Timeline France 2000-2015

Return to home

2000        Jan 1, In southwestern France Robert Lund reported that his wife, Evelyn (52), was missing from their home. He told investigators he believed she had an accident after drinking heavily and setting off to visit friends. Her body was found inside her car in Lake Bancalie in 2002. Lund was sentenced to 12 years in jail in 2007 for the involuntary homicide of his wife. Lund insisted he was innocent as his third trial in the case opened in 2011. On Dec 16, 2011, Lund was sentenced to 12 years in prison.
    (AP, 12/12/11)(AFP, 12/16/11)

2000        Jan 13, In France a 50 member surgical team performed the world's first double-hand and forearm transplant at Edouard-Herriot Hospital in a 17-hour operation led by Dr. Jean-Michel Dubernard.
    (SFC, 1/15/00, p.A3)

2000        Feb 1, In France the new 35-hour work week took legal effect. Workers that included truckers struck across the country for a number of demands that included higher pay. The truckers were exempted from the reduced work week.
    (SFC, 2/2/00, p.B2)

2000        Feb 5, Claude Autant-Lara, film director, died at age 98. His over 30 films included "Le Diable au Corps" (Devil in the Flesh), "Le Rouge et le Noir" (The Red and the Black), based on the novel by Stendhal, and "La Traversee de Paris" (Four Bags Full).
    (SFC, 2/8/00, p.A23)

2000        Feb 11, Roger Vadim, film director, died in Paris at age 72. His 5 wives included Brigitte Bardot, Annette Stroyberg, Catherine Deneuve, Jane Fonda, Catherine Schneider and Marie-Christine Barrault.
    (SFC, 2/12/00, p.A21)(AP, 2/11/01)

2000        Apr 19, In the Brittany region of France a bomb exploded in a McDonald’s restaurant in Dinan and one worker was killed.
    (SFC, 4/20/00, p.A18)

2000        Apr, The book “Journal de 1994, Campagne de France," by Renaud Camus, was withdrawn from bookstores due to anti-Semitic remarks. It returned to stores in July with 10 of the inflammatory pages blank.
    (WSJ, 8/7/00, p.A13)

2000        May 19, In France an 11-day strike by armored truck guards left the country short of cash.
    (SFC, 5/20/00, p.A9)

2000        May 20, Jean-Pierre Rampal, classical flutist, died in Paris at age 78.
    (SFEC, 5/21/00, p.B11)

2000        May 23, In France the 15-day strike by armored truck security guards ended after they agreed to a risk premium of $138 per month.
    (SFC, 5/24/00, p.C4)

2000        Jun 6, Frederic Dard, novelist, died at age 78. His 300 novels included 140 in the “San Antonio" detective series.
    (SFC, 6/9/00, p.D5)

2000        Jun 15, Jules Roy, Algeria-born Air Force pilot and author, died at age 92. His books included “Les Chevaux du Soleil" (Horses in the Sun), “La Vallee Heureuse" (Contented Valley) and “La Bataille dans les Rizieres" (The Battle in the Rice Paddies).
    (SFC, 6/16/00, p.A34)

2000        Jun 30, Germaine Montero, singer, actress and poet, died at age 90.
    (SFC, 7/1/00, p.C2)

2000        Jul 10, DASA (minus MTU) merged with Aerospatiale-Matra of France and Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) of Spain to form the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS). DASA was founded as Deutsche Aerospace AG on May 19, 1989 by the merger of Daimler-Benz's aerospace interests (MTU, Dornier and two divisions of AEG). In July 1989 the two AEG divisions were themselves merged within Deutsche Aerospace to form Telefunken Systemtechnik (TST). In December 1989 Daimler-Benz acquired Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) and merged it into DASA.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DASA)

2000        Jul 25, In France a NY bound Concorde jet crashed in Gonesse after takeoff and all 109 people aboard were killed along with 4 people on the ground. Passengers included 96 Germans, 2 Danes and an Austrian. Debris from a blown tire was later believed to have caused an engine fire. A 5th body was found in the rubble of the Hotelissimo. It was the first-ever crash of the supersonic jet. A final probe in 2002 attributed runway junk as the cause of the crash. A French accident inquiry concluded in December 2004 that the disaster was partly caused by the strip of metal that fell on the runway from the Continental plane that took off just before the supersonic jet. In 2010 Continental was ordered to pay a fine of 200,000 euros for the crash and to pay Concorde's operator Air France a million euros in damages. On Nov 28, 2012, a French appeals court overturned manslaughter convictions against Continental Airlines and a mechanic for the Concorde crash.
    (SFC, 7/26/00, p.A1)(SFC, 7/27/00, p.A12)(SFC, 7/29/00, p.A12)(AP, 7/25/01)(SFC, 1/17/02, p.A8)(AFP, 12/6/10)(AP, 11/30/12)

2000        Aug 29, Interior Minister Jean-Pierre Chevenement resigned over a proposed peace plan for Corsica. The plan offered limited rights to pass laws beginning in 2004 for the 250,000 inhabitants.
    (SFC, 8/30/00, p.A12)

2000        Aug 31, The government announced a package of tax reductions worth $16.5 billion over 3 years.
    (SFC, 9/1/00, p.D2)

2000        Sep 4, Farmers along with and truckers and taxi drivers protested high fuel costs with demonstrations at 80 facilities.
    (SFC, 9/5/00, p.A12)

2000        Sep 7, Taxi drivers began “Operation Escargot," driving into cities at a snails pace, to protest gasoline prices.
    (SFC, 9/8/00, p.A14)

2000        Sep 9, Union leaders called for an end to the 6-day fuel protests.
    (SFEC, 9/10/00, p.A18)

2000        Sep 22, France allowed a chartered aircraft with humanitarian personnel  to fly to Baghdad.
    (SFC, 9/23/00, p.A8)

2000        Sep 24, In France voters approved a reduction in the president’s term of office to 5 years from 7.
    (SFC, 9/25/00, p.A12)

2000        Oct, Rev. Rene Bissey was convicted for raping and abusing 11 minors in the mid 1990s. He was sentenced to 18 years in prison. In 2001 Bishop Pierre Pican was convicted for keeping quiet about Rev. Bissey and received a 3-month suspended sentence.
    (SFC, 9/5/01, p.A8)

2000        Nov 22, Theodore Monod, environmentalist, died at age 98. He was an expert on the Sahara Desert and authored many books including: “Meharees," “The Hippopotamus and the Philosopher," “Bathyfolages," “Le Desert," and “memoirs of a Naturalist Traveler."
    (SFC, 11/23/00, p.D9)

2000        Dec 1, Michel Roussin, former right-hand man of Pres. Jacques Chirac when he was mayor of Paris, was arrested for a kickback scheme in school construction projects.
    (SFC, 12/5/00, p.A15)

2000        Dec 7, Some 4,000 protestors clashed with police at the opening of the EU summit in Nice.
    (SFC, 12/8/00, p.A20)

2000     Dec, Emile Louis (d.2013 at 79), a retired French bus driver and convicted sex offender, was arrested for kidnapping several mentally impaired women who disappeared from Auxierre in the late 1970s. He was convicted in 2004 for killing the 7 mentally impaired young women.
    (SFC, 12/20/00, p.A18)(AFP, 10/21/13)

2000        Pernod Ricard SA acquired the Mexican tequila producer Viuda de Romero.
    (WSJ, 9/7/05, p.B2)

2001        Jan 5, In 2007 it was reported that a French intelligence document dated to this day warned that al-Qaida was at work on a hijacking plot. The information was passed on to the CIA. Documents on Osama bin Laden's terror network were drawn up by the French spy service, the DGSE, between July 2000 and October 2001.
    (AP, 4/16/07)

2001        Jan 20, Dr. Charles Merieux, virologist and founder of the Merieux Laboratory, died at age 94. He helped produce the Salk vaccine cultivated in minced monkey kidney tissue. He also produced a vaccine against a meningitis strain that killed 4,000 people in Brazil in 1974.
    (SFC, 1/27/01, p.A24)

2001        Jan 30, Thousands of teachers, hospital workers and police marched across France to demand pay increases. Some 17,000 marched in Paris.
    (SFC, 1/31/01, p.A12)
2001        Jan 30, Actor Jean-Pierre Aumont died at age 90. His 1976 autobiography was titled “Sun and Shadow."
    (SFC, 1/31/01, p.C2)

2001        Feb 2, Alfred Sirven, former 2nd in command of Elf Aquitaine, was arrested in Manila following 4 years on the lam. He was involved in a multimillion-dollar corruption case against Roland Dumas, a former French foreign minister.
    (SFC, 2/3/01, p.A10)

2001        Feb 17, The Cambodian-registered East Sea freighter with 912 ethnic Kurds ran aground off the French Riviera. The crew of the ship fled following the intentional grounding. Criminal gangs in Turkey and Iraq were reported to be behind the smuggling.
    (SSFC, 2/18/01, p.D1)(SFC, 2/19/01, p.A10)

2001        Feb 17, Charles Trenet, singer and songwriter known as Le Fou Chantant (The Singing Fool), died at age 87. His songs included “La Mer" (1946), which Bobby Darin made famous in 1960 as “Beyond the Sea."
    (SFC, 2/21/01, p.A18)

2001        Mar 2, Alois Brunner, former deputy of Adolf Eichmann, was sentenced to life imprisonment for war crimes against humanity. He was believed to be still alive in Syria, where he fled in 1954.
    (SFC, 3/3/01, p.A10)

2001        Mar 4, Jean Bazaine, artist, died at age 96. He was know for his painting, mosaics and stained-glass work.
    (SFC, 3/6/01, p.B2)

2001        Mar 5, France banned exports of animals at risk for hoof-and-mouth disease.
    (SFC, 3/6/01, p.A11)

2001        Mar 13, US regulators moved to ban all live animals and uncooked animal products from the EU following the discovery of hoof-and-mouth disease in France.
    (SFC, 3/14/01, p.A1)

2001        Mar 18, Mayoral elections were held in Paris. Bertrand Delanoe, candidate of the Socialist, Communists and 2-other left-wing parties, won over Philippe Seguin. Socialists also won in Lyon. This ended a century of nearly unbroken rule by the right.
    (SFC, 3/8/01, p.A12)(SFC, 3/19/01, p.A8)(AP, 3/18/02)

2001        Apr 13, Up to 15,000 people were evacuated from the region of Vimy due to fears of explosions from a World War I bomb storage site.
    (SFC, 4/14/01, p.A8)

2001        May 18, Loik Le Floch-Prigent, former head of Elf Aquitane SA (1989-1994), told newspapers that millions of dollars were paid in secret commissions to African governments, Spain and Germany, with the approval of 5 presidents.
    (SFC, 5/19/01, p.A8)

2001        May 30, Roland Dumas, a former foreign minister, was sentenced to 6 months in jail for corruption. Alfred Sirven, 2nd in command at Elf, was sentenced to 4 years in jail along with a fine. Loik Le Floch-Prigent, former Elf president was sentenced to 3 ½ years in jail; along with a fine. Christine Deviers-Joncour was sentenced to 3 years in jail with half suspended.
    (SFC, 5/31/01, p.A12)

2001        Jul 6, In France a tree crashed on music spectators at the Chateau Pourtales near Strasbourg and 10 people were killed.
    (SFC, 7/7/01, p.B1)

2001        Jul 29, Lance Armstrong won his 3rd straight Tour de France bicycle race.
    (SFC, 7/30/01, p.A1)

2001        Aug 8, Jacques Kerchache (b.1942), French explorer and collector of primitive art, died in Cancun, Mexico.
    (Econ, 4/16/11, p.91)(http://tinyurl.com/3pyax8r)

2001        Aug 26, In the French Alps a hot-air balloon caught fire after apparently hitting a high voltage wire and 6 people were killed.
    (WSJ, 8/27/01, p.A1)(AP, 2/26/13)

2001        Sep 3, In France COGEMA, a state-owned uranium mining and fuel recycling firm led by Anne Lauvergeon, became Areva in a merger with Framatome, a maker of nuclear reactors.
    (www.freebase.com/view/en/areva)(Econ, 5/9/09, p.70)

2001        Sep 21, In France a suspected accidental explosion at a TotalFinaELF chemical fertilizer plant in Toulouse killed 29 people and injured at least 650.
    (SFC, 9/22/01, p.A20)(WSJ, 9/24/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct 11, The highest appellate court ruled that Pres. Chirac is immune from criminal prosecution for corruption charges for his years as mayor of Paris, but only while still in office.
    (SFC, 12/30/01, p.D7)

2001        Oct 21, In Kazakstan a 3-person Russian-French crew blasted off for the Int’l. Space Station in a Russian Soyuz spacecraft. The crew included Claudie Haignere, who in 1996 became the 1st Frenchwoman in space.
    (SFC, 10/22/01, p.B2)

2001        Oct 29, In Tours, France, a masked gunman, later identified as a state railway employee, killed 4 people. He was arrested and a grudge was suspected.
    (WSJ, 10/30/01, p.A1)

2001        Nov 26, Former French intelligence chief General Paul Aussaressess testified that the orders he issued to torture and kill prisoners during the Algerian independence war were justifiable acts of duty.
    (AP, 11/26/02)
2001        Nov 26, French and Belgian police arrested 14 people suspected of organizing the Sep 9 assassination of Northern Alliance leader Ahmed Shah Masood. Belgium released 12 of its suspects the next day.
    (WSJ, 11/27/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/28/01, p.A1,12)

2001        Nov 28, French gendarme Gerard Larroude received 8 bullet wounds in the head and throat in an attack by ETA separatists in Pau, but survived the attack. In 2008 Ibon Fernandez de Iradi was found guilty of trying to kill Larroude and was sentenced to 30 years in prison. Antonio Agustin Figal Arranz, a suspected accomplice, was sentenced to 10 years in prison.
    (www.cityfmradio.com/detalle_noticia.php?id_noticia=8928)

2001        Dec 7, Jason-1, a satellite for tracking rising sea levels, was launched as a joint US and French effort. Its useful life ended in 2013.
    (SFC, 7/4/13, p.D3)

2001        Dec 11, In the first criminal indictment stemming from Sept. 11, a US grand jury in Virginia charged Zacarias Moussaoui, a French citizen of Moroccan descent, with conspiring to murder thousands in the suicide hijackings. Moussaoui pleaded guilty to conspiracy in 2005 and was sentenced to life in prison.
    (WSJ, 12/12/01, p.A1)(SFC, 12/12/01, p.A1)(AP, 12/11/06)

2001        Dec 15, Pierre Henri Bunel, a former French military intelligence officer accused of passing on NATO war plans to Serbian intelligence in 1998, was found guilty of treason and sentenced by a military/civilian tribunal “Tribunal aux armees" (TPA) to five years in jail. In 2013 Serbia awarded a top state medal to Bunel.
    (www.wsws.org/en/articles/2001/12/bun-d21.html)(SFC, 9/6/13, p.A2)

2001        Dec 18, Gilbert Becaud, French singer and songwriter known as “Mr. 100,000 Volts," died at age 74. He was born as Francois Gilbert Silly in Toulon and his songs included “What Now My Love" and “Let It Be Me."
    (SFC, 12/22/01, p.A28)

2001        Dec 22, Passengers and flight attendants subdued Richard Colvin Reid on AA Flight 63 from Paris to Miami. He appeared to have explosive materials in his shoes. The flight was diverted to Boston and the FBI confirmed that his shoes were packed with explosives. French police identified the man as Tariq Raja (28), a Sri Lankan traveling on a British passport. The sneakers contained pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP). On Jan 30, 2003 Reid was sentenced to life in prison. A 2nd plot involved Saajid Badat, who backed out of similar plan on a different flight. In 2005 a British judge sentenced Badat (25) to 13 years in prison.
    (SSFC, 12/23/01, p.A1)(SFC, 12/24/01, p.A1,6)(SFC, 1/31/03, p.A1)(SFC, 4/23/05, p.A4)

2001        Dec 26, In France some 550 Iraqi Kurds, Afghans, Iranians and other refugees from the Sangatte Red Cross center near the 33-mile Channel Tunnel attempted to reach asylum in Britain. All were captured by French police.
    (SFC, 12/27/01, p.A4)(AP, 12/25/02)

2001        Pernod Ricard SA acquired the Polish vodka Wyborova, Czech bitters Jan Becher and Seagram’s Martell cognac and Chivas scotch.
    (WSJ, 9/7/05, p.B2)

2001        The crime rate in France topped the US this year. Over 25,000 cars were burned in French cities as violence increased primarily due to immigrant gangs from sub-Saharan Africa, Romania and the former Yugoslavia.
    (SSFC, 4/28/02, Par p.9)
2001        Traffic accidents in France killed over 8,000 people this year. Speed cameras were installed on roads beginning in 2003 and by 2005 the number of deaths fell to just above 5,000.
    (Econ, 10/21/06, p.61)

2002        Jan 1, New Euro bills replaced the national currency.
    (SFC, 12/4/97, p.C5)(SFC, 1/2/02, p.A8)

2002        Jan 11, Henri Verneuil, film director, died at age 81.
    (SFC, 1/11/02, p.A19)

2002        Feb 4, An 8-year corruption investigation of Elf Aquitaine, privatized in 1994, ended with 40 people implicated.
    (SFC, 2/5/02, p.A6)

2002        Feb 18, France's Marina Anissina and Gwendal Peizerat narrowly won the Olympic ice dancing gold medal.
    (AP, 2/18/07)

2002        Mar 15, Disney opened its new $532.9 million movie-themed park adjacent to Disneyland Paris.
    (WSJ, 3/12/02, p.B1)

2002        Mar 9, The Mont Blanc tunnel reopened to connect Italy and France.
    (SSFC, 3/17/02, p.C4)

2002        Mar 27, In France Richard Durn (33), described as a tormented loner looking for a political cause, opened fire at the end of a city council meeting in Nanterre, a suburb of Paris, and killed 8 city council members. Durn jumped to his death under police custody on Mar 28.
    (SFC, 3/27/02, p.A7)(SFC, 3/28/02, p.A17)(AP, 3/27/07)

2002        Mar 29, France reported the successful cloning of rabbits using genetic material from adult cells.
    (SFC, 3/30/02, p.A3)

2002        Mar 31, An arson attacked destroyed Marseille’s Or Aviv temple. It was the 3rd synagogue attack in France over the Passover weekend.
    (SFC, 4/2/02, p.A8)

2002        Apr 21, The 1st round of presidential elections put Jean-Marie Le Pen, a right wing extremist, into a runoff with Pres. Jacques Chirac. Le Pen took 17% of the vote vs. 16% for PM Lionel Jospin.
    (SFC, 4/22/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr 27, At least 200,000 protesters marched in cities around France in anger at the electoral showing of Jean-Marie Le Pen.
    (SSFC, 4/28/02, p.A12)

2002        May 5, In France Pres. Chirac won a 2nd term in a landslide over extreme-right leader Jean-Marie Le Pen.
    (WSJ, 5/6/02, p.A1)(AP, 5/5/03)
2002        May 5, Antoine Riboud (1918-2002), founder of French food firm Danone (1973), died.
    (http://tinyurl.com/8sb5u)

2002        May 6, French Pres. Chirac appointed Jean-Pierre Raffarin (center right) as PM.
    (SFC, 5/7/02, p.A12)(Econ, 2/12/05, p.50)

2002        May 8, In Pakistan a bomb destroyed a shuttle bus in Karachi. 11 of 14 dead were French naval engineers helping to build a submarine for Pakistan. Asif Zaheer and Mohammad Rizwan, who allegedly belonged to Al-Qaeda-linked extremist group Harkatul Mujahideen al-Aalmi, were found guilty in 2003 of assisting the suicide attack which also killed 3 Pakistanis. In May, 2009, a Pakistan court acquitted the two men sentenced to death over the bombing. Mohammad Sohail Habib, who also allegedly belonged to Al-Qaeda-linked extremist group Harkatul Mujahideen al-Aalmi, was sentenced to death in his absence in 2003 for assisting the suicide attack. Sohail was arrested in 2005 but was acquitted after a six-month re-trial in an anti-terrorism court ordered on appeal by the high court. In October, 2009, a Pakistani court acquitted Soheil for lack of evidence.
    (SFC, 5/8/02, p.A17)(SFC, 5/8/02, p.A8)(WSJ, 5/9/02, p.A1)(AFP, 5/5/09)(AFP, 10/30/09)

2002        May 21, Niki de Saint Phalle (71), French pop artist, died in San Diego. Her work included the Stravinsky Fountain outside the Pompidou Center in Paris.
    (SFC, 5/23/02, p.A23)

2002        May 23, The Israeli Embassy in Paris burned beyond repair. A faulty circuit was suspected.
    (SFC, 5/24/02, p.A16)

2002        Jun 9, Pres. Jacques Chirac's mainstream right prevailed in a first round of elections for France's 577-seat National Assembly.
    (AP, 6/9/03)
2002        Jun 9, Albert Costa won the French Open over fellow Spaniard Juan Carlos Ferrero.
    (AP, 6/9/03)

2002        Jun 16, France's leftist parliament became the latest casualty in Europe's rightward shift with a crushing legislative victory by the mainstream right that gave President Jacques Chirac full control of parliament.
    (AP, 6/17/02)

2002        Jun 19, Air traffic controllers in France and other nations went on strike to protest a plan to dramatically reorganize the use of Europe's skies.
    (AP, 6/19/02)

2002        Jun 22, The official inauguration of the $89 million, Auvergne region European Volcanic Park, was scheduled. It included a building complex designed by Hans Hollein of Austria.
    (WSJ, 4/18/02, p.D7)

2002        Jun 27, A US Air Force pilot was killed when his A10 “Warthog" crashed during a training mission in eastern France.
    (SFC, 6/28/02, p.A14)

2002        Jun 29, Francois Perier (82), a prolific and acclaimed actor whose presence on the French stage and screen spanned three generations, died.
    (AP, 6/29/02)

2002        Jul 14, Maxime Brunerie, a man described as an emotionally disturbed neo-Nazi, tried to assassinate French President Jacques Chirac. He pulled a rifle from a guitar case and fired off a shot before being wrestled to the ground during a Bastille Day parade. Brunerie, sentenced to 10 years, was released from prison in 2009.
    (AP, 7/14/02)(AP, 8/22/09)

2002        Jul 31, US court papers alleged that Russia's Alimzhan Tokhtakhounov (53) used his influence with members of the Russian and French skating federations to fix the outcome of the pairs and ice dancing competitions at the Salt Lake City Winter Olympics last February. Tokhtakhounov was arrested in Italy. Italy’s highest court denounced an extradition bid and freed Tokhtakhounov.
    (Reuters, 7/31/02)(SFC, 8/1/02, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alimzhan_Tokhtakhounov)

2002        Sep 7, In Paris over 6,000 people marched through to demand residency permits for France's illegal immigrants in the largest of a series of recent rallies.
    (AP, 9/7/02)

2002        Sep 10, In southeastern France authorities said flooding and heavy rain had claimed the lives of 26 people. Rescuers were searching for dozens of others reported missing.
    (AP, 9/10/02)

2002        Sep 12, Pres. Bush addressed the UN and laid out his case against Iraq’s Pres. Saddam Hussein. Bush was expected to announce US plans to rejoin Unesco, headquartered in Paris. France favored a demand for weapons inspectors in Iraq along with force if Iraq resisted.
    (WSJ, 9/12/02, p.A1,4)(SFC, 9/13/02, p.A1)

2002        Sep 14, In France Tim Montgomery, American sprinter, set a 9.78 second record in the 100-meter dash at the IAAF Grand Prix in Paris. In 2004 he admitted to using steroids and a growth hormone. In 2005 he was banned from track for 2 years and his 2001-2005 records were expunged.
    (SFC, 6/24/04, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/14/05, p.A1)

2002        Sep 18, A French appeals court ordered wartime collaborator Maurice Papon freed, accepting his lawyers' arguments that the 92-year-old is too sick to finish his 10-year sentence for helping send Jews to Nazi death camps.
    (AP, 9/18/07)

2002        Sep 25, Explosives (pentrite) were discovered on a Moroccan jet after passengers left the flight at an airport in eastern France. There was no detonator attached to the 3 1/2 ounces of explosives discovered in the passenger section of a Royal Air Maroc airplane after it landed at the Metz-Nancy-Lorraine airport.
    (AP, 9/26/02)
2002        Sep 25, US military C-130s and US troops landed in Ivory Coast to rescue Americans. American schoolchildren escaped a rebel-held Ivory Coast city that was under siege as US special forces and French troops moved in to rescue Westerners caught in the West African nation's bloody uprising.
    (AP, 9/25/02)(AP, 9/25/07)

2002        Oct 1, The French bolstered their forces in Ivory Coast, flying in reinforcements and establishing a tactical command post for military action in its embattled former colony.
    (AP, 10/1/02)

2002        Oct 3, In France tens of thousands of public workers marched through Paris to protest plans to sell off parts of state-owned companies.
    (AP, 10/3/02)

2002        Oct 4, In France Jamal Derrar (22) poured gasoline over Sohane Benziane (17) and then approached her with a cigarette lighter, setting her on fire. She died later at a hospital with burns over 80 percent of her body. In 2006 Derrar was convicted for acts of torture and barbarity that led to unintentional death. He was sentenced to 25 years in prison.
    (AP, 4/8/06)

2002        Oct 6, A fire broke out on the Limberg, a French oil tanker off the coast of Yemen, setting barrels of oil ablaze and sparking an explosion killing one Bulgarian crew member. The explosion was soon determined to be the result of a terrorist attack. Insurance paid out $70 million for the damages.
    (AP, 10/6/02)(SFC, 10/11/02, p.A13)(AP, 10/6/03)(Econ, 4/22/06, p.73)

2002        Nov 6, In France a fire broke out on an overnight express train, filling a sleeper car with smoke and killing 12 passengers. Five Americans were among the dead, including two children.
    (AP, 11/6/02)

2002        Nov 25, In France striking truckers blockaded roadways in about 20 locations, but police intervened to dismantle several barricades that had slowed access to airports and highways.
    (AP, 11/25/02)

2002        Nov 26, A poll of 50,000 people, commissioned by Durex condom makers SSL International and released in Malaysia, showed the French had sex an average 167 times a year, pipping the Danes and the Dutch for the number one spot. It was a bad year for sex in the United States, which came in eleventh with an average of 138, after heading the rankings in 2001. Britons scored an average of 149 times. At the bottom of the pile, Singapore's 110 times was two less than Thailand's. Four in 10 people in India did not have sex until they were married and Norwegians were most likely to have sex on the first date, the survey showed. Norwegians, along with South Africans, were also more likely than any other nationality to have a one-night stand. Those in Taiwan were least likely; just 20 percent surveyed had a one-night stand.
    (Reuters, 11/26/02)
2002        Nov 26, French air traffic controllers walked off the job as part of a nationwide protest by civil servants.
    (AP, 11/26/02)
2002        Nov 26, The Astra-1K satellite was launched atop a Russian Proton rocket from the Baikonur cosmodrome in the former Soviet republic of Kazakhstan. The world's largest communications satellite, manufactured by France's Alcatel Space corporation for Societe Europeene des Satellites of Luxembourg, was lost after it went into the wrong orbit.
    (AP, 11/26/02)(WSJ, 11/27/02, p.A1)

2002        Nov 27, French police arrested a man in Lyon after he tried to hijack an Alitalia flight carrying 57 passengers from Bologna to Paris.
    (Reuters, 11/27/02)

2002        Dec 16, French counterterrorism agents arrested 4 suspected Islamic militants in a Paris suburb. The three Algerians and a Moroccan had an unidentified liquid and an anti-contamination suit.
    (AP, 12/17/02)

2002        Dec 21, French forces opened fire on rebels in western Ivory Coast, trying to stop the insurgents from pushing past them toward the commercial capital Abidjan.
    (AP, 12/21/02)
2002        Dec 21, French television journalist, Patrick Bourrat, was struck while crossing the path of an incoming tank during US military exercises in Kuwait. Bourrat died the next day.
    (AP, 12/22/02)

