Return to home A medieval country in western Europe
extending along the North Sea from the Strait of Dover to Schledt
River. Now part of Belgium, France and Netherlands.
(WUD, 1994, p.539) 1127
Mar 2, Charles the Good, Count of Flanders, was
murdered. Flemish towns (Ghent, Bruges and Ypres) forced the
selection of Thierry of Alsace as the new count despite Louis VI’s
choice of the son of Normandy’s Robert Curthose.
(PCh, 1992, p.92)(SC, 3/2/02)
1164 Nov 2, Thomas Becket, the
archbishop of Canterbury, fled England and landed in Flanders.
(ON, 8/20/11, p.2)
1177 A Christian army under the
joint command of Philip of Flanders and Raymond of Tripoli marched
west to campaign against the Muslims around Tripoli.
(ON, 6/07, p.5)
1245 Cottage weavers went on
strike against cloth merchants.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
1299 The Count of Holland
gained control of the County of Zeeland, which had been under
contention between Holland and Flanders.
1300s England recruited Flemish
weavers with promises of "good beer, good food, good bed and good
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
1302 May 18, The weaver Peter
de Coningk led a massacre of the Flemish oligarchs.
1323 Oct 16, Amadeus V the
Great, count of Flanders and Savoy, died at 74.
1345 Jul 17, Jacob Van
Artevelde, [Manner Man], Flemish broker, was lynched.
1382 Nov 27, The French
nobility, led by Olivier de Clisson, crushed the Flemish rebels at
1385 Apr 12, Willem van
Oostervant wed Margaretha (10), Philip the Stout's daughter
1386 Feb 15, Duke Philip the
Stout formed the Council of Flanders.
1400 Roger Van Der Weyden
(d.1464), Flemish painter, was born.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1624)(Econ, 10/3/09,
c1400-1474 Guillaume Dufay [Du Fay], Flemish
composer. His work included the “Ecclesie militantis," which has
four texts going simultaneously.
(WUD, 1994, p.440)(WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)
1400-1500 Anetonello da Messina brought the
technique of oil painting from Flanders to Italy.
(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.C17)
1400-1500 Petrus Christus, painter, worked in this
(SFC, 1/28/97, p.E1)
1430s Jan van Eyck painted 2
works titled “St. Francis Receiving the Stigmata." For a time he was
considered the inventor of oil painting, but later lost that
distinction. He is still regarded as the inventor of a type of
landscape painting with figures in realistic scale that influenced
the entire Northern school of painting. Only 9 signed and dated
works survive. In 2001 painter David Hockney and physicist Charles
Falco alleged that Eyck and other artists of this period began using
optical devices to project pictures and produce detailed tracings.
(WSJ, 5/7/98, p.A21)(SFC, 1/5/01, p.C9)
1438 Jan van Eyck (1385-1441)
painted his “Portrait of Cardinal Niccols Albergati."
(SFC, 1/5/01, p.C9)
1441 Jun, Jan/Johannes van Eyck
(b.1395), Flemish painter (Lamb Gods), died in Brugge.
c1450-1516 Hieronymus Bosch, painter was born.
Hieronymous van Aken was born in the small Dutch Brabant city of
‘s-Hertogenbosch in Flanders.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.172)(WSJ, 8/25/98,
p.A12)(WSJ, 10/11/01, p.A19)
1464 Jun 18, Roger Van Der
Weyden (b.1400), Flemish painter, died. He had mastered the new
technique of oil painting and served as the official painter to the
city of Brussels.
1466?-1530 Quentin Massys, Flemish painter. He
painted “The Moneylender and His Wife."
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.882)
1474 Nov 27, Guillaume Dufay
(b.1399), French-Flemish composer, died. His work included
“Ecclesiae militantis," a 5-part motet on Pope Eugenius IV’s
short-lived supremacy over the Eastern Orthodox Church.
(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A15)(MC, 11/27/01)
c1475 Dieric Bouts, Flemish
painter, created his painting "Virgin and Child."
(SFEC, 12/19/99, DB p.42)
1478?-1533? Jan Gossaert (Mabuse), Flemish
painter. He painted “St Luke Drawing the Virgin Mary."
