Timeline China (B) 1925-1994

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1925        Mar 12, Chinese revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen (b.1866) died. Soong Ching-ling was the wife of Sun Yat-sen. Morris Abraham Cohen (d.1970 at 83) had been the right-hand man to Dr. Sen and the story was told in 1998 by Daniel S. Levy in his book "Two-Gun Cohen." Chiang Kai-shek, head of the Nationalist's Party military academy, took command of the Nationalist Army after the death of Yat-sen. Chiang married Soong Mayling the sister of Ching-ling in 1926.
    (AP, 3/12/98)(SFEC, 4/12/98, Par p.20)(SFC, 1/27/00, p.E1,5)

1925        Dec 26, Six U.S. destroyers were ordered from Manila to China to protect interests in the civil war that was being waged there.
    (HN, 12/26/98)

1925        A palace museum was established in the former imperial precincts of China and opened to public view.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)

1925        There was an uprising in Canton, China. It was the setting for the Andre Malraux novel "The Conquerors."
    (WSJ, 5/5/97, p.A16)

1925        The All-China Federation of Trade Unions was founded. In 1927 it was crushed by the nationalist government and then rose with the ascension of the Communist Party in 1949. It was crushed again in the Cultural Revolution and then revived following Mao’s death.
    (Econ, 8/2/08, p.66)

1926        May 17, Chiang Kai-shek was made supreme war lord and "generalissimo" in Canton.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1926        Jul 9, Chiang Kai-shek was appointed to national-revolutionary supreme commander.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1926        Aug 17, Jiang Zemin was born in China.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)

1926        Aug 24, Zhang Jian (b.1853), Chinese industrialist, died. He built a manufacturing empire as well as founding schools and China's first museum.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhang_Jian_(businessman))(Econ., 11/28/20, p.37)

1926        Oct 16, A troop ship sank in the Yangtze River killing 1,200.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1926        Nozaki Nobuchika, Japanese scholar, authored “Explanatory Notes on Auspicious Designs," a work on the symbolism of Chinese art.
    (WSJ, 11/22/06, p.D8)

1927        Jan 19, British government decided to send troops to China.
    (MC, 1/19/02)

1927        Jan 24, British expeditionary force of 12,000 was sent to China to protect concessions at Shanghai.
    (HN, 1/24/99)

1927        Mar 5, Some 1,000 US marines landed in China to "protect American property."
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1927        Mar 21, Kuomintang Army conquered Shanghai as British marines fled.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1927        Mar 24, Chinese Communists seized Nanking and broke with Chiang Kai-shek over the Nationalist goals.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1927        Apr 12, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek began a counter revolution in Shanghai.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1927        Apr 19, In China, Hankow communists declared war on Chaing Kai-shek.
    (HN, 4/19/97)

1927        May 27, An earthquake in China’s Qinghai (Xining) Province left some 200,000 dead.

1927        Sep 8, A woman arrived in SF from China and claimed to be Gen. Chiang Kai-shek’s wife, who declared that he had divorced his legal wife in 1921 and freed 2 concubines this year.
    (SFC, 9/20/02, p.E6)

1927        Dec 12, Communists forces seized Canton, China.
    (HN, 12/12/98)

1927        Dec 14, China and Soviet Union broke relations.
    (AP, 12/14/02)

1927        Mu Xin, Chinese artist and writer, was born. During the Cultural Revolution he painted in secret and later moved to NYC.
    (WSJ, 6/26/03, p.D8)

1928        Mar 6, A Communist attack on Peking, China, resulted in 3,000 dead and 50,000 fleeing to Swatow.
    (HN, 3/6/98)

1928        Apr 1, China's Chiang Kai-shek began attacks on communists as his army crossed Yang-tse.
    (HN, 4/1/98)(MC, 4/1/02)

1928        Jun 2, Nationalist Chiang Kai-shek captured Peking, China, in a bloodless takeover.
    (HN, 6/2/98)

1927        Sep 8, A woman arrived in SF from China and claimed to be Gen. Chiang Kai-shek’s wife. The Gen. declared that he had divorced his legal wife in 1921 and freed 2 concubines this year.
    (SFC, 9/20/02, p.E6)

1928        Sep 27, The United States said it was recognizing the Nationalist Chinese government.
    (AP,  9/27/97)

1928        Oct 1, Zhu Rongji, named Premier of China in 1998, was born.
    (SFC, 3/18/98, p.A12)

1928        Oct 6, Chiang Kai-shek was elected the president of China.
    (AP, 10/6/08)

1928        In 1928 the Japanese army unilaterally instigated armed clashes in China's Manchuria region to justify full-scale intervention.
    (HN, 2/18/98)

1929        Jan 19, Liang Qichao (b.1873), Chinese intellectual, died in Beijing. He inspired Chinese scholars with his writings and reform movements.
    (Econ, 7/28/12, p.73)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liang_Qichao)

1929        Feb 23, Chinese rebels seized Hunan.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1929        Sep 21, Fighting between China and the Soviet Union broke out along the Manchurian border.
    (HN, 9/21/98)

1929        Dec 2, 1st skull of Peking man was found 50 km out of Peking at Tsjoe Koe Tien.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1929        Sir Victor Sassoon, Shanghai financier, built a pyramid-topped hotel and office complex in the art-deco style, designed by Palmer and Turner and called: Sassoon House. Cathay Mansions and Grosvenor House in Shanghai were residences owned by tycoon Sir Victor Sassoon. The complex was seized in 1949 by the Communist government and reopened in 1951 as the Jin Jiang Hotel.
    (Hem. 1/95, p. 84)(WSJ, 3/5/97, p.A16)

1929        Clement Keys, a Wall Street investor, started an airline in China.
    (SFEM, 2/13/00, p.38)

1930        Jan 5, Mao Tse-tung wrote "A Single Spark Can Start a Prairie Fire."
    (MC, 1/5/02)

1930        In China Mao Zedong’s 2nd wife was executed by the Nationalists for refusing to renounce Mao.
    (Econ, 9/10/16, p.37)

1930-1940    The Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan province was the area described for National Geographic by American ethnologist James Rock in the 1920s and 1930s. The 1933 James Hilton novel "Shangri-La" was thought to be based on Rock's writings.
    (SFEC, 11/28/99, p.A22)

1931        Jun 9, Britain’s HMS Poseidon submarine sank during exercises of the coast of China. It was raised by the Chinese in 1972. In 2012 Steven Schwankert authored “The Real Poseidon Adventure: China’s Secret Salvage of Britain’s Lost Submarine."
    (SFC, 8/4/12, p.A2)

1931        Jun 17, British authorities in China arrested Indochinese Communist leader Ho Chi Minh.
    (HN, 6/17/98)

1931        Jul-1931 Nov, The Huang He River (Huang Ho, Yellow River) in China flooded more than 40,000 sq. miles and more than a million people were killed.
    (HFA, '96, p.71)(http://socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/geography/huangheriver.htm)

1931        Sep 18-1931 Sep 19, The Mukden Incident was initiated by the Japanese Kwangtung Army in Mukden. It involved an explosion along the Japanese-controlled South Manchurian Railway. It was soon followed by the Japanese invasion of Manchuria and the eventual establishment of the Japanese-dominated state of Manchukuo. The neutrality of the area, and the ability of Japan to defend its colony in Korea, was threatened in the 1920s by efforts at unification of China. Within three months Japanese troops had spread out throughout Manchuria. The occupation ended at the conclusion of the Second World War in 1945.
    (HNQ, 11/27/98)

1931        Sep 28, In Peking  some 200,000 demonstrators demanded a declaration  of war on Japan.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1931        Nov 7,  Mao Tse Tung proclaimed  the Chinese People's Republic.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1931        Nov 20, Japan and China rejected the League of Council terms for Manchuria at Geneva.
    (HN, 11/20/98)

1931        Nov 19, Xu Zhimo (34), Chinese poet, was killed in a plane crash while flying from Nanjing to Beijing. He left behind four collections of verse and several volumes of translations from various languages. His poem “On Leaving Cambridge" made famous a willow tree on the ground’s of King’s College.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xu_Zhimo)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.114)

1931        Dec 9, Japanese army attacked the Chinese province of Jehol.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1931        Dec 12, Under pressure from the Communists in Canton, Chiang Kai-shek resigned as President of the Nanking Government but remained the head of the Nationalist government that held nominal rule over most of China.
    (HN, 12/12/98)

1931        The Shanghai classic Richard Poh film "Love and Duty" was produced.
    (SFEM, 2/23/97, p.6)

1931        The Chinese silent film "The Peach Girl" starred Ruan Lingyu and Jin Yan.
    (SFEC, 7/2/00, DB p.32)

1931        Ten years of comparative peace ended when Japan attacked and seized  Manchuria to ensure a supply of natural resources. The Japanese army invaded Manchuria without its own government's consent.
    (SFC, 7/18/96, p.E6)(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 216)(SFC, 12/2/97, p.A22)(HN, 2/18/98)

1932        Jan 28, The Japanese attacked Shanghai, China, and declared martial law.
    (HN, 1/28/99)

1932        Feb 18, Manchurian independence was formally declared. In 1928 the Japanese army unilaterally instigated armed clashes in China’s Manchuria region to justify full-scale intervention. In 1931 the Japanese army invaded Manchuria without its own government’s consent.
    (HN, 2/18/98)

1932        Feb 19, In SF Bank of Canton manager Arthur G. Wong reported that over $1,000,000 in gold had been wired from SF to aid Chinese forces in Shanghai.
    (SSFC, 2/18/07, DB p.58)

1932        Feb 20, Japanese troops occupied Tunhua, China.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1932        Mar 9, Former Chinese emperor Henry Pu-Yi was installed as head of Manchuria.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1932        Jun 19, Hailstones killed 200 in Hunan Province, China PR.
    (DT,  6/19/97)

1932        Dec 26, Some 70,000 were killed in a massive earthquake in Kansu, China.
    (HN, 12/26/98)(www.disaster-management.net/earthqu1.htm)

1933         Jan 3, The Japanese took Shuangyashan, China, killing 500 in the process.
    (HN, 1/3/99)

1933        Jan 21, The League of Nations rejected Japanese terms for settlement with China.
    (HN, 1/21/99)

1933        Sep 25, The 5th "extermination campaign" against communists in Nanjing China.
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1933        Nov 12, In the Kashgar region Uyghur separatists declared the short-lived and self-proclaimed East Turkestan Republic (ETR), using the term "East Turkestan" to emphasize the state's break from China and new anti-China orientation. East Turkestan referred to the Tarim Basin in the southwestern part of Xinjiang province of the Qing Dynasty.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Turkestan)(Econ, 12/3/05, p.39)(Econ, 8/18/12, p.39)

1933        Cao Yu (1910-1996), Chinese realist playwright, published his first play "Thunderstorm." In 1935 he wrote "Sunrise."
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, p.C16)

1933        With the threat of war with Japan and between the Nationalists and Communists, custodians of the art of the Forbidden City pack the treasures in some 20,000 boxes and ferry them to Taiwan.
    (WSJ, 12/29/95, p.A-11)

1933        Wing Lung Bank was founded in Hong Kong. It survived a forced relocation to Macau during the Japanese occupation. In 2008 China Merchants Bank launched a takeover of Wing Lung for $4.7 billion.
    (Econ, 6/7/08, p.86)

1933        Pan American Airlines took over China Airways, founded by Clement Keys, and renamed it China National Aviation Corp. (CNAC).
    (SFEM, 2/13/00, p.38)

1934        Mar 1, Henry Pu Yi was crowned emperor Kang Teh of Manchuria.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1934        Oct 16, Mao Tse-tung decided to abandon his base in Kiangsi due to attacks from Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalists. With his pregnant wife and about 30,000 Red Army troops, he set out on the "Long March." In late 1935, with 8,000 survivors, he reached Hanoi in northwest China, and established Chinese Communist headquarters. In 2006 Andrew McEwen and Ed Jocelyn authored “The Long March: The Story Behind the Legendary Journey That Made Mao’s China." Also in 2006 Sun Shuyun authored “The Long March."
    (HN, 10/16/98)(www.kimsoft.com/korea/eyewit03.htm)

1934        Dec 8, In China John and Betty Stam, Christian missionaries, were beheaded by communist soldiers in a village near Nanking.
    (WSJ, 1/17/03, p.W13)

1934        The Chinese silent film "The Goddess" starred Ruan Lingyu. It was about a young mother lured to Shanghai to become a streetwalker.
    (SFC, 6/4/99, p.C5)

1934        Folke Bergman, Swedish archeologist, discovered the mummified remains of a Caucasoid community in northwestern Xinjiang’s Lop Nur desert. The site was forgotten until his book was translated into Chinese in the late 1990s.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.12)   

1934-1935    Deng Xiaoping joined Mao Zedong on the Long March flight from the Nationalists under Chiang Kai-shek. Yank Shangkun also marched with Mao.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)(SFC, 9/16/98, p.C4)

1935        Mar 22, Russia sold the Chinese Eastern Railway to Japan.
    (HN, 3/22/97)

1935        May, In China Mao’s forces crossed a narrow suspension bridge over the Dadu River in Sichuan Province. Details of the event still remained controversial in 2006.
    (Econ, 4/29/06, p.88)

1935        Sep 1, Seiji Ozawa, conductor (Boston Symphony Orchestra), was born in Hoten, Manchuria (now Shenyang, Liaoning, China).

1935        Oct 19, Mao Tse Tung's army reached Shanxi.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1935        Nov 9, Japanese troops invaded Shanghai, China.
    (HN, 11/9/98)

1936        Nov 9, In China Ruth Harkness and her party found a 3-lb giant panda cub, eyes not yet open, in a hollow tree. They named the cub Su-Lin - Chinese for "something very cute."

1936        Nov 22, Some 1,200 were killed in a battle between Japanese and Mongolians in China.
    (HN, 11/22/98)

1936        Dec 12, Chang Hsueh-liang (d.2001 at 101), a northern military commander (aka Zhang Xueliang), kidnapped Chiang Kai-shek to force him into an alliance to repel Japanese forces. The Xi’an incident coup ended after 2 weeks. The incident led the Nationalists and the Communists to make peace so that the two could form a united front against the increasing threat posed by Japan. Chang was later court-martialed and sentenced to prison. He was taken to Taiwan in 1949 and kept under house arrest.
    (SFC, 10/16/01, p.B2)(Econ, 5/9/09, p.86)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xi%27an_Incident)
1936        Dec 12, Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek declared war on Japan.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1936        Dec 18, Su-Lin, the 1st giant panda to come to US from China, arrived in SF. The giant panda, captured by Ruth Harkness, was the 1st ever seen in the US. In 2005 Vicki Constantine Croke authored “The Lady and the Panda."
    (http://femexplorers.com/full_article.php?article_id=17)(SSFC, 7/17/05, p.F2)

1937        Jul 7, A conflict between troops of China and Japan came to be known as the Marco Polo Bridge Incident. The incident occurred near the Marco Polo Bridge outside of Beijing and eventually escalated into warfare between the two countries and was the prelude to the Pacific side of World War II.
    (HNQ, 9/22/99)

1937        Jul 29, Japanese troops occupied Peking and Tientsin. [see Aug 8]
    (MC, 7/29/02)

1937        Aug 8, The Japanese Army occupied Beijing, China.
    (HN, 8/8/98)

1937        Aug 13, Japanese attacked Shanghai.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1937        Aug 14, China declared war on Japan.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1937        Aug 25, Japanese fleet blockaded the Chinese coast.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1937        Sep 25, In China Lin Biao masterminded the ambush and annihilation of more than 1,000 Japanese troops, at Pingxiangguan pass in Shanxi province.
    (AP, 7/16/07)

1937        Dec 13, The Japanese army occupied Nanking, China. A group of Japanese soldiers forced their way into the family home of Xia Shuqin (8) in Nanjing, and killed seven of her family members. Xia and her 4-year-old sister were seriously injured but escaped. According to Chinese media, a US missionary then serving as the chairman of the International Commission of the Red Cross in Nanjing filmed the killings of Xia's family members. In 2006 a Chinese court has awarded Xia Shuqin $200,000 in compensation after ruling in her favor against two Japanese historians, who claimed she fabricated her account of the atrocity.
    (HN, 12/13/98)(AP, 8/23/06)

1937        Dec 14, Japanese troops conquered and plundered Nanjing. Japan established a puppet Chinese government at Peking, now called Beijing. In 1997 Iris Chang (1968-2004) authored "The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of WW II."
    (AP, 12/14/02)(SFC, 11/11/04, p.A1)

1937        Dec-1937 Jan, John Rabe (1882-1950), a German businessman for Siemens living in China, recorded the 2-month terror of the Japanese "Rape of Nanking" in his diary. The Japanese sacked and pillaged the city. They raped at least 20,000 women and killed at least 50,000 people. Rabe established a neutral safe zone for hundreds of thousands of Chinese refugees. Noncombatant deaths may have reached 300,000. Reporter Tillman Durdin (d.1998 at 91) filed reports for the New York times.
    (SFC, 12/13/96, p.B1)(SFEC, 2/22/98, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 7/10/98, p.D3)

1937        Dec-1937 Feb, In the Japanese "Rape of Nanjing" more than 200,000 people were killed. Japanese soldiers raped and killed tens of thousands of Chinese women during their invasion of China. [photo from Nanjing] In 1997 Iris Chang (29) published "The Rape of Nanking: the Forgotten Holocaust of world War II." The largest execution of prisoners took place north of Nanking near Mufu Mountain where 57,000 civilians and soldiers were gunned down.
    (WSJ,2/6/97,p.A14)(SFEC, 12/1/96, p.C4)(WSJ, 12/29/97, p.A9)(SFEC, 7/26/98, Z1 p.1,4)

1937        Carl Crow, journalist, publisher and executive in Shanghai, authored “Four Hundred Million Customers." The bestseller described how to sell to the Chinese.
    (Econ, 1/20/07, p.92)
c1937        Aisingyoro Henry Puyi, the last emperor, Xuantong, served as the figurehead ruler of the Manchurian state set up by Japan during WW II.
    (SFC, 6/11/97, p.C16)
1937        Deng Xiaoping directed the Communist inner-party "rectification" campaign.
    (WSJ, 2/20/97, p.A20)
1937        In China Pamela Werner (19), the adopted daughter of Edward Theodore Chalmers Werner, was brutally murdered in Peking. The formal investigation was buried, first by the perpetrators, then by the Chinese and British authorities. In 2011 Paul French authored “Midnight in Peking," in which he describes and solves the crime.
    (Econ, 5/19/12, p.92)(http://tinyurl.com/6meqqoo)

1937-1945    Japan initiated a war with China that lasted to 1945. An estimated 15 million Chinese soldiers and civilians died in the war with 100 million made refugees. In 2013 Rana Mitter authored “China’s War With Japan, 1937-1945: The Struggle for Survival."
    (Econ, 6/22/13, p.83)(Econ, 8/15/15, p.35)

1938        Feb 23, Twelve Chinese fighter planes dropped bombs on Japan. The China Air Task Force was a scrappy but beleaguered fill-in that fought both the Japanese and supplied shortcomings until the Fourteenth Air Force was formed.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1938        Jun 17, Japan declared war on China.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1938        Sep 27, League of Nations declared Japan the aggressor against China.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1938        Oct 21, Japanese troops occupied Canton.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1682)(MC, 10/21/01)

1938          Oct 25, Hankow, temporary capital of China, fell to the Japanese. The Chinese again moved their capital, this time to Chungking in the mountains above the Yangtze River.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1682)(DoD, 1999, p.452)

1938        H.J. Timperley, a reporter for the Manchester Guardian, published "What War Means," an account of the ‘37-’38 Nanjing tragedy.
    (SFEC, 7/26/98, Z1 p.4)
1938        Edgar Snow (1905-1972) authored “Red Star Over China."
    (Econ, 5/29/04, p.85)
1938        Dr. Feng Shan Ho (d.1997), Chinese consul general in Vienna, rescued thousands of Jews by giving them exit visas after the Nazis annexed the country.
    (SFC, 8/15/01, p.A15)
1938        Chinese Nationalist leaders intentionally broke levees on the Yellow River to prevent the Japanese military from advancing. More than 500,000 people, Japanese and Chinese, died in the resulting flood. Chinese army commander Xiong Xianyu kept a diary on the levee action.
    (Econ, 6/22/13, p.83)(http://tinyurl.com/kxkkrdc)
1938        Herbert Yardley, American cryptographer, went to Chongqing, China, to form a “Chinese Black Chamber" for Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalists.
    (Econ, 12/19/15, p.41)

1939        In China Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung), in response to the Nazi-Soviet pact, mounted a close collaboration with Japanese intelligence to undermine Chiang Kai-shek, head of the KMT.
    (Econ, 5/28/05, p.83)

1940        Mar 30, The Japanese set up a puppet government called Manchuko in Nanking, China.
    (HN, 3/30/98)

1940        Aug 1, The idea of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere was formally announced by Japan’s Foreign Minister Matsuoka Yosuke, in a press interview, but had already existed in various forms for many years. Japan urged the nations of the region to unite in one economic sphere, ousting the colonial powers and enjoying economic prosperity together. The concept was used to justify Japan's seizure of raw materials from throughout Southeast Asia to further its drive for economic, political and military domination of East Asia. The Sphere was intended to include, in addition to Japan, China, Manchukuo, Southeast Asia and the Pacific mandates islands.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greater_East_Asia_Co-prosperity_Sphere)(HNQ, 2/8/00)(Econ, 4/11/09, p.43)

1940        Dec 23, Chiang Kai-shek dissolved all Communist associations in China.
    (HN, 12/23/98)

1940        Japanese warplanes dropped plague-infected fleas over southwest China. In 2001 Chinese doctors testified in a Tokyo trial and said at least 109 people died as a result. In 2002 a symposium of historians reported that the Japanese killed at least 440,000 Chinese in the 1930s and 1940s by dropping disease carrying fleas and cholera-coated flies from planes.
    (WSJ, 1/25/00, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/22/07, p.B12)

1941        Apr 25, The United States and China formally signed a $50 million stabilization agreement to support the Chinese currency.

