Timeline El Salvador

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The area of El Salvador is 8,416 square miles.
 (AP, 3/21/04)
 The elected president serves one five-year term. A unicameral legislature, elected every three years, has 84 seats.
 (AP, 3/21/04)

1811        Nov 5, El Salvador fought its 1st battle against Spain for independence.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1821        Sep 15, A junta convened by the captain-general in Guatemala declared independence for its provinces Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua San Salvador and Chiappas.
    (AP, 9/15/97)(EWH, 1968, p.843)

1823        Jul 1, The United Provinces of Central America (Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and San Salvador) gained independence from Mexico. The union dissolved by 1840.
    (PC, 1992, p.393)(ON, 12/99, p.5)

1839-1840    The Liberals of the United Provinces of Central America under leader Francisco Morazan were defeated in a civil war led by Rafael Carrera. The confederation dissolved into its 4 component states: El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.
    (EWH, 1968, p.857)

1854        Apr 16, San Salvador was destroyed by an earthquake.
    (HN, 4/16/98)

1930        Oct 13, Shafik Handal, later head of the Salvadoran left, was born to immigrant Palestinian parents from Bethlehem in the city of Usulutan, El Salvador.
    (AP, 1/24/06)

1932        Jan 23, El Salvador army killed 4,000 protesting farmers.
    (MC, 1/23/02)

1932        In El Salvador acting president Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez crushed a peasant rebellion, leaving more than 30,000 people dead.
    (AFP, 2/1/19)

1942-1945    Jose Arturo Castellanos (d.1977 at 86), Salvadoran diplomat in Geneva, gave citizenship certificates to as many as 40,000 Jews during the Holocaust. In 2010 Israel named him posthumously as one of the "Righteous Among the Nations."
    (AP, 5/14/10)(http://tinyurl.com/28n2pd7)y

1960        The Central American Common Market was set up by a treaty between El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and later Costa Rica. It fell apart by the end of the decade.
    (Econ, 5/14/05, p.41)(www.bartleby.com/65/ce/CentrACM.html)

1969        Jun 27, Honduras and El Salvador broke diplomatic relations due to soccer match. El Salvador and Honduras fought a 4-day "Soccer War" when fans brought out long-simmering tensions during World cup qualifying matches. Some 3,000 people died in the 4-day conflict.
    (www.onwar.com/aced/data/sierra/soccer1969.htm)(Econ, 11/28/09, p.52)

1972        Feb 20, El Salvador held presidential elections. The blatancy of fraud employed to maintain the PCN in power outraged and disillusioned many Salvadorans, including members of the armed forces. Leftists protested the election fraud.
    (http://countrystudies.us/el-salvador/11.htm)(WSJ, 1/10/05, p.A10)

1972        Mar 25, In El Salvador a group of young army officers, led by Colonel Benjamin Mejia, launched a coup. Their immediate goal was the establishment of a "revolutionary junta." It seemed clear, however, that the officers favored the installation of Jose Duarte as president.

1972        Shafik Handal (1930-2006) became leader of the Salvadoran Communist Party.
    (AP, 1/24/06)(www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20060130/news_1m30handal.html)

1975        May 10, In El Salvador leftist poet and novelist Roque Dalton (b.1937) was executed by a group of commandos. In 2010 his relatives petitioned prosecutors to file homicide charges against two ex-rebel commanders, who they claim participated in the decision to kill the writer. The complaint named former Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front leader Joaquin Villalobos and Jorge Melendez, who serves in the current government as head of the civil defense office. In 2012 a judge closed the case ruling it's too late for a prosecution.
    (AP, 5/15/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roque_Dalton)(AP, 1/10/12)

1977        Mar 12, Jesuit priest Rutilio Grande, outspoken in his defence of the poor, was shot more than dozen times along with an elderly man and a teenager by a right-wing death squad in rural El Salvador while they were riding in a jeep. In 2020 the Vatican said the pope had approved a decree recognizing that Rutilio Grande and two lay Salvadorans were killed "in hatred of the faith".
    (Reuters, 2/22/20)

1977        In El Salvador guerrilla activities by the leftist Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN) intensified amid reports of increased human rights violations by government troops and right wing death squads.
    (SSFC, 3/15/09, p.A7)

1979        In El Salvador guerrilla warfare broke out in the cities and countryside amid government repression.
    (WSJ, 1/10/05, p.A10)

1979-1981    In El Salvador an estimated 30,000 people were killed by army-backed right-wing death squads.
    (SSFC, 3/15/09, p.A7)

1980        Mar 24, Archbishop Oscar Arnulfo Romero, one of El Salvador's most respected Roman Catholic Church leaders, was shot to death by gunmen as he celebrated Mass in San Salvador. In 1993 a UN-sponsored truth commission determined that the assassination was ordered by a former army major and Maj. Roberto D'Abuisson, founder of the Nationalist Republican Alliance party (ARENA). D’Abuisson (d.1992) was also credited with founding the national death squads. In 2004 a California federal judge found Alvaro Rafael Saravia, a retired Salvadoran air force captain living in Modesto, Ca., liable in the slaying of archbishop Romero and ordered him to pay $10 million in damages.
    (AP, 3/23/97)(SFC, 1/18/96, p.C1)(SFEM,11/16/97, p.17)(SFC, 9/4/04, p.B7)

1980        Apr, In El Salvador Army Major Roberto d’Aubuisson (d.1992) founded the rightist Republican Nationalist Alliance (ARENA).

1980        Sep 11, In Santa Rosita, El Salvador, soldiers in search of leftist rebels killed Dolores Soriano (19) and 16 of her neighbors. Soriano was 6-months pregnant.
    (SFC, 2/17/00, p.A12)

1980        Dec 2, Three American nuns and a lay worker were abducted, raped and shot in San Salvador. Nuns Dorothy Kazel, Ita Ford, Maura Clark, and lay worker Jean Donovan were raped and shot by guardsmen. The murders occurred as the US began a 10-year $7 billion aid effort to prevent left-wing guerrillas from coming to power. Five national guardsmen were later convicted in the killings, and sentenced to 30 years in prison.
    (SFC, 4/3/98, p.B2)(SFC, 4/23/98, p.A16)(AP, 12/2/00)

1980        Dec 3, Peasants discovered the bodies of nuns Dorothy Kazel, Ita Ford, Maura Clark, and lay worker Jean Donovan and buried them.
    (AP, 12/2/00)

1980        Dec 4, In El Salvador the bodies of four American nuns slain two days earlier were unearthed. Colonel Edgardo Casanova was the military commander of the area at the time. Five national guardsmen were later convicted of murder and sentenced in May 1984 to 30 years in prison. In 1998 the guardsmen admitted that they were acting on orders from above. In 1993 a UN Truth Commission report concluded that Colonel Carlos Eugenio Vides Casanova, director of the National Guard and brother of Edgardo, and Gen’l. Jose Guillermo Garcia, the minister of defense, had organized an official cover-up. Both men were granted residence in the US. 3 of the 5 convicted guardsmen were released in 1998 due to prison overcrowding. In 1999 families of the victims filed suit against Casanova and Garcia who were living in Florida. In 2000 a federal jury cleared the 2 retired generals. In 2002 a Florida jury found Casanova and Garcia responsible for torture and ordered payment of $54.6 million to 3 victims living in Florida.
    (AP, 12/4/97)(SFC, 4/3/98, p.B2)(SFC, 4/23/98, p.A16)(SFC, 6/25/98, p.A10) (SFC, 7/23/98, p.C2)(SFC, 5/13/99, p.C3)(SFC, 11/3/00, p.A3)(SFC, 7/24/02, p.A12)

1980        Dec 13, Christian Democrat Jose Napoleon Duarte was named the president of El Salvador’s new government.
    (AP, 12/13/00)

1980        El Salvador instituted agricultural reform and the Finca El Espina coffee plantation was confiscated from the Duenas family and given to their workers, who formed a cooperative. The Duenas received $4 million in compensation.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, p.C18)
1980        The Salvadoran Communist Party, led by Shafik Handal (1930-2006), merged with four other leftist groups into the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front, or FMLN.
    (AP, 1/24/06)

1980-1992    In El Salvador a civil war raged during which security forces have been blamed for killing 40,000 civilians with torture commonplace. It was later reported that the US had pumped $1.5 million a day into the fight "to make El Salvador safe for democracy."
    (SFC, 5/8/96, p.A-19)(SFEM,11/16/97, p.28)

1981        Jan 7, An operational and planning assistance team (OPAT) arrived in El Salvador to provide assistance in protecting the harvest from the guerrillas. By the end of the Carter Administration, nineteen US military advisors had been deployed there.

1981        Feb 19, The US State Department called El Salvador a "textbook case" of a Communist plot.
    (HN, 2/19/98)

1981        Mar 2, The United States planned to send 20 more advisors and $25 million in military aid to El Salvador.
    (HN, 3/2/99)

1981        Mar 25, The US Embassy in San Salvador was damaged when gunmen attacked, firing rocket propelled grenades and machine guns.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1981        Jul 25, In El Salvador 45 farmers were allegedly massacred at the hands of the military in San Francisco Angulo. In 2014 the Supreme Court ruled that prosecutors must investigate the massacre.
    (SFC, 2/7/14, p.A2)

1981        Dec 11, In El Salvador hundreds of people were killed over 3 days in the village of El Mozote by an elite US-trained army battalion led by Commander Domingo Monterrosa. In 1991 the office of Maria Julia Hernandez (1939-2007) published the first investigation into El Mozote. In 1992, under a UN sponsored Truth Commission, the Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team found 143 skeletons, 131 of which belonged to children under 12. The bullet cartridges showed manufacture in Lake City, Mo. In Dec, 2012, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruled that El Salvador should reopen its investigation into the army’s killing of some 1000 civilians.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, Z1p.4)(Econ, 4/14/07, p.97)(SFC, 12/12/12, p.A2)(Econ, 6/8/19, p.33)

1981        El Salvador’s FMLN was recognized by France and Mexico recognized in as a legitimate political force, while the US was criticized for aiding the military government, whose army backed right-wing death squads.
    (SSFC, 3/15/09, p.A7)

1981         A dozen suspected leftist Salvadorans were thrown from a plane to there deaths, says a former US diplomat.
    (V. Sun, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

1982        Mar 28, Voters in El Salvador went to the polls for a constituent assembly election that resulted in victory for the Christian Democrats, led by President Jose Napoleon Duarte.
    (AP, 3/28/97)

1982        Apr 29, Alfredo Magana was elected president of El Salvador.

1982        In El Salvador 3 police officers arrested 6 university students, held them in a clandestine prison and tried to kill them. The officers became fugitives in Oct 1996 when faced with the accusations.
    (SFC, 1/31/97, p.A14)
1982        In El Salvador 10 police officers were involved in the killing of a Nicaraguan mechanic and a Honduran farmer suspected of transporting arms to rebels in El Salvador. They were charged with the murders in July 1995.
    (SFC, 1/31/97, p.A14)
1982        In El Salvador the daughters of Nicolasa Rivas, Gladys Suleyma (6) and Norma Climaco Rivas (7), disappeared  in San Vicente province  during a military operation called Mario Azenon Palma. In 2018 the Supreme Court of the country backed a demand by Rivas for a probe into the disappearances.
    (SFC, 2/28/18, p.A4)

1983        Apr 6, Melida Anaya Montes ("Comandante Ana Maria"), Salvadoran FMLN guerrilla leader, was killed in Nicaragua, where many Salvadoran guerrillas took refuge under its leftist government. In 2007 her body was exhumed and buried in her homeland.
    (AP, 6/14/07)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ana_Mar%C3%ADa)

1984        Mar 25, Jose Napoleon Duarte (1925-1990), a Christian Democrat political moderate, was elected president of El Salvador following 5 years of military rule.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvadoran_presidential_election,_1984)(SSFC, 3/15/09, p.A7)

1985        Jun 19, In El Salvador 4 off-duty US Marines and 9 others were killed at sidewalk restaurants in the Zona Rosa section of San Salvador. Pedro Antonio Andrade Martinez (aka Mario Gonzalez), a Marxist guerrilla, was one of the reputed masterminds of the massacre. Andrade later became an informant for the CIA and sought US asylum. Andrade was deported from the US in 1997.
    (SFC, 11/22/96, p.A21)(SFC,11/6/97, p.C3)

1986        A large earthquake hit El Salvador. The US provided $60 million in emergency aid and $98 million in reconstruction funds.
    (SFC, 3/2/01, p.D4)

1987        Oct 26, Herbert Anaya Sanabria, the head of Salvadoran Human Rights Commission, was assassinated by death squads.

