Timeline: Congo DRC, Democratic Republic of the Congo

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 CIA Factbook: http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/cg.html
 AfricaNet:
http://www.africanet.com/africanet/country/zaire/home.htm
 ICL:
http://www.uni-wuerzburg.de/law/cf__indx.html
 3D:
http://www.3DAtlas.com/countries/co_congokin.html
 Sources:
http://www.agora.stm.it/politic/congo-K.htm
 Congo Times:
http://chss2.montclair.edu/sorac/CongoTimes/home.htm
 Fung sources:
http://www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/ssrg/africa/zaire.html

The Democratic Republic of the Congo was formerly named the Belgian Congo and later Zaire. Bantus are the majority ethnic group in Congo. This nation of 45 million is the 3rd largest in Africa.
    (NH, 7/96, p.14)(SFC, 10/26/96, p.A8)(SFC, 5/21/98, p.A14)
Congo DRC is about two-thirds size of western Europe.
    (Econ, 8/5/06, p.41)

88000BCE    The Katanda site in Zaire was dated to this time. Evidence in the 1990s showed bone points showed barbs on 3 edges and rings carved in the base to tie them to shafts.
    (SFC, 1/11/02, p.A2)

1400-1500     The Kongo empire consisted of six provinces ruled by a monarch, the Manikongo of the Bakongo (Kongo peoples), but its sphere of influence extended to the neighboring states as well. Kongou0092s king ruled about two million people. The capital, Mbanza, was built on a fertile plateau 100 miles east of the coast and 50 miles south of the Congo River in southwest Africa.
    (ATC, p.150)(www.economicexpert.com/a/Kongo.htm)

1482        Captain Diego Cao sailed south along the African coast and landed at the mouth of the Zaire (Congo) River. He left four servants and took four Africans hostage back to his king, John, in Portugal. This was the first European encounter with the vast kingdom of the Kongo.
    (ATC, p.149)

1483        Captain Diogo Cao visited Manikongo Nzinga in his capital, Mbanza, and persuaded the king to open his country to the Portuguese. Then were 6 states in the region: Sonho, Bamba, Pemba, Batta, Fango and Sundi. This last one (capital Ambezi) was the first to accept the Portuguese protectorate.
    (www.economicexpert.com/a/Kongo.htm)

1526        Jul 6, King Afonso of Kongo (1509-1542) sent a letter of complaint to Portugal regarding the impact of slave trade in his country.
    (www.millersville.edu/~winthrop/Thornton.html)

c1796    The Tutsi herders, Banyamulenge (people of the mountains), arrived into Zaire some 200 years ago. They moved with their cattle into the hills of Masisi in North Kivu and mountains of South Kivu.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A16)

1874        David Stanley, British journalist, crossed Africa from the east to the west across the Congo River basin on a 999-day journey sponsored by Londonu0092s Daily Telegraph. In 2004 Tim Butcher, also a journalist for the Daily Telegraph, followed Stanleyu0092s path on a trip that took 44 days. In 2008 Butcher authored u0093Blood River: A Journey to Africau0092s Broken Heart.u0094
    (WSJ, 10/31/08, p.A15)

1876        Sep 14, Henry Morton Stanley's expedition left Rwanda.
    (MC, 9/14/01)

1876        Oct 17, Henry Morton Stanley's expedition reached the Lualaba River.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1877        Jun 3, Frank Pocock, British explorer, drowned in the Congo.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1877        Henry Morton Stanley, a Welsh-born American explorer, emerged from the forests of Africa near the mouth of the Congo River. He had traced the river to its source. In 1878 he authored u0093Through the Dark Continent.u0094
    (SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.1)(WSJ, 11/3/07, p.W8)

1880        Catholicism became established in Congo.
    (SFC, 7/18/97, p.A10)

1880-1920    The population of Congo was halved due to murder, starvation, exhaustion, exposure, disease, and a lowered birth rate due to the exploitation by King Leopold II.
    (SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.1)

1881        May 8, Henry Morton Stanley signed a contract with a Congo monarch. [see Sep 24]
    (MC, 5/8/02)

1881        Sep 24, Henry Morton Stanley signed a contract with Congo monarch. [see May 8]
    (MC, 9/24/01)

1883         Stanleyville (later Kisangani), Congo, was founded by Sir Henry Morton Stanley, the Anglo-American journalist who tracked down the missionary David Livingstone in Africa.
    (AP, 8/18/03)

1884        Feb 26, Leopold II of Belgium signed in Congo a British and Portuguese treaty.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1884        Roger Casement of Ulster joined an expedition up the Congo River led by Henry Morton Stanely. After 20 years in Africa he became the leading figure in an intu0092l. campaign to denounce the abuses committed by the Congou0092s Belgian colonizers.
    (Econ, 7/7/12, p.75)

1885        Feb 26, The Congress of Berlin gave Congo to Belgium and Nigeria to England.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1885        May 2, The Congo Free State was established by King Leopold II of Belgium.
    (HN, 5/2/98)

1885        A treaty made in Berlin called for the humane treatment of Africans.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.12)

1887        The inflatable bicycle tire was invented and spawned, along with the car tire, a worldwide rubber boom.
    (SFEM, 5/7/00, p.9)

1890        William Sheppard (b.1865 in Virginia) left the US for missionary work in Congo. In 2002 Pagan Kennedy authored "Black Livingstone: A True Tale of African Adventure."
    (SSFC, 2/3/02, p.M1)

c1890-1899    In the late 19th century Belgium established the Tervuren Royal Museum for Central Africa. It was a result of the countryu0092s colonial venture in the Belgian Congo, later Zaire, later Democratic Republic of Congo. The museum was founded as a showcase for business opportunities on the Congo.
    (SFC, 2/21/98, p.E1)

1891        Jul 31, Great Britain declared territories in Southern Africa up to the Congo to be within their sphere of influence.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1892        William Sheppard, US missionary, set out to find the hidden kingdom of Kuba and eventually made contact with King Kot aMweeky.
    (SSFC, 2/3/02, p.M1)

1893        Mar 4, Francis Dhanis' army attacked the Lualaba and occupied Nyangwe (Congo).
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1893        Mar 9, Congo cannibals killed 1000s of Arabs.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

c1898    Edmund Dene Morel, a London employee of the shipping line Elder Dempster, came to realize that a wealth of rubber and ivory cargo was arriving from Congo in exchange for military officers, firearms and ammunition. He deduced that forced labor was being used by King Leopold II of Belgium to extract native wealth.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.4)

1901        Edmund Dene Morel (28) quit his London shipping line job and began a full time campaign to expose the barbarities in the Congo under Leopold II. He started his own publication, "The West African Mail," an illustrated weekly journal in 1903 as a forum on West and Central African Questions.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.4)(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.7)

1903        May, In Britain the House of Commons passed a resolution urging that Congo natives be governed with humanity. Also the British consul in the Congo, Roger Casement, was asked to travel to the interior and report on conditions there.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.8)

1903        Jun 29, The British government officially protested Belgian atrocities in the Congo. Missionaries, such as William Sheppard of Virginia, had provided information that soldiers of Leopoldu0092s private army turned over the right hand of villagers they had killed in order to account for their used bullets. Leopoldu0092s 19,000 man private army held hostage the wives of workers to force men to work.
    (HN, 6/29/98)(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.7,8)

1903        Samuel Verner, an American missionary and explorer, purchased Ota Benga, a young pigmy enslaved by another tribe. He was under contract to the St. Louis Fair to bring several Pygmies to America for a living display of the stages of evolution. After the fair Benga ended up at the Bronx Zoological Park where he was displayed with monkeys. In 1910 Benga moved to a Baptist seminary in Lynchburg, Va. In 1916 Benga committed suicide.
    (WSJ, 2/6/06, p.B1)

1904        The Congo Reform Association was born in England following the return of Roger Casement from the Congo and his meeting with Edmund Morel.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.9)

1904        Edmund Morel journeyed to the US and encouraged the formation of an American Congo Reform Association. Its first president was Dr. G. Stanley Hall, president of Clark Univ.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.11)

1905        Mark Twain wrote his pamphlet "King Leopoldu0092s Soliloquy" in support of reform in the Congo. US Sec. of State Elihu Root was pressured to take action on the Congo.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.11)

1906        Edmund Morel wrote "Red Rubber: the Story of the Rubber Slave Trade Flourishing on the Congo in the year of Grace 1906."
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.9)

1908        King Leopold II (d.1909) turned the Congo over to Belgium for a large sum of money. It was later estimated that the population of Congo dropped by 10 million people during the period of Leopoldu0092s rule and its immediate aftermath. In 1998 Adam Hochschild published "King Leopoldu0092s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa."
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.12)

1919        Nov 10, Moise Tshombe was born. He became Pres. of Katanga and then premier of the Congo (Zaire).
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1924        The permanent committee of the National Colonial Congress of Belgium (Congo) declared: "We run the risk of someday seeing our native population collapse and disappearu0085 So that we will see ourselves confronted with a kind of desert."
    (SFEM, 5/7/00, p.9)

1924        Edward Dene Morel, Congo activist, was elected to the British Parliament. He soon died of a heart attack at age 51.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.12)

1925        Jul 2, Patrice Lumumba, revolutionary, was born in Congo.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1925        CongoDRCu0092s Virunga National Park, a 7,800-square-km (3,011-square-mile) park, was created. It was classified a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979.
    (AFP, 3/12/12)

1930        Oct 14, Joseph Desire Mobutu was born in Congo.
    (SFC, 5/17/97, p.A1)

1938        G. Trolli, an Italian physician working in the Belgian Congo (Zaire), reported a condition called konzo meaning "tied legs." It was later found to occur over wide areas of Central Africa and related to cyanide poison from improper preparation of cassava root.
    (NH, 7/96, p.14)(Econ, 9/7/13, p.78)

1940        The Belgian colonial government in Leopoldville (later Kinshasa), Congo, ordered private mining companies to turn over their records to help the Allies find resources to help the war effort against Germany. Millions of tons of copper and tin, as well as some uranium, were shipped to the US. After the war records were shipped to Belgiumu0092s Royal Museum for Central Africa in Brussels.
    (WSJ, 3/20/07, p.A13)

1948        Congolese musician Antoine Kolosay, aka Papa Wendo, wrote his song "Marie-Louise," a eulogy to the sister of his guitarist.
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.66)

1957        A sizeable nationalist movement emerged in Congo and rapidly gained momentum.
    (HNQ, 11/27/00)

1957        Dr. Hilary Koprowski of the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia developed an oral polio vaccine and tested it in Africa (Congo). The Wister polio vaccine was given to some 300,000 people in the Belgian Congo from 1957-1960. A later theory held that reuse of needles during the immunization program caused AIDS via u0093serial passageu0094 that transformed the SIV virus into HIV. In 1999 Edward Hooper authored u0093The River,u0094 a detailed hypothesis for the origin of AIDS in Africa. Hooper suspected that the Wister polio vaccine, produced from monkey kidney cells, contained SIV virus. In 2000 a computerized study indicated that the AIDS virus was introduced to humans about 1930.
    (SFC, 2/2/00, p.A19)(SFC, 1/15/01, p.A11)(SFC, 4/13/05, p.A5)(www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/pandemics.htm)

1959        Nov 1, Patrice Lumumba was arrested in the Belgian Congo.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1959        Congou0092s Mobutu became an asset of the US CIA during a meeting in Brussels.
    (SFC, 9/8/97, p.A8)

1959        In the Belgian Congo a 50-kilowatt Triga Mark I nuclear reactor made by Genu0092l. Atomic of San Diego went on line.
    (WSJ, 5/30/97, p.A1)

1959        Researchers in 1998 found the HIV virus of AIDS in a 1959 blood specimen (ZR59) from a Bantu man who died in Leopoldville, Belgian Congo (later Kinshasa, Congo). This became the oldest known case and researchers believed that incidents could go back to the 1940s.
    (SFC, 2/4/98, p.A5)(www.aidsorigins.com/content/view/165/2/)

1960        Jun 23, Patrice Lumumba and the MNC formed the first government, with Lumumba (35) as Congo's first prime minister and Joseph Kasavubu (1917-1969) as its president.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrice_Lumumba)

1960        Jun 30, Independence was granted to the Congo. A rebel movement freed the Belgian Congo from Belgium. In Zaire (Congo) Patrice Lumumba (1925-1961) became the first post-independence prime minister. He made Joseph Mobutu, a young military officer, his private secretary. Two months after he took power a sub-committee of the US National Security Council authorized the assassination of Lumumba.
    (SFC, 5/17/97, p.A14)(SFEM, 5/7/00, p.18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrice_Lumumba)

1960        Jul 11, Katanga province, with the support of Belgian business interests and troops, broke away from the new Congolese government of Patrice Lumumba, declaring independence under Moise Tshombe leader of the local CONAKAT party.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congo_Crisis)

1960        Jul 16, The 1st UN troops reached Congo to replace Belgian troops.
    (www.un.org/Depts/DPKO/Missions/onucB.htm)

1960        Aug 25,  In Congo demonstrations took place against premier Lumumba.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1960        Sep 5, Congou0092s President Kasavubu fired Premier Lumumba.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2s9dyw)

1960        Sep 14, A Congo coup led by Col. Mobutu overthrew PM Patrice Lumumba.
    (www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Mobutu-Sese-Seko)

1960        Nov 27, Patrice Lumumba fled Leopoldville, Congo.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1960        Dec 1, Patrice Lumumba was caught in the Congo.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1961        Jan 17, Patrice Lumumba (34), the 1st premier Congo, was murdered after 67 days in office. President Eisenhower allegedly approved the assassination of Congo's Patrice Lumumba. The US and Joseph Mobutu were implicated but no conclusive proof has emerged. Sidney Gottlieb (d.1999 at 80), a CIA deputy, carried a deadly bacteria to the Congo that was used to kill Lamumba. In 2000 the Belgium Parliament opened an inquiry into possible government involvement in the killing of Congou0092s Premier Patrice Lumumba. This followed allegations in the new book "The Murder of Lumumba" by Ludo De Witte. In 2001 the inquiry found that King Baudouin knew of the plot but did nothing to stop it. The Katanga government did not announce the death until Feb 13. Moscow charged that UN Sec. Gen. Dag Hammarskjold was involved.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1961)(PCh, 1992, p.979)(SFC, 5/17/97, p.A14)(SFC, 5/3/00, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/9/01, p.A1)

1961        Sep 13, Battles took place between UN and Katanga troops in Congo.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1961        Sep 18, Dag Hammarskjold, Secretary-General of the UN, was killed in a plane crash in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). He was flying to negotiate a cease-fire in the Congo. Hammarskjold was the son of a former Swedish prime minister. In 1953, he was elected to the top UN post and in 1957 was reelected. During his second term, he initiated and directed the United Nation's vigorous role in the Belgian Congo. Hammarskjold had sent Conor Ou0092Brien (1919-2008), an Irish diplomat, to the Congo where a rebellion was openly being backed by Belgium and secretly by Britain and France. Ou0092Brien ordered in UN troops, but the mission ended in disarray and the UN repudiated the mission. Ou0092Brien recounted his version of the events in his book u0093To Katanga and Backu0094 (1962).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dag_Hammarskj%C3%B6ld)(AP, 9/18/97)(SSFC, 12/21/08, p.B6)

1961        Nov 11, Congolese soldiers murdered 13 Italian UN pilots.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1963        Mobutu, chief of staff of Congou0092s army, visited the US White House as a guest of Pres. Kennedy.
    (SFC, 9/8/97, p.A8)

1964        Oct 24, Belgian paratroopers liberated 1,000 white hostages in Stanleyville (Kisangani, Congo).
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1964        Oct 27, Congo rebel leader Christopher Gbenye held 60 Americans and 800 Belgians.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1965        Apr 24, Che Guevara, his second-in-command Victor Dreke, and twelve of the Cuban expeditionaries arrived in the Congo. Guevara, Cubau0092s head of the national bank and minister of industry, left Cuba to foment revolution in the Congo. He spent most of 1965 and 1966 in Central Africa, helping anti-Mobuto revolutionaries in the Republic of Congo. This turned out to be a disaster and he went to Bolivia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Che_Guevara)

1965        Nov 24, Congo had a military coup under Gen. Mobutu and Pres. Kasavubu was overthrown. Larry Devlin, US CIA station chief, had encouraged Mobutu to launch the coup. In 2007 Devlin authored u0093Chief of Station, Congo: Fighting the Cold War in a Hot Zone.u0094
    (www.briefbio.com/pages/2974/Seko-Mobutu-Sese.html)(Econ, 2/24/07, p.95)

1965        Laurent-Desiree Kabila, Marxist revolutionary, fought with Ernesto "Che" Guevara on behalf of Congou0092s Peopleu0092s Revolutionary Party.
    (WSJ, 11/8/96, p.A10)

1965        In Zaire (later Congo) Army Chief-of-Staff Mobutu Sese Seko, a member of the Gbandi tribe, seized power in a military coup and began his dictatorship. His name meant u0093the cock who goes from homestead to homestead leaving no hen uncovered.u0094
    (SFC, 10/28/96, p.A8)(SFC, 12/18/96, p.C2)(SFEC, 4/6/97, p.A16)(Econ, 12/18/04, p.61)

1966        The Brazzaville Treaty became effective after it was ratified by the five member countries: Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Republic of Congo, and Gabon.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3dglseb)

1967        Congou0092s Pres. Mobutu presided over the adoption of a new constitution that vested all powers in the presidency and his political party.
    (SFC, 5/17/97, p.A14)

1967        The Organization of African Unity decided set up a regional nuclear research center in Kinshasa, Congo, and the US helped build a Triga Mark II research reactor made be General Atomic.
    (WSJ, 5/30/97, p.A4)

1968        Oct 9, Pierre Mulele, Congolese rebel leader, was publicly tortured and executed in the Congo [some sources give October 3].
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Mulele)

1969        Mahele Lieko Bokoungo, a member of Congou0092s Mbuza tribe, became Mobutuu0092s chief body guard.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B5)

1971        Oct 27, The Democratic Republic of Congo was renamed Zaire.
    (http://biography.jrank.org/pages/2974/Seko-Mobutu-Sese.html)

1972        Mar, In Zaire (CongoDRC) the Trico II nuclear research reactor went on line.
    (WSJ, 5/30/97, p.A4)(www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/congo/index.html)

1972        In Zaire (later Congo DRC) Joseph-Desire Mobutu (1930-1997) changed his name to Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa za Banga, which meant "the all-powerful warrior who, because of his inflexible will to win, will go from conquest to conquest leaving fire in his wake.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobutu_Sese_Seko)

1972        Zaireu0092s Mobutu Sese Seko passed a law granting Tutsis citizenship. He revoked it in 1981.
    (Econ, 8/21/04, p.39)

1974        Oct 30, Muhammad Ali and George Foreman held their "Rumble In the Jungle" boxing match in Zaire. Ali knocked out George Foreman in the eighth round of a 15-round bout in Kinshasa, Zaire, to regain his world heavyweight title, that was taken from him for refusing military service.
    (SFC, 2/10/97, p.E3)(WSJ, 2/14/97, p.A12)(AP, 10/30/97)

1975        Nov 20, An interim report by the US Senateu0092s Church Committee said that the CIA failed to assassinated Fidel Castro at least 8 times. The report also covered CIA activity in Chile, the Congo, the Dominican Republic and elsewhere.
    (WSJ, 8/5/06, p.A9)(http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Church_Committee)

1976        In Zaire (later Congo) the Ebola virus was discovered and named after a river there. The virus can stop blood from clotting causing patients to bleed. An outbreak of the Ebola virus killed 280 people, most of whom were infected by reused syringes and needles.
    (SFC, 10/27/98, p.A5)

1977        Jan 10, The crater walls of Congou0092s Nyiragongo volcano fractured, and a lava lake drained in less than an hour. The lava flowed down the flanks of the volcano at speeds of up to 60 miles per hour on the upper slopes, overwhelming villages and killing at least 70 people.
    (SSFC, 1/20/02, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Nyiragongo)

1977        Rebel forces from Angola swept into Zaire and captured much of the copper-rich Shaba province. Zaire regained control after 3 months with American and other foreign support.
    (SFC, 11/11/96, p.A11)(SFC, 5/17/97, p.A14)

1978        In Zaire another coup attempt was begun in the Shaba province. American and other foreign support helped Mobutu maintain control.
    (SFC, 5/17/97, p.A14)

1978        In Zaire (later Congo) there was a separatist uprising in the southern Katanga province and at least 140 foreigners were massacred at the Kolwezi copper mine. Hundreds of Katangans also died.
    (WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A1)

1980        May 2, Pope John Paul II arrived Kinshasa for the centennial of Catholicism in Zaire and the beginning of his African tour.
    (SFC, 7/18/97, p.A10)(http://eightiesclub.tripod.com/id99.htm)

1980        May 4, Nine people were killed at Kinshasa, Zaire (later the Democratic Republic of Congo) during a stampede to attend mass given by Pope John Paul II.
    (http://africanhistory.about.com/od/may/a/td0504.htm)

1980-1989    During the 1980s Congou0092s Mobutu Sese Seko imported 5,000 sheep from Venezuela for one his ranches by using a government owned DC-8 to make 32 round trips between Caracas and Zaire.
    (SFC, 9/8/97, p.A8)(http://tinyurl.com/2kg3bl)

1981        Zairean citizenship was withdrawn from the Banyamulenge Tutsis of eastern Zaire.
    (WSJ, 11/8/96, p.A10)

1985        Mahele Lieko Bokoungo fought back Congou0092s Laurent Kabila, who had set up a rebel republic on the shores of Lake Tanganyika near Moba. The rebels under Kabila were mainly Tutsis and used militaristic and autocratic methods.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B5)(SFC, 5/2/97, p.A14)

1989        Jan 12, Idi Amin was expelled from Zaire (later CongoDRC) and forced to return to Saudi Arabia.
    (www.moreorless.au.com/killers/amin.html)

1990        Mahele Lieko Bokoungo led Zairean soldiers to back up the Hutu regime of Pres. Juvenal Habyarimana of Rwanda.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B5)

1991        Etienne Tshisekedi was installed as Congou0092s prime minister after Mobutu was forced by foreign and domestic pressure to allow multiparty politics and accept a government formed by the opposition.
    (SFEC, 4/6/97, p.A16)

1991        Mahele Lieko Bokoungo became chief of staff of Congou0092s armed forces.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B5)

1991        Kabangu Kalunga, an intelligence office under Congou0092s Mobutu, was sent to fight Tutsi-led rebels in Rwanda.
    (SFC, 10/14/98, p.C2)

1991        Riots by Congou0092s unpaid soldiers killed hundreds of people and destroyed many businesses.
    (SFC, 3/18/97, p.A10)(WSJ, 5/30/97, p.A4)

1991        Thomas Kanza, head of a coffee trading operation, was convicted in Tennessee of fraud. The operation had $57,000 of investoru0092s money missing. In 1997 he was selected by Laurent Kabila as Congou0092s first minister of intu0092l. cooperation.
    (WSJ, 2/9/98, p.A1)

1993        Congou0092s Pres. Mobutu removed Etienne Tshisekedi, the first Zairean to graduate from law school, from office as prime minister.
    (SFC, 3/21/97, p.A19)

1993        Ethnic cleansing occurred in Congou0092s Kasai Province.
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A22)

1993        In Congo Mahele Lieko Bokoungo put down army-led looting in Kinshasa when he gave orders for loyal troops to fire on looters.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B5)

1993        In Congo riots killed hundreds of people and destroyed many businesses.
    (SFC, 3/18/97, p.A10)

1994        Apr-1994 Aug, The Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF) under Paul Kagame killed some 25-45,000 people during this period. They then pursued the genocidaires into Zaire where they killed some 200,000 more and in the process overthrew the government of Zaire.
    (Econ, 3/27/04, p.26)
1994        Apr-1994 Aug, Hutus slaughtered more than 500,000 people, mostly Tutsis, in Rwanda and fled to refugee camps in Zaire.
    (SFC, 10/22/96, p.B1)

1994        Jul 14, A tidal wave of Hutu refugees from Rwanda's civil war flooded across the border into Zaire, swamping relief organizations.
    (AP, 7/14/99)

1994        Jul 17, Hutus left Rwanda for refugee camps in Zaire.
    (SFEC, 11/19/96, p.A16)

1994        Jul 18, In Rwanda the Tutsi rebel movement (RPF) under Tutsi rebel leader Paul Kagame took power. It promised to rebuild the courts and execute the guilty for the slaughter of an estimated 500-800 thousand Tutsis. Two million refugees, mostly Hutus, fled to refugee camps in Zaire and Tanzania. Kagame studied at the US Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth in 1990. In 2005 Jean Hatzfeld, French journalist, authored u0093Machete Season: The Killers in Rwanda Speak.u0094
    (SFC, 417/96, p.A-9)(SFC, 8/9/96, p.A10)(SFC, 10/22/96, p.B1)(WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A16)(AP, 7/18/99)(SSFC, 6/26/05, p.C3)

1994        Rene Ngongo of Congo DRC founded the OCEAN environmental group, exposing the impact of deforestation and monitoring the plunder of minerals by warring factions during Congo's 1996-2002 civil wars.
    (AP, 10/13/09)

1995        Apr, The parliament passed a resolution that prevented refugees from Rwanda and Burundi from obtaining Zairean citizenship.
    (WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A16)

1995        May 9, Kinshasa, capital of Zaire, was placed under quarantine after an outbreak of the Ebola virus.
    (AP, 5/9/00)

1995        Jul, The Ebola virus killed 244 people in Kikwit, Zaire.
    (WSJ, 12/11/95, p.A-1)(SFC, 5/5/99, p.A11)

1995        Sep, In Congo government harassment of the Banyamulenge Tutsis began with an inventory of property, evictions and expulsions.
    (WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A16)

1995        Nov, Congou0092s government told Jimmy Carter (visiting prior to a Cairo summit) that it may relax its end of year deadline for one million Rwandan refugees to leave or be thrown out.
    (WSJ, 11/22/95, p.A-1)

1995        Nov, Zairean Tutsis in Masis were targeted by authorities, the army and the locals. They were forced to flee and many were massacred.
    (WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A16)

1995        Dec, 26 At least 50 people were killed in Goma, Congo, in rioting between two army units guarding Rwandan refugees. Many civilians were killed.
    (WSJ, 12/27/95, p.A-1)

1996        Jan 8, A Russian-made Antonov-32 skidded into a crowded marketplace shortly after take-off in Kinshasa in Zaire and killed at least 350 people. The twin-turboprop was owned by African Air and was overweight when it took off. At least 470 people were injured.
    (WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-1) (SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-14)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1996        May 17, Hutu gunmen attacked 800 Zairian Tutsis who had taken refuge in a church. They killed at least 12 and left 130 missing. Hutu refugees from Rwanda have been conducting a campaign to drive out other ethnic groups in eastern Zaire.
    (WSJ, 5/17/96,p.A-1)

1996        May 29, Hundreds of Tutsis crossed into Rwanda fleeing the fighting in Zaire. Thousands of displaced Tutsis are behind them in the Masisi and Rutshuru regions of northeastern Zaire.
    (SFC, 5/30/96, p.A9)

1996        Sep 4, In the Congo authorities found 200 slaughtered elephants in a marsh of the National Park of Odzala.
    (SFC, 9/5/96, p.A10)

1996        Oct 7, Ethnic Tutsi rebels slaughtered 34 patients in eastern Zaire. The government has given the 200,000 Tutsis a week to leave Zaire. The Tutsi Banyamulenge arrived into Zaire some 200 years ago.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A14)(SFC, 10/12/96, p.A11)

1996        Oct 10, Armed men killed 50-60 civilians in eastern Zaire in the village of Bambu in the Masisi region. The Banyamulenge immigrated to eastern Zaire from Rwanda decades ago.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A11)

1996        Oct 18, Fighting erupted between Zairean soldiers and the rebel alliance under Kabila.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B5)

1996        Oct 20, Some 300 Congolese Hutu peasants were bludgeoned to death by Rwandan troops in Musekera. Details were not made public until 2010 by the local Observation Center for Human Rights and Social Assistance.
    (AP, 10/10/10)

1996        Oct 21, About 225,000 Hutu refugees fled camps in eastern Zaire. The governor of the area has given the 300,000 Banyamulenge Tutsis as week to leave. Zaire has camps holding about 1.5 million Hutu refugees, most of them from Rwanda.
    (SFC, 10/22/96, p.B1)

1996        Oct 25, The UN announced an emergency food airlift to eastern Zaire to help 300,000 Hutu refugees fleeing violence.
    (SFC, 10/26/96, p.A8)

1996        Oct 28, In Congo some 420,000 refugees were crowded into the Mugunga Camp as fighting expanded.
    (SFC, 10/29/96, p.A6)

1996        Oct 30, Rwandan commandos crossed into eastern Zaire to aid the Tutsi rebels there. Zaire had about 50,000 troops, but they were poorly trained, poorly armed, poorly led and notoriously poorly disciplined. Rwanda had about 54,000 soldiers in a well-disciplined army.
    (SFC, 10/31/96, p.A10)

1996        Oct 30, The Vatican said eastern Zaireu0092s Archbishop was killed, the 2nd in 2 months.
    (WSJ, 10/31/96, p.A1)

1996        Nov 1, Tutsi rebels and Rwandan forces besieged Goma, Congo, in a battle for control of the regional capital and its airport. In Kinshasha some 10,000 university students demanded war with Rwanda and Burundi.
    (SFC, 11/2/96, p.A8)

1996        Nov 5, Zairians in Kinshasa defied a ban on demonstrations and called for the government to resign.
    (WSJ, 11/6/96, p.A1)

1996        Nov 7, Laurent-Desiree Kabila, Marxist revolutionary, re-emerged as the "coordinator" of the Alliance of Democratic Forces of Congo-Zaire (AFDL).
    (WSJ, 11/8/96, p.A10)

1996        Nov 8, Congou0092s Pres. Mobutu Sese Seko was recuperating from prostate cancer surgery at the Villa del Mare on the French Mediterranean. Recent Swiss reports put his holdings in Swiss banks at $4 billion.
    (SFC, 11/9/96, p.A12)

1996        Nov 14, Armed men surrounded the Mugunga refugee camp in eastern Zaire and began shooting indiscriminately at its inhabitants as they huddled for safety or tried to flee. Hundreds of men, women and children died over a three-day period, according to eyewitnesses and forensic evidence later gathered from mass graves.
    (AP, 10/1/10)

1996        Nov 18, Rwandan troops descended on the Chimanga refugee camp in eastern Zaire (later CongoDRC) and opened fire killing some 500 refugees.
    (Econ, 9/4/10, p.51)(http://tinyurl.com/29j5mmv)

1996        Nov 21, The Banyarwanda means "people of Rwanda" and includes the Banyamylenge and anyone else in eastern Zaire whose origins were in Rwanda. The Bangilima and the Mai-Mai are Zairean militias with a strong background in witchcraft. The Interahamwe are former Rwandan Hutu militiamen who played a role in the 1994 genocide.
    (SFC, 11/21/96, p.C6)

1996        Nov 21, Congou0092s operating budget for this year was $350 million and the population was 45 mil.
    (WSJ, 11/21/96, p.A19)

1996        Nov 29, A Canadian-led intu0092l. force won approval to provide humanitarian aid. The force would be based in Uganda.
    (SFC, 11/30/96, p.A12)

1996        Nov 30, In Zaire a volcano erupted near the Rwanda-Uganda border.
    (SFC, 12/2/96, p.A12)

1996        Dec 4, In Zaire government troops went on a rampage of looting and raping in Kinsangani. Rebels announced the capture of Kindu 250 miles south of Kinsangani.
    (SFC, 12/5/96, p.C2)

1996        Dec 8, Rebels surrounded Bunia, the last government held town in eastern Zaire. Government troops were looting and targeting Greek merchants and members of the Nande ethnic group.
    (SFC, 12/9/96, p.A18)