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.858)
1487 Hans Memling
(c.1440-1494), Flemish painter, painted the diptych “Virgin and
Child" and “Maarten van Nieuwenhove" (1463-1500), who was his
(SFC, 10/18/05, p.D2)(SFC, 12/23/06, p.E12)
1492 Jun 16, Jan Coppenhole,
Flemish rebel leader, was beheaded.
1499 Nov 11, Pretender to the
throne Perkin Warbeck was executed. [see Nov 23]
1499 Nov 23, Perkin Warbeck,
Flemish sailor, was hanged. [see Nov 11]
1500 Herri met de Bles, Flemish
oil painter, created “Landscape With Burning City."
(WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W8)
1512 Mar 5, Gerardus Mercator
(d.1594), Flemish philosopher and cartographer, was born in
Rupelmonde, Flanders (later Belgium).
1517 Mar 26, The famous Flemish
composer Heinrich Issac, whose music fused Flemish, Italian and
Germanic styles, died.
1523 Jul 1, Hendrik Voes,
Flemish priest, church reformer, was burned at stake along with John
of Esschen (Jan van Essen), Flemish priest, church reformer. The 2
monks were executed in Brussels for refusing to recant their
(http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_van_Essen)(Econ, 12/17/11, p.94)
1527 Adrian Willaert, Flemish
composer, was made maestro di capella at St. Mark’s, in Venice.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)
1537 Gerhardus Mercator,
Flemish geographer, surveyed and drew a map of Flanders that was so
accurate that Charles V made him his geographer.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)
1538 Mercator (1512-1594),
Flemish cartographer, used the name "America" for the first time.
1546 Gerardus Mercator, Flemish
geographer, affirmed that the earth has magnetic pole.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)
1549 Oct 1, Anna of H
Bartolomaeus was born. She was a Flemish prioress and founded a
1553 Apr 29, A Flemish woman
introduced to England the practice of starching linen.
1557 Pieter Breughel the Elder
created his painting “The Drunkard Pushed Into the Pigsty."
(WSJ, 9/6/02, p.W14)
1558 Pieter Breughel the Elder
created his painting “Ice skating Before the Gate of Saint George."
He also did “Ira," a depiction of anger.
(WSJ, 10/1/01, p.A22)
1560 Nicolas Gombert (b.~1495),
Flemish composer, died about this time. He was one of the most
famous and influential composers between Josquin Desprez and
Palestrina, and best represents the fully-developed, complex
polyphonic style of this period in music history.
1561 Simon Bening, Flemish
painter, died. He was known as the best illuminator of his time.
(Econ, 1/3/04, p.62)
1563 Pieter Breughel the Elder,
great Flemish artist, painted the “Tower of Babel." [see 1568-1625]
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(WSJ, 2/18/00, p.W12)
1563 Gerardus Mercator, Flemish
geographer, produced the first detailed map of Lorraine.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)
1564 Oct 15, Andreas Vesalius
(b.1514), Flemish anatomist, died. Andreas Vesalius, the father of
modern anatomy, was forced by the Inquisition to make a pilgrimage
to the Holy Land. He disappeared during the voyage. In 1543 he
authored of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De
humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).
1568 Jun 4, Lamoraal, Count
Egmont, prince of Gavere, was beheaded in Brussels for opposition to
the Spanish Inquisition. He became a heroic figure in Goethe's play
and Beethoven's musical setting. Philips van Montmorency comte
d'Horn, admiral, statesman, was also beheaded along with 18 other
leaders of the Flemish opposition.
(PCh, 1992, p.195)(MC, 6/5/02)
1568-1625 Jan Breughel, the Elder, a son of Pieter
Breughel, painted the "teeming textures of normal existence."
(WSJ, 2/18/00, p.W12)
1568 Leaders of the Flemish
opposition to the Spanish Inquisition were beheaded as traitors in
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)
1569 Sep 5, Pieter Breughel,
South Netherlands (Flemish) painter, died at about 44.
1569 Gerhardus Mercator
(1512-1594), Flemish geographer, produced his "Map of the World" for
the use of navigators on the projection that bears his name to this
day. He was the first to use the term "atlas" for a collection of
maps. In 2004 Andrew Taylor authored “The World of Gerard Mercator."
(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(WSJ, 11/5/04, p.W9)
c1570 Pieter Breughel the Elder
created his paintings “Spring" and “Summer."
