Timeline Timor-Leste

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Timor is an island about twice the size of Massachusetts. East Timorese are Roman Catholic and speak Tetum and Portuguese because of the 400 year colonial rule by Portugal. The islanders are a mix of Asian and Melanesian with ties to Polynesia and the Malaysian archipelago. The capital of East Timor is Dili. East Timor is 13,500 sq. km (5,600 sq. mls).
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A13)(SFC, 3/3/98, p.A6)

1512        The Portuguese took over control of East Timor.
    (SFC, 3/3/98, p.A6)

1695        Portugal established colonial rule in the eastern half of Timor Island. The western side was incorporated into the Dutch East Indies.
    (SFC, 5/18/02, p.A15)

1789        Jun 14, Captain William Bligh of the HMS Bounty arrived in Timor in a small boat.
    (HN, 6/14/98)

1791        Aug 29, The Pandora under Capt. Edward Edwards sank in Endeavour Strait (later Torres Strait) between Australia and New Guinea. 33 crewmen and 4 prisoners died. They managed to use small boats and arrived in Timor on Sep 16.
    (ON, 3/04, p.9)

1941        Dec 17, Australian and Dutch troops landed in Dili, East Timor.
    (/www.defence.gov.au/army/asnce/history.htm)

1942        Feb 19, Japanese troops landed on Timor. Australian commandos battled the Japanese with support from local people. Japanese reprisals killed 60,000 civilians, 13% of the population.
    (SFC, 5/17/02, p.A15)(MC, 2/19/02)

1942        May 18, Allied forces bombed the harbor city of Kupang (Koepang), Timor.
    (www.kensmen.com/may42.html)

1945        Aug 17, Indonesian nationalists declared independence from the Netherlands.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A13)(AP, 8/17/99)

1945        Indonesia, formed from the former Dutch East Indies, claimed West Timor. East Timor remained under Portuguese control.
    (SFC, 3/3/98, p.A6)(SFEC, 8/29/99, p.A19)

1949        Dec 27, Queen Juliana of the Netherlands granted sovereignty to the United States Indonesia after more than 300 years of Dutch rule. The Netherlands retained control of Irian Jaya, inhabited by Melanesians, until 1963.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1168)(SFC, 9/8/99, p.A17)(AP, 12/27/99)

1949        The Dutch East Indies gained independence. The western half of Timor island was incorporated into the new nation of Indonesia when Holland transferred sovereignty. Aceh's leaders agreed to join the new nation.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A13)(SFC, 9/8/99, p.A17)(SFC, 5/18/02, p.A15)(SFCM, 11/2/03, p.8)

1974        The process of decolonization in Portuguese Timor began, following the change of government in Portugal in the wake of the Carnation Revolution. Owing to political instability  (SFC, 3/3/98, p.A6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Timor)
1974        The Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (Fretilin) was established. In 2002 Helen M. Hill authored “Stirrings of Nationalism in East Timor: Fretilin 1974-1978."
    (SFC, 9/6/01, p.E4)(www.yale.edu/gsp/east_timor/)

1975        Oct 16, In East Timor five Australian journalists were killed when Indonesian troops overran the border town of Balibo. A 6th died weeks later when Jakarta launched a full-scale assault on Dili. In 2009 the film “Balibo," by Australian director Rob Connolly, depicted the killings.
    (AP, 7/22/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balibo_Five)

1975        Oct, US National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger told his staff: "I'm assuming you're really going to keep your mouth shut on the subject,"  in response to reports that Indonesia had begun its attack on East Timor. This statement was only made public in 2005.
    (AFP, 12/02/05)

1975        Nov 28, The Portuguese colonial rule collapsed and East Timor proclaimed independence, but 10 days later it was invaded by Indonesia.
    (G&M, 1/31/96, p.A-9)(SFC, 7/21/96, Z1, p.8)(SFC, 10/16/96, p.A18)

1975        Dec 4, Ramos Horta helped form an independent East Timor government but was forced to flee 3 days before Indonesia invaded.
    (SFEC, 6/27/99, p.A22)

1975        Dec 6, US President Ford and Secretary of State Kissinger met with Indonesian President Suharto and explicitly approved Indonesia’s invasion of East Timor. This information was only made public in 2005.
    (AFP, 12/02/05)(www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB62/)

1975        Dec 7, Indonesia invaded East Timor nine days after the Timorese political party Fretilin claimed independence. Some 600,000 were left dead after a prolonged war.
    (SFC, 7/21/96, Z1, p.8)(SFEC, 8/29/99, p.A19)(HNQ, 11/9/00)

1975-1999    A 2005 Australian report prepared for the UN said Indonesia killed up to 180,000 East Timorese through massacres, torture and starvation during its 24-year occupation.
    (AP, 1/19/06)

1976        Jul 15, Indonesia passed a law providing for annexation of East Timor, which the President of Indonesia signed on 17 July. East Timor became the 27th province of the Republic of Indonesia. The act was not recognized by the UN.
    (G&M, 1/31/96, p.A-9)(www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/timor-bkg.htm)

1978        Dec 31, Nicolau Lobato (b.1946), East Timor guerrilla commander, was killed. Jose Alexandre Gusmao was made the de facto Falintil leader.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falintil)

1978-2002    The Indonesian military systematically forced dozens of East Timorese women to become sex slaves for officers during its 24-year occupation of the half-island.
    (AP, 4/29/03)

1981        In East Timor Jose Alexandre Gusmao was made the official Falintil leader.
    (SFC, 9/8/99, p.A14)

1991        Nov 12, Indonesian troops under Lt. Gen’l. Sintong Panjaitan killed numerous people in the Santa Cruz Cemetery of Dili, East Timor. The massacre of over 270 civilians, gathered at the funeral of a young man killed 2 weeks earlier, by Indonesian troops was witnessed by reporter Allan Nairn. Nairn was arrested, beaten and banned from the country.
    (SFC,11/26/97, p.C2)(SFC, 3/17/98, p.B10)(SFC, 6/19/98, p.B7)

1992        Nov, Xanana Gusmao, East Timor rebel leader, was arrested at a "safe house" outside Dili for fighting Indonesian forces. He was sentenced to life in prison in 1993 following a trial in which he was represented by a member of the Indonesian security service. The sentence was later commuted to 20 years and he was moved to house arrest in 1999.
    (SFC, 2/10/99, p.C2)(SFC, 9/8/99, p.A14)

1993        Konis Santana (d.1998) took over leadership of the guerrilla Fretilin Party after the arrest and jailing of Xanana Gusmao.
    (SFC, 3/31/98, p.B3)

