The Democratic Republic of the Congo was formerly named the Belgian Congo and later Zaire. Bantus are the majority ethnic group in Congo. This nation of 45 million is the 3rd largest in Africa.
(NH, 7/96, p.14)(SFC, 10/26/96, p.A8)(SFC, 5/21/98, p.A14)
Congo DRC is
about two-thirds size of western Europe.
(Econ, 8/5/06, p.41)
88000BCE The Katanda site in Zaire was dated to this time. Evidence in the 1990s showed bone points showed barbs on 3 edges and rings carved in the base to tie them to shafts.
(SFC, 1/11/02, p.A2)
1400-1500 The Kongo empire consisted of six provinces ruled by a monarch, the Manikongo of the Bakongo (Kongo peoples), but its sphere of influence extended to the neighboring states as well. Kongo’s king ruled about two million people. The capital, Mbanza, was built on a fertile plateau 100 miles east of the
coast and 50 miles south of the Congo River in southwest Africa.
1482 Captain Diego Cao sailed south along the
African coast and landed at the mouth of the Zaire (Congo) River. He left four servants and took four Africans hostage back to his king, John, in Portugal. This was the first European encounter with the vast kingdom of the Kongo.
1483 Captain Diogo Cao visited Manikongo Nzinga in his capital, Mbanza, and persuaded the king to open his country to the Portuguese. Then were 6 states in the region: Sonho, Bamba, Pemba, Batta, Fango and Sundi. This last one (capital Ambezi) was the first to accept the Portuguese
1526 Jul 6, King Afonso of Kongo (1509-1542) sent a letter of complaint to Portugal regarding the impact of slave
trade in his country.
c1796 The Tutsi herders, Banyamulenge (people of the mountains), arrived into Zaire some 200
years ago. They moved with their cattle into the hills of Masisi in North Kivu and mountains of South Kivu.
(SFC, 10/10/96, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A16)
Stanley, British journalist, crossed Africa from the east to the west across the Congo River basin on a 999-day journey sponsored by London’s Daily Telegraph. In 2004 Tim Butcher, also a journalist for the Daily Telegraph, followed Stanley’s path on a trip that took 44 days. In 2008 Butcher authored “Blood River: A Journey to Africa’s Broken Heart.”
(WSJ, 10/31/08, p.A15)
1876 Sep 14, Henry Morton Stanley's expedition left Rwanda.
1876 Oct 17, Henry Morton Stanley's expedition reached the Lualaba River.
1877 Jun 3, Frank Pocock, British explorer, drowned in the Congo.
Henry Morton Stanley, a Welsh-born American explorer, emerged from the forests of Africa near the mouth of the Congo River. He had traced the river to its source. In 1878 he authored “Through the Dark Continent.”
(SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.1)(WSJ, 11/3/07,
1880 Catholicism became established in Congo.
(SFC, 7/18/97, p.A10)
1880-1920 The population of Congo was halved due to murder, starvation, exhaustion, exposure, disease, and a lowered birth rate due to the exploitation by King Leopold II.
(SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.1)
1881 May 8, Henry Morton Stanley signed a contract with a Congo monarch. [see Sep 24]
1881 Sep 24, Henry Morton Stanley signed a contract with Congo monarch. [see May 8]
Stanleyville (later Kisangani), Congo, was founded by Sir Henry Morton Stanley, the Anglo-American journalist who tracked down the missionary David Livingstone in Africa.
1884 Feb 26, Leopold II of Belgium signed in Congo a British and Portuguese treaty.
Roger Casement of Ulster joined an expedition up the Congo River led by Henry Morton Stanely. After 20 years in Africa he became the leading figure in an int’l. campaign to denounce the abuses committed by the Congo’s Belgian colonizers.
(Econ, 7/7/12, p.75)
1885 Feb 26, The Congress of Berlin gave Congo to Belgium and Nigeria to England.
1885 May 2, The Congo Free State was established by King Leopold II of Belgium.
treaty made in Berlin called for the humane treatment of Africans.
(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.12)
1887 The inflatable bicycle tire was invented and spawned, along with the
car tire, a worldwide rubber boom.
(SFEM, 5/7/00, p.9)
1890 William Sheppard (b.1865 in Virginia) left the US for missionary work in Congo. In 2002 Pagan Kennedy
authored "Black Livingstone: A True Tale of African Adventure."
(SSFC, 2/3/02, p.M1)
c1890-1899 In the late 19th century Belgium established the Tervuren Royal Museum for Central Africa. It was a
result of the country’s colonial venture in the Belgian Congo, later Zaire, later Democratic Republic of Congo. The museum was founded as a showcase for business opportunities on the Congo.
(SFC, 2/21/98, p.E1)
1891 Jul 31, Great Britain declared territories in Southern Africa up to the Congo to be within their sphere of influence.
1892 William Sheppard, US missionary, set out to find the hidden kingdom of Kuba and eventually made contact with King Kot aMweeky.
(SSFC, 2/3/02, p.M1)
1893 Mar 4, Francis Dhanis' army attacked the Lualaba and occupied Nyangwe (Congo).
Mar 9, Congo cannibals killed 1000s of Arabs.
c1898 Edmund Dene Morel, a London employee of the shipping line Elder Dempster, came to realize that a
wealth of rubber and ivory cargo was arriving from Congo in exchange for military officers, firearms and ammunition. He deduced that forced labor was being used by King Leopold II of Belgium to extract native wealth.
(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.4)
1901 Edmund Dene Morel (28) quit his London shipping line job and began a full time campaign to expose the barbarities in the Congo under Leopold II. He started his own publication, "The West African Mail," an illustrated weekly journal in 1903 as a forum on West and Central African
(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.4)(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.7)
1903 May, In Britain the House of Commons passed a resolution urging that Congo natives be governed with
humanity. Also the British consul in the Congo, Roger Casement, was asked to travel to the interior and report on conditions there.
(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.8)
1903 Jun 29,
The British government officially protested Belgian atrocities in the Congo. Missionaries, such as William Sheppard of Virginia, had provided information that soldiers of Leopold’s private army turned over the right hand of villagers they had killed in order to account for their used bullets. Leopold’s 19,000 man private army held hostage the wives of workers to force men to
(HN, 6/29/98)(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.7,8)
1903 Samuel Verner, an American missionary and explorer, purchased Ota Benga, a young pigmy enslaved by another tribe. He
was under contract to the St. Louis Fair to bring several Pygmies to America for a living display of the stages of evolution. After the fair Benga ended up at the Bronx Zoological Park where he was displayed with monkeys. In 1910 Benga moved to a Baptist seminary in Lynchburg, Va. In 1916 Benga committed suicide.
1904 The Congo Reform Association was born in England following the return of Roger Casement from the Congo and his meeting with Edmund Morel.
1904 Edmund Morel journeyed to the US and encouraged the formation of an American Congo Reform Association. Its first president was Dr. G. Stanley Hall, president of Clark Univ.
(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.11)
1905 Mark Twain wrote his pamphlet "King Leopold’s Soliloquy" in support of reform in the Congo. US Sec. of State Elihu Root was pressured to take action on the
(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.11)
1906 Edmund Morel wrote "Red Rubber: the Story of the Rubber Slave Trade Flourishing on the Congo in the year of Grace
(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.9)
1908 King Leopold II (d.1909) turned the Congo over to Belgium for a large sum of money. It was later estimated that the population of
Congo dropped by 10 million people during the period of Leopold’s rule and its immediate aftermath. In 1998 Adam Hochschild published "King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa."
(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.12)
1919 Nov 10, Moise Tshombe was born. He became Pres. of Katanga and then premier of the Congo (Zaire).
1924 The permanent committee of the National Colonial Congress of Belgium (Congo) declared: "We run the risk of someday seeing our native population collapse and disappear… So that we will see ourselves confronted with a kind of desert."
1924 Edward Dene Morel, Congo activist, was elected to the British Parliament. He soon died of a heart attack at age 51.
1925 Jul 2, Patrice Lumumba, revolutionary, was born in Congo.
1925 CongoDRC’s Virunga National Park, a 7,800-square-km (3,011-square-mile) park, was created. It was classified a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979.
1930 Oct 14, Joseph Desire Mobutu was born in Congo.
(SFC, 5/17/97, p.A1)
1938 G. Trolli, an Italian physician working in the Belgian Congo (Zaire), reported a condition called konzo meaning "tied legs." It was later related to cyanide poison from improper preparation of cassava root.
(NH, 7/96, p.14)
1940 The Belgian colonial government in Leopoldville (later Kinshasa), Congo, ordered private mining companies to turn over their records to help the Allies find resources to help the war effort against Germany. Millions of
tons of copper and tin, as well as some uranium, were shipped to the US. After the war records were shipped to Belgium’s Royal Museum for Central Africa in Brussels.
(WSJ, 3/20/07, p.A13)
Congolese musician Antoine Kolosay, aka Papa Wendo, wrote his song "Marie-Louise," a eulogy to the sister of his guitarist.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.66)
A sizeable nationalist movement emerged in Congo and rapidly gained momentum.
1957 Dr. Hilary Koprowski of the Wistar
Institute in Philadelphia developed an oral polio vaccine and tested it in Africa (Congo). The Wister polio vaccine was given to some 300,000 people in the Belgian Congo from 1957-1960. A later theory held that reuse of needles during the immunization program caused AIDS via “serial passage” that transformed the SIV virus into HIV. In 1999 Edward Hooper authored “The River,” a detailed hypothesis
for the origin of AIDS in Africa. Hooper suspected that the Wister polio vaccine, produced from monkey kidney cells, contained SIV virus. In 2000 a computerized study indicated that the AIDS virus was introduced to humans about 1930.
(SFC, 2/2/00, p.A19)(SFC, 1/15/01, p.A11)(SFC, 4/13/05,
1959 Nov 1, Patrice Lumumba was arrested in the Belgian Congo.
1959 Congo’s Mobutu became an asset of the US CIA during a meeting in Brussels.
(SFC, 9/8/97, p.A8)
1959 In the Belgian Congo a 50-kilowatt Triga Mark I nuclear reactor made by Gen’l. Atomic of San Diego went on line.
(WSJ, 5/30/97, p.A1)
1959 Researchers in 1998 found the HIV virus of AIDS in a 1959 blood specimen (ZR59) from a Bantu man who died in Leopoldville, Belgian Congo (later Kinshasa, Congo). This became the oldest known case and researchers believed that incidents could go back to the
(SFC, 2/4/98, p.A5)(www.aidsorigins.com/content/view/165/2/)
1960 Jun 23, Patrice Lumumba and the MNC formed the first government, with Lumumba (35) as
Congo's first prime minister and Joseph Kasavubu (1917-1969) as its president.
1960 Jun 30, Independence was granted
to the Congo. A rebel movement freed the Belgian Congo from Belgium. In Zaire (Congo) Patrice Lumumba (1925-1961) became the first post-independence prime minister. He made Joseph Mobutu, a young military officer, his private secretary. Two months after he took power a sub-committee of the US National Security Council authorized the assassination of
(SFC, 5/17/97, p.A14)(SFEM, 5/7/00, p.18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrice_Lumumba)
1960 Jul 11, Katanga province, with the support of Belgian business
interests and troops, broke away from the new Congolese government of Patrice Lumumba, declaring independence under Moise Tshombe leader of the local CONAKAT party.
1960 Jul 16, The 1st UN troops reached Congo to replace Belgian troops.
Aug 25, In Congo demonstrations took place against premier Lumumba.
1960 Sep 5, Congo’s President
Kasavubu fired Premier Lumumba.
1960 Sep 14, A Congo coup led by Col. Mobutu overthrew PM Patrice
1960 Nov 27, Patrice Lumumba fled Leopoldville, Congo.
1960 Dec 1, Patrice Lumumba was caught in the Congo.
1961 Jan 17, Patrice Lumumba (34), the 1st premier Congo, was murdered after 67 days in office. President Eisenhower allegedly approved the assassination of Congo's Patrice Lumumba. The US and Joseph Mobutu were implicated but no conclusive proof has emerged. Sidney Gottlieb (d.1999 at
80), a CIA deputy, carried a deadly bacteria to the Congo that was used to kill Lamumba. In 2000 the Belgium Parliament opened an inquiry into possible government involvement in the killing of Congo’s Premier Patrice Lumumba. This followed allegations in the new book "The Murder of Lumumba" by Ludo De Witte. In 2001 the inquiry found that King Baudouin knew of the plot but did nothing to stop it.
The Katanga government did not announce the death until Feb 13. Moscow charged that UN Sec. Gen. Dag Hammarskjold was involved.
(TMC, 1994, p.1961)(PCh, 1992, p.979)(SFC, 5/17/97, p.A14)(SFC, 5/3/00, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/9/01, p.A1)
1961 Sep 13, Battles took place between UN and Katanga troops in Congo.
1961 Sep 18, Dag
Hammarskjold, Secretary-General of the UN, was killed in a plane crash in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). He was flying to negotiate a cease-fire in the Congo. Hammarskjold was the son of a former Swedish prime minister. In 1953, he was elected to the top UN post and in 1957 was reelected. During his second term, he initiated and directed the United Nation's vigorous role in the Belgian Congo.
Hammarskjold had sent Conor O’Brien (1919-2008), an Irish diplomat, to the Congo where a rebellion was openly being backed by Belgium and secretly by Britain and France. O’Brien ordered in UN troops, but the mission ended in disarray and the UN repudiated the mission. O’Brien recounted his version of the events in his book “To Katanga and Back”
(TMC, 1994, p.1961)(WUD, 1994, p.1684)(AP, 9/18/97)(SSFC, 12/21/08, p.B6)
1961 Nov 11, Congolese soldiers murdered 13 Italian UN
1963 Mobutu, chief of staff of Congo’s army, visited the US White House as a guest of Pres.
(SFC, 9/8/97, p.A8)
1964 Oct 24, Belgian paratroopers liberated 1,000 white hostages in Stanleyville (Kisangani,
1964 Oct 27, Congo rebel leader Christopher Gbenye held 60 Americans and 800 Belgians.
1965 Apr 24, Che Guevara, his second-in-command Victor Dreke, and twelve of the Cuban expeditionaries arrived in the Congo. Guevara, Cuba’s head of the national bank and minister of industry, left
Cuba to foment revolution in the Congo. He spent most of 1965 and 1966 in Central Africa, helping anti-Mobuto revolutionaries in the Republic of Congo. This turned out to be a disaster and he went to Bolivia.
1965 Nov 24, Congo had a military coup under Gen. Mobutu and Pres. Kasavubu was overthrown. Larry Devlin, US CIA station chief, had encouraged Mobutu to launch the coup. In 2007 Devlin authored “Chief of Station, Congo: Fighting the Cold War in a Hot
(www.briefbio.com/pages/2974/Seko-Mobutu-Sese.html)(Econ, 2/24/07, p.95)
1965 Laurent-Desiree Kabila, Marxist revolutionary, fought with Ernesto "Che" Guevara
on behalf of Congo’s People’s Revolutionary Party.
(WSJ, 11/8/96, p.A10)
1965 In Zaire (later Congo) Army Chief-of-Staff Mobutu Sese Seko, a member of the Gbandi
tribe, seized power in a military coup and began his dictatorship. His name meant “the cock who goes from homestead to homestead leaving no hen uncovered.”
(SFC, 10/28/96, p.A8)(SFC, 12/18/96, p.C2)(SFEC, 4/6/97, p.A16)(Econ, 12/18/04, p.61)
1967 Congo’s Pres. Mobutu presided over the adoption of a new constitution that vested all powers in the presidency and his political party.
(SFC, 5/17/97, p.A14)
1967 The Organization of African Unity decided set up a regional nuclear research center in Kinshasa, Congo, and the US helped build a Triga Mark II research reactor made be General Atomic.
1968 Oct 9, Pierre Mulele, Congolese rebel leader, was publicly tortured and executed in the Congo [some sources give October 3].
1969 Mahele Lieko Bokoungo, a member of Congo’s Mbuza tribe, became Mobutu’s chief body guard.
1971 Oct 27, The Democratic Republic of Congo was renamed Zaire.
1972 Mar, In Zaire (CongoDRC) the Trico II nuclear research reactor went on line.
1972 In Zaire (later Congo DRC) Joseph-Desire Mobutu (1930-1997) changed his name to Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa za Banga, which meant "the all-powerful warrior who, because of his
inflexible will to win, will go from conquest to conquest leaving fire in his wake.
1972 Zaire’s Mobutu Sese Seko
passed a law granting Tutsis citizenship. He revoked it in 1981.
(Econ, 8/21/04, p.39)
1974 Oct 30, Muhammad Ali and George Foreman held their "Rumble In the Jungle"
boxing match in Zaire. Ali knocked out George Foreman in the eighth round of a 15-round bout in Kinshasa, Zaire, to regain his world heavyweight title, that was taken from him for refusing military service.
(SFC, 2/10/97, p.E3)(WSJ, 2/14/97, p.A12)(AP, 10/30/97)
1975 Nov 20, An interim report by the US Senate’s Church Committee said that the CIA failed to assassinated Fidel Castro at least 8 times. The report also covered CIA activity in Chile, the Congo, the Dominican Republic and elsewhere.
(WSJ, 8/5/06, p.A9)(http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Church_Committee)
1976 In Zaire (later Congo) the Ebola virus was discovered and named after a river there. The virus can stop blood from clotting causing
patients to bleed. An outbreak of the Ebola virus killed 280 people, most of whom were infected by reused syringes and needles.
(SFC, 10/27/98, p.A5)
1977 Jan 10,
The crater walls of Congo’s Nyiragongo volcano fractured, and a lava lake drained in less than an hour. The lava flowed down the flanks of the volcano at speeds of up to 60 miles per hour on the upper slopes, overwhelming villages and killing at least 70 people.
1977 Rebel forces from Angola swept into Zaire and captured much of the copper-rich Shaba province. Zaire regained control after 3 months with American and other foreign
(SFC, 11/11/96, p.A11)(SFC, 5/17/97, p.A14)
1978 In Zaire another coup attempt was begun in the Shaba province. American and other foreign support helped
Mobutu maintain control.
(SFC, 5/17/97, p.A14)
1978 In Zaire (later Congo) there was a separatist uprising in the southern Katanga province and at least 140
foreigners were massacred at the Kolwezi copper mine. Hundreds of Katangans also died.
(WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A1)
1980 May 2, Pope John Paul II arrived Kinshasa for the
centennial of Catholicism in Zaire and the beginning of his African tour.
(SFC, 7/18/97, p.A10)(http://eightiesclub.tripod.com/id99.htm)
1980 May 4, Nine people were
killed at Kinshasa, Zaire (later the Democratic Republic of Congo) during a stampede to attend mass given by Pope John Paul II.
During the 1980s Congo’s Mobutu Sese Seko imported 5,000 sheep from Venezuela for one his ranches by using a government owned DC-8 to make 32 round trips between Caracas and Zaire.
(SFC, 9/8/97, p.A8)(http://tinyurl.com/2kg3bl)
1981 Zairean citizenship was withdrawn from the Banyamulenge Tutsis of eastern Zaire.
(WSJ, 11/8/96, p.A10)
1985 Mahele Lieko Bokoungo fought back Congo’s Laurent Kabila, who had set up a rebel republic on the shores of Lake Tanganyika near Moba. The rebels under Kabila were mainly Tutsis and used militaristic and autocratic methods.
(SFC, 12/20/96, p.B5)(SFC,
1989 Jan 12, Idi Amin was expelled from Zaire (later CongoDRC) and forced to return to Saudi Arabia.
1990 Mahele Lieko Bokoungo led Zairean soldiers to back up the Hutu regime of Pres. Juvenal Habyarimana of Rwanda.
1991 Etienne Tshisekedi was installed as Congo’s prime minister after Mobutu was forced by foreign and domestic pressure to allow multiparty politics and accept a government formed by the
(SFEC, 4/6/97, p.A16)
1991 Mahele Lieko Bokoungo became chief of staff of Congo’s armed forces.
(SFC, 12/20/96, p.B5)
1991 Kabangu Kalunga, an intelligence office under Congo’s Mobutu, was sent to fight Tutsi-led rebels in Rwanda.
(SFC, 10/14/98, p.C2)
1991 Riots by Congo’s unpaid soldiers killed hundreds of people and destroyed many businesses.
(SFC, 3/18/97, p.A10)(WSJ, 5/30/97,
1991 Thomas Kanza, head of a coffee trading operation, was convicted in Tennessee of fraud. The operation had $57,000 of investor’s money missing. In 1997 he was selected by Laurent Kabila as Congo’s first minister of int’l.
(WSJ, 2/9/98, p.A1)
1993 Congo’s Pres. Mobutu removed Etienne Tshisekedi, the first Zairean to graduate from law school, from office as prime
(SFC, 3/21/97, p.A19)
1993 Ethnic cleansing occurred in Congo’s Kasai Province.
(WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A22)
1993 In Congo Mahele Lieko Bokoungo put down army-led looting in Kinshasa when he gave orders for loyal troops to fire on looters.
(SFC, 12/20/96, p.B5)
1993 In Congo riots killed hundreds of people and destroyed many businesses.
1994 Apr-1994 Aug, The Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF) under Paul Kagame killed some 25-45,000 people during this period. They then pursued the genocidaires into Zaire where they killed some 200,000 more and in the process overthrew the
government of Zaire.
(Econ, 3/27/04, p.26)
1994 Apr-1994 Aug, Hutus slaughtered more than 500,000 people, mostly Tutsis, in Rwanda and fled to refugee camps in
(SFC, 10/22/96, p.B1)
1994 Jul 14, A tidal wave of Hutu refugees from Rwanda's civil war flooded across the border into Zaire, swamping relief organizations.
1994 Jul 17, Hutus left Rwanda for refugee camps in Zaire.
1994 Jul 18, In Rwanda the Tutsi rebel movement (RPF) under Tutsi rebel leader Paul Kagame took power. It promised to rebuild the courts and execute the guilty for the slaughter of an estimated 500-800 thousand Tutsis. Two
million refugees, mostly Hutus, fled to refugee camps in Zaire and Tanzania. Kagame studied at the US Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth in 1990. In 2005 Jean Hatzfeld, French journalist, authored “Machete Season: The Killers in Rwanda Speak.”
(SFC, 417/96, p.A-9)(SFC, 8/9/96, p.A10)(SFC,
10/22/96, p.B1)(WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A16)(AP, 7/18/99)(SSFC, 6/26/05, p.C3)
1994 Rene Ngongo of Congo DRC founded the OCEAN environmental group, exposing the impact of deforestation and monitoring the plunder of minerals by warring factions during
Congo's 1996-2002 civil wars.
1995 Apr, The parliament passed a resolution that prevented refugees from Rwanda and Burundi from obtaining Zairean
(WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A16)
1995 May 9, Kinshasa, capital of Zaire, was placed under quarantine after an outbreak of the Ebola
1995 Jul, The Ebola virus killed 244 people in Kikwit, Zaire.
12/11/95, p.A-1)(SFC, 5/5/99, p.A11)
1995 Sep, In Congo government harassment of the Banyamulenge Tutsis began with an inventory of property, evictions and expulsions.
(WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A16)
1995 Nov, Congo’s government told Jimmy Carter (visiting prior to a Cairo summit) that it may relax its end of year deadline for one million Rwandan refugees to leave or be thrown
(WSJ, 11/22/95, p.A-1)
1995 Nov, Zairean Tutsis in Masis were targeted by authorities, the army and the locals. They were forced to flee and many were
(WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A16)
1995 Dec, 26 At least 50 people were killed in Goma, Congo, in rioting between two army units guarding Rwandan refugees. Many
civilians were killed.
(WSJ, 12/27/95, p.A-1)
1996 Jan 8, A Russian-made Antonov-32 skidded into a crowded marketplace shortly after take-off in Kinshasa in Zaire
and killed at least 350 people. The twin-turboprop was owned by African Air and was overweight when it took off. At least 470 people were injured.
(WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-1) (SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-14)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)
1996 May 17, Hutu gunmen attacked 800 Zairian Tutsis who had taken refuge in a church. They killed at least 12 and left 130 missing. Hutu refugees from Rwanda have been conducting a campaign to drive out other ethnic groups in eastern Zaire.
1996 May 29, Hundreds of Tutsis crossed into Rwanda fleeing the fighting in Zaire. Thousands of displaced Tutsis are behind them in the Masisi and Rutshuru regions of northeastern
(SFC, 5/30/96, p.A9)
1996 Sep 4, In the Congo authorities found 200 slaughtered elephants in a marsh of the National Park of
(SFC, 9/5/96, p.A10)
1996 Oct 7, Ethnic Tutsi rebels slaughtered 34 patients in eastern Zaire. The government has given the 200,000 Tutsis a week to leave
Zaire. The Tutsi Banyamulenge arrived into Zaire some 200 years ago.
(SFC, 10/10/96, p.A14)(SFC, 10/12/96, p.A11)
1996 Oct 10, Armed men killed 50-60 civilians in
eastern Zaire in the village of Bambu in the Masisi region. The Banyamulenge immigrated to eastern Zaire from Rwanda decades ago.
(SFC, 10/12/96, p.A11)
18, Fighting erupted between Zairean soldiers and the rebel alliance under Kabila.
(SFC, 12/20/96, p.B5)
1996 Oct 20, Some 300 Congolese Hutu peasants were
bludgeoned to death by Rwandan troops in Musekera. Details were not made public until 2010 by the local Observation Center for Human Rights and Social Assistance.
Oct 21, About 225,000 Hutu refugees fled camps in eastern Zaire. The governor of the area has given the 300,000 Banyamulenge Tutsis as week to leave. Zaire has camps holding about 1.5 million Hutu refugees, most of them from Rwanda.
1996 Oct 25, The UN announced an emergency food airlift to eastern Zaire to help 300,000 Hutu refugees fleeing violence.
1996 Oct 28, In Congo some 420,000 refugees were crowded into the Mugunga Camp as fighting expanded.
1996 Oct 30, Rwandan commandos crossed into eastern Zaire to aid the Tutsi rebels there. Zaire had about 50,000 troops, but they were poorly trained, poorly armed, poorly led and notoriously poorly disciplined. Rwanda had about 54,000
soldiers in a well-disciplined army.
