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Chile source: http://lanic.utexas.edu/la/chile/
Library of Congress: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cltoc.html
World History Archives: http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/42a/index-d.html
Chile Information Project: http://www.chip.cl/
When the Spanish conquistadors invaded Chile, the nation had 99 million acres (40 million hectares) of virgin forest. In 1996 slightly more than half remained.
(SFC, Z-1, 4/28/96, p.5)
7Mil BC - 2Mil BC At least 75 whales mysteriously died together some time in this period on the Pacific coast of Chile. Their fossils were discovered in 2011.
31000BC Stone tools from Monte Verde, Chile, indicate that people lived there about this time.
(SFC, 5/23/98, p.A13)
12000BC In 2008 evidence from Monte Verde, Chile, indicated that a small band of people inhabited the area. Initial evidence was found in a peat bog there in 1977.
(SFC, 5/9/08, p.A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monte_Verde)
10800BC-10300BC A village in Monte Verde, Chile was identified to be this old by a team of anthropologists. The site is described in the 1997 book: "Monte Verde: A Pleistocene Settlement in Chile" by Tom Dillehay. Dillehay later reported that new excavations revealed evidence that human bones and tools may date back to about 28,000 BC.
(USAT, 2/11/97, p.A1)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.61)(SFC, 2/17/98, p.A2)
5000BC The Chinchorro, hunter-gatherers in Chile’s Atacama Desert, began mummifying their dead about this time.
(SFC, 8/15/12, p.A7)
600-800CE Polynesian seafarers 1st landed on Easter Island, 1400 miles from the coast of South America. They later carved nearly 900 colossi of compressed volcanic ash: the moai. In 1722 A Dutch explorer stopped by on Easter Sunday. It later became a possession of Chile.
(WSJ, 2/8/02, p.W11C)
1100 Statue (moai) building began about this time on Easter Island and continued to the 1700s.
(SSFC, 9/18/05, p.E14)
1520 Oct 21, Ferdinand Magellan arrived at Tierra Del Fuego (Argentina-Chile).
1541 Feb 12, Santiago, Chile, was founded by Spanish conquistador Pedro de Valdivia, a lieutenant of Pizarro. When the Spaniards arrived in Chile, 11 languages were in widespread use: Quechua, Aymara, Rapanui, Chango, Kunza, Diaguita, Mapudungun, Chono, Kawesqar, Yagan and Selk’nam. By 2007 only the 1st 3 remained. The last ethnic Selk’nam died in the 1970s.
(PCh, 1992, p.182)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedro_de_Valdivia)(SSFC, 8/12/07, p.A18)
1551 Spaniards in Chile began producing wine.
(SFC, 8/31/07, p.F4)
1578 Dec 5, Sir Francis Drake sailed into the port of Valparaiso. He had renamed his flagship, the Pelican, to the Golden Hind, and ravaged the coasts of Chile and Peru on his way around the world.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(ON, 7/03, p.7)
1586-1618 The San Francisco Church was built in Santiago.
(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T8)
1600 Feb 18, Arequipa, Peru, was destroyed by an earthquake. Huaynaputina was the site of a monogenetic silicic eruption that ranks greater than 1883 Krakatau and 1991 Mt. Pinatubo in magnitude. A 26 hour-long plinian eruption devastated the socioeconomic fabric of southern Peru and neighboring Chile and Bolivia.
(SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)(http://tinyurl.com/ydmwzba)
1722 Apr 5, On Easter Sunday Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen discovered a Polynesian Island 1400 miles from the coast of South America and named it Easter Island. He noted that the island was treeless and wondered how its massive statues were erected. Much of the population was later wiped out and the island became a possession of Chile. An indigenous script called rongorongo survived but by 2002 was still not deciphered. In 2005 Steven Roger Fischer authored “Island at the End of the World: The Turbulent History of Easter Island.”
(WSJ, 1/7/05, p.W1)(http://islandheritage.org/eihistory.html)(Econ, 7/23/05, p.77)
1730 Jul 8, A magnitude 8.7 earthquake in Valparasio, Chile, killed at least 3,000 people.
1748-1979 The Cathedral of Santiago was built. The current structure replaced three earlier ones destroyed by fires or earthquakes.
(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T8)
1778 Feb 25, Jose Francisco de San Martin (d.1850) was born in Argentina. He liberated Argentina, Chile and Peru. Protector of Peru (1821-1822).
(WUD, 1994 p.1267)(MC, 2/25/02)
1778 Aug 20, Bernardo O'Higgins was born in Chile. He later won independence for Chile.
1781-1865 Andres Bello, diplomat, politician (a Senator in Chile - his adopted country), educator, poet and author of a Spanish grammar, was born in Venezuela. His selected writings were published by the Oxford Library of Latin America in 1998.
(WSJ, 2/3/98, p.A20)
1810 Sep 18, Chile declared its independence from Spain (National Day). Bernardo O’Higgins helped lead Chile to independence.
(AP, 9/18/97)(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T9)
1810-1817 Colonial revolts against Spain started in Chile in 1810 and ended in victory in 1817 under the leadership of Bernardo O‘Higgins and Argentina‘s Jose de San Martin.
1815 Jose Francisco de San Martin, governor of Cuyo, Argentina, founded a militia and prepared for an attack on Spanish royalists in Chile.
(ON, 10/09, p.8)
1817 Jan 17, Jose Francisco de San Martin led a revolutionary army from Argentina over Andes into Chile.
(ON, 10/09, p.10)
1817 Feb 12, Under the leadership of Bernardo O‘Higgins, Chile gained its independence from Spain, when a combined Argentine and Chilean army defeated the Spaniards. O‘Higgins went on to become head of state on February 17, supported by the army but not favored by the oligarchy because he sought abolition of their privileges. Once the threat from Spain was eliminated from the region, opposition to O‘Higgins mounted. General unrest and a poor harvest combined to force O‘Higgins to abdicate his position in 1823. The official proclamation was made on Feb 12, 1818.
(HNQ, 9/1/99)(AP, 2/12/07)
1817 Feb 12, Argentina’s Jose de San Martin, having led a revolutionary army over the Andes into Chile, helped defeat the Spanish forces at Chacabuco. The royalists lost 500 men in the battle and another 600 were taken prisoner.
(www.gdws.co.uk/chacabuco.htm)(Econ, 4/25/09, p.87)(ON, 10/09, p.10)
1818 Feb 12, Chile officially proclaimed its independence, more than seven years after initially renouncing Spanish rule [see Feb 12, 1817].
1834 Sep 27, Charles Darwin returned to Valparaiso.
1834 Nov 10, HMS Beagle with Charles Darwin sailed from Valparaiso.
1834 Nov 21, HMS Beagle anchored at Bay of San Carlos, Chile.
1834 Dec 25, Charles Darwin celebrated Christmas on Beagle at Tres Montes, Chile.
1835 Feb 20, Concepcion, Chile, was destroyed by earthquake and some 5,000 died.
1835 Feb 22, HMS Beagle with Charles Darwin left Valdivia, Chile.
1835 Mar 4, HMS Beagle moved into Bay of Concepcion.
1835 Mar 7, HMS Beagle returned from Concepcion to Valparaiso.
1835 Mar 10, Charles Darwin in a letter to Carolyn Darwin described a massive earthquake in Concepcion, Chile.
(NH, 5/96, p.7)
1835 Mar 13, Charles Darwin departed Valparaiso for Andes crossing.
1835 Mar 18, Charles Darwin departed Santiago, Chile, on his way to Portillo Pass.
1835 Mar 23, Charles Darwin reached Los Arenales in the Andes.
1835 Apr 10, Charles Darwin returned to Santiago, Chile.
1835 May 12, Charles Darwin visited the copper mines in North Chile.
1835 May 14, Charles Darwin reached Coquimbo in Northern Chile.
1839 Jan 20, Chile defeated a confederation of Peru and Bolivia in the Battle of Yungay.
1862 Peruvian slavers arrived on Easter Island. Slaves that eventually returned brought smallpox.
(SSFC, 9/18/05, p.E14)
1863 Dec 8, A Jesuit church in Chile caught fire and 2,500 died in a panic.
1866 May 3, The first submarine in the Americas, a 39-foot vessel designed in the 1860s by German immigrant Karl Flach, sank in the Bay of Valparaiso off the coast of Chile. The crew, two Chileans, two Frenchmen and seven Germans, including Flach and his 15-year-old son, all died. In 2007 a search team found the vessel.
1868 Aug 13, A magnitude 9.0 quake in Arica, Peru (later Chile), generated catastrophic tsunamis; more than 25,000 people were killed in South America.
1879-1883 In the War of the Pacific, Chile’s army won the nitrate-rich desert lands from Peru and Bolivia. The war was fought over the treatment of Chilean investors in the desert territories. The area remained in contention until a 1929 agreement proposed by Pres. Herbert Hoover.
(SFC, Z-1, 4/28/96, p.5)(SFEC, 11/14/99, p.A22)
1880s The Mapuche Indians were conquered by the Chilean army. By 2000 they lost nearly 95% of their land on the Bio Bio River.
(SFEC, 5/7/00, p.A18)
1881 Chilean soldiers pillaged Peru’s national library during the War of the Pacific. In 2007 Chile returned 3,778 books taken by its soldiers.
(SFC, 11/7/07, p.A3)
1881 The Mapuches Indians made peace with the Republic of Chile. Their name means "people of the earth."
(SFC, 10/21/99, p.A12)
1881 A German expedition to Chile that took 11 Kawesqar Indians to Europe to appear in what was later described as a human zoo. 5 of the Indians died in 1882 in Zurich, Switzerland. Their remains were repatriated in 2010.
1883 Chile’s Concha y Toro (Shell & Bull) wineries were founded by Don Melchor with vines brought from France.
(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T9)(SFC, 8/25/05, p.F3)
1884 Chile established a marital code the included a prohibition of divorce. A divorce law was passed in 2004.
(WSJ, 10/5/04, p.A1)
1888 Chile annexed Easter Island. The official native name of Easter Island, known for its stunning gigantic stone heads known as Moais, is Rapa Nui, and that's what many natives call themselves, refusing to identify with Chile.
1896 Erland Nordenskiold, a Swedish scientist, explored the Milodon Cave in Patagonia, Chile. He found a large piece of leather with gray-red hair and declared it to have been the hide of a milodon, a giant sloth, extinct for 8,000 years. The site was later made famous in the Bruce Chatwin book: In Patagonia.
(SFEC, 11/24/96, p.T6)
1900 By the beginning of the 20th century Easter Island had about 200 inhabitants. Most of the island was leased to a British sheep farming company.
(SSFC, 9/18/05, p.E14)
1904 Jul 12, Pablo Neruda (d.1973), Chilean poet and political activist (Residence on Earth-Nobel 1971), was born as Neftali Ricardo Reyes Basoalto in Parral, Chile.
(HN, 7/12/01)(SFC, 7/15/04, p.E11)
1904 Oct 20, Bolivia and Chile signed a treaty ending the War of the Pacific. The treaty recognized Chile's possession of Bolivia's nitrate-rich coastal province of Antofagasta, but provided for construction of a railway to link La Paz, Bolivia, to Arica on the coast.
(HN, 10/20/98)(Econ, 12/6/03, p.34)
1906 Aug 16, An magnitude 8.6 earthquake in Valparaiso left an estimated 20,000 people dead.
(SFEC, 6/13/99, Z1 p.5)(AP, 6/22/02)
1908 Jul 26, Salvador Allende Gossens, Chile's last elected president (1970-73), was born.
1913 Ricardo Roth Schutz, a guide of Swiss descent, began leading groups of tourists across Lakes Crossing (Cruce de Lagos), linking Bariloche in northern Argentina to Puerto Varas in Chile’s Lakes District.
(SSFC, 1/6/08, p.G4)
1915 Nov 25, Augusto Pinochet (d.2006), general, coup leader and president of Chile (1974-1990), was born.
1918 Nov 25, Chile and Peru severed relations.
1923 Pablo Neruda was appointed as Chile’s consul to Burma.
(SFC, 7/15/04, p.E11)
1929 Jan, Anaconda Copper Co. purchased the Chuquicamata mine in Chile.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R46)
1929 Jun 3, Chile, Peru & Bolivia signed an accord about the Tacna-Arica area. Chile and Peru accepted a proposal by Pres. Herbert Hoover over the outcome of the 1879-1893 War of the Pacific. Chile would retain Arica and return Tacna to Peru and grant access to the Arica port as a compromise. The accord was not implemented until 1999.
(SFEC, 11/14/99, p.A22)(MC, 6/3/02)
1932 Chile and Peru signed an extradition treaty.
(Econ, 11/12/05, p.40)
1939 Jan 24, Some 28-30,000 were killed by magnitude 8.3 earthquake in Chillan, Chile.
(MC, 1/24/02)(AP, 6/22/02)
1942 Jan, Chile and Argentina were the only two Latin American countries that did not comply at once with the Rio de Janeiro Conference recommendation to those countries who had not already done so to sever diplomatic and commercial relations with the Axis powers, Germany, Italy and Japan. Chile eventually broke Axis relations in January 1943 and Argentina complied in January 1944. The conference of Western Hemisphere foreign ministers also called for suppression of pro-Axis activity in the Americas, establishment of an Inter-American defense board and economic cooperation within the hemisphere.
1942 Mar, British and US intelligence received information on Nazi plans for the Holocaust: "It has been decided to eradicate all the Jews." This was part of a dispatch from a Chilean consul in Prague, Gonzalo Montt Rivas, to Santiago of a German decree that Jews abroad could no longer be German subjects.
(SFC, 7/3/01, p.A8)
1942 Jun 24, Eduardo Frei was born.
(WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)
1943 Jan 31, Chile broke contact with Germany and Japan.
1943 Feb 18, Augusto Pinochet Ugarte (Chilean gen., dictator) married Lucia Hiriart.
1943 A Vultee BT-13 Valiant disappeared on a flight from San Antonio, Texas, to Chile. Pilot Werner Martinez and Sgt. Tomas Ayala were on ill-fated flight, which crashed in Costa Rica. In 2008 police were led to the crash site after an anonymous caller reported seeing a local resident carrying plane parts in the town of San Isidro de El Guarco.
1945 Feb 14, Peru, Paraguay, Chile and Ecuador joined the United Nations.
1945 Mar 14, Chile declared war on Germany.
1960 May 22, Chile experienced a 9.5 earthquake (moment magnitude). A slow earthquake was detected just before the big one. It caused tsunamis in every coastal town between the 36th and 44th parallels with a death toll of some 1000 people.
(PCh, 1992, p.977)(SFC, 9/6.96, p.A11)(Econ, 10/15/05, p.28)
1961 In Chile Paul Schaefer, former WW II German corporal, founded the "Colonia Dignidad" (the Dignity Colony), a reclusive German-speaking colony on a 34,000 acre site in the Andean foothills. He had fled Germany while under investigation for allegations of sexually molesting children. In 2005 Schaefer was arrested in Argentina and extradited to Chile.
(SFC, 6/27/97, p.A14)(AP, 3/13/05)
1962 Aug 8, The Chilean TV variety show "Sabados Gigantes" (Gigantic Saturdays) debuted with Mario Luis Kreutzberger Blumenfeld (b.1940) as Don Francisco. In April, 1986, the show got shortened to the singular version (Sabado Gigante) went it went on air in Miami, Fla. Kreutzberger was the son of German Jews who fled Nazi persecution.
(SSFC, 11/9/03, Par p.16)(SFC, 4/14/04, p.E1)(www.imdb.com/title/tt0250920/)
1963-1973 The 1975 US Church committee report on CIA activity in Chile included a chronology that covered this period.
1964 Eduardo Frei Montalva defeated Salvador Allende Gossens to become president.
(SFC, 1/29/99, p.E2)
1966 Pablo Neruda authored his play “Fulgor y Muerte de Joaquin Murieta.” In 1972 a bilingual edition was published as “Splendor and Death of Joaquin Murieta.”
(SFC, 7/15/04, p.E1)
1967 Jul 20, Pablo Neruda received the 1st Viareggio-Versile prize.
1967 Oct, Pres. Johnson named Edward M. Korry (d.2003 at 81) to serve as the US ambassador to Chile. Korry served until 1971 and was kept ignorant by the Nixon administration of plans for a coup.
(SFC, 2/1/03, p.A19)
1967 Marxists took power and nationalized nearly everything.
(WSJ, 12/1/95, p.A-10)
1968 Jul 25, H. Wroblewski discovered asteroid #1993 Guacolda on exposures by G. Plouguin and I. Belyaiev at the University of Chile, Cerro El Roble Station.
