Bordered by Slovenia, Hungary, Serbia-Montenegro and Bosnia, Croatia is slightly smaller than Ireland and West Virginia. It has a varied landscape, ranging from lush valleys and fields in the east to forests in its interior and a long Adriatic Sea coastline dotted with hundreds of islands.
The capital is Zagreb with a
population of 1 million.
Main ethnic minorities are Serbs, Italians and Hungarians. Average monthly wage is $625.
In 2004 Earth’s deepest know hole, 1,693 feet, was found in the Velebit Mountains of
(SFC, 8/17/04, p.A6)
26000BC-27000BC Neanderthals lived in Croatia. Their remains were later found at the Vindija cave and dated to this time in 1999 with accelerator radiocarbon dating.
(SFC, 10/26/99, p.B3)
295 Diocletian (245-316), Roman Emperor (284-305), began construction of a fortified palace near the village of his birth. It later became the historic downtown of Split, Croatia. Construction took 10 years.
316 Diocletian (b.245) died at his retirement palace near his birthplace in Dalmatia (Croatia).
614 Croats settled in the area between the Adriatic Sea and the rivers Sava and Drava.
(WSJ, 7/14/99, p.A23)
791 Croats about this time established the principalities of Primortska Hrvatska on the Adriatic coast and Posavska Hrvatska in inland Croatia.
(WSJ, 7/14/99, p.A23)
925 The Croatian kingdom was established. King Tomislav was crowned first king of Croatia by decree of the Holy Catholic Church in Rome, and was its founder. He disappeared in 928 A.D. at the time of ominous discord between the Croatian Catholic Church and the Latin Catholic Church. The
discord was over which Catholic Church should be the only, and legal Church in Croatia. It is not known to this day, where King Tomislav was buried or how he died.
(WSJ, 7/14/99, p.A23) http://www.croatian-king-tomislav.com/
1102 Croats were forced to enter into a union with Hungary and to recognize the Hungarian king as their own.
(WSJ, 7/14/99, p.A23)
Zara (present-day Zadar, Croatia), previously part of the Venetian republic, rebelled against Venice and allied itself with Hungary, posing competition to Venice’s maritime trade.
1202 Nov, The Fourth Crusade sacked Zara. The leaders of the Fourth Crusade agreed to sack Zara (present-day Zadar, Croatia), a rival of Venice, as payment for transportation the Venetians supplied the crusaders. Zara, previously part of the Venetian republic, posed competition to Venice’s maritime trade. Unable to raise enough funds to
pay to their Venetian contractors, the crusaders agreed to lay siege to the city despite letters from Pope Innocent III forbidding such an action and threatening excommunication. The fleet set sail in October of 1202, reaching Zara in Nov. Zara, the first Christian city to be assaulted by crusaders, surrendered after just two weeks. The army then wintered in the city and planned an attack on the
Byzantine capital of Constantinople the following year.
1389 Serbs, defeated by the Ottoman Turks, moved from Kosovo to the Krajina region of
(WSJ, 4/22/99, A12)
1490 Apr 6, Matthias Corvinus (b.1443), king of Hungary and Croatia (1458-1590), died. He has assembled one of Europe’s finest
libraries, 2nd in size only to that in the Vatican. When Hungary later fell to the Turks the library was lost. In 2008 Marcus Tanner authored “The Raven King: Matthias Corvinus and the Fate of His Lost Library.”
1527 Croatia formed a state union with Austria.
1566 Sep 7, Suleiman I (b.1494), Great Law Giver and sultan of Turkey (1520-66), died at Szigetvar, Hungary, as his troops besieged a fortress defended by Croatian-Hungarian nobleman Miklos Zrinyi. Suleiman’s great empire began a
gradual decline under his slothful son, Selim II. Suleiman the Magnificent, during his reign, had commissioned the architect Sinan to build the Suleymanye, perhaps the finest mosque ever constructed.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(WSJ, 4/29/99, p.A24)(SFC, 9/21/13, p.A3)
1671 Apr 30, Peter Zrinyi (49), Hungarian banished to Croatia, was beheaded.
1699 Jan 26, The Treaty of Karlowitz, Croatia, ended the war between Austria and the Turks.
1809 Jul 5-1809 Jul 6, Napoleon beat Austria’s archduke Charles at the Battle of Wagram. He annexed the Illyrian Provinces (now part of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, and Montenegro), and abolished the Papal States.
1819 Apr 18, Franz von Suppa, composer (Light Cavalry Overture), was born in Spalato, Dalmatia (Croatia).
1853 The Croatian lighthouse Sveti Ivan Na Pucini was built on the northern Adriatic Sea.
1856 Jul 9, Nikola Tesla, electrical engineer, inventor (Tesla Coil), was born in Croatia.
1857 The San Francisco Slavonic Mutual and Benevolent Society, the oldest Croatian society in the US, was founded.
(SFC, 2/17/05, p.E3)
1869 The Benedictine monastery on the Croatian island of Sveta Marija was abandoned.
(SSFC, 6/20/04, p.D8)
1900 Mar 9, Aimone, duke of Spoleta-Aosta, Italian king of Croatia (1941-43), was born.
Sep 1, The Austro-Hungarian army was called into the city of Agram to restore the peace as Serbs and Croats clashed.
May 12, Croatians plundered Armenia and killed 250.
1906 May 17, Opera singer Zinka Milanov was born in Zagreb,
1917 Jul 20, The Pact of Corfu was signed between the Serbs, Croats & Slovenes to form Yugoslavia. [see Dec 1,
1918 Oct 29-1918 Oct 31, The Kingdom of Greater Serbia was proclaimed at Sarajevo in Bosnia bringing that
state into what was later called Yugoslavia. [see Dec 1]
1918 Nov 7, The Yugoslav National Conference at Geneva decided on the union
of Croatia and Slovenia with Serbia and Montenegro. [see Dec 1]
1918 Nov 24, Another proclamation took place of the United Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats
and Slovenes. [see Dec 1]
1918 Nov 26, Montenegro deposed its king who opposed union and voted to join the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and
Slovenes. [see Dec 1]
1918 Dec 1, The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes [later in 1929 to be called Yugoslavia] was proclaimed by Alexander
Karadjordjevic, the son of King Peter of Serbia. It included the previously independent kingdoms of Serbia and Macedonia, the Hungarian-controlled regions of Croatia and Slovenia, the Austrian province of Dalmatia, Carniola and parts of Styria, Carinthia and Istria. King Alexander I renamed the Balkan state called the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes to Yugoslavia in
(http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/map/yugoslavia/1900/)(AP, 10/3/97)(HNQ, 3/26/99)
1919 Oct 3, The
Serbian, Croatian & Slavic (Yugoslavia) parliament agreed on an 8 hr work day.
1919-1920 Gabriele d’Annunzio (1863-1938) set up the
short-lived Italian Regency of Carnaro in Fiume (later Rijeka in Croatia) with himself as Duce as part of an Italian nationalist reaction against the Paris Peace Conference.
1920 Jun 4, The Treaty of Trianon, signed at Versailles, was forced upon Hungary by the victorious Allies after WWII and resulted in Hungary giving up nearly three-fourths of its territory to Romania, Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croat and Slovenes. Hungary lost more than half its population, including some 3 million
Hungarians. Hungary ceded the hills of Transylvania to Romania.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Trianon)(HNQ, 7/5/98)(WSJ, 1/2/97, p.1)
1920 Oct 10, The
Carinthian Plebiscite determined the border between Austria and the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
May 14, Franjo Tudjman (d.1999), later president, was born in Veliko Trgovisce.
(SFC, 12/11/99, p.A16)
1927 Oct 28, Josip Broz (Tito)
began a 7 months jail sentence in Croatia.
1928 Ivan Merz (32), Bosnian-Croat intellectual and theologian, died of meningitis. He was beatified in
2003 by Pope John Paul II.
1929 Oct 3, The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes formally changed its name to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. King Alexander
I renamed the Balkan state called the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, Yugoslavia. The Kingdom had been formed on December 1, 1918 and was ruled by the Serbian Karageorgevic dynasty. It included the previously independent kingdoms of Serbia and Macedonia, the Hungarian-controlled regions of Croatia and Slovenia, the Austrian province of Dalmatia, Carniola and parts of Styria, Carinthia and
(AP, 10/3/97)(HN, 10/3/98)(HNQ, 3/26/99)
1941 Jun 4, Republic of Croatia ordered all Jews to wear a star with the letter
1941 Germany invaded Yugoslavia and Ante Pavelic led a pro-Nazi dictatorship that controlled newly-independent Croatia. Alojzije Stepinac, archbishop
of Zagreb, initially embraced the Pavelic government.