2002        Alistaire Horne authored “Seven Ages of Paris," a history of the city.
    (SSFC, 12/1/02, p.M6)
2002        Richard Neupert authored “A History of the French New Wave Cinema."
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.M2)
2002        Ian Pears authored “The Dream of Scipio," a historical novel set over 1,500 years in Provence.
    (SSFC, 6/30/02, p.M1)
2002        French president Jacques Chirac received three million euros ($4 million) from Ivory Coast's Laurent Gbagbo to finance his electoral campaign. This was made public in 2011 by Robert Bourgi, a lawyer with a network of African contacts who advised Chirac before changing camps in 2005 to aid French President Nicolas Sarkozy. Bourgi also named Senegal's Abdoulaye Wade, Burkina Faso's Blaise Compaore, and Congo-Brazzaville's Denis Sassou Nguesso and Gabon's Omar Bongo as contributors. Bourgi later said he was mistaken concerning (Senegal's president) Abdoulaye Wade and his son" Karim Wade.
    (AFP, 9/12/11)(AP, 9/26/11)
2002        In France Paris Mayor Bertand Delanoe inaugurated Paris Plages, filling sections of the left and right banks of the Seine with sand and installing spray misters, hammocks, parasols and other beach-style accoutrements. In 2006 Paris City Hall banned thong bikinis, topless sunbathing and nudity at the summer sand-in-the-city event.
    (AP, 7/29/06)
2002        France planed to abolish the draft by the end of the year with a slimmed down force of some 357,000 volunteers. A 50,000-strong reserve force was part of the plan.
    (SFEC, 10/31/99, p.A28)
2002        France convicted George Soros of insider trading. He was fined euro2.2 million for purchasing shares in French bank Societe Generale in 1988, days after being informed about a planned takeover bid for the bank.
    (AP, 10/6/11)
2002        Arcelor Corp., a European steelmaker, was created following the merger of France’s Usinor, Spain’s Aceralia, and Luxembourg’s Arbed.
    (Econ, 2/4/06, p.56)

2003        Jan 6, Rebels in western Ivory Coast attacked French troops and French officials said 30 rebels were killed and nine soldiers wounded.
    (AP, 1/6/03)

2003        Jan 17, France and Spain opened the new 5.3-mile Somport tunnel through the western Pyrenees mountains.
    (AP, 1/18/03)

2003        Jan 19, Francoise Giroud (86), France’s 1st minister of women’s affairs died. She co-founded one of France's top news magazines and became a powerful force in French post-war journalism at a time when few women were in the business. She published an autobiography in 1997.
    (AP, 1/19/03)(SFC, 1/21/03, p.A18)

2003        Jan 22, France and Germany joined forces to prevent any U.S.-led war on Iraq.
    (Reuters, 1/22/03)

2003        Jan 27, A head-on train collision between French and Italian passenger trains killed two people. It appeared to be the result of human error.
    (AP, 1/28/03)

2003        Jan 29, The body of Abdelmalek Benbara (41), a member of the Algerian prime minister's party reported missing Jan 17, was found in a car in Paris.
    (AP, 1/30/03)

2003        Feb 1, Across France at least 150,000 people, some braving snow, poured into the streets to protest government plans to reform the country's generous, but overburdened, pension system.
    (AP, 2/1/03)

2003          Feb 16, French President Jacques Chirac said in a published interview that the massive US military deployment in the Persian Gulf has made it possible to peacefully disarm Iraq.
    (AP, 2/16/03)

2003          Feb 20, Maurice Blanchot (95), French postmodern novelist, died. His novels included “Thomas the Obscure" (1973).
    (SFC, 3/3/03, p.B6)

2003          Feb 24, Bernard Loiseau (52), a celebrated French chef whose Cote D'Or restaurant in a small Burgundy town became a mecca for the world's gourmets, died of apparent suicide. In 2005 Rudolph Chelminski authored “The Perfectionist: Life and Death in Haute Cuisine."
    (AP, 2/25/03)(SSFC, 6/12/05, p.B5)

2003          Feb 26, French Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin warned that waging war against Iraq now, would split the international community and “be perceived as precipitous and illegitimate."
    (AP, 2/26/03)

2003          Mar 5, The foreign ministers of France, Germany and Russia said they will block any attempt to get U.N. approval for war against Iraq.
    (AP, 3/5/03)

2003        Mar 14, Jean-Luc Lagardere (b.1928), French engineer and founder of the Lagardere Group, died. In 1999 the group, among the largest of French enterprises, acquired 31.5% of Aerospatiale.
    (Econ, 11/11/06, p.79)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Luc_Lagard%C3%A8re)

2003        Mar 27, France introduced a new terrorism alert system, with 4 color-coded levels to make the national warning plan more flexible and understandable.
    (AP, 3/27/03)

2003        Apr 3, French air traffic controllers, postal workers and other public employees brought much of the country to a halt with a one-day strike over government plans to overhaul the pension system.
    (AP, 4/3/03)

2003        Apr 7, Cecile de Brunhoff (99), the inspiration for Babar the elephant whose adventures captivated generations of children, died in Paris. She first invented the tale of a little elephant as a bedtime story for her boys in 1931. They in turn told their father, painter Jean de Brunhoff, who illustrated the story and filled in details.
    (AP, 4/8/03)

2003        Apr 11, The leaders of Russia, France and Germany gathered for a summit that was expected to push for the United Nations to play the leading role after the end of hostilities in Iraq.
    (AP, 4/11/03)

2003        Apr 22, France proposed that the UN suspend economic sanctions against Iraq, but continue to operate the oil-for-food program.
    (SFC, 4/23/03, A8)

2003        Apr 23, Paris police arrested 28 airport workers for allegedly stealing digital cameras, perfumes, jewelry, clothing and other goods from the bags of travelers.
    (AP, 4/25/03)

2003        Apr 29, The leaders of France, Germany, Belgium and Luxembourg, all critics of the U.S.-led war on Iraq, agreed to beef up their military cooperation in an effort to make Europe's defense less reliant on the US.
    (AP, 4/29/03)

2003        May 15, French Foreign Minister Dominique de Villepin said in an interview that France wants "lies and calumny" published in both the U.S. and British press to stop.
    (AP, 5/16/03)

2003        May 31, Air France planned to ground its last 5 Concorde airplanes.
    (SFC, 4/11/03, p.B5)

2003        May 17, In G-8 talks at a Normandy resort the United States secured a commitment from the world's wealthiest nations and Russia not to demand that Iraq begin paying off its huge debts before 2005. The Paris Club's 19 members, which include the US, are alone believed to be owed an estimated $26 billion, not including interest accrued on the debt, most of which dates from the 1970s.
    (AP, 5/18/03)
2003        May 17, A German tour bus overturned on a French highway in heavy rain, killing at least 28 of the 74 people on board.
    (AP, 5/17/03)

2003        May 19, In France more than 300,000 protesters marched in anger over government pension reforms and striking teachers prevented students from taking part of their high-school graduation exams.
    (AP, 5/20/03)

2003        May 25, In France at least 300,000 workers marched through the streets of Paris to protest government plans to reform the pension system.
    (AP, 5/26/03)

2003        May 31, Air France planned to ground its last 5 Concorde airplanes. The Air France Concorde, the world's fastest and most luxurious passenger jet, flew from New York to Paris for the last time.
    (SFC, 4/11/03, p.B5)(AP, 5/30/03)(SSFC, 6/1/03, p.A2)

2003        Jun 1, President Bush arrived in France from St. Petersburg and had a smile and firm handshake for this year's Group of Eight nations summit host, French Pres. Jacques Chirac.
    (AP, 6/1/03)(SFC, 6/2/03, p.A1)
2003        Jun 1, Thousands of protesters blocked highways and bridges, set fire to barricades and drew volleys of tear gas and rubber pellets from anti-riot police near the Group of Eight summit in the French town of Evian. Leaders pledged billions of dollars to fight AIDS and hunger on the opening day of their summit.
    (AP, 6/1/03)

2003        Jun 2, In Evian, France, world leaders projected confidence that they will turn around their weak economies and pledged joint cooperation on a host of global issues from terrorism to the need for a coordinated effort to rebuild Iraq.
    (AP, 6/2/03)

2003        Jun 3, The G-8 in Evian, France, issued closing statements. These included: confidence in the global economic future; they put North Korea and Iran on notice that member countries will not stand by and let them acquire nuclear weapons; they committed to further improve cooperation with African nations to lift the world's poorest continent out of civil war, disease and poverty; and adopted a plan to help halve the number of people without access to clean water and sanitation by 2015.
    (AP, 6/3/03)

2003        Jun 6, French strikers disrupted train and bus service and sanitation workers dumped garbage in the street in the 4th day of a nationwide protest against government plans to reform pensions.
    (AP, 6/7/03)

2003        Jun 14, French troops leading an international force engaged in a firefight with gunmen for the first time in their mission to stabilize the northeastern Congolese town of Bunia.
    (AP, 6/14/03)

2003        Jun 19, In France more Iranians set themselves on fire to protest a crackdown on an Iraq-based anti-Tehran group. Maryam Rajavi, the leader of the People's Mujahedeen Organization of Iran, was among 150 people detained in a sweep of their European headquarters in suburban Paris by hundreds of masked police this month. Most of those detained were let go. In 2011 French investigators dropped terror charges against 24 members of the group.
    (WSJ, 6/20/03, p.A1)(AP, 5/12/11)

2003        Jul 6, Corsicans voted in a historic referendum to give local officials more say in running the Mediterranean island, an attempt to end years of attacks by separatists fighting French rule.
    (AP, 7/6/03)

2003        Jul 20, In France 2 explosions rocked central Nice, slightly injuring at least 16 people and damaging several government buildings.
    (AP, 7/20/03)

2003        Jul 22, In Paris an electrical fire broke out near the top of the Eiffel Tower, forcing thousands of alarmed visitors to evacuate.
    (AP, 7/23/03)

2003        Jul 24, French lawmakers overwhelmingly passed a pension reform bill despite weeks of protests by people angry about having to work longer to get full retirement benefits. PM Rafarrin managed to push through a pension reform against union resistance with the support of CFDP, the French Defense and Protection Company.
    (AP, 7/24/03)(Econ, 4/8/06, p.49)
2003        Jul 24, The French Senate passed a law banning the sale of cigarettes to minors under 16 and raises the price per pack for the second time this year.
    (AP, 7/24/03)

2003        Jul 27, Lance Armstrong rode to his 5th straight Tour de France victory in a ceremonial final stage in Paris.
    (SSFC, 7/27/03, p.A1)

2003        Jul 29, A heat wave and a drought gauged a multibillion-dollar hole into Europe's economy, crippling shipping, shriveling crops and driving up the cost of electricity.
    (AP, 7/29/03)
2003        Jul 29, Forest fires swept through parts of the ritzy French Riviera for a second day, devastating scenic woods and forcing thousands to be evacuated. At least four people have been killed.
    (AP, 7/29/03)

2003        Aug 1, Marie Trintignant (41) died after several days on a respirator in France. She was initially hospitalized in the Lithuanian capital, Vilnius, on July 27 after French rock star Bertrand Cantat (39) allegedly beat her at the hotel where they were staying with her mother and one of her sons. Trintignant, had been in Lithuania since June filming a joint French-Lithuanian television movie, "Colette," about the French female writer. Bertrand Cantat was later sentenced to 8 years in prison for manslaughter. He was released for good behavior in October 2007 after serving four years.
    (AP, 8/5/03)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Trintignant)

2003        Aug 14, The French health ministry estimated that about 3,000 people had died in France of heat-related causes since abnormally high temperatures swept across the country about two weeks ago.
    (AP, 8/14/03)

2003        Aug 18, Lucien Abenhaim, a senior French health official resigned after the health minister admitted that up to 5,000 people, many of them elderly and alone, might have died in the recent heat wave.
    (AP, 8/19/03)

2003        Aug 19, It was reported that France had provided Alstom SA a $3.9 billion lifeline to save it from bankruptcy. The bailout was made against EU rules.
    (WSJ, 8/19/03, p.A1)

2003        Aug 22, France announced a $525 million aid package for farmers whose animals died by the millions and whose crops withered in a heat wave estimated to have killed 10,000 people.
    (AP, 8/22/03)

2003        Aug 21, France raised the death toll from the recent heat wave to as many as 10,000.
    (SFC, 8/22/03, p.A9)

2003        Aug 25, In Ivory Coast 2 French soldiers, part of a peacekeeping force, were killed.
    (AP, 8/26/03)

2003        Aug 29, France raised the death toll from the August heat wave to as many as 11,435.
    (SFC, 8/30/03, p.A7)
2003        Aug 29, The board of Air France approved a deal to combine with Dutch KLM under a holding company to form the world's #3 airline.
    (WSJ, 1/2/04, p.R12)

2003        Sep 25, In a new French deck of cards Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld gets the honor as ace of spades. Pres. Bush is the king of diamonds and Osama bin Laden the joker. Thierry Meyssan, the man behind the French deck, headed the Voltaire Network, a left-wing association that put the cards on its Internet site.
    (AP, 9/25/03)
2003        Sep 25, In France INSERM, the National Institute of Health and Medical Research, determined that 14,802 people had died in August due to the heat wave.
    (AP, 9/25/03)

2003        Sep 26, Robert Palmer (54), a rock singer known for his sharp suits and hits including "Addicted to Love," died in Paris of a heart attack.
    (AP, 9/26/03)

2003        Sep 27, Europe's first mission to the moon blasted off aboard a European Ariane rocket from French Guiana.
    (AP, 9/28/03)

2003        Oct 11, The French government and its main opposition joined in supporting school officials who expelled two sisters for refusing to remove traditional Islamic headscarves in class.
    (AP, 10/11/03)

2003        Oct 20, France raised taxes on tobacco products. Cigarette prices for a pack jumped from an average $4.60 to $5.40.
    (SFC, 10/21/03, p.A3)

2003        Nov 7, France and Russia signed an accord that is intended to pave the way for the eventual launch of Russian rockets from a French launch pad in South America.
    (AP, 11/7/03)

2003        Nov 15, In St. Nazaire, France, a gangway to the Queen Mary 2, the world's largest passenger ship, collapsed as people were boarding killing 15 people and injuring 29 others. One of the injured died in 2005. The victims were family members visiting workers involved in construction of the nearly finished, 21-story-tall ocean liner. In 2008 a French court ordered Chantiers de l'Atlantique, builder of the ship, and Endel, builder of the walkway, to pay $13.8 million in damages for their roles in the deadly accident.
    (AP, 11/15/03)(AP, 11/16/03)(AP, 2/12/08)

2003        Nov 16, In Afghanistan a French UN worker was shot and killed by a man on a motorcycle who opened fire on her car.
    (AP, 11/16/03)

2003        Nov 24, British PM Tony Blair and French President Jacques Chirac confronted the sensitive issue of European defense and in a show of unity announced plans for a small rapid-reaction force of EU peacekeepers.
    (AP, 11/24/03)

2003        Dec 1, French diplomats and other Foreign Ministry staff in 126 countries walked off the job in a one-day strike to protest planned budget cuts.
    (AP, 12/2/03)

2003        Dec 2, Surging floodwaters killed three men and swept a woman off a bridge in storms that lashed southern France.
    (AP, 12/3/03)

2003        Dec 6, Paul Louis Halley (b.1934) French founder of Promodes (later Carrefour SA), died in a light plane crash.
    (WSJ, 4/15/08, p.B2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Louis_Halley)

2003        Dec 9, French police arrested Gorka Palacios Alday, the alleged military leader of the banned Basque separatist group ETA, along with three accomplices.
    (AP, 12/9/03)

2003        Dec 11, A French panel recommended a national ban on Islamic head scarves, Jewish skullcaps and large crucifixes at public schools.
    (WSJ, 12/12/03, p.A1)

2003        Dec 16, U.S. special envoy James A. Baker III said France, Germany and the US agreed to seek reductions in Iraq's foreign debt within the Paris Club of creditor nations.
    (AP, 12/16/03)(SFC, 12/17/03, p.A18)

2003        Dec 17, In France Pres. Jacques Chirac announced his decision to pass a law banning Islamic head scarves and other conspicuous religious symbols in public schools.
    (AP, 12/18/03)

2003        France set up the French Council of the Muslim Faith (CFCM). Dalil Boubakeur was appointed president following negotiations with interior minister Nicolas Sarkozy.
    (Econ, 10/30/04, p.58)

2004        Jan 5, In Iraq 2 French contractors, working on electricity projects, were killed in a drive-by shooting near Fallujah.
    (WSJ, 4/1/04, p.A10)

2004        Jan 16, Starbucks opened its 1st coffee shop in France.
    (Econ, 1/17/04, p.67)

2004        Jan 20, French transport workers went on a 1-day train strike.
    (AP, 1/21/04)

2004        Jan 26, China's President Hu Jintao arrived in France, with European ministers considering Beijing's request that they lift an arms embargo imposed after the killing of Tiananmen Square protesters in 1989.
    (AP, 1/26/04)

2004        Jan 30, Alain Juppe, former French PM (1995-1997), was found guilty in a party financing scandal and declared ineligible for public office for 10 years.
    (AP, 1/30/04)
2004        Jan 30, Iliad, a French broadband firm founded by Xavier Niel, made a successful IPO. Niel was briefly jailed a few months after its IPO, when it was discovered that one of his sex shops was a front for prostituion. Niel was fully exonerated, but was fined for receiving money from the shop.
    (www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-4228042_ITM)    (Econ, 9/12/09, p.74)

2004        Feb 10, French legislators voted 494-36 to ban religious emblems such as Muslim head scarves from state schools.
    (WSJ, 2/11/04, p.A1)
2004        Feb 10, French prosecutors launched a money-laundering probe into the alleged transfers of $11.5 million dollars to accounts held by the wife of Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat.
    (AP, 2/11/04)(WSJ, 2/11/04, p.A1)

2004        Feb 14, In France thousands of people marched to protest a law banning the Islamic coverings and other religious apparel in public schools.
    (AP, 2/14/04)

2004        Feb 27, French Foreign Minister Dominique de Villepin held talks with leaders of Haiti's government on how to end a three-week rebellion.
    (AP, 2/27/04)

2004        Feb 28, It was reported that 80% of Americans claim to believe in God, compared with 62% of the French and 52% of Swedes.
    (Econ, 2/28/04, p.34)

2004        Mar 3, French authorities said a previously unknown terror group is threatening to blow up French railway tracks unless it is paid millions of dollars.
    (AP, 3/3/04)

2004        Mar 6, Thousands of women marched through Paris to press for equal rights for women and show support for a law to ban Islamic head scarves in public schools.
    (AP, 3/6/04)

2004        Mar 10, France's government worked to calm a revolt by scientists angry over funding cuts, even as trade unions called for more protests.
    (AP, 3/10/04)

2004        Mar 14, In Haiti French troops took over patrols in a slum where U.S. Marines killed at least two people.
    (AP, 3/14/04)

2004        Mar 21, French voters delivered a rebuke to PM Jean-Pierre Raffarin's reform plans in the 1st round of regional elections. The elections, held every six years, are for regional leaders responsible for some infrastructure projects, job training, school construction and other tasks.
    (AP, 3/22/04)
2004        Mar 21, Ludmila Tcherina (79), French ballerina and Oscar-winning actress, The Tales of Hoffman (1950), died.
    (AP, 3/22/04)

2004        Mar 28, France's left-wing opposition bulldozed its way across the country in second-round midterm regional elections, putting pressure on President Jacques Chirac to revamp his Cabinet and perhaps even ditch his prime minister due to widely unpopular economic reforms and rising unemployment.
    (AP, 3/28/04)(AP, 3/29/04)

2004        Mar 29, A Lithuanian court found French rock star Bertrand Cantat (40) guilty of man-slaughter for the 2003 beating death of his movie-star girlfriend, Marie Trintignant (41), and sentenced him to 8 years in prison.
    (AP, 3/29/04)

2004        Mar 30, French PM Jean-Pierre Raffarin was spared the ax despite a massive local election defeat, but ordered to form a new government to push ahead with unpopular social and economic reforms.
    (AP, 3/30/04)

2004        Apr 2, Police in France captured the elusive former leader of the Basque ETA rebel group as well as the separatist group's logistics chief.
    (AP, 4/2/04)

2004        Apr 8, In France striking power workers switched off street lights and cut electricity to homes to protest plans to partially privatize public utilities. Even the famed Chateau de Versailles lost power.
    (AP, 4/8/04)

2004        Apr 23, France closed its last coal mine.
    (AP, 4/23/04)

2004        May 1, Jean-Jacques Laffont (57), an award-winning French economist and one of the leading figures in the study of information theory, died in southern France. His books included "Incentives in Public Decision Making" (1979).
    (AP, 5/14/04)

2004        May 13, France and Germany declared an intention to formulate a joint industrial policy aimed at creating a framework for mergers and joint ventures.
    (Econ, 5/22/04, p.55)

2004        May 18, In France Myriam Delay, an unemployed mother, stunned a courtroom in the northern French town of Outreau saying she lied in accusing the 13 people of pedophilia, one of whom committed suicide behind bars. A week later she again reversed her testimony: "I was there and I saw everything... We ruined children's lives." 10 of 17 defendants were convicted in July. 6 of the 10 convicted were acquitted in 2005.
    (AP, 5/20/04)(AP, 5/25/04)(AP, 12/01/05)

2004        May 23, In France a section of the futuristic, cylindrical passenger terminal at Paris' Charles de Gaulle airport collapsed, killing 4 people and injuring three.
    (AP, 5/23/05)

2004        May 28, French engineers brought the two central ends of the Millau road viaduct in southwest France together, completing the span of the highest bridge in the world. The bridge spans the valley of the Tarn river to carry a motorway from Clermont-Ferrand to Beziers and establishing a major north-south axis parallel to the Rhone valley. The $378 million bridge is expected to open Jan 2005.
    (AFP, 5/29/04)(Econ, 1/8/05, p.71)

2004        Jun 1, Michel Dansel, French intellectual, held a mock funeral ceremony for the verb. His new 233-page book, “Le Train de Nulle Part" (The Train to Nowhere), was written without verbs.
    (WSJ, 7/16/04, p.A1)

2004        Jun 2, Romania’s Pres. Ion Iliescu unveiled the new Logan sedan, a joint venture between Renault and Romania’s Dacia. Starting prices were around $6,100. In 2007 nearly 80,000 Logans were sold in western Europe.
    (SFC, 6/3/04, C5)(Econ, 5/31/08, SR p.7)

2004        Jun 5, France's first gay marriage was performed in the southwest city of Bordeaux. On July 27 it was officially declared void by a court but the two homosexual men involved immediately said they would appeal the ruling.
    (AP, 7/27/04)
2004        Jun 5, French engineering giant Alstom said a consortium it was leading had signed an 88-million-euro ($107 mil) contract for work on three railway lines in the suburbs of Algiers.
    (AP, 6/6/04)

2004        Jun 16, French power workers cut electricity to the Eiffel Tower and President Jacques Chirac's residence in western Paris to protest the government's plans to partially privatize state utilities in an effort to raise money.
    (AP, 6/16/04)

2004        Jun 22, A bus in western France overturned, killing at least 11 people and seriously injuring up to three others.
    (AP, 6/22/04)

2004        Jun, In Alsace, France, Pierre Bodein, nicknamed "Pierrot le fou," or "Crazy Pierre," raped, killed and mutilated two young victims, Jeanne-Marie Kegelin (11) and Julie Scharsch (14). He also murdered and mutilated Edwige Vallee (38), and attempted to kidnap two other girls. In 2007 Bodein was convicted of viciously murdering two girls and a woman and sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 7/11/07)

2004        Jul 17, French Defence Minister Michele Alliot-Marie proposed a defense partnership between 3 North African countries, Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia -- and four southern European countries, France, Italy, Portugal and Spain, preferably at defense minister level.
    (AP, 7/18/04)

2004        Jul 22, French crooner Sacha Distel (71), whose seductive good looks won him legions of female fans around the world, died.
    (AP, 7/22/04)

2004        Jul, A fake list of public figures, who allegedly held accounts at a Luxembourg-based clearing house (Clearstream Banking S.A.) linked to kickbacks on the 1991 sale of French frigates to Taiwan, was leaked to a French judge. This came to be known as the 2nd Clearstream affair. In 2001 Clearstream was accused of money laundering and tax evasion.
    (Econ, 7/14/07, p.56)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clearstream)
2004        Jul, A court in Saint-Omer, northern France, convicted 10 out of 17 defendants on pedophilia charges relating to the abuse of 18 children between 1995 and 2000. 6 of the 10 convicted were acquitted in 2005.
    (AP, 12/02/05)

2004        Aug 3, Henri Cartier-Bresson (b.1908), French photographer of the decisive moment, died. In 2005 Pierre Assouline authored “Henri Cartier-Bresson: A Biography."
    (WSJ, 8/5/04, p.A1)(Econ, 8/7/04, p.67)(Econ, 9/3/05, p.75)

2004        Aug 5, In eastern France a predawn fire swept through an equestrian school, killing seven teenagers and possibly two adults.
    (AP, 8/5/04)

2004        Aug 14, A visibly weak Pope John Paul II joined thousands of other ailing pilgrims at a cliffside shrine in Lourdes, France, telling them he shares in their physical suffering and assuring them the burden is part of God's "wondrous plan."
    (AP, 8/14/05)

2004        Aug 19, Amelie Delegrange (22), from Hanvoile, north of Paris, was battered to death in the southwest London neighborhood of Twickenham Green after a night out in a wine bar. In 2006 Levi Bellfield, former nightclub bouncer, faced trial for her murder and the February, 2003, murder of student Marsha McDonnell (19). Bellfield was convicted on February 25, 2008 of the two murders. The following day, he was sentenced to life imprisonment with a recommendation that he should never be released.
    (AFP, 6/9/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levi_Bellfield)

2004        Aug 29, Muslim leaders in France condemned the kidnapping of two French journalists in Iraq and said the government should not capitulate to militant demands to revoke a law that bans the wearing of Islamic head scarves in schools.
    (AP, 8/29/04)

2004        Sep 22, France signaled it will slash its public overspending next year to come into line with EU rules in a 2005 budget published today and forecast economic growth of 2.5 percent.
    (AP, 9/22/04)

2004        Sep 24, French author Francoise Sagan (69), who shot to fame with her first novel "Bonjour Tristesse" at the age of 18 and courted controversy throughout her life, died. She was a longstanding friend of late President Francois Mitterrand and was convicted of taking drugs and for tax evasion.
    (Reuters, 9/24/04)

2004        Sep 26, In Saudi Arabia French national Laurent Barbot, a technical assistant for French electronics group Thales, was shot and killed in Jeddah. Chadian militants Isa Barkaj and Isaac Shakila were later convicted of shooting. Both were executed in 2015.
    (AP, 9/26/04)    (AP, 8/20/15)

2004        Sep 24, French author Francoise Sagan (69), who shot to fame with her first novel "Bonjour Tristesse" (1954) at the age of 18 and courted controversy throughout her life, died. She was a longstanding friend of late President Francois Mitterrand and was convicted of taking drugs and for tax evasion.
    (Reuters, 9/24/04)(SSFC, 9/26/04, p.B5)

2004        Sep, French auto maker Renault rolled out the no-frills Logan. The midsize sedan was launched at a cost of $7,254 (€5,700) in emerging markets like Poland. Western buyers soon clamored for the car. In June, 2005, Renault began delivering the roomy, unpretentious five-seater to France, Germany, and Spain.
    (AP, 6/25/05)(WSJ, 10/4/06, p.B18)

2004        Oct 2, Two US ships carrying 300 pounds of plutonium were scheduled to dock in Cherbourg, France. A French nuclear factory planned to transform it into fuel assemblies and return it next year to Charleston, SC.
    (SFC, 10/1/04, p.A15)

2004        Oct 8, Jacques Derrida (74), one of France's best-known philosophers and the founder of the deconstructionist school, died of cancer in Paris.
    (SSFC, 10/10/04, p.A14)(Econ, 10/23/04, p.89)

2004        Oct 9, French President Jacques Chirac declared that France was a natural trade partner to China and, amid a flurry of air, rail and energy deals.
    (AP, 10/9/04)

