrested police Lt. Colonel Manoel Cavalcante for
heading a 50-man police squad known as the "Uniformed Gang." They
were charged with political assassinations, bank robberies, car
theft and arms trafficking. They charged $440 to kill a rural union
leader and $44,000 to kill a prominent politician.
(SFC, 9/21/98, p.A12)
1998 Oct 1, The IMF and the
World Bank were negotiating an emergency loan package for Brazil of
some $30 billion. Since the collapse of the ruble, edgy investors
have taken $30 billion out of Brazil. The government in the mean
time pushed up the interest rate to 40%.
(SFC, 10/2/98, p.A16)(WSJ, 10/2/98, p.A1)
1998 Oct 4, In national
elections Fernando Henrique Cardoso won a 2nd term with 50.3% of the
vote in early returns vs. 35.6% for Luiz Inacio da Silva of the
(SFEC, 9/20/98, p.A21)(SFC, 10/5/98, p.A8)
1998 Oct 16, Imports exceeded
exports by over 4% of the economy and the inflation rate exceeded
that of the US. This indicated that the real was overpriced and that
devaluation was needed.
(WSJ, 10/16/98, p.A1)
1998 Oct 22, At Cape Canaveral
Orbital Sciences launched a Brazilian satellite from a Pegasus
rocket aboard a modified jumbo jet. The satellite will monitor
environmental devices throughout Brazil.
(SFC, 10/23/98, p.A10)
1998 Oct 28, Brazil unveiled an
$84 million austerity package that included a tax on government
(SFC, 10/29/98, p.A14)
1998 Nov 4, Brazil set a
minimum retirement age of 53 for men and 48 for women.
(SFC, 11/5/98, p.C5)
1998 Nov 13, Pres. Clinton and
the IMF announced a $41.5 billion loan package for Brazil.
(SFC, 11/14/98, p.A10)
1998 Nov 27, Brazilian police
reported that a small cult of the United Pentecostal Church in Acre
state had killed 6 people over the last 2 weeks, including 3
children, to "wipe out the enemies of God." Pastor Francisco Bezerra
de Moraes was one of 6 people arrested for the killings.
(SFC, 11/28/98, p.A15)
1998 Dec 14, Legislators
proposed to give themselves a 59% pay raise as the economy slipped
(WSJ, 12/16/98, p.A19)
1998 Dec 17, In Alagoas state
congresswoman Ceci Cunha was killed with her husband and 2 in-laws
in an apparent political assassination. Talvane Albuquerque, who
lost re-election in October, assumed her seat in the Chamber of
Deputies. He was charged with ordering the murder of Cunha, but was
immune from criminal prosecution while in office.
(SFC, 12/18/98, p.D2)(WSJ, 3/16/99, p.A1)
1998 Anthony Garotinho (38), a
football player turned tele-evangelist, was elected Rio de Janeiro
state governor. He quit in 2003 to run for president and Rosinha
Matheus, his wife, was elected governor. After he lost his wife
chose him as Secretary of Public Security. From 199-2006 they
governed the state with startling incompetence.
(AP, 5/23/03)(Econ, 7/19/08, p.46)
1998 Eloi Bras Sessim, mayor of
Cidreira in Rio Grande do Sul state, received an 8-year sentence for
bribery and disappeared.
(SFC, 8/31/00, p.A10)
1998 Eloan Pinheiro, director
of the state-owned Far-Manguinos drug factory, was given the mandate
to analyze brand name AIDS drugs and develop generic forms.
(WSJ, 4/27/01, p.A17)
1998 Brazil had 41,000
homicides this year.
(SFEC, 6/18/00, p.A21)
1999 Jan 1, Fernando Henrique
Cardoso (67) became Brazil's first re-elected president as he was
sworn in for a 2nd 4-year term.
(SFC, 1/2/99, p.A9)
1999 Jan 7, Minas Gerais state
declared a 90-day moratorium on debt owed to the central government.
Former Pres. Itamar Franco, the new governor of Minas Gerais, had
vowed to stop payment on over $15 billion to force a renegotiation
of payment terms. 24 of 27 states had fixed debt agreements with the
(WSJ, 1/6/99, p.A17)(WSJ, 1/7/99, p.A1)
1999 Jan 13, Brazil was forced
to allow its currency to slide and global markets fell in response.
Gustavo Franco, head of the central bank, quit and was replaced by
Francisco Lopes ('Chico'). Lopes announced a new trading range for
the real between 1.2 and 1.32 to the dollar.
(SFC, 1/14/99, p.A10)(WSJ, 1/14/99, p.A1)
1999 Jan 14, In Brazil the
markets slumped for a 2nd day and closed down 10%.
(SFC, 1/15/99, p.A12)
1999 Jan 15, In Brazil the real
was allowed to float and the Bovespa index moved up 33%. The real
closed at 1.43 to the dollar.
(SFC, 1/16/99, p.A10)
1999 Jan 18, In Brazil the real
was allowed to float and interest rates were raised from 29 to 41%.
(SFC, 1/19/99, p.A6)
1999 Jan, In Rio De Janeiro a
pillar supporting a sewage pipe collapsed led to major repairs that
forced the city to dump tons of raw sewage into the ocean along its
beaches. Repairs were not completed until May.
(SFC, 5/3/99, p.B10)
1999 Feb 2, In Brazil Pres.
Cardoso fired Central Bank chief Francisco Lopes. He appointed
Arminio Fraga (42), an investment strategist and former associate of
George Soros, to the post.
(SFC, 2/3/99, p.A9)
1999 Feb 23, The $5 billion
Sergio Motta Dam on the Parana River, 370 miles northwest of Sao
Paulo, was inaugurated. Full power to 18 turbines was expected in
(SFC, 2/24/99, p.C3)
1999 Feb 27, Brazilian poet
Haraldo de Campos (b.1929) won the Mexican Octavio Paz Prize for
poetry and essay writing. His major works include "Chess Game of the
Stars" and "The Education of the Five Senses."
(SFC, 3/1/99, p.E5)
1999 Feb, Hildebrando Pascoal
was sworn in as a federal congressman from Acre state.
(WSJ, 3/16/99, p.A1)
1999 Mar 4, In Brazil Arminio
Fraga, the new Central Bank president, raised the interest rates to
(SFC, 3/5/99, p.D2)
1999 Mar 6, It was reported
that heavy flooding had hit Sao Paulo. 27 people were killed and
10,000 left homeless.
(SFC, 3/6/99, p.A8)
1999 Mar 8, Brazil sealed a
deal with the IMF for a currency injection in exchange for more belt
(SFC, 3/9/99, p.B10)
1999 Mar 12, Bidu Sayao,
Brazilian opera soprano, died at age 94 in Maine.
(SFC, 3/15/99, p.A19)
1999 Mar 24, Federal judges
were reported to have staged a wildcat walkout for a 25% pay
(WSJ, 3/24/99, p.A23)
1999 Mar 29, Paraguay's ousted
president, Raul Cubas, was given asylum by Brazil.
(WSJ, 3/30/99, p.A1)
1999 Apr, A nationwide probe
into drug trafficking began. Over the next 14 months some 30 people,
who helped or planned to help the investigation, were killed.
(SFC, 6/13/00, p.F2)(SFC, 12/1/00, p.A21)
1999 May 18, Alfredo de Freitas
Dias Gomes (77), Salvadoran-born soap opera writer, died in a
traffic accident. He wrote the "Roque Santeiro" satire that began
airing in 1985, though it was initially written in 1975. His play "O
Pagador de Promesas" was made into a film that won top prize at
Cannes in 1962.
(SFC, 5/19/99, p.A21)
1999 May, Congress outlawed
pregnancy tests for job candidates as part of a labor code reform.
(SFC, 8/24/99, p.A10)
1999 May, The state government
of Rio de Janeiro passed one of world's toughest weapons' laws.
Sales of guns and ammunition were banned to anyone except police,
military and private security. Death rates in Brazil from gunshots
had reached 25.78 per 100,000. In Sept. a court ruled the ban
(SFC, 8/30/99, p.A12)(SFC, 9/11/99, p.A9)
1999 Jun 10, Brazilís Pres.
Cardoso sanctioned a new law creating the first civilian-run defense
(SFC, 6/12/99, p.C1)
1999 Jun 23, Amnesty Int'l.
issued a report condemning Brazil's prison system.
(SFC, 6/24/99, p.A12)
1999 Jun 28, A European and
Latin American summit opened for a 2 day conference in Rio De
Janeiro. The EU and Mercosur bloc agreed to form a new free-trade
(SFC, 6/29/99, p.A10)
1999 Jul 26, Brazil said it
would temporarily suspend all trade talks with Argentina after
Argentina moved to curb certain Brazilian exports.
(WSJ, 7/28/99, p.A20)
1999 Jul 28, In Brazil the army
was ordered by Pres. Cardoso to clear the nation's highways from
blockades set up by striking truckers protesting poor roads, high
tolls and high gasoline prices.
(WSJ, 7/29/99, p.A1)
1999 Aug 27, Archbishop Dom
Helder Camara (90) died in Recife. He had an int'l. reputation for
campaigns against social inequality and human rights abuses.
(SFEC, 8/29/99, p.D5)
1999 Sep 9, It was reported
that Brazil had recently approved minimum retirement ages of 53 for
men and 48 for women, but only for employees entering the civil
service. The pension system was broke and expected to run $30 bil in
the red this year.
(WSJ, 9/9/99, p.A1)
1999 Sep 22, The Chamber of
Deputies voted 394 to 41 to expel Hildebrando Pascoal, a 1st term
congressman from Acre state, for "lack of parliamentary decorum."
Hildebrando was accused of torture, mass murder and int'l. drug
trafficking but had been immune due to his congressional status.
Pascoal surrendered to federal police the next day.
(SFC, 9/23/99, p.C16)(SFC, 9/24/99, p.A14)
1999 Oct 7, The Spix macaw of
Brazil (Cyanopsitta spixii), native to the area of Curaca along the
Sao Francisco River, was the world's rarest wild bird, due to animal
trafficking. It's market value was put at $60,000. 218 species in
Brazil were endangered, including 109 birds, 68 mammals, 31
invertebrates, 9 reptiles and 1 amphibian. The last wild Spix macaw
disappeared in 2000.
(SFC, 10/7/99, p.A15,18)
1999 Nov 18, In Brazil
assailants broke into a house in Sao Vicente and shot 8 people to
death, 2 men, 3 boys and 3 women.
(SFC, 11/19/99, p.A21)
1999 Nov, Sen Luiz Estevao and
a judge were indicted for pocketing funds from a court complex in
Sao Paolo with $300 million in cost overruns.
(SFC, 11/22/99, p.A16)
1999 Dec 2, In Brazil riot
police killed one person and wounded 9 others during a worker
protest at the Bandeirantes television station in Brasilia
(SFC, 12/3/99, p.D5)
1999 In Brazil police in the
northeastern city of Recife seized more than 70 pounds (30 kg) of
cocaine aboard a Hercules C-130 plane bound for Spain. Five people,
including a US citizen, who police said led the gang, and two Air
Force officers were arrested. In 2011 Jose Roberto Monteiro Zau, the
last suspect of the drug-trafficking ring, was arrested.
2000 Jan 3, In Brazil flooding
killed at least 11 people in Rio de Janeiro.
(WSJ, 1/4/00, p.A1)
2000 Jan 12, An Argentine a
tour bus crashed into a 2nd local bus in Brazil and 42 people were
(WSJ, 1/13/00, p.A1)
2000 Jan 13, In Brazil Mexican
singer Gloria Trevi was arrested with her manager Sergio Andrade and
Maria Raquenal Portillo on Mexican charges of corrupting Karina
Yapor (17). Trevi became pregnant in May and rape was suspected.
Brasilia federal police chief Paulo Magalhaes was removed from his
post in October.
(SFC, 1/15/00, p.A10)(SFC, 10/18/01, p.C2)
2000 Jan, A broken crude oil
pipeline in Rio de Janeiro spilled at least 130,000 gallons near the
coast and into Guanabara Bay. The ruptured pipeline at a Petrobras
refinery dumped at least 340,000 gallons of crude into the Guanabara
bay, killing birds and fish and devastating environmentally
sensitive mangrove swamps.
(SFC, 1/22/00, p.A6)(AP, 9/6/05)
2000 Feb 9, It was reported
that death squads operating in 12 of the 26 states had killed some
2,500 people in the past 2 years. The squads targeted petty thieves,
the poor and minorities.
(WSJ, 2/9/00, p.A1)
2000 Mar 1, Hildebrando
Pascoal, a former congressman from Acre state, was sentenced to over
6 years in prison for tax fraud and other financial crimes.
(SFC, 3/3/00, p.D4)
2000 Apr 5, In Brazil Jose
Rainha Jr., leader of the Landless Rural Workers Movement, was
acquitted of the 1989 killing of farm owner Jose Machado Neto.
(SFC, 4/6/00, p.A12)
2000 Apr, UNESCO declared the
Atlantic rain forest of Brazil a World Heritage site. Only 3% of the
original 4,500 square mile rain forest remained.
(SFC, 9/4/00, p.B10)
2000 Jun 9, In Brazil legal
rights for same-sex couples were extended to include inheritance,
pension and social security benefits.
(SFC, 6/10/00, p.A13)
2000 Jun 11, Gen. Lino Oviedo
of Paraguay was arrested in Foz do Iguacu.
(SFC, 6/13/00, p.A12)
2000 Jun 12, In Rio de Janeiro
bus No. 174 was hijacked for 4 Ĺ hours before police killed
the assailant and one hostage.
(SFEC, 6/18/00, p.A21)
2000 Jun 20, Brazil decreed an
immediate ban on the sale of firearms as part of a broad $1.7
billion national security plan.
(SFC, 6/21/00, p.A14)
2000 Jun, Brazilís Senate
expelled Luiz Estevao (50) for lying about his involvement in a
construction company that helped build a federal courthouse. He
allegedly diverted $100 million in government funds for the project.
It was the 1st expulsion in the Senateís 170 year history.
(SFC, 7/4/00, p.A9)
2000 Jul 16, An oil leak in
Brazilís Parana state began near the Getulio Vargas Refinery in
Araucaria and dumped over 1 million gallons of crude into a
tributary of the Iguacu River. Petrobras was later fined $94 million
for the countryís worst spill in 25 years.
(SFC, 7/18/00, p.A12)(SFC, 8/3/00, p.A13)
2000 Aug 16, Armed hijacked an
airliner and forced it to land in southern Parana state. They
escaped with an estimated $3.3 million in stolen money.
(SFC, 8/17/00, p.A15)
2000 Aug 31, A meeting of South
American presidents opened in Brasilia. They expressed concern over
the civil war in Colombia and planned to discuss the creation of a
South American trade block.
(SFC, 9/1/00, p.A16)
2000 Sep 17, Gangs of armed
gunmen broke into jails and freed over 200 inmates. 2 of the breaks
occurred in Sumare and Santa Isabel. A 3rd took place the next day
in Sao Paolo.
(SFC, 9/19/00, p.A10)
2000 Oct 1, Some 110 million
voted in municipal elections with advances by the Workers
Party. A tilt to the left was seen as a response to corruption.
(WSJ, 10/3/00, p.A23)
2000 Oct 29, Marta Suplicy (55)
of the Workers Party was elected mayor of Sao Paulo in a runoff
election with 58.5% of the vote.
(SFC, 10/29/00, p.A12)
2000 Nov 17, Gunmen in Sao
Paulo shot to death 10 people, 13 to 20, sleeping in an abandoned
house. Drug gang retaliation was suspected.
(SFC, 11/18/00, p.C16)
2000 Nov 30, In Brazil a 5,000
page report, begun in Apr 1999, was released and covered the $25
billion drug trafficking trade and implicated almost 200 public
authorities including 10 national and state legislators.
(SFC, 6/13/00, p.F2)(SFC, 12/1/00, p.A21)
2000 Nov, In Manaus an oil leak
at an abandoned asphalt factory spilled as much as 6,600 gallons
into feeder streams of the Amazon.
(SFC, 11/25/00, p.D8)
2000 Dec 15, Pres. Mbeki of
South Africa spoke at a MERCOSUR meeting in Brazil and planned to
begin negotiations to join the trading block.
(SFC, 12/31/00, p.B2)
2000 In Brazil Antonio Marcos
Pimenta Neves, managing editor of the newspaper Estado de S. Paulo,
shot Sandra Gomide (32) to death. She was a former editor of the
paper's business section who had ended their relationship shortly
before she was slain. Neves was convicted in 2006 but stayed free
during numerous appeals. In 2011 the Supreme Court said Neves must
serve his 15-year sentence after running out of appeals.
2000 Brazilís Central Bank
Pres. Arminio Fraga set up the printing of 10-real bills on long
lasting plastic. The move was symbolic of currency stability.
(WSJ, 6/2/00, p.A1)
2000 Brazil was about 74% Roman
Catholic. By 2010 the number fell to about 65% of the population.
2000 A UN study put the murder
rate in Rio de Janeiro at 26.3 per 100,000, one of the highest in
(SFC, 5/25/02, p.A13)
2001 Jan 20, It was reported
that 12.5% of the original forest in the Amazon region had been
(SFC, 1/20/01, p.A10)
2001 Jan 24, Portugal Telecom
and Spainís Telefonica announced today the formation of a US$ 10
billion Strategic Joint Venture ("JV") for mobile services in
Brazil. The resulting entity, named Vivo, was formed from seven
assorted mobile units they already controlled.
(Econ, 5/22/10, p.71)(http://tinyurl.com/2cxlgd4)
2001 Jan 25, The first World
Social Forum (WSF), originated by Oded Grajew, opened in Porto
Alegre, Brazil, organized by many groups including the French
Association for the Taxation of Financial Transactions for the Aid
of Citizens (ATTAC).
2001 Jan, In Brazil Gol
Airlines was launched by the Constantino family, which ran a fleet
of buses. Employee owned Varig had 40% of the market, but was
crumbling under competition from TAM. Varig went into bankruptcy in
(Econ, 4/28/07, p.76)
2001 Feb 3, Mexico followed
Canada and the US in a ban on beef from Brazil due to fears of mad
(WSJ, 2/5/01, p.A17)
2001 Feb 18, In Brazil some
15,000 convicts held uprisings in 29 prisons that left 16 people
dead. It was coordinated by Idemir Carlos Ambrosio, leader of the
PCC prison-based gang. Ambrosio was killed in prison in July.
(SFC, 2/19/01, p.A9)(SFC, 5/16/06, p.A7)
2001 Mar 6, Sao Paulo Gov.
Mario Covas died at age 70.
(SFC, 3/8/01, p.C4)
2001 Mar 15, A Petrobras
oil-platform explosion killed 1 worker and left 9 missing at the
40-story offshore facility. The platform was in danger of sinking.
(WSJ, 3/16/01, p.A1)
2001 Mar 20, The damaged
Brazilian P-36 Petrobras oil platform sank 75 miles offshore.
400,000 gallons of fuel and crude oil began leaking into the sea. An
immediate revenue loss of $50 million per month was expected.
(SFC, 3/21/01, p.A12)(WSJ, 3/21/01, p.A1)
2001 Mar 27, The Brazilian
Electricity Regulatory Agency, Aneel, ordered federal agencies and
state companies to reduce consumption by 10% due to power shortages
caused by poor rains.
(WSJ, 3/28/01, p.A16)
2001 Apr 15, A prison takeover
in Cuiaba ended when inmates killed 6 leaders of the rebellion after
they took visitors hostage.
(WSJ, 4/16/01, p.A1)
2001 Apr 17, A group of 20, who
claimed to be armed with syringes of the AIDS virus, kidnapped 4
armored car workers and their families. The Proforte armored car
company handed over $2.5 million the next day.
(SFC, 4/19/01, p.A11)
2001 Apr 21, Luiz Fernando da
Costa (33), a Brazilian drug lord, was arrested in Colombia after
his plane was forced down by the Colombian air force. He was accused
of selling arms to FARC in exchange for cocaine.
(SFC, 4/23/01, p.A12)
2001 May 2, It was reported
that a large embezzlement case in Brazil threatened to unravel the
ruling coalition. Some $2 billion had disappeared from the Amazon
Development Bureau (Sudam). Fakery of land deals (grilagem) was
estimated to involve some 100 million acres of the Amazon Basin.
(SFC, 5/2/01, p.A8)(SFC, 5/3/01, p.B5)
2001 May 18, Brazil ordered
consumers and businesses to cut energy use by 20% due to shortages
created by drought. Rationing was to start June 1.
(SFC, 5/19/01, p.A8)
2001 May, In Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil, 10 masked gang members with assault rifles freed drug
trafficker Marcio Greick (21) from the Bonsucesso Hospital. One
police officer was killed, 7 people were injured and 2 guards beaten
as they shot their way out.
(SFC, 11/18/05, p.A19)
2001 Jun 1, Senator Antonio
Carlos Magalhaes, former president of the Senate, resigned his seat
following accusations of tampering with the vote tallying system.
(SFC, 6/2/01, p.A9)
2001 Jun 20, Brazilís Central
Bank raised the key interest rate 1.5% to 18.25%.
(WSJ, 6/22/01, pA11)
2001 Jun, Brazil signed a trade
agreement with Guyana.
(Econ, 1/13/07, p.36)
2001 Jul 5, Pres. Cardoso
announced a plan to boost the electrical supply with imports and new
generators. The real fell to 2.47 to the dollar.
(WSJ, 7/6/01, p.A7)
2001 Jul 8, Some 100 inmates
escaped through a tunnel from Latin Americaís largest prison in Sao
Paulo. 35 were soon captured.
(WSJ, 7/10/01, p.A1)
2002 Jul, The $1.4 billion
Amazon surveillance system (SIVAM) was scheduled to be completed by
(WSJ, 4/10/00, p.Spe.Adv.)
2001 Aug 5, In Brazil a 2-week
police strike in Salvador, Bahia state, was reported to be over.
Threats of strikes remained in other cities due to low wages.
(SSFC, 8/5/01, p.T14)
2001 Aug 6, Jorge Amado
(b.1912), author of 32 novels, died at age 88. He was considered
Brazilís greatest contemporary writer.
2001 Aug 17, Congress approved
a legal civil code that made women equal to men.
(SSFC, 8/19/01, p.A10)
2001 Aug 20, Patricia Abravanel
(23), the daughter of Silvio Santos, was kidnapped by a band of
thugs that included Fernando Dutra Pinto (22).
(SFC, 8/31/01, p.D2)
2001 Aug 22, Brazil moved to
produce a generic version of the anti-AIDS drug nelfinavir under
intíl. patent protection by Roche.
(SFC, 8/23/01, p.A8)
2001 Aug 23, Francisco de Assis
Santana (56), a Xukuru Indian leader aka Chico Quele, was killed in
an ambush near Pe de Serra in Penambuco state.
(SFC, 8/25/01, p.A9)
2001 Aug 28, Fernando Pinto and
his accomplices received $200,000 in ransom money for the daughter
of TV tycoon Silvio Santos. The next day Pinto killed 2 policemen
(WSJ, 8/31/01, p.A5)
2001 Aug 30, In Sao Paulo
Fernando Dutra Pinto (22) held Silvio Santos hostage for 8 hours and
then surrendered to police.
(WSJ, 8/31/01, p.A5)(SFC, 8/31/01, p.D2)
2001 Aug 31, Brazil withdrew
its threat to make a generic version of the Nelfinavir AIDS drug
after Roche Pharmaceuticals agreed to produce the drug locally and
cut the price by 40% next year.
(SFC, 9/1/01, p.A7)
2001 Sep, Antonio Costa Santos,
Workerís Party (PT) mayor of Campinas, was assassinated.
(SFC, 1/26/02, p.A8)
2001 Oct 9, Roberto Campos
(b.1917), Brazilian politician and diplomat, died. His autobiography
was titled ďA lanterna na popaĒ (2001). It revised his personal
biography as well as the recent economic history of Brazil.
2001 Nov 23, An oil pipeline
leak near Rio was stopped after some 26,000 gallons spilled into
(SSFC, 11/25/01, p.A18)
2001 Nov 24, A fire at a dance
club in Belo Horizonte killed at least 6 people.
(SSFC, 11/25/01, p.A18)
2001 Dec 5, Sir Peter Blake
(53) of New Zealand, 2-time Americaís Cup winner, was killed on the
research vessel Seamaster by gunmen at Macapa, Brazil, near the
mouth of the Amazon. 7 men were arrested 2 days later and an 8th was
still sought. The final 2 suspects were arrested Dec 9.
(SFC, 12/7/01, p.A1)(SFC, 12/8/01, p.A2)(SFC,
2001 Dec 26, Rescue workers
searched for victims of earth slides and flooding that killed at
least 49 people in Rio de Janeiro state.
(SFC, 12/27/01, p.A5)
2001 Brazil ended the year with
(WSJ, 2/21/02, p.A15)
2001 In Brazil an 840-pound
emerald was discovered in Bahia. It was sold to Americans for
$60,000 and then transferred among a number of people, who moved it
to San Jose, Ca., then to Louisiana, where it was trapped in a
flooded warehouse, and then back to California. In 2009 it came
under police control as courts attempted to unravel ownership of the
mineral, now said to be worth nearly $400 million.
(WSJ, 2/28/09, p.A1)
2002 Jan 18, Celso Daniel, the
PT mayor of Santo Andre, a Sao Paulo suburb, was kidnapped by a gang
seeking to free comrades from prison. His bullet-riddled body was
found Jan 20. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Brazil claimed
responsibility (Brazilian Revolutionary Action Front) for the
killing and the Sep murder of another Workersí Party mayor.
(WSJ, 1/21/02, p.A1)(SFC, 1/26/02, p.A8)
2002 Feb 19, Pres. Cardoso
announced that electricity rationing would end March 1.
(WSJ, 2/20/02, p.A1)
2002 Mar 7, Brazilís 4-party
coalition collapsed with the pullout of the Liberal Front Party.
Roseana Sarney (40), Gov. of Maranhao state and PFL presidential
candidate, was involved in a scandal over a consulting firm she
owned with her husband. Sarney called the government investigation a
witch-hunt. Her presidential bid was killed when images of half a
million dollars in banknotes, found at her husbandís office, were
broadcast on television.
(SFC, 3/8/02, p.A13)(SFC, 3/9/02, p.A7)(Econ,
2002 Mar 25, It was reported
that poachers were destroying the palms in Itatiaia National Park in
order to harvest the palm hearts. A 100-year-old tree has enough
heart to fill 2 14-oz cans sold retail at $3.99.
(WSJ, 3/25/02, p.A1)
2002 May 24, A shootout between
drug gangs in a Rio slum left 6 people dead.
(SFC, 5/25/02, p.A13)
2002 Jun 2, Tim Lopes (50), an
undercover TV journalist reporting on crime and drugs in Rio de
Janeiro's shantytowns, was captured as he tried to infiltrate a
dance party in the Vila Cruzeiro shantytown of northern Rio.
2002 Jun 10, In Brazil police
reported that Tim Lopes (50), an undercover TV journalist, had been
tortured and put to death with a sword by Elias Pereira da Silva, a
drug lord known as Mad Elias, who runs his territory like a medieval
2002 Jun 12, A jury in northern
Brazil acquitted 124 police officers accused of taking part in the
1996 massacre of 19 farm workers.
2002 Jun 12, Brazilís currency
fell to a 9-month low and marked a looming debt crises and the
possible election of a left-wing president in October.
(WSJ, 6/13/02, p.A15)
2002 Jun 13, Brazil said it
will draw down $10 billion in approved IMF credit, tighten fiscal
policy and buy back $3 billion in foreign debt. The currency soared
and settled at 2.71 to the dollar.
(WSJ, 6/14/02, p.A1)
2002 Jun 30, Ronaldo, the
world's greatest goal-scorer, capitalized on an error by the best
goalkeeper, Oliver Kahn, then scored again to lift Brazil to an
unprecedented fifth World Cup title Sunday night, 2-0 over Germany.
2002 Jul 3, Brazil and Mexico
signed a trade agreement that reduced import duties on some 800
(WSJ, 7/5/02, p.A1)
2002 Jul 5, Twenty vehicles
piled up in early morning fog in southeastern Brazil, killing at
least 13 people, including a pregnant woman and six police officers.
2002 Jul 22, In Brazil
assailants tortured and killed Bartolemeu Morais da Silva (44), a
prominent activist who had been organizing land occupations by the
poor in a southern Amazon state.
2002 Jul 26, In Brazil the new
$1.4 billion Amazon Radar Surveillance (SIVAM), developed by
Raytheon, was unveiled. It was to be used to curb crime and gather
(SFC, 7/26/02, p.A16)
2002 Jul 30, In Brazil the real
fell 3.3% to 3.3 to the dollar, its 7th consecutive record low.
(WSJ, 7/31/02, p.A12)
2002 Aug 7, The IMF agreed to
lend Brazil $30 billion to stem a financial panic. This was its
biggest loan to date.
(SFC, 8/8/02, p.A10)
2002 Aug 22, In Brazil
President Fernando Henrique Cardoso signed a decree creating the
Tumucumaque (the rock on top of the mountain) Mountains National
Park bigger than Maryland covering a region of virgin rainforest in
Amapa state, along Brazil's northern borders with Surinam and
(AP, 8/22/02)(SFC, 8/23/02, p.A2)
2002 Aug 30, A twin-engine
plane with 31 people crashed while trying to land in heavy rains
near Rio Branco, a northwestern Brazilian city, killing 24 people.
2002 Sep 13, It was reported
that political theater in Brazil had taken on a new grass-roots form
called the Theater of the Oppressed, wherein spectators stepped into
scenes in "interventions" to take the part of the underdog.
(WSJ, 9/13/02, p.A1)
2002 Oct 6, Brazilian voters
voted 46% in favor of Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, former factory
worker and union boss, as president. Jose Alencar was da Silvaís
running mate. A runoff with Jose Sera (23%) was scheduled.
(WSJ, 10/2/02, p.A1)(AP, 10/6/02)(SFC, 10/8/02,
2002 Oct 25, In Brazil unknown
gunmen shot and killed eight people in the state of Sao Paulo in two
killings. In the first six months of 2002, the state's Public
Security Bureau registered 6,159 homicides.
2002 Oct 27, In Brazil Luiz
Inacio Lula da Silva (57) won elections with 61% of the runoff vote.
He reiterated that his administration would honor Brazil's $230
billion foreign debt, but said lending institutions and the
international community "must know that we cannot have people
suffering from hunger every day."
2002 Oct 29, In Brazil
Pres.-elect Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva promised to honor the foreign
debt but also pledged that ending hunger would be his chief
2002 Oct 30, In Sao Paulo,
Brazil, Suzanne von Richtofen (22) let her lover Daniel Cravinhos
(21) and his brother, Christian (26) into her house, and checked to
make sure her parents were sleeping. Then the brothers sneaked into
the parents' bedroom and bludgeoned them to death with iron bars. In
2006 all 3 were tried for murder. Each was convicted and sentenced
to 40 years in prison. Daniel Cravinhos said he beat Manfred and
Marisa von Richtofen to death with an iron bar as they slept at home
in a wealthy district of Sao Paulo because the couple's daughter,
Suzanne von Richtofen, persuaded him to do it.
(AP, 6/5/06)(AP, 7/17/06)(AP, 7/22/06)
2002 Nov 22, Amilcar de Castro
(82), Brazilian sculptor, died. His work was composed from massive
sheets of iron.
(SFC, 12/3/02, p.A24)
2002 Dec 5, In Brazil 6 South
American presidents convened a summit of the continent's largest
trading bloc, aiming to work out a timetable for a free trade
agreement covering most of the continent.
2002 Dec 6, In Brazil South
American leaders set a timetable for creating a free trade agreement
to cover South America and possibly the Caribbean.
2002 Dec 9, In Angra dos Reis,
Brazil, mudslides triggered by torrential rains slashed through this
southeastern city, burying houses and killing at least 34 people.
2002 Dec 12, In Brazil
Pres.-elect Lula da Silva nominated Henrique Meirelles, a former
executive for FleetBoston, as Central Bank governor.
(WSJ, 12/14/02, p.A12)
2002 Dec 18, In Brazil a ferry
accident on a the Para River killed at least 22 people with 28 more
believed missing. The death toll grew to 44.
(AP, 12/19/02)(AP, 12/23/02)
2002 Dec 26, In Curtiba,
Brazil, a C-95 Bandeirante air force plane crashed during an
emergency landing, killing two people and injuring the other 14
2002 The Brazilian film ďCidade
de DeusĒ (City of God) was set in a suburb of Rio and made the
lawless squalor there internationally known.
(Econ, 6/12/10, p.42)
2002 Mexico ended its visa
requirement for Brazilians as both countries liberalized their trade
regimes. Illegal immigration of Brazilians to the US via Mexico
(WSJ, 1/24/05, p.A16)
2002 The city of Diadema,
Brazil, passed a law to ban bars and restaurants from selling
alcohol between 11 p.m. and 6 a.m. This led to a 47% drop in
homicides, a 30% drop in traffic accidents and a 55% drop in
assaults against women.