(SFEC, 10/4/98, p.A22)
1941 Andrija Artukovic was named the Minister of the Interior in the newly-formed NDH.
He was closely involved in the mass murder of Serbs, Jews, Roma, and other minorities, and the opening of concentration camps such as Jasenovac. His close associate was propagandist Savić Marković Štedimlija, a publicist of Montenegrin descent.
1941-1945 Croatia was occupied by Nazi forces and with its Moslem allies some 700,000 Serbs and 75,000 Jews and Gypsies were killed. [This was a letter with reference to the Encyclopedia Britannica as source material]
The Independent State of Croatia was set up after the German and Italian invasions and run by the fascist Ustashe regime as a puppet state. The central Ustashe aim was to cleanse Croatia of “foreign” elements and to turn Croatia into a "100% Roman Catholic state." Jasenovac was the site of the largest Ustashe death camp, and some estimates claim as many as several hundred thousand dead. Ante
Pavelic was the leader of the Ustashe regime.
(WSJ, 10/11/95, p. A-1)(WSJ, 4/3/96, p.A-22)(WSJ, 5/20/99, p.A21)
1941-1945 The Herzegovina region of Bosnia became a stronghold of the Croatian
Ustashe movement allied to the Nazis. Local clergy was seen condoning and supporting Ustashe mass slayings of ethnic Serbs. One in six of Croatia's prewar population died.
(SFC, 4/15/97, p.A10)(WSJ, 5/7/99, p.A18)
1942-1944 The Jasenovac concentration camp southeast of Zagreb was commanded by Capt. Dinko Sakic for 8 months. Croatia extradited him from Argentina in 1998. Sakic commanded the Stara Gradiska concentration camp and was deputy commander of the Jasenovac camp. Sakic was found guilty in 1999 of carrying out or condoning the torture and slaying of
(SFEC, 4/12/98, p.A20)(SFC, 6/17/98, p.C2)(SFC, 11/3/98, p.C12)(SFC, 3/16/99, p.A9)(SFC, 10/5/99, p.A12)
1943 May 18, Archbishop Stepinac urged Pius XII to
take a firm position to hold on "to its 240,000 converts." Eastern Orthodox practitioners had converted to Catholicism to escape death camps.
(WSJ, 5/20/99, p.A21)
Apr-1944 Nov, Dinko Sakic (22) ran the Jasenovac concentration camp. In 1998 he was indicted for crimes against humanity in the deaths of over 2,000 people 6 months after being extradited from Argentina.
(SFC, 12/15/98, p.A17)
1944 Oct, At the Jasenovac camp the "autumn liquidation" began under Dinko Sakic. For 20 days the old and sick were killed and thrown into the Sava River.
1945 Apr 22, In Croatia as Ustashe were killing fast before closing down the Jasenovac camp, 87 inmates escaped. 1000 others were recaptured or shot and killed while fleeing. Brother Satan, who took part in a World War II massacre of
2,000 Serbs by Ustashe troops and whose real name was Tomislav Filipovic Majstorovic, was defrocked in 1943 but stayed on in the camp, known as "Auschwitz of the Balkans," where he was said to have killed freely. Independent historians put the number of victims executed there at between 80,000 and 100,000.
3/23/99, p.A10)(AP, 4/24/05)
1945 May-1945 Jun, The graves of some 1,000 Croatian soldiers killed at this time were found in 1999 near Maribor in eastern Slovenia. Another 6-7,000 bodies were believed to be buried in the area. Slovenia, which
during the war was occupied by Italy and Germany, became a killing field, as thousands in the newly formed Yugoslavia, including Germans, Italians, Hungarians, Croatians, and Serbs, tried to escape to Austria. The Slovene government began listing "concealed graves" in 2003. By 2010 officials had a list of about 600 suspected graves, at least one in each community, amounting to perhaps 100,000
(SFC, 6/17/99, p.C3)(AP, 11/15/10)
1945 Some 13,000 pro-Nazi soldiers and civilians were executed as the WWIII ended. In 2009 Croatia asked that charges be brought against Simo Dubajic (86), a former
major in the Yugoslav army, on suspicion of ordering the executions.
(SFC, 4/1/09, p.A2)
1945 A secret internal US Treasury Dept. document, hidden for 50 years,
revealed in 1997 that the Vatican held some 200 million Swiss francs plundered from Serbs and Jews by the Nazi puppet government of Croatia after WW II.
(SFC, 7/22/97, p.A8)
Cardinal Alojzije Stepinac (d.1960) was imprisoned by the Communists and sentenced to 16 years of hard labor for his support of the Ustasha fascists. He was declared a martyr in 1998 by Pope John Paul II.
(SFC, 7/4/98, p.A8)
1948 Yugoslavia set up the Goli Otok (Barren Island) prison camp off the coast of Croatia for political prisoners. In 1956 the island, known as the Adriatic Alcatraz, ended its days as a political prison and was turned into a high-security facility for the hardest criminals.
Nearly 600 prisoners of all ex-Yugoslav nations, Serbs, Croats, Bosnians, Slovenes, Macedonians and Montenegrins, were later estimated to have died on the island from torture and disease.
1951 Cardinal Alojzije Stepinac was released under house arrest.
(SFEC, 10/4/98, p.A22)
1972 Jan 26, A
DC-9 exploded over Serbska Kamenice, Czechoslovakia, and attendant Vesna Vulovic dropped 33,300 feet and survived following a 27-day coma and a 16-month recovery. The cause of the explosion has never been established, but was attributed by the Yugoslav and Czechoslovakian authorities to a bomb placed on the plane by a Croatian Terrorist group, known as the
(SFEC, 3/14/99, Z1 p.10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vesna_Vulovic)
1974 Aug 30, In Yugoslavia an express train, traveling from Belgrade to Germany, ran
full speed into a Zagreb, Croatia, rail yard killing 152.
(www.cmj.hr/2001/42/6/12.htm)(SFC, 6/4/98, p.A15)
1976 Sep 10, 5 Croatian terrorists captured a TWA-plane
at La Guardia Airport, NY.
1980 May 4, Marshal Josip Broz
Tito (b.1892), Communist dictator of Yugoslavia (1943-1980), died three days before his 88th birthday. He was a Croat and tried to spread the Serbs out over the six Yugoslav republics so that they would not dominate the country. His policy was considered a major cause of the Bosnian war in the '90s.
5/4/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josip_Broz_Tito)(WSJ, 8/8/95, p. A-10)(WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A14).
1981 Young locals in Medjugorje, Croatia, believed that the Virgin Mary was making regular monthly
(WSJ, 3/1/02, p.W11)
1984 Radio 101, an 800 watt station in Zagreb, became Croatia’s first commercial
(WSJ, 7/25/96, p.A1)
1988 Jan 16, Andrija Artukovic (b.1899), a Croatian Ustasha and a convicted war criminal for the crimes committed against
minorities in the WWII Independent State of Croatia (NDH), died in a prison hospital in Zagreb.
(SSFC, 4/4/10, Par. p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrija_Artukovi%C4%87)
Croatia’s Franjo Tudjman began airing his views on Radio 101.
(WSJ, 7/25/96, p.A1)
1989 Croatia’s Vis Island, an off-limit army base
for the former Yugoslavia, re-opened to the public.
(SFC, 9/29/05, p.E4)
1989 Iraq sent 19 Soviet-built MiG-21s and MiG-23s for maintenance to a plant in Zagreb,
Croatia, which was part Yugoslavia. They were moved to Serbia in 1991 and got stuck there because of an embargo. Over the following years most were cannibalized, abandoned and rendered useless.
1990 May, In Croatia Franjo Tudjman was elected president in the first multiparty elections. He led a party that advocated a Yugoslav confederation of sovereign states.
(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 12/11/99, p.A16)
1990 Sep 30, Serbs in Croatia proclaimed autonomy.
Jun 24, Croatia and Slovenia voted to declare independence unless some new agreement was reached among the Yugoslav republics.
(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)
Jun 25, The civil war in Yugoslavia began when Croatia and Slovenia proclaimed independence from Yugoslavia. Croatia voted to declare independence with Franjo Tudjman as president. Following months of unsuccessful talks among Yugoslavia’s six republics about the future of the federation, the western republics of Croatia and Slovenia declared their independence.
Entities of Yugoslavia began to split off leaving Serbia and Montenegro.
(SFC,10/16/97, p.A12)(AP, 6/25/01)(www.factmonster.com/ce6/world/A0857636.html)
1991 Jun 27,
Fighting broke out between Serbian and Croatian militias. The Serbs were angered by Tudjman's revival of Ustasha symbols to promote Croatian nationalism.
(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC,10/16/97, p.A12)(SFC, 12/11/99, p.A16)
1991 Jul 27, Fighting escalated in the breakaway republic of Croatia, as a Yugoslav air force jet fired on Croatian forces and ground fighting erupted into clashes with federal tanks and troops.