1996        Dec 17, In Zaire Mobutu Sese Seko stage a triumphal home.
    (SFC, 12/18/96, p.C2)

1996        Dec 19, In Zaire Genu0092l. Mahele Lieko Bokoungo was appointed the new army chief.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B5)

1996        Dec 23, In Zaire a crises government was established under Prime Minister Leon Kengo wa Dondo. Genu0092l. Likulia Bolongop was named the new defense minister.
    (SFC, 12/25/96, p.A10)

1996        Dec-1996 Jan, Hundreds of Hutu refugees were killed by rebels as they headed back home on the road from Hombo to Walikale.
    (SFC, 3/14/97, p.A12)

1996        Rwandau0092s Paul Kagame dressed up an invasion of Zaire as an indigenous revolt and installed Laurent Kabila at its helm. Zimbabwe paid $5 million to help finance the Kabila regime in Congo.
    (WSJ, 10/8/98, p.A1)(Econ, 8/21/04, p.38)

1997        Jan 2, In Zaire rebel troops captured Pres. Sekou0092s 32,000 sq. mile Kilomoto gold mining region and the town of Mangbwalu.
    (SFC, 1/3/97, p.A18)

1997        Jan 6, In Zaire at least 100 lawmakers quit Pres. Sekou0092s parliamentary alliance to join a new nationalist group. Their goal appeared to be to topple Prime Minister Kengo wa Dondo.
    (SFC, 1/7/97, p.A9)

1997        Jan 9, Zaireu0092s Pres. Seko returned to France, apparently for cancer treatments.
    (SFC, 1/10/96, p.A15)

1997        Jan 24, A Zairean counteroffensive was supported by some 300 foreign mercenaries. About 400,000 Hutu refugees were trapped near regions of fighting and UN officials raised pleas for a truce to allow the refugees to move.
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A8)

1997        Feb 15, In Zaire Rwandan soldiers killed about 200 refugees near the town of Kigulube.
    (AP, 10/1/10)

1997        Feb 18, The UN endorsed a 5-point peace plan for Zaire.
    (SFC, 2/19/96, p.A10)

1997        Mar 14, In Zaire after a 3 week siege of Kisangani, rebels attacked the city, the 3rd largest in the country.
    (SFC, 3/15/97, p.A19)

1997        Mar 15, In Zaire rebel soldiers occupied Kisangani.
    (SFC, 3/17/97, p.A8)

1997        Mar 21, Zaireu0092s Pres. Mobutu returned to Kinshasa.
    (SFC, 3/21/97, p.A19)

1997        Mar 24, In Zaire Mobutu accepted the parliamentary vote of censure of prime minister Kengo wa Dondo.
    (SFC, 3/25/97, p.A12)

1997        Apr 1, In Zaire Etienne Tshisekedi was appointed prime minister. The next day he annulled the constitution, dissolved parliament and offered 6 Cabinet seats to the rebels. He planned a new transitional parliament and new multiparty elections.
    (SFC, 4/4/97, p.A16)

1997        Apr 4, Rebel forces captured Mbuji-Mayi, capital of Eastern Kasai province and home of Zaireu0092s diamond industry. Departing government troops looted the city and 100 people were killed in clashes between the retreating soldiers and locals.
    (SFC, 4/5/97, p.A8)

1997        Apr 5, In Zaire rebels agreed to allow a UN airlift of some 80,000 Rwandan refugees back to their homeland.
    (SFEC, 4/6/97, p.A17)

1997        Apr 7, Deserting government soldiers of Zaireu0092s 21st Brigade donned white scarves and declared themselves on the side of the rebels as the rebels approached Lubumbashi, the capital of the copper and cobalt rich Shaba province.
    (SFC, 4/8/97, p.A8)

1997        Apr 9, In Zaire Mobuto dismissed prime minister Etienne Tshisekedo and installed a military commander as prime minister.
    (SFC, 4/10/97, p.A1)

1997        Apr 24, In Zaire rebels were accused of having killed many refugees and burying them in a mass grave. Large amounts of airlift supplies intended to return Rwandan refugees were seized by rebels.
    (SFC, 4/25/97, p.A12)

1997        Apr 25, Zaireu0092s government claimed that Angolan troops had invaded near Cabinda. Angola was supporting Kabilau0092s rebels.
    (SFC, 4/26/97, p.A10)

1997        May 2, The Tenke Mining Corp. of Vancouver, Canada, signed a $250 million contract with the Zaireu0092s rebels to develop copper and cobalt deposits.
    (SFC, 5/10/97, p.A10)

1997        May 4, More than 100 Rwandan refugees died on an overcrowded train after rebel troops packed them aboard for delivery to an airstrip for flights to Rwanda. Peace talks onboard the South African naval vessel Outeniqua between Zaireu0092s Pres. Mobutu and Laurent Kabila failed to produce anticipated results.
    (WSJ, 5/5/97, p.A1)

1997        May 5, The rebels nationalized the Sizarail rail system, a consortium that belonged to South African, Belgian and Zairean interests.
    (WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A18)

1997        May 6, Pres. Mobutu Sese Seko left Zaire for a 3-day visit to Gabon. He was not expected to return.
    (SFC, 5/7/97, p.C2)

1997        May 8, In Zaire rebels were meeting increased resistance from French mercenaries and Angolan UNITA forces. A shortage of cash was also hindering their advance on Kinshasa.
    (WSJ, 5/9/97, p.A1)

1997        May 10, In Zaire Pres. Mobutu returned to Kinshasa from Gabon.
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, p.A7)

1997        May 13, In Zaire rebel troops reached Wendji and Mbandaka and proceeded to kill Hutu refugees. Estimates of deaths varied from 550-2000.
    (WSJ, 6/6/97, p.A11)(SFC, 9/23/97, p.A11)

1997        May 15, In mid May Kabilau0092s soldiers were reported to have killed as many as 275 people in Uvira on Lake Tanganyika.
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.A14)

1997        May 16, Pres. Mobutu left Zaire.
    (SFC, 5/17/97, p.A1)   

1997        May 17, In Zaire rebel forces entered Kinshasa and Laurent Kabila declared himself president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Kabila requested Swiss authorities to block Mobuto Sese Sekou0092s access to his Swiss villa. The house was seized and searched and documents were found that related to his wealth. The seizure was declared legal Aug 7.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 8/8/97, p.E3)(AP, 5/17/98)

1997        May 29, In Congo Kabila took a presidential oath of office and presented a timeline for future elections.
    (SFC, 5/30/97, p.A16)

1997        Jun 26, In Congo soldiers seized Etienne Tshisekedi after he gave a speech accusing the Kabila regime of establishing a new dictatorship.
    (WSJ, 6/27/97, p.A1)

1997        Jun 27, In Congo Etienne Tshisekedi was released.
    (WSJ, 6/30/97, p.A1)

1997        Jul 25, In Congo soldiers fired into a crowd of protestors in Kinshasa and killed at least 3 people. The protest was against Kabilau0092s ban on political activity.
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.A14)

1997        Aug 7, In Switzerland the measures to freeze the assets of deposed Zairean Pres. Mobuto Sese Seko were declared legal.
    (SFC, 8/8/97, p.E3)

1997        Aug 14, Congo announced  a $2.5 billion project to build roads and that it would seek EU financing.
    (WSJ, 8/14/97, p.A1)

1997        Sep 7, Mobuto Sese Seko (66), former dictator of Zaire, later Congo, died of prostate cancer in exile in Rabat, Morocco. Mobutu began his career in the Belgian Congolese army, rising to the highest rank available to Africans, sergeant-major. However, after leaving the army in 1956, he began to be involved with the independence movement, representing the nationalists at some negotiations. Five years after independence, in 1965, Mobutu, then commander in chief of the army, exploited a power struggle in the young government by assuming the presidency in a coup. Mobutu managed to stay in power over the following decades despite uprisings, coup attempts and Angola-backed rebels. In the early 1970s, he began to Africanize names in the country, most notably changing the name of the country from the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the Republic of Zaire and his own name from Joseph-Désiré Mobutu to Mobutu Sese Seko Koko Ngbendu Wa Za Banga (which means "The all-powerful warrior who, because of his endurance and inflexible will to win, will go from conquest to conquest, leaving fire in his wake"). The end of the Cold War meant that, in 1991, Mobutu could no longer hold the same dictatorial control he had held over the country nor keep his party, the MPR, as the only legal political entity. With the beginnings of a multiparty system and a lack of Western finance, Mobutu released control of the government to the rebel leader Laurent Kabila in May 1997. Kabilau0091s rebelsu0097backed by Rwanda and Ugandau0097had been gaining ground over the past seven months. Mobutu died in exile several months later. In 2001 Michela Wrong authored ""In the Footsteps of Mr. Kurtz: Living on the Brink of Disaster in Mobutuu0092s Congo."
    (SFC, 9/8/97, p.A8)(AP, 9/7/98)(HNQ, 2/15/01)(WSJ, 4/27/01, p.W10)

1997        Sep 12, In southeast Congo a plane crashed enroute to a religious meeting. All 20 aboard were killed.
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A24)

1997        Oct 1, The UN withdrew its human rights investigators from Congo pending a clarification by the Kabila government on its policy.
    (SFC, 10/2/97, p.A12)

1997        Oct 1, Pres. Kabila ordered troops into the Congo Republic after 2 days of cross border shelling that killed as many as 31 in Kinshasa.
    (WSJ, 10/2/97, p.A1)

1997        Oct 3, UN officials reported that Congo has ordered intu0092l. refugee agencies to leave part of eastern Congo and was expelling Rwandans who have fled there to escape fighting in Rwanda.
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.A10)

1997        Oct 25, Congou0092s Pres. Kabila and the US ambassador to the UN announced an agreement for a UN investigation into alleged massacres by Kabilau0092s army.
    (SFEC,10/26/97, p.A22)

1997        Nov 25, It was reported that police in Congo flogged 10 journalists for attending a news conference by politician Zu0092Ahidi Arthur Ngoma. Ngoma and five supporters were arrested after the conference.
    (SFC,11/28/97, p.B5)

1997        Nov 28, In Congo rival factions of the army clashed and up to 20 people were killed in Kinshasa at the offices of Pres. Kabila.
    (SFC, 11/29/97, p.A14)

1997        Nov 30, In the Congo the government accused foreign broadcaster of tarnishing its image and shut down all local FM transmissions of international radio stations.
    (SFC, 12/1/97, p.A13)

1997        In Congo Laurent Kabila appointed his son, Joseph Kabila, as head of the army.
    (SFC, 1/18/01, p.A14)

1998        Jan 20, Joseph Olengankoy, Congo opposition leader, was arrested. He had refused to meet with Pres. Kabila to discuss his criticism.
    (SFC, 1/21/98, p.C12)

1998        Feb 20, In Congo troops of Pres. Kabila were sent to quell a rebellion by Mai-Mai tribal warriors. A human rights group, Azadho, later charged the troops in a massacre of over 300 civilians in Butembo.
    (SFC, 3/7/98, p.A10)

1998        Apr, The Congo government banned the African Association for Defense of Human Rights.
    (SFC, 10/2/98, p.B7)

1998        May 11, A new study was reported that James Kabari, Pres. Kabilau0092s chief of staff, supervised a special Rwandan military unit that killed 2,000 Hutus in 1997 in the Congolese town of Mbandaka with Kabilau0092s knowledge.
    (SFC, 5/11/98, p.A8)

1998        May 19, A Congo military court sentenced Masasu Nindanga and Joseph Olenghankoy, opponents of Pres. Kabila, to jail terms of 20 and 15 years with no right of appeal.
    (SFC, 5/20/98, p.C2)

1998        Jul 1, Etienne Tshisekedi, Congo opposition leader, was freed from internal exile and returned to the capital.
    (SFC, 7/2/98, p.C2)

1998        Aug 3, In Congo rebellious troops seized control of several cities. Sylvain Mbuchi, claimed to be the rebel leader and announced that the military had decided to remove Kabila from power. Kabila last week ordered Rwandan Tutsi troops to leave Congo.
    (SFC, 8/4/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 8/4/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 5, In Congo Arthur Zu0092Ahidy [Zaidy] Ngoma, a Kinshasa politician, was identified as the leader of the rebels opposed to Kabila.
    (SFC, 8/6/93, p.A12)(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 6, Rebels in Congo seized control of Moanda, an important oil depot.
    (SFC, 8/7/98, p.A14)

1998        Aug 7, Congou0092s Pres. Kabila left Kinshasa for Lubumbashi, his former rebel base, to meet with a visiting South African delegation.
    (SFC, 8/8/98, p.A13)

1998        Aug 10, Congo claimed to have recaptured the Atlantic ports near the mouth of the Congo River that were taken by Tutsi rebels.
    (WSJ, 8/11/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 12, Rwanda protested a Congo crackdown on ethnic Tutsis and charged that Kabila was arming Rwandan Hutus to put down a Tutsi-led revolt along the border.
    (WSJ, 8/13/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 13, In Congo rebels seized the Inga hydroelectric dam and cut off power to Kinshasa. Kabila fired his army chief in response.
    (WSJ, 8/14/98, p.A1)(SFC, 8/17/98, p.A10)

1998        Aug 14, In Congo Bizima Karaha, a minister who had defected to the rebels, said that the port of Matadi was captured. A rebel army was marching toward Kinshasa from the western coastline.
    (SFC, 8/15/98, p.A10)

1998        Aug 15, In Congo the US Embassy shut its doors as rebels approached Kinshasa. Pres. Kabila and his ministers retired to Lubumbashi.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A12)

1998        Aug 16, Pres. Kabila flew to Angola to meet with Pres. dos Santos and request direct support against rebels. Air cargo support was being provided as well as several thousand Congolese exiles known as the Katangese Gendarmes.
    (SFC, 8/17/98, p.A10)

1998        Aug 21, Zimbabwe sent 600 troops to support Pres. Kabila in the Congo. Rwanda called for a cease fire and warned that it would intervene if the troops from Zimbabwe were not withdrawn.
    (SFC, 8/22/98, p.A8)

1998        Aug 23, In Congo rebels appeared to have seized Kisangani while government soldiers recaptured Kitona, a military base near the coast. Troops from Zimbabwe fought rebels advancing on Kinshasa. The capture of Kisangani effectively splitting Congo and cut off commerce with government-held territory and Kinshasa, the capital 900 miles downriver.
    (SFC, 8/24/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 8/24/98, p.A1)(AP, 8/18/03)

1998        Aug 24, Some 2,000 Angolan troops captured a coastal naval base and oil port and moved up the Congo River to battle the rebels.
    (SFC, 8/25/98, p.A7)

1998        Aug 25, Pres. Kabila declared that this day all Congolese should "take up arms, even traditional weapons -bows and arrows, spears and other things... to crush the enemy because otherwise we are going to become the slaves of these...Tutsi people."
    (SFC, 10/2/98, p.B7)

1998        Aug 26, In Congo Rwandan-backed rebels attempted an assault on Kinshasa but were held off by government soldiers and troops from Zimbabwe and Namibia.
    (SFC, 8/27/98, p.A10)

1998        Aug 27, In Congo Unita forces from Angola joined the rebels, while forces from Namibia fought for Kabilau0092s regime.
    (WSJ, 8/28/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 31, Congou0092s Kabila declared victory over the Tutsi-led rebels near Kinshasa and in the southwest.
    (WSJ, 9/2/98, p.A1)

1998         Sep 7, A summit in Zimbabwe was scheduled to create conditions for a cease-fire in Congo. A half dozen nations gathered to fashion a draft initiative for peace.
    (SFEC, 9/6/98, p.A11)(SFC, 9/8/98, p.A8)

1998        Sep 8, The Congo rebel delegation stormed out of the peace talks in Zimbabwe.
    (SFC, 9/9/98, p.A9)

1998        Sep 15, In Congo Pres. Kabila restored four generals from late dictator Mobutuu0092s regime. Government forces were said to be moving on Goma.
    (WSJ, 9/16/98, p.A1)

1998        Oct 5, In Congo rebels under Arthur Mulunda said they were within 12 miles of Kindu. The rebels were backed by troops and equipment from Rwanda and Uganda.
    (SFC, 10/6/98, p.A12)

1998        Oct 6, Rebel commander Richard Mondo told reporters that artillery rounds had been fired into Kindu and that advance units had crossed the Lualaba River. At least 18 government soldiers were reported killed.
    (SFC, 10/7/98, p.A12)

1998        Oct 10, In Congo Tutsi rebels shot down a Boeing 727 Lignes Aeriennes Congolaises airliner following takeoff from Kindu. Airline officials said there were 38 passengers, mostly women and children. Rebels claimed the passengers were soldiers. 41 people were killed.
    (SFEC, 10/11/98, p.A15)(AP, 6/11/13)

1998        Oct 11, Kindu, Congo, fell to the rebels supported by Rwanda and Uganda.
    (SFC, 10/14/98, p.C2)

1998        Oct 14, In Zimbabwe Pres. Robert Mugabe that he will meet with Kabila to discuss support against the rebels in Congo.
    (SFC, 10/15/98, p.A15)

1998        Oct 16, It was reported that Bobi Ladawa Mobutu, wife of Mobutu Sese Seko, and son, Nazanga, had established a Mobutu Family Foundation to carry out charitable programs in the US and Africa for young Africans. The former dictator was believed to have taken $10 billion from the Congo.
    (SFC, 10/16/98, p.A14)

1998        Oct 19, In Congo 16 Zimbabwean soldiers were captured by the rebels.
    (SFC, 10/21/98, p.C2)

1998        Oct 31, It was reported that a lightning bolt killed all 11 members of a Congolese soccer team in eastern Kasai province.
    (SFC, 10/31/98, p.A8)

1998        Oct, Congou0092s new constitution was scheduled to be completed.
    (SFC, 5/30/97, p.A15)

1998        Nov 3, In Congo troops opened fire at a soccer match in Kinshasa and 4 people were killed.
    (WSJ, 11/4/98, p.A1)

1998        Nov 16, In Congo rebels said that they captured the port of Moba on Lake Tanganyika. UN officials said that over 65,000 people had been displaced since Aug 2.
    (SFC, 11/17/98, p.B3)

1998        Nov 20, It was reported that Kabila was signing away large stakes in Congou0092s biggest enterprises to businessmen from Zimbabwe, Angola and Namibia in return for support against rebels backed by Uganda and Rwanda.
    (WSJ, 11/20/98, p.A1)

1998        Nov 23, Congo reported that warplanes of its Zimbabwe allies bombed and sank 6 boatloads of rebels on lake Tanganyika killing hundreds.
    (WSJ, 11/24/98, p.A1)

1998        Nov 28, Countries fighting in Congo agreed to a cease-fire during an African summit in Paris. The deal was brokered by UN Sec. Genu0092l. Kofi Annan. Rebel leaders were not present.
    (SFEC, 11/29/98, p.A21)

1998        Dec 4, The former governor of Bas-Congo province, Fuko Unzola, was sentenced to 15 years in jail for treason, i.e. collaborating with Tutsi-led rebels.
    (SFC, 12/5/98, p.A14)

1998        Dec 7, Congolese rebels dismissed the tentative truce worked out in Paris by UN Sec. Genu0092l. Kofi Annan.
    (SFC, 12/8/98, p.B5)

1998        Dec 15, Congo rebels claimed to have killed 47 Zimbabwean troops fighting for Kabila at Kabala.
    (WSJ, 12/16/98, p.A1)

1998        Dec 17-1998 Dec 18, A Congo cease-fire was to be signed before a meeting of the Organization of African Unity.
    (SFEC, 11/29/98, p.A21)

1998        Dec, A referendum on Congou0092s new constitution was scheduled.
    (SFC, 5/30/97, p.A16)

1998        The Lusaka Treaty failed to resolve squabbles and ended with a resumption of war in Congo.
    (WSJ, 5/31/00, p.A26)

1998        Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe, chairman of the African body u0093Organ on Politics, Defence and Security,u0094 joined with Namibia and Angola in a war of plunder in Congo.
    (Econ, 3/13/04, p.48)

1998        Dec 30-1999 Jan 1, Some 500 people were massacred in eastern Congo during the 3 day New Year holiday. The killings were by soldiers aligned with rebels led by Tutsi, but the victims were not Hutu.
    (SFC, 1/6/99, p.A7)

1998-2004    Congo strife over this period killed 3.8 million people, half of them children, mostly due to disease and famine.
    (WSJ, 12/10/04, p.A1)

1999        Jan 1, Congo rebels massacred at least 500 civilians over the last 3 days. Six Red Cross workers were among the dead.
    (WSJ, 1/6/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.A1)

1999        Jan 6, Congo rebel leader Ernest Wamba dia Wamba said his forces killed about 400 Burundi Hutu rebels fighting with the Congolese government troops and promised to investigate the alleged New Year murder of 500 civilians.
    (SFC, 1/7/99, p.A10)

1999        Jan 22, In eastern Congo government and rebel authorities accepted UN care for hundreds of thousands displaced by war.
    (SFC, 1/23/99, p.A11)

1999        Jan-1999 Jul, In Congo soldieru0092s under Pres. Kabila fled advancing rebel troops and killed numerous inhabitants in their path in the Equateur region. An estimated 300-900 people were killed and graves began to be uncovered in 2000.
    (SFC, 4/15/00, p.A15)

1999        Mar 3, The Ugandan army killed 15 of the Rwanda Hutu rebels who butchered 8 foreign tourists Mar 1. Another 100 rebels escaped into the bush inside the Republic of the Congo.
    (SFC, 3/5/99, p.A12)

1999        Mar 4, Congo rebels who served under Mobutu Sese Seko took the town of Bolobo, upstream from Kinshasa.
    (SFC, 3/5/99, p.D2)

1999        Mar 14, In southeastern Congo rebels reportedly killed over 100 villagers in retaliation for an attack by pro-government militia. Moise Nyarugabo, head of the rebel Congolese Democratic Coalition said his forces killed at least 150 Zimbabwean soldiers allied to Kabila at Kabinda. Zimbabwe denied the report.
    (SFC, 3/15/99, p.A9)(SFC, 3/17/99, p.C3)

1999        Mar 22, In Congo Mai Mai warriors hired by Rwanda were reported to have killed 100 people. Rwanda denied the report.
    (WSJ, 3/24/99, p.A1)

1999        Mar 24, In Congo a massacre of 250 people in the Kivu region was reported. The slayings by Rwandan troops appeared to be in retaliation for earlier attacks by Congolese Mai Mai tribesmen.
    (SFC, 3/25/99, p.A10)

1999        Apr 18, Pres. Kabila and Ugandan Pres. Museweni signed a cease-fire agreement that was mediated by Libyan leader Moammar Khadafy. Rwanda and Congolese rebels rejected the deal.
    (SFC, 5/29/99, p.A11)

1999        Apr 19, Kabila in 1997 set this date for presidential and legislative elections.
    (SFC, 5/30/97, p.A15)

1999        Apr 28, In eastern Congo Gov. Kanyamuhanga Gafunzi ordered 100,000 Rwandan refugees in Kivu province to go home within 15 days for supporting Hutu rebels.
    (SFC, 4/29/99, p.D8)

1999        May 5, It was reported that over 63 people had died from an unknown disease that appeared to be a type of hemorrhagic fever. Most of the dead were gold miners and died within 6 days of becoming ill. The disease was caused by the Marburg virus.
    (SFC, 5/5/99, p.A11)(SFC, 5/7/99, p.D2)

1999        May 11, In Congo a government plane bombed rebel strongholds at Goma and Uvira and at least 28 people were killed according to Gen'l. Celestin Ilunga.
    (SFC, 5/12/99, p.C10)

1999        May 17, Ernest Wamba dia Wamba was ousted as the rebel leader of the Congolese Democratic Coalition.
    (SFC, 5/18/99, p.C12)(SFC, 8/16/99, p.A8)

1999        May 19, In Congo the rebel Congolese Democratic Coalition named Emile Ilunga as their new leader.
    (SFC, 5/20/99, p.A13)

1999        May 28, Rwanda declared a unilateral cease-fire in Congo where it was backing rebels to oust Pres. Kabila.
    (SFC, 5/29/99, p.A11)

1999        Jun, Ernest Wamba dia Wamba, head of the Rally for Congolese Democracy, moved his headquarters from Kisangani to Bunia. He declared a new province called Kibali-Ituri and appointed a Hema tribesperson as governor. This ignited a new round of fighting between the cattle-raising Hema and agrarian Lendu tribes.
    (SFC, 2/9/00, p.A13)

1999        Jul 1, In Congo fighting intensified as rebels advanced on key diamond areas near Kabinda and Miba.
    (SFC, 7/2/99, p.A18)

1999        Jul 2, The Congo government and rebel officials said they had reached an accord to end the 11-month war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Rebel forces were to be merged with the government army.
    (SFC, 7/3/99, p.A10)

1999        Jul 4, In Congo Abdulaiye Yerodia, the foreign minister, objected to the inclusion of foreign rebels in a joint military commission to verify terms of a cease-fire. Meanwhile The Congolese Liberation Movement, led by Jena-Pierre Bemba, took Gbadolite, 750 miles northeast of Kinshasa.
    (SFC, 7/5/99, p.A12)

1999        Jul 10, In Zambia 5 nations involved in the Congo civil war signed a peace accord.
    (SFC, 8/2/99, p.A12)

1999        Jul 11, In Congo rebels dismissed the peace agreement signed by 6 countries involved in the war and said the war would continue and get worse.
    (SFC, 7/12/99, p.A9)

1999        Aug 1, In Zambia Jean-Pierre Bemba, head of the Congo Liberation Movement, signed the cease-fire accord that representatives of 5 nations involved had signed on July 10. The Congolese Rally for Democracy faction still contested leadership between Ernest Wamba dia Wamba and Emile Ilunga.
    (SFC, 8/2/99, p.A12)

1999        Aug 4, In Congo at least 518 people, mostly civilians, were killed when Sudanese planes, at the request of Congo's government, bombed the rebel-held towns of Makanza and Bogbonga. Sudan denied the charges and Congolese Pres. Kabila denied responsibility.
    (SFC, 8/5/99, p.A12)(SFC, 8/7/99, p.A12)

1999        Aug 11, In Congo warring sides agreed to stop fighting until Aug 20 to allow the UN to vaccinate 10 million children against polio.
    (WSJ, 8/12/99, p.A1)

1999        Aug 15, Fighting in Kisangani (formerly Stanleyville) extended from the airport to the city center between forces from Uganda and Rwanda. Rebel leader Ernest Wamba dia Wamba was backed by Uganda, while Emile Ilunga was backed by Rwanda.
    (SFC, 8/16/99, p.A8)

1999        Aug 17, Rwanda and Uganda agreed to an immediate truce to 4 days of fighting in Kisangani, Congo.
    (SFC, 8/18/99, p.A12)

1999        Aug 24, Congo rebel leaders agreed to sign a peace accord.
    (WSJ, 8/25/99, p.A1)

1999        Aug 31, Congolese rebels signed a cease-fire in Zambia.
    (SFC, 9/1/99, p.A16)

1999        Oct 7, Rwanda reported that army troops and Congolese allies had killed over 200 Rwandan Hutu rebels over a weeklong operation along the border where 4,000 Hutu rebels had been based.
    (SFC, 10/9/99, p.A11)

1999        Oct 8, In Congo Pres. Kabila ordered foreign businessmen to put down a $500,000 guarantee by Dec. 21 or leave the country. The order came less than a week after he ordered a crackdown on Congo's illegal foreign exchange market, the shutdown of the main commercial district and the arrest of currency traders.
    (SFC, 10/9/99, p.A11)

1999        Oct 22, The Italian missionary news agency MISNA reported that the bodies of 61 civilians were reported found near the Congo village of Kashambi.
    (SFC, 10/23/99, p.A11)

1999        Nov 8, It was reported that 2 Congo rebel leaders were resuming their war on Kabila.
    (WSJ, 11/8/99, p.A1)

1999        Nov 9, Government forces bombed Nkembe. Rebel spokesman Kien-Kiey Mulumba said he would no longer honor the peace accord after the government killed 100 civilians in 4 days of fighting.
    (SFC, 11/10/99, p.A14)(SFC, 11/12/99, p.D2)

1999        Nov 23, In Congo Mayi-Mayi tribal fighters, armed mostly with bows and arrows, attacked Ugandan soldiers near Butembo and some 200 fighters were killed including about 100 Mayi-Mayi.
    (SFC, 11/25/99, p.D6)

1999        Dec 2, Congo rebels besieged a large contingent of Zimbabwean troops allied with Kabila and captured a Russian-built transport plane and 120 prisoners.
    (SFC, 12/3/99, p.A1)
1999        Dec 2, Congolese rebels lost Bokungu as Zimbabwean soldiers broke through to save surrounded comrades at Ikela airport.
    (SFC, 12/4/99, p.A14)

1999        Dec 31, In Congo Jean-Pierre Bemba said his Congolese Liberation Movement forces had ambushed and killed 80 government troops at Libanda.
    (SFC, 1/1/00, p.D4)

1999        Edward Hooper authored "The River," a detailed hypothesis for the origin of AIDS in Africa. He suspected that the Wister polio vaccine, which was given to some 300,000 people in the Belgian Congo between 1957-1960, was produced from monkey kidney cells that contained SIV virus.
    (SSFC, 1/14/01, p.A1,14)(www.avert.org/origins.htm)

1999        A local dispute between Hema and Lendu tribes people began over a farm in Djugu. The disputes broadened and led to substantial killings.
    (SFC, 1/29/01, p.A14)

1999        A UN peacekeeping force (MONUC) was deployed to Congo, but failed to keep anyone safe. In 2004 the UN Security Council ordered an expansion of forces from 10,000 to 16,000.
    (Econ, 12/4/04, p.45)

2000        Jan 24, Pres. Kabila met with other African presidents at the UN to end the Congo civil war. Kabila demanded that the UN deploy a peace-keeping force to monitor the truce.
    (SFC, 1/25/00, p.A10)

2000        Feb 9, It was reported that video footage was smuggled out to Kenya from the Ituri district of Congo by the Christoffel Blinden Mission, a Christian charity for the blind. It depicted the escalating tribal slaughter in the area.
    (SFC, 2/9/00, p.A1)

2000        Feb 24, The UN Security Council approved a proposal to send as many as 5,537 observers and peace-keeping troops to the Congo.
    (SFC, 2/25/00, p.A16)

2000        Apr 14, In Congo several explosions took place at the airport in Kinshasa and a number of people were killed. State radio reported that a short circuit sparked a fire that triggered explosions at an army munitions depot and that a fire spread to a fuel depot. The death toll reached 101 and 216 seriously injured.
    (SFC, 4/15/00, p.A13)(SFEC, 4/16/00, p.A21)(SFC, 4/17/00, p.A12)

2000        Apr 19, In southern Congo 6 Rwandan army officers and 4 Russian crew members were killed when their Antonov-8 aircraft crashed on takeoff at Pepa.
    (SFC, 4/21/00, p.A20)(WSJ, 4/21/00, p.A1)

2000        May 4, Congo agreed to cooperate with UN plans for a 5,500 member observer force to monitor the cease-fire.
    (SFC, 5/5/00, p.A18)

2000        May 5, In Congo Ugandan and Rwandan troops clashed at Kisangani and at least 10 civilians were killed and 100 wounded.
    (SFC, 5/6/00, p.C1)

2000        May 7, Pres. Kagami announced that Rwanda was prepared to quickly implement a phased withdrawal from Congo.
    (SFC, 5/8/00, p.A12)

2000        May 8, In Congo the city of Kisangani (formerly Stanleyville) was declared a neutral zone as Rwanda and Uganda agreed to withdraw their troops from the area and allow UN forces to take over.
    (SFC, 5/9/00, p.A12)