2004        Oct 16, Pierre Salinger (79), who served as press secretary to US presidents Kennedy and Johnson, died of a heart attack near his home in Le Thon, France.
    (AP, 10/16/05)

2004        Oct 19, In France 2 Muslim girls who refused to remove their head scarves in class were expelled from their schools, and two more risked the same fate.
    (AP, 10/19/04)

2004        Oct 21, French health officials announced that a donor whose blood was used to transfuse 10 people and to manufacture medicines has been identified as France's eighth known victim of the human equivalent of mad cow disease.
    (AP, 10/21/04)

2004        Oct 25, Hundreds of angry French farmers mounted blockades around the country to hold up fuel shipments in protest at soaring diesel and gasoline prices and to press their demands for government aid.
    (AP, 10/25/04)

2004        Nov 6, Ivory Coast warplanes bombed French peacekeepers, killing 8 French soldiers and wounding 23, and French forces responded by shooting down government aircraft.
    (AP, 11/6/04)

2004        Nov 7, Machete-waving mobs looted and burned in Ivory Coast's largest cities, laying siege to a French military base and searching house to house for French families after a day of sudden clashes between forces of France and its former colony. France seized strategic control of Abidjan and deployed new forces to stop the rampage.
    (AP, 11/7/04)(SFC, 11/8/04, p.A3)

2004        Nov 10, France and the UN began evacuating thousands of French and other expatriates in Ivory Coast.
    (AP, 11/10/04)

2004        Nov 12, It was reported that the French government plans to merge Airbus parent EADS with Thales, the country's largest defense company, to create a new European giant to rival Boeing Co.
    (AP, 11/12/04)

2004        Nov 15, The Bank of France cut its 2004 economic growth forecast, placing further pressure on the government's budget plans as high oil prices and a weak dollar weigh on France's outlook.
    (AP, 11/15/04)
2004        Nov 15, France concluded its evacuation efforts in Ivory Coast, where 5,000 Westerners fled a renewed civil war.
    (WSJ, 11/16/04, p.A1)

2004        Nov 24, President Jacques Chirac arrived in Libya in the first ever visit by a French head of state.
    (AP, 11/24/04)

2004        Nov 25, French President Jacques Chirac set aside years of acrimony over the bombing of a French passenger jet in the 1980s and declared a "new chapter" in relations with Libya.
    (AP, 11/25/04)

2004        Nov 28, French Finance Minister Nicolas Sarkozy took over the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP), the ruling conservative party at a glitzy American-style congress. This put him on course to launch a presidential bid and possibly challenge Jacques Chirac in 2007.
    (AP, 11/28/04)(Econ, 11/27/04, p.14)

2004        Nov 29, President Jacques Chirac's office said French Agriculture Minister Herve Gaymard is to succeed Nicolas Sarkozy as Finance Minister.
    (AP, 11/29/04)

2004        Dec 1, A French appeals court reduced the suspended prison sentence for former Prime Minister Alain Juppe in a party financing scandal from 18 to 14 months, and barred him from elected office for 1 year instead of 10.
    (AP, 12/1/04)

2004        Dec 3, In France Liberation's founding CEO Serge July announced the start of exclusive negotiations with Banker Edouard de Rothschild over a $27 million capital increase that would let the banker acquire 37 percent of the popular daily.
    (AP, 12/3/04)

2004        Dec 9, The French government sold an 18.4 percent stake in Air France-KLM, the world's largest airline, to help reduce the state debt.
    (AP, 12/9/04)

2004        Dec 10, In Paris a skating rink opened on an observation deck of the Eiffel Tower, 188 feet above the streets.
    (SFC, 12/11/04, p.A2)

2004        Dec 14, In southern France a roadway bridge, hailed as the tallest in the world, was officially inaugurated.
    (AP, 12/14/04)

2004        Dec 16, In France 10 accused Islamic militants were convicted and sentenced to prison terms ranging from one to 10 years for their roles in a millennium plot to blow up a Christmas market in the eastern city of Strasbourg on New Year's Eve 2000.
    (AP, 12/16/04)

2004        Dec 26, In eastern France a gas explosion tore through a five-storey apartment building in Mulhouse, killing 15 people and injuring another 14.
    (AP, 12/27/04)

2004        Corinne Maier authored the French pamphlet “Bounjour Paresse" (Hello Laziness). It was sub-titled The Art and the Importance of Doing the Least Possible in the Workplace, and became a bestseller in France.
    (Econ, 7/21/07, p.51)(www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5698558/)
2004        John J. Miller and Mark Molesky authored “Our Oldest Enemy," an examination of France’s relations with the US over the last few hundred years.
    (WSJ, 10/14/04, p.D7)

2004        Le Figaro, France’s leading center-right newspaper, was acquired by Dassault, a big defense company, which also acquired some 70 other titles.
    (Econ, 8/7/04, p.44)
2004        In France the APE agency was founded to oversee the jumble of state holdings that followed a wave of privatizations in the 1990s. It reported to the ministries of finance and industry.
    (Econ, 11/3/12, p.63)
2004        The French public health fund deficit was expected to top $15.7 billion.
    (Econ, 7/31/04, p.43)
2004        French retailer Carrefour SA agreed to buy 13 supermarkets in Poland.
    (WSJ, 4/15/08, p.B2)

2005        Jan 1, France was forecast for 2.4% annual GDP growth with a population at 60.6 million and GDP per head at $36,630.
    (Econ, 1/8/05, p.88)

2005        Jan 12, Maud Fontenoy, a French woman (26), set out in a row boat on a 4,900-mile solo voyage to Polynesia, hoping to trace Thor Heyerdahl's epic 1947 Pacific crossing aboard the balsa raft Kon-Tiki.
    (AP, 1/14/05)

2005        Jan 18, In France Airbus unveiled the 840-passenger A380, the world's biggest passenger jet, in a glitzy ceremony in which the leaders of France, Britain, Germany and Spain hailed Europe's victory over the US as the new king of the commercial skies.
    (AP, 1/18/05)

2005        Jan 19, Strikes over job cuts and pay disrupted French rail service and hospitals.
    (AP, 1/19/05)

2005        Jan 25, Paris' new memorial to the Holocaust was inaugurated, with President Chirac bowing before the wall inscribed with the names of 76,000 Jews sent to Nazi death camps from France.
    (AP, 1/25/05)

2005        Jan 31, France Telecom, Europe's second-largest telecommunications operator, announced plans to cut 8,000 jobs in 2005, mostly in France.
    (AP, 1/31/05)

2005        Feb 2, French Pres. Jacques Chirac planned to visit Senegal for the first time in a decade, hoping to boost ties with a former West African colony at a time when the US is raising its military profile in the region.
    (AP, 2/1/05)
2005        Feb 2, The EU told Italy, France and Germany, to do more to bring their budgets in balance as required by the rules of Europe's single currency.
    (AP, 2/2/05)

2005        Feb 8, Herve Gaymard, France's finance minister, announced new measures designed to boost confidence, stimulate growth and tackle the "scandalously high" 9.9% jobless rate.
    (AP, 2/8/05)

2005        Feb 9, The French National Assembly approved a reform of the controversial 35-hour working week. The Socialist measure had been introduced to cut unemployment but is now blamed by the right for doing exactly the reverse.
    (AFP, 2/9/05)

2005        Feb 15, The Falcon 7X, a business jet designed and built by the French aviation company  Dassault, was displayed for the first time. It was the first plane to be digitally modeled in 3-dimensions and required no prototype.
    (Econ, 6/18/05, p.78)(http://tinyurl.com/lxlgt2)

2005        Feb 22, The EU intends to end its ban on arms sales to China, French Pres. Jacques Chirac said after talks with Pres. Bush, who highlighted Washington's security concerns.
    (AP, 2/22/05)
2005        Feb 23, French film star Simone Simon (b.1910) died in Paris.
    (AP, 2/23/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simon)

2005        Feb 25, French Finance Minister Herve Gaymard quit over his handling of a scandal about his state-paid luxury flat that rocked a conservative government as it forces unpopular cost-cutting measures on a restive nation.
    (AP, 2/25/05)

2005        Feb 28, Thierry Breton arrived for work as France's 4th finance minister in less than a year, ready to pick up the unfinished business of restoring the French economy to good health.
    (AP, 2/28/05)

2005        Feb, France passed a law to put an upbeat spin on a painful era, making it mandatory to enshrine in textbooks the country's "positive role" in its far-flung colonies. Education Minister Gilles de Robien said in October that textbooks would not be changed. But the law's detractors want it stricken from the books, something the minister says only parliament can do.
    (AP, 10/21/05)

2005        Mar 1, French journalist Florence Aubenas, looking pale and distraught, appealed for help on a video in her first since she went missing in Iraq on Jan. 5.
    (AP, 3/1/05)
2005        Mar 1, In Geneva, Switz., Edouard Stern, French financier and former Lazard banker, was found dead in his home. Swiss police later arrested Cecile Brossard (36), his French lover, who confessed to the sex-related killing of banker Edouard Stern. During her trial in 2009 she said that she lost control after Stern called her a whore. On June 18, 2009, Brossard was sentenced to eight and a half years in prison.
    (WSJ, 3/3/05, p.A1)(AP, 3/16/05)(WSJ, 4/14/05, p.A1)(SFC, 6/15/09, p.A2)(AP, 6/18/09)

2005        Mar 2, France's newly appointed Finance Minister Thierry Breton pledged to keep a tight lid on public spending in an effort to rein in the budget deficit.
    (AP, 3/2/05)

2005        Mar 3, Alexis von Rosenberg (82), Baron de Rede, published his memoir: “Alexis: the Memoirs of the Baron de Rede." Baron de Rede, the godfather of Paris society, died a few months later.
    (SFC, 3/16/05, p.G10)
2005        Mar 3, In France a trial got under way in which 66 people were accused of participating in a pedophilia ring.
    (AP, 3/3/05)

2005        Mar 10, Tens of thousands of French workers marched on Paris and strikes crippled public transport, embarrassing the government as Olympic officials visited to assess the city's bid to host the 2012 Games.
    (AP, 3/10/05)

2005        Mar 15, A French court gave the maximum 10-year prison sentence to Djamel Beghal (39),  the ringleader of an alleged plot to send a suicide bomber into the US Embassy in Paris. The court also sentenced 5 other defendants in the case to 1-9 year prison terms. Beghal testified that his confession of a plan to send a suicide bomber into the U.S. Embassy was obtained under torture after his July 2001 arrest in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. He was extradited to France two months later and retracted that confession.
    (AP, 3/15/05)

2005        Mar 19, It was reported that Agence France-Presse has sued Google Inc. for copyright infringement, alleging that the Internet search engine included AFP headlines, news summaries and photographs published without permission.
    (AFP, 3/19/05)

2005        Mar 23, France presented a U.N. resolution allowing for the prosecution of Sudanese war crimes suspects at the International Criminal Court, forcing the US to choose between accepting a body it opposes or casting a politically damaging veto.
    (AP, 3/23/05)

2005        Mar 24, A French appeals court upheld the conviction of George Soros (74) for insider trading. Soros, whose Quantum Fund is worth about $8.3 billion, emigrated to the US in 1956 and set up Soros Fund Management in 1973. He later made a fortune on foreign exchange markets and was criticized in some quarters for speculating on, and arguably encouraging, the collapse of Asian currencies in the late 1990s.
    (AP, 3/24/05)

2005        Apr 4, Chevron announced plans to purchase Unocal Corp. for $18.4 billion. Chevron’s eventual acquisition of Unocal included a stake in the Yadana project in Myanmar, in which Unocal invested in the 1990s along with France’s Total, Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise and the petroleum Authority of Thailand. Total with a 31% stake operated the project. The Yadana project brought in an estimated $969 million to the government undercutting international sanctions to isolate the regime.
    (SFC, 4/5/05, p.A1)(SFC, 10/4/07, p.A10)(SFC, 4/29/08, p.D3)

2005        Apr 15, In France a fire swept through a Paris hotel used by the city to house needy African families. 22 people were killed, half of them children.
    (AP, 4/16/05)

2005        Apr 27, The world's largest passenger plane, the Airbus A380, completed a maiden flight in France that took it over the Pyrenees mountains.
    (AP, 4/27/05)

2005        Apr, The decomposing body of Anthony Ashley-Cooper, the Earl of Shaftesbury, was found in a ravine in the French Riviera, five months after he disappeared from his home in Cannes. In 2007 his mistress testified that he had been strangled to death by Mohamed M'Barek, the brother of his wife, Jamila M'Barek.
    (AFP, 5/23/07)

2005        May 11, French police swooped down by helicopter to the luxury Riviera villa of self-exiled Russian tycoon Boris Berezovsky, seizing documents and computers.
    (AP, 5/12/05)

2005        May 16, Many French workers ignored the new national "Day of Solidarity," an extra work day in place of the annual Pentecost holiday, that was part of the government's response to a 2003 heat wave that killed 15,000 people. Under a new law workers give up a holiday, while their employers pay into a government fund to improve health care for the aged and handicapped.
    (AP, 5/15/05)(WSJ, 5/17/05, p.A10)

2005        May 20, Paul Ricoeur (92), a French philosopher whose broad interests included biblical interpretation and the study of human perception, died.
    (AP, 5/21/05)

2005        May 23, French anti-terrorist officers captured three suspected members of the Basque separatist group ETA in an early morning sweep in southeast France.
    (AP, 5/23/05)

2005        May 26, In southwestern France protesting winemakers set fire to train cars, pelted them with rocks and blocked rail traffic on their way home from demonstrations in Nimes.
    (AP, 5/26/05)

2005        May 29, French voters rejected the EU's first constitution, dealing a potentially fatal blow to the charter. In 2007 it was repackaged as the Lisbon treaty.
    (AP, 5/30/05)(Econ, 10/10/09, p.28)

2005        May 30, President Jacques Chirac began a widely expected government shakeup to save face at home as European Union officials worked to control damage after French voters rejected the EU's first constitution.
    (AP, 5/30/05)

2005        May 31, French President Jacques Chirac appointed Dominique de Villepin, a loyalist who was France's voice against the Iraq war, as prime minister.
    (AP, 5/31/05)

2005        Jun 2, The US and France reached a tentative deal to boost the size of the UN peacekeeping mission in Ivory Coast by nearly 2,000 troops and police to help enforce a shaky peace deal. Meanwhile thousands fled a region where a village was burned and 55 people killed by unidentified gunmen.
    (AP, 6/3/05)(WSJ, 6/3/05, p.A1)

2005        Jun 5, An accident inside the Frejus Alpine tunnel between France and Italy killed at least two people. A truck loaded with tires and another carrying glue caught fire along with four other vehicles.
    (AP, 6/5/05)

2005        Jun 8, French PM Dominique de Villepin easily won a parliamentary vote of confidence after announcing a job creation plan worth $5.5 billion.
    (AP, 6/8/05)

2005        Jun 11, French journalist Florence Aubenas and her Iraqi assistant were freed and in good health after nearly five months in captivity in Iraq.
    (AP, 6/12/05)

2005        Jun 13, The Paris Air Show opened.
    (Econ, 6/11/05, p.60)

2005        Jun 19, A new, domestic French low-cost airline, Air Turquoise, took to the skies, opening budget routes from the northeast city of Reims to Bordeaux, Marseille and Nice.
    (AP, 6/19/05)

2005        Jun 23, The French government launched the partial privatization of utility company Gaz de France through an initial public offering of shares worth up to 4.9 billion euros ($5.9 billion).
    (AP, 6/23/05)

2005        Jun 27, French investigators raided the home and offices of finance minister Thierry Breton. It was part of a criminal probe sparked by complaints filed by Rhodia investors Hughes de Lasteyrie du Saillant and Edouard Stern. [see Mar 1]
    (WSJ, 6/30/05, p.C1)
2005        Jun 27, France, Germany, Brazil and Chile called for a tax on airline tickets to help finance the global fight against poverty.
    (AP, 6/28/05)

2005        Jun 28, An international consortium chose France as the site for the experimental International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), a $13 billion fusion power project that developers hope will one day generate endless, cheap energy by reproducing the sun's power source and wean the world off fossil fuels.
    (AP, 6/28/05)(Econ, 7/2/05, p.71)

2005        Jul 8, Shares of Gas de France (GDF), a 20% stake in the state monopoly, began to trade following the plans of PM Dominique de Villepin. The IPO was expected to fetch up to $6 billion. A sale of shares in Electricite de France was set for October.
    (Econ, 7/25/05, p.56)

2005        Jul 12, French company Technip SA said it has been awarded an $800 million contract by Chevron Corp. to develop its largest Nigerian oil project.
    (AP, 7/12/05)

2005        Jul 24, Lance Armstrong closed out his amazing career with a 7th consecutive Tour de France victory.
    (AP, 7/24/05)

2005        Jul 26, Pernod Ricard SA said it has completed its takeover of British rival Allied Domecq PLC to become the world's second-largest wines and spirits maker.
    (AP, 7/26/05)

2005        Jul 27, A French court convicted 62 defendants in a mass pedophilia trial and sentenced some of them to up to 28 years in prison for their roles in a network that systematically raped and prostituted children in western France.
    (AP, 7/27/05)
2005        Jul 27, France Telecom bought an 80% stake in Amena, Spain’s 3rd largest mobile telephone operator.
    (Econ, 7/30/05, p.54)

2005        Jul 30, Wim Duisenberg (b.1935), Dutch-born first chief of the European Central Bank who helped create the euro currency, was found dead at a home in Faucon, France.
    (AP, 7/31/05)

2005        Aug 2, France, Britain and Germany hardened their tone toward Iran, warning that Tehran risked triggering an international crisis and could face U.N. sanctions if it follows through with a threat to resume its nuclear program.
    (AP, 8/2/05)
2005        Aug 2, An Air France jet skidded off a Toronto runway and burst into flames, prompting 309 passengers and crew to slide down escape chutes. In Dec, 2009, a Canadian judge approved a C$12 million ($11.4 million) class-action settlement with 184 passengers of the Air France jet.
    (AP, 8/3/05)(Reuters, 12/31/09)

2005        Aug 9, Suez, a French water and power company, announced a $14 billion purchase of 49.9% of the shares of Electrabel, a Belgian electricity firm.
    (Econ, 8/13/05, p.52)
2005        Aug 9, Francois Dalle (87), former chief executive of L'Oreal (1957-1984) and credited with transforming the French cosmetics company into a global giant, died in Geneva.
    (AP, 8/22/05)

2005        Aug 16, In Taize, France, Brother Roger, the 90-year-old founder of an ecumenical religious community dedicated to peace and reconciliation, was knifed to death by an apparently deranged Romanian woman at an evening prayer service attended by 2,500 people. Brother Roger founded the Taize religious community in 1940 emphasizing the need for all Christians to come together in peace, love and reconciliation.
    (AP, 8/17/05)(WSJ, 8/18/05, p.A1)

2005        Aug 26, Fire raced through a crowded Paris apartment building housing African immigrants, trapping residents in their sleep and killing 17 people, most of them believed to be children.
    (AP, 8/26/05)

2005        Aug 28, The French civil aviation authority made public for the 1st time a list on its Internet site of airlines banned to land due to safety reasons. They included: Air Koryo of North Korea; Air St. Thomas of the U.S. Virgin Islands; International Air Services of Liberia; Thailand's Phuket Airlines; and Linhas Aereas de Mocambique and Transairways, both from Mozambique.
    (AP, 8/29/05)

2005        Aug 29, In France firefighters said 7 people, including 4 children, died in an apartment fire in Paris.
    (AP, 8/30/05)

2005        Sep 2, French police evicted about 140 mainly African squatters, some sobbing or screaming, from two dilapidated buildings in Paris as authorities began a sweep of dwellings deemed fire hazards following two deadly blazes.
    (AP, 9/2/05)

2005        Sep 4, In France fire ripped through a high-rise apartment building south of Paris, killing 16 people, two of them children. 4 people were detained in connection with the suspected arson attack. 3 teenage girls confessed to starting the fire.
    (AP, 9/4/05)(AP, 9/5/05)

2005        Sep 9, The body that controls French winemaking said makers of Bordeaux wines have been told to reduce their output this year by about 12% because of overproduction and falling prices.
    (AP, 9/9/05)

2005        Sep 12, President Jacques Chirac, following a weeklong hospital stay, met with India's PM Singh.
    (AP, 9/12/05)

2005        Sep 16, The French civil aviation authority DGAC said it has banned flights by Cameroon Airlines for an indefinite period, citing safety concerns.
    (AFP, 9/16/05)

2005        Sep 17, A French special forces soldier was killed and one was seriously wounded when their vehicle struck a mine while patrolling in southern Afghanistan.
    (AP, 9/18/05)

2005        Sep 19, French police probing a ring which allegedly recruited Muslim fighters for the anti-US insurgency in Iraq arrested six men in the Paris area.
    (AP, 9/19/05)

2005        Sep 22, France announced financial incentives for parents to have a 3rd child, hoping to boost its fertility rate by helping people to better juggle the demands of work and family life.
    (AP, 9/22/05)

2005        Sep 28, French police commandos swooped onto the deck of a ferry seized by striking unionized sailors in the Mediterranean Sea, recapturing the vessel and steering it back toward France. Butler Capital Partners, the private investment firm picked by the government to take over ferry operator SNCM, said 350-400 jobs might be lost in the privatization.
    (AP, 9/28/05)

2005        Sep, Tariq Krim (32), French entrepreneur, launched Netvibes. It provided users the ability to oversee their favorite blogs from a single page.
    (Econ, 2/3/07, p.68)

2005        Oct 1, Riot police forcibly expelled striking union workers who had blockaded ports in Corsica and southeastern France for days to protest against the planned privatization of a state-run ferry operator.
    (AP, 10/1/05)

2005        Oct 3, In France a widespread transit strike expected to touch on nearly all modes of public transportation began late at night in protest of the center-right government's economic and labor policies.
    (AP, 10/3/05)

2005        Oct 4, French President Jacques Chirac said that Turkey would need to undergo a "major cultural revolution" before entering the EU, and he reiterated that France would hold a referendum on admitting Ankara to the bloc.
    (AP, 10/4/05)
2005        Oct 4, It was reported that French Attorney Jean-Marc Goldnadel had launched classaction.fr, a French Web site that lets users sign up to lawsuits online for as little as 12 euros ($14.50).  President Jacques Chirac had announced the introduction of class action suits earlier in the year.
    (AP, 10/4/05)

2005        Oct 5, Americans Robert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock and Yves Chauvin of France won the Nobel Prize in chemistry for discoveries that let industry create drugs and advanced plastics in a more efficient and environmentally friendly way.
    (AP, 10/5/05)

2005        Oct 8, In France journalists reporting on the conflict in Iraq, a humanitarian crisis in Sudan, the plight of children in Uganda's insurrection and a deadly school hostage siege in Russia were honored with the annual Bayeux Prize for War Correspondents.
    (AP, 10/8/05)

2005        Oct 20, A French couple who poisoned their five children and then tried to commit suicide in a desperate bid to escape towering debt was sentenced to prison terms by a court outside Paris.
    (AP, 10/20/05)

2005        Oct 24, An official said more than a dozen climbers from France and Nepal were swept away in an avalanche on a Himalayan mountain and believed killed. The mountaineers were reported missing last week after heavy snowfall hit the Himalayas.
    (AP, 10/24/05)

2005        Oct 27, In France teenagers Bouna Traore (15) and Zyed Benna (17) died by electrocution after they scaled the wall of an electrical relay station and touched a transformer in the Paris suburb of Clichy-sous-Bois. Local youths blamed the police for the deaths and exploded in anger. The boys allegedly thought they were being chased by police, but authorities denied that was the case. In 2010 two French police officers faced trial accused of failing to save the lives of two teens. On May 18, 2015, officers Sebastien Gaillemin and Stephanie Klein, accused of "non-assistance to individuals in danger," were cleared of the charges.
    (AP, 10/31/05)(AP, 10/22/10)(AFP, 5/18/15)

2005        Oct 28, Raymond Hains (b.1926), French Nouveau Realiste artist, died in Paris. In 1960 he joined with other artists to found the Nouveau Realistes, whose emergence came to be seen as the beginning of French Pop Art.
    (SFC, 11/15/05, p.B5)

2005        Oct 29, Hundreds of French youths fought with police and set cars ablaze in a Paris suburb in a second night of rioting which media said was triggered when two teenagers were electrocuted while fleeing police.
    (AP, 10/29/05)

2005        Oct 30, Police clashed with angry youths in a Paris suburb for the fourth straight night, with accusations over a police teargas grenade thrown into a mosque set to exacerbate the situation further.
    (AP, 10/31/05)

2005        Oct 31, French rower Emmanuel Coindre ended a landmark 129-day solo voyage across the Pacific Ocean between Japan and the United States, setting a new record, according to his team.
    (AFP, 11/1/05)

2005        Nov 1, French police fired tear gas and rioters hurled Molotov cocktails as violence hit a poor Paris suburb for the fifth straight night in unrest that officials said had also spread to neighboring towns.
    (AFP, 11/1/05)

2005        Nov 3, Rioting youths shot at police and firefighters after burning car dealerships and public buses and hurling rocks at commuter trains. France's government faced growing pressure to curb the violence, fueled by anger over poor conditions in suburban Paris housing projects.
    (AP, 11/3/05)

2005        Nov 4, Small, mobile groups of youths hit Paris' riot-shaken suburbs with waves of arson attacks, torching hundreds of cars, as unrest entered its 2nd week and spread to other towns.
    (AP, 11/4/05)

2005        Nov 5, In  France marauding youths torched nearly 900 vehicles, stoned paramedics and burned a nursery school in a ninth night of violence that spread from Paris suburbs to towns around France. Authorities arrested more than 250 people overnight.
    (AP, 11/5/05)

2005        Nov 6, French President Jacques Chirac called a security meeting of his top ministers after urban rioting spread, with arsonists striking from the Mediterranean to the German border and into central Paris for the first time. On the 10th night of mayhem, some 1,300 vehicles were torched across France overnight and 349 people were arrested.
    (AP, 11/6/05)(AFP, 11/6/05)

2005        Nov 7, Rioting by French youths spread to 300 towns overnight, and a 61-year-old man hurt in the violence died of his wounds, the first fatality in 11 days of unrest.
    (AP, 11/7/05)

2005        Nov 8, President Jacques Chirac declared a state of emergency, paving the way for curfews to be imposed on riot-hit cities and towns in an extraordinary measure to halt France's worst civil unrest in decades after 12 nights of violence.
    (AP, 11/8/05)

2005        Nov 9, France's storm of rioting lost strength with a drop of nearly half in the number of car burnings. But looters and vandals still defied a state of emergency with attacks on stores, a newspaper warehouse and a subway station.
    (AP, 11/9/05)

2005        Nov 10, Violence in France fell sharply overnight after the government toughened its stance by imposing emergency measures and ordering deportations of foreigners involved in riots that have raged for two weeks. The national police said 8 French police officers had been suspended for their suspected role in the beating of a young man in a Paris suburb.
    (AP, 11/10/05)

2005        Nov 11, Forces tightened security in central Paris, stationing riot police and bomb squads along the Champs-Elysees as more than two weeks of arson and vandalism persisted near the French capital.
    (AP, 11/11/05)

2005        Nov 12, Some 3,000 police fanned out around Paris to prevent any attempts to attack high-profile targets such as the Eiffel Tower after a 16th straight night of unrest and arson.
    (AP, 11/12/05)

2005        Nov 13, In France police took 212 people into custody overnight. Rioters pelted police with stones in the historic heart of Lyon, and youths rammed a burning car into a center for retirees in southern France in a 17th night of urban violence. The French insurance industry estimated damages so far at $235 million including $23 million for damage to cars.
    (AP, 11/13/05)(SSFC, 11/13/05, p.A19)

2005        Nov 14, The French government approved a bill to extend a state of emergency for 3 months, giving itself more policing tools to stop the country's worst civil unrest since the 1960s. Some 271 cars were burned overnight.
    (AP, 11/14/05)(SFC, 11/14/05, p.A10)