(SFC, 5/10/06, p.A1)
2003 Jan 1, In Brazil Gilberto
Gill (60), musician, became minister of culture under Pres. Silva.
(SFC, 1/2/03, p.A3)
2003 Jan 3, In Brazil Pres.
Silva delayed a plan to spend $700 million on jet fighters. The
military's $7.4 billion budget is scheduled to be cut by $282
2003 Jan 11, In Brazil
mudslides caused by torrential rains near Rio de Janeiro left 17
2003 Jan 16, In Brazil
mudslides killed at least 36 people in Minas Gerais and Espirito
(SFC, 1/17/03, p.A10)(AP, 1/18/03)
2003 Jan 23, In Porto Alegre,
Brazil, the 3rd World Social Forum began as anti-globalization
activists demonstrated at the start of the third annual summit on
ways to limit the excesses of global capitalism.
2003 Jan 30, Brazil's President
Lula da Silva launched his anti-hunger program with a move to
provide $14 a month to 1.5 million families, most from the country's
2003 Feb 4, Beauty pageant
organizers stripped Miss Brazil of her title after they discovered
she was married. Joseane Oliveira (21) was replaced by first
runner-up Taiza Thomsen (21).
2003 Feb 12, In Sao Paulo,
Brazil, Bishop Paulo Pereira (38) of the Vetero Catholic Church, in
the low-income district of Guainazes, was gunned down inside his
church's headquarters. Elsewhere in San Paulo 3 gunmen killed
Wallace Ornelas Passos, a 17-year-old student with a police record
for theft and other criminal activities.
2003 Feb 14, In Brazil police
found the bullet-riddled bodies of six men in the back seat and
trunk of a car parked near a Rio de Janeiro slum.
2003 Feb 28, Carnival
began in Brazil as a large crime wave swept Rio. Imprisoned Red
Command leader, Luiz Fernando da Costa, was believed responsible and
was moved to a maximum security prison in San Paolo state.
(SFC, 2/28/03, A16)
2003 Mar 1, In Brazil a
truce between landless farmworkers and President Luiz Inacio Lula da
Silva peace ended, when some 1,000 landless farmers occupied a ranch
80 miles west of Sao Paulo.
2003 Mar 7, Jose Marcio Ayres
(49), Brazilian biologist and senior Wildlife Conservation Society
(WCS) biologist, died in NYC. In 1996 he set up the Mamiraua
Sustainable Development Reserve to protect a 4,300 square-mile area
of the Amazon rain forest.
(Econ, 6/19/04, p.77)
2003 Mar 24, In Brazil gunmen
killed Alexandre Martins de Castro Filho , a judge who focused on
organized crime, 10 days after another prominent judge was gunned
down in a similar slaying.
2003 Apr 4, In southern Brazil
2 buses crashed head-on during heavy rains, killing 18 people and
injuring seven others.
2003 Apr 16, In Jahangir,
Brazil, 4 young men were killed by police in the Borel shantytown on
Rio's poor north side. The community was unanimous that they were
not gang members and had no involvement in crime. More than 800
civilians died from police bullets in Rio during the first eight
months of this year. In 2006 Capt. Marcos Duarte Ramalho was the
third police officer to stand trial and the first to be convicted in
connection with the killings. Two more officers awaited trial for
(AP, 11/10/03)(AP, 10/20/06)
2003 Apr 19, In Brazil a
tourist schooner with 64 people on board sank in a canal east of Rio
de Janeiro, killing at least 11 people.
2003 May 10, A Brazilian police
SWAT team killed eight men in a shootout as they raided a shantytown
looking for drug traffickers.
2003 May 12, In Brazil some
1,000 other landless farmers knocked down the barbed-wire fences
surrounding the Tres Marias ranch in southern Brazil, evicted its
owner and claimed the land for themselves. 90 percent of the
Brazil's land was owned by just 20 percent of the people, while the
poorest 40 percent of the population held just 1 percent.
2003 Jun 20, Pres. Bush and
Brazil's Pres. Lula da Silva said that relations between the two
nations remain on track despite sharp disagreements over Iraq and
some trade issues.
2003 Jun 22, In Sao Paulo,
Brazil, some 800,000 danced their way through one of the world's
biggest gay pride parades.
2003 Jun 26, Researchers said
the Amazon rain forest is disappearing at an increasing rate, mainly
because of a growing appetite for farm land.
2003 Jul 17, In Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil, police killed 3 alleged gang members and pulled the
bullet-riddled bodies of 7 others from a sludge-filled river in 2
notorious shantytowns due to an escalating gang war over drug
control between The Red Command and Third Command.
2003 Aug 4, Brazilian novelist
Rubem Fonseca (b.1925) won Mexico's prestigious Juan Rulfo Prize for
2003 Aug 6, Roberto Marinho
(98), who turned his father's O Globo newspaper into a media empire
and became one of Brazil's richest men, died.
(AP, 8/7/03)(SFC, 8/9/03, p.A14)
2003 Aug 9, In northeastern
Brazil 84 inmates from a maximum security prison escaped through a
2003 Aug 16, Haroldo de Campos
(73), Brazilian poet, died in Sao Paulo. He was the best know of the
Brazilian Concrete poets.
(SFC, 8/26/03, p.A19)
2003 Aug 19, In northeastern
Brazil federal police and government inspectors freed about 800
slave workers from two farms in Bahia state. Another 200 were freed
a week later. The Brazilian government estimated that some 25,000
people work in slavery conditions in Brazil, most of them in remote
2003 Aug 19, In Baghdad a car
bomb exploded in front of the hotel housing the UN headquarters,
collapsing the front of the building. UN Special Representative
Sergio Vieira de Mello (55) of Brazil and 22 other people were
killed. UNICEF said that its program co-coordinator for Iraq,
Canadian Christopher Klein-Beekman, was among the dead. In 2008
Samantha Power authored ďChasing the Flame: Sergio Vieira de Mello
and the Fight to Save the World.Ē
(SFC, 8/20/03, p.A12)(AP, 8/21/03)(SSFC, 2/10/08,
2003 Aug 20, The G-20 (G20) was
formed with Brazil as one of its leading member nations. The group
emerged at the 5th Ministerial WTO conference, held in Cancun,
Mexico from 10 September to 14 September 2003. The other members are
Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, China, Cuba, Egypt, the Philippines,
Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay,
South Africa, Thailand, Tanzania, Uruguay, Venezuela and Zimbabwe.
2003 Aug 22, In Brazil a $6
million rocket exploded on its launch pad while undergoing final
pre-launch tests, killing 21 people. The VLS-1 rocket which was
undergoing tests at the Alcantara Launch Center.
2003 Aug 25, Brazil's Pres.
Lula da Silva and Peru's Pres. Toledo signed a free-trade agreement
between Peru and Mercosur. Peru planned to join as an associate
(Econ, 8/30/03, p.25)
2003 Sep 15, A new human rights
report on Brazil said summary executions and killings by death
squads, often formed by police officers, are commonplace and
frequently tolerated by authorities.
2003 Sep 26, In Cuba Brazil's
Pres. Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva signed business accords with Castro
that included an agreement to renegotiate Havana's $40 million debt
2003 Sep 27, Brazil and Cuba
signed $200 million in new business deals in Cuba by private
2003 Oct 4, In southwest Brazil
a small airplane carrying congressman Rep. Jose Carlos Martinez and
three others went missing. All 4 were found dead the next day.
(AP, 10/4/03)(AP, 10/5/03)
2003 Oct 9, In Santo Antonio de
Jesus in Bahia state, Brazil, gunmen shot and killed Gerson de Jesus
Bispo, a man who spoke to a UN investigator about police death
2003 Oct 27, In Brazil the 22nd
Socialist International Congress opened. Some 600 delegates from
more than 100 political parties met under the 52-year-old Socialist
International's motto: "For a more human society. For a world more
fair and just."
2003 Nov 9, In Sao Paulo,
Brazil, 87 inmates attempted a prison escape through a 390-foot
tunnel. 48 were captured and 8 died when the tunnel collapsed.
2003 Nov 21, In Brazil Pres.
Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva pledged to provide homesteads for 400,000
poor farm families by 2006. His Bolsa Familia plan merged 4 income
transfer programs into one with payments to the poorest families of
up to 95 reais ($33) a month. By 2008 some 11 million families
received benefits under the plan.
(Econ, 10/25/03, p.35)(AP, 11/22/03)(Econ,
2003 Nov 30, In Brazil Todd and
Michelle Staheli were beaten to death in bed at home in an exclusive
Rio de Janeiro neighborhood. Todd Staheli (39), an American
executive with Shell oil company, and his wife were found slain the
next day. In 2004 Jociel Conceicao dos Santos (20), a handyman,
recanted a confession and denied he killed the American couple. He
blamed two other Brazilians for the crime. In 2006 Jossiel Conceicao
dos Santos (22) was convicted and sentenced to 25 years in prison
for killing the American couple.
(AP, 12/1/03)(AP, 3/5/06)
2003 Dec 14, Brazil's ruling
Workers Party expelled four leftist lawmakers after they voted
against the party on crucial legislation being sought by President
Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva.
2003 Dec 15, The IMF extended
for 15 months a $34 billion loan agreement with Brazil.
(WSJ, 12/16/03, p.A15)
2003 Dec 22, Brazil's Pres.
Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva signed a sweeping gun-control law in an
effort to rein in what he called "an epidemic of murder by
2003 The Brazil Labor Ministry
freed 4,995 people who were working in debt bondage, mostly on
remote ranches in the southern Amazon. The rights group Land
Pastoral, linked with the Roman Catholic Church, estimated that
between 15,000 and 25,000 workers live in slave-like conditions in
2003 In Brazil the Anaconda
police operation caught judges selling favorable sentences to
(Econ, 3/27/04, p.37)
2003 The introduction of
flex-fuel cars, vehicles that could run on ethanol as well as
regular petrol, took off in Brazil due to a policy that dated to the
1970s of promoting fuel derived from home-grown sugar cane.
(Econ, 9/24/05, p.79)
2003 Brazilian ranchers,
soybean farmers and loggers destroyed a chunk of the Amazon
rainforest about the size of Massachusetts.
2004 Jan 1, Brazil began
fingerprinting and photographing American visitors in retaliation to
similar new US procedures.
(WSJ, 12/31/03, p.A1)
2004 Jan 9, In southeastern
Brazil floodwaters swept a bus carrying 30 orange pickers off a
road, and at least eight people drowned.
2004 Jan 17, In Brazil the
death toll rose to 11 as heavy rains and mudslides pounded the
Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro for the second day in a row.
2004 Feb 4, Hilda Hilst (73),
who provoked Brazilian readers with fiction and poetry depicting
insanity, the supernatural and erotica, died.
2004 Feb 8, In Brazil 49
inmates slipped through a bathroom wall of a Rio de Janeiro jail
cell in an escape caught on a surveillance camera. Authorities
suspended six prison guards.
2004 Feb 15, In Brazil gunmen
ambushed a busload of police in Rio and killed 3 officers.
(WSJ, 2/17/04, p.A1)
2004 Feb, Zumbi dos Palmares,
Brazilís 1st college catering mainly to blacks, opened.
(Econ, 2/14/04, p.34)
2004 Mar 10, Brazil's
government said the army burned all documents about the suppression
of a 1970s insurgency against the military dictatorship. The papers
were destroyed in the 1970s and 1980s in accordance with laws in
force at the time.
2004 Mar 16, It was announced
that Carlos Slim, owner of Mexicoís Telmex, planned to buy a
controlling interest in Brazilís biggest long distance operator,
(Econ, 3/20/04, p.64)
2004 Mar 20, In Sao Goncalo,
Brazil, Carlos Leite and his companion, Maria da Penha, inaugurated
a free library in their home with some 100 volumes. By late 2005 the
collection had grew to 10,000 volumes and took up most of the space
in the home of the illiterate couple.
2004 Mar 28, A powerful storm,
dubbed Catarina, lashed Brazil's southern coast, damaging thousands
of homes, killing two people.
2004 Apr 2, In Brazil Jociel
Conceicao dos Santos (20), a handyman, recanted a confession and
denied he killed an American couple (Nov 30, 2003). He blamed two
other Brazilians for the crime.
2004 Apr 7, In Brazil Amazon
Indians attacked prospectors who were illegally digging for
diamonds. Cinta Larga Indians massacred 29 illegal wildcat diamond
miners on their remote northern reservation. 28 Indians were charged
in the killings, but the case has stalled over jurisdictional
(AP, 4/14/04)(AP, 12/10/07)
2004 Apr 12, In Brazil more
than 1,000 police stormed into two Rio shantytowns, attempting to
halt a violent dispute among drug traffickers that has left at least
10 people dead.
2004 Apr 13, Brazil's 10,000
federal customs agents began a 4-day strike, threatening to tie up
the nation's ports and international airports unless the government
grants them a pay raise.
2004 Apr 16, In Recife, Brazil,
thousands of militant farmers converged to press the government for
speedier land reform.
2004 Apr 19, In Brazil riot
police used tear gas and rubber bullets to eject hundreds of
squatters who had seized a vacant building in Sao Paulo to demand
the government speed up redistribution of land to the poor.
2004 Apr 22, In Brazil inmates
at Urso Branco State Prison ended a 5-day rebellion that left nine
people dead at the overcrowded prison, after authorities agreed to
2004 Apr, Brazilís Independent
Police Complaints Commission (IPCC) began operations. It replaced
the Police Complaints Authority.
(Econ, 8/27/05, p.47)
2004 May 11, Brazil decided to
expel American journalist Larry Rohter, who had just published a
story on Pres. Lulaís drinking.
(Econ, 5/15/04, p.36)
2004 May 14, A Brazilian
domestic airliner crashed near the Amazon city of Manaus, killing
all 30 passengers and three crew members.
2004 May 26, Amnesty
International charged that Brazilian police killed hundreds of
suspects over the past year, despite a commitment by the government
to set higher standards for public security.
2004 May 29, In Brazil Inmates
rioted at the Benfica detention center in a northern Rio district,
seizing guns and taking guards hostage after 14 inmates broke out in
a mass escape.
2004 Jun 1, In Brazil police
entered the Benfica prison after a three-day rebellion and found the
bodies of 38 inmates, some of them mutilated. At least 14 of 900 had
2004 Jun 1, In northeast
Brazilian state of Alagoas 2 days of heavy rains killed 20 people
and left some 2,100 homeless.
2004 Jun 1, In Haiti US
commanders began turning over authority to a UN force under Gen.
Augusto Pereira of Brazil.
(SFC, 6/2/04, A1)
2004 Jun 4, In Brazil President
Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva designated four new national forests to
protect more than a million acres of rainforest.
2004 Jun 13, The UN Conference
on Trade and Development opened in San Paulo, Brazil. This marked
its 11th forum over a 40 year history. The so-called Group of 77
developing nations actually has 132 member nations.
2004 Jun 17, Brazilís Senate
backed a rise in the minimum wage to 275 reais ($88) per month and
approved a new bankruptcy law.
(Econ, 6/26/04, p.42)
2004 Jun 17, In Brazil the
Camara Dam on the Mamanguate River burst and flooded the city of
Alagoa Grande in Paraiba state, some 1,300 miles northeast of Sao
Paulo. At least 3 people were killed.
2004 Jun 21, Leonel Brizola
(b.1922), former governor of Rio Grande do Sul and Rio de Janeiro
states, died of a heart attack. Brizola, one of Brazil's most
notable leftist politicians, created and armed the so-called "Groups
of 11," cells designed to resist the military dictatorship.
(AP, 6/22/04)(SFC, 6/24/04, p.B6)
2004 Jul 18, Idjarruri Karaja
(40), an activist who worked to include Indian rights in Brazil's
constitution, died of complications from kidney surgery.
2004 Jul 27, Brazilís police
said they have arrested 6 suspects in the Jan 28 shooting deaths of
4 Labor Ministry employees. They still don't know who ordered the
2004 Jul 28, Luiz Candiota,
Brazilís central bank director of monetary policy, resigned
following press allegations of tax evasion. He was succeeded by
Rodrigo Azevedo, chief economist of CSFB, an investment bank.
(Econ, 7/31/04, p.34)
2004 Aug 20, In Brazil 4
homeless men were bludgeoned to death and six were in critical
condition following early morning attacks by unknown assailants in
downtown streets of Sao Paulo.
2004 Aug 29, Closing ceremonies
were held in Athens, Greece, for the 28th Olympiad. During one of
the final events, lead marathon runner Vanderlie Lima of Brazil was
pushed into the crowd by an intruder, but managed to finish 3rd
behind Stefano Baldini of Italy.
(SFC, 8/30/04, p.D1)
2004 Aug 29, In Brazil an
overcrowded balcony collapsed inside a popular Sao Paulo nightclub
that featured male strippers, killing six people and injuring at
2004 Aug, An $11 billion merger
between Belgiumís Interbrew and Brazilís largest brewer AmBev formed
(Econ, 10/29/05, p.66)
2004 Aug, Brazil and Peru
inaugurated the construction of a $7 million bridge between Assis,
Brazil, and Inapari, Peru. It was part of a 2,500 mile Transoceanic
(SFC, 11/5/04, p.W1)(Econ, 3/26/05, p.40)
2004 Sep 22, In southern Brazil
a school bus swerved off a narrow road and plunged into a reservoir,
killing at least 16 children.
2004 Sep 23, In southern Brazil
seven teenagers were beaten to death and five others were injured in
a rebellion at a juvenile detention center.
2004 Sep 27, In Brazil a strike
by bank workers entered its 2nd full week.
(WSJ, 9/28/04, p.A20)
2004 Oct 3, The party of
Brazil's left-leaning president emerged stronger from nationwide
municipal elections but did not come in first in the Sao Paulo.
2004 Oct 9, In Brazil a member
of a government task force working to stop illegal diamond mining on
Indian reservations in the Amazon was shot dead at an ATM.
2004 Oct 14, In Brazil Pres. da
Silva signed an executive order permitting farmers to plant
genetically modified soybeans.
(SFC, 10/16/04, p.A3)
2004 Oct 17, Effective as of
today Brazil's air force will be allowed to shoot down small planes
suspected of carrying drugs under a law meant to stem the flow of
2004 Oct 24, Brazil launched
its 1st rocket into space.
(WSJ, 10/25/04, p.A1)
2004 Oct 31, In Brazil Pres.
Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva suffered major defeats in an electoral
test of his ruling party's influence. Silvaís PT Party won in 11 of
the 23 cities where it fielded candidates. Jose Serra won the
mayoral election in Sao Paulo over Marta Suplicy.
(AP, 11/1/04)(Econ, 1/29/05, p.35)
2004 Nov 5, Latin American
leaders wrapped up a two-day summit in Brazil with a pledge to help
rid Haiti of political violence and grinding poverty.
2004 Nov 20, In Brazil gunmen
raided the camp Terra Prometida and torched huts and crops in Minas
Gerais state. 5 victims were executed with shots at close range and
12 other people, including a child, were injured. In 2013 rancher
Adriano Chafik was sentenced to 115 years in prison for ordering and
taking part in the Massacre of Felisburgo.
2004 Nov 23, In Brazil
government data indicated that 47% of its rainforest was now
occupied by man or logged.
(WSJ, 11/24/04, p.A1)
2004 Nov 24, Paraguayan police
captured Ivan Mezquita, a leading Brazilian drug trafficking
suspect, after a gunbattle with occupants of a cocaine-laden plane
near the border with Brazil.
2004 Nov 25, Mohamed ElBaradei,
head of the UN nuclear watchdog IAEA, said a deal was reached with
Brazil on inspecting its uranium enrichment plant.
2004 Dec 12, The Brazilian
Democratic Movement Party (PMDB) decided to leave the ruling
coalition of Pres. Lula da Silva. The principals included 6 state
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.48)
2004 Dec 16, An apartment
building was inaugurated in Brazil, each of whose 11 storeys turned
independently, giving residents 360-degree views of the eco-friendly
city of Curitiba.
2004 Dec 20, A truck and a bus
collided head-on in northeastern Brazil, killing 19 people and
injuring 34 others.
2004 Dec 26, In Brazil an angry
mob destroyed police stations and a courthouse in two Amazon towns
while trying to lynch murder suspects. One man was killed during the
rioting and 44 people were arrested.
2004 Ruy Castro authored ďRio
de Janeiro: Carnival Under Fire.Ē
(SSFC, 8/15/04, p.M6)
2004 Peter Robb authored ďA
Death in Brazil: A Book of Omissions.Ē He explores Brazilís
ambiguous racial history with a focus on the rise and fall of Pres.
Fernando Collor de Mello.
(Econ, 5/8/04, p.79)(SSFC, 8/15/04, p.M6)
2004 Angus Wright and Wendy
Wolford authored ďTo Inherit the Earth: The Landless Movement and
the Struggle for a New Brazil.Ē
(Econ, 1/10/04, p.73)
2004 Brazilís Congress accused
Horacio Cartes of Paraguay of cigarette smuggling.
(Econ, 4/27/13, p.35)
2004 Brazilís public debt fell
to 52% of GDP from 57% in 2003.
(Econ, 2/5/05, p.36)
2005 Jan 1, Brazil was forecast
for 3.6% annual GDP growth with a population at 181.4 million and
GDP per head at $3,200.
(Econ, 1/8/05, p.92)
2005 Jan 19, Brazil raised its
reference lending rate for a 5th consecutive month by a half point
to 18.25% in an effort to curb inflation.
(WSJ, 1/20/05, p.A12)
2005 Jan 20, Brazilís central
bank said Brazil posted a current-account surplus of $11.7 billion
for 2004, its 2nd straight annual surplus.
(WSJ, 1/21/05, p.A7)
2005 Jan 26, The 5th annual
World Social Forum opened in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Activists from
some 4,000 non-governmental organizations and 112 countries gathered
under the theme ďAnother World Is Possible.Ē
(SFC, 1/29/05, p.A6)
2005 Jan 31, In Brazil leftist
activists opposed to the spread of American influence ended the
fifth World Social Forum with a protest against unfettered
capitalism and the war in Iraq.
2005 Feb 4, Brazilís annual
pre-Lenten Carnival got under way. It's long been an open secret
that Rio's annual samba parade is largely funded by the kingpins of
an illegal numbers game known here as the "jogo do bicho,"
Portuguese for animal game.
2005 Feb 12, In northern Brazil
Dorothy Stang (73), an American nun, was shot to death. She had
spent decades fighting efforts by loggers and large landowners to
expropriate lands and clear large areas of the Amazon rainforest. In
2006 Amair Feijoli da Cunha (38) pleaded guilty and said he offered
money to two gunmen to shoot nun, at the behest of ranchers
Vitalmiro Moura and Regivaldo Galvao. In 2008 A jury voted 5-2 to
acquit Vitalmiro Moura, one of two ranchers who allegedly ordered
the killing Stang. The acquittal was overturned on a technicality in
April, 2009. Moura and Galvao were convicted in 2010 and sentenced
to 30 years in prison.
(AP, 2/12/05)(WSJ, 2/14/05, p.A1)(AP,
4/27/06)(AP, 5/6/08)(AP, 5/1/10)
2005 Feb 15, Brazilís Chamber
of Deputies chose Severino Cavalcanti, a leader of Congressís ďlow
clergy,Ē as president. The position determines the agenda of
Congress and his selection was seen as a setback to Pres. da Silva
(Econ, 2/19/05, p.36)
2005 Feb 17, In Brazil Pres. Da
Silva signed decrees creating 2 new Amazon environmental protection
areas in a region of Para state coveted by soy farmers and ranchers
less than a week after an American nun was gunned down trying to
protect the jungle from deforestation.
(AP, 2/18/05)(SFC, 2/18/05, p.A14)
2005 Feb 25, Brazilís
government awarded a disputed patch of Amazon rainforest to a
sustainable development project championed by the slain American nun
2005 Feb 26, In Brazil Cleone
Santos and Magnaldo Santos, known as Negao, were taken into custody,
for aiding 2 gunmen who shot 73-year-old Dorothy Stang on Feb. 12.
2005 Mar 2, Brazil's lower
house of Congress overwhelmingly approved a law creating a framework
to legalize biotech seed sales for genetically modified crops.
2005 Mar 8, Brazilian
prosecutors formally charged four men in the death of a 73-year-old
American nun who worked to defend poor rainforest communities.
Rayfran Neves Salles was charged with firing the six shots that
killed Dorothy Stang. Clodoaldo Batista was charged as an
accomplice. Two other men, Amair Feijoli and Vitalmiro Moura, were
charged with homicide.
2005 Mar 13, In southern Brazil
a tourist-filled bus crashed into a logging truck, killing seven
people and injuring at least 20.
2005 Mar 27, In Brazil
Vitalmiro Moura, the rancher accused of ordering the killing of
American nun Dorothy Stang in the Amazon rainforest six weeks ago,
surrendered to police and declared his innocence.
2005 Mar 31, Severino
Cavalcanti, president of Brazilís lower house, forced the government
to withdraw a tax increase that would have fallen on professionals
(Econ, 4/9/05, p.29)
2005 Mar 31, In Brazil a
massacre in Nova Iguacu, outside of Rio, left 29 people dead. The
next day state officials said they might have been carried out by
police incensed by investigations of brutality and corruption by
"bad" cops. In 2006 a court convicted Carlos Jorge Carvalho (32) a
state police officer, of taking part in the Baixada massacre. In
2009 ex-officer Julio Cesar de Paula was sentenced to 480
years in prison and ex-officer Marcos Siqueira Costa to 543 years
for homicide and belonging to a criminal organization. The length of
the sentences was largely symbolic because under Brazilian law no
one can serve more than 30 years in prison.
(AP, 4/1/05)(SFC, 6/24/05, p.A16)(AP,
2005 Apr 2, Brazilian state
police detained 2 police officers in the Mar 31 shooting spree that
left 30 dead in Rioís north side.
(SSFC, 4/3/05, p.A9)
2005 Apr 4, In Brazil
authorities arrested 11 police suspected of participating in death
squad killings that left 30 people dead in two towns on Rio's poor
2005 Apr 5, In Brazil
authorities charged eight policemen with murder for the mar 31
death-squad killings that left 30 people dead on the outskirts of
2005 Apr 16, The Brazilian
government created "Raposa Serra do Sol" reserve in Roraima state,
which borders Venezuela and Guyana. The 1.7-million-hectare
(4.2-million-acre) reserve was set aside for the 15,000 people of
the Macuxi, Taurepang, Wapixana and Ingariko indigenous populations
that had demanded the territory for 30 years.
2005 Apr 20, Ecuadorís Congress
voted 60 to 0 to remove President Lucio Gutierrez from office amid
street protests calling for his ouster for abuse of power and
misrule. Brazil granted asylum to Gutierrez. Alfredo Palacio, a
heart surgeon and Ecuador's vice president, assumed the presidency.
(AP, 4/21/05)(SFC, 4/21/05, p.A3)
2005 May 2, Brazil posted a
record trade surplus for the month of April. During the month its
currency rose 5% against the dollar.
(WSJ, 5/3/05, p.A14)
2005 May 8, In Brazil top
government officials from the 11 South American nations and 22
Middle Eastern and North African countries attending the Summit of
South American-Arab Countries met ahead of the two-day summit's
opening on May 10.
2005 May 9, In Espertantina,
Brazil, Mayor Felipe Santolia (32) declared May 9 as an official
2005 May 12, Leaders from 12
South American and 22 Arab nations ended their first summit by
endorsing a "Declaration of Brasilia," urging Israel to abandon
Palestinian territory and insisting free trade must be harnessed to
benefit the world's poor.
2005 May 14, In Brazil more
than 12,000 landless farmers who have marched nearly 125 miles to
protest the slow pace of land reform reached the outskirts of
2005 May 16, In Brazil
thousands of landless farmers, organized as the Movement of Landless
Rural Workers (MST), swarmed into Brasilia.
(Econ, 5/21/05, p.39)
2005 May 16, In Brazil the
Indian rights group Survival International said logging companies
were cutting down the forest in the Rio Pardo area, about 1,400
miles northwest of Rio de Janeiro, despite repeated reports that
there were isolated Indians in the region.
2005 May 24, The environmental
group Greenpeace nominated President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva and
five others for its first "Golden Chainsaw" prize, to be awarded to
the Brazilian deemed to have contributed most to the Amazon's
2005 May 26, In Sao Paulo,
Brazil, at least 1.5 million evangelical Protestants rallied in the
heart of the financial district, demonstrating their growing clout
in the world's largest Roman Catholic country. "The purpose of this
march, and of all the other ones we have organized over the years,
is to conquer Brazil for Jesus Christ."
2005 May 28, It was reported
that American rancher John Cain Carter served as the driving force
behind Alianca da Terra, a Brazilian NGO promoting certification and
standards of good practice for ranchers and farmers.
(Econ, 5/28/05, p.68)
2005 May 29, In Brazil almost 2
million gay men, lesbians, transvestites and their supporters, many
in lavish Carnival costumes and waving rainbow-colored flags,
paraded in Sao Paulo to celebrate gay pride and call for the
legalization of civil unions between homosexuals.
2005 May 31, In Brazil
authorities ordered the slaughter of 17,000 chickens after 6,000
chickens died from a mysterious respiratory illness in Mato Grosso
do Sul state. Brazil is the world's largest chicken exporter.
2005 May, A ďBrazilian FrontĒ
for tax reform took to the streets and forced the government to
scrap planned new taxes. The Brazilian tax code contained over
55,000 articles and 63 separate levies.
(Econ, 7/30/05, p.35)
2005 May, Energy ministers from
Argentina, Brazil and Venezuela agreed to develop a field in
Venezuelaís heavy-oil belt in the Orinoco, a refinery in Brazilís
north-east and an oil and gas venture in Argentina under the name
(Econ, 7/30/05, p.33)
2005 Jun 2, Federal police
targeted Brazil's environmental protection agency in a crackdown on
illegal logging, arresting 48 officials and several independent
2005 Jun 2, In northeastern
Brazil a government bus carrying Indians from a health clinic went
out of control on a wet road and careened into a creek, killing at
least 19 people.
2005 Jun 3, In Brazil new
logging permits were suspended in Mato Grosso state where the rain
forest is being cleared at an ever increasing rate.
2005 Jun 7, Brazilís Pres. Luiz
Inacio Lula da Silva pledged to carry out a battle against
corruption that would reduce it to a "sad memory."
2005 Jun 8, In Brazil the top
financial officer for Pres. Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva's Workersí
Party denied paying off congressmen to keep the fragile governing
coalition alive, making a bid to contain political damage from an
alleged bribes-for-votes scandal. This came to be called the
mensalao (ďbig monthly stipendĒ) scandal.
(AP, 6/8/05)(Economist, 9/29/12, p.42)
2005 Jun 15, Blairo Maggi,
Brazilian soyabean magnate, governor of Mato Grosso, and winner of
this yearís Greenpeace ďgolden chainsawĒ award for deforestation,
refused to accept the award and slunk out through the back door of
the school he was visiting, to the taunting shouts of hundreds of
2005 Jun 16, In Brazil Chief of
Staff Jose Dirceu resigned over accusations he knew of a vote-buying
scheme in Congress, becoming the highest-ranking official hit by a
scandal that has shaken President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva's
(AP, 6/16/05)(Econ, 6/25/05, p.37)
2005 Jun 27, France, Germany,
Brazil and Chile called for a tax on airline tickets to help finance
the global fight against poverty.
2005 Jul 5, In Brazil a top
official of the ruling Workers' Party stepped down, the second ally
of President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva to resign this week amid new
allegations regarding a bribes-for-votes scandal.
2005 Jul 6, Brazilís Pres. Luiz
Inacio Lula da Silva named 3 cabinet ministers from a centrist party
to shore up support for his governing coalition, mired in charges of
buying votes in Congress.
2005 Jul 9, The leader of
Brazil's governing Workers Party stepped down, the third ally of
President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva to resign this week amid charges
of buying votes in Congress.
2005 Jul 11, Joao Batista Ramos
da Silva, a Brazilian congressman and an ordained minister of the
evangelical Christian Universal Church of the Kingdom of God, was
detained with 6 other people as they tried to board a private jet
with seven suitcases stuffed with cash. Ramos said the $2.6 million
in Brazilian reals was from tithes collected during religious
2005 Jul 11, It was reported
kidnappers in Brazil were targeting the mothers of top soccer
players with 5 mothers kidnapped in the last 7 months.
(SFC, 7/11/05, p.A1)
2005 Jul 12, In Brazil Luiz
Gushiken, Pres. Lulaís communications wizard, was stripped of
ministerial status following reports that his business partners had
been blessed with fat federal contracts.