2000        May 16, In Congo an immediate pullout from Kisangani of forces from Rwanda and Uganda was agreed to in a bid to avert a wider war.
    (WSJ, 5/17/00, p.A1)

2000        Jun 7, In Congo troops from Uganda and Rwanda fought an artillery duel in Kisangani that set the cityu0092s cathedral on fire.
    (WSJ, 6/8/00, p.A1)

2000        Jun 9, The 22-month civil war averaged some 2,600 deaths every day. The total was estimated at 1.7 million dead.
    (SFC, 6/9/00, p.A20)

2000        Jun 11, In Congo Rwandan troops drove Ugandan forces from Kisangani to end a week of indiscriminate shelling.
    (SFC, 6/12/00, p.A13)

2000        Aug 10, Rebels fought government troops near Dongo. Jean-Pierre Bemba, head of the Ugandan backed Congolese Liberation Movement, said his rebels had killed some 800 government soldiers on riverboats using missiles.
    (SFC, 8/12/00, p.A11)

2000        Aug 12, In Congo a Russian-made Antonov crashed on approach to Tshikapa and 27 people were killed.
    (WSJ, 8/14/00, p.A1)

2000        Sep 9, Rebels captured Dongo and forced the retreat of government troops toward Imese. Scores were killed in a 36-hour battle.
    (SFC, 9/11/00, p.13)

2000        Sep 11, In Congo rebels and Ugandan troops killed at least 30 pro-Kabila Mai-Mai fighters at Butembo in the Masisi region.
    (SFC, 9/13/00, p.A14)

2000        Nov 5, In Congo at least 20 people were killed in Bunia, before Uganda sent in tanks and troops to protect Ernest Wamba dia Wamba in a dispute with Mbusa Nyamwisi.
    (SFC, 11/8/00, p.B4)

2000        Dec 4, In southern Congo over 10,000 refugees were driven into northern Zambia due to renewed fighting over the last 12 days.
    (SFC, 12/5/00, p.A16)

2000        In CongoDRC Lyn Lusi (d.2012), British born administrator, and her Congolese husband set up a hospital in Goma to train Congolese doctors. It was destroyed by a volcano in 2002. They rebuilt it and named it HEAL Africa.
    (Econ, 3/31/12, p.110)(http://www.opusprize.org/winners/11_lusi.cfm)
2000        Asylum seekers fled to the Republic of Congo when the rebel Movement for the Liberation of Congo under Jean-Pierre Bemba overtook the Equateur province.
    (SFC, 5/28/02, p.E1)
2000        The Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) was formed after the Kinshasa-based Hutu command and the Kivu-based Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (ALiR) agreed to merge.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democratic_Forces_for_the_Liberation_of_Rwanda)
2000        It was estimated that Rwanda made $20 million per month mining coltan in Congo DRC. The mineral is used in the manufacture of capacitors for electronic equipment.
    (www.american.edu/ted/ice/congo-coltan.htm)

2001        Jan 16, In Congo Pres. Kabila was assassinated by one of his bodyguards, Rashidi Kasereka, who was immediately killed. In 2003 a military court sentenced 26 people to death for the assassination.
    (SFC, 1/17/01, p.A1)(SFC, 1/24/01, p.A12)(SFC, 1/8/03, p.A16)

2001        Jan 17, In Congo government ministers named Joseph Kabila, son of Laurent Kabila, as temporary head of state.
    (SFC, 1/18/01, p.A13)

2001        Jan 18, The Congo government announced the death of Laurent Kabila.
    (SFC, 1/19/01, p.A16)

2001        Jan 19, Fighting between Congou0092s Hema and Lendu tribes people left about 118 Hema dead along with 159 Lendu.
    (SFC, 1/29/01, p.A12,14)

2001        Feb 2, Congou0092s Pres. Joseph Kabila called for the armies of Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi to withdraw and promised that troops from Angola, Namibia and Zimbabwe would leave after stability was restored.
    (SFC, 2/3/01, p.A8)
2001        Feb 2, Hutu militiamen backing Joseph Kabila ambushed a bus in rebel-controlled eastern Congo and killed 11 passengers.
    (SFC, 2/6/01, p.A10)

2001        Feb 15, The warring parties met and Joseph Kabila agreed to initiate talks with rebel groups. The rebel Movement for the Liberation of Congo agreed to endorse a details withdrawal plan.
    (SFC, 2/16/01, p.A16)

2001        Feb 27, Rwanda began pulling back troops from a front-line Congo town.
    (WSJ, 2/28/01, p.A1)

2001        Feb 28, In Congo 3,000 troops from Rwanda and 150 from Uganda withdrew. All warring parties were scheduled to make way for an 18-mile buffer zone, to be monitored by the UN, by March 15.
    (SFC, 3/1/01, p.A10)

2001        Mar 7, Congo soldiers killed some of the 11 Lebanese nationals detained in the aftermath of the Kabila assassination.
    (SFC, 3/8/01, p.A16)

2001        Mar 13, Rebel leader Jean-Pierre Bemba completed his troop withdrawal from the front lines. The Congolese army and allies soon followed.
    (SFC, 3/16/01, p.A15)

2001        Mar 29, UN troops from Uruguay began to set up camp on Lake Tanganyika for their mission to help end the Congo civil war.
    (SFC, 3/30/01, p.D4)

2001        Apr 15, Rebels backed by Rwanda blocked the deployment of UN peacekeepers in Goma and demanded that the UN first condemn atrocities by Congo.
    (WSJ, 4/16/01, p.A1)

2001        Apr 26, In northeastern Congo 6 Red Cross workers were killed 30 miles north of Bunia.
    (SFC, 4/28/01, p.A10)

2001        May 4, In Goma, Congo, a ferry flipped at a dock on Lake Kivu and at least 19 people died.
    (SFC, 5/5/01, p.D1)

2001        May 7, A report by the Intu0092l. Rescue Committee estimated the death toll in Congou0092s 33-month war at 2 ˝ million people, mostly due to disease and malnutrition.
    (SFC, 5/5/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 5/10/01, p.A1)

2001        Jun 15, The UN voted to keep peacekeepers in Congo for another year.
    (SFC, 6/16/01, p.A7)

2001        Aug 20, Congou0092s Pres. Kabila met with his main rival leaders for the 1st time to establish a transitional government and end 3 years of war.
    (SFC, 8/21/01, p.A7)

2001        Sep 2, Namibia confirmed that it had pulled all its troops from all of Congo except the capital. Uganda said it had pulled 6 of 10 battalions.
    (SFC, 9/3/01, p.A10)

2001        Sep 23, Congo rebel leader Adolphe Onusumba acknowledged peace talks with Zimbabweu0092s Pres. Mugabe.
    (SFC, 9/24/01, p.B2)

2002        Jan 17, The volcano Mount Nyiragongo erupted near Goma, Congo,  and rivers of lava destroyed 14 villages. Goma was devastated and some 400,000 people fled their homes. At least 50 people were killed and many sought refuge in Rwanda.
    (SFC, 1/18/02, p.A8)(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A1)(SSFC, 1/20/02, p.A16)

2002        Jan 21, Thousands of Congolese left Rwanda to return to Goma after receiving scant help.
    (SFC, 1/21/02, p.A3)

2002        Jan 22, In Goma, Congo, a gas station exploded after some spilled gas was ignited by lava. Dozens of people looting gasoline were killed.
    (SFC, 1/22/02, p.A6)

2002        Jan 23, In Congo some 22.5 tons of food was distributed to the volcano stricken people of Goma.
    (SFC, 1/24/02, p.A8)

2002        Feb 16, It was reported that over 40 people in Congo had been killed and dozens injured from massive mudslides triggered by rains.
    (SFC, 2/16/02, p.A26)

2002        Feb 26, In Congo peace talks were suspended a day after the opening ceremony due to wrangling over which political parties would be allowed to participate.
    (SFC, 2/27/02, p.A7)

2002        Apr 11, Congou0092s government and rebels agreed to integrate into a new national army during peace talks in South Africa.
    (SFC, 4/12/02, p.A9)

2002        Apr 19, Congo peace talks broke down over power-sharing.
    (SFC, 4/20/02, p.A13)

2002        May 14, An uprising in Kisangani, Congo, left 163 people dead. Three top commanders: Barnard Biamungu, commander of the RCD's fifth brigade; Laurent Nkunda, seventh brigade commander; and Gabriel Amisi, assistant chief of staff for logistics were identified as part of the Rally for Democracy, the Rwandan-backed rebel group responsible for the massacre.
    (SFC, 6/1/02, p.A11)(AP, 8/19/02)

2002        May, The refugee numbers in Congo reached over 362,000.
    (SFC, 5/28/02, p.E5)

2002        Jun 11, An investigation began into claims by Congou0092s Hemu community that some 2,400 of its people had been killed since April by the Lendu tribe and rebel allies.
    (SFC, 6/12/02, p.A14)

2002        Jul 22, Congolese and Rwandan leaders said that they've reached an agreement to end a four-year war in Congo, a fight that has defied resolution as it drew in eight African countries and claimed more than two million lives.
    (AP, 7/22/02)

2002        Jul 24, In Congo Hutu rebels rejected a peace deal that would force them back to Rwanda.
    (WSJ, 7/25/02, p.A1)

2002        Jul 30, The leaders of Congo and Rwanda signed a peace agreement, proclaiming it a key step in efforts to end a war that has embroiled six African nations and left 2.5 million people dead.
    (AP, 7/30/02)

2002        Aug 6, In northeastern Congo fighting began between rebels and tribesmen for control of Bunia, an important trading center, and killed at least 48 people, mostly civilians.
    (AP, 8/10/02)

2002        Aug 9, In northeastern Congo United Nations observers discovered a grave containing the hacked bodies of 38 women and children outside Bunia.
    (AP, 8/10/02)

2002        Aug 11, In Congo fighting around Bunia ended and at least 110 civilians were killed and more than 70 injured. More than 10,000 families were displaced during the fighting.
    (AP, 8/14/02)
2002        Aug 11, In eastern Congo renovation work uncovered the remains of 38 people buried in a communal grave at the site where the United Nations began building new headquarters for its peacekeeping force.
    (AP, 12/13/02)

2002        Aug 15, Uganda has agreed to withdraw its troops from neighboring Congo, where they were sent four years ago to support Congolese rebels and root out Ugandan insurgents.
    (AP, 8/16/02)

2002        Aug 28, The United Nations confirmed that Uganda and Zimbabwe have begun their pledged troop withdrawals from Congo.
    (AP, 8/28/02)

2002        Sep 5, In Congo some  6,000 Ngiti and Lendu tribe tribal fighters and their allies attacked the mission hospital in Nyankunde, slaughtering patients in their beds. They killed some 650 people from the Bira, Hema and 16 other tribes on the 1st day of the attacks.
    (AP, 12/24/02)

2002        Sep 14, In Congo DRC it was reported that some 1,200 people had died from a cholera epidemic and that another 18,000 were infected.
    (SFC, 9/14/02, p.A20)

2002        Sep 17, Rwanda began withdrawing troops from eastern Congo as part of an agreement signed with the Congolese government to end the four-year civil war in Africa's third-largest nation.
    (AP, 9/17/02)

2002        Oct 1, Rwanda began pulling out 6,000 troops from a Congo border province, the latest stage in a withdrawal of all its forces that it hopes to complete by week's end.
    (AP, 10/1/02)

2002        Oct 5, Rwanda withdrew its last troops from neighboring Congo, with some 1,100 soldiers marching in single file out of the war-ravaged country.
    (AP, 10/5/02)

2002        Oct 13, In eastern Congo fighting broke out in a strategic port when pro-government tribal fighters tried to wrest control of the town from rebels.
    (AP, 10/12/02)

2002        Oct 19, A rebel group in Congo said that it recaptured a strategic port in the eastern part of the country and took dozens of prisoners after heavy fighting.
    (AP, 10/19/02)

2002        Oct 21, A UN panel accused criminal groups linked to the armies of Rwanda, Uganda, Zimbabwe and Congo of plundering Congo's riches, and called on the United Nations to impose financial restrictions on 29 companies and 54 individuals.
    (AP, 10/21/02)

2002        Nov 11, Pres. Joseph Kabila has suspended every official accused in a U.N. report on the plunder of Congo's gold, diamond and other riches.
    (AP, 11/12/02)

2002        Nov 17, In Ankoro, Congo, government troops torched homes and shot residents in apparent reprisals for the beating of a soldier. Estimates of the death toll ranged from 29 to over 100.
    (AP, 11/21/02)

2002        Nov 24, Negotiations between the Congolese government and two rebel groups produced an agreement in principle on the workings of a transitional government.
    (AP, 11/24/02)

2002        Nov 26, The World Health Organization confirmed an outbreak of flu in rebel-controlled northern Congo, and the country's health minister said more than 500 people have died.
    (AP, 11/26/02)

2002        Nov 27, A WHO official said simultaneous outbreaks of the flu and meningitis have killed 185 people in a rebel-controlled area of northwestern Congo.
    (AP, 11/27/02)

2002        Dec 17, Congo's government, rebels and political opposition signed a power-sharing agreement after four years of war and 2.5 million lives lost.
    (AP, 12/17/02)

2003        Jan 7, In Congo a military court convicted and sentenced 26 people to death in the Jan 16, 2001 assassination of Congo's president, Laurent Kabila.
    (AP, 1/7/03)(SFC, 1/8/03, p.A16)

2003        Jan 8, A UN team was reported to be investigating reports that Congolese rebel troops had killed and eaten Pygmies in northeastern Congo. UN authorities confirmed the reports Jan 15 and identified the rebel campaign as "Operation Clean Slate."
    (AP, 1/8/03)(SFC, 1/16/03, p.A9)

2003        Jan 21, Congou0092s health minister reported that a flu epidemic had killed more than 2,000 people in a far northern province.
    (AP, 1/21/03)

2003        Feb 2, A tornado tore through remote villages in Bandundu province in central Congo, killing 164 people, destroying homes and ruining crops.
    (AP, 2/6/03)

2003      Feb 24, In northeastern Congo hundreds of civilians were killed and hundreds more were missing after Congolese rebels allied with the government seized a key town and launched a two-day campaign of murder, rape, looting and destruction. In 2009 Germain Katanga and Mathieu Ngudjolo faced trial for planning and directing the massacre of more than 200 villagers in Bogoro.
    (AP, 3/1/03)(AP, 11/25/09)

2003      Mar 6, The Congolese government and rebels have agreed in Pretoria to meld their armed forces into a new national army in a bid to end a 4 ˝-year civil war and reunify the vast central African nation.
    (AP, 3/7/03)

2003        Mar 18, Congo leaders signed a cease-fire with tribal militias and local chiefs in northeastern Congo.
    (AP, 3/18/03)

2003        Mar 19, In northeastern Congo 22 people were hacked to death.
    (AP, 3/21/03)

2003        Mar 22, In eastern Congo an overloaded ferry traveling between rebel-held ports sank in Lake Tanganyika, killing 111 people. It was sailing in Burundian waters to avoid rival tribal fighters.
    (AP, 3/24/03)

2003        Apr 1, Congo's government agreed to a power-sharing deal with rebel groups.
    (AP, 4/2/03)

2003        Apr 3, In northeastern Congo 966 people were killed in attacks by armed militants on villages in Ituri province. UN investigators later discovered some 20 mass graves in the region.
    (AP, 4/6/03)

2003        Apr 24, In Congo at least 60 members of the Lendu tribe were killed by the rival Hema in the Ituri region near the Uganda border. The attack was ordered by Hema militia leader Chief Yves Kahwa Mandro. The Lendu then killed about 60 Hema who were fleeing to Uganda to escape ongoing violence.
    (AP, 4/28/03)

2003        May 8, Rival tribal fighters battled for control of a northeastern Congolese town, killing at least 21 people and forcing thousands to flee. Fighters of the Union of Congolese Patriots, a rebel group dominated by Hema tribesmen, had attacked Bunia in a bid to seize its airport
    (AP, 5/8/03)
2003        May 8, A Russian-built cargo plane lost a back door ramp over Congo, hurling more than 100 Congolese soldiers and their families to their deaths.
    (Reuters, 5/9/03)(AP, 5/8/04)

2003        May 10, In northeastern Congo tribal militias battled for control of Bunia, killing at least 14 people.
    (AP, 5/11/03)

2003        May 15, Fleeing Congo civilians jammed roads out of Bunia by the thousands, trying to escape rival ethnic militias battling for control with mortars and machetes.
    (AP, 5/15/03)

2003        May 16, In northeastern Congo rival tribes fighting signed a cease-fire.
    (AP, 5/16/03)

2003        May 18, In northeastern Congo the savagely killed bodies of 2 UN military observers were found after having been reported missing for several days.
    (AP, 5/19/03)

2003        May 16, In northeastern Congo rival tribes fighting signed a cease-fire. There were over 100 confirmed killings and evidence of cannibalism.
    (AP, 5/16/03)(SFC, 5/20/03, p.A8)

2003        May 21, In northeastern Congo the death toll from more than a week of tribal fighting rose to 280 people.
    (AP, 5/22/03)

2003        Jun 14, French troops leading an international force engaged in a firefight with gunmen for the first time in their mission to stabilize the northeastern Congolese town of Bunia.
    (AP, 6/14/03)

2003        Jun 19, The Congolese government and two rebel factions agreed to halt fighting in an eastern region and pull back from newly occupied areas, hours after a battle for a key town there killed dozens of people.
    (AP, 6/19/03)

2003        Jun 29, Warring sides in Congo agreed on the formation of a unified military.
    (AP, 6/29/03)

2003        Jul 17, Congo's main rebel leaders were sworn as vice presidents in a new power-sharing government, designed to end the country's nearly 5-year civil war. 4 vice presidents represented the ruling party, the opposition party and 2 rebel groups.
    (AP, 7/17/03)(Econ, 8/9/03, p.39)

2003        Jul 24, Eleven aid workers believed abducted by Rwandan and Burundian rebels in a restive eastern province of war-ravaged Congo were killed.
    (AP, 8/7/03)

2003        Jul 25, In northeastern Congo thousands of tribal fighters attacked three villages with mortars, rocket-propelled grenades and assault rifles, killing as many as 150 people.
    (AP, 7/29/03)

2003        Aug 28, The WWF reported that the hippos of Congo's Virunga national Park have been nearly wiped out by poachers and civil war.
    (WSJ, 8/29/03, p.A1)

2003        Aug 31, It was reported that Congo tribal fighters killed at least 200 people over the last month and abducted scores more during a series of attacks that destroyed, Fataki, a northeast town once controlled by a rival tribe.
    (AP, 8/31/03)

2003        Oct 6, In northeastern Congo dozens of tribal fighters attacked Katchele village with assault rifles and machetes, killing at least 65 people, mainly children, looting property and setting huts on fire.
    (AP, 10/7/03)

2003        Oct, A bolt of lightning killed 11 students at the Mpimba Institute in Bikoro, Congo.
    (SFC, 10/18/03, p.A26)

2003        Nov 1, Two small rebel groups, the last rebel holdouts in eastern Congo, agreed to join the country's transitional government. Leaders, Patrick Masunzu and Aaron Nyamushebwa, agreed to join the government and integrate their forces into a new national army.
    (AP, 11/4/03)

2003        Nov 5, Pres. Bush met with Congo Pres. Joseph Kabila, who sought assurances of continued US humanitarian aid. The US has committed $77 million this year.
    (SFC, 11/6/03, p.A3)

2003        Nov 25, In Congo 2 ferries collided in a storm on Mai-Ndombe lake. At least 182 people were killed and more than 100 others were missing.
    (AP, 11/27/03)(AP, 11/28/03)

2003        Nov 29, In central Congo a Soviet-made plane crashed, killing 33, including 13 people on the ground.
    (AP, 11/29/03)(AP, 12/2/03)

2003        Dec 4, Congo health officials were investigating the poison deaths of 64 people, allegedly from a potion used to ward off evil spirits. A Roman Catholic priest, who allegedly administered the drink, fled the village of Bosobe early last week after people started falling ill.
    (AP, 12/5/03)

2003        The civil war in Congo (DRC), which had claimed at least 4 million people, stood in its final throes. This was the largest death toll since WW II.
    (Econ, 6/14/08, p.63)
2003        In eastern Congo Germain Katanga and Mathieu Ngudjolo led militias including child soldiers who attacked the village of Bogoro, killing over 200 people including women and children. Many of the victims were hacked to death with machetes. In 2008 Katanga and Ngudjolo stood for trial at the Intu0092l. Criminal Court at The Hague, Netherlands.
    (SFC, 9/27/08, p.A3)

2004        Jan 28, It was reported that Angolan troops and police have driven at least 10,000 Congolese from northern Angola's diamond zones in a bloody month-old campaign.
    (AP, 1/30/04)

2004        Jan 26, Nearly 200 people were missing after a barge caught fire and sank in a river in northwestern Congo near Lukelela. At least 301 people survived.
    (AP, 2/1/04)

2004        Feb 12, In Congo a Kenyan army officer, investigating reports of fighting between the rival Hema and Lendu tribal militias, was shot to death when his U.N. military convoy came under fire in Ituri province.
    (AP, 2/14/04)

2004        Feb 18, The UN said it would redeploy 4,000 of its forces to Congo's volatile northeast, where peacekeepers have come under fire from rival ethnic militias fighting for control of mineral riches.
    (AP, 2/18/04)

2004        Feb 22, In southeast Congo a militia led by a commander named "Cut-Throat" massacred more than 100 civilians and soldiers.
    (AP, 2/24/04)

2004        Mar 28, In Kinshasa, Congo, government forces battled attackers at military installations and television headquarters. Diplomats called it a coup attempt against Pres. Joseph Kabila.
    (AP, 3/28/04)

2004        Apr 25, Clashes between Congolese troops and Rwandan insurgents in eastern Congo killed at least 61 people over the weekend.
    (AP, 4/26/04)

2004        Apr 28, The Dian Fossey fund reported that the lowland gorilla population in eastern Congo has dropped over 70% since 1994 due to human warfare.
    (WSJ, 4/29/04, p.A1)

2004        May 6, Hundreds of Rwandan rebels attacked Kingi village in volatile eastern Congo, sparking a two-hour battle in which at least five Congolese soldiers and insurgents were killed.
    (AP, 5/7/04)

2004        May 26, The UN mission in Democratic Republic of Congo is widening an investigation into allegations peacekeepers sexually abused minors in the northeastern town of Bunia.
    (AP, 5/26/04)

2004        May 29, Unidentified gunmen shot and killed a U.N. military observer in eastern Congo and a second was reported missing. About 10,800 U.N. troops are deployed in Congo, monitoring the peace deal and helping the government regain control of the country. Elections are scheduled for June 2005.
    (AP, 5/29/04)

2004        Jun 1, Congolese soldiers battled troops loyal to Brig. Gen. Laurent Nkunda, a renegade commander in eastern Congo, breaking a shaky cease-fire.
    (AP, 6/1/04)

2004        Jun 2, In Congo DRC forces loyal to renegade Congolese Tutsi commander Brig- Gen. Laurent Nkunda, captured Bukavo, a key eastern border city from government troops.
    (AP, 6/2/04)(Econ, 6/5/04, p.46)

2004        Jun 3, In Congo U.N. troops opened fire on rioters, killing two, as a mob broke into their base and tens of thousands of protesters overran the capital city of Kinshasa. Demonstrations swept the country over fighting in its volatile east.
    (AP, 6/3/04)

2004        Jun 6, In eastern Congo insurgents ambushed a U.N. convoy, killing two South African peacekeepers and wounding nine others in continuing.
    (AP, 6/6/04)

2004        Jun 9, In eastern Congo Government forces regained control of Bukavu without a fight as rebel forces fled.
    (AP, 6/9/04)

2004        Jun 11, Congo's government said its security forces had put down an attempted coup by dissidents in President Joseph Kabila's personal guard.
    (AP, 6/11/04)
2004        Jun 11, Two crowded boats collided on a lake straddling the Congo-Rwanda border on and one of them capsized, with some 80 people believed trapped aboard.
    (AP, 6/11/04)

2004        Jun 14, UN humanitarian chief Jan Egeland said Eastern Congo is rapidly turning into a major humanitarian disaster, with 3.3 million people out of reach of relief groups.
    (Reuters, 6/14/04)

2004        Jul 3, Rwanda reopened its border with the Democratic Republic of Congo, further reducing tension between the two countries.
    (AFP, 7/3/04)

2004        Jul 27, The U.N. Security Council extended an arms embargo on Congo for a year as fighting continued between rival factions.
    (AP, 7/27/04)

2004        Aug 23, Azarias Ruberwa, prominent Tutsi and one of Congou0092s 4 vice-presidents, announced that he and his party (RCD-Goma) were walking out of the transitional government.
    (Econ, 8/28/04, p.40)

2004        Oct 10, In eastern Congo 2 boat accidents on Lake Kivu killed 68 people.
    (AP, 10/12/04)

2004        Oct 16, Congo Pres. Joseph Kabila visited northeastern territory formerly held by rebels. The army claimed to have retaken a village near Zambia and killed at least 20 militiamen.
    (AP, 10/16/04)

2004        Oct, Congou0092s government quelled an uprising near a mine owned by Australiau0092s Anvil Mining Ltd. The UN later accused Anvil of providing the government with vehicles and planes in the operation that killed scores of villagers. In 2007 a military court jailed two Congolese army officers for life for the 2004 massacre of civilians. The verdict cleared three Canadian mining company employees of complicity.
    (WSJ, 3/20/07, p.A13)(AFP, 6/29/07)

2004        Nov 22, A senior UN official said the UN is investigating about 150 allegations of sexual abuse by UN civilian staff and soldiers in the Congo, some of them recorded on videotape. Health officials said an outbreak of a severe form of typhoid has killed at least 16 people in Kinshasa, sickening at least 144 more.
    (AP, 11/22/04)

2004        Nov 25, Congo Pres. Joseph Kabila suspended 6 cabinet ministers and 10 directors of state-run companies. A parliamentary inquiry alleged they had embezzled government funds.
    (AP, 11/26/04)

2004        Nov 26, Rwanda said it was ready to hold talks with Democratic Republic of Congo Pres. Joseph Kabila to defuse growing tensions over Rwandan rebels based in eastern Congo.
    (Reuters, 11/27/04)

2004        Nov 29, Congo said it will send up to 10,000 soldiers to its eastern province of North Kivu to prevent rebels and Rwandan forces from launching cross border attacks.
    (AP, 11/30/04)
2004        Nov 29, Rwandan troops attacked a town in eastern Congo. The next day a Congolese commander said at least 19 civilians were killed.
    (Reuters, 11/30/04)

2004        Nov 30, Congo-based Rwandan rebels, under threat of imminent attack by Rwanda, repeated an allegation that Rwandan troops had crossed the border in recent days to seize the vast country's mineral-rich east.
    (AP, 11/30/04)

2004        Dec 9, An aid agency reported that some 1,000 Congolese civilians a day are dying from disease and malnutrition, due to a festering conflict that has killed 3.8 million people.
    (AP, 12/9/04)

2004        Dec 11, Rival factions of Congo's army battled in the eastern region of the vast country, killing several people.
    (AP, 12/12/04)

2004        Dec 14, Congo's government insisted that its forces were fighting Rwandan troops in the mineral-rich east of the country and not dissident units of the national army.
    (Reuters, 12/14/04)

2004        Dec 17, The UN said foreign troops have crossed into Congo and called on outside forces to stop giving weapons and reinforcements to renegade soldiers battling army loyalists.
    (AP, 12/18/04)
2004        Dec 17, Dissident forces attacked the village of Buramba, Congo, targeting civilians suspected of sympathizing with pro-government militiamen. At least 30 civilians were killed in the massacre believed to have been a reprisal for the killing of 3 renegade soldiers by a pro-government militia.
    (AP, 1/7/05)

2004        Dec 19, UN officials said about 100,000 civilians in eastern Congo have fled a week of fighting between renegade soldiers and army loyalists, hiding deep into the forest where humanitarian workers cannot reach them.
    (AP, 12/19/04)

2004        Dec 22-2004 Dec 26, Government troops in eastern Congo battled Rwandan militiamen in growing violence between the former allies from the country's bloody 1998-2002 war.
    (AP, 12/27/04)

2005        Jan 7, Congou0092s electoral commission hinted that elections scheduled for June would be postponed.
    (Econ, 1/22/05, p.44)

2005        Jan 10, Congo security forces fired bullets and tear gas at demonstrators burning tires in Congo's capital, killing at 4 people among thousands protesting a government decision to delay upcoming national elections.
    (AP, 1/10/05)(Econ, 1/22/05, p.44)

2005        Jan 14, A strike brought the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo to a standstill as public transport shut down and businesses remained closed in protest at the possible postponement of elections.
    (AFP, 1/14/05)

2005        Jan 29, A UN spokesman said militiamen armed with guns and machetes killed 16 people and kidnapped at least 34 girls in attacks this week on a remote area of eastern Congo.
    (AP, 1/29/05)

2005        Feb 8, UNICEF said that it was providing urgently needed aid for 50,000 people caught up in an upsurge in fighting in Congo.
    (AP, 2/8/05)

2005        Feb 18, The World Health Organization (WHO) said an outbreak of plague in northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo has killed 61 diamond miners and infected hundreds more.
    (AP, 2/18/05)

2005        Feb 25, In Congo militiamen in the volatile Ituri district ambushed UN troops. 9 Bangladeshi peacekeepers were killed in what was the 4th deadliest attack on UN troops in Africa.
    (AP, 2/25/05)

2005        Mar 1, In Congo UN peacekeeping troops, backed by an attack helicopter, responded after being fired on and killed up to 60 militants accused of terrorizing villagers and killing nine Bangladeshi peacekeepers. Congo arrested an eastern militia leader and 2 generals related to the peacekeeper killings. Women fighters were among the 50 people killed by UN troops under Dutch Gen. Patrick Cammaert. On April 12 the human rights group Justice Plus listed names of several alleged civilian victims from the raid in eastern Congo and said they "paid with their life, while the mandate of the United Nations was to protect them."
    (AP, 3/2/05)(WSJ, 3/2/05, p.A1)(Reuters, 3/5/05)(Econ, 3/12/05, p.49)(AP, 4/13/05)

2005        Mar 7, An international human rights group said militiamen and renegade soldiers have raped and beaten tens of thousands of women and young girls in eastern Congo, and nearly all the crimes have gone unpunished by the country's broken judicial system.
    (AP, 3/7/05)

2005        Mar 16, UN peacekeepers charged that militiamen in northeast Congo grilled bodies on a spit and boiled two girls alive as their mother watched, adding cannibalism to a list of atrocities allegedly carried out by Lendu warriors.
    (AP, 3/17/05)(Econ, 3/12/05, p.49)

2005        Mar 19, Congo soldiers arrested Thomas Lubanga, a warlord accused of years of atrocities in eastern Congo, where UN officials say rival militias have created the world's worst ongoing humanitarian crisis.
    (AP, 3/22/05)

2005        Apr 1, UN officials said a cholera epidemic has killed at least 4 and infected dozens in a squalid camp for displaced people in northeastern Congo, and it threatens to spread across the entire region.
    (AP, 4/1/05)

2005        Apr 2, UN troops killed up to 38 militia fighters during a raid by hundreds of peacekeepers backed by helicopter gunships in the Ituri district of eastern Congo.
    (Reuters, 4/2/05)

2005        Apr 18, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to widen the arms embargo in Congo as part of stepped-up efforts to bring peace to the African country's volatile east.
    (AP, 4/18/05)
2005        Apr 18, The annual Goldman Environmental Prizes were awarded in San Francisco. Recipients included Corneille E.N. Ewango of Congo for his efforts in animal and plant protection during a decade of civil war.
    (SFC, 4/18/05, p.B2)

2005        May 5, In central Congo a Russian-made airplane crashed, killing 10 of the 11 passengers aboard.
    (AP, 5/5/05)

