Timeline Equatorial Guinea

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US-Africa: http://us-africa.tripod.com/eqguinea.html
World Factbook: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ek.html

The Equatorial Guinea mainland is located in the northwest corner of Gabon, just below Cameroon. An island section, located off the coast of Cameroon, hosts the capital at Malabo. The area of Equatorial Guinea is 28,050 square km (10,831 square miles), about the size of Maryland.
    (WSJ, 1/2/98, p.8)(SFC, 5/15/01, p.A10)(www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/eqguinea.html)

1943        Nov 6, Severo Moto Nsa was born in Equatorial Guinea. He later became the most notable opposition politician in Equatorial Guinea, and leader of the Progress Party.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severo_Moto)

1960        Aug 23, World's largest frog (3.3 kg) was caught in Equatorial Guinea.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1968        Oct 12, Eq. Guinea gained Independence was from Spain. Eq. Guinea consists of two geographic entities: the mainland of Rio Muni and the island of Bioko, formerly Fernando Poo. Francisco Macias became the 1st president and proclaimed himself God’s "unique miracle." He drove the economy into the ground and over a third of the population went into exile.
    (www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/eqguinea.html)(WP, 6/29/96, p.A15)(SFC, 5/15/01, p.A10)

1968-1969    Pres. Francisco Macias Nguema murdered a 6th of the population of Eq. Guinea.
    (WSJ, 8/31/05, p.D10)

1974        Formal education in Eq. Guinea came to an end.
    (WSJ, 8/31/05, p.D10)

1976         The Development Bank of Central African States (BDEAC) was established and included six members of the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa: Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon.
    (AP, 9/23/09)

1979        Aug 3, In Equatorial Guinea Pres. Macias was overthrown and executed by Teodoro Obiang Nguema, his nephew, security chief and right-hand man. Teodoro Obiang Nguema assumed power.
    (SFC, 5/15/01, p.A10)(www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/eqguinea.html)

1991        Alba, Equatorial Guinea's 3rd significant field, was discovered by Water International. Original estimates of reserves at Alba were around 68 million barrels of oil equivalent (BOE), but recent exploration has increased new estimates to almost 1 billion BOE. It is located 12 miles north of Bioko island.
    (www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/eqguinea.html)

1993        The World Bank  after severed its relationship with Equatorial Guinea.
    (www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/eqguinea.html)

1995        Equatorial Guinea's Zafiro field, located northwest of Bioko Island, was discovered by ExxonMobil and Ocean Energy (bought by Devon Energy in 2003). It contains the majority of the country's oil reserves.
    (www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/eqguinea.html)

1996        Aug, Equatorial Guinea’s offshore Zafiro oil field came onstream and by the end of 1997 was producing 75,000 barrels a day. Output from Zafiro peaked in 2004.
    (Econ, 11/3/12, p.74)

1996        In Equatorial Guinea Teodoro Obiang Nguema submitted to elections and received 98% of the vote in balloting that marred by extensive fraud and intimidation.
    (SFC, 5/15/01, p.A10)

1999        The Equatorial Guinea government budget was $47 million.
    (SFC, 5/15/01, p.A10)

1999        Ceiba, Equatorial Guinea's second major producing oil field was discovered by Amerada Hess in 1999 and began production in December 2000. It is located just offshore of Rio Muni in exploration Block G and is estimated to contain 300-800 million barrels of oil.
    (www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/eqguinea.html)

2001        Oil revenue in Equatorial Guinea reached $140 million.
    (SFC, 5/15/01, p.A10)
2001          The population in Equatorial Guinea was about 475,000.
    (SFC, 5/15/01, p.A10)

2002        Apr, The World Bank  resumed lending to Equatorial Guinea.
    (www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/eqguinea.html)

2003        Oct, Washington reopened its embassy on the tropical Equatorial Guinea's island capital of Malabo after an eight-year shutdown. The tiny West African country has a tremendous amount of oil. Pres. Teodoro Obiang has had his opponents imprisoned and tortured, his presidential predecessor executed by firing squad, and has helped himself to the state treasury at will. State radio recently declared him "like God."
    (AP, 11/17/03)