1995        Indonesian military commanders controlled the local coffee industry until this time.
    (SFEC, 8/29/99, p.A19)

1996        Oct 11, The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Roman Catholic Bishop Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo of East Timor and Jose Ramos-Horta, in exile in Australia, for their work to end oppression and violence in East Timor.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A1)(AP, 10/11/97)

1996        Oct 16, The Australian Senate called for self-determination in East Timor and supported independence from Jakarta. The government had earlier recognized the incorporation of East Timor into Indonesia.
    (SFC, 10/17/96, A11)

1996        The island of Timor numbered some 900,000 residents.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A13)(SFC, 3/3/98, p.A6)

1998        May, With Indonesian president Suharto‘s departure, various independence movements gained momentum around Indonesia including East Timor.
    (HN, 11/9/00)

1998        Jun 20, In East Timor a young Timorese was shot dead by a soldier as he gathered wood. Officers apologized and the soldier was charged.
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, p.A20)

1998        Jun 27, In East Timor Manuel Soares (21) was shot dead in Manatuto when troops opened fire to quell a clash between Pro-Indonesia and pro-independence supporters. Three EU envoys arrived on a fact-finding mission.
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, p.A20)

1998        Aug 14, Indonesia and the UN signed an agreement to allow human rights observers access to East Timor.
    (SFC, 8/15/98, p.A16)

1998        Sep 14, Hundreds looted a government-owned rice warehouse on East Timor.
    (WSJ, 9/16/98, p.A19)

1998        Nov 20, UN sponsored autonomy negotiations on East Timor were suspended after 44 people were reported killed under a military crackdown by the Indonesian government. The Red Cross later denied the reports of a massacre.
    (WSJ, 11/23/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/27/98, p.A1)

1998        Matthew Jardine (pseudonym for Joe Nevins) authored the book: "East Timor: Genocide in Paradise."
    (SFC, 3/3/98, p.A6)

1999        Jan 3, In Ainaro, East Timor, 3 men died from an assault by militiamen.
    (SFC, 2/8/99, p.A12)

1999        Jan 27, In Indonesia legislators announced that independence for East Timor would be considered. Also Chief Xanana Gusmao was to be released from prison but kept in confinement.
    (SFC, 1/28/99, p.C3)

1999        Jan, Militiamen in East Timor killed 3 people including a pregnant woman and a teenage student. Some 5,500 people fled their homes following the murders.
    (SFC, 2/8/99, p.A12)

1999        Apr 5, Two people were killed during clashes in Liquisa, East Timor. Jose Alexandre Gusmao, under house arrest in Jakarta, called for guerrilla attacks against Indonesian forces.
    (SFC, 4/6/99, p.A10)

1999        Apr 6, In East Timor gunmen fired shots and lobbed grenades into a church where 1500 residents had taken refuge. Some 40 people were reported killed in Liquica and 5 people were shot to death at the home of a parish priest. Military officials denied the massacre and a bishop later said the number killed might be less than 40. At least 25 people were killed by members of the Red and White Iron (Besi Merah Putih) militia group. In Dec. victims from the massacre at Liquica were brought up from Lake Maubara.
    (SFC, 4/7/99, p.C12)(WSJ, 4/8/99, p.A1)(SFC, 4/9/99, p.D2)(WSJ, 8/24/99, p.A10)(SFC, 12/21/99, p.A17)

1999        Apr 12, In East Timor 4 people were killed in fighting between factions for and against independence from Indonesia.
    (WSJ, 4/13/99, p.A1)

1999        Apr 18, In East Timor weekend violence left as many as 30 people dead, as pro-Indonesia militia rampaged through Dili.
    (WSJ, 4/19/99, p.A1)

1999        Apr 21, In East Timor the warring factions signed an agreement to end violence.
    (SFC, 4/22/99, p.D3)

1999        Apr 23, The foreign ministers of Indonesia and Portugal completed an agreement for the people of East Timor to vote on their future.
    (SFC, 4/24/99, p.A14)

1999        Apr 25, Pro-Indonesian militias were reported to have killed over 150 people in East Timor.
    (WSJ, 4/26/99, p.A1)

1999        May 3, In Indonesia the cabinet approved an autonomy package for East Timor to be voted on in August.
    (WSJ, 5/4/99, p.A1)

1999        May 5, Indonesia and Portugal signed accords to enable the people of East Timor to vote on independence Aug 8.
    (SFC, 5/6/99, p.A15)

1999        May 9, Violence in Dili, East Timor, between separatists and anti-independence militia began and left 4 people dead over the next 2 days.
    (SFC, 5/11/99, p.A12)

1999        Jun 17, In East Timor rival factions agreed to cease intimidation and violence prior to the August referendum between independence and autonomy.
    (WSJ, 6/18/99, p.A1)

1999        Jun 22, UN Sec. Gen'l. Kofi Annan announced a 2 week delay on the Aug 8 vote in East Timor due to security and logistics.
    (SFC, 6/23/99, p.A14)

1999        Jul 4, In East Timor anti-independence fighters fired for the first time on a convoy of foreign workers and wounded as many as 3.
    (SFC, 7/5/99, p.A12)

1999        Jul 21, It was reported that 40 to 60 thousand people had been driven from their homes in East Timor by some 13 anti-independence militia groups such as the Red and White Iron.
    (SFC, 7/21/99, p.A11)

1999        Jul 28, East Timor elections scheduled for Aug 8, and delayed to Aug 21, were again delayed to August 30.
    (SFC, 7/29/99, p.A16)

1999        Aug 18, Ramos Horta of Indonesia, 1996 Nobel Prize winner, warned the government that computer hackers would wreak electronic mayhem on the country if voting in the East Timor referendum is hampered.
    (SFC, 8/19/99, p.D10)

1999        Aug 26, In East Timor anti-independence militiamen left 6 people dead in Dili.
    (SFC, 8/27/99, p.A1)

1999        Aug 27, In East Timor some 800 militiamen attacked the village of Mimo and 3 people were killed.
    (SFC, 8/28/99, p.A10)

1999        Aug 28, It was reported that the Indonesian army had lost over 10,000 soldiers in East Timor over 24 years of sporadic warfare. An estimated 2,000 Indonesian troops died fighting guerrillas since 1975.
    (SFEC, 8/29/99, p.A19)(SFC, 8/31/99, p.A12)