2005        May 12, Gunmen ambushed a UN peacekeeping patrol in Congo's restless eastern Ituri region, killing one soldier and injuring five.
    (AP, 5/12/05)

2005        May 14, Congo's legislature adopted a constitution that reduces the required age for presidential candidates, a change that would allow President Joseph Kabila to stand in the country's next elections.
    (AP, 5/15/05)

2005        May 18, A UN report said Rwandan Hutu rebels operating in eastern Congo have killed, raped, or kidnapped more than 900 civilians over the past year.
    (AP, 5/18/05)

2005        May 23, In eastern Congo militiamen calling themselves Rastas killed at least 18 people and kidnapped at least 50 others in a late-night attack on the village of Ninja, hacking their victims to death as they ran for safety.
    (AP, 5/24/05)
2005        May 23, A Russian-made plane crashed shortly after takeoff near Bunyakiri, Congo, killing 26 people.
    (AP, 5/23/06)

2005        Jun 22, Senior peacekeepers said more than 15,000 gunmen have joined a UN disarmament process in Congo's Ituri district but that militias were still rearming and regrouping despite intense UN military operations.
    (Reuters, 6/22/05)

2005        Jun 27, In northeastern Congo militia fighters using women and children as human shields battled with UN peacekeepers south of Bunia.
    (AP, 6/27/05)

2005        Jun 30, In Kinshasa riot police fired tear gas and beat demonstrators with batons as thousands protested delays to Congo's first postwar presidential elections. At least six died in violence nationwide.
    (AP, 6/30/05)

2005        Jul 9, In Congo DRC Rwandan rebels burned 39 people alive, mostly women and children, when they torched the village of Mtulumamba in eastern Congo in what some locals said was punishment for supporting UN peacekeepers.
    (AP, 7/11/05)

2005        Jul 29, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to extend an arms embargo and other sanctions against Congo for another year.
    (AP, 7/29/05)

2005        Jul, Airborne researchers during the summer counted just 683 hippos on the Congolese side of Lake Edward, which straddles the Congo-Uganda border. In the 1970s researchers counted a record 9,600 hippos in the same area. The reduction of hippos and their dung, due to heavy poaching during civil strife, caused a severed drop in the population of tilapia fish.
    (WSJ, 11/19/05, p.A1)

2005        Aug 10, Congolese Vice President Azeria Ruberwa met with Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni in the Ugandan capital, Kampala. Ruberwa talked of his government's concerns about 14 Congolese men, suspected of plotting a coup, who were in Uganda. Rugunda said 8 men left before the expulsion order. The other six were given 48 hours to leave.
    (AP, 8/24/05)

2005        Sep 5, In eastern Congo a Russian-made airplane crashed in the forest, killing 7, including 3 Russian crew members.
    (AP, 9/5/05)

2005        Sep 12, An international environmental group warned that only 887 hippos are left in Congo, and that they will be extinct in the African country. The latest aerial survey puts the hippopotamus population in northeastern Congo's Virunga National Park down to under 1,000 animals, compared to some 29,000 in 1974.
    (AP, 9/12/05)

2005        Sep 30, Thousands of foreign militiamen in Congo appeared to ignore this dayu0092s deadline to leave this central African country or be evicted by force.
    (AP, 9/30/05)

2005        Oct 28, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to extend the 16,700-member UN peacekeeping mission in Congo for a year and add 300 troops.
    (AP, 10/28/05)

2005        Oct 30, Congolese troops rescued four electoral workers from their militia captors in a raid that set off a battle that killed dozens of militiamen and one soldier. Some 40 Mayi-Mayi militiamen were killed by the army. One soldier was killed and three others injured.
    (AP, 11/2/05)

2005        Oct 31, Hundreds of government troops backed by U.N. peacekeepers began flushing heavily armed Rwandan rebels from eastern Congo, destroying insurgent camps and sending smoke rising above the restive region.
    (AP, 10/31/05)

2005        Nov 28, In eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, at least 60 people were killed when they were swept off the roof of a train into the river below as the train crossed a bridge.
    (AP, 11/29/05)

2005        Nov, Congolese soldiers engaged in a 6-day operation to clear militias from Virunga National Park. 14 rebels were killed and 321 captured.
    (WSJ, 11/19/05, p.A8)

2005        Dec 5, In Congo a magnitude 6.8 earthquake struck the Lake Tanganyika region of East Africa toppling dozens of homes in Kalemie and burying children in the rubble. Several people were reported killed.
    (AP, 12/05/05)(WSJ, 12/6/05, p.A1)

2005        Dec 18, Congo's war-beleaguered people voted in the first national ballot in over three decades, banging on polling-booth doors to be allowed in to say yes or no to a draft constitution meant to put the country on the path to democracy and lasting peace.
    (AP, 12/18/05)

2005        Dec 19, The International Court of Justice held Uganda responsible for the killing, torture and cruel treatment of civilians in Congo from August 1998 to July 1999 and ordered reparations. Fighting in the region raged for three more years and the armies withdrew only in June 2003, despite the court's order in July 2000 to halt operations and safeguard civilians.
    (AP, 12/19/05)

2005        Dec 20, The "Yes" vote in Democratic Republic of Congo's referendum on whether to accept a post-war constitution took a strong early lead after a poll seen as paving the way for elections next year.
    (AP, 12/20/05)

2005        Dec 24, Congolese and UN troops captured a militia base in the volatile east, as referendum results showed an overwhelming "Yes" to a new constitution intended to help end the country's conflict. UN and Congolese soldiers attacked militiamen in Ituri and Ugandan rebels in Kivu province killing some 80 rebels.
    (AP, 12/24/05)(Econ, 1/7/06, p.49)

2005        Dec 25-2005 Dec 26, Some 3,500 Congolese troops backed by 600 UN Indian peacekeepers battled Ugandan rebels near Congo's eastern city of Beni, leaving 35 rebels and one Indian UN soldier dead.
    (AP, 12/26/05)(AFP, 12/26/05)

2006        Jan 6, A study published in Britain's leading medical journal said war-ravaged Congo is suffering the world's deadliest humanitarian crisis, with 38,000 people dying each month mostly from easily treatable diseases.
    (AP, 1/6/06)

2006        Jan 11, Congo officials said a new constitution for was approved by a landslide vote, paving the way for historic presidential and parliamentary elections in March.
    (AP, 1/11/06)

2006        Jan 23, Ugandan rebels killed eight Guatemalan peacekeepers in Congo in an ambush near the border with Sudan. The gunbattle also left 15 attackers dead.
    (AP, 1/23/06)

2006        Jan 29, In eastern Congo rebels in Rutshuru forced a local radio station off the air after a wave of fighting and looting in the troubled Central African nation.
    (AP, 2/1/06)

2006        Feb 12, Jan Egeland, UN Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs, said the international community must provide $680 million in aid for Congo this year to stop a humanitarian disaster that kills as many people as the 2004 Asian tsunami every six months.
    (Reuters, 2/12/06)

2006        Feb 13, The UN launched a $680 million aid plan for the Democratic Republic of Congo, complaining the world remained ignorant of what it called the worst humanitarian crisis since World War Two.
    (Reuters, 2/13/06)

2006        Feb 17, UN and government officials said 6 Congolese soldiers died of hunger in an army training camp that ran out of food in the east of the country.
    (AP, 2/17/06)

2006        Feb 18, The Democratic Republic of Congo adopted a new constitution aimed at bringing an end to decades of dictatorship, war and chaos in the vast country, and paving the way for elections by mid-2006.
    (AP, 2/18/06)

2006        Feb 20, In Congo Reuters obtained a copy of a 2005 report of a parliamentary investigation, established to probe business deals signed during Congo's 1996-1997 and 1998-2003 wars. The report said dozens of government contracts struck during Congo's wars must be renegotiated, some companies closed and leading individuals brought to justice.
    (Reuters, 2/20/06)

2006        Feb 23, A top UN humanitarian official said thousands of civilians have taken refuge on floating islands in the lakes of Congo's Katanga province to escape rape and murder by government and militia fighters.
    (Reuters, 2/23/06)

2006        Mar 1, Congolese army soldiers fighting alongside U.N. peacekeepers against ethnic militiamen mutinied and ransacked a UN camp in the east of the vast country. Hundreds of peacekeepers and thousands of government troops have fought for three days to dislodge militia fighters from the town of Tchei in northeastern Ituri district, where ethnic violence has killed 60,000 people since 1999.
    (Reuters, 3/1/06)(Reuters, 3/2/06)

2006        Mar 5, In eastern Congo UN troops killed several militia fighters during heavy clashes after a joint operation with the government army was aborted by a mutiny among its soldiers.
    (Reuters, 3/6/06)

2006        Mar 16, In Congo a defense ministry source said Defense Minister Adolphe Onusumba had written to the head of the army asking him to suspend or arrest General Widi Mbuilu Divioka, the army commander in Katanga province. The general was being accused of diverting military food trains for private business after at least 20 soldiers died from hunger or malnutrition at a southern camp.
    (Reuters, 3/16/06)
2006        Mar 16, Uganda's army said the leader of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) rebels had left a south Sudanese hideout and joined his deputy in the jungles of neighboring Congo.
    (AP, 3/16/06)

2006        Mar 17, Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, a Congolese militia leader accused of conscripting and enlisting children aged under 15 for warfare (1998-2002), became the first suspect sent for trial at the International Criminal Court (ICC) in the Netherlands.
    (Reuters, 3/17/06)(WSJ, 3/18/06, p.A1)

2006        Apr 2, In CongoDRC registration closed for multi-party elections. Over 70 people had filed for the presidency and 8,650 had signed up as candidates for the parliamentary elections.
    (Econ, 4/15/06, p.48)

2006        Apr 4, Human Rights Watch said tens of thousands of street children across Congo risk being recruited by political parties to create chaos, intimidate voters and contest the results of up-coming elections.
    (AP, 4/4/06)

2006        Apr 12, Government troops and UN peacekeepers launched a fresh military offensive in Congo's restive east, targeting Rwandan Hutu rebels blamed for attacking civilians at home and in Congo.
    (AP, 4/12/06)

2006        Apr 14, The Central African Republic said it has asked the International Criminal Court to investigate crimes against humanity allegedly committed by its former president and a Congolese vice president. Government spokesman Celestin Gamou said CAR suspects ex-President Ange-Felix Patasse and Congo Vice President Jean-Pierre Bemba of ordering or committing murder and rape against civilians, as well as of embezzling funds and destroying public and private property.
    (AP, 4/14/06)

2006        Apr 28, A cargo plane carrying telecom equipment crashed in eastern Congo, killing as many as eight passengers and crew on board. Another aircraft carrying three people disappeared in the same region.
    (AP, 4/28/06)

2006        Apr 29, The UN said reports of a Ugandan army incursion into Congo were "credible" after peacekeepers conducted a verification mission in the remote northeastern border region.
    (Reuters, 4/29/06)

2006        Apr 30, Congo's electoral commission said that national elections, the first in 40 years for the violence-plagued central African nation, will take place July 30, about a month later than planned.
    (AP, 4/30/06)

2006        May 1, Rwandan Hutu rebels attacked a village and an army camp in a raid that left 7 residents dead. Congolese troops killed six rebels during an attack at an army camp that also claimed the lives of a soldier and his wife.
    (AP, 5/2/06)

2006        May 10, The UN reported an upsurge of rapes, killings and torture by Congo's security forces and warned that UN peacekeepers overseeing the postwar transition in the country could end their cooperation with the police and army.
    (AP, 5/11/06)

2006        May 13, An international charity said rich countries are not giving enough money to help fight a humanitarian crisis in Congo, where more than 1,000 people die daily from violence, hunger and disease.
    (AP, 5/13/06)

2006        May 16, The UN mission Congo said Innocent Kaina, one of the founding members of a militia group in northeastern Congo, has been wounded and captured in fighting with the Congolese army.
    (Reuters, 5/16/06)

2006        May 23, Congo arrested a group of foreign security guards on suspicion of plotting a coup ahead of national elections. Interior Minister Theophile Mbemba said there were three Americans, 10 Nigerians and 12 South Africans among the group of 32 taken into custody. Mbemba said all the men had received visits from their respective ambassadors.
    (AP, 5/24/06)

2006        May 27, Congo released a group of South Africans, Nigerians and Americans arrested over what it called a suspected coup plot, saying it did not have time to try them itself before long-awaited national elections in July. In the volatile northeast Ituri district a Nepalese peacekeeper was killed and seven others were feared kidnapped by militiamen during a military operation. 2 peacekeepers were released on June 27. The remaining 5 were released July 8.
    (Reuters, 5/28/06)(AP, 5/29/06)(Reuters, 7/8/06)

2006        Jun 1, The German parliament overwhelmingly approved the government's plan to deploy German troops to the Democratic Republic of Congo during its July election, despite public skepticism about the mission.
    (AP, 6/1/06)

2006        Jun 20, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan said in a report that Congo's armed forces and police are responsible for the majority of documented abuses against children in the chaotic country, sometimes abducting kids to carry equipment or for sex.
    (AP, 6/20/06)

2006        Jun 30, Campaigning began for Congo's first multiparty elections in more than 4 decades. Troops fired into a crowd and killed 12 protesters in retaliation for the death of a soldier in Matadi.
    (AP, 6/30/06)(Econ, 7/8/06, p.41)

2006        Jul 8, In Kinshasa, Congo, gunmen killed Mwamba Bapuwa (64), an independent journalist, a day after foreign donors called on the government to guarantee press freedoms ahead of historic elections this month. Bapuwa had recently criticized the government and survived a previous attack several months ago.
    (Reuters, 7/8/06)

2006        Jul 11, Police in Kinshasa, Congo, fired tear gas to break up stone-throwing demonstrators who were alleging electoral irregularities ahead of the country's first presidential vote in four decades.
    (AP, 7/12/06)

2006        Jul 17, Congo officials said Peter Karim, a warlord accused of kidnapping seven UN peacekeepers, has agreed to disband his militia and become a colonel in Congo's army. Gunmen opened fire on an election rally and killed several people in Congo's volatile east, the latest outburst of violence as the nation prepares for its first free legislative and presidential balloting in 46 years.
    (AP, 7/17/06)(AP, 7/19/06)

2006        Jul 24, A UNICEF report said more than 600 children die every day in war-ravaged Congo and even more are displaced, sexually abused or swept into the camps of combatant groups.
    (AP, 7/24/06)

2006        Jul 27, In Kinshasa, Congo, 3 policemen and a civilian were killed in clashes outside a stadium where 40,000 supporters greeted Vice-President Jean-Pierre Bemba, a rebel leader turned presidential candidate.
    (AFP, 7/27/06)

2006        Jul 30, Congolese voted in their first democratic election in more than four decades. Incumbent President Joseph Kabila later won a runoff.
    (AP, 7/30/06)(AP, 7/30/07)

2006        Jul 31, Dozens of polling stations reopened in Congou0092s second-largest city, offering citizens stymied by violence during their nationu0092s historic elections another chance to vote.
    (AP, 7/31/06)

2006        Aug 1, A Congolese opposition party and former rebel group denounced widespread fraud in the country's historic elections in a protest that heralded a divisive political dispute over the polls.
    (AP, 8/1/06)

2006        Aug 3, In eastern Congo a small passenger plane crashed into a mountain and then tumbled into a valley, killing all 17 passengers and crew.
    (AP, 8/4/06)

2006        Aug 12, President Joseph Kabila's share of the vote in Congo's historic elections rose above 50% as 1 million more votes were counted and certified.
    (AP, 8/13/06)

2006        Aug 20, President Joseph Kabila failed to win an outright majority in Congo's first elections in more than four decades. Kabila won 45% of the 16.9 million votes cast in the July 30 ballot; Bemba had 20%. Former rebel leader Jean-Pierre Bemba will face Kabila in a second round of voting. Security-forces loyal to Kabila and Bemba fought gunbattles that killed at least two people.
    (AP, 8/21/06)

2006        Aug 21, A fierce gun battle pinned down foreign envoys in the Congolese capital Kinshasa as fighting erupted for a second day following the announcement of a presidential election run-off. At least five people died in overnight gunfire.
    (Reuters, 8/21/06)(AFP, 8/21/06)

2006        Aug 22, In Kinshasa fighting flared for a third day between supporters of Congo's two presidential candidates, as the UN called for an immediate cease-fire and a European Union military force was sending reinforcements.
    (AP, 8/22/06)

2006        Aug 28, In the Netherlands prosecutors at the International Criminal Court filed their first indictment, charging Thomas Lubanga, a former Congolese warlord, for allegedly abducting and recruiting children as young as 10 to fight in Congo's brutal civil war.
    (AP, 8/29/06)

2006        Sep 4, In CongoDRC a boat overloaded with passengers and freight sank in choppy waters on Lake Kivu, killing at least 35 people.
    (AP, 9/5/06)

2006        Sep 8, The UN's humanitarian chief called for an end to the rapes plaguing women in war-battered Congo and said the perpetrators, including those wearing military uniforms, must be severely punished.
    (AP, 9/8/06)

2006        Sep 9, In CongoDRC it was reported to take 155 days to register a business at a cost of 5 times the average annual income of $120.
    (Econ, 9/9/06, p.60)

2006        Sep 19, Supporters of Congo's presidential challenger barricaded streets, stopped traffic and threw stones in Kinshasa, a day after a fire at his headquarters destroyed the party's television and radio stations.
    (AP, 9/19/06)

2006        Sep 22, Democratic Republic of Congo's first freely elected parliament in more than 40 years convened, with President Joseph Kabila's coalition poised to appoint a prime minister.
    (AP, 9/22/06)

2006        Oct 3, In the Democratic Republic of Congo one person was killed and two injured when a Belgian drone from the EU force crashed in Kinshasa.
    (AFP, 10/3/06)

2006        Oct 11, Amnesty International said at least 11,000 children in Congo are still in the hands of armed groups or unaccounted for three years after the end of a war in which they were captured and forced to fight.
    (AP, 10/11/06)

2006        Oct 13, In Britain the chief of staff to the Democratic Republic of Congo's President Joseph Kabila was assaulted and robbed in northwest London while waiting to appear on a television program. Leonard She Okitundu was attacked by a gang who beat him around the head and body with a baseball bat, stripped him of his clothes, and posted pictures of them on the Internet. Okitundu said his attackers shouted that he was working for the Rwandans, and that they would kill anyone who obstructed Bemba.
    (AFP, 10/13/06)

2006        Oct 13, The WHO said it has confirmed an outbreak of plague in the Democratic Republic of Congo, with 42 deaths reported among 626 suspected cases over the past 10 weeks.
    (Reuters, 10/13/06)

2006        Oct 16, A US-based rights group accused soldiers in Congo's postwar, national-unity army of abducting civilians and forcing them to serve as personal attendants and mine workers in the troubled Central African country.
    (AP, 10/16/06)

2006        Oct 24, In CongoDRC more than a dozen people jailed for the 2001 assassination of Congolese President Laurent Kabila vanished from a prison in the capital Kinshasa.
    (Reuters, 10/24/06)

2006        Oct 29, Congo's President Laurent Kabila faced a former rebel chief in a runoff vote.
    (AP, 10/29/06)

2006        Oct 30, Counting from Congo's election proceeded swiftly. Rioters destroyed 43 polling stations and thousands of ballot papers were burned in the east after a soldier killed two election officials.
    (AP, 10/30/06)(WSJ, 10/31/06, p.A1)

2006        Oct 31, President George W. Bush ordered that assets be frozen of dissident general Laurent Nkunda and six others considered by the White House to be destabilizing forces in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (Reuters, 10/31/06)

2006        Nov 1, Congo's government welcomed a decision by the US to impose sanctions on seven warlords and businessmen who are accused of fueling instability in this vast country's lawless east.
    (AP, 11/1/06)

2006        Nov 2, Thousands returned to the polls in a northeast Congo town and recast ballots destroyed in rioting that followed the weekend presidential runoff.
    (AP, 11/2/06)

2006        Nov 10, Congou0092s incumbent Joseph Kabila retained a commanding lead in the presidential runoff with about two-thirds of the vote counted.
    (AP, 11/10/06)

2006        Nov 11, In Congo gunfire and explosions boomed through Kinshasa in a new round of fighting between forces loyal to two presidential candidates awaiting the results of a runoff election meant to secure an end to years of war.
    (AP, 11/12/06)

2006        Nov 14, Nearly complete results give incumbent Joseph Kabila an insurmountable lead in Congo's presidential runoff, but his opponent, Jean-Pierre Bemba, alleged fraud.
    (AP, 11/14/06)

2006        Nov 15, In Congo incumbent Joseph Kabila was declared winner of historic presidential elections. The electoral commission gave Kabila 58% of the vote against 42% for Bemba. Former rebel leader Jean-Pierre Bemba, vowed to contest the count. Kabila lost to Bemba in 6 out of 11 provinces.
    (AP, 11/16/06)(Econ, 11/18/06, p.49)(Econ, 11/25/06, p.43)

2006        Nov 18, Jean-Pierre Bemba, the former rebel who lost Congo's presidential elections, filed a lawsuit at the Supreme Court to challenge the vote count as dozens of his supporters marched through downtown Kinshasa.
    (AP, 11/18/06)

2006        Nov 21, Gunfire and street fights erupted outside Congo's supreme court and a blaze swept through the building as hearings began over fraud allegations in a presidential election meant to bring lasting peace. Bosange Mbaka, a reporter with the Kinshasa-based newspaper Mambenga, was arrested while covering a supreme court hearing in Kinshasa. In May 2007 media rights group Reporters Without Borders (RSF) called for his release.
    (AP, 11/21/06)(AFP, 5/21/07)

2006        Nov 24, The UN said its investigators have discovered three mass graves at a northeast Congo military camp containing the bodies of 30 people, including women and children, who were allegedly killed by soldiers.
    (AP, 11/24/06)

2006        Nov 25, Congou0092s government and the UN said fighters loyal to warlord Laurent Nkunda attacked army positions in eastern Congo with small arms and heavy weapons. Nkunda controlled thousands of fighters and claimed the loyalty of the 81st and 83rd army brigades, the troops involved in the most recent clashes. Nkunda controlled some 20,000 square miles in North Kivu province.
    (AP, 11/25/06)(Econ, 11/25/06, p.44)

2006        Nov 27, Congou0092s supreme court upheld President Joseph Kabila's victory in landmark elections, ruling as unfounded the runner-up's charges of widespread fraud.
    (AP, 11/28/06)

2006        Dec 5, A shell apparently fired by Congolese troops fighting forces loyal to a dissident general near the Ugandan border landed among a group of some 12,000 refugees in Uganda, killing at least seven.
    (AFP, 12/6/06)

2006        Dec 6, Congo inaugurated Joseph Kabila as its first freely elected president in more than four decades.
    (AP, 12/6/06)
2006        Dec 6, A Ugandan army spokesman said at least 12,000 refugees fleeing fighting in eastern Congo DRC have crossed over the border into southwest Uganda.
    (AP, 12/6/06)

2006        Dec 7, Researchers said the Ebola virus may have killed more than 5,000 gorillas in West Africa (Congo-Gabon), enough to send them into extinction if people continue to hunt them.
    (Reuters, 12/7/06)

2006        Dec 15, In Kenya 11 African heads of state attending the 2nd International Conference on the Great Lakes Region signed a landmark $2 billion (1.5-billion-euro) security and development pact to forestall fresh violence in the area.
    (AFP, 12/15/06)

2006        Dec 27, Fighting broke out in eastern Congo between government troops and forces loyal to a dissident general, killing at least 19 people. A group of Congolese soldiers went on trial for war crimes, a month after UN investigators found mass graves inside their eastern army camp with some 30 bodies including women and children.
    (AP, 12/27/06)(Reuters, 12/28/06)

2006        Dec 28, Vital Kamerhe, an advisor to President Joseph Kabila, was named head of the Democratic Republic of Congo's new National Assembly, in a ballot that saw presidential allies sweep key parliamentary posts.
    (Reuters, 12/29/06)

2006        Bosco Ntaganda, a former Congolese warlord, was first indicted on war crimes charges by the ICC, which is based in The Hague, Netherlands. The court accused Ntaganda of using child soldiers for fighting in Ituri, in northeastern Congo, from 2002 to 2003.
    (AP, 10/13/10)

2007        Jan 5, In central Congo a diamond mine collapsed in Tshikapa. 2 people were soon rescued and 15 bodies were later pulled from the mine. Further rescue efforts were abandoned. The group appeared to have been teenagers who hoped that recent rains had uncovered diamonds in the community mine.
    (AP, 1/7/07)

2007        Jan 6, Cardinal Frederic Etsou-Nzabi-Bamungwabi (b.1930), Congo's top Roman Catholic prelate, died in a Belgian hospital. He had warned of what he called international meddling in the country's recent landmark elections.
    (AP, 1/7/07)

2007        Jan 17, Conservationists said rebels in eastern Congo, loyal to warlord Laurent Nkunda, have killed and eaten two silverback mountain gorillas in Virunga National Park. Congou0092s army said Nkunda agreed two weeks ago to stop fighting government forces in exchange for a government promise not to pursue war crimes charges against him.
    (AP, 1/18/07)

2007        Jan 27, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon held up Congo's first elections in 46 years as a sign of hope for the rest of Africa, praising the country's fragile democracy on his first tour of the continent.
    (AP, 1/27/07)

2007        Jan 29, The International Criminal Court (ICC) ruled there was enough evidence against Thomas Lubanga, a Congolese militiaman accused of recruiting child soldiers, to launch the new court's first trial.
    (Reuters, 1/29/07)

2007        Jan 31, In Congo at least 37 people were killed in clashes between security forces and opposition supporters protesting against the results of governorship polls in western Bas-Congo province.
    (Reuters, 2/1/07)

2007        Feb 3, In Congo officials said clashes last week between security forces and demonstrators claiming electoral fraud left 97 people dead in several southwestern towns.
    (AP, 2/2/07)(AP, 2/4/07)

2007        Feb 13, In south-east Congo a freight train derailed and at least 20 people were killed.
    (AFP, 2/14/07)

2007        Feb 15, The Security Council voted unanimously to extend the nearly 18,000-strong UN peacekeeping force in Congo for two months to give the secretary-general time to recommend possible changes in its mandate following last year's successful elections.
    (AP, 2/15/07)

2007        Feb 20, Congou0092s army and UN officials said days of clashes between the army and Rwandan and Congolese militias in eastern Congo have killed at least 23 combatants and forced thousands to flee.
    (AP, 2/21/07)

2007        Feb 26, The World Vision humanitarian group said that more than 50% of children in refugee camps around Africa's volatile Great Lakes area have experienced some form of sexual abuse. The data, collected in camps in the Burundi, Congo (DRC), Tanzania, northern Uganda and Rwanda, said widespread poverty made children vulnerable to abuses.
    (AFP, 2/27/07)

2007        Mar 6, Fortunat Lumu, the head of Congo's atomic energy commission, was arrested along with an aide on suspicion of illegally selling uranium.
    (AP, 3/8/07)

2007        Mar 22, In Congo heavy gunfire broke out in Kinshasa near the home of a former warlord who placed second in last fall's presidential vote. Soldiers deployed throughout the city, and residents fled in vehicles and on foot.
    (AP, 3/22/07)

2007        Mar 23, Congo's chief prosecutor issued an arrest warrant for Jean-Pierre Bemba, a former warlord and senator, who took refuge inside a foreign embassy while his personal army and government troops fought in the capital. The head of Congo's army said in a nationally televised address that security forces had regained control of Kinshasa after two days of intense fighting against the militia of a former warlord who lost last year's presidential runoff. An aid group working with hospitals and morgues said more than 100 people died in two days of fighting. EU envoys later said the fighting left 600 dead.
    (AP, 3/23/07)(WSJ, 3/24/07, p.A1)(AP, 3/25/07)(WSJ, 3/28/07, p.A1)

2007        Apr 18, Burundi, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda adopted a joint military strategy to fight rebel groups operating in the war-scarred Great Lakes region.
    (AP, 4/19/07)

2007        Apr 26, Six central African countries (Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Chad, Central African Republic, Cameroon and Congo) plan to launch a common passport in July, permitting the free movement of goods and people across their borders.
    (AFP, 4/26/07)

2007        May 4, The UN agency for refugees began repatriating thousands of Congolese refugees in Zambia to the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 5/4/07)

2007        May 11-2007 May 12, Local militia allied to Rwandan Hutu rebels killed four Congolese soldiers during clashes in a volatile eastern region of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 5/15/07)

2007        May 16, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to extend its peacekeeping mission in Congo until the end of the year while calling for a timetable to gradually withdraw the nearly 18,000-member force.
    (AP, 5/16/07)

2007        May 23, The BBC reported that Pakistani UN peacekeepers charged with disarming Congolese militia instead engaged in gold and weapons trafficking with militia members. The Pakistani unit in question deployed to Mongwalu in April 2005.
    (AP, 5/23/07)

2007        May 27, In eastern Congo Rwandan rebels attacked villagers with machetes, spears and hammers, killing 17, wounding 28 and taking up to a dozen hostages.
    (AP, 5/27/07)

2007        Jun 12, In Kinshasa, DRC, delegates from 20 African countries began talks on the process of disarming and reintegrating former combatants to boost peace and development on the violence-wracked continent.
    (AFP, 6/12/07)

2007        Jun 13, Serge Maheshe, a Congolese journalist working for the UN-sponsored Radio Okapi, was shot dead in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo town of Bukavu. Police the next day arrested 2 soldiers for the killing.
    (AFP, 6/13/07)(Reuters, 6/15/07)

2007        Jul 9, The UN-backed Okapi radio station said that Floribert Chui Bin Kositi, a former Congolese rebel leader, was beaten to death in Congou0092s restive eastern Kivu region. He held a senior position in a state-run body monitoring food imports and recently ordered a large consignment of rice to be destroyed on the grounds that it was unfit for human consumption.
    (AP, 7/10/07)

2007        Jul 13, UN officials said they are investigating allegations that Indian peacekeepers in Congo traded food and even military intelligence with Rwandan Hutu rebels in return for gold.
    (Reuters, 7/13/07)

2007        Jul 16, Dikembe Mutombo (41), NBA basketball star, said he wants to score for his native Democratic Republic of Congo by financing a new hospital and training young hoops players. Mutombo invested $15 million (11 million euros) in the construction of the hospital, more than half the total cost.
    (AP, 7/16/07)

2007        Jul 20, Aid officials said clashes between rival militia groups in eastern Congo have killed nine fighters and reduced dozens of houses to smoldering ruins. The fighting erupted a week ago in Minembwe, about 120 miles southwest of the eastern lakeside city of Uvira.
    (AP, 7/20/07)

2007        Jul 30, A UN investigator said extreme sexual violence against women is pervasive in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and local authorities do little to stop it or prosecute those responsible.
    (AP, 7/30/07)

2007        Aug 1, A passenger train derailed in central Congo and eight cars tumbled off the tracks, killing about 100 people and trapping some passengers in the wreckage. People in the southeastern town of Moba attacked the UN office after a local radio station aired false rumors that the United Nations was to resettle Congolese ethnic Tutsis in the region. 4 UN military observers were wounded and 21 staff were evacuated.
    (AP, 8/2/07)(AP, 8/4/07)

2007        Aug 3, In Uganda gunmen on Lake Albert attacked a boat operated by Canada's Heritage Oil Corp., killing a British contractor. 3 armed patrol boats from Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), on the other side of the lake, had opened fire on Heritage's boat.
    (AP, 8/3/07)

2007        Aug 18, UNESCO said a joint mission of several UN agencies is conducting an emergency investigation into the shooting of endangered mountain gorillas in a Democratic Republic of Congo national park. In the last two months, seven of the primates have been killed in separate incidents in the Virunga park.
    (AP, 8/19/07)

2007        Aug 20, South African President Thabo Mbeki arrived in Kinshasa for a working visit aimed at boosting relations with the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
    (AFP, 8/20/07)