2005        Nov 15, Jose Bove, a militant French farmer best known for ransacking a half-built McDonald's, was sentenced to four months in prison for destroying a field of genetically modified corn planted by an American seed company in southern France.
    (AP, 11/15/05)

2005        Nov 17, French police declared the all-clear after three weeks of rioting which has left the government stunned, bruised and casting around for explanations.
    (AFP, 11/17/05)
2005        Nov 17, France released its annual Beaujolais Nouveau from the 2005 harvest. The annual release is made every 3rd Thursday in November.
    (SFC, 11/22/05, p.F2)

2005        Nov 21, France's PM Villepin pledged to find more jobs for youths from poor suburbs, where unrest continued to simmer and a high school guard suffered a fatal heart attack trying to extinguish blazing cars.
    (AP, 11/21/05)

2005        Nov 22, French President Jacques Chirac called for negotiations to end a nationwide rail strike that caused commuter chaos and posed a new threat to his government, just days after urban riots abated.
    (Reuters, 11/22/05)
2005        Nov 22, French union leaders decided to recommend an end to a strike that disrupted French train service, saying they were satisfied with concessions offered by the national rail operator SNCF.
    (AP, 11/22/05)

2005        Nov 23, France's Cabinet approved a plan to put a tax on airline tickets starting next year to finance efforts against poverty and disease in the developing world.
    (AP, 11/23/05)

2005        Nov 27, Doctors in France performed the world's first partial face transplant on a woman disfigured by a dog bite; Isabelle Dinoire received the lips, nose and chin of a brain-dead woman in a 15-hour operation.
    (AP, 11/27/06)

2005        Nov 29, France's lower house of parliament overwhelmingly approved a tough new anti-terrorism bill that, among other measures, would increase the use of video surveillance and allow police more time to question terror suspects.
    (AP, 11/29/05)

2005        Nov 30, French doctors performed the world’s 1st partial face transplant. They operated on a woman (38) disfigured by a dog bite.
    (SFC, 12/1/05, p.A1)

2005        Dec 2, African leaders and French President Jacques Chirac converged on Mali for a two-day summit expected to focus on Africa's conflict hotspots, immigration and the problems of African youth.
    (AFP, 12/02/05)

2005        Dec 4, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao arrived in France for a four-day visit. The Chinese government and the European aircraft manufacturing consortium Airbus signed a cooperation agreement at a public ceremony in Toulouse that may pave the way for the opening of an aircraft assembly plant in China.
    (AFP, 12/04/05)

2005        Dec 5, France's highest administrative body ruled that Sikhs can wear their turbans in drivers' license photos, overturning an earlier denial of a license to a Sikh who refused to take off his turban for the photo.
    (AP, 12/06/05)

2005        Dec 10, The Petit Palais, a long forgotten gem among Paris museums, reopened after an $84 million renovation that has restored the full splendor of a structure originally built for the 1900 World's Fair.
    (AP, 12/08/05)
2005        Dec 10-2005 Dec 11, Hundreds of French youths smashed shop windows, ignited trash cans and pelted police with bottles through the night to protest against a ban on a rave party they planned in the western city of Rennes.
    (Reuters, 12/11/05)

2005        Dec 12, French counterterrorism agents, some heavily armed and wearing black hoods, raided homes and Internet cafes in a sweep against a suspected Islamic network, arresting more than 20 suspects.
    (AP, 12/12/05)

2005        Dec 14, The French government said Eiffag SA, Vinci SA and Spain’s Abertis Infraestructuras SA will buy its stakes in 3 toll-road companies raising $17.7 billion to help cut France’s national debt.
    (WSJ, 12/15/05, p.A16)

2005        Dec 15, French counterterrorism agents arrested three people suspected of belonging to a terror group with "indirect links" to al-Qaida in Iraq leader Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. Agents seized guns, ammunition, dynamite and other weapons in a probe of suspected Islamic militants who officials said use robberies to fund terror groups.
    (AP, 12/15/05)
2005        Dec 15, French and Italian authorities said European police have broken up the biggest-ever illegal immigration ring targeting Britain by arresting dozens of suspects believed to have helped smuggle "thousands" of people into that country.
    (AP, 12/15/05)

2005        Dec 20, France's antitrust regulator slapped a 14.4 million euros ($17.2 million) fine on Buena Vista Home Entertainment Inc., a unit of Walt Disney Co., and three French retailers for fixing home video prices between 1995 and 1998.
    (AP, 12/20/05)

2005        Dec 22, France's parliament approved an anti-terrorism bill that will boost the use of video surveillance and allow police more time to question terror suspects.
    (AP, 12/22/05)

2005        Dec 23, A French military tribunal opened an investigation into allegations that French peacekeepers facilitated attacks on ethnic minority Tutsis during the 1994 genocide of more than half a million Rwandans.
    (AP, 12/23/05)

2005        Dec 29, France reported a second death from freezing temperatures as blizzards swept through northern and central Europe, forcing flight cancellations at Prague airport and cutting power lines and rail links in Scandinavia.
    (AP, 12/29/05)

2005        Sir Alistair Horne, British historian, authored “La Belle France," an sweeping overview of French history.
    (WSJ, 8/23/05, p.D8)
2005        Colin Jones authored “Paris: The Biography of a City."
    (Econ, 4/23/05, p.80)
2005        Frederic Mitterand (b.1947), the nephew of former French Pres. Francois Mitterand, authored his autobiographical novel “The Bad Life" (French: La mauvaise vie), which became a best seller. In the book he details his "delight" whilst visiting the male brothels of Bangkok, and writes, "I got into the habit of paying for boys ... The profusion of young, very attractive and immediately available boys put me in a state of desire I no longer needed to restrain or hide."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fr%C3%A9d%C3%A9ric_Mitterrand)

2006        Jan 4, French Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy said France will create a special police force to ensure security for railway passengers after a band of marauding youths robbed and sexually assaulted train travelers Jan 1 in southeast France.
    (AP, 1/4/06)

2006        Jan 5, In France a 76-year-old performance artist was arrested after attacking Marcel Duchamp's  (1917) "Fountain," a porcelain urinal, with a hammer at the Pompidou Center.
    (AP, 1/6/06)

2006        Jan 6, An Indian Supreme Court panel accused France of violating an international treaty on hazardous waste movement by sending an asbestos-laden warship to be scrapped in an Indian shipyard.
    (AP, 1/6/06)

2006        Jan 14, Egypt and France were locked in legal wrangling over a decommissioned aircraft carrier containing asbestos, leaving the French warship stranded off the Egyptian coast for the third day running.
    (AFP, 1/14/06)

2006        Jan 16, In Strasbourg, France, demonstrators fought with police and smashed windows at the European Parliament building during a protest over a proposal to make port operations in the European Union more competitive.
    (AP, 1/16/06)

2006        Jan 16, A US-registered private jet crashed in the French Alps outside Bourdeau and 4 people were killed.
    (AP, 1/17/06)

2006        Jan 19, Pres. Chirac said France would be ready to use nuclear weapons against any state that carried out a terrorist attack against it, reaffirming the need for its nuclear deterrent.
    (AP, 1/19/06)

2006        Jan 21, Ilan Halimi (23), a mobile phone salesman in northeast Paris, was kidnapped. He was found 3 weeks later naked, handcuffed and covered with burn marks near railroad tracks in the Essonne region south of Paris. He died en route to a hospital. On Feb 20 a judge placed six men and a woman under investigation for the alleged plot to kidnap and kill on religious, racial or ethnic motives. Gang leader Youssef Fofana was later sentenced to life in prison for the murder.
    (AP, 2/20/06)(Econ, 3/1/14, p.83)

2006        Jan 29, Avalanches swept away skiers and at least one hiker in the French Alps, killing five people over the weekend.
    (AP, 1/29/06)

2006        Jan 31, French PM Dominique de Villepin made a televised address urging French and other European chief executives to be better organized to resist attacks by foreign companies. The statement was made in response to the takeover of Arcelor by Mittal Steel.
    (Econ, 2/4/06, p.56)

2006        Feb 3, BNP Paribas, France’s 2nd largest bank by assets, declared that it was buying a 48% stake in Banca Nazionale del Lavoro (BNL), Italy’s 6th largest bank, and that it would bid for the rest.
    (Econ, 2/11/06, p.70)

2006        Feb 13, Ilan Halimi (23), a young Jewish man, died in a Paris suburb after being kidnapped on Jan 21 and tortured for 24 days. The trial of a self-proclaimed "gang of barbarians" accused of killing him went on trial in 2009. Among the 27 defendants was the girl who is alleged to have been used as bait to capture Halimi and young men accused of taking part in the abduction and guarding the captive. Youssouf Fofana, the leader of the "barbarians," fled to the Ivory Coast but was extradited to France on March 4, 2006. On July 10, 2009, a Paris court convicted Fofana (28) for the kidnapping, torture and murder Halimi and sentenced him to life in prison. 24 others, including 8 women, also were found guilty in the kidnapping, torture and murder of Ilan Halimi. On Dec 17, 2010, an appeals court upheld the convictions of 16 people for their roles in Halimi’s murder.
    (AP, 4/29/09)(AP, 7/11/09)(SFC, 12/18/10, p.A2)

2006        Feb 15, President Jacques Chirac ordered the Clemenceau, a decommissioned aircraft carrier, to return to France after a top administrative court suspended its transfer to India.
    (AP, 2/15/06)

2006        Feb 17, French President Jacques Chirac has arrived for his first visit to Thailand as head of state, with Paris hoping to secure lucrative contracts in one of the most dynamic countries in the region.
    (AFP, 2/17/06)

2006        Feb 19, French President Jacques Chirac arrived in India for a whistle-stop visit aimed at bolstering trade and civilian nuclear cooperation with the emerging economic powerhouse.
    (AP, 2/19/06)
2006        Feb 19, India and France both confirmed their first outbreak of the deadly strain of bird flu among fowl. Health officials and farm workers in western India began slaughtering a half-million birds to check the spread of the disease.
    (AP, 2/19/06)
2006        Feb 19, India's private Kingfisher Airlines signed a deal to purchase 15 French ATR 72-500 aircraft for 270 million dollars, with the option to buy another 20. Kingfisher began operations in May and has a 7.6 percent share of the domestic market.
    (AP, 2/19/06)

2006        Feb 24, Japan suspended all French poultry imports and threatened a similar ban on the Netherlands following reported cases of H5N1 bird flu.
    (Reuters, 2/25/06)

2006        Feb 24, French legal authorities refused to extradite to Lebanon Zouheir Mohammad Assediq, an ex-Syrian intelligence officer, to answer questions about the murder of former Lebanese PM Rafiq el-Hariri.
    (AFP, 2/26/06)

2006        Feb 27, France began vaccinating 300,000 domestic fowl against bird flu.
    (WSJ, 2/28/06, p.A1)

2006        Mar 4, The French the defense ministry said a French special forces officer was killed in clashes with Taliban forces in southern Afghanistan. This was the second French soldier to be killed in action in Afghanistan.
    (AFP, 3/4/06)
2006        Mar 4, Youssef Fofana, the suspected leader of a gang accused of torturing to death a young Jewish man near Paris, was extradited from the Ivory Coast to France.
    (AP, 3/4/06)

2006        Mar 5, French President Jacques Chirac on a trip to Saudi Arabia preached greater tolerance and respect after the publication of satirical cartoons of the Prophet Mohammad a month ago whipped up protests around the world.
    (AP, 3/5/06)

2006        Mar 6, France's highest administrative body ruled that Sikhs must remove their turbans for driver's license photos, calling it a question of public security and not a restriction on freedom of religion.
    (AP, 3/6/06)

2006        Mar 7, In France protesters opposed to a government plan to reduce joblessness by making it easier to fire young workers rallied throughout the country, disrupting airports, schools and the Paris Metro.
    (AP, 3/7/06)

2006        Mar 8, French government attempts to stop Internet users downloading music and movies ratcheted up a notch when Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy blasted the widespread practice as theft.
    (AFP, 3/8/06)

2006        Mar 9, The French parliament, despite protests by students and unions, enacted a much-contested law to reduce youth unemployment by using contract jobs.
    (AP, 3/10/06)
2006        Mar 9, In France Christophe Fauviau (46), a father who drugged his children's tennis opponents leading to one player's death, was sentenced to 8 years in prison.
    (AP, 3/9/06)

2006        Mar 11, Police stormed France's famed Sorbonne University to dislodge students occupying the building in protest of a new national employment measure, hours after the demonstrators hurled furniture and ladders from the landmark's windows.
    (AP, 3/11/06)

2006        Mar 15, In France a suspected gangland-style car explosion killed one man and injured another on a highway north of Paris.
    (AP, 3/15/06)

2006        Mar 18, As many as 1.5 million people took to the streets of French cities in a show of strength over a contested new labor law, the government's First Employment Contract (CPE), as police deployed in force in Paris to head off the risk of violence. An open-ended contract for under 26-year-olds that can be terminated within the first two years without explanation, the CPE is supposed to encourage employers to take on young staff by removing some of the financial risks involved. Police made 170 arrests.
    (AP, 3/18/06)(Econ, 3/25/06, p.53)

2006        Mar 21, Some 30% of French people consider themselves at least somewhat racist, according to a report submitted to the government, prompting concerns that racism is becoming socially acceptable.
    (AP, 3/21/06)

2006        Mar 22, Pierre Clostermann (85), French fighter pilot and WW II hero, died. In 1948 he published the story of his exploits under the title “Le Grand Cirque." The English version was titled “The Big Show."
    (Econ, 4/8/06, p.85)

2006        Mar 28, Some 1-3 million protesters poured onto France's streets and absent workers hobbled transport services in the first nationwide strike against a new labor law for youths, increasing pressure on the embattled PM to withdraw the contested measure.
    (AP, 3/28/06)(Econ, 4/1/06, p.22)
2006        Mar 28, It was reported that France produced 78% of its electricity from nuclear power.
    (WSJ, 3/28/06, p.A1)

2006        Mar 31, French President Jacques Chirac offered to soften a labor law that makes it easier to fire young workers, but the student and labor leaders who have organized nationwide strikes rejected his compromise and repeated calls for the measure's repeal.
    (AP, 3/31/06)

2006        Mar, A French school ranking by Le Figaro, based on the 2005 school-leaving exam, indicated that the all but one of the top 29 schools were private.
    (Econ, 3/11/06, p.48)

2006        Apr 2, Alcatel SA and Lucent Technologies Inc. said that the French telecom equipment maker would acquire its US rival. The deal valued Lucent at about $13.5 billion (11.1 billion euros) in a stock swap that would form a major new global player. Headquarters would be in Paris and about 8,800 jobs would be cut.
    (AP, 4/2/06)(Econ, 4/8/06, p.63)

2006        Apr 4, In France a nationwide strike shut down the Eiffel Tower and snarled air and rail travel for the second time in a week while students barricaded themselves in schools to protest a jobs measure that has riven the country and put the government in crisis mode.
    (AP, 4/4/06)

2006        Apr 5, In France demonstrators blocked roads, rail lines and mail delivery trucks in a second straight day of protests to demand the repeal of a divisive jobs law, while unions vowed they would not compromise in talks with President Jacques Chirac's ruling party on the issue.
    (AP, 4/5/06)

2006        Apr 6, Students protesting a new labor law put more pressure on France's embattled government by blocking roads, trains and a convoy of parts heading to the factory that builds the world's largest airliner.
    (AP, 4/6/06)

2006        Apr 10, French President Jacques Chirac threw out part of a youth labor law that triggered massive protests and strikes, bowing to intense pressure from students and unions and dealing a blow to his loyal premier in a bid to end the crisis.
    (AP, 4/10/06)

2006        Apr 12, France's lower house of parliament approved a compromise youth job plan to replace a measure that triggered nationwide protests and plunged the country into crisis.
    (AP, 4/12/06)

2006        Apr 17, Jean Bernard (b.1907), French doctor, died. His research on blood disease helped to found the discipline of hematology.
    (AP, 4/21/06)

2006        Apr 29, It was reported that just over 8% of workers in France belonged to a trade union compared with 12% in America and nearly 30% in Britain.
    (Econ, 4/29/06, p.54)

2006        Apr, France released 2 Slovenian brown bears in the Pyranees and planned to add five more to boost genetic diversity.
    (Econ, 5/13/06, p.60)

2006        May 3, Britain and France introduced a UN Security Council resolution demanding that Iran abandon its uranium enrichment program, possibly setting the stage for sanctions if Tehran does not comply.
    (AP, 5/3/06)

2006        May 12, Spain's Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria (BBVA) agreed to the French bank BNP Paribas' purchase of its 14.75-percent stake in Italy's Banca Nazionale del Lavoro (BNL), saying it will reap 567 million euros (731 million dollars) in capital gains from the sale.
    (AP, 5/13/06)

2006        May 13, More than 11,000 people marched through Paris to protest a bill that would stiffen rules for immigrants in France and give authorities power to choose who can enter.
    (AP, 5/13/06)

2006        May 16, France's PM Dominique de Villepin was in the firing line as parliament debated a no confidence motion filed by the opposition over the Clearstream dirty tricks scandal. Jean-Luis Gergorin, a senior executive at EADS, was later identified as the anonymous informer who tried to link important politicians to secret bank accounts in Luxembourg.
    (AP, 5/16/06)(Econ, 5/27/06, p.63)

2006        May 29, French Agriculture Minister Dominique Bussereau ruled out changes to the EU's system of farm subsidies, saying he would prefer that the Doha trade talks fail instead.
    (AFP, 5/29/06)

2006        May 31, In France youths torched a dozen cars and hurled stones at police in a second night of violence in the troubled Paris suburbs, raising memories of rioting that rocked the nation last year.
    (AP, 5/31/06)
2006        May 31, Greenpeace said nuclear waste from a storage facility is seeping into groundwater in the Champagne region of France and threatening vineyards that produce the sparkling wine.
    (AP, 5/31/06)

2006        Jun 1, The NYSE under John Thain agreed to acquire Paris-based Euronext NV, Europe’s 2nd largest stock exchange, for $10 billion.
    (SFC, 6/2/06, p.A3)

2006        Jun 6, The Spanish interior ministry said that 67 suspects had been arrested for accessing child porn on the Internet over the past five days. The international police operation arrested 38 in France, 10 in Spain, 9 in Slovakia, 7 in Belgium and 3 in the Netherlands.
    (AP, 6/6/06)

2006        Jun 10, Justine Henin-Hardenne won the French Open, beating Svetlana Kuznetsova 6-4, 6-4.
    (AP, 6/10/07)

2006        Jun 13, European Aeronautic Defense and Space (EADS), the parent company of Airbus, announced that its new 555-seat airliner would be delayed up to 7 months.
    (Econ, 6/24/06, p.69)

2006        Jun 14, A French court handed down prison terms ranging from six months to 10 years for 25 Islamic radicals convicted of planning to carry out attacks on the Eiffel Tower and other targets in Paris. All but one had been accused of helping Islamic fighters in Chechnya.
    (AP, 6/14/06)
2006        Jun 14, France's highest court upheld George Soros' conviction for insider trading in a case dating back nearly 20 years, and the billionaire investor vowed to fight the ruling at the European Court of Human Rights.
    (AP, 6/14/06)

2006        Jun 20, In France Pres. Chirac inaugurated the new, $293 million Musee du Quai Branly, designed by Jean Nouvel.
    (Econ, 6/17/06, p.88)
2006        Jun 20, In Spain and France 12 people, including one of the founders of the Basque separatists ETA, were arrested in pre-dawn raids in a crackdown on illegal financing of the armed group.
    (AFP, 6/20/06)

2006        Jan 28, Maurice Lever (b.1935), French writer, died in Paris of cancer. His work included a biography of Marquis de Sade (1994), “Bloody Rumors" (1993), a history of violent news stories, and “Scepter and Bauble" (1909), a history of court jesters.
    (SFC, 5/30/09, p.E2)(www.imdb.com/name/nm1927840/bio)

2006        Jul 1, Thousands of people marched through Paris to protest plans to tighten restrictions on immigration and step up deportations of immigrant families with children who are in the country illegally.
    (AP, 7/2/06)
2006        Jul 1, The 3-week Tour de France began. 4 favorites, including Ivan Basso and Jan Ullrich, were barred with 5 others from the cycling competition after their names popped up in a Spanish probe of a network that allegedly supplied riders and other athletes with banned drugs and doping know-how.
    (AP, 6/30/06)(SFC, 7/1/06, p.D1)

2006        Jul 2, EADS's French co-chief executive Noel Forgeard and Airbus's German head Gustav Humbert tendered their resignations over delays to deliveries of the A380 superjumbo that has wiped billions of euros (dollars) off EADS's share price. Louis Gallois became the new EADS co-CEO; Christian Strieff was named the new president and CEO of Airbus.
    (AFP, 7/2/06)(WSJ, 7/3/06, p.A2)

2006        Jul 4, A French court convicted respected wine exporter Georges Duboeuf Wines of fraud after one of its wineries mixed a variety of grapes in its Beaujolais.
    (AP, 7/4/06)

2006        Jul 5, A France court convicted 38 people in a vast party financing scandal centered on Paris City Hall from 1987 to 1993, when Jacques Chirac was mayor.
    (AP, 7/5/06)
2006        Jul 5, France beat Portugal 1-0 and will play Italy for Soccer’s World Cup on July 9.
    (WSJ, 7/6/06, p.A1)

2006        Jul 9, Italy beat France 5-3 in a shootout following a 1-1 tie in the World Cup final. Zinedine Zidane, captain of the French team, was sent off for head-butting an Italian player.
    (SFC, 7/10/06, p.A1)(Econ, 7/15/06, p.49)

2006        Jul 17, EAD’s Airbus, reeling from a management shakeup that followed delays in its flagship superjumbo jet program, unveiled a long-awaited revamp of its mid-sized A350 at the Farnborough Air Show in England.
    (AP, 7/17/06)(WSJ, 7/17/06, p.A3)

2006        Jul 19, Director Gerard Oury (87), a cultural icon of France whose decades-old comedies remain hits today, died at his Riviera home. His top hits include the 1973 movie "Les Aventures de Rabbi Jacob" (The Mad Adventures of Rabbi Jacob).
    (AP, 7/20/06)

2006        Jul 21, It was reported that Saudi Arabia has ordered 76 artillery howitzers from the French armaments manufacturer Giat Industries as defense minister Crown Prince Sultan bin Abdul Aziz completed a two-day visit.
    (AFP, 7/21/06)

2006        Jul 23,  US cyclist Floyd Landis (31) won the 3-week, 2,267-mile Tour de France 57 seconds ahead of Oscar Pereiro of Spain. Reports on July 27 Landis said had tested positive for the male sex hormone testosterone. In 2007 arbitrators upheld results that showed he had used synthetic testosterone and that he must forfeit his title.
    (SFC, 7/24/06, p.D1)(Reuters, 7/27/06)(WSJ, 9/21/07, p.A1)

2006        Jul 27, French health officials said 64 people have died in a heat wave that has gripped the country for nearly two weeks.
    (AP, 7/27/06)
2006        Jul 27, Floyd Landis' stunning Tour de France victory just four days earlier was thrown into question when he tested positive for high levels of testosterone during the race. Landis denied cheating.
    (AP, 7/27/07)

2006        Jul 31, France's agriculture minister condemned the destruction of two fields of genetically modified corn by activists in southwestern France.
    (AP, 7/31/06)

2006        Aug 2, A Paris commercial court granted Eurotunnel protection from creditors, enabling the operator of the Channel Tunnel to freeze payments on its debt mountain of 9.0 billion euros (11.5 billion dollars).
    (AFP, 8/2/06)

2006        Aug 3, A French law that allows regulators to force Apple Computer Inc. to make its iPod player and iTunes online store compatible with rival offerings went into effect.
    (AP, 8/3/06)
2006        Aug 3, French health officials said the sweltering temperatures that gripped Europe last month killed 112 people.
    (AP, 8/3/06)

2006        Aug 5, The US and France reached agreement on a UN Security Council resolution aimed at ending the fighting between Israel and Lebanese Hezbollah guerrillas.
    (AP, 8/5/06)
2006        Aug 5, Floyd Landis was fired by his team and the Tour de France no longer considered him its champion after his second doping sample tested positive for higher-than-allowable levels of testosterone. Landis maintained his innocence.
    (AP, 8/5/07)

2006        Aug 15, French Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy said nearly 30,000 illegal immigrants with school-age children applied for French residency under a special government offer, and about 6,000 will get it.
    (AP, 8/15/06)

2006        Aug 17, President Jacques Chirac announced that France will immediately double to 400 troops its contingent in the UN peacekeeping force in Lebanon.
    (AP, 8/17/06)

2006        Aug 19, French soldiers landed in Lebanon, the first reinforcements for an expanded UN peacekeeping force tasked with keeping the truce in the Israel-Hezbollah conflict. About 50 French troops, military engineers, were to prepare for the arrival of 200 more soldiers expected next week.
    (AP, 8/19/06)

2006        Aug 20, In northern France a fire broke out in a run-down apartment building that mainly housed immigrants, killing five people and injuring 10.
    (AP, 8/20/06)

2006        Aug 24, France said it was ready to send an extra 1,600 troops to bolster a revamped U.N. force for Lebanon, bringing the total French contingent to 2,000 and making it easier to recruit other nations.
    (Reuters, 8/24/06)

2006        Aug 31, Sexus Politicus, by co-authors Christophe Dubois and Christophe Deloire, was published in France. It revealed decades of philandering, adultery and seduction at the heart of the French state, with politicians of all colors apparently sharing the same passion for extra-marital sex.
    (AP, 8/31/06)

2006        Sep 4, In France the Airbus A380, the world's largest passenger jet, took off with a full load of passengers for the first time. Carrying 474 Airbus employees, the 308-ton jet left from Toulouse, southern France, on the first of four test flights.
    (AP, 9/4/06)

2006        Sep 5, French oil and gas field surveyor Geophysique said it will buy US rival Veritas for $3.1 billion in cash and stock, establishing a major new global player in the booming oil exploration industry.
    (AP, 9/5/06)

2006        Sep 10, Armed Yemeni tribesmen kidnapped four French tourists in the east of the country to press for their relatives to be released from jail.
    (AP, 9/10/06)

2006        Sep 14, Current and former French officials specializing in terrorism said that an al-Qaida alliance with the Algerian Salafist Group for Call and Combat, known by its French initials GSPC, was cause for concern. Al-Qaida's No. 2, Ayman al-Zawahri, announced the "blessed union" in a video posted this week on the Internet to mark the fifth anniversary of the Sept. 11 attacks in the United States.
    (AP, 9/15/06)

2006        Sep 20, Henri Jayer (84), a master of balanced pinot noir, died in Dijon, France. He was viewed by many connoisseurs to be the finest Burgundy winemaker of his generation.
    (AP, 9/21/06)

2006        Sep 22, France and Russia signed deals in the transport and aviation sectors worth 10 billion dollars following a summit between Russian Pres. Vladimir Putin and his French counterpart Jacques Chirac.
    (AP, 9/23/06)
2006        Sep 22, Yvan Keller (46), arrested a week earlier in France’s eastern city of Mulhouse in connection with a robbery, hanged himself while in custody. Mr. Keller admitted to killing dozens of elderly women who lived alone, all within 40 miles of Mulhouse, in the border region straddling France, Switzerland and Germany, starting in 1989.
    (www.newagebd.com/2006/sep/27/inat.html)

2006        Sep 23, Russian Pres. Vladimir Putin and his French counterpart Jacques Chirac joined German Chancellor Angela Merkel for a three-way informal summit in a chateau in Compiegne.
    (AP, 9/23/06)

2006        Sep 27, France ended a decades-old system of inequality by bringing lagging pensions of war veterans from former colonies into line with those of their French counterparts whose retirement payment is two-thirds higher. The decision was not retroactive.
    (AP, 9/28/06)
2006        Sep 27, A team of French doctors said they successfully operated on a man in near zero-gravity conditions on a flight looping in the air like a roller coaster to mimic weightlessness.
    (AP, 9/27/06)

