Timeline Carthage

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814BC-813BC    Elissa-Dido, Princess of Tyre, Jezebel’s grandniece, fled to North Africa after her brother, King Pygmalion, murdered her husband, Tyre’s high priest. She was said to have  then founded Carthage on a hilltop now called Byrsa. Byrsa means Oxhide and it was said that Elissa could have as much ground as could be  covered by the hide of an ox. She cut the hide into narrow strips and so claimed the whole hill.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.174)(SSFC, 12/10/00, p.T8)

657BC    A 2nd influx of Phoenicians surged into Carthage about this time.
    (NG, 8/04, p.46)

c470BC    Hanno the Navigator, Carthaginian sailor, described his encounters with “hairy, wild people" on the west coast of equatorial Africa.
    (ON, 11/04, p.11)

300BC    Carthago Nova (Cartagena, Spain) had coins minted in the Greek style. One face bears the image of Melqart, chief god of Tyre, the other face shows a horse and palm tree, emblems of Carthage.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, S.W. Matthews, p.171)
300BC    Spain was named by the Carthaginians about this time as Ispania, meaning land of rabbits. The Romans changed the name slightly to Hispania, which evolved to Espana (Spain).
    (SSFC, 12/19/10, p.M2)

264BC    Rome initiated the Punic Wars with Carthage, an oligarchic empire that stretched from the northern coast of Africa to the Strait of Gibralter. The primary cause was the Carthaginian expansion into the Greek cities of Sicily. Carthage was forced to surrender its control over the western region of Sicily and this marked the end of the first Punic War. The three Punic Wars: 264-241 BCE, 218-202 BCE, 149-146 BCE, also known as the Carthaginian Wars, finally resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Roman control of the western Mediterranean.
    (eawc, p.14)(HNQ, 8//00)

262BC    War broke out between Carthage and Rome. Three long wars lasted till 146BCE when Carthage was destroyed by Rome.
    (Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.167-8)

261BC    Rome captured a Punic quinquereme. In two months they copied it plank by plank and built 100 like it and eventually the Roman fleet was able to defeat the Carthaginians.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.178)

256BC    The Carthaginian city of Kerouane was sacked by the Romans.
    (NG, 8/04, p.48)

250BC-150BC        Punic wars between Rome and Carthage.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.63)

241BC    Mar 10, The Battle of Aegusa in which the Roman fleet sank 50 Carthaginian ships occurred.
    (HN, 3/10/98)

218BC    The Romans renewed their efforts against Carthage as Carthage expanded into Spain. This 2nd Punic War lasted 16 years at the of which Carthage was forced to surrender al of its territory to Rome except for its capital city in North Africa.
    (eawc, p.15)

218BC    Hannibal crossed Portugal on his way to storm Rome.
    (SSFC, 9/29/02, p.C11)

217BC    Jun 21, Carthaginian forces led by Hannibal destroyed a Roman army under consul Gaius Flaminicy in a battle at Lake Trasimenus in central Italy. Hannibal of Carthage attacked Roman Consul Flaminio at Tuoro on Lake Trasimeno in Umbria. Hannibal’s army of Numidians, Berbers, Libyans, Gascons, and Iberians was down to one elephant after crossing the Alps with 39. His army of 40,000 drove the Romans into the lake where 15,000 died as opposed to 1,500 of Hannibal’s men. Two nearby towns were named Ossaia (boneyard) and Sanguineto (bloodied).
    (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.37)(HN, 6/21/98)

217BC    During the Second Punic War Rome appointed Quintus Fabius Maximus as dictator to stave off Hannibal’s Carthaginian army.
    (ON, 9/05, p.6)

216 BC    Aug 2, Hannibal Barca of Carthage won his greatest victory over the Romans at Cannae. Hannibal seized a grain depot in the small village of Cannae in order to lure the Romans to battle. Having crossed over the Alps, Hannibal‘s forces defeated the Romans at the Trebia River and also at Lake Trasimene. Thereafter, the Romans were unwilling to commit a large force to attacking Hannibal. However, Hannibal‘s spies had learned two Roman consuls shared command of the legions and attempted to goad the more impetuous of the two into battle at Cannae.
    (HN, 8/2/98)(HNQ, 11/16/00)