1999        Aug 30, In East Timor UN-sponsored elections were held on autonomy vs. independence. 98.6% of the 451,000 registered voters cast their ballots. Roughly 78% of the electorate voted to sever links to Indonesia and establish an independent state. Pro-Indonesia militiamen reacted by going on a violent rampage that ended when international forces were sent in. U.N. peacekeeping forces arrived in the following weeks.
    (SFC, 8/30/99, p.A1)(SFC, 8/31/99, p.A12)(AP, 8/30/00)(HN, 11/9/00)

1999        Sep 1, In East Timor pro-Indonesia militia shot and hacked to death Jorges Francisco Bonaparte (19), a pro-independence activist, a few yards from the gate of the UN compound in Dili.
    (SFC, 9/2/99, p.A14)
1999        Sep 1, In East Timor pro-independence campaigner Guido Alves Correia in Dili was murdered. In 2004 Beny Ludji, an Indonesian citizen who was formerly a commander of the pro-Jakarta Aitarak militia, was sentenced to eight years in prison for the murder. Jose Gusmao, one of Ludji's men, was sentenced to 30 months.
    (AFP, 5/19/04)

1999        Sep 2, In East Timor pro-Indonesia militiamen killed 2 UN workers as the Indonesian government dispatched 500 riot police to maintain peace.
    (SFC, 9/3/99, p.A8)

1999        Sep 3, The East Timor election results were reported with 78.5% in favor of independence.
    (SFC, 9/4/99, p.A1)

1999        Sep 4, In East Timor pro-Indonesia militia took control of much of the country in defiance of the election results and a dozen people were reported killed in Dili.
    (SFEC, 9/5/99, p.A11)

1999        Sep 5, In East Timor anti-independence militias went on a rampage and 100 people were reported slaughtered in a church and hundreds of other beheaded as tens of thousands tried to flee. 18 suspects were indicted for the slaughter in 2001. In Indonesia 7 senior officials were charged in 2002 including former East Timor Gov. Abilio Soares.
    (SFC, 9/6/99, p.A1)(SFC, 2/22/02, p.A14)

1999        Sep 6, In East Timor martial law was declared by Indonesia as militias began executing independence leaders. A UN peace-keeping force was being formed to cope with the violence. A mass slaying of up to 200 civilians took place in Suai. 3 Roman Catholic priests were among the dead. In 2004 Martenus Bere, Indonesian former militia leader, was indicted for his role in the Suai Church massacre.
    (SFC, 9/7/99, p.A1)(SFC, 11/27/99, p.A14)(AFP, 9/7/09)

1999        Sep 7, The US threatened the withdrawal of financial aid to Indonesia if violence in East Timor was not curtailed.
    (SFC, 9/8/99, p.A1)

1999        Sep 8, In East Timor the UN delayed a pull out over concern for some 2,000 people gathered in its compound in Dili. Officials estimated that some 200,000 people had fled East Timor.
    (SFC, 9/9/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 9/9/99, p.A1)
1999        Sep 8, A pro-independence activist was killed in Maliana, East Timor. In 2001 Joao Fernandes, a member of the Merah Putih (Red and White) militia, was found guilty and sentenced to 12 years in prison. This was the 1st successful prosecution for the numerous East Timor slayings.
    (SFC, 1/26/01, p.A16)

1999        Sep 9, Pres. Clinton moved to cut military ties with Indonesia and the IMF suspended its lending program due to the violence in East Timor.
    (SFC, 9/10/99, p.A1)

1999        Sep 11, Pres. Clinton backed by the UN General Assembly demanded that Indonesia invite an int'l. force to restore order in East Timor.
    (SFEC, 9/12/99, p.A1)

1999        Sep 12, In Indonesia Pres. Habibie said he will allow armed foreign peacekeepers into East Timor. Reports had reached Jakarta that troops had attacked 30,000 people in the seminary town of Dare.
    (SFC, 9/13/99, p.A1,10)

1999        Sep 13, Indonesia agreed to an int'l. commission to investigate possible atrocities in East Timor and to create no obstacles to the deployment of a foreign peacekeeping force.
    (SFC, 9/14/99, p.A1)

1999        Sep 14, In East Timor Indonesian soldiers looted the abandoned UN compound in Dili.
    (SFC, 9/15/99, p.A14)

1999        Sep 15, The UN authorized an int'l. peacekeeping force in East Timor led by Australia with some 8,000 troops from a number of nations.
    (SFC, 9/15/99, p.A15)(WSJ, 9/16/99, p.A1)

1999        Sep 18, Indonesian troops prepared to leave East Timor as a multinational force steamed in.
    (SFEC, 9/19/99, p.A17)

1999        Sep 20, In East Timor the first wave of int'l. peacekeepers, known as Interfet, landed and established control over Dili.
    (SFC, 9/20/99, p.A1)(SFC, 9/21/99, p.A10)(SFEC, 9/26/99, p.A12)

1999        Sep 22, In East Timor armed men killed a Dutch journalist and assaulted 2 others as Australian peacekeepers fanned out from Dili and collected weapons from pro-Jakarta militia.
    (WSJ, 9/23/99, p.A1)

1999        Sep 25, In East Timor 9 to 16 people were reported killed in rural areas while on a mission to aid refugees. Militia members killed 8 people in a van near Baucau City. 11 men were indicted for the murders.
    (SFC, 9/28/99, p.A12)(SFC, 11/17/01, p.A15)

1999        Sep 29, The 1st evidence of atrocities in East Timor was discovered in the charred remains of 9 bodies in the back of a burned out pickup truck.
    (SFC, 9/30/99, p.A18)

1999        Sep 30, Some 30 Falintil guerrillas under Cornelio Goma came down from the mountains to Dili, East Timor, and turned over weapons left by Indonesian troops, but not their own weapons. Goma offered his 500 troops for joint patrols with the int'l. peacekeepers.
    (SFC, 10/1/99, p.D4)

1999        Oct 1, Joao da Silva Tavares, a militia leader in West Timor, said he planned to lead 12,000 fighters back to 6 western districts of East Timor.
    (SFC, 10/2/99, p.C1)

1999        Oct 5, Kofi Annan presented a UN plan to take full control of East Timor and guide the territory to nationhood over 2-3 years.
    (SFC, 10/6/99, p.A10)

1999        Oct 6, In East Timor Australian peacekeepers killed 2 anti-independence militia-men near the West Timor border.
    (SFC, 10/7/99, p.C2)

1999        Oct 19, In East Timor refugees were returning at the rate of 500 per hour and 17,000 were expected by the end of the day.
    (SFC, 10/20/99, p.A10)
1999        Oct 19, In Indonesia the People's Consultative Assembly relinquished the national claim to East Timor.
    (SFC, 10/20/99, p.A1)