1991 Aug 2, Blaine Harden of the Washington Post wrote that the Serbian aim “is obviously ethnic cleansing of the critical areas that are to be annexed to Serbia.”
1991 Aug, Serbian tanks and aircraft drove refugees from 3 Croatian towns.
(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)
1991 Sep 21, Yugoslav army tanks and artillery began an invasion of eastern Croatia. The Croats said that some 600 soldiers and 1200 civilians perished in the 3-month bombardment of Vukovar by rebel Serbs.
6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 6/28/97, p.A10)
1991 Sep 25, The UN Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 713 that imposed a worldwide arms embargo against Yugoslavia and all its warring factions.
(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 6/19/96, p.A10)(AP, 9/20/01)
1991 Sep, The Croat militia unit Autumn Rains arrived in Gospic. When front-line fighting ended early this month, the unit turned its attention to the 9,000
Serbs who lived in the area. Miro Bajramovic in 1997 admitted that the unit tortured prisoners and he killed 72 people. He said that he acted on the orders of interior minister Ivan Vekic.
(SFC, 9/9/97, p.A10,12)
1991 Oct 8, Slovenia and Croatia began operating independently from Yugoslavia. Slovenia took over its own borders and began printing its own money.
1991 Oct 18, In Croatia 22 civilians died after being forced by Serbian soldiers into a mined clover field in the village of Lovas.
1991 Oct, Early this month Serbs opened bombardment of the Croatian port of Dubrovnik. At least 43 civilians were killed in the attack.
(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 10/22/01, p.B1)
1991 Oct, At least 120 Serb civilians were killed at Gospic, Croatia. In 2001 Maj. Gen. Mirko Norac and 4 soldiers were indicted for the killing of at least 24 civilians at
(SFC, 9/14/00, p.C4)(SFC, 3/6/01, p.A12)
1991 Oct, During the siege of Vukovar the Yugoslavian army and Serbian paramilitary troops killed and buried as many as 1000 Croatian
soldiers and civilians. The bodies began to be uncovered in Apr 1998.
(SFC, 4/29/98, p.A12)
1991 Nov 18, Vukovar, capital of eastern Slavonia, fell to the Serbs.
They removed some 260 wounded Croat patients, hospital staff and political activists sheltered in the Vukovar hospital and took them to the village of Ovcara where most were shot and buried. On Mar 26, 1996 Slavko Dokmanovic, the Serb mayor of Vukovar, was indicted for his role in the incident. Investigators began uncovering bodies from the mass grave in Sep, 1996. In Oct, 1996, a mass grave of
about 100 bodies was uncovered. When Serbs captured eastern Slavonia most of its 68,000 Croat residents were displaced to other parts of Croatia. In 1998 Dokmanovic hanged himself in jail at the Hague. In 1998 the book "The Graves: Srebrenica and Vukovar" was published with photographs by Gilles Peress and text by Eric Stover. In 1999 Vukovar returned to Croatian
(SFC, 9/12/96, p.A13)(SFC, 10/3/96, p.A14)(SFC, 4/11/97, p.A12)(SFC, 6/28/97, p.A10)(SFC, 6/30/98, p.A8)(SFEC, 12/20/98, BR p.6)(Econ, 11/29/03, p.47)
Nov 20, Mile Mrksic, Miroslav Radic, and Veselin Sljivan-Canin, officers in the Yugoslav National Army, ordered the Serb army and military police to withdraw from the hospital at Vukovar. The paramilitary forces then took 194 Croat men in small groups to an area nearby and shot them. Radic surrendered to Serbian authorities in 2003. Mrksic and Sljivancanin were convicted by a UN tribunal in 2007.
Radic was acquitted.
(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A15)(SFC, 4/22/03, A7)(AP, 9/27/07)(WSJ, 9/28/07, p.A1)
1991 Dec 6, Gen. Pavle Strugar led the Yugoslav attack on Dubrovnik.
At least 43 civilians were killed in the attack. Serbs had opened bombardment of the Croatian port of Dubrovnik in early October. In 2001 Strugar (68) turned himself into the war crimes tribunal at the Hague. In 2005 Strugar was convicted of two counts of willful destruction of Dubrovnik and attacking civilians. In 2008 appeals judges added two more convictions for unjustified devastation of the
town and attacking civilian sites. They also cut his original sentence from eight years to seven and a half years because of his deteriorating health.
(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 10/22/01, p.B1)(AP, 7/17/08)
1991 Dec 19, Rebel Serbs declared independence in the Krajina region, which was almost a third of Croatia. The Republic of Serbian Krajina lasted 4 years with the hilltop fortress of Knin as the capital.
(SFC, 6/7/96, p.A15) (SFC,10/16/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 4/22/99,
1991 Dec, Germany gave diplomatic recognition to Slovenia and Croatia. The EU said it would recognize Croatia and Slovenia as independent states.
p.A14)(SFC, 10/6/00, p.A19)
1991 Dec, Hungarian officials discovered 11 tons of rocket launchers and automatic weapons being loaded on trucks headed for Croatia in violation of a UN arms embargo. They had been labeled as Chilean humanitarian aid for Sri Lanka. In Chile Col. Gerardo Huber,
who directed purchases at the army's weapons manufacturer, turned up dead shortly after testifying in a military investigation. His head had been blown apart by a blast from a machine gun. In 2009 former Chilean Army Gen. Guillermo Letelier and Air Force Gen. Vicente Rodriguez were sentenced to prison for shipping arms to Croatia at the time of its battle for independence from Yugoslavia. 11
people were sentenced by a military court in June, 2009, for their roles in the deal. In October, 2009, retired Gen. Victor Lizarraga and retired Col. Manuel Provis got 10 and eight years, respectively, for conspiracy and homicide. Gen. Carlos Krum and Col. Julio Munoz, also both retired, got nearly 2 years for conspiracy and murder, respectively. The identity of the gunman in Huber's murder
(AP, 6/10/09)(AP, 10/5/09)
1991 Stipe Mesic of Croatia was the last leader of the collective Yugoslav presidency before the country
(SFC, 2/8/00, p.A14)
1991 The Adriatic port of Zadar, Croatia, was bombed by Yugoslav army troops under Gen’l. Momcilo Perisic. Some 30 civilians were killed and 120 buildings damaged. He and 18 fellow
officers went on trial in absentia in Zagreb for war crimes in 1996.
(SFC, 10/18/96, A16)
1991 Eastern Slavonia was in part occupied by Serbs who had fled or were driven from other parts of
(SFC, 1/22/96, p.C1)
1991 A Serb rebellion set off a 6-month war in which at least 10,000 people were killed. Serb rebels backed by Yugoslavia seized a third of Croatia, but the territory was regained in
(SFC, 12/11/99, p.A16)
1991 Yugoslavia exported 149 M-84 tanks to Kuwait. They were assembled in Croatia from components made throughout Yugoslavia.
(Econ, 1/8/11, p.52)
1991-1995 Argentina shipped weapons to Ecuador and Croatia. The guns were initially shipped to Panama and Bolivia and the Argentine government later blamed arms dealers for their
(SFEC, 10/25/98, p.A24)
1992 Jan 2, Military commanders in Croatia agreed to a cease-fire accord, the 15th attempt at a
1992 Jan 3, The UN, led by US Sec. of State Cyrus Vance, brokered a cease-fire between the Croatian government and rebel Serbs. Following
subsequent breaches the UN Protection Force (UNPROFOR) put 14,000 peacekeeping troops into Croatia. The European Community (EC) recognized the independence of Croatia.
(SFC,10/16/97, p.A12)(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)
1992 Jan 7, Serb forces shot down a European Community helicopter in Croatia, killing five truce observers.
Jan 15, The Yugoslav federation, founded in 1918, effectively collapsed as the European Community recognized the republics of Croatia and Slovenia.
1992 Mar 3, Bosnia’s Muslims and Croats voted for independence in a referendum boycotted by Serbs.
May, Bosnia, Croatia and Slovenia joined the UN.
(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)
1992 May, The UN security council approved new commercial sanctions against
Yugoslavia, i.e. Serbia, for backing rebel Serbs in Croatia and Bosnia.
(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14) (SFC,10/16/97, p.A12)
1992 Aug 21,
Serbian soldiers separated over 200 men, mostly Croats and Muslims, from a convoy of civilians from the Trnopolje detention camp in Bosnia. The captives were taken to a wooded ravine at Mount Vlasic and shot dead. In 2003 Darko Mrdja, commander of a special police unit, admitted to a court in the Hague of playing a role in the slaughter. In 2009 Bosnian forensic experts found the
remains of at least 60 Muslims and Croats in the ravine.