(WSJ, 10/1/01, p.A22)
1570-1612 The first modern atlas, Theatrum orbis
terrarum, was published by Abraham Ortelius of Amsterdam in 1570.
The Flemish mapmaker compiled it using the best maps available and
issued dozens of editions in this period. [see 1602]
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(WSJ,11/24/95, p.B-8)
1572 Oct 5, The Spanish army
under Duke of Alva's son Don Frederik plundered Mechelen.
1574 Justus Lipsius, Flemish
scholar, edited “The Histories and The Annals of Tacitus."
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1577 Jun 28, Pietro Paul Rubens
(d.1640), Flemish painter, was born in Germany, the child of
protestants exiled from Antwerp. His work included "Helene Fourment"
and "The Abduction of the Daughters of Leucippus."
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1250)(HN, 6/28/01)
(Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)
1591 Flemish engraver Theodor
de Bry published “A Brief Narration of Those Things Which Befell the
French in the Province of Florida" in Latin and Germany editions. It
focused on the 1564-1565 French settlement of Fort Caroline. The
book included 42 engravings said to be based on water color
paintings by Jacques de Moyne de Morgues (d.1588), who had
accompanied the French expedition. Moyne also provided a narrative
and a map. In 1946 Stefan Lorant translated Moyne’s text into
English and reproduced his engravings and map in “The New World."
(Arch, 5/05, p.28)
1594 Apr 15, Flemish painter
Pieter Stevens was appointed royal painter of Rudolf II in Prague.
1594 Jun 14, Orlando di Lasso
(b.~1532), Franco-Flemish composer, died in Munich. He was the
most famous and influential musician in Europe at the end of the
16th century. Along with Palestrina (of the Roman School), he is
considered to be the chief representative of the mature polyphonic
style of the Franco-Flemish School.
1594 Dec 2, Gerardus Mercator
(82), Flemish philosopher and cartographer, died. Mercator's dream
was to publish a volume of maps, which would also give a history of
the world since creation. Called the 'Atlas', the first section came
out in 1569. It contained a chronology from creation to 1568.
1596 Abraham Ortelius, Flemish
mapmaker, recorded his belief that the continents had not always
been fixed in their positions.
(NH, 10/02, p.79)
1599 Feb 22, Anthony Van Dyck,
painter, was born in Antwerp, Belgium. [See Mar 22]
1599 Mar 22, Sir Anthony Van
Dyck, Flemish artist, was born. He gave his name to the Vandyke
beard. [See Feb 22]
1602 Feb 9, Franciscus van de
Enden, Flemish Jesuit, free thinker, tutor of Spinoza, was born.
1602 An atlas made by the
Flemish mapmaker Abraham Ortelius, bound in vellum with text in
Spanish, was one of dozens issued between 1570 and 1612. It is
available in 1995 for $160,000 from New York dealer W.G. Arader III.
(WSJ, 11/24/95, p.B-8)
1605 Apr 8, Louis de Vadder,
Flemish painter, was born.
1605 The painting "Death of
Samson" was attributed to Peter Paul Rubens, but may have been done
by a student and completed as late as 1650. The work was later
purchased by the Getty Museum for $6 million through Italian art
dealers from the Corsini family and contested whether or not it was
a national treasure.
(WSJ, 4/2/99, p.W12)
1608 Rubens painted “Adoration
of the Shepherds."
(WSJ, 2/8/00, p.A20)
c1609 Rubens painted “The Head
of St. John the Baptist." In 1998 it sold for $5.5 mil to Alfred
(SFC, 2/3/98, p.E3)
1609-1611 The painting “The Massacre of the
Innocents" was attributed to Peter Paul Rubens in 2002 and expected
to sell for $5.7-8.5 million.
(SFC, 3/7/02, p.D12)
1610 Jun 3, Jacob Neefs,
Flemish engraver, publisher, was baptized.
1611 Apr 1, Gillis van
Valkenborch (~72), Flemish painter, was buried.
1613 Jan Breughel (1568-1625),
the Elder, a son of Pieter Breughel, painted the "A Village Street
with Carts, Villagers and Gentlefolk."
(WSJ, 2/18/00, p.W12)
1618-1664 Michael Sweerts, Flemish painter.