1999        Oct 21, In East Timor Jose Alexandre "Xanana" Gusmao, the exiled guerrilla leader, returned to Dili.
    (SFC, 10/22/99, p.B2)

1999        Oct 25, The UN Security Council voted to send 8,950 peacekeepers, 1,640 police officers and 200 military observers to oversee the East Timor transition to independence.
    (SFC, 10/26/99, p.A10)

1999        Oct 31, In East Timor the last 900 Indonesian soldiers departed. Indonesian forces had burned about 80% of East Timor’s government buildings and infrastructure following the vote for independence.
    (SFEC, 10/31/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/10/04, p.A1)

1999        Dec 13, In West Timor, Indonesia, Joao Tavarres, supreme militia commander, ordered his forces to immediately dissolve and surrender their weapons.
    (SFC, 1/11/00, p.A12)

1999        Australia started pumping from the Laminaria-Corallina oil field in the Timor Sea.
    (Econ, 6/5/04, p.40)
1999        Australia withdrew from the Int’l. Court of Justice’s jurisdiction on maritime boundary questions shortly before East Timor’s independence.
    (Econ, 6/5/04, p.40)
1999        A 2006 report by East Timor's Truth and Reconciliation Commission found that Australia actively lobbied to delay East Timor's independence vote in 1999 and prevent its separation from Indonesia.
    (AFP, 2/2/06)

2000        Jan 22, UN investigators found the bodies of 8 people in a mass grave in East Timor. This brought the total number of bodies recovered since Sep to about 200.
    (SFC, 1/12/00, p.A11)

2000        Jan 31, In Indonesia a government commission issued a report that accused the military and militia surrogates of mass killing, torture, deportation and rape in East Timor.
    (SFC, 2/1/00, p.A10)

2000        Feb 19, It was reported that some 200 people had died in East Timor, mostly women and children, in the last week due to illnesses attributed to sanitation problems caused by recent flooding.
    (SFC, 2/19/00, p.C1)

2000        Feb 24, In East Timor Australian peacekeepers handed control of the region over to a UN force.
    (WSJ, 2/24/00, p.A1)

2000        May 18, In East Timor floodwaters from monsoon rains drowned at least 50 people in refugee camps.
    (SFC, 5/19/00, p.D4)

2000        Jul 24, A New Zealand soldier was killed during a clash with opponents for independence, the 1st UN peacekeeper killed in East Timor.
    (SFC, 7/25/00, p.A14)

2000        Aug 22, In West Timor pro-Indonesia militiamen severely beat 3 UN relief workers. UN relief work in West Timor was suspended the next day.
    (SFC, 8/24/00, p.A13)

2000        Sep 1, In Indonesia prosecutors named 19 people, including 3 generals as possible suspects in the killings and destruction in East Timor in Sept. 1999.
    (SFC, 9/2/00, p.A12)

2000        Sep 6, In West Timor thousands of armed militia rampaged through a UN office in Atambua and killed at least 3 UN workers and burned their bodies. UN relief workers were flown out the next day and 90,000 refugees faced shortages of food and medicine. The militia attack followed the death of Olivio Mendosa Moruk, an East Timorese militia leader.
    (SFC, 9/7/00, p.A1)(SFC, 9/8/00, p.A12)(SFC, 9/13/00, p.A14)

2000        Sep 15, In Australia 4 athletes from East Timor took part in the 2000 Olympics.
    (WSJ, 9/18/00, p.A1)

2000        Sep 19, The UN granted its peacekeepers in East Timor the right to shoot at armed attackers without warning.
    (SFC, 9/20/00, p.A14)

2000        Oct 19, Jose Ramos-Horta, Nobel Peace laureate, was sworn in as the East Timor foreign minister.
    (SFC, 10/20/00, p.D8)

2001        Feb 1, In East Timor the former guerrilla force was transformed into the core of a new national army.
    (SFC, 2/2/01, p.D4)

2001        Mar 29, In East Timor Xanana Gusmao said he would not compete in the nation’s 1st presidential election. Gusmao quit the interim legislature yesterday.
    (SFC, 3/30/01, p.A18)

2001        Jul 4, Australia’s interim cabinet approved East Timor’s demands for 90% of the revenues from oil and gas reserves in the Timor Sea.
    (SFC, 7/5/01, p.A8)

2001        Aug 30, In East Timor elections were held for an 88-member assembly to write a constitution. Voter turnout was estimated at 93% and the Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor was expected to win. Fretilin secured 55 0f 88 seats.
    (WSJ, 8/31/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 8/31/01, p.A5)(SFC, 8/31/01, p.A18)(SFC, 9/6/01, p.E4)

2002        Feb 9, East Timor approved a draft for a new constitution. Full independence was scheduled for May 20.
    (SSFC, 2/10/02, p.A14)

2002        Mar 14, In Jakarta the human-rights trial to probe the 1999 violence in East Timor began with 3 generals among the 18 suspects accused of crimes against humanity.
    (SFC, 3/14/02, p.A8)

2002        Apr 14, In East Timor elections former guerrilla leader Xanana Gusmao led over Francisco Xavier do Amaral by a large margin. Xanana Gusmão was elected the first president of East Timor and he served from May 2002 until May 2007.
    (SFC, 4/16/02, p.A7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xanana_Gusm%C3%A3o)

2002        Apr 17, The UN officially declared former guerrilla leader Xanana Gusmao as winner in East Timor’s 1st presidential elections.
    (SFC, 5/18/02, p.A15)

2002        May 20, East Timor, with a population at about 800,000, celebrated independence. A legal battle loomed with Australia over the disputed Greater Sunrise natural gas field in the Timor Sea. The filed lay 95 miles south of East Timor and 250 miles north of Australia.
    (SFC, 5/20/02, p.A6)(WSJ, 5/20/02, p.A19)(WSJ, 6/10/04, p.A1)
2002        May 20, East Timor was renamed Timor-Leste upon independence.
    (www.mindef.gov.sg/armynews/display0.asp?articleId=57)

2002        Jul 2, East Timor President Xanana Gusmao and his Indonesian counterpart Megawati Sukarnoputri opened a new chapter in ties between the world's newest nation and its former foe, establishing formal diplomatic links and pledging to work together.
    (Reuters, 7/2/02)

2002        Aug 14, An Indonesian court sentenced a former East Timor governor to three years in jail over violence linked to the territory's 1999 independence vote.
    (Reuters, 8/14/02)

2002        Aug 15, An Indonesian court acquitted a former East Timor police chief and five other security officers of crimes against humanity over East Timor's bloody independence vote in 1999.
    (AP, 8/15/02)