1987        Under a conservative El Salvador government the Supreme Court ruled that the Finca El Espina coffee plantation had been illegally expropriated from the Duenas family and should be returned.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, p.C18)

1989        Feb 13, Salvadoran army attacked Encuentros hospital where they raped and killed patients.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1989        Mar 19, Alfredo Cristiani of the right-wing ARENA party was elected president of El Salvador, defeating Fidel Chavez Mena of the Christian Democratic Party.
    (AP, 3/19/99)

1989        Oct, In El Salvador the CIA station in San Salvador began providing the Salvadoran security forces with money to the resettle Marxist guerilla turned informer, Pedro Antonio Andrade Martinez (aka Mario Gonzalez), in the US. He had been recently captured and became a highly paid informer for the Salvadoran armed forces. Information from Andrade later led to the capture, torture or disappearance of some 200 guerrillas. In 1996 he was arrested in the US for failure to renew his visa. In 1997 the Clinton administration sought to deport him.
    (SFC, 11/22/96, p.A21)(SFC, 2/22/96, p.A7)

1989        Nov 16, In El Salvador 6 Jesuit priests and two other people were slain by uniformed gunmen at the Jose Simeon Canas University in an attack later blamed on army troops. In 2020 it was reported that two days before the killing, members of an elite military group, the Atlacatl Battalion, had done a "cateo," or targeted reconnaissance, of the priests' residence. Later 19 Salvadoran soldiers, trained at the US Army School of the Americas, were linked to the killing. In 2006 US police in Los Angeles arrested a Salvadoran ex-lieutenant convicted of killing the 6 Jesuits. In 2009 a Spanish judge opened an investigation into 14 ex-Salvadoran military officials and considered indicting them over the killings. In 2009 the 6 Jesuits were decorated with the country's highest honor. In 2011 twenty Salvadorans were indicted in Spain for their alleged roles in the killings. On Feb 5, 2016, police arrested four former soldiers wanted in Spain for the murder of the six Jesuit priests.
    (AP, 11/16/99)(SFC, 9/21/96, p.A3)(WSJ, 10/27/06, p.A1)(AP, 1/13/09)(AP, 11/16/09)(SFC, 9/12/12, p.A8)(AP, 2/6/16)(NBC News, 9/7/20)

1989        Nov 23, Lucia Barrera de Cerna, a housekeeper who said she had witnessed the slaying of six Jesuit priests and two other people at the Jose Simeon Canas University in El Salvador, was flown to the US under heavy security.
    (AP, 11/23/99)

1989        Nov 26, El Salvador broke relations with Nicaragua after a weapons-loaded plane from that country was downed in El Salvador.
    (AP, 11/26/02)

1989        El Salvador’s right-wing ARENA party began to be supported by the US government.
    (SFC, 5/8/96, p.A-19)

1989        El Salvador military officers Colonel Carlos Eugenio Vides Casanova, director of the National Guard and Gen’l. Jose Guillermo Garcia, the minister of defense, retired to Florida. In 2002 a Florida jury found Casanova and Garcia responsible for torture and atrocities committed in 1983 and ordered payment of $54.6 million to 3 victims living in Florida. [see El Salvador Dec 4, 1980]
    (SFC, 7/24/02, p.A12)

1989        Lori Helene Berenson, an American, began work in El Salvador as the personal secretary to Leonel Gonzalez, top commander of the FMLN guerrillas. She stayed for about for about 4 1/2 years and moved to Peru.
    (WSJ, 12/27/96, p.A7)(www.discoverthenetwork.org/individualProfile.asp?indid=1881)

1990        Jan 7, The president of El Salvador, Alfredo Cristiani, said in a nationally broadcast address that military men two months earlier had massacred six Jesuit priests, their housekeeper and her daughter.
    (AP, 1/7/00)

1990        Feb 23, Former Salvadoran President Jose Napoleon Duarte died at age 64.
    (AP, 2/23/00)

1990        Adam Kufeld published “El Salvador." He had made 8 trips to the country as a photographer between 1985-1989.
    (SFEM,11/16/97, p.28)

1990        The US House of Representatives voted to cut aid to El Salvador by 50%.
    (WSJ, 1/10/05, p.A10)

1991        Dec 31, Representatives of the government of El Salvador and rebels reached agreement at the United Nations on a peace accord aimed at ending 12 years of civil war.
    (AP, 12/31/01)

1991        An El Salvador government commission decided to return a swath of the Finca El Espina land to the Duenas family and that 865 acres be turned into a reserve. The 550 families of the cooperative that acquired the land in 1980 were to be left with 700 acres of the poorest, driest land.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, p.C18)

1992        Jan 16, Officials of the government of El Salvador and rebel leaders signed a pact at Chapultepec Castle in Mexico City ending 12 years of civil war that had left at least 75,000 people dead.
    (AP, 1/16/98)(Econ, 1/21/17, p.25)

1992        Jan 24, A judge in El Salvador sentenced an army colonel and a lieutenant to 30 years in prison for their part in the 1989 massacre of six Jesuit priests, their housekeeper and her daughter.
    (AP, 1/24/02)

1992        Jan, A UN Truth Commission was created in El Salvador with the signing of the peace agreement. It later estimated that there were 5,000 forced disappearances during the war. Families and human rights advocates documented about 3,000 more cases and estimated that 3,000 of all the disappeared were minors.
    (SFC, 2/28/18, p.A4)

1992        Dec, A peace treaty was signed between leftist rebels and the El Salvador government. The Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front became legal and described itself as social democratic. The Peace Accords introduced reforms to give land to ex-combatants of the FMLN and the military. The National Civilian Police replaced the National Police.
    (SFC, 3/17/97, p.A9)(SFEM,11/16/97, p.22)(SFC, 6/15/99, p.C2)

1992        In El Salvador the new US Embassy was completed. Plans for the structure had been drawn up in 1984.
    (SFEM,11/16/97, p.27)
1992        In El Salvador after the guerrillas demobilized the Communist Party kept guerrilla leader Jose Louis Merino’s network of safe houses intact and continued to kidnap for ransom. In 2008 Merino, a dominant force in the FMLN, was implicated in helping Colombia’s FARC contact two Australia arms dealers.
    (WSJ, 8/28/08, p.A9)
1992        El Salvador Army Major Roberto d’Aubuisson, founder of the rightist Republican Nationalist Alliance (ARENA), died at age 48.
    (SFC, 2/25/96, p.a12)(SFC, 3/23/00, p.A1)

1993        Mar 14, An independent UN-sponsored commission released a report blaming the bulk of atrocities committed during El Salvador's civil war on the country's military.
    (AP, 3/14/98)

1993        Mar, A broad amnesty was given to all combatants of the 1980-1992 El Salvador civil war. The Salvadoran war raged over 12 years and left around 75,000 people dead.
    (SFC, 7/24/02, p.A12)(AP, 5/30/11)(Econ, 6/8/19, p.34)

1993        Oct 25, Francisco Velis, El Salvador guerilla leader (FMLN), was murdered.

1993        Oct 30, Hernan Heleno Castro, El Salvadorian guerilla leader, was murdered.

1993        Along with the peace accord El Salvador Pres. Alfredo Cristiani reprivatized the banks and set himself and a tight circle of friends, secretly called “The Apostles," in control of the biggest institutions.
    (SFC, 8/9/97, p.A1,7)

1993        In El Salvador a high-interest pyramid scheme bilked some $35 million from thousands of middle-class investors. The ARENA government of Pres. Cristiani did not stop it or prosecute those responsible.
    (SFC, 8/9/97, p.A7)

1994        Mar 20, El Salvador held its first presidential election following the country's 12-year-old civil war. Armando Calderon Sol of the ARENA party led the vote, but needed to win a run-off to achieve the presidency.
    (AP, 3/20/99)

1994        There were 7,673 people murdered in this year according to the El Salvador attorney general’s office.
    (SFC, 10/3/97, p.B5)

1995        Aug 9, A Boeing 737 belonging to Guatemala’s Aviateca airline hit the Chichontepec volcano in El Salvador on a flight from Miami and killed all 65 on board.
    (SFC, 11/1/96, p.A18)

1995        Some 40 El Salvador citizens banded together to form the Patriotic Movement. Their first project was the 1996 exchange program Goods for Guns.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, A9)

1995        A pilot CARE program surveyed El Salvador ranches under joint title to former guerrillas in order to establish specific ownership to improve development. It grew to a $26 million program by 1998.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, p.A27)

1995        There were 7,877 people murdered in this year according to the El Salvador attorney general’s office.
    (SFC, 10/3/97, p.B5)

1996        In San Salvador the two largest street gangs signed a peace accord that ended four years of vicious street warfare. The Catholic Church mediated between the members of the MS gang and the M-18 gang.
    (SFC, 4/10/96, A-10)

1996        Mar 19, In El Salvador an Emergency Anti-Crime Law was approved by President Armando Calderon Sol. Its language called for all Salvadorans charged with crimes abroad to be locked up and re-educated.
    (SFC, 5/8/96, p.A-18)

1996        Mar 20, In El Salvador 4 teenaged members of a youth gang were summarily executed in the provincial capital of Santa Ana.
    (SFC, 5/8/96, p.A-18)

1996        Mar 21, In El Salvador a case against narcotics traffickers was dropped when the judge learned that the evidence, 46 lbs. of cocaine, had disappeared from police headquarters.
    (SFC, 5/8/96, p.A-18)

1996        Mar 23, In El Salvador 8 police officers opened fire on citizens in a rural hamlet and killed four people including an 11-year-old boy. The incident began when the police tried to buy beer from a store after being told that it was closed for the night.
    (SFC, 5/8/96, p.A-18)

1996        Sep, In El Salvador the Goods for Guns project began and in 2 weeks collected 1,262 weapons and 14,580 units of ammunition.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, C12)

1996        There were 6,792 people murdered in this year according to the El Salvador attorney general’s office.
    (SFC, 10/3/97, p.B5)