2006        Sep 29, Segolene Royal, who tops polls as the Socialist choice to run for French president next spring, formally announced her candidacy.
    (AP, 9/29/06)

2006        Sep 30, André Schwarz-Bart (b.1928), French novelist of Polish-Jewish origins, died in Guadeloupe. His books included the novel “The Last of the Just" (1960), based on the Jewish teaching that the fate of the world lies with 36 just men.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andre_Schwarz-Bart)(WSJ, 12/9/06, p.P12)

2006        Oct 3, A top Iranian nuclear official proposed that France create a consortium to enrich uranium in Iran, saying that could satisfy international demands for outside oversight of Tehran's nuclear program.
    (AP, 10/3/06)

2006        Oct 7, In France the press advocacy group Reporters Without Borders and the northwest town of Bayeux unveiled a memorial to some 2,000 journalists and other media workers killed in the line of duty around the world since World War II.
    (AP, 10/7/06)

2006        Oct 8, France said it would ban smoking in public places as of Feb 1, 2007. The ban would extend to restaurants, bars and clubs at the start of 2008.
    (WSJ, 10/7/06, p.A1)

2006        Oct 9, Christian Streiff, the head of Airbus, resigned after 99 days on the job due to clashed over operational powers with the EADS board of directors. EADS named Louis Gallois, a co-chief executive officer to replace him.
    (SFC, 10/10/06, p.E3)

2006        Oct 11, In northeastern France a passenger train collided with an oncoming freight train, killing at least five people and injuring 16.
    (AP, 10/11/06)

2006        Oct 12, French lawmakers approved a bill making it a crime to deny that the 1915-1919 mass killings of Armenians in Turkey amounted to genocide. It was thought unlikely that Jacques Chirac’s government would forward the bill to the Senate.
    (AP, 10/12/06)(SFC, 10/13/06, p.A21)

2006        Oct 13, The French state rail network said some 1,200 claims for compensation have been leveled against the rail network for its role in helping transport people to Nazi camps during World War II.
    (AP, 10/13/06)
2006        Oct 13, The EU condemned a French bill making it a crime to deny that the World War I-era killing of Armenians in Turkey was genocide, calling it unhelpful at a critical stage in the Muslim country's EU entry talks.
    (AP, 10/14/06)

2006        Oct 14, French leader Jacques Chirac told Turkish PM Tayyip Erdogan he is sorry French lawmakers approved a bill making it a crime to deny Armenians were victims of genocide at the hands of Ottoman Turks.
    (Reuters, 10/15/06)

2006        Oct 25, French President Jacques Chirac and a delegation of French executives traveled to China in hopes of expanding trade with one of the world's largest economies.
    (AP, 10/25/06)

2006        Oct 26, In France youths forced passengers off three buses and set the vehicles on fire overnight in suburban Paris, raising tensions ahead of the first anniversary of the riots that engulfed France's rundown, heavily immigrant neighborhoods.
    (AP, 10/26/06)

2006        Oct 27, French President Jacques Chirac called for closer ties with China in telecommunications, nuclear power and other fields after Airbus's decision to open a Chinese aircraft assembly line.
    (AP, 10/27/06)
2006        Oct 27, Xavier Niel (39), one of France's most high-profile Internet entrepreneurs, was handed a suspended jail sentence for embezzling funds from a sex shop that served as a front for prostitution. He was also fined 250,000 euros ($320,000) for embezzling money from the Roxane sex shop in the eastern city of Strasbourg.
    (AP, 10/27/06)
2006        Oct 27, In France 6 police officers suffered minor injuries and 25 people were arrested in scattered violence across the country on the first anniversary of the start of nationwide riots.
    (AP, 10/28/06)

2006        Oct 28, In France marauding youths torched hundreds of vehicles overnight and into the day. In Marseilles Mama Galledou (26) was on the bus with some 10 other passengers when it was forcibly boarded by at least three teenagers wearing hoods. They doused the inside of the vehicle with flammable liquid and set it on fire before running away. Galledou was badly burnt and on the verge of death.
    (AFP, 10/29/06)

2006        Oct 31, France's Defense Minister ordered that 105 secret intelligence reports be handed over to a judge investigating allegations that Paris helped Rwanda's former Hutu government massacre ethnic Tutsis in a 1994 genocide.
    (Reuters, 11/2/06)

2006        Nov 2, In St. Maarten 4 French nationals were convicted of beating two gay American tourists on Guadeloupe and were sentenced to between six months and six years in prison.
    (AP, 11/2/06)

2006        Nov 3, French conductor Paul Mauriat (81), whose arrangement of "Love is Blue" topped US charts in the 1960s, died in Perpignan, France.
    (AP, 11/3/07)

2006        Nov 4, Swathes of Austria, Belgium, Croatia, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands and went dark for up to an hour in the late evening as cold Germans rushing to switch on heaters sucked up electricity from Europe's interconnected networks.
    (AP, 11/5/06)

2006        Nov 7, French authorities handed over to Spain Jose Javier Arizcuren Ruiz, a former leading member of the armed Basque separatist group ETA, who police blame for killing at least 15 people and planning several major attacks. Ruiz, also known as "Kantauri," was arrested in Paris in 1999 and served time in a French prison on charges of being a member of an armed group.
    (AP, 11/7/06)
2006        Nov 7, A shipload of toxic waste arrived in France for disposal. It was collected from the Ivory Coast following illegal dumping last August.
    (WSJ, 11/8/06, p.A1)
2006        Nov 7, In France Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber (1924), who co-founded the French newsweekly L'Express (1953) and encouraged Europe to emulate the United States, died. In 1967 Servan-Schreiber published a popular essay called "The American Challenge," which detailed the mechanisms of an economic power struggle brewing between Europe and the US.
    (AP, 11/8/06)

2006        Nov 13, France said it will aid the Central African Republic's army with logistics and aerial reconnaissance in its fight against rebels in the northeast of the country.
    (AFP, 11/13/06)

2006        Nov 15, Turkey suspended military relations with France in a dispute over whether the mass killings of Armenians early in the last century amounted to genocide.
    (AP, 11/16/06)

2006        Nov 16, In France Segolene Royal (53) overwhelmingly won the backing of the main opposition Socialist Party in her bid to become France's first female president.
    (AP, 11/17/06)
2006        Nov 16, Spain, France and Italy unveiled a five-point Middle East peace initiative, calling Israeli-Palestinian violence intolerable and saying that Europe must take a lead role in ending the conflict.
    (AP, 11/16/06)

2006        Nov 20, French prosecutors approved international arrest warrants for 9 Rwandan officials in connection with the 1994 attack that killed Rwanda's president, triggering the central African country's genocide. Magistrate Jean-Louis Bruguiere also said there was evidence that "Paul Kagame and members of his military staff devised the operation" to destroy Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana's plane.
    (Reuters, 11/21/06)

2006        Nov 21, In Paris, France, nations representing half the world's population signed a long-awaited, $12.8 billion pact for a nuclear fusion reactor that could revolutionize global energy use for future generations. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project by the US, the EU, China, India, Russia, Japan and South Korea will attempt to combat global warming by harnessing the fusion that runs the sun, creating an alternative to polluting fossil fuels. The project under the direction of Kaname Ikeda of Japan will be built in Cadarache in the southern French region of Provence and is expected to create about 10,000 jobs and take about eight years to build. The project was first proposed by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985.
    (AP, 11/21/06)(Econ, 11/25/06, p.61)

2006        Nov 23, Philippe Noiret (b.1930), French comedian and film actor, died in Paris.
    (AP, 11/23/07)
2006        Nov 23, A military official said France has bolstered its presence in the Central African Republic with 100 more troops following rebel attacks and growing concern over the neighboring Darfur region of Sudan.
    (AP, 11/23/06)
2006        Nov 22, Rwanda’s Pres. Kagame dismissed French accusations as "rubbish," and instead said a trial should be opened against France, which he accuses of abetting the 100-day 1994 genocide in which minority Tutsis and moderate Hutus were targeted by Hutu extremists.
    (AP, 11/23/06)

2006        Nov 23, A military official said France has bolstered its presence in the Central African Republic with 100 more troops following rebel attacks and growing concern over the neighboring Darfur region of Sudan.
    (AP, 11/23/06)
2006        Nov 23, Thousands of Rwandans took to the streets of Kigali to denounce France's alleged complicity in the 1994 genocide and a French judge's call for the prosecution of President Paul Kagame.
    (AP, 11/23/06)

2006        Nov 24, France said it will give Tanzania 46 million euros (60 million dollars) to fund development projects in the east African nation over the next five years.
    (AFP, 11/24/06)
2006        Nov 24, Rwanda cut diplomatic ties with France and gave France's ambassador to Rwanda 24 hours to leave the central African country. This was in response to a French judge’s call for President Paul Kagame to stand trial over the 1994 killing of a former leader, sparking the genocide of 800,000 people.
    (Reuters, 11/24/06)

2006        Nov 27, French developers have selected a design by Pritzker Prize winner Thom Mayne, an award-winning American architect, for a bold new building in Paris nearly as tall as the Eiffel Tower, and powered partly by the wind. Completion was set for 2012.
    (AP, 11/28/06)
2006        Nov 27, In Paris Eurotunnel, operator of the Channel tunnel, was rescued from looming bankruptcy when key creditors approved a plan to slash debt exceeding 9.0 billion euros (11.9 billion dollars).
    (AP, 11/27/06)

2006        Nov 28, Government soldiers in the Central African Republic were on the offensive, with French military support, to seize back towns captured by rebels who have steadily advanced from border territory.
    (AP, 11/28/06)

2006        Dec 6, France went head-to-head with CNN and the BBC with the launch of its state-funded 24/7 news channel, part of President Jacques Chirac's efforts to make his country's voice heard. The France 24 news channel was a joint venture between TF1, a private firm, and the state-owned France Televisions.
    (AP, 12/6/06)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.63)
2006        Dec 6, Philippe Douste-Blazy, the French foreign minister, said that Iran will face UN sanctions for refusing to halt its nuclear program but that major world powers remain divided over their extent.
    (AP, 12/6/06)

2006        Dec 11, Two Rwandan ex-soldiers told a panel probing alleged French complicity in the 1994 massacres that France armed and trained members of the Interahamwe militia, a radical militia blamed for most of the killings in Rwanda's 1994 genocide.
    (AFP, 12/11/06)

2006        Dec 12, In Rwanda an ex-Interahamwe member said that he had participated in transporting weapons from a French military plane in the former Zaire, now Democratic Republic of Congo, to the north Rwanda province of Gisenyi during the 1994 genocide. Witness #4 told a Rwandan commission that French troops raped women fleeing militia gangs during the African country's 1994 genocide.
    (AFP, 12/12/06)(Reuters, 12/13/06)

2006        Dec 14, Australia and France signed an agreement on military cooperation designed to enhance their ability to work together.
    (AFP, 12/14/06)

2006        Dec 16, British PM Tony Blair arrived in Egypt for Middle East peace talks, saying the next few days and weeks would be critical in determining whether Israel and the Palestinians can break their cycle of violence.
    (AP, 12/16/06)

2006        Dec 23, Two road accidents in France within hours of each other left four people dead in central Paris and some 24 injured in a 60-vehicle pileup on a foggy highway near Bordeaux.
    (AP, 12/24/06)

2006        France had about 18,000 soldiers abroad. They included 3,500 in the Ivory Coast,  1,700 in Lebanon, 1,200 in Chad, 1,000 in the Congo, and 5,000 spread between permanent bases in Djibouti, Senegal and Gabon.
    (Econ, 12/16/06, p.49)
2006        France numbered some 3.7 million people living in poverty, defined as having a household income of less than half of the median income. 2.4 million people were unemployed.
    (Econ, 10/28/06, Survey p.5)

2006        Nicolas Baverez (b.1961) authored “New World, Old France," a follow-up to his 2003 book, “France in Freefall," cataloguing the nihilism of the French.
    (Econ, 2/4/06, p.46)
2006        Jonathan Laurence and Justin Vaisse authored “Integrating Islam." They focused on French efforts to integrate its Muslim population and expressed a cautiously optimistic tone.
    (WSJ, 10/26/06, p.D6)
2006        Antoine Zacharias (b.1939), head of the VINCI Group, a French construction giant, was forced out of his position and left with a generous severance package. He sued the company for €81 million for allegedly preventing him from exercising some stock options. In 2008 a court ruled against him.
    (Econ, 6/14/08, p.77)(http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antoine_Zacharias)

2007        Jan 2, In France prisoner Nicolas Cocaign (b.1971) killed his cellmate killed Thierry Baudry. In 2010 Cocaign, who was in jail for armed robbery and was awaiting trial for attempted rape at the time, said he proceeded to eat part of the lung raw before frying the rest with onions on a camping stove and dining on the dish.
    (AP, 6/23/10)

2007        Jan 5, Nicolas Cocaigne, a French prisoner in Rouen, confessed to killing his cellmate and then eating part of the man's body. Thierry Baudry's mutilated body was found Jan 3 by a guard at the prison. A third cellmate who claimed he slept though the attack was charged with complicity in homicide.
    (AP, 1/6/07)

2007        Jan 7, A helicopter crashed into the garden terrace of a restaurant in southeastern France, killing three people on the ground and severely injuring a fourth.
    (AP, 1/7/07)

2007        Jan 8, Fatah gunmen released the deputy mayor of Nablus unharmed, two days after kidnapping him. Fatah militants torched stores of Hamas supporters in Ramallah and shot at the house of a top Hamas official. Agence France-Presse expressed gratitude for the release of a photographer who had been held hostage by Palestinian militants in the Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 1/8/07)

2007        Jan 9, Mikhail Prokhorov (41), chief executive of Russian mining giant OAO Norilsk Nickel, was detained in France for questioning as part of a crackdown on a suspected prostitution ring at an upscale ski resort.
    (AP, 1/11/07)

2007        Jan 12, French authorities freed Mikhail Prokhorov, a Russian billionaire, following four days of questioning in connection with an investigation into a suspected prostitution ring at the swank Alpine ski resort of Courchevel.
    (AP, 1/12/07)
2007        Jan 12, East Timor and France signed non-aggression treaties with ASEAN member countries on the sidelines of the annual ASEAN summit in the Philippine resort city of Cebu. Both countries looked to strengthen ties with a bloc representing  a sixth of the world's people.
    (AP, 1/13/07)

2007        Jan 14, France's interior minister, Nicolas Sarkozy, formally clinched the ruling conservatives' presidential nomination.
    (AP, 1/14/07)

2007        Jan 22, Abbe Pierre (b.1912), a French priest praised as a living legend for devoting his life to helping the homeless, using prayer and provocation to tackle misery, died in Paris. He founded the international Emmaus Community for the poor. Abbe Pierre, born as Henry Groues,  served as a spokesman for France's conscience since the 1950s when he persuaded parliament to pass a law, still on the books, forbidding landlords to expel tenants during winter months.
    (AP, 1/22/07)(Econ, 2/3/07, p.87)

2007        Jan 23, French doctors said that they had performed the world’s third partial face transplant on a man whose face was disfigured by severe tumors.
    (SFC, 1/24/07, p.A2)

2007        Jan 24, Jean-Francois Deniau (b.1928), a former French government minister, diplomat, sailor and novelist, died. His novel "Un Hero Tres Discret" (A Very Discreet Hero) told of an ordinary man who reinvented himself as a hero of the World War II Resistance. The book was adapted into a movie by director Jacques Audiard and given the English-language title "A Self Made Hero."
    (AP, 1/24/07)

2007        Jan 29, Paris City Hall announced it has selected French outdoor advertising firm JCDecaux SA to operate a new free bicycle service in the capital.
    (AP, 1/30/07)

2007        Jan, Work began on the Int’l. Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in Cadarache, France. 34 nations collaborated to realize the ITER project's First Plasma in November 2019. The project was born at the Geneva Superpower Summit in November, 1985.
    (Econ, 9/3/11, p.79)(www.iter.org/factsfigures)

2007        Feb 1, In France top global warming experts huddled for a last day of talks with bureaucrats from more than 100 countries on a closely watched global warming report that could influence government and business policy worldwide.
    (AP, 2/1/07)
2007        Feb 1, In France a ban on smoking in public spaces came into effect.
    (AP, 2/1/07)

2007        Feb 2, A French court convicted dozens of people in a baby-trafficking case involving the sale of nearly two dozen Bulgarian infants over two years.
    (AP, 2/2/07)
2007        Feb 2, Scientists from 113 countries issued a report saying they have little doubt global warming is caused by man, and predicting that hotter temperatures and rises in sea level will "continue for centuries" no matter how much humans control their pollution. The 4th report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was published in Paris.
    (AP, 2/2/07)(Econ, 2/10/07, p.86)

2007        Feb 6, In France nearly 60 nations pledged not to use children to wage war and to disarm and rehabilitate underage soldiers. The Paris Commitments agreement was seen as a strong moral step against the problem, though it carried no legal weight. They also signed a treaty that bans governments from holding people in secret detention, but the United States and some of its key European allies were not among them.
    (AP, 2/6/07)
2007        Feb 7, Michel Niaucel, a French diplomat with the European Union in Ivory Coast, was shot to death in his home overnight. Niaucel was in charge of West Africa security operations for the EU.
    (AP, 2/7/07)

2007        Feb 8, In France teachers, tax collectors, railway workers and other public servants went on strike to protest job losses and demand higher pay.
    (AP, 2/8/07)

2007        Feb 9, A French appeals court ruled that Pierre Pinoncelli (78), who attacked Marcel Duchamp's famed porcelain urinal (fountain) with a hammer last year, does not have to pay $260,000 in damages. Pinoncelli urinated on "Fountain" during a 1993 exhibition in Nimes in southern France, and cut off his own finger as an expression of solidarity with Colombian-French politician Ingrid Betancourt, held hostage by leftist guerrillas in Colombia since 2002.
    (AP, 2/9/07)
2007        Feb 9, In France Alcatel-Lucent SA said it plans to cut another 3,500 jobs after it swung to a loss in the fourth quarter, the first for which the telecom equipment maker reported combined earnings.
    (AP, 2/9/07)

2007        Feb 11, In France socialist presidential candidate Segolene Royal unveiled a long-awaited platform that promised to boost the minimum wage and pension payments.
    (AP, 2/11/07)

2007        Feb 15, A summit of African leaders opened in Cannes on the French Riviera. The crisis in Darfur and violence in Guinea overshadowed the summit, as well as perennial issues of poverty, development and AIDS. France won agreement from three involved African nations (Sudan, Chad and Central African Republic) that they would not support armed rebel movements on each other's territories.
    (AP, 2/15/07)(AP, 2/15/07)

2007        Feb 16, French President Jacques Chirac said US cotton subsidies were scandalous and immoral because they hurt African farmers.
    (Reuters, 2/16/07)

2007        Feb 17, President Jacques Chirac awarded the Legion d'Honneur order to actor and director Clint Eastwood (76), calling his latest films lessons in humanity. Chirac said Eastwood's latest films "Flags of our Fathers" and "Letters from Iwo Jima" showed the impasse that can follow from the blind use of force.
    (AP, 2/17/07)
2007        Feb 17, Maurice Papon (96), a former French Cabinet minister, died. He was convicted of complicity in crimes against humanity for his role in deporting Jews during World War II and became a symbol of France’s collaboration with the Nazis.
    (AP, 2/17/07)(Econ, 2/24/07, p.99)

2007        Feb 26, Three Frenchmen who lived in Saudi Arabia were killed by gunmen on the side of a desert road leading to the holy city of Medina in an area restricted to Muslims only. Soon after a 4th died from his wounds. An investigation later revealed that Waleed bin Mutlaq al-Radadi, among the kingdom's most wanted terrorists, was the mastermind and one of the triggermen in the shooting. Al-Radadi was killed on April 6 in a gunbattle with Saudi forces.
    (AP, 2/26/07)(AP, 4/18/07)

2007        Feb 27, At least 2 Picasso paintings ("Maya and the Doll" and "Portrait of Jacqueline"), worth a total of nearly $66 million, were stolen overnight from the artist's granddaughter's house in Paris. The paintings were recovered August 7 and police took 3 people into custody.
    (AP, 2/28/07)(AP, 8/8/07)
2007        Feb 27, In Brazil 3 French nationals who ran a nonprofit group that helps poor children were stabbed to death at their headquarters near Rio's Copacabana beach and authorities arrested three suspects. The slayings that left one of the victims decapitated were part of a botched scheme to protect a Brazilian accountant, Tarsio Wilson Ramires (25), accused of stealing money from the group.
    (AP, 2/27/07)

2007        Feb 28, European airliner maker Airbus told unions that it would dispose of six factories and switch some work from France to Germany under a plan costing some 10,000 jobs.
    (AP, 2/28/07)
2007        Feb 28, French author Dominique Lapierre opened the first of 15 schools planned in India with money raised by auctioning an iconic dress worn by Audrey Hepburn in "Breakfast at Tiffany's."
    (AP, 2/28/07)

2007        Mar 1, In France, Germany and Spain workers at Airbus revolted against massive cutbacks, planning a strike next week in a warning to the company that its recovery strategy is in for a long, tough haul.
    (AFP, 3/1/07)

2007        Mar 2, Henri Troyat (95), French writer, died. He fled Russia's revolution as a child and went on to become one of France's most prolific, popular and respected authors.
    (AP, 3/5/07)

2007        Mar 4, In the Central African Republic French fighter jets destroyed several rebel vehicles in retaliation for an attack on French troops.
    (AP, 3/4/07)

2007        Mar 6, France and the United Arab Emirates signed an agreement to open a branch of the Louvre museum in Abu Dhabi, despite criticism that the French government is peddling the country's artistic treasures.
    (AP, 3/6/07)
2007        Mar 6, Jean Baudrillard (b.1929), French philosopher and social theorist, died. He was best known for his writings on gender relations and consumerism.
    (Econ, 3/17/07, p.93)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Baudrillard)

2007        Mar 7, In France a new law took effect that makes it a crime for anyone, who is not a professional journalist, to film real-world violence and distribute the images on the Internet. Critics call it a clumsy effort by authorities to battle "happy slapping," the youth fad of filming violent acts, which most often they have provoked, and spreading the images on the Web or between mobile phones.
    (AP, 3/7/07)

2007        Mar 11, Jacques Chirac, admired and scorned during 12 years as France's president, announced he will not seek a third term in elections this spring, a widely expected move given his low popularity, his age and a conservative rival who has siphoned off his political base. His popularity had shrunk to 29% as unemployment stood at 8.6%.
    (AP, 3/11/07)(Econ, 3/17/07, p.27)

2007        Mar 13, France's highest court rejected as unlawful the first marriage by a gay couple in France, annulling the union of the two men.
    (AP, 3/13/07)

2007        Mar 14, Lucie Aubrac (b.1912), a hero of the French Resistance, died. She helped free her husband from the Gestapo. In 2000, Aubrac published "The Resistance Explained to my Grandchildren" about her experiences. She is also the author of the 1984 book "They'll Leave Exhilarated." French director Claude Berry made the hit 1997 movie "Lucie Aubrac," starring Carole Bouquet in the title role. Two other films, Jean-Pierre Melville's 1969 "The Army of Shadows" and the 1991 "Boulevard of the Swallows" by Jose Yanne, were also based on Aubrac's story.
    (AP, 3/15/07)

2007        Mar 15, A French court convicted a doctor in the poisoning death of a terminally ill cancer patient, in a trial that has raised the issue of euthanasia in France's presidential race.
    (AP, 3/15/07)

2007        Mar 17, In France tens of thousands of people filled the streets of five cities to protest plans to build the next generation of nuclear reactors.
    (AP, 3/17/07)

2007        Mar 21, French President Jacques Chirac endorsed the presidential bid of Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy despite their long rivalry.
    (AP, 3/21/07)

2007        Mar 22, France became the first country to open its files on UFOs when the national space agency unveiled a website documenting more than 1,600 sightings spanning five decades.
    (AFP, 3/22/07)
2007        Mar 22, Brian Joubert became the first Frenchman in 42 years to win the world title by taking the men's event at the World Figure Skating Championships in Tokyo.
    (AP, 3/22/08)

2007        Mar 26, Nicolas Sarkozy resigned as French interior minister to focus on his presidential bid, recalling his successes but also challenges, including violence by poor young minorities.
    (AP, 3/26/07)

2007        Mar 27, French riot police firing tear gas and brandishing batons clashed with bands of youths who shattered windows and looted shops at a major Paris train station. Nine people were arrested.
    (AP, 3/28/07)

2007        Mar 28, In France an official at a Paris maternity hospital said Sister Marie-Simon-Pierre is the French nun whose testimony of a mystery cure from Parkinson's disease will likely be accepted as the miracle the Vatican needs to beatify Pope John Paul II.
    (AP, 3/28/07)

2007        Mar 30, A French architect claimed to have uncovered the mystery about how Egypt's Great Pyramid of Khufu was built. Jean-Pierre Houdin said advanced 3D technology had shown the main ramp which was used to haul the massive stones to the apex was contained 10-15 meters beneath the outer skin, tracing a pyramid within a pyramid..
    (Reuters, 3/30/07)

2007        Apr 3, A French train with a 25,000-horsepower engine and special wheels broke the world speed record for conventional rail trains, reaching 357.2 mph as it zipped through the countryside to the applause of spectators. It surpassed the record of 320.2 mph set in 1990 by another French train. It fell short of beating the ultimate record set by Japan's magnetically levitated train, which hit 361 mph in 2003.
    (AP, 4/3/07)

2007        Apr 19, Rwanda filed a case against France at the UN's highest court in The Hague over a French request that President Paul Kagame be tried by the Rwanda war crimes tribunal.
    (AP, 4/19/07)

2007        Apr 22, French voters turned out in force to choose a new president in one of the country's most suspense-filled elections in recent times. In the first round conservative Nicolas Sarkozy and Socialist rival Segolene Royal received enough votes to advance to a runoff, which Sarkozy won.
    (AP, 4/22/07)(AP, 4/22/08)

2007        Apr 23, In France Sarkozy and Royal advanced to the second round of France's presidential election, With nearly all votes counted, Sarkozy had 31.1%, followed by Royal with 25.8% and Bayrou with 18.5%. Turnout was 84.6 percent, the highest in more than 40 years and just shy of the record set in 1965.
    (AP, 4/23/07)

2007        Apr 24, Rwandan media said that a former Belgian army officer in the UN mission to Rwanda (Minuar) has accused French soldiers of training extremist Hutus responsible for the 1994 genocide.
    (AP, 4/24/07)

2007        May 3, In France Claude Mandil, head of the International Energy Agency (IEA), told a news conference that there is no reason why Iran should not have nuclear energy.
    (Reuters, 5/3/07)

2007        May 6, French voters turned out in force in a presidential election offering divergent choices for the future, with conservative front-runner Nicolas Sarkozy urging the French to work more and Socialist Segolene Royal pledging to safeguard welfare protections. Nicolas Sarkozy (52), a US-friendly conservative and an immigrant's son, defeated Socialist Segolene Royal by 53% to 47% with about 85% voter turnout.
    (AP, 5/6/07)(AP, 5/7/07)

2007        May 8, The leader of France's defeated Socialists appealed for calm after a second night of post-election violence left cars burned and store windows smashed.
    (AP, 5/8/07)

2007        May 9, France’s interior minister said violence hit for a third night following the election of conservative Nicolas Sarkozy, with about 200 vehicles torched by vandals and more than 80 people taken in for questioning nationwide.
    (AP, 5/9/07)
2007        May 9, In France Nayef al-Shaalan, a Saudi Prince, was sentenced in absentia to 10 years in jail on charges of involvement in a cocaine smuggling gang.
    (AP, 5/9/07)

2007        May 12, Eric Damfreville, a French aid worker, returned to France after five weeks in Taliban captivity in Afghanistan and made a plea for his captors to free three Afghans seized with him.
    (AP, 5/12/07)
2007        May 12, Waves reaching 36 feet high thrashed France's Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean, leaving two fishermen missing and flooding homes and hotels.
    (AP, 5/13/07)