2007        Aug 28, Africa's Great Lakes nations (Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Uganda) vowed to eliminate rebel groups roaming their territory and spurring insecurity in the continent's most volatile region.
    (AFP, 8/28/07)

2007        Aug 29, It was reported that more than 100 people have died in a remote part of Congo, including all those who attended the funerals of two village chiefs, in what health officials fear is an outbreak of hemorrhagic fever.
    (AP, 8/29/07)

2007        Sep 3, Congolese officials reported killing 28 soldiers loyal to Gen. Nkunda, a renegade army officer, in exchanges of machine gun and heavy weapons fire lasting several hours.
    (Reuters, 9/4/07)

2007        Sep 4, Rangers and 300 villagers abandoned a gorilla reserve in eastern Congo as government soldiers battled troops loyal to a renegade general in sections of Virunga park. The UN said ten thousand Congolese refugees have fled to neighboring Uganda following clashes between the Congolese army and renegade troops in its eastern provinces.
    (Reuters, 9/4/07)(AP, 9/4/07)(Econ, 9/8/07, p.52)

2007        Sep 7, Renegade Congolese General Laurent Nkunda said the Congolese army had attacked his position, breaking a fragile ceasefire negotiated by United Nations mediators in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AP, 9/7/07)

2007        Sep 8, Congo and Uganda signed an agreement to immediately move refugee camps 93 miles from their shared border to improve security.
    (AP, 9/13/07)

2007        Sep 11, The World Health Organization issued an alert urging more doctors to travel to Congo to combat an outbreak of Ebola fever, which kills nearly all of those it infects and has no cure or treatment.
    (AP, 9/11/07)
2007        Sep 11, Six Congolese soldiers were detained by the Burundian navy for repeatedly attacking fishing boats on Lake Tanganyika and stealing their catch.
    (AFP, 9/12/07)

2007        Sep 13, The UN said the repatriation of Congolese refugees from neighbouring Zambia was suspended, due to insecurity in the small town of Moba where they are headed.
    (AP, 9/13/07)

2007        Sep 14, A UN spokesman said UN peacekeepers have discovered three graves, each containing several bodies, at Rubare, a military base in eastern Congo recently abandoned by rebels loyal to a renegade Gen. Nkunda.
    (Reuters, 9/14/07)

2007        Sep 17, China and the Democratic Republic of Congo signed a draft accord in which China would lend $5 billion to modernize Congou0092s decrepit infrastructure and rich but deteriorated mining sector. Congou0092s government later announced that Chinese state-owned firms would build or refurbish various railways, roads and mines at accost of $12 billion.
    (Reuters, 9/18/07)(Econ, 3/15/08, SR p.3)

2007        Sep 24, Two Congolese troops and a Ugandan soldier were killed in clashes on the flashpoint border of Lake Albert where oil was recently discovered. Six civilians were killed when Ugandan soldiers opened fire on a Congolese passenger boat on Lake Albert.
    (AFP, 9/25/07)(Reuters, 9/25/07)

2007        Sep 25, The World Health Organization said 8 more cases of Ebola have been identified in Congo, raising to 17 the number of people confirmed to have contracted the deadly illness.
    (AP, 9/25/07)

2007        Oct 4, In Congo a cargo plane crashed in a residential neighborhood near the main airport in Kinshasa, plowing into homes and killing at least 52 people. The next day Congolese President Joseph Kabila sacked Transport Minister Remy Henri Kuseyo Gatanga.
    (AP, 10/4/07)(Reuters, 10/5/07)

2007        Oct 11, Rebel leader Laurent Nkunda in eastern Congo called for a cease-fire as the army said the death toll from five days of clashes had risen to 122.
    (AP, 10/11/07)

2007        Oct 14, Opiyo Makasi, reported to be an operations and logistics commander of Uganda's Lord's Resistance Army, gave himself up along with his wife and they were transferred to Kinshasa, DRC. On Oct 25 Congolese authorities handed him to the UN peacekeeping mission in Congo (MONUC), which should prepare his eventual return to Uganda.
    (AP, 10/23/07)(AP, 10/25/07)   

2007        Oct 18,     Former Congolese warlord Germain Katanga, suspected of war crimes committed in northeast Democratic Republic of Congo in 2003, began his transfer to the International Criminal Court in The Hague.
    (AP, 10/18/07)

2007        Oct 22,     The United Nations Refugee agency (UNHCR) said some 8,000 Congolese refugees have fled to neighboring Uganda following clashes between Congo's army and dissident general Laurent Nkunda.
    (Reuters, 10/22/07)
2007        Oct 22,     Congolese militia leader Germain Katanga became only the second war crimes suspect to appear before the International Criminal Court at The Hague.
    (AFP, 10/22/07)

2007        Oct 25, Rebels in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo set new conditions for disarming, stalling the surrender of hundreds of fighters who have begun massing near a designated UN camp.
    (Reuters, 10/25/07)

2007        Oct 26, In Congo heavy rains swelled into a torrent of water that swamped Kinshasa, killing 30 people in less than 24 hours.
    (AP, 10/27/07)

2007        Oct 27, Mai Mai militia leader and army deserter Kibamba Kasereka said he had surrendered to the UN peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo's restive Nord-Kivu province, agreeing to calls to disarm his forces.
    (AFP, 10/27/07)

2007        Nov 5, In eastern Congo 27 UN peacekeepers from India were injured when attacked by a mob of hungry civilians who claimed not to have received any food aid.
    (Econ, 11/17/07, p.54)

2007        Nov 13, Thousands of refugees fled camps in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo's violent North Kivu province after the army said Tutsi-dominated insurgents attacked its positions nearby.
    (AP, 11/13/07)

2007        Nov 17, The UN children's agency said aid groups in Congo have secured the release of 232 child soldiers from militia fighters who forcibly recruited them in the east of the country. The 232 children, whose average age is 14, were separated this month in the eastern provinces of North and South Kivu from three different factions of the Mai Mai.
    (AP, 11/17/07)

2007        Nov 20, It was reported that Congo is setting aside more than 11,000 square miles of rain forest to help protect the endangered bonobo, a great ape that is the most closely related to humans and is found only in this Central African country.
    (AP, 11/21/07)

2007        Nov 21, The UN Security Council welcomed a deal signed by Congo and Rwanda to forcibly disarm Rwandan Hutu rebels in Congo in an effort to reduce tensions between the central African neighbors.
    (Reuters, 11/21/07)

2007        Nov 22, The UN resumed the repatriation of 12,000 Congolese refugees from Zambia which was suspended three months ago due to insecurity in the Democratic Republic of Congo's (DRC) Katanga province.
    (AP, 11/22/07)

2007        Nov 23, Explosions and machine-gun fire echoed through the hills of east Congo, where government troops battled rebels for a third day amid a deepening humanitarian crisis the UN says has displaced nearly 200,000 people in the past few months.
    (AP, 11/23/07)

2007        Dec 3, In Congo (DRC) some 25,000 government forces army attacked a stronghold of renegade Tutsi General Laurent Nkunda, a day after his men seized a strategic town from the government and forced out thousands of civilians. The troops were routed by some 4,000 insurgents.
    (Reuters, 12/3/07)(www.mail-archive.com/ugandanet@kym.net/msg25522.html)(Econ, 6/14/08, p.63)

2007        Dec 5, Congo's army said it retook a strategic town on from rebels loyal to renegade Tutsi General Laurent Nkunda in the violence-torn eastern province of North Kivu.
    (AP, 12/5/07)
2007        Dec 5, An international aid organization said Angolan soldiers routinely and repeatedly rape Congolese women who have crossed the border illegally in search of work in the diamond fields.
    (AP, 12/5/07)

2007        Dec 14, Diplomats from the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda met in Kampala to discuss border tensions that have triggered deadly clashes on one of Africa's hottest frontiers in the search for oil. The UN said rival factions in Congo are forcibly recruiting hundreds of children and sending them to fight on the front lines of an escalating conflict in the east of the country.
    (AP, 12/14/07)(AP, 12/15/07)

2007        Dec 19, Uganda's military said it had shot dead two Congolese soldiers on the volatile border between the two countries, after they tried to resist being arrested on suspicion of raping two teenage girls.
    (Reuters, 12/19/07)

2007        Dec 21, The Security Council voted unanimously to extend the UN peacekeeping mission in Congo for a year and demanded that all militias and armed groups in the volatile east lay down their weapons and start disarming.
    (AP, 12/21/07)

2007        Dec 24, The international charity Save the Children said boys and girls are being recruited in record numbers to act as soldiers, spies and sex slaves in Congo and children have been spotted marching in formation in the war-wracked east of the country over the past week.
    (AP, 12/24/07)

2007        Congou0092s operating budget for this year was $2.4 billion. Its population stood at about 60 million.
    (Econ, 7/28/07, p.46)
2007        Transparency Intu0092l. ranked Congo 168th out of 179 countries for freedom from corruption.
    (Econ, 3/15/08, SR p.13)

2008        Jan 6, In Kinshasa a peace summit aimed at ending fighting in Congo's blood-steeped eastern provinces of North and South Kivu opened without the presence of President Joseph Kabila and rebel leader General Laurent Nkunda.
    (Reuters, 1/6/08)

2008        Jan 13, Delegation chief Kambasu Ngeze said at a Congolese peace conference that renegade general Laurent Nkunda's Kivu movement vowed to continue its armed struggle "with neither remorse nor regret."
    (AP, 1/13/08)

2008        Jan 21, Officials said Congo government negotiators and rebel groups reached a deal to end fighting in the vast country's restive east, where some 800,000 people had to flee their homes over the last year.
    (AP, 1/21/08)

2008        Jan 22, A new survey said war, disease and malnutrition are killing 45,000 Congolese every month in a conflict-driven humanitarian crisis that has claimed 5.4 million victims in nearly a decade.
    (AP, 1/22/08)

2008        Jan 23, Militia leaders signed a peace accord with Congo's government aimed at ending years of fighting in the country's restive east.
    (AP, 1/23/08)

2008        Jan 27, At least 10 bodies were recovered after a boat capsized on Lake Tanganyika in eastern Congo. An official later said the overloaded boat was piloted by a drunken captain.
    (AP, 1/30/08)

2008        Jan 28, Congolese Tutsi rebels and Mai Mai militia clashed in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, breaking a ceasefire signed last week aimed at ending A long-running conflict in the east.
    (AP, 1/28/08)

2008        Jan 29, Congolese Tutsi rebels and a rival Mai Mai militia group pledged to respect a recently-signed peace accord, a day after clashes between their fighters broke the ceasefire.
    (AP, 1/29/08)

2008        Feb 3, Two strong earthquake shook the African Great Lakes region, killing at least 37 people in Rwanda and six in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 2/3/08)(AFP, 2/4/08)

2008        Feb 6, Congo arrested and turned over for trial Mathieu Ngudjolo, an army colonel and former rebel leader accused of leading a deadly 2003 attack on a village in the country's lawless east. Ngudjolo was expected to arrive at the International Criminal Court in the Hague the next day.
    (AP, 2/7/08)

2008        Mar 15, Congou0092s foreign debt stood at $12 billion and interest payments consumed a large chunk of its budget.
    (Econ, 3/15/08, SR p.12)

2008        Mar 19, Conservationists said Honore Mashagiro, a ranger in Congo's Virunga National Park, has been arrested for allegedly masterminding the massacre last summer of 10 endangered mountain gorillas.
    (AP, 3/20/08)
2008        Mar 19, Uganda said that Lord's Resistance Army rebel leader Joseph Kony has left his base in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and moved to the Central African Republic.
    (AP, 3/19/08)

2008        Mar 21, The Democratic Republic of Congo banned the ethnic-based religious and political sect Bundu dia Kongo (BDK), a shadowy separatist sect, following a 3-week police offensive against its western strongholds which UN investigators say killed dozens of people.
    (Reuters, 3/22/08)

2008        Apr 15, In eastern Democratic Republic of Congo at least 44 people were killed and up tot 100 injured when a passenger plane crashed onto a market district after taking-off at Goma.
    (Reuters, 4/16/08)(WSJ, 4/18/08, p.A1)

2008        Apr 29, The International Criminal Court in The Hague published an arrest warrant for Bosco Ntaganda (35), known as "the Terminator," a Congo militia leader wanted for allegedly using child soldiers.
    (Reuters, 4/29/08)

2008        May 23, UN peacekeepers found over 100 bodies in three mass graves in the east of Democratic Republic of Congo. A UN spokesman said they apparently were graves dating back to the 1990s, but that is was difficult to know accurately.
    (Reuters, 5/24/08)

2008        May 24, Belgian police in Brussels arrested Jean-Pierre Bemba (45), a Congolese warlord and ex-presidential candidate, after he was secretly charged with rape and torture. Bemba was accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity as head of a militia that allegedly committed atrocities in Central African Republic's conflict in 2002-2003.
    (AP, 5/25/08)

2008        May 26, A small faction of Rwandan Hutu rebels in east Democratic Republic of Congo pledged to lay down their guns and return home, but the main rebel movement refused and rejected the ceremony as a sham.
    (AP, 5/26/08)

2008        Jun 7, Congo President Joseph Kabila met with UN envoys who backed his plans to disarm and expel Rwandan rebels behind years of strife. They also planned to refocus the biggest UN peace force on rebuilding the shattered nation.
    (Reuters, 6/7/08)

2008        Jun 16, A conservation group said the northern white rhino of central Africa was on the verge of being wiped out. 4 surviving specimens in Congou0092s Garamba National Park had not been seen since 2006.
    (SFC, 6/17/08, p.A3)

2008        Jul 3, Former Congolese rebel leader Jean-Pierre Bemba arrived in the Netherlands to face war crimes charges before the International Criminal Court.
    (AP, 7/3/08)

2008        Jul 7, In Congo (DRC) unidentified gunmen ambushed a vehicle belonging to the World Wildlife Fund in Virunga national Park, killing two people and wounding three others.
    (AP, 7/9/08)

2008        Jul 23, In Democratic Republic of Congo at least 45 people were killed and another 100 were missing after a boat sank on a remote stretch of the Ubangi river.
    (Reuters, 7/25/08)

2008        Jul 28, Antoine Wendo Kolosoy (aka Papa Wendo, b.1925), Congolese riverboat mechanic, boxer and rumba singer, died at age 82. He cut his first records in 1947 for Olympia, a Belgian label.
    (Econ, 8/16/08, p.84)

2008        Aug 5, Wildlife researchers said they have discovered some 125,000 western lowland gorillas deep in the forests of the Republic of Congo.
    (WSJ, 8/6/08, p.A10)

2008        Aug 13, The Indian army said that it was investigating UN allegations its troops had engaged in sexual abuse while on peacekeeping duties in the Democratic Republic of Congo. A five-story building in a crowded residential neighborhood of Mumbai, India's main financial city, collapsed after monsoon rains, killing at least 20 people.
    (AP, 8/13/08)

2008        Aug 28, Government forces fought Tutsi rebels in the fiercest clashes for months in eastern Congo, threatening a struggling peace process.
    (Reuters, 8/28/08)

2008        Sep 1, In east Democratic Republic of Congo a humanitarian plane carrying 17 passengers and crew crashed into a mountain with no sign of survivors.
    (Reuters, 9/2/08)

2008        Sep 11, A Paris court convicted Didier Bourguet, a former UN employee, for the rape of young Africans during his postings in Central African Republic and Congo. Bourguet was sentenced to nine years in prison for having committed about 20 rapes of teenage girls between 1998 and 2004 during his postings as a mechanic for the UN.
    (AP, 9/11/08)

2008        Sep 14, In eastern Congo a riot ensued following accusations that a soccer player was using witchcraft. 13 people were left dead.
    (SFC, 9/16/08, p.A7)

2008        Sep 27, It was reported that the elephant population in Congou0092s Virunga National Park had dropped to under 200, mostly due to poaching. In 1964 there were an estimated 2,900. In 2006 the number had dropped to 400.
    (Econ, 9/27/08, p.62)

2008        Oct 7, The UN refugee agency said at least 5,000 people have fled violence in northeastern Congo and sought shelter in neighboring Sudan over the last two weeks due to ferocious attacks by rebels of the Lord's Resistance Army from neighboring Uganda.
    (AP, 10/7/08)

2008        Oct 10, Congo's President Joseph Kabila named Budget Minister Adolphe Muzito (51) as the new prime minister following the resignation of 83-year-old Antoine Gizenga.
    (Reuters, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 10, The UN urged Congo and Rwanda to hold talks to avoid a war after Kinshasa accused its eastern neighbor of sending troops over the border to back Congolese rebels.
    (Reuters, 10/10/08)

2008        Oct 14, The UN said intense fighting between the Congolese army and Ugandan rebels have forced over 50,000 people to flee their homes in the north-eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo's Ituri region.
    (AP, 10/14/08)

2008        Oct 24, The World Food Program said fighting in eastern Congo has driven some 200,000 from their homes during the last 8 weeks, exacerbating an already dire humanitarian crisis.
    (AP, 10/24/08)

2008        Oct 26, Rebels seized an east Congo army base and the headquarters of a refuge housing some of the world's last mountain gorillas, in heavy fighting that sent thousands of civilians fleeing. An unknown number of soldiers, rebels and civilians were killed in the renewed fighting in North Kivu province.
    (AP, 10/26/08)

2008        Oct 27, Thousands of civilians threw rocks at four UN offices in eastern Congo, venting outrage at the organization's inability to protect them from rebel forces advancing on the provincial capital of Goma.
    (AP, 10/27/08)

2008        Oct 28, Rebels vowing to take Congo's eastern provincial capital of 600,000 people advanced toward Goma as Congolese troops and UN tanks retreated, while tens of thousands fled to a makeshift shelter.
    (AP, 10/28/08)

2008        Oct 29, Congolese rebel forces advanced on the eastern city of Goma, threatening to overwhelm government troops and a 17,000-strong UN force deployed to halt a return to all-out war. The Congolese army said troops from Rwanda have crossed the nearby border and attacked its soldiers in support of a minority Tutsi rebellion. Congolese rebels declared a ceasefire after a four-day push to the gates of Goma that threatened to drag Congo back to all-out war, but heavy gunfire resumed near the eastern city after dark.
    (Reuters, 10/29/08)(AP, 10/29/08)

2008        Oct 30, Laurent Nkunda, the rebel general besieging Congo's eastern provincial capital Goma, said he wants direct talks with the government about ending fighting in the region and his objections to a $5 billion deal that gives China access to the country's vast mineral riches in exchange for a railway and highway. Nkunda said he sent a letter to the UN peacekeeping mission in Goma saying he will set up an "urgent humanitarian corridor" for refugees and humanitarian aid. Refugees have continued fleeing the war-torn eastern province for neighboring Uganda.
    (AP, 10/30/08)(AFP, 10/30/08)

2008        Oct 31, Thousands of war-weary refugees set out on foot for their homes in eastern Congo, taking advantage of a cease-fire as American and UN envoys joined efforts there to find a political solution to the region's long-running rebellion.
    (AP, 10/31/08)

2008        Nov 1, Tutsi-led rebels tightened their hold on newly seized swaths of eastern Congo, forcing tens of thousands of frightened, rain-soaked civilians out of makeshift refugee camps and stopping some from fleeing to government-held territory. Congolese soldiers killed nine fighters from Uganda's Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) after 30-50 rebels attacked a village in northeast Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AP, 11/2/08)(AFP, 11/2/08)

2008        Nov 4, Congolese rebel leader Laurent Nkunda threatened to take his eastern guerrilla war westwards to the capital Kinshasa unless the government agreed to talks on the country's future. Congo's government refused rebel leader Laurent Nkunda's demand for direct talks.
    (Reuters, 11/4/08)(AP, 11/4/08)

2008        Nov 5, In Congo heavy fighting erupted for a second day between rebels and a pro-government militia in lawless North Kivu province, but a wider cease-fire was holding around this provincial capital. In Kiwanja fighters loyal to rebel General Laurent Nkunda drove out pro-government Mai-Mai militia, sending its inhabitants fleeing in panic. A local clergyman said at least 180 civilians had been killed overnight. The next day UN peacekeepers found the bodies of a dozen shot civilians.
    (AP, 11/5/08)(AP, 11/6/08)(Econ, 11/8/08, p.61)

2008        Nov 7, The UN secretary-general joined African leaders to try to end the fighting in eastern Congo, where a fragile cease-fire is close to collapse. A UN official and a peacekeeping officer said Angolan troops are fighting alongside Congolese soldiers battling rebels outside the eastern provincial capital of Goma. The UN official said an unspecified number of Angolans arrived four days ago.
    (AP, 11/7/08)
2008        Nov 7, India said it will send one of its most decorated army units to join a UN mission in Congo and support other Indian troops as Congolese rebels advance to seize fresh areas.
    (Reuters, 11/7/08)

2008        Nov 8, Congolese soldiers advanced toward rebel lines in renewed fighting that threatens a tenuous cease-fire around the eastern provincial capital Goma.
    (AP, 11/8/08)

2008        Nov 9, Doctors struggled to contain an outbreak of cholera in a sprawling refugee camp near Congo's eastern provincial capital of Goma, as new fighting ignited fears that infected patients could scatter and launch an epidemic.
    (AP, 11/9/08)

2008        Nov 11, The UN reported that hundreds of Congolese soldiers rampaged through several villages in eastern Congo raping women and pillaging homes as they pulled back ahead of a feared rebel advance.
    (SFC, 11/12/08, p.A7)

2008        Nov 12, Angola announced it is mobilizing troops to send to neighboring Congo, heightening fears that the fighting in this central African nation will engulf other countries in the region. North of Kibati the bodies of two dead government soldiers lay in the center of the road beside a rebel checkpoint.
    (AP, 11/12/08)

2008        Nov 16, Congo's main rebel leader promised a UN envoy to support a cease-fire and UN efforts to end the fighting, and the diplomat said he hoped the warring sides would hold peace talks in Kenya. Congo government troops abandoned their position at Rwindi, 130 km (80 miles) north of Goma in North Kivu province, after a battle with the rebels involving small arms and heavier weapons. UN peacekeeping troops at Rwindi stayed in their base during the fighting.
    (AP, 11/16/08)(AP, 11/17/08)

2008        Nov 18, Demoralized Congolese government troops, retreating before eastern rebels, clashed with their own local militia allies who tried to make them stand and fight after the armed forces chief was replaced.
    (Reuters, 11/18/08)

2008        Nov 20, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to send some 3,000 additional UN peacekeepers to the Democratic Republic of the Congo to help prevent a new war in the country's east.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, Britain called on Rwandan President Paul Kagame to use his "influence" over Congolese rebels led by general Laurent Nkunda to end to violence in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 11/20/08)

2008        Nov 21, In eastern Congo armed men shot and killed a 20-year-old woman at the Kibati refugee camp where thousands of displaced people live in constant fear, caught between soldiers and rebels. Armed men also forced families there out of their huts and looted them. Didace Namujimbo, a journalist working for a UN-backed radio station, was shot dead in Bukavu.
    (AP, 11/21/08)(AP, 11/22/08)

2008        Nov 22, Congolese rebel leader Laurent Nkunda sought to reassure people in territory recently seized in a lightning advance, telling thousands gathered in Rutshuru for his first mass rally that his men intend to bring peace, not war, to Congo. A rebel offensive under Nkunda began to push some 1,500 Hutu FDLR militiamen from Ishasha. The move forced over 3,000 civilians to flee to neighboring Uganda.
    (AP, 11/22/08)(SFC, 11/27/08, p.A8)
2008        Nov 22, In eastern Congo 2 mass graves containing as many as 2,000 bodies were discovered in Bukavu on a plot of land formerly owned by a member of the Congolese Rally for Democracy (RCD), a Rwandan-backed rebel group. The RCD became a political party in 2003. Many of its top leaders were integrated into the government, taking jobs as vice presidents and army chiefs.
    (AP, 11/27/08)

2008        Nov 23, Congolese soldiers stopped a peacekeepers' convoy at an impromptu roadblock and dragged 23 Congolese men off the trucks, accusing them of being rebels. UN officials said the men were rebels who had surrendered as well as national policemen and civilians.
    (AP, 11/24/08)

2008        Nov 24, Congolese soldiers went on an overnight looting and shooting spree in a sprawling Congolese refugee camp, stealing from hungry and traumatized people who have fled fighting in the country's east.
    (AP, 11/24/08)

2008        Nov 27, More than 10,000 Congolese civilians fled to Uganda in a matter of hours to escape renewed fighting.
    (AP, 11/27/08)

2008        Nov 28, Congo rebels captured the border post of Ishasha in eastern Congo, increasing their stranglehold over the region. At least 13,000 frightened civilians have fled into Uganda over the last two days.
    (AP, 11/28/08)

2008        Nov 30, Rebels in eastern Congo pulled out of Ishasha, a town on the Ugandan border they captured in fighting that forced 10,000 people to flee.
    (AP, 12/2/08)

2008        Dec 8, Congolese rebels opened peace negotiations with a government delegation in Nairobi in their first direct talks on ending the conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AP, 12/8/08)

2008        Dec 12, A UN Security Council panel said that Rwanda and Congo are fighting a proxy war by aiding each other's enemies, a conclusion that could lead to additional UN sanctions over the conflict in the central African region. A UN report cited an advisor to Rwandan President Paul Kagame and a member of the Congolese opposition, both wealthy businessmen, as key financial backers of rebels in eastern DR Congo.
    (AP, 12/12/08)(AFP, 12/13/08)

2008        Dec 14, Uganda, southern Sudan and Congo launched an offensive against the Lord's Resistance Army bases based in eastern Congo in an attempt to end one of the continent's longest and most brutal wars.
    (AP, 12/15/08)

2008        Dec 21, Congolese Tutsi rebels threatened to advance into UN-monitored buffer zones in eastern Congo after refusing to sign a declaration ending hostilities with the government.
    (AP, 12/21/08)

2008        Dec 26, A Chinese man and two Lebanese nationals were shot dead in a crime wave in southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo that also left 10 Congolese dead this week. The mayor of Lubumbashi, Marie-Gregoire Tambila, said that 11 people had been killed in the last four days in her city, including a Lebanese national who was killed on Christmas day. In eastern Congo attackers, identified as members of the Lordu0092s Resistance Army, killed some 100 people at a church in Doruma. The UN said rebels had killed 189 people over 2 days.
    (AFP, 12/26/08)(SFC, 12/30/08, p.A10)

2008        Dec 30, Congou0092s health minister said An Ebola virus outbreak has killed 11 people in western Congo. Caritas, a Catholic charity, reported that over 400 people have been killed in northeaster Congo since Christmas day.
    (AP, 12/30/08)(SFC, 12/31/08, p.A3)

2008        In CongoDRC Col. Samy Matumo, the commander of a renegade brigade, controlled the tin operations in Bisie, North Kivu province. He and his men extorted, taxed and appropriated as much as $80 million a year from mining operations in the area.
    (SSFC, 11/16/08, p.A21)
2008        Lisa F. Jackson (57), American filmmaker, produced her 75-minute film: u0093The Greatest Silence: Rape in the Congo.
    (SFC, 4/5/08, p.E1)
2008        In CongoDRC some 16,000 new cases of sexual violence, 65% of them involving children, were registered this year.
    (Econ, 8/15/09, p.54)

2009        Jan 2, Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army rebels killed two wildlife rangers and six other people in a remote national park in northeastern Congo.
    (AP, 1/6/09)

2009        Jan 5, In eastern Congo rival rebel chief of staff Bosco Ntaganda announced the dismissal of Laurent Nkunda and has taken control of the CNDP rebel movement.
    (AFP, 1/8/09)

2009        Jan 8, In eastern Congo Mai Mai militiamen attacked a group of seven rangers killing one in a government-controlled sector in the far north of Virunga National park.
    (AP, 1/10/09)

2009        Jan 12, War crimes prosecutors in The Hague accused former Congolese vice president Jean-Pierre Bemba of using systematic rape to terrorize civilians suspected of supporting rebels during a bloody power struggle in neighboring Central African Republic.
    (AP, 1/12/09)

2009        Jan 16, In eastern Congo the leader of a splinter rebel faction said his forces would stop fighting the government and the two sides would work together to battle Rwandan militias at the heart of the conflict. Ugandan rebels, according to the UN, massacred 100 civilians in Tora, a village in northeast Congo, the latest atrocity blamed on the insurgents.
    (AP, 1/16/09)(AP, 1/29/09)

2009        Jan 17, A human rights groups said Ugandan rebels in eastern Congo have ruthlessly killed at least 620 people in the past month, and vulnerable civilians in the region desperately need protection. According to Ugandan troops, the Lord's Resistance Army rebels set fire to a church in the village of Tora. it was unclear how many people were killed.
    (AP, 1/18/09)(AP, 1/19/09)

2009        Jan 20, Hundreds of Rwandan troops rolled into the Democratic Republic of Congo to join Congolese forces hunting Rwandan rebels operating there since 1994.
    (AFP, 1/20/09)

2009        Jan 22, Congolese and Rwandan troops advanced on the headquarters of Tutsi rebel leader, Laurent Nkunda, as Kinshasa used its neighbor to smother a rebellion in eastern DR Congo. Rwanda arrested Congo rebel leader Laurent Nkunda after he fled a joint operation launched by the armies of the two nations.
    (AP, 1/22/09)(AP, 1/23/09)

2009        Jan 26, The armies of Congo and Rwanda, battling together against Rwandan Hutu militiamen in eastern Congo, clashed with fighters trying to retake a village and killed 4 of them.
    (AP, 1/27/09)
2009        Jan 26, In the Netherlands the first-ever trial of the International Criminal Court began at The Hague with Thomas Lubanga, a Congolese militia commander, denying he committed war crimes by recruiting hundreds of child soldiers to kill and rape.
    (AP, 1/26/09)

2009        Jan 27, The UN refugee agency said thousands of Congolese civilians have fled across the border to South Sudan to escape rebels of the Lord's Resistance Army.
    (AP, 1/27/09)

2009        Jan 29, The first of more than 6,000 Congolese rebels took part in a ceremony to integrate their units into the regular army as part of a deal to end the conflict in eastern DR Congo.
    (AFP, 1/29/09)

2009        Feb 13, A Congolese military spokesman said more than 40 members of a Hutu militia suspected of atrocities during Rwanda's 1994 genocide were killed in an overnight air raid.
    (AP, 2/13/09)

2009        Feb 25, Rwandan troops began pulling out of eastern Democratic Republic of Congo after a controversial joint operation with Congolese troops against Rwandan Hutu rebels.
    (AFP, 2/25/09)

2009        Mar 15, Uganda began withdrawing troops hunting brutal Lord's Resistance Army rebels in neighboring Congo after the deadline for them to leave expired. Felix Kulaigye, a Ugandan military spokesman, said the operation had been a success, with around 100 rebels killed and more than 200 abductees rescued, and that Congo would continue the hunt.
    (AP, 3/15/09)

2009        Mar 23, The Congolese government signed a peace agreement with and a group known as CNDP, which later gave rise to M23. The agreement failed to bring peace.
    (AP, 2/6/13)

2009        Mar 26, French President Nicolas Sarkozy visited Brazzaville and Kinshasa. During the Kinshasa trip, given over in large part to regional political issues, Areva signed an agreement with the government allowing the company to prospect for and mine uranium.
    (AP, 3/27/09)

2009        Mar, The IMF disbursed nearly $200 million to boost the foreign-currency reserves of the Democratic Republic of Congo and maintain macroeconomic stability.
    (Econ, 4/18/09, p.54)
2009        Mar, In CongoDRC Thomas Kwoyelo, a commander of the Lord's Resistance Army, was captured in Garamba forest. In 2011 he faced a charges in Uganda.
    (AFP, 7/11/11)