2002        Sep 27, East Timor, the first country to be born in the 21st century, gained a seat at the United Nations, swelling the membership roll to 191.
    (Reuters, 9/27/02)

2002        Dec 4, Security forces fired on student protesters in the East Timorese capital, killing two people and prompting angry mobs to loot shops and set fire to several buildings, including the prime minister's house.
    (AP, 12/4/02)

2002        The first Timor Sea Treaty was signed with Australia giving East Timor 90% of the revenue from a Joint Petroleum Development Area (JPDA).
    (Econ, 6/8/13, p.44)

2003        Jan 31, A Russian cargo plane crashed while landing in fog near an airport on East Timor's north coast, killing all six people aboard.
    (AP, 1/31/03)

2003        Feb 4, The UN indicted 32 people, including 15 Indonesian soldiers, on allegations they tortured and killed East Timorese during the country's bloody split from Indonesia in 1999.
    (AP, 2/4/03)

2003        Apr 5, In East Timor Jose Cardosa Fereira, senior militia leader, was found guilty of murder, rape and torture of civilians in East Timor who supported the territory's 1999 independence from Indonesia. He was sentenced to 12 years.
    (AP, 4/5/03)

2003        Sep 16, The UN turned over responsibility for security in East Timor's second largest city to the country's fledgling police force.
    (AP, 9/16/03)

2003        East Timor promulgated its first big land law. This passed ownership of property previously controlled by the Portuguese and the Indonesians to the new state. Details of the exact tracts of land to be transferred remained an unsettled questioned even to 2012.
    (Econ, 5/5/12, p.44)

2004        Apr 19, The annual environmental Goldman Prizes were awarded in SF. Winners included Demetrio De Carvalho of East Timor for his environmental efforts.
    (SFC, 4/19/04, p.B5)

2004        Jul 29, Four Indonesian security officers convicted over atrocities during East Timor's 1999 violence-marred independence vote were acquitted.
    (AFP, 8/6/04)

2004        Nov 5, Abilio Jose Soares, the only Indonesian official to be punished for violence that killed up to 2,000 East Timorese in 1999, has been released from jail, following a court decision that overturned his conviction. Soares was the former governor of East Timor.
    (CP, 11/6/04)

2004        Nov 25, Eight former pro-Jakarta militiamen were convicted in East Timor for crimes against humanity committed in the mayhem surrounding a 1999 UN-backed vote that led to the country's separation from Indonesia.
    (AFP, 11/29/04)

2004        Oil production at the Bayu Undan oil field in the Timor Sea was expected to begin. Australia claimed a 50% stake due to an arrangement made with Indonesia prior to East Timor’s independence.
    (SFC, 10/20/00, p.D3)

2005        Mar 9, Indonesia and East Timor agreed to set up a commission to deal with atrocities surrounding East Timor's 1999 vote for independence, despite criticism led by the UN.
    (AP, 3/9/05)

2005        Apr 8, Indonesia's Pres. Yudhoyono was greeted in East Timor on a visit to bolster reconciliation between Jakarta and the territory it once occupied with brutal force.
    (AP, 4/8/05)

2005        May 13, East Timor finished talks in Sydney, Australia, that managed to overcome 2 main sticking points on their maritime border and revenue from the Greater Sunrise gasfield. They agreed to defer the boundary issue for 50 years along with a 50% revenue split.
    (Econ, 5/21/05, p.46)

2005        Jun 13, Australia handed East Timor the base at Moleana, a tiny town near the border with Indonesia, signaling the end of a six-year mission that heralded a controversial new era of regional intervention in East Timor.
    (AP, 6/12/05)

2005        Jun 29, A UN team of experts called for an international tribunal to prosecute Indonesia’s security forces and militia during its bloodstained exit from East Timor in 1999.
    (AP, 6/29/05)

2005        Aug 4, In Bali a truth commission set up by Indonesia and East Timor began work, seeking to deflect growing calls for an international tribunal to probe the tiny territory's bloody independence vote in 1999.
    (AP, 8/4/05)

2005        Oct 31, A UN-sanctioned panel investigating human rights violations during Indonesia's bloody 24-year occupation of East Timor presented its findings to the country's president.
    (AP, 10/31/05)

2005        Dec 1, Australia and East Timor finalized a revenue-sharing pact covering the $5 billion Sunrise natural-gas project.
    (WSJ, 12/2/05, p.A8)

2005        Dec 27, East Timor's president formally opened a consulate in Indonesia's neighbouring West Timor province in an effort to strengthen relations between the two nations.
    (AFP, 12/28/05)

2006        Jan 12, Australia and East Timor agreed to equally share revenue from the Greater Sunrise natural gas project in the Timor Sea.
    (WSJ, 1/13/06, p.A8)

2006        Feb 21, Portugal's President Jorge Sampaio was granted honorary citizenship of East Timor as he began a three-day official trip to the former Portuguese colony.
    (AFP, 2/21/06)

2006        Feb, About 500 East Timorese soldiers deserted in protest against alleged discrimination and over-zealous surveillance. The fledgling East Timorese army has about 1500 regular soldiers and 1500 reservists.
    (http://tinyurl.com/egj85)

2006        Mar 16, Timor-Leste’s PM Mari Alkatiri sacked almost half the country’s 1,400-strong army for going on strike effective as of March 1.
    (Econ, 6/3/06, p.38)(http://tinyurl.com/egj85)

2006        Apr 28, In East Timor hundreds of former soldiers burned cars and shops in Dili, sparking violent clashes with police that left at least two people dead and 27 injured. The soldiers, who were dismissed last month for striking against "discriminatory" working conditions, have held near-daily rallies in Dili this week demanding that their grievances be heard.
    (AP, 4/28/06)

2006        May 23, Fighting between disgruntled former soldiers and the military left at least two people dead in East Timor, as Australia and New Zealand offered to provide troops to the tiny nation to help restore calm.
    (AP, 5/23/06)

2006        May 24, International peacekeepers and troops from Australia and New Zealand were headed to East Timor to help restore order after gunbattles between disgruntled ex-soldiers and the military killed two people and wounded nine.
    (AP, 5/24/06)

2006        May 25, In East Timor fierce gunbattles raged in Dili as international troops started arriving in the tiny nation to help quell a rebellion by disgruntled ex-soldiers. Soldiers fired on unarmed police killing 10 and wounding 27. At least 10 people died in other attacks.
    (AP, 5/25/06)(SFC, 5/26/06, p.A15)(Econ, 6/3/06, p.38)
2006        May 25, PM John Howard increased Australia’s contingent to Timor-Leste to some 1,300 troops. 500 Malaysians and troops from New Zealand and Portugal were also deployed.
    (Econ, 6/3/06, p.15)