1941        Jun 5, In China some 1,500 civilians died from suffocation in a single air raid shelter in Chongqing, the provisional capital until the end of the war with Japan.
    (Econ, 8/15/15, p.36)

1941        Jul 25, The U.S. government froze Japanese and Chinese assets.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1941        Nov 26, The US issued an edict that "the government of Japan will withdraw all military, naval, air and police forces from China and Indochina."
    (SFC, 1/19/02, p.A19)

1941        Nov 27, In Shanghai the US ship President Madison weighed anchor as Japan warned of little room for prolonging Washington conversations.
    (SSFC, 11/27/16, DB p.50)

1941        Dec 8, The Japanese armoured cruiser Izumo shelled Chinese positions from the middle of the Huangpu River in Shanghai, assisted in sinking the HMS Peterel, the last British gunboat, and captured the USS Wake, the last American gunboat. The Izumo and sister ship Iwate sank during the American aerial attack on Kure in July 1945.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Izumo-class_cruiser)(Econ, 1/7/17, p.13)

1941        Dec 9, China declared war on Japan, Germany and Italy.
    (AP,  12/9/97)

1941        Dec 20, The Flying Tigers, American pilots in China, entered combat against the Japanese over Kunming. Claire Chennault commanded the 1st American Volunteer Group (nicknamed Flying Tigers). He headed both the volunteer group and the uniformed US Army Air Forces units that replaced it in 1942. He feuded constantly with General Joseph Stilwell, the US Army commander in China, and helped China's leader Chiang Kai-shek to convince President Roosevelt to remove Stilwell in 1944.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claire_Lee_Chennault)(HN, 12/20/98)

1941-1950    Tang Tsou (d.1999), Prof. at the Univ. of Chicago authored "America's Failure in China, 1941-1950" in 1963.
    (SFC, 8/17/99, p.C2)

1942        Feb 9, Chiang Kai-shek met with Sir Stafford Cripps, the British viceroy in India. Detachment 101 harried the Japanese in Burma and provided close support for regular Allied forces.
    (HN, 2/9/97)

1942        May, Japanese documents in 1998 revealed that their military used poison gas in a northern China battlefield. China claimed that poison gas was used 2,900 times.
    (SFC, 6/15/98, p.A14)

1942        Jul 15, The first supply flight from India to China over the 'Hump' was flown to help China's war effort.
    (HN, 7/15/99)

1942        Sep, More than 400 villagers died of bubonic plague in China’s eastern Zhejiang province after Japanese warplanes of medical Unit 731 dropped germ bombs. Unit 731 was stationed on the outskirts of Harbin, China, until the Soviet Union entered the war. The unit deposited typhus into the water supply flowing into Manchuria. In 2000 Yoshio Shinozuka testified to seeing men infected with the plague and then being dissected while still alive. Harbin had 26 affiliates across China and its germ bombs (anthrax, cholera, typhus and bubonic plague) killed an estimated 270,000 people. Biological warfare activities of Unit 731 were unknown to most Japanese citizens until 1981, when author Seiichi Morimura exposed its dark history in a book, "The Devil's Gluttony".
    (SFEC, 12/8/96, p.C8)(SFC, 8/30/97, p.A12)(SFC, 8/15/98, p.A12)(SFC, 12/22/00, p.D6)(SFC, 6/12/01, p.A8)(AP, 8/27/02)

1942        Dec, Hu Jintao was born in China’s eastern Anhui province. He served as vice-president under Jiang Zemin and became president in 2003.
    (SSFC, 3/11/01, p.D8)(Econ, 11/5/05, p.46)

1942        After capturing and imprisoning Vietnamese Communist leader Ho Chi Minh in 1942, the Chinese Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek was pressured into releasing him by America‘s Office of Strategic Services (OSS). The OSS was formed during WWII to engage in intelligence operations and was the forerunner of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Ho Chi Minh was leading Vietnamese resistance against the Japanese and was captured while in China setting up his Communist-inspired Viet Minh movement. The OSS sought his release so he could continue his fight against the Japanese. The Viet Minh also benefited from U.S. arms and equipment.
    (HNQ, 1/25/00)

1942-1944    Zhengfeng or Cheng Feng, also known as the Rectification Movement, was the first ideological mass movement initiated by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The movement took place at the communist base at Yan'an, a remote and isolated mountainous area in northern Shaanxi, after the communists' Long March. More than 10,000 were killed in the "rectification" process, as the Party made efforts to attack intellectuals and replace the culture of the May Fourth Movement with that of Communist culture.

1943        Jan 11, The United States and Britain signed treaties relinquishing extraterritorial rights in China.
    (AP,  1/11/98)

1943        Sep 6, The United States asked the Chinese Nationals to join with the Communists to present a common front to the Japanese.
    (HN, 9/6/98)

1943        Sep 13, Chiang Kai-shek became president of China.
    (AP,  9/13/97)

1943        Oct 10, Chiang Kai-shek took the oath of office as president of China.
    (AP,  10/10/97)

1943        Oct 19, Delegates from the U.S.S.R. met with representatives from the Allied nations of Great Britain, the U.S., and China, in an attempt to hammer out a greater consensus on war aims, and to improve the rapidly cooling relations between the Soviet Union and its allies.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1943        Nov 22, President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Chinese leader Chiang Kai-shek met in Cairo to discuss measures for defeating Japan.
    (AP, 11/22/99)

1943        Japanese authorities in Shanghai, China, under pressure from Nazi allies, packed the city’s Jewish population of some 20,000 people, into a 3-square-mile area in Hongkou District.
    (SSFC, 3/5/06, p.A7)

1943-1949    Chiang Kai-shek (1886?-1975), Chinese statesman and president of the Republic (1943-1950).
    (WUD, 1994, p.254)

1944        Jan 8, Sir Edmund Backhouse (b.1873), English Sinologist, died in Beijing. In 1977 Hugh Trevor-Roper authored “Hermit of Peking" an investigation into the life of Backhouse.
    (WSJ, 8/18/07, p.P9)

1944        Apr 24, The first B-29 arrived in China, over the Hump of the Himalayas. The phrase "flying the hump" originated during World War II when Allied transport planes flew dangerous missions over the Himalayan Mountains in order to provide China with supplies needed to fight the Japanese.
    (HN, 4/24/98)(HNQ, 8/1/98)

1944        Apr 26, First B-29 attacked by Japanese fighters [in China?], one fighter shot down.
    (HN, 4/26/98)

1944        May 27, Japanese advanced in Hangkhou, China.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1944        Jul, A small team of US Army and intelligence personnel under Maj. Raymond Cromley embarked for China on the top secret "Dixie Mission" to investigate Mao Tse-tung and his insurgent Communist Party.
    (WSJ, 5/30/02, p.A2)

1944        Aug 21, The US, Britain, the Soviet Union and China opened the Dumbarton Oaks conference in Washington, D.C. It laid the foundation for the establishment of the UN.
    (SFEC, 6/29/97, p.T10)(AP, 8/21/07)

1944        Aug 31, A US B-24-J bomber crashed into Maoer Mountain in China after having completed its bombing mission over the port of Takao in Taiwan. All 10 men onboard were killed. The wreckage was not discovered until Oct, 1996.
    (SFC, 1/17/96, p.A13)

1944        Oct 18, Lt. General Joseph Stilwell was recalled from China by president Franklin Roosevelt.
    (HN, 10/18/98)

1944-1949    The Uighers held the free Republic of East Turkestan until Chinese Communists seized power. [see Jan 5, 1945]
    (USAT, 2/11/97, p.5A)(www.unpo.org/member.php?arg=21)

1945        Jan 5, Uighur rebels in China’s southwest Xinjiang declared the Eastern Turkestan Republic. The republic ended in 1949 when Chinese Communists came to power. In 1949 the Russians told the Uighurs to cooperate with Mao.
    (www.unpo.org/member.php?arg=21)(SFC, 2/20/01, p.A10)(Econ, 12/3/05, p.39)

1945        Jan 9, Maj. Raymond Cromley, head of the top secret "Dixie Mission," sent a cable to US military headquarters in Chunking that said Mao Tse-tung would like send a group to Pres. Roosevelt to explain the situation in China. Ambassador Patrick J. Hurley, who opposed the meeting, intercepted the message and failed to pass it to Pres. Roosevelt.
    (WSJ, 5/30/02, p.A2)

1945        Jan 28, During World War II, Allied supplies began reaching China over the newly reopened Burma Road.
    (AP,  1/28/98)

1945        Jan 28, Chiang Kai-shek renamed the Ledo-Burma Road the Stillwell Road, in honor of General Joseph Stillwell.
    (HN, 1/28/99)

1945        Mar 1, British 43rd Division under General Essame occupied Xanten.
    (SC, 3/1/02)
1945        Mar 1, Chinese 30th division occupied Hsenwi.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1945        May 10, US POW Lt. John F. Kinney (d.2006 at 91) and 4 other Marines jumped off a Japanese prisoner train in China and journeyed for 47 days with the help of Chinese communists before reuniting with US troops.
    (SFC, 7/11/06, p.B5)

1945        Jul 26, The US, Britain and China issued the Potsdam Declaration to Japan that she surrender unconditionally. Two days later Japanese Premier Kantaro Suzuki announced to the Japanese press that the Potsdam declaration is to be ignored. In 1961 Herbert Feis authored “Japan Subdued."
    (WSJ, 5/5/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 1/14/07, p.P8)

1945        Aug 3, Chinese troops under American General Joseph Stilwell took the town of Myitkyina from the Japanese.
    (HN, 8/3/98)

1945        Aug 8, The Soviet Union declared war against Japan. 1.5 million Soviet troops launched a massive surprise attack (August Storm) against Japanese occupation forces in northern China and Korea. Within days, Tokyo's million-man army in the region had collapsed in one of the greatest military defeats in history.
    (SFC, 9/9/96, p.A19)(AP, 8/8/97)(AP, 8/6/05)

1945        Aug 22, Soviet troops landed at Port Arthur and Dairen on the Kwantung Peninsula in China.
    (HN, 8/22/98)

1945        Aug 25, John Birch, Baptist missionary and US army intelligence specialist, was killed by Chinese Communists. His death is considered the first US death in the struggle against communism.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1945        Aug 27, B-29 Superfortress bombers began to drop supplies into Allied prisoner of war camps in China.
    (HN, 8/27/98)

1945        Aug 28, Chinese communist leader Mao Tse-Tung arrived in Chunking to confer with Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-Shek in a futile effort to avert civil war.
    (HN, 8/28/98)

1945        Sep 9, The Japanese in S. Korea, Taiwan, China and Indochina surrendered to Allies.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1945        Sep 27, Misha Dichter, pianist (Tchaikovsky 2nd prize-1966), was born in Shanghai, China.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1945        Oct 11, Negotiations between Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek and Communist leader Mao Tse-tung broke down. Nationalist and Communist troops we soon engaged in a civil war.
    (HN, 10/11/98)

1945        Oct 25, Japanese surrendered Taiwan to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. Taiwan was returned to Chinese control following the Japanese occupation during WW II.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Taiwan)(SFC, 6/9/97, p.A8)

1945        Nov 27, Gen. George C. Marshall was named special U.S. envoy to China to try to end hostilities between the Nationalists and the Communists.
    (AP, 11/27/99)

1945        Aisingyoro Henry Puyi, the last emperor, Xuantong, and the figurehead ruler of the Manchurian state, was captured by Soviet troops and later turned over the Chinese Communists. He was sent to a re-education camp.
    (SFC, 6/11/97, p.C16)

1945        John S. Service (d.1999 at 89), one of the US "China hands" experts, participated in the "Dixie Mission" as a US Foreign Service officer, and visited Mao Zedong at Yanan. He reported that Chiang Kai-shek was vulnerable due to corruption and that the Communists would win the war. The US ambassador to China, Army Gen'l. Patrick Hurley, ordered him back to the US and later accused him of handing secret US documents to the Chinese. In the US Service was arrested by the FBI in the Amerasia affair and became a target of Joseph McCarthy. He was dismissed from the State Dept. in 1951 but later vindicated.
    (SFC, 2/5/99, p.D4)

1945-1957    This period in China was covered in 2013 Frank Dikotter in: “The Tragedy of Liberation: A History of the Chinese Revolution, 1945-57."
    (Econ, 9/7/13, p.80)

1946        Jan 10, Chiang Kai-shek and the Yenan Communist forces halted fighting in China.
    (HN, 1/10/99)

1946        Jul 17, Chinese communists opened a drive against the Nationalist army on the Yangtze River.
    (HN, 7/17/98)

1946        Dec 25, Chiang offered a new Chinese constitution in Nanking pledging universal suffrage.
    (HN, 12/25/98)

1946        Geraldine Townsend Fitch and Theodore H. White authored “Blunder Out of China."
1946        Theodore H. White and Annalee Whitmore (d.2002 at 85), war correspondents, authored "Thunder Out of China," an examination of China’s role in WW II.
    (SFC, 2/11/02, p.B5)

1947        Feb 28, There was an anti-Kuomintang demonstration on Taiwan. As many as 20,000 civilians were massacred by the Kuomintang (KMT). A riot was sparked by the arrest of a woman selling contraband cigarettes in Taipei. Crowds attacked the Nationalist Party institutions as Nationalist troops and secret police struck back over the ensuing months. In 1996 a 69 cent postage stamp was planned in commemoration. In 2006 a team from UC Berkeley won a design competition for a 15-acre “228 National Memorial Park."
    (SFC, 4/6/06, p.B3)(SFC, 12/26/96, p.B1)(SFC, 6/10/97, p.A8)(SFC, 4/6/06, p.B3)

1947        Mar 19, Chiang Kai-shek's government forces took control of Yenan, the former headquarters of the Chinese Communist Party.
    (HN, 3/19/98)

1948        Feb 15, Mao Zedong's army occupied Yenan.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1948        May 23, China’s People's Liberation Army began to encircle the Nationalist defenders in Changchun, while cutting off air transportation. The siege lasted for 150 days and ended when the People's Liberation Army under Gen. Lin Biao entered Changchun after the Nationalist 60th Army and New 7th Army surrendered. Some 160,000 civilians died, mainly of hunger, trapped in a killing zone outside the city walls.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Changchun)(Econ, 9/7/13, p.80)

1948          Sep 1, Chinese Communists formed the North China People's Republic.

1948        Oct 15, China's Red army occupied Chinchov.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1948      Nov 1, During the Chinese Civil War (1945-1949) Mao's Red army conquered Mukden, Manchuria.
    (DoW, 1999, p.113)

1948        Dec 3, Chinese refugee ship "Kiangya" exploded in East China Sea killing 1,100. [see Dec 4]
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1948        Dec 4, SS Kiangya hit a mine in Whangpoo River, China. It sank and 2,750 were killed. [see Dec 3]
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1948        Nationalist China joined the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
    (WSJ, 11/16/99, p.A19)
1948        Zhengzhou Baiwen (Zhengzhou’s Hundred Goods Supply Station) was set up to distribute household goods. In 2000 the company teetered on bankruptcy.
    (WSJ, 8/1/00, p.A8)
1948        Robert Ford (1923-2013), British radio operator, was hired by the Tibetans to create a modern communications network. In 1950 he was imprisoned by Chinese authorities and spent five years in jail.
    (Econ, 10/5/13, p.98)

1949        Jan 11, Surrender talks in China between the Nationalists and Communists opened as Tientsing was virtually lost to the Communists.
    (HN, 1/11/99)

1949        Jan 15, Chinese Communists occupied Tientsin after a 27-hour battle with Nationalist forces.
    (HN, 1/15/99)

1949        Jan 19, The Chiang Government moved the capital of China to Canton.
    (HN, 1/19/99)

1949        Jan 23, The Communists Chinese forces began their advance on Nanking.
    (HN, 1/23/99)

1949        Apr 19, The Amethyst Affair began when the British frigate Amethyst came under fire from Communist Chinese artillery and ran aground in the Yangtze River. A tense, 103-day standoff followed until the frigate made a daring escape on July 30. The Amethyst lost 22 men killed and 31 wounded in the ordeal. Rescue attempts by the Royal Navy resulted in another 23 British sailors killed.
    (HNQ, 2/5/99)

1949        Apr 23, The Chinese Red army entered and occupied Nanjing. Reporter Chang Kuo-sin (d.2006) w0as the 1st to flash the news that the Nationalist government had collapsed.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanjing)(SFC, 2/11/06, p.B5)

1949        May 25, Chinese Red army occupied Shanghai.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1949        Jul 30, British warship HMS Amethyst escaped down Yangtze River after having been refused a safe passage by Chinese Communists after 3-month standoff.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1949        Aug 18, China’s Mao Zedong published an essay titled “Farewell, Leighton Stewart!" Stewart, China’s American ambassador, was leaving amid escalating tension with the nearly victorious Communist Party.
    (Econ, 3/8/14, p.47)

1949        Sep 21, The Communist People’s Republic of China was proclaimed under Mao Tse Tung with Chou En-Lai as Premier. "Today, the Chinese people have stood  up." Mao-Tse-Tung led his people to power after half a century (50 yrs.) of civil strife. The Chinese Communists drove Chiang Kai-shek to Formosa. The capitalist stronghold of Shanghai fell to Mao Tse-tung Communist guerrillas. The Communist People’s Liberation Army brought with them to Beijing a northeastern folk dance called yang ge.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1949)(WSJ,12/10/93)(TMC, 1994, p.1945)(WSJ, 10/26/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 8/5/96, p.A1)(AP,  9/21/97)

1949        Oct 1, Communist Party Chairman Mao Tse-tung (Zedong) raised the first flag of the People's Republic of China during a ceremony in Beijing  (National Day). As the Communists came to power there were over 400 ethnic groups in China. By 2009 the official number of ethnic groups was reduced to 56.
    (AP, 10/1/97)(Econ, 10/10/09, p.45)
1949        Oct 1, Republic of China (Taiwan) was formed on island of Formosa. The Nationalists under Chiang Kai-shek had been defeated and fled to Taiwan and took control. Chiang Kai-shek established the "temporary" government of the Republic of China in Taipei and established martial law.
    (SFC, 6/9/97, p.A8)(SFC, 6/10/97, p.A9)

1949        Oct 2, USSR recognized the People's Republic of China.
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1949        Oct 6, China and Korea established diplomatic relations. Korea became one of the first groups of countries having diplomatic relations with new China.