2009        Apr 6, In Zambia western nations and lending agencies meeting in Lusaka agreed a financing package of more than $1 billion to improve infrastructure in southern and central Africa at an investment conference meant to expand transport links and trade. Britain said it would separately provide 100 million pounds ($149.2 million) to transform the region's infrastructure to increase trade and mitigate the effects of the global financial crisis. New projects will link businesses in 8 African countries: Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, Malawi, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and South Africa.
    (AP, 4/6/09)

2009        Apr 9, A top human rights group said in a report that at least 90 women have been raped and 180 villagers killed over the past two months by rebels as well as government forces in volatile eastern Congo.
    (AP, 4/9/09)

2009        Apr 29, A Boeing 737 on a test flight from Brazzaville crashed southeast of Kinshasa, killing 7 people.
    (AP, 4/30/09)

2009        Apr, UN special investigator Philip Alston said on October 15 that Congolese soldiers had killed 50 Rwandan Hutu refugees and abducted and raped around 40 women during an April attack on a refugee camp in eastern DR Congo.
    (AFP, 10/16/09)

2009        May 10, In the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo at least 60 people were killed over the last 48 hours during attacks blamed on Rwandan Hutu rebels.
    (AFP, 5/15/09)

2009        May 18, UN military commanders told top UN officials that Congolese rebels integrated into the country's army as part of a peace deal are looting, raping and killing the civilians they are meant to protect.
    (AP, 5/18/09)

2009        May 19, The UN Security Council said that it had asked the Congolese government to investigate and arrest five high-ranking army officers known to have committed atrocities.
    (AP, 5/19/09)

2009        May, In CongoDRC 2 former Norwegian soldiers (Tjostolv Moland and Joshua French) allegedly murdered their driver and attempted to murder a witness. The motive behind the killing was unknown. On Sep 8 they were convicted of espionage and murder. In 2010 a military judge threw out the ruling and ordered a new case. In August, 2013, Tjostolv Moland (32), died in prison. An autopsy report said he had hanged himself.
    (AP, 12/4/09)(AFP, 9/8/09)(AP, 4/22/10)(AP, 8/29/13)

2009        Jun 15, The Hague-based International Criminal Court ordered former Congolese rebel warlord Jean-Pierre Bemba to stand trial on charges of crimes against humanity and war crimes, including murder, rape and pillaging.
    (Reuters, 6/16/09)

2009        Jun 19, A top Congo army officer said 32 people have been killed in three days of fighting in eastern Congo between government soldiers and Rwandan Hutu rebels backed by Congolese militia allies.
    (Reuters, 6/19/09)

2009        Jun 22, In Democratic Republic of Congo rioting inmates overnight raped around 20 female prisoners during a failed prison break in Goma. Two people were killed and 12 others were injured when prisoners detonated two grenades.
    (Reuters, 6/23/09)

2009        Jun 26, A UN official said Ugandan rebels this year have killed around 1,200 Congolese civilians and abducted 1,500, mostly children, in a remote region of northeast Congo.
    (AP, 6/26/09)

2009        Jul 20, In eastern Democratic Republic of Congo at least 24 people, most of them civilians, were killed when rebels attacked an army base.
    (Reuters, 7/23/09)

2009        Jul 24, The UN refugee agency said 536,000 people have been chased from their homes in eastern Congo this year as a result of clashes between government forces and rebels linked to neighboring Rwanda's 1994 genocide.
    (AP, 7/24/09)

2009        Jul 27, A Congo government spokesman said The Democratic Republic of Congo has suspended transmission of French broadcaster Radio France International (RFI).
    (Reuters, 7/27/09)

2009        Aug 1, Humanitarian groups said members of the Lord's Resistance Army, a Ugandan rebel group, have launched attacks against towns in the Central African Republic that have left at least 10 people dead in the last two weeks. The attacks by the LRA, launched from its rear bases in the Democratic Republic of Congo, have also forced hundreds of people to flee their villages.
    (AFP, 8/2/09)

2009        Aug 6, DR Congo President Joseph Kabila met his Rwandan counterpart Paul Kagame in the lakeside city of Goma for the first official bilateral talks between the neighboring states in 13 years.
    (AP, 8/6/09)

2009        Aug 10, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton arrived in the strife-torn Democratic Republic of Congo on the fourth leg of her seven-nation African tour. Clinton said she would press Democratic Republic of Congo's government to address the root causes of the conflict in the east and stop the use of women as "weapons of war."
    (Reuters, 8/10/09)

2009        Aug 11, Authorities in the Democratic Republic of Congo arrested Gregoire Ndahimana, a former Rwandan mayor, for his alleged role in the 1994 genocide. Measures were taken for him to be transferred to the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) headquarters in Arusha, Tanzania.
    (AFP, 8/12/09)
2009        Aug 11, In Congo US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton called for the Democratic Republic of Congo to punish soldiers responsible for rape as she toured the war-torn east. She also unveiled a $17 million plan to help fight the sexual violence in eastern Congo.
    (AFP, 8/11/09)(SFC, 8/12/09, p.A3)

2009        Sep 8, In the Democratic Republic of Congo two Norwegians were sentenced to death by a court for murdering a Congolese man in the northeast of the country in May.
    (AFP, 9/8/09)

2009        Sep 13, In southern Democratic Republic of Congo at least 14 people were dead and another 34 missing after their boat sank in an isolated stretch of the Lualaba river.
    (Reuters, 9/14/09)

2009        Oct 5, In Burundi 2 days of clashes began as government forces fired live rounds in the air to deter hundreds of Congolese refugees from returning home. Some 900 refugees had decided to return home on foot rather than be transferred to a new camp further away from the border with Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 10/7/09)

2009        Oct 13, Activists from Congo, Rene Ngongo (48), and New Zealand, Alyn Ware (47), and an Ethiopia-based doctor from Australia, Catherine Hamlin (85), won the Right Livelihood Award, also known as the "alternative Nobel," for work to protect rain forests, improve women's health and rid the world of nuclear weapons. The honorary part of the award, without prize money, went to Canadian environmentalist David Suzuki (73) for raising awareness of climate change. Each will receive euro50,000 (US$74,000).
    (AP, 10/13/09)
2009        Oct 13, A report by a coalition of 84 organizations said more than 1,000 civilians have been killed and nearly 900,000 displaced in eastern Congo by Rwandan Hutu militiamen and Congolese forces since January.
    (AP, 10/13/09)

2009        Oct 14, The Democratic Republic of Congo said it had agreed with Angola to halt tit-for-tat expulsions of each other's citizens as victims told of being subjected to brutal rapes and lootings when they were thrown out by Luanda.
    (AFP, 10/14/09)

2009        Oct 28, The UN mission to Congo (MONUC) said Congolese soldiers killed their unit commander when he ordered them not to steal and pillage in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The men involved were former Mai-Mai militia members from the Congolese Resistance Patriots movement (PARECO) who recently became part of the army.
    (AFP, 10/29/09)

2009        Oct 29, In northern Democratic Republic of Congo armed villagers killed at least 47 policemen trying to intervene in ethnic clashes.
    (Reuters, 10/30/09)

2009        Oct 30, Congo's foreign minister said India has offered Democratic Republic of Congo $263 million in loans to build hydroelectric plants and repair battered infrastructure in the war-ravaged nation. The two countries agreed to the final terms of the loan package this week during a four-day visit by Foreign Minister Alexis Thambwe Mwamba to India.
    (Reuters, 10/30/09)

2009        Oct, In the Democratic Republic of Congo fighting broke out between two tribes, the Lobala and the Bombona, in a dispute over rich fishing waters in Dongo, 200 km (125 miles) south of Gemena, the main town in the Sud-Oubangui district. The clashes left some 270 people dead. A 600-strong unit of commando reinforcements wrested back control of the Dongo region on December 13.
    (AFP, 12/30/09)

2009        Nov 2, A top UN official announced that the UN has withdrawn its support for Congolese army units operating in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, accusing its soldiers of killing 62 civilians.
    (AFP, 11/2/09)

2009        Nov 3, Rwanda said it has urged the UN to list the Rwandan Hutu rebel group operating in eastern Congo as a terrorist organization.
    (AFP, 11/3/09)
2009        Nov 3, Senior Lord's Resistance Army commander Charles Arop, who was implicated in leading a massacre on Christmas Day that killed at least 143 Congolese, surrendered to the Ugandan military stationed in the northeast of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 11/5/09)

2009        Nov 8, The Democratic Republic of Congo government said security forces in an overnight raid on the town of Dongo have arrested about 100 armed men blamed for killing dozens of policemen in an attack in the country's isolated north last month.
    (AP, 11/8/09)

2009        Nov 15, India's Essar Group, and energy-to-steel conglomerate, said it has agreed to buy a majority stake in Dhabi Group's telecommunication businesses in African nations Uganda and Congo.
    (Reuters, 11/15/09)

2009        Nov 17, Two leading Rwandan Hutu rebels were arrested in Germany on suspicion of crimes against humanity and war crimes this year and in 2008 in DR Congo. The pair, Ignace Murwanashyaka (46) and Straton Musoni (48) are the leader and deputy leader respectively of the Democratic Liberation Forces of Rwanda. The FDLR is estimated to have 5,000 to 6,000 fighters, many of whom took part in the 1994 genocide in Rwanda before crossing into the neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 11/17/09)

2009        Nov 24, A report was leaked on the UNu0092s peacekeeping mission in the CongoDRC, better known as MONUC. The report alleged collusion between peacekeepers and Congou0092s army to help various rebel groups in exchange for cash and access to mineral wealth.
    (Econ, 11/28/09, p.54)(http://congosiasa.blogspot.com/2009/11/leak-un-expert-report.html)

2009        Nov 25, A United Nations report confirmed that one of Africa's most brutal rebel movements relies on a vast, international network of supporters in at least 25 countries including in the US and Europe who facilitate arms trafficking, money transfers and day-to-day operational support. The findings are a scathing indictment of how little has been done by the international community to cut off logistical support to the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), an ethnic Hutu militia which has wreaked havoc in Congo.
    (AP, 11/25/09)
2009        Nov 25, In western Democratic Republic of Congo at least 73 people were killed and others missing after a logging boat sank in Lake Mai Ndombe in Bandundu province.
    (Reuters, 11/28/09)

2009        Nov 26, In the Congo four UN peacekeepers were wounded in northern Congo after a UN helicopter was attacked by armed men.
    (AP, 11/27/09)

2009        Nov 27, In Congo DRC four people died when a jail cell wall fell on them during an attempted prison escape in Kinshasa.
    (AP, 11/30/09)

2009        Dec 3, A Congolese court upheld death sentences for two Norwegians convicted of espionage and murder, prompting condemnation from Norwegian officials. They had been convicted in Sep of murdering their driver and attempting to murder a witness in May 2009.
    (AP, 12/3/09)

2009        Dec 14, Human Rights Watch said a UN-backed Congolese military operation to oust rebels from eastern Congo has caused more civilian casualties than damage to rebels, with more than 1,400 people deliberately killed over a nine-month period.
    (AP, 12/14/09)
2009        Dec 14-2009 Dec 17, In northeastern Congo at least 321 civilians were killed in a massacre by the Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army in the Makombo area. Villagers that escaped their LRA captors were sent back with their lips and ears cut off as a warning to others of what would happen if they tried to talk. News of the massacre was not made public until March 27, 2010.
    (AP, 3/27/10)

2009        Dec 21, The UN accused the Ugandan-based Lord's Resistance Army of killing, mutilating and raping villagers in Sudan and Congo in what may have been crimes against humanity.
    (AP, 12/21/09)

2009        Dec 23, The UN Security Council voted to renew the mandate of peacekeeping forces in Congo by 5 months instead of the usual year amid plans to overhaul their role in the war-torn country.
    (Reuters, 12/23/09)

2009        Gerard Prunier authored u0093Africau0092s World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe.u0094
    (Econ, 1/24/09, p.88)
2009        In Kinshasa, Congo, the music group Staff Benda Bilili, all victims of polio, released their first album entitled u0093Tres, Tres Fort.u0094
    (Econ, 10/3/09, p.60)(www.crammed.be/staffbendabilili/)

2010        Jan 1, A Congolese army officer said the Democratic Republic of Congo forces are to mount a new offensive against Rwandan Hutu rebels in the east of the country with the backing of UN troops.
    (AP, 1/1/10)

2010        Jan 10, In southeast Congo 6 people, including 5 children, died in a tin mine collapse. 2 people were left missing.
    (AP, 1/11/10)

2010        Feb 15, Congou0092s Radio Okapi, a UN-run station, said Rwandan Hutu rebels have killed at least 27 people in eastern Congo already this month.
    (AP, 2/15/10)

2010        Feb 22, In eastern CongoDRC 3 people were killed when Congolese soldiers attacked a UN agency car and tried to loot it in South Kivu province. A combination of military personnel from the US Special Operations Command Africa, including US special forces and civilian specialists under contract, were said to be conducting training a battalion of Congolese soldiers in the city of Kisangani. The 8-month program for the battalion, which can consist of about 1,000 soldiers, will cover military basics but also will focus on human rights training. Human rights groups have previously accused Congo's poorly trained and irregularly paid army forces of attacking civilians.
    (AP, 2/23/10)(AP, 3/1/10)

2010        Feb 28, A UN-backed military operation against Rwandan Hutu rebels in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo was launched. The operation will involve 18 battalions from the Congolese FARDC army in a series of targeted attacks throughout north and south Kivu provinces in Congo's conflict-racked east.
    (AP, 3/4/10)

2010        Feb, In northeast Congo up to 100 people were killed about this time when the rebel Lord's Resistance Army attacked a village. News of the massacre did not become public until May 1 when UN humanitarian chief John Holmes said he learned of the killings when he visited Niangara, the nearest town which he reached by helicopter.
    (AP, 5/2/10)(Reuters, 5/2/10)

2010        Mar 10, A UN official said 90 Rwandan rebels have been killed  in eastern Congo during a two-week Congolese army operation conducted with the support of UN peacekeepers.
    (AP, 3/10/10)

2010        Mar 17, The Congolese army said more than 600 Rwandan Hutu rebels have been killed or captured since January in an operation backed by the UN mission to the country.
    (AP, 3/18/10)

2010        Apr 4, In northern Congo some 100-150 Enyele rebels attacked Mbandaka, capital of Congo's northern Equateur province. A UN peacekeeper from Ghana was fatally shot while in a car. A UN civilian and a South African pilot died during the fighting. At least 36 people, including policemen, an army officer and militiamen, died in the clashes between the Enyele and Munzale tribesmen reportedly over farming and fishing rights.
    (AP, 4/5/10)(AP, 4/6/10)(Econ, 4/17/10, p.51)

2010        Apr 5, In northern Congo UN-backed government forces retook the Mbandaka provincial airport from rebels. In eastern Congo 2 soldiers shot and killed national radio journalist Patient Chebeya Bakome. Bakome's brother said the soldiers shot Bakome in front of his wife and took his phone and money. Beni police arrested the 2 soldiers.
    (AP, 4/5/10)(AP, 4/6/10)

2010        Apr 7, Innovation for the Development and Protection of the Environment (IDPE) said that from March 3-28 Congo government troops killed 7 hippos and 5 elephants as well as five antelopes, four baboons, three chimpanzees and two buffalo in Virunga national Park, a UNESCO world heritage. The soldiers "use their wives and cousins to sell the meat" in villages near the park, the IDPE said in a report that included photos of decomposing elephant carcasses.
    (AFP, 4/8/10)

2010        Apr 9, In Congo 7 Congolese and one Swiss national, staff members of the Red Cross, were seized near the town of Fizi in South Kivu province by the Mai Mai Yakutumba rebels. The workers were released on April 16.
    (AP, 4/13/10)(AP, 4/16/10)

2010        Apr 15, A new study by Oxfam said the number of rapes carried out by civilians in eastern Congo has increased by 17-fold in the last few years. It said sexual assaults long perpetrated by armed groups are spreading across the population.
    (AP, 4/15/10)

2010        May 5, Congou0092s government information minister said civilians who were being recruited to a new rebel movement in Congo's northwest captured the group's leader and he now will stand trial for war crimes. Odjani was captured by youths he was trying to recruit in the village of Dongo. In eastern Congo 80 people were missing and feared dead after an overloaded canoe capsized on a river. 45 people were rescued from the Congo River near the city of Kindu, the capital of Congo's eastern Maniema province.
    (AP, 5/6/10)

2010        May 24, The UN said an Indian UN peacekeeper and two Congolese nationals were killed in an ambush in North Kivu province, Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (Reuters, 5/24/10)

2010        May 27, UN experts said rebel groups in eastern Congo are illegally imposing taxes on trucks and pedestrians and receiving local, regional and international support in violation of UN sanctions.
    (AP, 5/27/10)

2010        May 28, The UN, bowing to pressure from Congo's President Joseph Kabila, agreed to withdraw up to 2,000 peacekeeping troops and redefine the remaining force as a "stabilization" mission in his nation to coincide with its 50th anniversary of independence.
    (AP, 5/28/10)

2010        Jun 2, In CongoDRC the body of Floribert Chebeya Bahizire of Voix des Sans Voix, or Voice of the Voiceless, was found in his car in a suburb of Kinshasa. The next day Navi Pillay, the top UN human rights official said the victim had suffered a pattern of intimidation because of his work. For the past two decades, Voix des Sans Voix had worked to document human rights abuses across Congo, focusing on corruption in the military and foreign support for militias. On June 4 several police officers were arrested as part of a preliminary investigation into the death of Bahizire.
    (AP, 6/3/10)(AP, 6/5/10)

2010        Jun 10, A Congo military court sentenced to death a British-Norwegian national and a Norwegian convicted of espionage and murder. Joshua French, the dual national, and Tjostolv Moland, both former Norwegian soldiers, were convicted last year of murdering their driver and attempting to murder a witness. The alleged motive is unknown. A lawyer said the two witnesses who testified against them were awarded large sums of money in compensation and have changed their stories countless times.
    (AP, 6/10/10)

2010        Jun 29, Congolese Gen. Amuli Bahigwa said the army has killed 80 rebels from neighboring Rwanda and Uganda who crossed into volatile eastern Congo. Bahigwa said the army killed the rebels in an operation that started June 1. He said four soldiers were killed and that Ugandan rebels killed eight civilians.
    (AP, 6/29/10)
2010        Jun 29, Ugandau0092s  Lieutenant Colonel Felix Kulayigye confirmed the ADF are attacking a Congolese town called Mutwanga and have killed 16 civilians. The Allied Democratic Forces, a group that claims it is fighting for equality for Muslims, battled Ugandan forces in country's Rwenzori region near the DRC, with the heaviest fighting occurring between 1996 and 2001.
    (AFP, 6/29/10)

2010        Jul 2, In eastern Congo a fuel tanker overturned and burst into flames, sparking a massive fire that killed at least 230 villagers and wounded more than 200 u0097 some of whom had rushed to siphon leaking liquid from the vehicle illegally.
    (AP, 7/3/10)(SSFC, 7/4/10, p.A5)(SFC, 7/5/10, p.A2)

2010        Jul 8, The International Criminal Court at The Hague suspended Congolese militia chief Thomas Lubanga's trial and rapped prosecutors for abusing court processes and ignoring judges' orders.
    (AFP, 7/9/10)

2010        Jul 24, Congolese rebels took an Indian pilot hostage when they attacked an aircraft on a remote airstrip in a tin mining zone in the country's North Kivu province.
    (Reuters, 7/25/10)

2010        Jul 26, Campaign group Global Witness said it was launching legal action against the British government for allegedly failing to refer companies trading Congolese "conflict minerals" for UN sanctions.
    (AFP, 7/26/10)

2010        Jul 27, In CongoDRC a boat ferrying about 200 passengers to Kinshasa capsized after hitting a rock. As many as 138 people were killed with 80 confirmed dead.
    (AP, 7/29/10)

2010        Jul 30, In eastern CongoDRC rebels from the Mai Mai militia and Rwandan Hutu FDLR  occupied Luvungi town, North Kivu, one day after beginning an attack there. Over the next 4 days they gang-raped scores of women. The rebels withdrew voluntarily on Aug 4. Later reports said there were over 500 systematic rapes.
    (AP, 8/23/10)(Reuters, 9/1/10)(AP, 9/7/10)

2010        Aug 11, In CongoDRC around 40 people were killed when an overloaded truck laden with passengers plowed into Lake Tanganyika,  Africa's deepest lake.
    (Reuters, 8/12/10)

2010        Aug 18, In the Democratic of Republic of Congo 3 Indian UN peacekeepers were killed in a surprise attack on their base by 50 fighters armed with machetes, spears and traditional weapons. The next day Congolese soldiers arrested two suspects in the killing of the Indian  peacekeepers.
    (Reuters, 8/18/10)(AFP, 8/19/10)

2010        Aug 25, Police in northeastern Congo said they have seized 116 elephant tusks and arrested two men following a truck crash.
    (AP, 8/25/10)
2010        Aug 25, In western Congo a passenger plane, operated by local airliner FILAIR, crashed, killing 19 people. Police said there were two survivors.
    (AP, 8/25/10)

2010        Aug, In CongoDRC rebel militants raped some 240 people over 4 days in the Walikale district of eastern Congo. At least 387 people were raped in the Walikale territory in late July and early, including men, children and a month-old baby boy. In 2011 survivors suffered reprisals and a judicial inquiry into the violence was suspended.
    (Econ, 1/15/11, p.64)(AP, 7/6/11)

2010        Sep 1, Gunmen in eastern Congo fired on a private plane carrying international aid workers who escaped into the forest. The aid workers were rescued later in the day by peacekeepers. A Congolese soldier and two militiamen were killed in the firefight. 2 pilots in another plane were captured after an attack by Mai Mai and Rwandan Hutu rebels shortly after landing at Kilambo. The pilots and 2 injured people were released on Sep 24.
    (AP, 9/1/10)(AP, 9/25/10)

2010        Sep 4, In southern Congo at least 200 people were feared dead after a boat engine caught fire and led the vessel to overturn on the Kasai River. Survivors who swam to safety  said nearby fishermen refused to help drowning passengers in the dark of night, instead looting the goods aboard the burning vessel and beating people with oars. Earlier the same day, a boat on a river in northwest Equateur Province hit a rock and capsized. More than 70 people were believed dead among 100 estimated passengers.
    (AP, 9/5/10)(AP, 9/6/10)

2010        Sep 7, Police in southeastern Congo say they have arrested three men carrying six suitcases full of elephant tusks. 3 Chinese nationals were caught at Lumumbashi's airport while trying to fly to Nairobi, Kenya. The men said they bought the ivory from antique dealers.
    (AP, 9/7/10)

2010        Sep 8, Congou0092s President Joseph Kabila ordered the indefinite suspension near the mining hub of Walikale, where more than 240 people were treated for rape last month.
    (AP, 9/10/10)

2010        Sep 11, Congou0092s President Joseph Kabila extended indefinite mining suspensions to three more provinces in the volatile east.
    (AP, 9/12/10)
2010        Sep 11, In Sudan a rare three-day meeting of 30 religious and community leaders as well as local government officials from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), south Sudan, the Central African Republic (CAR) and Uganda criticized the "lack of a coordinated and comprehensive strategy" to tackle the LRA rebels.
    (AFP, 9/11/10)

2010        Sep 29, In CongoDRC Armand Tungulu (30), a Congolese citizen living in Belgium, was taken into custody by Pres. Kabila's bodyguards after he threw rocks at the presidential motorcade. Witnesses said the guards beat Tungulu before arresting him. On Oct 4 a statement from the Congolese attorney general's office said Tungulu killed himself on the night of Oct 1 with a piece of cloth he had been using as a pillow. On October 14 the DR Congo refused to return to Belgium the body of a Tungulu.
    (AP, 10/4/10)(AP, 10/23/10)

2010        Oct 1, The UN released its 545-page report into mass killings in Congo over a ten-year period. Rwanda and Uganda insisted the $3 million report is flawed and could harm security in Africa's volatile Great Lakes region.
    (AP, 10/1/10)

2010        Oct 5, Fellow rebels handed over Congolese commander Sadoke Kokunda Mayele. He was arrested for allegedly leading fighters in the mass gang-rapes of more than 300 people from July 30 to August 2.
    (AP, 10/6/10)

2010        Oct 7, In eastern Congo children in Burinyi village found an unexploded grenade on their way to fetch water from a well. 5 children died when it detonated as they were playing with it.
    (AP, 10/7/10)

2010        Oct 14, Margot Wallstrom, the UN special representative for sexual violence in armed conflict, told the 15-nation Security Council that a man known as "Colonel Serafim" was among those believed to be responsible for the rape of over 300 people. She also said Congolese government troops are raping, killing and looting civilians in the same area of eastern Congo where militias carried out mass rapes over two months ago.
    (AP, 10/14/10)(AP, 10/14/10)

2010        Oct 15, Roger Meece, heads of the UN peacekeeping mission in Congo, said more than 15,000 people were raped in the volatile eastern region of Congo last year, according to the best data available.
    (AP, 10/15/10)
2010        Oct 15, Adrian Edwards, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, said the rebels of the Lord's Resistance Army have killed at least 2,000 people and forced 400,000 to flee in three countries in less than two years. A UNHCR communique documented a mounting "campaign of terror against civilians" in the DR Congo, South Sudan and the CAR.
    (AFP, 10/15/10)

2010        Oct 17, Congo's first lady, Olive Lembe Kabila, led thousands of women marching in the country's volatile east to demand an end to a wave of mass rapes. 3 residents were killed when soldiers looted homes in Congo's South Kivu province.
    (AP, 10/17/10)(AP, 10/18/10)

2010        Oct 21, In CongoDRC a small plane was owned by a local airliner Starec Congo crashed into a gorilla park in eastern Congo killing its pilot and co-pilot. It was carrying some 3,300 pounds (1,500 kg) of commercial goods.
    (AP, 10/21/10)

2010        Oct 23, In Belgium police and demonstrators opposed to President Joseph Kabila of the Democratic Republic of Congo clashed in Brussels during a protest over the Oct 1 death in jail of Armand Tungulu, a visitng Congolese dissident who lived in Belgium.
    (AFP, 10/23/10)

2010        Oct 24, In CongoDRC militia attacked a UN base near Virunga National Park. Some 100 attackers were members of the shadowy Mai Mai militia. Peacekeepers killed 8 militiamen.
    (AP, 10/26/10)

2010        Oct 26, The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) said at least 30 women were kept as prisoners in a dungeon-like structure and gang-raped over multiple weeks at the Congo and Angola border before being left in the bush without their clothes. The deportees said they were held by Angolan authorities in a dingy building. At least three were killed, including two men and a woman (27) who died after being raped repeatedly.
    (AP, 10/27/10)

2010        Oct 27, US officials said the Obama administration has granted a waiver allowing Chad, CongoDRC, Sudan and Yemen to continue receiving US military aid despite their use of child soldiers. Officials said cutting off aid would do more damage than good.
    (SFC, 10/28/10, p.A2)

2010        Nov 6, United Nations officials said they were investigating reports that some 700 Congolese women were sexually attacked along the country's border with Angola. Many women had said Angolan soldiers were responsible for their attacks.
    (AP, 11/6/10)

2010        Nov 8, In south-central Congo at least 42 people were killed when a truck overturned on the country's poorly maintained roads. 16 children were among the dead from the crash in Kasai-Oriental province.
    (AP, 11/9/10)

2010        Nov 17, In eastern Congo Rwandan Hutu rebels attacked a truck, killing at least three people and wounding several others. UN-run Radio Okapi earlier reported the rebels killed 21 people in the attack in the heavily forested Walikale territory, but a UN spokeswoman said peacekeepers on patrol in the area confirmed only three dead.
    (AP, 11/17/10)

2010        Nov 19, In the Republic of Congo 8 countries signed a convention to limit the spread of weapons in central Africa, but three countries opted out. Angola, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, The Republic of Congo, Sao Tome and Principe all signed. Burundi, Equatorial Guinea and Rwanda did not sign.
    (AFP, 11/20/10)

2010        Nov 29, The United Nations released a report saying armed groups in volatile eastern Congo, including the army, have bypassed international efforts at reform and have instead formed criminal networks to exploit the nation's mineral wealth.
    (AP, 11/29/10)

2010        Dec 1, The UN named 3 Rwandan rebel leaders and a Congolese military officer, suspected of recruiting child soldiers and other abuses, on its worldwide travel ban and assets freeze aimed at stemming widespread violence in Congo.
    (AP, 12/2/10)

2010        Dec 7, Hendrik Coetzee (35), an acclaimed South African outdoorsman, was dragged from his craft by a crocodile on the Lukuga River in Congo. 2 Americans watched, horrified, and paddled to safety. Coetzee was leading a kayaking expedition from the source of the White Nile into Congo.
    (AP, 12/9/10)

2010        Dec 10, UNICEF said a polio outbreak in CongoDRC has caused over 200 deaths. Most of those affected were young men between the ages of 15 and 24.
    (SFC, 12/11/10, p.A2)

2010         Claus Wischmann and Martin Baer produced the documentary u0093Kinshasa Symphonyu0094 in which they followed Armand Diangienda and the Orchestre Symphonique Kimbanguiste in Kinshasa as they prepared for a concert of Beethovenu0092s ninth symphony.
    (Econ, 3/27/10, p.94)(www.youtube.com/watch?v=_vTk0XsgZV4)
2010        Some 100,000 Twa pygmies remained in the Great Lakes region of Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and CongoDRC. Most of them were barred from their ancestral forests including the Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, which was turned into a national park in 1991.
    (Econ, 9/25/10, SR p.11)

2011        Jan 1, In CongoDRC at least 67 women were raped in South and North Kivu provinces, including a teen-ager and two pregnant women. On Jan 21 Congo arrested Lt. Colonel Kibibi Mutwara, a senior army commander accused of ordering the rapes in Fizi. The arrest followed the detention of 10 other soldiers earlier in the week. On July 22, 2011, a UN report said investigators found at least 47 women were subjected to rape and other sexual assaults from Dec. 31, 2010, to Jan. 1, 2011 in an isolated and mountainous area of North Kivu province.
    (Reuters, 1/25/11)(AP, 7/22/11)

2011        Jan 22, The Rwandan army said its former chief of staff and an ex-spy chief, both exiled in South Africa, have formed a rebel group operating in neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo. Faustin Kayumba Nyamwasa and Patrick Karegeya and two other former top officials, also in exile, were last week sentenced to heavy jail terms for threatening state security.
    (AFP, 1/22/11)

2011        Jan 24, In CongoDRCu0092s Virunga National Park an attack killed three park rangers and five Congolese soldiers. Officials believed the attackers, who fled on foot, were Rwandan-led Hutu rebels who retaliated after rangers destroyed two of their camps in the park in December.
    (AP, 1/25/11)

2011        Feb 2, In CongoDRC at least 14 people were killed and around 20 injured when a goods train derailed in Western Kasai province.
    (AFP, 2/2/11)

2011        Feb 3, Authorities in Congo arrested four foreigners, an American, a Frenchman and two Nigerians, suspected of planning to smuggle millions of dollars of gold out of the country's lawless east. Army general Bosco Ntaganda, wanted by the ICC for recruiting child soldiers, received $6.5 million in cash for the gold, over 400kg, which was seized.
    (Reuters, 2/7/11)(Econ, 2/12/11, p.54)

2011        Feb 14, In the Democratic Republic of Congo a small plane used to deliver World Food Program aid crashed in Bukavu, killing its Russian pilot and his Congolese co-pilot.
    (AP, 2/15/11)

2011        Feb 21, In CongoDRC a mobile military court convicted army Lt. Col. Mutuare Daniel Kibibi (46) of crimes against humanity, a landmark verdict in this Central African country where aid groups say thousands are brutally raped each year and where impunity prevails for the soldiers and militia groups who terrorize civilians. 3 of Kibibi's officers received the same sentences, and 5 others got lesser sentences. 49 women who testified about the New Year attacks in Fizi were to receive up to $10,000 each in compensation from the government as part of the verdict.
    (AP, 2/21/11)

