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Princess of Tyre, Jezebel’s grandniece, fled to North Africa after
her brother, King Pygmalion, murdered her husband, Tyre’s high
priest. She was said to have then founded Carthage on a
hilltop now called Byrsa. Byrsa means Oxhide and it was said that
Elissa could have as much ground as could be covered by the
hide of an ox. She cut the hide into narrow strips and so claimed
the whole hill.
(NG, Aug., 1974, p.174)(SSFC, 12/10/00, p.T8)
657BC A 2nd influx of Phoenicians surged into
Carthage about this time.
(NG, 8/04, p.46)
c470BC Hanno the Navigator, Carthaginian sailor,
described his encounters with “hairy, wild people" on the west coast
of equatorial Africa.
(ON, 11/04, p.11)
300BC Carthago Nova (Cartagena, Spain) had coins
minted in the Greek style. One face bears the image of Melqart,
chief god of Tyre, the other face shows a horse and palm tree,
emblems of Carthage.
(NG, Aug., 1974, S.W. Matthews, p.171)
300BC Spain was named by the Carthaginians about
this time as Ispania, meaning land of rabbits. The Romans changed
the name slightly to Hispania, which evolved to Espana (Spain).
(SSFC, 12/19/10, p.M2)
264BC Rome initiated the Punic Wars with Carthage,
an oligarchic empire that stretched from the northern coast of
Africa to the Strait of Gibralter. The primary cause was the
Carthaginian expansion into the Greek cities of Sicily. Carthage was
forced to surrender its control over the western region of Sicily
and this marked the end of the first Punic War. The three Punic
Wars: 264-241 BCE, 218-202 BCE, 149-146 BCE, also known as the
Carthaginian Wars, finally resulted in the destruction of Carthage
and Roman control of the western Mediterranean.
(eawc, p.14)(HNQ, 8//00)
262BC War broke out between Carthage and Rome.
Three long wars lasted till 146BCE when Carthage was destroyed by
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.167-8)
261BC Rome captured a Punic quinquereme. In two
months they copied it plank by plank and built 100 like it and
eventually the Roman fleet was able to defeat the Carthaginians.
(NG, Aug., 1974, p.178)
256BC The Carthaginian city of Kerouane was sacked
by the Romans.
(NG, 8/04, p.48)
250BC-150BC Punic wars between
Rome and Carthage.
241BC Mar 10, The Battle of Aegusa in which the
Roman fleet sank 50 Carthaginian ships occurred.
218BC The Romans renewed their efforts against
Carthage as Carthage expanded into Spain. This 2nd Punic War lasted
16 years at the of which Carthage was forced to surrender al of its
territory to Rome except for its capital city in North Africa.
218BC Hannibal crossed Portugal on his way to
(SSFC, 9/29/02, p.C11)
217BC Jun 21, Carthaginian forces led by Hannibal
destroyed a Roman army under consul Gaius Flaminicy in a battle at
Lake Trasimenus in central Italy. Hannibal of Carthage attacked
Roman Consul Flaminio at Tuoro on Lake Trasimeno in Umbria.
Hannibal’s army of Numidians, Berbers, Libyans, Gascons, and
Iberians was down to one elephant after crossing the Alps with 39.
His army of 40,000 drove the Romans into the lake where 15,000 died
as opposed to 1,500 of Hannibal’s men. Two nearby towns were named
Ossaia (boneyard) and Sanguineto (bloodied).
(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.37)(HN, 6/21/98)
217BC During the Second Punic War Rome appointed
Quintus Fabius Maximus as dictator to stave off Hannibal’s
(ON, 9/05, p.6)
216 BC Aug 2, Hannibal Barca of Carthage won his
greatest victory over the Romans at Cannae. Hannibal seized a grain
depot in the small village of Cannae in order to lure the Romans to
battle. Having crossed over the Alps, Hannibal‘s forces defeated the
Romans at the Trebia River and also at Lake Trasimene. Thereafter,
the Romans were unwilling to commit a large force to attacking
Hannibal. However, Hannibal‘s spies had learned two Roman consuls
shared command of the legions and attempted to goad the more
impetuous of the two into battle at Cannae.