2006        May 26, Hundreds of foreign troops struggled to keep East Timor from tipping into civil war amid widening violence, including a mob attack that killed six relatives of a government minister and set his house ablaze.
    (AP, 5/26/06)

2006        May 27, East Timor's capital descended into chaos as rival gangs set houses on fire and attacked each other with machetes and spears, defying international peacekeepers patrolling in armed vehicles and combat helicopters. The prime minister said a coup attempt was underway.
    (AP, 5/27/06)

2006        May 28, In East Timor rival gangs torched homes and battled each other with machetes in Dili, scattering and regrouping as Australian troops in armored vehicles rumbled toward the sound of gunfire.
    (AP, 5/28/06)

2006        May 30, In East Timor machete-wielding mobs torched homes and ransacked buildings in Dili as desperate residents scuffled over scarce food and the president said he was taking over "sole responsibility" for the country's national security.
    (AP, 5/30/06)

2006        Jun 1, East Timor President Xanana Gusmao made an emotional plea for peace after weeks of violence, as the rebel leader pressed him to oust the unpopular prime minister.
    (AFP, 6/1/06)

2006        Jun 2, In Timor-Leste lawlessness raged in parts Dili as mobs looted government warehouses, stealing computers, office chairs and file cabinets. Foreign troops deployed to restore order were nowhere to be seen.
    (AP, 6/2/06)

2006        Jun 4, In East Timor gangs burned half a dozen buildings near the airport in Dili as residents pleaded for a permanent police presence in their neighborhoods to stop the violence.
    (AP, 6/4/06)

2006        Jun 6, Some 2,000 protesters calling for the ouster of East Timor's PM Mari Alkatiri cruised around Parliament in a convoy of horn-blaring trucks and motorcycles, hours after mobs set fire to buildings and looted a warehouse filled with farm supplies.
    (AP, 6/6/06)

2006        Jun 11, Foreign Minister Jose Ramos-Horta said the East Timorese government has asked the UN to form an "independent special inquiry commission" into violence that has left 21 dead.
    (AFP, 6/11/06)

2006        Jun 13, UN chief Kofi Annan asked UN human rights chief Louise Arbour to help set up an independent enquiry commission to probe a recent wave of ethnic violence in East Timor.
    (AP, 6/13/06)

2006        Jun 16, East Timor rebel soldiers surrendered the first of their weapons to Australian peacekeepers, beginning a process deemed vital to ending months of bloody unrest.
    (AP, 6/16/06)

2006        Jun 20, East Timor prosecutors ordered the arrest of Rogerio Lobato, the former interior minister, for supplying weapons to a hit squad tasked with eliminating the prime minister's political opponents. International troops tightened security across the capital as hundreds of protesters gathered to demand PM Mari Alkatiri's ouster.
    (AP, 6/20/06)

2006        Jun 21, East Timorese PM Mari Alkatiri likely will resign, his spokesman said, as the country's president and members of the beleaguered leader's own party joined a chorus of people saying he no longer had their trust.
    (AP, 6/21/06)

2006        Jun 22, East Timor's president threatened to resign after the ruling party defied his orders to oust the prime minister.
    (AP, 6/22/06)

2006        Jun 23, East Timor's president backed off a threat to resign, telling thousands of flag-waving supporters he would not abandon them as the country searched for a solution to weeks of political turmoil and bloody street battles.
    (AP, 6/23/06)

2006        Jun 24, In Timor-Leste thousands of protesters demanded the ouster of PM Mari Alkatiri, blaming him for provoking violence and political chaos.
    (AP, 6/24/06)

2006        Jun 26, East Timor's embattled PM Alkatiri resigned, setting off celebrations in the violence-scarred capital and raising hopes for an end to weeks of political turmoil and unrest.
    (AP, 6/26/06)

2006        Jun 28, Stone-throwing youths attacked refugee camps and torched homes in East Timor, raising tensions as thousands of supporters of ex-premier Mari Alkatiri waited outside the capital Dili.
    (AFP, 6/28/06)

2006        Jul 1, Sources said East Timor's outgoing foreign minister Jose Ramos-Horta will head the government until a new premier is appointed in coming days.
    (AFP, 7/1/06)

2006        Jul 8, Jose Ramos-Horta, Nobel peace laureate, was named East Timor's new prime minister.
    (AP, 7/8/06)

2006        Jul 10, Nobel laureate Jose Ramos-Horta was sworn in as PM of East Timor in a move aimed at ending months of political uncertainty and street violence.
    (AP, 7/10/06)

2006        Jul 14, East Timor's President Xanana Gusmao swore in a new government as his tiny nation looked for a return to political order after several weeks of unrest.
    (AFP, 7/14/06)

2006        Jul 22, East Timor's newly installed PM Jose Ramos-Horta offered a weapons amnesty to prevent a repeat of communal clashes which left 21 dead two months ago.
    (AFP, 7/22/06)

2006        Aug 2, The Australian government said it had started reducing troop numbers in East Timor as security in the tiny nation was steadily improving.
    (AP, 8/3/06)

2006        Aug 19, In East Timor rampaging youths set houses on fire in Dili, a reminder that stability has not yet returned to Asia's newest nation following months of violence.
    (CP, 8/19/06)

2006        Aug 25, The UN established a new mission in East Timor but left Australian-led troops in place following a dispute over whether they should remain independent or be part of a UN force.
    (Reuters, 8/25/06)

2006        Aug 30, Nearly 60 inmates escaped from an East Timor jail, including scores of people arrested in recent violence that wracked the tiny nation and militiamen who opposed the country's break from Indonesian rule.
    (AP, 8/30/06)

2006        Sep 13, International police deployed to East Timor in the wake of unrest in May formally handed over their authority to the UN at a ceremony in the capital. A battle between rival gangs armed with machetes killed one fighter and injured five others in Dili.
    (AFP, 9/13/06)(AP, 9/14/06)

2006        Oct 17, A UN report recommended that recommended that East Timor’s former interior minister Rogerio Lobato, military chief Taur Matan Ruak, and several others be prosecuted for illegal distribution of weapons and be held accountable for unrest that gripped capital Dili this year. The 79-page report also called for a further investigation into former PM Mari Alkatiri to determine whether he should face criminal charges.
    (Reuters, 10/18/06)

2006        Oct 26, In East Timor witnesses and residents said 2 men were shot to death in overnight gang battles in Dili.
    (AP, 10/26/06)

2006        Dec 3, In East Timor a man was hacked to death and 17 others were injured in overnight gang fighting in Dili.
    (AP, 12/3/06)