1970 Sep 4, Salvador Allende Gossens (1908-1973) won the presidential election in Chile. A week later in Washington Henry Kissinger discussed a "covert action program" to oust Allende.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvador_Allende)(SSFC, 4/21/02, p.D1)
1970 Sep 15, Pres. Nixon authorized a US-backed coup in Chile.
(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F7)
1970 Oct 25, In Chile a US CIA-backed kidnapping attempt was botched and left Gen. Rene Schneider dead. Schneider had opposed a US plan for a military coup. In 2001 his widow and 3 sons filed a suit against Henry Kissinger, Richard Helms and several other former US bureaucrats.
(SFC, 9/12/01, p.C4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ren%C3%A9_Schneider)
1970 Nov 3, Salvador Allende was inaugurated as president of Chile. He was elected with 36% of the vote, only 40,000 ahead of the candidate of the right.
(AP, 11/3/97)(WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A19)
1970 Dec 31, President Allende nationalized the Chilean coal mines.
1971 Jul 11, Chile’s Congress passed an amendment, submitted by President Allende, to nationalize all mines. On July 16 Chile by law nationalized the US-owned copper mines based on a calculation of the companies' "excess profits" from 1955 to 1970. It was determined that Chile owed American companies Anaconda and Kennecott Copper nothing for the mines.
1971 Jul 22, Salvador Allende and Alejandro Lanusse, Presidents of Chile and Argentina, signed an Arbitration Agreement formally submitting the dispute concerning the territorial and maritime boundaries between them and the title to the islands Picton, Nueva and Lennox near the extreme end of the American continent to binding arbitration under auspices of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beagle_Channel_Arbitration)(SFC, 8/27/96, p.A17)
1971 Oct 21, The Nobel Prize for literature was awarded to Chilean poet Pablo Neruda (1904-1973).
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pablo_Neruda)(SSFC, 8/31/03, p.M3)
1971 Dec 1, In Santiago, Chile, students began a 2-day against the Allende government. The government banned public demonstrations and declared a state of emergency.
(WUD, 1994, p. 1688)
1971 Claudio Bravo, Chilean-born Moroccan based artist, created a surrealist still life of an assemblage of light bulbs.
(WSJ, 3/17/00, p.W12)
1972 Mar 23, Pres. Nixon discussed his orders to undermine Chilean democracy after the leak of corporate papers revealing collaboration between ITT and the CIA to rollback the election of socialist leader Salvador Allende.
1972 May 13, There was a burglary at the Chilean Embassy in Washington DC. Two members of Pres. Nixon's secret White House team, known as the plumbers, were involved.
(SFC, 2/26/99, p.A4)
1972 Jun 17, Chile’s president Allende changed his Cabinet. The two most prominent departures were Brigadier General Pedro Palacios Cameron from Mines and Pedro Vuskovic from Economy.
1972 Oct 13, A Uruguay to Chile plane carrying 45 people crashed in the Andes Mountains. The event was concluded by December 23, 1972 when the last of 16 survivors were rescued. The group survived by collectively making a decision to eat flesh from the bodies of their dead comrades. The book “Alive: The Story of the Andes Survivors,” published two years after their rescue, was written by Piers Paul Read, who interviewed the survivors and their families.
1972 Dec 23, 16 plane crash victims (Oct 13 flight from Uruguay to Chile) were rescued from the Andes after 70 died. The group survived by collectively making a decision to eat flesh from the bodies of their dead comrades.
1972 Chile’s dept. of tourism, SERNATUR, was established.
(SFC, Z-1, 4/28/96, p.5)
1973 Jul 13, In Chile a strike began that lasted until the September 11 coup. More than a million workers were on strike demanding that Allende go. American CIA funding was involved.
(WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A19)(http://foia.state.gov/reports/churchreport.asp)
1973 Aug 22, Chile’s Chamber of Deputies issued its “Declaration of the Breakdown of Chile’s Democracy.” It accused Pres. Allende of violating laws.
1973 Aug 23, Gen'l. Augusto Pinochet was named commander-in-chief of the Chilean army by Pres. Salvadore Allende.
(SFC, 3/25/99, p.A3)
1973 Sep 11, Pres. Salvadore Allende of Chile was toppled in a bloody military coup in Santiago led by 4 commanders: Gen’l Augusto Pinochet, Admiral Jose Toribio Merino (d.8/31/96), air force Gen’l. Gustavo Leigh Guzman (d.1999 at 79) and police director Gen’l. Cesar Mendoza. Allende allegedly blew his head off with an AK 47 given to him by Fidel Castro. The government was taken over by Gen. Augusto Pinochet and his economic managers dubbed the "Chicago boys," for their training at the Univ. of Chicago and belief in free markets. The first 3 months of fighting claimed 1261 victims. The air force bombarded the presidential palace to put down resistance by Allende and a small group of followers. In 2011 two forensics experts, citing a long-lost, 300-page military summary of Allende's death, said they were inclined to conclude that Allende was assassinated. On July 19, 2011, court officials announced that a scientific autopsy has confirmed that Allende committed suicide.
(SFC, 8/31/96, p.A23)(WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A19)(SFC, 9/30/99, p.A31)(AP, 7/20/11)
1973 Sep 16, Victor Jara (b.1932), one of the best-known members of Latin America's "New Song" folk movement, died. He had been arrested after the Chilean military coup that overthrew Allende and taken to a soccer stadium used as a detention camp. Court papers indicate Jara was tortured, his hands smashed with rifle butts, and then was shot to death along with former prison service director Littre Quiroga. In 2008 a court charged retired Col. Mario Manriquez in the case, saying he was "responsible" for the death. In 2009 Jara’s body was exhumed for a proper autopsy. Army draftee, Jose Paredes, later described the murder and named the officers he said were responsible. Paredes told interrogators that a lieutenant known as "El Loco," the Crazy One, held Jara against a dressing room wall and played Russian roulette until a bullet blasted through the singer's skull. In 2012 8 retired army officers were charged in Jara’s slaying.
(AP, 5/15/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victor_Jara)(AP, 11/26/09)(SFC, 12/29/12, p.A2)
1973 Sep 17, Charles Horman (31), a US free-lance journalist, was arrested by Chilean security forces. His body was found months later. In 1999 US intelligence complicity was reported based on newly declassified material. Horman and Frank Teruggi worked for a newsletter that reprinted articles and clippings from American newspapers critical of US policy. Teruggi was also killed. The 1982 film "Missing" was based on their story. In 2003 retired security officer Rafael Gonzalez (64) became the 1st person formally charged for the murder. On Nov 29, 2011, a Chilean court charged former US Navy Capt. Ray E. Davis in the deaths of Horman Teruggi. The court statement said retired Chilean army Brigadier Pedro Espinoza Bravo was also charged in the murders.
(SFC, 10/9/99, p.A14)(SFEC, 2/13/00, p.A19)(AP, 12/11/03)(AP, 11/29/11)
1973 Sep 21, A secret CIA report indicated that severe repression was planned in Chile and that 300 students were killed in the technical university when they refused to surrender to the military. The report was made public in 1999.
(SFC, 7/1/99, p.C3)
1973 Sep 22, In Chile Michael Woodward (42), a suspended priest, died. He had been taken into custody by security forces in the port city of Valparaiso on Sep. 16, 1973. Woodward was allegedly tortured with other detainees on at least two navy ships used as detention centers. In 2008 retired admirals Sergio Barros, Guillermo Aldoney and Adolfo Walbaum and retired navy captains Sergio Barra and Ricardo Riesgo were indicted for the kidnapping and torture of Woodward and other members of leftist groups.
1973 Sep 23, Pablo Neruda (b.1904), Chilean Nobel laureate poet, died of alleged leukemia. One of his last works, "The Book of Questions," was published in an English translation in 1991. In 2003 Ilan Stavans edited "The Poetry of Pablo Neruda." In 2004 Matilda Urrutia’s “My Life With Pablo Neruda” was translated into English. Neruda’s driver later said the poet was poisoned by government agents.
(SFEC, 6/25/00, BR p.2)(SSFC, 8/31/03, p.M3)(SSFC, 10/31/04, p.M4)(SFC, 6/1/11, p.A2)
1973 Oct 6, In Chile Andres Pereira was arrested, assassinated and thrown into the sea. He was considered disappeared until his death was confirmed in a 2001 government report.
(SFC, 1/9/01, p.A15)
1973 Oct 17, Winston Cabello Bravo (28) and 12 other political prisoners were shot to death in Copiago, Chile. Bravo's body was carved with a corvo knife. He had been Allende's chief of economic planning in 2 northern regions where copper mines were to be nationalized.
(SFC, 2/3/99, p.A9)
1973 Oct, A group of military officers toured several cities by helicopter in northern Chile in a "caravan of death" and had 72 dissidents dragged from jail and executed. Five high ranking officers, including Gen'l. Sergio Arellano, were indicted for these executions in 1999. In 2004 Gen. Gonzalo Santelices, head of the Santiago army garrison, resigned amid accusations that he was involved in the “Caravan of death.” Santelices acknowledged that as a young lieutenant he followed orders and transferred 14 prisoners from a jail in northern Chile to a desert area where they were executed by firing squad. In 2008 retired Gen. Sergio Arellano was sentenced to six years in prison for the killing of five dissidents in the helicopter tour.
(SFC, 6/9/99, p.C2)(SFEC, 10/3/99, p.A19)(SFC, 4/28/00, p.D4)(AP, 2/4/08)(AP, 10/16/08)
1973 Nov 11, The Soviet Union was kicked out of World Cup soccer for refusing to play Chile.
1973 Dec 8, In Chile soldiers shot Argentine primary school teacher Bernardo Lejderman and Maria Avalos, a Mexican citizen, in front of their 2-year-old child. In 2007 a retired general and two former sergeants were fined and sentenced to 10 years in prison for killing the leftist couple, and were ordered to pay $600,000 to Ernesto Lejderman, the son of the slain couple.
1973 Chile’s Gen’l. Pinochet, following his Sep 11 coup, instituted free-market reforms, but left the mines under state control. He merged them into a single-state owned enterprise (Codelco) and required it to hand over 10% of its export revenues to the armed forces.
(Econ, 10/23/10, p.44)
1973 In 2006 Chile’s government-owned La Nacion newspaper reported that at least 22 dissidents, who disappeared under the dictatorship of Gen. Augusto Pinochet, were killed at the secretive German commune-like Dignity Colony and their bodies later burned with chemicals. It was later alleged that the leaders of the Dignity Colony under Paul Schaefer engaged in sexual abuse and cult-like activity and helped the Chilean secret police operate a concentration camp after the military coup.
(AP, 7/23/06)(SFC, 6/27/97, p.A14)
1973 Chile’s secret police took over a mansion in Santiago that had served as the Spanish Embassy in the 1950s. In 2006 the mansion reopened as the Salvador Allende Solidarity Museum.
(SSFC, 2/26/06, p.F8)
1973 Chilean navy officers allegedly used the tall ship Esmeralda as a hideaway for interrogation and torture.
1973 Bolivia’s Pres. Hugo Banzer met with Chilean military authorities. The Chilean military Operation Condor sought Chilean exiles in Bolivia and other countries for return to Chile for execution.
(SFEC, 11/29/98, p.A26)
1973-1980 Gen’l. Augusto Pinochet led a 17-year dictatorship. He enacted a constitution that reserves 4 Senate seats for former military commanders and the national police. Under his rule the Chilean military Operation Condor was begun where Chilean exiles in Bolivia and other countries were sought for return to Chile for execution. Some 3,000 people were killed or disappeared during Pinochet’s rule. In 2004 John Dinges authored "The Condor Years: How Pinochet and His Allies Brought Terrorism to Three Continents."
(SFC,12/12/97, p.B6)(SFEC, 11/29/98, p.A26)(SSFC, 2/14/04, p.M6)(Econ, 9/27/08, p.52)
1973-1990 Chile’s National Information Center was the secret police agency under Gen. Pinochet. It was headed by Gen. Hugo Salas.
(SFC, 10/30/99, p.A13)
1974 Mar 12, Chilean Gen. Alberto Bachelet (b.1923) died in prison after Gen. Augusto Pinochet's military convicted him of being a traitor. His daughter, Michelle, later became Chile's first female president. In 2011 a judge agreed to review a complaint alleging that Bachelet was tortured to death. On July 17, 2012, two military officers were charged with torturing Bachelet.
(AP, 8/26/11)(SFC, 7/18/12, p.A2)
1974 Jun 27, In Chile Gen. Augusto Pinochet proclaimed himself "Supreme Chief of the Nation" (de facto provisional president).
1974 Sep 30, Gen. Carlo Prats, a former Chilean army chief, was killed with his wife by a car bomb in Buenos Aires. In 2000 an Argentine judge called for the extradition of Augusto Pinochet for the slaying. In 2000 Enrique Arancibia Clavel was sentenced in Argentina to life in prison for his role in the murder.
(SFC, 10/28/00, p.A14)(SFC, 11/22/00, p.C6)
1974 Oct 5, in Chile Miguel Enriquez (b.1944), physician and founder (1965) of the Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria (MIR), was shot dead by Pinochet’s security forces.
(Econ, 5/30/09, p.39)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miguel_Enriquez)
1974 Dec 11, In Chile General Augusto Pinochet took the title of president of the republic.
(SFC, 12/11/06, p.A4)
1974 Chile’s government created a military intelligence agency that became a rogue elephant responsible for many human abuses. It was disbanded by Gen’l. Pinochet in 1978.
(WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A19)
1974 Ricardo Claro (1934-2008), Chile’s ambassador at large, announced to the world, on behalf of the Pinochet government, that Chile was once again open for business.
(WSJ, 11/8/08, p.A6)
1974-1978 The Villa Grimaldi, a 19th century estate outside of Santiago, Chile, was used by the National Intelligence Directorate (DINA) under Gen’l. Manuel Contreras as clandestine detention center. Some 5,000 political prisoners passed through and many suffered inside torture chambers and closet-sized cells near the stables. The main house was used as an administrative center and casino for officers.
(SFC, 7/15/97, p.A12)
1974-1990 In 1996 a 5-year Chilean government investigation found that the 16-year dictatorship of General Pinochet killed 3,197 civilians for political reasons. This included 1,102 people who disappeared after being arrested by his security forces. In 2000 a retired air force colonel charged that 500 political dissidents were slain by security forces, and that their bodies were weighted down and tossed into the sea.
(SFC, 8/23/96, p.A20)(SFC, 1/21/98, p.C12)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.A11) (SFC, 8/4/00, p.D4)
1975 Jul, In Chile 119 dissidents were kidnapped as part of Operation Colombo. Their bodies were never found. In 2008 98 people were indicted on charges of kidnapping the victims.
(SFC, 5/27/08, p.A3)
1975 Oct 6, Chilean Vice Pres. Bernardo Leighton and his wife, Anita Fresno, were shot in Rome. Anita was left permanently disabled. In 2000 Chilean authorities arrested former Gen. Eduardo Iturriaga for the shooting.
(SFC, 3/15/00, p.A10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leighton_case)
1975 Nov 20, An interim report by the US Senate’s Church Committee said that the CIA failed to assassinated Fidel Castro at least 8 times. The report also covered CIA activity in Chile, the Congo, the Dominican Republic and elsewhere.
(WSJ, 8/5/06, p.A9)(http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Church_Committee)
1975 The Torres del Paine National park opened in the Patagonia region of southern Chile.
(SSFC, 12/17/00, p.T6)
1976 Sep 16, Secretary of state Henry Kissinger sent a cable canceling a US warning against carrying out international political assassinations that was to have gone to Chile, Argentina and Uruguay just days before a former ambassador was killed by Chilean agents on Washington's Embassy Row. The document was not made public until 2010.
1976 Sep 21, Chilean exile Orlando Letelier, one time foreign minister to Chilean President Salvador Allende, was killed when a bomb exploded in his car in Washington D.C. He was assassinated by order from Chile by Gen’l. Manuel Contreras, head of the secret police known as DINA. Ronni Moffitt (25), an American colleague of Letelier, was also killed. Contreras was convicted of the order in 1993 and sentenced to a 7-year prison term. In 2000 Gen. Pinochet was linked to the killing.
(SFC, 6/27/97, p.A14)(SFC, 7/1/99, p.C3)(SFEC, 5/28/00, p.A7)(AP, 9/21/01)
1976 Gen. Augusto Pinochet commenced that Carretera Austral project, an effort to connect the northern Chile to southern Aisen province.