(SFC, 10/31/96, p.A10)
1996 Oct 30, The Vatican said eastern Zaire’s Archbishop was killed, the 2nd in 2
(WSJ, 10/31/96, p.A1)
1996 Nov 1, Tutsi rebels and Rwandan forces besieged Goma, Congo, in a battle for control of the regional capital and its airport. In
Kinshasha some 10,000 university students demanded war with Rwanda and Burundi.
(SFC, 11/2/96, p.A8)
1996 Nov 5, Zairians in Kinshasa defied a ban on demonstrations
and called for the government to resign.
(WSJ, 11/6/96, p.A1)
1996 Nov 7, Laurent-Desiree Kabila, Marxist revolutionary, re-emerged as the "coordinator" of the
Alliance of Democratic Forces of Congo-Zaire (AFDL).
(WSJ, 11/8/96, p.A10)
1996 Nov 8, Congo’s Pres. Mobutu Sese Seko was recuperating from prostate cancer surgery
at the Villa del Mare on the French Mediterranean. Recent Swiss reports put his holdings in Swiss banks at $4 billion.
(SFC, 11/9/96, p.A12)
1996 Nov 14, Armed men
surrounded the Mugunga refugee camp in eastern Zaire and began shooting indiscriminately at its inhabitants as they huddled for safety or tried to flee. Hundreds of men, women and children died over a three-day period, according to eyewitnesses and forensic evidence later gathered from mass graves.
1996 Nov 18, Rwandan troops descended on the Chimanga refugee camp in eastern Zaire (later CongoDRC) and opened fire killing some 500 refugees.
1996 Nov 21, The Banyarwanda means "people of Rwanda" and includes the Banyamylenge and anyone else in eastern Zaire whose origins were in Rwanda. The Bangilima and the Mai-Mai are Zairean militias
with a strong background in witchcraft. The Interahamwe are former Rwandan Hutu militiamen who played a role in the 1994 genocide.
(SFC, 11/21/96, p.C6)
1996 Nov 21,
Congo’s operating budget for this year was $350 million and the population was 45 mil.
(WSJ, 11/21/96, p.A19)
1996 Nov 29, A Canadian-led int’l. force won approval
to provide humanitarian aid. The force would be based in Uganda.
(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A12)
1996 Nov 30, In Zaire a volcano erupted near the Rwanda-Uganda
(SFC, 12/2/96, p.A12)
1996 Dec 4, In Zaire government troops went on a rampage of looting and raping in Kinsangani. Rebels announced the capture of Kindu 250
miles south of Kinsangani.
(SFC, 12/5/96, p.C2)
1996 Dec 8, Rebels surrounded Bunia, the last government held town in eastern Zaire. Government troops were looting
and targeting Greek merchants and members of the Nande ethnic group.
(SFC, 12/9/96, p.A18)
1996 Dec 17, In Zaire Mobutu Sese Seko stage a triumphal
(SFC, 12/18/96, p.C2)
1996 Dec 19, In Zaire Gen’l. Mahele Lieko Bokoungo was appointed the new army chief.
(SFC, 12/20/96, p.B5)
1996 Dec 23, In Zaire a crises government was established under Prime Minister Leon Kengo wa Dondo. Gen’l. Likulia Bolongop was named the new defense
(SFC, 12/25/96, p.A10)
1996 Dec-1996 Jan, Hundreds of Hutu refugees were killed by rebels as they headed back home on the road from Hombo to
(SFC, 3/14/97, p.A12)
1996 Rwanda’s Paul Kagame dressed up an invasion of Zaire as an indigenous revolt and installed Laurent Kabila at its helm. Zimbabwe
paid $5 million to help finance the Kabila regime in Congo.
(WSJ, 10/8/98, p.A1)(Econ, 8/21/04, p.38)
1997 Jan 2, In Zaire rebel troops captured Pres. Seko’s 32,000
sq. mile Kilomoto gold mining region and the town of Mangbwalu.
(SFC, 1/3/97, p.A18)
1997 Jan 6, In Zaire at least 100 lawmakers quit Pres. Seko’s parliamentary
alliance to join a new nationalist group. Their goal appeared to be to topple Prime Minister Kengo wa Dondo.
(SFC, 1/7/97, p.A9)
1997 Jan 9, Zaire’s Pres. Seko
returned to France, apparently for cancer treatments.
(SFC, 1/10/96, p.A15)
1997 Jan 24, A Zairean counteroffensive was supported by some 300 foreign mercenaries.
About 400,000 Hutu refugees were trapped near regions of fighting and UN officials raised pleas for a truce to allow the refugees to move.
(SFC, 1/25/97, p.A8)
Feb 15, In Zaire Rwandan soldiers killed about 200 refugees near the town of Kigulube.
1997 Feb 18, The UN endorsed a 5-point peace plan for
(SFC, 2/19/96, p.A10)
1997 Mar 14, In Zaire after a 3 week siege of Kisangani, rebels attacked the city, the 3rd largest in the
(SFC, 3/15/97, p.A19)
1997 Mar 15, In Zaire rebel soldiers occupied Kisangani.
(SFC, 3/17/97, p.A8)
1997 Mar 21, Zaire’s Pres. Mobutu returned to Kinshasa.
(SFC, 3/21/97, p.A19)
1997 Mar 24, In Zaire Mobutu accepted the parliamentary vote of censure of prime minister Kengo wa Dondo.
(SFC, 3/25/97, p.A12)
1997 Apr 1, In Zaire Etienne Tshisekedi was appointed prime minister. The next day he annulled the constitution, dissolved parliament and offered 6 Cabinet seats to the rebels. He planned a new transitional parliament and new multiparty
(SFC, 4/4/97, p.A16)
1997 Apr 4, Rebel forces captured Mbuji-Mayi, capital of Eastern Kasai province and home of Zaire’s diamond industry. Departing
government troops looted the city and 100 people were killed in clashes between the retreating soldiers and locals.
(SFC, 4/5/97, p.A8)
1997 Apr 5, In Zaire rebels
agreed to allow a UN airlift of some 80,000 Rwandan refugees back to their homeland.
(SFEC, 4/6/97, p.A17)
1997 Apr 7, Deserting government soldiers of Zaire’s 21st
Brigade donned white scarves and declared themselves on the side of the rebels as the rebels approached Lubumbashi, the capital of the copper and cobalt rich Shaba province.
(SFC, 4/8/97, p.A8)
1997 Apr 9, In Zaire Mobuto dismissed prime minister Etienne Tshisekedo and installed a military commander as prime minister.
(SFC, 4/10/97, p.A1)
1997 Apr 24, In Zaire rebels were accused of having killed many refugees and burying them in a mass grave. Large amounts of airlift supplies intended to return Rwandan refugees were seized by rebels.
1997 Apr 25, Zaire’s government claimed that Angolan troops had invaded near Cabinda. Angola was supporting Kabila’s rebels.
1997 May 2, The Tenke Mining Corp. of Vancouver, Canada, signed a $250 million contract with the Zaire’s rebels to develop copper and cobalt deposits.
1997 May 4, More than 100 Rwandan refugees died on an overcrowded train after rebel troops packed them aboard for delivery to an airstrip for flights to Rwanda. Peace talks onboard the South African naval vessel Outeniqua
between Zaire’s Pres. Mobutu and Laurent Kabila failed to produce anticipated results.
(WSJ, 5/5/97, p.A1)
1997 May 5, The rebels nationalized the Sizarail rail
system, a consortium that belonged to South African, Belgian and Zairean interests.
(WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A18)
1997 May 6, Pres. Mobutu Sese Seko left Zaire for a 3-day
visit to Gabon. He was not expected to return.
(SFC, 5/7/97, p.C2)
1997 May 8, In Zaire rebels were meeting increased resistance from French mercenaries and Angolan
UNITA forces. A shortage of cash was also hindering their advance on Kinshasa.
(WSJ, 5/9/97, p.A1)
1997 May 10, In Zaire Pres. Mobutu returned to Kinshasa from
(SFEC, 5/11/97, p.A7)
1997 May 13, In Zaire rebel troops reached Wendji and Mbandaka and proceeded to kill Hutu refugees. Estimates of deaths varied from
(WSJ, 6/6/97, p.A11)(SFC, 9/23/97, p.A11)
1997 May 15, In mid May Kabila’s soldiers were reported to have killed as many as 275 people in Uvira on Lake
(SFC, 7/26/97, p.A14)
1997 May 16, Pres. Mobutu left Zaire.
1997 May 17, In Zaire rebel forces entered Kinshasa and Laurent Kabila declared himself president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Kabila requested Swiss authorities to block Mobuto Sese Seko’s
access to his Swiss villa. The house was seized and searched and documents were found that related to his wealth. The seizure was declared legal Aug 7.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 8/8/97, p.E3)(AP, 5/17/98)
1997 May 29, In Congo Kabila took a presidential oath of office and presented a timeline for future elections.
(SFC, 5/30/97, p.A16)
1997 Jun 26, In Congo soldiers seized Etienne Tshisekedi after he gave a speech accusing the Kabila regime of establishing a new dictatorship.
(WSJ, 6/27/97, p.A1)
1997 Jun 27, In Congo Etienne Tshisekedi was released.
(WSJ, 6/30/97, p.A1)
1997 Jul 25, In Congo
soldiers fired into a crowd of protestors in Kinshasa and killed at least 3 people. The protest was against Kabila’s ban on political activity.
(SFC, 7/26/97, p.A14)
Aug 7, In Switzerland the measures to freeze the assets of deposed Zairean Pres. Mobuto Sese Seko were declared legal.
(SFC, 8/8/97, p.E3)
Aug 14, Congo announced a $2.5 billion project to build roads and that it would seek EU financing.
(WSJ, 8/14/97, p.A1)
Sep 7, Mobuto Sese Seko (66), former dictator of Zaire, later Congo, died of prostate cancer in exile in Rabat, Morocco. Mobutu began his career in the Belgian Congolese army, rising to the highest rank available to Africans, sergeant-major. However, after leaving the army in 1956, he began to be involved with the independence movement, representing the nationalists at some negotiations. Five
years after independence, in 1965, Mobutu, then commander in chief of the army, exploited a power struggle in the young government by assuming the presidency in a coup. Mobutu managed to stay in power over the following decades despite uprisings, coup attempts and Angola-backed rebels. In the early 1970s, he began to Africanize names in the country, most notably changing the name of the country
from the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the Republic of Zaire and his own name from Joseph-Désiré Mobutu to Mobutu Sese Seko Koko Ngbendu Wa Za Banga (which means "The all-powerful warrior who, because of his endurance and inflexible will to win, will go from conquest to conquest, leaving fire in his wake"). The end of the Cold War meant that, in 1991, Mobutu
could no longer hold the same dictatorial control he had held over the country nor keep his party, the MPR, as the only legal political entity. With the beginnings of a multiparty system and a lack of Western finance, Mobutu released control of the government to the rebel leader Laurent Kabila in May 1997. Kabila‘s rebels—backed by Rwanda and Uganda—had been gaining ground over the past seven
months. Mobutu died in exile several months later. In 2001 Michela Wrong authored ""In the Footsteps of Mr. Kurtz: Living on the Brink of Disaster in Mobutu’s Congo."
(SFC, 9/8/97, p.A8)(AP, 9/7/98)(HNQ, 2/15/01)(WSJ, 4/27/01, p.W10)
1997 Sep 12, In southeast Congo a plane crashed enroute to a religious meeting. All 20 aboard were killed.
(SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A24)
1997 Oct 1, The UN withdrew its human rights investigators from Congo pending a clarification by the Kabila government on its policy.
(SFC, 10/2/97, p.A12)
1997 Oct 1, Pres. Kabila ordered troops into the Congo Republic after 2 days of cross border shelling that killed as many as 31 in Kinshasa.
(WSJ, 10/2/97, p.A1)
1997 Oct 3, UN officials reported that Congo has ordered int’l. refugee agencies to leave part of eastern Congo and was expelling Rwandans who have fled there to escape fighting in Rwanda.
1997 Oct 25, Congo’s Pres. Kabila and the US ambassador to the UN announced an agreement for a UN investigation into alleged massacres by Kabila’s army.
1997 Nov 25, It was reported that police in Congo flogged 10 journalists for attending a news conference by politician Z’Ahidi Arthur Ngoma. Ngoma and five supporters were arrested after the
1997 Nov 28, In Congo rival factions of the army clashed and up to 20 people were killed in Kinshasa at the offices of Pres.
(SFC, 11/29/97, p.A14)
1997 Nov 30, In the Congo the government accused foreign broadcaster of tarnishing its image and shut down all local FM transmissions
of international radio stations.
(SFC, 12/1/97, p.A13)
1997 In Congo Laurent Kabila appointed his son, Joseph Kabila, as head of the
(SFC, 1/18/01, p.A14)
1998 Jan 20, Joseph Olengankoy, Congo opposition leader, was arrested. He had refused to meet with Pres. Kabila to discuss his
(SFC, 1/21/98, p.C12)
1998 Feb 20, In Congo troops of Pres. Kabila were sent to quell a rebellion by Mai-Mai tribal warriors. A human rights group,
Azadho, later charged the troops in a massacre of over 300 civilians in Butembo.
(SFC, 3/7/98, p.A10)
1998 Apr, The Congo government banned the African Association
for Defense of Human Rights.
(SFC, 10/2/98, p.B7)
1998 May 11, A new study was reported that James Kabari, Pres. Kabila’s chief of staff, supervised a special
Rwandan military unit that killed 2,000 Hutus in 1997 in the Congolese town of Mbandaka with Kabila’s knowledge.
(SFC, 5/11/98, p.A8)
1998 May 19, A Congo military
court sentenced Masasu Nindanga and Joseph Olenghankoy, opponents of Pres. Kabila, to jail terms of 20 and 15 years with no right of appeal.
(SFC, 5/20/98, p.C2)
Jul 1, Etienne Tshisekedi, Congo opposition leader, was freed from internal exile and returned to the capital.
(SFC, 7/2/98, p.C2)
Aug 3, In Congo rebellious troops seized control of several cities. Sylvain Mbuchi, claimed to be the rebel leader and announced that the military had decided to remove Kabila from power. Kabila last week ordered Rwandan Tutsi troops to leave Congo.
(SFC, 8/4/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 8/4/98,
1998 Aug 5, In Congo Arthur Z’Ahidy [Zaidy] Ngoma, a Kinshasa politician, was identified as the leader of the rebels opposed to Kabila.
p.A12)(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.A1)
1998 Aug 6, Rebels in Congo seized control of Moanda, an important oil depot.
1998 Aug 7, Congo’s Pres. Kabila left Kinshasa for Lubumbashi, his former rebel base, to meet with a visiting South African delegation.
1998 Aug 10, Congo claimed to have recaptured the Atlantic ports near the mouth of the Congo River that were taken by Tutsi rebels.
1998 Aug 12, Rwanda protested a Congo crackdown on ethnic Tutsis and charged that Kabila was arming Rwandan Hutus to put down a Tutsi-led revolt along the border.
(WSJ, 8/13/98, p.A1)
1998 Aug 13, In Congo rebels seized the Inga hydroelectric dam and cut off power to Kinshasa. Kabila fired his army chief in response.
(WSJ, 8/14/98, p.A1)(SFC, 8/17/98, p.A10)
1998 Aug 14, In Congo Bizima Karaha, a minister who had defected to the rebels, said that the port of Matadi was captured. A rebel army was marching toward Kinshasa from
the western coastline.
(SFC, 8/15/98, p.A10)
1998 Aug 15, In Congo the US Embassy shut its doors as rebels approached Kinshasa. Pres. Kabila and his ministers
retired to Lubumbashi.
(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A12)
1998 Aug 16, Pres. Kabila flew to Angola to meet with Pres. dos Santos and request direct support against rebels. Air
cargo support was being provided as well as several thousand Congolese exiles known as the Katangese Gendarmes.
(SFC, 8/17/98, p.A10)
1998 Aug 21, Zimbabwe sent 600
troops to support Pres. Kabila in the Congo. Rwanda called for a cease fire and warned that it would intervene if the troops from Zimbabwe were not withdrawn.
(SFC, 8/22/98, p.A8)
Aug 23, In Congo rebels appeared to have seized Kisangani while government soldiers recaptured Kitona, a military base near the coast. Troops from Zimbabwe fought rebels advancing on Kinshasa. The capture of Kisangani effectively splitting Congo and cut off commerce with government-held territory and Kinshasa, the capital 900 miles
(SFC, 8/24/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 8/24/98, p.A1)(AP, 8/18/03)
1998 Aug 24, Some 2,000 Angolan troops captured a coastal naval base and oil port and moved up the
Congo River to battle the rebels.
(SFC, 8/25/98, p.A7)
1998 Aug 25, Pres. Kabila declared that this day all Congolese should "take up arms, even traditional weapons
-bows and arrows, spears and other things... to crush the enemy because otherwise we are going to become the slaves of these...Tutsi people."
(SFC, 10/2/98, p.B7)
Aug 26, In Congo Rwandan-backed rebels attempted an assault on Kinshasa but were held off by government soldiers and troops from Zimbabwe and Namibia.
(SFC, 8/27/98, p.A10)
1998 Aug 27, In Congo Unita forces from Angola joined the rebels, while forces from Namibia fought for Kabila’s regime.
(WSJ, 8/28/98, p.A1)
1998 Aug 31, Congo’s Kabila declared victory over the Tutsi-led rebels near Kinshasa and in the southwest.
(WSJ, 9/2/98, p.A1)
Sep 7, A summit in Zimbabwe was scheduled to create conditions for a cease-fire in Congo. A half dozen nations gathered to fashion a draft initiative for peace.
(SFEC, 9/6/98, p.A11)(SFC, 9/8/98, p.A8)
1998 Sep 8, The Congo rebel delegation stormed out of the peace talks in Zimbabwe.
(SFC, 9/9/98, p.A9)
1998 Sep 15, In Congo Pres. Kabila restored four generals from late dictator Mobutu’s regime. Government forces were said to be moving on Goma.
(WSJ, 9/16/98, p.A1)
1998 Oct 5, In Congo rebels under Arthur Mulunda said they were within 12 miles of Kindu. The rebels were backed by troops and equipment from Rwanda and Uganda.
(SFC, 10/6/98, p.A12)
1998 Oct 6, Rebel commander Richard Mondo told reporters that artillery rounds had been fired into Kindu and that advance units had crossed the Lualaba River. At least 18 government soldiers were reported killed.
(SFC, 10/7/98, p.A12)
1998 Oct 10, In Congo Tutsi rebels shot down a Boeing 727 Lignes Aeriennes Congolaises airliner following takeoff from Kindu. Airline officials said there were 38 passengers, mostly women and children. Rebels claimed the
passengers were soldiers. 41 people were killed.
(SFEC, 10/11/98, p.A15)(AP, 6/11/13)
1998 Oct 11, Kindu, Congo, fell to the rebels supported by Rwanda and
(SFC, 10/14/98, p.C2)
1998 Oct 14, In Zimbabwe Pres. Robert Mugabe that he will meet with Kabila to discuss support against the rebels in
(SFC, 10/15/98, p.A15)
1998 Oct 16, It was reported that Bobi Ladawa Mobutu, wife of Mobutu Sese Seko, and son, Nazanga, had established a Mobutu Family
Foundation to carry out charitable programs in the US and Africa for young Africans. The former dictator was believed to have taken $10 billion from the Congo.
(SFC, 10/16/98, p.A14)
Oct 19, In Congo 16 Zimbabwean soldiers were captured by the rebels.
(SFC, 10/21/98, p.C2)
1998 Oct 31, It was reported that a
lightning bolt killed all 11 members of a Congolese soccer team in eastern Kasai province.
(SFC, 10/31/98, p.A8)
1998 Oct, Congo’s new constitution was scheduled to
(SFC, 5/30/97, p.A15)
1998 Nov 3, In Congo troops opened fire at a soccer match in Kinshasa and 4 people were
(WSJ, 11/4/98, p.A1)
1998 Nov 16, In Congo rebels said that they captured the port of Moba on Lake Tanganyika. UN officials said that over 65,000 people had
been displaced since Aug 2.
(SFC, 11/17/98, p.B3)
1998 Nov 20, It was reported that Kabila was signing away large stakes in Congo’s biggest enterprises to
businessmen from Zimbabwe, Angola and Namibia in return for support against rebels backed by Uganda and Rwanda.
(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.A1)
1998 Nov 23, Congo reported
that warplanes of its Zimbabwe allies bombed and sank 6 boatloads of rebels on lake Tanganyika killing hundreds.
(WSJ, 11/24/98, p.A1)
1998 Nov 28, Countries
fighting in Congo agreed to a cease-fire during an African summit in Paris. The deal was brokered by UN Sec. Gen’l. Kofi Annan. Rebel leaders were not present.
(SFEC, 11/29/98, p.A21)
Dec 4, The former governor of Bas-Congo province, Fuko Unzola, was sentenced to 15 years in jail for treason, i.e. collaborating with Tutsi-led rebels.
(SFC, 12/5/98, p.A14)
1998 Dec 7, Congolese rebels dismissed the tentative truce worked out in Paris by UN Sec. Gen’l. Kofi Annan.
(SFC, 12/8/98, p.B5)
Dec 15, Congo rebels claimed to have killed 47 Zimbabwean troops fighting for Kabila at Kabala.
(WSJ, 12/16/98, p.A1)
1998 Dec 17-1998
Dec 18, A Congo cease-fire was to be signed before a meeting of the Organization of African Unity.
(SFEC, 11/29/98, p.A21)
1998 Dec, A referendum on Congo’s new
constitution was scheduled.
(SFC, 5/30/97, p.A16)
1998 The Lusaka Treaty failed to resolve squabbles and ended with a resumption of war in
(WSJ, 5/31/00, p.A26)
1998 Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe, chairman of the African body “Organ on Politics, Defence and Security,” joined with Namibia and Angola
in a war of plunder in Congo.
(Econ, 3/13/04, p.48)
1998 Dec 30-1999 Jan 1, Some 500 people were massacred in eastern Congo during the 3 day New Year holiday. The
killings were by soldiers aligned with rebels led by Tutsi, but the victims were not Hutu.
(SFC, 1/6/99, p.A7)
1998-2004 Congo strife over this period killed 3.8 million people, half of them
children, mostly due to disease and famine.
(WSJ, 12/10/04, p.A1)
1999 Jan 1, Congo rebels massacred at least 500 civilians over the last 3 days. Six Red Cross
workers were among the dead.
(WSJ, 1/6/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.A1)
1999 Jan 6, Congo rebel leader Ernest Wamba dia Wamba said his forces killed about 400 Burundi
Hutu rebels fighting with the Congolese government troops and promised to investigate the alleged New Year murder of 500 civilians.
(SFC, 1/7/99, p.A10)
1999 Jan 22,
In eastern Congo government and rebel authorities accepted UN care for hundreds of thousands displaced by war.
(SFC, 1/23/99, p.A11)
1999 Jan-1999 Jul, In Congo
soldier’s under Pres. Kabila fled advancing rebel troops and killed numerous inhabitants in their path in the Equateur region. An estimated 300-900 people were killed and graves began to be uncovered in 2000.
(SFC, 4/15/00, p.A15)
1999 Mar 3, The Ugandan army killed 15 of the Rwanda Hutu rebels who butchered 8 foreign tourists Mar 1. Another 100 rebels escaped into the bush inside the Republic of the Congo.
1999 Mar 4, Congo rebels who served under Mobutu Sese Seko took the town of Bolobo, upstream from Kinshasa.
1999 Mar 14, In southeastern Congo rebels reportedly killed over 100 villagers in retaliation for an attack by pro-government militia. Moise Nyarugabo, head of the rebel Congolese Democratic Coalition said his forces killed at least 150
Zimbabwean soldiers allied to Kabila at Kabinda. Zimbabwe denied the report.
(SFC, 3/15/99, p.A9)(SFC, 3/17/99, p.C3)
1999 Mar 22, In Congo Mai Mai warriors hired by
Rwanda were reported to have killed 100 people. Rwanda denied the report.
(WSJ, 3/24/99, p.A1)
1999 Mar 24, In Congo a massacre of 250 people in the Kivu region was
reported. The slayings by Rwandan troops appeared to be in retaliation for earlier attacks by Congolese Mai Mai tribesmen.
(SFC, 3/25/99, p.A10)
1999 Apr 18, Pres.
Kabila and Ugandan Pres. Museweni signed a cease-fire agreement that was mediated by Libyan leader Moammar Khadafy. Rwanda and Congolese rebels rejected the deal.
(SFC, 5/29/99, p.A11)
Apr 19, Kabila in 1997 set this date for presidential and legislative elections.
(SFC, 5/30/97, p.A15)
1999 Apr 28, In eastern Congo
Gov. Kanyamuhanga Gafunzi ordered 100,000 Rwandan refugees in Kivu province to go home within 15 days for supporting Hutu rebels.
(SFC, 4/29/99, p.D8)
1999 May 5, It
was reported that over 63 people had died from an unknown disease that appeared to be a type of hemorrhagic fever. Most of the dead were gold miners and died within 6 days of becoming ill. The disease was caused by the Marburg virus.
(SFC, 5/5/99, p.A11)(SFC, 5/7/99, p.D2)
1999 May 11, In Congo a government plane bombed rebel strongholds at Goma and Uvira and at least 28 people were killed according to Gen'l. Celestin Ilunga.
1999 May 17, Ernest Wamba dia Wamba was ousted as the rebel leader of the Congolese Democratic Coalition.
(SFC, 5/18/99, p.C12)(SFC, 8/16/99,
1999 May 19, In Congo the rebel Congolese Democratic Coalition named Emile Ilunga as their new leader.
1999 May 28, Rwanda declared a unilateral cease-fire in Congo where it was backing rebels to oust Pres. Kabila.
(SFC, 5/29/99, p.A11)
1999 Jun, Ernest Wamba dia Wamba, head of the Rally for Congolese Democracy, moved his headquarters from Kisangani to Bunia. He declared a new province called Kibali-Ituri and appointed a Hema tribesperson as governor. This ignited a new
round of fighting between the cattle-raising Hema and agrarian Lendu tribes.
(SFC, 2/9/00, p.A13)
1999 Jul 1, In Congo fighting intensified as rebels advanced on key
diamond areas near Kabinda and Miba.
(SFC, 7/2/99, p.A18)
1999 Jul 2, The Congo government and rebel officials said they had reached an accord to end the 11-month
war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Rebel forces were to be merged with the government army.