2007        May 16, Nicolas Sarkozy took office as France's president.
    (AP, 5/16/07)

2007        May 17, French Pres. Nicolas Sarkozy named Francois Fillon (53), a Gaullist former social affairs minister, to be his prime minister.
    (SFC, 5/18/07, p.A3)(Econ, 5/19/07, p.56)

2007        May 18, French President Nicolas Sarkozy named his first Cabinet, radically revamping the government, which included seven women among its 15 members. Bernard Kouchner, former UN administrator for Kosovo and co-founder of the Nobel Prize-winning aid group Doctors Without Borders, was named foreign minister.
    (AP, 5/18/07)

2007        May 27, Christian Mungiu, a Romanian director, won the Cannes Film Festival Palme d’Or for his “3 Weeks and 2 Days," which looked at abortion during the communist era. Michael Moore’s “Sicko," a film on the inequities of America’s health system, also featured at Cannes.
    (WSJ, 5/29/07, p.A1)(Econ, 5/26/07, p.32)

2007        Jun 1, A French naval frigate conducting a surveillance mission off Malta discovered the bodies of 18 people floating in the Mediterranean. Crew members on "La Motte Picquet" noticed no boat nearby as the bodies, possibly of illegal immigrants hoping to reach Europe, were pulled out of the water.
    (AP, 6/1/07)

2007        Jun 2, In San Francisco, Ca., Hugues de la Plaza (36), a French national, was found dead in his apartment in Hayes Valley. Police labeled his stabbing death as a possible homicide or suicide. In 2009 a French probe called his death a homicide. The French probe concluded that de la Plaza was stabbed in a surprise attack outside his apartment.
    (SFC, 1/27/09, p.B1)(SFC, 2/27/09, p.B1)

2007        Jun 3, Pope Benedict XVI named four new saints from France, Malta, the Netherlands and Poland at a ceremony in St. Peter's Square. Among those honored was Sister Marie Eugenie de Jesus Milleret, a French nun who in 1839 founded the Religious of the Assumption to educate young girls; the Rev. George Preca of Malta, who founded the Society of Christian Doctrine in 1932 as a group of lay people who teach the faith to others; the Rev. Szymon z Lipnicy of Poland, a Franciscan monk who comforted Poles afflicted by the plague that broke out in Krakow from 1482-83 and died of it himself; and the Rev. Charles of St. Andrew (Dublin), who was born Karel Van Sint Andries Houben in the Netherlands in 1821.
    (AP, 6/3/07)

2007        Jun 10, France held parliamentary elections. President Nicolas Sarkozy's plans to revive France's economy and its identity stood their first test, with voters widely expected to give allies of their new conservative leader a mandate for change. In round one of Sarkozy’s UMP party won 39.6 percent of the vote, while the opposition Socialists had 24.7 percent. The results gave the conservatives a strong advantage heading into the decisive runoff next Sunday.
    (AP, 6/10/07)(AP, 6/11/07)
2007        Jun 10, The first high-speed rail link between France and Germany began scheduled services, slashing travel times and marking a major step towards a truly pan-European rapid transit network.
    (AP, 6/10/07)

2007        Jun 12, Baron Guy de Rothschild (b.1909), French banker, died. He managed his family's French banking empire and saw it taken over first during the Nazi occupation and then by a Socialist government 40 years later.
    (AP, 6/14/07)

2007        Jun 14, A US panel said an obesity treatment made by French pharmaceutical giant Sanofi-Aventis was unsafe and should not be marketed in the United States.
    (AP, 6/14/07)

2007        Jun 15, Areva, a French nuclear energy group under the direction of Anne Lauvergeon, announced a cash offer for UraMin, a Canadian start-up firm with mining assets in Namibia, the Central African Republic, and South Africa. The acquisition cost $2.5 billion. In late 2011 Areva took a $2 million charge against the acquisition.
    (Econ, 2/18/12, p.67)(http://tinyurl.com/822j7j9)

2007        Jun 16, Voting began in some overseas French territories in the final round of parliamentary elections expected to give conservative President Nicolas Sarkozy a big majority for his reform plans.
    (AP, 6/16/07)

2007        Jun 17, President Nicolas Sarkozy looked set to win a powerful majority as the French voted in runoff elections for parliament. Sarkozy won a comfortable majority but not the crushing victory predicted in polls.
    (AP, 6/17/07)(AP, 6/18/07)

2007        Jun 18, In France Airbus racked up a series of big orders at the opening of the Paris Air Show. Airbus announced that it had booked firm orders or letters of intent to order for 339 aircraft, a record figure, for a value of 45.7 billion dollars (34.1 billion euros) at catalogue prices.
    (AP, 6/18/07)(AFP, 6/19/07)

2007        Jul 2, Brahim Deby (27), the son of Chad's president, was found dead with a head wound in the basement of his apartment building in a Paris suburb. Authorities treated the case as a murder investigation.
    (AP, 7/2/07)

2007        Jul 5, France’s Agriculture Ministry said 3 swans found dead in a pond in eastern France have tested positive for the H5N1 strain of bird flu.
    (AP, 7/5/07)
2007        Jul 5, Regine Crespin (80), the French opera great who took her personal magnetism and soprano voice to the world's leading stages, died.
    (AP, 7/5/07)

2007        Jul 6, In France some 50 masked attackers smashed cars and clashed with police in northeast Paris. Three officers were injured.
    (AP, 7/6/07)

2007        Jul 8, France’s President Nicolas Sarkozy said he will not offer mass pardons to prisoners on Bastille Day, keeping up his law-and-order reputation and breaking with tradition.
    (AP, 7/8/07)

2007        Jul 10, EU finance ministers agreed to have Dominique Strauss-Kahn at top man at the IMF to replace Rodrigo de Rato, who will resign in October.
    (Econ, 7/14/07, p.12)(www.msnbc.msn.com/id/19691259/)

2007        Jul 12, French legislators approved a measure championed by President Nicolas Sarkozy that would encourage people to work beyond the 35-hour workweek by cutting taxes on overtime pay.
    (AP, 7/12/07)
2007        Jul 12, France told Serbia its EU bid depends on letting Kosovo break away.
    (WSJ, 1/13/07, p.A1)

2007        Jul 13, French legislators approved a measure lowering the cap on tax burdens to 50% of income, despite resistance from leftists and even within the ruling conservative coalition.
    (AP, 7/13/07)
2007        Jul 13, A French gendarme shot a superior officer dead in a Paris suburb before killing his own twin children and finally turning the gun on himself.
    (AP, 7/13/07)

2007        Jul 14, In southern France Pascal Payet (43), who was serving a 30-year sentence for a holdup on an armored truck that left a guard dead, escaped by helicopter from the Grasse prison. Payet had escaped from the Luynes prison in October 2001. In 2003, he helped organize the helicopter escape of three fellow inmates from the same prison. In September Payet was arrested along with 2 accomplices in Mataro, Spain.
    (AP, 7/17/07)(AP, 9/22/07)

2007        Jul 15, JCDecaux launched a bike rental system in Paris.
    (Econ, 9/22/07, p.76)

2007        Jul 20, Two suspects in the 1994 Rwandan genocide, a priest and a prefect, were arrested in France on a warrant from an international court investigating the massacres. Wenceslas Munyeshyaka, a Roman Catholic priest in Normandy, and Laurent Bucyibaruta, a former prefect, were jailed before possible extradition to Tanzania where the UN International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda is based.
    (AP, 7/20/07)

2007        Jul 22, A bus carrying Polish pilgrims from a holy site in the French Alps plunged off a steep mountain road, crashed into a river bed and burst into flames, killing 26 people.
    (AFP, 7/22/07)

2007        Jul 25, French President Nicolas Sarkozy headed for talks with Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi, a day after the release of six foreign medics, in a signal of normalized ties between Europe and Tripoli. France and Libya signed a memorandum of understanding to build a Libyan nuclear reactor for water desalination and clinched a raft of other deals.
    (AP, 7/25/07)(AFP, 7/25/07)

2007        Jul 26, Juan Cruz Maiza, the alleged head of ETA’s logistics, was arrested in France along with two helpers.
    (Econ, 8/4/07, p.44)

2007        Jul 27, French judges filed preliminary charges against former PM Dominique de Villepin for his suspected role in a smear campaign that targeted Nicolas Sarkozy before he became president.
    (AP, 7/27/07)

2007        Jul 29, Alberto Contador of Spain won the doping-scarred Tour de France.
    (AP, 7/29/08)
2007        Jul 29, French actor Michel Serrault died in Honfleur, France, at age 79.
    (AP, 7/29/08)

2007        Aug 1, Denmark, France and Indonesia offered to contribute to a joint UN-African Union mission for Darfur, a 26,000-strong force expected to be made up mostly of peacekeepers from Africa with backup from Asian troops. Sudan accepted a UN resolution approving a joint African Union-UN peacekeeping force in Darfur.
    (AP, 8/1/07)(AFP, 8/1/07)
2007        Aug 1, A French court ruled that indictments for Wenceslas Munyeshyaka and another man, Laurent Bucyibaruta, violated the presumption of innocence. Rwanda had sought the extradition of the 2 men for their roles in the country's 1994 genocide.
    (Reuters, 8/2/07)

2007        Aug 5, A group of armed, masked men burst into a museum in the southern French city of Nice and made off with a painting by French master Claude Monet and two others by Flemish artist Pieter Brueghel. The paintings were recovered on June 4, 2008, in a sting operation that captured 3 men near Marseilles.
    (AP, 8/5/07)(AP, 6/5/08)(WSJ, 8/22/08, p.W1)
2007        Aug 5, French Cardinal Jean-Marie Lustiger (80) died. He was a Jew who converted to Catholicism and rose through church hierarchy to become one of the most influential Roman Catholic figures in France.
    (AP, 8/5/07)(Econ, 8/18/07, p.76)

2007        Aug 6, Baron Elie Robert de Rothschild (90), who helped France's renowned Rothschild winemaking and banking dynasty recover from the ravages of World War II, died while vacationing at his Austrian hunting lodge.
    (AP, 8/6/07)

2007        Aug 9, French bank BNP Paribas announced big losses on subprime mortgage investments. This marked the beginning of a global economic crisis.
    (Econ, 8/4/12, p.63)

2007        Aug 11, President George W. Bush welcomed France's Pres. Sarkozy to the Bush family's oceanfront home in Maine for a private meeting, boat ride and picnic fare.
    (www.cbc.ca/world/story/2007/08/11/bush-sarkozy.html)

2007        Aug 21, In Iraq French Foreign Minister Bernard Kouchner called on Europe to play a bigger role in Iraq because "the Americans will not be able to get this country out of difficulty alone." The postwar Iraqi tribunal trying former Saddam Hussein aides opened its third proceeding, putting former Defense Minister Ali Hassan al-Majid, known as "Chemical Ali," and 14 other men on trial.
    (AP, 8/21/07)(AP, 8/21/08)

2007        Aug 25, Raymond Barre (b.1924), a tough-speaking former French prime minister (1976-1981) and economist, died.
    (AP, 8/25/07)

2007        Aug 27, Pres. Sarkozy called for a clear timetable for the withdrawal of foreign troops from Iraq as he outlined an assertive role for France in other world hotspots. Sarkozy urged EU nations to accept a greater share of defense spending to cope with escalating global threats.
    (AFP, 8/27/07)(Reuters, 8/27/07)
2007        Aug 27, The French government said a tax official cheated the government out of 600,000 euros ($820,000) by creating a phantom identity as a university professor and claiming a salary for some 15 years.
    (Reuters, 8/28/07)
2007        Sep 20, Floyd Landis lost his expensive and explosive case when two of three arbitrators upheld the results of a test that showed the 2006 Tour de France champion had used synthetic testosterone to fuel his spectacular comeback victory. Landis forfeited his Tour title and was subject to a two-year ban, retroactive to Jan. 30, 2007.
    (AP, 9/20/08)

2007        Aug 29, Pierre Messmer (b.1916), a member of the French Resistance who was the country's prime minister from 1972 to 1974, died.
    (AP, 8/29/07)

2007        Aug 30, Pres. Sarkozy became the first ruling head of state to address the Medef, France’s leading business organization. He laid out the second stage of his economic reforms, including a wholesale review of tax and social security contributions.
    (Econ, 9/1/07, p.59)

2007        Sep 1, Police arrested four suspected members of the armed Basque separatist group ETA in south-west France, believed to be linked to the deadly Madrid airport bomb in December.
    (AP, 9/1/07)
2007        Sep 1, In Morocco Renault-Nissan head Carlos Ghosn signed a deal to build an assembly plant in Tangiers, with a planned investment of one billion euros (1.36 billion dollars) and final capacity of 400,000 vehicles.
    (AFP, 9/1/07)

2007        Sep 3, President Nicolas Sarkozy said France and Jordan want to work "hand-in-hand" to help resolve crises in the Middle East, following talks with King Abdullah II.
    (AP, 9/3/07)
2007        Sep 3, The French government tied up the long-delayed merger of Suez and state-owned Gaz de France, giving the country another world energy champion in a sector that Paris was eager to protect from foreigners.
    (AP, 9/3/07)

2007        Sep 4, A Eurostar train shattered the record for the quickest rail journey between Paris and London, using a new high-speed track that shaved some 30 minutes off the previous fastest time. The 306 mile (492 kilometer) journey from the Gare du Nord in Paris to Saint Pancras took just two hours, three minutes and 39 seconds from station to station.
    (AP, 9/4/07)

2007        Sep 14, Jacques Martin (b.1933), the French television personality once married to now-first lady Cecilia Sarkozy, died. Martin shot to fame as the host of a series of hit comedy shows on French television, including the satirical "Le Petit Rapporteur," a spoof newscast that ran from 1975-1976.
    (AP, 9/14/07)

2007        Sep 16, Bernard Kouchner, France's foreign minister, warned that the world should prepare for war if Iran obtains nuclear weapons and said European leaders were considering their own economic sanctions against the Islamic country.
    (AP, 9/16/07)

2007        Sep 17, Ukrainian officials signed a $505 million contract with a French-led consortium for construction of a new shelter for the Chernobyl reactor, the site of the word's worst nuclear accident.
    (AP, 9/17/07)

2007        Sep 20, In a nationally televised interview, Pres. Sarkozy went further, saying he wants France to adopt immigration quotas by regions of the world and by occupation. With three months left in the year, police have caught at least 11,800 immigrants, less than half the 25,000 target, ordered by Pres. Sarkozy, who has ordered officials to pick up the pace.
    (AP, 9/22/07)

2007        Sep 21, US Sec. of State Condoleeza Rice said the US and France have agreed on increasing diplomatic and economic pressure to force Iran to abandon its nuclear program.
    (SFC, 9/21/07, p.A3)

2007        Sep 22, Marcel Marceau (b.1923), the world's best-known mime artist, died in Paris, France. For decades he moved audiences across the globe without uttering a single word.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/7009040.stm)

2007        Sep 24, French PM Francois Fillon warned that the country's public finances were in a "critical" state and need drastic action to reduce worrying deficits.
    (AP, 9/24/07)

2007        Sep 26, The French government unveiled its 2008 budget with a deficit forecast at €41.7 billion ($58.8 billion).
    (Econ, 9/29/07, p.53)

2007        Sep 28, The IMF chose Dominique Strauss-Kahn, France’s former Socialist finance minister, as its new head, continuing the tradition of a European leading the organization.
    (WSJ, 9/29/07, p.A1)

2007        Oct 4, In northeast France dozens of hooded youths attacked two police vehicles with metal bars, set fire to more than a dozen parked cars and torched a community center in Saint-Dizier.
    (AP, 10/5/07)

2007        Oct 7, In Paris, France, intruders, apparently drunk, broke into the Orsay Museum through a back door and punched a hole in "Le Pont d'Argenteuil," a renowned work by Impressionist painter Claude Monet.
    (AP, 10/8/07)

2007        Oct 9, Two European scientists won the 2007 Nobel Prize in physics for a discovery that lets computers, iPods and other digital devices store reams of data on ever-shrinking hard disks. France's Albert Fert and German Peter Gruenberg independently described giant magnetoresistance in 1988, then saw the electronics industry apply it in disks with incredible amounts of storage.
    (AP, 10/9/07)

2007        Oct 13, Bob Denard (78), a French former mercenary who staged coups and led uprisings across Africa and the Middle East, died in Paris.
    (AFP, 10/14/07)(Econ, 10/20/07, p.119)

2007        Oct 18,     Strikers defying Pres. Nicolas Sarkozy's push to reform France crippled the country's public transport system, forcing commuters to drive, pedal or walk to work, or stay home. Some workers vowed to continue the walkout, France’s biggest strike in 12 years. Sarkozy's office said Pres. Sarkozy and his wife, Cecilia, are divorcing after nearly 11 years of marriage by mutual consent.
    (AP, 10/18/07)(WSJ, 10/19/07, p.A1)

2007        Oct 19,     Train service started back up throughout much of France but many commuters in Paris biked, roller-bladed and even used children's scooters as city transit workers kept up a second day of strikes against proposed economic reforms.
    (AP, 10/19/07)
2007         Oct 19, French media reported that Celine Lesage was arrested after her partner discovered the corpses of 6 infants in plastic garbage bags in the basement of their apartment building in Valognes.
    (AP, 3/15/10)(www.crimemagazine.com/07/murderousmothers,0919-7.htm)

2007        Oct 20,     France handed Algeria details of where its forces laid some 3 million landmines on the country's eastern and western borders from 1956-1959.
    (AFP, 10/20/07)

2007        Oct 22,     French President Nicolas Sarkozy met with Morocco's King Mohammed XVI and signed a string of deals aimed at fostering closer cooperation between the two countries and economic development projects.
    (AP, 10/22/07)

2007        Oct 23,     French lawmakers adopted a hotly contested bill that would institute language exams and potential DNA testing for prospective immigrants, making it more difficult for families to join loved ones in France.
    (AP, 10/23/07)

2007        Oct 24,     France's government agreed to reward drivers of cars that use little gasoline, drastically slow road construction and renovate all the country's public buildings to slash energy consumption.
    (AP, 10/24/07)
2007        Oct 24, A French defense ministry official said France will for the first time send dozens of military trainers to the volatile south of Afghanistan.
    (AP, 10/24/07)

2007        Oct 25, In Chad 9 French citizens were arrested after a group tried to fly 103 African children to France, saying it wanted to save them from the crisis in neighboring Darfur. On Oct 29 six French nationals were charged with kidnapping and a judge in the eastern city of Abeche also agreed to allow prosecution charges of complicity against three French journalists.
    (AP, 10/26/07)(AP, 10/30/07)

2007        Oct 27, Queues of frustrated, angry passengers built up at main French airports as Air France cancelled scores of flights on the third day of a strike by cabin staff.
    (AP, 10/27/07)

2007        Oct 28, Authorities in Chad charged six French charity workers with kidnapping after they tried to put 103 children on a plane to France, claiming they were orphans from Sudan's conflict-wracked Darfur region. The charity workers were later convicted, jailed for several months, then pardoned.
    (AP, 10/29/08)

2007        Oct 31,     Authorities said French police had arrested 20 suspects as part of a Europe-wide crackdown on child pornography over the Internet.
    (AP, 10/31/07)
2007        Oct 31, Alcatel-Lucent, the struggling French-US telecommunications equipment maker, announced it would cut an additional 4,000 jobs by 2009 as it unveiled a sharp third quarter net loss.
    (AP, 10/31/07)

2007        Nov 1, Dominique Strauss-Kahn, former French finance minister, took over as head of the IMF. By convention the IMF chief is European.
    (Econ, 11/3/07, p.88)

2007        Nov 4, In Chad 7 Europeans, among 17 detained for over a week in an alleged attempt to kidnap 103 African children, were released. French President Nicolas Sarkozy arrived in Chad on a visit to discuss the fate of Europeans facing charges for trying to fly 103 African children to Europe.
    (AP, 11/4/07)(Reuters, 11/4/07)

2007        Nov 7, Pres. Bush met with France’s Pres. Sarkozy, who addressed the US Congress and backed Bush’s strategy to confront Iran.
    (SFC, 11/8/07, p.A8)

2007        Nov 10, A top police officer said the Champs Elysees, held up by France as the most beautiful avenue in the world, has become blighted by prostitution, racketeering and violence.
    (AP, 11/10/07)

2007        Nov 11, In France Jessica Davies (28), the niece of multi-millionaire junior defense minister Quentin Davies, plunged a knife into Olivier Mugnier (24), a young Frenchman she picked up in an Irish bar. Mugnier died in her Paris suburb flat, an hour after police arrived. He had been stabbed twice in the upper chest. Her trial opened on Dec 11, 2010.
    (AFP, 1/11/10)

2007        Nov 13,  French rail workers went on a nine-day strike over President Nicolas Sarkozy's bid to strip away labor protections.
    (AP, 11/13/08)

2007        Nov 14, In France striking transportation workers cut train service and forced Parisians to walk, bike or skate to work in a pivotal standoff with President Nicolas Sarkozy over his bid to pare down labor protections.
    (AP, 11/14/07)
2007        Nov 14, A French court approved the handover to a UN court of Dominique Ntawukuriryayo (65), a Rwandan 1994 genocide suspect accused of coordinating the massacre of up to 25,000 people in one incident.
    (Reuters, 11/14/07)

2007        Nov 15, Transport workers shut down most rail traffic in France for a 2nd day, frustrating passengers forced to postpone trips and Parisians who had to walk, bike or skate to work.
    (AP, 11/15/07)

2007        Nov 16, French transport workers voted to keep a national strike going through the weekend over President Nicolas Sarkozy's plans to strip away generous pension benefits.
    (AP, 11/16/07)

2007        Nov 17, France's biggest rail union said a new offer of talks from employers did not go far enough, as the country headed towards a fifth day of crippling transport strikes.
    (AP, 11/17/07)

2007        Nov 19, In France a "large majority" of rail workers voted to keep up the train strike.
    (AP, 11/19/07)

2007        Nov 20, Travel woes piled up in France with air traffic delays adding to a week of rail strikes as many of the nation's 5 million civil servants held a day-long walkout in the biggest test of President Nicolas Sarkozy's appetite for reform.
    (AP, 11/20/07)

2007        Nov 21, A French judge filed preliminary charges against former President Jacques Chirac in a probe of suspicions that people were given fake jobs while he was mayor of Paris (1977-1995). Some 10,000 people, mainly tobacco sellers, marched through Paris to protest a smoking ban in cafes as of Jan 1. Coordinated acts of sabotage struck France's high-speed trains, causing further delays to services already widely disrupted by strikes, just as talks were opening to coax unions into ending their walkout.
    (AP, 11/21/07)(AP, 11/22/07)(Econ, 11/24/07, p.56)

2007        Nov 22, A nine-day transport strike that has crippled the French rail network appeared to be drawing to a close as many local union committees voted to suspend their stoppage and give negotiations a chance.
    (AP, 11/22/07)

2007        Nov 24, Full service was restored on the Paris Metro and most French trains were running after transport workers ended a crippling strike so that talks on pension reform could run their course.
    (AP, 11/24/07)

2007        Nov 25, In France youths assaulted a police station, torched cars and vandalized stores in a rampage that injured 21 police officers in Villiers-le-Bel, a rundown Paris suburb. The violence was prompted when two teens were killed in a motorbike crash with a police patrol car.
    (AP, 11/26/07)

2007        Nov 26, France netted deals in China for nuclear reactors and passenger jets worth a combined $29.62 billion on the second day of a state visit by President Nicolas Sarkozy.
    (AP, 11/26/07)

2007        Nov 27, Police said rampaging youths rioted for a second night in Paris' suburbs, firing at officers and ramming burning cars into buildings. At least 77 officers were injured.
    (AP, 11/27/07)
2007        Nov 27, French police detained a 68-year-old retired "drag queen" performer on suspicion of murdering 18 mainly gay men between 1980 and 2000.
    (AFP, 11/28/07)

2007        Nov 28, French President Nicolas Sarkozy pledged to punish rioters who shot at police but sought to ease tensions with an independent probe into the deaths of two youths that triggered the unrest.
    (AP, 11/28/07)

2007        Dec 1, ETA gunmen shot and killed a Spanish policeman and seriously injured another in France, the first killing by the Basque separatist group in almost a year.
    (AP, 12/1/07)

2007        Dec 4, France and Algeria agreed to cooperate on civilian nuclear technologies. French oil group Total said it had signed a deal to invest about 1.5 billion dollars in a new 3.0-billion-dollar (2.0 billion euros) petrochemical plant in Algeria.
    (AFP, 12/4/07)(AP, 12/4/07)

2007        Dec 5, French police arrested two armed people in connection with a weekend shooting that left two Spanish officers dead in what authorities described as the first Basque-related killings in France in more than three decades.
    (AP, 12/5/07)

2007        Dec 6, A French anti-terrorist judge filed preliminary charges against Guillaume Dasquie, an investigative journalist and author, accused of publishing defense secrets.
    (AP, 12/7/07)
2007        Dec 6, A parcel bomb exploded at a lawyer's office in central Paris, killing a secretary and seriously injuring an attorney, but a motive was not immediately clear.
    (AP, 12/6/07)

2007        Dec 7, Six French nationals detained in Chad on suspicion of trying to illegally fly 103 children to Europe started a hunger strike, complaining their case was being neglected.
    (Reuters, 12/8/07)

2007        Dec 10, Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi arrived on his first visit to France in 34 years, sparking protests from rights groups and criticism from the government's own human rights minister. Gadhafi got straight to business, cutting $14.7 billion in deals for arms and nuclear reactors on his first official visit to the West since renouncing terrorism and atomic weapons.
    (AFP, 12/10/07)(AP, 12/11/07)

2007        Dec 12, Ashraf Juma Hajuj, the Palestinian-born doctor held with five Bulgarian nurses in a Libyan prison for over eight years, filed suit in Paris against Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi for torture. The six medics, who always maintained their innocence, said they were subjected to torture, including beatings, electric shocks, food and sleep deprivation, and even sexual abuse, in order to confess to their alleged crime.
    (AFP, 12/13/07)

2007        Dec 22, Making the first-ever trip to Afghanistan by a French president, Nicolas Sarkozy met with Afghan President Hamid Karzai to discuss the political and military situation in the war-torn country.
    (AP, 12/22/07)
2007        Dec 22, French author Julien Gracq (97), one of the last links with the pre-World War II Surrealist movement, died.
    (AP, 12/23/07)

2007        Dec 24, Gunmen shot dead four French tourists in Mauritania in West Africa. Sidi Ould Sidna, was charged with planning and executing the killings of the French tourists. He was extradited by Guinea-Bissau in January but later escaped from authorities. 2 other suspected terrorists were arrested on April 30. In 2010 a court sentenced 3 young men to death for the murder of the French tourists. The men pleaded not guilty and said their confessions were extracted under torture.
    (AP, 12/24/07)(AP, 4/30/08)(SFC, 5/26/10, p.A2)

2007        Dec 26, A Chadian court convicted six French aid workers of trying to kidnap 103 African children and sentenced them to eight years of forced labor. The French Foreign Ministry in Paris said it would ask Chadian authorities to transfer the six convicted to France. The countries have a bilateral judicial agreement that could allow for such a transfer.
    (AP, 12/26/07)

2007        Dec 28, In Chad 6 French aid workers sentenced to eight years' forced labor for trying to kidnap 103 children left for France, boarding a plane in handcuffs as security officers looked on.
    (AP, 12/28/07)

2007        Dec 30, President Nicolas Sarkozy said France will have no more contact with Syria until Damascus shows its willingness to let Lebanon end its current crisis and appoint a new president.
    (AP, 12/30/07)

2007        The English translation of presidential candidate Nicolas Sarkozy’s “Testimony: France in the Twenty-First Century," became available. It had been published in France in 2006 as Temoignange." 
    (Econ, 3/3/07, p.86)
2007        Yasmina Reza authored “L’Aube le soir ou la nui" (Dawn evening or night), an account of her year shadowing Nicolas Sarkozy.
    (Econ, 9/1/07, p.73)
2007        Olivier Roy, a French scholar, authored “Secularism Confronts Islam."
    (Econ, 8/11/07, p.75)
2007        Bernard Arnault, chairman of luxury goods maker LVMH, and Colony Capital, an American private equity firm, jointly bought a 9.8% stake in France’s Carrefour, the world’s 2nd largest retailer.
    (Econ, 10/18/08, p.74)