(SSFC, 7/27/03, p.A8)(AP, 8/26/09)
1992 Dr. Matko Marusic, immunologist, began his Croatian medical
(WSJ, 11/24/98, p.A1)
1992-1994 Major Gen'l. Stanislav Galic led the Bosnian Serb Sarayevo Romanija Corps. In 1999 Ganic was captured by NATO SFOR troops for war crimes. In 2003 Gen.
Galic was sentenced to 20 years in prison.
(SFC, 12/21/99, p.A16)(SFC, 12/6/03, p.A11)
1992-1995 The war between Bosnia's Croats, Muslims and Serbs claimed some 100,000 lives. Government officials
estimated that at least 20,000 mostly Muslim women were raped during the conflict.
1993 Jan, Heavy fighting and the bitter Serb siege of Serajevo
continued. The UN and European Union peace efforts failed and war broke out between Muslims and Croats in Bosnia.
1993 Apr 16, Bosnian Croats
took part in a killing spree in the village of Ahmici and 116 Muslims were massacred and the village set fire. 6 Bosnian Croats went on trial in 1998 in the Hague on charges of war crimes. In 2000 Vladimir Santic, head of the Croat Jokers police unit, was sentenced to 25 years in prison; Drago Josipovic was sentenced to 15 years; Zoran and Mirjan Kupreskic were sentenced to 10 and 8 years, and
Vlatko Kupreskic received 6 years.
(SFC, 8/19/98, p.C2)(SFC, 1/15/00, p.A11)
1993 Apr 16, A Bosnian army unit massacred 16 Croatian civilians and at least 4 disarmed soldiers in the village of
(SFC, 4/14/11, p.A5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trusina_case)
1993 Dec 14, In Algeria a large group of armed terrorists attacked a work camp of a
hydro-electric project in Tamezguida. Fourteen Croatian citizens were taken out of the camp. Twelve were murdered by having their throats slit, but two others escaped with injuries.
1993 A Bosnian Croat, Zlatko Aleksovski, was one of six men charged in 1996 with killing Muslims in the central Lasva Valley in this year.
(SFC, 6/10/96, C16)
1993 Croat Gen. Ivan Andabaka was a member of the Convicts Battalion, a group believed to have been involved with atrocities against Muslims. Andabaka was arrested in 2000.
(SFC, 9/14/00, p.C7)
1993 Ignac Kostroman, believed to be involved in the massacre of Ahmici in Bosnia, was arrested in Croatia in 2000.
1993-1994 Mladen Naletilic commanded a gang of convicts who terrorized Muslims in southwestern Bosnia. In 2000 Croatia handed over Naletilic, a Bosnian Croat indicted in 1998 on 17 counts of war crimes, to the UN
(SFC, 3/22/00, p.A12)
1994 Mar 30, Serbs and Croats signed a cease-fire to end their war in Croatia while Bosnian Muslims
and Serbs continued to battle each other.
1994 Mar 18, Bosnian Muslims and Croats agreed to a federation between them and confederation with Croatia in
an agreement brokered by the US. Pres. Tudjman of Croatia approached US diplomats about possible arms shipments from Iran.
(AP, 3/18/04)(WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC,10/16/97, p.A12)
Apr, Anthony Lake, national security advisor, approved a State Dept. proposal that Peter Galbraith, US ambassador to Croatia, tell the Croatian government he had “no instructions” on whether the US approved or disapproved the shipment of arms to Bosnia through Croatia.
1994 Nov 19, The U.N. Security Council, anxious to stop Serb attacks on the "safe area" of Bihac in northwest Bosnia, authorized NATO to bomb rebel Serb forces striking from neighboring Croatia.
1994 Nov 21, NATO retaliated for repeated Serb attacks on a U.N. safe haven by bombing an airfield in a Serb-controlled section of
1994 Istria was the first region of the former Yugoslavia to be officially designated as a "Region of Europe". The Istria of 2005,
alternatively called Istra and Istrija, is politically divided into three separate countries: Croatia, Slovenia and Italy.
1, The Croatian army captured the Serb enclave of Western Slavonia in its first major bid to retake territories occupied in 1991. In reply the Krajina Serbs launched a rocket attack on Zagreb, the Croatian capital. Milan Martic, Croatian Serb leader of rebel Serb forces, ordered the shelling of Zagreb. Martic surrendered to the UN war crimes tribunal in
(SFC,10/16/97, p.A12)(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A15)(SFC, 5/8/02, p.A17)
1995 May 2, Serb missiles exploded in the heart of Zagreb, killing
1995 Aug 4, Croatia launched an offensive against Krajina, Operation Storm, and captured in days a region that
Serb rebels had held for 4 years. Most of its province of Krajina, including the Serb stronghold Knin, was taken in a 3-day offensive. Some 3,000 shells were fired into Knin and less than 250 hit military targets. Some 100,000 Croatian Serbs were driven from the area. Up to 600 Serb civilians were killed. A report on the events was published in 1999: "Report on the Military Operation Storm and
its Aftermath" by the Croatian Helsinki Committee for Human Rights.
(WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC,10/16/97, p.A12)(SFEC, 3/21/99, p.A17)(SFC, 4/27/99, p.A10)
Some 200,000 Serbs were moved from the Krajina region. More than 4,500 were killed and some 3,000 are still listed as missing in an operation that was directed by retired American generals through MPRI of Alexandria, Va. About 14,000 Krajina Serbs ended up in Kosovo until 1998, when they left as violence spread.
8/1/96 p.A15)(SFC, 7/6/99, p.B1)
1995 Sep 15, A Muslim-Croat offensive won 1,500 square miles of land. More than 150,000 Serbs fled, many to Eastern Slovenia.
1995 Oct 5, Pres. Clinton announced that a cease-fire was agreed on in Bosnia to start on Oct 10, and that combatants would attend talks in the US.
1995 Oct 12, After a 2-day delay, a cease-fire in Bosnia went into effect a minute after midnight. Fighting continued over contested towns in northwest
1995 Oct 16-1995 Oct 18, Richard Holbrooke and other international mediators met in Moscow and traveled to the main capitals of the
former Yugoslavia. The US named the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio, as the site for the peace talks.
1995 Nov 1, Peace talks
for the countries of the former Yugoslavia were launched in Dayton, Ohio.
1995 Nov 21, The Dayton Peace Accord, was initialed by the leaders
of Bosnia, Croatia and Serbia. US Sec. of State, Warren Christopher and chief mediator Richard Holbrooke manage to keep the parties talking for over 3 weeks to reach this agreement to end three and a-half years of ethnic fighting in Bosnia-Herzegovina. One year deployment of 20,000 US troops as one-third of a NATO peace keeping force was estimated to cost about $1.5 bil. The US also planned to
contribute $600 mil over three years to help rebuild Bosnia.
(WSJ, 11/22/95, p.A1,3)(SFC, 10/6/00, p.A19)(AP, 11/21/00)
1995 Nov, Croatian leader Franco Tudjman said
he will hold forces back from a Serb held area of Croatia during peace talks.
(WSJ, 10/20/95, p. A-1)
1995 Dec 14, An agreement for peace in Bosnia, reached at
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio, was formally signed. Presidents Alija Izetbegovic of Bosnia, Slobodan Milosevic of Serbia and Franjo Tudjman of Croatia signed the Bosnian peace treaty in Paris. The agreement divided Bosnia into 2 autonomous territories and granted 51% of Bosnia to the Muslim-Croat federation and 49% to the Serbs (Republika Srpska). Elections were scheduled and a
force of 60,000 Western troops was planned for deployment. A 3-member presidency and a national parliament was also part of the plan. The office of High Representative was created to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the Peace Agreement.
(SFC, 1/19/98, p.A8)(SFC, 9/22/98, p.A8)(AP,
1996 Apr 3, A US Air Force jetliner crashed near Dubrovnik, Croatia, and 35 people on board were killed including Ron Brown, Sec. of Commerce. Brown had been leading a delegation of business executives to the former
Yugoslavia to explore business opportunities that might help rebuild the war-torn region.
(WSJ, 4/4/96, A-1)(WSJ, 4/5/96, p.A-1)(AP, 4/3/97)(MC, 4/3/02)
1996 May 18,
In Zagreb two prominent journalists face trial for mocking Pres. Franjo Tudjman over his proposal to rebury pro-Nazi dead beside their Jewish and Serbian victims. Court papers were given to Feral editor Viktor Ivancic and lead writer Marinko Culic.
(SFC, 5/18/96, p.A-10)
1996 Jun 9, Police announced the arrest of a Bosnian Croat, Zlatko Aleksovski, charged with murder and mistreatment of Muslim prisoners. He is one of six men charged with killing Muslims in the central Lasva Valley 3 years ago.