(SFCM, 10/3/04, p.30)
1976 Chile departed the Andean Community trade block. In 2006 it planned to rejoin.
(Econ, 8/26/06, p.30)
1976 Victor Diaz Lopez, former leader of Chile’s Communist Party, was picked up the DINA, the secret police of dictator Augusto Pinochet. In 2007 the former leader of the DINA’s Lautaro Brigade confessed to murdering Victor Diaz in 1977.
(Econ, 4/14/07, p.39)
1976 Gen’l. Juan Jose Torres, ousted as president of Bolivia in 1971, was kidnapped by a death squad in Argentina and killed. He was a victim of the Condor Plan, a South American military pact between Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile and Paraguay to exchange intelligence information and help each other hunt down suspected leftists.
(SFC, 11/23/99, p.A16)
1976 A US congressional commission found that Pres. Nixon had authorized $10 million for a covert CIA mission to get rid of Allende in Chile. Papers to this effect were declassified in 1998.
(SFC, 10/22/98, p.A12)
1977 Apr 5, A group of Chilean military men in London announced the formation of a "Front of Democratic Forces of Chile in Exile." Another similar group was formed in Brussels and shortly later in East Berlin.
(WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A19)
1977 Apr 6, Jaime Estevez spoke from a Moscow broadcast that the purposes of the newly formed Soviet-backed entities was to lead the fight for the overthrow of the fascist junta in Chile.
(WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A19)
1977 Aug, The Central Committee of the Chilean Communist Party constituted itself as "The General Staff of Revolution."
(WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A19)
1977 Chile’s DINA secret police reporting to Gen. Pinochet was replaced by the National Information Center (Centro Nacional de Información--CNI).
1978 Jan 4, Chile’s Gen. Pinochet held a National Consultation, "in defense of the dignity of Chile," which took place one week after it was first announced, on December 27.
1978 Apr 19, In Chile a law was enacted that gave amnesty to the military.
(WSJ, 12/1/95, p.A-10)(www.chipsites.com/derechos/1978_eng.html)
1978 Jul 24, Chile’s Air Force Gen'l. Gustavo Leigh Guzman was demoted. He was the first junta member to urge the restoration of civilian rule.
(SFC, 9/30/99, p.A31)(www.chipsites.com/derechos/1978_eng.html)
1978 Nov 30, In Chile the remains of 15 disappeared were discovered in Lonquen. The Vicaria publicly announced the discovery of an illegal burial ground in an abandoned limestone mine in Lonquén which had been used to conceal the bodies of 15 people who had disappeared since the onset of the military regime in 1973.
1979 Jan 9, The Act of Montevideo was signed in Uruguay pledging Argentina and Chile to a peaceful solution and a return to the military situation of early 1977. Cardinal Antonio Samore (1905-1983), Vatican representative, mediated the Beagle conflict.
1979 Chilean Communist Party Sec. Gen’l. Luis Corvalan proclaimed from Moscow a new era of acute violence, and endorsed guerrilla warfare, terrorism and a massive armed uprising.
(WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A19)
1980 Sep, Chile’s Gen'l. Pinochet called for a referendum to approve a constitution extending his rule for the next 8 years.
(SFC, 12/11/06, p.A4)
1980 Oct 21, Chile’s Gen'l. Pinochet issued a new constitution that allowed him to stay in power for another 8 years. It was approved by plebiscite.
(SFC, 3/25/99, p.A3)(Econ, 10/23/04, p.36)
1980 Jose Pinera revolutionized Chile's pension system while he was secretary of labor and social security. Pinochet wrote a new constitution that included statutes that forced politicians, journalists and musicians to practice self-censorship or face prosecution.
(WSJ, 6/28/96, p.A9)(SFC, 12/9/96, p.A18)(AP, 12/12/04)
1980 Chile’s National Geology and Mining Service was founded to regulate the country’s mining industry.
(Econ, 10/16/10, p.43)
1981 May 1, Chile completely privatized Social Security as part of its economic reforms.
(SFC, 6/16/96, Z1 p.7)(SFC, 6/25/96, p.A18)
1981 Jul 2, L.E. Gonzalez discovered asteroid #3495, Colchagua, from the astronomical station of Cerro El Roble in Chile.
1981 Chile barred private universities from making profits. Many got around this restriction by setting themselves up as property companies that lease their premises to the universities.
(Econ, 10/29/11, p.45)
1981 In Chile Paul Schaefer (b.1921) of the Dignity Colony was accused of child molestation but the case file disappeared at the courthouse in Parral. The judge lived in a house owned by the colony.
(SFC, 6/27/97, p.A14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Sch%C3%A4fer)
1982 Jan 22, Eduardo Frei Montalva (b.1911), former Chilean President (1964-1970), died from septic shock as he recovered from stomach surgery at a Santiago clinic. In 2007 his family filed a court complaint claiming that Frei had been assassinated by poisoning after a Belgian university investigation found mustard gas in the body of the former Christian Democratic leader. In 2009 a Chilean judge ruled that Montalva was assassinated and that his killing was covered up by people linked to the dictatorship of Gen. Pinochet. Six people were charged in the case.
(AP, 1/24/07)(AP, 12/7/09)
1982 Feb 23, Tucapel Jimenez, a Chilean labor leader, was found with his throat cut and face shot in his car. Gen. Humberto Gordon Rubio (d.2000), secret police chief, was implicated in the killing.
(SFC, 6/17/00, p.A20)(www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/single.pl?query=0319822171117)
1982 An economic crises in Chile caused the establishment of capital controls and a minimum permanence period for foreign capital of ten years.
(WSJ, 10/1/98, p.A17)
1983 May, Chile’s Gen'l. Pinochet reacted to protests with strong repression.
(SFC, 12/11/06, p.A4)
1984 Alpacas from Chile began arriving in the US after the US lifted a ban.
(WSJ, 4/5/07, p.A10)
1985 Feb 5, The US halted a loan to Chile in protest over human rights abuses.
1985 Mar 29, In Santiago, Chile, police killed Rafael and Eduardo Vergara. The 2 young brothers, active members of the often violent “Movement of the Revolutionary Left” (MIR), were peppered with bullets by military police during an anti-Pinochet protest in the low-income Villa Francia district. The event became known as the “Day of the Young Combatants.”
(SFC, 3/31/08, p.A3)(http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90777/90852/6384027.html)
1985 Jan 5, Boris Weisfeiler (43), a Russian émigré and naturalized US citizen, disappeared while hiking in Chile. US declassified documents in 2000 indicated that Boris, a mathematics professor, was detained by the Chilean military and handed over to Colonia Dignidad.
(SFC, 6/19/00, p.A8)(SFC, 6/12/08, p.A10)
1986 Apr 29, Raul Prebisch (b.1901), Argentine policy maker and economic diplomat, died in Santiago, Chile. In 2009 Edgar J. Dosman authored “The Life and Times of Raul Prebisch.”
(Econ, 3/7/09, p.90)(http://tinyurl.com/cgd359)
1986 Sep 7, Chile’s Gen’l. Pinochet narrowly survived an assassination attempt involving 70 terrorists. 5 of his escorts were murdered.
(WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A19)(SFC, 3/25/99, p.A3)
1986 Chile’s military discovered a clandestine arms shipment that was traced to Cuba. There were enough arms to support 5,000 men.
(WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A19)
1986-2006 In Chile the poverty rate during this period fell from 45% to just 13.7% of the population.
(Econ, 9/19/09, p.47)
1987 Cecilia Bolocco of Chile won the Miss Universe crown.
(WSJ, 8/3/01, p.A1)
1987 In Chile a secret police unit killed 12 members of a pro-communist urban guerrilla gang. In 2007 retired Col. Ivan Quiroz was convicted as a member of the secret police unit and sentenced to 10 years in prison. Sentenced along with Quiroz were 10 other agents of Dina, including its director at the time, retired Gen. Hugo Salas, who received a life sentence.
1988 Apr 2, Police Corp. Alfredo Rivera Rohas (35) was murdered by 3 youths while carrying home groceries in Santiago, Chile.
(WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A19)
1988 Sep 29, In Chile a 17-year-old girl died from electric torture by military police. This case was later cited by a Spanish judge as part of the 1998 warrant against Gen’l. Pinochet.
(SFC, 11/13/98, p.D3)
1988 Oct 5, The Chilean population agreed at referendum their opposition to the Pinochet regime.
1988 Oct 6, Gen. Augusto Pinochet, the president of Chile, conceded defeat in a referendum held the day before to determine whether he should receive a new eight-year term of office. He was forced to call for an open election but stayed president until his term ran out in 1990.
(AP, 10/6/98)(SFC, 3/25/99, p.A3)
1988 Jacobo Timerman (d.1999 at 76), Argentine journalist, published "Chile: Death in the South."
(SFC, 11/12/99, p.D6)
1988 Chile was kicked out of America’s system of preferences and cut its average tariffs from 20% to 15% in a bid to lower the cost of imports.
(Econ, 5/28/05, p.78)
1988 Ricardo Claro (1934-2008), Chilean industrialist, became head of Compania SudAmericana de Vapores (CSAV), a shipping company. He expanded the company 10-fold by 2007 raising its revenues to $4.15 billion.
(WSJ, 11/8/08, p.A6)
1989 Mar 13, The U.S. Food and Drug Administration began a quarantine of all fruit imported from Chile after traces of cyanide were found in two Chilean grapes.
1989 Dec 14, Opposition leader Patricio Aylwin, representing the left and center opposition alliance, was elected president in Chile's first free election since 1970. However the generals maintained great power that included the right to veto political decisions.
(AP, 12/14/02)(WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-10)(http://web.mit.edu/17.508/www/week8.html)
1989 Sebastian Pinera (b.1949), Chilean businessman and politician, was elected senator in Chile. His fortune in 1996 was estimated at $300 mil.
(WSJ, 3/26/96, p.A-10)
1990 Mar 11, Chile’s General Augusto Pinochet gave up power after 16 years of rule, but remained commander of the army. Some 3,200 people were murdered under his dictatorship and 30,000 more were tortured.
(SFC, 8/23/96, p.A20)(SFC, 3/25/99, p.A3)(Econ, 12/16/06, p.89)
1990 Mar 12, Vice President Quayle met in Santiago, Chile, with Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega, who promised to peacefully relinquish power to Violeta Chamorro, the U.S.-backed candidate who had won Nicaragua's presidential election.
1990 Chile’s Gen’l. Pinochet sent troops into the streets of Santiago as a warning to drop an official investigation into his son’s business dealings.
(SFC, 12/9/96, p.A18)
1990 Patricio Aylwin was elected president of Chile.
(WSJ, 12/1/95, p.A-15)
1990 Inflation in Chile hit 26%.
(Econ, 4/30/05, p.74)
1990 Chile exported 23,000 tons of farmed salmon.
(SFC, 4/1/02, p.A3)
1990 Chile had some 245,000 students in higher education. By 2005 this rose to 600,000.
(Econ, 4/2/05, p.33)
1991 Apr 1, Chilean Senator Jaime Guzman was assassinated. Sergio Galvarino Apablaza, head of the left-wing Manuel Rodrizuez Patriotic Front. He was later accused of the murder and an arrest warrant was issued 2004. In 2005 an Argentine judge refuse to extradite Apablaza.
(WSJ, 7/8/05, p.A11)(http://tinyurl.com/76olz)(Econ, 10/9/10, p.55)
1991 Aug, Chile’s Hudson Volcano erupted in Aisen province. It launched a cubic mile of ash and piled ash 18 inches (45 cm) high killing an estimated 1.5 million sheep on the Argentine side of the Andean mountain chain.
(SFCM, 10/3/04, p.51)(AP, 10/28/11)
1991 Dec, Hungarian officials discovered 11 tons of rocket launchers and automatic weapons being loaded on trucks headed for Croatia in violation of a UN arms embargo. They had been labeled as Chilean humanitarian aid for Sri Lanka. In Chile Col. Gerardo Huber, who directed purchases at the army's weapons manufacturer, turned up dead shortly after testifying in a military investigation. His head had been blown apart by a blast from a machine gun. In 2009 former Chilean Army Gen. Guillermo Letelier and Air Force Gen. Vicente Rodriguez were sentenced to prison for shipping arms to Croatia at the time of its battle for independence from Yugoslavia. 11 people were sentenced by a military court in June, 2009, for their roles in the deal. In October, 2009, retired Gen. Victor Lizarraga and retired Col. Manuel Provis got 10 and eight years, respectively, for conspiracy and homicide. Gen. Carlos Krum and Col. Julio Munoz, also both retired, got nearly 2 years for conspiracy and murder, respectively. The identity of the gunman in Huber's murder remained unknown.
(AP, 6/10/09)(AP, 10/5/09)
1991 In Chile the National Commission on Truth and Reconciliation probed the abuses of the military regime and reported that some people arrested by the DINA were taken to the Dignity Colony, held there and tortured by agents of the DINA and by people of the colony. The Rettig Commission was named by the first post-military government to investigate human rights abuses. It was headed by a former Allende minister and counted a total of 2,279 dead and missing on both sides of the civil war.
(SFC, 6/27/97, p.A14)(WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A19)
1991 Capital controls in Chile were adjusted to a minimum permanence period of 3 years for foreign money.
(WSJ, 10/1/98, p.A17)
1992 Doug Tompkins, founder of Esprit Corp., began purchasing a 762,000-acre property north of Valle Chacabuco, Chile. He named the area Pumalin park and opened it as a nature sanctuary. His townhouse and office building are located in the coastal city of Puerto Montt. The $60 million deal was concluded in 2001.
(SFC, 7/4/01, p.A10)(SFCM, 9/10/06, p.11)
1993 Dec 11, Eduardo Frei (b.1942) was elected president of Chile.
1993 Chile passed its first law offering protection, formal recognition and development aid to indigenous groups. 5 of its original native tribes were already lost. In 2006 the Kawesqar were down to just 15 full-blooded members. The Mapuche numbered some 600,000.
(SSFC, 10/8/06, p.A25)
1993 Capital controls in Chile were reduced to a minimum permanence period of 1 year for foreign money.
(WSJ, 10/1/98, p.A17)
1994 Mar 11, Eduardo Frei (b.1942) began office as president of Chile.
1994 May 29, Erich Honecker (81), former East German leader (1971-89), died of liver cancer in Chile.
(AP, 5/29/99) (SFC, 8/26/97, p.A17)
1994 Pres. Ruiz-Tagle took office in Chile.
(SFC, Z-1, 4/28/96, p.5)
1994 Chile’s National Indigenous Development Corp. (Conadi) was formed to address indigenous issues.
(SFEC, 5/7/00, p.A18)
1994 In Chile Luksic companies earned $283 mil on revenue of over 2 bil. The Luksic family was into banking and brewing. It minted coins and mined copper. It served school lunches and sold cellular phones.
(WSJ, 12/1/95, p.A-10)
1994 In Chile the giant state-owned copper company, Codelco, lost more than $200 million in dealings with the London Metal Exchange at the hands of rogue trader Juan Pablo Davila.
(WSJ, 6/17/96, p.A6)
1994 A French wine expert analyzed Chilean vines and reported that many of the Merlot vines were actually Carmenére, a variety that was wiped out in France by a phyloxera outbreak in 1860.
(WSJ, 12/28/01, p.A17)
1995 May, Chile’s Ministry of Agriculture imposed a System of Appellation for the wine industry. Labels would correctly indicate a wine’s region of origin.
(SFC, 1/8/96, zz-1 p.4)
1995 Fall, Chile’s Pres. Ruiz-Tagle ordered the establishment of an ecotourism and adventure travel branch for the tourism dept.
(SFC, Z-1, 4/28/96, p.5)
1995 Chile spent nearly $2 billion on defense this year, about 4% GNP.
(SFC, 11/23/96, p.A8)
1995 Chile’s military received 10% of the proceeds of exports by the state-owned Codelco copper concern. That came to $316 million in this year. The government was not allowed to question the military’s budget.
(SFC, 12/9/96, p.A18)
1995 Argentina and Chile signed an energy agreement that allowed Argentina to cut supplies in an emergency, but only in the same proportion as they are restricted at home.
(Econ, 5/15/04, p.34)
1996 In Chile bicyclists formed “Furiosos Ciclistas” (raging cyclists) patterned after a SF group, founded in 1992, to promote bicycling as a form of nonpolluting transportation.
(SSFC, 11/14/04, p.A16)
1997 Mar 4, Chile’s prison population was 25,000 people. They were encouraged to participate as employees in a joint government-business program.
(SFC, 3/4/97, p.A5)
1997 Apr 14, In SF the winners of the 1997 Goldman Environmental Prize were: Included were Juan Pablo Orrego of Chile for his battle to stop the damming of the Bio Bio River.