1997        Feb 9, It was reported that developers wished to convert part of the Finca El Espino land in El Salvador to a $100 million luxury development while farmers wished to maintain coffee growth and the government sought a park.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, p.C18)

1997        Feb 22, It was reported that the Clinton administration was seeking to have the former El Salvador rebel, Pedro Antonio Andrade, deported as a terrorist.
    (SFC, 2/22/96, p.A7)

1997        Mar 16, Elections for mayors in 262 El Salvador cities and for the 84-member unicameral Legislative Assembly was scheduled. The Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN) party was a front-runner. Hector Silva of the Democratic Convergence Party won the mayoral elections for San Salvador. He ran under a coalition led by the FMLN.
    (SFC, 2/25/97, p.a12)(SFC, 3/17/97, p.A9)

1997        Jun, In El Salvador a Credi Club bank scandal involved the disappearance of $11 million in depositor’s savings.
    (SFEC, 7/20/97, p.A18)

1997        Jul 14, El Salvador regulators seized Financiera Insepro, which collapsed and left more than 1000 account holders demanding justice. The $15 million bank failure led to a call for US investigators and 5 prominent business leaders were jailed.
    (SFEC, 7/20/97, p.A18)

1997        Jul, In El Salvador Roberto Mathies Hill was arrested on fraud charges for having bilked at least $115 million from depositors in a complex financial shell game.
    (SFC, 8/9/97, p.A8)

1997        Sep 4, In Cuba an explosion shook 3 tourist hotels and one Italian tourist was killed. Raul Ernesto Cruz Leon (25) of Salvador was arrested and accused of carrying out a half-dozen hotel attacks. He worked for Luis Posada Carriles, who was supported by the Cuban-American National Foundation. Cruz was sentenced to death in 1999. In 2010 Cuba's Supreme Court commuted the death sentence ruling that he should serve 30 years in prison instead.
    (SFC, 9/5/97, p.A12)(SFEC, 7/12/98, p.A21)(WSJ, 3/24/99, p.A1)(AP, 12/3/10)

1997        Nov 16, It was reported that 22 murders a day occur in El Salvador. Vehicles in the capital have increased fivefold in 5 years and the garbage dump in San Salvador is full. The opposition FNLN now controls 45% of the country.
    (SFEM,11/16/97, p.20)

1997        Castellanos Moya (b.1957), Honduras-born Salvadoran writer, authored “"Revulsion: Thomas Bernhard in San Salvador" (El asco, Thomas Bernhard en El Salvador), a barbed monologue against everything Salvadoran.
    (SSFC, 5/25/08, Books p.1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horacio_Castellanos_Moya)
1997        El Salvador passed legislation making abortions an act of murder. Abortion is a crime under any circumstance in the Central American country.
    (AP, 7/11/19)

1998        Jan 16, Israel Job Pineda, a fisherman in La Herradura, El Salvador, was shot and killed by a pirate intruder. Pirates had become a growing threat to the local shrimp fisherman. Police later arrested nine fishermen linked to the attack.
    (SFEC, 2/8/98, p.A26)

1998        Jun 1, It was reported that just 2% of the forest remained in El Salvador, which was once covered by forest.
    (SFC, 6/1/98, p.A8)

1998        Jul 12, Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador agreed to join forces to build a $2 billion railroad network to link Central America with Mexico.
    (SFC, 7/13/98, p.A8)

1998        Oct 22-1998 Nov 9, Hurricane Mitch was one of the Caribbean's deadliest storms ever causing at least at least 9,000 deaths in Central America. The storm hit Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Jamaica, and Costa Rica. Later reports put the death toll in Honduras to 6,076. In Nicaragua the deaths reached 4,000, in Guatemala it was157, and in El Salvador it was 222. The storm parked over Honduras and rain poured for 6 days straight.  Aid of $66 mil was ordered from the US, $8 mil from the EU, $11.6 mil from Spain along with pledges from other countries and private organizations.
    (SFC, 11/4/98, p.A9)(SFC, 11/6/98, p.A14)(AP, 9/11/04)(www.wunderground.com)

1998        El Salvador banned abortions in all circumstances.
    (Econ, 12/3/16, p.52)
1998        El Salvador police records indicated that 115 officers were killed during the year.
    (SFC, 6/15/99, p.C2)

1999        Mar 6, It was reported that extermination squads in El Salvador were killing gang members at the rate of 1-2 a week.
    (SFC, 3/6/99, p.A10)

1999        Mar 7, In El Salvador presidential elections were scheduled. FMLN candidate Facundo Guardado was expected to lose to ARENA candidate Francisco Flores (39). Flores and his Republican National Alliance won with about 52% of the vote.
    (SFC, 3/4/99, p.A12)(SFC, 3/8/99, p.A12)(SFC, 3/9/99, p.B10)

1999        Mar, In El Salvador a deputy police commissioner was killed by a hail of bullets in San Vicente province as she left a restaurant after dinner with friends.
    (SFC, 6/15/99, p.C2)

1999        Jun, In El Salvador Francisco Flores (39) took office and included in his cabinet Mauricio Sandoval as the national police commissioner. Sandoval was implicated in the 1989 murders of 6 Jesuits when he ran a pro-government radio network which allegedly instigated the murders. Crime was a national concern with the annual murder rate at 128 per 100,000.
    (SFC, 6/11/99, p.D4)

1999        Sep, Salvadoran authorities opened the floodgates to save the hydroelectric dam on the Lempa River. Massive flooding left 13 people dead.
    (SFEC, 9/26/99, p.A21)

1999        Oct 3, Flooding in Central America left 21 dead in Honduras, 10 dead in Nicaragua, and 11 dead in El Salvador and thousands were forced to flee their homes.
    (SFC, 10/4/99, p.A13)

2000        Mar 12, Elections were held in El Salvador. The FMLN won 31 of the 84 assembly seats in Congress. ARENA was left with only 29 seats. 78 of 262 city elections were also won by the FMLN along with 8 of 14 provincial capitals.
    (SFC, 3/14/00, p.A8)

2000        cApr 1, The US and El Salvador signed a 10 year agreement for drug surveillance missions to be flown from Comalapa Int’l. Airport.
    (SFC, 4/14/00, p.A21)

2000        May 11, Mexico reached a free-trade agreement with Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras.
    (SFC, 5/12/00, p.D2)

2000        Oct 8-2000 Oct 11, In El Salvador a week of deaths from sugarcane liquor contaminated with methyl alcohol increased to 51. Bottles of Thunderbolt were suspected to have been refilled with a mixture of methanol and resold to poor farmworkers. Liquor sales were banned after 117 deaths.
    (SFC, 10/9/00, p.A11)(SFC, 10/11/00, p.A14)(WSJ, 10/12/00, p.A1)

2000        Nov 22, In El Salvador Pres. Francisco Flores proposed to adopt the US dollar as the official currency.
    (SFC, 11/24/00, p.D8)

2001        Jan 13, In El Salvador a 7.6 earthquake hit near San Salvador. Some 1200 people were not accounted for in the buried Las Colinas neighborhood. The “slab earthquake" originated 24-36 miles below the surface. The earthquake death toll later climbed to over 840. Damages were estimated at $1 billion.
    (SSFC, 1/14/01, p.A1)(SSFC, 1/21/01, p.D1)(AP, 1/13/06)

2001        Jan 14, In El Salvador aftershocks continued from the Jan 13 earthquake and the death toll climbed to over 400.
    (SFC, 1/15/01, p.A1)

2001        Jan 15, The Jan 13 El Salvador earthquake death toll climbed to over 707 and damages were estimated at $1 billion [see Jan 13].
    (SFC, 1/16/01, p.A1)(SSFC, 1/21/01, p.D1)

2001        Feb 11, In El Salvador armed men attacked a bus carrying a local soccer team near Zacatecoluca. The coach was killed and 3 others injured.
    (SFC, 2/13/01, p.D3)

2001        Feb 13, In El Salvador a 6.6 earthquake killed at least 127 people. It was centered between San Vicente and San Salvador. The death toll soon rose to 402 with 2432 injured. It struck one month to the day after another quake killed more than 800 people.
    (SFC, 2/14/01, p.A1)(SFC, 2/15/01, p.A12)(AP, 2/13/02)

2001        Feb 17, In El Salvador another earthquake hit San Salvador. The 5.3 quake killed at least 1 person.
    (SSFC, 2/18/01, p.D6)

2001        May 8-2001 May 9, Some 100 small earthquakes hit El Salvador over a 24-hour period.
    (SFC, 5/10/01, p.C5)

2001        May 11, It was reported that a new Salvadoran government report documented brutal conditions in its maquiladora factories. The report was suppressed but one copy made it to the National Labor Committee.
    (SFC, 5/11/01, p.A16)

2001        Aug 18, It was reported that a month-long drought ravaged Central America. Honduras lost 80% of its basic grains, El Salvador lost 80% of grains in its eastern provinces, Nicaragua lost 50% and Guatemala lost 80% of its beans in the eastern provinces. Hundreds of thousands of peasants were affected.
    (SFC, 8/18/01, p.A1)

2001        Sep, El Salvador Pres. Flores was among the heads of state who signed the Inter-American Democratic Charter that committed all members to refuse to recognize any government resulting from a military coup.
    (SSFC, 4/21/02, p.A24)

2001        Nov 2, Gunmen killed 10 people in San Salvador in a suspected drug trade execution.
    (SFC, 11/3/01, p.C2)

2001        Dec 27, In El Salvador forensic scientists found human bones buried under the national police headquarters. The were believed to belong to people who disappeared during the 1980s civil war.
    (WSJ, 12/28/01, p.A1)

2001        El Salvador adopted the US dollar as the official currency.
    (WSJ, 3/7/05, p.A18)

2002        Mar 4, El Salvador declared a state of emergency in the town of Berlin after some 60 horses died from apparent anthrax infections.
    (SFC, 3/5/02, p.A7)

2002        Jun 7, Mauricio Gonzalez (68), retired dental hygienist from San Ramon, Ca., was kidnapped near Sonsonate, El Salvador. A demand for $500,000 was made. This was the 4th kidnapping of a US citizen here since Jan 1, 2000.
    (SFC, 6/11/02, p.A19)

2002        Sep 9, In El Salvador a small plane crashed into the slopes of a mountain, killing four prominent Guatemala businessmen and the pilot.
    (AP, 9/9/02)

2003          Feb 28, Fidel Sanchez Hernandez (85), former El Salvador President (1967-1972), died. He directed the so-called 100-hour war, when the Salvadoran army invaded Honduras in 1969 over a territorial dispute.
    (AP, 3/1/03)

2003        Mar 27, In Afghanistan Ricardo Munguia (39), a Red Cross water engineer from El Salvador, was killed by Taliban gunmen.
    (SFC, 4/8/03, p.A5)(Reuters 3/28/03)

2003        Mar 29, In El Salvador a cargo truck carrying dozens of passengers went out of control and flipped over, killing at least 12 people and injuring 42.
    (AP, 3/30/03)

2003        Aug 12, El Salvador sent 360 peacekeepers to Iraq.
    (AP, 8/13/03)

2003        Dec 4, El Salvador's government ignores and sometimes contributes to widespread labor abuses, Human Rights watch said in a new report.
    (AP, 12/4/03)