(Econ, 7/16/05, p.33)
2005 Jul 21, In Brazil an
Indian rights group warned that wildcat miners who have entered the
Yanomami Indians' Amazon reservation have brought guns and diseases
that threaten the stone-age tribe. An estimated 500 prospectors have
invaded the reservation, which is rich in gold, magnesium and
2005 Jul 22, In London a man,
who appeared to be South Asian, was slain by officers at the
Stockwell subway station. Police said the man was challenged and
refused to obey instructions. The next day police identified the man
as Jean Charles de Menezes, a Brazilian electrician, and said he was
not related the bombings and expressed regret for his death. Menezes
was shot in the head 7 times.
(AP, 7/22/05)(AP, 7/23/05)(Econ, 7/22/06, p.18)
2005 Jul 23, The man shot at
the Stockwell subway station on July 22 was identified as Jean
Charles de Menezes (27) of Brazil. London police acknowledged that
Menezes had nothing to do with recent bombings on the cityís transit
system. Brazil's government demanded an explanation for the fatal
police shooting of a Brazilian citizen on a London subway car.
2005 Jul 25, In Gonzaga,
Brazil, hundreds of relatives and friends of Jean Charles de
Menezes, the Brazilian shot to death in London after being mistaken
for a terrorist, marched along the cobblestone streets of his
hometown, demanding the arrest of the British police who fired the
2005 Aug 1, In Brazil Rep.
Valdemar Costa Neto, president of the government-allied Liberal
Party resigned from Congress, the first lawmaker to step down in a
widening corruption scandal that has plagued the government of
President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva.
2005 Aug 6-2005 Aug 7, In Sao
Paulo, Brazil, thieves tunneled 260 feet to a Central Bank vault and
stole some $70 million, in what has been described as the biggest
such robbery ever in Brazil. On Feb 25, 2008, police arrested
Antonio Jussivan Alves dos Santos, the leader of the thieving
gang. In March he was sentenced to nearly 50 years in jail.
(AP, 8/8/05)(AP, 3/6/08)
2005 Aug 10, In Brazil
impeachment proceedings began against Rep. Jose Dirceu, a federal
legislator and a former top Cabinet official, in connection with a
bribery scandal that has rocked President Luiz Inacio da Silva's
2005 Aug 10, In Brazil
authorities said they had identified some of the Sao Paulo bank
heist thieves and were looking into the possibility the heist was
pulled off by the First Capital Command, one of Brazil's most
notorious organized crime groups.
2005 Aug 11, Brazilian police
said they recovered a small percentage of the currency stolen from
the Central Bank in one of the world's biggest heists. Brazil's
Central Bank released an official statement saying that the amount
stolen was $70 million, instead of the $67.8 million it reported
2005 Aug 12, Police detained
four men in connection with one of the world's biggest heists and
recovered more than $2 million of the $70 million stolen from
Brazil's Central Bank. The recovered cash was found hidden in 3
pickup trucks that were on a vehicle transporter truck located
several hundred miles from the Central Bank vault in Fortaleza. In
2008 police arrested Jossivam Alves dos Santos, the suspected leader
of the gang which carried out the heist. Less than $10 million of
the money has been recovered.
(AP, 8/13/05)(AP, 2/27/08)
2005 Aug 12, In Brazil Celio
Marcelo da Silva (32), a prison escapee believed to have
masterminded last year's abduction of the mother of a Brazilian
soccer star, was arrested. In 2003 da Silva tunneled his way out of
a Sao Paulo prison where he was serving a 38-year sentence for
murder and robbery.
2005 Aug 13, James Petersen
(51), a Univ. of Vermont anthropology professor on a research trip
to Brazil, was killed while he was being robbed in Iranduba near the
Amazon River. Three suspects were taken into custody.
2005 Aug 19, Antonio Palocci,
Brazilís finance minister, was accused of taking monthly payments
from a rubbish collection firm when he was mayor of Riberao Preta in
Sao Paulo state. The news caused speculators to dump Brazilian
bonds, shares and the real.
(Econ, 8/27/05, p.33)
2005 Aug 24, Brazilian police
arrested Francisco Antonio Cadena Collazzos, a Colombian man accused
of being an unofficial ambassador for Colombia's largest rebel
2005 Aug 24, Brazilian
officials said an 80-year-old woman filmed drug traffickers near her
Copacabana beach apartment for two years and delivered 22 films to
police, triggering a massive raid against a slum drug gang. Police
arrested 15 suspected traffickers, including two Rio de Janeiro
state police officers.
2005 Sep 2, A powerful storm
packing winds of up to 70 mph slammed into southern Brazil, killing
and least one person and injuring five others.
2005 Sep 6, In Brazil thousands
of anti-corruption demonstrators rallied in Sao Paulo, demanding
harsh punishment for politicians caught up in a bribery scandal
shaking the administration of President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva.
2005 Sep 9, The presidents of
Bolivia, Brazil and Peru inaugurated a $810 million highway project
to connect Brazil's Atlantic coast to Peru's Pacific ports before
the end of the decade.
2005 Sep 14, Brazilís police
arrested 43 people during raids on clandestine rings sneaking an
increasing number of Brazilians into the United States, Europe and
2005 Sep 16, In Brazil federal
prosecutors charged six men accused of stealing $70 million from
Brazil's Central Bank last August in one of the world's biggest bank
robberies. 3 men were arrested shortly after the robbery, and
another 3 were still at large.
2005 Sep 19, Brazil issued its
1st intíl. bond in its own currency. Brazilís export boom had driven
the real upwards against the dollar.
(Econ, 9/24/05, p.90)
2005 Sep 21, The speaker of
Brazil's lower house resigned amid charges he extorted bribes from a
local businessman, the latest casualty of corruption scandals that
have rocked Brazil's government.
2005 Sep 28, Brazilian police
recovered about $4.3 million of the $70 million stolen last month in
a heist from Brazil's Central Bank, making five arrests in one of
the world's biggest bank robberies.
2005 Sep 29, In Brazil an
Amazon River passenger ship crashed into two barges and sank,
leaving at least eight people dead and a dozen missing.
2005 Sep 30, South American
presidents committed themselves to establishing a continental free
trade zone. The South American summit was attended by the presidents
of Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay, Ecuador, Venezuela, Brazil and
2005 Sep 30, Olga de Alaketu
(80), the high priestess of one the oldest temples of the
Afro-Brazilian religion Condomble, was buried. She had died of
complications from diabetes. Alaketu presided over the Ile Maroia
Laji "terreiro," as Candomble temples are known, which was
established in 1636, making it one of the oldest in the coastal city
of Salvador da Bahia, where the religion is based.
2005 Oct 3, Bishop Luiz Flavio
Cappio (59), a Catholic bishop on a hunger strike to protest plans
to alter the course of a river to irrigate parts of Brazil's arid
northeast, said he was "ready to die" if the project goes forward.
Pres. Lula da Silva, who was born in one of the drought stricken
regions that would benefit from the altered course of the Sao
Francisco River, wrote the bishop a letter saying the $2 billion
project will help 18 million people in northeastern Brazil.
2005 Oct 3, Singer Emilinha
Borba (82), the queen of Brazil's golden age of radio, died of a
heart attack. In 1939, Borba recorded her first record, "Pirulito,"
or "Lollipop," launching her career as a radio singer. Between 1939
and 1964, Borba recorded over 200 songs.
2005 Oct 7, In Brazil former
security guard Deusimar Neves Queiroz, a suspect in one of the
world's biggest bank robberies, was arrested after his sister-in-law
tipped off police to his alleged involvement.
2005 Oct 9, The bullet-riddled
body of Luis Fernando Ribeiro (26), the suspected mastermind of a
$70 million heist from a branch of Brazil's Central Bank, was found
on an isolated road west of Rio de Janeiro. A document signed by
four state prosecutors was published Oct 21 in the Rio newspaper O
Globo saying there were signs police may have been involved in
Ribeiro's kidnapping and killing. Almost $63 million remained
2005 Oct 11, Authorities in
Brazil declared part of the Amazon River a disaster area after a
drought left the levels of parts of the river too low for
2005 Oct 13, Argentina and
Chile suspended imports of Brazilian meat, joining 28 other
countries with similar bans after an outbreak of foot-and-mouth
2005 Oct 18, Brazil's
government pledged $14 million for relief efforts in the Amazon
River basin, an area ravaged by the worst drought in decades.
2005 Oct 23, Brazilians struck
down a proposal to ban the sale of guns in a national referendum,
rejecting a bid to stem one of the world's highest firearm murder
rates.. Gun violence took the lives of about 39,000 people in Brazil
each year, more than any country in the world.
2005 Oct 27, A Brazilian
congressional panel voted overwhelmingly to submit former
presidential aide Jose Dirceu to impeachment proceedings over his
alleged involvement in a corruption scandal.
2005 Oct 31, In Brazil a man
accused of torturing and killing five people was killed in a Sao
Paulo shantytown gunfight with police who were trying to arrest him.
Celso Alencar dos Santos (33) and an accomplice allegedly killed
five members of the Yonekura family in September, when the family
returned to Brazil with thousands of dollars they had saved while
living for six years in Japan.
2005 Nov 14, Archbishop Geraldo
do Espirito Santo Avila (76), the head of the Brazilian Archdiocese
for the Military Services, died of cancer.
2005 Nov 17, In Brazil a
congressional investigation said it found no evidence of an alleged
2005 Nov 19, Brazil's president
ordered the intelligence service to make dictatorship-era documents
public by the end of the year.
2005 Nov 20, In Brazil TV da
Gente (Our TV), the 1st channel to be directed at Brazilís black
population, was launched.
(SSFC, 11/27/05, p.A21)
2005 Nov 30, Brazilsí
government said federal police are evicting settlers and loggers
from an Amazon area that experts believe is home to one of the
world's most isolated Indian tribes.
2005 Dec 1, Brazil's Congress
voted to expel Rep. Jose Dirceu (59), the president's former
chief-of-staff, and bar him from holding public office for 8 years
amid a corruption scandal that has rocked the government.
2005 Dec 1, Brazilian
authorities said they have arrested three more men suspected of
taking part in the August $70 million cash heist, and that a fourth
allegedly has been kidnapped.
2005 Dec 3, In Brazil the Greek
billionaire Athina Roussel Onassis (20) married Alvaro Afonso de
Miranda (32) a Brazilian Olympic equestrian in a palm-tree lined
estate in Sao Paulo.
2005 Dec 10, In Brazil Rayfran
das Neves Sales and Clodoaldo Carlos Batista were convicted of
killing Dorothy Stang, an American nun. Stang had spent decades
trying to save the Amazon rain forest. Prosecutor Esdon Cardoso said
the case would only be resolved when three other men accused in the
killing are convicted, including two ranchers accused of ordering
the killing. A third man has been charged with acting as a
go-between for the gunmen and the ranchers. The three are expected
to face trial some time next year.
2005 Dec 13, Brazilís finance
ministry said it would make a full repayment of its $15.5 billion
IMF debt over the next 2 years.
(Econ, 12/24/05, p.49)
2005 Dec 22, Brazil said it
will pay off its remaining $2.6 billion debt to the Paris Club in
(WSJ, 12/23/05, p.A13)
2005 Dec 25, In Brazil Djalma
Costa Ferreira (68) hit his wife, Benvinda Matos Costa, several
times with the sledgehammer following a Christmas party at the house
of one of their sons, because he believed she had cheated on him and
wanted to spend all his money. In 2010 he was convicted of murder
and sentenced to nearly 23 years in prison.
2005 Dec 27, Inmates at a
prison in Brazil's remote Amazon jungle held more than 200 people
hostage, demanding the return of their leader from another prison.
Authorities agreed to bring him back, but both sides remained at an
impasse, waiting for the other to make the first move.
2005 Dec 28, Rebellious inmates
at a prison in Brazil's remote Amazon jungle ended a four-day
uprising and released more than 200 hostages after authorities met
their principal demand by returning one of their leaders from
2005 Brazil opened a
peacekeeping school near Rio de Janeiro: the Centro de Instrucao de
Operacoes de Paz (CIOpPAZ).
(Econ, 9/25/10, p.52)
2005 Johan Eliasch (43),
Swedish-born English business executive, bought 400,000 acres around
Manicore, Brazil, in order to cut timber cutting operations and to
(WSJ, 4/7/07, p.A1)
2006 Jan 7, A study reported by
Brazilian media said more than 1,000 children have been living
underneath highway overpasses, inside tunnels and on city squares in
2006 Jan 7, In Haiti Brazilian
Lt. Gen. Urano Teixeira da Matta Bacellar, commander of UN
peacekeepers, was found dead in an apparent suicide in a room at the
Montana hotel in Port-au-Prince.
2006 Jan 23, Brazilian Gen.
Jose Elito Carvalho de Siqueira (59) took command of the UN
peacekeepers in Haiti, vowing to make the impoverished nation secure
for elections on Feb. 7.
2006 Jan 24, In Brazil
rebellious inmates ended a one-day prison uprising in the remote
jungle state of Rondonia that left four dead.
2006 Jan 27, In Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil, a sudden flood caused by heavy rains killed at least four
people in the underground parking garage of a shopping mall.
2006 Jan 29, Heavy rains in
Brazil led to the deaths of 12 people in Rio de Janeiro, including
six people killed when an underground shopping mall garage filled
2006 Jan, The presidents of
Venezuela, Argentina and Brazil met in Brazil and promised to come
up with the first set of preliminary studies in March for a $20
billion, 5,000-mile gas pipeline, stretching from Venezuela to
2006 Feb 4, In Sao Paulo,
Brazil, thousands of fans surged through security barriers at an
autograph session for a wildly popular Mexican band, leaving three
people crushed to death and 38 injured.
2006 Feb 7, Indians from Brazil
and four other South American countries called for the
"resurrection" of an Indian nation, the 250th anniversary of the
killing of a tribal chief by European soldiers.
2006 Feb 13, Brazilís President
Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva created two new national parks in the
Amazon rain forest and expanded another to protect an
environmentally sensitive region where the government plans a major
2006 Feb 14, In Porto Alegre,
Brazil, leaders and envoys from across Christianity opened their
most ambitious gathering in nearly a decade with a host of troubles
on their agenda, from the faith's many internal rifts to easing
discord with Islam, even as it deepens over cartoons depicting the
2006 Feb 18, In Brazil a
coalition of American churches sharply denounced the US-led war in
Iraq, accusing Washington of "raining down terror" and apologizing
to other nations for "the violence, degradation and poverty our
nation has sown." Christian leaders explored the question: Should
churches use their investment portfolios to protest Israeli policies
2006 Feb 24, Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil, began its yearly carnival. Officials expected some 600,000
tourists for this year's celebrations. Gunmen overpowered museum
security guards and stole four paintings by European masters, using
the cover of Rio's Carnival to make their getaway,
2006 Feb, The government of
Brazil exempted foreign buyers of reais denominated bonds from
(Econ, 2/25/06, p.78)
2006 Feb, Four works of art and
other objects, including paintings by Matisse, Picasso, Monet and
Dali, were stolen from the Museu Chacara do Ceu in Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil, by 4 armed men during Carnival. Local media estimated the
paintings' worth at around $50 million.
2006 Mar 3, In Brazil Jossiel
Conceicao dos Santos (22), a handyman, was convicted and sentenced
to 25 years in prison for killing an American couple. Todd and
Michelle Staheli were beaten to death in bed at home in an exclusive
Rio de Janeiro neighborhood on Nov. 30, 2003.
2006 Mar 3, In Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil, 10 assault rifles and a pistol were stolen from a barracks
by seven gunmen wearing army-issued camouflage gear and ninja masks.
The gunmen overpowered three guards, stole the weapons from a small
depot and sped away in at least two cars waiting outside the
2006 Mar 8, Brazilís central
bank dropped its benchmark interest rate by .75% to 16.5%.
(WSJ, 3/10/06, p.A15)
2006 Mar 8, In Brazil about
2,000 highly organized farm workers, mostly women, invaded a
plantation owned by a big paper and pulp company about 700 miles
south of Sao Paulo. They uprooted saplings and destroyed a
laboratory in an environmental rampage. Via Campesina said it
organized the invasion "to denounce the social and environmental
impact of the growing green desert created by eucalyptus
2006 Mar 13, Rana Abdel Rahim
Koleilat (39), a fugitive bank executive wanted for questioning in
the U.N. probe of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri's
assassination, was arrested in Brazil on an unrelated charge. She
offered officers up to $200,000 to release her and was arrested on a
charge of attempted bribery. In 2003 Koleilat made headlines in
Lebanon and Europe in connection with questions about her role in
the disappearance of $300 million from the private Medina Bank where
she worked. The funds' disappearance was the worst financial scandal
at a Lebanese bank since the country's 1975-90 civil war.
2006 Mar 14, In Brazil military
officials said weapons stolen from an army barracks have been found.
The theft triggered a massive search of Rio de Janeiro's crime
2006 Mar 22, In Brazil the US
Embassy said agents from the US Department of Homeland Security will
soon be helping Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay combat money
laundering and terrorism financing.
2006 Mar 27, Finance Minister
Antonio Palocci, the architect of Brazil's economic recovery and
market-friendly fiscal policy, resigned after becoming caught up in
a political scandal. His office was party to the illegal disclosure
of payments to a bank account belonging to a witness against him in
a corruption case.
(AP, 3/27/06)(Econ, 4/1/06, p.32)
2006 Mar 30, A Russian-American
crew and Marcos Pontes, Brazilís 1st astronaut, lifted off in a
Soyuz TMA-8 spacecraft to dock with the intíl. space station.
(SFC, 3/31/06, p.A3)
2006 Mar 31, A plane carrying
19 people crashed in a mountainous region outside Rio de Janeiro,
killing all aboard. A small LET 410 twin-engine plane belonging to
the local Team airline went missing about 20 minutes after leaving
the city of Macae.
2006 Apr 1, Cracking down on
visitors who come to Brazil for sex, police raided clubs in Natal
known for using call girls and strippers, detaining 118 foreigners
to discourage what authorities called "sexual tourism."
2006 Apr 1, A Soyuz capsule
docked with the international space station (ISS), bringing Brazil's
first astronaut, a new Russian-American crew and a fresh load of
supplies, equipment and experiments.
2006 Apr 5, A Brazilian
congressional investigative committee gave its final approval to a
report recommending prosecution of over 100 people linked to a
campaign finance and corruption scheme run by former members of the
governing Workers Party.
2006 Apr 9, Paulo Mendes da
Rocha, Brazilian architect, was named winner of the 2006 Pritzker
Architecture Prize. His work included the Brazilian Sculpture Museum
in Sao Paulo.
(SFC, 4/10/06, p.A2)
2006 Apr 9, A capsule carrying
a Russian, American and Brazilian landed in Kazakhstan following a
weeklong trip to the Intíl. Space Station.
(SSFC, 4/9/06, p.A3)
2006 Apr 12, In Brazil federal
prosecutors charged a former top presidential aide and dozens of
others with trying to bribe legislators into supporting Brazil's
2006 Apr 14, Miguel Reale (95),
widely considered one of the chief architects of Brazil's civil
code, died of a heart attack.
2006 Apr 24, In Rio de Janeiro
a law went into effect requiring ďwomen-onlyĒ cars on subway and
above ground trains.
(SSFC, 4/30/06, p.G2)
2006 Apr 24, The annual Goldman
Environmental Prizes were awarded in San Francisco. The winners
included Craig Williams (58) for helping to persuade Congress to
order the Defense Dept. to consider alternatives to incinerating
chemical weapons; Tarcisio Feitosa (35) of Brazil for his campaign
against rampant logging; Olya Melen (26) of Ukraine for her suits
forcing the government to scale back a large canal project impacting
wetlands; Yu Xiaogang (35) of China for his reports on damages
caused by new dams; Silas Siakor (36) of Liberia for his
documentation showing how logging was used to fund civil war; and
Anne Kajir of Papua New Guinea for her work to get reimbursements
from logging companies to peasants.
(WSJ, 4/24/06, p.B7)
2006 Apr 28, In Brazil police
charged Antonio Palocci, a former finance minister, with four
crimes, including money laundering. He was viewed as the architect
of Brazil's economic recovery.
2006 May 4, Brazilís President
Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva met with Argentinaís Pres. Nestor
Kirchner, Venezuelaís Pres. Chavez and Boliviaís Pres. Morales in
response to Boliviaís decision to nationalize its oil and gas
industry. Morales offered to refrain from cutting off supplies and
to negotiate prices.
(Econ, 5/13/06, p.43)
2006 May 12, Relations between
Brazil and Bolivia sank to their lowest point in a century, as the
two sparred over Bolivia's nationalization of its energy sector and
threats to seize Bolivian land held by Brazilian farmers.
2006 May 13, The presidents of
Brazil and Bolivia said they patched things up after days of
accusations and threats.
2006 May 13, One of Brazil's
most notorious gangs staged dozens of attacks on police before dawn,
setting off gunbattles in three cities that killed at least 30
people, officials said. 74 of 140 prison uprisings were reported
across Sao Paulo state. Authorities blamed the violence on the
prison-based gang, First Command of the Capital (PCC), which formed
in the aftermath of the 1992 massacre at Carandiru Penitentiary. It
was later reported that a recording of Congressional talks to
transfer gang leaders to a remote prison had been leaked to the PCC.
(AP, 5/13/06)(SFC, 5/16/06, p.A7)(SFC, 5/23/06,
p.A6)(Econ, 5/20/06, p.39)
2006 May 15, In Brazil prison
riots and attacks on police by a criminal gang extended into a 4th
day, raising the reported death toll to 70.
2006 May 16, In Brazil an
unprecedented crime wave, that killed at least 97 people and
terrified the 18 million residents of Sao Paulo, seemed to be waning
as stores reopened and bus service was fully restored. Police struck
back at gangs that rampaged through Sao Paulo, killing 33 suspected
gang members in less than 24 hours and frisking motorists at
roadblocks while reporting only one death of their own.
2006 May 16, Colombian-born
Pablo Rayo Montano, one of the world's most hunted drug traffickers
was arrested in Sao Paulo, Brazil, as part of an international
crackdown. He was accused of shipping more than 70 tons of cocaine
to the United States.
2006 May 17, In Brazil the body
count grew in Sao Paulo as police, who lost 41 comrades in gang
attacks, killed 22 more suspected criminals. Authorities said little
about the latest deaths, generating criticism from rights groups.
2006 May 20, In Brazil Sao
Paulo's government refused to release the names of 109 people killed
by police during a week of gangland violence, despite increased
pressure from activists who said public confidence in law
enforcement had been shaken.
2006 May 24, It was reported
that Google will shut down 6 sites on its Orkut service in Brazil in
response pressure from Brazilian law enforcement.
(SFC, 5/24/06, p.C3)
2006 May 30, A missionary group
said more than one-quarter of Brazil's isolated Indian tribes face
extinction unless the government defines their boundaries and gives
them control of their land.
2006 Jun 6, In Brasilia a melee
that erupted when hundreds of landless farmers demanding agrarian
reforms demonstrated at Brazil's Congress injured 20 people.
2006 Jun 7, In Brazil a
shootout between police and drug gangs in a Rio shantytown left 17
children injured, several hit by stray bullets even though their
teacher ordered them to lie down on the floor when the shooting
2006 Jun 9, In Brazil police
arrested 28 people suspected of operating an illegal logging ring in
the Amazon rain forest and were looking for 46 more. Some 300
officers in five states were involved in the operation to shut down
a gang accused of using phony permits to harvest rare tropical
2006 Jun 15, In Brazil some 3
million evangelical Protestants staged a huge rally in of Sao Paulo,
demonstrating their growing influence in the world's largest Roman
Catholic country. Brazil was nearly 100% Roman Catholic a century
ago, but the percentage dropped to 84% in 1995 and is 74% today.
2006 Jun 23, A bankruptcy judge
canceled the planned sale of Brazil's flagship Varig airline to a
workers' group, throwing the future of the carrier into limbo and
virtually ensuring more travel chaos ahead for ticket holders in
Brazil and abroad.
2006 Jun 24, Brazilís President
Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva announced his bid for a second term,
pledging to push harder to eradicate poverty in Latin America's
largest country if re-elected.
2006 Jun 26, In Brazil 12 men
and one woman were killed in a gunfight with police outside a prison
in Sao Bernardo do Campo, an industrial suburb on the outskirts of
Sao Paulo. Acting on orders from imprisoned PCC leaders, they had
planned to shoot as many as 60 guards from four lockups over a
10-day period as they headed to work or finished their shifts.
2006 Jun 27, In northeastern
Brazil a two-story abandoned building collapsed onto three houses
and a construction supply store in Recife, killing 7 people and
injuring 7 others.
2006 Jun 29, Brazil's Supreme
Court ordered the release of Regivaldo Pereira Galvao, a rancher who
had been jailed pending trial in connection with the killing last
year of American Nun Dorothy Stang.
2006 Jul 6, Brazilian police
broke up an international drug ring and arrested Luciano Geraldo
Daniel, a man suspected of being the country's top cocaine
2006 Jul 13, In Brazil gangs
torched buses and attacked banks and police stations across Sao
Paulo, deepening crime fears as a wave of rampant violence entered
its third day.
2006 Jul 27, A fire raged
through a rain forest along Brazil's eastern coastline, burning up
to 25,000 acres of trees.
2006 Jul 29, In Brazil about
$200,000 was found in a house in Natal, about 1,400 miles northeast
of Sao Paulo. Police were convinced the money was part of the $70
million stolen from the Central Bank in Fortaleza in Aug 2005. By
this time only $8 million was recovered.
2006 Aug 3, In Brazil officials
said authorities are evicting thousands of peasants who have been
ordered off ranches in northern Brazil by a court ruling obtained by
the land owners.
2006 Aug 7, In Brazil suspected
PCC gang members in the pre-dawn hours attacked 78 symbols of
government and businesses across Sao Paulo state, many in the city
itself. Police killed two suspects after they allegedly opened fire
on a gas station, torched a bus and tried to flee in a car as
officers chased them. This marked the third time in four months that
the gang has unleashed its fury on the streets to oppose the prison
transfer of its leaders.
2006 Aug 9, In Brazil suspected
gang members threw homemade bombs, sent banks on fire, and torched
buses in the region and two other cities overnight in Sao Paulo
state. In Rio de Janeiro gunbattles between gangs vying for control
of the city's lucrative drug trade have resulted in the deaths of 19
people since Aug 6.
2006 Aug 9, Brazilís
environment ministry said police had arrested 46 people, including
16 agents of the federal environmental protection agency, for
allegedly operating illegal logging operations in the Amazon
rainforest and in southern Brazil.
2006 Aug 10, A Brazilian
congressional committee approved a report recommending the expulsion
of 72 federal lawmakers from Congress on charges of participating in
a nation-wide plan to divert funds from the countryís health-care
(WSJ, 8/11/06, p.A5)
2006 Aug 11, In Brazil
officials said police had arrested 30 businessmen, government
officials and soldiers accused of taking part in a scheme to net
millions of dollars by over-billing for meals in the military and at
2006 Aug 14, In Brazil
Guilherme Portanova (30), a kidnapped television reporter, was freed
after Globo met the gang's demand to broadcast a video calling for
improvements in Brazil's troubled prison system. In Rio de Janeiro
Andres Costa Ramos Bordalo was stabbed to death by an assailant who
stole his knapsack on Copacabana beach. Police stepped up patrols
but at least 22 tourists were robbed during the week.
(AP, 8/14/06)(AP, 8/19/06)
2006 Aug 16, Alfredo Stroessner
(93), the anti-communist general who ruled Paraguay with a blend of
force, guile and patronage for 35 years before his ouster in 1989,
died in exile in Brazil.
2006 Aug 25, Officials said
drug users who don't engage in dealing will no longer be sent to
prison under a new drug law now in effect across Brazil.
2006 Aug 27, In Brazil
archbishop Luciano Mendes de Almeida (75), an avid human rights
2006 Aug 30, Brazilís central
bank cut its key interest rate 0.5% to 14.25%, a quarter point more
than had been expected. Brazil also released weaker-than-expected
data on GDP.
(WSJ, 9/1/06, p.A8)
2006 Sep 1, Brazil pressured
Google to turn over data from Web sites that the government said
were used by criminals. Authorities gave Google 15 days to comply or
face a daily fine of $23,000.
(SFC, 9/2/06, p.C1)
2006 Sep 9, In Brazil Ubiratan
Guimaraes, the police colonel accused of ordering a 1992 jail
massacre of more than 100 inmates, was shot dead in his apartment in
2006 Sep 10, In Brazil
international trade officials sought to strike a positive tone at
the end of a two-day meeting aimed at restarting negotiations for
the stalled World Trade Organization's Doha Round. The talks were
billed as a High Level Meeting of the Group of 20 (G20) developing
nations, but they represented the first time nearly all the parties
involved have come together since the Doha talks were suspended.
2006 Sep 13, The presidents of
Brazil and South Africa, at a trilateral trade meeting in Brasilia,
said they supported changes in international rules to allow India to
buy nuclear fuel and reactors from the United States and other
countries. The trio created the India-Brazil-South Africa Dialogue
Forum (IBSA) in 2003 to promote the interests of their emerging
(Reuters, 9/13/06)(AFP, 9/14/06)
2006 Sep 24, Inco, one of
Canadaís two largest mining companies, agreed to be acquired by
Companhia Vale do Rio Doce of Brazil for $17.8 billion.
2006 Sep 26, In Brazil
officials said Rio will spend $1 million to map two sprawling
shantytowns as the first step toward granting land titles to
residents who otherwise have no property rights in the sprawling
2006 Sep 29, A Brazilian
jetliner, Gol airlines Flight 1907, with 155 people aboard crashed
in the Amazon jungle after reportedly colliding with a smaller
ExcelAire executive jet carrying 16 passengers. The Legacy jet
stabilized after the apparent collision and then landed at a
Brazilian air force base in the Amazon state of Para. It was later
reported that the US executive jet was at the wrong altitude and
Brazil confiscated the passports of the pilots. In November it was
reported that the flight recorder transcript from the executive jet
involved in the air disaster showed that the jet's American pilots
were told by Brazilian air traffic control to fly at the same
altitude as a Boeing 737 before the planes collided over the Amazon
rainforest. Pilots Joseph Lepore (42), of Bay Shore, N.Y., and Jan
Paladino (34), of Westhampton Beach, N.Y., were allowed to return to
the US on Dec 8 after signing a document promising to return to
Brazil for their trial or when required by local authorities. In
2010 Air force Sgt. Jomarcelo Fernandes dos Santos was sentenced to
14 months in jail for failing to take action when he saw that the
Legacy's anti-collision system had been turned off. In 2011 the
American pilots were sentenced to four years of unspecified
community service in the USA. On May 19 air traffic controller
Lucivando de Alencar was convicted of endangering air safety and
sentenced to three years and four months of community service.
(AP, 9/30/06)(AP, 10/1/06)(WSJ, 10/5/06,
p.A1)(AP, 11/2/06)(AP, 10/27/10)(AP, 5/17/11)(AP, 5/19/11)
2006 Oct 1, Brazil held
elections. Brazil voted for president, the lower house of Congress,
a third of the Senate and all state governors and legislatures.
Voter outrage over alleged corruption and dirty tricks left Pres.
Silva facing a tough runoff for a 2nd term after Geraldo Alckmin,
his main rival, staged a surprise comeback. Silva got 48.6% compared
to 41.6% for Alckmin, the former governor of Sao Paulo state. Silva
had seemed assured of a first-round victory until two weeks ago when
Worker Party operatives were caught allegedly trying to pay $770,000
in cash for information to incriminate Alckmin's Social Democracy
Party. The target of the alleged smear campaign was Jose Serra, an
Alckmin ally who won the race to become Sao Paulo state's next
governor, handily beating the Workers' Party candidate. Electoral
officials said former President Fernando Collor de Mello, forced
from office in a corruption scandal in 1992 and barred from politics
for eight years, has won a seat in Brazil's Senate.
(AP, 10/2/06)(AP, 10/3/06)(Econ, 9/30/06,
2006 Oct 4, In Sao Paulo,
Brazil, court officials said 14 workers at a juvenile detention
center were convicted and sentenced to up to 87 years in prison for
beating inmates with iron bars and wood to find out who organized an
escape attempt in 2000.
2006 Oct 5, In Brazil
environmentalist Eduardo Veado (46) and his wife, Simone Furtini
Abras (41) died after being run over as they walked along a country
road in Minas Gerais state. Veado had received death threats for
denouncing illegal logging around the town of Ipanema.
2006 Oct 13, In Brazil a small
private plane with six people aboard went missing after losing
contact with air traffic controllers in Vitoria.
2006 Oct 17, In Brazil some 200
Indians from the Xikrin tribe, wielding war clubs and bows and
arrows, stormed an Amazon mining complex at the company town of
Carajas, shutting it down in an apparent demand for more
compensation from CVRD, the world's largest iron ore miner. The
Indians left after 2 days.
(AP, 10/18/06)(AP, 10/19/06)
2006 Oct 19, In Brazil Judge
Luiz Noronha Dantas handed down a 52-year sentence on four homicide
counts and stripped Capt. Marcos Duarte Ramalho of his status as a
police officer. Ramalho was the third police officer to stand trial
and the first to be convicted in connection with the April 16, 2003,
killings in the Borel shantytown on Rio's poor north side. Two more
officers are set to stand trial for the killings.