206BC    Rome destroyed Carthaginian forces at the Battle of Metaurus in northern Italy.
    (ON, 9/05, p.7)

204BC-202BC    Greece and most of Asia Minor came under the control of the Romans after the Roman victory over Carthage in the 2nd Punic War.
    (WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A7)(ON, 9/05, p.7)

203BC    Hannibal and his army returned home to defend Carthage against Roman forces.
    (ON, 9/05, p.7)
203BC    Quintus Fabius Maximus, Roman general and dictator, died shortly before Hannibal’s final defeat. He was nicknamed “The Delayer" for wearing down Hannibal’s invading army by avoiding pitched battles. The name Fabian has come to mean “using a cautious strategy of delay and avoidance of battle."
    (ON, 9/05, p.7)(Econ, 7/7/12, p.64)

202BC    Roman forces under Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal of Carthage on the Plains of Zama in northern Tunisia.
    (NG, 8/04, p.44)(www2.cs.uh.edu/~clifton/hannibal.html)

183BC-182BC    Hannibal, Carthaginian general, committed suicide. Some reports said that a comet in the night sky was an omen of his death.
    (www2.cs.uh.edu/~clifton/hannibal.html)

149BC-146BC    Rome and Carthage fought the 3rd Punic War that resulted in the total defeat of Carthage. All inhabitants of Carthage were sold into slavery and the city was burned to the ground. As a result of the Punic wars Rome expanded its empire to cover Spain, North Africa, Greece, Asia Minor and Egypt.
    (eawc, p.15)(HNQ, 8/9/00)

146BC    Roman forces breached the walls of Carthage. All inhabitants were sold into slavery. The city was burned to the ground and the land was sown with salt.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.174)(NG, 8/04, p.46)

31BC        Rome under Emperor Augustus annexed the Carthage territory.
    (SSFC, 12/10/00, p.T8)

162        The Antonine Baths were completed in Carthage after 17 years of construction.
    (SSFC, 12/10/00, p.T8)

180        Jul 17, Christenen Cittinus Donatus Natzalus Secunda Speratus Vestia was sentenced to death in Carthage.
    (MC, 7/17/02)

258        Sep 14, Thascius Caecilius Cyprian (b.~200), Christian writer and Bishop of Carthage (248), died as a martyr in Carthage.
    (http://www.fact-index.com/c/cy/cyprian.html)

439        Oct 19, The Vandals, led by King Gaiseric, took Carthage and quickly conquered all the coastal lands of Algeria and Tunisia. Egypt and the Libyan coast remained in Roman hands. [see Oct 24]
    (Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.168)(HN, 10/19/98)

439        Oct 24, Carthage, the leading Roman city in North Africa, fell to Genseric and the Vandals. [see Oct 19]
    (HN, 10/24/98)

439        Oct 29, Vandals under Genseric occupied Carthage. [see Oct 24]
    (MC, 10/29/01)

455         Jun 16, Rome was sacked by the Vandal army. Gaiseric looted and burned Rome for 14 days. He took the looted treasure, which likely included the 70AD plunder from Jerusalem, by ship to the temple of Carthage.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.88)(HN, 6/16/98)(SFC, 10/23/06, p.A15)

455        Genseric, at the invitation of Eudoxia, Valentinian's widow, sailed to Italy, and took Rome without a blow. At the intercession of Leo the Great, he abstained from torturing or massacring the inhabitants and burning the city, but gave it up to systematic plunder. For 14 days and nights the work of pillage continued. Genseric then returned unmolested to Africa, carrying much booty and many thousand captives, including the empress Eudoxia and her two daughters. The elder became the wife of his son Hunneric; the younger, with her mother, was eventually surrendered to the emperor Leo.
    (www.earlychristianwritings.com/info/galen-wace.html)

534        Justinian brought the Vandal king into Constantinople and resurrected the triumphal procession of 71AD.
    (SFC, 10/23/06, p.A15)

2010        Richard Miles authored “Carthage Must Be Destroyed: The Rise and Fall of an Ancient Civilization."
    (Econ, 3/27/10, p.94)

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