2008        Jan 1, Vandals torched 372 cars as France celebrated the New Year, down on the figure last year after a night the police described as "relatively calm."
    (AP, 1/1/08)(Reuters, 1/1/08)
2008        Jan 1, Smokers took to lighting up on the sidewalks as a ban took effect across France , Germany and Lithuania, the latest European countries to say "no smoking." Across France smokers took advantage of a one-day grace period and savored their last cigarettes over morning coffee in cafes as a ban against lighting up in bars and restaurants took effect.
    (AP, 1/1/08)(AFP, 1/1/08)

2008        Jan 2, France's most drastic measure to curb smoking went into effect with a full ban on lighting up in cafes, restaurants and discotheques.
    (AP, 1/2/08)

2008        Jan 9, French legal plaintiffs said police have arrested Marcel Bivugabagabo (53), a former officer in the Rwandan army accused of taking part in the 1994 genocide. Bivugabagabo was commander of the Ruhengeri sector in western Rwanda from April to July 1994.
    (AFP, 1/9/08)

2008        Jan 11, Belgium, France and Poland pledged to provide the resources needed to launch a European Union peacekeeping force for Chad and the Central African Republic.
    (AP, 1/11/08)

2008        Jan 11, In France militant French farmer Jose Bove and about 15 supporters called off their hunger strike in its eighth day after the government ordered the suspension of the use of genetically modified corn.
    (AP, 1/11/08)

2008        Jan 13, French President Nicolas Sarkozy confirmed plans to sign a nuclear cooperation agreement with the United Arab Emirates amid reports French firms could construct up to two nuclear reactors there.
    (AP, 1/13/08)

2008        Jan 15, The French government announced during a visit by Pres. Sarkozy that it will set up a permanent military base of up to 500 troops in the United Arab Emirates.
    (AP, 1/15/08)

2008        Jan 22, The French government unveiled proposals to slash youth unemployment in the high-immigrant suburbs that exploded into rioting in 2005, pledging to create tens of thousands of new jobs.
    (AP, 1/22/08)

2008        Jan 23, In France an economic commission headed by Jacques Attali issued a report: 300 Decisions for Changing France," which had been requested by Pres. Sarkozy.
    (Econ, 1/26/08, p.51)

2008        Jan 24, French bank Societe Generale (SocGen) announced a $3 billion write-down on its exposure to mortgage related investments. Societe Generale also said it has uncovered a $7.14 billion fraud, one of history's biggest, by futures trader Jerome Kerviel (31). His scheme of fictitious transactions was discovered as stock markets began to stumble in recent days. In 2010 he authored “The Spiral: Memoirs of a Trader," in which he presented himself as the victim of an immoral financial system.
    (Econ, 1/26/08, p.73)(AP, 1/24/08)(Econ, 5/8/10, p.77)

2008        Jan 25, In France tens of thousands of civil servants demonstrated to protest job cuts and press for higher salaries in what the government dismissed as a "labor union ritual."
    (AP, 1/25/08)
2008        Jan 25, India and France said they would push their military ties beyond weapons sales and open up nuclear power cooperation as soon as New Delhi is able to enter the global atomic energy market.
    (AP, 1/25/08)

2008        Jan 27, France's Societe Generale said Jerome Kerviel, the young trader blamed for losses that cost the bank more than $7 billion, hacked computers and used "several techniques of fraud." Judicial officials said the man would remain in custody a further 24 hours. The bank said Kerviel had built up a position worth some $73.5 billion, which was eventually closed or hedged by Jan 23 with a loss of $7.21 billion.
    (AP, 1/27/08)

2008        Jan 28, A French court sentenced six French charity workers to 8 years in prison, after they were convicted in Chad of trying to kidnap 103 children they said were orphans from Darfur.
    (AP, 1/28/08)

2008        Jan 30, Thousands of striking taxi drivers drove at a snail's pace around France as part of a protest against government plans to open up their business to greater competition.
    (AP, 1/30/08)

2008        Jan, In France, investigating magistrates seized 23 notebooks of Yves Bertrand, former head of Renseignements Genereaux (RG), one of the country’s domestic intelligence services, as part of an inquiry into the “Clearstream Affair."
    (Econ, 11/1/08, p.60)

2008        Feb 1, Chad's army fought to drive off rebels who pushed to within 100 km (60 miles) of the capital N'Djamena and the clashes delayed the deployment of European peacekeepers. A French Defense Ministry official said France has sent about 150 supplementary troops to Chad as a "precautionary measure" in response to a rebel offensive.
    (AP, 2/1/08)

2008        Feb 2, French President Nicolas Sarkozy married former model Carla Bruni at the Elysee Palace.
    (AP, 2/2/08)

2008        Feb 6, In France 7 doctors and pharmacists went on trial for the deaths of more than 100 young people who died of a brain-destroying disease after being treated with tainted human growth hormones.
    (AP, 2/6/08)

2008        Feb 7, Chadian President Idriss Deby Itno issued a "solemn call" for a European peacekeeping force for Darfur refugees, to deploy as soon as possible. The president also said he was "ready to pardon" six French aid workers convicted in December of trying to kidnap more than 100 children they said were orphans from Darfur.
    (AP, 2/7/08)(AFP, 2/7/08)
2008        Feb 7, NATO defense ministers held talks on Afghanistan in Lithuania. France agreed to help Canada in fighting the Taliban in southern Afghanistan.
    (AP, 2/8/08)

2008        Feb 8, France’s President Nicolas Sarkozy pledged to send thousands of extra police and more than $700 million in aid to neglected, heavily immigrant neighborhoods that exploded in riots in 2005 and 2006.
    (AP, 2/8/08)

2008        Feb 9, The French government suspended the use of genetically modified corn crops in France while it awaits EU approval for a full ban.
    (AP, 2/9/08)

2008        Feb 12, President Nicolas Sarkozy said France is ready to transfer technology to Brazil so that an attack submarine, helicopters and the Rafale fighter plane can be built there.
    (AP, 2/12/08)

2008        Feb 18, More than 1,000 police raided housing projects outside Paris, detaining over 30 people in a bid to find rioters who led an outburst of violence last year.
    (AP, 2/18/08)
2008        Feb 18, Alain Robbe-Grillet (85), avant-garde French author, died. He dispensed with conventional storytelling as a pioneer of the postwar "new novel" movement.
    (AP, 2/18/08)

2008        Feb 27, French ambassador Bernard Bajolet said France has handed Algeria details of radioactive leaks from nuclear tests in the Algerian desert in the 1960s and should have acted earlier to clean up the damage.
    (Reuters, 2/27/08)

2008        Feb 28, French President Nicolas Sarkozy, following talks with South African President Thabo Mbeki in South Africa, announced a "renegotiation" of all French military accords with African nations, arguing that France no longer had a "policing" role to play on the continent. French power giant Alstom announced a 1.36 billion euro (two-billion-dollar) contract for the construction of a coal-fuelled power plant in South Africa which is suffering from a severe electricity shortage.
    (AFP, 2/28/08)
2008        Feb 28, In Paris the body of former top model Katoucha Niane (47) was found in the River Seine. The former model and speaker against female circumcision went missing in January. Her 2007 book, "Katoucha, In My Flesh," described her own experience with female circumcision at age 9.
    (AP, 2/29/08)(AP, 3/7/08)

2008        Feb 29, France and energy-hungry South Africa signed three economic accords, including one for the construction of a 1.36-billion euro coal-fuelled power plant by French energy giant Alstom.
    (AP, 2/29/08)

2008        Feb, Renault SA invested $1 billion for a 25% stake in Russian car maker OAO Avtovaz.
    (WSJ, 3/21/08, p.A1)(Econ, 6/7/08, p.74)

2008        Mar 4, France pinned the blame on Sudanese forces for a shooting near the border with Chad that left one French soldier wounded and another missing and asked Sudanese authorities for help in locating the missing soldier. Sgt. Gilles Pollin’s remains were formally identified Mar 7 and flown to Paris from Khartoum.
    (AP, 3/4/08)(AP, 3/7/08)

2008        Mar 9, French voters went to the polls for local elections predicted to deliver yet more bad news to Nicolas Sarkozy, whose popularity has plummeted since his triumphant presidential victory last year.
    (AP, 3/9/08)

2008        Mar 15, Alitalia, Italy’s state-owned national airline, accepted a takeover offer worth $217 made by air France-KLM, a French-Dutch airline group. The Italian government accepted the offer on March 17.
    (Econ, 3/22/08, p.73)

2008        Mar 16, In France the Socialists took an estimated 49% of the vote, against 47.5% for the Pres. Sarkozy’s UMP. Socialists now control 58% of towns with more than 30,000 inhabitants, after winning 40 from the right including several bastions.
    (AFP, 3/17/08)
2008        Mar 16, In France a pipe ruptured while a tanker was being loaded at a Total refinery. Some 3,000 barrels of fuel oil leaked in and along the Loire River.
    (AP, 3/18/08)

2008        Mar 19, Chantal Sebire (52), who suffered from a painful facial tumor and had drawn headlines across France with her quest for doctor-assisted suicide, was found dead. On Mar 17 a court in the city of Dijon rejected her request to be allowed to receive a lethal dose of barbiturates under a doctor's supervision.
    (AP, 3/20/08)

2008        Mar 21, President Nicolas Sarkozy announced a modest cut in France's nuclear arsenal, to less than 300 warheads, and urged China and the United States to commit to no more weapons tests.
    (AP, 3/21/08)

2008        Mar 26, French Pres. Nicolas Sarkozy vowed to open a new chapter in ties with Britain as he arrived for a state visit which he hopes will also help repair his image as a statesman.
    (AP, 3/26/08)

2008        Mar 27, Comorans staged angry anti-French protests as France decided whether to give ousted rebel leader Mohamed Bacar asylum after he fled to its Indian Ocean territory of Mayotte.
    (AP, 3/27/08)

2008        Mar 30, The Pritzker jury announced French architect jean Nouvel (62) as the winner of the 2008 Pritzker Prize.
    (WSJ, 3/31/08, p.A5)
2008        Mar 30, Pernod Ricard SA, a French spirits company, agreed to pay the Swedish government 5.28 billion euros for Vin & Sprit, the maker of Absolut, outbidding three competitors.
    (AP, 3/31/08)

2008        Mar 31, Chad's state radio announced that the president has pardoned six French aid workers convicted of kidnapping 103 children.
    (AP, 3/31/08)

2008        Apr 1, In France the stockmarket watchdog Autorite des Marches Financiers (AMF) filed a formal complaint against the European Aeronautic Defense and Space Company, the parent company of Airbus, and more than a dozen current and former executives. It confirmed evidence of massive insider trading in shares of EADS in late 2005 and early 2006 in the knowledge that the A380 airbus program was in deep trouble.
    (Econ, 6/21/08, p.80)(http://tinyurl.com/3kd8vh)

2008        Apr 2, France pledged to send up to 1,000 troops to Afghanistan in a move that will avert a Canadian threat to pull its contingent out of NATO's war in the violent south.
    (Reuters, 4/2/08)
2008        Apr 2, Chad's main rebel group urged former colonial ruler France to stop backing President Idriss Deby Itno and cease flying over rebel positions in the central African nation's restive east.
    (AP, 4/2/08)

2008        Apr 3, French protesters hurled bottles and stones at riot police who responded with tear gas during a march by high school students in Paris over teacher job cuts.
    (AP, 4/3/08)
2008        Apr 3, Alitalia edged closer to bankruptcy protection after Air France-KLM abruptly broke off talks to buy the struggling national airline and Alitalia's chairman of seven months resigned in frustration.
    (AP, 4/3/08)

2008        Apr 4, Pirate attackers off Somalia’s coast stormed the 288-foot Le Ponant as it returned without passengers from the Seychelles, in the Indian Ocean. French officials hoped to avoid using force to free the 30 crew members.
    (AP, 4/5/08)

2008        Apr 7, Security officials extinguished the Olympic torch three times as protests against China's human rights record turned a relay through Paris into a chaotic series of stops and starts. France's former sports minister, Jean-Francois Lamour, said that though the torch had been put out, the Olympic flame itself still burned in the lantern where it is kept overnight and on airplane flights.
    (AP, 4/7/08)

2008        Apr 9, In Peru 5 French tourists visiting the Nazca lines were killed when their small plane crashed after becoming tangled in power lines.
    (AP, 4/9/08)

2008        Apr 11, Foreign Minister Bernard Kouchner said France will boost its contribution to NATO forces fighting al Qaeda and the Taliban in Afghanistan to some 3,000 troops, around double the present level.
    (AP, 4/11/08)
2008        Apr 11, French officials said pirates have freed the 30 crew from Le Ponant, a French luxury sailing ship, which was seized off Somalia on April 4, and had been tailed by the French Navy. Helicopter-borne French troops seized 6 of the dozen hostage takers, after the hostages were freed, and recovered sacks of money, apparently ransom paid by the ship’s owners.
    (AFP, 4/11/08)(SFC, 4/12/08, p.A9)

2008        Apr 15, French high school students threw bottles and rocks on the fringes of a Paris demonstration that drew thousands of protesters to a march against a government plan to cut teaching jobs.
    (AP, 4/16/08)

2008        Apr 18, In Morocco French PM Francois Fillon announced the signing of economic tie-ups with Morocco, alongside the sale of a naval warship to aid defense coordination.
    (AP, 4/18/08)

2008        Apr 19, In France the charred body of Sussanna Zetterberg (19), a Swedish teenager, was discovered in woods outside Paris just hours after she left a nightclub. A postmortem showed she had been stabbed.
    (Reuters, 4/24/08)

2008        Apr 21, The Paris city council bestowed the title of "honorary citizen" on the Dalai Lama.
    (AP, 4/21/08)

2008        Apr 22,     Alitalia flew into the unknown after Air France-KLM withdrew its takeover offer, leaving Italy's long-struggling flagship airline with little choice but to contemplate bankruptcy or receivership. The outgoing center-left government allowed a loan of €300 million to Alitalia.
    (AP, 4/22/08)(Econ, 4/26/08, p.68)

2008        May 1, Rescuers found the bodies of five French ski mountaineers who had been missing since the day before when they were swept away by an avalanche during an excursion on Punta Basei, a 10,000-foot peak in Italy's northwestern Alps.
    (AP, 5/1/08)

2008        May 14, A French court handed down jail sentences to seven men convicted of running a network that recruited poor young Muslims in Paris to fight in the Iraqi insurgency.
    (AFP, 5/14/08)

2008        May 15, In France hundreds of thousands of teachers and other public sector workers went on strike to protest jobs cuts and other changes proposed by Pres. Sarkozy’s government.
    (WSJ, 5/16/08, p.A8)

2008        May 20, Xavier Lopez Pena (49), the suspected leader of the Basque separatist group ETA, was detained along with three other suspected ETA members in a sweep on an apartment in the French city of Bordeaux just before midnight.
    (AP, 5/21/08)

2008        May 21, Hundreds of French fishermen clashed with police in Paris and severely disrupted cross-Channel traffic as they stepped up a 10-day-old protest against soaring fuel costs.
    (AFP, 5/21/08)

2008        May 22, Tens of thousands of French workers took to the streets as unions mounted a one-day show of force against President Nicolas Sarkozy's government over pension reforms.
    (AP, 5/22/08)

2008        May 25, The French film “The Class" (Entre les Murs) won the Palm d’Or at the Cannes Film Festival. It was based on m a book by Francois Begaudeau. Matteo Garrone’s “Gomorrah," a study of the criminal underworld in Naples, won the grand prize. Paolo Sorrentino’s “Il Divo," a portrait of former Premier Giulio Andreotti, won the jury award.
    (SFC, 5/26/08, p.F5)(Econ, 5/31/08, p.89)

2008        May 29, In France Pres. Sarkozy’s government presented a draft bill that would effectively scrap the 35-hour workweek.
    (WSJ, 5/30/08, p.A9)

2008        May 30, Jordan and France signed an agreement to help the Arab kingdom develop its nuclear energy program.
    (AP, 5/30/08)

2008        Jun 1, Yves Saint Laurent (b.1936, one of the most influential and enduring designers of the 20th century, died in Paris.
    (AP, 6/2/08)

2008        Jun 2, In eastern France at least five people were killed when a train crashed into a bus carrying schoolchildren near Allinges.
    (AP, 6/2/08)

2008        Jun 3, In France a Paris court convicted Brigitte Bardot of provoking discrimination and racial hatred for writing that Muslims are destroying France. She was fined $23,325.
    (SFC, 6/4/08, p.A4)

2008        Jun 6, Dr. Paul Tessier (b.1917), pioneering French surgeon, died in Paris. He introduced innovative techniques in facial surgery.
    (WSJ, 6/28/08, p.A7)

2008        Jun 16, It was reported that France will slash 54,000 defense jobs and boost funding for space- and land-based military intelligence, according to a new strategy aimed at adapting the country's forces to evolving threats.
    (AP, 6/16/08)

2008        Jun 18, Classic French filmmaker Jean Delannoy (100), who adapted novels by Victor Hugo and Andre Gide and won the Cannes Film Festival's top prize in 1946, died.
    (AP, 6/19/08)

2008        Jun 19, In France a man suspected of stealing $15 million of historic treasures from churches was arrested. The 30-year-old suspect was taken into custody by police in Saint-Ouen, north of Paris, after he allegedly asked an antiques dealer to sell an object stolen from a church in Normandy.
    (AP, 6/19/08)

2008        Jun 20, A rocket carrying a US-French satellite for monitoring ocean surface height was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. The data will be used to monitor climate change effects on sea level.
    (SFC, 6/21/08, p.A3)

2008        Jun 21, Paris Mayor Bernard Delanoe blamed "organized gangs" for clashes overnight near the Eiffel Tower between police and high school students celebrating the end of their final exams. 29 people were arrested, and 22 kept in custody, after the unrest in the Champ de Mars park.
    (AFP, 6/21/08)
2008        Jun 21, Four French nationals, all Niger-based employees of the nuclear company Areva, were abducted by rebels from the Movement for Justice in a part of Niger known for its uranium mines. They were freed on June 25.
    (AP, 6/25/08)

2008        Jun 23, In Jerusalem French President Nicolas Sarkozy said there could be no Mideast peace unless Israel drops its refusal to cede sovereignty over parts of Jerusalem claimed by the Palestinians, challenging one of Israel's most emotionally held positions.
    (AP, 6/24/08)

2008        Jun 29, In France a shooting at a military show injured 17 people when real bullets were used instead of blanks. Gen. Bruno Cuche, the head of France's army, resigned following the shooting.
    (AP, 7/1/08)
2008        Jun 29, The bound and battered bodies of Laurent Bonomo and Gabriel Ferez, both 23, were found in a burning ground-floor bedsit (studio) in New Cross, southeast London. Bonomo was stabbed nearly 200 times while Ferez suffered around 50 wounds during a prolonged ordeal. The two scholars, both biochemists from a university in Clermont-Ferrand, central France, were on a short exchange program at London's Imperial College. On July 7 Nigel Edward Farmer (33) turned himself in at a London police station.
    (AFP, 7/3/08)(AP, 7/6/08)(AP, 7/10/08)

2008        Jun 30, A French court ordered online auctioneer eBay to pay nearly 40 million euros in damages to Louis Vuitton for selling fake luxury goods, in a ruling cheered as a victory for copyright protection.
    (AP, 6/30/08)
2008        Jun 30, Brahim Deby, the eldest son of Chad’s President Idriss Deby, was found dead in the basement of his apartment building in a Paris suburb. He was asphyxiated by chemicals from a fire extinguisher that lay near his body. In late November Romanian police arrested a French-Romanian national identified as Marius C. after on a warrant from France.
    (AP, 11/28/08)(www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L02560147.htm)

2008        Jul 1, France took over the rotating presidency of the European Union with high-level meetings and a ceremony at the Arc de Triomphe.
    (AP, 7/1/08)
2008        Jul 1, French officials said the asbestos-contaminated aircraft carrier Clemenceau, which was towed half-way across the globe in a failed bid to have it dismantled, will be broken up by Able UK in Britain. The ship was decommissioned in 1997.
    (AFP, 7/1/08)

2008        Jul 7, European Union nations gave their backing to a French-drafted pact calling for tightening immigration and asylum rules across the 27-nation bloc.
    (AP, 7/8/08)

2008        Jul 9, US electronic games publisher Activision under Bobby Kotick closed its merger with the gaming arm of Vivendi, a French media conglomerate, in a deal valued at $18.8 billion.
    (Econ, 8/15/09, p.60)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Activision_Blizzard)

2008        Jul 10, In France four people were found shot dead near the southwestern city of Toulouse. A fifth victim died later in hospital.
    (AFP, 7/11/08)

2008        Jul 12, French President Nicolas Sarkozy met his Egyptian counterpart Hosni Mubarak, kicking off a round of diplomacy with Middle East leaders ahead of an EU-Mediterranean summit. Sarkozy said that Syria and Lebanon will open embassies in each other's countries for the first time. Syria's leader cautioned there was still work to be done before that could happen.
    (AP, 7/12/08)(AP, 7/13/08)

2008        Jul 13, French President Nicolas Sarkozy urged the disparate and conflicted countries around the Mediterranean Sea to make peace as European rivals did in the 20th century as he launched an unprecedented Union for the Mediterranean. 43 nations, including Israel and Arab states, pledged to work for a Middle East free of weapons of mass destruction at the close of a summit to launch an unprecedented Union for the Mediterranean aimed at securing peace across the restive region.
    (AP, 7/13/08)(AP, 7/14/08)

2008        Jul 16, In France the first stone was laid at the Louvre's new Arts of Islam gallery, the first major modern architectural addition to the museum since its famed glass pyramid was built in the 1980s.
    (AP, 7/17/08)

2008        Jul 21, President Nicolas Sarkozy's risky bid to rewrite France's political rules with sweeping constitutional changes worked, but just barely, with both houses of parliament meeting in special session to pass the measures by a single vote. The reform gives parliament greater power but also adds a new privileges to France's already strong presidency, notably allowing the chief of state to address together the two houses of congress. However, it limits the president to two five-year terms.
    (AP, 7/21/08)

2008        Jul 23, France passed a new law to let companies negotiate longer working hours with union representatives, all but squelching the 35-hour week.
    (Econ, 7/26/08, p.61)

2008        Jul 24, French PM Francois Fillon said a 15% cut in military manpower and base closings will save billions of dollars. The military ranks will be cut by 54,000.
    (SFC, 7/25/08, p.A12)
2008        Jul 24, French giant automaker Renault said it will cut about 5,000 jobs in Europe among measures to reduce costs by 10 percent as it prepares for a sharp and possibly rocky downturn.
    (AFP, 7/24/08)

2008        Jul 25, The EU and South Africa began their first-ever summit in the French city of Bordeaux. Brussels solidly backed Pretoria's mediating role in Zimbabwe as the only way of ending ruinous political chaos.
    (AFP, 7/25/08)
2008        Jul 25, US presidential hopeful Barack Obama met with Pres. Sarkozy during a short stop in Paris.
    (SFC, 7/26/08, p.A3)

2008        Jul 28, Pierre Beres (b.1913), king of the French booksellers, died.
    (SFC, 8/4/08, p.B3)

2008        Aug 5, Rwanda formally accused senior French officials of involvement in its 1994 genocide.
    (Reuters, 8/5/08)

2008        Aug 6, France accused Rwanda of making "unacceptable accusations" by alleging Paris played an active role in the 1994 genocide, but said it was still determined to mend damaged ties with Kigali.
    (AP, 8/6/08)

2008        Aug 13, Henri Cartan (b.1904), French mathematician, died in Paris. In 1956 he and Samuel Eilenberg wrote a fundamental textbook on homological algebra.
    (SFC, 8/25/08, p.B3)

2008        Aug 18, In eastern Afghanistan a suicide car bomb blew up outside Camp Salerno, a US military base in Khost, killing 12 civilian laborers, as the country marked Independence Day. A mine blew up a police vehicle in the province of Nangarhar and killed two policemen. About 100 insurgents ambushed a group of French paratroopers, killing 10 soldiers in an area outside the capital known as a militant stronghold. An Afghan official said insurgents kidnapped four of the soldiers and later killed them. 13 militants were reported killed [see Oct 15, 2009].
    (AFP, 8/18/08)(AP, 8/19/08)(Econ, 8/34/08, p.34)

2008        Aug 19, Zambia's President Levy Mwanawasa (b.1948) died in France. He had been hospitalized at a French military hospital since suffering a stroke in June.
    (AP, 8/19/08)(SFC, 8/20/08, p.B4)

2008        Aug 23, The Tibetan spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama, left Paris on a flight bound for New Delhi after concluding a 12-day visit that fuelled tensions between Paris and Beijing.
    (AP, 8/23/08)

2008        Aug 24, A wall of snow in the Mont Blanc range of the French Alps buried 3 Swiss and 5 Austrian climbers.
    (AFP, 8/24/08)

2008        Aug 29, French neurosurgeons said they had successfully treated brain tumors through ultra-keyhole surgery, using a tiny fiber-optic laser to destroy cancerous cells.
    (AFP, 8/29/08)

2008        Sep 3, French President Nicolas Sarkozy encouraged Syria to pursue face-to-face peace talks with Israel during his first trip to the Arab nation, a visit also aimed at undercutting Iranian influence in Damascus.
    (AP, 9/4/08)

2008        Sep 8, French President Nicolas Sarkozy pressed Moscow to honor its pledge to withdraw troops from Georgia, while Russian soldiers prevented international aid convoys from visiting Georgian villages in a tense zone around the breakaway province of South Ossetia.
    (AP, 9/8/08)
2008        Sep 8, Legal sources said the Church of Scientology is to be tried for fraud, and seven of its members for illegally prescribing drugs, in the latest clash between French officials and the controversial religion.
    (AP, 9/8/08)

2008        Sep 9, The 27-member EU stopped short of offering Ukraine membership during an EU-Ukraine summit hosted by French President Nicolas Sarkozy. But the two sides began work on an "association accord," a step that offers closer political and economic ties and in the past has been designed to prepare nations for eventual membership.
    (AP, 9/10/08)

2008        Sep 11, A Paris court convicted Didier Bourguet, a former UN employee, for the rape of young Africans during his postings in Central African Republic and Congo. Bourguet was sentenced to nine years in prison for having committed about 20 rapes of teenage girls between 1998 and 2004 during his postings as a mechanic for the UN.
    (AP, 9/11/08)
2008        Sep 11, Israeli divers found a red suitcase containing a small skull, bones and clothes, which police said may belong to Rose Pizem, a 4-year-old French girl missing since May, whose grandfather is jailed in the slaying.
    (AP, 9/11/08)

2008        Sep 12, British and French firefighters extinguished a 1,000-degree inferno in the Channel Tunnel but tens of thousands of travelers faced more delay as they waited for the undersea link to reopen.
    (AP, 9/12/08)
2008        Sep 12, Pope Benedict XVI urged France to take Christianity into account despite its secular tradition, saying on his first visit there as pontiff that church and state should be open to each other.
    (AP, 9/12/08)

2008        Sep 14, France's ecology minister said the government is considering a "picnic tax" on disposable dishes to encourage people to use reusable plates and cups instead.
    (AP, 9/14/08)

2008        Sep 16, French troops stormed a yacht hijacked by Somali pirates, killing one, capturing six others and freeing their two French hostages, who had been held since Sep 2.
    (AP, 9/16/08)

2008        Sep 18, The Bank of China announced that it would take a 20% stake in the French arm of LCF Rothschild, its first investment in a euro-zone bank.
    (Econ, 9/27/08, p.77)

2008        Sep 20, It was reported that Muslims in France, about 8% of the population, were estimated to make up over half the prison population.
    (Econ, 9/20/08, p.69)

2008        Sep 24, French power provider EDF said it has agreed to acquire British Energy Group PLC for about $23.2 billion in cash in a deal that would create a powerhouse in nuclear energy.
    (AP, 9/24/08)