(SFC, 4/14/97, p.A11)
1997 Jun, Storms in Chile killed at least 19 people and left 51,000 homeless.
(SFC, 6/28/97, p.A12)
1997 Jul 7, Chile’s government agreed to back the 670,000 acre nature preserve of Doug Tompkins, founder of the Esprit clothing chain.
(SFC, 7/8/97, p.A7)
1997 Jul 28, In Santiago, Chile, nearly a million children stayed home when the government closed schools for 2 days due to high smog levels.
(SFC, 7/29/97, p.A10)
1997 Aug 7, Chile’s Pres. Eduardo Frei and Argentine Pres. Carlos Menem opened a $325 million pipeline for natural gas from Argentina to Santiago.
(SFC, 8/8/97, p.E3)
1997 Sep 21, From Chile it was reported that the hanta virus had caused the death of 13 people in recent months.
(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.A27)
1997 Sep 29, A fire killed 30 children in a home for retarded children in northern Santiago, Chile.
(SFC, 9/30/97, p.A13)
1997 Oct 14, In Chile an earthquake that measured 6.8 left 8 dead and 100 injured.
(SFC,10/15/97, p.C3)(WSJ, 10/16/97, p.A1)
1997 Nov 29, It was reported that giant rats, fattened from feeding on droppings of hormone-fattened poultry, were attacking barnyard animals in the Maipu suburb of Santiago, Chile.
(SFC, 11/29/97, p.A20)
1997 Dec-2004 Jan, In 2005 Britain’s Guardian newspaper claimed that during this period a series of payments totaling $2,098,841 were made by BAE Systems PLC to former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet.
1998 Jan 20, The 1st criminal suit was filed against Chile’s Gen’l. Pinochet for human rights violations.
(SFC, 12/11/06, p.A4)
1998 Jan 26, In Chile Gen’l. Pinochet (82) backed away from scheduled retirement after the Christian Democratic Party filed suit to prevent him from becoming a senator for life.
(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.A11)
1998 Mar 11, In Chile Gen’l. Pinochet could not be removed as head of the army until this date. His successor would be chosen by Pres. Eduardo Frei from 5 generals proposed by Pinochet. He had agreed to resign on condition that he be allowed to assume a Senate seat. Pinochet stepped down and was replaced by Patricio Aylwin.
(SFC, 12/9/96, p.A18)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.A11)(SFC, 3/25/99, p.A3)
1998 Apr 15, Pres. Clinton traveled to Chile for a Latin American trade summit.
(WSJ, 4/14/98, p.A1)
1998 Apr 18-19, A 34-nation trade summit was held over the weekend in Santiago, Chile. Some $45 billion from the Inner-America Development Bank, The World Bank and the US Agency for Int’l. Development was to be made available for an array of development projects.
(WSJ, 4/17/98, p.A1)(SFEC, 4/19/98, p.A24)
1998 Apr 19, In Chile leaders of the 34 Western Hemisphere democracies at the second Summit of the Americas agreed on a free-trade zone to be created by 2005. The first summit met in Miami in 1994.
(SFC, 4/20/98, p.A1)
1998 Jun, It was reported that the Catholic Univ. of Valparaiso, Chile, had sold its parcel of land that cut the Park Pumalin of Doug Tompkins in half. It was sold to Endesa Corp., a Spanish multinational.
(SFC, 6/5/98, p.A14)
1998 Aug 19, Chile’s senate approved a bill to abolish the national holiday marking the 1973 coup against Pres. Allende. A Unity day was proclaimed instead to begin in 1999.
(SFC, 8/20/98, p.A16)
1998 Aug, Chile’s Pres. Eduardo Frei demanded the resignation of the director of the Indigenous Council in order to proceed with the development of the Ralco Dam through the land of the Pehuenche people on the Bio Bio River.
(SFEC, 8/28/98, p.T4)
1998 Sep 11, Chile’s last national holiday to celebrate the end of the Allende government in 1973 was held.
(WSJ, 9/14/98, p.A1)
1998 Sep 12, The anniversary of the 1973 coup was marked by weekend clashes with police and 2 people were killed and 77 injured.
(WSJ, 9/14/98, p.A1)
1998 Oct 16, After receiving a Spanish extradition warrant, British police arrested former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet in London for questioning about allegations that he had murdered Spanish citizens during his years in power. Pinochet was held for 16 months as courts decided whether he could be extradited to Spain; he was allowed in 2000 to return to Chile, where a court later held that he could not face charges because of his deteriorating health and mental condition.
1998 Oct 17, Chilean officials lodged a formal complaint to Britain over the arrest of former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet, who arrested in a London medical clinic following a request from Spain for his extradition.
(SFEC, 10/18/98, p.A1)
1998 Oct 19, A Spanish judge filed a motion for the extradition of Gen’l. Pinochet from England that encompassed 94 cases of genocide, as well as the deaths of 79 Spaniards who were killed in Chile after being abducted by an alliance of south American intelligence services.
(SFC, 10/20/98, p.A8)
1998 Oct 28, Britain’s High Court ruled that Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet could not be tried in England for anything he did in Chile. Pinochet was still held pending an appeal. The House of Lords later overturned the decision, saying Pinochet's arrest could stand. Pinochet was eventually allowed to return to Chile, where a court later held that he could not face charges because of his deteriorating health and mental condition. Pinochet died in 2006.
(SFC, 10/29/98, p.A1)(AP, 10/28/08)
1998 Nov 10, Chile announced the promotion of Brig. Gen’l. Sergio Espinoza Davies to Inspector Gen’l. of the Chilean Army. This followed his departure as chief of the UN military observer mission in India and Pakistan due to his role in human rights abuses during the Pinochet dictatorship.
(SFC, 11/13/98, p.D2)
1998 Nov 25, In Britain 5 members of the House of Lords voted 3 to 2 to reject former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet’s claim of immunity from extradition. The rejection came one day before Pinochet’s 83rd birthday. The final decision rested with Home Sec. Jack Straw.
(SFC, 11/26/98, p.A1,B2)(SFC, 11/27/98, p.A1)
1998 Dec 9, Britain’s Home Secretary, Jack Straw, turned down Gen’l. Augusto Pinochet’s plea to be set free.
(SFC, 12/10/98, p.A1)
1998 Dec 17, In Britain the high court set aside its ruling against Gen’l Pinochet because one member failed to disclose close ties with Amnesty Int’l. A new panel will rehear Pinochet’s claim of immunity.
(SFC, 12/18/98, p.A18)
1998 The film "Chile, Obstinate Memory" was about Chilean politics and showed at the SF Film Fest.
(SFEC, 4/12/98, DB p.55)
1998 Chilean poet Gonzalo Rojas won the Mexican Octavio Paz Prize for poetry and essay writing.
(SFC, 3/1/99, p.E5)
1998 The Funa movement began in Argentina in the 1990s where it was known as escrache. Protesters marched to the homes or workplaces of former military agents involved in "disappearances," where they chanted "If there isn’t any justice, there’s La Funa!" The movement expanded to Chile especially after Pinochet was arrested in 1998.
(SSFC, 11/11/01, p.F1)
1999 Jan 17, A forest fire had destroyed 24,000 acres near San Fernando, some 80 miles south of Santiago, Chile. It was the worst fire in 25 years.
(SFC, 1/18/99, p.A17)
1999 Feb 18, In Chile Lee Pope of California and 27 demonstrators against the Ralco Dam project on the Bio Bio River were arrested.
(SFEC, 3/14/99, p.A3)
1999 Feb, Six African lions escaped from a crashed truck in the north of Chile. By August they had killed some 600 llamas.
(SFC, 8/14/99, p.A6)
1999 Mar 24, In Britain the high court rejected the claim of Pinochet for immunity from prosecution, but reduced the charges that could be brought against him to offenses after Sep 29, 1988. 27 of the 30 charges in the Spanish warrant were thrown out.
(SFC, 3/25/99, p.A3)
1999 Apr 9, Cardinal Raul Silva Henriquez (91), the former archbishop of Santiago, Chile, died. He was renowned for defending human rights during the dictatorship of Pinochet.
(SFC, 4/10/99, p.A21)
1999 Apr 13, Alejandra Matus, author, launched her new book "The Black Book of Chilean Justice." Police confiscated the books the next day and Matus fled the country to Argentina.
(SFEC, 5/2/99, p.A26)
1999 May 30, In Chile Ricardo Lagos won the presidential primary to represent the center left governing coalition against Joaquin Lavin on Dec. 12.
(WSJ, 6/1/99, p.A1)
1999 Jun 8, Five Chilean army officers were indicted in connection to the executions of 72 dissidents after a 1973 coup. Indicted were retired Gen'ls. Sergio Arellano, Pedro Espinoza, retired Cols. Sergio Arredondo, Marcelo Moren, and retired Capt. Patricio Diaz.
(SFC, 6/9/99, p.C2)
1999 Jun 19, In Chile some 100 Mapuche Indians completed a 24 day walk to Santiago to demand more land and greater autonomy ahead of a planned demonstration the next day.
(SFEC, 6/20/99, p.A13)
1999 Jul 1, Sola Sierra, president of the Chilean advocacy group Families of the Detained and Disappeared, died at age 63.
(SFC, 7/2/99, p.D6)
1999 Oct 8, In London a court ruled that Gen'l. Pinochet can be extradited to Spain for trial on torture and conspiracy charges.
(SFC, 10/9/99, p.A1)
1999 Oct 29, In Chile a court charged 7 retired military officers, including Gen. Hugo Salas, for the kidnapping and killing of 7 leftists of the Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic Front during the rule of Gen. Pinochet.
(SFC, 10/30/99, p.A13)
1999 Nov 13, Peru and Chile signed an agreement to end a 120-year territorial dispute. Peru was granted the exclusive use of a pier in the Chilean port of Arica.
(SFEC, 11/14/99, p.A22)
1999 Dec 11, In Chile presidential elections were held. Ricardo Lagos, a leftist moderate, was the candidate for the governing Concertacion. Joaquin Lagos, a right-wing populist, was a member of Opus Dei, a conservative Catholic organization.
(SFC, 12/11/99, p.A16)
1999 Dec 12, In Chile Ricardo Lagos and Joaquin Lavin stood at a virtual tie in presidential elections. A runoff was set for Jan 16.
(SFC, 12/13/99, p.A12)
1999 Chile decriminalized gay sex.
(Econ, 5/26/12, p.40)
2000 Jan 16, In Chile Socialist Ricardo Lagos (61) won the presidential elections in a 51.3% to 48.7% vote over Joaquin Lavin, a former aide to Gen. Pinochet.
(SFC, 1/17/00, p.A10)(WSJ, 1/17/00, p.A1)
2000 Feb 16, Spanish papers reported that former Chilean Gen. Pinochet suffered from brain damage, according to a leaked British medical assessment, and could not stand for trial.
(WSJ, 2/16/00, p.A1)
2000 Mar 1, In Britain Home Sec. Jack Straw ruled that Gen. Pinochet should not be extradited to Spain.
(SFC, 3/2/00, p.A11)
2000 Mar 3, Gen. Pinochet was flown home to Chile after being released from Britain on medical grounds.
(WSJ, 3/3/00, p.A1)
2000 Mar 11, In Chile Pres. Ricardo Lagos took power as the 1st socialist president since Salvadore Allende was killed in a 1973 coup.
(SFEC, 3/12/00, p.A19)(AP, 3/11/01)
2000 Mar 14, In Chile authorities arrested former Gen. Eduardo Iturriaga for the 1975 shooting of former Vice Pres. Bernardo Leighton and his wife, Ana, in Rome.
(SFC, 3/15/00, p.A10)
2000 May 24, In Chile an appeals court ruled that Gen. Pinochet cannot claim immunity from prosecution.
(SFC, 5/25/00, p.A12)
2000 Jun 12, The worst rains in 20 years began and caused flooding in Santiago and a large portion of central and southern Chile.
(SFC, 6/15/00, p.C4)
2000 Jun 13, Chile’s military agreed to search for the remains of the 1,200 dissidents who disappeared between 1973-1990 under Gen. Pinochet.
(SFC, 6/14/00, p.A16)
2000 Aug 1, In Chile the Supreme Court was reported to have voted in secret to strip Gen. Pinochet of his senatorial immunity.
(SFC, 8/2/00, p.A12)
2000 Aug 7, Chile’s Supreme Court announced a vote of 14-6 to allow the prosecution of Gen. Pinochet on human rights charges.
(SFC, 8/9/00, p.A10)
2000 Aug 8, Chile’s Supreme Court stripped General Augusto Pinochet’s immunity, clearing the way for the former dictator to be tried on human rights charges. However, an appeals court later ruled Pinochet unfit to stand trial because of his deteriorating health and mental condition.
(SFC, 8/9/00, p.A10)(AP, 8/8/01)
2000 Nov 28, Chile’s Pres. Ricardo Lagos met with technology leaders in California’s Silicon Valley.
(SFC, 11/28/00, p.A16)
2000 Dec 1, In Chile an Appeals Court judge ordered the house arrest of Gen. Pinochet for kidnappings following the 1973 coup.
(SFC, 12/2/00, p.A12)
2000 Dec 5, In Chile a court of appeals suspended the house arrest of Gen. Pinochet.
(SFC, 12/6/00, p.A16)
2001 Jan 7, Chile’s Pres. Lagos confirmed that an investigation had found that at least 151 dissidents were assassinated by security forces under Pinochet in the 1970s and their bodies thrown into rivers, lakes or the pacific Ocean.
(SFC, 1/9/01, p.A15)
2001 Jan 29, In Chile Judge Guzman reinstated his case against Gen. Pinochet.
(SFC, 1/30/01, p.A10)
2001 May 21, Chile’s Pres. Ricardo Lagos made a state-of-the-nation address and raised the government’s job creation pledge to 150,000 to help offset rising unemployment.
(WSJ, 5/25/01, p.A8)
2001 May 21, In Iquique, Chile, 26 prisoners, mostly first time offenders, died after rioting inmates set fires in their cells. Authorities later said the fire was started by accident.
(WSJ, 5/22/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 5/23/01, p.A1)
2001 Jun 20, It was reported that Chile had recently abolished its death penalty.
(SFC, 6/20/01, p.A9)
2001 Jul 9, In Chile an appeals court ruled that Gen. Pinochet was mentally unfit to stand trial.
(SFC, 7/10/01, p.A7)
2001 Nov 13, An anthrax tainted letter was received by a pediatrician in Santiago, Chile. It was postmarked from Switzerland and marked for return to Florida. It was actually mailed from NY through a NY-based subsidiary of the Swiss Post office. The letter was later believed to have been contaminated in a lab.
(SFC, 11/23/01, p.A4)(SFC, 11/24/01, p.A9)(WSJ, 11/28/01, p.A4)(WSJ, 11/29/01, p.A1)
2001 Dec 5, Oscar Gacitua (76), pianist, killed himself in Santiago, Chile, by hurling under a subway train.
(SFC, 12/7/01, p.A25)
2001 Dec 16, A congressional election showed the Coalition for Democracy with 47.8% of the vote vs. 445 for the opposition Alliance for Chile.
(SFC, 12/17/01, p.A6)
2001 Chile exported over 200,000 tons of farmed salmon and was expected to become the global leader by 2010. The industry was under fire for heavy use of antibiotics, low wages and unsanitary conditions. A fishing quote system, effective to 2012, was set up to stabilize stocks.
(SFC, 4/1/02, p.A3)(Econ, 8/11/12, p.32)
2002 Jan 30, It was reported that the remains of some 10 victims of the Pinochet regime had been found at Fuerte Arteaga, an army base north of Santiago, Chile.
(SFC, 1/31/02, p.A9)
2002 Jul 1, Chile's Supreme Court ruled that former dictator General Augusto Pinochet was suffering from dementia and dropped all charges against him for human rights violations during his regime.
2002 Jul 2, In Chile the highest court halted prosecution of dictator Augusto Pinochet ruling that he was mentally unfit to stand trial for dozens of political killings by the notorious "Caravan of Death."
2002 Jul 4, In Chile Augusto Pinochet resigned as senator-for-life.
(SFC, 7/5/02, p.A14)
2002 Aug 12, In Chile hundreds of thousands of Santiago residents had to walk to work as a strike took virtually all the buses off the streets in this capital city of 5.5 million people.
2002 Sep 13, Argentine police arrested Luis Ramirez Pineda (77), a retired Chilean army general, at a Buenos Aires hotel on an international warrant for alleged involvement in human rights abuses stemming from the 1973 coup in Chile.