2003        Dec 9, In southern Mexico Salvatrucha gang members attacked illegal immigrants from Central America on a train, killing three people and wounding four in the latest in a series of violent incidents in the region. The Mara Salvatrucha spanned Central America. It was named for its Salvadorean founders, who claimed to be as wise as trout.
    (AP, 12/10/03)(Econ, 5/22/04, p.31)

2003        Dec 17, The Bush administration reached a free-trade deal with El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua for immediate duty-free access to half of all US farm exports and 80% of consumer goods.
    (WSJ, 12/18/03, p.A1)

2003        El Salvador Pres. Francisco Flores led 4 other Central American countries to form a Central American Free-Trade Agreement (CAFTA).
    (Econ, 3/27/04, p.38)

2004        Mar 21, Tony Saca, former sportscaster and Arena Party candidate, easily won El Salvador's presidential race, promising to continue the direction of one of the most pro-US governments in the hemisphere.
    (AP, 3/22/04)(Econ, 3/27/04, p.38)

2004        Apr 28, Masked demonstrators stormed the main cathedral in El Salvador's capital and demanded the country's new president withdraw troops from Iraq and rehire dozens of fired government employees.
    (AP, 4/29/04)

2004        May 28, US officials and 5 Central American countries (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua) signed a free trade pact (CAFTA), to be later approved by Congress. The Dominican Republic would be included later.
    (SFC, 5/29/04, p.A4)

2004        Jun 9, Human Rights Watch said as many as one-third of the workers in El Salvador's sugarcane fields are under the age of 18, urging companies to boycott Salvadoran sugar.
    (AP, 6/9/04)

2004        Aug 14, In El Salvador a bus careened off a mountain highway and toppled into a ravine in eastern El Salvador, killing 34 people and injuring 24 others.
    (AP, 8/14/04)

2004        Aug 18, In El Salvador rival inmates fought each other with knives and sticks at a San Salvador prison, leaving at least 31 people dead and two dozen injured.
    (AP, 8/18/04)

2004        Sep 3, A California federal judge found Alvaro Rafael Saravia, a retired Salvadoran air force captain living in Modesto, liable in the 1980 slaying of Salvadoran archbishop Oscar Romero and ordered him to pay $10 million in damages.
    (AP, 9/4/04)(SFC, 9/4/04, p.B7)

2004        Sep 24, An uprising by some 800 gang members at two Salvadoran prisons ended peacefully on Friday following government promises to study complaints by inmates.
    (AP, 9/24/04)

2004        Nov 5, Jose Gilberto Soto (49), a US citizen of Salvadoran origin from Cliffside Park, N.J., was shot in the back outside his family's house in Usulutan, 70 miles southeast of San Salvador. In December Salvadoran police arrested his mother-in-law, along with five other suspects, describing the slaying as a contract killing that was the result of a family dispute.
    (AP, 12/5/04)

2004        Nov 12, In El Salvador US Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld awarded bronze stars to six soldiers who fought in Iraq, and he praised the tiny nation for being the only Latin American country to have kept its troops there.
    (AP, 11/12/04)

2004        The population of El Salvador at this time was about 6.5 million.
    (AP, 3/21/04)

2005        Mar 3, The seven Central American nations (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama) agreed to create a rapid-response force to combat drug trafficking, terrorism and other regional threats.
    (AP, 3/3/05)

2005        Apr 8, Former Salvadoran President Francisco Flores, the US government's choice to lead the Washington-based Organization of American States, withdrew his candidacy. His withdrawal means that, for the first time in the 57-year history of the OAS, Washington's candidate will not win.
    (AP, 4/9/05)

2005        May 20, Hurricane Adrian slammed into El Salvador, unleashing torrential rains in an area prone to devastating floods and forcing some 14,000 people to seek higher ground.
    (AP, 5/20/05)

2005        May 25, A new plaza on San Salvador's Jerusalem Avenue was inaugurated in honor of the late Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat. Migrants from Palestine flowed to El Salvador for decades in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and several families became prominent in business and politics.
    (AP, 5/25/05)

2005        Jun 26, Heavy rains caused flooding and landslides in El Salvador and Honduras, leaving a total of 39 dead in both countries, including 21 people killed when a bus was carried away by flood waters.
    (AP, 6/27/05)

2005        Jun 30, In Honduras Central American leaders agreed to create a regional special forces unit to fight drug trafficking, gang violence and terrorism within their borders. The 2-day regional meeting included the presidents of Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama.
    (AP, 6/30/05)

2005        Aug 11, El Salvador sent its fifth contingent of 380 soldiers to Iraq for humanitarian missions. President Tony Saca said it was in the same spirit as the countries that helped El Salvador during its 12-year civil war.
    (AP, 8/11/05)

2005        Sep 6, Dominican Republic legislators overwhelmingly approved a free-trade agreement with the US and five Central American countries, rejecting arguments that the pact would devastate the domestic sugar industry. The other five countries are Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. Costa Rica and Nicaragua had not yet ratified the pact.
    (AP, 9/6/05)

2005        Sep 8, El Salvador said that “Operation International" simultaneous raids this week in El Salvador, the US, Honduras, Guatemala, and Mexico netted 660 dangerous gang members.
    (AP, 9/9/05)

2005        Oct 1, A volcano in western El Salvador erupted, sending a column of ash 50,000 feet into the air and killing two farmers buried by chunks of earth and boiling water that tumbled down the slopes.
    (AP, 10/2/05)

2005        Oct 3, In El Salvador heavy rains triggered landslides that killed at least 31 people, while rising rivers forced the evacuation of dozens of people there and in neighboring Guatemala.
    (AP, 10/3/05)

2005        Oct 5, Hurricane Stan knocked down trees, ripped roofs off homes and washed out bridges in southeastern Mexico, but it was the storms it helped spawn that were far more destructive, killing more than 65 people in Central America. Officials in El Salvador said 49 people had been killed, mostly due to two days of mudslides sparked by rains. 9 people died in Nicaragua, including six migrants believed to be Ecuadorians killed in a boat accident. Four deaths were reported in Honduras, three in Guatemala and one in Costa Rica.
    (AP, 10/5/05)

2005        Oct 6-2005 Oct 8, In Guatemala rescue workers searched for victims of a mudslide near Lake Atitlan, a volcano-ringed lake popular with tourists. Panabaj and Tzanchaz were entombed by a mudflow half a mile wide. The death toll in the region from flooding sparked by Hurricane Stan soon climbed to 617 with 42 dead in Mexico, 72 dead in El Salvador and 11 dead in Nicaragua.
    (SFC, 10/7/05, p.A3)(AP, 10/9/05)(Econ, 10/15/05, p.43)

2005        Oct 29, Salvadoran President Tony Saca urged Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa to support his request to President Bush to allow undocumented Salvadorans to remain in the US while the country recovers from Hurricane Stan.
    (AP, 10/29/05)

2005        Nov 18, A federal jury in Tennessee held that Nicolas Carranza (72), a former Salvadoran colonel, was responsible for murder and torture during the 1980s civil war in El Salvador and ordered him to pay $6 million in damages to his accusers.
    (SFC, 11/19/05, p.A5)

2005        Dec 31, El Salvador's 22 penitentiaries, designed to house 7,370 inmates, were packed with more than 12,500 prisoners.
    (AP, 2/2/06)

2006        Jan 4, A US federal appeals court in Atlanta reinstated a $54.6 million verdict against two retired Salvadoran generals, Carlos Eugenio Vides Casanova (67), and Jose Guillermo Garcia (72), accused of torture during the civil war (1980-1992) in their home country.
    (AP, 1/8/06)

2006        Jan 24, Shafik Handal (75), leader of the Salvadoran left, died of a heart attack in San Salvador. The ex-guerrilla commander had fought US-backed troops during the country's 12-year civil war.
    (AP, 1/24/06)

2006        Feb 6, El Salvador said it will send another contingent of 380 soldiers to Iraq, making it the country's sixth group to serve six-month rotations in the war-torn nation.
    (AP, 2/7/06)

2006        Feb 28, Thousands of street vendors, university students and labor unionists marched in San Salvador against a regional free trade accord with the United States, which they say will hurt small businesses and organized labor.
    (AP, 2/28/06)

2006        Mar 1, El Salvador became the first Central American nation to join a regional free trade agreement with the United States.
    (AP, 3/1/06)

2006        Mar 12, El Salvador held elections. The next day the conservative ruling party claimed several victories over former leftist rebels in elections for congressional seats and mayorships across the country.
    (AP, 3/13/06)

2006        Mar 20, Venezuela agreed to sell fuel under preferential terms to an El Salvador association created by a group of leftist mayors.
    (AP, 3/20/06)

2006        May 16, Scientists warned that tropical forests, which house El Salvador's famed coffee plantations and provide habitat for migrating birds, are being depleted at an alarming rate.
    (Reuters, 5/16/06)

2006        Jul 5, In El Salvador violence broke out after police fired tear gas to disperse students protesting against a hike in electricity rates and public transportation fees. Two officers were killed and 10 others were wounded by gunshots. The next day police arrested Luis Antonio Herrador Funes (37), who allegedly was captured on tape shielding a man who was shooting an M-16 rifle. Police were still looking for the shooter.
    (AP, 7/6/06)

2006        Jul 11, Central American presidents agreed on a plan to ease border controls and install a common customs system on the way to negotiating an eventual free-trade agreement with the EU. The agreement signed by Panama, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras and Belize would allow residents to cross borders without passports or visas.
    (AP, 7/11/06)

2006        Jul 27, In Iraq a rocket and mortar barrage followed by a car bomb blasted an upscale, mostly Shiite district of Baghdad, killing 31 people and wounding 153. A US Marine was killed in action in western Iraq. A Salvadoran soldier was killed in Iraq, the 2nd soldier from this Central American nation to be killed in the conflict in 8 days.
    (AP, 7/27/06)(AP, 7/28/06)

2006        Sep 5, Cellular telephones were found inside four prisoners in El Salvador's maximum-security prison after suspicious officials took X-rays of each of the inmates.
    (AP, 9/6/06)

2006        Oct 18, El Salvador’s Pres. Antonio Saca pledged to support Taiwan's bid to join world bodies and called for a free trade agreement between the two countries. El Salvador is one of only 24 countries that affords Taiwan diplomatic recognition over the island's rival China.
    (AFP, 10/18/06)

2007        Jan 6, Riots erupted overnight in a maximum-security prison in western El Salvador, leaving 21 inmates dead.
    (AP, 1/7/07)

2007        Feb 19, Police found the charred bodies of three Salvadoran representatives to the Central American Parliament and their driver on a rural road outside Guatemala City.
    (AP, 2/20/07)

2007        Mar 12, Israel confirmed that it  has recalled Tsuriel Raphael, its ambassador to El Salvador, after he was found naked, bound and drunk two weeks earlier.
    (AP, 3/13/07)

2007        Mar 26, Four children and Pedro Rodriguez (28), their father, were found dead in the family's suburban Washington, D.C., home. The mother Deysi M. Benitez (25) was missing. Her sister from El Salvador said she had been beaten by her husband and wanted to separate.
    (AP, 3/28/07)