2006 Oct 29, Brazilís President
Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva (61) won a landslide victory giving him a
powerful mandate to press his anti-poverty campaign, but corruption
scandals dogged his leftist party and thinner support in Congress
could mar his second term. Lulaís Workerís Party (PT) won 5 of the
27 state governorships.
(AP, 10/29/06)(AP, 10/30/06)(Econ, 11/4/06, p.46)
2006 Nov 5, Marilson Gomes dos
Santos of Brazil won the NYC Marathon in 2:09:58. Jelena Prokopcuka
of Latvia won the womenís race for the 2nd year in a row in 2:25:05.
(WSJ, 11/6/06, p.A1)
2006 Nov 14, In Brazil Ana
Carolina Reston (21), an anorexic model who weighed only 88 pounds,
died of generalized infection. Reston had worked in China, Turkey,
Mexico and Japan for several modeling agencies.
2006 Nov 25, A group of 18
English tourists was robbed by heavily armed gunmen shortly after
arriving in Rio de Janeiro for vacation. Last month, gunmen attacked
a bus carrying Chinese tourists and robbed them of $17,000.
2006 Dec 5, In Brazil a court
said it had released the passports of two US pilots of a private jet
involved in a collision with a Boeing 737 over the Amazon that
killed 154 people.
2006 Dec 12, In southeastern
Brazil a couple and their 5-year-old son were tied up, locked in
their car and burned to death during a robbery.
2006 Dec 15, In Brazil 5 Rio de
Janeiro state police officers, most from one of the city's most
violent neighborhoods, were arrested as they arrived at work as part
of a probe into drug trafficking.
2006 Dec 22, President Luiz
Inacio Lula da Silva called in the Brazilian air force to help
transport airline passengers on an emergency basis as long delays
and overbooked planes snarled commercial flights over the busy
2006 Dec 23, In Brazil El Al
Yoram (35), an Israeli man known as the "King of Ecstasy" and
alleged to be one of the world's foremost traffickers of the drug,
was arrested in Rio de Janeiro. Yoram left the US in 2004 and had
been hiding in Uruguay, where he was arrested in 2005 but fled from
2006 Dec 27, Brazilian
travelers incensed about an overbooked flight stormed a runway to
prevent a commercial jet from taking off. A tourism industry leader
said two months of chronic flight delays have been a "disaster" for
2006 Dec 28, In Brazil at least
18 people were killed in gang attacks on buses and police posts in
Rio de Janeiro.
2006 Dec 30, In Brazil Rio
police killed six suspected criminals as authorities vowed to
restore order ahead of a huge New Year's Eve bash on Copacabana
Beach, deploying officers across the city two days after
gang-initiated violence left 19 dead.
2006 Dec, Brazilís government
agreed to spend $3 million on a bridge to Guyana over the Takutu
River. An attempt 5 years earlier had failed over financial
(Econ, 1/13/07, p.36)
2006 Dec, In Brazil a gold rush
began in the Amazon jungle after Ivani Valentin da Silva, a math
teacher in Apui, posted pictures and stories of Eldorado do Juma on
2006 Brazilís former Pres.
Fernando Henrique Cardoso authored ďThe Accidental President of
Brazil: A MemoirĒ
(WSJ, 4/6/06, p.D8)(Econ, 4/8/06, p.81)
2006 A Brazilian nuclear
enrichment plant run by Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. was
expected to open bringing Brazil into the worldís nuclear elite
(SFC, 4/21/06, p.A11)
2006 Foreign ministers of
Brazil, Russia, India and China began annual meetings as a group. In
2001 Jim OíNeill of Goldman Sachs coined the acronym BRIC to
describe these 4 developing countries.
2007 Jan 1, In Brazil Sergio
Cabral took office as governor of the state of Rio de Janeiro. The
stateís economy was valued at around $130 billion, about the same as
that of Venezuela.
(Econ, 1/20/07, p.50)
2007 Jan 2, In Brazil an
explosion in Sao Paulo ripped through a state police warehouse used
to store guns and ammunition, killing one officer and injuring five.
2007 Jan 6, In southeastern
Brazil officials said mudslides and flash floods triggered by
torrential downpours killed at least 31 people and drove thousands
from their homes during the past five days.
2007 Jan 11, Brazilian
prosecutors sought the extradition of two church leaders arrested in
the United States on money smuggling charges.
2007 Jan 18, South America's
most prominent leaders met in Rio for a two-day summit of the
fractured Mercosur economic bloc. Leaders sought to refocus Mercosur
on the needs of the region's poor as Venezuela's outspoken president
called for remaking Mercosur to fit his vision of "21st century
2007 Jan 20, Anselmo Oliveira
Magalhaes (32), a man accused of helping steal more than $70 million
in cash from a branch of Brazil's central bank in 2005, was found
dead with a broken neck and his hands and feet tied inside a 75-foot
well at a ranch in Santa Izabel. The bodies of two other men were
found in the well, but it wasn't immediately clear whether they had
any connection to the bank heist.
2007 Jan 22, Brazilís
government announced a growth acceleration package.
(Econ, 1/27/07, p.34)
2007 Jan 23, Brazil said it had
requested the US extradite two leaders of an evangelical church
(Reborn in Christ) who allegedly used their followers' donations to
buy mansions, a horse farm and apartments in Brazil and the US.
Estevam Hernandes Filho (52) and his wife, Sonia Haddad Moraes
Hernandes (48) were arrested by US customs agents in Miami earlier
this month on charges of carrying a large sum of undeclared cash.
The couple was sentenced to five months in prison, five months of
house arrest and a probation period for failing to declare they were
carrying more than $10,000 into the United States. They were also
fined $60,000. Both returned to Brazil on Aug 1, 2009.
(AP, 1/24/07)(AP, 8/2/09)
2007 Jan, In Brazil the Mato
Grosso do Sul state government stopped distributing food baskets to
some 11,000 Guarani-Kaiowa Indians on the Dourados reservation,
about 800 miles west of Rio de Janeiro when a new government was
elected. The suspension worsened malnutrition among thousands of
Indians, and at least two young children died.
2007 Feb 6, In Sao Paulo,
Brazil, suspected gang members torched 3 buses and shot at police,
raising concerns the violence could mushroom into a repeat of last
year's crime wave.
2007 Feb 7, A twin-engine plane
crashed in Brazilís Amazon jungle, killing all six people aboard.
2007 Feb 13, In Brazil 2
students, who endured more than 60 hours without food and water,
were rescued after being robbed and thrown into an abandoned well.
Police entered a Rio slum and clashed with drug gangs in shootouts
that killed six people, including at least four suspected gang
2007 Feb 14, Brazilís President
Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva and Bolivian President Evo Morales reached
a deal late on how much Brazil will pay for Bolivian natural gas,
apparently resolving an issue that has deeply divided the
neighboring nations for a year.
2007 Feb 14, In Brazil violence
cast a shadow over Rio's famed Carnival when gunmen killed Guaracy
Paes Falcao (42), a leader of one of the premiere samba band groups.
Falcao was with an unidentified woman who was also shot dead.
2007 Feb 17, In Rio de Janeiro
the Black Ball band, which has played carnival since 1918, opened
the first full day of Carnival.
2007 Feb 25, In Brazil gunmen
killed five people in a Sao Paulo slum in what police suspect was a
drug-related crime, bringing to 21 the death toll from attacks this
month in South America's biggest city.
2007 Feb 26, In Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil, the concrete awning of a hotel in the Copacabana beach
district collapsed, killing two people and injuring six.
2007 Feb 26, Coordinated
international efforts led to the capture in Brazil of Manuel Juan
Cordero (67) a retired Uruguayan colonel wanted in "dirty war"
probes in both Argentina and Uruguay. He was detained in Santana do
Livramento, a town near the Uruguayan border where he was living.
2007 Feb 27, In Brazil 3 French
nationals who ran a nonprofit group that helps poor children were
stabbed to death at their headquarters near Rio's Copacabana beach
and authorities arrested three suspects. The slayings that left one
of the victims decapitated were part of a botched scheme to protect
a Brazilian accountant, Tarsio Wilson Ramires (25), accused of
stealing money from the group.
2007 Feb, In Brazil 21
political parties were represented in the 513-seat Congress.
(Econ, 2/10/07, p.36)
2007 Mar 1, In Brazil Slovenian
Martin Strel approached the halfway point of his attempt to swim the
entire length of the Amazon river, trying to avoid severe burns,
alligators and the dreaded bloodsucking toothpick fish.
2007 Mar 2, Brazilian police
arrested 18 people accused of allowing illegal logging in the Amazon
rain forest and were searching for 19 others, including
environmental protection agents.
2007 Mar 3, In Brazil gunmen
killed five people in Rio de Janeiro's poor outskirts in an attack
blamed on rival drug gangs.
2007 Mar 5, In Brazil Bishop
Ivo Lorscheiter (79), a prominent critic of the former military
regime, died in Santa Maria. Lorscheiter, a leading advocate of
liberation theology, had also squared off with the Vatican over his
2007 Mar 8, President Bush
opened a weeklong tour of Latin America in Brazil. Police clashed
with students, environmentalists and left-leaning Brazilians
protesting Bushís visit and his push for an ethanol energy alliance.
Local news media said at least 18 people were hurt and news
photographs showed injured people being carried away.
(AP, 3/8/07)(AP, 3/9/07)
2007 Mar 9, President Bush
heralded a new ethanol agreement with Brazil as a way to boost
alternative fuels production across the Americas. One roadblock in
the Bush-Silva ethanol talks is a 54-cent tariff the United States
has imposed on every gallon of ethanol imported from Brazil. Bush
said it's not up for discussion.
2007 Mar 13, Brazil announced
that it will build a wall on a small portion of its border with
Paraguay in an effort to combat contraband and smuggling.
2007 Mar 14, In Brazil a
twin-engine plane was carrying $2.6 million worth of Brazilian reals
crashed near the city of Salvador. Locals made off with bags of cash
before rescuers arrived on the scene.
2007 Mar 18, Officials said
Cesare Battisti, a former Italian communist revolutionary who went
into hiding in France two and a half years ago, was arrested in
Brazil. In 1993 the former revolutionary was given a life sentence
by an Italian court for his role in four murders committed in 1978
2007 Mar 19, Brazil's airlines
were trying to make up for lengthy flight delays after its troubled
air traffic control system failed over the weekend.
2007 Mar 23, Brazil's
environmental agency approved a $2 billion project to shift the
course of a major river in Brazil, a plan bitterly opposed by
environmentalists. The Sao Francisco River project is meant to
benefit some 12 million poor people by allowing large sections of
the country's arid northeast to be irrigated.
2007 Mar 23, A Brazilian
housewife was convicted and sentenced to 19 years in prison for
killing her husband, chopping his body into small pieces and frying
it. Rosanita Nery dos Santos (52) drugged her husband in his sleep,
then stabbed him to death two years ago in Salvador, about 900 miles
northeast of Sao Paulo.
2007 Mar 29, Brazil's
government said it will provide free Internet access to native
Indian tribes in the Amazon in an effort to help protect the world's
biggest rain forest. The environment and communications ministers
signed an agreement with the Forest People's Network to provide an
Internet signal by satellite to 150 communities.
2007 Mar 30, A protest by air
traffic controllers forced the suspension of flights from Brazilian
airports, stranding thousands of travelers across the country.
2007 Mar 31, In Brazil air
traffic controllers protesting working conditions ended their
one-day strike after the government agreed to their demands.
2007 Apr 7, In Brazil Martin
Strel, a 52-year-old Slovenian, completed a 3,272 swim down the
Amazon River that could set a world record for distance. In 2000, he
completed an 1,866-mile swim along the Danube. He broke that record
two years later after swimming 2,360 miles down the Mississippi. In
2004 he broke it again by swimming 2,487 miles along the Yangtze
river in China.
2007 Apr 10, Diabetes
scientists reported that 15 Type 1 Brazilians did not need insulin
shots after therapy with stem cells from their own blood. It was
also reported that such stem cells helped repair heart damage due to
Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, carried
by kissing bugs (barbeiros).
(WSJ, 4/11/07, p.A1)
2007 Apr 11, In Brazil Gov.
Sergio Cabral Filho formally requested that the army intervene to
contain the violence that has been spiraling out of control in Rio
2007 Apr 12, Brazilian police
broke up a gang accused of killing hundreds of people over several
years, arresting 18 suspects and searching for 10 others. The gang,
made up of police officers, hired guns and businessmen, had carried
out up to 200 killings a year over the past five years, most of them
linked to loan sharking.
2007 Apr 13, Federal police in
Brazil arrested the chief organizer of Rio's carnival parade, a
federal judge and a prosecutor in a crack-down on illegal gaming and
2007 Apr 14, Thousands of
landless workers invaded government property in Brazil's arid
northeast to try to stop a controversial river-diversion project.
About 7,500 people invaded plots of government-owned land near
Petrolina, 1,360 miles north of Sao Paulo in Pernambuco state.
2007 Apr 14, The population of
Brazil numbered about 188 million people.
(Econ, 4/14/07, SR p.3)
2007 Apr 16, Indians from
across Brazil pitched black plastic tents in front of government
buildings to demand that officials discuss with them infrastructure
projects they claim could have a negative impact on their ancestral
2007 Apr 17, In Brazil
shootouts involving drug gangs and police in Rio left at least 20
alleged gang members dead.
2007 Apr 29, Octavio Frias de
Oliveira (94), who published Brazil's biggest newspaper and Web site
and helped modernize the country's media, died of kidney failure.
2007 May 4, Brazilís Pres. Lula
da Silva issued a license allowing Brazil to buy or produce a cheap
generic version of AIDS drug efavirenz, bypassing Merckís patent.
The compulsory licensing for efavirenz will allow Brazil to import
unbranded copies at a quarter of current prices while paying Merck a
(WSJ, 5/5/07, p.A1)(Econ, 5/12/07, p.42)
2007 May 6, In Brazil Eneas
Carneiro (68), a three-time presidential candidate who was later
elected to Congress with the largest number of votes ever received
by a Brazilian lawmaker, died of leukemia.
2007 May 9, Police in Brazil
and Norway detained at least 25 people in simultaneous raids on
suspected criminal gangs, seeking evidence of money laundering.
2007 May 9, Pope Benedict XVI
departed for a 5-day visit to Brazil, as evangelical Christians
packed converted storefronts and cavernous churches every Sunday.
Benedict gave his first full-fledged news conference since becoming
pontiff in 2005. When a reporter pressed Benedict on whether he
agreed that Catholic politicians who recently legalized abortion in
Mexico City should rightfully be considered excommunicated, the
response was "Yes."
(AP, 5/9/07)(AP, 5/10/07)
2007 May 10, In Brazil Pope
Benedict XVI reaffirmed the Roman Catholic Church's opposition to
abortion in his first speech but avoided further suggestion that
politicians who support abortion rights should be considered
2007 May 11, In Sao Paulo Pope
Benedict XVI canonized Antonio de Sant'Anna Galvao (d.1822), an
18th-century Franciscan monk, as Brazil's first native-born saint.
Friar Galvao began a tradition among Brazilian Catholics of handing
out tiny rice-paper pills, inscribed with a Latin prayer, to people
seeking cures for all manner of ailments.
2007 May 13, Pope Benedict XVI
held an inaugural mass for the 5th conference of bishops from Latin
America and the Caribbean. This brought together 166 bishops to
discuss the church's situation in the region, home to nearly half of
the world's 1.1 billion Catholics.
(Econ, 5/5/07, p.47)(AFP, 5/13/07)
2007 May 14, Pope Benedict XVI
returned to Rome after telling Brazilians a growing rich-poor gap is
to be lamented, but that the solution isnít Marxism.
(WSJ, 5/15/07, p.A1)
2007 May 15, President Luiz
Inacio Lula da Silva said Brazil will push to improve working
conditions for sugarcane cutters who harvest most of the cane that
is turned into ethanol for the nation's booming biofuel industry. A
jury voted 5-2 to convict rancher Vitalmiro Bastos de Moura of
masterminding the shooting of 73-year-old Dorothy Stang, an American
nun and rain forest defender on Feb. 12, 2005, in a case seen as an
important test of justice in the largely lawless Amazon region. This
ruling was overturned in 2008 after the man who confessed to
shooting Stang recanted earlier testimony, insisting that he'd acted
alone. Gunman Rayfran das Neves Sales was sentenced to 28 years in
prison. In 2009 Para state's top court reversed the 2008 not-guilty
verdict for Vitalmiro Moura on a technicality.
(AP, 5/15/07)(AP, 4/7/09)
2007 May 21, Paraguayan
President Nicanor Duarte and Brazil's Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva met
in Paraguay's capital, Asuncion, and vowed to boost legitimate trade
and to strengthen cross-border cooperation in fighting smuggling in
the Triple Border.
2007 May 22, Silas Rondeau,
Brazil's mines and energy minister, resigned amid accusations he was
bribed by a construction company that obtained contracts to provide
electricity to poor rural areas in a program championed by the
nation's first working class president.
2007 May 28, In Brazil Pres.
Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva unveiled a program to provide cheap birth
control pills at 10,000 drug stores across the country.
2007 May 29, Brazilian Senate
President Renan Calheiros said that he won't resign over accusations
he accepted payoffs from one of the country's top construction
2007 Jun 1, In a key legal step
toward assigning blame for Brazil's deadliest plane crash, two US
pilots and four Brazilian air traffic controllers were indicted on
charges equivalent to involuntary manslaughter for the Sep 29, 2006,
mid-air collision that killed 154 people.
2007 Jun 1, In Brazil federal
authorities said an Indian tribe that has had very limited contact
with the outside world, has been located in a remote Amazon region.
The Metyktire, a subgroup of the Kayapo tribe, consisted of some 87
2007 Jun 1, Marly de Oliveira
(69), the Brazilian poet who wrote the award-winning volume "O Mar
de Permeio" (The Sea Between Us), died in Rio de Janeiro.
2007 Jun 4, Brazilís President
Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva said that rich nations should pay poorer
countries to preserve their forests because the rich are responsible
for most of the world's greenhouse gas emissions. Police formally
accused a brother of President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva of
influence peddling after a nationwide crackdown on illegal gambling.
About 600 Federal Police agents took part in the raids carrying 87
arrest warrants and another 50 search and seizure warrants in six
states as part of Operation Razor, an investigation into fraudulent
public works (www.brazzilmag.com/content/view/8320/54/).
2007 Jun 4, Emerging economic
powers India and Brazil pledged to increase bilateral trade
four-fold to 10 billion dollars in the next three years.
2007 Jun 5, The governor of
Brazil's Amazon state signed into law legislation aimed at curbing
global warming in an area bigger than France and Spain combined.
2007 Jun 10, In Brazil millions
of people packed the streets of Sao Paulo for what organizers said
was the world's largest gay pride parade, dancing and waving rainbow
flags in a carnival-like atmosphere to condemn homophobia, racism
2007 Jun 15, In Brazil Marc Van
Roosmalen was convicted of trying to illegally auction off the names
of monkey species, keeping rare monkeys at his house without
authorization and selling a scaffolding donated to the National
Institute for Amazon Research where he worked. He was sentenced to
15 years and nine months in a prison. Roosmalen has claimed in media
reports that he was framed by powerful logging and ranching
interests that operate in the Amazon. In August Roosmalen was
ordered released pending an appeal.
2007 Jun 22, Brazilís
government sacked 14 air controllers in response to go-slow actions
that contributed to chaos at Brazilís airports.
(Econ, 6/30/07, p.43)
2007 Jun 27, In Brazil police
backed by helicopters raided Rioís notorious Alemao shantytown and
killed 19 suspected drug traffickers in pitched gunbattles.
(AP, 6/28/07)(Econ, 8/4/07, p.34)
2007 Jun 28, Federal
authorities in Brazil arrested 10 Brazilians accused of luring South
American women to Spain and forcing them into prostitution.
2007 Jun 29, Brazilian
authorities began a 3-day raid an Amazon plantation where more than
1,000 laborers were found working 13-hour days, in horrendous
conditions, cutting sugar cane for ethanol production.
2007 Jun 29, Mercosur, South
Americaís biggest trade block (Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay,
Uruguay), held a presidential summit in Asuncion, Paraguay.
(Econ, 7/7/07, p.40)
2007 Jul 4, On the historic
occasion of their first summit, the EU and Brazil decided to
establish a comprehensive strategic partnership, based on their
close historical, cultural and economic ties. Brazil and EU leaders
met in Lisbon, Portugal.
2007 Jul 7, A global poll
picked the Great Wall of China, Rome's Colosseum, India's Taj Mahal,
Peruís Macchu Picchu, Jordanís Petra, Brazil's Statue of Christ
Redeemer and Mexico's Chichen Itza pyramid as the new seven wonders
of the world. The campaign to name the new wonders was launched in
1999 by the Swiss adventurer Bernard Weber.
2007 Jul 10, President Luiz
Inacio Lula da Silva said that Brazil will budget about $540 million
over eight years to complete its nuclear program, including uranium
enrichment and possibly building a nuclear-powered submarine.
2007 Jul 12, HM Capital
Partners LLC, a leading, Dallas-based private equity firm, and Booth
Creek Management Corporation sold Swift & Company to Brazilís
JBS Friboi S.A., the largest beef processor in South America and one
of the largest worldwide beef exporters. Swift was the 3rd largest
processor of beef and pork in America and the biggest processor of
beef in Australia.
2007 Jul 13, A court in Brazil
issued an arrest warrant for self-exiled Russian tycoon Boris
Berezovsky on charges of money-laundering, but he denied any
involvement. The case dates back to 2004, when MSI spent millions of
dollars acquiring new players, which raised the interest of Sao
Paulo state prosecutors. They wanted to know more about the
investment group, its Iranian-born president, Kia Joorabchian, and
the origin of the money he and his unidentified partners injected
into the club. Brazilian prosecutors said they have also issued an
arrest warrant for Joorabchian, a British citizen.
2007 Jul 13, Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil, began hosting the Pan American Games. An estimated 5,500
athletes from 42 countries participated in 38 sports. The games
ended July 29.
2007 Jul 17, In Sao Paulo,
Brazil, a TAM airlines Airbus-320 slammed into a gas station and a
TAM building and burst into flames after trying to land on a short,
rain-slicked runway at Congonhas airport. All 187 people aboard were
killed along with 12 on the ground.
(AP, 7/18/07)(AP, 7/17/08)
2007 Jul 20, Sen. Antonio
Carlos Peixoto de Magalhaes (79), one of Brazil's most influential
politicians, died. He had held on to power as the country came under
a military dictatorship and returned to democracy.
(AP, 7/21/07)(SFC, 7/23/07, p.D6)
2007 Jul 23, It was reported
that Rio police had killed 449 people since January, many in clashes
with drug traffickers, while more than 60 police officers lost their
(SFC, 7/23/07, p.A13)
2007 Jul 25, Brazil's Pres.
Lula da Silva fired Defense Minister Waldir Pires in response to a
fatal jetliner crash that turned months of anger over breakdowns in
the military-run national air system into a full-blown political
2007 Aug 2, In Brazil a strike
by subway workers disrupted the commute of millions of people in Sao
Paulo, causing huge traffic jams and long lines at bus stops.
2007 Aug 4, Thousands of
Brazilians marched in Sao Paulo to denounce President Luiz Inacio
Lula da Silva's government as corrupt and indifferent.
2007 Aug 7,
Juan Carlos Ramirez Abadia (44), an alleged Colombian drug kingpin
wanted by the United States, was arrested in a luxury condominium on
the outskirts of Sao Paulo, Brazil. He had extensive plastic surgery
but was identified by Brazilian and American anti-drug agents using
advanced voice recognition technology.
(AP, 8/7/07)(AP, 8/10/07)
2007 Aug 14, In Brazil police
arrested Oscar Maroni Jr., for racketeering and trafficking in
women. Maroni, known as the Larry Flynt of Brazil, was also under
pressure to stop construction of his 11-story Oscarís Hotel at the
edge of the Congonhas Airport in Sao Paulo, which was cited for
impacting air safety.
(WSJ, 9/5/07, p.A1)
2007 Aug 23, In Ponte Nova,
Brazil, at least 25 prisoners died after inmates broke out of a
cellblock and set a fire in an apparent attempt to settle scores
with a rival gang.
2007 Aug 28, Brazil's Supreme
Court charged one of the president's closest confidants with
conspiracy in a corruption scandal that has toppled much of his
inner circle. Analysts said Jose Dirceu, one of 40 people indicted,
would rather spend years in prison than go down swinging against
Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva. This was the first time ever that
Brazilís highest court has brought criminal charges against
(AP, 8/28/07)(Econ, 9/1/07, p.32)
2007 Aug 30, A speeding train
carrying hundreds of commuters slammed into an empty train near Rio
de Janeiro, killing eight people and injuring more than 80.
2007 Oct 10, Brazil's Supreme
Court denied a Lebanese request to extradite a fugitive banker
accused of a multimillion-dollar bank fraud and wanted for
questioning in the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister
Rafik Hariri. Rana Koleilat was given eight days to leave the
country once her passport is returned. She was jailed on fraud
charges in Lebanon in 2004, but fled the country. She was arrested
in Sao Paulo on March 12, 2006.
2007 Oct 10, In Brazil a truck
coming down a hill plowed into rescue workers and gawkers at the
site of an earlier collision, a double accident that killed least 28
people and injured 90.
2007 Oct 15, Brazilís President
Luiz Ignacio Lula Da Silva arrived in the Congolese capital
Brazzaville for a one-day visit, the first by a Brazilian leader to
the African country.
2007 Oct 17, Hundreds of police
agents swooped in on drug gangs in two Rio de Janeiro shantytowns,
setting off gunbattles that killed 12 people, including an officer
and a boy (4).
2007 Oct 17,
In South Africa the leaders of Brazil, India and South Africa
vowed to push the interests of poor nations in stalled international
trade talks and said any agreement would have to benefit the
2007 Oct 21,
In Brazil activists trying to invade a 304-acre biotech seed
farm, owned by the Swiss firm Syngenta AG, clashed with guards
and at least two people were shot dead.
2007 Oct 21, In Brazil a girl
(15) was arrested on accusations of breaking and entering a house
and jailed with male inmates in Abaetetuba, Para state. She was
locked up for weeks with 21 men who she said would only let her eat
in return for sex. By her account, officials did nothing, until the
story erupted in the national media and outraged Brazilians demanded
2007 Oct 26, Shares in Bovespa,
the stock exchange of Sao Paulo, Brazil, began trading. The IPO
opened at $12.77 and closed at $17.77.
(Econ, 10/27/07, p.88)(http://tinyurl.com/34oyeb)
2007 Nov 8, Brazilís Petrobras
reported the discovery of a large oil reserve with as much as 8
billion barrels of crude in a field called Tupi. This represented
about 3 months worth of current world supply, with estimated use at
86 million barrels a day. The oil was sitting between 5.3 and 7km
below sea level.
(WSJ, 11/9/07, p.A12)(Econ, 8/30/08, p.36)
2007 Nov 25, In northeastern
Brazil a section of stands at a soccer stadium gave way as fans
cheered at the end of a game, killing eight people.
2007 Nov 27, In Brazil a
Catholic bishop began his second hunger strike in two years to
protest a government project to divert river water to irrigate parts
of the country's arid northeast.
2007 Nov 28, Brazil and China
said they will give Africa free satellite imaging of its landmass to
help the continent respond to threats like deforestation,
desertification and drought.
2007 Nov 30, Brazilís President
Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva visited a teeming hillside shantytown to
launch a multimillion-dollar program to build an outdoor elevator,
sewage systems, improve roads and upgrade housing for slum
2007 Dec 4, Sen. Renan
Calheiros, president of Brazil's Senate, resigned while fighting
allegations of corruption. Calheiros, a key ally of President Luis
Inacio Lula da Silva, retained his position as a senator. A
legislative commission voted 17-3 last week to recommend his
expulsion after finding evidence that he used third parties to
illegally acquire two radio stations and a newspaper.
(AP, 12/4/07)(Econ, 12/8/07, p.43)
2007 Dec 13, Brazil's Senate
refused to renew a financial transaction tax that fills the
government's coffers, handing President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva a
political defeat that could threaten his social programs for the
2007 Dec 16, Argentina and
Brazil successfully launched a rocket into space in the first joint
space mission by the two South American nations. The VS30 rocket,
which carried experiments from both countries, blasted off from
Brazil's Barreira do Inferno launch center in northern Rio Grande do
2007 Dec 17, The World Trade
Organization (WTO) launched an investigation into Washington's
multi-billion-dollar farm subsidies that Brazil and Canada say break
international trading rules.
2007 Dec 20, In Sao Paulo,
Brazil, thieves homed in on two paintings, the Portrait of Suzanne
BlochĒ by Pablo Picasso and ďO Lavrador de CafeĒ by Candido
Portinari (1903-1962), in the first successful heist in the 60-year
history of Brazil's premier modern art museum. In Jan, 2007, police
recovered the paintings and had 2 suspects under arrest.
(AP, 12/21/07)(SFC, 12/21/07, p.A2)(AP, 1/9/08)
2007 Dec 21, Brazil announced
it will create a landholder registry and send 700 more federal
police to the Amazon River basin in a new effort to monitor and
prevent deforestation in the environmentally sensitive region.
2007 Dec 23, Aloisio
Lorscheider (b.1924), one of Latin America's most influential
cardinals, died in Sao Paulo, Brazil, after a lengthy
2007 Eike Batista, Brazilian
businessman, founded OGX, an oil and gas firm. Its IPO in 2008
raised $4.3 billion, a record for Brazil. By 2012 he was Brazilís
richest man and ranked 7th richest in the world.
(Econ, 5/26/12, p.63)
2007 Spainís Santander Bank
acquired ABNís Brazilian unit.
(Econ, 5/15/10, SR p.15)
2007 Researchers from
Karlsruhe's Natural History Museum found a 3-millimetre-long (0.118
inch) ant in the Amazon rainforest and dated its origin back to
about 120Mil BC, making it the oldest still inhabiting the earth.
2008 Jan 1, In Rio Piracicaba,
Brazil, a jail fire killed eight inmates who could not be rescued
because the guard had left with the keys.
2008 Jan 15, Brazil signed
accords with Cuba offering economic aid and sealed a deal to drill
for oil off the islandís coast. Brazilís Pres. Luiz Inacio Lula da
Silva Trade with businessmen in tow signed trade and investment
deals totaling some $1 billion.
(WSJ, 1/16/08, p.A1)(Econ, 6/28/08, p.45)
2008 Jan 21, Brazilís Petrobras
announced the discovery of a huge natural gas reserve off the coast
of Rio de Janeiro.
(WSJ, 1/23/08, p.A10)
2008 Jan 24, In Brazil
government officials held a top-level emergency meeting to deal with
the problem of Amazon deforestation. Satellite images showed that as
much as 2,700 square miles of land was cleared during the last five
months of 2007. All logging was banned in 36 municipalities and
fines stiffened for illegal cutting.
(AP, 1/24/08)(SFC, 3/22/08, p.A3)
2008 Jan 30, In Brazil heavily
armed police cracking down on crime ahead of Rio's famed carnival
celebrations engaged in shootouts with criminals in two slums,
killing at least seven suspects.
2008 Feb 1, In Brazil men
dressed as nuns swilled beer and danced down the cobblestoned
streets of a Rio hillside to kick off five days of uninhibited
2008 Feb 6, Samba group Beija
Flor was declared Brazil's carnival champion for the fifth time in
six years. While Beija Flor's dancers were topless, the judges drew
the line at going bottomless, penalizing the rival Sao Clemente
group for breaking a rule against display of genitalia during its
2008 Feb 12, President Nicolas
Sarkozy said France is ready to transfer technology to Brazil so
that an attack submarine, helicopters and the Rafale fighter plane
can be built there.
2008 Feb 14, Brazil flew 50,000
doses of yellow fever vaccine to Paraguay following an outbreak
there, the first in 34 years.
(SFC, 2/15/08, p.A4)
2008 Feb 21, In Brazil a
ferryboat carrying more than 100 passengers collided with a barge
carrying fuel tanks and sank to the bottom of the Amazon River. At
least 14 people died. 92 people were rescued by several small boats
and the state's floating police station.
2008 Feb 23, The presidents of
Argentina, Brazil and Bolivia gathered in Buenos Aires to try to
agree on how to divide scarce supplies of Bolivian natural gas.
(WSJ, 2/23/08, p.A6)
2008 Feb 26, In Brazil a
helicopter had just left an oil rig with 17 oil workers and three
crew members on board when it went down some 75 miles off the coast.
15 people aboard were rescued mostly unharmed. Rescuers located two
bodies inside the sunken wreck, bringing the death toll to three.
Two others remain missing.
2008 Feb 29, In Brazil police
killed six alleged drug gang members in Rio de Janeiro, while a
bodyguard for the state security chief was shot dead what appeared
to be an attempted robbery.