1949        Oct 14, The Chinese Red army occupied Canton.
    (MC, 10/14/01)

1949        Oct 17, Liu Wencai (b.1887), Chinese landlord from Sichuan province, died. He was depicted as the archetype of the exploiter of peasant farmers.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liu_Wencai)(Econ, 6/25/11, SR p.11)

1949        Oct 19, The People's Republic of China was formally proclaimed.
    (HN, 10/19/98)

1949        Oct 25, Communist troops landed at the small village of Kuningt’ou (Kuningtou), hoping to capture Kinmen Island and prepare an assault on Taiwan. Nationalist Col. Lee Kuang-chi’en died in a 3-day battle, which turned back the communist assault. A plaque in honor of Col Lee was later changed, dropping references to anti-communism.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Kuningtou)(WSJ, 4/21/08, p.A14)

1949        Nov 29, Nationalist regime of China left for Formosa (Taiwan). [See Dec 7]
    (MC, 11/29/01)

1949        Nov 30, Chinese Communists captured Chungking.
    (AP,  11/30/97)

1949        Dec 7, The Nationalist Chinese government escaped to Formosa. The Chinese Communists drove Chiang Kai-shek to Formosa. [see Nov 29]
    (WUD, 1994, p.1684)(TMC, 1994, p.1945)

1949        Dec 8, The Chinese Nationalist government moved from the Chinese mainland to Formosa as the Communists pressed their attacks.
    (AP,  12/8/97)

1949        Dec 16, Chinese Communist leader Mao Tse-tung was received at the Kremlin in Moscow.
    (HN, 12/16/98)

1949        Chiang Kai-shek’s Koumintang forces shipped 230,000 of the best art pieces from the Summer Palace in Beijing’s Forbidden City to Taiwan. The Koumintang shipped an estimated 138 tons of gold to Taiwan.
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.8)(Econ, 12/17/16, p.34)
1949        In China the “Work Method of Party Committees" was first published.
    (Econ, 3/5/15, p.42)
1949        Zang Kejia (d.2004 at 99), poet, edited the "Selected Poems of Chairman Mao."
    (SFC, 2/7/04, p.A20)
1949        The Catholic Church was expelled from China.
    (SFC, 6/13/97, p.A19)
1949        Cao Yu, realist playwright, was named head of the Beijing People’s Arts Theater.
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, p.C16)
1949        The Chinese Red Army invaded Tibet believing it was liberating the serfs and peasants.
    (SFEM, 12/20/98, p.18)(WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)
1949        Rebels in parts of Xinjiang, a region of Turkic Muslims (Uighurs), set up an independent republic, but it was quickly snuffed out by China’s Communist Party. By 2014 Han Chinese made up more than 40% of the province’s 22 million people.
    (Econ, 8/9/14, p.10)
1949        Phuntso Wangye (1922-2014), founder of the Tibetan Communist Party, joined forces with the Chinese Communist Party. He had already launched a series of guerrilla uprisings against Nationalist Chinese rule.
    (Reuters, 3/30/14)
1949         The capitalist stronghold of Shanghai fell to Mao Tse-tung Communist guerrillas.
    (WSJ, 10/26/95, p.A-12)
1949        The Muslim republic of East Turkestan briefly existed in northwest China before the Communist takeover.
    (SFC, 5/2/01, p.A9)
1949        The Russians, having liberated Manchuria from the Japanese, handed the key industrial base over to the Chinese communists.
    (Econ, 5/28/05, p.83)
1949        In 2021 Graham Hutchings authored "China 1949: Year of Revolution."
    (Econ., 1/23/21, p.33)

1949-1957    In China an estimated 5 million people, labeled as “counter-revolutionaries," were killed during this period under the rule of Mao Zedong.
    (Econ, 9/10/16, p.37)

1950        Jan 6, Britain recognized the Communist government of China.
    (AP, 1/6/00)

1950        Jan 14, US recalled all consular officials from China.

1950        Jan 19, Communist Chinese leader Mao recognized the Republic of Vietnam.
    (HN, 1/19/99)

1950        Feb 15, Joseph Stalin and Mao Tse-tung signed a mutual defense treaty in Moscow.
    (HN, 2/15/98)

1950        Feb 27, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek was elected president of Nationalist China.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1950        Mar 1, Chiang Kai-shek resumed the Presidency of National China on Formosa.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1950        Mar 18, Nationalist troops landed on the mainland of China and captured Communist held Sungmen.
    (HN, 3/18/98)

1950        Apr 23, Chaing Kai-shek evacuates Hainan, leaving mainland China to Mao Zedong and the communists.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1950        May 1, New marriage laws were enforced in People's Republic China.

1950        Sep 19, The UN rejected membership of China's People Republic.
    (MC, 9/19/01)

1950        Oct 2, Mao Tse Tung sent a telegram to Stalin. China intervened in Korea.
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1950        Oct 14, Chinese Communist Forces began to infiltrate the North Korean Army.
    (HN, 10/14/98)

1950        Oct 21, Chinese forces occupied Tibet.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1950        Oct, Chamdo, Tibet, fell to Chinese occupation.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Chamdo)(Econ, 10/5/13, p.98)

1950        Nov 5, A US bomber caught fire and crashed while flying over China’s southern Guangdong province. Its mission was not known. Records and eyewitness accounts indicated that four bodies were buried at the crash site, while the fate of the other 11 on board wasn't clear.
    (AP, 10/27/09)

1950        Nov 6, A Chinese offensive was halted at Chongchon River, North Korea.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1950        Nov 25, Mao Anying (b.1922), the eldest son of Mao Zedong and Yang Kaihui, was killed by an American air strike during the Korean war.

1950        Nov 26, China entered the Korean conflict, launching a counter-offensive across the Yaly River against soldiers from the United Nations, the United States and South Korea. North Korean and Chinese troops halted the UN offensive.
    (WSJ, 6/24/96, C1)(AP, 11/26/97)(HN, 11/26/98)(MC, 11/26/01)

1950        Nov 27, East of the Chosin River, Chinese forces annihilated an American task force. Col. Barber (d.2002 at 82) and 220 soldiers in Fox Company withstood a 5-day assault to protect an escape pass.
    (HN, 11/27/98)(SFC, 4/23/02, p.A18)

1950        Dec 19, Tibet's Dalai Lama fled a Chinese invasion.
    (MC, 12/19/01)

1950        Dec 28, Chinese troops crossed the 38th Parallel into South Korea.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1950        Walter Henry Judd (1898-1994), American politician, authored “Autopsy on our Blunders in Asia."
1950        China pulled out of the world GATT trade association following the Communist takeover.
    (WSJ, 11/16/99, p.A19)
1950        China passed a new marriage law. It was revised in 1980.
    (SSFC, 1/14/01, p.D8)
1950        Ah Bing (Hua Jan-Jun b.1893), blind Chinese folk musician, died. A ballet based on his life, written by Yong Yao premiered in 2006 in San Jose, Ca., under the title “Moon Reflection on Crystal Spring."
    (SFC, 4/22/06, p.E2)(www.chinadaily.com.cn/en/doc/2003-11/25/content_284415.htm)

1950-1959    During the 1950s bicycles took over the flat streets of Beijing from rickshaws.
    (SFC, 10/23/98, p.D4)
1951        Jan 17, China refused a cease-fire in Korea.
    (MC, 1/17/02)

1951        Feb 1, The UN condemned the People's Republic of China as aggressor in Korea.
    (MC, 2/1/02)

1951        Feb 13, At the Battle of Chipyong-ni, in Korea, U.N. troops contained the Chinese forces' offensive in a two-day battle.
    (HN, 2/13/99)

1951        Mar 24, MacArthur threatened the Chinese with an extension of the Korean War if the proposed truce was not accepted.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1951        Mar 28, China proclaimed the “peaceful liberation" of Tibet. Some 5,000 Tibetans were killed in the process.
    (Econ, 7/10/10, p.40)

1951        Mar 29, The Chinese rejected MacArthur's offer for a truce in Korea.
    (HN, 3/29/98)

1951        May 16, Chinese Communist Forces launched a second step, fifth-phase offensive [in Korea] and gained up to 20 miles of territory.
    (HN, 5/16/99)

1951        May 23,  The Dalai Lama signed the “17-point agreement" in which he agreed to accept Chinese sovereignty over Tibet.
    (www.friends-of-tibet.org.nz/17-point-agreement.html)(Econ, 5/21/11, p.42)

1951        May 27, Chinese Communists forced the Dalai Lama to surrender his army to Beijing.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1951        Sep 3, On the eve of the San Francisco conference, Premier Stalin and Mao Tse-tung, in an exchange of personal messages, reaffirmed the unity and "unbreakable friendship" of the Soviet Union and Communist China in the "just cause of the struggle against Japanese imperialism and in defense of peace in the Far East."

1951        Mayor Chen Yi of Shanghai began the Shanghai Museum.
    (WSJ, 5/9/96, p.A-16)
1951        China and the Vatican broke formal relations after missionaries were kicked out and Catholics were forced to sever ties with Rome.
    (SFC, 1/7/00, p.A14)
1951        Peng Zhen began his 15-year mayorship of Beijing.
    (SFEC, 4/27/97, p.B8)
1951        The average life expectancy in China was 46. By 2011 it was 73.
    (Econ, 6/25/11, SR p.16)
1951        Indian troops occupied Tawang, some 2000 square km. of valley and high mountains just south of the McMahon Line in northeast Arunachal Pradesh. This took place shortly after China dispatched troops to Tibet.
    (Econ, 8/21/10, p.18)

1952        Oct 8, The Chinese began an offensive in Korea.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1952        Nov 29, A plane carrying CIA paramilitary officers on their first overseas assignment, John T. Downey (22) of New Britain, Conn., and Richard G. Fecteau (25), of Lynn, Mass., was shot down over Jilin province. Pilots, Robert C. Snoddy (31), a native of Roseburg, Ore., and Norman A. Schwartz (29) of Louisville, Ky., did not survive. Downey and Fecteau were captured. They had been assigned to a covert program called "Third Force," intended to create a resistance network. Fecteau was released by China in December 1971 and Downey in March 1973, shortly after President Richard Nixon publicly acknowledged Downey's CIA connection.
    (SFC, 7/3/98, p.A11)(SFC, 7/10/02, p.A12)(AP, 6/19/10)

1952        Larry Wu-Tai Chin, a US CIA translator, began spying for China. He was convicted while retired in 1986 and within days killed himself.
    (SFC, 11/19/96, p.A17)

1953        Jan 30, President Dwight Eisenhower announced that he would pull the Seventh Fleet out of Formosa to permit the Nationalists to attack Communist China.
    (HN, 1/30/99)

1953        Nov 23, North Korea signed 10-year aid pact with Peking.
    (HN, 11/23/98)

1953        China’s first 5-year plan, formulated with Soviet help, called for the manufacture of 6 million tons of cement, 5m tons of pig iron, and 4.12m tons of steel. All of these targets were surpassed by 1957.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five-Year_Plans_of_China)(Econ, 10/23/10, p.88)

1954        May 20, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek became president of Nationalist China.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1954        Jun, India’s Jawaharla Nehru and China’s Zhou Enlai devised and embraced “five principles of peaceful coexistence."
    (Econ, 7/31/04, p.36)

1954        Aug 11, After Chinese Nationalists placed 58,000 troops on Quemoy and 15,000 troops on Matsu the ROC began building defensive structures and the PRC began shelling ROC installations on Quemoy. Zhou Enlai, Premier of the People's Republic of China responded with a declaration that Taiwan must be "liberated." He dispatched the People's Liberation Army (PLA) and began shelling both Quemoy and Matsu.

1954        Sep 3, China began artillery bombing on Quemoy. Despite warnings from the US against any attacks on the Republic of China, the People's Liberation Army unleashed a heavy artillery bombardment of Quemoy, and intensified its actions in November by bombing the Tachen Islands.

1954        China’s first constitution said that citizens enjoyed “freedom of residence and freedom to change their residence."
    (Econ, 4/19/14, SR p.7)
1954        Deng Xiaoping condemned the "Gao Gang-Rao Shushi anti-Party clique."
    (WSJ, 2/20/97, p.A20)
1954        In China the bingtuan was founded in Xinjiang province. It consisted mainly of demobilized Han soldiers who were ordered to turn desert areas into farmland while keeping their guns to fend off potential Soviet incursions. Mao Zedong abolished the corps in 1975. Deng Xiaoping re-established it in 1981 as the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (XPCC). In 2020 the US hit the XPCC with sanctions alleging forced labor and other human rights abuses in the production of a panoply of goods.
    (Econ, 5/25/13, p.46)(Econ., 8/22/20, p.56)
1954        In China a flood on the Yangtze killed 30,000 people.
    (NH, 7/96, p.2)

1955        Sep, Chinese-born Tsien Hsue-sen, an American-trained rocketry expert and co-founder of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, left the United States for China. His departure came after five years of virtual house arrest following accusations of communist sympathies. He became the leader of China's rocketry program.
    (AP, 10/15/03)

1955        Bishop Ignatius King (1901-2000) was arrested, brought to trial and sentenced to life in prison for leading a "counterrevolutionary clique under the cloak of religion." He was released in 1985. In 1979 he was secretly named a cardinal by Pope John Paul II.
    (SFC, 3/13/00, p.B2)
1955        Zhang Bairen (1915-2005), Roman Catholic bishop of Hanyang, was imprisoned and spent 24 years in prison and slave labor camp for refusing to renounce the Pope as his leader.
    (SFC, 10/13/05, p.B7)
1955        Tibetan fighting flared up in the eastern Kham region prompting an exodus of refugees and swelling the ranks of resistance to Chinese rule.
    (WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)
1955        Sydney Wignall (1922-2012), a Welsh explorer, launched the first Welsh Himalayan Expedition. The 3-man team was captured by the Chinese and held for two months under interrogation for spying. 25 years later it was revealed that Wignall had been recruited by Gen. Thimayya of the Indian army to find out what the Chinese were up to in Tibet. In 1997 his book: "Spy on the Roof of the World" was published.
    (SFEC,12/14/97, BR p.4)(Econ, 5/5/12, p.94)

1955-1972    Jin Yong, founder and publisher of the Hong Kong Ming Pao newspaper, authored a series of Kung Fu novels that ran to 36 volumes.
    (WSJ, 3/9/00, p.A24)

1956        Aug 23, US Navy pilot Lt. James B. Deane Jr. was shot out of the sky on a nighttime spy flight off the coast of China. The Martin P4M-1Q Mercator in which Deane and 15 other men were flying was shot down over the East China Sea. China later acknowledged that its jet fighters attacked the Mercator as it scooped up electronic intelligence on military radars and other sensitive Chinese systems. The remains of four crew members were recovered, two by the crew of a U.S. search vessel and two by China, which returned the bodies through British authorities in Shanghai. The other 12 were never found.
    (AP, 5/6/06)

1956        John Hersey authored his novel "A Single Pebble," about a trip through the Yangtze River gorges.
    (SSFC, 10/27/02, p.M3)

1956        China extended an olive branch to Washington, inviting American reporters to visit the People's Republic for the first time. But the offer, coming just three years after US and Chinese forces fought each other in the Korean War, was flatly rebuffed.
    (AP, 4/7/06)
1956        The Communist Party of China (CPC) encouraged its citizens to openly express their opinions of the communist regime the Hundred Flowers Campaign. Differing views and solutions to national policy were encouraged based on the famous expression by Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong. After a brief period of liberalization, Mao abruptly changed course.
1956        In Guangzhou the Canton Trade Fair was begun with markets held in April and October of every year.
    (WSJ, 5/7/96, p.A-14)
1956        China introduced the Panda cigarette brand and it became the exclusive property of the political and military elite.
    (WSJ, 5/26/04, p.A1)
1956        In China the Baiyin copper mine opened in Gansu province. By 1988 Baiyin’s state-owned mine was exhausted. In 2003 the central government declared Baiyin a city on the path to “resource exhaustion." In 2008 Baiyin was selected for a pilot program in transformation.
    (Econ, 1/11/14, p.36)
1956        A Sino-Soviet split developed along ideological lines.
    (TL, 1988, p.115)

1956-58    The Soviet Union provided intermediate-range ballistic missile to China for study.
    (AP, 10/15/03)

1957        Feb 27, Mao made his speech "On Correct Handling of Contradictions Among People."
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1957        Apr, Mao experimented under the slogan: “Let a hundred flowers bloom, and a hundred schools of thought contend." Alarmed at the resulting barrage of criticism, he reversed course and some 300,000 of intellectuals were jailed or sent to the countryside to do manual labor.
    (http://files.osa.ceu.hu/holdings/300/8/3/text/9-8-82.shtml)(SFC, 10/1/99, p.A14)

1957        Jun 8, Mao ordered an "anti-rightist" witch hunt and Deng Xiaoping executed it.

1957        Sep 16, Qi Baishi (b.1864), Chinese artist, died in Beijing. In 2011 one of his ink paintings was auctioned for $65 million.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qi_Baishi)

1957        Nov, Communist bosses gathered in Moscow. Mao Zedong predicted that between a third and a half of the world’s population might be killed in a nuclear conflagration, but that most survivors would be living in the socialist block and “imperialism would be razed to the ground."
    (www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/quemoy_matsu-2.htm)(Econ, 11/27/10, p.65)

1957        Dec, The 1st Beijing Int’l. Airport opened.
    (Hem, 8/02, p.34)

1957        The words "freedom of migration" were struck from China’s constitution. This effectively confined the peasants to the land where they were born. Authorities did not loosen up until 1983.
    (USAT, 2/13/97, p.8A)
1957        The Chinese Catholic Patriotic Association (CCPA) was established to ensure that Chinese Catholics not act contrary to the interests of their country.
    (www.cecc.gov/pages/roundtables/032502/kungRmks.php)(Economist, 9/8/12, p.42)
1957        China under Mao Zedong set up its reform-through-labor system, known as laojiao.
    (Econ, 1/12/13, p.13)
1957        China’s Dongzhang Reservoir in Fuqing Province was filled. Prehistoric tombs were hidden underneath.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.12)
1957        A flu pandemic began in China and killed 1-4 million people. It caused about 70,000 deaths in the United States. First identified in China in late February 1957, the Asian flu spread to the United States by June 1957. The Asian flu broke out in Guizhou, China, and over the next two years killed at least 1 million people worldwide. This H2N2 influenza virus continued to circulate until 1968, when it transformed via antigenic shift into influenza A virus subtype H3N2, the cause of the 1968 influenza pandemic.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1957%E2%80%9358_influenza_pandemic)(SFC, 4/13/05, p.A5)(www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/pandemics.htm)

1957        The first team of 6 Tibetans trained at a Saipan US CIA base and then airdropped back into Tibet with modern weapons and radios. From 1957 to the early 1970s America spirited young Tibetans out through East Pakistan, trained them in Colorado, and parachuted them back to Tibet where they fought the Chinese army.
    (WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)(Econ, 1/2/16, p.64)

1957-1960    In China some 3,000 scholars and government officials were incarcerated at the Jiabiangou forced labor camp in the northwestern desert. Only a few hundred outlived the camp. In 1997 Xianhui Yang (b.1946) began speaking survivors and over the next 5 years interviewed nearly 100. In 2000 he published a collection in China of 13 stories. In 2009 “Woman From Shanghai: Tales of Survival From a Chinese Labor Camp" was published in English.
    (SFC, 9/2/09, p.E2)

1957-1964    Jean Pasqualini spent these years in a labor camp after being sentenced to 12 years detention for "counter revolutionary activities." His 1973 book "Prisoner of Mao" described his experiences.
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.A19)

1958        Mar 24, Kejun, a Chinese army doctor posted to Tibet, died soon after his arrival. His newly wed wife and doctor, Shu Wen, traveled to Tibet to verify that he had died. In 2005 her story was told in novel form by Xinran: “Sky Burial: An Epic Love Story of Tibet," translated by Julia Lovell and Esther Tyldesley.
    (SSFC, 7/17/05, p.F1)

1958        Apr 25, The Xunhua Incident, an uprising of Tibetan and Salar people, ended in suppression and a massacre by the People's Liberation Army. 435 people were killed within four hours, most of whom were unarmed civilians.