2011        Feb 25, UN officials said at least 40 people have been raped in eastern areas of the Democratic Republic of Congo over the past 2 weeks.
    (SFC, 2/26/11, p.A2)

2011        Feb 27, In CongoDRC assailants armed with machetes attacked the presidential residence in Kinshasa. At least 7 attackers and 2 guards were killed. President Kabila was not at home at the time. Congolese later picked up 126 suspects in what they say was a multi-pronged attack that centered on Congo's presidential palace in which 19 people were killed.
    (AP, 2/27/11)(SFC, 2/28/11, p.A2)(AP, 3/8/11)

2011        Apr 4, In CongoDRC a UN plane crashed while attempting to land at the airport serving Kinshasa, killing 32 UN officials and peacekeepers. One survivor was confirmed.
    (http://civiliancontractors.wordpress.com/)(SFC, 4/5/11, p.A2)

2011        Apr 18, In CongoDRC at least 23 people died when a truck crashed into an area where young girls were collecting water outside the eastern city of Goma.
    (AP, 4/19/11)

2011        Apr 25, In eastern Congo a boat owner said 72 people are missing after his boat capsized on Lake Kivu, possibly because of bad weather and high winds.
    (AP, 4/25/11)

2011        Apr 26, Congolese children's rights activist Murhabazi Namegabe was named winner of the $100,000 World Children's Prize for his efforts to protect children exploited by armed groups in the African country. The award foundation based in Mariefred, Sweden, cited Murhabazi's "dangerous struggle to free children forced to be child soldiers or sex slaves" in Congo.
    (AP, 4/26/11)

2011        May 2, In CongoDRC at least 106 people were missing after an overloaded boat capsized overnight on the Kasai River.
    (Reuters, 5/3/11)(SFC, 5/3/11, p.AA2)

2011        May 11, A new study released by the American Journal of Public Health said 1,152 women are raped every day in CongoDRC, a rate equal to 48 per hour.
    (AP, 5/11/11)

2011        May 27, CongoDRCu0092s North Kivu governor Julien Paluku said that Munyagishari, the suspected leader of an extremist Hutu militia, has been arrested and taken to Kinshasa.
    (AP, 5/27/11)

2011        Jun 10-2011 Jun 12, In Congou0092s South Kivu province at least 121 rapes occurred during this period in the village of Nyakiele. Medicins Sans Frontieres worked with Congolese health officials and the UN to get more information. 55 women said they were raped in the night of June 10 to 11, while another said 72 women in the village of Kanguli reported having been violated that same night.
    (AP, 6/23/11)(Reuters, 6/24/11)(AP, 7/1/11)(AFP, 7/4/11)

2011        Jun 23, In CongoDRC right groups walked out of the Kimberley meeting in Kinshasa, where African countries, China and India supported a decision to allow Zimbabwe to sell some diamonds from its controversial Marange fields. The endorsement was opposed by Western nations, rights groups and industry.
    (AFP, 6/24/11)

2011        Jun 24, In CongoDRC a 4-day meeting of the Kimberly Process, a system to end the trade in u0093blood diamonds,u0094 ended. Chairman Mathieu Yamba announced that two Zimbabwean-South African joint ventures could resume diamond sales.
    (Econ, 7/2/11, p.40)
2011        Jun 24, In CongoDRC 19 people were believed dead after a boat capsized overnight on Lake Albert.
    (AP, 6/27/11)

2011        Jul 1, Doctors without Borders (MSF) said cholera has claimed 153 lives out of 2,787 cases in the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the provinces. MSF said that the outbreak began in March in the northeastern city of Kisangani, and soon spread westwards, with the first cases reported in Kinshasa on June 20.
    (AFP, 7/1/11)

2011        Jul 3, In Uganda a motorized canoe left Panyimur on the Ugandan side of the 20-km-wide Lake Albert with 31 passengers aboard. It sank as it approached Mahagi on the Congolese side. In northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) 30 people were missing and one was rescued when a motorized boat sank on Lake Albert.
    (AFP, 7/5/11)(AFP, 7/6/11)

2011        Jul 6, The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) said the Lord's Resistance Army forces killed 26 civilians in the Democratic Republic of Congo in June alone.
    (AFP, 7/7/11)

2011        Jul 7, A CongoDRC colonel known as Kifaru, accused of mass rapes last June in volatile eastern Congo, surrendered with 106 others.
    (AP, 7/8/11)

2011        Jul 8, In CongoDRC a Hewa Bora Airways plane crashed in a thunderstorm as it was attempting to land in Kisangani airport, killing at least 48 people, and leaving a dozen or more buried in the wreckage. 53 passengers survived.
    (AP, 7/8/11)

2011        Jul 11, The European Union signed an agreement to provide 2.5 million euros ($3.5 million) to help care for rape victims in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 7/11/11)

2011        Jul 22, The United Nations named two Congolese army colonels who appear to be blocking an investigation of soldiers accused of mass gang-raping at least 47 women in eastern Congo, and said if the attackers are not identified the officers themselves should stand trial for the crimes committed by the troopers under their command. Col. Chuma Balumisa was commander of the operational area including the attacked villages, and Col. Bobo Kakudji was commander of overall operations in North Kivu during the New Year eve rapes.
    (AP, 7/22/11)

2011        Jul 28, In CongoDRC more than 100 people were feared dead after a boat accident on the Tshuapa river in the northwest.
    (AFP, 7/29/11)(SFC, 7/29/11, p.A2)

2011        Aug 1, CongoDRC officials arrested Colonel Balumisa Chuma as he was smuggling a convoy of minerals in the east of the country.
    (AFP, 8/3/11)

2011        Sep 1, Congo DRC police in Kinshasa fired tear gas at hundreds of stone-throwing opposition supporters demonstrating against alleged fraud in the run up to November elections.
    (AP, 9/1/11)

2011        Sep 5, In CongoDRC leading opposition figure Etienne Tshisekedi formally submitted his candidacy for the upcoming presidential elections.
    (AP, 9/5/11)

2011        Sep 6, In CongoDRC police fired on protesters in Kinshasa after two early morning attacks in which people ransacked and looted the offices of opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi and armed men set ablaze an independent television station that the government had previously tried to silence. At least one person was killed.
    (AP, 9/6/11)

2011        Sep 7, Congolese authorities imposed a temporary ban on political protests in the capital Kinshasa over fears of escalating violence in the run-up to November elections. 8 gunmen attacked a prison in the southeast, freeing a former militia leader and allowing close to 1,000 inmates to escape. Two people were killed as police recaptured 152 of the 967 escaped prisoners. Kyungu Mutanga, also known as "Commander Gedeon", took part in a spectacular jailbreak at the Kassapa prison in Katanga's capital Lubumbashi. Authorities soon offered $100,000 dollars for information leading to Gedeonu0092s arrest.
    (AFP, 9/7/11)(AP, 9/7/11)(AFP, 9/9/11)

2011        Sep 25, In CongoDRC 19 people died when a truck crashed while carrying goods and people 180 km outside Kinshasa.
    (AP, 9/25/11)
2011        Sep 25, In CongoDRC 114 prisoners fled the prison in Tshikapa, Kasai Occidental state, as an ill prisoner was being taken to the hospital. Police soon captured 90 convicts. Prisoners had complained previously over a lack of food and water at the prison and over the death of two prisoners amid those conditions.
    (AP, 9/26/11)

2011        Sep 28, In CongoDRC a dozen men scaled the wall of the private television station that supported Etienne Tshisekedi, the country's leading opposition presidential candidate. Investigators said the attackers doused the offices in gasoline and set them ablaze.
    (AP, 9/28/11)

2011        Sep, In CongoDRC an initiative by Invisible Children launched the LRA Crisis Tracker web site along with Resolve to map out LRA incidents, mostly in northern Congo. New high frequency radios were being distributed to help track the Lord's Resistance Army, a brutal militia that 100 US special forces troops were currently helping hunt.
    (AP, 11/8/11)

2011        Oct 4, In CongoDRC rebels killed five Congolese aid workers and two other civilians in an attack in the east at Fizi, Sud-Kivu province. Those responsible were said to be members of the Mai Mai Yakutumba militia and allied rebels of Burundi's National Liberation Front.
    (AFP, 10/6/11)

2011        Oct 11, UNICEF, the UN children's agency, warned that the west and central Africa region is facing one of the worst cholera epidemics in its history, with over 85,000 cases reported leading to 2,466 deaths this year. The most significant increases were in Chad, Cameroon, and in western Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 10/11/11)

2011        Oct 18, Congolese police fired tear gas to disperse opposition supporters demanding free elections as a US think-tank said Kinshasa must take action to ensure the upcoming vote is credible.
    (AFP, 10/20/11)

2011        Nov 3, Ugandan militiamen, known as ADF-NALU, launched an overnight attack on a military base in Mukakira, eastern Congo, in an attempt to free detained leaders. Nine of the attackers were killed, along with two Congolese soldiers.
    (AP, 11/3/11)

2011        Nov 6, CongoDRC opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi (79), while visiting in South Africa, proclaimed himself president and ordered his followers to stage jailbreaks to free detained colleagues. Since the electoral campaign opened Oct. 28, Tshisekedi's supporters have had clashes, some deadly, with police and Kabila supporters in several towns.
    (AP, 11/12/11)

2011        Nov 7, In the CongoDRC the Nyamulagira volcano (also known as Nyamuragira) began an eruption that happens about every two years. It has been described as Africau0092s most active volcano and has erupted over 40 times since 1885.
    (AFP, 11/9/11)(http://tinyurl.com/ckekoy5)

2011        Nov 22, In CongoDRC gunmen in Kinshasa shot dead opposition lawmaker Marius Gangale in the latest violent episode ahead of the weekend elections.
    (AFP, 11/23/11)
2011        Nov 22, A survey of some 6,000 people over the last 12 months in Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia and  Zimbabwe said police are the most corrupt institution in the six countries.
    (AFP, 11/22/11)

2011        Nov 26, In CongoDRC police fired bullets and tear gas into a crowd that included tens of thousands of opposition supporters in Kinshasa. The violence prompted officials to ban further rallies before the Nov 28 poll. At least 12 opposition partisans and bystanders were shot dead as the Republican Guard, the former presidential guard, quashed a rally by supporters of President Joseph Kabila's chief rival.
    (AP, 11/26/11)(AP, 11/27/11)(AFP, 12/2/11)

2011        Nov 28, In CongoDRC voting began despite delays and setbacks. Armed men attacked voting centers and a truck carrying ballots. 5 people were killed in the southeastern town of Lubumbashi after gunmen opened fire on a truck carrying ballots and on a polling center.
    (AP, 11/28/11)(AP, 11/30/11)

2011        Nov 29, CongoDRC officials extended voting to a second day in an attempt to prevent further unrest in sub-Saharan Africa's largest nation. The election was marred by missing ballots and violence.
    (AP, 11/29/11)

2011        Nov 30, CongoDRC officials extended voting to a third day in an attempt to prevent further unrest in sub-Saharan Africa's largest nation.
    (AP, 11/30/11)

2011        Dec 2, Human Rights Watch said CongoDRC election-related violence has already killed 18 civilians, amid fears that fresh unrest could erupt over alleged fraud. A UN report on March 20, 2012, said security forces killed at least 33 people among other "serious human rights violations" during  the November elections.
    (AFP, 12/2/11)(AFP, 3/21/12)

2011        Dec 3, Congo's Pres. Kabila, who is seeking a second term in a nation reeling from poverty and pummeled by war, was leading with just over 50 percent of the votes after early presidential poll results were released.
    (AP, 12/3/11)

2011        Dec 4, DR Congo President Joseph Kabila led chief rival Etienne Tshisekedi 49 percent to 34 with about half of polling centers counted.
    (AFP, 12/4/11)

2011        Dec 5, Johannesburg police fired rubber bullets to break up a group of demonstrators gathered in front of the ruling ANC party headquarters to protest South Africa's alleged involvement in fraud in the November 28 election in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 12/5/11)

2011        Dec 7, In CongoDRC with 89.2% of precincts counted, Pres. Kabila had 8.3 million out of the 17.3 million votes, or 48%. Tshisekedi was trailing with 5.9 million votes, or 34%.
    (AP, 12/7/11)

2011        Dec 9, In CongoDRC provisional results published by the election commission handed victory to Pres. Joseph Kabila who won another term with 49% of the 18.14 million votes cast. Etienne Tshisekedi (78) took to the airwaves to say he rejected the results and proclaimed himself president, saying the election had been manipulated.
    (AP, 12/9/11)(AP, 12/10/11)

2011        Dec 10, CongoDRC police in Kinshasa prowled opposition neighborhoods rounding up young men, who were seen being dragged out of their homes and shoved into waiting cars. Congo's police chief said at least four people have been killed in the recent postelection violence. Observers with the Atlanta-based Carter Center said that there is growing evidence of possible vote suppression in parts of the country favorable to the opposition, and vote inflation in regions known to support Kabila.
    (AP, 12/10/11)
2011        Dec 10, Police in London arrested 143 people during an angry demonstration by up to 500 people against the re-election of President Joseph Kabila in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 12/10/11)

2011        Dec 13, Police in eastern DR Congo broke up a banned opposition protest march against President Joseph Kabila's bitterly disputed re-election. Some 500 opposition supporters had defied a ban on protests imposed by the mayor of Bukavu.
    (AFP, 12/13/11)

2011        Dec 14, CongoDRC opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi's party called for mass protests to "protect" the victory he claims to have won in disputed presidential polls.
    (AFP, 12/14/11)

2011        Dec 16, Judges of the International Criminal Court at The Hague decided not to charge Rwandan rebel leader Callixte Mbarushimana (48) for crimes committed in the Democratic Republic of Congo and ordered his release. Mbarushimana faced 13 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed in DR Congo's Kivu provinces in 2009.
    (AFP, 12/16/11)

2011        Dec 18, In the CongoDRC opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi declared himself winner of the recent presidential vote, despite placing second in official election results.
    (SFC, 12/18/11, p.A2)

2011        Dec 21, Human Rights Watch released a report stating CongoDRC security forces had killed at least 24 people and "arbitrarily" arrested dozens more since Kabila's disputed victory was announced December 9.
    (AFP, 12/22/11)

2011        Dec 23, DR Congo police banned a swearing-in ceremony for opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi. Police fired tear gas at supporters of the opposition leader who had gathered near a stadium to see him inaugurating himself as president, three days after President Joseph Kabila was sworn in for a second term. Tshisekedi took the oath on a Bible at his home.
    (AFP, 12/23/11)(AP, 12/23/11)(AFP, 12/24/11)

2011        Dec 31, In France Leon Kengo (76), CongoDRC Senate chief, was attacked at the Gare du Nord train station "by bands of those who call themselves 'fighters' close to Etienne Tshisekedi." According to initial reports, Kengo had some teeth knocked out, was trampled underfoot, and rolled on the ground.
    (AFP, 1/1/12)

2011        Jason Stearns authored u0093Dancing in the Glory of Monsters: The Collapse of the Congo and the Great War in Africa.u0094
    (Econ, 4/30/11, p.88)
2011        CongoDRCu0092s current budget was around $700 million, 40% of which was provided by the Un and other foreign outfits.
    (Econ, 9/24/11, p.60)
2011        The population of CongoDRC was about 70 million.
    (AP, 5/11/11)

2012        Jan 1, In CongoDRC 8 people died and 44 were wounded when a hand grenade exploded during an attempted jail break at the main prison in Bukavu, Sud-Kivu province. At least 18 people were killed in the town of Luyuyu in an attack by Rwandan Hutu rebels.
    (AFP, 1/2/12)(AFP, 1/4/12)

2012        Jan 3, In CongoDRC at least 8 people were killed in the town of Ngolombe in an attack by Rwandan Hutu rebels.
    (AFP, 1/4/12)

2012        Jan 12, DR Congo's influential Catholic church denounced "serious errors" in the tallying of November polls as the electoral commission announced a further delay in final vote results.
    (AFP, 1/12/12)

2012        Jan 18, Rwanda's military said it has suspended and put under house arrest four top military officers over allegations of business dealings with civilians in Congo.
    (AP, 1/18/12)

2012        Jan 20, The UN refugee agency said an upsurge in violence involving government troops and militia in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has forced 100,000 people from their homes since November.
    (AFP, 1/20/12)

2012        Jan 25, CongoDRC aid workers declared "a humanitarian catastrophe" in southeastern Congo, and blamed the recent deaths of at least 25 people on Kyungu "Gedeon" Mutanga, a feared Mai Mai warlord who broke out of jail late last year.
    (AP, 1/25/12)

2012        Jan 27, In CongoDRC two months after voters went to polls in a chaotic election, the electoral commission announced that parties supporting Congo's president won two-thirds of legislative seats. Electoral officials said they also want to annul results of the legislative elections in seven of Congo's 169 voting districts and prosecute a dozen candidates accused of introducing irregularities and violence.
    (AP, 1/27/12)

2012        Jan 30, In CongoDRC a plane crashed after takeoff in South Kivu. There were at least five people on board.
    (AP, 1/31/12)

2012        Feb 2, CongoDRC officials from the discredited electoral commission announced the last of the winning legislators in results it has issued piecemeal and following a suspension of the count from the Nov. 28 balloting. Kabila still will command a majority in parliament, where his coalition of several parties has won about 260 of the 500 seats, down from more than 300 in the previous assembly.
    (AP, 2/2/12)

2012        Feb 12, In CongoDRC a private jet crashed while landing in the eastern city of Bukavu. Presidential aid Augustin Katumba Mwanke (48) was among those killed. There were 2 pilots and 7 passengers on the private jet. Two American crew members also died, as well as two people crushed by the plane as it came down at Bukavu airport.
    (AP, 2/12/12)(AFP, 2/13/12)

2012        Feb 16, In CongoDRC police in Kinshasa used tear gas to block a march by Christian groups protesting alleged fraud in the November polls that returned President Joseph Kabila and his party to power. Three priests and two nuns were among those jailed.
    (AFP, 2/16/12)(AP, 2/17/12)

2012        Feb 22, The top US special operations commander for Africa said  US troops helping in the fight against a brutal rebel group called the Lord's Resistance Army are now deployed in four Central African countries: Uganda, Congo, South Sudan and Central African Republic.
    (AP, 2/23/12)

2012        Mar 5, A marketing campaign was launched by the Ugandan advocacy group Invisible Children (www.kony2012.com) to vastly increase awareness about Joseph Kony, a jungle militia leader wanted for atrocities by the International Criminal Court and hunted by 100 US Special Forces advisers and local troops. His Lordu0092s Resistance Army (LRA) was operating in Congo, the Central African Republic and South Sudan.
    (AP, 3/8/12)

2012        Mar 6, The government of the Democratic Republic of Congo headed by PM Adolphe Muzito resigned more than three months after legislative elections.
    (AFP, 3/6/12)

2012        Mar 25, Twenty people from DR Congo drowned when their boats capsized while crossing the river border with Zambia enroute to a soccer game.
    (AFP, 3/27/12)

2012        Mar 30, The UN refugee agency warned that attacks by the renegade Lord's Resistance Army were on the rise and forcing thousands of people to flee. Since March 6, 13 new attacks were recorded in northwest CongoDRC, displacing 1,160 people in the region.
    (AFP, 3/30/12)

2012        Apr 11, CongoDRCu0092s President Joseph Kabila said he would not order the arrest of war crimes suspect Bosco Ntaganda "under pressure" from the international community. He said Ntaganda should be arrested and face a military tribunal in Congo. Kabila said the military doesn't need to hand Ntaganda over to the ICC.
    (AFP, 4/11/12)(AP, 4/11/12)

2012        Apr 18, CongoDRC Finance Minister Augustin Matata Ponyo Mapon (47) was appointed prime minister and asked to form a new government.
    (AFP, 4/19/12)

2012        Apr 29, The CongoDRC military launched an offensive against Bosco Ntaganda, who is wanted by The Hague for alleged war crimes. On May 5 the army announced a five-day cease-fire to give army defectors a chance to return. Defections began early this month, with ex-CNDP members claiming that the government had failed to implement the provisions in the 2009 accord. On May 6 they formed a new group taking the name - March 23 - from the date of the 2009 peace accord signed by rebel groups and the Congolese government.
    (AFP, 5/9/12)(AFP, 5/28/12)

2012        May 5, In CongoDRC at least 10 people, including four women working in the fields, were killed by presumed Rwandan rebels in a Sud-Kivu village.
    (AFP, 5/16/12)

2012        May 6, In CongoDRC the March 23 Movement (M23) was created by army mutineers who were part of the former rebel National Congress for the Defence of the People (CNDP), a Congolese Tutsi force that Rwanda denied supporting when it was waging its insurgency. The M23 Tutsi leaders came from the same ethnic group as Rwandau0092s Pres. Kagame.
    (AFP, 5/28/12)(Econ, 11/24/12, p.57) 

2012        May 9, In CongoDRC the Nord-Kivu governor's office said a 25-ton arms cache has been found on the farm of Bosco Ntaganda, the leader and wanted war criminal of a band of Congolese army mutineers. The farm is located in Masisi," part of Nord-Kivu province, where clashes took place between April 29 and May 4.
    (AFP, 5/9/12)

2012        May 10, In eastern CongoDRC a military spokesman said hundreds of mutineers have returned to the army as a deadline loomed for the ex-rebel deserters to return to ranks.
    (AFP, 5/10/12)

2012        May 11, Uganda officials said more than 10,000 people have fled from DR Congo to neighboring Rwanda and Uganda following clashes between the Congolese army and rebels.
    (AFP, 5/12/12)

2012        May 12, CongoDRC government forces launched airstrikes against mutineers near the Rwandan border, where a rebel leader known as the "Terminator" was said to be hiding.
(AFP, 5/12/12)
2012        May 12, The WWF nature conservancy body said a ranger and two soldiers have been killed in Democratic Republic of Congo's Virunga national park as they protected a road used by civilians fleeing rebels.
    (AFP, 5/12/12)
2012        May 12, Ugandan forces captured Caesar Acellam, a senior commander of Joseph Kony's Lord's Resistance Army, after a brief fight with rebels near the Congo-Central African Republic border. Two other rebel fighters were also caught as they tried to cross a river called Mbomu. Officials say only about 200 LRA members remain the jungle.
    (AP, 5/13/12)

2012        May 13, CongoDRC mutineers allegedly killed 26 loyalist troops in heavy fighting near the Rwandan border.
    (AFP, 5/14/12)

2012        May 14, In CongoDRC Rwandan rebels killed 22 civilians in an attack in the village of Kamananga in Sud-Kivu province.
    (AFP, 5/16/12)

2012        May 15, In CongoDRC villagers marched on the UN base in the Bunyiakiri district of South Kivu province after an overnight attack which reportedly killed six people. At least 11 Pakistani peacekeepers were injured as villagers opened fire.
    (AFP, 5/15/12)

2012        May 16, Human Rights Watch said Congolese Gen. Bosco Ntaganda, already sought on an international arrest warrant for his alleged use of child soldiers during an earlier conflict, has forcibly recruited another 149 boys and teenagers since April. The UN said Rwandan rebels have killed at least 50 civilians so far this month in the volatile east.
    (AP, 5/16/12)(AFP, 5/16/12)

2012        May 19, In CongoDRC fighting broke out when mutineers attacked army positions in the Rutshuru territory near Virunga National Park on the Ugandan border, home to more than half the world's 700 or so mountain gorillas.
    (AFP, 5/20/12)

2012        May 22, In eastern CongoDRC a local activist said a feud between Rwandan Hutu rebels and the Mai Mai militia last week left more than 100 people dead, including civilians.
    (AFP, 5/22/12)

2012        May 23, The UN refugee agency said fighting between Congolese army and mutineers has forced tens of thousands of people from their homes since late April, with thousands taking refuge in Uganda and Rwanda.
    (AFP, 5/23/12)

2012        May 28, A confidential UN report said Rwandan citizens have been recruited and trained to fight in support of army mutineers in neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 5/28/12)

2012        May 30, A Congolese military court slapped 13 officers with sentences ranging from two years to death for taking part in a mutiny in the east of the country.
    (AFP, 5/3o/12)

2012        Jun 6, In CongoDRC an army report said at least 200 mutineers have been killed in the eastern part of the country since fighting broke out in April. 40 troops from the FARDC regular army have also been killed in the clashes.
    (AFP, 6/6/12)
2012        Jun 6, A UN report said Joseph Kony's Lord Resistance Army has abducted more than 600 child soldiers and sex slaves over the past two years even as the hunt for the rebel leader intensifies. At least 591 children, including 268 girls, were reported seized over the same time in Democratic Republic of Congo, Central African Republic and South Sudan.
    (AFP, 6/6/12)

2012        Jun 13, A UN independent group of experts on CongoDRC briefed the UN Security Council saying very senior Rwandans, including the minister of defense, were backing rebels in the eastern Kivu provinces. Its report was published on June 29.
    (Econ, 7/7/12, p.48)

2012        Jun 20, In the Democratic Republic of Congo almost 170 soldiers, including seven senior officers, quit the army in the east of the DRC to join a mutinous armed force known as M23. The deserters were all members of a former rebel movement, the National Congress for the Defence of the People (CNDP), who were integrated into the army early in 2009, following a peace pact.
    (AFP, 6/21/12)

2012        Jun 25, In CongoDRC mutineers said fighting between the army and troops who have deserted resumed, after a week of relative calm, in the eastern Nord-Kivu province. Officials said militants have killed at least 10 people and kidnapped a foreigner in a park in the volatile northeast.
    (AFP, 6/25/12)(AP, 6/25/12)

2012        Jul 5, The DR Congo's army (FARDC) launched an offensive to rout mutinous armed troops of the March 23 Movement (M23) near the Virunga national park. North Kivu residents reported that M23 rebels attacked and fought army troops to dislodge them from Jomba, the only major village on the road from Bunagana border post to the eastern town of Rutshuru, a border crossing into Uganda and Rwanda. A UN peacekeeper from India was killed in clashes. The entire population of Bunagana and some 600 Congolese troops moved into Uganda.
    (AFP, 7/6/12)(AP, 7/5/12)

2012        Jul 8, In CongoDRC M23 rebels seized the eastern town of Rutshuru after the army fled their advance. A local official said the army looted during their retreat. M23 also took the towns of Ntamugenga and Rubare. 8 armored vehicles from the United Nations mission fled Rutshuru for a UN base five kilometers away in Kiwanja, where many local residents were sheltering in a camp for displaced people. Rebels said they would cede most of their gains to UN peacekeepers and police.
    (AFP, 7/8/12)

2012        Jul 10, In the Netherlands the International Criminal Court sentenced Congolese warlord Thomas Lubanga to 14 years in prison, a potential landmark in the struggle to protect children during wartime. Lubanga was found guilty in March of recruiting and using children in his Union of Congolese Patriots militia.
    (AP, 7/10/12)

2012        Jul 12, UN helicopters were deployed to stop a rebel advance on Goma after rebels seized a number of towns on DR Congo's border with Uganda.
    (AFP, 7/24/12)

2012        Jul 13, The International Criminal Court issued arrest warrants against Bosco Ntaganda, a rogue Tutsi Congolese general, and Sylvestre Mudacumura, a Rwandan Hutu rebel leader based in the Democratic Republic of Congo, who Kigali and Kinshasa accuse each other of using as proxies in DR Congo.
    (AFP, 7/13/12)

2012        Jul 14, Rwanda refused to take custody of 24 rebels who surrendered last May to UN peacekeepers in DR Congo, which accuses Kigali of backing an army mutiny in its restive east.
    (AFP, 7/14/12)

2012        Jul 15, In Ethiopia the leaders of Congo and Rwanda agreed in principle to back a neutral international armed force to combat Congo's newest rebellion and other fighters terrorizing civilians in the country's mineral-rich east. The African Union said it could help by sending soldiers.
    (AP, 7/16/12)

2012        Jul 21, The US government said it has cut this year's $200,000 planned military assistance to Rwanda amid concerns that the government in Kigali is supporting rebel movements in neighboring Congo.
    (AP, 7/21/12)

2012        Jul 24, UN helicopters fired on rebel positions in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo after new clashes broke out between rebel fighters and loyalist troops.
    (AFP, 7/24/12)

2012        Jul 25, In eastern CongoDRC M23 rebels allied with a local militia battled Congolese troops backed by UN peacekeepers, and allegedly fighting alongside rebels of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Rwanda. At least 2 civilians were killed.
    (AP, 8/5/12)

2012        Jul 26, The UN's food agency said 10 Central African countries have agreed to take part in a regional initiative to monitor the Congo Basin, one of the world's largest primary rainforests. They included Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda and Sao Tome and Principe.
    (AFP, 7/26/12)

2012        Jul 27, The Netherlands said it has suspended part of its development aid to Rwanda because of Kigali's alleged support for rebels in neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 7/27/12)

2012        Jul 31, UN diplomats said CongoDRC government forces have abandoned villages to rebel M23 forces in the east after running out of ammunition, amid mounting concern over the new conflict.
    (AFP, 7/31/12)

2012        Aug 6, In Uganda leaders from 11 countries forming the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region gathered in Kampala to discuss a new plan calling for a neutral international force to deploy in eastern Congo to get rid of all the fighters.
    (AP, 8/5/12)

2012        Aug 8, In CongoDRC 3 elite troops were killed at an airport at Lubumbashi in a night attack blamed on regional separatists. A national intelligence agency source said the attackers were from the same Katangan separatist group that carried out the earlier assault.
    (AFP, 8/8/12)
2012        Aug 8, In Uganda regional leaders ended a meeting on a proposed neutral force for eastern CongoDRC, with no concrete progress but a pledge to meet in a month.
    (AFP, 8/8/12)

2012        Aug 13, CongoDRCu0092s sports ministry said a judoka and three coaches from its Olympic delegation have gone missing after leaving the Athletes' Village at the London Games.
    (AFP, 8/13/12)
2012        Aug 13, In northeast CongoDRC a landslide at a gold mine in remote Pangoyi left at least 60 people dead.
    (AP, 8/16/12)

2012        Aug 18, In Mozambique Southern African leaders slammed Rwanda for supporting rebels in the Democratic Republic of Congo as a threat to regional stability and urged Kigali to immediately stop its "interference." The Southern African Development Community (SADC) mandated a mission to Rwanda to urge them to stop support for the M23.
    (AFP, 8/18/12)

2012        Aug 31, Rwanda announced it was pulling out 280 of its soldiers from eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, where they had been working with DR Congo troops fighting rebel militia there.
    (AFP, 8/31/12)

2012        Sep 4, The World Health Organization said the number of people with Ebola, a rare haemorrhagic disease, in northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo has tripled since mid-August, after 14 patients died in two weeks.
    (AFP, 9/4/12)

2012        Sep 14, The UN said that an outbreak of the Ebola virus has killed 31 people in northeastern Congo, more than doubling the death toll from a week ago.
    (AP, 9/14/12)

2012        Sep 28, In eastern CongoDRC another person was killed in Goma. That raised to 6 the number of people killed this week in Goma in shootouts linked to the Congolese army.
    (AP, 9/29/12)

2012        Oct 13, French President Francois Hollande said his country was committed to facilitating freedom of movement, exchange and trade within the French-speaking world during a visit to Congo for the Francophonie Summit.
    (AP, 10/13/12)

2012        Oct 20, In eastern Congo three Roman Catholic priests were kidnapped in Beni, north of Goma, in North Kivu province.
    (AP, 10/21/12)

2012        Nov 9, The Congolese army attacked M23 rebel positions, ending a two-month ceasefire. The next day an M23 spokesman said 10 civilians were killed when government forces fired on the rebel base in Kitagoma, in eastern Congo.
    (AP, 11/10/12)

2012        Nov 14, A United Nations report said that while international attention centers on the M23 rebels, other armed groups in eastern Congo have killed more than 260 civilians since April.
    (AP, 11/14/12)