(SFC, 7/3/99, p.A10)
1999 Jul 4, In Congo Abdulaiye Yerodia,
the foreign minister, objected to the inclusion of foreign rebels in a joint military commission to verify terms of a cease-fire. Meanwhile The Congolese Liberation Movement, led by Jena-Pierre Bemba, took Gbadolite, 750 miles northeast of Kinshasa.
(SFC, 7/5/99, p.A12)
1999 Jul 10, In Zambia 5 nations involved in the Congo civil war signed a peace accord.
(SFC, 8/2/99, p.A12)
1999 Jul 11, In Congo rebels dismissed the peace agreement signed by 6 countries involved in the war and said the war would continue and get worse.
(SFC, 7/12/99, p.A9)
1999 Aug 1, In Zambia Jean-Pierre Bemba, head of the Congo Liberation Movement, signed the cease-fire accord that representatives of 5 nations involved had signed on July 10. The Congolese Rally for Democracy faction still contested leadership between Ernest Wamba dia Wamba and Emile
(SFC, 8/2/99, p.A12)
1999 Aug 4, In Congo at least 518 people, mostly civilians, were killed when Sudanese planes, at the request of Congo's government,
bombed the rebel-held towns of Makanza and Bogbonga. Sudan denied the charges and Congolese Pres. Kabila denied responsibility.
(SFC, 8/5/99, p.A12)(SFC, 8/7/99, p.A12)
Aug 11, In Congo warring sides agreed to stop fighting until Aug 20 to allow the UN to vaccinate 10 million children against polio.
(WSJ, 8/12/99, p.A1)
Aug 15, Fighting in Kisangani (formerly Stanleyville) extended from the airport to the city center between forces from Uganda and Rwanda. Rebel leader Ernest Wamba dia Wamba was backed by Uganda, while Emile Ilunga was backed by Rwanda.
1999 Aug 17, Rwanda and Uganda agreed to an immediate truce to 4 days of fighting in Kisangani, Congo.
1999 Aug 24, Congo rebel leaders agreed to sign a peace accord.
(WSJ, 8/25/99, p.A1)
1999 Aug 31, Congolese rebels signed a cease-fire in Zambia.
(SFC, 9/1/99, p.A16)
Oct 7, Rwanda reported that army troops and Congolese allies had killed over 200 Rwandan Hutu rebels over a weeklong operation along the border where 4,000 Hutu rebels had been based.
(SFC, 10/9/99, p.A11)
1999 Oct 8, In Congo Pres. Kabila ordered foreign businessmen to put down a $500,000 guarantee by Dec. 21 or leave the country. The order came less than a week after he ordered a crackdown on Congo's illegal foreign exchange market, the shutdown of the main commercial district and the
arrest of currency traders.
(SFC, 10/9/99, p.A11)
1999 Oct 22, The Italian missionary news agency MISNA reported that the bodies of 61 civilians were reported found
near the Congo village of Kashambi.
(SFC, 10/23/99, p.A11)
1999 Nov 8, It was reported that 2 Congo rebel leaders were resuming their war on
(WSJ, 11/8/99, p.A1)
1999 Nov 9, Government forces bombed Nkembe. Rebel spokesman Kien-Kiey Mulumba said he would no longer honor the peace accord after the
government killed 100 civilians in 4 days of fighting.
(SFC, 11/10/99, p.A14)(SFC, 11/12/99, p.D2)
1999 Nov 23, In Congo Mayi-Mayi tribal fighters, armed mostly
with bows and arrows, attacked Ugandan soldiers near Butembo and some 200 fighters were killed including about 100 Mayi-Mayi.
(SFC, 11/25/99, p.D6)
1999 Dec 2, Congo
rebels besieged a large contingent of Zimbabwean troops allied with Kabila and captured a Russian-built transport plane and 120 prisoners.
(SFC, 12/3/99, p.A1)
1999 Dec 2, Congolese rebels lost Bokungu as
Zimbabwean soldiers broke through to save surrounded comrades at Ikela airport.
(SFC, 12/4/99, p.A14)
1999 Dec 31, In Congo Jean-Pierre Bemba said his Congolese
Liberation Movement forces had ambushed and killed 80 government troops at Libanda.
(SFC, 1/1/00, p.D4)
1999 Edward Hooper authored "The River," a detailed
hypothesis for the origin of AIDS in Africa. He suspected that the Wister polio vaccine, which was given to some 300,000 people in the Belgian Congo between 1957-1960, was produced from monkey kidney cells that contained SIV virus.
1999 A local dispute between Hema and Lendu tribes people began over a farm in Djugu. The disputes broadened and led to substantial killings.
(SFC, 1/29/01, p.A14)
1999 A UN peacekeeping force (MONUC) was deployed to Congo, but failed to keep anyone safe. In 2004 the UN Security Council ordered an expansion of forces from 10,000 to
(Econ, 12/4/04, p.45)
2000 Jan 24, Pres. Kabila met with other African presidents at the UN to end the Congo civil war. Kabila demanded that the UN deploy a
peace-keeping force to monitor the truce.
(SFC, 1/25/00, p.A10)
2000 Feb 9, It was reported that video footage was smuggled out to Kenya from the Ituri district of
Congo by the Christoffel Blinden Mission, a Christian charity for the blind. It depicted the escalating tribal slaughter in the area.
(SFC, 2/9/00, p.A1)
24, The UN Security Council approved a proposal to send as many as 5,537 observers and peace-keeping troops to the Congo.
(SFC, 2/25/00, p.A16)
2000 Apr 14, In Congo
several explosions took place at the airport in Kinshasa and a number of people were killed. State radio reported that a short circuit sparked a fire that triggered explosions at an army munitions depot and that a fire spread to a fuel depot. The death toll reached 101 and 216 seriously injured.
p.A13)(SFEC, 4/16/00, p.A21)(SFC, 4/17/00, p.A12)
2000 Apr 19, In southern Congo 6 Rwandan army officers and 4 Russian crew members were killed when their Antonov-8 aircraft crashed on takeoff at
(SFC, 4/21/00, p.A20)(WSJ, 4/21/00, p.A1)
2000 May 4, Congo agreed to cooperate with UN plans for a 5,500 member observer force to monitor the
(SFC, 5/5/00, p.A18)
2000 May 5, In Congo Ugandan and Rwandan troops clashed at Kisangani and at least 10 civilians were killed and 100
(SFC, 5/6/00, p.C1)
2000 May 7, Pres. Kagami announced that Rwanda was prepared to quickly implement a phased withdrawal from
(SFC, 5/8/00, p.A12)
2000 May 8, In Congo the city of Kisangani (formerly Stanleyville) was declared a neutral zone as Rwanda and Uganda agreed to withdraw
their troops from the area and allow UN forces to take over.
(SFC, 5/9/00, p.A12)
2000 May 16, In Congo an immediate pullout from Kisangani of forces from Rwanda and
Uganda was agreed to in a bid to avert a wider war.
(WSJ, 5/17/00, p.A1)
2000 Jun 7, In Congo troops from Uganda and Rwanda fought an artillery duel in Kisangani
that set the city’s cathedral on fire.
(WSJ, 6/8/00, p.A1)
2000 Jun 9, The 22-month civil war averaged some 2,600 deaths every day. The total was estimated at 1.7
(SFC, 6/9/00, p.A20)
2000 Jun 11, In Congo Rwandan troops drove Ugandan forces from Kisangani to end a week of indiscriminate shelling.
(SFC, 6/12/00, p.A13)
2000 Aug 10, Rebels fought government troops near Dongo. Jean-Pierre Bemba, head of the Ugandan backed Congolese Liberation Movement, said his
rebels had killed some 800 government soldiers on riverboats using missiles.
(SFC, 8/12/00, p.A11)
2000 Aug 12, In Congo a Russian-made Antonov crashed on approach
to Tshikapa and 27 people were killed.
(WSJ, 8/14/00, p.A1)
2000 Sep 9, Rebels captured Dongo and forced the retreat of government troops toward Imese. Scores were
killed in a 36-hour battle.
(SFC, 9/11/00, p.13)
2000 Sep 11, In Congo rebels and Ugandan troops killed at least 30 pro-Kabila Mai-Mai fighters at Butembo in the
(SFC, 9/13/00, p.A14)
2000 Nov 5, In Congo at least 20 people were killed in Bunia, before Uganda sent in tanks and troops to protect Ernest Wamba dia
Wamba in a dispute with Mbusa Nyamwisi.
(SFC, 11/8/00, p.B4)
2000 Dec 4, In southern Congo over 10,000 refugees were driven into northern Zambia due to renewed
fighting over the last 12 days.
(SFC, 12/5/00, p.A16)
2000 In CongoDRC Lyn Lusi (d.2012), British born administrator, and her Congolese husband set up a hospital in
Goma to train Congolese doctors. It was destroyed by a volcano in 2002. They rebuilt it and named it HEAL Africa.
(Econ, 3/31/12, p.110)(http://www.opusprize.org/winners/11_lusi.cfm)
2000 Asylum seekers fled to
the Republic of Congo when the rebel Movement for the Liberation of Congo under Jean-Pierre Bemba overtook the Equateur province.
(SFC, 5/28/02, p.E1)
2000 The Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR)
was formed after the Kinshasa-based Hutu command and the Kivu-based Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (ALiR) agreed to merge.
was estimated that Rwanda made $20 million per month mining coltan in Congo DRC. The mineral is used in the manufacture of capacitors for electronic equipment.
2001 Jan 16, In Congo Pres. Kabila was assassinated by one of his bodyguards, Rashidi Kasereka, who was immediately killed. In 2003 a military court sentenced 26 people to death for the assassination.
(SFC, 1/17/01, p.A1)(SFC, 1/24/01, p.A12)(SFC, 1/8/03,
2001 Jan 17, In Congo government ministers named Joseph Kabila, son of Laurent Kabila, as temporary head of state.
2001 Jan 18, The Congo government announced the death of Laurent Kabila.
(SFC, 1/19/01, p.A16)
2001 Jan 19, Fighting between Congo’s Hema and Lendu tribes people left about 118 Hema dead along with 159 Lendu.
(SFC, 1/29/01, p.A12,14)
2001 Feb 2, Congo’s Pres. Joseph Kabila called for the armies of Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi to withdraw and promised that troops from Angola, Namibia and Zimbabwe would leave after stability was restored.
2001 Feb 2, Hutu militiamen backing Joseph Kabila ambushed a bus in rebel-controlled eastern Congo and killed 11 passengers.
(SFC, 2/6/01, p.A10)
2001 Feb 15, The warring parties met and Joseph Kabila agreed to initiate talks with rebel groups. The rebel Movement for the Liberation of Congo agreed to endorse a details withdrawal plan.
2001 Feb 27, Rwanda began pulling back troops from a front-line Congo town.
(WSJ, 2/28/01, p.A1)
2001 Feb 28, In Congo 3,000 troops from Rwanda and 150 from Uganda withdrew. All warring parties were scheduled to make way for an 18-mile buffer zone, to be monitored by the UN, by March 15.
2001 Mar 7, Congo soldiers killed some of the 11 Lebanese nationals detained in the aftermath of the Kabila assassination.
2001 Mar 13, Rebel leader Jean-Pierre Bemba completed his troop withdrawal from the front lines. The Congolese army and allies soon followed.
2001 Mar 29, UN troops from Uruguay began to set up camp on Lake Tanganyika for their mission to help end the Congo civil war.
2001 Apr 15, Rebels backed by Rwanda blocked the deployment of UN peacekeepers in Goma and demanded that the UN first condemn atrocities by Congo.
2001 Apr 26, In northeastern Congo 6 Red Cross workers were killed 30 miles north of Bunia.
2001 May 4, In Goma, Congo, a ferry flipped at a dock on Lake Kivu and at least 19 people died.
2001 May 7, A report by the Int’l. Rescue Committee estimated the death toll in Congo’s 33-month war at 2 ½ million people, mostly due to disease and malnutrition.
(SFC, 5/5/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 5/10/01, p.A1)
2001 Jun 15, The UN voted to keep peacekeepers in Congo for another year.
2001 Aug 20, Congo’s Pres. Kabila met with his main rival leaders for the 1st time to establish a transitional government and end 3 years of war.
2001 Sep 2, Namibia confirmed that it had pulled all its troops from all of Congo except the capital. Uganda said it had pulled 6 of 10 battalions.
(SFC, 9/3/01, p.A10)
2001 Sep 23, Congo rebel leader Adolphe Onusumba acknowledged peace talks with Zimbabwe’s Pres. Mugabe.
2002 Jan 17, The volcano Mount Nyiragongo erupted near Goma, Congo, and rivers of lava destroyed 14 villages. Goma was devastated and some 400,000 people fled their homes. At least 50 people were killed and many sought refuge
(SFC, 1/18/02, p.A8)(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A1)(SSFC, 1/20/02, p.A16)
2002 Jan 21, Thousands of Congolese left Rwanda to return to Goma after receiving scant
(SFC, 1/21/02, p.A3)
2002 Jan 22, In Goma, Congo, a gas station exploded after some spilled gas was ignited by lava. Dozens of people looting gasoline were
(SFC, 1/22/02, p.A6)
2002 Jan 23, In Congo some 22.5 tons of food was distributed to the volcano stricken people of
(SFC, 1/24/02, p.A8)
2002 Feb 16, It was reported that over 40 people in Congo had been killed and dozens injured from massive mudslides triggered by
(SFC, 2/16/02, p.A26)
2002 Feb 26, In Congo peace talks were suspended a day after the opening ceremony due to wrangling over which political parties would be
allowed to participate.
(SFC, 2/27/02, p.A7)
2002 Apr 11, Congo’s government and rebels agreed to integrate into a new national army during peace talks in South
(SFC, 4/12/02, p.A9)
2002 Apr 19, Congo peace talks broke down over power-sharing.
(SFC, 4/20/02, p.A13)
2002 May 14, An uprising in Kisangani, Congo, left 163 people dead. Three top commanders: Barnard Biamungu, commander of the RCD's fifth brigade; Laurent Nkunda, seventh brigade commander;
and Gabriel Amisi, assistant chief of staff for logistics were identified as part of the Rally for Democracy, the Rwandan-backed rebel group responsible for the massacre.
(SFC, 6/1/02, p.A11)(AP, 8/19/02)
2002 May, The refugee numbers in Congo reached over 362,000.
(SFC, 5/28/02, p.E5)
2002 Jun 11, An
investigation began into claims by Congo’s Hemu community that some 2,400 of its people had been killed since April by the Lendu tribe and rebel allies.
(SFC, 6/12/02, p.A14)
Jul 22, Congolese and Rwandan leaders said that they've reached an agreement to end a four-year war in Congo, a fight that has defied resolution as it drew in eight African countries and claimed more than two million lives.
2002 Jul 24, In Congo Hutu rebels rejected a peace deal that would force them back to Rwanda.
(WSJ, 7/25/02, p.A1)
2002 Jul 30, The leaders of Congo and Rwanda signed a peace agreement, proclaiming it a key step in efforts to end a war that has embroiled six African nations and left 2.5 million people dead.
2002 Aug 6, In northeastern Congo fighting began between rebels and tribesmen for control of Bunia, an important trading center, and killed at least 48 people, mostly civilians.
2002 Aug 9, In northeastern Congo United Nations observers discovered a grave containing the hacked bodies of 38 women and children outside Bunia.
2002 Aug 11, In Congo fighting around Bunia ended and at least 110 civilians were killed and more than 70 injured. More than 10,000 families were displaced during the fighting.
2002 Aug 11, In eastern Congo renovation work uncovered the remains of 38 people buried in a communal grave at the site where the United Nations began building new headquarters for its peacekeeping
2002 Aug 15, Uganda has agreed to withdraw its troops from neighboring Congo, where they were sent four years ago to support Congolese rebels
and root out Ugandan insurgents.
2002 Aug 28, The United Nations confirmed that Uganda and Zimbabwe have begun their pledged troop withdrawals from
2002 Sep 5, In Congo some 6,000 Ngiti and Lendu tribe tribal fighters and their allies attacked the mission hospital in Nyankunde,
slaughtering patients in their beds. They killed some 650 people from the Bira, Hema and 16 other tribes on the 1st day of the attacks.
2002 Sep 14,
In Congo DRC it was reported that some 1,200 people had died from a cholera epidemic and that another 18,000 were infected.
(SFC, 9/14/02, p.A20)
2002 Sep 17, Rwanda
began withdrawing troops from eastern Congo as part of an agreement signed with the Congolese government to end the four-year civil war in Africa's third-largest nation.
Oct 1, Rwanda began pulling out 6,000 troops from a Congo border province, the latest stage in a withdrawal of all its forces that it hopes to complete by week's end.
2002 Oct 5, Rwanda withdrew its last troops from neighboring Congo, with some 1,100 soldiers marching in single file out of the war-ravaged country.
2002 Oct 13, In eastern Congo fighting broke out in a strategic port when pro-government tribal fighters tried to wrest control of the town from rebels.
2002 Oct 19, A rebel group in Congo said that it recaptured a strategic port in the eastern part of the country and took dozens of prisoners after heavy fighting.
2002 Oct 21, A UN panel accused criminal groups linked to the armies of Rwanda, Uganda, Zimbabwe and Congo of plundering Congo's riches, and called on the United Nations to impose financial restrictions on 29 companies and 54
2002 Nov 11, Pres. Joseph Kabila has suspended every official accused in a U.N. report on the plunder of Congo's gold, diamond and other
2002 Nov 17, In Ankoro, Congo, government troops torched homes and shot residents in apparent reprisals for the beating of a soldier.
Estimates of the death toll ranged from 29 to over 100.
2002 Nov 24, Negotiations between the Congolese government and two rebel groups produced an
agreement in principle on the workings of a transitional government.
2002 Nov 26, The World Health Organization confirmed an outbreak of flu in
rebel-controlled northern Congo, and the country's health minister said more than 500 people have died.
2002 Nov 27, A WHO official said simultaneous
outbreaks of the flu and meningitis have killed 185 people in a rebel-controlled area of northwestern Congo.
2002 Dec 17, Congo's government, rebels
and political opposition signed a power-sharing agreement after four years of war and 2.5 million lives lost.
2003 Jan 7, In Congo a military court
convicted and sentenced 26 people to death in the Jan 16, 2001 assassination of Congo's president, Laurent Kabila.
(AP, 1/7/03)(SFC, 1/8/03, p.A16)
2003 Jan 8, A UN
team was reported to be investigating reports that Congolese rebel troops had killed and eaten Pygmies in northeastern Congo. UN authorities confirmed the reports Jan 15 and identified the rebel campaign as "Operation Clean Slate."
(AP, 1/8/03)(SFC, 1/16/03, p.A9)
2003 Jan 21, Congo’s health minister reported that a flu epidemic had killed more than 2,000 people in a far northern province.
2003 Feb 2, A tornado tore through remote villages in Bandundu province in central Congo, killing 164 people, destroying homes and ruining crops.
2003 Feb 24, In northeastern Congo hundreds of civilians were killed and hundreds more were missing after Congolese rebels allied with the government seized a key town and launched a two-day campaign of murder, rape, looting and destruction. In 2009 Germain Katanga and Mathieu
Ngudjolo faced trial for planning and directing the massacre of more than 200 villagers in Bogoro.
(AP, 3/1/03)(AP, 11/25/09)
2003 Mar 6, The Congolese
government and rebels have agreed in Pretoria to meld their armed forces into a new national army in a bid to end a 4 ½-year civil war and reunify the vast central African nation.
2003 Mar 18, Congo leaders signed a cease-fire with tribal militias and local chiefs in northeastern Congo.
Mar 19, In northeastern Congo 22 people were hacked to death.
2003 Mar 22, In eastern Congo an overloaded ferry
traveling between rebel-held ports sank in Lake Tanganyika, killing 111 people. It was sailing in Burundian waters to avoid rival tribal fighters.
Apr 1, Congo's government agreed to a power-sharing deal with rebel groups.
2003 Apr 3, In northeastern Congo 966 people were killed in attacks by armed
militants on villages in Ituri province. UN investigators later discovered some 20 mass graves in the region.
2003 Apr 24, In Congo at least 60 members
of the Lendu tribe were killed by the rival Hema in the Ituri region near the Uganda border. The attack was ordered by Hema militia leader Chief Yves Kahwa Mandro. The Lendu then killed about 60 Hema who were fleeing to Uganda to escape ongoing violence.
2003 May 8, Rival tribal fighters battled for control of a northeastern Congolese town, killing at least 21 people and forcing thousands to flee. Fighters of the Union of Congolese Patriots, a rebel group dominated by Hema tribesmen, had attacked Bunia in a bid to seize its
2003 May 8, A Russian-built cargo plane lost a back door ramp over Congo, hurling more than 100 Congolese soldiers and their families to their
(Reuters, 5/9/03)(AP, 5/8/04)
2003 May 10, In northeastern Congo tribal militias battled for control of Bunia, killing at least 14
2003 May 15, Fleeing Congo civilians jammed roads out of Bunia by the thousands, trying to escape rival ethnic militias battling for control
with mortars and machetes.
2003 May 16, In northeastern Congo rival tribes fighting signed a cease-fire.
2003 May 18, In northeastern Congo the savagely killed bodies of 2 UN military observers were found after having been reported missing for several
2003 May 16, In northeastern Congo rival tribes fighting signed a cease-fire. There were over 100 confirmed killings and evidence of
(AP, 5/16/03)(SFC, 5/20/03, p.A8)
2003 May 21, In northeastern Congo the death toll from more than a week of tribal fighting rose to 280
2003 Jun 14, French troops leading an international force engaged in a firefight with gunmen for the first time in their mission to stabilize
the northeastern Congolese town of Bunia.
2003 Jun 19, The Congolese government and two rebel factions agreed to halt fighting in an eastern region and
pull back from newly occupied areas, hours after a battle for a key town there killed dozens of people.
2003 Jun 29, Warring sides in Congo agreed on
the formation of a unified military.
2003 Jul 17, Congo's main rebel leaders were sworn as vice presidents in a new power-sharing government, designed
to end the country's nearly 5-year civil war. 4 vice presidents represented the ruling party, the opposition party and 2 rebel groups.
(AP, 7/17/03)(Econ, 8/9/03, p.39)
Jul 24, Eleven aid workers believed abducted by Rwandan and Burundian rebels in a restive eastern province of war-ravaged Congo were killed.
Jul 25, In northeastern Congo thousands of tribal fighters attacked three villages with mortars, rocket-propelled grenades and assault rifles, killing as many as 150 people.
2003 Aug 28, The WWF reported that the hippos of Congo's Virunga national Park have been nearly wiped out by poachers and civil war.
(WSJ, 8/29/03, p.A1)
2003 Aug 31, It was reported that Congo tribal fighters killed at least 200 people over the last month and abducted scores more during a series of attacks that destroyed, Fataki, a northeast town once controlled by a rival tribe.
2003 Oct 6, In northeastern Congo dozens of tribal fighters attacked Katchele village with assault rifles and machetes, killing at least 65 people, mainly children, looting property and setting huts on
2003 Oct, A bolt of lightning killed 11 students at the Mpimba Institute in Bikoro, Congo.
(SFC, 10/18/03, p.A26)
2003 Nov 1, Two small rebel groups, the last rebel holdouts in eastern Congo, agreed to join the country's transitional government. Leaders, Patrick Masunzu and Aaron Nyamushebwa, agreed to
join the government and integrate their forces into a new national army.
2003 Nov 5, Pres. Bush met with Congo Pres. Joseph Kabila, who sought
assurances of continued US humanitarian aid. The US has committed $77 million this year.
(SFC, 11/6/03, p.A3)
2003 Nov 25, In Congo 2 ferries collided in a storm on
Mai-Ndombe lake. At least 182 people were killed and more than 100 others were missing.
(AP, 11/27/03)(AP, 11/28/03)
2003 Nov 29, In central Congo a Soviet-made
plane crashed, killing 33, including 13 people on the ground.
(AP, 11/29/03)(AP, 12/2/03)
2003 Dec 4, Congo health officials were investigating the poison deaths of
64 people, allegedly from a potion used to ward off evil spirits. A Roman Catholic priest, who allegedly administered the drink, fled the village of Bosobe early last week after people started falling ill.
2003 The civil war in Congo (DRC), which had claimed at least 4 million people, stood in its final throes. This was the largest death toll since WW II.
(Econ, 6/14/08, p.63)
In eastern Congo Germain Katanga and Mathieu Ngudjolo led militias including child soldiers who attacked the village of Bogoro, killing over 200 people including women and children. Many of the victims were hacked to death with machetes. In 2008 Katanga and Ngudjolo stood for trial at the Int’l. Criminal Court at The Hague,
(SFC, 9/27/08, p.A3)
2004 Jan 28, It was reported that Angolan troops and police have driven at least 10,000 Congolese from northern Angola's diamond
zones in a bloody month-old campaign.
2004 Jan 26, Nearly 200 people were missing after a barge caught fire and sank in a river in northwestern Congo
near Lukelela. At least 301 people survived.
2004 Feb 12, In Congo a Kenyan army officer, investigating reports of fighting between the rival Hema and
Lendu tribal militias, was shot to death when his U.N. military convoy came under fire in Ituri province.
2004 Feb 18, The UN said it would redeploy
4,000 of its forces to Congo's volatile northeast, where peacekeepers have come under fire from rival ethnic militias fighting for control of mineral riches.
Feb 22, In southeast Congo a militia led by a commander named "Cut-Throat" massacred more than 100 civilians and soldiers.
Mar 28, In Kinshasa, Congo, government forces battled attackers at military installations and television headquarters. Diplomats called it a coup attempt against Pres. Joseph Kabila.
2004 Apr 25, Clashes between Congolese troops and Rwandan insurgents in eastern Congo killed at least 61 people over the weekend.
2004 Apr 28, The Dian Fossey fund reported that the lowland gorilla population in eastern Congo has dropped over 70% since 1994 due to human warfare.
2004 May 6, Hundreds of Rwandan rebels attacked Kingi village in volatile eastern Congo, sparking a two-hour battle in which at least five Congolese soldiers and insurgents were killed.
2004 May 26, The UN mission in Democratic Republic of Congo is widening an investigation into allegations peacekeepers sexually abused minors in the northeastern town of
2004 May 29, Unidentified gunmen shot and killed a U.N. military observer in eastern Congo and a second was reported missing. About 10,800 U.N.
troops are deployed in Congo, monitoring the peace deal and helping the government regain control of the country. Elections are scheduled for June 2005.