2007        Mar 30, In El Salvador Maria Julia Hernandez (b.1939), a renowned human rights activist, died of a heart attack. She had aided victims of El Salvador's civil war.
    (AP, 3/31/07)(Econ, 4/14/07, p.97)

2008        Jul 3, In El Salvador a bus carrying members of an evangelical church was swept off a bridge in San Salvador. 29 bodies were recovered the next day.
    (SFC, 7/4/08, p.A3)

2008        Dec 23, El Salvador’s President Tony Saca announced he will withdraw Salvadoran troops from Iraq after Dec. 31, pulling out the only remaining soldiers from Latin America.
    (AP, 12/23/08)

2008        El Salvador this year had the world’s highest murder rate.
    (Econ, 3/14/09, p.39)

2009        Jan 18, In El Salvador polls ahead of six-party elections indicated the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front, a former guerrilla group known as the FMLN, will increase its 32-seat plurality in the 84-member legislature while winning the capital and most of the 262 mayors races up for grabs.
    (AP, 1/18/09)

2009        Jan 19, El Salvador's chief leftist party lost its stronghold in the capital but was winning the most seats in the Legislative Assembly.
    (AP, 1/20/09)

2009        Jan 24, In El Salvador final results showed that the former leftist rebels won more seats than any other party in legislative elections but fell short of a majority.
    (AP, 1/24/09)

2009        Jan 28, El Salvador police said they found the remains of what they believe to be eight to 10 gang victims at the bottom of a well in Tonacatepeque, located outside San Salvador.
    (AP, 1/29/09)

2009        Mar 15, El Salvador's entrenched conservatives faced a stiff challenge from the party of former guerrillas in presidential elections. Mauricio Funes (b.1959), a leftist television journalist, made history by bringing the FMLN, a party of former guerrillas, to power for the first time since the end of a bloody civil war. Funes won 51.3% to 48.7% for Rodrigo Avila.
    (AP, 3/15/09)(AP, 3/16/09)(Econ, 3/21/09, p.40)

2009        Mar 18, Costa Rica said it will re-establish diplomatic ties with Cuba, and El Salvador's new president-elect, Mauricio Funes, promised to do the same after he takes office.
    (AP, 3/19/09)

2009        May 31, El Salvador’s President-elect Mauricio Funes appointed his wife and a former Marxist guerrilla to Cabinet posts just hours before starting his five-year term.
    (AP, 6/1/09)

2009        Jun 1, In El Salvador Mauricio Funes, a journalist from a party of former Marxist guerrillas, became the country's first leftist president, immediately restoring ties with Cuba while promising to remain friendly with the United States.
    (AP, 6/1/09)

2009        Jul 27, El Salvador announced a decision to close schools nationwide for two weeks to combat the spread of swine flu. El Salvador has already confirmed 545 cases of swine flu, including seven deaths.
    (AP, 7/27/09)

2009        Sep 2, In El Salvador Christian Poveda (52), a French filmmaker who recently made a documentary about the lives of members of El Salvador's street gangs, was found shot dead in Tonacatepeque, a rural region north of San Salvador. Earlier this year, Poveda, made the documentary "La Vida Loca," which follows the lives of members La 18 street gang and received widespread attention in El Salvador. 4 Mara 18 members and a policeman were soon detained. On Dec 16 police arrested 10 more members of the Mara 18 gang. 9 other gang members already in prison have also been charged in the case. On Mar 9, 2011 a court sentenced 10 gang members and a police officer to prison terms ranging from four to 30 years. 20 additional defendants were acquitted, but 17 of them were serving time for other crimes.
    (AP, 9/3/09)(AP, 12/17/09)(AP, 3/10/11)

2009        Sep 6, The El Salvador navy said it has found 76 migrants aboard a boat in the Pacific. They included 25 Bangladeshis, 25 Nepalese, 21 Eritreans and five Ecuadoreans. The boat had set sail a week ago from the Ecuadorean port of Manta.
    (AP, 9/7/09)

2009        Sep 9, Salvadoran authorities said they had arrested 4 alleged Mara 18 gang members and a police officer in the Sep 2 slaying of French documentary filmmaker Christian Poveda. The arrested officer was identified as Jose Napoleon Espinoza, an agent assigned to the 911 emergency phone system in Soyapango outside the capital, San Salvador.
    (AP, 9/10/09)

2009        Nov 4, El Salvador's defense minister said the army will send an additional 2,500 soldiers to crime-plagued parts of the country to increase security. In the first 10 months of the year, there were 3,673 homicides in El Salvador, up from 3,179 in all of 2008. Many killings involved street gangs.
    (AP, 11/4/09)

2009        Nov 8, In El Salvador a wave of floods and landslides killed at least 192 people following three days of heavy rains. Dozens of people were missing in a mudslide that swept down on the town of in Verapaz. Hurricane Ida's presence in the western Caribbean late last week may have played a role in drawing the rain-packed Pacific low-pressure system toward El Salvador.
    (AP, 11/8/09)(AP, 11/11/09)(AP, 11/15/09)

2009        El Salvador counted 6,587 gang-related killings for the year.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.56)

2010        Jan 23, In southern Mexico about 150 migrants were pulled off a train by unidentified assailants in the state of Oaxaca. On Jan 26 a Salvadoran official  filed a complaint with Mexican officials saying 3 men were slain and 4 women were raped in the attack.
    (AP, 1/26/10)

2010        Mar 24, El Salvador President Mauricio Funes publicly apologized on behalf of the state for the 1980 assassination of Roman Catholic Archbishop Oscar Arnulfo Romero. Funes said Romero was killed by right-wing death squads "who unfortunately acted with the protection, collaboration or participation of state agents."
    (AP, 3/25/10)

2010        Apr 14, El Salvador President Mauricio Funes said Mexico's Zeta drug gang has entered El Salvador and has made contact with local gangs in what appears to be an exploration of opportunities.
    (AP, 4/15/10)

2010        Apr 23, In El Salvador gunmen shot and seriously wounded First Secretary Guillermo Medina Alfaro, a Mexican diplomat who worked with the international police agency Interpol. Police said the diplomat's wife was killed.
    (AP, 4/23/10)

2010        May 5, The US federal government said it will allow people from Nicaragua, El Salvador and Honduras to stay another 18 months in the US with temporary legal status. A new expiration date was set for Jan 5, 2012. The temporary legal status has been extended repeatedly since Hurricane Mitch devastated the region in 1998.
    (AP, 5/5/10)

2010        May 30, Authorities in Central America struggled to clear roads of debris and reach cut-off communities due to landslides and flooding triggered by Tropical Storm Agatha. The death toll rose to include 165 people in Guatemala; in Honduras at least 18 deaths were linked to the storm; El Salvador President Mauricio Funes warned that the danger had not yet passed and reported 10 deaths.
    (AP, 5/30/10)(AP, 5/31/10)(AP, 6/1/10)(AP, 6/2/10)(AP, 6/6/10)(AP, 6/16/10)

2010        Jun 20, In El Salvador gang members set a bus afire near the capital, killing at least 14 of the people aboard.
    (AP, 6/21/10)

2010        Jul 6, Venezuela announced plans to extradite a Salvadoran man wanted by Cuba as a suspect in a series of bombings. Cuba believes Chavez Abarca placed an explosive that damaged a hotel disco on April 2, 1997, and another bomb later that month that failed to explode on the 15th floor of the same hotel. Cuban officials also suspect him in a 1997 bombing of a Cuban government office.
    (AP, 7/6/10)

2010        Sep 2, El Salvador lawmakers approved a new law making gang membership punishable by four to six years in prison. Gang leaders would face up to 10 years. Police found an oil drum filled with money on a ranch in the town of Penitente Abajo, about 40 miles (62 km) from the capital. After three days counting the bundles of $100, $50 and $20 bills, authorities announced that it contained about $9 million in U.S. dollars. Another plastic drum was uncovered Sep 4 about 5 yards away, also crammed with money. A 3rd barrel was found on Sep 10 containing packets of $100 bills adding up to $4.2 million.
    (AP, 9/2/10)(AP, 9/4/10)(AP, 9/11/10)

2010        Oct 21, In El Salvador Benitez Canales, one of the owners of the Deportivo Vista Hermosa football club, was among a group making a deal over 2 kg (4.4 pounds) of cocaine when they were arrested.
    (AP, 10/22/10)

2010        Nov 10, In El Salvador a fire tore through a prison north of the capital. The death toll soon rose to 19 following the deaths of some of the injured.
    (AP, 11/10/10)(AP, 11/12/10)

2010        Dec 1, A Guatemalan ex-congressman, Manuel Castillo, was sentenced to 203 years in prison after being found guilty of ordering the assassination of three Salvadoran representatives to the Central American Parliament and their driver in 2007. Two former police officers and four others were also sentenced to between 99 and 210 years.
    (AP, 12/3/10)

2010        Dec 21, In Cuba Francisco Chavez Abarca of El Salvador was handed a 30-year prison sentence for his role in a string of bombings at tourist hotels in the 1990s. The bombings killed an Italian tourist in 1997.
    (AP, 12/22/10)

2011        Mar 22, US President Barack Obama wrapped up a visit to Chile and departed for El Salvador, the third and final stop of his Latin America tour. In El Salvador Obama promised increasing trade and economic growth, fighting drug trafficking and creating work opportunities. In 2012 it was reported that Secret Service employees took prostitutes to their hotel rooms ahead of Obama’s visit to El Salvador.
    (AFP, 3/22/11)(SFC, 3/23/11, p.A3)(SFC, 4/27/12, p.A6)

2011        Mar 23, President Barack Obama left El Salvador earlier than scheduled, cutting short a Central American tour dominated by the US-led military action in Libya.
    (AP, 3/23/11)

2011        Mar 25, El Salvador police arrested Carlos Ernesto Teos Parada, a man accused of running a human smuggling ring that transported some of the victims in the massacre of 72 migrants in northern Mexico last August.
    (AP, 3/26/11)

2011        Apr 11, In San Francisco the annual Goldman Environmental prize was awarded 6 people from around the world. The winners included Hilton Kelly for his efforts to cut pollution in Port Arthur, Texas; Francisco Pineda for resisting mining in El Salvador; Ursula Sladek of Germany for creating for reducing her community’s reliance on nuclear power; Prigi Arisandi for her efforts to protect Indonesia’s Surabaya River; Dmitry Lisitsyn for his efforts to protect the Russia’s Sakhalin island; and Raoul du Toit for defending wildlife in Zimbabwe.
    (SFC, 4/11/11, p.A12)

2011        Apr 25, In El Salvador 3 suspected gang members climbed aboard a bus and shot television cameraman Alfredo Hurtado (41) to death as he rode to work.
    (AP, 4/26/11)

2011        May 2, In El Salvador Rene Emilio Ponce (64), an army general and former defense minister accused of ordering the 1989 killings of six Jesuit priests and two others during the country's civil war, died.
    (AP, 5/2/11)

2011        May 27, The Salvadoran army said it has arrested two officers and four soldiers for trying to steal 1,812 hand grenades to sell to drug traffickers.
    (AP, 5/27/11)

2011        May 30, A Spanish judge indicted 20 Salvadorans for the November 16, 1989, slaying of six Jesuit priests and two other people during the Central American country's civil war.
    (AP, 5/30/11)