(HN, 8/2/98)(HNQ, 11/16/00)
206BC Rome destroyed Carthaginian forces at the
Battle of Metaurus in northern Italy.
(ON, 9/05, p.7)
204BC-202BC Greece and most of Asia Minor came
under the control of the Romans after the Roman victory over
Carthage in the 2nd Punic War.
(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A7)(ON, 9/05, p.7)
203BC Hannibal and his army returned home to
defend Carthage against Roman forces.
(ON, 9/05, p.7)
203BC Quintus Fabius Maximus, Roman general and
dictator, died shortly before Hannibal’s final defeat. He was
nicknamed “The Delayer" for wearing down Hannibal’s invading army by
avoiding pitched battles. The name Fabian has come to mean “using a
cautious strategy of delay and avoidance of battle."
(ON, 9/05, p.7)(Econ, 7/7/12, p.64)
202BC Roman forces under Scipio Africanus defeated
Hannibal of Carthage on the Plains of Zama in northern Tunisia.
183BC-182BC Hannibal, Carthaginian general,
committed suicide. Some reports said that a comet in the night sky
was an omen of his death.
149BC-146BC Rome and Carthage fought the 3rd Punic
War that resulted in the total defeat of Carthage. All inhabitants
of Carthage were sold into slavery and the city was burned to the
ground. As a result of the Punic wars Rome expanded its empire to
cover Spain, North Africa, Greece, Asia Minor and Egypt.
(eawc, p.15)(HNQ, 8/9/00)
146BC Roman forces breached the walls of Carthage.
All inhabitants were sold into slavery. The city was burned to the
ground and the land was sown with salt.
(NG, Aug., 1974, p.174)(NG, 8/04, p.46)
31BC Rome under Emperor
Augustus annexed the Carthage territory.
(SSFC, 12/10/00, p.T8)
162 The Antonine Baths were
completed in Carthage after 17 years of construction.
(SSFC, 12/10/00, p.T8)
180 Jul 17, Christenen Cittinus
Donatus Natzalus Secunda Speratus Vestia was sentenced to death in
258 Sep 14, Thascius Caecilius
Cyprian (b.~200), Christian writer and Bishop of Carthage (248),
died as a martyr in Carthage.
439 Oct 19, The Vandals, led by
King Gaiseric, took Carthage and quickly conquered all the coastal
lands of Algeria and Tunisia. Egypt and the Libyan coast remained in
Roman hands. [see Oct 24]
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.168)(HN, 10/19/98)
439 Oct 24, Carthage, the
leading Roman city in North Africa, fell to Genseric and the
Vandals. [see Oct 19]
439 Oct 29, Vandals under
Genseric occupied Carthage. [see Oct 24]
455 Jun 16, Rome was sacked by
the Vandal army. Gaiseric looted and burned Rome for 14 days. He
took the looted treasure, which likely included the 70AD plunder
from Jerusalem, by ship to the temple of Carthage.
(V.D.-H.K.p.88)(HN, 6/16/98)(SFC, 10/23/06,
455 Genseric, at the invitation
of Eudoxia, Valentinian's widow, sailed to Italy, and took Rome
without a blow. At the intercession of Leo the Great, he abstained
from torturing or massacring the inhabitants and burning the city,
but gave it up to systematic plunder. For 14 days and nights the
work of pillage continued. Genseric then returned unmolested to
Africa, carrying much booty and many thousand captives, including
the empress Eudoxia and her two daughters. The elder became the wife
of his son Hunneric; the younger, with her mother, was eventually
surrendered to the emperor Leo.
534 Justinian brought the
Vandal king into Constantinople and resurrected the triumphal
procession of 71AD.
(SFC, 10/23/06, p.A15)
2010 Richard Miles authored
“Carthage Must Be Destroyed: The Rise and Fall of an Ancient
(Econ, 3/27/10, p.94)
Subject = Carthage
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