Jun 1, Congolese soldiers battled troops loyal to Brig. Gen. Laurent Nkunda, a renegade commander in eastern Congo, breaking a shaky cease-fire.
Jun 2, In Congo DRC forces loyal to renegade Congolese Tutsi commander Brig- Gen. Laurent Nkunda, captured Bukavo, a key eastern border city from government troops.
(AP, 6/2/04)(Econ, 6/5/04, p.46)
2004 Jun 3, In Congo U.N. troops opened fire on rioters, killing two, as a mob broke into their base and tens of thousands of protesters overran the capital city of Kinshasa. Demonstrations swept the country over fighting in its volatile east.
2004 Jun 6, In eastern Congo insurgents ambushed a U.N. convoy, killing two South African peacekeepers and wounding nine others in continuing.
2004 Jun 9, In eastern Congo Government forces regained control of Bukavu without a fight as rebel forces fled.
2004 Jun 11, Congo's government said its security forces had put down an attempted coup by dissidents in President Joseph Kabila's personal guard.
2004 Jun 11, Two crowded boats collided on a lake straddling the Congo-Rwanda border on and one of them capsized, with some 80 people believed trapped aboard.
2004 Jun 14, UN humanitarian chief Jan Egeland said Eastern Congo is rapidly turning into a major humanitarian disaster, with 3.3 million people out of reach of relief groups.
2004 Jul 3, Rwanda reopened its border with the Democratic Republic of Congo, further reducing tension between the two countries.
2004 Jul 27, The U.N. Security Council extended an arms embargo on Congo for a year as fighting continued between rival factions.
2004 Aug 23, Azarias Ruberwa, prominent Tutsi and one of Congo’s 4 vice-presidents, announced that he and his party (RCD-Goma) were walking out of the transitional
(Econ, 8/28/04, p.40)
2004 Oct 10, In eastern Congo 2 boat accidents on Lake Kivu killed 68 people.
2004 Oct 16, Congo Pres. Joseph Kabila visited northeastern territory formerly held by rebels. The army claimed to have retaken a village near Zambia and killed at least 20
2004 Oct, Congo’s government quelled an uprising near a mine owned by Australia’s Anvil Mining Ltd. The UN later accused Anvil of
providing the government with vehicles and planes in the operation that killed scores of villagers. In 2007 a military court jailed two Congolese army officers for life for the 2004 massacre of civilians. The verdict cleared three Canadian mining company employees of complicity.
(WSJ, 3/20/07, p.A13)(AFP,
2004 Nov 22, A senior UN official said the UN is investigating about 150 allegations of sexual abuse by UN civilian staff and soldiers in the Congo, some of them recorded on videotape. Health officials said an outbreak of a severe
form of typhoid has killed at least 16 people in Kinshasa, sickening at least 144 more.
2004 Nov 25, Congo Pres. Joseph Kabila suspended 6 cabinet
ministers and 10 directors of state-run companies. A parliamentary inquiry alleged they had embezzled government funds.
2004 Nov 26, Rwanda said it
was ready to hold talks with Democratic Republic of Congo Pres. Joseph Kabila to defuse growing tensions over Rwandan rebels based in eastern Congo.
Nov 29, Congo said it will send up to 10,000 soldiers to its eastern province of North Kivu to prevent rebels and Rwandan forces from launching cross border attacks.
Nov 29, Rwandan troops attacked a town in eastern Congo. The next day a Congolese commander said at least 19 civilians were killed.
Nov 30, Congo-based Rwandan rebels, under threat of imminent attack by Rwanda, repeated an allegation that Rwandan troops had crossed the border in recent days to seize the vast country's mineral-rich east.
2004 Dec 9, An aid agency reported that some 1,000 Congolese civilians a day are dying from disease and malnutrition, due to a festering conflict that has killed 3.8 million people.
2004 Dec 11, Rival factions of Congo's army battled in the eastern region of the vast country, killing several people.
2004 Dec 14, Congo's government insisted that its forces were fighting Rwandan troops in the mineral-rich east of the country and not dissident units of the national army.
2004 Dec 17, The UN said foreign troops have crossed into Congo and called on outside forces to stop giving weapons and reinforcements to renegade soldiers battling army
2004 Dec 17, Dissident forces attacked the village of Buramba, Congo, targeting civilians suspected of sympathizing with pro-government militiamen. At least 30 civilians were killed in
the massacre believed to have been a reprisal for the killing of 3 renegade soldiers by a pro-government militia.
2004 Dec 19, UN officials said about
100,000 civilians in eastern Congo have fled a week of fighting between renegade soldiers and army loyalists, hiding deep into the forest where humanitarian workers cannot reach them.
2004 Dec 22-2004 Dec 26, Government troops in eastern Congo battled Rwandan militiamen in growing violence between the former allies from the country's bloody 1998-2002 war.
2005 Jan 7, Congo’s electoral commission hinted that elections scheduled for June would be postponed.
(Econ, 1/22/05, p.44)
2005 Jan 10, Congo security forces fired bullets and tear gas at demonstrators burning tires in Congo's capital, killing at 4 people among thousands protesting a government decision to delay upcoming national elections.
(AP, 1/10/05)(Econ, 1/22/05, p.44)
2005 Jan 14, A strike brought the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo to a standstill as public transport shut down and businesses remained closed in protest at the
possible postponement of elections.
2005 Jan 29, A UN spokesman said militiamen armed with guns and machetes killed 16 people and kidnapped at least
34 girls in attacks this week on a remote area of eastern Congo.
2005 Feb 8, UNICEF said that it was providing urgently needed aid for 50,000 people
caught up in an upsurge in fighting in Congo.
2005 Feb 18, The World Health Organization (WHO) said an outbreak of plague in northeastern Democratic
Republic of Congo has killed 61 diamond miners and infected hundreds more.
2005 Feb 25, In Congo militiamen in the volatile Ituri district ambushed UN
troops. 9 Bangladeshi peacekeepers were killed in what was the 4th deadliest attack on UN troops in Africa.
2005 Mar 1, In Congo UN peacekeeping
troops, backed by an attack helicopter, responded after being fired on and killed up to 60 militants accused of terrorizing villagers and killing nine Bangladeshi peacekeepers. Congo arrested an eastern militia leader and 2 generals related to the peacekeeper killings. Women fighters were among the 50 people killed by UN troops under Dutch Gen. Patrick Cammaert. On April 12 the human rights group
Justice Plus listed names of several alleged civilian victims from the raid in eastern Congo and said they "paid with their life, while the mandate of the United Nations was to protect them."
(AP, 3/2/05)(WSJ, 3/2/05, p.A1)(Reuters, 3/5/05)(Econ, 3/12/05, p.49)(AP, 4/13/05)
2005 Mar 7, An international human rights group said militiamen and renegade soldiers have raped and beaten tens of thousands of women and young girls in eastern Congo, and nearly all the crimes have gone unpunished by the country's broken judicial
2005 Mar 16, UN peacekeepers charged that militiamen in northeast Congo grilled bodies on a spit and boiled two girls alive as their mother
watched, adding cannibalism to a list of atrocities allegedly carried out by Lendu warriors.
(AP, 3/17/05)(Econ, 3/12/05, p.49)
2005 Mar 19, Congo soldiers arrested
Thomas Lubanga, a warlord accused of years of atrocities in eastern Congo, where UN officials say rival militias have created the world's worst ongoing humanitarian crisis.
Apr 1, UN officials said a cholera epidemic has killed at least 4 and infected dozens in a squalid camp for displaced people in northeastern Congo, and it threatens to spread across the entire region.
2005 Apr 2, UN troops killed up to 38 militia fighters during a raid by hundreds of peacekeepers backed by helicopter gunships in the Ituri district of eastern Congo.
2005 Apr 18, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to widen the arms embargo in Congo as part of stepped-up efforts to bring peace to the African country's volatile east.
2005 Apr 18, The annual Goldman Environmental Prizes were awarded in San Francisco. Recipients included Corneille E.N. Ewango of Congo for his efforts in animal and plant protection during a decade of civil
(SFC, 4/18/05, p.B2)
2005 May 5, In central Congo a Russian-made airplane crashed, killing 10 of the 11 passengers
2005 May 12, Gunmen ambushed a UN peacekeeping patrol in Congo's restless eastern Ituri region, killing one soldier and injuring
2005 May 14, Congo's legislature adopted a constitution that reduces the required age for presidential candidates, a change that would allow
President Joseph Kabila to stand in the country's next elections.
2005 May 18, A UN report said Rwandan Hutu rebels operating in eastern Congo have
killed, raped, or kidnapped more than 900 civilians over the past year.
2005 May 23, In eastern Congo militiamen calling themselves Rastas killed at
least 18 people and kidnapped at least 50 others in a late-night attack on the village of Ninja, hacking their victims to death as they ran for safety.
2005 May 23, A Russian-made plane crashed
shortly after takeoff near Bunyakiri, Congo, killing 26 people.
2005 Jun 22, Senior peacekeepers said more than 15,000 gunmen have joined a UN
disarmament process in Congo's Ituri district but that militias were still rearming and regrouping despite intense UN military operations.
Jun 27, In northeastern Congo militia fighters using women and children as human shields battled with UN peacekeepers south of Bunia.
2005 Jun 30, In
Kinshasa riot police fired tear gas and beat demonstrators with batons as thousands protested delays to Congo's first postwar presidential elections. At least six died in violence nationwide.
2005 Jul 9, In Congo DRC Rwandan rebels burned 39 people alive, mostly women and children, when they torched the village of Mtulumamba in eastern Congo in what some locals said was punishment for supporting UN peacekeepers.
2005 Jul 29, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to extend an arms embargo and other sanctions against Congo for another year.
2005 Jul, Airborne researchers during the summer counted just 683 hippos on the Congolese side of Lake Edward, which straddles the Congo-Uganda border. In the 1970s researchers counted a record 9,600 hippos in the same area. The
reduction of hippos and their dung, due to heavy poaching during civil strife, caused a severed drop in the population of tilapia fish.
(WSJ, 11/19/05, p.A1)
Aug 10, Congolese Vice President Azeria Ruberwa met with Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni in the Ugandan capital, Kampala. Ruberwa talked of his government's concerns about 14 Congolese men, suspected of plotting a coup, who were in Uganda. Rugunda said 8 men left before the expulsion order. The other six were given 48 hours to leave.
2005 Sep 5, In eastern Congo a Russian-made airplane crashed in the forest, killing 7, including 3 Russian crew members.
2005 Sep 12, An international environmental group warned that only 887 hippos are left in Congo, and that they will be extinct in the African country. The latest aerial survey puts the hippopotamus population in northeastern
Congo's Virunga National Park down to under 1,000 animals, compared to some 29,000 in 1974.
2005 Sep 30, Thousands of foreign militiamen in Congo
appeared to ignore this day’s deadline to leave this central African country or be evicted by force.
2005 Oct 28, The UN Security Council voted
unanimously to extend the 16,700-member UN peacekeeping mission in Congo for a year and add 300 troops.
2005 Oct 30, Congolese troops rescued four
electoral workers from their militia captors in a raid that set off a battle that killed dozens of militiamen and one soldier. Some 40 Mayi-Mayi militiamen were killed by the army. One soldier was killed and three others injured.
2005 Oct 31, Hundreds of government troops backed by U.N. peacekeepers began flushing heavily armed Rwandan rebels from eastern Congo, destroying insurgent camps and sending smoke rising above the restive region.
2005 Nov 28, In eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, at least 60 people were killed when they were swept off the roof of a train into the river below as the train crossed a bridge.
2005 Nov, Congolese soldiers engaged in a 6-day operation to clear militias from Virunga National Park. 14 rebels were killed and 321 captured.
(WSJ, 11/19/05, p.A8)
2005 Dec 5, In Congo a magnitude 6.8 earthquake struck the Lake Tanganyika region of East Africa toppling dozens of homes in Kalemie and burying children in the rubble. Several people were
(AP, 12/05/05)(WSJ, 12/6/05, p.A1)
2005 Dec 18, Congo's war-beleaguered people voted in the first national ballot in over three decades, banging on
polling-booth doors to be allowed in to say yes or no to a draft constitution meant to put the country on the path to democracy and lasting peace.
Dec 19, The International Court of Justice held Uganda responsible for the killing, torture and cruel treatment of civilians in Congo from August 1998 to July 1999 and ordered reparations. Fighting in the region raged for three more years and the armies withdrew only in June 2003, despite the court's order in July 2000 to halt operations and safeguard
2005 Dec 20, The "Yes" vote in Democratic Republic of Congo's referendum on whether to accept a post-war constitution took a strong early
lead after a poll seen as paving the way for elections next year.
2005 Dec 24, Congolese and UN troops captured a militia base in the volatile east,
as referendum results showed an overwhelming "Yes" to a new constitution intended to help end the country's conflict. UN and Congolese soldiers attacked militiamen in Ituri and Ugandan rebels in Kivu province killing some 80 rebels.
(AP, 12/24/05)(Econ, 1/7/06, p.49)
2005 Dec 25-2005 Dec 26, Some 3,500 Congolese troops backed by 600 UN Indian peacekeepers battled Ugandan rebels near Congo's eastern city of Beni, leaving 35 rebels and one Indian UN soldier dead.
2006 Jan 6, A study published in Britain's leading medical journal said war-ravaged Congo is suffering the world's deadliest humanitarian crisis, with 38,000 people dying each month mostly from easily treatable
2006 Jan 11, Congo officials said a new constitution for was approved by a landslide vote, paving the way for historic presidential and
parliamentary elections in March.
2006 Jan 23, Ugandan rebels killed eight Guatemalan peacekeepers in Congo in an ambush near the border with Sudan.
The gunbattle also left 15 attackers dead.
2006 Jan 29, In eastern Congo rebels in Rutshuru forced a local radio station off the air after a wave of
fighting and looting in the troubled Central African nation.
2006 Feb 12, Jan Egeland, UN Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs, said the
international community must provide $680 million in aid for Congo this year to stop a humanitarian disaster that kills as many people as the 2004 Asian tsunami every six months.
2006 Feb 13, The UN launched a $680 million aid plan for the Democratic Republic of Congo, complaining the world remained ignorant of what it called the worst humanitarian crisis since World War Two.
2006 Feb 17, UN and government officials said 6 Congolese soldiers died of hunger in an army training camp that ran out of food in the east of the country.
2006 Feb 18, The Democratic Republic of Congo adopted a new constitution aimed at bringing an end to decades of dictatorship, war and chaos in the vast country, and paving the way for elections by
2006 Feb 20, In Congo Reuters obtained a copy of a 2005 report of a parliamentary investigation, established to probe business deals signed
during Congo's 1996-1997 and 1998-2003 wars. The report said dozens of government contracts struck during Congo's wars must be renegotiated, some companies closed and leading individuals brought to justice.
2006 Feb 23, A top UN humanitarian official said thousands of civilians have taken refuge on floating islands in the lakes of Congo's Katanga province to escape rape and murder by government and militia fighters.
2006 Mar 1, Congolese army soldiers fighting alongside U.N. peacekeepers against ethnic militiamen mutinied and ransacked a UN camp in the east of the vast country. Hundreds of peacekeepers and thousands of government troops have
fought for three days to dislodge militia fighters from the town of Tchei in northeastern Ituri district, where ethnic violence has killed 60,000 people since 1999.
(Reuters, 3/1/06)(Reuters, 3/2/06)
2006 Mar 5, In eastern Congo UN troops killed several militia fighters during heavy clashes after a joint operation with the government army was aborted by a mutiny among its soldiers.
2006 Mar 16, In Congo a defense ministry source said Defense Minister Adolphe Onusumba had written to the head of the army asking him to suspend or arrest General Widi Mbuilu Divioka, the army commander in Katanga province. The general was being accused of diverting military food trains
for private business after at least 20 soldiers died from hunger or malnutrition at a southern camp.
2006 Mar 16, Uganda's army said the leader of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) rebels had
left a south Sudanese hideout and joined his deputy in the jungles of neighboring Congo.
2006 Mar 17, Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, a Congolese militia leader
accused of conscripting and enlisting children aged under 15 for warfare (1998-2002), became the first suspect sent for trial at the International Criminal Court (ICC) in the Netherlands.
(Reuters, 3/17/06)(WSJ, 3/18/06, p.A1)
2006 Apr 2, In CongoDRC registration closed for multi-party elections. Over 70 people had filed for the presidency and 8,650 had signed up as candidates for the parliamentary elections.
(Econ, 4/15/06, p.48)
2006 Apr 4, Human Rights Watch said tens of thousands of street children across Congo risk being recruited by political parties to create chaos, intimidate voters and contest the results of up-coming elections.
2006 Apr 12, Government troops and UN peacekeepers launched a fresh military offensive in Congo's restive east, targeting Rwandan Hutu rebels blamed for attacking civilians at home and in
2006 Apr 14, The Central African Republic said it has asked the International Criminal Court to investigate crimes against humanity allegedly
committed by its former president and a Congolese vice president. Government spokesman Celestin Gamou said CAR suspects ex-President Ange-Felix Patasse and Congo Vice President Jean-Pierre Bemba of ordering or committing murder and rape against civilians, as well as of embezzling funds and destroying public and private property.
2006 Apr 28, A cargo plane carrying telecom equipment crashed in eastern Congo, killing as many as eight passengers and crew on board. Another aircraft carrying three people disappeared in the same
2006 Apr 29, The UN said reports of a Ugandan army incursion into Congo were "credible" after peacekeepers conducted a verification mission in
the remote northeastern border region.
2006 Apr 30, Congo's electoral commission said that national elections, the first in 40 years for the
violence-plagued central African nation, will take place July 30, about a month later than planned.
2006 May 1, Rwandan Hutu rebels attacked a village
and an army camp in a raid that left 7 residents dead. Congolese troops killed six rebels during an attack at an army camp that also claimed the lives of a soldier and his wife.
May 10, The UN reported an upsurge of rapes, killings and torture by Congo's security forces and warned that UN peacekeepers overseeing the postwar transition in the country could end their cooperation with the police and army.
2006 May 13, An international charity said rich countries are not giving enough money to help fight a humanitarian crisis in Congo, where more than 1,000 people die daily from violence, hunger and disease.
2006 May 16, The UN mission Congo said Innocent Kaina, one of the founding members of a militia group in northeastern Congo, has been wounded and captured in fighting with the Congolese
2006 May 23, Congo arrested a group of foreign security guards on suspicion of plotting a coup ahead of national elections. Interior
Minister Theophile Mbemba said there were three Americans, 10 Nigerians and 12 South Africans among the group of 32 taken into custody. Mbemba said all the men had received visits from their respective ambassadors.
2006 May 27, Congo released a group of South Africans, Nigerians and Americans arrested over what it called a suspected coup plot, saying it did not have time to try them itself before long-awaited national elections in July. In the volatile northeast Ituri district a Nepalese peacekeeper
was killed and seven others were feared kidnapped by militiamen during a military operation. 2 peacekeepers were released on June 27. The remaining 5 were released July 8.
(Reuters, 5/28/06)(AP, 5/29/06)(Reuters, 7/8/06)
2006 Jun 1, The German parliament overwhelmingly approved the government's plan to deploy German troops to the Democratic Republic of Congo during its July election, despite public skepticism about the mission.
2006 Jun 20, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan said in a report that Congo's armed forces and police are responsible for the majority of documented abuses against children in the chaotic country, sometimes abducting kids to carry
equipment or for sex.
2006 Jun 30, Campaigning began for Congo's first multiparty elections in more than 4 decades. Troops fired into a crowd and
killed 12 protesters in retaliation for the death of a soldier in Matadi.
(AP, 6/30/06)(Econ, 7/8/06, p.41)
2006 Jul 8, In Kinshasa, Congo, gunmen killed Mwamba
Bapuwa (64), an independent journalist, a day after foreign donors called on the government to guarantee press freedoms ahead of historic elections this month. Bapuwa had recently criticized the government and survived a previous attack several months ago.
2006 Jul 11, Police in Kinshasa, Congo, fired tear gas to break up stone-throwing demonstrators who were alleging electoral irregularities ahead of the country's first presidential vote in four decades.
2006 Jul 17, Congo officials said Peter Karim, a warlord accused of kidnapping seven UN peacekeepers, has agreed to disband his militia and become a colonel in Congo's army. Gunmen opened fire on an election rally and killed several
people in Congo's volatile east, the latest outburst of violence as the nation prepares for its first free legislative and presidential balloting in 46 years.
(AP, 7/17/06)(AP, 7/19/06)
Jul 24, A UNICEF report said more than 600 children die every day in war-ravaged Congo and even more are displaced, sexually abused or swept into the camps of combatant groups.
2006 Jul 27, In Kinshasa, Congo, 3 policemen and a civilian were killed in clashes outside a stadium where 40,000 supporters greeted Vice-President Jean-Pierre Bemba, a rebel leader turned presidential candidate.
2006 Jul 30, Congolese voted in their first democratic election in more than four decades. Incumbent President Joseph Kabila later won a runoff.
2006 Jul 31, Dozens of polling stations reopened in Congo’s second-largest city, offering citizens stymied by violence during their nation’s historic elections another chance to
2006 Aug 1, A Congolese opposition party and former rebel group denounced widespread fraud in the country's historic elections in a protest that
heralded a divisive political dispute over the polls.
2006 Aug 3, In eastern Congo a small passenger plane crashed into a mountain and then tumbled into
a valley, killing all 17 passengers and crew.
2006 Aug 12, President Joseph Kabila's share of the vote in Congo's historic elections rose above 50% as 1
million more votes were counted and certified.
2006 Aug 20, President Joseph Kabila failed to win an outright majority in Congo's first elections in
more than four decades. Kabila won 45% of the 16.9 million votes cast in the July 30 ballot; Bemba had 20%. Former rebel leader Jean-Pierre Bemba will face Kabila in a second round of voting. Security-forces loyal to Kabila and Bemba fought gunbattles that killed at least two people.
2006 Aug 21, A fierce gun battle pinned down foreign envoys in the Congolese capital Kinshasa as fighting erupted for a second day following the announcement of a presidential election run-off. At least five people died in overnight
(Reuters, 8/21/06)(AFP, 8/21/06)
2006 Aug 22, In Kinshasa fighting flared for a third day between supporters of Congo's two presidential candidates, as the
UN called for an immediate cease-fire and a European Union military force was sending reinforcements.
2006 Aug 28, In the Netherlands prosecutors at
the International Criminal Court filed their first indictment, charging Thomas Lubanga, a former Congolese warlord, for allegedly abducting and recruiting children as young as 10 to fight in Congo's brutal civil war.
2006 Sep 4, In CongoDRC a boat overloaded with passengers and freight sank in choppy waters on Lake Kivu, killing at least 35 people.
2006 Sep 8, The UN's humanitarian chief called for an end to the rapes plaguing women in war-battered Congo and said the perpetrators, including those wearing military uniforms, must be severely punished.
2006 Sep 9, In CongoDRC it was reported to take 155 days to register a business at a cost of 5 times the average annual income of $120.
2006 Sep 19, Supporters of Congo's presidential challenger barricaded streets, stopped traffic and threw stones in Kinshasa, a day after a fire at his headquarters destroyed the party's television and radio
2006 Sep 22, Democratic Republic of Congo's first freely elected parliament in more than 40 years convened, with President Joseph Kabila's
coalition poised to appoint a prime minister.
2006 Oct 3, In the Democratic Republic of Congo one person was killed and two injured when a Belgian
drone from the EU force crashed in Kinshasa.
2006 Oct 11, Amnesty International said at least 11,000 children in Congo are still in the hands of armed
groups or unaccounted for three years after the end of a war in which they were captured and forced to fight.
2006 Oct 13, In Britain the chief of
staff to the Democratic Republic of Congo's President Joseph Kabila was assaulted and robbed in northwest London while waiting to appear on a television program. Leonard She Okitundu was attacked by a gang who beat him around the head and body with a baseball bat, stripped him of his clothes, and posted pictures of them on the Internet. Okitundu said his attackers shouted that he was working for
the Rwandans, and that they would kill anyone who obstructed Bemba.
2006 Oct 13, The WHO said it has confirmed an outbreak of plague in the
Democratic Republic of Congo, with 42 deaths reported among 626 suspected cases over the past 10 weeks.
2006 Oct 16, A US-based rights group
accused soldiers in Congo's postwar, national-unity army of abducting civilians and forcing them to serve as personal attendants and mine workers in the troubled Central African country.
2006 Oct 24, In CongoDRC more than a dozen people jailed for the 2001 assassination of Congolese President Laurent Kabila vanished from a prison in the capital Kinshasa.
2006 Oct 29, Congo's President Laurent Kabila faced a former rebel chief in a runoff vote.
2006 Oct 30, Counting from Congo's election proceeded swiftly. Rioters destroyed 43 polling stations and thousands of ballot papers were burned in the east after a soldier killed two election officials.
(AP, 10/30/06)(WSJ, 10/31/06,
2006 Oct 31, President George W. Bush ordered that assets be frozen of dissident general Laurent Nkunda and six others considered by the White House to be destabilizing forces in the Democratic Republic of
2006 Nov 1, Congo's government welcomed a decision by the US to impose sanctions on seven warlords and businessmen who are accused of
fueling instability in this vast country's lawless east.
2006 Nov 2, Thousands returned to the polls in a northeast Congo town and recast ballots
destroyed in rioting that followed the weekend presidential runoff.
2006 Nov 10, Congo’s incumbent Joseph Kabila retained a commanding lead in the
presidential runoff with about two-thirds of the vote counted.
2006 Nov 11, In Congo gunfire and explosions boomed through Kinshasa in a new round of
fighting between forces loyal to two presidential candidates awaiting the results of a runoff election meant to secure an end to years of war.
Nov 14, Nearly complete results give incumbent Joseph Kabila an insurmountable lead in Congo's presidential runoff, but his opponent, Jean-Pierre Bemba, alleged fraud.
Nov 15, In Congo incumbent Joseph Kabila was declared winner of historic presidential elections. The electoral commission gave Kabila 58% of the vote against 42% for Bemba. Former rebel leader Jean-Pierre Bemba, vowed to contest the count. Kabila lost to Bemba in 6 out of 11 provinces.
(AP, 11/16/06)(Econ, 11/18/06, p.49)(Econ, 11/25/06, p.43)
2006 Nov 18, Jean-Pierre Bemba, the former rebel who lost Congo's presidential elections, filed a lawsuit at the Supreme Court to challenge the vote count as dozens of his supporters
marched through downtown Kinshasa.