2011        Jun 1, Salvadoran President Mauricio Funes says his Central American country will allow citizens living abroad to vote in the 2014 presidential election.
    (AP, 6/1/11)

2011        Jun 22, In Guatemala the World Bank unveiled a billion-dollar plan to fund security measures in Central America, amid other hundred-million-dollar pledges from donors bidding to cut a wave of drug gang-related violence sweeping the region. The announcement came as leaders of Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama attended the Central American Security Conference aiming to curb crime fueled by a spillover from Mexico's war on drug cartels.
    (AFP, 6/22/11)

2011        Jun 23, The Mexican army discovered 117 migrants, mainly from Guatemala and El Salvador, hidden inside a trailer truck in the southern state of Oaxaca.
    (AP, 6/25/11)

2011        Jul 21, El Salvador’s congress approved a ban on smoking in public places overriding a veto by Pres. Mauricio Funes.
    (SFC, 7/23/11, p.A2)

2011        Aug 8, In El Salvador 9 former soldiers and officials turned themselves over to a court after being indicted in Spain in the 1989 killings of six Jesuit priests and two other people during the Central American country's civil war. A tenth suspect in the Spanish case has since died, and 10 other suspects have not been located.
    (AP, 8/9/11)

2011        Aug 24, El Salvador's Supreme Court refused to order the detention of nine former military officers indicted in Spain for the 1989 slayings of six Jesuit priests during the Central American country's 1980-1992 civil war. Another ex-Salvadoran military officer charged in the case was freed on bail while facing an immigration charge in Boston.
    (AP, 8/24/11)

2011        Sep 15, The US White House added Belize and El Salvador to its list of drug producing and transit countries, placing for the first time all seven Central American countries on the list.
    (SFC, 9/16/11, p.A2)

2011        Oct 6, A United Nations report said Honduras and El Salvador have the highest homicide rates in the world. Honduras had 6,200 killings in 2010 out of a population of 7.7 million people, while El Salvador with 6.1 million people had 4,000 homicides.
    (AP, 10/6/11)

2011        Oct 8, Palestinian leader Mahmud Abbas arrived in El Salvador from the Dominican Republic on the latest stop of a Latin American tour to round up support for UN recognition of a Palestinian state. He was to meet with the local Palestinian community later in the day ahead of a meeting the next day with Salvadoran President Mauricio Funes.
    (AFP, 10/9/11)

2011        Oct 20, Heavy rains generated by a low-pressure system hammered Central America for 10 days. Mudslides and swollen rivers killed at least 105 people including 38 in Guatemala, 34 in El Salvador, 15 in Honduras, 13 in Nicaragua and 5 in Costa Rica.
    (AP, 10/20/11)

2011        Dec 8, In El Salvador Hector Silva (64), a Boston-born Salvadoran physician, died of a heart attack.  He had helped the Central American nation recover from its 12-year civil war. In 1997 he became the first leftist mayor of the capital following the civil war, earning a reputation for moderation during six years in office.
    (AP, 12/9/11)

2011        Dec 21, The US government said it is suspending training for new Peace Corps volunteers in the Central American nations of Guatemala and El Salvador while it assesses security concerns. El Salvador has 113 volunteers, and Guatemala, 222. It was also decided to pull all volunteers from Honduras.
    (AP, 12/21/11)(AP, 1/18/12)

2012        Jan 12, El Salvador's government said it has received a formal request from Spain for the extradition of 13 former military officers accused in the 1989 slayings of six Jesuit priests and two other people. Two other officers were in the United States.
    (AP, 1/12/12)

2012        Jan 13, El Salvador President Mauricio Funes said an estimated 22,000 former rebel combatants, now living in poverty, will finally get long-overdue health care, pensions and other benefits. About 25,000 rebel fighters are still alive and 87 percent live in poverty.
    (AP, 1/13/12)

2012        Jan 16, El Salvador Pres. Mauricio Funes apologized for the 1981 El Mozote massacre of 936 civilians in an army counterinsurgency operation. Funes also commemorated the 20th anniversary of the 1992 peace accords that put an end to the country's 12-year civil war.
    (AP, 1/16/12)

2012        Feb 2, El Salvador police said they have found the bodies of four people inside black plastic bags dumped separately in the town of Sonsonate. Among the victims was former professional soccer player Ladislao Nerio, who had been strangled.
    (AP, 2/2/12)

2012        Feb 11, It was reported that a mysterious epidemic is devastating the Pacific coast of Central America, killing more than 24,000 people in El Salvador and Nicaragua since 2000 and striking thousands of others with chronic kidney disease at rates unseen virtually anywhere else. Scientists say they have received reports of the phenomenon as far north as southern Mexico and as far south as Panama. Researchers suspected chronic dehydration. Elsy Brizuela, a doctor who works with an El Salvadoran project to treat workers and research the epidemic, discounts the dehydration theory and insists "the common factor is exposure to herbicides and poisons." In Nicaragua, the number of annual deaths from chronic kidney disease more than doubled in a decade, from 466 in 2000 to 1,047 in 2010. In El Salvador there was a similar jump, from 1,282 in 2000 to 2,181 in 2010.
    (AP, 2/11/12)

2012        Mar 11, El Salvador held mid-term elections. The leftist party led by Pres. Mauricio Funes lost four seats, leaving the conservatives as the biggest bloc in the legislature.
    (AP, 3/13/12)

2012        Mar 16, El Salvador's government said it will be giving $50-per-month pensions to thousands of elderly former leftist rebels who fought in the country's 1980-1992 civil war.
    (AP, 3/16/12)

2012        Mar 23, El Salvador’s El Diario de Hoy newspaper reported that leaders of the Mara 18 and Mara Salvatrucha gangs have reached a truce to reduce the country’s homicide rate. The government of Pres. Mauricio Funes brokered the truce between the Barrio18, led by Carlos Mojica Lechuga, and the Mara Salvatrucha streets gangs.
    (SFC, 3/24/12, p.A2)(Econ, 2/8/14, p.16)

2012        Apr 19, The US military said 2 ethnic Uighur men from western China, held for almost a decade without charge at Guantanamo Bay, have been resettled in El Salvador.
    (SFC, 4/20/12, p.A2)

2012        Jul 11, In El Salvador a police investigator, wearing a ski mask to hide his identity, dug up 5 dead boys dead, the youngest 15, killed about 3 weeks earlier. Police said an MS-13 recruiter had probably tried to persuade the youths to join the group using the usual method: a big meal with cake and soft drinks. When they resisted they were stabbed to death.
    (AP, 9/8/12)

2013        Apr 17, US immigration officials returned Wilber Alfredo Valle-Guerra (aka Santos Lopez-Claudio) to El Salvador. Valle-Guerra (36), was arrested last November in Sunnyvale, Ca., for taking part in shootings that killed 2 people in Ilobasco, El Salvador, in Nov., 2006.
    (SSFC, 4/21/13, p.C12)

2013        May 30, El Salvador's Health Minister approved the C-section for a 22-year-old woman suffering from kidney failure and lupus, a day after the Supreme Court ruled that she could not have an abortion despite her lawyers' appeal that the pregnancy was life-threatening. Ultrasound images indicated that her fetus was developing with only a brain stem and was given no chance of surviving. The C-section was performed on June 3. Her baby girl, born without a brain, died within hours.
    (AP, 5/30/13)(AP, 6/3/13)(AP, 6/4/13)

2013        Jun 3, It was reported that coffee leaf rust has devastated coffee plantations across Central America and knocked half a million people out of work. Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras were all severely impacted.
    (SFC, 6/4/13, p.A2)(http://tinyurl.com/alqvfoc)

2013        Nov 14, In El Salvador armed men broke into the offices of the Probusqueda Association for Missing Children, a nonprofit agency that works to locate children missing from the country’s civil war, and set fire to the group's archives. Probusqueda said earlier this year that it had documented at least a dozen cases of children stolen by members the military during the 1980-92 war between the Salvadoran government and leftist guerrillas.
    (AP, 11/14/13)

2013        Dec 29, El Salvador authorities evacuated an area around the Chaparrastique volcano after the peak shot a cloud of gas and ash about 3 miles (5 km) into the air.
    (AP, 12/29/13)

2014        Feb 2, El Salvador held presidential elections. With 58% of the votes counted VP Salvador Sanchez had a 49% lead over San Salvador mayor Norman Quijano of ARENA with nearly 39%. A 2nd round was scheduled for March 9.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y9bfgfxl)(Reuters, 2/2/14)(SFC, 2/3/14, p.A3)

2014        Mar 9, El Salvador held a 2nd round of presidential elections. Former Marxist guerrilla leader Salvador Sanchez Ceren (FMLN) was expected to win the presidency after promising to expand social programs for the poor and fending off his opponent's claims that he will impose radical policies. Mr. Sanchez won by just 6,634 votes. In 2017 a gangster named Nalo testified that politicians from the two main parties had paid gangsters for votes. The FMLN allegedly paid $250,000 and Arena $100,000, which the gangs spent on M-16s and AK-47s. 
    (Reuters, 3/9/14)(AP, 3/10/14)(Econ, 1/26/17, p.27)

2014        Mar 13, El Salvador’s electoral court said Sanchez Ceren (69), the leftist candidate of the ruling Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN), won the March 9 presidential election with 50.1% of the votes.
    (AP, 3/13/14)

2014        Apr 25, A top El Salvador official said Mara street gangs are arming themselves with high-powered rifles and some gang members have tried to join the army to get military training.
    (AP, 4/25/14)

2014        Jun 1, In El Salvador Sanchez Ceren (69) was sworn in as president.
    (SFC, 6/2/14, p.A4)

2014        Jun 7, Arizona officials said the US government has asked them to rush medical supplies to a makeshift holding center housing hundreds of migrant children who were sent to the state after crossing into the US from Mexico alone. Jimena Díaz, consul general of Guatemala in Phoenix, visited the center a day earlier and said about 250 children are from Guatemala, with the rest coming from El Salvador and Honduras.
    (AP, 6/7/14)

2014        Jul 2, The US government launched a $1 million international media campaign warning families in Central America that it's best to stay at home, following a surge in illegal immigration. The message was aimed primarily at Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador.
    (AP, 7/3/14)

2014        Jul 18, More than 40 Central American children were expelled from the United States on flights to Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador, as the US government stepped up its deportation of illegal child migrants.
    (Reuters, 7/18/14)

2014        Sep 5, Francisco Flores, former president of El Salvador (1999-2004), surrendered to authorities to face charges of embezzling and illicit enrichment related to a donation by the government of Taiwan.
    (SFC, 9/6/14, p.A2)

2014        Sep 19, Former El Salvadoran president Francisco Flores, accused of embezzling $15 million donated by Taiwan while in office, was sent to prison after the court revoked his house arrest.
    (AFP, 9/20/14)

2014        Oct 13, A magnitude 7.4 earthquake off the Pacific coast of El Salvador disrupted power to several communities and claimed the life of one man who had been sleeping on a street. The quake was part of a series of strong temblors that rattled much of Central America.
    (AP, 10/14/14)

2014        Nov 29, The Dallas Morning News reported that US Immigration and Customs Enforcement officials took Margarita Del Carmen Orellana Rivas (25) to El Salvador this week where she's wanted on suspicion of aggravated murder and has warrants accusing her of solicitation or conspiracy in other slayings.
    (AP, 11/29/14)