1958        May 18, Chairman Mao Tse Tung spoke at the Second Session of the Eight Party Congress and called for schoolchildren to assist in the elimination of the four pests, which included sparrows, rats, flies and mosquitoes. A massive 3-day campaign soon began to exterminate sparrows, which were thought harmful because they ate the peasant's grain. Numerous other birds were killed in the process and the following year a plague of locusts became a problem. In 2001 Judith Shapiro, Donald Worster and Alfred W. Crosby authored “Mao's War Against Nature: Politics & the Environment in Revolutionary China."
    (http://tinyurl.com/8gbhg)(Econ, 12/20/08, p.65)(http://tinyurl.com/7m9egc)

1958        May 23, Mao Tse Tung started his "Great leap forward" movement in China. China tried to modernize its economy in "The Great Leap Forward" and urged factories and farms to meet impossible production targets. Farmers were forced to pool their possessions and devote all land to grain cultivation. Rather than concede failure, local officials misled central planners about output. The result: a famine that may have killed as many as 30 million people by the end of 1960. The story is told by Jasper Becker in his 1997 book "Hungry Ghosts: Mao’s Secret Famine."
    (WSJ 12/10/93)(SFEC, 10/7/96, A12)(WSJ, 2/7/97, p.A14)(MC, 5/23/02)

1958        Aug 23, China resumed fire on Quemoi and Matsu.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1958        Sep 11, Responding to Communist China's artillery attacks on the Taiwan-held islands of Quemoy and Matsu, President Eisenhower said in a broadcast address the US had to be prepared to fight to prevent a communist takeover of the islands.
    (AP, 9/11/08)

1958        China’s Mao Zedong wrote a poem titled "Farewell to the god of plague" to celebrate the country's victory over snail fever. Snail fever remained a major health risk for more than 50 million Chinese, with approximately 1 million people and several hundred thousand livestock infected as of 2010.
    (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2863366/)(Econ., 6/13/20, p.31)
1958        China's national museum to the Korean war first opened in the border city of Dandong. It closed in 1966 when Peng Dehuai, the commander of Chinese forces in Korea, came under attack. It re-opened in 1993, a year after China normalized relations with South Korea. The hall closed again in 2014, ostensibly for repairs. It re-opened again in 2020.
    (Econ., 10/3/20, p.36)
1958        China began construction of its National Art Museum of China (NAMOC) in Beijing. It was formally opened to the public in 1963. Construction of a new facility, based on a design by French architect Jean Nouvel, was set to begin in 2014.
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.8)(www.namoc.org/en/about/history/)
1958        China’s Mao Zedong introduced the hukou, a certificate system, in order to prevent a flood of migrants into cities. It was eased in the 1980s when China needed cheap labor for its factories.
    (Econ, 4/19/14, SR p.7)(Econ, 5/17/14, p.43)
1958        China introduced its first leading small group, a shadowy committee that often eclipses the power of more public political structures.
    (Econ 6/10/17, p.43)
1958        Yu Qiuli became petroleum minister and took charge of building the Daqing oil field, the largest in China.
    (SFC, 2/6/99, p.A21)
1958        In China Ai Qing (1910-1996), a poet, was denounced as a rightist and spent the next 18 years in hard labor in the Xinjiang region. His son Ai Weiwei (b.1957), later became renowned as an artist and political activist.     
    (Econ, 5/5/12, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ai_Qing)
1958        In China Christian Pastor Samuel Lamb (1924-2013) was jailed a 2nd time for 20 years. He had already served time from 1955-57. Fewer than 400 worshippers attended his underground church, Damazhan. He was a leader in the Chinese house church movement, and known for his resistance against participation in the churches of the state-controlled "Three-Self Patriotic Movement."
    (Econ, 8/24/13, p.42)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Lamb)
1958        The Chinese government updated the system for spelling Chinese words with Roman letters. It also introduced simplified written Chinese characters in a system called pinyin. Zhou Youguang (1906-2017) invented pinyin, the romanized spelling system that linked ancient Chinese writing to the modern age. He had been drafted in 1955 to lead the committee in developing an alphabetic system.
    (SFC, 5/8/06, p.A1)(CSM, 1/15/17)
1958        The US CIA began airdropping weapons over Tibet.
    (WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)

1958-1961    China underwent its Great Leap Forward.
1958-1962    China experienced a great famine during this period. An estimated 36 million people died. In 2008 Yang Jisheng authored “Tombstone: The Great Chinese Famine 1958-1962." In 2012 the book became available in English.
    (Econ, 10/27/12, p.83)

1959        Mar 10, In Tibet an uprising against Chinese occupation force took place in Lhasa. China reacted harshly, arrested tens of thousands and held strict control until the late 1970s. The Chinese forced the Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, and many of his followers to flee to India. The Communists destroyed 6,500 monasteries. About 250 monks of the Drepung Loseling Monastery escaped to India and established a replica of their ancient institution.
    (SFEC, 10/7/96, A12)(TMC, 1994, p.1959)(SFC, 10/10/96, p.E1)(WSJ, 9/4/97, p.A9)(MC, 3/10/02)

1959        Mar 28, China announced the dissolution of the Tibetan government. The State Council of the People's Republic of China dissolved the Government of Tibet, which according to official history, liberated Tibetans from feudalism and theocracy. On January 19, 2009, this day was adopted as a holiday, “Serf Emancipation Day," by the Tibetan legislature.
    (AP, 1/16/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serfs_Emancipation_Day)

1959        Mar 30, Dalai Lama (b.1935), Tenzin Gyatso, having fled the Chinese suppression of a national uprising in Tibet, crossed the border into India. India granted him political asylum.

1959        Apr 27, Liu Shaoqi (d.1969) was named president of China in the wake of the Great Leap Forward.
    (AFP, 9/6/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liu_Shaoqi)

1959        Oct 23, Chinese troops moved into India and 17 died.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1959        Dec 4, Peking pardoned Pu Yi, ex-emperor of China and of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. Aisingyoro Henry Puyi, the last emperor, Xuantong, was declared rehabilitated and released as "citizen" Puyi. He settled down as a gardener and wrote the book "From Emperor to Citizen."
    (SFC, 6/11/97, p.C16)(HN, 12/4/98)

1959        The Chinese Natural History Museum was built at the eastern end of Tiananmen Square. In 1985 archeologist Yu Weichao became its director.
    (Arch, 9/00, p.38)

1959        China’s Great Hall of the People was completed in Beijing.
    (WSJ, 3/13/06, p.A14)

1959        In China defense minister Peng Dehuai was sacked for criticizing Mao’s “Great leap Forward" economic experiment. Lin Biao replaced Defense Minister Peng Dehuai.
    (Econ, 1/14/06, p.84)(AP, 7/16/07)

1959        The People’s Republic of China (PRC) approved the construction of a National Grand Theater along with the Three Gorges Dam Project. Construction on the theater did not begin until 2000.
    (WSJ, 9/6/00, p.A24)

1959        Liu Chi Kung, a world class pianist, was jailed for 7 years by cultural revolutionaries with no piano. He played concerts after being released and said he had practiced daily while jailed in his mind.
    (SFEC, 10/22/00, Z1 p.2)

1959        China discovered huge oil reserves in the northern basin of the Songhua and Liao Rivers. This ended dependence on Soviet supplies. The area was named Daqing (Great Happiness).
    (WSJ, 3/1/00, p.A8)(Econ, 5/1/04, p.41)

1959-1961    In China mass starvation followed Mao’s "Great Leap Forward." The famine killed millions of people. The famine of this period is described by Jasper Becker in his book: "Hungry Ghosts: Mao’s Secret Famine" (1997).
    (WSJ, 2/7/97, p.A14)(Econ, 5/8/10, p.28)(SFEC, 8/17/97, BR p.8)

1960        Jun 4, The Taiwan island of Quemoy was hit by 500 artillery shells fired from the coast of Communist China.
    (HN, 6/4/98)

1960        Aug 13, The Soviet Union withdrew advisors, aid and other support from China.
    (SFC, 10/1/99, p.A14)(MC, 8/13/02)

1960        China launched its first rocket despite a cutoff of Soviet aid amid a political falling-out.
    (AP, 10/15/03)
1960        China completed the construction of the Sanmenxia Dam on the middle-reaches of the Yellow River near Sanmenxia on the border Shanxi and Henan Province. Soon after completion, sediment-accumulation threatened the benefits of the dam. Silt balance was achieved in 1970. Two more bottom sluices began operating in 1990 along with another in 1999 and the final in 2000.

1960s        A woman was arrested in Hunan who spoke a language that was not understood. Her speech was found to be Nu Shu, a secret language developed by women hundreds of years earlier. The 1999 film "Nu Shu: A Hidden Language of Women in China" was directed by Yang Yueqing.
    (SFC, 10/22/99, p.A16)

1960        Tibetan fighters retreated to a mountain range on Tibet’s border with Nepal, known as Mustang.
    (WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)

1960-1962    In the famine of this period an estimated 30 million people died.
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.A19)

1961        Feb 16, China used it's 1st nuclear reactor.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1961        Feb 22, British Foreign Sec. Douglas-Home said in a "Top Secret" letter to Defense Minister Harold Watkinson that, "It must be fully obvious to the Americans that Hong Kong is indefensible by conventional means and that in the event of a Chinese attack, nuclear strikes against China would be the only alternative to complete abandonment of the colony." The document was made public in 2006.
    (AP, 6/30/06)

1961        Jul 11, China and North Korea signed the Treaty on Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance. This committed China to defend North Korea if attacked.
    (www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/wjb/zzjg/yzs/gjlb/2701/default.htm)(Econ, 10/14/06, p.25)

1962        Aug 15, Lei Feng (b.1940), a Chinese revolutionary soldier, died after being hit by a falling telephone pole. Mao Zedong recognized Lei Feng for his humble heroism, said to include washing his comrades' uniforms and giving his pay to the needy. A government publicity campaign later used him as a model to promote selflessness.
    (WSJ, 4/12/08, p.R6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lei_Feng)(AFP, 3/9/12)

1962        Oct 20, A Chinese army landed in India for a brief border war in the Himalayas. The northeast Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh, twice the size of Switzerland, was occupied in a week-long assault by China and closed to foreign tourists. Some 3,000 Indian officers and men were killed. China gained control from India of the northeast region of Kashmir known as Aksai Chin. Some 4,500 lives were lost before China unilaterally declared the war over. Arunachal Pradesh re-opened in 1993. In 2015 Bruce Riedel authored “JFK’s Forgotten Crisis: Tibet, the CIA and the Sino-Indian War."
    (WSJ, 5/16/96, p.A-10)(SFC, 11/29/96, p.A1)(SSFC, 12/30/01, p.A22)(SSFC, 1/4/04, p.C10)(Econ, 7/5/08, p.95)(Econ, 8/21/10, p.17)(Econ, 10/20/12, p.36)(Econ, 1/2/16, p.63)

1962        Nov 21, China agreed to a cease-fire on India-China border.
    (AP, 11/21/02)

1962        Da Chen, author, was born in Fujian province. At age 23 he moved to America and later authored the autobiographical works: "Colors of the Mountain (2000) and "Sounds of the River" (2002).
    (SSFC, 2/10/02, p.M3)

1962        Pu Yi, ex-emperor of China, married Li Shuxian, a gold digging former dance hall hostess. In 2001 Jia Yinghua authored "Unlocking the Secrets of the Emperor’s Final Marriage."
    (SFC, 5/11/01, p.D6)

1962        China exacted control over western Tibet and many nomad refugees fled to Ladakh.
    (SFEC,12/14/97, p.T4)
1962        The Panchem Lama, senior Buddhist cleric after the Dalai Lama, issued a 120-page report that described conditions in Tibet under Chinese control. He described starvation due to the Chinese "Great leap Forward" program when authorities confiscated the nomad’s food reserves. The Panchem Lama was arrested and sent to Beijing for rehabilitation until 1988.
    (SFEC, 10/7/96, A12)

1963        Mar 13, China invited  Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev to visit Peking.
    (HN, 3/13/98)

1963        Mar, Pakistan and China signed a historic border agreement. Three years later, the two countries agreed to construct a road that would provide a hitherto non-existent road-link for mutual benefit. In 1978 the Karakoram Highway from Kashgar, China, to the edge of Rawalpindi, Pakistan, was completed.

1963        Pan Tianshou, traditional-style painter, created "Red Lotus."
    (WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1964        Feb 9, The U.S. embassy in Moscow was stoned by Chinese and Vietnamese students.
    (HN, 2/9/97)

1964        Mar 15, Cambodia was receiving military aid from Communist China.
    (HN, 3/15/98)

1964        Oct 16, Red China detonated its first atomic bomb, codenamed "596," on the Lop Nur Test Ground, and became the world's 4th nuclear power.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1964)(AP, 10/16/07)

1964        China launched its Dongfeng ballistic missile.
    (WSJ, 10/23/07, p.B4)

1964        The US used an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) called the Firebee, a small jet-powered drone, for taking photographs over China. It was launched from another plane and released a parachute upon return for pickup by a helicopter. It was later used in the Vietnam war.
    (Econ, 12/8/07, TQ p.23)

1965        Sep 9, Tibet was made an autonomous region of China.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1965        Nov 17, General Meeting of UN refused admittance of China.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1965        Nov, Yao Wenyuan (1931-2005), one of China’s Gang of Four, published a piece titled “On the New Historical Beijing Opera ‘Hai Rui Dismissed from Office." It was a 10,000 word diatribe against the popular play.
    (Econ, 1/14/06, p.84)

1965        The Gang of Four included Wang Hongwen, Yao Wen-yuan, Zhang Chunqiao (1917-2005) and Mao Zedong’s third wife, Jiang Qing. All four were relatively low-ranking members of the Communist party, albeit favored by Mao. Beginning around 1965, they were able to manipulate the media and youth to leverage their positions over party moderates, such as Deng Xiaoping. Mao’s death in 1976 ended their influence and led to their imprisonment and trial in 1980-81 for their role in the Cultural Revolution.
    (HNQ, 6/6/01)(SFC, 5/11/05, p.B7)

1965        China began the construction of a subway system in Beijing. The first line of 17 miles began regular service in 1981. By 2008 the subway network boasted 8 lines over 120 miles.
    (WSJ, 1/6/09, p.A10)

1965        In China the local government of Pingyang, near the southern provincial capital of Nanning, built a smelting factory for lead and antimony. For decades the waste was discarded in piles near farmland, where rains washed the metals into fields and ponds used to water crops. Villagers later tested for extremely high levels of lead, cadmium and other metals. The factory was torn down in 2004.
    (WSJ, 6/30/07, p.A12)

1965        Chinese military researchers isolated artemisinin, a compound based on sweet wormwood, and found to be very effective against malaria.
    (SFC, 5/10/04, p.A5)(Econ, 11/20/04, p.81)

1966        May 16, Mao exploited his cult status as Communist China's "red, red sun" and urged young Chinese to revolt against traditional culture and leaders. The country descended into the ideological frenzy of the Cultural Revolution. Teenagers armed with red booklets of Mao's speeches battled one another and dispatched millions to the countryside. Many "capitalist roaders" were hounded to death. The Cultural Revolution was a radical upheaval of Chinese society initiated by Chinese leader Mao Zedong. Mao, fearing his influence fading, chose to promote the movement, which amounted to anarchy and terror erupting in China’s urban centers. In doing so, he circumvented his designated successors with individuals committed to his vision, including the Gang of Four.
    (WSJ 12/10/93)(HNQ, 6/6/01)(Econ, 5/20/06, p.43)

1966        Jun, Radicals hounded Peng Zhen from office as mayor of Beijing under charges that he had transformed Beijing into a personal empire in opposition to Mao’s policies.
    (SFEC, 4/27/97, p.B8)

1966        Aug 31, In China a response to Mao’s call for a Cultural Revolution led to a massacre in Hongsheng, one of 13 communes in Beijing’s Daxing district, that left 110 people dead. The official death toll for all 13 communes was put at 324. Over 2 weeks some 2,000 Beijing residents were killed.
    (Econ, 5/20/06, p.43)

1966        Dec, In China an outbreak of meningitis led to the beginning of a CIA program, one of the first in "disease intelligence," a boutique field of espionage and analysis that aims to uncover the signs before and consequences after a pandemic.
    (Good Morning America, 6/20/20)

1966        William Hinton (1919-2004) authored “Fanshen: A Documentary of Revolution in a Chinese Village."
    (Econ, 5/29/04, p.85)
1966        Lao She (b.1899), author, committed suicide. His work included the play "Teahouse" and the novel "Rickshaw Boy."
    (WSJ, 5/10/01, p.A16)
1966        Chen Mengjia (b.1911), Chinese poet, oracle-bone scholar and spiritual opponent of the Communist’s simplification of the writing system, committed suicide.
    (Econ, 5/20/06, p.87)(http://riccilibrary.usfca.edu/search.aspx)

1966-1972    There were no films produced during this time on the Chinese mainland.
    (Econ, 4/29/06, p.69)

1966-1976    The period of Mao’s "Cultural Revolution." Scholars later believed that over 1 million people were killed or driven to suicide in China during this period. In 1986 Tang Tsou, Univ. of Chicago Prof., authored "The Cultural Revolution and Post-Mao Reforms: A Historical Perspective." In 2016 Frank Dikotter authored “The Cultural Revolution" A people’s History 1962-1976."
    (SFEC, 10/7/96, A12)(SFC, 8/17/99, p.C2)(Econ, 5/20/06, p.44)(Econ, 5/14/16, p.73)

1967        Jun 17, China detonated its 1st hydrogen bomb and became the world's 4th thermo-nuclear power.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teller%E2%80%93Ulam_design)

1967        Aug 7, A speech by Wang Li to the Red Guards led their violent takeover of the Foreign Ministry building. In the weeks that followed they rampaged among foreign diplomats and often beat envoys.
    (SFC, 10/23/96, p.C2)

1967        Aug 22, The British Mission in Beijing surrendered to the Red Guards.
    (Econ, 2/13/10, p.87)

1967        Sep, The government delegations of China, Tanzania and Zambia held talks in Beijing and formally signed the "Agreement of the Government of the People's Republic of China, the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania and the Government of the Republic of Zambia on the Construction of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway".

1967        Oct 17, Aisin-Gioro Henry Puyi (61), the last emperor of China, died of cancer. Official reports said his death occurred while under persecution from ultra-leftists of the Cultural Revolution.
    (SFC, 6/11/97, p.C16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Puyi)

1967        The Chinese Cultural Revolution briefly spilled over into Hong Kong with street riots.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, p.A14)
1967        Liu Shaoqi (d.1969), president of China since 1959, and his wife Wang Guangmei were put under house arrest in Beijing. The couple were soon separated and imprisoned. Liu died in prison. Wang Guangmei (d.2006) spent nearly 12 years in prison before she was released in 1979.
    (SFC, 10/19/06, p.B5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liu_Shaoqi)
1967-1982    Wang Li, close associate to Mao Zedong, was jailed. He had been deputy editor-in-chief of the party magazine, Red Flag, and was accused of inciting the Red Guards to violence.
    (SFC, 10/23/96, p.C2)

1968        Oct 31, Liu Shaoqi (1898-1968), president of China since 1959, was ousted. Mao had called him the No.1 Capitalist Roader.