(SFC, 6/10/96, C16)
1996 Jun 16, Croats in Mostar named Pero Markovic as the new president of Herzeg-Bosnia.
1996 Jun 16, Members of a Muslim party beat former Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic during a northern Bosnia political rally. Leaders of Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia signed an agreement to reduce arsenals of heavy weapons.
(WSJ, 6/17/96, p.A1)
1996 Aug 7, The presidents of Serbia and Croatia agreed to establish diplomatic relations.
1996 Sep 6, In Croatia a 6.0 earthquake hit the town of Ston.
(SFC, 9/7/96, p.A9)
1996 Oct 7, A spokesman for the UN transitional authority in Eastern Slavonia said 200 bodies were unearthed near Vukovar from the 1991 Serb occupation.
1996 Oct 16, The Council of Europe, a promoter of democracy and human rights, admitted Croatia as its 40th member.
1996 Nov 12, A building in Mostar, renovated under contract with the European Union, was taken over and adopted as the High Court of the Croatian Republic of Herceg-Bosnia. It was supposed to have been Mostar’s City Hall under joint
administration by Croats and Muslims.
(SFC, 12/4/96, p.C3)
1996 Nov 20, In Zagreb, Croatia, thousands protested the government’s attempt to close the independent
(SFC, 11/21/96, p.C6)
1996 Dec 25, Croatian Serbs attacked Croats who had been bused in to their former hometown in Eastern Slavonia for Christmas
(WSJ, 12/26/96, p.A1)
1997 Jan 24, Radio station 101 was awarded a broadcast license after a long battle with the Croat nationalist
(SFC, 1/25/97, p.C1)
1997 May 16, Southwest of Zagreb mobs of Croat refugees rampaged through at least 4 Serbian villages during the week and forced
dozens of Serbs to flee. A campaign was growing to drive out of the country some 100,000 Serbs who have remained since the end of the Balkan war and to block returning Serbs from re-settling.
(SFC, 5/17/97, p.A13)
1997 Jul 15, Eastern Slavonia was scheduled to be handed over to Croatian authorities. It had been seized by the Serbs in 1991. [see Jan 15, 1998]
(SFC, 1/22/96, p.C1)
1997 Jun 15, In Croatia voting irregularities occurred as Franjo Tudjman led low-turnout elections with 59%.
(SFC, 6/16/97, p.A8)
1997 Jun 10, The US endorsed a $13 million loan to Croatia.
(SFC, 6/11/97, p.C2)
Aug 5, In Croatia Pres. Tudjman took an oath of office for his 2nd 5-year term.
(WSJ, 8/6/97, p.A1)
1997 Oct, The documentary film
"Tudjman," about the leader of Croatia, was directed by Jakov Sedlar and Joe Tripican. It was first shown in Los Angeles with a travelogue on Croatia.
Nov 6, In Belgrade former Serb soldier and convict, Slobodan Misic, was arrested after he told reporters that he had killed up to 80 Croats and Muslims near Vukovar in eastern Croatia and in the Bratunac-Srebrenica area of eastern Bosnia in 1991.
1998 Jan 15, Eastern Slavonia reintegrated into Croatia. Some 75,000 Croat refugees promised friction with the Serbs occupying their homes. The 2-year UN peace mission ended but 180 int’l. observers were to remain as monitors.
(SFEC, 8/17/97, Par p.2)(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A1)(SFC, 1/16/98, p.B2)
1998 Jan, The Croat government passed a decree that permitted the eviction of thousands of Serbs
from state-owned apartments in Eastern Slavonia. The decree was rescinded in Feb.
(SFC, 2/13/98, p.D3)
1998 Feb 20, Tens of thousands of Croats protested in Zagreb
against high unemployment and falling living standards.
(SFC, 2/21/98, p.A10)
1998 May, In Croatia Gojko Susak, the Croatian Defense Minister, died of cancer. He had
directed the wartime revolt by Bosnian Croats against the Muslim-led Bosnian government.
(SFC, 5/14/98, p.C18)
1998 Jul 25, It was reported that
authorities in Split, Croatia, declared a natural disaster following an invasion of mice that devoured the region’s crops.
(SFC, 7/25/98, p.A8)
1998 Oct 3, In
Croatia Pope John Paul II beatified Cardinal Alojzije Stepinac, the World War II archbishop of Zagreb and a controversial figure because many Serbs and Jews accused him of sympathizing with the Nazis.
(SFEC, 10/4/98, p.A22)(AP, 10/3/99)
1998 Oct 22, In Croatia a 2nd clerk revealed that Pres. Franco Tudjman’s wife, Ankica Tudjman, had deposited nearly $300,000 into her bank account over the last 2 years. Robert Horvat and Ankica Lepej were to be indicted for violating bank secrecy laws. Mrs. Tudjman was a pensioner who ran
a children’s charity.
(SFC, 10/23/98, p.D3)
1998 Oct 26, In Croatia a jury reversed itself after 2 weeks and crowned a new Miss Croatia, a member of the Catholic
majority. Lejla Sehovic, the original winner, was a Muslim.
(SFC, 10/27/98, p.B5)
1999 Mar 20, A war crimes tribunal at the Hague recommended that 3 Croatian
generals be indicted for war crimes for "Operation Storm" in Aug, 1995.
(SFEC, 3/21/99, p.A17)
1999 Jul 1, Croatia planned to file charges against Yugoslavia in The
Hague for genocide following its declaration of independence in 1991.
(SFC, 7/2/99, p.A18)
1999 Nov 24, In Croatia the parliament passed a constitutional amendment
that declared Pres. Tudjman (77) to be temporarily disabled and acted to pass power to Vlatko Pavletic, speaker of parliament.
(SFC, 11/25/99, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/26/99, p.A1)
Dec 10, In Croatia Pres. Franjo Tudjman died at age 77. Vlatko Pavletic (1930-2007), speaker of Croatia's parliament, began serving as acting president for two months.
(SFC, 12/11/99, p.A16)(AP, 9/19/07)
2000 Jan 3, In Croatia a center-left coalition won the elections over the nationalist Democratic Union (HDZ). Leading the coalition were Ivica Racan (55) of the Social Democratic Party and Drazen Budisa (52) of the Social-Liberals.
(SFC, 1/4/00, p.A10)
2000 Jan 24, In Croatia 42% of voters chose Stipe Mesic for president and 28% chose Drazen Budisa. A runoff was set for Feb 7.
(SFC, 1/25/00, p.A11)
2000 Feb 7, In Croatia Stipe Mesic (65) was elected president over Drazen Budisa (51) by a 56.2 to 43.8% margin.
(SFC, 2/8/00, p.A14)
2000 Mar 9, In Bosnia US Sec. of state Madeleine Albright won a pledge from Croatian and Bosnian Serb leaders to allow thousands of refugees to go home.
(SFC, 3/10/00, p.A13)
2000 Mar 21, Croatia handed over Mladen Naletilic, a Bosnian Croat indicted in 1998 on 17 counts of war crimes, to the UN tribunal. Naletilic commanded a gang of convicts who terrorized
Muslims in southwestern Bosnia between 1993-1994.
(SFC, 3/22/00, p.A12)
2000 May 11, NATO nations approved Croatia’s bid to join the Partnership for Peace following
talks with Prime Minister Ivica Racan on progress toward democratic reforms.
(SFC, 5/12/00, p.D2)
2000 Aug 28, Milan Levar (45) was killed in a bomb blast. He had
testified on the killing of Serb civilians in Gospic, Croatia, in 1991. A dozen suspects were later arrested.
(SFC, 9/14/00, p.C4)
2001 Feb 11, In Croatia some
100,000 protested the investigation of former general Mirko Norac for war crimes in 1991.
(SFC, 2/12/01, p.B2)
2001 May 9, In Split, Croatia, a soccer brawl left 130
people injured including 30 police.
(SFC, 5/11/01, p.D4)
2001 May 19, In Croatia nationalists in local elections won 14 of 21
(WSJ, 5/22/01, p.A1)
2001 Jul 7, In Croatia PM Ivica Racan announced that citizens indicted by the UN War Crimes tribunal could be extradited to the
(SSFC, 7/8/01, p.A16)
2001 Jul 13, The Croat government identified Gen. Rahim Ademi as one of the 1st 2 Croats to be indicted by the UN war crimes tribunal
for atrocities against the Serbs in 1995. The other was identified as Ante Godovina.
(SFC, 7/14/01, p.A12)
2001 Jul 26, The UN War Crimes tribunal indicted Gen. Ante
Gotovina on 8 counts of war crimes linked to alleged atrocities in 1995. In 2005 Croatia’s failure to arrest him hindered the country’s entry to the EU.
(SFC, 7/27/01, p.D6)(Econ, 3/12/05, p.52)
2001 Oct 15, It was reported that Croatian officials had suspended the use of Baxter Int’l. filters for kidney dialysis machines after 23 patients died in a week. A similar incident in Spain killed 10 people but tests seemed to rule out the filters.