2014        Dec 8, Poland said it has decided to refuse a toxic waste shipment from a pesticide plant in El Salvador that was to be destroyed at an incineration plant in a southern town, after the local community in Dabrowa Gornicza raised concerns.
    (AP, 12/8/14)

2014        In El Salvador the homicide number for the year rose 57% to 3,912 as gangs fought over territories to extort businesses and traffic drugs.
    (SSFC, 1/4/15, p.A2)

2015        Feb 3, Pope Francis approved a decree declaring slain Salvadoran archbishop Oscar Romero a martyr for the church. The cleric, a defender of the poor and vocal critic of the military, was shot dead in 1980 while celebrating mass. Pope Francis said Romero was killed out of hatred for his Catholic faith.
    (AFP, 2/3/15)(SFC, 2/4/15, p.A5)

2015        Jan 17, In El Salvador leaders of the MS-13 and Barrio 18 gangs agreed from their jail cells to halt killing without any mediation.
    (Econ, 1/31/15, p.29)

2015        Mar 11, The US Board of Immigration Appeals in Washington, DC, found that Gen. Carlos Eugenio Vides Casanova, a former defense minister of El Salvador, can be deported for his role in the abuse and killing of civilians during El Salvador’s civil war in the 1980s.
    (SFC, 3/13/15, p.A5)

2015        Mar, El Salvador recorded 481 homicides this month, more than any other single month in a decade.
    (AP, 4/9/15)

2015        Apr 8, The US deported former El Salvador defense minister Gen. Carlos Eugenio Vides Casanova after immigration courts found that he had participated in torture and killings by troops under his command in the 1980s.
    (SFC, 4/9/15, p.A2)

2015        Apr 18, In El Salvador at least 9 members of the gang Barrio 18 were killed in a confrontation with the army.
    (Reuters, 4/18/15)

2015        May 15, In El Salvador say 14 people were killed dead and 10 others injured when a cargo truck loaded with heavy machinery crashed into a pickup full of people returning from a funeral.
    (AP, 5/15/15)

2015        May 23, Salvadoran archbishop Oscar Romero, who was assassinated in 1980 and whose defense of the poor divided his nation and the Church, was beatified at a ceremony attended by vast crowds in San Salvador.
    (AFP, 5/23/15)

2015        Jul 27, In El Salvador street gangs called for a public transport boycott, ordering bus drivers to stay off the roads. They killed five defiant drivers that day and another a day earlier. A 7th driver was killed July 29 for defying their campaign and force the government to recognize the feared gangs. On July 28 police captured a suspected leader of a gang called Barrio 18.
    (AFP, 7/30/15)

2015        Aug 2, In El Salvador six incarcerated gang members escaped from jail after prying open the bars of their cell.
    (Reuters, 8/2/15)

2015        Aug 22, In El Salvador at least 14 gang members held at a prison were killed in violence authorities blamed on a conflict within a faction of the Barrio 18 gang.
    (AP, 8/23/15)

2015        Sep 13, El Salvador police discovered the bodies of Marcela Vargas (21) and her friend Liset on the banks of a stream in the center of San Salvador. They had disappeared nine days earlier and both were found tied up and stabbed repeatedly. Murders in the country totaled some 4,930 for the first nine on this of this year.
    (Econ, 10/10/15, p.35)

2015        Nov 26, El Salvador's Roman Catholic Church announced it has suspended a well-known priest, saying he acknowledged sexually abusing a young girl. Monsignor Jesus Delgado (77) was the vicar general of the Archdiocese of San Salvador and was considered a close associate of assassinated Archbishop Oscar Romero.
    (AP, 11/27/15)

2015        In El Salvador the number of homicides reached an estimated 6,650 this year, from 3,912 the year before. The killing of police officers nearly doubled to more than 60.
    (Reuters, 1/21/16)(SFC, 4/14/16, p.A3)

2016        Jan 1, In El Salvador at least 29 people were slain on the first day of the year. Local news media estimated the number of killings in 2015 at well above 6,000.
    (AP, 1/2/16)

2016        Jan 31, Francisco Flores (56), El Salvador's former president (1999-2004), died following a stroke and coma from which he never recovered. He faced a corruption trial on charges of stealing $15 million donated by Taiwan for victims of a 2001 earthquake.
    (AFP, 1/31/16)

2016        Feb 10, El Salvador's Supreme Court ordered a lower tribunal to open a civil prosecution against former Pres. Mauricio Funes (2009-2014) for possible illicit enrichment.
    (AP, 2/10/16)   

2016        Feb 16, US authorities said they have frozen the assets of two leaders of the notorious MS-13 street gang based in Central America. The order freezes the US assets of gang leaders Jose Roberto Orellana and Dany Balmore Romero Garcia, and prohibits Americans from engaging in transactions with them.
    (AP, 2/16/16)

2016        Apr 8, Authorities in El Salvador raided the local offices of Panamanian law firm Mossack Fonseca, seizing documents and equipment.
    (Reuters, 4/9/16)

2016        Apr 12, In El Salvador 2 more police officers were slain as gangs continued to war with police in response to a government crackdown that began last year. 15 officers have been killed so far this year.
    (SFC, 4/14/16, p.A3)

2016        Apr 14, In El Salvador the body of Julio Torres, the mayor of San Dionisio, was found a day after he was reported missing in an area controlled by gangs.
    (SFC, 4/15/16, p.A2)

2016        Apr 22, El Salvador’s legislature approved a new law that would impose up to 15 years in prison on anyone who negotiates with or offers benefits to street gangs.
    (SFC, 4/23/16, p.A2)

2016        May 6, Prosecutors in El Salvador announced they have arrested five police officers, 16 gunmen and a police administrative employee for allegedly killing street gang member and others.
    (AP, 5/6/16)

2016        May 27, The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said around 2.8 million people in Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras need food aid after two consecutive years of severe drought decimated crops and exacerbated hunger among the poor due to prolonged dry spells since mid-2014, linked to the El Niño weather phenomenon.
    (Reuters, 5/27/16)

2016        Jun 9, El Salvador’s Justice and Security Minister Mauricio Ramirez said that the "extraordinary measures" El Salvador has employed "have managed to reduce the crime rate by more than 50 percent."
    (AFP, 6/11/16)

2016        Jul 8, El Salvador authorities said they have arrested five police officers and five civilians for alleged ties to a death squad that killed as many as 40 gang members in the eastern part of the country. According to prosecutors, a group of businesspeople, whose identities were not released, had brought together national police in some towns to offer them money in exchange for killing gang members.
    (AP, 7/8/16)

2016        Jul 13, El Salvador’s Supreme Court overturned a 1993 amnesty law that had protected military, paramilitary and guerrilla fighters from facing justice for abuses during the country’s 12-year civil war.
    (SFC, 7/16/16, p.A4)

2016         Jul 23, In El Salvador four inmates at a prison were murdered amid a fight between inmates, members of the Barrio 18 gang, at a facility in the city of Quezaltepeque.
    (Reuters, 7/24/16)
2016         Jul 23, El Salvador's president says he has begun talks with political parties on a new "national reconciliation" law. Earlier this month, the country's Supreme Court overturned an amnesty law enacted in 1993 covering crimes committed during the country's 1980-1992 civil war.
    (AP, 7/24/16)

2016        Oct 29, In El Salvador Tony Saca, former president (2004-2009), was arrested on charges ranging from money laundering to illicit enrichment. Six other government officials from his time in office were also arrested as part of the corruption probe. Saca was accused of diverting $301 million in public money and faced up to 30 years in prison if convicted.
    (CSM, 10/31/16)(Econ, 1/21/17, p.26)(SFC, 8/8/18, p.A2)

2016        Nov, El Salvador’s government and right-wing Nationalist Republican Alliance (Arena) averted disaster by allowing the government to issue $550 million of new debt in exchange for agreeing to a “fiscal responsibility law".
    (Econ, 1/21/17, p.26)

2016        Oscar Martinez, Salvadorean journalist, authored “A History of Violence: Living and Dying in Central America."
    (Econ, 4/23/16, p.72)
2016        Former El Salvador Pres. Mauricio Funes fled to Nicaragua where he received political asylum.
    (SFC, 7/25/20, p.A2)
2016        In El Salvador murders dropped more than 20 percent in 2016, though the rate of 81.2 for every 100,000 residents kept the country among the world's deadliest. There were at least 5,278 murders in 2016, down from 6,665 in 2015, when its murder rate hit 104 per 100,000 residents. Security forces killed 591 gang members in confrontations that left 8 police officers and two soldiers dead.
    (AP, 1/3/17)(Econ, 1/26/17, p.28)

2017        May 12, The UN called for an investigation into crimes against sexual minorities following an uptick in deadly violence against transgender women in El Salvador.
    (Reuters, 5/12/17)

2017        Jun 22, A magnitude 6.8 earthquake struck off the coast of Guatemala, damaging buildings and downing trees as well as causing powerful tremors in neighboring El Salvador. There were no reports of casualties.
    (Reuters, 6/22/17)

2017        Jul 1, In Costa Rica a 5-hour power blackout affected some five million people. The power outage plunged millions of people across Central America into darkness, as authorities from Panama to Costa Rica to El Salvador scrambled to restore electrical service. Authorities pinned blame for the power outages on a downed Panamanian transmission line that adversely affected the power supply for much of the region.
    (AFP, 7/1/17)   

2017        Jul 27, Attorney General Jeff Sessions flew to El Salvador seeking ways to stamp out the brutal street gang MS-13. This trip was planned before Pres. Trump's broadsides against his attorney general, and it remained to be seen whether his work in El Salvador will help mend their fractured relationship.
    (AP, 7/27/17)

2017        Aug 17, El Salvador and Guatemala passed legislation that would outlaw marriage with minor even in cases of parental consent or pregnancy.
    (AP, 8/18/17)(SFC, 8/19/17, p.A2)

2017        Oct 5, Tropical Storm Nate was blamed for at least 22 deaths in Central America as it dumped rain across the region. The death toll soon climbed to at least 16 in Nicaragua, 10 in Costa Rica, two in Honduras and two in El Salvador.
    (SFC, 10/6/17, p.A4)(AFP, 10/7/17)(Reuters, 10/8/17)

2017        Oct 28, Tropical Storm Selma made landfall on the coast of El Salvador near the Central American nation's capital, bringing strong winds, heavy rains and dangerous ocean swells.
    (AP, 10/28/17)

2017        Nov 29, Inocente Orlando Montano Morales (76) arrived in Madrid following extradition from the US to face charges that he helped plot the 1989 massacre of six Jesuit priests and two others in El Salvador.
    (SFC, 11/30/17, p.A2)

2017        Dec 13, In El Salvador the Second Court of Appeal of San Salvador upheld a 30-year sentence for Teodora Vasquez, who was convicted in 2008 of aggravated homicide in the death of her child the previous year. Prosecutors said Vasquez strangled the baby after birth. Her lawyers said she suffered health complications and the baby was stillborn.
    (Reuters, 12/15/17)