1968        China established a research center to prepare for manned space flight, with 1973 target date for launch. Program later canceled because of lack of money and political support.
    (AP, 10/15/03)
1968        In Foshan, China, He Xiangjian founded Medea to make plastic bottlecaps, glass bottles and rubber balls. In 2016 it gobbled up Kuka, a German robotics firm in a deal worth nearly $5 billion.
    (Econ, 4/8/17, SR p.8)

1969        Mar 2, Chinese and Russian soldiers clashed on Damansky Island and approximately 70 died. The Soviet and Chinese border troops had been skirmishing since 1959 along the 2,500 mile border. Recent skirmishes were along the Ussuri River border. The Soviets used a full scale tank assault to repulse a Chinese attack on the island of Damansky. A border treaty in the 1990s gave the island to China.
    (www.jstor.org/pss/1957173)(WSJ, 11/19/96, p.A1)(SFC, 12/28/96, p.A13)(WSJ, 12/16/05, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/n43dsd4)

1969        Mar 15, A violent Chinese-Russian border dispute left 100s dead.

1969        Apr 1, Lin Biao (1907-1971) was named Mao's constitutional successor. Chinese historical accounts later said Biao showed his true nature two years later as a murderous opportunist obsessed with seizing power.
    (AP, 7/16/07)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lin_Biao)

1969        Jun 11, Soviet and Chinese troops clashed on Sinkiang border.
    (AP, 6/11/03)

1969        Nov 12, Liu Shaoqi (b.1898), former Chinese president (1959-1968), died after being tortured in prison.
    (AFP, 9/6/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liu_Shaoqi)

1970        Jan 5, A 7.7 earthquake in Yunnan province killed over 15,000 people and was covered up by authorities amid the chaos of the cultural revolution.
    (SFC, 1/8/00, p.A8)

1970        Mar 5, A nuclear non-proliferation treaty went into effect after 43 nations ratified it. France and China only signed on in 1992.
    (AP, 3/5/98)(Econ, 6/10/06, p.21)

1970        Apr 24, China launched its 1st satellite, known as China 1 or Mao 1, to orbit on a Long March rocket. It kept transmitting a song, "The East is Red." China became the fifth country to launch a satellite into space, sending up the Dongfanghong-1, which means "The East is Red."
    (www.spacetoday.org/Satellites/Iran/IranianSat.html)(AP,  4/24/97)

1970        Oct 13, Canada established diplomatic relations with China.

1970        Oct, China began construction of the 1,160 mile Tazara Railway between Lusaka, Zambia and the Tanzanian port of Dar es Salaam. China brought in its own workers for the project, which in 1976 finished ahead of schedule.
    (www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/ziliao/3602/3604/t18009.htm)(Econ, 10/28/06, p.54)

1970        Nov 20, UN General Assembly accepted membership of the People’s Republic of China.

1970        China established relations with Ethiopia.
    (WSJ, 3/29/05, p.A2)
1970        Cambodia's Prince Norodom Sihanouk fled to China and began compiling his Bulletin Mensuel de Documentation (Monthly Documentation Bulletin). The bulletin continued on an off thru 2003.
    (WSJ, 5/15/03, p.A1)
1970        China opened its Sandaoling coal mine on the edge of Xinjiang province.
    (Econ, 11/30/13, p.46)
1970        Wang Jinxi (47), icon of Chinese communism, died. Known as the “iron man," he helped turn Daqing into China’s biggest oil production center.
    (Econ, 1/10/04, p.60)

1970-1980    Some 94% of China's villagers were covered by cooperative medical schemes. But the collectives were disbanded during market reforms of the 1980s which ended cradle-to-grave welfare for the masses.
    (Reuters, 11/18/05)

1971        Apr 10, The American table tennis team arrived in China.
    (HN, 4/10/98)(www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/china/peopleevents/pande07.html)

1971        Apr 14, President Nixon ended a blockade against People's Republic of China.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1971        Apr, The world table tennis championship was held in Japan. Zhuang Zedong (d.2013 at 72) of China met Glenn Cowan of Santa Monica and their friendship inspired Chairman Mao to invite the American team to China thus starting ping-pong diplomacy.
    (Econ, 2/23/13, p.90)

1971        Jul 9, Henry Kissinger secretly visited China and met with Premier Zhou Enlai. The Forbidden City in Beijing reopened for the Kissinger visit. Kissinger secretly traveled to Beijing to negotiate the re-establishment of diplomatic ties between the US and China, he came bearing multiple requests — about the Vietnam War, nuclear arms, the Soviet Union and more. Kissinger’s Chinese counterpart, Zhou Enlai, had only one focus: Taiwan.
    (www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB66/)(Econ, 1/21/17, p.36)(NY Times, 4/9/21)

1971        Jul 15, Seventeen UN members requested that a question of the "Restoration of the lawful rights of the People's Republic of China in the United Nations" be placed on the provisional agenda of the twenty-sixth session of the UN General Assembly.
1971        Jul 15, President Nixon announced he would visit the People's Republic of China to seek a "normalization of relations."
    (AP, 7/15/97)

1971        Sep 13, Lin Biao (b.1907) died in a plane crash in Mongolia as he was trying to flee to the Soviet Union after the unsuccessful plot to assassinate Mao. He was once designated as Mao's "closest comrade in arms" and hand-picked to be the chairman's successor.
    (AP, 7/16/07)(www.odu.edu/ao/instadv/quest/LinBiao.html)

1971        Oct 25, The UN General Assembly voted to admit the People’s Republic of China and expel Nationalist China (Taiwan).
    (AP, 10/25/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China_and_the_United_Nations)

1971        Nov 23, The People's Republic of China was seated in the UN Security Council. The UN vote to admit was Oct 25.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(AP, 11/23/97)

1972        Feb 17, President Nixon departed on his historic 10-day trip to China.
    (AP, 2/17/98)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F7)

1972        Feb 21, Pres. Nixon began his visit to China as he and his wife arrived in Shanghai. He was the 1st US president to visit a country not diplomatically recognized by the US. He brought along a bottle of Schramsberg sparkling wine from California.
    (HN, 2/21/01)(AP, 2/21/04)(WSJ, 7/1/05, p.W6)

1972        Feb 22, President Nixon met with Mao Tse-tung in Peking and Chinese Premier Chou En-Lai in Beijing. In 2006 Margaret McMillan authored “Seize the Hour: When Nixon Met Mao."
    (HN, 2/22/98)(Econ, 10/28/06, p.93)

1972        Feb 28, President Nixon and Chinese Premier Chou En-lai signed the Shanghai Communique at the Jin Jiang Hotel Assembly Hall on the last night of Nixon’s visit.
    (WSJ, 3/5/97, p.A16)(AP, 2/28/07)

1972        Mar 12, The U.K. and China agreed to establish a full diplomatic relationship. China, newly admitted to the UN, said it wanted Hong Kong back.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, p.A14)(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A8)(HN, 3/12/98)

1972        Apr 16, The Republic of China presented two Pandas to the US National Zoo: Hsing-Hsing and Ling-Ling. Ling-Ling died in 1992.
    (SFC, 4/16/97, p.C14)(HN, 4/16/98)

1972        Sep 28, Japan and Communist China agreed to re-establish diplomatic relations.
    (AP,  9/28/97)

1972        Nov 22, US Pres. Nixon ended a 22 year travel ban to China. The ban had been put in place on February 8, 1963.

1972        Chen Yifei (b.1946), Shanghai born artist, painted "Eulogy of the Yellow River," as China’s Yellow River dried up for the 1st time in history before reaching the Yellow Sea. From 1980 to 1996 he worked in the US and became known as the Norman Rockwell of China.
    (WSJ, 1/6/97, p.A10)(SFC, 3/4/02, p.A3)

1972        The documentary film "Chung Kuo China" was directed by Michelangelo Antonioni at the behest of the Chinese government during the cultural revolution.
    (SFEC, 1/17/99, DB p.43)

1972        The Yellow River dried up for the 1st time in history before reaching the Yellow Sea. Toxins from cities and factories continued to make the river unfit for irrigation and human use along much of its route.
    (SFC, 3/4/02, p.A3)

1972-1974    Ji Pengfei (1910-2000) served as China’s foreign minister. He later headed the committee that drafted the Basic Law, a mini-constitution for Hong Kong after the 1997 handover.
    (SFC, 2/19/00, p.A21)
1972-1974    The Dalai Lama urged Tibetan fighters to return to India. Many committed suicide rather than give up the fight against Chinese rule.
    (WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)

1973        Feb 22, The United States and Communist China agreed to establish liaison offices.
    (AP,  2/22/99)

1973        Nov 10, In China Henry Kissinger (b.1923) briefed Zhou Enlai (1898-1976) in the Great Hall of the People about the Soviets and said that it was in the interests of the US to prevent a Soviet nuclear attack on China.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, p.A18)

1973        Nov 14, In China Henry Kissinger and Zhou Enlai agreed to provide China with satellite intelligence on Soviet military buildup "in a manner so that no one feels we are allies."
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, p.A18)

1973        Jean Pasqualini (1926-1997) authored "Prisoner of Mao" with journalist Rudolph Chelminski. He told of his 7 years in China as a political prisoner in a labor camp. He was born in Beijing to a Corsican father and Chinese mother, Mr. Pasqualini was educated in French and British schools in Tianjin and Shanghai. His Chinese name was Bao Ruowang.
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.A19)(http://tinyurl.com/4oc5vw)
1973        Ethiopian Airlines became the first African carrier to fly to China.
    (Econ, 10/22/16, p.59)
1973        North Korea made a filmed version of the 8-act opera "The Flower Girl" and showed it across China.
    (WSJ, 2/23/99, p.A20)

1974        Jan 17-1974 Jan 19, China occupied the Paracel Islands following the Battle of Hoang Sea, a bloody skirmish with Vietnam. Dozens of South Vietnamese sailors drowned in a vain attempt to stop China’s annexation of the Paracel archipelago.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Hoang_Sa)(Econ, 3/31/07, SR p.7)(Econ, 1/18/14, p.40)

1974        Feb 4, Mao Tse-tung proclaimed a new "cultural revolution" in China.
    (HN, 2/4/99)

1974        In China Wan Xizhe wrote an anti-government petition and was sent to prison for 14 of the next 19 years for his campaign for democracy and human rights.
    (SFC, 4/5/99, p.A9)
1974        In China the Li Yi Zhe manifesto attacked communist privileges and corruption.
    (SFC, 11/26/01, p.A17)
1974        Columnist Jack Anderson blew the cover of CIA agent James Lilley, attached to the US representative office in Beijing. In 2004 James and Jeffrey Lilley authored “China Hands: Nine Decades of Adventure, Espionage and Diplomacy in Asia."
    (WSJ, 5/6/04, p.D10)
1974        Mao launched the “Learn from Dazhai" campaign. The Chinese agricultural settlement at Dazhai was set up as a Communist utopia and peasants were encouraged to plow deep.
    (Arch, 9/00, p.37)
1974        In China an ancient terracotta army created by Qin Shi Huang, China’s first emperor (221-206BC)  was discovered by a peasant digging a well. It represented one of the greatest archaeological finds of modern times, and was listed as a World Heritage Site in 1987. Archeologists continued to unearth terracotta figurines from the site into 2012.
    (AFP, 6/11/12)
1974        Deaths from cancer began to escalate in the village of Dragon Range in the mountains of Central China. Tests in 2000 showed high levels of lead and arsenic from 4 factories in a nearby valley.
    (SSFC, 11/11/01, p.F5)

1975        Apr 5, Chiang Kai-shek (b.1887), Chinese statesman and president of the Republic (1943-1950) and President of the Republic of China, Taiwan (1950-1975), died at age 87. Madame Chiang Kai-shek (Soong Mayling) moved to New York following her husband's death. In 1982 Sterling Seagrave authored "The Soong Dynasty." In 2009 Jay Taylor authored “The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China."
    (WUD, 1994, p.254)(AP, 5/5/97)(SFC, 1/27/00, p.E1,5)(Econ, 5/9/09, p.86)

1975        Jul 1, Thailand and China signed a formal agreement on diplomatic relations.

1975        Jul 11, Archaeologists unearthed an army of 8,000 life-size clay figures created more than 2,000 years ago for the Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi (Shihuangdi). [see 210BC] Villagers had uncovered the first of the figures in 1974.
    (HN, 7/11/01)(Econ, 9/8/07, p.87)

1975        Aug 7, In China a dam collapse in Henan province killed tens of thousands of people. The event was covered up for many years. A typhoon from the South China Sea brought three successive days of enormous rain storms to the area of southern Henan Province. Altogether 62 dams failed in one night, including two major dams. As a result of this catastrophe 85,600 people died according to the official government figures but others place the toll at 230 thousand.
    (WSJ, 8/29/07, p.A12)( www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/3gorges.htm)

1975        Sep 15, Feng Zikai (b.1898), influential Chinese painter and pioneering manhua artist popular in the 1920s and 1930s, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feng_Zikai)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.66)

1975        Oct 20, China and India engaged in a border skirmish at Tulung La that left a number of soldiers killed. Four Assam Rifles personnel were ambushed and killed at Tulung La.
    (https://tinyurl.com/y9rsg23b)(Econ., 5/16/20, p.30)

1975        In China Mou Qizhong co-authored the book "Whither China" that criticized the Cultural Revolution and earned him a four-year prison term.
    {China, books}
    (WSJ, 8/28/96, p.A1,4)
1975        Aides of Chairman Mao ordered pieces of white porcelain dappled with pink plum and peach blossoms to gain his favor. They were made at the Ceramics Industry Research Institute in southern Jiangxi province. In 1986 there was an auction in Beijing that drew about $1 million for 87 of the pieces.
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, p.C4)
1975        China’s First Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping (1904-1997) ordered the army to crackdown on a Muslim village in Yunnan province. This resulted in some 1,600 deaths including 300 children.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, p.104)
1975        In China Yu Qiuli was appointed Vice-Minister of Metallurgy.
1975        Chen Xilian (d.1999 at age 84) was named vice-premier of China. He resigned after 5 years to make way for economic reformers favored by Deng Xiaoping.
    (SFC, 6/12/99, p.A23)
1975        Jiang Hua (d.1999 at 93) was appointed president of China’s Supreme People's Court.
    (SFC, 12/25/99, p.B4)
1975        Hong Kong established China’s first reserve to protect migrating shore birds at Mai Poi.
    (Econ, 12/20/08, p.67)

1976        Jan 8, Chou En-lai (78), Chinese premier (1949-1976), died in Beijing.
    (AP, 1/8/98)

1976        Feb 27, The final meeting between Mao tse Tung and Richard Nixon took place.

1976        Apr 7, China's leadership deposed Deputy Prime Minister Deng Xiaoping and appointed Hua Kuo-feng (Guofeng) prime minister and first deputy chairman of the Communist Party.
    (AP,  4/7/97)

1976        Jul 28, In China a 7.8-8.2 earthquake in the northern city of Tangshan killed at least 242,000 people, according to an official estimate.
    (AP, 7/28/97)(SFC, 1/8/00, p.A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tangshan_earthquake)

1976        Jul, China completed the construction of a railway between Tanzania and Zambia.
    (Econ, 2/7/04, p.45)(www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/ziliao/3602/3604/t18009.htm)

1976        Sep 9, Mao Tse-tung (82), Chinese Communist party chairman (1949-76) died in Beijing. "Who controls a man’s ideas controls the man." In 1965 he launched the controversial Cultural Revolution, an often-brutal campaign to reform Chinese society. He was later held responsible for over 70 million deaths. Mao Zedong’s death triggered a 2-year power struggle. The Cultural Revolution's chief architects, Mao’s widow (Jiang Qing) and 3 others, the so-called Gang of Four, were jailed. Deng Xiaoping returned from disgrace and eventually seized power. In 2005 Jung Chang and Jon Halliday authored “Mao: The Unknown Story."
    (SFEC, 10/7/96, A9)(WSJ, 5/12/98, p.A22)(SSFC, 10/23/05, p.M1)(AP, 9/9/07)

1976        Oct 6, The so-called "Gang of Four," Chairman Mao Tse-tung's widow, Jiang Qing, and 3 associates (Zhang Chunqiao (d.2005), Yao Wenyuan, and Wang Hongwen) were arrested in Peking, setting in motion an extended period of turmoil in the Chinese Communist Party.
    (SFC, 12/25/99, p.B4)(Econ, 5/21/05, p.90)

1976        Oct 12, It was announced in China that Hua Guo-feng (1921-2008) had been named to succeed the late Mao Tse-tung as chairman of the Communist Party. He was effectively stripped of his powers in 1978 and formally lost the chairmanship in 1981.
    (AP, 10/12/01)(http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7572298.stm)

1976        In China Huang Hua (1913-2010), a former translator for Mao Zedong, began serving as foreign minister and continued to 1982. Huang oversaw the formation of diplomatic ties with Washington in 1979 and accompanied paramount leader Deng Xiaoping on his tour of the United States that year.
    (AP, 11/24/10)(www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/ziliao/wjrw/3606/t44159.htm)
1976        India and China re-established diplomatic ties. PM Indira Gandhi chose K. R. Narayannan  to serve as ambassador to Beijing.
    (AP, 7/25/98)(SFC, 11/10/05, p.B8)(Econ, 8/21/10, p.17)
1976        In China the Triangle Group, a tire maker, was founded by the local Weihai government. In 2008 it was scheduled to become a publicly owned company.
    (Econ, 6/28/08, p.72)

1977        May 22, Final European scheduled run of Orient Express took place after 94 years.
    (MC, 5/22/02)

1977        China at this time had some 300-odd museums, most of them little more than displays of Communist Party propaganda. By year 2000 the number had grown to over 2,000.
    (Econ, 6/16/07, p.49)

1977        Jul 22, Deng Xiaoping was named vice-premier.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)

1978        Feb 16, China and Japan signed a $20 billion trade pact, which was the most important move since the 1972 resumption of diplomatic ties.
    (HN, 2/16/98)

1978        Feb, After China’s Cultural Revolution ended, some books were gradually unbanned. A few novels by Balzac were sold openly in Beijing's Xinhua Book Stores.