2008 Mar 4, In Brazil police
used rubber bullets and tear gas to remove 900 activists from a tree
farm they had invaded to highlight allegations its Swedish-Finnish
operators violated a law forbidding foreign companies from owning
2008 Mar 20, Brazilian
officials said an outbreak of dengue in Rio de Janeiro state has
killed at least 47 people this year.
(SFC, 3/21/08, p.A4)
2008 Mar 29, In Brazil Isabella
Nardoni (5) died after falling from her father's sixth-floor Sao
Paulo apartment. On April 18 Alexandre Nardoni (29) and his wife,
Anna Carolina Jatoba (24), the father and stepmother of the
5-year-old girl, were arrested for allegedly throwing the girl from
their apartment window.
2008 Apr 1, In Brazil Juan
Carlos Ramirez Abadia, a reputed Colombian drug lord whose cartel is
accused of having shipped hundreds of tons of cocaine, was sentenced
to more than 30 years in prison in Brazil for crimes committed in
2008 Apr 4, In Brazil officials
said floods triggered by two weeks of torrential downpours have
killed at least 10 people and forced more than 30,000 people to flee
their homes in the normally arid northeast.
2008 Apr 13, In Brazil armed
men firing from pickup trucks and flying in a helicopter attacked a
maximum-security prison holding some of Brazil's highest-profile
inmates but were repelled by guards in Campo Grande, the state
capital of Mato Grosso do Sul.
2008 Apr 14, In Brazil a top
energy official said a deep-water exploration area could contain as
much as 33 billion barrels of oil, an amount that would nearly
triple Brazil's reserves and make the offshore bloc the world's
third-largest known oil reserve.
2008 Apr 15, Brazil and Russia
signed an agreement to jointly develop top-line jet fighters and
satellite launch vehicles.
2008 Apr 15, In Brazil a police
raid on drugs and dealers in a Rio de Janeiro shantytown set off a
fierce gunbattle that killed at least nine people and wounded seven.
2008 Apr 20, In Brazil Rev.
Adelir Antonio de Carli, a 41-year-old Roman Catholic priest, went
missing after he lifted off under hundreds of balloons from the port
city of Paranagua wearing a helmet, an aluminum thermal flight suit,
waterproof coveralls and a parachute. Tugboat workers discovered a
body off Rio de Janeiro in early July that authorities believed
belonged to the cleric. DNA confirmed that it was the body of the
(AP, 4/23/08)(AP, 7/29/08)
2008 Apr 25, Police swarmed a
Rio de Janeiro slum in search of a drug lord, touching off a
shootout that killed 11 people including a 70-year-old woman. Two
bystanders were wounded. Emival Barbosa Machado (50), an Amazon
farmer who received death threats after reporting illegal logging to
authorities, was shot to death as he left his house in Tucurui.
2008 May 4, In Brazil a boat
ferrying people home from a religious festival sank in the Amazon
region on the Solimoes River leaving at least 41 dead and dozens
(AP, 5/5/08)(AP, 5/7/08)
2008 May 12, Brazil announced
that it is forming a sovereign-wealth fund worth between $10 and $20
(WSJ, 5/13/08, p.A1)
2008 May 13, In Brazil renowned
rain forest defender Marina Silva resigned as the environment
minister, saying she lacked the necessary political support to
protect the Amazon. A government study said Blacks will outnumber
whites in Brazil this year for the first time since slavery was
abolished, but the income gap between the two groups may take
another 50 years to bridge.
2008 May 14, In Brazil a
reporter and photographer for O Dia were abducted with their driver
and held for nearly eight hours in the western Rio de Janeiro
shantytown where they had been working undercover investigating
paramilitaries. O Dia said it contacted state security officials
immediately after the incident, but did not report it publicly until
Jun 1 to protect its journalists.
2008 May 20, Painted and
feathered Indians waving machetes and clubs slashed Eletrobras
engineer Paulo Fernando Rezende, an official of Brazil's national
electric company during a protest over a proposed hydroelectric dam
on the Xingu River. Environmentalists warned it could destroy the
traditional fishing grounds of Indians living nearby and displace as
many as 15,000 people. The government said the proposed US$6.7
billion (euro4.3 billion) dam would supply Brazil with an estimated
11,000 megawatts of power and is essential to meet growing energy
2008 May 23, In Brazil 12 South
American leaders gathered in Brasilia to set up a Union of South
American Nations. Unasur was expected to replace the South American
Community, declared in 2004, and unite the Mercosur and Andean
Community free trade areas.
(Econ, 5/31/08, p.41)
2008 May 27, President Luiz
Inacio Lula da Silva swore in Carlos Minc, former environment
secretary for Rio de Janeiro state, as Brazil's new environment
minister. Silva used the swearing-in speech to lash developed
nations for alleged hypocrisy on environmental policy.
2008 Jun 2, Carlos Minc,
Brazilís new environment minister, said the government will impound
cattle caught grazing on illegally cleared pastures with an
operation, dubbed "Rogue Bull," to attack deforestation in the rain
forest. Government researchers said that preliminary data indicate
the Amazon lost at least 2,258 square miles (5,850 square
kilometers) of forest cover from August to April 2008.
2008 Jun 2, The United States
lost an appeal in its long-running dispute with Brazil over U.S.
subsidies for cotton farmers at the World Trade Organization (WTO).
2008 Jun 11, Police in southern
Brazil fired rubber bullets and tear gas at protesters who tried to
invade a supermarket to protest high food prices, part of widespread
demonstrations across more than a dozen states.
2008 Jun 11, InBev, the
Belgian-Brazilian brewing giant, offered $46 billion, or 65 dollars
a share, in cash for Anheuser-Busch in a bid to create an unrivaled
global brewing giant.
(AFP, 6/12/08)(Econ, 6/21/08, p.77)
2008 Jun 11, In Brazil bankers
set an IPO price of $689 per share in OGX Petroleo e Gas
Participacoes SA, a firm created by Eike Batista (50) to drill for
oil in Brazilian offshore tracts.
(WSJ, 6/12/08, p.B1)
2008 Jun 12, In Brazil 3 armed
robbers stole two Pablo Picasso prints from the Sao Paulo Museum of
Art and 2 other paintings in a rapid strike in which they bypassed
more valuable works. By August 18 police recovered all of the
paintings and arrested 3 suspects.
(AP, 6/13/08)(AP, 8/7/08)(AP, 8/18/08)
2008 Jun 15, Eleven Brazilian
soldiers allegedly turned over three shantytown residents to a drug
gang that executed them and left their bodies in a garbage dump.
Police arrested the soldiers the next day and Rio state Gov. Sergio
Cabral denounced the soldiers as criminals.
2008 Jun 17, Brazil's
environment minister said grain crushers have extended a
two-year-old moratorium on the purchase of soybeans planted in areas
of the Amazon rain forest cut down after 2006.
2008 Jun 20, Brazilís Pres.
Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva decreed a new 3.8 million acre (1.5
million hectare) Indian reservation in the heart of the Amazon rain
forest's logging frontier.
2008 Jul 8, Brazilian police
arrested a former Sao Paulo mayor and two prominent financiers in a
case that grew out of an influence-peddling scandal involving senior
2008 Jul 11, Brazilian
President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva promised to support East Timor
during talks in Dili with Timorese leaders including President Jose
2008 Jul 12, In Jakarta,
Indonesia, Brazilís President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva and
President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono pledged cooperation on biofuels
during talks in a bid to take advantage of surging oil prices.
2008 Jul 18, In Brazil police
said at least eight alleged drug traffickers were killed during a
raid in a Rio de Janeiro shantytown.
2008 Jul 19, In Bogota the
presidents of Brazil and Colombia vowed to boost trade and
investment between their nations ahead of crucial world trade talks
2008 Jul 19, Brazilian actress
and comedian Dercy Goncalves (101), known for her vulgar wit and
scandalous behavior, died in Rio de Janeiro.
2008 Jul 25, In Goiania,
Brazil, Mohamed D'Ali Carvalho Santos stabbed to death and
dismembered Cara Marie Burke (17), a British citizen, while high on
crack cocaine. In 2009 Santos was sentenced to 19 years for the
killing and two more for hiding the body.
2008 Jul 26, Brazil's Embraer
(EMBR3.SA), the world's third-biggest commercial jet maker, said it
would invest 148 million euros in two new plants in Portugal -- its
first industrial units in Europe that will make wings and tailpieces
2008 Jul 29, In central Brazil
the torso of Cara Marie Burke, 17, from London, was found in a
suitcase in Goiania. She had been stabbed to death by Mohamed D'Ali
Carvalho dos Santos (20) over the weekend in his apartment. Santos
was arrested on July 31 and confessed. Reports said he was a cocaine
2008 Jul 31, Brazilian
President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva launched the Amazon Fund to
provide grants to projects intended to stop the Amazon rainforest
(Econ, 8/9/08, p.37)
2008 Aug 11, Brazil's
environment minister said he granted a license for the Santo Antonio
hydroelectric dam but attached stringent conditions to protect
Amazon Indian reservations and nature preserves. The dam is expected
to cost 9.5 billion reals (US$5.9 billion) and go online in 2012.
The dam is one of two planned for the Madeira river in the Amazon
state of Rondonia.
2008 Aug 16, Dorival Caymmi
(b.1914), Brazilian composer, died. He had composed over 100 songs
and catapulted to fame when Carmen Miranda performed one of his
songs in 1938.
2008 Aug 22, Brazil extradited
Colombian drug lord Juan Carlos Ramirez Abadia to the United States
to face racketeering charges.
2008 Aug 26, Brazil asked the
WTO for the right to impose $4 billion in annual sanctions against
US goods and services to penalize the US for handing out illegal
(WSJ, 8/27/08, p.A9)
2008 Aug 26, In Brazil Olavo
Egydio Setubal (b.1923), industrialist and former mayor of Sao
Paulo, died. His industrial and financial empire, which grew up from
a metal shop, included Banco Itau Holding Financiera SA, Brazilís
2nd largest bank.
2008 Aug 28, Brazilian
authorities said more than 200 oil-slicked penguins had washed up
dead over the last 4 days on the beaches of Florianopolis, a popular
Brazilian island resort, and that they are searching for a cause.
2008 Aug 30, Brazilian
officials said Amazon deforestation jumped 69 percent in the past 12
months, the first such increase in three years, as rising demand for
soy and cattle pushes farmers and ranchers to raze trees.
2008 Sep 1, Brazil's Pres. Lula
da Silva suspended the entire leadership of Abin, the nationís
intelligence agency, after it was accused of tapping the phones of
the Supreme Court chief and members of Congress.
(AP, 9/2/08)(WSJ, 9/2/08, p.A14)(Econ, 9/6/08,
2008 Sep 11, In Brazil Daniel
Dantas, businessman, found $300 million of his money frozen by the
courts under accusations of laundering public money and offering
bribes. His fortune was estimated at over $1 billion. On Dec 2
Dantas was convicted of trying to bribe police officers. He was
fined $5 million and sentenced to 10 years in prison, but appealed
(Econ, 9/20/08, p.82)(Econ, 12/6/08, p.51)
2008 Sep 15, According to a new
UN report Brazilian police carried out a "significant proportion" of
the 48,000 murders that swept Brazil last year, casting doubt on the
government's ability to curtail drug violence and reign in vigilante
2008 Sep 16, Norwegian PM Jens
Stoltenberg said Norway will give Brazil US$1 billion by 2015 to
preserve the Amazon rain forest, as long as Latin America's largest
nation keeps trying to stop deforestation.
2008 Sep 18, Peruís Pres. Alan
Garcia led a deputation of half his cabinet and over 200 business
leaders to see Brazilís Pres. da Silva.
(Econ, 9/13/08, p.44)
2008 Sep 22, In southern Brazil
5 hooded gunmen killed 15 people on an alleged drug trafficker's
ranch. The suspected trafficker and two of his sons were among the
2008 Sep 23, Ecuador expelled a
leading Brazilian construction firm sending in troops to seize
projects worth $800 million. Pres. Correa was battling with the
Odebrecht firm over a dam which the government said was badly built.
(WSJ, 9/24/08, p.A24)
2008 Sep 29, Brazilian
officials said the Amazon is being deforested more than three times
as fast as last year, acknowledging a sharp reversal after three
years of declines in the deforestation rate.
2008 Oct 5, Isolated shootings
in Brazil soured municipal elections that President Luiz Inacio Lula
da Silva's allies hope will give them a leg up on 2010's
2008 Oct 16, Brazil's President
Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva arrived in Mozambique to launch a project
to make anti-AIDS drugs in the southern African country.
2008 Oct 22, The DJIA tumbled
514.45 to close at 8519.21, its 7th biggest point drop in history,
as investors believed that the global economy is heading into a deep
recession. Hungaryís central bank raised interest rates by 3 points,
from 8.5% to 11.5%, to prevent a run on its currency. Argentine and
Brazilian stock markets each fell about 10%. Former Fed Chief Alan
Greenspan said he was wrong to think that financial markets could
(WSJ, 10/22/08, p.A1)(SFC, 10/24/08, p.C1)(Econ,
2008 Oct 26, Brazil held
nationwide municipal elections. The ruling party was expected to
dominate. Brazil's ruling party lost its chance to retake control of
Sao Paulo, South America's biggest city. Fernando Gabeira, an
ex-guerrilla who once kidnapped a US ambassador (1969), failed in
his bid to become mayor of Rio de Janeiro.
2008 Oct 31, Brazil's state-run
oil company signed an agreement to explore for oil in deep Caribbean
waters north of Cuba that officials in Havana say could contain 20
billion barrels of crude.
2008 Nov 3, Two of Brazilís
largest banks agreed to merge in a move to buttress the countryís
financial system. Itau Holding Financeira SA will purchase its
smaller rival Uniao de Bancos Brasileiros SA.
(WSJ, 11/4/08, p.C1)
2008 Nov 9, In Sao Paulo,
Brazil, finance ministers from 20 leading nations (G20) agreed to
boost emerging economiesí role in negotiations to overhaul the
international financial system.
(SFC, 11/10/08, p.D1)
2008 Nov 10, In Brazil bandits
blew up a police station with dynamite after stealing drugs and
weapons in Botucatu city in Sao Paulo state.
2008 Nov 23, In southern Brazil
weekend rains caused rivers to overflow their banks. The resulting
floods and mudslides left at least 114 people dead. In northeastern
Paragominas a mob of about 3,000 people, enraged by a crackdown on
illegal logging, trashed a government office, and tried to attack
(AP, 11/25/08)(AP, 11/24/08)(AP, 12/1/08)
2008 Dec 8, In Brazil Police
chief Paulo Fernando Fortunato reported that 13 gay men were killed
in a park in suburban Sao Paulo between February 2007 and August
2008 Dec 11, Australian police
said detectives have charged 22 men including a policeman, a senior
lawyer and a child care worker in connection with a child
pornography-sharing network spanning 70 countries. Brazilian
information, which was shared via the international policing network
Interpol, identified more than 200 suspects in 70 countries.
2008 Dec 16, In Brazil South
American leaders agreed to create a regional defense council aimed
at preventing local conflicts and reducing dependence on US
weaponry. 33 countries from across the Americas had gathered for a
2-day meeting to discuss issues ranging from defense to economics.
(WSJ, 12/17/08, p.A16)(Econ, 12/20/08, p.57)
2008 Dec 23, Brazil and France
signed an arms deal that could lead to Latin America's first nuclear
2008 Dec 26, Brazilian police
detained Regivaldo Galvao, a rancher suspected in the 2005 slaying
of rain forest activist Dorothy Stang (73), for allegedly illegally
acquiring titles to land the US nun died trying to defend.
2008 Dec 31, In Brazil
Christian Wolffer (70), owner of the Wolffer Estate winery, bled to
death after suffering two deep cuts on his back while swimming on
New Year's Eve near the colonial town of Paraty, about 150
kilometers (100 miles) west of Rio de Janeiro. A man suspected of
piloting a motorboat that struck and killed Wolffer was detained on
2008 In Brazil police began
setting up Pacifying Police Units (UPPS) in some of the favelas of
Rio de Janeiro to help restore law and order.
(Econ, 6/12/10, p.42)
2008 Banco do Brazil bought
Nossa Caixa, a mid sized state-owned banking firm.
(Econ, 5/15/10, SR p.11)
2009 Jan 14, In Brazil Cesare
Battisti (54), a leftist fugitive who wrote police thrillers while
evading a life sentence for two political murders, was granted
refugee status in Brazil and an official said he could go free this
week. Italy's government protested the decision. Battisti escaped
from an Italian prison in 1981 while awaiting trial on four counts
of murder allegedly committed when he was a member of the Armed
Proletarians for Communism. He fled to France and reinvented himself
as a mystery writer. Battisti has repeatedly insisted on his
innocence. On March 5, 2010, he was sentenced to two years in prison
for passport fraud.
(AP, 1/14/09)(AFP, 3/6/10)
2009 Jan 18, The roof of a
Brazilian church in Sao Paulo caved in shortly after a religious
service, killing 9 people and injuring 106 more.
2009 Jan 21, Brazilís central
bank cut its benchmark overnight rate, the Selic rate, to 12.75%,
the highest rate in the Americaís, even considering its nearly 7%
(WSJ, 1/22/09, p.A8)
2009 Jan 24, Mariana Bridi
(20), Brazilian model, died from complications related to a
generalized infection caused by the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
The bacteria is known to be resistant to multiple kinds of
antibiotics. The infection reduced the flow of oxygen to her limbs,
causing her feet to be amputated last week and her hands this week.
2009 Jan 27, In Brazil some
100,000 activists of all stripes converged on the Amazon city of
Belem, opening the 9th World Social Forum.
2009 Jan 27, Brazil established
a new set of bureaucratic hoops for importers, raising worries about
(WSJ, 1/28/09, p.A10)
2009 Jan 30, In Brazil
officials in Rio Grande do Sul state said 10 victims had drowned in
the city of Pelotas, and that floods had driven thousands from their
2009 Feb 1, In Brazil the
world's biggest counterculture political gathering ended with a
flurry of photo-snapping, tent folding and farewell embraces, as
well as uncertainty about what concrete results were accomplished in
the stifling heat of Belem.
2009 Feb 3, In Brazil hundreds
of riot police occupied one of Sao Paulo's biggest slums following a
night of clashes in which three police officers were shot. Residents
said the clashes were a response to the police killing of a man on
Feb 1 in Paraisopolis.
2009 Feb 3, In Brazil Ocelio
Alves de Carvalho was killed on the Kulina Indian reservation. An
Indian who witnessed the killing, and tried to stop it, arrived at
the police station to report the alleged murder the next day. The
witness said body parts were roasted and eaten.
2009 Feb 4, Brazilian police
killed at least 10 suspects, including two teenage boys, during
operations against drug traffickers in Rio de Janeiro.
2009 Feb 7, In Brazil 4 people
at the rear of a plane that crashed in a muddy Amazon river managed
to open an emergency door and swim to safety as the aircraft sank,
dragging 24 others to their death.
2009 Feb 22, In Brazil bubbles,
feathers and glitter swirled on the first night of parades in Rio's
Carnival, as the city's samba schools battled it out for top honors
in what many bill as the world's largest party.
2009 Mar 11, Brazilís Central
Bank cut its benchmark Selic rate by 1.5% to 11.25%. further cuts
(Econ, 3/28/09, p.44)
2009 Mar 11, In Brazil a
prosecutor charged rancher Regivaldo Galvao, accused of murdering US
nun Dorothy Strang, with trying to fraudulently obtain a plot of the
rain forest that Strang had worked to protect.
(SFC, 3/12/09, p.A2)
2009 Mar 14, President Barack
Obama met with visiting Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da
Silva for talks on the economy, energy and the environment.
2009 Mar 19, Brazil's Supreme
Court sided with Amazonian Indians in a land dispute that some have
called critical for determining the future of the rainforest that
sprawls the size of Western Europe. The court ruling upheld the
Raposa Serra do Sol reservation for 18,000 Indians who lay claim to
their ancestral land, despite a handful of large-scale farmers who
also occupy the territory in the northernmost reaches of Amazon
jungle bordering Venezuela.
2009 Mar 24, The WHOís annual
report on TB, presented in Rio, indicated that there were 1.37
million cases of people with both TB and HIV in 2007, the latest
year for which statistics are available. About 700,000 people were
infected with both in 2006.
2009 Mar 26, In Brazil
engine pieces from a US plane fell from the sky, hitting 22 houses
and a car but sparing passengers and residents on the ground. Arrow
Cargo's station manager in Manaus, Rai Marinho, said the company
will pay local residents for damages to their property.
2009 Mar 30, Argentinaís health
minister acknowledged that the country was in the middle of a dengue
fever epidemic with nearly 8,000 people infected. Neighboring
Bolivia had about 51,000 cases reported, while Brazil counted some
2009 Mar 31, In Brazil the
state government of Rio de Janeiro said it will build 7 miles of
concrete walls around some of its biggest slums in an effort to halt
deforestation of the jungle surrounding the metropolis.
(SFC, 4/1/09, p.A2)
2009 Apr 28, Peruís Pres. Alan
Garcia and Brazilís Pres. Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva signed an
agreement for six hydroelectricity schemes in Peru. The Inambari dam
would be the first to be built, and most of its power would be
exported to Brazil.
2009 Apr 30, Brazil's Supreme
Court struck down a 1967 press censorship law enacted during the
military dictatorship. In a 7-4 vote the court ruled the law
unconstitutionally violated freedom of expression.
2009 May 2, Brazilian officials
said floods and mudslides from heavy rains in the northeast have
killed at least 14 people in the last month and driven tens of
thousands from their homes.
2009 May 2, In Brazil Augusto
Boal (78), theater director and playwright known for the interactive
genre called the "Theater of the Oppressed," died. Seen as a threat
to the dictatorship that ruled Brazil between 1964 and 1985, Boal
was arrested, jailed and tortured before being exiled to Argentina.
He returned to Brazil after the fall of the military regime.
2009 May 6, Brazilian officials
said at least 29 people have been killed by floods and mudslides in
northern Brazil as authorities struggled to rush aid to dozens of
small cities cut off from civilization by overflowing rivers in the
2009 May 7, Argentina and
Brazil confirmed five swine flu cases within their borders as the
virus affects more nations in South America.
2009 May 8, Brazilians huddled
in cow pens converted into emergency shelters, as swollen rivers
continue to rise and northern Brazil's worst floods in decades
boosted the number of homeless to nearly 300,000. The death toll
rose to 39, and coffins started popping out of the soaked earth.
2009 May 10, Floodwaters
receded some in inundated towns across northern Brazil, but the
number of homeless rose above 300,000 and two people were missing
after an overloaded canoe overturned in swift waters.
2009 May 13, In Brazil slum
dwellers rioted after the arrest of drug dealers in a Sao Paulo
shantytown, burning vehicles and tires, pelting police with rocks
and briefly shutting down a major urban highway.
2009 May 19, China and Brazil
signed a raft of agreements in Beijing including a $10 billion loan
for the South American country's state energy company and a deal to
send oil to China amid stronger ties between the two developing
2009 May 22, Brazil's Supreme
Court approved the extradition to the US of Pablo Rayo Montano, a
Colombian-born drug lord accused of running one of the world's
largest drug smuggling operations.
2009 May 22, In Brazil a
twin-engine plane crashed near a private airport in a northeastern
coastal resort area, killing all 11 people aboard.
2009 May 28, In Brazil raging
torrents from a ruptured dam and swamped Cocal, a northeastern
farming city of about 25,000 in Piaui state, forcing residents to
scramble onto rooftops and climb high trees to escape the deadly
floodwaters. 4 people were killed.
2009 Jun 1, A missing Air
France Airbus A330 jet, Flight 447, carrying 228 people from Rio de
Janeiro to Paris ran into lightning and strong thunderstorms over
the Atlantic Ocean. Brazil soon began a search mission off its
2009 Jun 2, An airplane seat, a
life jacket, metallic debris and signs of fuel were found in the
middle of the Atlantic Ocean by Brazilian military pilots searching
for a missing Air France airliner Flight 447.
2009 Jun 6, Brazilian search
crews retrieved the first 2 bodies in the Atlantic from the May 31
crash of Air France Flight 447. Investigators said faulty
speed readings had been found on the same type of jets.
2009 Jun 7, Brazilian and
French ships recovered 14 more bodies from ocean near Air France
crash, bringing the total to 16.
(AP, 6/7/09)(SFC, 6/8/09, p.A3)
2009 Jun 8, Brazilian and
French ships recovered 8 more bodies from Air France Flight 447,
bringing the total recovered to 24. The tail section of the plane
was also recovered. The plane disappeared during a flight from Rio
de Janeiro to Paris on May 31 amid strong thunderstorms.
(AP, 6/9/09)(SFC, 6/9/09, p.A3)
2009 Jun 12, A Brazilian ship
recovered three more bodies from the Atlantic bringing the total to
44. Searchers said weather and currents complicated their job and
warned it is unlikely that all the dead from Air France Flight 447
will be found.
2009 Jun 13, Brazil reported
that a French ship had found six more bodies from Air France Flight
447, which would bring the total to 50. It went down May 31 with 228
2009 Jun 15, Brazilian
President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva brought a message of worker
solidarity and economic responsibility to the United Nations. He
left with some rare, sharp criticism from human rights groups that
once championed his government.
2009 Jun 19, The Brazilian
government apologized for the torture and abuse of 44 poor farmers
under the military regime that ruled the country from 1964 to 1985
and announced reparations for the victims.
2009 Jun 20, It was reported
that that the H1N1 swine flu virus has spread to at least 76
countries and caused over 160 deaths, and that Brazilian researchers
have identified a new strain of the virus.
(SFC, 6/20/09, p.D12)
2009 Jun 25, Brazilís President
Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva approved a law that could legalize
landholdings by some 1 million squatters occupying a Texas-sized
chunk of the Amazon rain forest, despite environmentalist fears it
will accelerate deforestation.
2009 Jul 1, In Brazil Sao Paulo
state officials launched what they say is Latin America's first
passenger bus with an electric engine powered by hydrogen fuel
cells. The bus will start test runs on the streets of Sao Paulo in
August and will be joined by three similarly powered vehicles next
2009 Jul 3, In Brazil prison
guards foiled a new attempt to smuggle a cell phone into Danilo
Pinheiro prison near the city of Sorocaba by a carrier pigeon
wearing a tiny backpack. Police said that the practice is becoming
2009 Jul 11, It was reported
that Brazilian police were investigating some 660 ďsecret actsĒ
passed by the Senate since 1995 which have awarded jobs and pay
raises members of staff.
(Econ, 7/11/09, p.39)
2009 Jul 11, In Brazil the body
of Arturo Gatti (37), former Canadian boxing champion, was found in
a hotel room at the northeastern Porto de Galinhas resort. He was
apparently strangled with the strap of a purse, which was found at
the scene with blood stains. His wife, Amanda Rodrigues (23), was
soon taken into custody after contradictions in her interrogation. A
police inquiry later concluded that he committed suicide using the
strap of a rucksack on a staircase in the early hours of the
(AP, 7/12/09)(Reuters, 7/31/09)
2009 Jul 25, Brazil agreed to
triple its compensation to Paraguay to operate the huge Itaipu
hydroelectric dam on their shared border, ending a decades-long
dispute between the neighbors. President Fernando Lugo persuaded
Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva to sign a deal
tripling Brazil's payments from $120 million to $360 million a year.
On Apr 6, 2011, Brazil's lower house of Congress finally approved
(AFP, 7/25/09)(AP, 4/21/11)
2009 Aug 1, Brazilian police
said they have busted a ring that allegedly sent some 200 women in
the last year to the United States, Europe and elsewhere to work as
prostitutes. Most of the women were recruited through the Internet
or Brazilian brothels and then sent to Las Vegas, the Dominican
Republic and France.
2009 Aug 10, Leaders of the
Union of South American Nations (UNASUL), a 12-member group inspired
by Brazil, met in Quito, Ecuador, in an attempt to further
integration. Colombiaís Pres. Uribe did not attend, in part because
Ecuador broke of ties with Colombia last year.
(Econ, 8/15/09, p.31)
2009 Aug 11, In Brazil
authorities charged Bishop Edir Macedo and nine other people linked
to the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God with siphoning off
billions of dollars in donations from his mostly poor followers to
buy jewelry, TV stations and other businesses for himself. Macedo,
who founded the church in 1977, owns a large television network,
three newspapers and several radio stations. He also owns a tourism
agency and an air taxi company.
2009 Aug 11, In Brazil police
were reported to be investigating the "Canal Livre" crime TV show
saying the show's host, state legislator Wallace Souza (51), was
suspected of commissioning at least five murders to boost his
ratings and prove his claim that Brazil's Amazon region is awash in
violent crime. Police also have accused Souza of drug trafficking.
2009 Aug 26, A Brazilian
prosecutor in Amazonas state accused Wallace Souza, a former police
officer and TV crime show host, of attempting to have a federal
judge assassinated in 2007. Souza was already accused of setting up
at least 5 killings to boost his TV ratings. Souza was soon kicked
out of the state legislature and on Oct 5 police issued a warrant
for his arrest.
(SFC, 8/27/09, p.A2)(AP, 10/7/09)
2009 Sep 8, Across northern
Argentina and southern Brazil a violent storm that spawned a tornado
and mudslides killed at least 15 people. Dozens were injured in the
winds and hail as their homes were destroyed.
2009 Sep 14, The leaders of
Brazil and Guyana met to inaugurate the $5 million Takutu River
Bridge, that is expected to boost trade between Brazil and the
Caribbean. Traffic began crossing the bridge nearly two months ago
but todayís ceremony was billed as its formal commissioning.
2009 Sep 16, Brazilís JBS
Friboi company announced that Texas-based chicken processor
Pilgrimís Pride has agreed to be taken over for $800 million. This
and a pending acquisition with Bertin, another Brazilian firm, would
make JBS the worldís largest processor of meat.
2009 Oct 2, In Denmark the IOC
opened a meeting hearing the cases led by government leaders and
kings to win the right to stage the 2016 Olympic Games. US Pres.
Obama spoke for Chicago, Japan's new PM Yukio Hatoyama spoke for
Tokyo, Brazil's President Luiz Inacio Lula Da Silva spoke for Rio de
Janeiro, and Spain's King Juan Carlos and PM Jose Luis Rodriguez
Zapatero spoke for Spain. Brazil won the bid.
(AFP, 10/2/09)(AP, 10/3/09)
2009 Oct 9, In Brazil Wallace
Souza, a former police officer and TV crime show host accused of
commissioning killings to boost ratings, turned himself in to
authorities in Manaus and was jailed on homicide and drug
2009 Oct 11, In Brazil an
intense fire broke out in a slum in Sao Paulo, South America's
largest city, sending residents running across rooftops to escape
2009 Oct 17, In Brazil drug
traffickers shot down a police helicopter during a gunbattle between
rival gangs. The weekend gang fight in Rio de Janeiro left 3 police
officers killed, and continued into the week leaving at least 32
(SSFC, 10/18/09, p.A8)(AP, 10/21/09)(AP,
10/22/09)(Econ, 10/24/09, p.42)
2009 Oct 18, Amazon Chief Almir
Surui (35), unveiled a project in partnership with Google, to make
public the encroachment of illegal mining and logging on his
peopleís 600,000 acre reserve in Brazil. Almir was evacuated for his
safety to the US in 2006. Eleven chief of the Surui and neighboring
tribes have been shot and killed this decade.
(SSFC, 10/18/09, p.A1)
2009 Oct 20, Representatives of
Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay announced a joint plan in Buenos
Aires to establish protected zones to halt deforestation in their
countries by 2020.
(SFC, 10/21/09, p.A2)
2009 Oct 22, In Curitiba,
Brazil, Jorge Guilherme Marinho Martins (26), the son of fire chief
Jorge Luiz Thais Martins, was killed by robbers who wanted to steal
his car while he returned from a party. His girlfriend also was
shot, but survived. At least eight drug users in the neighborhood
were soon killed. In 2011 an arrest warrant was issued for Martins
for his alleged involvement in killing the drug users.
2009 Oct 29, In Brazil a
single-prop Cessna Caravan plane went down on the Itui River in a
remote part of the Amazon rain forest. Members of the Matis Indian
tribe found the plane with 9 survivors of 11 on board.
2009 Oct 29, Honduras filed a
case at the UN's highest court accusing Brazil of meddling in
internal Honduran affairs by allowing ousted President Manuel Zelaya
to stay at its embassy in Tegucigalpa since Sep 21. Representatives
of Zelaya finally reached an agreement with the interim government
that could help end the months long dispute over the June 28 coup,
and possibly pave the way for Zelaya's reinstatement. The agreement
would create a power-sharing government and bind both sides to
recognize the Nov. 29 presidential elections.
(AP, 10/29/09)(AP, 10/30/09)
2009 Nov 2, In Brazil some 1.5
million evangelical Christians joined the annual "March for Jesus,"
an event sponsored by a church whose leaders recently returned after
being imprisoned in the US for money smuggling.