2002 Oct 18, A Chilean judge indicted six current and retired army officers, including two generals, in the 1993 slaying of a chemist with former dictator Augusto Pinochet's secret service.
2002 Nov 23, Chilean artist Roberto Echaurren Matta (91), a master of surrealist painting and sculpture, died at a hospital near Rome.
2002 Dec 11, Chile’s Pres. Ricardo Lagos announced it had reached an agreement for a free trade accord with the United States.
(AP, 12/11/02)(SFC, 12/12/02, p.A20)
2002 In Chile a census counted 15% of the population claiming to be evangelicals, a Latin America synonym for Protestants.
(Econ, 11/8/08, p.52)
2003 Feb 25, In Chile a judge indicted 2 former commanders of the once feared secret police in the 1974 assassination in Argentina of a former army commander opposed to then-Pres. Augusto Pinochet. Gen. Manuel Contreras and Brig. Pedro Espinoza were charged with homicide. 3 others, Gens. Raul Iturriaga, Jose Zara, and Iturriaga’s brother, Jorge, were also indicted.
2003 Jun 6, Chile became the first South American country to sign a free trade agreement with the United States.
(AP, 6/7/03)(WSJ, 6/6/03, p.A1)
2003 Jul 15, Roberto Bolano (b.1953), Chilean author, died in Spain. His novel “2666” was published posthumously in 2006. In 2007 his novel “The Savage Detectives” (1998) was made available in English.
(www.absoluteastronomy.com/enc3/roberto_bola%C3%B1o)(SSFC, 4/1/07, p.M1)
2003 Sep 3, President Bush signed legislation to begin free trade with Singapore and Chile.
2003 Oct 22, Chile's Senate overwhelmingly approved a free trade treaty with the United States, paving the way for the accord to become effective Jan 1.
2003 Oct, In Santiago, Chile, Claudio Spiniak, a wealthy businessman, and 6 colleagues were charged with using a luxury gym for sadomasochistic orgies with children. An estimated 4,000 children worked in Chile's commercial sex trade.
(SFC, 11/24/03, p.F1)
2004 Feb, South Korea ratified its 1st free trade agreement. Its partner was Chile.
(Econ, 2/28/04, p.39)
2004 Apr 19, Chilean troops prepared to take up posts in central Haiti, extending the peacekeeping presence where as many as 400 rebels still hold sway.
2004 Apr 21, Chile said it would begin negotiating a free-trade pact with India beginning in August. It would at first be limited to commerce in goods.
(WSJ, 4/22/04, p.A17)
2004 May 7, Chile legalized divorce despite strong opposition from the Catholic Church.
2004 May 26, Argentina said it is imposing a 20% tax on natural gas exports. Chile, which imports 90% of Argentina’s gas, would be hard hit.
(WSJ, 5/27/04, p.A18)
2004 Aug 26, Chile’s Supreme Court stripped Pinochet of his immunity.
(WSJ, 8/27/04, p.A1)
2004 Sep 29, Chile's foreign and defense ministers stepped down in moves making it easier for them to seek public office.
2004 Oct 14, In Chile Cardinal Juan Francisco Fresno (90) died. He played a key role in efforts to restore democracy in Chile during the military dictatorship of Gen. Augusto Pinochet.
2004 Nov 17, Chile’s 1st divorce law was scheduled to go into effect.
(WSJ, 10/5/04, p.A1)
2004 Oct 27, It was reported that a coalition of small leftist political groups in Chile has sued Pres. Bush and other US government officials for the abuses against prisoners at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq.
2004 Oct 31, In Chile voters gave strong support to the center-left government of President Ricardo Lagos in nationwide municipal elections.
2004 Nov 5, The Chilean army for the first time assumed institutional responsibility for widespread human rights violations during the 1973-90 dictatorship of Gen. Augusto Pinochet.
2004 Nov 10, Chile confronted the grim legacy of abuses under the 1973-90 dictatorship of Gen. Augusto Pinochet completing a lengthy report on torture and political imprisonment with testimonies from some 35,000 victims. The commission concluded that torture was a habitual practice of the armed forces and police throughout Pinochet’s dictatorship.
(AP, 11/10/04)(Econ, 12/4/04, p.38)
2004 Nov 17, In Chile top government ministers from 21 Pacific Rim nations convened high-level talks on free trade and global security as police battled university students protesting the summit and a weekend visit by President Bush.
2004 Nov 18, A woman (48) became the first person in Chilean history to file for divorce.
2004 Nov 19, APEC, the Asia-Pacific Economic cooperation summit, opened in Chile.
(Econ, 11/20/04, p.40)
2004 Nov 21, In Chile Asia-Pacific leaders wrapped up an annual summit dominated by US President George W. Bush's core security agenda.
2004 Dec 2, In Chile an appeals court ruled to strip former dictator Gen. Augusto Pinochet of immunity from prosecution for a 1974 car bombing that killed an exiled Chilean general and the man's wife.
2004 Dec 13, A Chilean judge indicted former dictator General Augusto Pinochet on charges of kidnapping nine political dissidents and killing one of them during his 17-year military regime.
2004 Dec 14, Chile’s Congress passed a bill granting compensation, a monthly pension of $190, to some 28,000 former political prisoners from the dictatorship of Gen. Pinochet.
(SFC, 12/17/04, p.A27)
2004 Dec 18, Former Chilean dictator General Augusto Pinochet was hospitalized after suffering a stroke.
2004 Dec 20, A Chilean appeals court upheld the indictment and house arrest of General Augusto Pinochet on murder and kidnapping charges during his rule.
2004 In Chile days after the recipe was published in the paper's "Woman" magazine, hospitals around the country began treating women for burns suffered when the dough boiling in oil suddenly shot out of kitchen pots. In 2011 Chile's Supreme Court ordered the publisher of La Tercera to pay $125,000 to 13 people who suffered burns while trying out the churros recipe.
2004 Vitro Centre Chile, a joint venture between local investors and a Dutch firm, began operations for bulb production.
(Econ, 4/2/05, p.33)
2004 Goldman Sachs donated a 2,750 square km. property in the Chilean part of Tierra del Fuego to the Wildlife Conservation Society of NY. It became the Karukinka nature reserve. Goldman acquired the property in 2002 along with loans backing a failed 1990s project for logging lenga, a type of beech tree.
(Econ, 3/11/06, p.74)
2004 In Chile Doug Tompkins, founder of Esprit Corp., purchased the 173,000-acre Valle Chacabuco ranch for $10 million. Their intent was to convert it into a national park.
(SFCM, 9/10/06, p.10)
2004 Endesa, a Spanish-owned utility firm, and Hydro-Quebec of Canada announced their Aysen project, a $4 billion plan to build 4 dams in Chile’s Valle Chacabuco area.
(SFCM, 9/10/06, p.10)
2005 Jan 1, Chile was forecast for 4.6% annual GDP growth with a population at 15.5 million and GDP per head at $6,180.
(Econ, 1/8/05, p.93)
2005 Jan 20, Chile, the world's biggest copper producer, and India, the world's biggest grains producer, agreed to launch talks to reduce import tariffs on some goods to boost bilateral trade.
2005 Jan 28, In Chile Retired Gen. Manuel Contreras, the chief of the feared security service of former dictator Gen. Augusto Pinochet, was forcefully arrested at his home and sent to prison with four of his top aides after being convicted in an emblematic human rights case.
2005 Jan, Chile shut halted operations for a month at a $700m wood-pulp plant opened last year in Valdivia due to environmental concerns. In June it was shut down indefinitely.
(Econ, 6/25/05, p.39)
2005 Feb 10, Chile raised its key interest rate to 2.75% from 2.5%.
(WSJ, 2/11/05, p.A9)
2005 Mar 13, Paul Schaefer (83), former head of a secretive German colony in southern Chile, was flown to Santiago after his arrest in Argentina. Schaefer founded Colonia Dignidad, or Dignity Colony, a commune-like enclave in 1961, and is accused in the disappearance of a dissident under dictator Gen. Augusto Pinochet.
2005 Mar 15, A US Senate investigators released a new report that said 9 US banks, including Citigroup, Bank of America, and Riggs Bank, enabled Augusto Pinochet, former Chilean dictator, and family members to build a secret network of accounts to conceal his wealth. DC-based Riggs Bank merged with PNC Financial following the inquiry, which also revealed that Pinochet and Obiang Nguema, president of Equatorial Guinea, had stashed millions in private accounts there.
(WSJ, 3/16/05, p.A2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riggs_Bank)(Econ, 3/14/09, p.63)
2005 Mar 24, Chile’s Supreme Court refused to strip Gen. Augusto Pinochet of his immunity from prosecution.
(SFC, 3/25/05, p.A3)
2005 May 2, Jose Miguel Insulza, Chile’s interior minister, became head of the Organization of American States.
(WSJ, 5/2/05, p.A16)
2005 May 19, Five Chilean soldiers froze to death and 65 were missing after a fierce snowstorm pounded the Andes mountains.
2005 May 20, Young Chilean soldiers who made it out of a blizzard alive said they had to leave behind comrades who collapsed from exhaustion and cold. The soldiers were on a training march in the Andes Mountains May 18, when hit by the worst snowstorm in the area in decades. As many as 41 soldiers, 40 draftees and one officer, were believed to have died.
2005 Jun 3, The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) was formed with Brunei, Chile, New Zealand and Singapore as partners. It aimed to integrate the economies of the Asia-Pacific region.
2005 Jun 7, A Chilean appeals court stripped Gen. Augusto Pinochet of immunity from prosecution in a tax evasion case stemming from multimillion-dollar bank accounts the former dictator held in the US.
2005 Jun 14, A 7.9 earthquake rattled cities in Bolivia and Peru and heavily damaged mountain villages in northern Chile, killing at least 11 people including a family of 6.
(WSJ, 6/14/05, p.A1)(AP, 6/15/05)
2005 Jun 27, France, Germany, Brazil and Chile called for a tax on airline tickets to help finance the global fight against poverty.
2005 Jul 6, A Chilean court stripped Gen. Augusto Pinochet of immunity from prosecution for his alleged role in the killing of 119 dissidents in the early years of his dictatorship.
2005 Aug 10, In Chile Gen. Augusto Pinochet's wife and younger son were arrested and charged as accomplices in a tax evasion case linked to an investigation into the former dictator's multimillion dollar fortune overseas.
2005 Aug 18, Andronico Luksic (78), Chilean billionaire, died. His holding included beach resorts in Croatia, where his father was born.
(SFC, 8/30/05, p.B4)
2005 Sep 14, Chile’s Supreme Court stripped Gen. Augusto Pinochet of immunity from prosecution, paving the way for a trial of the former dictator for his alleged role in the disappearance and killing of 15 dissidents during his 1973-90 regime.
2005 Sep 17, Chile’s Pres. Lagos signed a reform of the constitution that deleted what he called “authoritarian enclaves” left in place from the dictatorship.
(Econ, 9/17/05, p.38)(www.americas.org/item_21936)
2005 Sep 30, South American presidents committed themselves to establishing a continental free trade zone. The South American summit was attended by the presidents of Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay, Ecuador, Venezuela, Brazil and Argentina.
2005 Oct 13, Argentina and Chile suspended imports of Brazilian meat, joining 28 other countries with similar bans after an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease.
2005 Oct 19, Chile's Supreme Court stripped former dictator Gen. Augusto Pinochet of immunity from prosecution for corruption charges related to his multimillion dollar bank accounts overseas. It was revealed that he had up to $27 million stashed abroad.
(AP, 10/19/05)(Econ, 12/16/06, p.89)
2005 Oct 23, Pope Benedict XVI named five new saints at the close of a 3-week Synod of Bishops. They included: Rev. Alberto Hurtado Cruchaga, a Chilean Jesuit who was known for his work with the poor as well as the young.
2005 Nov 6 Former Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori was arrested, hours after he defied an international arrest warrant and flew from Japan to Chile. Shortly after Fujimori's presence in Chile was confirmed, the Peruvian government asked Santiago to arrest him while a request for his extradition was filed.
2005 Nov 14, Retired Gen. Manuel Contreras (79), the head of Chile's secret police under Gen. Augusto Pinochet, was sentenced to three years in prison for the 1976 killing of Julia Retamal, a teacher opposed to the dictator's regime. Contreras was already serving a 12-year sentence for a political killing.
2005 Nov 18, China and Chile signed a free-trade agreement on behalf of their nations, the first between China and a Latin American country.
2005 Nov 23, In Chile former dictator Gen. Augusto Pinochet was indicted and put under house arrest on charges of tax evasion and corruption related to his multimillion-dollar overseas accounts.
2005 Nov 24, Former Chilean dictator Gen. Augusto Pinochet was indicted on human rights charges and placed under house arrest, hours after he made bail on unrelated corruption charges filed only a day earlier.
2005 Dec 7, In Chile Gen. Augusto Pinochet was stripped of his legal immunity by an appeals court, allowing his trial in the disappearance of 29 additional dissidents during his 1973-90 dictatorship.
2005 Dec 11, In Chile Michelle Bachelet easily defeated two feuding right-wing candidates with 46 percent of the vote, but fell shy of the 50 percent needed for victory.
2005 Dec 28, Chilean police took fingerprints and mugs shots of Gen. Augusto Pinochet following his indictment for the killing and disappearance of 9 dissidents during his dictatorship.
2005 Dec 28, Two members of a secretive German colony in Chile were indicted on abuse allegations in connection with the alleged torture of eight children.
2005 Dec 30, In Chile former dictator Gen. Augusto Pinochet was stripped of his legal immunity to face charges of diverting public funds to personal bank accounts.
2006 Jan 3, Peru formally asked Chile to extradite former Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori so he can be tried on human rights and corruption charges.
2006 Jan 9, In Chile a judge granted bail to former military strongman Augusto Pinochet in the case of nine dissidents who disappeared during his dictatorship, but the general will remain under house arrest while another court reviews the decision.
2006 Jan 15, Chileans voted in a presidential runoff election that pitted Michelle Bachelet, a socialist pediatrician promising to maintain the country's free-market policies, against Sebastian Pinera, a Harvard-trained economist and multimillionaire businessman vowing to fight poverty. Michelle Bachelet (54) won the elections with 53% of the vote, compared to 46% for Pinera.
2006 Jan 20, In Chile former dictator Augusto Pinochet was stripped of immunity from prosecution on charges involving 59 cases of torture and kidnapping at a secret detention center where hundreds of dissidents were held.
2006 Jan 23, In Chile Gen. Augusto Pinochet's wife and four grown children were indicted and ordered arrested on charges of tax evasion related to the former dictator's multimillion-dollar accounts at overseas banks.
2006 Jan 25, The older daughter of former dictator Gen. Augusto Pinochet was detained upon arrival in Washington after failing to obey a summons by a Chilean judge, who indicted her on tax evasion charges.
2006 Jan 30, Chile’s President-elect Michelle Bachelet unveiled a Cabinet that fulfilled her campaign promise to give half the jobs to women and kept a balance among the four parties in her center-left coalition.
2006 Jan 31, Chile received two US F-16 warplanes out of 10 it had ordered as part of a major military upgrade that has worried some of its South American neighbors.
2006 Feb 15, A Chilean environmental agency approved ambitious plans for an open-pit mine high in the Andes mountains were unanimously, but the project's future remained unclear because the agency rejected its most controversial aspect, relocating three glaciers to reach the gold underneath.
2006 Mar 11, Michelle Bachelet, a Socialist pediatrician who suffered prison, torture and exile under Chile's military dictatorship, was sworn in as the nation's first female president.
2006 Mar 13, Newly inaugurated President Michelle Bachelet said that all Chileans older than 60 will immediately begin receiving free care at public hospitals.
2006 Mar 21, In Chile 13 retired army officers were indicted on homicide charges for their participation in the Caravan of Death under the dictatorship of Gen. Augusto Pinochet. The new warrants were issued against officers who were serving at regiments visited by the Caravan and allegedly helped the repression by participating in illegal executions and burials.
2006 Mar 22, In northern Chile a tour bus swerved to avoid an approaching truck and tumbled 300 feet down a mountainside, killing 12 American tourists and injuring two others.
2006 Mar, Sebastian Pinera, Chilean businessman and politician, paid some $6 million for 1,150 square km. on Chiloe Island and planned to invest some 20 million over the next 5 years to develop ecotourism there.
(Econ, 3/11/06, p.74)(www.businesschile.cl/portada.php?w=old&lan=en&id=63)
2006 Apr 7, In Chile an appeals court upheld the indictment of former dictator Gen. Pinochet on charges of evading up to $3 million in taxes related to secret accounts in foreign banks.