1978        Aug 12, China’s Deng Xiaoping and Japan normalized relations. Japan signed a Peace and Friendship Treaty with China in Beijing.
    (www.taiwandocuments.org/beijing.htm)(Econ, 8/23/03, p.34)(Econ, 8/25/12, p.11)

1978        Oct 23, China and Japan exchanged treaty ratification documents in Tokyo, formally ending four decades of hostility.
    (AP,  10/23/97)

1978        Dec 15, President Carter announced he would grant diplomatic recognition to the People’s Republic of China, i.e. Communist China, on New Year's Day and sever official relations with the Republic of China (Taiwan).
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)(AP, 12/15/98)

1978        Dec 22, The Communist Party in China issued a communiqué following 2 meetings on the economy. Teng Hsiao-p’ing (Deng Xiaoping) led the Chinese people in a Great Leap Forward with a program of economic reform in a market oriented economy. Deng introduced the "household responsibility system" in a drought-parched region which allowed farmers to keep some of the benefits of their labors. Deng Xiaoping announced a new "open door" policy.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3y2ljv)(WSJ, 12/19/94, A-1)(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)(WSJ, 5/3/99, p.A22)(Econ, 12/13/08, p.31)

1978        The Beijing Film Academy reopened for the first time since it was closed during the Cultural Revolution. 4 years later 152 students graduated and were labeled as the “fifth generation" of film makers to emerge since the birth of Chinese cinema.
    (Econ, 6/18/05, p.81)
1978        In China Xinwen Lianbo (News Simulcast) began chronicling the country’s transformation. News was chosen for its political value in bolstering the Communist Party.
    (Econ, 2/6/15, p.42)
1978        The Karakoram Highway from Kashgar, China, to the edge of Rawalpindi, Pakistan, was completed.
    (NH, 5/96, p.9)
1978        The Chinese Academy of Sciences set up the River Dolphin Research Group in Wuhan. The baiji, a white river dolphin, was declared a "rare and precious aquatic animal" the following year.
    (SFC, 3/23/98, p.a8)
1978        Deng Xiaoping emerged as China’s paramount leader. In early 1979 he shut down the Democracy Wall protest and imprisoned its leaders. His political formula was "one country, two systems." Yang Shangkun also regained power after 12 years in prison.
    (WSJ, 2/20/97, p.A20)(SFC, 9/16/98, p.C4)
1978        Fang Yi (d.1997 at 81), a guerrilla leader of the Revolution under Mao, became a vice premier. He accompanied Deng on a tour of the US in 1979.
    (SFC, 10/20/97, p.A19)
1978        In China the Time of the Democracy Wall movement began. For 4 winter months citizens in Beijing plastered a 200-meter wall with posters calling for freedom and democracy. Dissident Ren Wanding was jailed from 1979 to 1983 for having advocated multiparty democracy. In 1996 Wanding was released after seven years in prison for his role in the 1989 Tiananmen Square demonstrations.
    (SFC, 6/10/96, C2)(http://tinyurl.com/2w88be)(Econ, 12/13/08, p.30)
1978        In China the 2000-year-old massive "bianzhong" bells were unearthed.
    (WSJ, 6/25/97, p.A20)
1978        In China the tomb of Zeng Hou Yi (c400 BCE) was discovered. Artifacts were later exhibited in the Hubei Provincial Museum.
    (SSFC, 4/14/02, p.C9)
1978        China’s share of the global GDP was about 1.8%. In 2008 this grew to 6%.
    (Econ, 12/13/08, p.30)
1978        China began its The Green Wall tree planting project. By 2014 some 66 billion trees were planted as part of the Three North Shelterbelt project to hold back the expansion of the Gobi Desert.
    (Econ, 8/23/14, p.58)

1978-2016    Since China opened up in 1978 some 10 million Chinese have moved abroad.
    (Econ, 7/9/16, SR p.13)

1979        Jan 1, China and the United States held celebrations in Beijing and Washington to mark the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries. Deng Xiaoping  arranged to visit the US. China standardized the spelling of people and place names using the Pinyin system. Peking thus became Beijing.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)(AP, 1/1/98)(SFC, 2/05/04, p.E8)

1979        Jan 7, The Vietnamese army captured the Cambodian capital of Phnom Penh overthrowing the Khmer Rouge government. The People’s Party, a Hanoi installed Khmer Rouge faction, took power with Hun Sen as prime minister. This finally ended the mass genocide depicted in the 1984 film "The Killing Fields." The Khmer Rouge retreated into sanctuaries along the Thai border, set up bases and picked up support from Thailand and China.
    (NG, 5/85, p.574-5)(WSJ, 2/27/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 6/14/97, p.A15)(WSJ, 5/3/96, p.A-10)(SFC, 4/29/97, p.A8)(AP, 1/7/98)

1979        Jan 29, President Carter formally welcomed Chinese Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping to the White House, following the establishment of diplomatic relations.
    (AP,  1/29/98)

1979        Feb 1, The People's Republic of China opened its 1st two American Consulates in San Francisco and Houston.
    (SFC, 1/30/04, p.E6)

1979        Feb 17, China invaded Vietnam and began a "pedagogical" war against Vietnam. China completed its withdrawal on March 19. In China’s border war with Vietnam deputy commander Zhang Wannian led a victorious division offensive in the battle of Liang Shan.
    (www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/prc-vietnam.htm)(SFC, 9/18/97, p.C2)

1979        Mar 6, Chinese forces occupied Vietnam’s city of Lang Son. They claimed the gate to Hanoi was open, declared their punitive mission achieved, and withdrew quickly.

1979        Mar 29, In China dissident Wei Jingsheng (b.1950) was first arrested in the crackdown on the Democracy Wall pro-democracy movement. In his most famous essay, The Fifth Modernization, Wei argued that modernization was impossible in China without necessary democratic reform. On December 13, 1995, Wei Jingsheng (47) was sentenced to 14 years in prison and charged with "conspiring to subvert the government." In 1997, after a total of 18 years in prison, Wei was taken from his cell and placed on a plane bound for the United States as a bargain result between then US President Clinton and the Chinese President Jiang Zemin.
    (SFEC,11/16/97, p.A2)(www.weijingsheng.org/wei/en.html)

1979        Mar, Gov. Sir Murray McLehose was received in Beijing by Deng Xiaoping. McLehose raised the issue of the 1997 end of lease and Deng said Hong Kong can rest at ease.
    (SFC, 7/1/97, p.A8)

1979        Apr 10, The US Government established the Taiwan Relations Act which said: "to make clear that the US decision to establish diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China rests upon the expectation that the future of Taiwan will be determined by peaceful means."
    (WSJ, 1/31/96, p.A-18)(www.taiwandocuments.org/tra01.htm)

1979        Apr 11, Chinese diplomats of Cambodia crossed into Thailand after a 15-day, 125-mile escape from the Vietnamese Army. In 1992 "Chinese Diplomats in International Crisis Situations" was authored by Yun Shui. An English translation came out in 2003.
    (AP, 1/13/03)

1979        Jun 21, Mayor Diane Feinstein returned from her visit to China, where she signed a sister-city relationship with Shanghai. In August Wang Bingnam announced that San Francisco and Shanghai will become “friendship cities."
    (SFC, 6/27/96, p.A3)(SFC, 12/15/99, p.A19)(SFC, 6/18/04, p.F2)(SFC, 8/27/04, p.F2)

1979        The documentary film "From Mao to Mozart" covered the China tour of violinist Isaac Stern and pianist David Golub (d.2000). It won an academy award in 1980 for best documentary.
    (SFC, 10/24/00, p.A26)
1979        Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping launched his "open door" policies and trade reform.
    (WSJ, 2/20/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 11/16/99, p.A19)
1979        Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping met with Gyalo Thondup, the brother of the Dalai Lama, beginning nearly a decade of on and off dialogue over Tibet.
    (WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)
1979        China and the US formed the U.S.-China Joint Economic Commission forum to thrash out economic issues.
    (AP, 10/16/05)
1979        China adopted a family planning policy that limited families to one child. There were a number of exceptions such as for rural families, fisherman and ethnic minorities. In 2013 single children raised under the policy were to be allowed 2 children.
    (SFC,10/20/97, p.A8)(Econ, 11/7/15, p.39)
1979        China created commercial banks and began allowing commercial advertising again. This quickly weakened the alliance between art and the Communist Party.
    (Econ, 12/20/14, p.65)(Economist, 4/4/20, p.63)
1979        China increased the number of its official ethnic groups to 56.
    (Econ 7/15/17, p.40)
1979        At Davos, Switzerland, the World Economic Forum became the first nongovernmental institution to initiate a partnership with China’s economic development commissions.
    (WSJ, 1/23/08, p.A8)

1980        Jan 24, In an action obviously designed as another in a series of very strong reactions to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, US officials announce that America is ready to sell military equipment (excluding weapons) to communist China. The surprise statement was part of the US effort to build a closer relationship with the People's Republic of China for use as leverage against possible Soviet aggression.

1980        Jan 28, San Francisco Mayor Diane Feinstein signed a Friendship City agreement with Zhao Xingzhi, vice mayor of Shanghai. It was the 1st of its kind between an American city and the PRC.
    (SFC, 1/28/05, p.F7)

1980        Jan 30, The first-ever Chinese Olympic team arrived in New York for the Winter Games.
    (HN, 1/30/99)

1980        May 18, China People's Republic launched its 1st intercontinental rocket.

1980        May 31, Deng Zxiaoping made a speech in which he stated that: "We must eliminate feudalism from the life of the party and from the life of society."
    (WSJ, 2/20/97, p.A20)

1980        May, China’s Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping formally designated the city of Shenzhen as China’s first special economic zone (SEZ).

1980        Sep 12, Yao Ming was born in Shanghai, China. He grew to 7’6’’ and in 2002 was drafted to play for the Houston Rockets basketball team.
    (SSFC, 5/22/05, p.24)

1980        Nov 20, In China the Gang of Four, scapegoats for the 1966-1976 Cultural Revolution, were put on trial. They were tried and sentenced in nationally televised court proceedings. Jiang Hua led the special tribunal that was set up to try Jiang Qing and her 3 Politburo allies known as the Gang of Four. Qing was sentenced to death but her sentence was later commuted to life in prison.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)(SFC, 12/25/99, p.B4)(http://tinyurl.com/2tfc9u)

1980        In China Hua Guofeng (1921-2008) was replaced as premier by Zhao Ziyang, and by Hu Yaobang as party chairman in 1981, two of Deng's proteges who were dedicated to economic reform.
    (AP, 8/20/08)
1980        China recognized its first private business when street hawker Zhang Huamei (19) registered her stall selling buttons and toys in the port city of Wenzhou.
    (Econ., 5/2/20, p.51)
1980        A US-funded program, staffed by professors from business schools across the US, brought Western business ideas to Chinese managers.
    (SFC, 11/3/05, p.B6)
1980        A mummy titled the "Beauty of Kiruran," was found in the Taklimakan Desert in China. The Uighurs have been the majority population of this area for centuries and speak a Turkic language.
    (SFC, 5/6/96, p.C-1)

1980-1987    Zhao Ziyang (1920-2005) served as premier of China after which he took over as secretary of the Chinese Communist Party.
    (SFC, 1/17/05, p.B4)

1980-1989    During the 1980s the US purchased millions of Type 56 rifles from China to arm the Afghan Mujahedeen in their war against the Soviet army. The rifles were copycats of the AK-47s used by Russian soldiers. The US gave an average of $500 million in military aid annually to the Mujahedeen. The US also purchased Chinese and Polish AK-47s to supply the Contra guerillas in Nicaragua.
    (SFC, 5/27/96, p.A9)(SFC, 9/23/96, A9)

1981        Jan 25, In China Jiang Qing (1914-1991), Mao's widow, received a suspended death sentence.

1981        Apr 15, Coca-Cola opened its first bottling plant in China since the country’s Communist revolution.
    (Econ, 1/25/14, p.9)

1981        Jun 1, The China Daily newspaper was launched as China’s first English-language daily.
    (Econ, 3/6/10, p.62)(www.chinadaily.com.cn/cd/introduction.html)

1981        Jun 29, Hu Yaobang, a protege of Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping, was elected Communist Party chairman, replacing Mao Tse-tung’s handpicked successor, Hua Guofeng. A Party communiqué cited the Cultural Revolution as a disaster, and criticized Mao's role and the policies of his last years.
    (www.asiasource.org/society/china-chron.cfm)(AP, 6/29/01)(http://tinyurl.com/39suq6)

1981        In China Mao Yushi (b.1929) wrote a widely circulated mathematical defense of market pricing. In 2012he was awarded the Cato Institute's Milton Friedman Prize for Advancing Liberty for his work in classical liberalism and free-market economics.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mao_Yushi)(Econ, 1/9/16, p.36)
1981        China’s Central Committee published a “Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party." It argued that the Cultural Revolution initiated and led by Chairman Mao was a grave blunder.
    (Econ, 5/14/16, p.38)
1981        China emerged as a major arms supplier to the Siad Barre regime in Somalia.
1981        The Bank of China became the 1st Chinese bank to establish a branch in NYC.
    (Econ, 11/17/07, p.90)(www.bocusa.com/bocny/)

1982        Jan 12, Peking protested the sale of U.S. planes to Taiwan.
    (HN, 1/12/99)

1982        Sep 24, British PM Margaret Thatcher visited Beijing. Deng refused her request for continued British administration of Hong Kong after 1997, but agreed to open negotiations on handover.

1982        Oct 27, China announced its population at 1 billion people plus.

1982        Nov 8, China announced the creation of its first batch of national parks.
    (Econ, 9/14/13, SR p.11)(www.nationalparkofchina.com/cnnp.html)

1982        Dec 4, A new version of China’s constitution dropped the worker’s right to strike.

1982        Sterling Seagrave authored "The Soong Dynasty," a history of China’s rich and powerful Soong family.
    (SFC, 1/27/00, p.E5)
1982        In China Yu Qiuli was made deputy secretary general of the Central Military Commission, which controlled the army.
    (SFC, 2/6/99, p.A21)
1982        China acceded to the 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol.
    (Econ, 10/10/15, p.46)
1982        China and Britain began negotiations on Hong Kong’s future.
1982        The China National Offshore Oil Corp. (CNOOC) was formed to develop offshore oil and gas fields.
    (WSJ, 7/31/06, p.B1)
1982        TCL was founded in China to make magnetic tape in response to the mainland’s hunger for music coming in from Hong Kong and Taiwan. It soon expanded to television manufacturing. In 2004 it entered into a joint venture (TTE) with Thompson Electronics of France. The company suffered heavy losses as flat screen televisions entered the market.
    (Econ, 11/4/06, p.78)
1982        In China an entrepreneur opened a bra factory in Gurao, Guangdong province. Underwear enterprises expanded and Gurao became known as the “Town of Underwear." By 2010 fabric-dying plants had severely polluted the local water making it unfit to drink.
    (Econ, 4/16/15, p.35)

1982-1984    In California Edward J. Malatesta S.J. (d.1998 at 66) worked on the China Jesuit History Project and then founded the Ricci Institute for Chinese-Western Cultural History as part of the USF Center for the Pacific Rim.
    (SFC, 2/9/98, p.A19)

1983        Jan 25, China's supreme court commuted the death sentence of Jiang Qing, Mao's widow, to life.

1983        Jun 6, First Session of Sixth National People's Congress opened. The Congress elected Li Xiannian as President and Deng Xiaoping as supreme commander of China.

1983        Deng Xiaoping launched his "anti-spiritual pollution" campaign.
    (WSJ, 2/20/97, p.A20)
1983        Peng Zhen (d.1997) was appointed chairman of the National People’s Congress and served to 1988.
    (SFEC, 4/27/97, p.B8)
1983        China signed on to the 1967 Outer Space Treaty banning all weapons of mass destruction from orbit.
    (SSFC, 7/15/07, p.D1)
1983        Armand Hammer negotiated a joint venture through Deng Xiaoping to create China’s largest open-pit coal mine. Occidental Petroleum wrote off the $250 million venture following Hammer’s death in 1990.
    (WSJ, 3/19/02, p.A20)
1983        Algeria signed a secret deal with China for the fabrication of the 15MW Es Salam reactor at Ain Oussera. It came online in 1993.
1983        In China over 600 million people, i.e. two-thirds of the population, lived on $1 a day or less. By 2008 this number was less than 180 million.
    (Econ, 1/26/08, p.27)
1983        In China some 14 million women had abortions, many of them coerced, organized by family planning committees. By 2009 this dropped to some 6 million.
    (Econ, 6/23/12, p.49)
1983        Zhang Daqian (b.1899), Chinese painter, died. He had imitated the style of the old masters.
    (SFC, 2/6/04, p.D2)

1983-1986    Deng Xiaoping directed a massive inner-party purge.
    (WSJ, 2/20/97, p.A20)

1984        Apr 26, Pres. Reagan visited China.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1984        Apr, Chinese launched renewed attacks against Vietnam.

1984        Sep 19, Britain and China completed a draft agreement on transferring Hong Kong from British to Chinese rule by 1997.
    (AP, 9/19/99)

1984        Oct, The Communist Party announced economic reforms, a plan to lift government price subsidies and promised to relax party control over enterprises.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)

1984        Dec 19, British PM Margaret Thatcher and Chinese Premier Zhao Ziyang signed an accord to return Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty on Jul 1, 1997. China pledged to grant Hong Kong a high degree of autonomy in everything but foreign affairs and national defense and permit it to retain its capitalist system for 50 years. This laid the ground for Hong Kong’s Basic Law.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, p.A14)(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A8)(Econ, 7/19/14, p.11)(Econ, 10/10/15, p.42)

1984        Dec, Zhang Ruimin took over the helm of the Haier Group Co, a failing appliance manufacturer in China’s port city of Qingdao. He turned the operation around with modern refrigerator-making equipment from Germany. In 2004 Fortune magazine rated Zhang Ruimin as one of the 25 most powerful business people outside America.
    (WSJ, 9/17/97, p.A1)(Econ, 3/20/04, p.72)

1984        The Southern Weekend entertainment supplement was established by the Southern Daily, a newspaper owned by the Communist Party Committee of Guangdong province. In 1998 under Shen Hao (27) it began featuring real news and investigative stories.
    (WSJ, 7/21/98, p.A1)
1984        Deng Xiaoping moved to streamline the military. He cut the ranks from 4 million to 3 million and ordered the military to find ways to pay for itself.
    (SFEC, 5/4/97, p.A14)
1984        In China the ICBC bank was spun out of the People’s Bank of China.
    (Econ, 5/15/10, SR p.5)
1984        Shanghai Automotive Industry Corp. (SAIC) with government support partnered with Volkswagen  and produced the Santana model sedan. VW was the first foreign carmaker to establish operation in China.
    (WSJ, 6/30/99, p.A19)(Econ, 11/15/08, SR p.4)
1984        China’s Lenovo computer firm was founded by 11 engineers, including Liu Chuanzhi, with a $25,000 loan from the Chinese Academy of Sciences to help commercialize government-funded technologies. Until 2004 it was known as Legend Computer. By 2012 Lenovo’s revenues reached $15 billion.
    (Econ, 8/4/12, p.61)(Econ, 1/12/12, p.55)(Econ, 6/20/15, p.60)
1984        Rabbit Calicivirus Disease was 1st discovered among rabbits in China. It appeared in the US for the 1st time in 2000.
    (WSJ, 7/3/02, p.A1)
1984        In China Hu Yaobang, the Communist party's general secretary, suggested that Chinese people, for the sake of hygiene, eat food in the Western way with knives and forks. Yaobang's death in 1989 sparked the Tiananmen Square upheaval.
    (Econ, 4/25/20, p.34)

1985        Feb 19, Mickey Mouse was welcomed in China.

1985        Apr, Many Chinese lined up for hours to buy $1.75 tickets to the groundbreaking concert by Wham! at the People's Gymnasium, the biggest stadium in Beijing at the time. Wham! was the first major Western band to play in the country after the death of Mao Zedong and decades of cultural isolation. George Michael and Andrew Ridgeley danced in big-shouldered jackets with bleached and feathered hair. The backing dancers' strapless costumes and polka-dot miniskirts also stunned the audience in China at a time when people still dressed in similar shades of green and gray.
    (AP, 12/26/16)

1985        May 27, In a brief ceremony in Beijing, representatives of Britain and China exchanged instruments of ratification on the pact returning Hong Kong to the Chinese in 1997.
    (AP,  5/27/97)

1985        Jun 12, The town of Xintan on the Yangtze was obliterated by a landslide that sent a 128-foot surge wave down the river.
    (NH, 7/96, p.32)

1985        Nov 23, Retired CIA analyst Larry Wu-tai Chin was arrested and accused of spying for China. He committed suicide a year after his conviction.
    (AP,  11/23/97)

1985        A US-China Agreement on Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation was reached.
    (WSJ, 10/29/97, p.A22)
1985        China gave in to free market prices.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1985)
1985        China began to enact laws to protect patents, but did not enforce them much until 2001.
    (Econ, 4/12/08, p.74)
1985        China adopted an inheritance law. At this time divorce and remarriage numbers were low. Modest changes were approved in 2003.
    (Econ, 11/22/14, p.40)
1985        In China a group of foreign and national economists gathered on the Bashan steamship for a weeklong voyage down the Yangzi river swapping ideas on how to steer China’s economy. This “steamship conference" was organized by the World Bank at the request of a Chinese government commission.
    (Econ, 3/3/12, p.57)
1985        Ma Jian, Chinese Buddhist poet and dissident, fled Tibet. In 1987 he published “Stick Out Your Tongue," an account of his travels in Tibet. The book was denounced and banned n China. In 2006 it was translated to English.
    (SSFC, 6/4/06, p.M3)
1985        Peter H. Lee (45), a scientist at Los Alamos, visited China and turned over information about US national security laser programs. He confessed in Dec 1997 and was sentenced in Mar 1998 to one year in a halfway house, $20,000 in fines, and 3,000 hours of community work.
    (SFC, 3/9/99, p.A13)(SFC, 5/10/99, p.A3)
1985        China began a commercial satellite program marketing its rockets as vehicles to send Western satellites into orbit.
    (SFC, 6/15/98, p.A5)(WSJ, 10/23/07, p.B4)
1985        The Huadong Winery opened northeast of Qingdao on Mount Leoshan under British interests.
    (SFEC, 2/6/00, p.T13)
1985        ZTE, a Chinese networking gear maker, was founded. By 2008 it was among the top ten world wide makers of mobile phones.
    (Econ, 10/18/08, p.74)
1985        In China Zhang Ruimin, appointed a year earlier to rescue Haier, a state-owned refrigerator company, tackled quality control programs joined workers taking sledgehammers to 76 defective refrigerators. By 2011 Haier had some 70,000 employees.
    (Econ, 10/1/11, p.45)
1985        In China a lead and acid mine collapsed in Chenzhou flooding nearby farms with arsenic. 30 year later arsenic concentrations in the soil were 24 times the legal limit.
    (Econ 6/10/17, p.25)
1985        In China Shanghai began holding Auto Shanghai, a biennial auto show alternating with the Beijing Auto Show.