2017         In El Salvador Evelyn Beatriz Hernandez (19) was given a 30-year jail sentence for aggravated murder by a female judge who ruled the teenager had induced an abortion in April 2016. Hernandez said she was raped and did not realize she was pregnant until she went into labor in a bathroom and gave birth to a stillborn baby. In 2019 she faced a retrial.
    (AP, 7/11/19)

2018        Jan 8, US Homeland Security Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen announced that the US has determined that the effects of 2001 earthquakes in El Salvador are no longer a hurdle to returning home, ending the temporary protected status for nearly 200,000 Salvadorans in the US.
    (AP, 1/10/18)

2018        Apr 20, A court in El Salvador absolved the late President Francisco Flores of civil responsibility in a case in which he was accused of diverting more than $15 million in earthquake relief funds donated by Taiwan. Investigators had found that $10 million of the money, intended to help the victims of two powerful 2001 quakes, had in fact gone to Flores' Arena party, while the rest benefited him personally.
    (AP, 4/21/18)

2018        Apr 21, In El Salvador the body of journalist Karla Lisseth Turcios (33) was found on a highway northeast of San Salvador. Her domestic partner Mario Huezo Portillo was soon arrested for the killing. Cameras had traced Portillo when he went to dump the woman's body.
    (AP, 4/24/18)

2018        Jun 9, El Salvador prosecutors said arrest warrants have been issued for former Pres. Mauricio Funes (2009-2014) and thirty others on a host of corruption charges that included the diversion of $351 million in public funds.
    (SFC, 6/9/18, p.A2)

2018        Aug 9, Former El Salvador Pres. Tony Saca (53) pleaded guilty to embezzling hundreds of millions of dollars in public funds during his 2004-2009 government. Under the plea agreement prosecutors asked for a 10-year sentence.
    (SFC, 8/10/18, p.A2)

2018        Aug 21, El Salvador's president, Salvador Sanchez Ceren, announced in a nationally televised speech that his government had broken off diplomatic relations with Taiwan and instead established ties with China.
    (AP, 8/21/18)
2018        Aug 21, Taiwan vowed to fight China's "increasingly out of control" behavior after Taipei lost another ally to Beijing when El Salvador became the third country to switch allegiances to China this year.
    (Reuters, 8/21/18)

2018        Sep 8, It was reported that the United States has recalled its envoys to the Dominican Republic, El Salvador and Panama after decisions by those nations to cut ties with Taiwan in favor of diplomatic relations with China.
    (AP, 9/8/18)

2018        Sep 12, In El Salvador former Pres. Tony Saca (53) was sentenced to 10 years in prison for corruption after pleading guilty to diverting more than $300 million in state funds. His former private secretary, Elmer Charlaix, was also sentenced to ten years.
    (SFC, 9/13/18, p.A2)

2018        Sep 14, Prosecutors in El Salvador filed an extradition petition for former Pres. Mauricio Funes and three family members on corruption charges for the alleged embezlement of $351 million in public funds. Funes and his family have been living in Nicaragua since 2016.
    (SSFC, 9/16/18, p.A4)

2018        Oct 14, Pope Francis lauded new saints Pope Paul VI and slain Salvadoran Archbishop Oscar Romero (d.1980) as prophets of a church that looks out for the poor as he presided over a canonization ceremony.
    (AP, 10/14/18)

2018        Oct 22, President Donald Trump said the US will start cutting aid to Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador as a caravan of thousands of mostly Honduran migrants rolled on regardless toward the US border.
    (AFP, 10/22/18)

2018        Oct 31, About 2,000 migrants began walking north from El Salvador's capital, the latest of several groups trying to reach the United States, even as President Donald Trump increases pressure to halt the flow of people.
    (Reuters, 10/31/18)

2018        Nov 1, In China Salvadoran President Salvador Sanchez Ceren met with his Chinese counterpart, Xi Jinping, just months after the small Central American nation broke its diplomatic ties with Taiwan.
    (AP, 11/1/18)

2018        Nov 2, In Mexico a third caravan of 1,000 to 1,500 people, this time from El Salvador, entered the country hoping to reach the US border.
    (SFC, 11/3/18, p.A2)

2019        Feb 3, El Salvador with a population of some 6.5 million held presidential elections. The World Bank says per capita income is $3,560. Nayib Bukele (37), former San Salvador mayor, was elected president, crushing a two-party system in place since civil war ended in 1992.
    (AP, 2/3/19)(AFP, 2/4/19)
2019        Feb 3, In El Salvador transgender woman Camila Diaz Cordova (29), who sought asylum in the United States, died after being kidnapped and beaten. This was weeks after she was deported, underscoring the dangers of the Trump administration's hardening policy on asylum seekers.
    (Reuters, 2/23/19)

2019        Mar 30, The US government cut aid to El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras after President Donald Trump blasted the Central American countries for sending migrants to the United States and threatened to shutter the US-Mexico border.
    (Reuters, 3/31/19)

2019        May 17, A court in El Salvador sentenced seven gang members to up to 30 years for the notorious "black widows" killings, in which women were forced to marry men who were then killed to collect on life insurance policies.
    (AP, 5/17/19)

2019        Jun 1, In El Salvador Nayib Bukele (37), the former mayor of San Salvador, was sworn in as president.
    (Reuters, 6/6/19)

2019        Jun 12, El Salvador's police force vowed that it would do more to fight organized crime in the violent Central American country, which tens of thousands have fled, amid increased pressure from the United States to stop migration north.
    (Reuters, 6/12/19)

2019        Jun 18, El Salvador President Nayib Bukele ruled out negotiations with criminal gangs and vowed to go after their finances in a bid to reduce violence. Bukele also promised to comply with reparations ordered by an international court for relatives of the victims of the El Mozote massacre, one of the bloodiest chapters of the country's 1980-1992 civil war.
    (Reuters, 6/18/19)(AP, 6/19/19)

2019        Jun 20, Mexico announced a program for millions of new trees to be planted in El Salvador in a program funded by the Mexican government that aims to help impoverished communities that often create fertile ground for fleeing migrants.
    (Reuters, 6/20/19)

2019        Jun 21, El Salvador's President Nayib Bukele ordered mobile telephone service providers to disable their signals in prison facilities. The country's mobile telephone providers have 72 hours to comply with the order.
    (Reuters, 6/21/19)

2019        Jul 18, In El Salvadoran a judge ruled that a group of former military members will face new charges related to the 1981 El Mozote massacre in which 989 farmers were killed.
    (SFC, 7/19/19, p.A2)

2019        Jul 20, Mexico announced that it is sponsoring a $31 million tree planting program in El Salvador known as "Sowing Life".
    (SSFC, 7/21/19, p.A2)

2019        Aug 9, The World Food Program (WFP) announced a plan to nearly quadruple the number of people to receive food assistance in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua due to five years of drought. The agency planned assistance to some 700,000, up from 160,000 helped already this year.
    (SFC, 8/10/19, p.A2)

2019        Sep 1, It was reported that the Organization of American States (OAS) has created a commission to investigate corruption in El Salvador.
    (SSFC, 9/1/19, p.A4)

2019        Sep 20, The US and El Salvador reached an agreement to make El Salvador a haven for migrants seeking asylum. Few details were provided.
    (SFC, 9/21/19, p.A4)

2019        Oct 28, The US government extended temporary protection for Salvadorans living in the United States by an additional year, in a potential sign of easing tensions over migration. El Salvador's Pres. Nayib Bukele said the temporary protected status (TPS) will protect more than 200,000 Salvadorans living in the US.
    (Reuters, 10/28/19)(SFC, 10/29/19, p.A4)

2019        Nov 1, The US Department of Homeland Security announced it is extending temporary protected status coverage for migrants from El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras, Nepal, Nicaragua and Sudan through Jan. 4, 2021.
    (AP, 11/1/19)

2019        Nov 2, El Salvador said it had ordered Venezuela's diplomats to leave the Central American country within 48 hours, arguing that the decision was in line with its position that Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro is illegitimate.
    (AP, 11/2/19)

2019        Dec 12, Guatemala received the first families of migrants sent by the US under an agreement to return non-Guatemalans who passed through that country on their way to the US border, 14 people arrived from Honduras and El Salvador along with 119 Guatemalans deported from El Paso, Texas.
    (SFC, 12/13/19, p.A2)

2020        Feb 5, Human Rights Watch reported that at least 138 people deported from the US to El Salvador in recent years were subsequently killed.
    (SFC, 2/6/20, p.A2)

2020        Feb 9, El Salvador's President Nayib Bukele marched into the National Assembly with soldiers to demand that lawmakers pass a languishing request for security loans.
    (Bloomberg, 5/15/20)

2020        Mar 12, El Salvador announced a national lockdown as it reported three confirmed cases of the coronavirus.
    (Econ, 4/11/20, p.24)

2020        Mar 30, In El Salvador crowds broke the lockdown to request aid from the government; police used pepper spray to disperse them.
    (https://tinyurl.com/y95muu2u)(Reuters, 3/30/20)

2020        Apr 6, El Salvador's President Nayib Bukele warned that security forces had been ordered to enforce quarantine orders more rigorously to prevent the spread of the coronavirus, confining offenders to "containment centers" and confiscating their cars.
    (Reuters, 4/6/20)

2020        Apr 24, El Salvador's President Nayib Bukele late today ordered a 24-hour lockdown of prisons containing gang members, and said their leaders would be sent into solitary confinement after a sudden spike in homicides during the day. Police investigated some 22 homicides.
    (Reuters, 4/25/20)

2020        May 4, In El Salvador at least 300 people held in two centers set up by the government protested, demanding to be released and given their test results.
    (Reuters, 5/5/20)

2020        May 6, El Salvador's President Nayib Bukele announced still tougher measures to fight the coronavirus pandemic, including shopping trips limited to twice a week.
    (AP, 5/6/20)

2020        May 7, El Salvador began a quarantine under orders from Pres. Nayib Bukele. Residents will be allowed to leave their homes only twice a week to buy food. The country has already spent a month under a mandatory shelter-in-place order. El Salvador has recorded 695 confirmed infections and 15 deaths.
    (SFC, 5/7/20, p.A6)(Econ., 5/9/20, p.23)

2020        May 28, In Mali Lieut. Col. Carlos Moisés Guillén Alfaro (46), a pilot with the El Salvadoran air force, became the first UN peacekeeper to officially die of COVID-19.
    (AP, 8/3/20)

2020        May 31, Tropical Storm Amanda pounded El Salvador with rain for days before moving ashore as a tropical storm and pushing across Guatemala. The storm left at least 17 dead and seven missing while causing extensive damage across El Salvador and Guatemala that pushed thousands of people into shelters amid the coronavirus pandemic.
    (AP, 6/1/20)

2020        Jun 4, Tropical Storm Cristobal weakened to a tropical depression as it move from Mexico's Gulf coast toward the Guatemala border. The storm has caused one death in Mexico and five in El Salvador.
    (SFC, 6/5/20, p.A2)

2020        Jul 24, El Salvador arrested its former defense minister David Munguia Paye for his involvement in a government pact with the country's principle gangs in 2012.
    (SFC, 7/25/20, p.A2)

2020        Aug 17, It was reported that prosecutors in El Salvador have filed charges of bribery, money laundering and criminal conspiracy against ex-Pres. Mauricio Funes (2009-2014), who has fled to Nicaragua.
    (SFC, 8/17/20, p.A2)

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