2009 Nov 8, Brazilís private
Bandeirante University in Sao Bernardo do Campo, outside Sao Paulo,
expelled Geisy Arruda (20) for wearing a short, pink dress to class,
publicly accusing her of immorality. Arruda made headlines after an
Oct. 22 incident, in which she had to be escorted away by police
after wearing the mini-dress to class. The dean of the private
college in suburban Sao Paulo released the next day announcing a
decision to reinstate her. On Oct 6, 2010, Judge Rodrigo Gorga
Campos ordered Bandeirante University to pay Geisy Arruda 40,000
reals ($23,800) in damages.
(AP, 11/9/09)(AP, 11/10/09)(AP, 10/7/10)
2009 Nov 11, Brazil emerged
from a widespread power outage that plunged its major cities and at
least nine states into darkness for over 2 hours, prompting security
fears and concern from residents about another black eye for a
country hosting the 2016 Olympic Games. Transmission problems had
knocked one of the world's biggest hydroelectric dams offline.
2009 Nov 24, Brazilian
President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva gave a welcoming bear hug
Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, and urged Western nations to
drop threats of punishment over the Iranian nuclear program and
instead negotiate a fair solution.
2009 Nov 24, Rio de Janeiro's
posh beach neighborhoods lost power for hours in sweltering summer
weather, prompting restaurants to toss out spoiled food and business
owners to send employees home.
2009 Nov 25, Officials said
flooding from heavy rains has killed 12 people in Argentina, Brazil
and Uruguay and forced more than 20,000 to flee their homes. Most of
the dead were in southern Brazil, including eight in Rio Grande do
2009 Nov, In Brazil the
secretary of Jose Robert Arruda, governor of the Federal District,
was filmed handing over bundles of cash to his bossís various
(Econ, 2/27/10, p.43)
2009 Dec 4, In southern Brazil
at least 20 people were reported dead in mudslides triggered by
heavy rains as rivers rose to rooftops and thousands were left
2009 Dec 6, Brazilian thieves
tunneled their way to a money transport firm in Sao Paulo and made
off with nearly $6 million. A day later 6 men were arrested for the
(AP, 12/7/09)(AP, 12/8/09)
2009 Dec 7, Brazilian
authorities arrested 11 people in an alleged US work-visa scam that
raked in more than $50 million from thousands of Brazilians since
2002. Some of those scammed went to the US and wound up as illegal
aliens because promised jobs didn't exist.
2009 Dec 8, Human Rights
Watch issued a report saying police in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo
have killed more than 11,000 people in the past six years, many
2009 Dec 8, Brazil's largest
city of Sao Paulo was been hit by severe floods for the second time
in less than a week. Local media reported that six people have died
in mudslides caused by heavy rain.
2009 Dec 11, In Brazil a new
presidential decree suspended up to an estimated $5.7 billion in
fines and gave landowners two more years to comply with
environmental regulations meant to stop the razing of the Brazilian
2009 Dec 17, In Brazil a
2-year-old boy with 42 sewing needles stuck in him was airlifted to
another hospital in northeastern Bahia state because two of the
needles were close to his heart. A police official said Roberto
Carlos Magalhaes, the boy's stepfather, had been arrested, that he
had confessed to sticking the needles into the boy with the help of
a woman and that authorities were investigating whether black magic
was involved. On Dec 18 doctors removed 4 of the most
(AP, 12/17/09)(SFC, 12/18/09, p.A5)(AP, 12/19/09)
2009 Dec 24, David Goldman, a
New Jersey man, and his 9-year-old son, Sean Goldman, were reunited
in Brazil after a five-year international custody battle, and
immediately headed home to spend the holidays in the US.
2009 Brazilís federal program
Minha Casa Vida Minha (MCMV; My House My Life) was started to fund
housing for the poor and middle classes.
(Econ, 2/16/13, p.389)
2009 Banco do Brazil bought a
50% stake in Votorantim, a car finance specialist.
(Econ, 5/15/10, SR p.11)
2009 Brazilís population stood
at about 192 million people.
(Econ, 11/14/09, SR p.3)
2010 Jan 1, In Brazil a
rain-loosened slab of hillside collapsed on 3 houses and an upscale
lodge after New Year celebrations at a resort on the island of Ilha
Grande near Rio de Janeiro, killing at least 26 people. On the
mainland, a torrent of reddish mud cascaded into the Carioca slum in
the nearby coastal city of Angra dos Reis, killing at least 18
people and reducing rickety shacks to rubble. 10 people died in Sao
Paulo state. 3 people died in Minas Gerais as heavy rains triggered
flooding and landslides. Nearly 80 other mudslides have been
reported throughout the region in recent days. Together with
flooding, they have killed at least 76 people.
(AP, 1/1/10)(AP, 1/2/10)(Reuters, 1/3/10)
2010 Jan 23, Brazil extradited
Manuel Juan Cordero Piacentini, a retired Uruguayan military
officer, to Argentina to face charges of human rights abuses
allegedly committed more than 30 years ago. Under "Operation
Condor," the military dictatorships that ruled much of South America
in the 1970s and 1980s secretly cooperated in the torture and
disappearances of each others' citizens.
2010 Jan 24, In India
environment ministers from Brazil, South Africa, India and China
said that talks in New Delhi had further cemented their alliance
following the Copenhagen climate change summit. The group, known by
the acronym BASIC, pledged to strengthen its unified stance but
would seek consensus with developed countries.
2010 Jan 26, Leftists in Brazil
for a week of protests against capitalism denounced corporate greed
on the second day of the World Social Forum, saying that big
companies humbled by the global meltdown must be prevented from
controlling natural resources and harming the environment.
2010 Jan 27, Brazil's first
working-class president, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva (64), got a
hero's welcome at the World Social Forum in Porto Alegre, wowing
10,000 leftists with a vow to reproach the planet's business titans
for causing the global meltdown when he meets with them this week at
the Davos Swiss ski resort. Lula fell ill at the air force base in
Recife where he was supposed to board a flight to Switzerland and
his trip to Davos was canceled.
(AP, 1/27/10)(AP, 1/28/10)
2010 Jan 29, In Brazil leftists
who converged to protest what they view as uncontrolled capitalism
ended the World Social Forum with vows to take advantage of the
financial crisis to promote a global socialist agenda.
2010 Feb 1, Brazilís government
approved the 11 billion dollar Belo Monte project on the Xingu river
that will flood 500 square km (193 square miles) and supply 11% of
Brazil's electricity. Detractors said the dam in northern Para state
will trigger droughts along a 100 km (60 mile) stretch of the Xingu,
displace thousands of indigenous people, attract an army of
job-seekers, and accelerate the deforestation and destruction of the
2010 Feb 1, Brazilís Cosan, a
producer of ethanol, unveiled a joint venture with Royal Dutch Shell
to pool their retail operations.
(Econ, 2/6/10, p.73)
2010 Feb 10, In Brazil a TV
news helicopter pilot steered his crippled, out-of-control aircraft
away from a busy highway in Sao Paulo before crashing in a grassy
field during rush hour, losing his own life but avoiding greater
casualties. A cameraman onboard was seriously injured.
2010 Feb 10, A Brazilian health
official said 32 elderly people had died in the southeastern city of
Santos this week because of a heat wave that has pushed temperatures
to unseasonably high levels.
2010 Feb 11, In Brazil gunfire
erupted in a Rio de Janeiro slum, killing at least seven suspected
drug traffickers and a policeman a day before the Carnival
celebrations kick off. Jose Roberto Arruda (57), the governor of
Brasilia, was detained after a witness in a corruption investigation
accused the governor of trying to bribe him.
(AP, 2/11/10)(Econ, 2/27/10, p.43)
2010 Feb 11, Volkswagen
announced it was recalling nearly 200,000 vehicles in Brazil because
of a problem with the rear wheels that could cause them to seize or
2010 Feb 12, In Brazil the
World's Greatest Party opened, but the everything-goes atmosphere of
Carnival that has turned Rio de Janeiro into a giant oceanside den
of debauchery was under assault. Amid the law-and-order makeover, a
7-year-old girl prepared to samba before a crowd of thousands as a
Carnival drum corps queen.
2010 Feb 15, In Brazil Julia
Lira, Rio's 7-year-old Carnival drum corps queen, danced at the
front of the samba parade. She didn't like the cameras that homed in
on her, and reacted as any child might, by having a good cry.
2010 Feb 17, In Brazil the
Unidos da Tijuca samba group was crowned champion of the Rio
Carnival parades for the first time in more than seven decades.
Viradouro, which chose a 7-year-old as a drums corps queen, placed
last out of 12 schools in the drum corps category, and scored even
lower in the float category.
2010 Feb 28, In Brazil workers
cleared some 80 tons of dead fish from Ipanema Beach in Rio de
Janeiro. Increased levels of harmful algae were suspected as the
cause of the fie-off.
(SFC, 3/1/10, p.A2)
2010 Mar 4, Brazilís National
Health Surveillance Agency, Anvisa, ordered all 1,987 passengers and
765 crew to remain aboard the "Vision of the Seas" anchored at
Buzios, while teams of doctors treat the 195 passengers suffering
vomiting and diarrhea and determine the cause of their illness.
2010 Mar 11, Brazilian
television network SBT broadcast a tape of Luiz Marques Barbosa (83)
in bed with a 19-year-old that was widely distributed on the
Internet. The station said the video was secretly filmed in January
2009 and sent anonymously to the network. Barbosa was detained in
April out of fear he would flee the country.
2010 Mar 16, Brazilian police
and church officials said authorities were investigating three
priests accused of sexually abusing altar boys after a video
allegedly showing one case of abuse was broadcast on SBT television
a week earlier.
2010 Mar 17, In Ramallah
Brazil's President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva placed a wreath on the
tomb of the late Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat and sharply
criticized Israeli policies, leading Israeli officials to suggest he
was not being evenhanded. The visit came a day after Israel's
hawkish foreign minister, Avigdor Lieberman, said he boycotted
meetings with Silva because the Brazilian did not pay a similar
visit to the grave of Zionist founder Theodor Herzl.
2010 Apr 1, In Brazil Pedro
Alcantara de Souza, who headed a union of landless farmers in Para,
was shot in the head five times by two men on motorcycles on the
outskirts of Redencao.
2010 Apr 6, In Brazil 14
straight hours of rain swamped Rio de Janeiro and killed at least
eight people in the city. 3 more died in Rio de Janeiro state. 5
were also are missing in a mudslide. The death toll eventually
(AP, 4/6/10)(AP, 4/9/10)(AP, 4/13/10)
2010 Apr 7, In Brazil rains
kept pummeling Rio de Janeiro as officials scrambled to restore
transit after at least 96 people were killed by landslides and
2010 Apr 8, In Brazil
authorities said at least 200 people were buried and feared dead
under the latest landslide in the Morro Bumba slum in Niteroi,
neighboring Rio de Janeiro. 205 people were already known to have
died this week in slides triggered by the record rains.
(AP, 4/8/10)(AP, 4/9/10)
2010 Apr 12, The United States
and Brazil signed an agreement meant to bolster military ties, but
Brazil's Defense Minister Nelson Jobim did not offer any hint about
a key defense contract sought by U.S.-based Boeing Co.
2010 Apr 12, In Brazil rancher
Vitalmiro Moura, accused of ordering the 2005 murder of US nun and
Amazon defender Dorothy Stang, was found guilty and sentenced to 30
years in prison. Moura was previously convicted of Stang's murder
and then acquitted in an automatic retrial. That decision was
overturned last year on a technicality.
2010 Apr 12, In Brazil the
threat of new mudslides forced officials to begin evicting 2,600
families from at-risk areas as they embarked on a slum demolition
program on Rio de Janeiro's hills.
2010 Apr 14, In Brazil a
federal judge in Para state delayed the April 20 auction for
construction of what would be the world's third-largest
hydroelectric project. The $11 billion Belo Monte hydroelectric dam
was cleared for construction Feb. 1 by Brazil's Environment Ministry
and bidding was set for next week.
2010 Apr 14, Chinese President
Hu Jintao and Indian PM Manmohan Singh arrived in Brazil to
participate in bilateral meetings with the leaders of other emerging
economies and a BRIC summit on April 16.
2010 Apr 16, Brazil arrested
Nestor Caro Chapparro, said to be one of Colombia's top four drug
traffickers. The US Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency has
accused Chapparro of smuggling more than 5,000 kg of cocaine from
Brazil to the US in the late 1990s.
2010 Apr 16, A judge in the
capital of Brasilia reversed a decision to suspend contract bidding
scheduled for next week and also overturned the suspension of the
environmental license for the 11,000-megawatt Belo Monte dam.
2010 Apr 20, Brazil speedily
awarded the tender for the controversial Belo Monte hydro-electric
dam projected to be the world's third-largest, despite fierce
opposition from environmentalists. The tender was awarded to Norte
Energia, a consortium led by Chesf, a subsidiary of the state
electricity company Electrobras, after a series of court injunctions
that had blocked and unblocked the auction process. The reservoir of
the dammed Xingu river will cover 516 square km. and leave scores of
(AFP, 4/20/10)(Econ, 4/24/10, p.34)
2010 Apr 27, Brazil, a UN
Security Council member, demanded that Iran guarantee its nuclear
program has no military aims, saying the crisis has become the
single most important security issue in the world.
2010 Apr 28, In Brazil Sao
Paulo state prosecutors said Father Jose Afonso (74), a Roman
Catholic priest, is facing charges he abused eight boys in cases
dating back to 1995, adding to a growing list of allegations against
clergy in Latin America.
2010 May 1, In Brazil a jury
convicted a rancher of orchestrating the murder of US nun and Amazon
defender Dorothy Stang. Regivaldo Galvao, the last of five
defendants to stand trial in the case, was sentenced to 30 years in
prison. The verdict came two weeks after another rancher, Vitalmiro
Moura, was sentenced to 30 years in prison after being found guilty
of collaborating with Galvao. Galvao was soon released on bail
pending an appeal.
(AP, 5/1/10)(AP, 5/19/10)
2010 May 2, Norsk Hydro
announced that it was acquiring the aluminium assets of Vale,
a Brazilian mining giant, in a deal valued at $4.9 billion.
(Econ, 5/8/10, p.65)
2010 May 3, Paraguayís Pres.
Fernando Lugo and Brazilian President Luis Inacio Lula Da Silva met
under a heavy police presence in a rough outpost called Pedro Juan
Caballero on the Paraguayan side and Ponta Pora in Brazil in a joint
effort to fight to drug-trafficking. Lugo's ministers were
frustrated by the Paraguayan Senate's vote last week to delay until
2013 a personal income tax that would generate nearly $37 million a
year that Lugo desperately needs to fund troops and provisions of
martial law he has declared across five states in pursuit of the
2010 May 5, Brazilian local
media reported that Brazil is to build a 483-million-dollar nuclear
reactor to produce radioactive material for medical use as well as
industrial-grade enriched uranium.
2010 May 8, Iran voiced
optimism about Turkish and Brazilian mediation efforts in its
nuclear dispute with the West, welcoming in principle ideas aimed at
reviving a stalled fuel deal with major powers.
2010 May 15, In Brazil a fire
destroyed what may be the world's largest scientific collection of
dead snakes, spiders and scorpions. The Instituto Butantanís
collection of nearly 80,000 specimens was the main source for
research on thousands of species.
2010 May 16, Aviation officials
closed airports in northern England, Scotland and Northern Ireland
due to a drifting, dense cloud of volcanic ash from Iceland.
2010 May 16, In Brazil Marina
Silva, former rubber tapper turned environmentalist, joined the
presidential race as candidate for the small Green Party on Sunday,
pledging clean government and sustainable development.
2010 May 16, In Iran Brazil's
Pres. Luis Inacio Lula da Silva met with Iranian leaders to try to
broker a compromise in the international standoff over Tehran's
nuclear program, even as the US says new sanctions are the only way
to force Iran's cooperation.
2010 May 17, Iran agreed to
ship most of its low-enriched uranium to Turkey in a surprise
nuclear fuel swap deal that could ease the international standoff
over the country's disputed atomic program and deflate a US-led push
for tougher sanctions. The deal was reached in talks between
Brazilsí Pres. Silva, Turkeyís PM Erdogan and Iranís Pres.
(AP, 5/17/10)(SFC, 5/17/10, p.A2)
2010 May 20, In Brazil a court
ordered the arrest of a Polish priest suspected of sexually abusing
a teenager in a Rio de Janeiro suburb and turning his parish home
into what the judge described as an "erotic dungeon" for sex with
adolescents. State prosecutors have accused Marcin Michael
Strachanowski (44) of handcuffing a former altar boy (16) to a bed 3
years ago in the parish house where the priest lived and threatening
to kill the youth if he spoke of the abuse.
2010 May 24, Brazilian
President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva launched TV Brasil, a new
Portuguese-language network based in Mozambique's capital Maputo and
tasked with "saying good things" about Brazil. From Maputo, the new
channel will be broadcast to more than 40 countries, mostly in
Africa and Latin America.
2010 Jun 6, In Brazil millions
of gays and lesbians jammed several of Sao Paulo's main avenues for
the 14th annual gay pride parade in South America's largest city.
2010 Jun 7, The Corporate Eco
Forum (CEF) awarded Walmart Brazil and its CEO Hector Nunez
the inaugural C.K. Prahalad Award for Global Sustainability
Leadership for their historic work to preserve the Amazon.
2010 Jun 8, In northeastern
Brazil Jose Agostinho Pereira (54) was jailed for keeping his
daughter imprisoned for 12 years in a remote fishing village. Police
said he had raped her repeatedly and had seven children with her.
The man was also accused of abusing a young girl he had with his
daughter. In Feb, 2011, Pereira was decapitated by fellow inmates
who broke into his cell in the city of Pinheiro.
(AP, 6/9/10)(AP, 2/9/11)
2010 Jun 17, Brazil suspended
retaliatory measures against US goods over a cotton subsidy dispute,
freezing until 2012 a long-running row that has demonstrated the
South American nation's trade clout.
2010 Jun 21, In Brazil a
government study said 51% of men and 42.3% of women were overweight.
A recent US study showed 68% of the US population was overweight.
(SFC, 6/22/10, p.A2)
2010 Jun 22, In Brazil floods
after days of driving rain killed at least 51 people in the
northeast, and left another 120,000 people homeless. After some days
the number of missing dropped to 76.
(AP, 6/22/10)(AFP, 6/23/10)(AP, 6/25/10)
2010 Jul 1, In Brazil a statue
of Christ overlooking Rio de Janeiro was reinaugurated after a
renovation costing nearly $4 million. The renovation of the Christ
the Redeemer statue, which has towered over the city for nearly 80
years, was financed by Brazilian mining giant Vale and the Roman
Catholic archdiocese of Rio.
2010 Jul 5, Brazilís Pres. Luiz
Inacio Lula da Silva wrapped up a state visit to Equatorial Guinea
(Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial), which included the signing of
multiple cooperation agreements, economic meetings, and festivities.
(PR Newswire, 7/6/10)
2010 Jul 7, In Brazil Bruno
Souza, a star goalkeeper and captain of defending club champion
Flamengo, surrendered to police to face questioning in connection
with the disappearance and suspected death of his ex-lover, Eliza
Samudio, last seen alive on June 7. Police believed Bruno was in a
home near Belo Horizonte home with Samudio at the time of her
murder, and that her body was later cut into pieces, some of which
were fed to dogs in a bid to cover the murder.
2010 Jul 10, It was reported
that Amazon river dolphins were being killed by fishermen for bait
and that the population was dropping 7 percent a year. The gentle
and curious dolphins were easy targets for nets and harpoons as they
swim fearlessly up to fishing boats.
2010 Jul 12, In Brazil Paulo
Moura (77), clarinet jazz great and Latin Grammy winner, died after
a fight against cancer.
2010 Jul 14, Jornal do Brazil
said it will end its print editions in September after 119 years,
but will continue with a paid online edition.
(SFC, 7/15/10, p.A2)
2010 Jul 16, In Brazil an
11-year-old boy in a school classroom was killed by a stray bullet
from a shootout between police and suspected drug gang members in
Rio de Janeiro.
2010 Jul 25, In Brazil about
300 Amazon Indians prevented workers from entering or leaving the
construction site of a hydroelectric plant that protesters say is on
an ancient burial ground. Native Indians took some 100 workers
hostage at the construction site. Indians from eight tribes taking
part in the protest demanded compensation for losses caused by
construction of the Dardanelos plant in the southern Amazon city of
Aripuana. The hostages were released the next day.
(AP, 7/25/10)(Reuters, 7/25/10)(AP, 7/26/10)
2010 Jul 25, In Turkey foreign
ministers of Turkey and Brazil urged Iran to be flexible and open in
dealings with the West over its atomic program as Iran renewed its
readiness to resume frozen nuclear talks. Turkish Foreign Minister
Ahmet Davutoglu said Iran has expressed willingness to have talks
with the European Union on its nuclear program after the month of
Ramadan ends in early September.
(AFP, 7/25/10)(Reuters, 7/25/10)
2010 Jul 26, In Brazil
gunmen used a pickup truck to block an air taxi from taking off at a
small airport in the northeastern city of Caruaru and stole money
and documents it was carrying for the country's federation of banks.
2010 Jul 27, In Brazil Wallace
Souza (51), a former TV crime show host and state legislator accused
of commissioning killings to boost ratings, died. He suffered from
Budd Chiari syndrome, a rare disorder that causes clots to form in
blood vessels in the liver.
2010 Aug 2, Brazilian
authorities said police have dismantled a kidnapping ring that
scoured social networking sites for victims.
(SFC, 8/3/10, p.A2)
2010 Aug 2, UNESCO added 6
sites located in Brazil, China, Mexico, France's Reunion Island and
the South Pacific nation of Kiribati to World Heritage status.
2010 Aug 9, Brazil formally
offered asylum to Sakineh Mohammadi Ashtiani, a woman sentenced to
death in Iran on an adultery conviction. On July 31 Brazilian
President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva suggested he would be willing to
provide the woman refuge.
2010 Aug 9, In Brazil Ed
Stafford (34), former British army captain, ended his 2 1/2-year
journey as he planned, leaping into the sea as the first man known
to walk the length of the Amazon River.
2010 Aug 10, Brazil signed on
to UN sanctions against Iran despite misgivings over the measures
following its efforts to negotiate a nuclear-swap deal with the
2010 Aug 12, An Iranian man was
arrested in Brazil on suspicion of 11 murders allegedly aimed at
protecting his illegal electronics smuggling operation. Police in
the northeastern state of Ceara say Farhad Marvizi (46) hired two
rogue officers and other people to carry out the killings in the
last two years.
2010 Aug 17, In Brazil police
officers repeated shot a 14-year-old boy just outside his house in
Manaus. The boy survived, but was seriously injured. On March 24,
2011, five police officers were detained after Brazilian television
released amateur video that showed the shooting. A prosecutor said
the officers allegedly involved in the shooting told him they were
asking the minor about a gun used in a crime in the neighborhood.
2010 Aug 20, Police in
southeastern Brazil said Raimundo Gregorio da Silva, a school
janitor, has confessed to killing two female students and dumping
their bodies in an abandoned cesspool. Silva was arrested last week
after the remains were found, and has confessed to killing Dimitria
Vieira (16) in 2008 and another student, Iara Pacheco (19), reported
missing since February.
2010 Aug 21, In Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil, gunmen engaged in a shootout with police took 30 people
hostage at a luxury hotel popular with foreign tourists but within
hours freed the captives and surrendered to police. One bystander
was killed as she was getting out of a taxi.
2010 Aug 25, Cosan, Brazilís
biggest sugar and ethanol producer, signed a $12 billion joint
venture with Royal Dutch Shell, the worldís largest energy company.
2010 Aug 31, Spanish police
said that for the first time they have broken up a human-trafficking
gang that brought men to the country to work as prostitutes,
providing them with Viagra, cocaine and other stimulant drugs to be
available for sex with other men 24 hours a day. Authorities
arrested 14 people, mainly Brazilians, on suspicion of running the
organization and another 17 alleged prostitutes for being in Spain
2010 Sep 3, Brazil's state-run
oil company Petrobras unveiled a huge share offering which could
raise 64 billion dollars to help finance new exploration projects in
2010 Sep 14, The British
embassy said Britain has offered to build 11 warships for Brazil, as
Brazil hones a maritime defense contract to protect recently found
vast offshore oil deposits.
2010 Sep 15, Brazil's
government unveiled plans to slow the deforestation and help halt
the wildfires that destroy its tropical savanna. The government
plans to spend $200 million in the next two years to combat illegal
deforestation and prevent fires.
2010 Sep 23, Brazilian
President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva officially launched the sale of
new shares in the state-run oil company Petrobras seen as the
world's biggest capitalization, worth 67 billion dollars. This
raised the governmentís stake from 40% to 48%.
(AP, 9/24/10)(Econ, 10/2/10, p.31)
2010 Sep 27, Police in Brazilís
state of Rio Grande do Sul arrested Rev. Avelino Backes (70) after
finding him in a hospital in the town of Santa Rosa. Backes
disappeared in 2008 after being sentenced to seven years in jail for
molesting girls aged 9 and 10 in the neighboring state of Santa
Catarina in the 1990s.
2010 Sep 28, Brazilian Finance
Minister Guido Mantega warned in remarks reported from Sao Paulo
that the world is in the grip of a currency "war,Ē with leading
nations using devaluation to solve economic problems.
2010 Sep 30, In Sweden
activists from Nepal, Nigeria, Brazil and Israel were named the
winners of this year's Right Livelihood Award, also known as the
"alternative Nobel," for work that included fighting to save the
Amazon rain forest and bringing health care to Palestinians cut off
from services. The recipients included Nigeria's Nnimmo Bassey (42),
Catholic Bishop Erwin Kraeutler (71) of Brazil, Shrikrishna Upadhyay
(65) of Nepal, and the organization Physicians for Human Rights
2010 Oct 1, Spanish energy
giant Repsol announced the sale of 40 percent of its Brazilian
affiliate to China's Sinopec for 7.1 billion dollars, securing
funding for the development of oil fields in Brazil.
2010 Oct 3, Brazil held
presidential elections. Ruling party candidate Dilma Rousseff looked
poised to sweep to victory. Rousseff, who is trying to become
Brazil's first female leader, fell short of getting a majority of
votes in presidential elections and faced a runoff in four weeks
against an experienced, centrist rival. Francisco Everardo Oliveira
Silva (45), better known by his clown name Tiririca, received more
than 1.3 million votes in Sao Paulo state in Brazil's presidential
and congressional elections. "What does a congressman do? The truth
is I don't know, but vote for me and I'll tell you," he said in his
campaign advertisements. On Nov 11 Silva convinced the Sao Paulo
Electoral court that he could read and write.
(AP, 10/3/10)(AFP, 10/3/10)(AP, 10/4/10)(Reuters,
10/5/10)(SSFC, 11/14/10, p.A4)
2010 Oct 5, In Brazil a ruling
posted on the Sao Paulo electoral court's website said there is
sufficient doubt about whether comic performer Tiririca, which means
"grumpy" in Portuguese, meets a constitutional mandate that federal
lawmakers be literate. Francisco Silva, who got more votes than any
other candidate for Congress, will have to convince authorities he
can read and write if he wants to take office.
2010 Oct 7, In Brazil Globo
TV's website said that a 13-year-old boy was killed in the crossfire
of a gunbattle during a police operation to recover a stolen vehicle
in a shantytown. A 67-year-old woman died and two people were
injured in an unrelated shootout between police and gang members.
Dozens of armed drug gang members have been setting up roadblocks
and robbing drivers en masse in recent days in the Rio de Janeiro
area, prompting the firing of 19 police battalion leaders a day
2010 Oct 13, In Brazil Milton
Marcondes of the Humpback Whale Institute said at least 75 humpback
whales have died in 2010. The previous high was 41 in 2007.
2010 Oct 15, China's basketball
association fined a series of coaches and players in the national
team after a bench-clearing brawl put an end to a friendly match
with Brazil. The fight had erupted the night of Oct 12 at a game in
central Henan province.
2010 Oct 17, In Brazil three
men broke into the home of Wanderley dos Reis, the owner of a small
newspaper in Sao Paulo state, and shot and killed him.
2010 Oct 17, In southeastern
Brazil a bus carrying people back from a sports festival for special
needs athletes fell from a bridge into a river, killing 11 and
injuring nearly 30.
2010 Oct 18, In northeastern
Brazil Francisco Gomes de Medeiros, a veteran reporter who had often
received death threats for his reports on crime, died instantly when
he was shot five times in the city of Caico.
2010 Oct 26, In Brazil a man
accused of raping 40 women turned himself in, only to be let go
because Brazilian law prohibits voters from being arrested five days
before elections unless they are caught red-handed. The no-arrest
provision was included in the Brazilian electoral code enacted in
1932 after a period in which election fraud and arrests to
intimidate voters were common.
2010 Oct 26, A Brazilian court
ordered McDonald's to pay a former franchise manager $17,500 because
he gained 65 pounds while working there a dozen years. The
32-year-old man says he was forced to sample food products each day
to ensure that quality standards remained high because McDonald's
hired "mystery clients" to randomly visit restaurants and report on
the food, service and cleanliness.
2010 Oct 31, Brazil held
elections. Dilma Rousseff (62), the hand-picked candidate of Pres.
Lula da Silva was the heavy favorite to replace him in the runoff
election. Dilma Rousseff was elected over centrist rival Jose Serra
56 percent to 44 percent and will be the first woman to direct Latin
America's biggest nation.
(AP, 10/31/10)(AP, 11/1/10)
2010 Nov 9, Brazilian President
Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva began a 2-day visit to Mozambique,
focusing on education and health care in his last trip to Africa
before leaving office.
2010 Nov 9, In Brazil
authorities negotiated an end to a rebellion in an overcrowded
prison in the northeastern state of Maranhao after fighting between
rival gangs left 18 inmates dead, including six who were
2010 Nov 11, International and
Brazilian human rights organizations submitted a formal petition to
the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR), denouncing
grave and imminent violations upon the rights of indigenous and
riverine communities affected by the construction of Belo Monte Dam
on the Xingu River in the Brazilian Amazon.
2010 Nov 14, In Brazil a gay
youth, Douglas Igor Marques Luiz (19), was shot by men in military
uniforms in Rio de Janeiro following mammoth gay pride parade. 2
sergeants were arrested on Nov 18. An army statement says one of the
suspects acknowledged shooting Luiz.
(AP, 11/17/10)(AP, 11/18/10)
2010 Nov 18, Brazilís federal
police said they have dismantled an international human-trafficking
ring that provided fake passports to Brazilians wanting to migrate
illegally to the US.
2010 Nov 22, In Brazil local
Rio de Janeiro news media reported that armed men used roadblocks to
trap and rob drivers over the weekend, killing a man and alarming
public officials who are preparing to receive hoards of summer
2010 Nov 23, In Brazil police
in Rio launched a broad crackdown on gangs and drug-trafficking
groups rolling out helicopter-backed armored tanks in 20 slums,
killing at least two suspects.
2010 Nov 23, In Brazil Roberto
Puppo, a native of Bergamo, Italy, was shot and killed. His
bullet-ridden body was found in Alagoas on the next day. Authorities
believe the killing was ordered by da Silva's boyfriend, an Italian
man "suspected of belonging to an international organized crime
group." A teenager, who was not identified because he is a minor;
and a private security guard identified as Cosme Alves were arrested
after a few weeks and charged with the killing.
2010 Nov 24, In Brazil heavily
armed men halted buses and cars, robbed their passengers and set the
vehicles ablaze in Rio de Janeiro, continuing a wave of violence
that has rattled rich and poor alike. Police raided gang-ruled
shantytowns, setting off clashes that killed 14 people as
authorities tried to halt a wave of violent crime.
2010 Nov 26, In Brazil
residents of Rio's northern slums braced for more violence as
hundreds of reinforcements joined a widening crackdown on drug gangs
that has killed at least 30 people in six days. Some 800 troops
backed a police operation at the Alemao complex of shantytowns as
drug gang members stood their ground.
(AFP, 11/26/10)(SFC, 11/27/10, p.A4)
2010 Nov 28, In Brazil Rio
police, backed by helicopters and armored vehicles, invaded the
Alemao slum complex, long held by traffickers, quickly taking over
the key drug gang stronghold in a historic victory for the city
hosting the 2016 Olympics.
2010 Nov 30, Brazilís
government said troops would remain in the Complexo de Alemao slum,
a sanctuary for many drug traffickers, for at least 6 months to
maintain order. The recent operation to pacify the slum left at
least 37 people dead.
(SFC, 12/1/10, p.A2)(Econ, 12/4/10, p.49)
2010 Dec 3, Outgoing Brazilian
President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva announced recognition of a
Palestinian state within the 1967 borders in a public letter
addressed to Palestinian leader Mahmud Abbas. This was made public
by Brazil's foreign ministry.