(SSFC, 12/24/00, DB p.39)
1626 Apr 5, Jan van Kessel
(d.1679), Flemish painter, was born. He was the grandson of Jan
Breughel. He is known for his small paintings on copper and wood.
His “Study of Butterflies, Spiders, Lizards, a Beetle, an Ant, a
Grasshopper and Other Insects" sold at a Sotheby’s auction in 2000
(WSJ, 6/9/00, p.W10)(MC, 4/5/02)
1629 May 29, Arnold Baert (~74)
Flemish lawyer, member of Great Council, died.
1629 Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish
painter, created an allegorical design depicting “Honor and Virtue."
The painting was commissioned in this year and in 1998 was part of
the collection of the Prince of Liechtenstein. A separate small oil
sketch for the painting was first made and made public in 1998.
Rubens also made a copy of Titian’s “The Rape of Europa," and he
painted the portrait of “Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel."
(SFC, 2/19/98, p.E4)(WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)
1637 Oct 20, Nicolaas van der
Veken, Flemish sculptor (confessional chairs), was born.
1640 May 30, Peter Paul Rubens
(b.1577), Flemish painter, died in Antwerp.
1640 Dec 6, Matthijs Elsevier
(75), Flemish-Dutch book publisher and merchant, died.
1641 Dec 9, Anthonie "Antoon"
van Dyck (42), Flemish painter, died.
1652 Oct 13, Abraham Verhoeven,
Flemish printer and newspaper publisher, died.
1659-1661 Michael Sweerts painted his rosy
“Portrait of a Youth."
(SFC, 6/17/02, p.D1)
1674 Nov 24, Franciscus van
Enden (72), Flemish Jesuit and free thinker, was executed.
1679 Apr 17, John van Kessel
(53), Flemish painter, died.
1685 Feb 11, David Teniers III
(46), Flemish painter, died.
1714 Mar 6, the Treaty of
Rastatt ended the war between Austria and Spain. It complemented the
Treaty of Utrecht, which had, the previous year, ended hostilities
with Britain and the Dutch Republic. The Spanish Netherlands became
the Austrian Netherlands, and Spain gave up her possession in Italy,
Luxembourg and Flanders. A third treaty, the Treaty of Baden (Sep 7,
1714), was required to end the hostilities between France and the
Holy Roman Empire.
(PCh, ed. 1992,
1759-1840 Pierre-Joseph Redoute, Flemish-born
painter. He was one of the most celebrated flower painters and
worked under the patronage of Empress Josephine Bonaparte. His 169
stipple engravings “Les Rose" were made in Paris between 1817-1824.
(2000 Taschen Calendar)
1793-1795 The British engaged in the ill-fated
(SSFM, 4/1/01, p.42)
1865 May 9, August de Boeck
(d.1937), Flemish composer, was born.
1869 May 29, Philippe
Vandermaelen (73), Flemish cartographer, publisher, died.
1894 May 25, Dirk Vansina,
Flemish playwright (Verschaeve Gives Evidence), was born.
1914-1918 In 2002 Winston Groom authored “A Storm
in Flanders: The Ypres Salient: 1914-1918: Tragedy and Triumph on
the Western Front."
(SSFC, 6/30/02, p.M4)
1917 Jul 11, The assault on
Flanders began and lasted to Nov 10, for a total gain of four miles
and the occupation of Passendaele. [see Nov 10]
(AM, 7/04, p.9)
1917 Aug 14, The Chinese
Parliament declared war on the Central Powers, Germany and Austria,
during World War I. Some 100,000 Chinese laborers ended up serving
near the front lines in Flanders as the “Chinese Labor Corps," which
endured military discipline under British officers. Hundreds died in
the influenza that swept post-war Europe and the last were shipped
home in 1920.
(AP, 8/14/97)(Econ, 4/24/10, p.41)
1917 Nov 10, The assault on
Flanders, begun July 11, finally ground to a halt. The British
Expeditionary Force (BEF) had suffered losses of 300,000 men and
German losses were around 200,000--for a total gain of four miles
and the occupation of Passchendaele. The battle was later described
by Edwin Campion Vaughan in “Some Desperate Glory" (1981).
(HN, 6/7/98)(HNQ, 11/2/98)(WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P12)