2006 Nov 21, Gunfire and street fights erupted outside Congo's supreme court and a blaze swept through the building
as hearings began over fraud allegations in a presidential election meant to bring lasting peace. Bosange Mbaka, a reporter with the Kinshasa-based newspaper Mambenga, was arrested while covering a supreme court hearing in Kinshasa. In May 2007 media rights group Reporters Without Borders (RSF) called for his release.
(AP, 11/21/06)(AFP, 5/21/07)
2006 Nov 24, The UN said its investigators have discovered three mass graves at a northeast Congo military camp containing the bodies of 30 people, including women and children, who were allegedly killed by
2006 Nov 25, Congo’s government and the UN said fighters loyal to warlord Laurent Nkunda attacked army positions in eastern Congo with small
arms and heavy weapons. Nkunda controlled thousands of fighters and claimed the loyalty of the 81st and 83rd army brigades, the troops involved in the most recent clashes. Nkunda controlled some 20,000 square miles in North Kivu province.
(AP, 11/25/06)(Econ, 11/25/06,
2006 Nov 27, Congo’s supreme court upheld President Joseph Kabila's victory in landmark elections, ruling as unfounded the runner-up's charges of widespread fraud.
2006 Dec 5, A shell apparently fired by Congolese troops fighting forces loyal to a dissident general near the Ugandan border landed among a group of some 12,000 refugees in Uganda, killing at
2006 Dec 6, Congo inaugurated Joseph Kabila as its first freely elected president in more than four
2006 Dec 6, A Ugandan army spokesman said at least 12,000 refugees fleeing fighting in eastern Congo DRC have crossed over the border into southwest
2006 Dec 7, Researchers said the Ebola virus may have killed more than 5,000 gorillas in West Africa (Congo-Gabon), enough to send them into
extinction if people continue to hunt them.
2006 Dec 15, In Kenya 11 African heads of state attending the 2nd International Conference on the
Great Lakes Region signed a landmark $2 billion (1.5-billion-euro) security and development pact to forestall fresh violence in the area.
27, Fighting broke out in eastern Congo between government troops and forces loyal to a dissident general, killing at least 19 people. A group of Congolese soldiers went on trial for war crimes, a month after UN investigators found mass graves inside their eastern army camp with some 30 bodies including women and children.
(AP, 12/27/06)(Reuters, 12/28/06)
2006 Dec 28, Vital Kamerhe, an advisor to President Joseph Kabila, was named head of the Democratic Republic of Congo's new National Assembly, in a ballot that saw presidential
allies sweep key parliamentary posts.
2006 Bosco Ntaganda, a former Congolese warlord, was first indicted on war crimes charges by the ICC, which
is based in The Hague, Netherlands. The court accused Ntaganda of using child soldiers for fighting in Ituri, in northeastern Congo, from 2002 to 2003.
Jan 5, In central Congo a diamond mine collapsed in Tshikapa. 2 people were soon rescued and 15 bodies were later pulled from the mine. Further rescue efforts were abandoned. The group appeared to have been teenagers who hoped that recent rains had uncovered diamonds in the community mine.
2007 Jan 6, Cardinal Frederic Etsou-Nzabi-Bamungwabi (b.1930), Congo's top Roman Catholic prelate, died in a Belgian hospital. He had warned of what he called international meddling in the country's recent landmark
2007 Jan 17, Conservationists said rebels in eastern Congo, loyal to warlord Laurent Nkunda, have killed and eaten two silverback mountain
gorillas in Virunga National Park. Congo’s army said Nkunda agreed two weeks ago to stop fighting government forces in exchange for a government promise not to pursue war crimes charges against him.
2007 Jan 27, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon held up Congo's first elections in 46 years as a sign of hope for the rest of Africa, praising the country's fragile democracy on his first tour of the continent.
2007 Jan 29, The International Criminal Court (ICC) ruled there was enough evidence against Thomas Lubanga, a Congolese militiaman accused of recruiting child soldiers, to launch the new court's first
2007 Jan 31, In Congo at least 37 people were killed in clashes between security forces and opposition supporters protesting against the
results of governorship polls in western Bas-Congo province.
2007 Feb 3, In Congo officials said clashes last week between security forces and
demonstrators claiming electoral fraud left 97 people dead in several southwestern towns.
(AP, 2/2/07)(AP, 2/4/07)
2007 Feb 13, In south-east Congo a freight train
derailed and at least 20 people were killed.
2007 Feb 15, The Security Council voted unanimously to extend the nearly 18,000-strong UN peacekeeping
force in Congo for two months to give the secretary-general time to recommend possible changes in its mandate following last year's successful elections.
Feb 20, Congo’s army and UN officials said days of clashes between the army and Rwandan and Congolese militias in eastern Congo have killed at least 23 combatants and forced thousands to flee.
2007 Feb 26, The World Vision humanitarian group said that more than 50% of children in refugee camps around Africa's volatile Great Lakes area have experienced some form of sexual abuse. The data, collected in camps in the Burundi, Congo (DRC), Tanzania, northern Uganda and Rwanda, said
widespread poverty made children vulnerable to abuses.
2007 Mar 6, Fortunat Lumu, the head of Congo's atomic energy commission, was arrested along
with an aide on suspicion of illegally selling uranium.
2007 Mar 22, In Congo heavy gunfire broke out in Kinshasa near the home of a former warlord who
placed second in last fall's presidential vote. Soldiers deployed throughout the city, and residents fled in vehicles and on foot.
2007 Mar 23, Congo's
chief prosecutor issued an arrest warrant for Jean-Pierre Bemba, a former warlord and senator, who took refuge inside a foreign embassy while his personal army and government troops fought in the capital. The head of Congo's army said in a nationally televised address that security forces had regained control of Kinshasa after two days of intense fighting against the militia of a former warlord
who lost last year's presidential runoff. An aid group working with hospitals and morgues said more than 100 people died in two days of fighting. EU envoys later said the fighting left 600 dead.
(AP, 3/23/07)(WSJ, 3/24/07, p.A1)(AP, 3/25/07)(WSJ, 3/28/07, p.A1)
2007 Apr 18, Burundi, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda adopted a joint military strategy to fight rebel groups operating in the war-scarred Great Lakes region.
2007 Apr 26, Six central African countries (Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Chad, Central African Republic, Cameroon and Congo) plan to launch a common passport in July, permitting the free movement of goods and people across their
2007 May 4, The UN agency for refugees began repatriating thousands of Congolese refugees in Zambia to the Democratic Republic of
2007 May 11-2007 May 12, Local militia allied to Rwandan Hutu rebels killed four Congolese soldiers during clashes in a volatile eastern region
of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
2007 May 16, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to extend its peacekeeping mission in Congo until the end
of the year while calling for a timetable to gradually withdraw the nearly 18,000-member force.
2007 May 23, The BBC reported that Pakistani UN
peacekeepers charged with disarming Congolese militia instead engaged in gold and weapons trafficking with militia members. The Pakistani unit in question deployed to Mongwalu in April 2005.
2007 May 27, In eastern Congo Rwandan rebels attacked villagers with machetes, spears and hammers, killing 17, wounding 28 and taking up to a dozen hostages.
2007 Jun 12, In Kinshasa, DRC, delegates from 20 African countries began talks on the process of disarming and reintegrating former combatants to boost peace and development on the violence-wracked continent.
2007 Jun 13, Serge Maheshe, a Congolese journalist working for the UN-sponsored Radio Okapi, was shot dead in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo town of Bukavu. Police the next day arrested 2 soldiers for the
(AFP, 6/13/07)(Reuters, 6/15/07)
2007 Jul 9, The UN-backed Okapi radio station said that Floribert Chui Bin Kositi, a former Congolese rebel leader, was
beaten to death in Congo’s restive eastern Kivu region. He held a senior position in a state-run body monitoring food imports and recently ordered a large consignment of rice to be destroyed on the grounds that it was unfit for human consumption.
2007 Jul 13, UN officials said they are investigating allegations that Indian peacekeepers in Congo traded food and even military intelligence with Rwandan Hutu rebels in return for gold.
2007 Jul 16, Dikembe Mutombo (41), NBA basketball star, said he wants to score for his native Democratic Republic of Congo by financing a new hospital and training young hoops players. Mutombo invested $15 million (11 million euros)
in the construction of the hospital, more than half the total cost.
2007 Jul 20, Aid officials said clashes between rival militia groups in eastern
Congo have killed nine fighters and reduced dozens of houses to smoldering ruins. The fighting erupted a week ago in Minembwe, about 120 miles southwest of the eastern lakeside city of Uvira.
2007 Jul 30, A UN investigator said extreme sexual violence against women is pervasive in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and local authorities do little to stop it or prosecute those responsible.
2007 Aug 1, A passenger train derailed in central Congo and eight cars tumbled off the tracks, killing about 100 people and trapping some passengers in the wreckage. People in the southeastern town of Moba attacked the UN office after
a local radio station aired false rumors that the United Nations was to resettle Congolese ethnic Tutsis in the region. 4 UN military observers were wounded and 21 staff were evacuated.
(AP, 8/2/07)(AP, 8/4/07)
2007 Aug 3, In Uganda gunmen on Lake Albert attacked a boat operated by Canada's Heritage Oil Corp., killing a British contractor. 3 armed patrol boats from Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), on the other side of the lake, had opened fire on Heritage's boat.
2007 Aug 18, UNESCO said a joint mission of several UN agencies is conducting an emergency investigation into the shooting of endangered mountain gorillas in a Democratic Republic of Congo national park. In the last two months,
seven of the primates have been killed in separate incidents in the Virunga park.
2007 Aug 20, South African President Thabo Mbeki arrived in Kinshasa
for a working visit aimed at boosting relations with the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
2007 Aug 28, Africa's Great Lakes nations (Burundi, the
Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Uganda) vowed to eliminate rebel groups roaming their territory and spurring insecurity in the continent's most volatile region.
Aug 29, It was reported that more than 100 people have died in a remote part of Congo, including all those who attended the funerals of two village chiefs, in what health officials fear is an outbreak of hemorrhagic fever.
2007 Sep 3, Congolese officials reported killing 28 soldiers loyal to Gen. Nkunda, a renegade army officer, in exchanges of machine gun and heavy weapons fire lasting several hours.
2007 Sep 4, Rangers and 300 villagers abandoned a gorilla reserve in eastern Congo as government soldiers battled troops loyal to a renegade general in sections of Virunga park. The UN said ten thousand Congolese refugees have fled to
neighboring Uganda following clashes between the Congolese army and renegade troops in its eastern provinces.
(Reuters, 9/4/07)(AP, 9/4/07)(Econ, 9/8/07, p.52)
Sep 7, Renegade Congolese General Laurent Nkunda said the Congolese army had attacked his position, breaking a fragile ceasefire negotiated by United Nations mediators in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.
2007 Sep 8, Congo and Uganda signed an agreement to immediately move refugee camps 93 miles from their shared border to improve security.
2007 Sep 11, The World Health Organization issued an alert urging more doctors to travel to Congo to combat an outbreak of Ebola fever, which kills nearly all of those it infects and has no cure or treatment.
2007 Sep 11, Six Congolese soldiers were detained by the Burundian navy for repeatedly attacking fishing boats on Lake Tanganyika and stealing their catch.
2007 Sep 13, The UN said the repatriation of Congolese refugees from neighbouring Zambia was suspended, due to insecurity in the small town of Moba where they are headed.
2007 Sep 14, A UN spokesman said UN peacekeepers have discovered three graves, each containing several bodies, at Rubare, a military base in eastern Congo recently abandoned by rebels loyal to a
renegade Gen. Nkunda.
2007 Sep 17, China and the Democratic Republic of Congo signed a draft accord in which China would lend $5 billion to
modernize Congo’s decrepit infrastructure and rich but deteriorated mining sector. Congo’s government later announced that Chinese state-owned firms would build or refurbish various railways, roads and mines at accost of $12 billion.
(Reuters, 9/18/07)(Econ, 3/15/08, SR
2007 Sep 24, Two Congolese troops and a Ugandan soldier were killed in clashes on the flashpoint border of Lake Albert where oil was recently discovered. Six civilians were killed when Ugandan soldiers opened fire on a Congolese passenger
boat on Lake Albert.
(AFP, 9/25/07)(Reuters, 9/25/07)
2007 Sep 25, The World Health Organization said 8 more cases of Ebola have been identified in Congo, raising to
17 the number of people confirmed to have contracted the deadly illness.
2007 Oct 4, In Congo a cargo plane crashed in a residential neighborhood near
the main airport in Kinshasa, plowing into homes and killing at least 52 people. The next day Congolese President Joseph Kabila sacked Transport Minister Remy Henri Kuseyo Gatanga.
(AP, 10/4/07)(Reuters, 10/5/07)
2007 Oct 11, Rebel leader Laurent Nkunda in eastern Congo called for a cease-fire as the army said the death toll from five days of clashes had risen to 122.
2007 Oct 14, Opiyo Makasi, reported to be an operations and logistics commander of Uganda's Lord's Resistance Army, gave himself up along with his wife and they were transferred to Kinshasa, DRC. On Oct 25 Congolese authorities handed him to the UN peacekeeping mission in Congo (MONUC),
which should prepare his eventual return to Uganda.
(AP, 10/23/07)(AP, 10/25/07)
2007 Oct 18,
Former Congolese warlord Germain Katanga, suspected of war crimes committed in northeast Democratic Republic of Congo in 2003, began his transfer to the International Criminal Court in The Hague.
2007 Oct 22, The United Nations Refugee agency (UNHCR) said some 8,000 Congolese refugees have fled to neighboring Uganda following clashes between Congo's army and dissident general Laurent Nkunda.
2007 Oct 22, Congolese militia leader Germain Katanga became only the second war crimes suspect to appear before the International Criminal Court at The Hague.
2007 Oct 25, Rebels in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo set new conditions for disarming, stalling the surrender of hundreds of fighters who have begun massing near a designated UN
2007 Oct 26, In Congo heavy rains swelled into a torrent of water that swamped Kinshasa, killing 30 people in less than 24
2007 Oct 27, Mai Mai militia leader and army deserter Kibamba Kasereka said he had surrendered to the UN peacekeeping mission in the Democratic
Republic of Congo's restive Nord-Kivu province, agreeing to calls to disarm his forces.
2007 Nov 5, In eastern Congo 27 UN peacekeepers from India
were injured when attacked by a mob of hungry civilians who claimed not to have received any food aid.
(Econ, 11/17/07, p.54)
2007 Nov 13, Thousands of refugees fled
camps in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo's violent North Kivu province after the army said Tutsi-dominated insurgents attacked its positions nearby.
Nov 17, The UN children's agency said aid groups in Congo have secured the release of 232 child soldiers from militia fighters who forcibly recruited them in the east of the country. The 232 children, whose average age is 14, were separated this month in the eastern provinces of North and South Kivu from three different factions of the Mai
2007 Nov 20, It was reported that Congo is setting aside more than 11,000 square miles of rain forest to help protect the endangered bonobo, a
great ape that is the most closely related to humans and is found only in this Central African country.
2007 Nov 21, The UN Security Council welcomed
a deal signed by Congo and Rwanda to forcibly disarm Rwandan Hutu rebels in Congo in an effort to reduce tensions between the central African neighbors.
Nov 22, The UN resumed the repatriation of 12,000 Congolese refugees from Zambia which was suspended three months ago due to insecurity in the Democratic Republic of Congo's (DRC) Katanga province.
2007 Nov 23, Explosions and machine-gun fire echoed through the hills of east Congo, where government troops battled rebels for a third day amid a deepening humanitarian crisis the UN says has displaced nearly 200,000 people in the past few
2007 Dec 3, In Congo (DRC) some 25,000 government forces army attacked a stronghold of renegade Tutsi General Laurent Nkunda, a day after his
men seized a strategic town from the government and forced out thousands of civilians. The troops were routed by some 4,000 insurgents.
(Reuters, 12/3/07)(email@example.com/msg25522.html)(Econ, 6/14/08, p.63)
2007 Dec 5, Congo's army said it retook a strategic town on from rebels loyal to renegade Tutsi General Laurent Nkunda in the violence-torn eastern province of North Kivu.
2007 Dec 5, An international aid organization said Angolan soldiers routinely and repeatedly rape Congolese women who have crossed the border illegally in search of work in the diamond fields.
2007 Dec 14, Diplomats from the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda met in Kampala to discuss border tensions that have triggered deadly clashes on one of Africa's hottest frontiers in the search for oil. The UN said rival
factions in Congo are forcibly recruiting hundreds of children and sending them to fight on the front lines of an escalating conflict in the east of the country.
(AP, 12/14/07)(AP, 12/15/07)
Dec 19, Uganda's military said it had shot dead two Congolese soldiers on the volatile border between the two countries, after they tried to resist being arrested on suspicion of raping two teenage girls.
2007 Dec 21, The Security Council voted unanimously to extend the UN peacekeeping mission in Congo for a year and demanded that all militias and armed groups in the volatile east lay down their weapons and start disarming.
2007 Dec 24, The international charity Save the Children said boys and girls are being recruited in record numbers to act as soldiers, spies and sex slaves in Congo and children have been spotted
marching in formation in the war-wracked east of the country over the past week.
2007 Congo’s operating budget for this year was $2.4 billion. Its
population stood at about 60 million.
(Econ, 7/28/07, p.46)
2007 Transparency Int’l. ranked Congo 168th out of 179 countries for freedom from corruption.
(Econ, 3/15/08, SR p.13)
2008 Jan 6, In Kinshasa a peace summit aimed at ending fighting in Congo's blood-steeped eastern provinces of North and South Kivu opened without the presence of President Joseph Kabila
and rebel leader General Laurent Nkunda.
2008 Jan 13, Delegation chief Kambasu Ngeze said at a Congolese peace conference that renegade general
Laurent Nkunda's Kivu movement vowed to continue its armed struggle "with neither remorse nor regret."
2008 Jan 21, Officials said Congo government
negotiators and rebel groups reached a deal to end fighting in the vast country's restive east, where some 800,000 people had to flee their homes over the last year.
Jan 22, A new survey said war, disease and malnutrition are killing 45,000 Congolese every month in a conflict-driven humanitarian crisis that has claimed 5.4 million victims in nearly a decade.
2008 Jan 23, Militia leaders signed a peace accord with Congo's government aimed at ending years of fighting in the country's restive east.
2008 Jan 27, At least 10 bodies were recovered after a boat capsized on Lake Tanganyika in eastern Congo. An official later said the overloaded boat was piloted by a drunken captain.
2008 Jan 28, Congolese Tutsi rebels and Mai Mai militia clashed in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, breaking a ceasefire signed last week aimed at ending A long-running conflict in the
2008 Jan 29, Congolese Tutsi rebels and a rival Mai Mai militia group pledged to respect a recently-signed peace accord, a day after clashes
between their fighters broke the ceasefire.
2008 Feb 3, Two strong earthquake shook the African Great Lakes region, killing at least 37 people in
Rwanda and six in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
(AFP, 2/3/08)(AFP, 2/4/08)
2008 Feb 6, Congo arrested and turned over for trial Mathieu Ngudjolo, an army colonel
and former rebel leader accused of leading a deadly 2003 attack on a village in the country's lawless east. Ngudjolo was expected to arrive at the International Criminal Court in the Hague the next day.
2008 Mar 15, Congo’s foreign debt stood at $12 billion and interest payments consumed a large chunk of its budget.
(Econ, 3/15/08, SR p.12)
2008 Mar 19, Conservationists said Honore Mashagiro, a ranger in Congo's Virunga National Park, has been arrested for allegedly masterminding the massacre last summer of 10 endangered mountain gorillas.
2008 Mar 19, Uganda said that Lord's Resistance Army rebel leader Joseph Kony has left his base in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and moved to the Central African Republic.
2008 Mar 21, The Democratic Republic of Congo banned the ethnic-based religious and political sect Bundu dia Kongo (BDK), a shadowy separatist sect, following a 3-week police offensive against its western strongholds which UN
investigators say killed dozens of people.
2008 Apr 15, In eastern Democratic Republic of Congo at least 44 people were killed and up tot 100
injured when a passenger plane crashed onto a market district after taking-off at Goma.
(Reuters, 4/16/08)(WSJ, 4/18/08, p.A1)
2008 Apr 29, The International
Criminal Court in The Hague published an arrest warrant for Bosco Ntaganda (35), known as "the Terminator," a Congo militia leader wanted for allegedly using child soldiers.
2008 May 23, UN peacekeepers found over 100 bodies in three mass graves in the east of Democratic Republic of Congo. A UN spokesman said they apparently were graves dating back to the 1990s, but that is was difficult to know accurately.
2008 May 24, Belgian police in Brussels arrested Jean-Pierre Bemba (45), a Congolese warlord and ex-presidential candidate, after he was secretly charged with rape and torture. Bemba was accused of war crimes and crimes against
humanity as head of a militia that allegedly committed atrocities in Central African Republic's conflict in 2002-2003.
2008 May 26, A small faction of
Rwandan Hutu rebels in east Democratic Republic of Congo pledged to lay down their guns and return home, but the main rebel movement refused and rejected the ceremony as a sham.
Jun 7, Congo President Joseph Kabila met with UN envoys who backed his plans to disarm and expel Rwandan rebels behind years of strife. They also planned to refocus the biggest UN peace force on rebuilding the shattered nation.
2008 Jun 16, A conservation group said the northern white rhino of central Africa was on the verge of being wiped out. 4 surviving specimens in Congo’s Garamba National Park had not been seen since
(SFC, 6/17/08, p.A3)
2008 Jul 3, Former Congolese rebel leader Jean-Pierre Bemba arrived in the Netherlands to face war crimes charges before the International
2008 Jul 7, In Congo (DRC) unidentified gunmen ambushed a vehicle belonging to the World Wildlife Fund in Virunga national Park, killing
two people and wounding three others.
2008 Jul 23, In Democratic Republic of Congo at least 45 people were killed and another 100 were missing after a
boat sank on a remote stretch of the Ubangi river.
2008 Jul 28, Antoine Wendo Kolosoy (aka Papa Wendo, b.1925), Congolese riverboat mechanic,
boxer and rumba singer, died at age 82. He cut his first records in 1947 for Olympia, a Belgian label.
(Econ, 8/16/08, p.84)
2008 Aug 5, Wildlife researchers said
they have discovered some 125,000 western lowland gorillas deep in the forests of the Republic of Congo.
(WSJ, 8/6/08, p.A10)
2008 Aug 13, The Indian army said that
it was investigating UN allegations its troops had engaged in sexual abuse while on peacekeeping duties in the Democratic Republic of Congo. A five-story building in a crowded residential neighborhood of Mumbai, India's main financial city, collapsed after monsoon rains, killing at least 20 people.
2008 Aug 28, Government forces fought Tutsi rebels in the fiercest clashes for months in eastern Congo, threatening a struggling peace process.
2008 Sep 1, In east Democratic Republic of Congo a humanitarian plane carrying 17 passengers and crew crashed into a mountain with no sign of survivors.
2008 Sep 11, A Paris court convicted Didier Bourguet, a former UN employee, for the rape of young Africans during his postings in Central African Republic and Congo. Bourguet was sentenced to nine years in prison for having
committed about 20 rapes of teenage girls between 1998 and 2004 during his postings as a mechanic for the UN.
2008 Sep 14, In eastern Congo a riot
ensued following accusations that a soccer player was using witchcraft. 13 people were left dead.
(SFC, 9/16/08, p.A7)
2008 Sep 27, It was reported that the elephant
population in Congo’s Virunga National Park had dropped to under 200, mostly due to poaching. In 1964 there were an estimated 2,900. In 2006 the number had dropped to 400.
(Econ, 9/27/08, p.62)
2008 Oct 7, The UN refugee agency said at least 5,000 people have fled violence in northeastern Congo and sought shelter in neighboring Sudan over the last two weeks due to ferocious attacks by rebels of the Lord's Resistance Army from neighboring Uganda.
2008 Oct 10, Congo's President Joseph Kabila named Budget Minister Adolphe Muzito (51) as the new prime minister following the resignation of 83-year-old Antoine Gizenga.
2008 Oct 10, The UN urged Congo and Rwanda to hold talks to avoid a war after Kinshasa accused its eastern neighbor of sending troops over the border to back Congolese rebels.
2008 Oct 14, The UN said intense fighting between the Congolese army and Ugandan rebels have forced over 50,000 people to flee their homes in the north-eastern Democratic Republic of the
Congo's Ituri region.
2008 Oct 24, The World Food Program said fighting in eastern Congo has driven some 200,000 from their homes during the last 8
weeks, exacerbating an already dire humanitarian crisis.
2008 Oct 26, Rebels seized an east Congo army base and the headquarters of a refuge housing
some of the world's last mountain gorillas, in heavy fighting that sent thousands of civilians fleeing. An unknown number of soldiers, rebels and civilians were killed in the renewed fighting in North Kivu province.
2008 Oct 27, Thousands of civilians threw rocks at four UN offices in eastern Congo, venting outrage at the organization's inability to protect them from rebel forces advancing on the provincial capital of Goma.
2008 Oct 28, Rebels vowing to take Congo's eastern provincial capital of 600,000 people advanced toward Goma as Congolese troops and UN tanks retreated, while tens of thousands fled to a makeshift
2008 Oct 29, Congolese rebel forces advanced on the eastern city of Goma, threatening to overwhelm government troops and a 17,000-strong UN
force deployed to halt a return to all-out war. The Congolese army said troops from Rwanda have crossed the nearby border and attacked its soldiers in support of a minority Tutsi rebellion. Congolese rebels declared a ceasefire after a four-day push to the gates of Goma that threatened to drag Congo back to all-out war, but heavy gunfire resumed near the eastern city after
(Reuters, 10/29/08)(AP, 10/29/08)
2008 Oct 30, Laurent Nkunda, the rebel general besieging Congo's eastern provincial capital Goma, said he wants direct talks
with the government about ending fighting in the region and his objections to a $5 billion deal that gives China access to the country's vast mineral riches in exchange for a railway and highway. Nkunda said he sent a letter to the UN peacekeeping mission in Goma saying he will set up an "urgent humanitarian corridor" for refugees and humanitarian aid. Refugees have continued fleeing the war-torn
eastern province for neighboring Uganda.