2012        Nov 15, In CongoDRC 151 M23 rebels were reported killed in new fighting between the Congolese army and rebels, ending a two-month cease-fire in North Kivu province. Two army officers were killed and seven wounded in the fighting. Col. Vianney Kazarama, spokesman of the M23, denied the heavy casualties, saying that only two rebels were wounded.
    (AP, 11/15/12)(AP, 11/16/12)

2012        Nov 17, In CongoDRC the U.N.'s mission (MONUSCO) launched an aerial attack on the M23 rebel group after fighting resumed following a months long lull in violence.
    (AP, 11/17/12)

2012        Nov 18, In eastern CongoDRC a Rwandan-backed rebel group advanced to within 3 km (1.8 miles) of Goma, a crucial provincial capital, marking the first time that rebels have come this close since 2008.
    (AP, 11/18/12)

2012        Nov 20, In eastern CongoDRC M23, a rebel group created just seven months ago, seized the strategic provincial capital of Goma, home to more than 1 million people, and its international airport.
    (AP, 11/20/12)

2012        Nov 21, Thousands of Congolese soldiers and policemen defected to the M23 rebels, as rebel leaders vowed to take control of all Congo, including the capital Kinshasa. Congo President Joseph Kabila met with Rwanda President Paul Kagame In Uganda for emergency talks prompted by the fall of Goma. Rwanda is blamed for backing the M23 by Congo and by the United Nations.
    (AP, 11/21/12)
2012        Nov 21, A new UN report accused the Rwandan military of commanding and supporting rebel forces in eastern Congo and charged that Salim Saleh (52), the brother of Uganda's long-serving President Yoweri Museveni, actively backs the movement.
    (AP, 11/22/12)

2012        Nov 23, Congo's president has suspended the army's chief of staff, following the publication of a United Nations report which reveals that Gen. Gabriel Amisi oversaw a criminal network selling arms to rebels in the country's troubled east.
    (AP, 11/23/12)
2012        Nov 23, Congolese troops fleeing the M23 rebels raped at least 97 women and 33 girls, some as young as 6, over the last 24 hours. A UN report released on May 8, 2013 said most of the rapes took place  over Nov. 22-23, 2012, in the eastern Congo town of Minova.
    (AP, 5/8/13)

2012        Nov 24, Regional leaders meeting in Uganda called for an end to the advance by M23 rebels toward Congo's capital, and also urged the Congolese government to sit down with rebel leaders as residents fled some towns for fear of more fighting between the rebels and army. Locals in Minova reported that the retreating army troops had gone on a rampage over the last two nights.
    (AP, 11/24/12)

2012        Nov 27, Congo's M23 rebels defied a deadline imposed by neighboring nations, saying they will stay in the crucial, eastern city of Goma and will fight the Congolese army to hold it.
    (AP, 11/27/12)
2012        Nov 27, Congo residents and M23 rebels said that another rebel group, the FDLR, has crossed the border into Rwanda and is fighting the Rwandan army.
    (AP, 11/27/12)

2012        Nov 28, Congo rebels believed to be backed by Rwanda began retreating from the territory they seized last week and pulled out of Masisi. Gen. Sultani Makenga, the military chief of the eight-month-old rebellion, said that his fighters intend to abide by an ultimatum issued by the nations neighboring Congo, which called for the M23 rebels to retreat no later than Nov 30 to 20 km (12 miles) outside of Goma.
    (AP, 11/28/12)

2012        Nov 30, Rebels in Congo believed to be backed by Rwanda postponed their departure from the key eastern city of Goma by 48 hours for "logistical reasons," defying for a second time an ultimatum set by neighboring African countries and backed by Western diplomats.
    (AP, 11/30/12)
2012        Nov 30, Britain said it was withholding 21 million pounds of aid which was about to be paid to Rwanda because of "credible" reports the government in Kigali is supporting rebels in neighbouring Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
    (AP, 11/30/12)

2012        Dec 1, In CongoDRC rebels believed to be backed by Rwanda completed their retreat from Goma, less than two weeks after taking control of the strategic city.
    (AP, 12/1/12)

2012        Dec 18, The International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague acquitted Congolese militia leader Mathieu Ngudjolo of all charges of commanding fighters who destroyed a village in eastern Congo in 2003, raping and hacking to death some 200 people, including children.
    (AP, 12/18/12)
2012        Dec 18, The US Treasury Department made public sanctions against two leaders of Congo's M23 rebel group. The US government accused Baudoin Ngaruye and Innocent Kaina of using child soldiers.
    (AP, 12/18/12)

2012        Ben Rawlence authored u0093Radio Congo: Signals of Hope from Africau0092s Deadliest War.u0094
    (Econ, 7/14/12, p.75)

2013        Jan 6, The South African presidency announced that is sending 400 army troops to Central African Republic to help the country's army as it faces a threat from a coalition of rebel groups. Neighboring countries Cameroon, Gabon and Republic of Congo already have sent about 120 troops each to help stabilize the country confronted by the rebellion.
    (AP, 1/6/13)

2013        Jan 24, The UN Security Council approved the use of surveillance drones over eastern Congo to monitor roving militias.
    (SFC, 1/25/13, p.A2)

2013        Feb 5, South African police arrested 19 suspected members of a Congolese rebel group, accusing them of plotting to overthrow their nation's government after it recently came under attack by militants said to be backed by neighboring Rwanda.
    (AP, 2/5/13)

2013        Feb 6, In Uganda representatives of the Congolese government and the M23 rebels signed a preliminary agreement in which both parties accepted responsibility for the failure of an earlier 2009 peace deal.
    (AP, 2/6/13)

2013        Feb 8, Police in South Africa arrested the "ringleader" of a group of 19 Congolese rebels who now face charges of allegedly plotting a war to unseat Congolese President Joseph Kabila. Prosecutors last week identified Etienne Kabila  as being in charge of the group.
    (AP, 2/10/13)

2013        Feb 24, In Ethiopia 11 African countries signed a UN-drafted peace deal to stabilize Congo DRC, where rebels allegedly backed by neighboring countries last year threatened to oust the government.
    (AP, 2/24/13)

2013        Feb 27, In CongoDRC the M23 divided into two groups over disagreements on negotiations with the Congolese government. The splinter group is lead by the M23 president Jean-Marie Runiga and Gen. Baudoin Ngaruye. The new group is reported to be aligned with warlord Bosco Ntaganda.
    (AP, 3/1/13)

2013        Feb 28, In CongoDRC a spokesperson of the M23 said General Sultani Makenga has dismissed Jean-Marie Runiga, the president of the M23 rebel group, over accusations that he is supporting Bosco Ntaganda, a wanted war criminal.
    (AP, 2/28/13)

2013        Mar 1, Fighting erupted in eastern Congo between two factions of the M23 rebel group. An estimated 23 people died in the fighting, according to an officer with the main part of M23. The Congolese army entered Kiwanja, a town that was run by M23 rebels for more than six months. Doctors Without Borders said that more than 55 civilians have been killed in fighting in another town in Congo's east, Kitchanga, where 135 people have been wounded.
    (AP, 3/1/13)(AP, 3/2/13)

2013        Mar 3, The Congolese military said it has given control of two key eastern towns back to the M23 rebel group to avoid jeopardizing the ongoing peace process.
    (AP, 3/3/13)

2013        Mar 4, In CongoDRC a plane crash in the center of the eastern city of Goma killed seven people and injured three.
    (AP, 3/5/13)

2013        Mar 16, In CongoDRC a faction of the M23 rebel group under Gen. Sultani Makenga said it has regained control of all of the group's territory in eastern Congo, as Jean-Marie Runiga, the leader of its rival faction, was arrested in Rwanda.
    (AP, 3/16/13)

2013        Mar 18, In Rwanda Congolese warlord Bosco Ntaganda (39), nicknamed "The Terminator," showed up at the gates of the US Embassy in Kigali. Ntaganda asked to be handed over to the International Criminal Court, which issued its first arrest warrant for him in 2006.
    (AP, 3/19/13)

2013        Mar 23, In CongoDRC  at least 35 people were killed after hundreds of militia fighters attacked the southeast mining center of Lubumbashi. 245 Mai Mai fighters surrendered to UN peacekeepers.
    (AP, 3/24/13)

2013        Mar 28, The UN Security Council authorized a new intervention brigade for CongoDRC with a mandate to take military action alone or with Congolese troops against rebel groups to help bring peace in the conflict-racked east.
    (SFC, 3/29/13, p.A2)

2013        Mar, Lord's Resistance Army fighters in Congo released 28 abductees, women and children, suggesting the group is undergoing turmoil amid a manhunt, supported by US military advisers, for its leaders.
    (AP, 4/5/13)
2013        Mar, The UN Development Program named CongoDRC the least developed country in the world. It was tied with Niger.
    (Econ, 5/18/13, p.74)

2013        Apr 13, Congolese Justice Minister Wivine Mumba said a dozen senior officers in the Congolese army have been arrested for responsibility for mass rapes committed by several army units in eastern Congo in November 2012.
    (AP, 4/13/13)

2013        May 7, In eastern CongoDRC a UN peacekeeper from Pakistan was killed in South Kivu province.
    (AP, 5/8/13)

2013        May 8, In CongoDRC a community leader said that nearly 30 people have been kidnapped by the M23 rebels in their eastern fief of Rutshuru since the beginning of April. The kidnappings appear to be for ransom.
    (AP, 5/8/13)

2013        May 10, A contingent of about 100 Tanzanian troops began arriving in eastern Congo, a first step in assembling the new UN intervention brigade. 3,000 soldiers from South Africa, Tanzania and Malawi were expected in a month or two.
    (AP, 5/11/13)(AP, 5/14/13)(Econ, 6/15/13, p.50)

2013        May 15, In CongoDRC at least 24 militiamen and 3 soldiers died, including a lieutenant colonel, in fighting between soldiers and Mai Mai militiamen in Beni, 220 miles (350 km) north of Goma. 5 others, who were awaiting transfer to a military training center, were also killed.
    (AP, 5/15/13)

2013        May 17, The body of a Congolese journalist was found on the bank of the Ngezi River near the provincial capital of Bunia in eastern Congo. Guylain Chanjabo, a journalist at Radio Canal Révélation in Bunia, had disappeared 12 days ago.
    (AP, 5/18/13)

2013        May 20, In eastern CongoDRC clashes erupted near Muja between government troops and the M23 rebel group, believed to be backed by neighboring Rwanda.
    (AP, 5/20/13)

2013        May 21, In CongoDRC fighting between the M23 rebels and the army continued for a second day the eastern provincial capital of Goma. The clashes have so far killed 20 people, all of them either soldiers or rebels.
    (AP, 5/21/13)

2013        May 22, In CongoDRC UN Sec. Genu0092l. Ban Ki-moon and World Bank president Jim Yong Kim launched a novel partnership in Kinshasa. $1 billion in funds pledged by the World Bank for development would back UN efforts for peace in eastern Congo.
    (Econ, 6/1/13, p.51)

2013        May 23, In CongoDRC M23 rebels fired two rockets into the eastern city of Goma, killing one person and wounding four. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon arrived in Goma, hours after a rebel group fighting government forces nearby said they would impose a cease-fire to allow the visit to proceed.
    (AP, 5/23/13)

2013        May 29, A UN spokesman says that Congo's M23 rebels have fired several rockets on Goma over the past week, killing 2 people.
    (AP, 5/29/13)

2013        Jun 3, The Enough Project, the Satellite Sentinel Project and two other groups said in a new report that members of Joseph Konyu0092s LRA have turned to elephant poaching in CongoDRC and the CAR and that the militia trades illegal ivory to acquire food and other supplies. The report also said elephants of Garamba National Park also are being targeted by "members of the armed forces of (Congo), South Sudan, Sudan, and Uganda," citing the concerns of park rangers there.
    (AP, 6/3/13)

2013        Jun 27, The UN raised the alarm about the recent rape of 9 girls in eastern Congo. The youngest was 18 months old and 2 of the girls died.
    (SFC, 6/28/13, p.A2)

2013        Jul 14, Uganda Red Cross said more than 60,000 Congolese have fled to Uganda after a rebel attack on a town near the border in a continuing influx that is stretching humanitarian capacities.
    (AP, 7/14/13)

2013        Jul 14, In eastern CongoDRC fresh fighting erupted after more than 100 armed men disguised in women's clothing entered the country from Rwanda.
    (AP, 7/15/13)

2013        Jul 15, The Congolese army claimed that it killed 120 rebels in eastern Congo.
    (AP, 7/15/13)

2013        Jul 16, Congo's army says its helicopter gunships have bombarded rebel positions during a third straight day of fighting between government forces and M23 rebels.
    (AP, 7/16/13)

2013        Jul 22, Congo's army said fighting has resumed between government forces and M23 rebels in the east of the country following a three-day lull.
    (AP, 7/22/13)
2013        Jul 22, Human Rights Watch reported that the M23 rebel group in eastern Congo continued to receive significant support from neighboring Rwanda despite ongoing abuses including killings, rape and forced recruitment of children.
    (AP, 7/23/13)

2013        Jul 30, The UN peacekeeping mission in Congo announced that it plans to disarm anyone outside the national security forces who is caught with a firearm in the eastern city of Goma and its northern suburbs.
    (AP, 7/30/13)

2013        Aug 23, Congo's government accused Rwanda of supporting a rebel attack on the eastern city of Goma.
    (AP, 8/23/13)

2013        Aug 24, In CongoDRC shells fired by M23 rebels killed at least 3 people in the eastern city of Goma. Two UN peacekeepers from Uruguay reportedly shot dead 2 people who were part of a crowd that tried to storm the mission's base in Goma during a protest against alleged UN inaction in the strife-torn region.
    (Reuters, 8/24/13)(AFP, 8/26/13)

2013        Aug 25, Congolese soldiers and rebels suffered heavy casualties as they fought for a 5th day near Goma.
    (SFC, 8/26/13, p.A2)

2013        Aug 26, The UN mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo said it has opened a probe after residents accused its peacekeepers of killing 2 people who tried to storm a UN base in Goma.
    (AFP, 8/26/13)

2013        Aug 30, In CongoDRC rebels entrenched in the hills above Goma declared a unilateral ceasefire and began retreating from the frontline, the first indication that a joint United Nations and Congolese offensive might be gaining the upper hand.
    (AP, 8/30/13)

2013        Sep 27, CongoDRC customs officers seized 375 kg of coltan, a precious mineral used in electronics, en route to Rwanda.
    (AFP, 9/29/13)

2013        Sep 28, In eastern CongoDRC fighting for a 2nd day between two rival militia forces left at least 10 people dead in the Masisi territory.
    (AFP, 9/30/13)

2013        Oct 13, A detachment of Angolan troops crossed into neighboring Congo Republic and detained a group of Congolese soldiers. The incident highlights tensions around Angola's oil-rich Cabinda enclave, which is separated from the rest of Angola and surrounded by Congo Republic and Democratic Republic of Congo. 55 soldiers of the Republic of Congo were released on Oct 18.
    (Reuters, 10/17/13)(AFP, 10/18/13)

2013        Oct 25, In CongoDRC fighting resumed between the army and rebels in the northeast, just days after the latest effort at peace talks fell apart. Rwanda said Congolese army shells had landed on its territory.
    (AFP, 10/25/13)(Reuters, 10/25/13)

2013        Oct 26, In eastern CongoDRC  fighting raged between soldiers and rebels for a second day.
    (AFP, 10/26/13)

2013        Oct 27, The Congolese army said it had recaptured two more towns and was heading for the rebel stronghold of Rutshuru in a third day of fighting. A Tanzanian officer with UN forces operating alongside government troops was killed in fighting with rebels.
    (Reuters, 10/27/13)(AFP, 10/27/13)

2013        Oct 28, The Congolese army, who one year ago abandoned their posts and fled in the face of an advancing rebel army, succeeded on in taking back Rumangabo, the fifth, rebel-held town.
    (AP, 10/28/13)

2013        Oct 29, In CongoDRC 6 people were killed in clashes between military police and a group of separatist attackers at a munitions depot in the southwestern city of Lubumbashi.
    (AFP, 10/29/13)
2013        Oct 29, South Africa signed an agreement to buy over half of the power generated by the first phase of the Grand Inga hydroelectric project in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
    (Reuters, 10/29/13)

2013        Nov 3, Democratic Republic of Congo's M23 rebels declared a ceasefire in their fight with the army, in a move they hope will advance peace talks with the government.
    (Reuters, 11/3/13)

2013        Nov 4, Democratic Republic of Congo troops drove M23 rebels from one of their key hilltop positions in the east of the country, pushing on with their assault despite calls for a truce. Mortar shells fell on a market in eastern Congo, killing 4 people as fighting intensified between government soldiers and the M23 fighters.
    (AFP, 11/4/13)(AP, 11/4/13)

2013        Nov 5, A leader of the M23 rebel group in eastern Congo said his movement is ending its rebellion after more than a year and a half of fighting as the Congolese military seized the last two hills that had been held by the fighters.
    (AP, 11/5/13)

2013        Nov 7, Ugandau0092s military said Democratic Republic of Congo's M23 guerrillas, including rebel chief Sultani Makenga, have surrendered en masse in Uganda, signalling the end of an 18-month insurgency.
    (AFP, 11/7/13)

2013        Nov, An unpublished report by the Democratic Republic of Congou0092s public prosecutoru0092s office said the country is owed an estimated $3.7 billion in unpaid customs duties and fines by companies operating in its copper-rich Katanga province between 2008 and 2013. News of the draft document was only made public in Jan, 2014.
    (Reuters, 1/30/14)

2013        Dec 3, UN forces in Democratic Republic of Congo launched unmanned aircraft to monitor the volatile border with Rwanda and Uganda, the first time UN peacekeepers have deployed surveillance drones. The UN announced its peacekeeping troops will go after other armed groups in the DRC, after helping to defeat the M23 rebel force.
    (Reuters, 12/3/13)(AFP, 12/3/13)

2013        Dec 10, The UN command and Congolese troops launched an offensive in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo against against the FDLR (Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda), a Rwandan rebel group linked to the 1994 genocide.
    (AFP, 12/11/13)

2013        Dec 12, Congo and the so-called M23 rebels signed a peace agreement that will see the insurgent group demobilize its fighters and transform itself into a political party.
    (AP, 12/13/13)

2013        Dec 13, UN peacekeeping chief Herve Ladsous said an arsenal of weapons have been found by UN peacekeepers, including heavy caliber arms and enough ammunition to last a year, at the site of the last stand by M23 rebels in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (Reuters, 12/13/13)

2013        Dec 14, In CongoDRC unknown assailants over the last 24 hours killed people 21 in the villages of Musuku and Mwenda, in the eastern territory of Beni. The victims, including women and children, were found hacked to death and some were mutilated.
    (AP, 12/17/13)

2013        Dec 25, In eastern CongoDRC at least 40 civilians were killed by the Ugandan ADF-NALU rebel group attack on a village in North Kivu province. A special UN force in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo used helicopters to fire on the rebels and help government troops retake the town of Kamango.
    (AFP, 12/25/13)(Reuters, 12/26/13)

2013        Dec 30, Congolese security forces repelled a wave of coordinated attacks against symbols of power in the capital Kinshasa and other cities, leaving dozens of assailants dead in a day of fierce gunbattles. Congo's army clashed with followers of religious leader Paul Joseph Mukungubila Mutombo in the eastern mining city of Lubumbashi. The clashes left over 100 people dead and Mutombo went on the run.
    (AFP, 12/30/13)(Reuters, 12/30/13)(AFP, 12/31/13)
 
2013        Michael Deibert authored u0093Congo: Between Hope and Despair.u0094
    (Econ, 11/2/13, p.54)

2014        Jan 2, In CongoDRC Colonel Mamadou Ndala (34), the commander of government troops fighting Ugandan Islamist rebels in the restive east of country, was killed along with two bodyguards in an ambush.
    (AFP, 1/2/14)(AP, 1/10/14)

2014        Jan 11, In CongoDRC 4 people were killed and two seriously injured in a clash between Virunga national park rangers and suspected Rwandan FDLR rebels.
    (AFP, 1/12/14)

2014        Jan 17, CongoDRC forces attacked Ugandan Islamist rebels in the lawless east, launching a UN-backed offensive to clear insurgents from the mineral-rich zone.
    (Reuters, 1/17/14)

2014        Jan 24, In CongoDRC an explosion at an arms depot killed over 20 people near the diamond-mining hub of Mbuji-Mayi.
    (Reuters, 1/25/14)(SFC, 1/27/14, p.A2)

2014        Feb 12, CongoDRC Pres. Joseph Kabila, announced an amnesty for former members of the defeated M23 rebel army.
    (AFP, 2/12/14)

2014        Feb 13, The UN mission in CongoDRC (MONUSCO) said more than 70 men and women have been summarily executed in the restive eastern part of the country late last month and early this month.
    (AFP, 2/13/14)

2014        Feb 14, The CongoDRC government said 22 Congolese soldiers and 230 Ugandan rebels have been killed in a nearly month-long offensive in restive eastern DRC.
    (AFP, 2/14/14)

2014        Feb 15, In CongoDRC journalist Germain Kennedy Muliwavyo (30) died after being shot in the head and stomach during an ambush 60 km outside of Beni.
    (AP, 2/16/14)

2014        Feb 26, The International Criminal Court led calls for the government of Democratic Republic of Congo to arrest visiting Sudanese President Omar Bashir, who is wanted on charges of genocide in Darfur.
    (AFP, 2/26/14)

2014        Mar 7, Congolese warlord Germain Katanga was convicted of being an accessory to war crimes including murder and pillage - only the second conviction in the 12-year history of the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague. Katanga was convicted as an accessory in the attack on Bogoro village in 2003 that left some 200 civilians dead and many women raped and turned into sex slaves.
    (Reuters, 3/7/14)(SFC, 3/8/14, p.A2)

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2013        Jun 27, The UN raised the alarm about the recent rape of 9 girls in eastern Congo. The youngest was 18 months old and 2 of the girls died.
    (SFC, 6/28/13, p.A2)

2013        Jul 14, Uganda Red Cross said more than 60,000 Congolese have fled to Uganda after a rebel attack on a town near the border in a continuing influx that is stretching humanitarian capacities.
    (AP, 7/14/13)

2013        Jul 14, In eastern CongoDRC fresh fighting erupted after more than 100 armed men disguised in women's clothing entered the country from Rwanda.
    (AP, 7/15/13)

2013        Jul 15, The Congolese army claimed that it killed 120 rebels in eastern Congo.
    (AP, 7/15/13)

2013        Jul 16, Congo's army says its helicopter gunships have bombarded rebel positions during a third straight day of fighting between government forces and M23 rebels.
    (AP, 7/16/13)

2013        Jul 22, Congo's army said fighting has resumed between government forces and M23 rebels in the east of the country following a three-day lull.
    (AP, 7/22/13)
2013        Jul 22, Human Rights Watch reported that the M23 rebel group in eastern Congo continued to receive significant support from neighboring Rwanda despite ongoing abuses including killings, rape and forced recruitment of children.
    (AP, 7/23/13)

2013        Jul 30, The UN peacekeeping mission in Congo announced that it plans to disarm anyone outside the national security forces who is caught with a firearm in the eastern city of Goma and its northern suburbs.
    (AP, 7/30/13)

2013        Aug 23, Congo's government accused Rwanda of supporting a rebel attack on the eastern city of Goma.
    (AP, 8/23/13)

2013        Aug 24, In CongoDRC shells fired by M23 rebels killed at least 3 people in the eastern city of Goma. Two UN peacekeepers from Uruguay reportedly shot dead 2 people who were part of a crowd that tried to storm the mission's base in Goma during a protest against alleged UN inaction in the strife-torn region.
    (Reuters, 8/24/13)(AFP, 8/26/13)

2013        Aug 25, Congolese soldiers and rebels suffered heavy casualties as they fought for a 5th day near Goma.
    (SFC, 8/26/13, p.A2)

2013        Aug 26, The UN mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo said it has opened a probe after residents accused its peacekeepers of killing 2 people who tried to storm a UN base in Goma.
    (AFP, 8/26/13)

2013        Aug 30, In CongoDRC rebels entrenched in the hills above Goma declared a unilateral ceasefire and began retreating from the frontline, the first indication that a joint United Nations and Congolese offensive might be gaining the upper hand.
    (AP, 8/30/13)

2013        Sep 27, CongoDRC customs officers seized 375 kg of coltan, a precious mineral used in electronics, en route to Rwanda.
    (AFP, 9/29/13)

2013        Sep 28, In eastern CongoDRC fighting for a 2nd day between two rival militia forces left at least 10 people dead in the Masisi territory.
    (AFP, 9/30/13)

2013        Oct 13, A detachment of Angolan troops crossed into neighboring Congo Republic and detained a group of Congolese soldiers. The incident highlights tensions around Angola's oil-rich Cabinda enclave, which is separated from the rest of Angola and surrounded by Congo Republic and Democratic Republic of Congo. 55 soldiers of the Republic of Congo were released on Oct 18.
    (Reuters, 10/17/13)(AFP, 10/18/13)

2013        Oct 25, In CongoDRC fighting resumed between the army and rebels in the northeast, just days after the latest effort at peace talks fell apart. Rwanda said Congolese army shells had landed on its territory.
    (AFP, 10/25/13)(Reuters, 10/25/13)

2013        Oct 26, In eastern CongoDRC  fighting raged between soldiers and rebels for a second day.
    (AFP, 10/26/13)

2013        Oct 27, The Congolese army said it had recaptured two more towns and was heading for the rebel stronghold of Rutshuru in a third day of fighting. A Tanzanian officer with UN forces operating alongside government troops was killed in fighting with rebels.
    (Reuters, 10/27/13)(AFP, 10/27/13)

2013        Oct 28, The Congolese army, who one year ago abandoned their posts and fled in the face of an advancing rebel army, succeeded on in taking back Rumangabo, the fifth, rebel-held town.
    (AP, 10/28/13)

2013        Oct 29, In CongoDRC 6 people were killed in clashes between military police and a group of separatist attackers at a munitions depot in the southwestern city of Lubumbashi.
    (AFP, 10/29/13)
2013        Oct 29, South Africa signed an agreement to buy over half of the power generated by the first phase of the Grand Inga hydroelectric project in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
    (Reuters, 10/29/13)

2013        Nov 3, Democratic Republic of Congo's M23 rebels declared a ceasefire in their fight with the army, in a move they hope will advance peace talks with the government.
    (Reuters, 11/3/13)

2013        Nov 4, Democratic Republic of Congo troops drove M23 rebels from one of their key hilltop positions in the east of the country, pushing on with their assault despite calls for a truce. Mortar shells fell on a market in eastern Congo, killing 4 people as fighting intensified between government soldiers and the M23 fighters.
    (AFP, 11/4/13)(AP, 11/4/13)

2013        Nov 5, A leader of the M23 rebel group in eastern Congo said his movement is ending its rebellion after more than a year and a half of fighting as the Congolese military seized the last two hills that had been held by the fighters.
    (AP, 11/5/13)

2013        Nov 7, Uganda’s military said Democratic Republic of Congo's M23 guerrillas, including rebel chief Sultani Makenga, have surrendered en masse in Uganda, signalling the end of an 18-month insurgency.
    (AFP, 11/7/13)

2013        Nov, An unpublished report by the Democratic Republic of Congo’s public prosecutor’s office said the country is owed an estimated $3.7 billion in unpaid customs duties and fines by companies operating in its copper-rich Katanga province between 2008 and 2013. News of the draft document was only made public in Jan, 2014.
    (Reuters, 1/30/14)

2013        Dec 3, UN forces in Democratic Republic of Congo launched unmanned aircraft to monitor the volatile border with Rwanda and Uganda, the first time UN peacekeepers have deployed surveillance drones. The UN announced its peacekeeping troops will go after other armed groups in the DRC, after helping to defeat the M23 rebel force.
    (Reuters, 12/3/13)(AFP, 12/3/13)

2013        Dec 10, The UN command and Congolese troops launched an offensive in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo against against the FDLR (Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda), a Rwandan rebel group linked to the 1994 genocide.
    (AFP, 12/11/13)

2013        Dec 12, Congo and the so-called M23 rebels signed a peace agreement that will see the insurgent group demobilize its fighters and transform itself into a political party.
    (AP, 12/13/13)

2013        Dec 13, UN peacekeeping chief Herve Ladsous said an arsenal of weapons have been found by UN peacekeepers, including heavy caliber arms and enough ammunition to last a year, at the site of the last stand by M23 rebels in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (Reuters, 12/13/13)

2013        Dec 14, In CongoDRC unknown assailants over the last 24 hours killed people 21 in the villages of Musuku and Mwenda, in the eastern territory of Beni. The victims, including women and children, were found hacked to death and some were mutilated.
    (AP, 12/17/13)

2013        Dec 25, In eastern CongoDRC at least 40 civilians were killed by the Ugandan ADF-NALU rebel group attack on a village in North Kivu province. A special UN force in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo used helicopters to fire on the rebels and help government troops retake the town of Kamango.
    (AFP, 12/25/13)(Reuters, 12/26/13)

2013        Dec 30, Congolese security forces repelled a wave of coordinated attacks against symbols of power in the capital Kinshasa and other cities, leaving dozens of assailants dead in a day of fierce gunbattles. Congo's army clashed with followers of religious leader Paul Joseph Mukungubila Mutombo in the eastern mining city of Lubumbashi. The clashes left over 100 people dead and Mutombo went on the run.
    (AFP, 12/30/13)(Reuters, 12/30/13)(AFP, 12/31/13)

2013        Michael Deibert authored “Congo: Between Hope and Despair.”
    (Econ, 11/2/13, p.54)

2014        Jan 2, In CongoDRC Colonel Mamadou Ndala (34), the commander of government troops fighting Ugandan Islamist rebels in the restive east of country, was killed along with two bodyguards in an ambush.
    (AFP, 1/2/14)(AP, 1/10/14)

2014        Jan 11, In CongoDRC 4 people were killed and two seriously injured in a clash between Virunga national park rangers and suspected Rwandan FDLR rebels.
    (AFP, 1/12/14)

2014        Jan 17, CongoDRC forces attacked Ugandan Islamist rebels in the lawless east, launching a UN-backed offensive to clear insurgents from the mineral-rich zone.
    (Reuters, 1/17/14)

2014        Jan 24, In CongoDRC an explosion at an arms depot killed over 20 people near the diamond-mining hub of Mbuji-Mayi.
    (Reuters, 1/25/14)(SFC, 1/27/14, p.A2)

2014        Feb 12, CongoDRC Pres. Joseph Kabila, announced an amnesty for former members of the defeated M23 rebel army.
    (AFP, 2/12/14)

2014        Feb 13, The UN mission in CongoDRC (MONUSCO) said more than 70 men and women have been summarily executed in the restive eastern part of the country late last month and early this month.
    (AFP, 2/13/14)

2014        Feb 14, The CongoDRC government said 22 Congolese soldiers and 230 Ugandan rebels have been killed in a nearly month-long offensive in restive eastern DRC.
    (AFP, 2/14/14)

2014        Feb 15, In CongoDRC journalist Germain Kennedy Muliwavyo (30) died after being shot in the head and stomach during an ambush 60 km outside of Beni.
    (AP, 2/16/14)

2014        Feb 26, The International Criminal Court led calls for the government of Democratic Republic of Congo to arrest visiting Sudanese President Omar Bashir, who is wanted on charges of genocide in Darfur.
    (AFP, 2/26/14)

2014        Mar 7, Congolese warlord Germain Katanga was convicted of being an accessory to war crimes including murder and pillage - only the second conviction in the 12-year history of the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague. Katanga was convicted as an accessory in the attack on Bogoro village in 2003 that left some 200 civilians dead and many women raped and turned into sex slaves.
    (Reuters, 3/7/14)(SFC, 3/8/14, p.A2)

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