2001 A grape genetically identical to California’s zinfandel was discovered growing wild in Croatia.
2002 Jul 5, Croatian Prime Minister Ivica Racan resigned in a political maneuver apparently aimed at forcing a rival party out of his coalition government.
2002 Oct 3, NATO and European Union called on Croatia to cooperate with the U.N. War Crimes Tribunal, urging the government to hand over indicted war crimes suspect Gen. Janko
2002 Nov 1, Jakov Sirotkovic (80), a prominent economist and high-ranking member of the Communist party in the former Yugoslavia (head of the
Cabinet in Croatia), died.
2002 Cardinal Franjo Kuharic (83), former primate of Croatia (1970-1997),
(SFC, 3/12/02, p.A21)
2003 Apr 5, Croatian police have arrested Ivica Rajic (45), a Bosnian Croat long sought by the UN war crimes tribunal, for allegedly
carrying out atrocities against Muslim civilians during the Bosnian war.
2003 Apr 29, Croatian wartime army chief Janko Bobetko (84), hailed at home as
a hero of Croatia's 1991 struggle for independence but charged with war crimes by a UN court, died.
2003 Jun 5, Pope John Paul II began his landmark
100th foreign pilgrimage with a five-day, five-city tour of Croatia.
2003 Nov 18, The UN war crimes tribunal issued an indictment against former
Croatian Serb leader Milan Babic on five counts of war crimes for a campaign of ethnic cleansing in the Krajina region of Croatia early in the Balkan wars.
(AP, 11/18/03)(WSJ, 11/19/03, p.A1)
Nov 23, The Croatian Nationalist Democratic Union (HDZ), led by Ivo Sanader, won parliamentary elections.
(AP, 11/24/03)(Econ, 11/29/03, p.47)
Nov 24, The Croatian Nationalist Democratic Union (HDZ), which led the drive to independence and later into isolation, began negotiating with potential partners to form a new government after winning parliamentary elections.
2003 Dec 23, In Croatia Ivo Sanader (b.1953) began serving as prime minister. He resigned office in 2009.
2003 Dec 31, The UN refugee agency closed its last three field offices in Croatia.
2003 The population of Croatia was about 4.5 million.
2004 Jan 27, Wartime Croatian Serb
leader Milan Babic (1991-1992) pleaded guilty to persecution in a plan to ethnically cleanse parts of Croatia of non-Serbs at the outset of the Balkan wars, and expressed "a deep sense of shame" for his crimes. Babic was sentenced to 13 years in prison.
(AP, 1/27/04)(WSJ, 6/30/04,
2004 Feb 8, US Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld visited Croatia and thanked Pres. Stipe Mesic for Croatia's small military police contingent (50) in Iraq.
2004 Apr 5, Six ethnic Croats surrendered to the U.N. war crimes tribunal to face allegations they participated in the torture and massacre of Muslims in Bosnia in 1993.
2004 Aug, A team of Croatian cavers descended 1,693 feet to Earth’s deepest know hole in the Velebit Mountains of Croatia.
(SFC, 8/17/04, p.A6)
2004 Slavenca Drakulic, Croatian novelist and journalist, authored “They Would Never Hurt a Fly: War Criminals on Trial in the Hague.”
(SSFC, 8/8/04, p.M1)
2005 Jan 2, In Croatia Pres. Stipe Mesic won about 49 percent of the votes, compared with 20 percent for his closest rival, conservative government minister Jadranka Kosor, the popular
incumbent narrowly failed to win the absolute majority required for a first-round victory. Voters will return to the polls later this month for a presidential runoff.
Jan 16, Croatians returned to the polls for presidential runoff. Pres. Stipe Mesic won a 2nd term in the runoff election with 66% of the vote.
Jun 19, Top Croatian financial officials left for Washington to present a package of fiscal proposals that should shore up this year's budget and save the stand-by arrangement with the International Monetary Fund.
2005 Jul 19, Miroslav Bralo (37), former Bosnian Croat special forces soldier, pleaded guilty to war crimes at the Yugoslav tribunal in the Hague. Bralo was a member of an infamous unit, known as "the Jokers," responsible for attacks on Bosnian Muslim villages in the Lasva Valley of
central Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1993.
2005 Jul, Montenegro agreed to pay Croatia $460,000 in war compensation for cattle taken by its soldiers in
(Econ, 7/30/05, p.46)
2005 Sep 9, Croatia's government said that army officers can give lessons about the 1991 Serbo-Croat war in elementary schools,
despite critics' claims the move marks a return to communist-style links between schools and the military.
2005 Sep 20, Croatia issued an international
arrest warrant for Milivoj Aschner (92), a former police chief in eastern Croatia and requested that Austria extradite him. Aschner allegedly enforced racist laws in 1941-1942 under Croatia's World War II Nazi puppet regime, which persecuted tens of thousands of Jews, Gypsies and Serbs.
2005 Sep 20, Carla Del Ponte, chief prosecutor of the UN International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), told the Daily Telegraph that she believed General Ante Gotovina was being sheltered in a Franciscan monastery in Croatia. The Vatican denied any
2005 Oct 4, Croatia began delayed EU membership talks, after UN chief war crimes prosecutor Carla del Ponte endorsed Zagreb's cooperation
with her court.
2005 Oct 21, Britain and Croatia confirmed cases of bird flu as countries around the world scrambled to put in place measures to
prevent the spread of the virus. British officials said a parrot that had been imported from South America died of bird flu in quarantine.
26, The EU said the dangerous H5N1 strain of bird flu has been found in Croatia. Authorities said a 2nd parrot that died in quarantine in Britain was also infected with the virus.
2005 Dec 4, Croatia won its first Davis Cup title.
2005 Dec 7, Spanish authorities
arrested former Gen. Ante Gotovina, the top Croatian war crimes suspect, after four years on the run. He was captured in the Canary Islands when special police agents surprised him as he dined in a luxury beach hotel.
2005 Dec 15, A Croatian court sentenced six ethnic Serbs to between six and 14 years in prison in a retrial over the brutal harassment of Croat prisoners at the outset of Zagreb's 1991-95 war of independence.
2005 Dec 29, In Croatia Slobodan Davidovic (52), an ethnic Serb seen killing Muslims in a nationally televised video, was convicted of war crimes and sentenced to 15 years in prison, with the judge saying he had shown "no
mercy or compassion" for his victims.
2006 Mar 2, In Croatia 8 former soldiers were convicted of torturing ethnic Serbs in a wartime prison, four
years after they were cleared of the same charges in a trial later annulled as being flawed.
2006 Apr 9, Croatia’s Pres. Stjepan Mesic visited the SF
Bay Area, home to some 50,000 Croatians, for economic support. Croatia’s population stood at about 4.5 million people.
(SFC, 4/10/06, p.A2)
2006 Apr 19, In Croatia
workers who have been occupying a tobacco factory in Zagreb for nearly two weeks asked the chief state prosecutor to investigate their claims that the facility was illegally sold to a local tobacco giant.
2006 May 6, Vice President Dick Cheney met with President Stipe Mesic of Croatia, the final stop of a three-nation tour dominated by the issue of political reform in countries making the post-Cold War transition toward democracy.
2006 May 7, Vice President Dick Cheney endorsed the NATO membership aspirations of Croatia, Albania and Macedonia.
2006 May 8, In the Hague the UN war crimes court sentenced Ivica Rajic, a Bosnian Croat former militia leader, to 12 years in prison. Rajic admitted that forces under his command operating in the Muslim village of Stupni Do in central
Bosnia in October 1993 "forced Bosnian Muslim civilians out of their homes and hiding places, robbed them of their valuables, willfully killed Muslim men, women and children and sexually assaulted Muslim women".
2006 Oct 26, Croatian lawmaker Branimir Glavas, suspected of ordering the torture and killing of Serb civilians in 1991 during the Serbo-Croat war, was detained on war crimes charges after a parliament commission lifted his parliamentary immunity.
2006 Nov 4, Swathes of Austria, Belgium, Croatia, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands and went dark for up to an hour in the late evening as cold Germans rushing to switch on heaters sucked up electricity from
Europe's interconnected networks.
2007 Feb 18, In Nigeria gunmen seized three Croatian workers. The men were abducted in the region's main city of Port
2007 Mar 12, In Nigeria’s oil region hostage takers released 3 European captives. 2 Croatians and one Montenegrin seized Feb. 18 in Port
Harcourt were in good health after their release to state officials.
2007 Jun 12, In the Netherlands the Yugoslav war crimes tribunal convicted Milan
Martic (52), a wartime leader of Croatia's rebel Serbs, of murder, torture and persecution and sentenced him to 35 years in prison for the 1991-1995 brutal ethnic cleansing campaign of non-Serbs in Croatia.