2006 May 18, A smiling Alberto Fujimori left jail after almost seven months when Chile's Supreme Court granted the former Peruvian president bail as he fights extradition to face corruption and human rights charges.
2006 May 24, In Chile Paul Schaefer (84), the leader of now-dismantled Colonia Dignidad, was convicted of sexually abusing 25 children and sentenced to 20 years in jail. The colony was founded by German immigrants in southern Chile in the early 1960s.
2006 May 30, A nationwide protest by Chilean high school students demanding school reforms turned violent as police struggling to contain hundreds of raucous marchers opened fire with tear gas and water cannons. Some 600,000 pupils, backed by university students, teachers and many parents, walked out of classes.
(AP, 5/30/06)(Econ, 6/3/06, p.35)
2006 May 31, In Chile police for a second day used water cannons to scatter demonstrations by high school students that turned violent when masked protesters started throwing rocks near downtown Santiago. President Michelle Bachelet fired the commander of the Santiago riot police, Col. Osvaldo Jara, in response to the initial clashes.
2006 Jun 5, In Chile protesters clashed with police in Santiago as students stepped up demands for reforms to the country's educational system, saying new government concessions didn't go far enough.
2006 Jul 12, In central Chile flooding and landslides triggered by heavy rain left at least 11 people dead and forced 30,000 to flee their inundated homes.
2006 Aug 8, In Chile police used tear gas and water cannons to disperse about 2,000 rock-throwing students seeking better equipment for 21 schools in the Santiago area.
2006 Aug 10, In Chile a drug trafficking network working on behalf of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) was dismantled. Police seized almost a half-ton of cocaine and arrested 12 people.
2006 Aug 14, In Chile a tough nationwide anti-smoking law that took effect.
2006 Aug 18, Chile's Supreme Court voted to strip Gen. Augusto Pinochet of immunity from prosecution, allowing him to be tried on corruption charges for his once-secret multimillion dollar overseas bank accounts.
2006 Aug 18, Anglo-Australian resources giant BHP Billiton closed its operations at the world's biggest copper mine in Chile and ended negotiations with striking workers. The strike began on August 7 at the Escondida Mine, majority owned by BHP. The Chilean government has signaled it was ready to intervene.
2006 Aug 28, In Chile Paul Schaefer (84), former leader of Colonia Dignidad, or Dignity Colony, was sentenced to 7 years in prison for arms found at the secretive enclave near Parral, 200 miles south of Santiago.
2006 Sep 2, In Chile miners at Escondida returned to work following a 25-day strike that cost the company some $200 million in lost profits. Their new deal included a bonus of $12,000 on account of high copper prices.
(Econ, 9/9/06, p.40)
2006 Sep 21, Chile's President Michelle Bachelet said her decision to allow the government to distribute free morning-after contraception pills to girls as young as 14 was a matter of "equality" within Chilean society.
2006 Sep 26, In Chile thousands of public school teachers held a generally peaceful march in Santiago to demand higher pay.
2006 Oct 4, In Chile government officials announced plans to build a 62-mile highway through Pumalin Park, a nature reserve created by Douglas Tompkins of SF. The government also signaled that it will push ahead with the proposed $4 billion hydroelectric complex to dam the Baker and Pasqua rivers south of Pumalin.
(SSFC, 10/8/06, p.A1)
2006 Oct 27, In Chile former dictator Gen. Augusto Pinochet was indicted for abuses at Villa Grimaldi, one of his regime's most infamous secret prisons, where President Michelle Bachelet and her mother were once held and mistreated.
2006 Nov 6, Chile’s President Michelle Bachelet opened an international gathering of socialist leaders in Santiago by urging them to take advantage of the "reality" of globalization instead of fighting it. Police in Chile arrested 4 suspected computer hackers for allegedly belonging to a group accused of breaking into thousands of government Web sites around the globe, including NASA's.
2006 Nov 12, In central Chile a bus carrying members of a military band skidded off a precipice in the rain and fell into the Tucapel River, killing 19 people and injuring nine.
2006 Nov 24, In southern Chile a twin-engine plane crashed, killing the Chilean pilot and five Brazilian tourists.
2006 Dec 10, In Chile Gen. Augusto Pinochet (b.1915) died dashing hopes of victims of his regime's abuses that he would be brought to justice. He overthrew Chile's democratically elected Marxist president in a bloody coup and for 17 years.
2006 Dec 15, President Michelle Bachelet proposed a shake-up of Chile's widely admired but incomplete private social security system, urging a minimum government pension for 1 million elderly Chileans left out of the current program.
2006 Dec 29, In Chile 13 former dictatorship-era security agents were sentenced to prison terms ranging from five to 18 years for four killings committed in revenge for the bloody 1986 assassination attempt of dictator Gen. Augusto Pinochet.
2006 The population of Chile was about 16 million.
(SSFC, 10/8/06, p.A25)
2007 Feb 3, In Chile a fire swept through a small hotel in Punta Arenas, killing 10 foreign tourists, including two children, as they slept in their rooms. A large gas explosion rocked a historic area in the port city of Valparaiso, killing at least one person, injuring 11 more and causing extensive damage over three city blocks.
2007 Feb, Santiago, Chile, launched an overhaul of its public-transport system. For a year the program created a nightmare for the city’s commuters.
(Econ, 2/9/08, p.40)
2007 Mar 26, Chile’s President Michelle Bachelet fired her chief of staff and three other members of her Cabinet in response to a public transportation crisis that has badly damaged her government.
2007 Apr 4, In Chile police used tear gas and water cannons to disperse hundreds of protesting students in the capital of Santiago, and detained nearly 100 people.
2007 Apr 20, Eight workers went missing after a fire swept through a fish-processing ship off southern Chile, killing one person. 116 members of the Hercules' crew were rescued.
2007 Apr 21, An earthquake in remote southern Chile shook free a landslide of rocks, sending them smashing into a narrow fjord and causing massive 25-foot waves that swept away 10 beachgoers. Three bodies were recovered the next day.
2007 May 21, In Chile Pres. Michelle Bachelet apologized for failing to fix her capital's public bus system and promised to raise education spending by hundreds of millions of dollars.
2007 Jun 8, In Chile former Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori was put back under house arrest, a day after a Chilean prosecutor recommended his extradition to face charges of human rights abuses and corruption in his home country.
2007 Jun 13, Heavy snows hit the Andean border region of Argentina and Chile, forcing the closure of a key mountain highway connecting the two countries and idling thousands of trucks.
2007 Jul 4, In Chile Osvaldo Romo (70), a security agent who became a symbol of torture and repression under Gen. Augusto Pinochet's former military dictatorship, died in prison.
2007 Jul 6, Chile's securities regulator fined Sebastian Pinera, a leading right-wing politician and former presidential candidate, for insider trading of LAN Airlines SA stock.
2007 Aug 18, Chile’s national poverty line was reported to be $90 per month. The richest tenth of the population garnered 38.6% of the national income.
(Econ, 8/18/07, p.23)
2007 Sep 12, Police in Chile battled rampaging youths over night on the anniversary of the 1973 military coup. One officer was killed, 41 people injured with some 304 people arrested.
(SFC, 9/13/07, p.A4)
2007 Sep 21, Chile's Supreme Court ruled that former Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori must be extradited to face human rights and corruption charges in Peru.
2007 Sep 22, Former Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori was flown to his home country in police custody, one day after the Chilean Supreme Court authorized his extradition on human rights and corruption charges.
2007 Oct 4, In Chile the widow and five children of Gen. Augusto Pinochet were among 23 people indicted on charges of corruption related to the dictator's US bank accounts.
2007 Oct 26, A Chilean appeals court dropped corruption charges against former dictator Gen. Augusto Pinochet's widow and four of his children, who had been accused of misuse of state funds related to multimillion-dollar overseas bank accounts.
2007 Nov 14, In Chile a 7.7 magnitude quake, centered near the desert village of Quillagua in the foothills of the Andes, killed at least 2 people.
2007 Nov 21, Chile’s Supreme Court threw out embezzlement indictments against former dictator Gen. Augusto Pinochet's widow and four of his children, who had been accused of misuse of state funds related to multimillion-dollar overseas bank accounts.
(SFC, 11/22/07, p.A3)
2007 Dec 19, In Chile a retired general and two former sergeants were fined and sentenced to 10 years in prison for killing a leftist couple shortly after Chile's 1973 military coup. The Santiago Court of Appeals said in a communique that Gen. Fernando Polanco and Sgts. Luis Fernandez and Hector Vallejos, all retired, were ordered to pay $600,000 to the son of the slain couple, Ernesto Lejderman.
2007 Chile’s salmon farming industry produced $2.2 billion in export revenues this year.
(Econ, 6/28/08, p.45)
2008 Jan 2, In southern Chile hundreds of people fled their homes overnight as the Llaima volcano erupted, rocking the area with explosions and spewing lava and ash.
2008 Jan 3, In Chile Interior Minister Belisario Velasco, one of the most powerful officials in President Michelle Bachelet's government, resigned as part of an expected Cabinet shake-up. Mapuche Indians trying to reclaim farmland they say belonged to their ancestors clashed with police in violence that left one protester dead.
2008 Jan 13, In Chile Patricia Troncoso (39), an imprisoned Indian-rights activist who has been on a hunger strike for 93 days, was sent to a hospital because of her deteriorating condition. Troncoso, imprisoned in 2002, is serving a 10-year sentence for participating in a group that set a fire on a farm claimed by Mapuche Indian activists who say the property belonged to their ancestors.
2008 Jan 16, Chile's congress backed a pension reform bill to ensure the country's landmark social security program for the first time covers every citizen.
2008 Jan 23, In Chile retired Col. Ivan Quiroz was arrested in the southern city of Concepcion after remaining at large for four months. He went into hiding to avoid a 10-year prison sentence in a human rights case dating from the dictatorship of Gen. Augusto Pinochet He had been convicted as member of a secret police unit that killed 12 members of a pro-communist urban guerrilla gang in 1987.
2008 Jan 28, In Chile Patricia Troncoso, an indigenous rights activist jailed for setting fire to a farm once owned by Mapuche Indians, ended her 110-day hunger strike.
2008 Feb 4, In Chile Gen. Gonzalo Santelices, head of the Santiago army garrison, resigned amid accusations that he was involved in a case dating back to the nation's military dictatorship. Santelices had acknowledged that as a young lieutenant in October, 1973, he followed orders and transferred 14 prisoners from a jail in northern Chile to a desert area where they were executed by firing squad.
2008 Feb 7, Chile announced it will try to head off power rationing by cutting electrical voltage, distributing efficient light bulbs and extending daylight savings time.
2008 Feb 27, In Chile a small police plane crashed at a sports field in Chile's capital, killing all six aboard and five on the ground.
2008 Mar 11, Some 600,000 poor Chileans will receive monthly pensions starting in July under a law signed by President Michelle Bachelet that plugs gaps in Chile's widely copied private pension system.
2008 Mar 13, Chile said it has agreed to receive 117 Palestine refugees from Iraq who have spent months living in tents along the desert border with Syria.
2008 Mar 28, In Chile 5 youths, aged 14-20, attacked 9 German soldiers and took them hostage in the port city of Iquique. One soldier escaped and police quickly surrounded the house and arrested four suspects after a shootout.
2008 Mar 29, In Santiago, Chile, violence broke out during the annual commemoration of the “Day of the Young Combatants.” One man (23) was shot by masked demonstrators. The demonstration marked the killing of 2 leftists in 1985.
(SFC, 3/31/08, p.A3)
2008 Apr 3, In Chile Yasna Provoste, Chile’s education minister, was impeached following the discovery of $560 million shortfall in the ministry for 2004-2006.
(Econ, 5/17/08, p.48)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yasna_Provoste)
2008 Apr 4, Chile's Constitutional Court halted a government program that provided the contraceptive known as the "morning-after" pill free to women and girls as young as 14.
2008 Apr 8, Chilean police said Marko Kulju (26), a Finnish tourist who chipped an earlobe off an ancient Moai on Easter Island, is being allowed to go home after paying a US$17,000 (euro10,830) fine and agreeing not to return for three years.
2008 Apr 17, Retired Gen. Manuel Contreras (78), former chief of Chile's secret police force, was sentenced to 15 years in prison for the disappearance of a dissident during the dictatorship of the late Gen. Augusto Pinochet.
2008 Apr 18, In Chile 5 high-ranking retired navy officers were indicted for the abduction, torture and killing a British-Chilean priest and other dissidents in the days following Chile's 1973 military coup.
2008 Apr 20, A group of Palestinian refugees stranded on the Iraq-Syria border since 2006 flew to Chile under a resettlement plan sponsored by the Catholic Church in the South American country and the UN agency for refugees.
2008 May 2, In southern Chile authorities evacuated hundreds of people from villages after the snowcapped Chaiten volcano, considered dormant for thousands of years, erupted.
2008 May 6, Chile’s Chaiten volcano spewed lava and blasted ash more than 12 miles into the sky, prompting a total evacuation of the provincial capital and other settlements.
2008 May 29, Chile's national police chief and 10 other people were killed when the aging Panamanian government helicopter they were riding in crashed into a three-story building in the heart of Panama City.
2008 Jun 11, A plane carrying 10 people that disappeared four days ago in Chile's frigid southern forests was found with nine survivors who stayed alive by huddling for warmth, sharing food and sheltering in the plane's wreckage. The only fatality was the pilot Nelson Bahamondes (65). The plane had disappeared June 7 after taking off the Chilean city of Puerto Montt en route to La Junta.
2008 Jun 12, Chile’s Pres. Bachelet visited California on a trade mission, addressed the state Assembly and signed a cooperation agreement with Gov. Schwarzenegger.
(SFC, 6/13/08, p.B12)
2008 Jun 23, Chile’s Pres. Michelle Bachelet pushed to permanently ban whaling along Chile's coast at the opening of the weeklong International Whaling Commission meeting.
2008 Jun 30, In Chile Judge Alejandro Solis said he sentenced retired Gen. Manuel Contreras to two consecutive life prison terms for the killing of retired army chief Carlos Prats and his wife, who died when a bomb blew their car in Argentina in 1974. Contreras was already in prison serving sentences of more than 70 years for other crimes committed under Pinochet's rule.
2008 Aug 4, In Chile Alberto Achacaz Walakial, one of the last surviving members of the nomadic Kaweskar tribe, died of blood poisoning. Government documents listed Achacaz's age at 79, but some believe he was close to 90. The tribe once plied the waters off Chile's Patagonian coast. Experts estimate that only about a dozen full-blooded Kaweskars, or Alacalufes, survive and the group appears destined to disappear in the near future as there are no women of fertile age left. Since the arrival of the first Europeans, Chile has lost five of its original 14 indigenous tribes to disease, displacement or the overuse of their natural resources.
2008 Aug 14, Chile’s central bank said it is boosting its lending rate to 7.75%, warning that additional adjustments will likely be necessary to ensure inflation meets its 3 percent target in the next two years. Annual inflation reached 9.5% in July, Chile's highest rate since 1994.
2008 Sep 11, Chile’s Senate unanimously passed a bill submitted by President Michelle Bachelet that bans whale hunting off the country’s 3,400 mile (5,500 km) coast.
2008 Sep 11, In Santiago, Chile. clashes erupted as protesters erected burning barricades and attacked police with firearms and rocks on the 35th anniversary of the 1973 bloody military coup.
2008 Oct 10, A Swedish court sentenced Chilean tenor Ernesto "Tito" Beltran (43) to two years and six months in prison for raping an 18-year-old nanny and molesting a 7-year-old girl. The appeals court in Goteborg upheld a previous rape conviction, but overturned an acquittal in the molestation case.
2008 Oct 15, Chile’s President Michelle Bachelet signed into law a measure that bans all whale hunting off Chile's 3,400-mile (5,500-kilometer) coast.
2008 Oct 26, In Chile municipal elections were held and Alliance, the center-right opposition, won 41% of the vote for mayors, 2 point more than the governing center-left Concertacion coalition. This was the first-ever nationwide defeat of Concertacion, which has ruled since 1990.
(Econ, 11/1/08, p.47)
2008 Oct 28, Ricardo Claro (b.1934), Chilean industrialist, died. His industrial empire stretched from shipping (CSAV) to media to wine (Santa Rita). In 1974 he announced to the world, on behalf of the Pinochet government, that Chile was once again open for business.
(WSJ, 11/8/08, p.A6)
2008 Oct 10, Chile's President, Michelle Bachelet, signed law 20.299 making October 31st a new annual public holiday to coincide with Reformation Day and to be called "Día Nacional de las Iglesias Evangélicas y Protestantes". The date marked the 1517 posting by Martin Luther of his 95 thesis in Wittenberg, Germany.