(AP, 10/30/08)(AFP, 10/30/08)
2008 Oct 31, Thousands of war-weary refugees set out on foot for their homes in eastern Congo,
taking advantage of a cease-fire as American and UN envoys joined efforts there to find a political solution to the region's long-running rebellion.
Nov 1, Tutsi-led rebels tightened their hold on newly seized swaths of eastern Congo, forcing tens of thousands of frightened, rain-soaked civilians out of makeshift refugee camps and stopping some from fleeing to government-held territory. Congolese soldiers killed nine fighters from Uganda's Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) after 30-50 rebels attacked a village in
northeast Democratic Republic of Congo.
(AP, 11/2/08)(AFP, 11/2/08)
2008 Nov 4, Congolese rebel leader Laurent Nkunda threatened to take his eastern guerrilla war
westwards to the capital Kinshasa unless the government agreed to talks on the country's future. Congo's government refused rebel leader Laurent Nkunda's demand for direct talks.
(Reuters, 11/4/08)(AP, 11/4/08)
2008 Nov 5, In Congo heavy fighting erupted for a second day between rebels and a pro-government militia in lawless North Kivu province, but a wider cease-fire was holding around this provincial capital. In Kiwanja fighters loyal to rebel General Laurent Nkunda drove out pro-government Mai-Mai militia, sending its inhabitants fleeing in
panic. A local clergyman said at least 180 civilians had been killed overnight. The next day UN peacekeepers found the bodies of a dozen shot civilians.
(AP, 11/5/08)(AP, 11/6/08)(Econ, 11/8/08, p.61)
2008 Nov 7, The UN secretary-general joined African leaders to try to end the fighting in eastern Congo, where a fragile cease-fire is close to collapse. A UN official and a peacekeeping officer said Angolan troops are fighting alongside Congolese soldiers battling rebels outside the eastern provincial capital of Goma. The UN official
said an unspecified number of Angolans arrived four days ago.
2008 Nov 7, India said it will send one of its most decorated army units to join a UN mission in Congo and support other Indian troops as
Congolese rebels advance to seize fresh areas.
2008 Nov 8, Congolese soldiers advanced toward rebel lines in renewed fighting that threatens a
tenuous cease-fire around the eastern provincial capital Goma.
2008 Nov 9, Doctors struggled to contain an outbreak of cholera in a sprawling refugee
camp near Congo's eastern provincial capital of Goma, as new fighting ignited fears that infected patients could scatter and launch an epidemic.
Nov 11, The UN reported that hundreds of Congolese soldiers rampaged through several villages in eastern Congo raping women and pillaging homes as they pulled back ahead of a feared rebel advance.
(SFC, 11/12/08, p.A7)
2008 Nov 12, Angola announced it is mobilizing troops to send to neighboring Congo, heightening fears that the fighting in this central African nation will engulf other countries in the region. North of Kibati the bodies of two dead government soldiers lay in the center of the road beside a rebel
2008 Nov 16, Congo's main rebel leader promised a UN envoy to support a cease-fire and UN efforts to end the fighting, and the diplomat
said he hoped the warring sides would hold peace talks in Kenya. Congo government troops abandoned their position at Rwindi, 130 km (80 miles) north of Goma in North Kivu province, after a battle with the rebels involving small arms and heavier weapons. UN peacekeeping troops at Rwindi stayed in their base during the fighting.
(AP, 11/16/08)(AP, 11/17/08)
2008 Nov 18, Demoralized Congolese government troops, retreating before eastern rebels, clashed with their own local militia allies who tried to make them stand and fight after the
armed forces chief was replaced.
2008 Nov 20, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to send some 3,000 additional UN peacekeepers to the
Democratic Republic of the Congo to help prevent a new war in the country's east.
2008 Nov 20, Britain called on Rwandan President Paul Kagame to use his "influence" over Congolese rebels led by
general Laurent Nkunda to end to violence in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.
2008 Nov 21, In eastern Congo armed men shot and killed a
20-year-old woman at the Kibati refugee camp where thousands of displaced people live in constant fear, caught between soldiers and rebels. Armed men also forced families there out of their huts and looted them. Didace Namujimbo, a journalist working for a UN-backed radio station, was shot dead in Bukavu.
2008 Nov 22, Congolese rebel leader Laurent Nkunda sought to reassure people in territory recently seized in a lightning advance, telling thousands gathered in Rutshuru for his first mass rally that his men intend to
bring peace, not war, to Congo. A rebel offensive under Nkunda began to push some 1,500 Hutu FDLR militiamen from Ishasha. The move forced over 3,000 civilians to flee to neighboring Uganda.
(AP, 11/22/08)(SFC, 11/27/08, p.A8)
Nov 22, In eastern Congo 2 mass graves containing as many as 2,000 bodies were discovered in Bukavu on a plot of land formerly owned by a member of the Congolese Rally for Democracy (RCD), a Rwandan-backed rebel group. The RCD became a political party in 2003. Many of its top leaders were integrated into the government, taking jobs as vice presidents and army
2008 Nov 23, Congolese soldiers stopped a peacekeepers' convoy at an impromptu roadblock and dragged 23 Congolese men off the trucks, accusing
them of being rebels. UN officials said the men were rebels who had surrendered as well as national policemen and civilians.
2008 Nov 24, Congolese
soldiers went on an overnight looting and shooting spree in a sprawling Congolese refugee camp, stealing from hungry and traumatized people who have fled fighting in the country's east.
2008 Nov 27, More than 10,000 Congolese civilians fled to Uganda in a matter of hours to escape renewed fighting.
Nov 28, Congo rebels captured the border post of Ishasha in eastern Congo, increasing their stranglehold over the region. At least 13,000 frightened civilians have fled into Uganda over the last two days.
2008 Nov 30, Rebels in eastern Congo pulled out of Ishasha, a town on the Ugandan border they captured in fighting that forced 10,000 people to flee.
2008 Dec 8, Congolese rebels opened peace negotiations with a government delegation in Nairobi in their first direct talks on ending the conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.
2008 Dec 12, A UN Security Council panel said that Rwanda and Congo are fighting a proxy war by aiding each other's enemies, a conclusion that could lead to additional UN sanctions over the conflict in the central African region. A UN
report cited an advisor to Rwandan President Paul Kagame and a member of the Congolese opposition, both wealthy businessmen, as key financial backers of rebels in eastern DR Congo.
(AP, 12/12/08)(AFP, 12/13/08)
2008 Dec 14, Uganda, southern Sudan and Congo launched an offensive against the Lord's Resistance Army bases based in eastern Congo in an attempt to end one of the continent's longest and most brutal wars.
2008 Dec 21, Congolese Tutsi rebels threatened to advance into UN-monitored buffer zones in eastern Congo after refusing to sign a declaration ending hostilities with the government.
2008 Dec 26, A Chinese man and two Lebanese nationals were shot dead in a crime wave in southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo that also left 10 Congolese dead this week. The mayor of
Lubumbashi, Marie-Gregoire Tambila, said that 11 people had been killed in the last four days in her city, including a Lebanese national who was killed on Christmas day. In eastern Congo attackers, identified as members of the Lord’s Resistance Army, killed some 100 people at a church in Doruma. The UN said rebels had killed 189 people over 2 days.
(AFP, 12/26/08)(SFC, 12/30/08, p.A10)
2008 Dec 30, Congo’s health minister said An Ebola virus outbreak has killed 11 people in western Congo. Caritas, a Catholic charity, reported that over 400 people have been
killed in northeaster Congo since Christmas day.
(AP, 12/30/08)(SFC, 12/31/08, p.A3)
2008 In CongoDRC Col. Samy Matumo, the commander of a renegade brigade,
controlled the tin operations in Bisie, North Kivu province. He and his men extorted, taxed and appropriated as much as $80 million a year from mining operations in the area.
(SSFC, 11/16/08, p.A21)
2008 Lisa F.
Jackson (57), American filmmaker, produced her 75-minute film: “The Greatest Silence: Rape in the Congo.
(SFC, 4/5/08, p.E1)
2008 In CongoDRC some 16,000 new cases of sexual violence, 65% of them involving
children, were registered this year.
(Econ, 8/15/09, p.54)
2009 Jan 2, Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army rebels killed two wildlife rangers and six other people in a
remote national park in northeastern Congo.
2009 Jan 5, In eastern Congo rival rebel chief of staff Bosco Ntaganda announced the dismissal of Laurent
Nkunda and has taken control of the CNDP rebel movement.
2009 Jan 8, In eastern Congo Mai Mai militiamen attacked a group of seven rangers killing one
in a government-controlled sector in the far north of Virunga National park.
2009 Jan 12, War crimes prosecutors in The Hague accused former Congolese
vice president Jean-Pierre Bemba of using systematic rape to terrorize civilians suspected of supporting rebels during a bloody power struggle in neighboring Central African Republic.
2009 Jan 16, In eastern Congo the leader of a splinter rebel faction said his forces would stop fighting the government and the two sides would work together to battle Rwandan militias at the heart of the conflict. Ugandan rebels, according to the UN, massacred 100 civilians in Tora, a village in northeast Congo, the latest atrocity
blamed on the insurgents.
(AP, 1/16/09)(AP, 1/29/09)
2009 Jan 17, A human rights groups said Ugandan rebels in eastern Congo have ruthlessly killed at least 620
people in the past month, and vulnerable civilians in the region desperately need protection. According to Ugandan troops, the Lord's Resistance Army rebels set fire to a church in the village of Tora. it was unclear how many people were killed.
(AP, 1/18/09)(AP, 1/19/09)
2009 Jan 20, Hundreds of Rwandan troops rolled into the Democratic Republic of Congo to join Congolese forces hunting Rwandan rebels operating there since 1994.
2009 Jan 22, Congolese and Rwandan troops advanced on the headquarters of Tutsi rebel leader, Laurent Nkunda, as Kinshasa used its neighbor to smother a rebellion in eastern DR Congo. Rwanda arrested Congo rebel leader Laurent Nkunda
after he fled a joint operation launched by the armies of the two nations.
(AP, 1/22/09)(AP, 1/23/09)
2009 Jan 26, The armies of Congo and Rwanda, battling together
against Rwandan Hutu militiamen in eastern Congo, clashed with fighters trying to retake a village and killed 4 of them.
2009 Jan 26, In the Netherlands the first-ever trial of the International
Criminal Court began at The Hague with Thomas Lubanga, a Congolese militia commander, denying he committed war crimes by recruiting hundreds of child soldiers to kill and rape.
Jan 27, The UN refugee agency said thousands of Congolese civilians have fled across the border to South Sudan to escape rebels of the Lord's Resistance Army.
2009 Jan 29, The first of more than 6,000 Congolese rebels took part in a ceremony to integrate their units into the regular army as part of a deal to end the conflict in eastern DR Congo.
2009 Feb 13, A Congolese military spokesman said more than 40 members of a Hutu militia suspected of atrocities during Rwanda's 1994 genocide were killed in an overnight air raid.
2009 Feb 25, Rwandan troops began pulling out of eastern Democratic Republic of Congo after a controversial joint operation with Congolese troops against Rwandan Hutu rebels.
2009 Mar 15, Uganda began withdrawing troops hunting brutal Lord's Resistance Army rebels in neighboring Congo after the deadline for them to leave expired. Felix Kulaigye, a Ugandan military
spokesman, said the operation had been a success, with around 100 rebels killed and more than 200 abductees rescued, and that Congo would continue the hunt.
Mar 23, The Congolese government signed a peace agreement with and a group known as CNDP, which later gave rise to M23. The agreement failed to bring peace.
2009 Mar 26, French President Nicolas Sarkozy visited Brazzaville and Kinshasa. During the Kinshasa trip, given over in large part to regional political issues, Areva signed an agreement with the government allowing the company to prospect for and mine uranium.
2009 Mar, The IMF disbursed nearly $200 million to boost the foreign-currency reserves of the Democratic Republic of Congo and maintain macroeconomic
(Econ, 4/18/09, p.54)
2009 Mar, In CongoDRC Thomas Kwoyelo, a commander of the Lord's Resistance Army, was captured in Garamba forest. In 2011 he faced a charges in
2009 Apr 6, In Zambia western nations and lending agencies meeting in Lusaka agreed a financing package of more than $1 billion to improve
infrastructure in southern and central Africa at an investment conference meant to expand transport links and trade. Britain said it would separately provide 100 million pounds ($149.2 million) to transform the region's infrastructure to increase trade and mitigate the effects of the global financial crisis. New projects will link businesses in 8 African countries: Tanzania, the Democratic
Republic of Congo, Zambia, Malawi, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and South Africa.
2009 Apr 9, A top human rights group said in a report that at least
90 women have been raped and 180 villagers killed over the past two months by rebels as well as government forces in volatile eastern Congo.
29, A Boeing 737 on a test flight from Brazzaville crashed southeast of Kinshasa, killing 7 people.
2009 Apr, UN special investigator Philip Alston
said on October 15 that Congolese soldiers had killed 50 Rwandan Hutu refugees and abducted and raped around 40 women during an April attack on a refugee camp in eastern DR Congo.
2009 May 10, In the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo at least 60 people were killed over the last 48 hours during attacks blamed on Rwandan Hutu rebels.
2009 May 18, UN military commanders told top UN officials that Congolese rebels integrated into the country's army as part of a peace deal are looting, raping and killing the civilians they are meant to protect.
2009 May 19, The UN Security Council said that it had asked the Congolese government to investigate and arrest five high-ranking army officers known to have committed atrocities.
2009 May, In CongoDRC 2 former Norwegian soldiers allegedly murdered their driver and attempted to murder a witness. The alleged motive behind the killing was unknown. On Sep 8 they were
convicted of espionage and murder. In 2010 a military judge threw out the ruling and ordered a new case.
(AP, 12/4/09)(AFP, 9/8/09)(AP, 4/22/10)
2009 Jun 15, The
Hague-based International Criminal Court ordered former Congolese rebel warlord Jean-Pierre Bemba to stand trial on charges of crimes against humanity and war crimes, including murder, rape and pillaging.
2009 Jun 19, A top Congo army officer said 32 people have been killed in three days of fighting in eastern Congo between government soldiers and Rwandan Hutu rebels backed by Congolese militia allies.
2009 Jun 22, In Democratic Republic of Congo rioting inmates overnight raped around 20 female prisoners during a failed prison break in Goma. Two people were killed and 12 others were injured when prisoners detonated two
2009 Jun 26, A UN official said Ugandan rebels this year have killed around 1,200 Congolese civilians and abducted 1,500, mostly
children, in a remote region of northeast Congo.
2009 Jul 20, In eastern Democratic Republic of Congo at least 24 people, most of them civilians, were
killed when rebels attacked an army base.
2009 Jul 24, The UN refugee agency said 536,000 people have been chased from their homes in eastern
Congo this year as a result of clashes between government forces and rebels linked to neighboring Rwanda's 1994 genocide.
2009 Jul 27, A Congo
government spokesman said The Democratic Republic of Congo has suspended transmission of French broadcaster Radio France International (RFI).
Aug 1, Humanitarian groups said members of the Lord's Resistance Army, a Ugandan rebel group, have launched attacks against towns in the Central African Republic that have left at least 10 people dead in the last two weeks. The attacks by the LRA, launched from its rear bases in the Democratic Republic of Congo, have also forced hundreds of people to flee their
2009 Aug 6, DR Congo President Joseph Kabila met his Rwandan counterpart Paul Kagame in the lakeside city of Goma for the first official
bilateral talks between the neighboring states in 13 years.
2009 Aug 10, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton arrived in the strife-torn Democratic
Republic of Congo on the fourth leg of her seven-nation African tour. Clinton said she would press Democratic Republic of Congo's government to address the root causes of the conflict in the east and stop the use of women as "weapons of war."
2009 Aug 11, Authorities in the Democratic Republic of Congo arrested Gregoire Ndahimana, a former Rwandan mayor, for his alleged role in the 1994 genocide. Measures were taken for him to be transferred to the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) headquarters in Arusha,
2009 Aug 11, In Congo US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton called for the Democratic Republic of Congo to punish soldiers responsible for rape as she toured the war-torn east. She also
unveiled a $17 million plan to help fight the sexual violence in eastern Congo.
(AFP, 8/11/09)(SFC, 8/12/09, p.A3)
2009 Sep 8, In the Democratic Republic of Congo
two Norwegians were sentenced to death by a court for murdering a Congolese man in the northeast of the country in May.
2009 Sep 13, In southern
Democratic Republic of Congo at least 14 people were dead and another 34 missing after their boat sank in an isolated stretch of the Lualaba river.
Oct 5, In Burundi 2 days of clashes began as government forces fired live rounds in the air to deter hundreds of Congolese refugees from returning home. Some 900 refugees had decided to return home on foot rather than be transferred to a new camp further away from the border with Democratic Republic of Congo.
2009 Oct 13, Activists from Congo, Rene Ngongo (48), and New Zealand, Alyn Ware (47), and an Ethiopia-based doctor from Australia, Catherine Hamlin (85), won the Right Livelihood Award, also known
as the "alternative Nobel," for work to protect rain forests, improve women's health and rid the world of nuclear weapons. The honorary part of the award, without prize money, went to Canadian environmentalist David Suzuki (73) for raising awareness of climate change. Each will receive euro50,000 (US$74,000).
2009 Oct 13, A report by a coalition of 84 organizations said more than 1,000 civilians have been killed and nearly 900,000 displaced in eastern Congo by Rwandan Hutu militiamen and Congolese forces since January.
2009 Oct 14, The Democratic Republic of Congo said it had agreed with Angola to halt tit-for-tat expulsions of each other's citizens as victims told of being subjected to brutal rapes and lootings
when they were thrown out by Luanda.
2009 Oct 28, The UN mission to Congo (MONUC) said Congolese soldiers killed their unit commander when he ordered
them not to steal and pillage in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The men involved were former Mai-Mai militia members from the Congolese Resistance Patriots movement (PARECO) who recently became part of the army.
2009 Oct 29, In northern Democratic Republic of Congo armed villagers killed at least 47 policemen trying to intervene in ethnic clashes.
2009 Oct 30, Congo's foreign minister said India has offered Democratic Republic of Congo $263 million in loans to build hydroelectric plants and repair battered infrastructure in the war-ravaged nation. The two countries agreed to the final terms of the loan package this week during a
four-day visit by Foreign Minister Alexis Thambwe Mwamba to India.
2009 Oct, In the Democratic Republic of Congo fighting broke out between two
tribes, the Lobala and the Bombona, in a dispute over rich fishing waters in Dongo, 200 km (125 miles) south of Gemena, the main town in the Sud-Oubangui district. The clashes left some 270 people dead. A 600-strong unit of commando reinforcements wrested back control of the Dongo region on December 13.
2009 Nov 2, A top UN official announced that the UN has withdrawn its support for Congolese army units operating in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, accusing its soldiers of killing 62
2009 Nov 3, Rwanda said it has urged the UN to list the Rwandan Hutu rebel group operating in eastern Congo as a terrorist
2009 Nov 3, Senior Lord's Resistance Army commander Charles Arop, who was implicated in leading a massacre on Christmas Day that killed at least 143 Congolese, surrendered to the
Ugandan military stationed in the northeast of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
2009 Nov 8, The Democratic Republic of Congo government said security
forces in an overnight raid on the town of Dongo have arrested about 100 armed men blamed for killing dozens of policemen in an attack in the country's isolated north last month.
2009 Nov 15, India's Essar Group, and energy-to-steel conglomerate, said it has agreed to buy a majority stake in Dhabi Group's telecommunication businesses in African nations Uganda and Congo.
2009 Nov 17, Two leading Rwandan Hutu rebels were arrested in Germany on suspicion of crimes against humanity and war crimes this year and in 2008 in DR Congo. The pair, Ignace Murwanashyaka (46) and Straton Musoni (48) are the leader and deputy leader respectively of the Democratic
Liberation Forces of Rwanda. The FDLR is estimated to have 5,000 to 6,000 fighters, many of whom took part in the 1994 genocide in Rwanda before crossing into the neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo.
2009 Nov 24, A report was leaked on the UN’s peacekeeping mission in the CongoDRC, better known as MONUC. The report alleged collusion between peacekeepers and Congo’s army to help various rebel groups in exchange for cash and access to mineral wealth.
2009 Nov 25, A United Nations report confirmed that one of Africa's most brutal rebel movements relies on a vast, international network of supporters in at
least 25 countries including in the US and Europe who facilitate arms trafficking, money transfers and day-to-day operational support. The findings are a scathing indictment of how little has been done by the international community to cut off logistical support to the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), an ethnic Hutu militia which has wreaked havoc in
2009 Nov 25, In western Democratic Republic of Congo at least 73 people were killed and others missing after a logging boat sank in Lake Mai Ndombe in Bandundu
2009 Nov 26, In the Congo four UN peacekeepers were wounded in northern Congo after a UN helicopter was attacked by armed
2009 Nov 27, In Congo DRC four people died when a jail cell wall fell on them during an attempted prison escape in Kinshasa.
2009 Dec 3, A Congolese court upheld death sentences for two Norwegians convicted of espionage and murder, prompting condemnation from Norwegian
officials. They had been convicted in Sep of murdering their driver and attempting to murder a witness in May 2009.
2009 Dec 14, Human Rights Watch
said a UN-backed Congolese military operation to oust rebels from eastern Congo has caused more civilian casualties than damage to rebels, with more than 1,400 people deliberately killed over a nine-month period.
Dec 14-2009 Dec 17, In northeastern Congo at least 321 civilians were killed in a massacre by the Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army in the Makombo area. Villagers that escaped their LRA captors were sent back with their lips and ears cut off as a warning to others of what would happen if they tried to talk. News of the massacre was not made public until March 27,
2009 Dec 21, The UN accused the Ugandan-based Lord's Resistance Army of killing, mutilating and raping villagers in Sudan and Congo in what may
have been crimes against humanity.
2009 Dec 23, The UN Security Council voted to renew the mandate of peacekeeping forces in Congo by 5 months instead
of the usual year amid plans to overhaul their role in the war-torn country.
2009 Gerard Prunier authored “Africa’s World War: Congo, the Rwandan
Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe.”
(Econ, 1/24/09, p.88)
2009 In Kinshasa, Congo, the music group Staff Benda Bilili, all victims of polio, released their first album entitled “Tres, Tres
(Econ, 10/3/09, p.60)(www.crammed.be/staffbendabilili/)
2010 Jan 1, A Congolese army officer said the Democratic Republic of Congo forces are to mount a new
offensive against Rwandan Hutu rebels in the east of the country with the backing of UN troops.
2010 Jan 10, In southeast Congo 6 people, including 5
children, died in a tin mine collapse. 2 people were left missing.
2010 Feb 15, Congo’s Radio Okapi, a UN-run station, said Rwandan Hutu rebels have
killed at least 27 people in eastern Congo already this month.
2010 Feb 22, In eastern CongoDRC 3 people were killed when Congolese soldiers attacked a
UN agency car and tried to loot it in South Kivu province. A combination of military personnel from the US Special Operations Command Africa, including US special forces and civilian specialists under contract, were said to be conducting training a battalion of Congolese soldiers in the city of Kisangani. The 8-month program for the battalion, which can consist of about 1,000 soldiers, will cover
military basics but also will focus on human rights training. Human rights groups have previously accused Congo's poorly trained and irregularly paid army forces of attacking civilians.
(AP, 2/23/10)(AP, 3/1/10)
2010 Feb 28, A UN-backed military operation against Rwandan Hutu rebels in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo was launched. The operation will involve 18 battalions from the Congolese FARDC army in a series of targeted attacks throughout north and south Kivu provinces in Congo's conflict-racked
2010 Feb, In northeast Congo up to 100 people were killed about this time when the rebel Lord's Resistance Army attacked a village. News of the
massacre did not become public until May 1 when UN humanitarian chief John Holmes said he learned of the killings when he visited Niangara, the nearest town which he reached by helicopter.
(AP, 5/2/10)(Reuters, 5/2/10)
2010 Mar 10, A UN official said 90 Rwandan rebels have been killed in eastern Congo during a two-week Congolese army operation conducted with the support of UN peacekeepers.
2010 Mar 17, The Congolese army said more than 600 Rwandan Hutu rebels have been killed or captured since January in an operation backed by the UN mission to the country.
2010 Apr 4, In northern Congo some 100-150 Enyele rebels attacked Mbandaka, capital of Congo's northern Equateur province. A UN peacekeeper from Ghana was fatally shot while in a car. A UN civilian and a South African pilot died
during the fighting. At least 36 people, including policemen, an army officer and militiamen, died in the clashes between the Enyele and Munzale tribesmen reportedly over farming and fishing rights.
(AP, 4/5/10)(AP, 4/6/10)(Econ, 4/17/10, p.51)
2010 Apr 5, In northern Congo UN-backed government forces retook the Mbandaka provincial airport from rebels. In eastern Congo 2 soldiers shot and killed national radio journalist Patient Chebeya Bakome. Bakome's brother said the soldiers shot Bakome in front of his wife and took his phone
and money. Beni police arrested the 2 soldiers.
(AP, 4/5/10)(AP, 4/6/10)
2010 Apr 7, Innovation for the Development and Protection of the Environment (IDPE) said
that from March 3-28 Congo government troops killed 7 hippos and 5 elephants as well as five antelopes, four baboons, three chimpanzees and two buffalo in Virunga national Park, a UNESCO world heritage. The soldiers "use their wives and cousins to sell the meat" in villages near the park, the IDPE said in a report that included photos of decomposing elephant
2010 Apr 9, In Congo 7 Congolese and one Swiss national, staff members of the Red Cross, were seized near the town of Fizi in South Kivu
province by the Mai Mai Yakutumba rebels. The workers were released on April 16.
(AP, 4/13/10)(AP, 4/16/10)
2010 Apr 15, A new study by Oxfam said the number of
rapes carried out by civilians in eastern Congo has increased by 17-fold in the last few years. It said sexual assaults long perpetrated by armed groups are spreading across the population.
2010 May 5, Congo’s government information minister said civilians who were being recruited to a new rebel movement in Congo's northwest captured the group's leader and he now will stand trial for war crimes. Odjani was captured by youths he was trying to recruit in the village of Dongo. In eastern Congo 80 people were missing and
feared dead after an overloaded canoe capsized on a river. 45 people were rescued from the Congo River near the city of Kindu, the capital of Congo's eastern Maniema province.