2010 Dec 3, Negotiators for the
US and Brazil initialed a text in Rio de Janeiro for a new air
transport agreement. Once formally approved, the pact will establish
an Open Skies air transportation relationship between the two
countries that will expand services and could bring down prices.
2010 Dec 8, Brazilian mining
giant Vale made its Hong Kong trading debut, the first South
American firm to list in the city, as the company ramps up its
exposure to resource-hungry China.
2010 Dec 10, The Brazilian
government said gay couples in stable relationships are entitled the
same social security pension benefits enjoyed by heterosexual
(SFC, 12/11/10, p.A2)
2010 Dec 15, Brazilís members
of Congress voted themselves a 62% pay rise. Many state governments
and municipalities soon followed suit.
(Econ, 1/1/11, p.32)
2010 Dec 15, Australia signed
an agreement with Brazil to share knowledge on putting on the
Olympics to help preparations with Rio's hosting of the 2016 Games.
2010 Dec 15, The Costa
Rica-based Inter-American Court on Human Rights, part of the
Organization of American States (OAS), condemned Brazil for the
forced "disappearance" of 62 suspected leftist militants during its
military dictatorship and said it should allow prosecutions for
abuses committed during the era.
2010 Dec 18, In Brazil
bridegroom Rogerio Damascena (29) fatally shot his new wife, Renata
Alexandre Costa Coelho (25), his best man, Marcelo Guimaraes, and
then himself after announcing to horrified guests that he had a
"surprise" for them.
2010 Dec 29, Brazilian media
reported that President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva has decided not to
extradite former Italian guerrilla Cesare Battisti, a move that
could hurt ties with Italy.
2010 Dec 30, Brazil's state-run
Petrobras confirmed that oil fields recently discovered offshore
contained 8.3 billion barrels of recoverable crude and gas, and said
the biggest field was being renamed "Lula."
2010 Dec 31, Brazil's president
granted political asylum to Italian fugitive Cesare Battisti, but
the case must still be heard by the nation's Supreme Court.
2010 Dec 31, Palestinian
president Mahmud Abbas laid the first stone of what will become a
Palestinian embassy in Brazil, the most important Latin American
country to recognize a sovereign Palestinian state.
2010 Larry Rohter authored
ďBrazil on the Rise: The Story of a Country Transformed.Ē
(Econ, 8/21/10, p.69)
2010 Brazilís government began
allowing taxpayers to deduct costs for cosmetic surgery.
(SFC, 5/1/10, p.A3)
2010 Brazilian census figures
for this year showed that nearly 43,000 children under 14 years of
age were living with a partner in defiance of laws forbidding these
unions. The census put the number of Roman Catholics at about 65% of
the population of 192 million, down from 74% in 2000. It also marked
the first time in which black and mixed-race people officially
outnumbered whites, weighing in at just over 50 percent, compared
with 47 percent for whites.
(AP, 9/13/11) (AP, 11/3/12)(AP, 3/17/13)
2011 Jan 1, Brazil's first
female president, Dilma Rousseff, took control of Latin America's
biggest economy from outgoing popular leader Luiz Inacio Lula da
Silva in a triumphant handover ceremony. Rousseff called for an
overhaul of the tax code in her inaugural speech before Congress.
(AFP, 1/1/10)(Reuters, 1/1/10)
2011 Jan 3, Brazilís President
Dilma Rousseff kicked off her government with a series of
market-friendly signals, including new details on budget cuts and a
report that she will turn to the private sector to help solve one of
Brazil's biggest infrastructure bottlenecks, a badly needed new
terminal at Sao Paulo's main international airport.
2011 Jan 4, Italian protesters
rallied against the Brazilian president's refusal to extradite
ex-militant Cesare Battisti, amid government assurances that
relations with Brazil will not be affected.
2011 Jan 5, In Brazil five
sisters in Sao Paulo state went to police and accused their father
of sexually abusing them for over 20 years.
2011 Jan 6, Authorities in
Brazil said four people from the same family have died in a mudslide
in the interior of Sao Paulo state. Civil defense officials said
heavy flooding has killed at least 35 people and forced more than
30,000 out of their homes across the country.
2011 Jan 8, Investigators told
Brazilís G1 news website that 2 brothers have been charged with
killing their father, a local Afro-Brazilian religious leader, by
knocking him out with sleeping pills and then burying him alive in
Maranhao state. The brothers told police their father was a violent
man who drank too much and didn't accept their homosexuality.
2011 Jan 11, Brazilian
authorities said heavy rains have triggered mudslides and floods in
southeastern Brazil, killing at least 13 people. Sao Paulo nearly
came to halt as flooding blocked traffic in some of the city's main
2011 Jan 12, Brazilian
authorities in Rio de Janeiro said at least 350 people died in three
towns north of Rio following early morning mudslides.
(AP, 1/12/11)(AP, 1/13/11)
2011 Jan 14, In Brazil grieving
mudslide survivors carried the bodies of loved ones for hours down
washed-out mountainsides as the death toll hit 514.
2011 Jan 16, In Brazil
survivors of mudslides that have killed 611 carried food, water and
blankets to friends, neighbors and relatives still stranded in
remote, stricken villages.
2011 Jan 17, Brazil's army on
sent 700 soldiers to help throw a lifeline to desperate
neighborhoods that have been cut off from food, water or help in
recovering bodies since mudslides killed at least 700 people.
(AP, 1/17/11)(Reuters, 1/17/11)(AP, 1/18/11)
2011 Jan 19, The World Bank
said it will lend Brazil $485 million for rebuilding and disaster
prevention efforts following devastating mudslides. At least 207
people were still missing as the death toll from the disaster in a
scenic mountain region reached 741.
(AFP, 1/19/11)(Reuters, 1/20/11)
2011 Jan 21, Brazilian
officials said about 400 people were registered as missing after
mudslides last week that killed at least 806 people.
(AP, 1/21/11)(Reuters, 1/23/11)
2011 Jan 24, Brazilian
authorities said heavy overnight storms have caused new flooding in
Sao Paulo, killing at least one man, toppling cars into buildings,
downing power lines and halting traffic.
2011 Jan 26, In Brazil Joao
Batista Groppo (64) was arrested after his wife of 40 years was
found locked in a "filthy and dark" cellar. He had allegedly kept
his wife locked in a cellar for 16 years. Groppo's girlfriend Maria
Furquim was also arrested as an accomplice.
2011 Jan 27, The Brazilian
government issued a "partial" installation license allowing the Belo
Monte Dam to break ground on the Amazon's Xingu River despite
egregious disregard for human rights and environmental legislation,
the unwavering protests of civil society and condemnations by its
Federal Public Prosecutor's Office (MPF).
2011 Feb 1, In Brazil the Civil
Defense department in Santa Catarina state said severe floods
triggered by torrential downpours have killed at least six people
and driven thousands from their homes.
2011 Feb 4, Police in Brazil
said they had freed a 45-year-old woman who had been locked in a
house for 20 years with no communication with the outside world.
Parana state police said the woman was locked in the home by her
partner, a man (60), in the city of Mariluz.
2011 Feb 6, In Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil, police faced no resistance in an operation to take control
of nine slums commanded by drug traffickers.
2011 Feb 7, In Brazil a massive
fire consumed the warehouses where Rio de Janeiro's samba groups
store the props and costumes for Brazil's largest Carnival parade.
2011 Feb 8, In Brazil over half
a million people, most of them Brazilians, called via petition on
newly elected President Dilma to halt plans to construct the Belo
Monte Dam. Outside the Presidential Palace, several hundred people
gathered in protest including indigenous chiefs in full tribal
regalia and community leaders from the Xingu River Basin, and
delivered the petition signatures to the Dilma Government.
2011 Feb 8, In northeastern
Brazil a prison riot, begun a day earlier, ended. 5 prisoners were
killed including Jose Agostinho Pereira, who was decapitated by
fellow inmates in his cell in the city of Pinheiro. Pereira had been
jailed in 2010 for raping and keeping his daughter imprisoned for 12
years in a remote fishing village. He had seven children with her.
(AP, 6/9/10)(AP, 2/9/11)
2011 Feb 9, Brazil, faced with
climbing inflation and slowing growth, unveiled $30 billion in cuts
to its 2011 budget. Finance Minister Guido Mantega said this would
affect "all ministries."
2011 Feb 11, In Brazil at least
35 people, mostly Rio de Janeiro police officers, were arrested on
suspicion of colluding with drug gangs as the Brazilian city
attempts to clean itself up before hosting the 2014 World Cup and
the Olympic Games two years later.
2011 Feb 15, In Brazil Allan
Turnowski, the head of Rio de Janeiro state's investigative police,
resigned after an anti-corruption sting resulted in the arrest of 30
officers, including the department's former second-in-command.
(AP, 2/16/11)(SFC, 2/16/11, p.A2)
2011 Feb 16, Brazilian
authorities said they have arrested 19 Goias state troopers
suspected of taking part in a death squad that allegedly murdered
and tortured innocent women and children. Officials said Martha
Rocha (51), a 27-year police veteran who led a division responsible
for protection of women, will replace Allan Turnowski as head of the
troubled 12,000-member Rio Civil Police.
(AP, 2/16/11)(AFP, 2/17/11)
2011 Feb 18, Brazil set out its
foreign policy aims under new President Dilma Rousseff, talking up
China ties, blaming rich countries for hampering global trade talks,
stressing dialogue with Iran, and saying it sees itself as an agent
for "world peace."
2011 Feb 22, In northeastern
Brazil police in the city of Pirapemas arrested a man accused of
sexually abusing his daughter for 12 years and fathering her two
children. The man confessed to abusing his daughter starting when
she was 14 years old and fathering two daughters, aged 5 years and 2
2011 Feb 24, Brazilís Justice
Ministry said the murder rate among Brazil's youths has soared to
epidemic levels. The number of murdered Brazilians age 15 to 24 rose
from 30 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1998 to 52.9 per 100,000 a decade
(AP, 2/24/11)(SFC, 2/25/11, p.A2)
2011 Feb 25, A Brazilian court
suspended work on the $11 billion Belo Monte dam project citing
(SSFC, 2/27/11, p.A4)
2011 Feb 25, In Brazil Ricardo
Jose Neis sped his car through a pack of more than 100 pro-cycling
activists in the city of Porto Alegre. At least 40 people were
injured. Prosecutors soon asked for his preventive detention on
charges of attempted homicide.
2011 Feb 27, In Brazil at least
16 people were electrocuted when a power line fell atop a packed
pre-Carnival street parade in the town of Bandeira do Sul in Minas
2011 Mar 3, A Brazilian judged
overturned a lower court ruling that suspended work on the $11
billion Belo Monte dam project.
(SFC, 3/4/11, p.A2)
2011 Mar 4, In Brazil Rio's
mayor handed the key to the city to the mythical figure who reigns
over the chaos of Carnival, officially opening this seaside city's
five-day annual exaltation of music, booze and flesh.
2011 Mar 5, In Brazil a
passenger bus collided head-on with a lumber truck in the southern
state of Santa Catarina, killing at least 25 people. More than 20
were seriously injured.
2011 Mar 14, In Brazil civil
defense officials said some 31,000 people have been forced from
their homes by flooding in Santa Catarina and Parana states.
(SFC, 3/15/11, p.A2)
2011 Mar 19, President Barack
Obama landed in Brasilia, the highland capital of Brazil, for the
start of a three-country, five-day tour of Latin America to promote
greater economic ties and improved regional security.
2011 Mar 20, US President
Barack Obama held up emerging powerhouse Brazil as a model of
economic and democratic transformation that leaders in the troubled
Middle East should try to copy.
2011 Mar 25, The World Trade
Organization ruled that some anti-dumping duties imposed by the
United States on imports of Brazilian orange juice violated
international trade rules.
2011 Mar 27, In Brazil renowned
Belgium-born theologian Jose Comblin (88) died of natural causes.
Comblin was a leading exponent of liberation theology, which
advocates activism on behalf of the poor. The movement swept Latin
America in the 1960s following the Second Vatican Council.
2011 Mar 29, Brazilian
President Dilma Rousseff has signed a law that guarantees
grandparents the right to visit their grandchildren when the parents
are divorced. The presidential approval was published today in the
2011 Mar 29, Jose Alencar
(b.1931), former Brazilian Vice President (2002-2010) died after a
long battle with abdominal cancer.
2011 Apr 2, Brazilís Veja
magazine, in its online edition, reported that at least 20 people
affiliated with al Qaeda as well as the Lebanese Shi'ite Muslim
group Hezbollah, the Palestinian group Hamas and two other
organizations have been hiding out in the South American country.
2011 Apr 7, In Brazil a gunman
opened fire in an elementary school in Rio de Janeiro. 12 children
were killed including 10 girls and 2 boys between the ages of 12 and
15. Wellington Oliveira (23) shot and killed himself after being
confronted by police.
(AP, 4/7/11)(AP, 4/8/11)
2011 Apr 19, Brazilian police
swept through Rio de Janeiro's largest slum in a crackdown on
drug-related crime, arresting 11 people and seizing an estimated
three tons of marijuana.
2011 Apr 21, In Brazil a small
plane crashed in the Amazon soon after taking off from Manaus,
killing seven people. 8 others on the air taxi survived.
2011 Apr 22, In Brazil gunmen
killed Jorge Grando, an environmental activist, his brother and
2011 Apr 23, In southern Brazil
emergency workers said at least 10 people have been killed by
landslides and other accidents caused by heavy rains.
2011 Apr 29, Brazil's
population climbed to more than 190.7 million people in 2010,
according to initial results of the decennial census released by the
country's official institute of geography and statistics.
2011 May 5, Brazil's high court
ruled that same-sex civil unions must be recognized, a decision
welcomed as a watershed by gay activists who also hope it will cool
rising violence against homosexuals in Latin America's most populous
2011 May 6, Brazilian federal
police confirmed that 16 suspected members of a Serbian gang were
arrested between May1-5 across the country. The crackdown concluded
a two-year operation that resulted in 35 arrests, the seizure of
1,370 pounds (620 kilograms) of cocaine and the equivalent of $1.2
2011 May 6, Brazilís Justice
Minister Jose Eduardo Cardozo launched a disarmament campaign hoping
to take more than 1 million guns off the streets by the end of the
2011 May 8, In Mozambique Vale,
the Brazilian mining giant, opened a new $1.7 billion coal mine,
tapping the southern African country's thermal and coking coal
reserves of around 23 billion tons.
2011 May 18, Brazil said it has
set up a crisis center to combat increased deforestation in the
Amazon rain forest. Satellite data showed a significant increase in
deforestation over the past two months.
(SFC, 5/19/11, p.A2)
2011 May 22, In Brazil about
1,000 people gathered in Sao Paulo to protest against proposed laws
in favor of Brazilian farmers who are seeking more space to raise
cattle. They said that the environmental law changes would
increase deforestation in the Amazon.
2011 May 22, In Brazil a boat
carrying more than 100 passengers sank in a lake in Rio de Janeiro.
Rescue workers said a baby was dead and seven people were missing.
2011 May 24, In northern Brazil
rubber tapper Jose Claudio Ribeiro da Silva, an activist fighting to
protect the Amazon rain forest from loggers, was shot and killed
with his wife by gunmen in the jungle state of Para.
2011 May 25, Brazil's Pres.
Dilma Rousseff suspended an anti-homophobia campaign that had been
planned to begin at schools this year because she thought the videos
and pamphlets weren't appropriate for children.
2011 May 31, Brazilian police
arrested nearly 30 people in connection with a series of ATM heists
that have left some poorer parts of Sao Paulo with scant access to
cash. Five current or former police officers were arrested in the
sting and investigators suspect another two dozen police could be
2011 Jun 2, Brazilís Pres.
Dilma Rousseff launched a program to eradicate the extreme poverty
afflicting 16.2 million people in Brazil by 2014, aiming to fulfill
a campaign promise.
2011 Jun 2, In Brazil another
rural activist, identified only by his first name, Marcos, was found
shot to death in the Amazon, just three days after Brazil's leaders
discussed how to stop the region's deadly disputes over logging and
protect those whose lives are threatened.
2010 Jun 4, Brazilís Congress
passed its ďficha limpaĒ (clean record) law. It barred candidates
for eight years following a conviction for vote buying or misuse of
(Econ, 9/28/13, SR
2011 Jun 7, Brazilian President
Dilma Rousseff's chief of staff Antonio Palocci stepped down amid
questions over how his personal wealth rose sharply while he served
as a congressman in 2010.
2011 Jun 14, In Brazil a
landless peasant activist was reported killed by a gunshot to his
head outside his home in Brazil, the fifth murder in a month likely
tied to the conflict over land and logging in the Amazon. The body
of Obede Loyla Souza was found over the weekend in the dense forest
surrounding his home in the landless settlement of Esperanca.
2011 Jun 16, In Brazil police
said Jose Rainha (50), a longtime leader of the MST, a landless
rural workers movement, was arrested in rural Sao Paulo state after
a 10-month investigation.
2011 Jun 18, Brazilian
demonstrators held marches on the weekend calling for marijuana to
be legalized after the country's top court ruled the gatherings
could go ahead in the name of freedom of speech.
2011 Jun 19, Brazilian police
raided Rioís Mangueira shantytown, dominated by drug trafficking
gangs, in an ongoing program to bring peace to areas near Maracana
stadium ahead of the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympics.
2011 Jun 20, In Brazil Juan
Moraes (11), was shot and killed by police in Rio de Janeiro. The
boyís body was found three days later, dumped in a river near police
headquarters, 11 miles (18 km) from where he was shot. 4
police officers, involved in the shooting death were arrested on
2011 Jun 20, British-based
Rolls-Royce said it had won an order worth $2.2 billion to supply
its Trent XWB jet engines to power the Airbus A350 long-haul planes
bought by Brazil's TAM airlines.
2011 Jun 21, In Brazil Kenneth
Andrew Craig (42), an American on the US Marshals' list of
most-wanted sex offenders, was captured in Rio de Janeiro. Craig had
been arrested in 1998 in Deerfield Beach, Florida, after police
allegedly found him in a hotel room with two underage boys. He
allegedly filmed the two youngsters having sex, but was released on
bail and then fled to Brazil.
2011 Jun 22, The online
pranksters at Lulz Security (LulzSec) say they've taken down two
government Web sites in Brazil as they continue with their global
"Anti-Security" campaign. The cyber attack blocked traffic to the
website of the Brazilian presidency and two other government sites.
2011 Jun 23, In Brazil 8 people
were killed in an early hours police raid on a Rio slum aimed at
cracking down on suspected drug traffickers.
2011 Jun 26, Jose Graziano da
Silva of Brazil was elected as director-general of the Food and
Agriculture Organization, the UN agency tasked with reducing world
hunger at a time of high food prices.
2011 Jun 26, In Brazil hundreds
of thousands of people danced and wore costumes in the streets of
Sao Paulo to celebrate gay pride and call for an end to homophobia.
2011 Jun 27, A Brazilian state
judge approved what the court said is the nation's first gay
marriage. Sao Paulo state Judge Fernando Henrique Pinto ruled two
men could convert their civil union into a full marriage.
2011 Jun 30, In Brazil a law
was published in the official gazette saying prisoners will get one
day knocked off their sentences for every 12 hours in the classroom.
2011 Jul 6, Brazil's
Transportation Minister, Alfredo Nascimento, resigned amid a scandal
over an alleged kickback scheme in his office.
2011 Jul 8, Brazil's Supreme
Court said a prosecutor has filed charges against Jose Dirceu, a
former top presidential aide, and 36 other people in a 2005
cash-for-votes scandal that rocked the government of then-President
Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva.
2011 Jul 10, Rio de Janeiro's
public defenders' department said the Brazilian state has
accumulated more than 60,000 unsolved murders in the last 10 years.
2011 Jul 11, In northeastern
Brazil a regional Noar Airlines plane crashed in Recife city,
killing all 16 people on board.
2011 Jul 16, Brazilís President
Dilma Rousseff attended a ceremony marking the startup of operations
at a shipyard where the four Scorpene attack submarines will be
built. The four diesel-powered submarines will be built as part of a
2008 agreement with France that includes the future construction of
Latin America's first nuclear submarine.
2011 Aug 2, Brazilís Pres.
Dilma Rousseff announced her long-awaited industrial policy. It
included the abolishment of a 20% payroll tax for the labor
intensive industries of clothing, footwear, furniture and software
effective October 1.
(Econ, 8/6/11, p.32)
2011 Aug 2, A Brazilian Air
Force plane crashed near the city of Bom Jardim da Serra in the
state of Santa Catarina, killing all eight people aboard.
2011 Aug 9, Brazilian police
arrested 33 people at the Tourism Ministry on allegations of
corruption. Kickbacks to officials involved $1.85 million instead of
paying Sao Pauloís Ibrazi institute to train people in tourism.
(SFC, 8/10/11, p.A2)
2011 Aug 11, Brazilian police
arrested seven people and seized more than 2,600 animals in a 2-day
crackdown on the illegal trafficking of wild animals. The watchdog
group Renctas says about 15% of the $10 billion to $20 billion
global illegal animal trade takes place in Brazil.
2011 Aug 11, Brazilian Judge
Patricia Acioli was shot to death in front of her house. She had put
more than 60 officers behind bars, most of them for murder. All of
the 21 bullets that hit her came from a lot issued to police,
including some in Sao Goncalo, the city where she worked. A police
commander and seven officers were soon arrested in connection with
(AP, 9/16/11)(AP, 9/28/11)
2011 Aug 25, In Brazil a leader
of landless workers was shot to death while riding his bike in
Barbosa, Para state. Valdemar Oliveira Barbosa was the fourth person
murdered in Para since May who was involved in environmental or land
rights movements. Catholic Land Pastoral said more than 1,150 rural
activists have been killed in Brazil over the past 20 years.
2011 Aug 25, Brazilian
scientists reported that a huge underground river appears to flow
thousands of feet beneath the Amazon River, and that it was about
the same length as the 3,700 mile long Amazon.
(SFC, 8/26/11, p.A2)
2011 Sep 1, Brazilian officials
said wildfires have burned about 930 square miles (2,400 square km)
of land inside 17 national reserves since the start of the dry
2011 Sep 14, Brazil's tourism
minister, Pedro Novais, resigned amid allegations of misusing public
funds. He became the fifth minister to resign since June. The
newspaper Folha de S. Paulo ran articles accusing the minister of
allowing his wife to use a government driver for errands. He was
also accused of using congressional funds to pay for a maid.
2011 Sep 15, Brazilís Finance
Minister Guido Mantega announced a 30% tax increase on cars with
less than 65% local content.
2011 Sep 16, Brazilian federal
police say an Irish man (20) has been arrested with nearly two
pounds of cocaine in his gut. Police identified the suspect only by
his initials, P.B.K. Investigators said that he tried to board a
flight in Sao Paulo, headed to Brussels.
2011 Sep 17, In Brazil a
14-year-old girl escaped and told police she was held and raped for
four days by inmates after being taken inside the men's Heleno
Fragoso prison in northern Para state. The teenager testified she
was drugged, beaten and taken by a woman along with two other
teenagers into the prison.
2011 Sep 22, In Brazil a
10-year-old student shot and wounded his teacher with a pistol, then
killed himself with two bullets into his head at a public school in
Sao Caetano do Sul, an industrial suburb on the outskirts of Sao
2011 Sep 27, Protesters
demanding that Brazil's legislators sweep out corruption planted 594
brooms in front of Congress so the 513 members of the House and the
81 senators could see them the next morning.
2011 Sep 27, Police in
northeastern Brazil began arresting members of three families who
are believed to have killed 95 people as part of a feud that
stretches back years. The Oliveira, Veras and Suassuna families are
suspected of murdering 64 members of rival clans. They're also
suspected of executing 31 people within their own families.
2011 Sep 27, In Brazil a
Guarani Indian, Teodoro Ricardi, was beaten and stabbed to death
near the town of Paranhos, Mato Grosso do Sul state. The area has
been the scene of much violence against indigenous people. Activists
said his killers were apparently hired by a local rancher occupying
land claimed by the Guarani tribe.
2011 Sep 29, a Brazilian judge
suspended work on the Belo Monte dam saying it would harm fishing on
the Xingu River in Para state. The government planned to appeal.
(SFC, 9/30/11, p.A2)
2011 Sep 30, In Brazil a law
professor shot and killed one of his female students in Brasilia and
hours later drove her body to a police station where he turned
himself in. Rendrik Vieira Rodrigues fired three bullets into the
head of Suenia Souza Farias (24), apparently because she wanted to
end their 3-month-old relationship.
2011 Oct 19, Brazilís most
wanted druglord, Alexander Mendes da Silva, was arrested in the
Paraguayan city of Pedro Juan Caballero.
2011 Oct 20, A Brazilian jury
convicted three doctors of killing four patients by removing their
organs, which prosecutors said were used for transplants at an
expensive private clinic. The case took 25 years for a verdict to be
handed down. Doctors Rui Sacramento, Pedro Torrecillas and Mariano
Fiore Junior were sentenced to 17 years and six months each in
2011 Oct 23, In Brazil five
employees of the government's Indian affairs agency and two workers
for an electric company were released in good condition. They had
been held for five days in the Amazon community of Kururuzinho. The
Kaiabi opposed the construction of a dam and demand speedier
official recognition of their land in Mato Grosso state.
2011 Oct 27, In Brazil Indian
rights activists said hundreds of people have peacefully occupied
the construction site of the $11 billion Belo Monte hydroelectric
dam in Para state.
2011 Nov 6, In Brazil cameraman
Gelson Domingos (46) was hit in the chest by a rifle shot while
covering the police confrontation with gang members at the Antares
slum in Rio's west side. Domingos died despite wearing a bulletproof
2011 Nov 7, Chevron experienced
an oil spill offshore from Rio de Janeiro at its N560 drilling
operations. Chevron reportedly stopped the leakage in about 4 days.
p.23)(SSFC, 5/20/12, p.F7)
2011 Nov 8, In Brazil students
voted for the strike after police raided an administration building
and arrested 70 students who were protesting police patrols on the
campus of the University of Sao Paulo. Students complained they are
subjected to random searches and intimidation by police on campus.
2011 Nov 9, A Brazilian court
said the construction of the Belo Monte dam can proceed without
additional consultation with indigenous communities.
(SFC, 11/10/11, p.A2)
2011 Nov 10, In Brazil police
arrested Antonio Bonfim Lopes, aka "Nem, the most-wanted drug gang
leader in Rio de Janeiro.
2011 Nov 13, In Brazil More
than 3,000 police and soldiers backed by armored personnel carriers
raced into Rioís biggest slum before dawn, quickly gaining control
of the Rocinha shantytown ruled for decades by a heavily armed drug
gang. The city of Rio de Janeiro has more than 1,000 shantytowns
where about one-third of its 6 million people live.
2011 Nov 14, Brazilís Federal
Register noted that the government for the first time has granted a
foreign citizen the right to live permanently in the country based
on a same-sex relationship with a Brazilian citizen.
2011 Nov 17, Brazilian
authorities began investigating an offshore oil spill. Chevron says
that between 400 and 650 barrels of oil have leaked from a well it
was drilling off the coast of Rio de Janeiro. The leak totaled no
more than 3,000 barrels.
(AP, 11/17/11)(Econ, 12/31/11, p.23)
2011 Nov 18, Brazil's Pres.
Dilma Rousseff signed a law establishing a truth commission to
investigate human rights abuses by the military regime that ruled
Latin America's biggest country from 1964 to 1985.
2011 Nov 18, Brazil's
environmental protection agency said nearly 110,000 gallons of oil
may have spilled into the Atlantic Ocean because of a leak at an
offshore Chevron drilling site. Chevron had said that only 16,800 to
27,300 gallons in total leaked into the ocean.
2011 Nov 18, In western Brazil
gunmen executed a chief of the Kaiowa-Guarani Indian tribe and
disappeared with his body. More than 40 "hooded and heavily armed"
gunmen raided the Tekoha Guaiviry village in Mato Grosso do Sul
state and fatally shot chief Nisio Gomes. It appeared that the
gunmen were hired by local ranchers seeking to intimidate and expel
the tribe from land that both sides claim as their own.
2011 Nov 21, Brazilís Ministry
of the Environment, IBAMA, said it will fine Chevron Corp. nearly
$28 million for the Nov 7 oil spill off the coast of Rio de Janeiro
state. In December an additional $5.6 million was added for poor
(SSFC, 11/27/11, p.A10)(Econ, 12/31/11, p.23)
2011 Dec 3, In Brazil a
tractor-trailer slammed into a bus carrying sugarcane cutters,
killing at least 33 people and injuring 13 others in the
northeastern state of Bahia.
2011 Dec 4, In Brazil Socrates
Brasileiro Sampaio de Souza Vieira de Oliveira (57), footballer and
political agitator, died. In 2007 he authored ďFootball Philosophy.Ē
(Econ, 12/10/11, p.106)
2011 Dec 5, Brazilian police
arrested a man suspected in the shooting deaths of eight men over
the past two months. Ronis de Oliveira Bastos (22) was arrested on
the outskirts of Sao Paulo while riding a bicycle and armed with a
.38 caliber revolver.
2011 Dec 7, The Brazilian
government said it will invest more than $2 billion to curb the
spread of crack cocaine.
2011 Dec 11, Police in Brazil's
southeastern Sao Paulo state said they are investigating the theft
of 50 metric tons (55 US tons) of corn from a moving train.
2011 Dec 19, In Brazil a
juvenile court judge in the northeastern state of Alagoas sentenced
three priests for sexually abusing minors for years. Monsignor Luiz
Marques Barbosa was sentenced to 21 years in prison, while Monsignor
Raimundo Gomes and priest Edilson Duarte were given 16 years and
four months in prison.
2011 Dec 19, In northern Brazil
say a woman gave birth to conjoined twin boys with one body and two
heads at the Santa Casa de Misericodia Hospital in Belem.
2011 Dec 20, The South American
trading bloc Mercosur -- which includes Brazil, Argentina and
Uruguay -- agreed to close its ports to ships flying the flag of the
British-controlled Falkland Islands.
2011 Dec 31, The US ended
import tariffs and tax credits that have long sheltered ethanol
distilled from corn in the US from the same stuff made from
sugarcane in Brazil.
(Econ, 1/7/12, p.57)
2011 Brazil overtook Britain to
become the worldís 6th biggest economy.
2011 In Brazil a Rio de Janeiro
city survey found 847 Umbanda houses of worship. Umbanda was founded
a little more than a century ago, drawing from older traditions such
as Catholicism, the beliefs of enslaved Yoruba people brought from
West Africa, the spirituality of Brazil's indigenous groups and the
teachings of 19th century French spiritualist Allan Kardec. An
estimated 400,000 Brazilians follow the religion.
2012 Jan 3, Brazilís labor
ministry said some 294 employers submit workers to slave-like
(SFC, 1/4/12, p.A2)
2012 Jan 6, In Brazil a group
associated with the Roman Catholic Church said a child from an
isolated indigenous community in northern Brazil was killed and the
body burned in a region where loggers operate.
2012 Jan 10, Brazilís Justice
Minister Jose Eduardo Cardozo said Brazil will grant work visas to
2,400 Haitians who are stuck in two Amazon border towns. He said
another 1,600 Haitians in Brazil have been given visas already.
2012 Jan 10, In southeastern
Brazil 2 days of downpours left at least 28 people dead in
floodwaters and mudslides.
2012 Jan 19, In Brazil a
federal court in the northeastern in the state of Alagoas sentenced
politician Talvane de Albuquerque to 103 years in prison for the
1998 killing of his running mate, Ceci Cunha, so that he could take
her place in Congress. Albuquerque was also found guilty of ordering
the murder of Cunha's husband, sister-in-law and her sister's
2012 Jan 20, Bolivia joined
Brazil and the United States in signing an accord to cooperate in
the control of coca plant cultivation. The agreement creates a coca
cultivation tracking system, with the US providing GPS equipment and
Brazil capturing satellite images.
2012 Jan 25, In Brazil a
building of some 20 stories collapsed in Rio de Janeiro causing 2
other smaller buildings to also come down. At least 17 people were
killed and after 3 days 7 people remained missing.
(AP, 1/26/12)(AP, 1/28/12)
2012 Feb 1, In Haiti visitng
Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff said Brazil will offer 6,000
visas to Haitians over a five-year period as one of several efforts
that look to help the troubled Caribbean nation get on its feet.
2012 Feb 1, A group of Internet
hackers said they took down the website of Banco do Brasil, Brazilís
largest state-run bank.
(SFC, 2/2/12, p.A2)
2012 Feb 4, In Brazil the Bahia
state's Public Safety Department said on its website that 51 people
have been murdered in and near the capital city of Salvador since a
police strike began on Feb 1. State officials have said that about
10,000 of the state's 30,000 police are on strike demanding better
pay and bonuses.