1986        May 20, A tornado picked up 12 children and deposited them on a sand dune 12 miles away unharmed.
    (SFEC, 7/6/97, Z1 p.6)

1986        Sep, China’s 1st stock market opened in Shanghai.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)

1986        Dec 10-1986 Dec 30, In China thousands of students began protesting for democracy in Shanghai and the demonstrations spread to Beijing.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)

1986        Dec 21, 500,000 Chinese students gathered in Shanghai’s People’s Square calling for democratic reforms, including freedom of the press.
    (HN, 12/21/98)

1986        Cui Jian, later considered the father of Chinese rock, recorded “Nothing To My Name." The song became the soundtrack for the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.
    (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kYwsPt854Xo)    (Econ, 8/16/14, p.36)
1986        Hua Wenyi, opera soprano, received the Plum Blossom Award, the nation’s highest artistic honor. In 1989 she traveled to the US and did not return.
    (SFC, 9/24/97, p.A17)
1986        Bikinis began to be worn in China when an int’l. bodybuilding contest required female contestants to wear them.
    (Econ, 4/16/15, p.36)
1986        China applied to join the GATT world trade association.
    (WSJ, 11/16/99, p.A19)
1986        China introduced a compulsory education law that required local governments to ensure that all children receive 9 years of free education.
    (Econ, 8/12/06, p.33)
1986        China passed a law for state-owned companies allowing only their government supervisor to put them into bankruptcy. First claim to any assets belonged to the workers.
    (Econ, 6/2/07, p.82)
1986        Wong Kwong Yu (16) and his older brother, natives of Shantou in southern China, opened up Gome, a clothing store in Beijing. A year later they switched to home appliances and consumer electronics. In 1992 Wong split the business with his brother, keeping the stores while his brother kept the real estate. By 2006 Mr. Wong was one of China’s richest men.
    (Econ, 2/4/06, p.60)
1986        In China an earthquake destroyed the old Jihong Bridge over the Lancang River.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, T5)

1987        Jan 16, China’s Communist Party chief Hu Yaobang became the scapegoat for student protests and was forced to resign. He was succeeded by Zhao Ziyang.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)

1987        Apr 13, Portugal signed an agreement to return Macau to China in 1999.

1987        Jun, A huge forest fire in China that began in May destroyed more than 3.7 million hectares of trees in Manchuria. This forced Chinese officials to open up commercial logging and consequently caused pressure on the Manchurian tiger. In the Black Dragon Fire 20 million acres of forest land along the Heilongjang River, which separates China from Russia, were burned. In 1989 Harrison E. Salisbury authored “Great Black Dragon Fire: A Chinese Inferno."
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.287)(http://tinyurl.com/jfvom)

1987        Aug, Zong Qinghou (b.1945) founded beverage producer Wahaha (laughing child) in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province. He was ranked as China's richest man in 2012 and second-richest in 2013.

1987        Sep 14, The first e-mail from China was sent to an int’l. network and proclaimed: “Across the Great Wall we can reach every corner in the world."
    (Econ, 4/6/13, SR p.3)

1987        Sep, In China Wang Ruoshui (1926-2002), a writer for the People’s Daily, was thrown out of the Communist Party. He went to Boston for an appointment at Harvard.
    (www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&se=gglsc&d=98569754)(SFC, 1/11/02, p.A19)

1987        Oct 25, Deng Xiaoping stepped down from all but the top military post.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)

1987        Nov 1, Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping retired from the Communist Party's Central Committee.
    (AP,  11/1/97)

1987        Nov, The US-headquartered KFC (Kentucky Fried Chicken) launched its first China outlet in the Qianmen area of Beijing, neighboring Tiananmen Square.

1987        By this year China had stationed nine armies (approximately 400,000 troops) in the Sino-Vietnamese border region, including one along the coast. It had also increased its landing craft fleet and was periodically staging amphibious landing exercises off Hainan Island, across from Vietnam, thereby demonstrating that a future attack might come from the sea.
1987        China disbanded the engineers corp. of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).
    (Econ, 6/4/11, p.80)
1987        Ren Zhengfei (b.1944) started Huawei, a Chinese maker of telecoms equipment firm, with just 21,000 yuan. By 2011 it employed 110,000 people and was the world’s 2nd largest company in the field, just behind Sweden’s Ericsson.
    (Econ, 6/4/11, p.80)(Econ, 8/4/12, p.20)
1987        In China Dr. Zhang JianDong (d.1999) produced a study on villages downstream from the JinZhou Ferroalloy Co. smelter, where large amounts of chromium waste was being spilled into the groundwater. His 2-decade study showed that villagers in the area had a higher death rate from all cancers and especially stomach and lung cancer. A 1997 report by the consulting firm ChemRisk, hired by PG&E Corp., said the results of Dr. Zhang’s study reflected lifestyle or environmental factors rather than exposure to chromium 6.
    (WSJ, 12/23/05, p.A1)
1987        Giant pandas in China were down to about 35 isolated populations in the wild, most of them of fewer than 20 pandas each. They were confined to the wooded mountains of Sichuan province, on the edge of the Tibetan plateau.
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.52)

1988        Jan 18, An airliner crashed in southwestern China, killing all 108 people on board, according to the official Xinhua news agency.
    (AP,  1/18/98)

1988        Mar 14, Chinese troops killed 64 Vietnamese sailors in clashes over the Spratly Islands. Nine Vietnamese engineering soldiers were taken prisoner.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, p.53)(AP, 3/14/16)

1988        Apr, In China Zhu Rongji (b.1928) was named Mayor of Shanghai.
    (SFC, 3/18/98, p.A12)

1988        Oct 11, China agreed to the opening of an Israeli Scientific Exchange office in Beijing.

1988        Dec 26, An anti African student rebellion took place in China.

1988        A Chinese a television series called “River Elegy" portrayed China as a country weighed down by a long history of backwardness and inward looking conservatism.
    (Econ, 10/29/16, p.37)
1988        The Zhong Gong meditation-exercise sect was founded. By 2000 it had attracted some 20 million followers and was ordered suppressed by the government as an "evil cult."
    (SFC, 2/1/00, p.A10)
1988        Wang Jianlin formed a property company in Dalian, China, using $80,000 in borrowed money. By 2015 his firm, Dalian Wanda, was China’s biggest private property developer.
    (Econ, 2/14/15, p.55)
1988        China began hosting its Peasant Olympics in the city of Quanzhou. The event continued every 4 years.
    (Econ, 11/15/08, p.54)
1988        China amended its Constitution.
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, p.A22)
1988        Hu Jintao was appointed as the top party official in Tibet.
    (WSJ, 5/17/99, p.A21)
1988        China suffered severe inflation.
    (Econ, 1/9/16, p.36)
1988        Wang Jian, a Chinese government researcher, coined the term "international circulation," argueing that China should pursue an export-led growth strategy. By 2020 the government had shifted to make consumption within China a bigger engine of growth.
    (Econ., 11/7/20, p.37)
1988        Hainan, a resource-rich tropical island about the size of Sri Lanka, became a separate province. The capital is Haikou. Hainan, the home to a new strategic naval harbor, also developed a beach resort at Sanya.
    (Econ, 12/13/08, p.52)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hainan)
1988        China abolished its silk monopoly.
    (WSJ, 7/9/96, p.A13)
1988        Huawei, a Chinese maker of telecom equipment, was founded. By 2008 it was ranked the world’s 4th largest maker of network equipment.
    (Econ, 9/26/09, SR p.13)
1988        US intelligence detected a Chinese test of a neutron bomb. The 1999 Cox report held that the technology was believed to have been stolen from the US. In July, 1999, China announced that it had developed the design technology to make neutron bombs in 1988 and could make miniaturized nuclear weapons.
    (SFC, 5/15/99, p.A3)(SFC, 7/15/99, p.A9)(WSJ, 7/16/99, p.A1)
1988        In China Cardinal Ignatius Kug was released following 32 years in prison.
    (SFC, 10/29/99, p.A16)
1988        China Merchants convinced the government to allow it back into the insurance business. It was permitted to establish Ping An Insurance, at first providing coverage for trucks moving goods from a single part of Shenzhen.
    (Econ, 7/23/11, p.69)
1988        The China Agribusiness Development Trust and Investment Corp. was set up to channel domestic and foreign funds into the agricultural sector. By 1997 it was closed with reports of being involved in smuggling, tax evasion and ruinous real estate speculation.
    (SFC, 2/17/96, p.B3)
1988        Atlanta-based United Parcel Service (UPS) first entered the Chinese market in a partnership with Sinotrans.
1988        Hon Hai, a small Taiwanese plastics manufacturer better known as Foxconn Technology Group, opened a factory in Shenzhen, China. By 2009 it had grown to the size of a city with over a quarter of a million employees.
    (Econ, 2/21/09, p.70)
1988        China and Uruguay established diplomatic ties.
    (AFP, 6/22/12)

1988-2013    China’s panda population increased from 1,114 to 1,864 during this period. By 2016 China counted 67 protected panda reserves.
    (Econ, 9/10/16, p.36)

1989        Feb 4, Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze wrapped up four days of high-level talks in China, the first visit by a Soviet foreign minister in three decades.
    (AP,  2/4/99)

1989        Feb 21, Fifty four members of the 14 K triad were arrested in 4 countries (US, Canada, Hong Kong and Singapore). Some 800 pounds of heroin were seized, supposedly worth a billion dollars at street prices. US police estimated that Chinese organized crime, and not the Mafia, provided 70 to 80 per cent of all heroin smuggled into New York City.

1989        Feb 25, President Bush left Japan, where he had attended the funeral of Emperor Hirohito, and arrived in China for a three-day visit.
    (AP,  2/25/99)

1989        Feb 26, President Bush's visit to China was marred by the refusal of Chinese authorities to allow dissident Fang Lizhi to attend a banquet hosted by Bush.
    (AP,  2/26/99)

1989        Mar, Hu Jintao, Chinese Party Secretary, imposed martial law in Tibet to quell separatist unrest following the worst there violence in 30 years. Martial law was not lifted until May 1990.
    (SSFC, 3/11/01, p.D8)(Econ, 3/22/08, p.28)

1989        Apr 15, In China Hu Yaobang, former party chief, died. Thousands of students in Shanghai and Beijing took to the streets to mourn his death. The protests culminated in the June 5 Tiananmen Square massacre.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)(AP, 4/15/99)

1989        Apr 18, Thousands of Chinese students demanding democracy tried to storm Communist Party headquarters in Beijing.
    (AP,  4/18/99)

1989        Apr 21, Tens of thousands of people crowded into Beijing's Tiananmen Square, cheering students who waved banners demanding greater political freedoms.
    (AP,  4/21/99)

1989        Apr 22, The Xinhua News Agency reported the first outbreak of violence stemming from China's pro-democracy protests, in the provincial capital of Xian.
    (AP,  4/22/99)

1989        Apr 23, Students in Beijing China announced class boycotts.

1989        Apr 24, Thousands of students went on strike in Beijing.
    (HN, 4/24/98)

1989        Apr 26, Deng Xiaoping approved an editorial that labeled pro-democracy demonstrators as unpatriotic.
    (WSJ, 2/20/97, p.A20)

1989        Apr 27, In China more than 150,000 students and workers calling for democracy marched, cheered and sang as they took over Tiananmen Square in central Beijing.
    (HN, 4/27/98)(AP,  4/27/99)

1989        Apr 29, In a sign that student demonstrators in Beijing had gained influence, China's government conducted informal talks with leaders of the democracy protests, and then televised the discussions.
    (AP,  4/29/99)

1989        May 13,  Some 2,000 students began a hunger strike in Tiananmen Square, China.

1989        May 14, The 2nd day of a hunger strike for democratic reforms took place in Beijing's Tiananmen square.

1989        May 15, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev arrived in Beijing for the first Sino-Soviet summit in 30 years. His 3-day visit was overshadowed by pro-democracy demonstrations led by Chinese students.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)(AP,  5/15/99)

1989        May 16, During his visit to Beijing, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev met with Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping, formally ending a 30-year rift between the two Communist powers.
    (AP,  5/16/99)

1989        May 17, More than 1 million people swarmed into central Beijing to express support for Chinese students fasting for democracy.
    (AP,  5/17/99)

1989        May 18, In China a million protestors filled Tiananmen Square.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)
1989        May 18, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev concluded his historic visit to China, which officially marked the end of a 30-year Sino-Soviet rift.
    (AP,  5/18/99)

1989        May 20, China declared martial law in Beijing. During the pro-democracy protests, Beijing officials ordered CBS and CNN to end their live on-scene reports.
    (AP, 5/20/99)

1989        May 21, Thousands of native Chinese marched in Hong Kong, Paris, Tokyo and scores of other cities in a worldwide show of support for the pro-democracy demonstrators in Beijing.
    (AP,  5/21/99)

1989        May 22, More than 100 top Chinese military leaders vowed to refrain from entering Beijing to suppress pro-democracy demonstrations.
    (AP,  5/22/99)

1989        May 23, An estimated 1 million people in Beijing and tens of thousands in other Chinese cities marched to demand that Premier Li Peng resign.
    (AP, 5/23/99)
1989        May 23, In China Yu Zhijian (25) led two others in throwing paint-filled eggs at a giant portrait of Mao Zedong in Tiananmen Square. They were all jailed and served almost 12 years after which they fled the country.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yc46499r)(Econ 6/10/17, p.88)

1989        May 24, China's top army command published a letter strongly supporting hard-line Premier Li Peng, who was reportedly locked in a power struggle with rival factions who opposed his strong stance against student protesters.
    (AP, 5/24/99)

1989        May 27, Leaders of the Chinese student protest movement proposed that demonstrators hold one more rally, then end their occupation of Tiananmen Square, an idea that was later abandoned.
    (AP, 5/27/99)

1989        May 29, Student protesters in Tiananmen Square China constructed a replica of the Statue of Liberty.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1989        May 30, Student demonstrators at Tiananmen Square in Beijing erected a 33-foot statue they called the "Goddess of Democracy."
    (AP, 5/30/99)

1989        Jun 2, 10,000 Chinese soldiers were blocked by 100,000 citizens protecting students demonstrating for democracy in Tiananmen Square, Beijing
    (HN, 6/2/99)

1989        Jun 3-1989 Jun 4, Chinese troops entered Beijing. They fired into the crowd at Tiananmen Square and killed at least hundreds of demonstrators.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)

1989        Jun 4, In China hundreds of people died as Chinese army troops stormed Beijing to crush the pro-democracy movement. Hundreds of thousands of discontented Chinese took to the streets of Beijing, demanding more reform, but the military crushed the protests in the Tiananmen Square crackdown. Zhao Ziyang was ousted. The West and Japan cut off aid. Bao Tong was the only Communist Party official arrested in the Tiananmen Square uprising. He was released with ill-health in 1996. Han Dongfang, leader of China’s first independent trade union spent 22 months behind bars for his role in the pro-democracy uprising. Ren Wanding was also again jailed for giving speeches in the pro-democracy protests.   
    (WSJ 12/10/93)(SFC, 5/28/96, p.A6)(SFC, 6/4/96, p.A11)(SFC, 6/10/96, C2)(AP, 6/4/97)
1989        Jun 4, We’er Kiaxi, 21-year-old leader of the Autonomous Student Federation, confronted Premier Li Peng during a televised face-to-face meeting.
    (SFC, 5/29/96, p.A8)
1989        Jun 4, In San Francisco thousands of demonstrators gathered in front of the Chinese Consulate to protest the slaughter of students and other citizens at Tiananmen Square in Beijing. In Chinese Tiananmen translates as Gate of Heavenly Peace.
    (SSFC, 6/1/14, DB p.46)

1989        Jun 5, Chinese soldiers slaughtered pro-democracy students at Tiananmen Square in Beijing. In one of the most remembered images of China's crushed pro-democracy movement, a lone man stood defiantly in front of a line of tanks in Beijing until friends pulled him out of the way. In 2001 "The Tiananmen Papers," a book based on classified documents smuggled out of China, was published. Zhang Liang was the pseudonym of the compiler. In 2009 Philip Cunningham authored “Tiananmen Moon: Inside the Chinese Student Uprising of 1989."   
    (HN, 6/5/99)(AP, 6/5/99)(SFC, 1/6/01, p.A7)(SFCM, 3/18/01, p.4)(Econ, 8/22/09, p.75)

1989        Jun 8, Chinese Premier Li Peng appeared on TV, praising a group of army soldiers, apparently for their role in crushing the student-led pro-democracy movement.
    (AP, 6/8/99)

1989        Jun 9, China began reporting large-scale arrests in the wake of the crushed pro-democracy movement. The arrests coincided with the public reappearance of Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping, who was rumored to have been seriously ill. Li Wangyang (d.2012) was arrested for his labor activism, five days after the military crackdown on protesters in Tiananmen Square. Sentenced for "counterrevolutionary propaganda and incitement," he spent much of his 11-year term at hard labor.
    (AP, 6/9/99)(AP, 6/6/12)

1989        Jun 11, The government of China issued a warrant for the arrest of dissident physicist Fang Lizhi (1936-2012), who had taken refuge inside the US Embassy in Beijing. Fang and his wife were allowed to go into exile.
    (AP, 6/11/99)(Econ, 4/14/12, p.106)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fang_Lizhi)

1989        Jun 15, Three Chinese workers in Shanghai were sentenced to death for helping to set fire to a train during recent pro-democracy protests.
    (AP, 6/15/99)

1989        Jun 17, In China's crackdown on the pro-democracy movement, eight people were sentenced to death for allegedly beating soldiers and burning vehicles in Beijing.
    (AP, 6/17/99)

1989        Jun 24, In China Communist Party general secretary Zhao Ziyang (1920-2005) was ousted for allegedly supporting the protests and put under house arrest. Jiang Zemin became the third hand-picked successor to Deng Xiaoping. Deng resigned from his last official post.
    (AP, 6/24/99)(SFC, 1/17/05, p.B4)

1989        Jun 28, China's new Communist Party chief, Jiang Zemin (the "core of the third generation"), said his government would show no mercy to leaders of the crushed pro-democracy movement, which he termed a "counterrevolutionary rebellion."
    (AP, 6/28/99)(SSFC, 3/11/01, p.)