May 24, The UN said an Indian UN peacekeeper and two Congolese nationals were killed in an ambush in North Kivu province, Democratic Republic of Congo.
2010 May 27, UN experts said rebel groups in eastern Congo are illegally imposing taxes on trucks and pedestrians and receiving local, regional and international support in violation of UN sanctions.
2010 May 28, The UN, bowing to pressure from Congo's President Joseph Kabila, agreed to withdraw up to 2,000 peacekeeping troops and redefine the remaining force as a "stabilization" mission in his nation to coincide with its 50th anniversary of
2010 Jun 2, In CongoDRC the body of Floribert Chebeya Bahizire of Voix des Sans Voix, or Voice of the Voiceless, was found in his car in
a suburb of Kinshasa. The next day Navi Pillay, the top UN human rights official said the victim had suffered a pattern of intimidation because of his work. For the past two decades, Voix des Sans Voix had worked to document human rights abuses across Congo, focusing on corruption in the military and foreign support for militias. On June 4 several police officers were arrested as part of a
preliminary investigation into the death of Bahizire.
(AP, 6/3/10)(AP, 6/5/10)
2010 Jun 10, A Congo military court sentenced to death a British-Norwegian national
and a Norwegian convicted of espionage and murder. Joshua French, the dual national, and Tjostolv Moland, both former Norwegian soldiers, were convicted last year of murdering their driver and attempting to murder a witness. The alleged motive is unknown. A lawyer said the two witnesses who testified against them were awarded large sums of money in compensation and have changed their stories
2010 Jun 29, Congolese Gen. Amuli Bahigwa said the army has killed 80 rebels from neighboring Rwanda and Uganda who crossed into
volatile eastern Congo. Bahigwa said the army killed the rebels in an operation that started June 1. He said four soldiers were killed and that Ugandan rebels killed eight civilians.
2010 Jun 29,
Uganda’s Lieutenant Colonel Felix Kulayigye confirmed the ADF are attacking a Congolese town called Mutwanga and have killed 16 civilians. The Allied Democratic Forces, a group that claims it is fighting for equality for Muslims, battled Ugandan forces in country's Rwenzori region near the DRC, with the heaviest fighting occurring between 1996 and
2010 Jul 2, In eastern Congo a fuel tanker overturned and burst into flames, sparking a massive fire that killed at least 230 villagers and
wounded more than 200 — some of whom had rushed to siphon leaking liquid from the vehicle illegally.
(AP, 7/3/10)(SSFC, 7/4/10, p.A5)(SFC, 7/5/10, p.A2)
2010 Jul 8,
The International Criminal Court at The Hague suspended Congolese militia chief Thomas Lubanga's trial and rapped prosecutors for abusing court processes and ignoring judges' orders.
2010 Jul 24, Congolese rebels took an Indian pilot hostage when they attacked an aircraft on a remote airstrip in a tin mining zone in the country's North Kivu province.
2010 Jul 26, Campaign group Global Witness said it was launching legal action against the British government for allegedly failing to refer companies trading Congolese "conflict minerals" for UN sanctions.
2010 Jul 27, In CongoDRC a boat ferrying about 200 passengers to Kinshasa capsized after hitting a rock. As many as 138 people were killed with 80 confirmed dead.
2010 Jul 30, In eastern CongoDRC rebels from the Mai Mai militia and Rwandan Hutu FDLR occupied Luvungi town, North Kivu, one day after beginning an attack there. Over the next 4 days they
gang-raped scores of women. The rebels withdrew voluntarily on Aug 4. Later reports said there were over 500 systematic rapes.
(AP, 8/23/10)(Reuters, 9/1/10)(AP, 9/7/10)
Aug 11, In CongoDRC around 40 people were killed when an overloaded truck laden with passengers plowed into Lake Tanganyika, Africa's deepest lake.
2010 Aug 18, In the Democratic of Republic of Congo 3 Indian UN peacekeepers were killed in a surprise attack on their base by 50 fighters armed with machetes, spears and traditional weapons. The next day Congolese soldiers arrested two suspects in the killing of the Indian
(Reuters, 8/18/10)(AFP, 8/19/10)
2010 Aug 25, Police in northeastern Congo said they have seized 116 elephant tusks and arrested two men following a
2010 Aug 25, In western Congo a passenger plane, operated by local airliner FILAIR, crashed, killing 19 people. Police said there were two
2010 Aug, In CongoDRC rebel militants raped some 240 people over 4 days in the Walikale district of eastern Congo. At least 387 people were
raped in the Walikale territory in late July and early, including men, children and a month-old baby boy. In 2011 survivors suffered reprisals and a judicial inquiry into the violence was suspended.
(Econ, 1/15/11, p.64)(AP, 7/6/11)
2010 Sep 1, Gunmen in eastern Congo fired on a private plane carrying international aid workers who escaped into the forest. The aid workers were rescued later in the day by peacekeepers. A Congolese soldier and two militiamen were killed in the firefight. 2 pilots in another plane were
captured after an attack by Mai Mai and Rwandan Hutu rebels shortly after landing at Kilambo. The pilots and 2 injured people were released on Sep 24.
(AP, 9/1/10)(AP, 9/25/10)
Sep 4, In southern Congo at least 200 people were feared dead after a boat engine caught fire and led the vessel to overturn on the Kasai River. Survivors who swam to safety said nearby fishermen refused to help drowning passengers in the dark of night, instead looting the goods aboard the burning vessel and beating people with oars. Earlier the same day,
a boat on a river in northwest Equateur Province hit a rock and capsized. More than 70 people were believed dead among 100 estimated passengers.
(AP, 9/5/10)(AP, 9/6/10)
Sep 7, Police in southeastern Congo say they have arrested three men carrying six suitcases full of elephant tusks. 3 Chinese nationals were caught at Lumumbashi's airport while trying to fly to Nairobi, Kenya. The men said they bought the ivory from antique dealers.
2010 Sep 8, Congo’s President Joseph Kabila ordered the indefinite suspension near the mining hub of Walikale, where more than 240 people were treated for rape last month.
2010 Sep 11, Congo’s President Joseph Kabila extended indefinite mining suspensions to three more provinces in the volatile east.
2010 Sep 11, In Sudan a rare three-day meeting of 30 religious and community leaders as well as local government officials from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), south Sudan, the Central African Republic (CAR) and Uganda criticized the
"lack of a coordinated and comprehensive strategy" to tackle the LRA rebels.
2010 Sep 29, In CongoDRC Armand Tungulu (30), a Congolese citizen living
in Belgium, was taken into custody by Pres. Kabila's bodyguards after he threw rocks at the presidential motorcade. Witnesses said the guards beat Tungulu before arresting him. On Oct 4 a statement from the Congolese attorney general's office said Tungulu killed himself on the night of Oct 1 with a piece of cloth he had been using as a pillow. On October 14 the DR Congo refused to return to
Belgium the body of a Tungulu.
(AP, 10/4/10)(AP, 10/23/10)
2010 Oct 1, The UN released its 545-page report into mass killings in Congo over a ten-year period. Rwanda
and Uganda insisted the $3 million report is flawed and could harm security in Africa's volatile Great Lakes region.
2010 Oct 5, Fellow rebels handed
over Congolese commander Sadoke Kokunda Mayele. He was arrested for allegedly leading fighters in the mass gang-rapes of more than 300 people from July 30 to August 2.
Oct 7, In eastern Congo children in Burinyi village found an unexploded grenade on their way to fetch water from a well. 5 children died when it detonated as they were playing with it.
2010 Oct 14, Margot Wallstrom, the UN special representative for sexual violence in armed conflict, told the 15-nation Security Council that a man known as "Colonel Serafim" was among those believed to be responsible for the rape of over 300 people. She also said Congolese government
troops are raping, killing and looting civilians in the same area of eastern Congo where militias carried out mass rapes over two months ago.
(AP, 10/14/10)(AP, 10/14/10)
Oct 15, Roger Meece, heads of the UN peacekeeping mission in Congo, said more than 15,000 people were raped in the volatile eastern region of Congo last year, according to the best data available.
2010 Oct 15, Adrian Edwards, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, said the rebels of the Lord's Resistance Army have killed at least 2,000 people and forced 400,000 to flee in three countries in less than two years. A UNHCR communique documented a mounting "campaign of terror against civilians" in the DR Congo, South Sudan and the
2010 Oct 17, Congo's first lady, Olive Lembe Kabila, led thousands of women marching in the country's volatile east to demand an end to a wave
of mass rapes. 3 residents were killed when soldiers looted homes in Congo's South Kivu province.
(AP, 10/17/10)(AP, 10/18/10)
2010 Oct 21, In CongoDRC a small plane
was owned by a local airliner Starec Congo crashed into a gorilla park in eastern Congo killing its pilot and co-pilot. It was carrying some 3,300 pounds (1,500 kg) of commercial goods.
2010 Oct 23, In Belgium police and demonstrators opposed to President Joseph Kabila of the Democratic Republic of Congo clashed in Brussels during a protest over the Oct 1 death in jail of Armand Tungulu, a visitng Congolese dissident who lived in Belgium.
2010 Oct 24, In CongoDRC militia attacked a UN base near Virunga National Park. Some 100 attackers were members of the shadowy Mai Mai militia. Peacekeepers killed 8 militiamen.
2010 Oct 26, The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) said at least 30 women were kept as prisoners in a dungeon-like structure and gang-raped over multiple weeks at the
Congo and Angola border before being left in the bush without their clothes. The deportees said they were held by Angolan authorities in a dingy building. At least three were killed, including two men and a woman (27) who died after being raped repeatedly.
2010 Oct 27, US officials said the Obama administration has granted a waiver allowing Chad, CongoDRC, Sudan and Yemen to continue receiving US military aid despite their use of child soldiers. Officials said cutting off aid would do more damage than
(SFC, 10/28/10, p.A2)
2010 Nov 6, United Nations officials said they were investigating reports that some 700 Congolese women were sexually attacked along the
country's border with Angola. Many women had said Angolan soldiers were responsible for their attacks.
2010 Nov 8, In south-central Congo at least 42
people were killed when a truck overturned on the country's poorly maintained roads. 16 children were among the dead from the crash in Kasai-Oriental province.
Nov 17, In eastern Congo Rwandan Hutu rebels attacked a truck, killing at least three people and wounding several others. UN-run Radio Okapi earlier reported the rebels killed 21 people in the attack in the heavily forested Walikale territory, but a UN spokeswoman said peacekeepers on patrol in the area confirmed only three
2010 Nov 19, In the Republic of Congo 8 countries signed a convention to limit the spread of weapons in central Africa, but three countries
opted out. Angola, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, The Republic of Congo, Sao Tome and Principe all signed. Burundi, Equatorial Guinea and Rwanda did not sign.
2010 Nov 29, The United Nations released a report saying armed groups in volatile eastern Congo, including the army, have bypassed international efforts at reform and have instead formed criminal networks to exploit the nation's mineral
2010 Dec 1, The UN named 3 Rwandan rebel leaders and a Congolese military officer, suspected of recruiting child soldiers and other abuses, on
its worldwide travel ban and assets freeze aimed at stemming widespread violence in Congo.
2010 Dec 7, Hendrik Coetzee (35), an acclaimed South African
outdoorsman, was dragged from his craft by a crocodile on the Lukuga River in Congo. 2 Americans watched, horrified, and paddled to safety. Coetzee was leading a kayaking expedition from the source of the White Nile into Congo.
2010 Dec 10, UNICEF said a polio outbreak in CongoDRC has caused over 200 deaths. Most of those affected were young men between the ages of 15 and 24.
2010 Claus Wischmann and Martin Baer produced the documentary “Kinshasa Symphony” in which they followed Armand Diangienda and the Orchestre Symphonique Kimbanguiste in Kinshasa as they prepared for a concert of Beethoven’s
(Econ, 3/27/10, p.94)(www.youtube.com/watch?v=_vTk0XsgZV4)
2010 Some 100,000 Twa pygmies remained in the Great Lakes region of Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and CongoDRC. Most of them were barred from
their ancestral forests including the Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, which was turned into a national park in 1991.
(Econ, 9/25/10, SR p.11)
2011 Jan 1, In CongoDRC at
least 67 women were raped in South and North Kivu provinces, including a teen-ager and two pregnant women. On Jan 21 Congo arrested Lt. Colonel Kibibi Mutwara, a senior army commander accused of ordering the rapes in Fizi. The arrest followed the detention of 10 other soldiers earlier in the week. On July 22, 2011, a UN report said investigators found at least 47 women were subjected to rape and
other sexual assaults from Dec. 31, 2010, to Jan. 1, 2011 in an isolated and mountainous area of North Kivu province.
(Reuters, 1/25/11)(AP, 7/22/11)
2011 Jan 22,
The Rwandan army said its former chief of staff and an ex-spy chief, both exiled in South Africa, have formed a rebel group operating in neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo. Faustin Kayumba Nyamwasa and Patrick Karegeya and two other former top officials, also in exile, were last week sentenced to heavy jail terms for threatening state security.
2011 Jan 24, In CongoDRC’s Virunga National Park an attack killed three park rangers and five Congolese soldiers. Officials believed the attackers, who fled on foot, were Rwandan-led Hutu rebels
who retaliated after rangers destroyed two of their camps in the park in December.
2011 Feb 2, In CongoDRC at least 14 people were killed and around 20
injured when a goods train derailed in Western Kasai province.
2011 Feb 3, Authorities in Congo arrested four foreigners, an American, a Frenchman and
two Nigerians, suspected of planning to smuggle millions of dollars of gold out of the country's lawless east. Army general Bosco Ntaganda, wanted by the ICC for recruiting child soldiers, received $6.5 million in cash for the gold, over 400kg, which was seized.
(Reuters, 2/7/11)(Econ, 2/12/11,
2011 Feb 14, In the Democratic Republic of Congo a small plane used to deliver World Food Program aid crashed in Bukavu, killing its Russian pilot and his Congolese co-pilot.
2011 Feb 21, In CongoDRC a mobile military court convicted army Lt. Col. Mutuare Daniel Kibibi (46) of crimes against humanity, a landmark verdict in this Central African country where aid groups
say thousands are brutally raped each year and where impunity prevails for the soldiers and militia groups who terrorize civilians. 3 of Kibibi's officers received the same sentences, and 5 others got lesser sentences. 49 women who testified about the New Year attacks in Fizi were to receive up to $10,000 each in compensation from the government as part of the
2011 Feb 25, UN officials said at least 40 people have been raped in eastern areas of the Democratic Republic of Congo over the past 2
(SFC, 2/26/11, p.A2)
2011 Feb 27, In CongoDRC assailants armed with machetes attacked the presidential residence in Kinshasa. At least 7 attackers and 2
guards were killed. President Kabila was not at home at the time. Congolese later picked up 126 suspects in what they say was a multi-pronged attack that centered on Congo's presidential palace in which 19 people were killed.
(AP, 2/27/11)(SFC, 2/28/11, p.A2)(AP, 3/8/11)
2011 Apr 4, In CongoDRC a UN plane crashed while attempting to land at the airport serving Kinshasa, killing 32 UN officials and peacekeepers. One survivor was confirmed.
(http://civiliancontractors.wordpress.com/)(SFC, 4/5/11, p.A2)
2011 Apr 18, In CongoDRC at least 23 people died when a truck crashed into an area where young girls were collecting water outside the eastern city of
2011 Apr 25, In eastern Congo a boat owner said 72 people are missing after his boat capsized on Lake Kivu, possibly because of bad weather and
2011 Apr 26, Congolese children's rights activist Murhabazi Namegabe was named winner of the $100,000 World Children's Prize for his
efforts to protect children exploited by armed groups in the African country. The award foundation based in Mariefred, Sweden, cited Murhabazi's "dangerous struggle to free children forced to be child soldiers or sex slaves" in Congo.
2011 May 2, In CongoDRC at least 106 people were missing after an overloaded boat capsized overnight on the Kasai River.
(Reuters, 5/3/11)(SFC, 5/3/11, p.AA2)
2011 May 11, A new study released by the American Journal of Public Health said 1,152 women are raped every day in CongoDRC, a rate equal to 48 per hour.
2011 May 27, CongoDRC’s North Kivu governor Julien Paluku said that Munyagishari, the suspected leader of an extremist Hutu militia, has been arrested and taken to Kinshasa.
2011 Jun 10-2011 Jun 12, In Congo’s South Kivu province at least 121 rapes occurred during this period in the village of Nyakiele. Medicins Sans Frontieres worked with Congolese health officials and
the UN to get more information. 55 women said they were raped in the night of June 10 to 11, while another said 72 women in the village of Kanguli reported having been violated that same night.
(AP, 6/23/11)(Reuters, 6/24/11)(AP, 7/1/11)(AFP, 7/4/11)
2011 Jun 23, In CongoDRC right groups walked out of the Kimberley meeting in Kinshasa, where African countries, China and India supported a decision to allow Zimbabwe to sell some diamonds from its controversial Marange fields. The endorsement was opposed by Western nations, rights groups
2011 Jun 24, In CongoDRC a 4-day meeting of the Kimberly Process, a system to end the trade in “blood diamonds,” ended. Chairman Mathieu
Yamba announced that two Zimbabwean-South African joint ventures could resume diamond sales.
(Econ, 7/2/11, p.40)
2011 Jun 24, In CongoDRC 19 people were believed dead after a boat capsized overnight on Lake
2011 Jul 1, Doctors without Borders (MSF) said cholera has claimed 153 lives out of 2,787 cases in the capital of the Democratic Republic of
Congo and the provinces. MSF said that the outbreak began in March in the northeastern city of Kisangani, and soon spread westwards, with the first cases reported in Kinshasa on June 20.
2011 Jul 3, In Uganda a motorized canoe left Panyimur on the Ugandan side of the 20-km-wide Lake Albert with 31 passengers aboard. It sank as it approached Mahagi on the Congolese side. In northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) 30 people were missing and one was rescued when a motorized boat sank on Lake
(AFP, 7/5/11)(AFP, 7/6/11)
2011 Jul 6, The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) said the Lord's Resistance Army forces killed 26
civilians in the Democratic Republic of Congo in June alone.
2011 Jul 7, A CongoDRC colonel known as Kifaru, accused of mass rapes last June in
volatile eastern Congo, surrendered with 106 others.
2011 Jul 8, In CongoDRC a Hewa Bora Airways plane crashed in a thunderstorm as it was attempting to
land in Kisangani airport, killing at least 48 people, and leaving a dozen or more buried in the wreckage. 53 passengers survived.
2011 Jul 11, The
European Union signed an agreement to provide 2.5 million euros ($3.5 million) to help care for rape victims in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Jul 22, The United Nations named two Congolese army colonels who appear to be blocking an investigation of soldiers accused of mass gang-raping at least 47 women in eastern Congo, and said if the attackers are not identified the officers themselves should stand trial for the crimes committed by the troopers under their command. Col. Chuma Balumisa was commander of the operational area including
the attacked villages, and Col. Bobo Kakudji was commander of overall operations in North Kivu during the New Year eve rapes.
2011 Jul 28, In CongoDRC
more than 100 people were feared dead after a boat accident on the Tshuapa river in the northwest.
(AFP, 7/29/11)(SFC, 7/29/11, p.A2)
2011 Aug 1, CongoDRC officials
arrested Colonel Balumisa Chuma as he was smuggling a convoy of minerals in the east of the country.
2011 Sep 1, Congo DRC police in Kinshasa fired
tear gas at hundreds of stone-throwing opposition supporters demonstrating against alleged fraud in the run up to November elections.
2011 Sep 5, In
CongoDRC leading opposition figure Etienne Tshisekedi formally submitted his candidacy for the upcoming presidential elections.
2011 Sep 6, In CongoDRC
police fired on protesters in Kinshasa after two early morning attacks in which people ransacked and looted the offices of opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi and armed men set ablaze an independent television station that the government had previously tried to silence. At least one person was killed.
2011 Sep 7, Congolese authorities imposed a temporary ban on political protests in the capital Kinshasa over fears of escalating violence in the run-up to November elections. 8 gunmen attacked a prison in the southeast, freeing a
former militia leader and allowing close to 1,000 inmates to escape. Two people were killed as police recaptured 152 of the 967 escaped prisoners. Kyungu Mutanga, also known as "Commander Gedeon", took part in a spectacular jailbreak at the Kassapa prison in Katanga's capital Lubumbashi. Authorities soon offered $100,000 dollars for information leading to Gedeon’s
(AFP, 9/7/11)(AP, 9/7/11)(AFP, 9/9/11)
2011 Sep 25, In CongoDRC 19 people died when a truck crashed while carrying goods and people 180 km outside
2011 Sep 25, In CongoDRC 114 prisoners fled the prison in Tshikapa, Kasai Occidental state, as an ill prisoner was being taken to the hospital. Police soon captured 90 convicts. Prisoners
had complained previously over a lack of food and water at the prison and over the death of two prisoners amid those conditions.
2011 Sep 28, In
CongoDRC a dozen men scaled the wall of the private television station that supported Etienne Tshisekedi, the country's leading opposition presidential candidate. Investigators said the attackers doused the offices in gasoline and set them ablaze.
2011 Sep, In CongoDRC an initiative by Invisible Children launched the LRA Crisis Tracker web site along with Resolve to map out LRA incidents, mostly in northern Congo. New high frequency radios were being distributed to help track the Lord's Resistance Army, a brutal militia that 100 US
special forces troops were currently helping hunt.
2011 Oct 4, In CongoDRC rebels killed five Congolese aid workers and two other civilians in an
attack in the east at Fizi, Sud-Kivu province. Those responsible were said to be members of the Mai Mai Yakutumba militia and allied rebels of Burundi's National Liberation Front.
2011 Oct 11, UNICEF, the UN children's agency, warned that the west and central Africa region is facing one of the worst cholera epidemics in its history, with over 85,000 cases reported leading to 2,466 deaths this year. The most significant increases were in Chad, Cameroon, and in western Democratic Republic of Congo.
2011 Oct 18, Congolese police fired tear gas to disperse opposition supporters demanding free elections as a US think-tank said Kinshasa must take
action to ensure the upcoming vote is credible.
2011 Nov 3, Ugandan militiamen, known as ADF-NALU, launched an overnight attack on a military base in
Mukakira, eastern Congo, in an attempt to free detained leaders. Nine of the attackers were killed, along with two Congolese soldiers.
2011 Nov 6,
CongoDRC opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi (79), while visiting in South Africa, proclaimed himself president and ordered his followers to stage jailbreaks to free detained colleagues. Since the electoral campaign opened Oct. 28, Tshisekedi's supporters have had clashes, some deadly, with police and Kabila supporters in several towns.
2011 Nov 7, In the CongoDRC the Nyamulagira volcano (also known as Nyamuragira) began an eruption that happens about every two years. It has been described as Africa’s most active volcano and has
erupted over 40 times since 1885.
2011 Nov 22, In CongoDRC gunmen in Kinshasa shot dead opposition lawmaker Marius Gangale
in the latest violent episode ahead of the weekend elections.
2011 Nov 22, A survey of some 6,000 people over the last 12 months in Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa,
Zambia and Zimbabwe said police are the most corrupt institution in the six countries.
2011 Nov 26, In CongoDRC police fired bullets and
tear gas into a crowd that included tens of thousands of opposition supporters in Kinshasa. The violence prompted officials to ban further rallies before the Nov 28 poll. At least 12 opposition partisans and bystanders were shot dead as the Republican Guard, the former presidential guard, quashed a rally by supporters of President Joseph Kabila's chief
(AP, 11/26/11)(AP, 11/27/11)(AFP, 12/2/11)
2011 Nov 28, In CongoDRC voting began despite delays and setbacks. Armed men attacked voting centers and a truck
carrying ballots. 5 people were killed in the southeastern town of Lubumbashi after gunmen opened fire on a truck carrying ballots and on a polling center.
(AP, 11/28/11)(AP, 11/30/11)
Nov 29, CongoDRC officials extended voting to a second day in an attempt to prevent further unrest in sub-Saharan Africa's largest nation. The election was marred by missing ballots and violence.
2011 Nov 30, CongoDRC officials extended voting to a third day in an attempt to prevent further unrest in sub-Saharan Africa's largest nation.
2011 Dec 2, Human Rights Watch said CongoDRC election-related violence has already killed 18 civilians, amid fears that fresh unrest could erupt over alleged fraud. A UN report on March 20, 2012, said security forces killed at least 33 people among other "serious human rights violations"
during the November elections.
(AFP, 12/2/11)(AFP, 3/21/12)
2011 Dec 3, Congo's Pres. Kabila, who is seeking a second term in a nation reeling from poverty
and pummeled by war, was leading with just over 50 percent of the votes after early presidential poll results were released.
2011 Dec 4, DR Congo
President Joseph Kabila led chief rival Etienne Tshisekedi 49 percent to 34 with about half of polling centers counted.
2011 Dec 5, Johannesburg
police fired rubber bullets to break up a group of demonstrators gathered in front of the ruling ANC party headquarters to protest South Africa's alleged involvement in fraud in the November 28 election in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
2011 Dec 7, In CongoDRC with 89.2% of precincts counted, Pres. Kabila had 8.3 million out of the 17.3 million votes, or 48%. Tshisekedi was trailing with 5.9 million votes, or 34%.
2011 Dec 9, In CongoDRC provisional results published by the election commission handed victory to Pres. Joseph Kabila who won another term with 49% of the 18.14 million votes cast. Etienne Tshisekedi (78) took to the airwaves to say
he rejected the results and proclaimed himself president, saying the election had been manipulated.
(AP, 12/9/11)(AP, 12/10/11)
2011 Dec 10, CongoDRC police in
Kinshasa prowled opposition neighborhoods rounding up young men, who were seen being dragged out of their homes and shoved into waiting cars. Congo's police chief said at least four people have been killed in the recent postelection violence. Observers with the Atlanta-based Carter Center said that there is growing evidence of possible vote suppression in parts of the country favorable to the
opposition, and vote inflation in regions known to support Kabila.
2011 Dec 10, Police in London arrested 143 people during an angry demonstration by up to 500 people against the re-election of
President Joseph Kabila in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
2011 Dec 13, Police in eastern DR Congo broke up a banned opposition protest march
against President Joseph Kabila's bitterly disputed re-election. Some 500 opposition supporters had defied a ban on protests imposed by the mayor of Bukavu.
Dec 14, CongoDRC opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi's party called for mass protests to "protect" the victory he claims to have won in disputed presidential polls.