(AP, 6/12/07)(WSJ, 6/13/07, p.A1)
2007 Jul 15, Antun Gudelj (59), a Croatian man charged with killing three police officials in the early days of the 1991 Serb-Croat war, was extradited from Australia to Croatia to face a new trial after an earlier pardon.
2007 Aug 30, In Croatia six men were killed and seven badly injured when they were trapped battling a fierce forest blaze on Kornat Island. 8 men were soon detained on suspicion of arson. PM Ivo
Sanader promised an investigation saying it was the biggest tragedy in Croatian firefighting.
2007 Sep 19, Vlatko Pavletic (77), a former speaker of
Croatia's parliament who served as acting president for two months beginning in Dec, 1999, died.
2007 Sep 27, A UN tribunal convicted Mile Mrksic (60),
a Serb army officer, of clearing the way for the torture and killing of 194 Croats seized from a hospital in a 1991 massacre. Veselin Sljivancanin (54), the area's chief security officer, was sentenced to five years for failing to protect the Croats from beatings and torture by the local Serb paramilitary forces and Territorial Defense units. Officer Miroslav Radic (45) was acquitted of any
(AP, 9/27/07)(WSJ, 9/28/07, p.A1)
2007 Nov 25, Croatia held parliamentary elections. Exit polls and preliminary results showed that the ruling
conservatives and opposition center-left Social Democrats were virtually tied.
2007 Nov 26, Croatia's ruling conservative HDZ party looked on course
to win another four years in power and take the nation into the EU after a close-fought parliamentary election. The ruling conservatives and center-left opposition sought allies after the vote left no clear winner.
(AP, 11/26/07)(WSJ, 11/27/07, p.A1)
2007 Dec 10, American blues guitarist "Philadelphia" Jerry Ricks (67), who mastered the sound of the 1930s' Delta Blues, died in a clinic in Croatia.
2008 Jan 12, Croatia’s Parliament approved a new coalition government headed by PM Ivo Sanader, who vowed to pursue Croatia's quest to join the EU and NATO.
2008 Mar 11, Three generals regarded as national heroes in Croatia went on trial at the Hague, accused of orchestrating the killing of at least 150 Serbs in a 1995 military campaign that unleashed widespread murder and
2008 Apr 3, Ivan Korade (44), a retired Croatian army general suspected in a grisly quadruple murder, died during a shootout with police that
also killed one officer. On April 1 Korade was charged with the March 27 killing of four people in his village of Velika Veternicka: a 16-year-old boy, his 62-year-old grandmother and two men, including a former Korade aide.
2008 Apr 4, US President George W. Bush arrived in Croatia after a NATO summit at which leaders invited the former Yugoslav republic to join the 26-nation western alliance.
2008 Apr 5, In Croatia President Bush celebrated NATO's expansion into former communist territory and urged further enlargement, highlighting differences with Moscow hours before final talks with outgoing Russian President Vladimir
2008 Jul 15, Croatia adopted a law that allows Sunday shopping only over the summer and Christmas holidays. It goes into effect January 1. The
law also allows stores in gas, bus and train stations to open on Sundays year-round, along with those in hospitals. Bakeries, newsstands and flower shops are also exempt from the ban.
2008 Oct 2, General Vladimir Zagorec was extradited from Austria to Croatia on charges of stealing gems used a collateral in an arms deal during the Balkan wars of the 1990s. 4 days later his lawyer’s daughter Ivana Hodak (26) was murdered.
2008 Oct 23, In Croatia Ivo Pukanic (47), who owned and edited Nacional, an influential publication known for its investigative journalism and Nacional's marketing director, Niko Franjic, died when an explosive device was placed near
their car in the capital, Zagreb. On Oct 31 Croatian police filed murder charges against five people over the bombing deaths. In 2010 six alleged members of a crime gang were convicted of conspiring to assassinate Pukanic and a fellow worker. Main suspect Zeljko Milovanovic, who was tried in absentia, was sentenced to the maximum 40 years in prison. He was being held in neighboring Serbia and
tried on similar charges. 5 other defendants were sentenced to 15 to 33 years in prison.
(AP, 10/24/08)(AP, 10/31/08)(AP, 11/3/10)
2008 Dec 3, NATO foreign ministers
affirmed their support for US plans to install anti-missile defenses in Europe despite Russia's strong opposition. NATO foreign ministers said they expected Albania and Croatia to become the alliance's newest members by April.
2008 Carla Del Ponte, a Swiss prosecutor, authored (with Chuck Sudetic) “Madame Prosecutor: Confrontations with Humanity’s Worst Criminals and the Culture of Impunity.” It covered her 8 years chasing Balkan war criminals. In 2009 this Italian edition was made available in English.
(Econ, 1/24/09, p.88)
2009 Jan 6, A natural gas crisis loomed over Europe, as a contract dispute between Russia and Ukraine shut off Russian gas supplies to six
countries and reduced gas deliveries to several others. Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Romania, Croatia and Turkey all reported a halt in gas shipments.
Apr 1, Albania and Croatia became NATO’s newest members.
(SFC, 4/2/09, p.A2)
2009 May 8, A Croatian court convicted an opposition
lawmaker of war crimes, making him the country's first senior politician to be held responsible for wartime atrocities against Serbs. Branimir Glavas was sentenced to 10 years in prison for war crimes against civilians, but he remained free because he enjoys parliamentary immunity from detention. During the 1991 Serbo-Croat war, he was a member of the ruling Croatian Democratic Union and formed a
paramilitary unit in eastern Croatian town of Osijek, where he was seen as a warlord.
2009 Jun 23, Serbia's war crimes court convicted Damir Sireta, a
Croatian Serb man, for the execution-style killings in Vukovar of some 200 Croatian prisoners of war in 1991 during the Balkan conflict. Sireta was sentenced to 20 years in prison.
2009 Jul 1, In Croatia PM Ivo Sanader (b.1953) unexpectedly announced his resignation.
(Econ, 7/4/09, p.50)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivo_Sanader)
2009 Jul 6, In Croatia deputy Jadranka Kosor (b.1953), a former journalist, was confirmed as the new prime minister.
2009 Jul 24, In southern Croatia a passenger train derailed, killing at least six people and injuring about 20.
2009 Dec 27, Croatians went to the polls amid a deepening economic crisis and concerns over high-level corruption to elect a president to steer the Balkans country into the EU. Centrist Stipe Mesic (75) stands down in February after serving the maximum two five-year terms and successfully
transforming the country from a nationalist autocracy into a parliamentary democracy. Social Democrat lawmaker Ivo Josipovic garnered 32.4% of votes and Zagreb Mayor Milan Bandic, who ran as independent candidate, got 14.8% of votes. The top two finishers will face each other in a Jan. 10 runoff.
2010 Jan 4, Serbia filed a lawsuit against Croatia at the International Court of Justice, accusing it of genocide during the 1991-1995 Balkan war, which killed or displaced thousands of
2010 Jan 10, Croatia held a presidential run-off vote pitting a left-wing professor against the populist Zagreb mayor. Front-runner Ivo
Josipovic vowed to crack down on corruption and lead the recession-hit nation into the EU. Law expert and classical music composer Josipovic (b.1957) won the runoff presidential vote, beating popular Zagreb Mayor Milan Bandic.
(AFP, 1/10/10)(AP, 1/10/10)
2010 Mar 20, Croatia and Slovenia hosted the 1st locally organized conference of the heads of government of the former Yugoslavia.
(Econ, 4/3/10, p.54)
2010 Apr 19, The Slovenian parliament ratified a border arbitration deal with Croatia vital for Zagreb's EU membership bid, but the deal still faces a much tougher test at a June referendum in Slovenia.
2010 May 4, The Croatian government and the UN said Justice Minister Ivan Simonovic has been chosen to be assistant UN secretary-general for human rights.
2010 May, Serbia and Croatia announced plans for a regional center to fight organized crime.
2010 Jun 8, Serbia and Croatia signed a defense co-operation agreement.
(Econ, 6/26/10, p.54)
2010 Jul 9, Prosecutors at the Yugoslav war crimes tribunal in The Hague cited Ratko Mladic's diaries, seized in a raid on his wife's Belgrade home in February, in a motion to reopen the trial of former Bosnian Croat political leader Jadranko Prlic and five other political and military
Croat officials that ended two months ago.
2010 Sep, In Croatia Mladen Barisic, a former treasurer of the ruling Croatia Democratic Union (HDZ) was
arrested. He told investigators that he used to bring former PM Ivo Sanader large bags of cash channeled from public companies that the pair indirectly controlled.
(Econ, 11/27/10, p.60)
Oct 5, In Zagreb, Croatia, artists Olinka Vistica and Drazen Grubisic opened the first permanent gallery of their Museum of Broken Relationships.