2007        Jan 12, East Timor and France signed non-aggression treaties with ASEAN member countries on the sidelines of the annual ASEAN summit in the Philippine resort city of Cebu. Both countries looked to strengthen ties with a bloc representing  a sixth of the world's people.
    (AP, 1/13/07)

2007        Jan 18, East Timor and the UN launched an appeal for $16.6 million to help resettle and reintegrate about 100,000 people displaced by violence which wracked the country last year.
    (AFP, 1/18/07)

2007        Feb 17, About 40 prisoners escaped from a jail in East Timor, adding to security concerns as it prepares for elections following political turmoil and violence last year.
    (AP, 2/17/07)

2007        Feb 22, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to extend the UN mission in East Timor for a year and beef up the international police force ahead of upcoming elections.
    (AP, 2/22/07)

2007        Feb 23, An Australian soldier opened fire on a group of East Timorese attacking him with steel arrows, killing one of the youths and critically wounding two.
    (AP, 2/23/07)

2007        Feb 25, PM Jose Ramos-Horta of East Timor told a cheering crowd in his hometown that he will run in April's presidential elections, vowing to help return peace and stability to the troubled nation.
    (AP, 2/25/07)

2007        Mar 4, In East Timor International security forces backed by helicopters raided a rebel hide-out and killed four suspected insurgents, though their leader Alfredo Reinado escaped.
    (AP, 3/4/07)

2007        Mar 7, In Timor-Leste a three-judge panel found Rogerio Lobato, a former interior minister, guilty of fueling violence a year ago that ultimately led to the downfall of the government and sentenced him to 7 1/2 years in prison.
    (AP, 3/7/07)

2007        Mar 29, Indonesia reopened its border with East Timor because the fugitive rebel who caused its closure is no longer considered a threat.
    (AP, 3/29/07)

2007        Apr 9, East Timor held elections. A Nobel laureate squared off with two rivals in presidential elections that could test East Timor's fragile calm a year after one of the world's youngest and poorest nations reached the brink of civil war.
    (AP, 4/9/07)

2007        Apr 11, Three candidates battled for a spot in East Timor's presidential runoff after none got enough votes to win outright.
    (AP, 4/11/07)

2007        May 9, East Timor voted for a new president, choosing between a Nobel Prize winner and an ex-freedom fighter in polls critical to maintaining peace a year after the nation was pushed to the brink of civil war.
    (AP, 5/9/07)

2007        May 10, Nobel Peace Prize winner Jose Ramos-Horta pledged to unite troubled East Timor after the former resistance leader was elected president of one of the world's poorest nations.
    (AFP, 5/10/07)

2007        May 14, Gangs torched houses and fought in East Timor, injuring around 14 people, as violence broke out following the nation's presidential elections.
    (AP, 5/15/07)

2007        May 20, Jose Ramos-Horta was sworn in as East Timor's president as violence erupted in the capital between rival groups, leaving one person dead.
    (AFP, 5/20/07)

2007        Jun 30, East Timor parliamentary elections got under way. The ruling Fretilin party narrowly defeated its rivals in elections, prompting the President Jose Ramos-Horta to call for a national unity coalition to avoid a collapse of the government.
    (AP, 6/30/07)(AP, 7/5/07)

2007        Jul 17, It was reported that the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization and WFP estimated that the cereal deficit for East Timor this year and next will reach 86,364 tons. With commercial imports anticipated at 71,000 tons, the shortfall needs to be filled through food assistance.
    (AFP, 7/17/07)

2007        Jul 26, East Timor's President Jose Ramos-Horta asked visiting Australian PM John Howard to keep Australian peacekeepers in the young nation until the end of 2008.
    (AFP, 7/26/07)

2007        Aug 6, Independence hero Xanana Gusmao was named East Timor's new prime minister, triggering fresh violence in the capital.
    (AP, 8/6/07)

2007        Aug 7, Mobs torched government buildings and foreign aid offices, as street violence triggered by the appointment of East Timor's new PM spread to Baucau, the 2nd-largest city. The former ruling Fretilin party won 21 seats in the 65-member Parliament, well short of a majority, but insisted it had the right to form the next government. Gusmao's party won 18, but formed a coalition that now comprises 37 seats.
    (AP, 8/7/07)

2007        Aug 10, In East Timor dozens of attackers raided the Salesian Don Bosco convent and raped several female students, including one around 8 years old.
    (AP, 8/11/07)

2007        Aug 23, Hundreds of rampaging youths torched dozens of houses and clashed across East Timor, leaving at least two people dead, in violence sparked by the appointment of independence hero Xanana Gusmao as prime minister.
    (AP, 8/23/07)

2007        Oct 3, Police in East Timor arrested Vicente "Railos" da Conciecao, the suspected head of a hit squad. He was linked with Rogerio Lobato, a former interior minister convicted of giving weapons to civilians during a wave of violence last year.
    (Reuters, 10/3/07)

2007        Dec 14, Australian PM Kevin Rudd and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon jetted into East Timor to lend support to the nation's efforts to stabilize and rebuild after violence last year. Rudd pledged to support the nation's ongoing security needs during the five-hour stop.
    (AP, 12/14/07)(AFP, 12/14/07)

2008        Feb 11, Rebel soldiers shot and critically wounded East Timor's Pres. Jose Ramos-Horta, and opened fire on PM Xanana Gusmao, in a failed coup attempt in the recently independent nation. Rebel leader Alfredo Reinado and one of his men were killed in the attack on the home of Ramos-Horta, while one of the president's guards also died. In 2010 Angelita Pires (43), an Australian woman, was cleared of the attempted assassination. Prosecutors had stated that she had persuaded her lover, rebel leader Alfredo Reinado, to mount the attack. 23 others were sentenced to jail terms ranging from nine to 16 years. 4 others were acquitted.
    (AP, 2/11/08)(AP, 3/3/10)

2008        Feb 12, East Timor declared a state of emergency. Australian troops and a warship arrived to boost security after rebel attacks on the country's two top leaders left the president in "extremely serious" condition with gunshot wounds.
    (AP, 2/12/08)

2008        Mar 2, Amaro da Costa, a senior East Timorese rebel soldier, surrendered. He was accused of being involved in last month's attacks on the country's president and prime minister.
    (Reuters, 3/2/08)

2008        Apr 4, Indonesia's Supreme Court overturned the conviction of a notorious militia leader accused in attacks that left about 1,000 people dead following East Timor's 1999 independence vote. With Eurico Guterres' upcoming release, all 18 suspects originally indicted will have been acquitted or set free.
    (AP, 4/5/08)