2004        Mar 7, Zimbabwean authorities seized a US-registered cargo plane at Harare carrying 64 "suspected mercenaries" and military equipment. Equatorial Guinea later said the men were mercenaries from South Africa en route to stage a coup. Twenty South Africans, 18 Namibians, 23 Angolans, two Congolese and one Zimbabwean carrying a South African passport were arrested when their aging Boeing 727 was impounded. Another 15 suspects were arrested in Equatorial Guinea the next day. In 2006 Adam Roberts authored “The Wonga Coup," an account of the attempted coup.
    (AP, 3/8/04)(WSJ, 3/10/04, p.A1)(AP, 3/10/04)(WSJ, 7/26/06, p.D11)

2004        Jul 27, All but three of 70 suspected mercenaries accused of plotting a coup in Equatorial Guinea pleaded guilty to lesser charges in Zimbabwe.
    (AP, 7/27/04)

2004        Jul, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon reached an agreement allowing joint oil exploration in disputed territories until a final resolution is worked out under UN mediation. They have disputed the ownership of three islands in the Gulf of Guinea, including Mbagne Island, since the 1970s.
    (www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/eqguinea.html)

2004        Aug 25, In South Africa Mark Thatcher, the son of former British PM Margaret Thatcher, was arrested and charged with helping to finance a foiled coup attempt in oil rich Equatorial Guinea. In 2008 Equatorial Guinea issued an international arrest warrant against Mark Thatcher, accusing him of being an instigator of the abortive coup plot.
    (AP, 8/25/04)(AFP, 3/29/08)

2004        Aug 27, A Zimbabwean court found Briton Simon Mann guilty of attempting to illegally buy arms for an alleged coup plot in oil-rich Equatorial Guinea but absolved 66 other suspected mercenaries. In 2011 Simon Mann authored “Cry Havoc," his chronicle of the failed coup.
    (AP, 8/27/04)(Econ, 12/3/11, p.103)

2004        Sep 10, Simon Mann, a former British special forces soldier and the alleged leader of a foiled coup plot in oil-rich Equatorial Guinea, was sentenced to seven years in prison for trying to buy weapons from Zimbabwe's state arms manufacturer.
    (AP, 9/10/04)

2004        After the March coup attempt led by Simon Mann and Nick du Toit in Equatorial Guinea, opposition leader Severo Moto was accused of being the instigator. He was tried in absentia and received a 63-year sentence.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severo_Moto)(Econ, 6/21/08, p.58)

2004        A US government found that some $700 million from Equatorial Guinea was held at Washington's Riggs Bank, making the country the bank's biggest customer. Riggs was fined millions of dollars in money-laundering fines. Nothing was done against Equatorial Guinea’s Pres. Obiang. Human rights groups have accused Obiang of using the oil wealth to make his family fabulously rich while most of his countrymen live in squalor.
    (AP, 11/3/09)

2005        Jan 13, Sir Mark Thatcher pleaded guilty to unwittingly helping to finance a foiled coup plot in oil-rich Equatorial Guinea, accepting a $506,000 fine and suspended jail sentence.
    (AP, 1/13/05)

2005        Jan,  Equatorial Guinea pledged to increase transparency in its fiscal accounts, citing its new natural gas company as a first step in this direction.
    (www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/eqguinea.html)

2005        Mar 15, A US Senate investigators released a new report that said 9 US banks, including Citigroup, Bank of America, and Riggs Bank, enabled Augusto Pinochet, former Chilean dictator, and family members to build a secret network of accounts to conceal his wealth. DC-based Riggs Bank merged with PNC Financial following the inquiry, which also revealed that Pinochet and Obiang Nguema, president of Equatorial Guinea, had stashed millions in private accounts there.
    (WSJ, 3/16/05, p.A2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riggs_Bank)(Econ, 3/14/09, p.63)

2005        Mar 29, It was reported that China’s influence in Africa was expanding rapidly. Chinese projects included the rebuilding of Nigeria’s railroad network; the paving of roads in Rwanda; ownership of copper mines in Zambia; timber operations in Equatorial Guinea; and supermarket operations in Lesotho.
    (WSJ, 3/29/05, p.A1)

2005        Jul 16, A Russian-made plane that disappeared from radar shortly after takeoff in Equatorial Guinea crashed with 55 people aboard.
    (AP, 7/17/05)

2005        The population of Equatorial Guinea was estimated to be about 535,800.
    (www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/eqguinea.html)