(http://tinyurl.com/62uhnt)(Econ, 11/8/08, p.52)
2008 Dec 12, In Chile admirers of former dictator Augusto Pinochet inaugurated a museum in his honor, a move they hope will burnish the image of a man reviled by much of the world.
2008 Dec 23, It was reported that Wal-Mart has offered $2.8 billion to buy a majority stake in Distribucion y Servicio D&S, a Chile-based grocer.
(WSJ, 12/23/08, p.C10)
2008 Dec, In Chile engraver Pedro Urzua Lizana unknowingly left off the bottom part of the letter "l" while hurriedly fixing a minor deformity in the original mold for making dies to stamp out Chilean 50-peso pieces for 2009. The coins were released to the public, but no one at the mint, including himself, knew about the error until a coin collector called in October to point it out. Urzua was fired in December, 2009.
2009 Jan 5, Chile’s Pres. Michelle Bachelet announced a $4 billion economic stimulus package.
(WSJ, 1/6/09, p.A9)
2009 Jan 19, Chile's former top air force commander was arrested on charges of taking graft in the 1994 sale of 25 Belgian military planes to the government. Air Force Gen. Ramon Vega and three other retired officers were charged with tax evasion, misappropriation of public funds and improper negotiation.
2009 Feb 12, Chile’s central bank slashed its key interest rate 2.5% to 4.75%.
(WSJ, 2/13/09, p.A8)(Econ, 2/21/09, p.40)
2009 Mar 27, In Chile the Progressive Governance Summit, a 2-day gathering of leaders from Latin America and Europe, opened at the resort city of Vina del Mar. All agreed for an export-credit fund to get trade flowing again.
(AP, 3/27/09)(Econ, 4/4/09, p.43)
2009 Apr 20, In Chile Gen. Gonzalo Santelices, former head of the Santiago army garrison, was indicted along with 2 other officers in the killing of 14 dissidents in the early days of the dictatorship of Gen. Augusto Pinochet (1973-1990).
(SFC, 4/21/09, p.A2)
2009 Apr 26, In Chile a fire touched off by brawling inmates swept through the Colina prison near Santiago, killing 10 prisoners.
2009 May 17, Chile confirmed its first two cases of swine flu in two women who arrived from the Dominican Republic.
2009 Jun 1, Chilean plumber, Fernando Vera, died of swine flu, making him South America's first swine-flu death.
2009 Jun 9, Two retired Chilean generals were sentenced to prison for shipping arms to Croatia in 1991 at the time of its battle for independence from Yugoslavia. The arms had been labeled as Chilean humanitarian aid for Sri Lanka. Army Gen. Guillermo Letelier and Air Force Gen. Vicente Rodriguez were sentenced to three years in prison. Letelier also was sentenced to 541 days for falsifying documents.
2009 Jun 25, Spanish legislators voted to change a law that let judges indict Osama bin Laden and Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet, narrowing its scope to cases with a clear link to this country and yielding to criticism that Spain should not be a global cop.
2009 Aug 12, In Chile Mapuche activist Fabian Facundo Mendoza Collio (24) was shot and killed by police during a confrontation with Mapuche Indians outside Collipulli. Hours after the Collio was killed, an agricultural warehouse in the area was set on fire, destroying about $1 million worth of equipment.
2009 Aug 15, In southern Chile Manuel Calfiu, head of the Mapuche community Meli Wixan Mapu, said dozens of Indian communities agreed to form the Mapuche Territorial Alliance to fight for political autonomy, said after several days of violence over land seizures.
2009 Aug 21, Chile's health ministry said it ordered a quarantine for two turkey farms outside the port city of Valparaiso after genetic tests confirmed sick birds were afflicted with the same swine flu virus circulating in humans.
2009 Sep 1, A Chilean judge ordered the arrests of 129 former security officers on charges tied to the disappearance of leftists and the slaying of the communist party leadership during the Pinochet dictatorship.
2009 Sep 2, In Chile Judge Manuel Valderrama said the accounts of General Pinochet and his family reached a value of $25,978,602.79 shortly before his death in December 2006. The investigating judge said that more than $20 million of the funds have no justifiable origin.
2009 Sep 11, In Chile police and hooded protesters clashed Santiago on the anniversary of the 1973 military coup that toppled elected President Salvador Allende. State television reported one death amid the disturbances.
2009 Oct 5, In Chile 4 former top army officials were sentenced to prison in the murder of a colonel shortly after he testified about a 1991 illegal deal to smuggle weapons to Croatia.
2009 Oct 8, French utility group GDF Suez said it had signed a contract worth 3.0 billion dollars (2.0 billion euros) to supply electricity to subsidiaries of the Chilean electricity company EMEL.
2009 Nov 1, It was reported that hundreds of former Chilean military draftees were making a provocative offer to Chile's government: They would reveal details of crimes committed by Gen. Augusto Pinochet's dictatorship, but only if their safety is guaranteed.
2009 Nov 12, Peruvian media reported that air force officer Victor Ariza (45) was arrested last month for allegedly spying for Chile. Peruvian President Alan Garcia soon accused Chile of assaulting Peru's sovereignty, throwing his weight behind allegations that Chile paid a Peruvian military officer to spy. Chilean Foreign Minister Mariano Fernandez denied the accusation.
2009 Dec 13, Chile held elections. Sebastian Pinera, a billionaire who grew rich providing credit cards to Chileans, strongly led in the polls. With 98% of the vote counted Pinera won 44% of the vote, to 30% for former President Eduardo Frei (67). A runoff vote was scheduled for Jan 17.
(AP, 12/13/09)(AP, 12/14/09)
2009 Max Marambio authored, "Las Armas de Ayer" (The Weapons of Yesteryear), which Fidel Castro praised in one of his frequent opinion pieces. Marambio was the former head bodyguard of Chilean socialist President Salvador Allende, who was toppled in a 1973 military coup. Marambio sought refuge in Cuba after the coup and took part in secret military missions before becoming one of Cuba's wealthiest business leaders.
2010 Jan 6, In Chile investigators accused Rev. Ricardo Munoz Quinteros (55), a Catholic priest, and his girlfriend, Pamela Ampuero, of soliciting sex from young girls, including one who later bore his child.
2010 Jan 11, Chile inaugurated the Museum of Memory to make sure the tens of thousands of people who were imprisoned, killed or disappeared during Gen. Augusto Pinochet's dictatorship are not forgotten.
2010 Jan 17, Chile held presidential elections. Sebastian Pinera won the election by a 52-48%margin over former President Eduardo Frei. His election victory ended two decades of uninterrupted rule by a center-left coalition, and returned to power the same political parties that provided civic support for Augusto Pinochet's brutal 1973-1990 dictatorship.
(AP, 1/17/10)(AP, 1/18/10)
2010 Feb 9, Chile’s President-elect Sebastian Pinera named a Cabinet of technocrats to run his government, calling more on political independents than members of the Chilean conservative parties that made him their standard-bearer.
2010 Feb 24, Chilean President Michelle Bachelet said a group of South American nations has committed to providing $100 million in aid for earthquake-ravaged Haiti.
2010 Feb 27, A magnitude 8.8 earthquake struck Chile, toppling homes, collapsing bridges and plunging trucks into the fractured earth. Interior Minister Edmundo Perez Yoma said it was the most powerful quake to hit the country in a half-century. Authorities the next day put the death toll from the earthquake at over 700. The death toll was later revised to 486 with 79 missing. Some 1.5 million Chileans were affected and 150,000 people were left homeless. A tsunami caused by the quake swept across the Pacific and killed several people on a Chilean island. It devastated coastal communities near the epicenter, but caused little damage in other countries. Damages were later estimated at $30 billion. By the end of March Chilean officials confirmed 432 people dead and 98 still missing in the earthquake and tsunami.
(AP, 2/27/10)(AP, 2/28/10)(SFC, 3/17/10, p.A2)(AP, 3/19/10)(Econ, 3/20/10, p.43)(AP, 4/7/10)
2010 Mar 4, Chile’s government said it had identified 279 dead, dropping the confirmed official death toll from 802. The Feb 27 magnitude-8.8 quake, one of the strongest on record, and the tsunami that followed ravaged a 700-km (435-mile) stretch of Chile's Pacific coast.
2010 Mar 5, In Chile 3 strong aftershocks shook the center of the country, sending panicked residents rushing out of their homes and leveling more buildings in an area already hard hit by the Feb 6 monster earthquake.
2010 Mar 14, In Chile a power failure at nightfall plunged nearly the entire Chilean population into darkness, rattling a country already anxious after last month's 8.8-magnitude quake.
2010 Mar, US and Chilean engineers extracted Chile's last batch of highly enriched uranium (HEU), 18 kg (40 pounds), from reactors near Santiago and shipped it to the US. It was then driven to the Savannah River Site in SC and the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Ten., where much of it would be converted to safer fuel and resold for nuclear power.
2010 Apr 13, A top Chilean executive, Roberto Baudrand (59), was found dead in his Havana apartment after being detained by Cuban authorities investigating his company, which is owned by a revolutionary-turned-businessman and friend of Fidel Castro. Baudrand was general manager of Alimentos Rio Zaza SA and served as point man in Cuba for business leader Max Marambio.
2010 Apr 13, Chilean Roman Catholic priest Ricardo Munoz Quinteros (55) was charged with 8 cases of sexually abusing minors, including his own daughter.
(SFC, 4/15/10, p.A2)(http://tinyurl.com/y552yje)
2010 Apr 24, In Chile Paul Schaefer (89), a former Nazi soldier, died in a prison. He had founded Colonia Dignidad, a secretive, commune-like colony of German immigrants and was serving time for child molestation and human rights abuses dating to the dictatorship of Gen. Augusto Pinochet.
2010 Apr 26, Chile's Roman Catholic Church was shaken by a series of dramatic televised interviews of men alleging they were abused by a respected former priest. Early the next morning a bombing that damaged a church's facade.
2010 May 10, In Chile Mauhannas Saif ur Rehnab (28) of Pakistan was detained under terms of Chile's anti-terror law after officials detected traces of TNT on him when he visited the US embassy in Santiago. On May 15 he was set free pending an investigation, but could not leave Chile and must check in with a judge every two weeks.
2010 May 22, A Chilean appeals court ordered Mohammad Saif Ur Rehman Khan, a Pakistani, man back into a high-security prison, saying the chemicals allegedly found on his possessions at the US Embassy and inside his apartment could only have come from direct contact with explosives.
2010 May 27, Israel officially joined the OECD club of rich economies. PM Benjamin Netanyahu attended a ceremony at the Paris headquarters of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development as it welcomed Israel along with Estonia, Slovenia and Chile to the 31-nation grouping.
2010 May 30, In Peru Stephany Flores (21) was killed in a room at a Lima hotel where Joran van der Sloot (22), long suspected in the 2005 disappearance in Aruba of US teen Natalee Holloway, had been staying. Her body was found on June 2. Chilean police captured van der Sloot on June 3 as he was heading to the country's Pacific coast. On June 4 Van der Sloot was handcuffed and placed aboard a police Cessna 310 in the Chilean capital of Santiago for extradition to Peru. After 3 days in custody van der Sloot admitted to killing Flores.
(AP, 6/3/10)(AP, 6/4/10)(AP, 6/8/10)
2010 Jun 4, A University of Chile study, ordered up by the country's Supreme Court, said late dictator Augusto Pinochet (1915-2006) had amassed a fortune of $21 million, of which less than 10 percent was justified by his military salary.
2010 Jul 8, Chile's Supreme Court upheld murder convictions for the dictatorship's former secret police chief and his top agents in the 1974 assassination of Gen. Carlos Prats and his wife. The court also reduced Manuel Contreras' life sentence to just 20 years in prison.
2010 Jul 30, Chilean Foreign Minister Alfredo Moreno said his nation's ambassador would return to Honduras, but did not specify when.
2010 Aug 5, In northern Chile the collapse of a small mine left 33 miners trapped, though they could have taken refuge in an underground shelter with oxygen and food. On Aug 9 Pres. Pinera pleaded for int’l. help to rescue the miners. Rescue efforts reached the miners on Aug 22, it could take months to carve a tunnel big enough for them to get out. On Feb 2, 2011, a congressional commission found gold and copper mine owners Alejandro Bohn and Marcelo Kemeny responsible for the accident that left the miners trapped for 69 days.
(Reuters, 8/6/10)(SFC, 8/9/10, p.A2)(SFC, 3/3/11, p.A2)
2010 Aug 22, In Chile an intense rescue effort finally reached 33 miners trapped since Aug 5. After weeks of missteps, new cave-ins and other false starts, it could take months to carve a tunnel big enough for them to get out.
2010 Sep 24, A Chilean court froze all 9.7 million dollars in assets belonging to a troubled mining company to fund the huge rescue operation for 33 miners trapped below ground since early August.
2010 Sep 30, Argentina granted asylum to Galvarino Apablaza Guerra, a former leftist guerrilla, charged in his native Chile with assassinating right-wing Sen. Jaime Guzman and kidnapping businessman Christian Edwards del Rio in 1991. Apablaza, who requested asylum in 2004, was an ideological leader of a branch of Chile's Communist Party that took up arms against Pinochet.
2010 Oct 9, In Chile a drilling rig punched through to the underground purgatory where 33 miners have been trapped for 66 agonizing days under the desert at Camp Hope. If close video examination persuades engineers that the shaft is smooth, strong and uniform enough to let the capsule pass without significant obstacles, then rescuers plan to start pulling the men out one by one as early as Oct 12.
2010 Oct 13, In Chile the 33 miners trapped for 69 days climbed into a rescue capsule and made a smooth ascent to the surface. All the miners were pulled up through a narrow escape chute from nearly a half-mile down in under 23 hours.
(AP, 10/13/10)(AP, 10/14/10)
2010 Nov 8, In Chile two mine workers, 24 and 40 years old, were killed at the Los Reyes mine on their first day on the job. The National Geology and Mining Service said the mine was illegal and unregistered.
2010 Nov 26, In Chile the lawyer for a group of men who accused Fernando Karadima, a prominent Chilean priest, of sexually abusing them as teenagers said his clients will not appeal a ruling in favor of the clergyman. Five men, now adults, had alleged that Karadima began abusing them about 20 years ago, when they were between 14 and 17 years old. In 2011 the Vatican said Karadima was guilty of abusing minors and must retire.
(AP, 11/26/10)(SFC, 2/19/11, p.A2)
2010 Dec 3, A land dispute on Easter Island turned violent when riot police evicting islanders from their ancestral home were surrounded by rock-throwing protesters. About two dozen people were injured in a 7-hours-long confrontation. The official native name of Easter Island, known for its stunning gigantic stone heads known as Moais, is Rapa Nui, and that's what many natives call themselves, refusing to identify with Chile, which annexed the island in 1888.
2010 Dec 8, In Chile a fire set off by rioting inmates in a severely overcrowded prison killed at least 81 prisoners and seriously injured at least 14 others at the San Miguel prison south of Santiago. In March, 2011, a Chilean court ordered three prison guards held on negligent homicide charges for the deaths of 66 of the 81 inmates. 5 senior officers were charged with manslaughter and ordered to remain in the country.
(AP, 12/8/10)(AFP, 3/28/11)
2010 Dec 8, A French court put 14 former Chilean officials on trial in absentia over the 1973-1975 disappearance of four French citizens under the regime of Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet.
2010 Dec 17, A French court convicted 13 former officials who served under Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet for roles in the disappearance of 4 French nationals. It sentenced two to life in prison: Juan Manuel Contreras Sepulveda, who at the time headed Pinochet's political police, and Octavio Espinoza Bravo, an army colonel. All 14 of the defendants were tried in absentia.
2010 Dec 22, In Rome, Italy, all embassies were informed about a pair of package bombs that exploded at the Swiss and Chilean embassies, injuring two people who opened them. Security officials later said that an Italian group calling itself Informal Anarchist Federation claimed responsibility.
(AP, 12/23/10)(AP, 12/24/10)
2010 In Chile Nicolas Shea founded Start-Up Chile, a program that used government funded seed capital to encourage entrepreneurial activity.
(Economist, 10/13/12, p.79-80)
2011 Jan 7, Chile recognized Palestinian statehood, joining other South American nations in a push for Palestinians and Israelis to keep negotiating toward a lasting peace in the Middle East.
2011 Feb 6, Police on Easter Island raided the grounds of a luxury hotel to evict the last of dozens of indigenous protesters battling for ancestral lands and a larger share of profits from the tourists who come to see the Pacific Island's mysterious statues of giant heads. The actions posed legal and political dilemmas for a Chilean government already criticized for its treatment of indigenous people on the mainland.