2008        Apr 29, Gastao Salsinha, the leader of a group of East Timor rebels accused of trying to assassinate President Jose Ramos-Horta, surrendered with 12 of his men, raising hopes that the troubled young nation can find some rare stability.
    (Reuters, 4/29/08)

2008        Jul 7, Police in East Timor's capital fired tear gas to disperse students protesting a plan by lawmakers to buy themselves new cars with state funds.
    (AP, 7/7/08)

2008        Jul 11, Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva promised to support East Timor during talks in Dili with Timorese leaders including President Jose Ramos-Horta.
    (AFP, 7/11/08)

2008        Jul 15, Indonesia's president acknowledged that his country carried out gross human rights abuses during East Timor's 1999 break for independence, but stopped short of offering a full apology and said no one would be prosecuted.
    (AP, 7/15/08)

2008        Oct 22, Defense Minister Joel Fitzgibbon said Australia will reduce its troop deployment to East Timor because of the improved security situation.
    (AFP, 10/22/08)

2009        May 15, In Indonesia 6 Asia-Pacific countries, meeting at the World Oceans Conference, agreed on a management plan to protect one of the world's largest networks of coral reefs, promising to reduce pollution, eliminate overfishing and improve the livelihoods of impoverished coastal communities. The Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security covered an area defined as the Coral Triangle, which spans Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and East Timor.
    (AP, 5/15/09)

2009        Jun 25, The government of East Timor said it plans to establish a national park to protect a bounty of dolphins and whales, some of them endangered species, recently discovered mingling and feeding off its coast.
    (AP, 6/25/09)

2009        Sep 9, Australia announced that it has launched a war crimes investigation into the 1975 killing of five Australian-based journalists during an attack by Indonesian forces in East Timor.
    (AP, 9/9/09)

2009        Dec 1, Indonesia banned the film “Balibo," an Australian-made film on the alleged murder of six Australian-based journalists by Indonesian troops during the 1975 invasion of East Timor.
    (AFP, 12/2/09)

2009        Geoffrey Robinson authored “If You Leave Us Here, We Will Die": How Genocide Was Stopped in East Timor.
    (Econ, 2/27/10, p.89)

2010        Jan 22, In East Timor police launched a full-scale anti-ninja operation and later extended it for six months with support from the armed forces.
    (AFP, 4/6/10)

2010        Feb 5, In East Timor 20 members of dissident political group CPD-RDTL and underground political organization Bua-Malus were arrested on suspicion of involvement in "ninja" activities.
    (AFP, 4/6/10)

2010        Feb, In East Timor construction workers uncovered human bones while digging the foundation of a five-star hotel. Experts later said the 9 blindfolded and buried bodies were likely East Timorese freedom fighters executed and put in a mass grave early in the Indonesian occupation (1975-1999).
    (AP, 3/12/10)

2010        Jul 5, Australia's new leader launched a plan to make East Timor a hub for processing asylum seekers fleeing war and persecution across Asia while a debate rages in her country over illegal migration.
    (AP, 7/05/10)

2010        Jul 7, East Timor's Pres. Jose Ramos Horta said he supports in principle an Australian plan to turn his country into a regional center for processing asylum seekers but does not want his tiny, impoverished nation to become an "island prison."
    (AP, 7/7/10)

2010        Sep 8, In East Timor Mario Viejas Carrascalao (73), a deputy prime minister, announced his resignation in a letter published in the national newspaper, Tempo Semanal. In a blow to his "personal dignity," he said PM Gusmao had screamed at him at a public meeting and called him dumb. Carrascalao outlined a long list of problems facing East Timor, accusing the government of failing to address and sometimes participating in corruption and nepotism, and increasing their own well-being while ordinary citizens continued to live in abject poverty.
    (AP, 9/8/10)

2010        Oct 13, Australia and Indonesia agreed to further discuss plans for a refugee centre in East Timor to stem the flow of asylum seekers through Southeast Asia on their way to Australia.
    (AFP, 10/13/10)

2011        Mar 27, United Nations police returned full control of East Timor to the national force, more than four years after bloody clashes threatened to push the country into civil war.
    (AFP, 3/27/11)

2011        East Timor’s first shopping center, The Timor Plaza, opened in Dili.
    (Econ, 3/10/12, p.52)

2012        Mar 17, East Timor voted for a new president. Incumbent Jose Ramos Horta, a Nobel Peace Prize laureate (1996), faced off against 11 other candidates. Francisco "Lu Olo" Guterres, of the traditionally strong leftist Fretilin party, won with 29% of the vote, followed by former military chief Jose Maria Vasconcelos, aka Taur Matan Ruak, with 25%. A runoff was scheduled for mid-April.
    (AP, 3/17/12)(AP, 3/19/12)(Econ, 3/24/12, p.42)

2012        Apr 16, In East Timor 2 former guerrilla leaders vied for the presidency. Jose Maria Vasconcelos, known by his nom de guerre, Taur Matan Ruak, received 61% of the vote defeating Francisco "Lu Olo" Guterres.
    (AP, 4/16/12)(AP, 4/17/12)

2012        May 19, In East Timor former guerrilla leader and ex-army chief Taur Matan Ruak was sworn in as the new president as the young democracy, devastated by decades of conflict, celebrated 10 years of independence.
    (AFP, 5/19/12)

2012        Jun, In East Timor construction workers discovered the remains of 52 people in a garden outside the beachfront palace in June, which houses the office of PM Xanana Gusmao. More bodies found in July put the number at 72. Clues indicated the dead may have been Chinese, who were in East Timor before Indonesian occupation.
    (AFP, 7/13/12)

2012        Jul 7, East Timor's voters went to the polls in parliamentary elections seen as a key test for the young and fragile democracy and likely to determine if UN peacekeepers can leave by the end of the year. Preliminary results showed resistance hero Xanana Gusmao to be set for a new term as premier after his party won most seats in parliamentary polls, but will have to form a coalition.
    (AFP, 7/7/12)(AFP, 7/8/12)

2012        The population of East Timor was about 1.1 million.
    (Econ, 6/30/12, p.42)

2013        Sep 23, East Timor police said there will be zero tolerance against those who continue to practice martial arts after the government banned all clubs following deadly gang violence. Fighting among rival clubs has left at least 12 Timorese dead and over 200 injured in the past two years.
    (SFC, 9/24/13, p.A2)

2014        Mar 3, The United Nations' highest court banned Australia from making any use of documents it seized from a lawyer working for East Timor in an arbitration case over a multibillion-dollar oil and gas deal between the two nations.
    (AP, 3/3/14)

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