2006        Oct 31, PM Shinzo Abe said Japan will continue assisting Equatorial Guinea in its efforts to promote democracy. Abe made the pledge during a 45-minute meeting with Equatorial Guinea's President Teodoro Obiang Nguema in Tokyo.
    (AFP, 10/31/06)

2007        Jan 1, Li Zhaoxing, China's foreign minister, signed a string of accords in Benin as part of a whistle-stop tour of seven African nations as Beijing bolsters economic ties on the continent. From Benin Li flew to Equatorial Guinea ahead of visits in the coming days to Guinea-Bissau, Chad, the Central African Republic, Eritrea and Botswana.
    (AFP, 1/2/07)

2007        Jan 2, China's foreign minister continued his whistle-stop African tour in Equatorial Guinea, where he cancelled debt, promised aid and opened a new Chinese-built media centre.
    (AP, 1/2/07)

2007        Feb 24, Eq. Guinea was cited as the world’s 3rd richest country with a GDP per person estimated at $50,000.
    (Econ, 2/24/07, SR p.4)

2007        Apr 26, Six central African countries (Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Chad, Central African Republic, Cameroon and Congo) plan to launch a common passport in July, permitting the free movement of goods and people across their borders.
    (AFP, 4/26/07)

2007        May 9, A Zimbabwean court authorized the extradition of Briton Simon Mann to Equatorial Guinea on coup plot charges, sweeping aside concerns that he might face torture or invalid justice there.
    (AFP, 5/9/07)

2008        Apr 16, A military plane belonging to Equatorial Guinea crashed off its coast with at least 13 people on board. There are no survivors.
    (AP, 4/18/08)

2008        Jul 7, A court in Equatorial Guinea convicted former British officer Simon Mann on of being the key player in a failed 2004 coup plot in this Central African nation and sentenced him to 34 years and four months in prison.
    (AP, 7/7/08)

2008        Aug 18, Equatorial Guinea's exiled opposition leader Severo Moto was released from a Spanish jail four months after he was detained for allegedly trying to send weapons to the oil-rich African nation.
    (AFP, 8/18/08)

2008        Sep 29, UNESCO accept a proposal to launch a prize for achievement in life sciences paid for and named after Pres. Obiang Nguema of Equatorial Guinea.
    (Econ, 5/8/10, p.16)(http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0016/001629/162938e.pdf)

2008        Equatorial Guinea was ranked by Transparency Int’l. as the world’s 9th most corrupt country. Pres. Nguema spent less than 2% of the GDP on public health and less than 1% on education.
    (Econ, 7/18/09, p.44)

2009        Jan 30, In Libreville, Gabon, leaders of the six Central African states (Cameroon, Chad, Gabon, CAR, Congo, Equatorial Guinea), began meeting to discuss closer economic ties, including the creation of a new regional airline. The Economic and Monetary Union of Central Africa, known as CEMAC, planned discussions on such issues as monetary reform and the free movement of citizens.
    (AFP, 1/30/09)

2009        Feb 17, In Equatorial Guinea gunmen clashed with security forces near the presidential palace. Gunmen in two speedboats attacked the island capital before dawn. 16 men from neighboring Nigeria were arrested in the mysterious attack on the presidential compound. The government said several attackers drowned.
    (AP, 2/17/09)(AP, 2/19/09)

2009        May 5, A French judge decided to investigate three African heads of state for money laundering and other alleged crimes linked to their wealth in France. The probe follows a complaint by Transparency International France, an association that tracks corruption, against Gabon's Omar Bongo, Republic of Congo's Denis Sassou-Nguesso and Teodoro Obiang of Equatorial Guinea.
    (AP, 5/6/09)

2009        Nov 3, In Equatorial Guinea Simon Mann (57), a British coup-plotter, and four South African mercenaries, pardoned for attempting the overthrow the government of the tiny oil-rich African nation, were freed from prison. Mann, who was born into a world of wealth and privilege, had been serving a 35-year sentence in Equatorial Guinea for the 2004 plot.
    (AP, 11/3/09)

2009        Nov 29, Equatorial Guinea held elections. It was expected that results would extend the 30-year rule of Teodoro Obiang Nguema (67), a man accused of draining his nation's oil wealth to fabulously enrich family and cronies while his people suffered in slums. Obiang gave only six weeks' notice for the election and coverage in the state-controlled media was skewed. Nguema won power for another term with 95.37% of votes cast. Opponents and international human rights groups denounced the electoral process in Africa's No. 3 oil producer as fraudulent.
    (AP, 11/29/09)(AP, 11/30/09)(AP, 12/4/09)