2011 Dec 16, Judges of the International Criminal Court at The Hague decided not to charge Rwandan rebel leader Callixte Mbarushimana (48) for crimes committed in the Democratic Republic of Congo and ordered his release. Mbarushimana faced 13 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed in DR Congo's Kivu
provinces in 2009.
2011 Dec 18, In the CongoDRC opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi declared himself winner of the recent presidential vote, despite
placing second in official election results.
(SFC, 12/18/11, p.A2)
2011 Dec 21, Human Rights Watch released a report stating CongoDRC security forces had killed at
least 24 people and "arbitrarily" arrested dozens more since Kabila's disputed victory was announced December 9.
2011 Dec 23, DR Congo police banned
a swearing-in ceremony for opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi. Police fired tear gas at supporters of the opposition leader who had gathered near a stadium to see him inaugurating himself as president, three days after President Joseph Kabila was sworn in for a second term. Tshisekedi took the oath on a Bible at his home.
(AFP, 12/23/11)(AP, 12/23/11)(AFP, 12/24/11)
2011 Dec 31, In France Leon Kengo (76), CongoDRC Senate chief, was attacked at the Gare du Nord train station "by bands of those who call themselves 'fighters' close
to Etienne Tshisekedi." According to initial reports, Kengo had some teeth knocked out, was trampled underfoot, and rolled on the ground.
Stearns authored “Dancing in the Glory of Monsters: The Collapse of the Congo and the Great War in Africa.”
(Econ, 4/30/11, p.88)
2011 CongoDRC’s current budget was around $700 million, 40% of which was provided
by the Un and other foreign outfits.
(Econ, 9/24/11, p.60)
2011 The population of CongoDRC was about 70 million.
2012 Jan 1, In CongoDRC 8 people died and 44 were wounded when a hand grenade exploded during an attempted jail break at the main prison in Bukavu, Sud-Kivu province. At least 18 people were killed in the town of Luyuyu in an attack
by Rwandan Hutu rebels.
(AFP, 1/2/12)(AFP, 1/4/12)
2012 Jan 3, In CongoDRC at least 8 people were killed in the town of Ngolombe in an attack by Rwandan Hutu
2012 Jan 12, DR Congo's influential Catholic church denounced "serious errors" in the tallying of November polls as the electoral commission
announced a further delay in final vote results.
2012 Jan 18, Rwanda's military said it has suspended and put under house arrest four top military
officers over allegations of business dealings with civilians in Congo.
2012 Jan 20, The UN refugee agency said an upsurge in violence involving
government troops and militia in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has forced 100,000 people from their homes since November.
2012 Jan 25, CongoDRC
aid workers declared "a humanitarian catastrophe" in southeastern Congo, and blamed the recent deaths of at least 25 people on Kyungu "Gedeon" Mutanga, a feared Mai Mai warlord who broke out of jail late last year.
2012 Jan 27, In CongoDRC two months after voters went to polls in a chaotic election, the electoral commission announced that parties supporting Congo's president won two-thirds of legislative seats. Electoral officials said they also want to annul results of the legislative elections in
seven of Congo's 169 voting districts and prosecute a dozen candidates accused of introducing irregularities and violence.
2012 Jan 30, In CongoDRC a
plane crashed after takeoff in South Kivu. There were at least five people on board.
2012 Feb 2, CongoDRC officials from the discredited electoral
commission announced the last of the winning legislators in results it has issued piecemeal and following a suspension of the count from the Nov. 28 balloting. Kabila still will command a majority in parliament, where his coalition of several parties has won about 260 of the 500 seats, down from more than 300 in the previous assembly.
2012 Feb 12, In CongoDRC a private jet crashed while landing in the eastern city of Bukavu. Presidential aid Augustin Katumba Mwanke (48) was among those killed. There were 2 pilots and 7 passengers
on the private jet. Two American crew members also died, as well as two people crushed by the plane as it came down at Bukavu airport.
(AP, 2/12/12)(AFP, 2/13/12)
Feb 16, In CongoDRC police in Kinshasa used tear gas to block a march by Christian groups protesting alleged fraud in the November polls that returned President Joseph Kabila and his party to power. Three priests and two nuns were among those jailed.
2012 Feb 22, The top US special operations commander for Africa said US troops helping in the fight against a brutal rebel group called the Lord's Resistance Army are now deployed in four Central African countries: Uganda,
Congo, South Sudan and Central African Republic.
2012 Mar 5, A marketing campaign was launched by the Ugandan advocacy group Invisible Children
(www.kony2012.com) to vastly increase awareness about Joseph Kony, a jungle militia leader wanted for atrocities by the International Criminal Court and hunted by 100 US Special Forces advisers and local troops. His Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) was operating in Congo, the Central African Republic and South Sudan.
2012 Mar 6, The government of the Democratic Republic of Congo headed by PM Adolphe Muzito resigned more than three months after legislative elections.
2012 Mar 25, Twenty people from DR Congo drowned when their boats capsized while crossing the river border with Zambia enroute to a soccer game.
2012 Mar 30, The UN refugee agency warned that attacks by the renegade Lord's Resistance Army were on the rise and forcing thousands of people to flee. Since March 6, 13 new attacks were recorded in northwest CongoDRC, displacing
1,160 people in the region.
2012 Apr 11, CongoDRC’s President Joseph Kabila said he would not order the arrest of war crimes suspect Bosco Ntaganda
"under pressure" from the international community. He said Ntaganda should be arrested and face a military tribunal in Congo. Kabila said the military doesn't need to hand Ntaganda over to the ICC.
(AFP, 4/11/12)(AP, 4/11/12)
2012 Apr 18, CongoDRC Finance Minister Augustin Matata Ponyo Mapon (47) was appointed prime minister and asked to form a new government.
2012 Apr 29, The CongoDRC military launched an offensive against Bosco Ntaganda, who is wanted by The Hague for alleged war crimes. On May 5 the army announced a five-day cease-fire to give army defectors a chance to return. Defections began early this month, with ex-CNDP members claiming that the government had failed to implement the
provisions in the 2009 accord. On May 6 they formed a new group taking the name - March 23 - from the date of the 2009 peace accord signed by rebel groups and the Congolese government.
(AFP, 5/9/12)(AFP, 5/28/12)
2012 May 5, In CongoDRC at least 10 people, including four women working in the fields, were killed by presumed Rwandan rebels in a Sud-Kivu village.
2012 May 6, In CongoDRC the March 23 Movement (M23) was created by army mutineers who were part of the former rebel National Congress for the Defence of the People (CNDP), a Congolese Tutsi force that Rwanda denied supporting when it was waging its insurgency. The M23 Tutsi leaders came from the same ethnic group as Rwanda’s Pres.
(AFP, 5/28/12)(Econ, 11/24/12, p.57)
2012 May 9, In CongoDRC the Nord-Kivu governor's office said a 25-ton arms cache has been found on the farm
of Bosco Ntaganda, the leader and wanted war criminal of a band of Congolese army mutineers. The farm is located in Masisi," part of Nord-Kivu province, where clashes took place between April 29 and May 4.
2012 May 10, In eastern CongoDRC a military spokesman said hundreds of mutineers have returned to the army as a deadline loomed for the ex-rebel deserters to return to ranks.
2012 May 11, Uganda officials said more than 10,000 people have fled from DR Congo to neighboring Rwanda and Uganda following clashes between the Congolese army and rebels.
2012 May 12, CongoDRC government forces launched airstrikes against mutineers near the Rwandan border, where a rebel leader known as the "Terminator" was said to be hiding.
2012 May 12, The WWF nature conservancy body said a ranger and two soldiers have been killed in Democratic Republic of Congo's Virunga national park as they protected a road used by civilians fleeing rebels.
2012 May 12, Ugandan forces captured Caesar Acellam, a senior commander of Joseph Kony's Lord's Resistance Army, after a brief fight with rebels near the Congo-Central African Republic border. Two other rebel fighters were also caught as they
tried to cross a river called Mbomu. Officials say only about 200 LRA members remain the jungle.
2012 May 13, CongoDRC mutineers allegedly killed 26
loyalist troops in heavy fighting near the Rwandan border.
2012 May 14, In CongoDRC Rwandan rebels killed 22 civilians in an attack in the village of
Kamananga in Sud-Kivu province.
2012 May 15, In CongoDRC villagers marched on the UN base in the Bunyiakiri district of South Kivu province after an
overnight attack which reportedly killed six people. At least 11 Pakistani peacekeepers were injured as villagers opened fire.
2012 May 16, Human
Rights Watch said Congolese Gen. Bosco Ntaganda, already sought on an international arrest warrant for his alleged use of child soldiers during an earlier conflict, has forcibly recruited another 149 boys and teenagers since April. The UN said Rwandan rebels have killed at least 50 civilians so far this month in the volatile east.
(AP, 5/16/12)(AFP, 5/16/12)
2012 May 19, In CongoDRC fighting broke out when mutineers attacked army positions in the Rutshuru territory near Virunga National Park on the Ugandan border, home to more than half
the world's 700 or so mountain gorillas.
2012 May 22, In eastern CongoDRC a local activist said a feud between Rwandan Hutu rebels and the Mai Mai
militia last week left more than 100 people dead, including civilians.
2012 May 23, The UN refugee agency said fighting between Congolese army and
mutineers has forced tens of thousands of people from their homes since late April, with thousands taking refuge in Uganda and Rwanda.
2012 May 28, A
confidential UN report said Rwandan citizens have been recruited and trained to fight in support of army mutineers in neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo.
May 30, A Congolese military court slapped 13 officers with sentences ranging from two years to death for taking part in a mutiny in the east of the country.
2012 Jun 6, In CongoDRC an army report said at least 200 mutineers have been killed in the eastern part of the country since fighting broke out in April. 40 troops from the FARDC regular army have also been killed in the clashes.
2012 Jun 6, A UN report said Joseph Kony's Lord Resistance Army has abducted more than 600 child soldiers and sex slaves over the past two years even as the hunt for the rebel leader intensifies. At least 591 children, including 268 girls, were reported seized over the same time in
Democratic Republic of Congo, Central African Republic and South Sudan.
2012 Jun 13, A UN independent group of experts on CongoDRC briefed the UN
Security Council saying very senior Rwandans, including the minister of defense, were backing rebels in the eastern Kivu provinces. Its report was published on June 29.
(Econ, 7/7/12, p.48)
Jun 20, In the Democratic Republic of Congo almost 170 soldiers, including seven senior officers, quit the army in the east of the DRC to join a mutinous armed force known as M23. The deserters were all members of a former rebel movement, the National Congress for the Defence of the People (CNDP), who were integrated into the army early in 2009, following a peace
2012 Jun 25, In CongoDRC mutineers said fighting between the army and troops who have deserted resumed, after a week of relative calm, in the
eastern Nord-Kivu province. Officials said militants have killed at least 10 people and kidnapped a foreigner in a park in the volatile northeast.
(AFP, 6/25/12)(AP, 6/25/12)
Jul 5, The DR Congo's army (FARDC) launched an offensive to rout mutinous armed troops of the March 23 Movement (M23) near the Virunga national park. North Kivu residents reported that M23 rebels attacked and fought army troops to dislodge them from Jomba, the only major village on the road from Bunagana border post to the eastern town of Rutshuru, a border crossing
into Uganda and Rwanda. A UN peacekeeper from India was killed in clashes. The entire population of Bunagana and some 600 Congolese troops moved into Uganda.
(AFP, 7/6/12)(AP, 7/5/12)
Jul 8, In CongoDRC M23 rebels seized the eastern town of Rutshuru after the army fled their advance. A local official said the army looted during their retreat. M23 also took the towns of Ntamugenga and Rubare. 8 armored vehicles from the United Nations mission fled Rutshuru for a UN base five kilometres away in Kiwanja, where many local residents were sheltering in
a camp for displaced people. Rebels said they would cede most of their gains to UN peacekeepers and police.
2012 Jul 10, In the Netherlands the
International Criminal Court sentenced Congolese warlord Thomas Lubanga to 14 years in prison, a potential landmark in the struggle to protect children during wartime. Lubanga was found guilty in March of recruiting and using children in his Union of Congolese Patriots militia.
2012 Jul 12, UN helicopters were deployed to stop a rebel advance on Goma after rebels seized a number of towns on DR Congo's border with Uganda.
2012 Jul 13, The International Criminal Court issued arrest warrants against Bosco Ntaganda, a rogue Tutsi Congolese general, and Sylvestre Mudacumura, a Rwandan Hutu rebel leader based in the Democratic Republic of Congo, who Kigali
and Kinshasa accuse each other of using as proxies in DR Congo.
2012 Jul 14, Rwanda refused to take custody of 24 rebels who surrendered last May to
UN peacekeepers in DR Congo, which accuses Kigali of backing an army mutiny in its restive east.
2012 Jul 15, In Ethiopia the leaders of Congo and
Rwanda agreed in principle to back a neutral international armed force to combat Congo's newest rebellion and other fighters terrorizing civilians in the country's mineral-rich east. The African Union said it could help by sending soldiers.
2012 Jul 21, The US government said it has cut this year's $200,000 planned military assistance to Rwanda amid concerns that the government in Kigali is supporting rebel movements in neighboring Congo.
2012 Jul 24, UN helicopters fired on rebel positions in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo after new clashes broke out between rebel fighters and loyalist troops.
2012 Jul 25, In eastern CongoDRC M23 rebels allied with a local militia battled Congolese troops backed by UN peacekeepers, and allegedly fighting alongside rebels of the Democratic Front for the
Liberation of Rwanda. At least 2 civilians were killed.
2012 Jul 26, The UN's food agency said 10 Central African countries have agreed to take part in
a regional initiative to monitor the Congo Basin, one of the world's largest primary rainforests. They included Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda and Sao Tome and Principe.
2012 Jul 27, The Netherlands said it has suspended part of its development aid to Rwanda because of Kigali's alleged support for rebels in neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo.
2012 Jul 31, UN diplomats said CongoDRC government forces have abandoned villages to rebel M23 forces in the east after running out of ammunition, amid mounting concern over the new
2012 Aug 6, In Uganda leaders from 11 countries forming the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region gathered in Kampala to
discuss a new plan calling for a neutral international force to deploy in eastern Congo to get rid of all the fighters.
2012 Aug 8, In CongoDRC 3 elite
troops were killed at an airport at Lubumbashi in a night attack blamed on regional separatists. A national intelligence agency source said the attackers were from the same Katangan separatist group that carried out the earlier assault.
2012 Aug 8, In Uganda regional leaders ended a meeting on a proposed neutral force for eastern CongoDRC, with no concrete progress but a pledge to meet in a month.
2012 Aug 13, CongoDRC’s sports ministry said a judoka and three coaches from its Olympic delegation have gone missing after leaving the Athletes' Village at the London Games.
2012 Aug 13, In northeast CongoDRC a landslide at a gold mine in remote Pangoyi left at least 60 people dead.
2012 Aug 18, In Mozambique Southern African leaders slammed Rwanda for supporting rebels in the Democratic Republic of Congo as a threat to regional stability and urged Kigali to immediately stop its "interference." The Southern African Development Community (SADC) mandated a mission to
Rwanda to urge them to stop support for the M23.
2012 Aug 31, Rwanda announced it was pulling out 280 of its soldiers from eastern Democratic Republic
of Congo, where they had been working with DR Congo troops fighting rebel militia there.
2012 Sep 4, The World Health Organization said the number of
people with Ebola, a rare haemorrhagic disease, in northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo has tripled since mid-August, after 14 patients died in two weeks.
Sep 14, The UN said that an outbreak of the Ebola virus has killed 31 people in northeastern Congo, more than doubling the death toll from a week ago.
2012 Sep 28, In eastern CongoDRC another person was killed in Goma. That raised to 6 the number of people killed this week in Goma in shootouts linked to the Congolese army.
2012 Oct 13, French President Francois Hollande said his country was committed to facilitating freedom of movement, exchange and trade within the French-speaking world during a visit to Congo for the Francophonie Summit.
2012 Oct 20, In eastern Congo three Roman Catholic priests were kidnapped in Beni, north of Goma, in North Kivu province.
2012 Nov 9, The Congolese army attacked M23 rebel positions, ending a two-month ceasefire. The next day an M23 spokesman said 10 civilians were killed when government forces fired on the rebel base
in Kitagoma, in eastern Congo.
2012 Nov 14, A United Nations report said that while international attention centers on the M23 rebels, other armed
groups in eastern Congo have killed more than 260 civilians since April.
2012 Nov 15, In CongoDRC 151 M23 rebels were reported killed in new fighting
between the Congolese army and rebels, ending a two-month cease-fire in North Kivu province. Two army officers were killed and seven wounded in the fighting. Col. Vianney Kazarama, spokesman of the M23, denied the heavy casualties, saying that only two rebels were wounded.
2012 Nov 17, In CongoDRC the U.N.'s mission (MONUSCO) launched an aerial attack on the M23 rebel group after fighting resumed following a months long lull in violence.
2012 Nov 18, In eastern CongoDRC a Rwandan-backed rebel group advanced to within 3 km (1.8 miles) of Goma, a crucial provincial capital, marking the first time that rebels have come this close
2012 Nov 20, In eastern CongoDRC M23, a rebel group created just seven months ago, seized the strategic provincial capital of Goma, home
to more than 1 million people, and its international airport.
2012 Nov 21, Thousands of Congolese soldiers and policemen defected to the M23 rebels,
as rebel leaders vowed to take control of all Congo, including the capital Kinshasa. Congo President Joseph Kabila met with Rwanda President Paul Kagame In Uganda for emergency talks prompted by the fall of Goma. Rwanda is blamed for backing the M23 by Congo and by the United Nations.
2012 Nov 21, A new UN report accused the Rwandan military of commanding and supporting rebel forces in eastern Congo and charged that Salim Saleh (52), the brother of Uganda's long-serving President Yoweri Museveni, actively backs the
2012 Nov 23, Congo's president has suspended the army's chief of staff, following the publication of a United Nations report which reveals
that Gen. Gabriel Amisi oversaw a criminal network selling arms to rebels in the country's troubled east.
2012 Nov 23, Congolese troops fleeing the M23 rebels raped at least 97 women and 33 girls,
some as young as 6, over the last 24 hours. A UN report released on May 8, 2013 said most of the rapes took place over Nov. 22-23, 2012, in the eastern Congo town of Minova.
2012 Nov 24, Regional leaders meeting in Uganda called for an end to the advance by M23 rebels toward Congo's capital, and also urged the Congolese government to sit down with rebel leaders as residents fled some towns for fear of more fighting between the rebels and army. Locals in Minova reported that the retreating army troops had
gone on a rampage over the last two nights.
2012 Nov 27, Congo's M23 rebels defied a deadline imposed by neighboring nations, saying they will stay in
the crucial, eastern city of Goma and will fight the Congolese army to hold it.
2012 Nov 27, Congo residents and M23 rebels said that another rebel group, the FDLR, has crossed the border into
Rwanda and is fighting the Rwandan army.
2012 Nov 28, Congo rebels believed to be backed by Rwanda began retreating from the territory they seized
last week and pulled out of Masisi. Gen. Sultani Makenga, the military chief of the eight-month-old rebellion, said that his fighters intend to abide by an ultimatum issued by the nations neighboring Congo, which called for the M23 rebels to retreat no later than Nov 30 to 20 km (12 miles) outside of Goma.
2012 Nov 30, Rebels in Congo believed to be backed by Rwanda postponed their departure from the key eastern city of Goma by 48 hours for "logistical reasons," defying for a second time an ultimatum set by neighboring African
countries and backed by Western diplomats.
2012 Nov 30, Britain said it was withholding 21 million pounds of aid which was about to be paid to Rwanda because of "credible" reports the government in
Kigali is supporting rebels in neighbouring Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
2012 Dec 1, In CongoDRC rebels believed to be backed by Rwanda
completed their retreat from Goma, less than two weeks after taking control of the strategic city.
2012 Dec 18, The International Criminal Court (ICC)
in The Hague acquitted Congolese militia leader Mathieu Ngudjolo of all charges of commanding fighters who destroyed a village in eastern Congo in 2003, raping and hacking to death some 200 people, including children.
Dec 18, The US Treasury Department made public sanctions against two leaders of Congo's M23 rebel group. The US government accused Baudoin Ngaruye and Innocent Kaina of using child soldiers.
2012 Ben Rawlence authored “Radio Congo: Signals of Hope from Africa’s Deadliest War.”
(Econ, 7/14/12, p.75)
2013 Jan 6, The South African presidency announced that is sending 400 army troops to Central African Republic to help the country's army as it faces a threat from a coalition of rebel groups. Neighboring countries Cameroon, Gabon and Republic of Congo already have sent about 120 troops each to help stabilize the country confronted by
2013 Jan 24, The UN Security Council approved the use of surveillance drones over eastern Congo to monitor roving
(SFC, 1/25/13, p.A2)
2013 Feb 5, South African police arrested 19 suspected members of a Congolese rebel group, accusing them of plotting to overthrow
their nation's government after it recently came under attack by militants said to be backed by neighboring Rwanda.
2013 Feb 6, In Uganda
representatives of the Congolese government and the M23 rebels signed a preliminary agreement in which both parties accepted responsibility for the failure of an earlier 2009 peace deal.
2013 Feb 8, Police in South Africa arrested the "ringleader" of a group of 19 Congolese rebels who now face charges of allegedly plotting a war to unseat Congolese President Joseph Kabila. Prosecutors last week identified Etienne Kabila as being in charge of the group.
2013 Feb 24, In Ethiopia 11 African countries signed a UN-drafted peace deal to stabilize Congo DRC, where rebels allegedly backed by neighboring countries last year threatened to oust the
2013 Feb 27, In CongoDRC the M23 divided into two groups over disagreements on negotiations with the Congolese government. The splinter
group is lead by the M23 president Jean-Marie Runiga and Gen. Baudoin Ngaruye. The new group is reported to be aligned with warlord Bosco Ntaganda.
Feb 28, In CongoDRC a spokesperson of the M23 said General Sultani Makenga has dismissed Jean-Marie Runiga, the president of the M23 rebel group, over accusations that he is supporting Bosco Ntaganda, a wanted war criminal.
2013 Mar 1, Fighting erupted in eastern Congo between two factions of the M23 rebel group. An estimated 23 people died in the fighting, according to an officer with the main part of M23. The Congolese army entered Kiwanja, a town that was run by M23 rebels for more than six months. Doctors
Without Borders said that more than 55 civilians have been killed in fighting in another town in Congo's east, Kitchanga, where 135 people have been wounded.
(AP, 3/1/13)(AP, 3/2/13)
Mar 3, The Congolese military said it has given control of two key eastern towns back to the M23 rebel group to avoid jeopardizing the ongoing peace process.
2013 Mar 4, In CongoDRC a plane crash in the center of the eastern city of Goma killed seven people and injured three.
2013 Mar 16, In CongoDRC a faction of the M23 rebel group under Gen. Sultani Makenga said it has regained control of all of the group's territory in eastern Congo, as Jean-Marie Runiga, the leader of its rival faction, was arrested in Rwanda.
2013 Mar 18, In Rwanda Congolese warlord Bosco Ntaganda (39), nicknamed "The Terminator," showed up at the gates of the US Embassy in Kigali. Ntaganda asked to be handed over to the International Criminal Court, which issued its first
arrest warrant for him in 2006.
2013 Mar 23, In CongoDRC at least 35 people were killed after hundreds of militia fighters attacked the
southeast mining center of Lubumbashi. 245 Mai Mai fighters surrendered to UN peacekeepers.
2013 Mar 28, The UN Security Council authorized a new
intervention brigade for CongoDRC with a mandate to take military action alone or with Congolese troops against rebel groups to help bring peace in the conflict-racked east.
(SFC, 3/29/13, p.A2)
2013 Mar, Lord's Resistance Army fighters in Congo released 28 abductees, women and children, suggesting the group is undergoing turmoil amid a manhunt, supported by US military advisers, for its leaders.
2013 Mar, The UN Development Program named CongoDRC the least developed country in the world. It was tied with Niger.
(Econ, 5/18/13, p.74)
2013 Apr 13, Congolese Justice Minister Wivine Mumba said a dozen senior officers in the Congolese army have been arrested for responsibility for mass rapes committed by several army units in eastern Congo in November 2012.
2013 May 7, In eastern CongoDRC a UN peacekeeper from Pakistan was killed in South Kivu province.
2013 May 8, In CongoDRC a community leader said that nearly 30 people have been kidnapped by the M23 rebels in their eastern fief of Rutshuru since the beginning of April. The kidnappings appear to be for
2013 May 10, A contingent of about 100 Tanzanian troops began arriving in eastern Congo, a first step in assembling the new UN intervention
brigade. The rest of the brigade will arrive in successive waves.
(AP, 5/11/13)(AP, 5/14/13)
2013 May 15, In CongoDRC at least 24 militiamen and 3 soldiers died,
including a lieutenant colonel, in fighting between soldiers and Mai Mai militiamen in Beni, 220 miles (350 km) north of Goma. 5 others, who were awaiting transfer to a military training center, were also killed.
2013 May 17, The body of a Congolese journalist was found on the bank of the Ngezi River near the provincial capital of Bunia in eastern Congo. Guylain Chanjabo, a journalist at Radio Canal Révélation in Bunia, had disappeared 12 days ago.
2013 May 20, In eastern CongoDRC clashes erupted near Muja between government troops and the M23 rebel group, believed to be backed by neighboring
2013 May 21, In CongoDRC fighting between the M23 rebels and the army continued for a second day the eastern provincial capital of Goma. The
clashes have so far killed 20 people, all of them either soldiers or rebels.
2013 May 23, In CongoDRC M23 rebels fired two rockets into the eastern
city of Goma, killing one person and wounding four. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon arrived in Goma, hours after a rebel group fighting government forces nearby said they would impose a cease-fire to allow the visit to proceed.
2013 May 29, A UN spokesman says that Congo's M23 rebels have fired several rockets on Goma over the past week, killing 2 people.
2013 Jun 3, The Enough Project, the Satellite Sentinel Project and two other groups said in a new report that members of Joseph Kony’s LRA have turned to elephant poaching in CongoDRC and the CAR and that the militia trades illegal ivory to acquire food and other supplies. The report also
said elephants of Garamba National Park also are being targeted by "members of the armed forces of (Congo), South Sudan, Sudan, and Uganda," citing the concerns of park rangers there.
Subject = CongoDRC
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