(Econ, 11/27/10, p.96)(http://new.brokenships.com/en)
2010 Oct 27, Croatian PM Jadranka Kosor survived a no-confidence vote in Parliament, with the opposition complaining about Croatia's economic decline and corruption in the upper echelons of her party. Parliament voted 79 to 62 in Kosor's support, 15 votes short of what was needed to oust
her in the 151-seat chamber.
2010 Nov 4, Serbian President Boris Tadic apologized at the Ovcara site near Vukovar of the 1991 bloody massacre of more
than 200 Croats, offering the strongest condemnation yet by a Serbian leader of Serb wartime atrocities.
2010 Nov 23, Croatia’s Atlantic Grupa food
company took over Slovenia’s Droga Kolinska for $326 million. This was the biggest corporate deal in the Balkans in recent years.
(Econ, 11/27/10, p.72)
2010 Dec 9,
Former Croatian PM Ivo Sanader, under investigation in a corruption case, left the country crossing into Slovenia, hours before parliament voted on lifting his immunity from prosecution so that he could be detained.
2010 Dec 10, Police in Croatia issued an international arrest warrant overnight for former PM Ivo Sanader, who left the country just as it became clear that prosecutors wanted him investigated and detained on corruption charges. Sanader was arrested on an international warrant in Austria.
(AP, 12/10/10)(AP, 12/11/10)
2010 Dec 30, In Croatia the leading daily Sata published only good news for today. A huge smiley face appeared on the front page, and
politics and crime were banished. The horoscope still forecast trouble for people with some signs.
2011 Feb 26, In Croatia some 15,000 people have
gathered at a protest in Zagreb organized by the veterans of the country's 1991-95 independence war. They were protesting in support of a fellow veteran awaiting extradition to Serbia in a Bosnian prison. Officers used tear gas to disperse the group. At least 25 people were injured.
2011 Mar 16, US federal agents arrested Azra Basic (52), a Croatian woman in small-town Kentucky for alleged war crimes two decades ago in the former Yugoslavia. A complaint accused Basic of committing crimes at three camps near the
majority-Serbian settlement of Cardak in Derventa. Authorities said that, as a soldier in the Croatian army, she killed a prisoner and tortured others by forcing them to drink human blood and gasoline.
2011 Mar 25, Croatia arrested Bojan Milkovic, head of the INA, the country’s national oil company, on corruption charges.
(Econ, 4/23/11, p.56)(http://tinyurl.com/3tnzyqm)
2011 Apr 13, Edin Dzeko (39) of Washington state was arrested for extraction to Bosnia for his alleged participation in the massacre of Croatian civilians in the village of Trusina as a member of a Bosnian army unit in April, 1993. 16 civilians and at least 4 disarmed soldiers were killed
in the village.
(SFC, 4/14/11, p.A5)
2011 Apr 15, In the Netherlands Gen. Ante Gotovina (55), a commander hailed by Croats as a hero of the Balkan conflict, was
convicted of war crimes by a UN court and sentenced to 24 years in prison for a campaign of shelling, shootings and expulsions aimed at driving Serbs out of a Croatian border region in 1995.
2011 Apr 16, Several thousand Croats protested against The Hague convicting two former Croatian generals whose trial was a condition of Croatia's attempt to join the European Union.
2011 May 9, An Austrian court approved the extradition of former Croatian PM Ivo Sanader to his homeland where he is suspected of corruption while in office.
2011 Jun 18, In Bulgaria nearly 1,000 marchers joined the fourth gay pride rally in Sofia. Gay pride rallies were also held in Croatia and Hungary. Hundreds of police were on duty to protect the marchers following calls by extremist
groups to stop the demonstrations.
2011 Jun 24, EU officials said Croatia will become a European Union member in two years, making it the first new
country to join the bloc since 2007 and offering hope to other nations from the former Yugoslavia seeking to join.
2011 Jul 18, Former Croatian PM Ivo
Sanader was extradited home from Austria to face charges of corruption.
(SFC, 7/19/11, p.A2)
2011 Jul 20, Serbia arrested Goran Hadzic (52), the last major war
crimes suspect from the 1990s Yugoslav conflicts, closing what its president called a "burdensome" page in the country's history. The Croatian Serb wartime leader had been indicted in 2004 for crimes against humanity during the 1991-95 Croatian war.
2011 Nov 2, Josip Boljkovac (89), Croatia's former interior minister (1990-1991), was arrested over accusations that he ordered mass killings of anti-communists soon after the end of World War II. He and two other former ranking Croatian officials have been under investigation for alleged
murders in 1945 and 1946 of soldiers and sympathizers of Croatia's Ustasha Nazi puppet regime that ruled during the war.
2011 Nov 7, Officials from
Bosnia, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia, announced plans for a donors' conference to be held next year and raise the money needed to implement a five-year plan designed to close down all migrant centers and provide housing for some 74,000 people.
2011 Nov 28, Yugoslavia's last PM Ante Markovic (87) died in Zagreb, Croatia. He tried to prevent the former country's bloody breakup in the 1990s.
2011 Dec 4, Croatians voted in a parliamentary election expected to unseat long-dominant conservatives and empower a center-left coalition. The vote for 151-seat parliament pits the governing center-right Croatian Democratic Union, or HDZ, against a coalition of left-leaning parties. The
latter has led recent opinion polls.
2011 Dec 9, Croatia signed a treaty to join the EU in 2013, a bittersweet milestone as the bloc prepares to take
on board a sluggish economy it will have to drag along at the time of its worst crisis ever.
2012 Jan 22, Croatians voted in a referendum on whether to
join the European Union. 68% approved the referendum with a turnout of 47% of eligible voters. Croatia signed an EU accession treaty last year and is on track to become a member in July 2013.
(AP, 1/22/12)(SFC, 1/23/12, p.A2)
2012 Jun 23, In Croatia at least eight Czech tourists were killed and 44 injured when a bus crashed and overturned on a major highway near Gospic.
2012 Jun 26, A Serbian war crimes court sentenced 14 former Serb soldiers to between four and 20 years in prison for the killing of 70 Croatian villagers in 1991, some of whom were forced to walk through a minefield in Lovas as human shields.
2012 Nov 16, The Yugoslav war crimes tribunal in The Hague overturned the convictions of Ante Gotovina and Mladen Markac, two Croat generals for murdering and illegally expelling Serb civilians in a 1995 military blit. Both men
returned home to a hero's welcome. The acquittals enraged hardline opponents of the UN court in Serbia who accuse its judges of anti-Serb bias.
Nov 20, A Croatian court found former PM Ivo Sanader (2004-2009) guilty on corruption charges and sentenced him to 10 years in prison. Judges found him guilty of accepting a $13 million bribe from Hungarian oil company MOL in return for securing rights in Croatia’s state oil company.
2012 Dec 9, Officials said 4 people have died in Croatia and 2 in Serbia as a result of blizzards in southwestern Europe over the weekend. The death toll in the region reached at least 9 people, with deaths in Bulgaria amd Kosovo, as the
cold snap continued through the week.
(AP, 12/9/12)(SFC, 12/15/12, p.A2)
2013 Mar 13, Croatia's parliament approved the withdrawal of some 100 peacekeeping troops
from the Golan Heights amid fears they could be targeted by Syrian government troops fighting the rebels.
2013 Apr 28, In Croatia a referendum failed
to derail plans for the construction of a large golf complex that could change the face of the ancient walled resort of Dubrovnik. Only 31% of Dubrovnik voters cast their ballots, well below the official 50% requirement.
2013 May 14, Croatia Airlines pilots and flight attendants went on strike over planned salary cuts and layoffs that are part of efforts to restructure the loss-making state carrier ahead of the country's EU entry.
2013 May 22, Croatian Airlines’ staff accepted a 9% wage cut and returned to work after 8 days of strikes.
2013 May 29, A UN court in the Netherlands convicted six Bosnian Croat political and military leaders of persecuting, expelling and murdering Muslims during Bosnia's war and said leaders in neighboring Croatia helped hatch and
execute their plan to carve out a Croat state in Bosnia.
2013 Jul 1, Croatia became the 28th EU member, the bloc's first addition since Bulgaria and
Romania joined in 2007. In its first day as an EU member, Croatia pledged to help other Balkan countries move closer to the bloc and to help bring lasting stability to a region which was engulfed in conflict 20 years ago.
(AP, 6/30/13)(AP, 7/1/13)
2013 Aug 13, Croatian farmers said they would press protests to demand the government pay them 600 million kuna ($105.83 million) in lost subsidies, cut in a budget crunch to meet deficit targets set by the EU. Finance Minister Slavko Linic said Croatia had to rein in spending. He said
country's public debt is at 190 billion kuna, 60% of GDP.
End of file