2009        Dec 5, In Equatorial Guinea Gen. Sekouba Konate, the No. 2 of the military junta, returned to the country overnight, helping fill a dangerous power vacuum after the president was shot by his top aide and evacuated for emergency treatment.
    (AP, 12/5/09)

2009        The population of Equatorial Guinea was estimated to be about 600,000.
    (Econ, 7/18/09, p.44)

2010        Jul 2, In junta-ruled Guinea electoral officials announced that a runoff vote would be needed to determine who wins the mineral-rich West African nation's first free election since independence.
    (AP, 7/2/10)

2010        Jul 5, Brazil’s Pres. Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva wrapped up a state visit to Equatorial Guinea (Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial), which included the signing of multiple cooperation agreements, economic meetings, and festivities.
    (PR Newswire, 7/6/10)

2010        Oct 11, The rights group EG Justice said in a statement that a letter signed by 125 African scholars and human rights defenders has denounced the UNESCO-Obiang Nguema Mbasogo Prize for Research in the Life Sciences, a prize named for the president of Equatorial Guinea. Mbasogo seized power more than 30 years ago and has been accused of human rights violations including unlawful killings, torture, and arbitrary arrests.
    (AP, 10/12/10)

2010        Oct 21, UNESCO, the UN's cultural and education agency, suspended plans to grant a prize named after Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, Equatorial Guinea's longtime dictator, after human rights groups slammed the award by citing the leader's poor human rights record.
    (AP, 10/21/10)

2010        Nov 9, France's highest court authorized a probe into the assets of three African heads of state, after two rights groups' alleged that the leaders laundered money through French villas, cars and bank accounts. The probe will target Gabon's late leader Omar Bongo, the Republic of Congo's President Denis Sassou-Nguesso and President Teodoro Obiang of Equatorial Guinea.
    (AP, 11/9/10)

2010        Nov 19, In the Republic of Congo 8 countries signed a convention to limit the spread of weapons in central Africa, but three countries opted out. Angola, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, The Republic of Congo, Sao Tome and Principe all signed. Burundi, Equatorial Guinea and Rwanda did not sign.
    (AFP, 11/20/10)

2011        Jan 30, Equatorial Guinea’s Pres. Teodoro Obiang assumed the African Union chairmanship at the organization’s annual summit, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    (http://allafrica.com/view/group/main/main/id/00012576.html)

2011        Feb 11, In Equatorial Guinea writer Juan Tomas Avila Laurel (44) began a hunger strike. He left Malabo the next day for Barcelona, Spain, amid fears for his safety.
    (AP, 2/27/11)

2011        Feb 28, Global witness, a corruption watchdog, said Teodorin Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guinea's dictator of 30 years, has commissioned plans to build a super-yacht costing $380 million, nearly three times what the country spends on health and education each year. UN statistics showed that 20% of the country’s children die before reaching the age of 5.
    (AP, 2/28/11)

2011        Jun 20, Equatorial Guinea was accused by Amnesty International of a clampdown on freedom of expression ahead of an African Union summit being held in the country this month.
    (AFP, 6/20/11)

2011        Jun 30, In Equatorial Guinea the 53-nation African Union opened its summit in Malabo.
    (AP, 6/29/11)

2011        Jul 1, In Equatorial Guinea Africa's heads of state signed off on a road map designed to help Libya emerge from civil war, but carefully dodged the issue of what role the country's entrenched dictator Moammar Gadhafi should play in its future government. The African Union called on its members to disregard the International Criminal Court's arrest warrant for Moammar Gadhafi.
    (AP, 7/1/11)(AP, 7/2/11)
2011        Jul 1, The African Union, meeting in Equatorial Guinea, said Senegal must try Hissene Habre, the former dictator of Chad, who has been living in the Senegalese capital for decades. Habre has lived in Senegal since 1990, and Senegal agreed to create a special court to try him more than five years ago.
    (AP, 7/2/11)