2012 Feb 5, Brazilian media
report 78 people have been murdered in and around the northeastern
city of Salvador since the start of a state police strike there five
2012 Feb 6, In Brazil soldiers
clashed with supporters of striking police in Salvador, Brazil's
third-largest city, firing tear gas and rubber bullets at the feet
of people trying to join officers occupying the Bahia state
2012 Feb 6, Brazil requested an
injunction to stop Twitter users from alerting drivers to police
roadblocks, radar traps and drunk-driving checkpoints could make it
the first country to take Twitter up on its plan to censor content
at governments' requests.
2012 Feb 6, In Brazil the
wining $9.4 billion bid was announced for the privatization of
Guarulhos, Sao Pauloís main intíl. airport. The winning bid was by a
consortium led by Petrobras, the state-owned oil company, and Banco
do Brasil, the state-development bank. This was nearly $2 above the
2nd highest bid.
(Econ, 2/11/12, p.40)
2012 Feb 6, In Brazil a
13-story building partially collapsed in an industrial suburb
outside Sao Paulo, killing a 3-year-old girl in Sao Bernardo do
Campo. One person was missing.
2012 Feb 9, In Brazil striking
police officers in the northeastern city of Salvador evacuated the
Bahia state legislative building they occupied in protest for more
than a week. The state government has offered a raise of 6.5 percent
as well as bonuses but refused to offer amnesty for the striking
2012 Feb 10, In Brazil police
and firefighters in Rio went on strike, a week before glittering
Carnival celebrations that typically draw 800,000 tourists were due
to start. Union officials expected anywhere from 50% to 70% of
58,000 officers to join the strike. Union members were not content
with legislative approval of a 39% raise to be staggered over this
year and the next, along with a promise of more in 2014.
2012 Feb 11, In Brazil police
in the northeastern state of Bahia voted to end their 12-day
walkout, during which time the homicide rate doubled to more than
130 in the metropolitan area of Salvador. Officials on Feb 13 said
current and former police officers may have committed up to 30
murders during the police strike in Bahia state.
(AP, 2/12/12)(AP, 2/14/12)
2012 Feb 12, In Brazil Paulo
Rodrigues (51), the editor-in-chief of a newspaper that crusaded
against corruption in the rough border region with Paraguay, was
shot dead in Ponta Pora, Mato Grosso do Sul state, where his Jornal
da Praca newspaper and Mercosulnews.com website are based.
2012 Feb 13, A police strike in
Rio de Janeiro ended just days before the world's biggest Carnival
bash. The strike never affected security in the city, the number of
officers who adhered to it appeared relatively small and authorities
never had to call on army soldiers to patrol streets, as was feared.
2012 Feb 17, In Brazil the
globe's biggest Carnival bash opened in Rio. It promised to be an
even bigger blowout this year, with 20 percent more tourists
expected than in 2011.
2012 Feb 25, It was reported
that Brazilian Sen. Joao Ribeiro will be tried by the Supreme Court
for allegedly keeping over 30 workers in ďsub-humanĒ condition on
his Amazon ranch in Para state.
(SFC, 2/25/12, p.A2)
2012 Feb 25, A fire at Brazil's
research station in Antarctica killed two navy personnel and forced
the evacuation by helicopter of 44 people. The people at the station
at the time of the fire were transferred to Chile's Eduardo Frei
2012 Feb 26, In Brazil the
Anglican bishop for the northeastern state of Pernambuco was killed
along with his wife. Edward Robinson Cavalcanti (68) and his wife
Miriam (64) were stabbed to death in their home in the city of
Olinda. Their adopted son was the chief suspect. The son was
hospitalized after he tried to commit suicide by drinking poison.
2012 Mar 5, In Brazil 30
beached dolphins were rescued by beachgoers. The rescue was captured
on video and became an internet sensation.
2012 Mar 6, In Sao Paulo,
Brazil, truck drivers hauling fuel continued to strike for a 2nd
day. They were protesting new regulations restricting hours they can
use on some city roadways.
(SFC, 3/7/12, p.A2)
2012 Mar 13, In Brazil federal
prosecutors said that they are filing criminal charges for the first
time related to crimes committed by government representatives
during the 1964-1985 military dictatorship. Prosecutors argued that
kidnappings and the hiding of bodies so the victims were never found
are "permanent crimes." Since such crimes continue to the present,
they fall outside the 1961-79 period covered by the amnesty law.
(SFC, 3/14/12, p.A2)(AP, 3/16/12)
2012 Mar 16, In Brazil Judge
Joao Matos ruled that kidnapping charges filed earlier this week
against retired army Col. Sebastiao de Moura would go against
Brazil's 1979 amnesty law.
2012 Mar 21, Brazil charged 17
Chevron and Transocean executives with environmental crimes for an
oil leak at the Frade field off Rio de Janeiroís coast last
(SFC, 3/22/12, p.D1)
2012 Mar 27, Brazilís Tourism
Ministry said it is asking more than 2,000 websites to remove sexual
content that promotes Latin America's biggest country as a sex
2012 Mar 29, In Brazil riot
police in Rio de Janeiro used pepper spray and tear gas to chase
some 200 protesters away from a celebration by retired soldiers
marking the 1964 coup that established Brazil's long military
dictatorship. A recent study by the Brazilian government said 475
people were killed or "disappeared" by agents of the military
2012 Mar 30, Amnesty
International blasted a Brazilian verdict by an appeals court as
"outrageous" and called it an "affront to the most basic human
rights. The Superior Court of Justice ruled this week that a man
accused of having sex with three 12-year-olds couldn't be convicted
of rape because of extenuating circumstances, including the fact the
girls had previously worked as prostitutes.
2012 Apr 4, In Brazil officer
Rodrigo Cavalcante was killed while on foot patrol in the Rocinha
shantytown of Rio de Janeiro. The officer's slaying was the ninth
shooting death in the community since February.
2012 Apr 9, Pres. Obama met
with Brazilís Pres. Dilma Rouseff. She called on the US to invest
more in the worldís 6th biggest economy. Obama confirmed that the US
would recognize cachaca, a sugarcane spirit, as a distinct product,
no longer calling it Brazilian rum.
(SFC, 4/10/12, p.A5)(Econ, 4/14/12, p.48)
2012 Apr 11, Police in
northeastern Brazil arrested 3 people for allegedly killing at least
2 women and eating parts of their flesh. The next day enraged
neighbors burned their house to the ground.
(SSFC, 4/15/12, p.A5)(http://tinyurl.com/7t7853v)
2012 Apr 12, Brazil's supreme
court voted 8-2 to authorize abortions in cases of fetuses with no
2012 Apr 16, In northeastern
Brazil inmates armed with guns and knives seized control of the
Advogado Antonio Jacinto Filho prison in Aracaju. They took 80
visitors and 2 guards hostage. The uprising ended after 26 hours and
131 hostages were released after officials agreed to investigate
(SFC, 4/17/12, p.A2)(SFC, 4/18/12, p.A2)
2012 Apr 23, In Brazil
political journalist Decio Sa (42) was shot dead in a restaurant in
Sao Luis, Maranhao state. He had spent most of his career reporting
(SFC, 4/25/12, p.A7)
2012 Apr 24, BTG Pactual, a
Brazilian investment bank, raised $3.7 billion reais ($1.9 billion)
in an initial public offering (IPO).
(Econ, 4/28/12, p.81)
2012 Apr 25, Brazilís Congress
launched an investigation into the political influence of
businessman Carlos Augusto Ramos (aka Carlinhos Cachoeira or Charlie
Waterfall). He was thought to have ties with the numbers racket.
(Econ, 5/5/12, p.37)
2012 May 3, Brazil pledged
major investment and technology transfer to Africa to repay a
"solidarity debt" from a country with a huge black population to the
poorest but resource-rich continent.
2012 May 3, Brazil's top court
backed sweeping affirmative action programs used in more than 1,000
universities across this nation. The Supreme Court voted 7-1 to
uphold a federal program that has provided scholarships to hundreds
of thousands of black and mixed-race students for university studies
2012 May 16, In Brazil the Rio
Negro crested at 97.7 feet after flooding the center of the Amazon
jungle city of Manaus.
(SFC, 5/17/12, p.A2)
2012 May 23, In Brazil subway
workers went on strike in Sao Paulo, but ended it five hours later
after halting a system used daily by more than 4 million people.
2012 May 30, Brazilian
prosecutors said that they asked a court to force oil company Shell
and the world's largest chemical company, BASF, to immediately pay
$500 million into a compensation fund for hundreds of workers who
may have been contaminated at an agricultural chemicals plant. The
chemical plant at Paulinia operated from 1977 until it was closed in
2002. Shell originally owned it, but sold the operation to American
Cyanamid in 1995. Germany-based BASF bought American Cyanamid in
2000 and took over the chemicals plant. At least 61 former workers
at the plant have died in recent years.
2012 Jun 13, In Brazil dialogue
began on Green Agriculture: Towards Sustainable Agricultural
Economies as part of the Rio+20 conference on sustainable
development. The final 3-days, set to run from June 20 to June
22, will include 130 top leaders from around the globe.
(SFC, 6/14/12, p.A2)
2012 Jun 19, In Brazil
ďRio+20,Ē the biggest UN summit on sustainable development in a
decade, approved a draft agreement filled with weasel words and
compromises. A decision on managing global oceans was postponed for
(Econ, 6/23/12, p.64)
2012 Jun 22, In Brazil
ďRio+20,Ē the biggest UN summit on sustainable development in a
decade, approved a strategy to haul more than a billion people out
poverty and cure the sickness of the biosphere. The gathering of 191
UN members crowned a 10-day forum marking 20 years since the Rio
Earth Summit, where leaders vowed the world would live within its
environmental means. "Sustainable Development Goals" will replace
the UN's Millennium Development Goals from 2015.
2012 Jun 26, Brazilian aircraft
manufacturer Embraer and U.S. company Boeing said they've agreed to
share technical knowledge and market assessments on the development
of a Brazilian military cargo plane.
2012 Jun 27, Brazil's President
Dilma Rousseff announced a new, $4 billion economic stimulus package
to combat stagnant growth.
2012 Jun 27, Lawyers
representing Amazon rain forest residents in Ecuador filed a 2nd
lawsuit in Brazil to seize assets of Chevron Corp. as part of their
effort to collect an $18.2 billion judgement they won in Ecuador in
(SFC, 6/28/12, p.A2)
2012 Jul 10, In Brazil Eugenio
de Araujo Sales (91), the former archbishop of Rio de Janeiro
(1971-2001), died. He claimed to have provided shelter to some 5,000
opponents of Brazilís 1964-1985 political refugees fleeing
dictatorships in Argentina and Chile.
(SFC, 7/11/12, p.A2)
2012 Jul 12, In Brazil
scientists released millions of genetically modified mosquitoes in
the northern city of Juazeiro in an effort to end dengue fever.
(SSFC, 7/15/12, p.A4)
2012 Jul 21, Mozambique
launched a Brazilian funded pharmaceutical plant that will make
anti-retroviral drugs to battle the HIV/AIDS scourge in the southern
African country. The plant will initially package drugs from Brazil
but start producing the pills by the end of the year.
2012 Jul 31, Venezuela was
officially welcomed into the Mercosur trade bloc as Brazilian
President Dilma Rousseff hosted Argentina's President Cristina
Fernandez and Uruguay's Jose Mujica along with Chavez for the
one-day Mercosur meeting in Brasilia.
2012 Aug 2, In Brazil a federal
judge ordered Brazilian mining company Vale to suspend its planned
expansion of a rail line in northern Brazil because it would
endanger the livelihood of the Awa Guaja Indian tribe living in the
2012 Aug 13, The Olympic flag
touched down on Brazilian soil, marking the start of four years of
preparations ahead of the 2016 games in Rio de Janeiro.
2012 Aug 15, Brazilian
President Dilma Rousseff announced a nearly $66 billion investment
package to beef up the nation's ailing road and rail systems, part
of efforts to solve serious transportation bottlenecks and spur a
2012 Sep 27, Brazilís National
Petroleum Agency said Chevron has paid a $17.3 million fine for 24
of 25 irregularities detected in the spill of some 155,000 gallons
of crude oil in Nov, 2011.
(SFC, 9/29/12, p.D2)
2012 Aug 28, In Brazil
construction of the $11 billion Belo Monte hydroelectric dam resumed
hours after the countryís Supreme Court ordered work to resume.
(SFC, 8/29/12, p.A2)
2012 Sep 24, In Brazil a judge
ordered the arrest of the president of Googleís local operations for
failure to remove YouTube videos that attacked a mayoral candidate.
(SFC, 9/26/12, p.A2)
2012 Sep 27, Brazilís National
Petroleum Agency said Chevron has paid a $17.3 million fine for 24
of 25 irregularities detected in the spill of some 155,000 gallons
of crude oil in Nov, 2011.
(SFC, 9/29/12, p.D2)
2012 Oct 10, Brazilís Supreme
Court voted to convict Jose Dirceu (66), the chief of staff of
former Pres. Lula, of corruption. Two other former Workersí Party
men were also convicted..
(Economist, 10/13/12, p.46)
2012 Oct 31, Brazilís military
said it has confiscated 4 tons of drugs, 5 dozen vehicles and 200
boats used by drug traffickers in a 3-week operation along borders
with Bolivia and Peru.
(SFC, 11/1/12, p.A2)
2012 Nov 2, In Brazil Father
Marcelo Rossi, a Latin Grammy-nominated singer, inaugurated the
Mother of God sanctuary in Sao Paulo. The not-yet-finished structure
will seat 6,000 people and have standing room for 14,000 more.
2012 Nov 10, In Brazil the
Public Safety Dept. of Sao Paulo said at least 140 people have been
slain over the past two weeks in a rising wave of violence as
imprisoned crime leaders called for reprisals against crackdowns on
(SSFC, 11/11/12, p.A9)
2012 Nov 14, In Brazil the
Justice Ministry authorized sending a top figure of the Primeiro
Comando da Capital (PCC), a prison-based gang, to a maximum security
prison in Roraima state, 900 miles (1,450 km) to the northwest in
the Amazon. Sao Paulo has seen nearly 150 homicides over the past
two weeks and 94 police executed this year in violence linked to the
(AP, 11/15/12)(Econ, 11/17/12, p.33)
2012 Nov 22, In Brazil Joaquim
Barbosa was sworn in as the countryís first black Supreme Court
(SFC, 11/23/12, p.A2)
2012 Nov 27, Brazilís
government said deforestation in the Amazon rainforest has dropped
to its lowest level in 24 years.
(SFC, 11/28/12, p.A2)
2012 Nov 28, Brazilís Supreme
Court sentenced the last 3 of 25 defendants convicted on charges
involving a congressional cash-for-votes scheme.
(SFC, 11/29/12, p.A2)
2012 Dec 1, In Brazil some 800
people held a protest march against the privatization of Brazil's
iconic Maracana Stadium. Built for the 1950 World Cup, Maracana is
being renovated for the city's upcoming sporting events that include
the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2016 Olympics and the
final match of 2014 World Cup.
2012 Dec 5, It was reported
that Brazilian law enforcement agencies have begun ďOperation
PurificationĒ against alleged corruption iwthin the police force in
Rio de Janeiro state.
(SFC, 12/5/12, p.A2)
2012 Dec 5, Brazilian architect
Oscar Niemeyer (104) died in Rio de Janeiro. He had designed
Brazil's futuristic capital and much of the United Nations complex.
(AP, 12/6/12)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.154)
2012 Dec 7, In Brazil Michael
Misick, the former jet-setting premier of the Turks and Caicos
islands, was arrested after having disappeared a couple years ago.
2012 Dec 17, Brazilian
prosecutors said Chevron Corp. has offered to pay $150 million to
settle two civil lawsuits stemming from a Nov 2011 offshore oil
spill. The lawsuits sought $20 billion in damages.
2012 Dec 17, In Brazil the
Supreme Court trial of the mensalao (big monthly stipend), a scheme
for buying votes, ended. 25 of 38 defendants were found guilty of
charges including corruption, money-laundering and misuse of public
(Econ, 12/22/12, p.51)
2012 In Brazil a quarter of all
prisoners in jail were there because of drug offences. This compares
with a tenth in 2005.
(Economist, 9/22/12, p.45)
2012 Brazilís infrastructure
this year was rated 104th of 142 countries. Only 14% of its roads
(Econ, 8/11/12, p.66)
2013 Jan 10, In Brazil Chilean
artist Jorge Selaron (b.1947), a symbol of his adopted city of Rio
de Janeiro, was found dead in front of his house. In 1990 he began a
staircase project in the Lapa neighborhood tiling steps and
collecting old porcelain bathtubs to use as planters along the
2013 Jan 25, Brazilís
government announced that it is undertaking a 4-year, $33 million
study of its Amazon rain forest to compile a detailed inventory of
the plants, animals and people that live there.
(SFC, 1/26/13, p.A2)
2013 Jan 27, In southern Brazil
a fire swept through the crowded Kiss nightclub in Santa Maria early
today. The fire broke out after band members lit flares. There was
no alarm, no extinguishers, no sprinklers and almost no escape from
the nightclub. 3 people were detained the next day in connection
with the blaze that left 237 dead. In April the nightclub's two
owners and two band members were charged with murder. 4 others were
also charged in connection to the fire.
(SFC, 1/28/13, p.A2)(AP, 1/29/13)(SFC, 2/4/13,
p.A2)(Econ, 2/2/13, p.28)(AP, 4/2/13)
2013 Feb 9, In Brazil a wave of
arson attacks, about 80 since the end of January, was reported in
Santa Catarina state. Local officials described the attacks as a
reaction to reports of inmate abuse in the stateís prisons.
(SFC, 2/9/13, p.A2)
2013 Feb 12, In Brazil a fire
on a Carnival float killed four people and injured five in the port
city of Santos. The float reportedly caught fire after striking a
2013 Feb 18, In Brazil
protesters backing the Cuban government blocked the screening of a
documentary featuring Cuba's best-known dissident, the blogger Yoani
Sanchez, who was in attendance after being allowed to leave the
communist island for the first time in nearly a decade. This was the
first stop on her 80-day tour of about a dozen nations.
2013 Feb 19, Brazilís Pres.
Dilma Rouseff announced increased welfare payments to 2.5m poor
(Econ, 2/23/13, p.35)
2013 Feb 27, Brazilian police
said Father Emilson Soares Correa, a Roman Catholic priest, is being
investigated for allegations of sexual abuse of three young girls in
his parish in Niteroi, a city across Guanabara Bay from Rio de
2013 Mar 15, In Brazil a new
oil law that gives a greater share of royalty revenues from the
countryís oil fields to non-producing states went into effect and
producing states filed appeals against it with the Supreme Court.
2013 Mar 22, Brazilian police
surrounded an old Indian museum complex next to Rio de Janeiro's
legendary Maracana football stadium in a bid to expel a group of
indigenous people and their supporters to make way for works related
to the World Cup.
2013 Mar 26, China and Brazil
signed a deal to do up to $30 billion of trade in their local
currencies, as the five-nation BRICS forum of emerging market powers
worked to lessen dependence on the US dollar and euro.
2013 Mar 31, In Brazil a French
man and US woman studying Portuguese were held for hours while the
woman was sexually assaulted aboard a public transport van they
boarded in Rio de Janeiro's Copacabana beach neighborhood. Three
men, ages 20 to 22, were soon taken into custody and a third was
being sought in connection with the attack. Police later detained a
14-year-old suspected of participating in the attack. On Aug 14
three men were convicted of grand theft, rape and extortion.
(AP, 4/2/13)(SFC, 4/3/13, p.A3)(SFC, 4/9/13,
2013 Apr 5, Brazilís Public
Ministry announced an investigation into a report connecting former
Pres. Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva to a vast vote-buying scheme that
involved the channeling of funds to the governing Workersí Party.
(SSFC, 4/7/13, p.A6)
2013 Apr 10, Researchers
reported a new species of tree-dwelling porcupine in Brazilís
Northeastern Atlantic Forest. With just 2% of the original forest
habitat still standing, the newly discovered creature was already
(SFC, 4/11/13, p.A2)
2013 Apr 17, It was reported
that some 700 Brazilian Indians were occupying part of the lower
house of Congress to protest a proposed amendment that would give
Congress a say in the demarcation of indigenous territory.
(SFC, 4/17/13, p.A2)
2013 Apr 17, Brazilís police
said they have arrested 3 men suspected of involvement in killings
of homeless people in Goiania, Goias state.
(SFC, 4/18/13, p.A2)
2013 Apr 17, Brazil raised its
base interest rate by .025 points to 7.5%.
(Econ, 4/20/13, p.40)
2013 Apr 29, The Catholic
Church in Brazil said it has excommunicated Father Roberto Francisco
Daniel for defending homosexuality, open marriage and other
practices counter to Church teaching in online videos.
2013 May 7, In Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil, Marcos Pereira da Silva, a pastor of the Assembly of God of
the Last Days, was arrested for raping 6 women. He also faced drug
trafficking and money laundering charges.
(SSFC, 5/12/13, p.A4)(http://tinyurl.com/d65sryf)
2013 May 9, Brazilís Sao Paulo
state Gov. Geraldo Alckmin unveiled a program that will provide
about $650 per month in subsidies for the rehabilitation of addicts
who voluntarily enroll in the rehab program.
(SFC, 5/10/13, p.A3)
2013 May 11, It was reported
that unsafe cars made in Brazil, coupled with the nation's often
dangerous driving conditions, have resulted in a death rate from
passenger car accidents that is nearly four times that of the United
2013 May 14, Brazilís National
Council of Justice said that the countryís notary publics must
register same-sex civil unions as marriages if the couple requests
2013 May 16, The Brazilian
Congress approved legislation to modernize and expand its
overcrowded ports, attract private investments to the sector and
make it easier for companies to hire skilled foreign workers, in a
bid to spur economic growth.
2013 Jun 4, Brazilís government
scrapped a tax on foreign purchases of bonds, in order to encourage
currency inflows and slow the weakening of its currency.
(Econ, 6/8/13, p.39)
2013 Jun 4, Brazilian police
said they have dismantled an international drug trafficking ring
that for almost two years sent cocaine from Colombia and Bolivia to
Portugal hidden in crates containing frozen fish.
2013 Jun 5, Brazil said it has
sent 110 soldiers to Mato Grosso do Sul state where hundreds of
Terena Indians were occupying a ranch they said was on ancestral
lands. The Indians were also protesting a proposed amendment that
would give Congress a say in the demarcation of indigenous
(SFC, 6/6/13, p.A2)
2013 Jun 5, In Brazil the son
of billionaire Eike Batista was convicted of involuntary
manslaughter in the death of a cyclist, the Rio de Janeiro state. He
was sentenced to two years of community service, a two-year
suspension of his driver's license and a one million real ($500,000)
fine. Thor Batista (21) hit the cyclist last year while driving his
Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren at night through a low-income suburb in
Rio de Janeiro.
2013 Jun 6, In Brazil protests
began in Sao Paulo over a 20-centavo (nine-cent) rise in bus fares.
(Econ, 6/22/13, p.40)
2013 Jun 10, Brazilís
government said it plans to build its first auto crash test facility
in an effort to improve the poor safety record of vehicles built and
sold in the world's fourth-largest automobile market.
2013 Jun 11, Brazilís
government said over 100 Mundurucu Indians have occupied the offices
of the federal indigenous affairs agency in Brasilia to protest the
construction of the Belo Monte hydroelectric dam.
(SFC, 6/12/13, p.A2)
2013 Jun 13, In Brazil over 100
protesters and 12 police were injured and 230 people detained as
thousands of demonstrators clashed with police in Sao Paulo over
hikes in bus and subway fares. Similar protests took place in Rio,
Brasilia and Porte Alegre.
(SFC, 6/15/13, p.A2)
2013 Jun 15, In Brazil at least
500 protesters complaining against the high cost of staging the
World Cup rallied in front of the National Stadium in Brasilia just
hours before Brazil played Japan in the opening match of the
2013 Jun 17, In Brazil more
than 100,000 people were in the streets for largely peaceful
protests in at least eight big cities. Demonstrations in Rio de
Janeiro and Belo Horizonte were marred by vandalism and violent
clashes with police. The wave of protests, which began over a hike
in bus prices, was also in large part motivated by widespread images
of Sao Paulo police last week beating demonstrators and firing
rubber bullets during a march that drew 5,000.
2013 Jun 18, In Brazil some
50,000 protesters energetically returned this evening to the streets
Sao Paulo, a demonstration of anger toward what they call a corrupt
and inefficient government that has long ignored the demands of a
growing middle class.
2013 Jun 19, In Brazil street
demonstrations popped up again around the country as protesters
continued their collective cry against the low-quality public
services they receive in exchange for high taxes and high prices.
Leaders in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo reversed an increase in bus
and subway fares which ignited anti-government protests over the
2013 Jun 20, More than a
million Brazilians poured into the streets of at least 80 cities in
this week's largest anti-government demonstrations yet. Violent
clashes broke out in several cities as people demanding improved
public services and an end to corruption faced tear gas, pepper
spray and rubber bullets. At least one protester was killed in Sao
Paulo state after a car rammed into a crowd of demonstrators.
2013 Jun 21, Brazilian
President Dilma Rousseff vowed to battle corruption while improving
government services as she acknowledged the anger that has led to
vast, sometimes violent protests across the country.
2013 Jun 22, In Brazil tens of
thousands of anti-government demonstrators again took to streets in
several cities. An estimated about 60,000 demonstrators gathered in
a central square in Belo Horizonte, largely to denounce legislation
that would limit the power of federal prosecutors to investigate
2013 Jun 24, Brazilís President
Dilma Rousseff proposed a wide range of actions to reform the
political system, fight corruption and improve public services ó all
demands angrily asked for by the millions of protesters who've taken
to the streets the past week. Rousseff shifted some of the burden
for progress onto the back of Brazil's widely loathed congress ó in
particular, in calling for a plebiscite on political reform that
only lawmakers have the authority to call. 9 people were killed
during a police operation in a Rio favela after a protest march.
(AP, 6/25/13)(Econ, 6/29/13, p.34)
2013 Jun 25, Brazil's congress
late today shelved legislation that had been a target of nationwide
protests, hours before another expected round of large-scale
2013 Jun 26, Brazil's senate
voted to increase penalties for those found guilty of corruption,
responding to a key demand made by protesters across the country.
Protesters and police clashed near a stadium hosting a
Confederations Cup soccer match, as thousands of demonstrators
trying to march on the site were met by tear gas and rubber bullets.
2013 Jun 27, In Brazil some
5,000 protesters battled police in Fortaleza. In Rio some 2,000
people marched without clashes. Demonstrators were angry over
corruption and poor public services despite high taxes.
(SFC, 6/28/13, p.A2)
2013 Jun 30, In Brazil more
than 5,000 anti-government protesters marched near the Maracana
stadium before a major international soccer match, venting their
anger about the billions of dollars the government is spending on
major sporting events rather than public services.
2013 Jul 2, In Brazil Rayfran
das Neves Sales, the confessed killer of US nun and Amazon defender
Dorothy Stang Para, was released after serving less than nine of the
27 years he was sentenced to back in 2005. Para state Judge Claudio
Henrique Rendeiro ruled that Neves Sales was entitled to serve the
rest of his sentence under house arrest.
2013 Jul 3, Brazilian truckers
demanding cheaper fuel, better highways and lower tolls torched toll
booths and crippled traffic in several regions, continuing their
protests into a third day.
2013 Jul 11, In Brazil tens of
thousands of union demonstrators blocked roads and snarled traffic
in dozens of cities in a one-day strike aimed at seizing the
momentum of huge protests that swept the country last month.
2013 Jul 22, Pope Francis
arrived in Rio de Janeiro to begin a weeklong visit to participate
in the World Youth Day festival.
2013 Jul 25, In Brazil Pope
Francis urged young Catholics to shake up the church and make a
"mess" in their dioceses by going out into the streets to spread the
faith as he visited one of Rio's most violent slums and opened the
church's World Youth Day on a rain-soaked Copacabana Beach.
2013 Jul 27, In Brazil Pope
Francis challenged bishops from around the world to get out of their
churches and preach, and to have the courage to go to the farthest
margins of society to find the faithful.
2013 Jul 28, In Brazil Pope
Francis wrapped up a historic trip to his home continent with a Mass
on Copacabana beach that drew a reported 3 million people.
2013 Aug 4, In Brazil 25 police
officers were found guilty of killing 52 inmates during the 1992
riot at Sap Pauloís Carandiru prison. Each officer was sentenced to
a prison term of 624 years.
(SSFC, 8/4/13, p.A2)
2013 Aug 4, It was reported
that nearly 35,000 disappearances have taken place in the city and
state of Rio de Janeiro.
(SSFC, 8/4/13, p.A6)
2013 Aug 22, Brazil said it
will import thousands of Cuban doctors to work in areas where
medical services and doctors are scarce. Foreign Minister Antonio
Patriota defended the plan as a way to give "the best possible
medical services for the Brazilian population."
2013 Aug 27, In Brazil a
commercial building, under construction in Sao Paulo, collapsed and
killed at least 6 people.
(SFC, 8/28/13, p.A2)
2013 Sep 9, Chilean press
reported that the US has spied on communications from Brazil,
Colombia, Venezuela and Uruguay from the island of Ascension
according to documents leaked by Edward Snowden.
(SSFC, 9/15/13, p.A6)
2013 Sep 20, In Brazil rancher
Vitalmiro Moura, accused of ordering the 2005 murder of US nun and
Amazon defender Dorothy Stang, was again sentenced to 30 years in
prison. Moura was previously convicted of Stang's murder and then
acquitted in an automatic retrial.
(SFC, 9/21/13, p.A3)
2013 Oct 2, Brazilian police
used pepper spray to stop hundreds of protesting Indians from
storming Congress, clamping down on the second day of indigenous
2013 Oct 7, In Brazil thousands
marched in Rio de Janeiro to support teachers seeking pay hikes
before masked anarchists turned to violence, setting fires, breaking
into buildings and smashing a City Hall gate.
2013 Oct 11, In Brazil an
official report disclosed that the powerful PCC prison gang runs a
nationwide criminal business worth $60 million a year with
operations extending into neighboring Bolivia and Paraguay.
2013 Oct 13, Brazilian
officials said at least 12 people were killed and six left missing
when a boat carrying Catholic pilgrims capsized on the Amazon River.
(SFC, 10/14/12, p.A2)
2013 Oct 18, In Brazil a fire
destroyed up to 300,000 tons of sugar and much of the Santos Port
warehouses owned by Copersucar, the world's largest trader of the
2013 Oct 19, In southeastern
Brazil animal rights activist clashed with police in front of a
laboratory in Sao Roque that used dogs for drug tests.
2013 Oct 22, In Brazil
prosecutors in Rio de Janeiro charged an additional 15 state police
officers in the torture and death of Amarildo Dias de Souza (42), a
bricklayer who disappeared from a city slum in July. Ten officers
were charged earlier this month.
2013 Oct 25, Brazilian police
said a group of hit men shot to death 7 people at a house in a
suburb of Rio de Janeiro.
(SFC, 10/26/13, p.A2)
2013 Oct 25, In Brazil
protesters went on a rampage in Sao Paulo, smashing windows and
teller machines and battling riot police in violence blamed on the
"Black Bloc" anarchist group. The protests began as a peaceful march
to demand free public transportation for students before turning
violent. Police fired tear gas and arrested 92 people.
2013 Oct 28, In Brazil one
person was injured and 90 detained while trucks and buses were
torched in Sao Paulo late today in renewed violence after police
fatally shot a 17-year-old boy.
2013 Oct 30, In Brazil oil
giant OGX, once the jewel in the EBX crown, was forced to file for
bankruptcy protection after debt-restructuring talks with its
creditors failed. Eike Batista's debt-ridden EBX empire appeared to
be on its last legs as the Brazilian magnate desperately tried to
sell assets and lure investment to keep his sinking ship afloat.
2013 Nov 2, Brazilís O Estado
de S. Paulo newspaper said President Dilma Rousseff will allow
state-run oil company Petrůleo Brasileiro SA to increase domestic
fuel prices "two or three times" a year through the use of a formula
without triggering significant consumer price gains.
2013 Nov 13, In Brazil the
remains of Joao Goulart, ousted as president ahead of the 1964-85
military dictatorship, were exhumed to determine if he was poisoned.
2013 Nov 14, Brazilian
government figures showed that deforestation in the Amazon increased
by nearly a third over the past year.
2013 Nov 16, In Brazil Jose
Genoino, the former chairman of the ruling Workers' Party,
surrendered to police after a court ruled that those convicted in a
corruption scandal should serve their terms immediately.
2013 Nov 16, In Brazil the 12th
edition of the Games of the Indigenous People ended in Cuiba, Mato
(SSFC, 11/17/13, p.A7)
2013 Napoleon Chagnon authored
ďNoble Savages: My Life Among the Two Dangerous Tribes Ė the
Yanomamo and the Anthropologists.Ē
(Econ, 2/23/13, p.80)
2020 Deforestation of the
Amazon region was expected to reach 28-42%.
(SFC, 1/20/01, p.A10)
Subject = Brazil
End of file.