2011 Feb 18, The Vatican said Fernando Karadima, a prominent Chilean priest, has been found guilty of abusing minors and must retire to a life of prayer and penitence.
(SFC, 2/19/11, p.A2)
2011 Mar 3, The daughters of Chile's assassinated former army chief, Gen. Carlos Prats, sued the Chilean government for $15 million dollars. The lawsuit also targeted Manuel Contreras, the jailed former spy chief of Gen. Augusto Pinochet, as well as other high-ranking members of the 1973-1990 dictatorship.
2011 Mar 18, The US and Chile signed a nuclear energy accord.
(SFC, 3/19/11, p.A2)
2011 Mar 21, US President Barack Obama flew to Chile to promote democracy and economic growth on the American continent on the second leg of his Latin American tour aimed at bolstering trade and investment. Obama said he's ready to help Chile solve human rights crimes committed during the dictatorship of Gen. Augusto Pinochet, but avoided agreeing to a US apology for meddling in the country's affairs.
(AFP, 3/21/11)(AP, 3/21/11)
2011 Mar 22, US President Barack Obama wrapped up a visit to Chile and departed for El Salvador, the third and final stop of his Latin America tour. In El Salvador Obama promised increasing trade and economic growth, fighting drug trafficking and creating work opportunities. In 2012 it was reported that Secret Service employees took prostitutes to their hotel rooms ahead of Obama’s visit to El Salvador.
(AFP, 3/22/11)(SFC, 3/23/11, p.A3)(SFC, 4/27/12, p.A6)
2011 May 5, Chile's Supreme Court found six ex-navy officers guilty in the abduction and execution of a Chilean journalist one day after the coup that ushered in the 1973-1990 military dictatorship.
2011 May 5, A Cuban court sentenced Chilean revolutionary-turned-businessman Max Marambio, long a friend of Fidel Castro, to 20 years in prison for fraud and bribery following a trial in absentia. Communist Party newspaper Granma also said a 15-year sentence was handed down to Alejandro Roca Iglesias, who was removed as food minister in March 2009.
2011 May 9, A Chilean government commission approved a $7 billion project to dam, two rivers for electrification, despite much opposition. 5 dams were approved on the Baker and Pascua rivers in Aysen, southern Patagonia.
(SFC, 5/10/11, p.A4)
2011 May 23, Chile exhumed the remains of President Salvador Allende for an autopsy to determine whether he committed suicide or was assassinated during the 1973 military coup.
2011 Jun 4, In southern Chile the long dormant Puyehue-Cordon Caulle, one of the volcanoes in the Caulle Cordon, erupted violently, billowing smoke and ash high into the sky and prompting more than 3,500 people living nearby to evacuate.
(AP, 6/5/11)(Reuters, 6/5/11)(AP, 6/5/11)
2011 Jun 12, Chile's Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcano continued to emit a cloud of ash, disrupting flights to Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay. Authorities were also monitoring the volcano for its potential to cause landslides and avalanches.
2011 Jun 14, In Chile the Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcano once again was spewing clouds of ash, disrupting a growing number of flights throughout South America. The main airports in both Argentina and Chile remained closed. The cloud of ash threatened to delay next month's start of the Copa America football tournament in Argentina.
2011 Jun 16, In Chile some 80,000 students, teachers and sympathizers demanded more money for state education.
(Econ, 6/25/11, p.48)
2011 Jun 20, A Chilean appeals court suspended a controversial hydroelectric project in the country’s Patagonia region.
(SFC, 6/21/11, p.A2)
2011 Jul 7, Ash from a Chilean volcano grounded flights across much of South America again, disrupting travel for thousands of people just as the continent's premier football tournament got going in Argentina.
2011 Jul 17, In Chile a man boarded a subway train, pulled out a gun and began shooting at the Plaza Maipu station in the southwestern part of Santiago. He killed two people and wounded four more before leaving the station and killing himself.
2011 Jul 18, In Chile 8 students began a hunger strike to support demands for improvements to the country's education system. Participants soon grew to 20.
2011 Jul 22, In Chile mine workers at Escondida, the world's most productive copper mine, went on strike. The main issue was a monthly production bonus. BHP owned a 57% share. Other major investors include Rio Tinto, Mitsubishi Corp. and International Finance Corp.
2011 Jul, Chile’s Supreme Court ruled that ex-colonel Miguel Krassnoff (b.1946), serving a 144-year prison sentence for crimes, was one of 20 people certified as agents of repression related to the kidnapping and killing of government opponents during Pinochet's rule between 1973 and 1990.
2011 Aug 4, In Chile riot police battled high school and university students in Santiago. Police detained 235 students demanding major changes to the underfunded and unequal public education system.
(SFC, 8/5/11, p.A2)
2011 Aug 5, Chilean police arrested 874 people during student protests that left 90 officers injured. Students have been demonstrating for free, quality public education.
(SFC, 8/6/11, p.A2)
2011 Aug 9, In Chile violence erupted on the streets of Santiago and other cities as tens of thousands of students staged another protest demanding changes in public education. By nightfall, at least 273 protesters were detained, including 73 in Santiago, and 23 police officers were injured.
2011 Aug 18, Chile officially recognized 9,800 more victims of the Pinochet dictatorship (1973-1990), increasing the total number of people killed, tortured or imprisoned for political reasons to 40,018. Victims, relatives of those killed and survivors were entitled to benefits and compensation.
2011 Aug 25, Chile's capital was wracked overnight by looting, attacks on police and the burning of cars and barricades as union members, students and government workers waged a 2-day nationwide strike for changes in government policies. Tens of thousands of Chileans marched peacefully demanding profound changes in the country's heavily centralized and privatized form of government, while smaller groups broke away to fight with police. Some 1,394 people were arrested and dozens injured.
(AP, 8/25/11)(SSFC, 8/28/11, p.A4)
2011 Aug 26, Chilean President Sebastian Pinera agreed to negotiate with students and teachers demanding more state funding for education and profound changes in government.
2011 Aug 26, An Chilean official commission posted its final report online naming each additional victim that Chile recognizes as being killed, tortured or imprisoned for political reasons by the dictatorship of Gen. Augusto Pinochet. The addition of 30 slayings raises the death toll to 3,095, and the total victim list stands at 40,048.
2011 Sep 2, A Chilean CASA 212 military plane crashed after two failed attempts to land in difficult weather on the Juan Fernandez islands, 400 miles (670 kilometers) from the Chilean mainland. All 21 aboard were believed killed. Among those aboard was popular Chilean television personality Felipe Camiroaga.
2011 Sep 11, Chileans commemorated the 38th anniversary of a military coup. Police arrested 280 people and 45 people were injured, including a teenager who is in critical condition with a bullet in his chest.
2011 Sep 24, In Chile a massive power blackout affected 9 million people across the country, forcing thousands in the capital to be evacuated from trains or subway cars.
2011 Oct 4, In Chile a major terror case fell apart as prosecutors dropped charges due to a lack of evidence against 13 suspects who spent eight months in prison for a series of bombings detonated outside financial institutions from 2006 to 2010.
2011 Oct 5, Chilean students, led by Camila Vallejo (23), began face-to-face talks with the government over their demands for profound changes in what they say is the country's unequal and underfunded public school system.
2011 Oct 6, Chilean police used water canons and tear gas to break up a student march hours after talks with government regarding public education collapsed. By day's end, 168 had been arrested in the capital, and more than 100 more around Chile. Police said 25 officers and five civilians were injured.
(SFC, 10/7/11, p.A2)(AP, 10/7/11)
2011 Oct 17, Chile said it is giving nearly 57,000 18-year-olds one month to report for potential military duty. The government said it needs to fill gaps in its armed forces because a nationwide student protest movement has reduced the number of volunteers it usually gets. Attending a university does not enable young Chileans to avoid the draft.
2011 Oct 18, Chilean students erected fiery blockades in major streets of the capital and clashed with police on the first day of a two-day national strike to demand that the government reform the education system.
2011 Oct 19, Violence again hit Chile's capital as small groups of hooded youths clashed with police and marred an otherwise peaceful march by as many as 100,000 students demanding changes in public education.
2011 Oct 20, Chilean students and other protesters interrupted a Senate committee meeting to demand a referendum on how to resolve Chile's social problems, especially education. The protesters then occupied the Senate headquarters and transmitted the situation live over the Internet by webcam.
2011 Oct 21, In Chile dozens of protesting students voluntarily left the Senate headquarters they had seized to demand a popular referendum on how to resolve Chile's social problems, especially education.
2011 Oct 28, Chile's Hudson Volcano released three huge columns of steam and ash that combined in a cloud more than 3 miles (5 km) high.
2011 Nov 5, A 5.7 earthquake struck near Chile’s port city of Antofagasta.
(SSFC, 11/6/11, p.A4)
2011 Nov 22, Chilean police clashed with some 1,000 protesters who gathered to condemn the gathering in honor of former brigadier Miguel Krassnoff, who is serving a 144-year sentence for kidnappings and killings from 1973-1990.
(SFC, 11/23/11, p.A2)
2011 Dec 13, Chilean doctors successfully separated conjoined twin girls in a marathon 20-hour surgery, saying that the operation went extremely well despite challenges. Doctors at Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital separated Maria Jose Paredes Navarrete from her twin sister Maria Paz at the thorax, abdomen and pelvis. Maria Jose died on Dec 18.
(AP, 12/14/11)(AP, 12/18/11)
2011 Dec 31, Chilean authorities said an Israeli tourist has been detained on suspicion of causing a forest fire that has burned more than 42 square miles (11,000 hectares) in the Torres del Paine national park. In 2012 Rotem Singer (23) agreed to pay $10,000 and raise other money to buy 50,000 native trees to replant the park.
(AP, 12/31/11)(SFC, 2/10/12, p.A2)
2011 Dec, Chile's National Education Council decided to change the description of the country's former military government from "dictatorship" to "regime" in the nation's school textbooks. The move wasn't publicly known until the digital daily El Dinamo reported on it Jan 4. On Jan 5 the Council backed off the change following a political uproar.
(AP, 1/4/12)(AP, 1/6/12)
2012 Jan 5, In Chile shifting winds caused flames to sweep over a group of firefighters battling wildfires, killing six of them, badly burning two and leaving another missing.
2012 Jan 8, In Chile the family home of one of a top Indian leader was destroyed in a suspicious fire. Hours later, hooded gunmen attacked the home of a retired military official and set it ablaze in the southern Araucania region where Mapuche Indians and Chile's largest forestry companies have been mired in land conflicts.
2012 Jan 20, In Chile two retired generals in Chile were found guilty of illegal weapons sales to Croatia in violation of a UN embargo. The Supreme Court sentenced Hector Letelier Skinner and Vicente Rodriguez Bustos to three years each. Eight others also were convicted. All are allowed to serve their terms at home.
2012 Jan, Chile’s competition authority found that three chains of pharmacies, which control 90% of the market, had colluded to push up the price of over 200 medicines by around half.
(Econ, 4/14/12, p.47)
2012 Feb 24, The Interamerican Court of Human Rights condemned the Chilean government for denying Magistrate Karen Atala custody of her three daughters because she is a lesbian. Atala filed a complaint with the Interamerican Commission of Human Rights in Nov. 2004 after Chile's Supreme Court decided to give custody of her daughters to her ex-husband because she is lesbian.
2012 Mar 3, In Chile Daniel Zamudio (24), a gay man, suffered severe head trauma and a broken right leg in a beating in Santiago. A swastika was drawn on the victim's chest by the unidentified assailants, leading to speculation that neo-Nazis may have attacked him. Doctors put him into an induced coma while treating his head trauma.
2012 Mar 15, Chilean police used water cannons and tear gas to break up a march by thousands of students, the first protest this year by student groups whose demonstrations demanding education reform paralyzed major cities in 2011.
2012 Mar 17, In Venezuela the daughter of Chilean diplomat Fernando Berendique was shot to death by police at a road checkpoint. The young woman (19) was hit by three bullets after her brother tried to evade an illegal unmarked roadblock.
(AP, 3/18/12)(Econ, 4/14/12, p.48)
2012 Mar 25, A magnitude-7.1 earthquake struck central Chile, the strongest and longest that many people said they had felt since a huge quake devastated the area two years ago. There were no reports of major damage or deaths due to quake-related accidents.
2012 Mar 27, In Chile Daniel Zamudio, a young gay man, died following a March 3 attack in Santiago. Attackers had brutally beaten him and carved swastikas into his body. The suspects included Raul Alfonso Lopez (25); Alejandro Axel Angulo Tapia (26); Patricio Ahumada Garay (25); and Fabian Mora Mora (19).
2012 Apr 4, Chile's Congress passed an anti-discrimination law following the killing of a gay man whose attackers beat him and carved swastikas into his body.
2012 Apr 4, Chile’s Supreme Court rejected environmental challenges to 5 dams on the Baker and Pascua rivers in Patagonia.
(SFC, 4/5/12, p.A2)
2012 Apr 16, A strong magnitude-6.7 earthquake shook central Chile late today, prompting authorities to order the evacuation of a stretch of coastline and causing hundreds of people in the capital to flee buildings in panic. A least one death was attributed to the quake.
2012 May 10, Chile’s Congress passed a hate-crimes law. It had been stuck in Congress for 7 years until Pres. Pinera put it on fast track following the march 27 brutal murder of Daniel Zamudio.
(SFC, 5/11/12, p.A3)
2012 Jun 28, In Santiago, Chile, tens of thousands of students took to the streets to call for the end of public financing for private universities. Many students faced huge educational loan debts.
(SFC, 6/29/12, p.A2)
2012 Jul 12, Chile's President Sebastian Pinera signed an anti-discrimination law following the killing of a gay man beaten by attackers who carved swastikas into his body.
2012 Jul 20, Chile’s government announced that 14.4% of Chileans were living below the poverty line, down from 15.1% in 2009. The United Nation’s Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean had found the poverty rate to be 15%.
(Economist, 9/29/12, p.40)
2012 Aug 1, In Chile McDonald's, Burger King, KFC and other fast-food companies were accused in Chile of violating the country's new law against including toys with children's meals. Sen. Guido Gerardi filed a formal complaint with the health authority accusing those and other companies of knowingly endangering the health of children by marketing kids' meals with toys more than a month after the law took effect June 7.
2012 Aug 8, Chilean police used water cannons and tear gas to break up a demonstration in Santiago by thousands of students demanding free education.
(SFC, 8/9/12, p.A2)
2012 Aug 14, Chilean police broke up protests by students, who had taken control of several high schools in Santiago, demanding free education.
(SFC, 8/15/12, p.A2)
2012 Aug 23, Chile's state-owned copper company Codelco and British firm Anglo American PLC settled their long-running conflict over control of a promising copper mine with a multi-billion dollar deal that includes major new Japanese investments in Chile.
2012 Sep 6, Google Inc. said it has chosen a site just outside the capital of Chile for its first data center in Latin America. The $150 million data center will employ just 20 people.
2012 Sep 11, Chile's Supreme Court closed the book on a judicial review of Salvador Allende's 1973 death, confirming the conclusion of a lower court last December that the socialist leader committed suicide. Activists marked their own 9-11, the anniversary of the day in 1973 when Gen. Augusto Pinochet seized power in a military coup that prompted socialist President Salvador Allende to kill himself rather than surrender.
2012 Oct 28, Millions of Chileans voted in nationwide municipal elections that could set the stage for next year's presidential race.
2012 Oct 30, A Spanish judge indicted 6 Chileans and an American accused of the 1976 kidnapping, torture and murder of a Spanish UN official in Chile. International arrest warrants were issued for them to be tried in Spain.
2012 Nov 7, In Chile three Europeans, identified as Dmitry Sivenkov (32) of Russia, Gillhem Bellon (25) of France and Luca Ogliengo (25) of Italy, went missing after climbing the Villarica volcano in Chile's central valley.
2012 Dec 3, Peru asked the UN’s highest court to set a maritime border between it and Chile, which insisted that the border was clearly set by treaties signed in 1952 and 1954.
(SFC, 12/4/12, p.A2)
2012 Dec 14, Chile's government apologized to a lesbian judge who was denied custody of her three daughters in 2004 because she is gay. Chile said it will pay Magistrate Karen Atala $70,000 and grant her medical and psychological treatment.The ruling followed Chile's approval this year of an anti-discrimination law.
2012 Ricardo Lagos with Blake Hounshell and Elizabeth Dickinson authored “The Southern Tiger: Chile’s Fight for a Democratic and Prosperous Future.”
(Econ, 4/14/12, p.93)
Subject = Chile
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