2011        Oct 13, Equatorial Guinea's President Teodoro Nguema Obiang signed a decree  nominating his playboy son, Teodoro Obiang Mangue, as his deputy envoy to UNESCO in apparent retaliation for the UN body's refusal to award a prize named in his honor. The news was made public on Oct 19. Teodorin's appointment was announced on the same day that Human Rights Watch urged United States authorities to move quickly to probe his alleged corruption and money-laundering.
    (AFP, 10/19/11)

2011        Nov 1, Equatorial Guinea authorities arrested Marcial Abaga Barril, an opposition member. A day later he was told he was being held into the alleged killing last month of a cook working for Pres. Obiang’s family. He  planned to campaign against this month's referendum on a constitutional change that would all but ensure that Africa's longest-serving dictator could extend his rule. Barril was released on Nov  4.
    (AP, 11/4/11)(AP, 11/4/11)

2011        Nov 13, Equatorial Guinea's main opposition withdrew its agents from polling stations to protest against irregularities as the country voted in a referendum on a new constitution. If approved, the constitution would be amended to impose presidential term limits, but the text does not make clear whether Obiang will have to step down when his term ends in 2016. The referendum also created a new vice president position, a job many believe is earmarked for Obiang's son. 97% of people voted in favor of measures that limit presidents to two terms in office. The new constitution did not make clear whether Obiang could stay in power until 2030.
    (AFP, 11/13/11)(AP, 11/14/11)(AFP, 11/16/11)

2012        Feb 14, French police searched an upmarket Paris residence of the son of Equatorial Guinea's President Teodoro Obiang Nguema as part of a corruption probe.
    (AFP, 2/14/12)

2012        Mar 8, UNESCO's governing board voted for the UN's educational body to go ahead with a controversial prize financed by Equatorial Guinea's President Teodoro Obiang Nguema.
    (AFP, 3/8/12)

2012        Mar 29, Equatorial Guinea warned that French firms would face the consequences if Paris did not scrap an arrest warrant for the son of President Teodoro Obiang Nguema. A day earlier the ruling Democratic Party (PDGE) said the country's first son, also the party's vice president, could not be judged by a French court.
    (AFP, 3/29/12)

2012        Apr 16, Equatorial Guinea's public prosecutor launched a probe into whether Daniel Lebegue, the head of the French wing of corruption watchdog Transparency International, slandered the country.
    (AFP, 4/17/12)

2012        May 18, The government of Equatorial Guinea's PM Ignacio Milam Tang resigned in line with a constitutional reform approved in November.
    (AFP, 5/18/12)

2012        May 25, Equatorial Guinea President Teodoro Obiang Nguema (69) named two sons and a brother in the country's new government, after appointing Vincente Ehate Tomi as prime minister. Of the 55 government nominations announced, 12 were close to Obiang Nguema personally.
    (AFP, 5/25/12)

2012        Jul 12, France issued an arrest warrant for the son of Equatorial Guinea's President Teodoro Obiang Nguema after he refused to be interviewed by magistrates on graft charges. He declined to be interviewed claiming immunity as Equatorial Guinea's vice president.
    (AFP, 7/13/12)

2012        Jul 17, The UNESCO-Equatorial Guinea Int’l. Prize for Research in the Life Sciences went to scientists from Egypt, Mexico and South Africa. The prize was sponsored by Equatorial Guinea’s Pres. Teodoro Obiang Nguema, who faced major allegations of corruption.
    (Econ, 7/21/12, p.sd43)

2012        Jul 19, France seized a six-storey mansion on the chic Avenue Foch in the 16th district, reportedly worth between 100 and 150 million euros, in connection with an investigation into Teodorin Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guinea leader Teodoro Obiang Nguema.
    (AFP, 8/3/12)

2012        Jul 26, The UN's food agency said 10 Central African countries have agreed to take part in a regional initiative to monitor the Congo Basin, one of the world's largest primary rainforests. They included Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda and Sao Tome and Principe.
    (AFP, 7/26/12)

2012        Oct 22, In Equatorial Guinea Fabian Nsue Nguema, a prominent human rights lawyer, went missing during a visit to a prison. Equatorial Guinean law prohibits secret and warrantless detentions, and stipulates that charges must be filed within 72 hours of an arrest.
    (AP, 10/24/12)

2013        Nov 9, Oil-rich Equatorial Guinea said it would block an agreement between central African countries to allow people from the region to circulate freely, due to fears it would be flooded with immigrants.
    (AFP, 11/9/13)

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