1989        Dec 9, President Bush's national security adviser, Brent Scowcroft, and Deputy Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger began a surprise visit to Beijing, six months after China's crackdown on pro-democracy demonstrators.
    (AP, 12/9/99)

1989        In China Wang Shuo published “Whatever You Do, Don’t Treat Me as a Human." He had began a literary movement known as "hooligan literature" in the 1980s.  His novels included "The Operators." In 1996 the government halted the printing of his books on the basis of moral decay.
    (SFC, 11/29/96, p.B9)
1989        The low-level Gezhouba Dam on the Yangtze River was completed.
    (NH, 7/96, p.38)
1989        Liu Baiqiang of Guangdong was sentenced to 17 years in prison for tying anti-government statements to the legs of locusts that he released from his prison cell, while jailed for robbery. His sentence was later reduced and release was scheduled in 20002.
    (SFC, 4/6/00, p.C16)

1989        US Pres. Bush required a presidential waiver for the sale of commercial satellites to China. He later approve the export of 9 such satellites for launch on Chinese rockets.
    (SFC, 5/25/98, p.A3)
1989        The US and the EU imposed an arms embargo on China to protest the post-Tiananmen clampdown.
    (Econ, 5/7/05, p.27)
1989        Chinese scientists and scholars in New York founded the non-profit group “Human Rights in China."
    (WSJ, 2/13/06, p.A9)

1990        Jan 10, Chinese Premier Li Peng lifted Beijing's 7-month-old martial law and said that by crushing pro-democracy protests the army had saved China from "the abyss of misery."
    (AP, 1/10/00)

1990        May 10, The government of China announced the release of 211 dissidents who had been involved in pro-democracy demonstrations a year earlier.
    (AP, 5/10/00)

1990        Oct, McDonald's chose Shenzhen for its first Chinese restaurant.

1990        In China Zhao Weishan (b.1951) founded the Eastern Lightning religious cult in Henan. He later fled to the United States from where he continued to lead the church.
1990        China promulgated the Basic Law, a mini-constitution for post-1997 Hong Kong.
    (SFC, 7/1/97, p.A8)
1990        Shanghai, China, became an autonomous municipality. Shanghai Center, a joint venture city within a city, opened.
    (Hem., 2/97, p.72)(SFCM, 3/20/05, p.28)
1990        In China the local bingtuan militia put down an uprising by Uighurs near Kashgar, Xinjiang province, leaving 50 Uighurs dead.
    (Econ, 5/25/13, p.45)
1990        China launched stock markets.
    (Econ, 1/9/16, p.36)
1990        The Chinese census counted 1,133,680,000 people.
    (SFC, 10/14/00, p.A12)
1990        China consumed 2.4 million barrels of oil per day leaving 400,000 barrels per day of domestic production for export. By 2008 consumption rose to over 7 million barrels per day with about half of that coming from imports.
    (Econ, 3/15/08, SR p.8)
1990        Nicaragua switched diplomatic recognition from Beijing to Taipei.
    (Econ, 11/9/13, p.43)

1990-1995    In the early 1990s truckloads of foreign waste computer equipment began to be trucked in to Guiyu, China. Salvaging operations soon caused fish to disappear and the drinking water to go foul.
    (SFC, 3/1/02, p.B3)

1991        Feb 12, In China 2 longtime democracy activists (Wang Juntao and Chen Ziming) were sentenced to 13 years in prison. Both were later freed.
    (AP, 2/12/01)

1991        May 14, Jiang Qing (77), widow of Chinese leader Mao Tse Tung, committed suicide in prison.
    (SFC, 12/25/99, p.B4)(AP, 6/4/01)

1991        Jun 4, The government of China announced the death of Jiang Qing (77), the widow of Mao Tse-tung, saying she had committed suicide on May 14th.
    (AP, 6/4/01)

1991         July, China opened a second stock exchange in Shenzhen.
    (Hem. 1/95, p. 28)

1991        Nov 17, Secretary of State James A. Baker III concluded a three-day visit to China, touting an arms control agreement and progress on human rights and trade as "clear gains," but acknowledging that the gains fell short of U.S. goals.
    (AP, 11/17/01)

1991        Dec 13, Iran’s Pres. Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani visited Sudan with some 157 officials. He signed agreements to train Sudan’s Popular Defense Forces, a version of Iran’s Revolutionary Guards, and agreed to pay China $300 million for weapons ordered for Sudan.
    (Econ, 4/4/09, p.50)(http://tinyurl.com/d6ruxp)

1991        Dec 29, A Boeing 747-200F of China Airlines crashed into a mountain at Taipei and 5 people were killed.

1991        Jung Chang (b.1952) authored her family portrait “Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China," which soon became an international best seller.
    (Econ, 2/21/09, p.85)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wild_Swans)
1991        The Chinese film Raise the Red Lantern was directed by Zhang Yimou. The film won an academy award and was made into a ballet in 2001.
    (SFEC, 5/16/99, DB p.58)
1991        China introduced the B-share security market to trade stocks reserved for foreigners. In 2001 the B-share market was legally opened to Chinese nationals.
    (WSJ, 3/7/00, p.A18)
1991        China passed its first stand-alone adoption law. State-run orphanages routinely gave foundlings the surname "Dang" (meaning Party) or "Guo" meaning Country.
    (Econ., 7/6/20, p.34)
1991        Ye Xuanping, a popular leader of China’s Guangdong Province, was moved to a sinecure in Beijing to prevent him from expanding on a personal power base.
    (Econ, 6/3/06, p.37)
1991        Tsien Hsue-sen, American-trained rocketry expert, retired in China.
    (AP, 10/15/03)
1991        Anta, a Chinese maker of sportswear, was founded by Ding Shizhong. By 2020 it was the world's third biggest sportswear firm by market capitalization.
    (Econ., 5/16/20, p.53)
1991        Ermenegildo Zegna became the first Italian luxury company to enter the Chinese market. By 2007 it had some 52 shops there.
    (Econ, 4/14/07, p.82)
1991        China and Vietnam normalized relations.
    (Econ, 8/16/14, p.33)
1991        China established the Laoshan National Forest Park on the north bank of the Yangtze River. It covers 120 thousand acres with 35 km east to west and 15 km north to south.
    (Econ, 11/26/16, p.40)(http://tinyurl.com/n3w5ygv)

1992        Jan-1992 Feb, In China Deng Xiaoping toured the southern provinces and urged more economic reforms.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)(SFC, 8/5/97, p.A5)

1992        Apr 3, Huang Shunxing, a delegate opposed to the Three Gorges Dam, had his microphone turned off as he was about to address the National People’s Congress.
    (NH, 7/96, p.2)

1992        Sep 27, In Tibet Ogyen Trinley Dorje (7) was enthroned as the 17th Karmapa under an agreement with the Chinese government.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.56)(www.kagyu.org/karmapa/kar/kar03.html)

1992        Oct 23, Japanese Emperor Akihito began a visit to China, the first by a Japanese monarch.
    (AP,  10/23/97)

1992        Oct 24, China normalized relations with South Korea.

1992        Dec, The top portion of a Long March missile peeled away 45 seconds into its flight and destroyed a telecomm. satellite for Australia.
    (SFC, 6/15/98, p.A5)

1992        In the “1992 consensus" China and Taiwan’s ruling Koumintang party (KMT) affirmed the notion of one China though each held their own interpretation.
    (Econ, 2/18/17, p.34)
1992        Mo Yan (b.1955) authored his novel "The Republic of Wine." It was translated into English in 2000.
    (SFEC, 6/4/00, BR p.4)
1992        The Chinese film “The Story of Qiu Ju" featured Gong Li as a pregnant peasant who travels to Beijing to obtain justice for her husband.
    (Econ, 6/18/05, p.59)
1992        Li Hongzhi founded the Falun Gong system of meditation and exercise. It was borrowed from qi gong, a centuries old system of controlled breathing, martial arts, meditation and healing that became popular again after the bans on cultural traditions were lifted in the late 1970s.
    (SFC, 4/26/99, p.A13)(WSJ, 4/26/99, p.A1)
1992        Jiang Zemin, Communist Party leader, gave the go-ahead for a secret manned space program known as Project 921.
    (SFEC, 11/21/99, p.A14)
1992        China established diplomatic relations with Israel.
    (Econ, 5/11/13, p.52)
1992        China, Russia and South Korea normalized relations that allowed for air-service agreements.
    (WSJ, 6/18/96, p.A10)
1992        China received Russian-designed Sukhoi-27 fighter airplanes.
    (SFC, 6/10/97, p.A8)
1992        China’s Communist Party declared a “socialist market economy" as its goal.
    (Econ, 1/9/16, p.36)
1992        China began to allow private firms and trading resumed on the Shanghai stockmarket. Closed since 1941 it had begun trading in the 1860s listing both domestic and foreign firms.
    (Econ, 8/16/08, p.69)(Econ, 1/31/15, p.55)
1992        China launched a manned space program, code-name Project 921, with target launch date of October 1999. Qi Faren, trained in Russia, was named chief spacecraft designer.
    (AP, 10/15/03)
1992        China issued a license to explore for oil in block WAB-21, 650 miles from its coast. This was the first time it claimed resources in the South China Sea, so far from its shore.
    (Econ, 1/24/15, p.36)
1992        The China Construction Bank announced the nation’s first personal loans following efforts by Liu Chuanzhi, founder of Lenovo, to push a handful of employees into owning their own homes. In 2006 Ling Zhijun authored “The Lenovo Affair: The Growth of China’s Computer Giant and Its Takeover of IBM-PC.
    (Econ, 6/17/06, p.91)
1992        Guo Guangchang (b.1967) and four graduates of Fudan University in Shanghai, co-founded  the Guangxin Technology Development Company, later the Fosun Group, a Chinese conglomerate and investment company.
1992        Mou Qizhong, Chinese entrepreneur, stuffed 500 railroad cars with surplus pork, clothes and cheap electronic goods and sent them to Russia. He received 4 Tupelov 154 airplanes in exchange, which he sold to Sichuan Airlines and netted $11 million.
    (WSJ, 8/28/96, p.A1,4)
1992        China’s Shougang company bought an iron ore mine in Peru. This was China’s first investment in the region.
    (Econ, 8/15/09, p.20)
1992        The Asian Development Bank began building and improving transport and telecom links between China, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam.
    (Econ, 11/8/03, p.42)
1992        Russian Pres. Boris Yeltsin visited China and signed a nuclear cooperation agreement.
    (SFC,12/30/97, p.B2)

1993        Feb, The Chinese A share index in Shanghai rose to 10,000.
    (Hem. 1/95, p. 49)

1993        Mar 28, Chinese Premier Li Peng won a second term.
    (AP,  3/28/98)

1993        Jun 6, The freighter Golden Venture, a 150 foot cargo vessel carrying illegal immigrants from Fujian Province on the southern coast of China ran aground in New York harbor. It carried 286 illegal Chinese passengers, 10 of whom drowned while trying to swim ashore. In 1997 Lee Peng Fei (47) was extradited from Thailand for running the immigrant smuggling ring that was responsible. In 2000 Hong Kong police arrested Cheng Chui Ping for her role in the operation. A TV Dateline special was presented in 2001. In 2005 gangster Ah Kay turned government witness in the federal trial of Cheng Chui Ping, the reputed mastermind of the smuggling attempt.
    (WSJ, 2/27/96, p.A-16)(SFC, 10/7/97, p.A8)(SFC, 4/21/00, p.A8)(AP, 6/6/98)(WSJ, 8/3/01, p.W9)(AP, 5/21/05)

1993        Aug 25, The United States applied limited sanctions against China and Pakistan after concluding the Chinese had sold M-11 missile technology to the Pakistanis.
    (WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A4)(AP, 8/25/98)

1993        Sep 17, President Clinton urged China to cancel an underground nuclear test, assuring the Beijing government it had nothing to fear from the world's other atomic powers.
    (AP,  9/17/98)

1993        Oct 5, China set off an underground nuclear blast, ignoring a plea from President Clinton not to do so.
    (AP,  10/5/98)

1993        Nov, Wang Zhihua boarded a scheduled flight from Hangzhou to Fuzhou, the capital of Fujian province opposite Taiwan. He showed fake explosives to the crew, saying he had a bomb, and forced the plane to fly to Taiwan. In 2008 Wang was returned to China and sentenced to 12 years in prison.
    (AP, 12/5/08)

1993        Beijing Publishing House published "The Abandoned Capital" Jia Pingwa. It was advertised as the raciest novel since the Ming Dynasty. The author self-edited the most salacious parts leaving blank spaces. The novel was banned after several months. The novel continued selling over the black market.
    (SFC, 4/17/98, p.A12)
1993        The 1st dam on the Mekong River was completed at Man Wan, China.
    (Econ, 1/3/04, p.29)
1993        China amended its Constitution.
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, p.A22)
1993        China set up a Preliminary Working Committee (PWC) to shape the post-1997 Hong Kong administration.
    (SFC, 7/1/97, p.A8)
1993        China curbed satellite dish sales and ownership after Rupert Murdoch said that satellite broadcasting threatened totalitarian regimes by enabling viewers to bypass state controlled media. Unauthorized satellite reception was also banned.
    (WSJ, 3/26/96, p.A-15)(SFC, 5/8/99, p.C1)
1993        The Unirule Institute of Economics, an independent Chinese think tank, was founded in Beijing. In 2017 the government shut down two of its websites as well as all of its social media accounts and those of its researchers.
    (Econ, 2/18/17, p.37)
1993        Feng Jun founded Aigo, the trade name of Beijing Huaqi Information Digital Technology Company, to sell keyboards. In 2008 Mr. Feng carried the Olympic torch in Athens.
    (Econ, 8/2/08, SR p.8)
1993        In China Chen Feng led a coalition of private investors and the government of Hainan to launch Hainan Airlines. In 2016 it recorded revenues of $90 billion.
    (Econ, 4/15/17, p.56)
1993        China banned the use of rhino horn and demand fell sharply.
    (Econ 5/6/17, p.69)

1993        Vietnamese border crossings with China were opened for trade.
    (SFC, 12/14/98, p.A12)
1993        Coca-Cola established a memorandum of understanding with Beijing for expansion in China and obligations to the domestic soft-drink industry. 10 new joint-venture bottling plants were allowed.
    (WSJ, 5/31/96, p.B3B)
1993        China and the Tibet Autonomous Region established the Chang Tang Reserve setting aside at least 109,000 sq. mls. Added to the smaller, contiguous Arjin Shan Region, the total preserved area is now almost as a large as Germany.
    (NH, 5/96, p.52)
1993        Chinese hijackers commandeered jets to Taiwan at least twice. In 1999 two children and 9 hijackers were returned to China.
    (SFC, 2/6/99, p.A12)
1993        Michael Yu and his wife founded New Oriental’s 1st school to teach English to Chinese students. In 2006 New Oriental raised $129.4 million in an initial public offering on the NYSE.
    (WSJ, 11/27/06, p.B3)

1993-1993    In China investments grew at an annual rate of 60%, GDP peaked at over 15%, and inflation hit 28%.
    (Econ, 4/17/04, p.71)

1994        Feb 28, Pu Chieh (87), brother of last Chinese emperor, Pu Yi (d.1967), died.

1994        Feb, Deng Xiaoping made his last public appearance.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)

1994        Mar 11, Secretary of State Warren Christopher arrived in Beijing, the mood of his trip already soured by a fresh government crackdown on Chinese dissidents.
    (AP,  3/11/99)

1994        Mar 14, Secretary of State Warren Christopher wrapped up three days of meetings with Chinese leaders, who rejected attempts to link their human rights record with preferred trade status.
    (AP,  3/14/99)

1994        Mar, The China Development Bank was founded to support state policies to implement disciplined development and build harmonious society.
    (Econ, 7/28/07, p.75)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China_Development_Bank)

1994        May 26, President Clinton renewed trade privileges for China, and announced his administration would no longer link China's trade status with its human rights record.
    (AP, 5/26/99)

1994        May, Two labor organizers, Li Wenming and Guo Baosheng, were arrested but not charged after they sought to form an independent labor union among the workers of Shenzhen. In Nov 1996, the 2 men were charged with counterrevolution and trying to overthrow the government.
    (SFC, 12/31/96, p.A10)

1994        Jun 6, A China Northwest Airlines Tu-154 on a flight from Xian to Guangzhou crashed 10 minutes after takeoff, and killed all 160 onboard.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-14)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1994        Jul, The Chinese A share index dropped 80% to 1,744.
    (Hem. 1/95, p.49)

1994        Sep 3, China and Russia proclaimed an end to any lingering hostilities, pledging they would no longer target nuclear missiles or use force against each other.
    (AP, 9/3/99)

1994        Sep 17, Fifty-six miners confirmed killed in a gas blast at the Nanshan coal mine, northeastern Heilongjiang province.

1994        Oct 18, US Defense Secretary William Perry, nearing the end of a visit to China, said Beijing had agreed to brief the Pentagon on its overall military strategy and defense spending plans.
    (AP, 10/18/99)

1994        Li Zhisui, Mao’s personal doctor, authored “The Private Life of Chairman Mao."
    (Econ, 5/28/05, p.83)
1994        Harry Wu (1937-2016), Chinese human rights activist and writer, published his "Bitter Winds: A Memoir of My Years in China’s Gulags," with Carolyn Wakeman. Wu Hongda had been sent to a labor camp in 1960 to be turned into “a new socialist person." In 1985 he left for California.
    (SFC, 5/19/96, Z1, p.3)(Econ, 5/7/15, p.86)(Econ, 5/7/15, p.86)
1994        China raised the curtain on regular Hollywood releases.
    (Econ., 8/29/20, p.48)
1994        China’s foreign minister, Qian Qichen, and US Sec. of State Warren Christopher, agreed to halt sales of M-11 and other missiles to Pakistan.
    (WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A4)
1994        China’s central government changed the way it shared tax revenues with the provinces, leaving the center with a much bigger portion.
    (Econ, 6/3/06, p.37)
1994        China began a pilot program in some cities to provide a subsistence guarantee for those whose income was below the minimum needed for adequate comfort. The dibao program was implemented by local authorities and failed to reach most rural needy.
    (Econ, 10/31/15, p.43)
1994        China established a unified official exchange rate and pegged the yuan, also known as the renminbi (people's money), at about 8.28 to the US dollar.
    (SFC, 7/5/03, p.B1)(Econ, 9/25/10, p.87)
1994        In China the guided-missile destroyer ship Harbin was built with weapons and engineering systems made in 40 countries.
    (SFC, 3/22/97, p.A3)
1994        China accelerated its drive to join GATT.
    (WSJ, 11/16/99, p.A19)
1994        China started its first nuclear plant. By 2016 there were 36 nuclear reactors in operation.
    (Econ, 9/24/16, p.43)
1994        China passed a Maternal Infant Health Care Law. It guaranteed pediatric health care to poor women and stipulated that couples be informed of any genetic problems. It also directed doctors to take steps to prevent childbearing in the event of detected problems.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A25)
1994        China passed rules that permitted executed prisoners to donate organs with written consent by the prisoner of relatives.
    (SSFC, 3/11/01, p.D1)
1994        The Internet was introduced to China.
    (Wired, 2/99, p.127)
1994        China’s steel making capacity was 11% of the world total. By 2006 it reached 25%.
    (Econ, 12/10/05, p.67)
1994        China started a national campaign to fortify all salt with iodine. Some 2,500 salt police enforced the state monopoly.
    (SFC, 11/15/02, p.J4)
1994        China’s government announced plans to develop a stand-alone automobile industry.
    (Econ, 2/24/07, p.79)
1994        China lifted a ban on dogs in Beijing. Strict licensing was enforced until 2003.
    (Econ 7/8/17, p.38)
1994        Suzhou Industrial Park was established west of Shanghai.
    (WSJ, 11/30/01, p.A13)
1994        In China leaders in Tianjin established the Binhai New Area for economic development. In 2005 the central government backed the project as one of national importance.
    (Econ, 6/24/06, p.47)
1994        Shengda Economics, Trade and Management College was founded in Longhu, Henan province, China.
    (Econ, 8/12/06, p.32)
1994        The World Journal, a Chinese-language newspaper based in new York reported that blood products in China were contaminated with the AIDS virus.
    (SFC, 10/25/96, p.A14)
1994        A ferry and freighter slammed into each other on China’s Yangtze River and 133 people died.
    (SFC, 11/26/99, p.A23)
1994        Myanmar leased the 2 Coco Islands in the Indian Ocean to China. China proceeded to establish surveillance stations there.
    (www.fas.org/irp/world/china/facilities/coco.htm)(Econ, 7/23/05, p.25)
1994        South African Breweries (SAB) moved into the China market.
    (Econ, 7/15/06, p.59)

1994-1995    China carved 4 big new commercial banks out of the old communist banking system. The banks soon made 2 bad loans for every three good ones. The government began cleaning them up in 1999 taking loans equivalent to 17% of GDP off their books.
    (Econ, 5/20/06, Survey p.20)

1994-2004    Mass protests in China rose from 74,000 to some 74,000.
    (Econ, 12/17/05, p.41)

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