2008        Sep 30, A French court ended a long legal battle between Bernard Tapie (b.1943) and the Crédit Lyonnais bank. Crédit Lyonnais had allegedly defrauded Tapie in 1993 and 1994 when it sold Adidas on his behalf to Robert Louis-Dreyfus, apparently by arranging a larger sale with Dreyfus without Tapie's knowledge. The court awarded 405 million euros to Tapie. This decision was partially overturned on 9 October 2006 by the Court of Cassation. In 2011 a French court ordered an investigation into IMF chief Christine Lagarde, France’s finance minister at the time of the settlement.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernard_Tapie)(SFC, 8/5/11, p.A2)

2008        Oct 4, The leaders of Britain, France, Germany and Italy began meeting in Paris at a summit on the world financial crisis threatening banks, growth and jobs across the continent. They vowed to do all they could to prevent Wall Street's turmoil from destabilizing their banking systems. Germany's No. 2 commercial property lender, Hypo Real Estate Holding AG, said its $48 billion rescue plan had unraveled when private banks pulled out.
    (AP, 10/5/08)

2008        Oct 6, Three European scientists shared the 2008 Nobel Prize in medicine for separate discoveries of viruses that cause AIDS and cervical cancer, breakthroughs that helped doctors fight the deadly diseases. French researchers Francoise Barre-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier were cited for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV; while Germany's Harald zur Hausen was honored for finding human papilloma viruses that cause cervical cancer,
    (AP, 10/6/08)
2008        Oct 6, In France Jean-Christophe Mitterrand, the son of a late French president, an Israeli-Russian billionaire and 40 other people charged with trafficking arms to war-riven Angola or taking kickbacks faced judges in a long-awaited trial in Paris. Prosecutors alleged that French businessman Pierre Falcone and Arkady Gaydamak, an Israeli tycoon based in France at the time, organized the sale of Russian arms to Angola from 1993-2000, for a total of US$791 million, in breach of French government rules. In 2009 Falcone and Gaydamak were sentenced to 6 years in prison.
    (AP, 10/6/08)(Econ, 10/31/09, p.62)
2008        Oct 6, In France traders at Groupe Caisse d’Epargne bank, founded in 1818, began trading in equity derivatives hoping the market would rise. The irregular trades were unwound at a loss of some $808 million.
    (WSJ, 10/18/08, p.B1)

2008        Oct 9, The Swedish Academy announced French novelist Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clezio (b.1940)) as the 2008 Nobel Prize in literature for his poetic adventure and "sensual ecstasy." Le Clezio made his breakthrough as a novelist with "Desert," in 1980.
    (AP, 10/9/08)
2008        Oct 9, Ethiopia signed a 220-million-euro (300 million dollar) deal with a French company for the construction of Africa's largest wind farm.
    (AP, 10/10/08)

2008        Oct 13, Guillaume Depardieu (37), French film star, died of pneumonia. The often-troubled son of renowned French film star Gerard Depardieu had gained praise for his own career as an actor. In 2003 he Depardieu had his right leg amputated to end years of pain from a bacterial infection that followed a motorcycle accident in 1996.
    (AP, 10/14/08)

2008        Oct 17, Some 30 leaders of French-speaking nations attended a 3-day summit of French-speaking nations in Quebec City, Canada. The focus was dominated by the world's financial woes.
    (AFP, 10/17/08)

2008        Oct 19, The French Cabinet's spokesman said "swindlers" last month broke into the personal bank account of President Nicolas Sarkozy and swiped small sums of money. More than 30,000 demonstrators marched across Paris to denounce the conservative government's budget restrictions, job cuts and other controversial reforms in the public education system. On Oct 21 police arrested two men suspected of stealing the bank details of several people without realizing the identity of their victims. They are believed to have used small sums to pay mobile telephone bills.
    (AP, 10/19/08)(AP, 10/21/08)

2008        Oct 20, The French government allocated €10.5 billion among six of its banks.
    (Econ, 10/25/08, p.89)
2008        Oct 20, Sister Emmanuelle (b.1908), a Belgian-born nun who devoted her life to helping the poor in North Africa and in France, died in France. Madeleine Cinquin had spent 20 years working with children in a slum in Cairo as part of a lengthy career helping the dispossessed.
    (AFP, 10/20/08)

2008        Oct 21, French President Nicolas Sarkozy backed the creation of sovereign wealth funds in Europe that, when coordinated, could provide an "industrial response" to the financial crisis.
    (AFP, 10/21/08)

2008        Oct 23, France’s Pres. Sarkozy unveiled a strategic national investment fund that will buy stakes in French industries with borrowed money to protect them from foreign predators.
    (Econ, 11/1/08, p.62)
2008        Oct 23, A Paris criminal court convicted nine people including a French-Algerian former prison inmate who admitted establishing an Islamic group that called for armed jihad in France.
    (AP, 10/24/08)
2008        Oct 23, The French Navy captured nine pirates near the Gulf of Aden finding anti-tank missiles, other weapons and ship boarding gear on the boats. A Somali pirate warned that if a hijacked Ukrainian arms ship was attacked the ship's 20-man crew would be killed.
    (AP, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 23, An Italian military helicopter crashed in northeastern France, killing all eight people on board.
    (AP, 10/23/08)

2008        Oct 31, Heavily-armed pirates swarmed aboard an oil industry support vessel working off the coast of Cameroon and kidnapped 10 of 15 crew members, including six Frenchmen. A man claiming to represent a rebel group opposed to Cameroon's takeover of the Bakassi Peninsula warned the hostages would be killed unless Cameroonian officials agreed to reopen the issue.
    (AFP, 10/31/08)

2008        Nov 2, The Moroccan government banned an issue of the French magazine L'Express International, claiming it insults Islam in articles exploring the relationship between that religion and Christianity.
    (AP, 11/3/08)

2008        Nov 3, In Afghanistan gunmen abducted Dany Egreteau (32), a French aid worker in Kabul, and shot dead an Afghan man who tried to rescue him. The Taliban said it was not involved. Afghan and coalition troops seized 40 tons of hashish during a raid in Nawa Kili village in southern Kandahar province.
    (AFP, 11/3/08)(AP, 11/3/08)

2008        Nov 5, In Somalia 6 employees of the French aid group Action Against Hunger were kidnapped in the town of Dhusamareb. They included four non-Somali workers and two chauffeurs.
    (AP, 11/5/08)

2008        Nov 9, Rose Kabuye, Rwanda Pres. Kagame's chief of protocol, was arrested at Frankfurt airport on an international warrant issued in 2006 by French anti-terrorism judge Jean-Louis Bruguiere.
    (AFP, 11/10/08)

2008        Nov 10, Afghan writer Atiq Rahimi won France's top book prize, the Goncourt, for a novel penned in French, "Syngue Sabour", or Stone of Patience.
    (AFP, 11/10/08)

2008        Nov 11, French police arrested 10 people, described as anarchists, suspected for the recent sabotaging of high-speed trains. In 5 instances since late October iron rods were jammed into power cables in order to hold up trains.
    (WSJ, 11/12/08, p.A12)

2008        Nov 14, Nearly half of Air France's flights were grounded by a pilots' strike expected to last through the weekend.
    (AP, 11/14/08)

2008        Nov 17, French police arrested ETA's alleged military chief, the most wanted Basque separatist still at large and a man Spanish officials branded a "bloodthirsty terrorist." Miguel De Garikoitz Aspiazu Rubina (35), alias "Txeroki", was captured in Cauterets, a spa and ski resort in the Pyrenees near the border with Spain's autonomous Basque region. On Nov 24 Spain indicted Aspiazu and four other men over the car bombing at a Madrid airport parking garage on Dec. 30, 2006.
    (AFP, 11/17/08)(AP, 11/24/08)

2008        Nov 19, Germany extradited to France Rose Kabuye (47), chief of protocol to Rwandan President Paul Kagame, over an assassination triggering the 1994 genocide, amid mass anti-European protests in Kigali. Some European investigators feared that Kabuye deliberately delivered herself to German authorities so her lawyers could gain access to the case files prepared against her and other Kagame allies.
    (AFP, 11/19/08)

2008        Nov 20, The 2008 edition of Beaujolais Nouveau wine arrived, and vintners hoped it will lift spirits despite the financial crisis and a dismal crop.
    (AP, 11/20/08)

2008        Nov 22, The French Socialist Party said that Martine Aubry, the architect of France's 35-hour work week, has won the party's leadership in an extremely tight race, an outcome quickly challenged by partisans of rival Segolene Royal.
    (AP, 11/22/08)
2008        Nov 22, In Afghanistan a French trooper was killed and another wounded when a mine engulfed them about 10 kilometers (six miles) south of Kabul. A bomb exploded in a vegetable market in the eastern town of Khost, killing a 15-year-old boy and a man passing-by. Another bomb blew up a police vehicle in the central province of Ghazni and killed three policemen and wounded two. The bullet-riddled body of Ghais Haqmal, the  governor of Marawara district, was found in Kunar province. He had been abducted by Taliban three months ago and the militants had demanded the release of 50 of their jailed comrades in exchange for his life. The US-led military announced that troops had killed 14 insurgents in operations in the southern provinces of Helmand and Farah in the past two days. Afghan and coalition forces killed 17 insurgents in air strikes in the southern province of Kandahar. The government of the central province of Ghazni said its forces had thwarted a Taliban attack on the Ab Band district administration center killing eight gunmen.
    (AFP, 11/22/08)(AFP, 11/23/08)

2008        Nov 27, An Airbus A320 passenger plane crashed off France's southern coast during a maintenance flight, killing 3 people and leaving the 4 others on board missing.
    (AP, 11/28/08)(AP, 12/1/08)

2008        Nov 29, In Qatar French President Nicolas Sarkozy told Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir to take action to end the conflict in Darfur.
    (AFP, 11/29/08)

2008        Dec 4, In France armed robbers, some disguised as women, snatched €85 million ($108 million) worth of diamond rings, necklaces and luxury watches from a Harry Winston boutique on a posh Paris avenue in one of the largest jewel heists in history. In June, 2009, French police arrested 25 suspects in connection with the robbery and recovered some of the jewelry. In 2011 investigators found jewels valued at $25 million in a plastic container set in a cement mold inside a sewer at a home in the Paris suburb of Seine-St. Denis. The house belonged to one of the 9 people charged in the heist. On Feb 27, 2015, eight were convicted on charges including armed robbery over the heist and another a year earlier at the same store.
    (AP, 12/5/08)(SFC, 6/23/09, p.A2)(SFC, 3/10/11, p.A4)(AP, 2/28/15)

2008        Dec 7, China protested strongly to France over President Nicolas Sarkozy's meeting with the Dalai Lama, calling it a "rude intervention" into Chinese affairs.
    (AP, 12/7/08)
2008        Dec 7, Francois-Xavier Lalanne (81), French sculptor, died at his home in Ury. For 40 years he and his wife worked in tandem, producing some works jointly, others independently.
    (www.nytimes.com/2008/12/14/arts/design/14lalanne.html)

2008        Dec 8, British and French leaders met with European business executives to discuss plans for major government spending on infrastructure and energy projects aimed at helping Europe to beat the downturn.
    (AP, 12/8/08)
2008        Dec 8, French police arrested the suspected military chief and "No. 1 member" of ETA, a new blow to the banned Basque militant group just weeks after his alleged predecessor was caught.
    (AP, 12/9/08)

2008        Dec 9, In Paris, France, entrepreneur Sir Richard Branson, Jordan's Queen Noor and other dignitaries launched an ambitious project aimed at eliminating the world's nuclear weapons over the next 25 years.
    (AP, 12/9/08)

2008        Dec 11, As Greece suffered through its sixth day of violence, there were troubling signs of unrest spreading across Europe. Angry youths smashed shop windows, attacked banks and hurled bottles at police in small but violent protests in Spain and Denmark, while cars were set alight outside a consulate in France.
    (AP, 12/11/08)

2008        Dec 16, French police found explosives hidden in a Paris department store after a tip-off from a group demanding the withdrawal of French troops from Afghanistan.
    (Reuters, 12/16/08)
2008        Dec 16, French competition watchdogs slapped a record fine of 575 million euros (785 million dollars) on global steel giant ArcelorMittal and another 10 steel firms found guilty of price-fixing.
    (AFP, 12/16/08)

2008        Dec 19, France’s finance ministry unveiled a package of financial aid from the EU and others totaling $10.7 billion to help Latvia.
    (WSJ, 12/20/08, p.A8)

2008        Dec 23, Brazil and France signed an arms deal that could lead to Latin America's first nuclear submarine.
    (AP, 12/23/08)

2008        Dec 29, Ted Lapidus (b.1929), French fashion designer who redefined chic with the 1960s unisex look, died. Lapidus created his label in 1951, and in 1963 became a member of the prestigious Paris fashion club that runs haute-couture, La Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture.
    (AP, 12/30/08)

2008        France’s banking supervisor fined Societe Generale (SocGen) €4m for its laxity in the case of futures trader Jerome Kerviel.
    (Econ, 5/24/14, p.68)

2009        Jan 1, Somali pirates seized the Blue Star, an Egyptian cargo ship, and its 28 crewmembers. A Malaysian military helicopter saved an Indian tanker from being hijacked in the new year's first attacks by pirates in the dangerous Gulf of Aden. A crew of the French warship "PM L'Her" dispatch boat intercepted two speedboats carrying 8 Somali pirates as they were preparing to board a Panamanian cargo ship. The Blue Star and its crew of 28 were freed on March 5 after a ransom was dropped from a plane.
    (AP, 1/1/09)(AP, 1/2/09)(AP, 3/5/09)

2009        Jan 4, A French warship foiled attempts by Somali pirates in the Gulf of Aden to seize two cargo vessels and intercepted 19 people.
    (AFP, 1/5/09)
2009        Jan 4, Gunmen hijacked a vessel and 9 crewmen belonging to French oil services group Bourbon off Nigeria's Niger Delta as it traveled toward a Royal Dutch Shell offshore oilfield. The 9 crewmen: five Nigerians, two Ghanaians, one Cameroonian and one Indonesian aboard. were released on Dec 7.
    (Reuters, 1/4/09)(AP, 1/6/09)(AP, 1/7/09)

2009        Jan 6, Signs mounted that the conflict in Gaza is starting to spill over into violence in Europe's towns and cities, with assaults against Jews and arson attacks on Jewish congregations in France, Sweden and Britain.
    (AP, 1/6/09)

2009        Jan 10, Two British climbers, including the youngest Briton to conquer Everest, fell hundreds of meters to their deaths on Mont Blanc in the French Alps.
    (AFP, 1/11/09)

2009        Jan 12, French teachers hurled shoes and other objects at police to protest President Nicolas Sarkozy's high school reforms, prompting police to respond with tear gas.
    (AP, 1/12/09)
2009        Jan 12, Alitalia's board accepted Air France-KLM's offer to buy 25 percent of the company and become its international partner.
    (AP, 1/12/09)

2009        Jan 14, A French court acquitted six doctors and pharmacists in the deaths of at least 114 people who contracted a brain-destroying disease after being treated with tainted human growth hormones.
    (AP, 1/14/09)

2009        Jan 15, A Luxembourg court ordered Swiss bank UBS AG to pay French financial company Oddo & Cie euro30 million ($40 million) it had invested in a fund linked to the alleged fraud perpetrated by US financier Bernard Madoff.
    (AP, 1/15/09)

2009        Jan 16, Frenchman Lluis Colet broke the world record for the longest speech after rambling nonstop for 124 hours about Spanish painter Salvador Dali, Catalan culture and other topics.
    (AFP, 1/17/09)

2009        Jan 17, A helicopter carrying 10 French soldiers crashed off the coast of Gabon in central Africa. At least 2 survived and 2 were killed as rescuers searched for 6 missing.
    (AP, 1/17/09)

2009        Jan 24, A storm killed 11 people in Spain, including four children who were killed when a sports center collapsed near Barcelona, and four in France as high winds swept across Spain and southern France.
    (AP, 1/24/09)(AP, 1/25/09)

2009        Jan 27, In Mexico thieves, apparently targeting people who exchange money at Mexico City's international airport, shot a French citizen in the head. Authorities warned that gangs have put lookouts at exchange windows in the terminal. Mexico City prosecutors soon detained two suspects in the shooting. French scientist Christopher Augur died at a Mexico City hospital four days after his assault.
    (AP, 1/27/09)(AP, 1/30/09)(AP, 1/31/09)

2009        Jan 28, French PM Francois Fillon said 1,000 French 1,650 soldiers would be pulled out from the EUFOR mission to protect refugees in Chad. He also says France's 1,800-strong contingent in Ivory Coast will be reduced by half.
    (AP, 1/28/09)

2009        Jan 29, In France hundreds of thousands of workers staged a nationwide strike to try to force President Nicolas Sarkozy and business leaders to do more to protect jobs and wages during the economic crisis.
    (Reuters, 1/29/09)

2009        Feb 4, French-US telecom equipment group Alcatel-Lucent said its net loss widened 48.5 percent to 5.215 billion euros (6.5 billion dollars) in 2008, blaming asset write-downs in a crumbling world economy.
    (AFP, 2/4/09)
2009        Feb 4, French group Areva signed a draft accord for the sale of two to six nuclear reactors to India, a huge new market now open with the end of a nuclear trade embargo on New Delhi.
    (AFP, 2/4/09)

2009        Feb 9, The French government said it would give $8.4 million in low interest loans to Renault SA and PSA Peugeot-Citroen in exchange for pledges that the car makers won’t close any factories of lay off workers in France for the duration of the funding.
    (WSJ, 2/10/09, p.B2)

2009        Feb 10, President Nicolas Sarkozy made the first-ever visit by a French head of state to Iraq, seeking to reassert French influence in the country even as the US prepares to draw down its forces.
    (AP, 2/10/09)

2009        Feb 15, French specialists unveiled a new weapon against cancer, a molecular "decoy" that mimics DNA damage and prompts cancerous cells to kill themselves.
    (AFP, 2/16/09)

2009        Feb 16, France's top judicial body recognized the French government's responsibility for the deportation of Jews during World War II, the clearest such recognition of the state's role in the Holocaust.
    (AP, 2/16/09)
2009        Feb 16, Authorities acknowledged that nuclear-armed submarines from Britain and France collided in the Atlantic Ocean earlier this month, touching off new concerns about the safety of the world's deep sea missile fleets. The HMS Vanguard, the oldest vessel in Britain's nuclear-armed submarine fleet, and the French Le Triomphant submarine, which was also carrying nuclear missiles, both suffered minor damage in the collision.
    (AP, 2/16/09)
2009        Feb 16, On the French island of Guadeloupe police detained about 50 people after coming under a barrage of stones as they tried to take down barricades. On Martinique as many as 10,000 demonstrators marched through the narrow streets of the capital to protest spiraling food prices and denounce the business elite.
    (AP, 2/16/09)

2009        Feb 17, France's lower house of parliament unanimously passed a law granting government payments to those who take time off work to care for dying relatives in their last weeks of life.
    (AP, 2/17/09)

2009        Feb 18, In Guadeloupe rioters manning barricades fatally shot Jacques Bino, tax agent and union member, in a housing project in Pointe-a-Pitre, as he returned home from protests. This was the first death in unrest that has convulsed France's Caribbean islands for weeks.
    (AP, 2/18/09)

2009        Feb 19, France bowed to demands for wage increases in Guadeloupe in the hope of ending a month-long strike that has plunged the French Caribbean island into rioting.
    (AP, 2/19/09)

2009        Feb 22, In Egypt a group of French teenagers on a school trip was hit hard by a bombing at a landmark Cairo bazaar, which killed a 17-year-old girl on the tour and wounded more than a dozen other students. Egyptian police soon arrested three suspects.
    (AP, 2/23/09)

2009        Feb 23, Finance Minister Christine Lagarde said the French government is to provide 2.5-5.0 billion euros in loans to support the merger of banks Caisse d'Epargne and Banque Populaire.
    (AP, 2/23/09)

2009        Feb 24, France’s Pres. Sarkozy and Italy’s Premier Berlusconi signed a deal pairing utilities from each nation to study the feasibility of building nuclear power plants in Italy.
    (WSJ, 2/25/09, p.A11)
2009        Feb 24, A Paris appeals court overturned five men's terror convictions, ruling that French intelligence officials improperly questioned them while they were detained at the US prison in Guantanamo Bay. Lawyers for the men: Brahim Yadel, Khaled ben Mustafa, Nizar Sassi, Mourad Benchellali and Ridouane Khalid, hailed the decision. During their 2007 Paris trial, the five acknowledged having spent time in military training camps in Afghanistan but they said they had never put their combat skills to use.
    (AP, 2/24/09)

2009        Feb 25, In Paris an auction of art works owned by the late fashion designer Yves Saint Laurent concluded with dazzling sales of nearly $500 million. Two rare bronze sculptures that disappeared from China nearly 150 years ago and demanded back by Beijing, sold for millions. The Chinese businessman, who bid $15.1 million, later refused payment.
    (AP, 2/26/09)(Econ, 3/7/09, p.92)
2009        Feb 25, In Martinique vandals burned cars and looted stores overnight, as violence spread to a second French Caribbean island in protests over high prices, low pay and alleged neglect by officials in Paris.
    (AP, 2/25/09)

2009        Feb 27, The French film industry awarded the best film Cesar to Martin Provost's "Seraphine." Yolande Moreau, who plays Seraphine, won in the 34th annual Cesar awards best actress category for her portrayal of the dimwitted maid whose talents as a painter were discovered by a German art collector on the eve of World War I. The Cesar for best actor went to Vincent Cassel in "Mesrine," a story based on the real life of a gangster.
    (AP, 2/2709)

2009        Mar 4, Channel tunnel operator Eurotunnel said it will pay its first ever dividend after making a net profit of 40 million euros in 2008 despite fire damage of 200 million euros (250 million dollars).
    (AP, 3/4/09)

2009        Mar 7, In France a commuter train slammed into a group of football fans who were walking on railway tracks in a Paris suburb, killing two youths and injuring 11 people.
    (AFP, 3/8/09)

2009        Mar 9, French lawmakers passed an amendment to ban the sale of alcohol to teens under 18, part of an effort to tackle the rise of binge drinking in a country known for a relaxed attitude toward a little libation.
    (AP, 3/10/09)

2009        Mar 11, French Pres. Sarkozy announced that France will return as full-fledged member of the 26-naqtion NATO alliance.
    (SFC, 3/12/09, p.A2)

2009        Mar 16, Bernard d’Espagnat (87), French physicist and philosopher, was named in Paris as the winner of this year’s $1.42 million Templeton Prize.
    (SFC, 3/17/09, p.A2)

2009        Mar 17, French President Nicolas Sarkozy's government won a parliamentary confidence vote prompted by his plans to rejoin NATO's military command, which many legislators fear would compromise France's independence.
    (AP, 3/17/09)

2009        Mar 19, In France hundreds of thousands of people began protests expected to draw at least a million demonstrators to the streets to denounce President Nicolas Sarkozy's handling of the economic crisis.
    (Reuters, 3/19/09)

2009        Mar 20, In France several teenagers were taken into custody after 11 adults were injured in a pellet gun shooting near a nursery school in Lyon.
    (AP, 3/20/09)
2009        Mar 20, Iranian engineer Majid Kakavand (37) was taken into custody in Paris as he arrived in Paris from Moscow as part of a European tour with his wife. He was arrested at the airport under a US warrant suspected of evading export controls to buy US technology for Iran's military. He was held in La Sante prison until Aug. 26, then released on condition he stay in Paris. He faced a Feb. 17 Paris hearing on whether to be extradited to the United States.
    (AP, 1/22/10)

2009        Mar 24, The French government offered for the first time to compensate victims of nuclear tests in Algeria and the South Pacific, bowing to decades of pressure by people sickened by radiation.
    (AP, 3/24/09)
2009        Mar 24, Striking French workers for US manufacturer 3M held their boss hostage amid labor talks at a plant south of Paris, as anger over layoffs and cutbacks mounted around the country. Manager Luc Rousselet was released after being held for 2 days.
    (AP, 3/26/09)

2009        Mar 26, French President Nicolas Sarkozy visited Brazzaville and Kinshasa. During the Kinshasa trip, given over in large part to regional political issues, Areva signed an agreement with the government allowing the company to prospect for and mine uranium.
    (AP, 3/27/09)
2009        Mar 26, An official said France will limit or ban bonuses and stock options for executives at companies bailed out with taxpayer money, as the government scrambled to calm public outrage at what some see as the greed that caused the global financial crisis.
    (AP, 3/26/09)

2009        Mar 27, French President Nicolas Sarkozy wrapped up his mini-tour of three African countries, after meeting with Niger leader Mamadou Tandja. This followed visits to Kinshasa and Brazzaville.
    (AFP, 3/27/09)

2009        Mar 29, The mostly Muslim Indian Ocean island of Mayotte overwhelmingly voted to integrate fully with France, a move that will bring financial benefits to residents but also outlaw practices like polygamy and early marriages.
    (AP, 3/29/09)
2009        Mar 29, Maurice Jarre (b.1924), Oscar-winning French composer, died in LA. His film scores included “Lawrence of Arabia" and “Doctor Zhivago."
    (Econ, 4/18/09, p.92)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurice_Jarre)

2009        Mar 30, The French government banned companies that get state funding from issuing stock options to top managers and limited some other forms of compensation in an effort to quell public anger over executive pay.
    (WSJ, 3/31/09, p.B1)

2009        Mar 31, Angry French workers facing layoffs at a Caterpillar factory briefly detained four of their bosses at the US manufacturer's plant in the Alps to protest job cuts.
    (AP, 3/31/09)

2009        Apr 3, In France US Pres. Obama won enthusiastic support for his new Afghan war strategy from French Pres. Nicolas Sarkozy, who pledged more police trainers and civilian aid.
    (AP, 4/3/09)
2009        Apr 3, NATO began its 2-day 60th anniversary summit in France and Germany.
    (AP, 4/3/09)

2009        Apr 4, France and Germany fully endorsed President Barack Obama's new Afghan war strategy but firmly resisted sending more combat troops in a rift that overshadowed symbols of unity at NATO 60th-anniversary summit. NATO's European leaders pledged a significant increase in troops for the US-led war in Afghanistan at their summit, but the alliance seemed sure to arouse hostility in the Muslim world by choosing the controversial Danish PM Anders Fogh Rasmussen as the alliance's new secretary general. All 28 NATO leaders unanimously approved Rasmussen as the new civilian leader of the alliance. Black-clad protesters attacked police and set a hotel and a customs station ablaze near a bridge linking France and Germany that served hours earlier as the backdrop for a show of unity by NATO leaders.
    (AP, 4/4/09)
2009        Apr 4, In Sudan armed men in the Darfur kidnapped two aid workers Claire Dubois of France and Canadian Stephanie Jodoin, of Aid Medicale International (AMI). They were seized from their compound in the south Darfur settlement of Ed el Fursan. Both women were released on April 29.
    (AFP, 4/5/09)(Reuters, 4/12/09)(AP, 4/30/09)

2009        Apr 8, In France workers at a British-owned adhesives factory held three British executives and a local manager captive over plans to close the site down. Scapa, which announced in February it would close its plant in Bellegarde, said it was forced to cut back after the market for car industry adhesives collapsed by 50 percent in 2008. The managers were released after being held overnight.
    (AP, 4/8/09)(SFC, 4/9/09, p.A2)

2009        Apr 9, French lawmakers rejected a tough new Internet piracy bill that would cut off illegal downloaders, in a surprise setback for President Nicolas Sarkozy's government.
    (AP, 4/9/09)

2009        Apr 10, In France Ekaitz Sirvent Auzmendi (29), suspected of being a master forger for ETA, was captured by French and Spanish police as he got off a bullet train that had arrived from Bordeaux at the French capital's Montparnasse station.
    (AP, 4/11/09)
2009        Apr 10, France's navy freed a sailboat seized off Somalia last week by pirates, but one of the hostages was killed. Pirates had seized the sailboat carrying Florent Lemacon, his wife, 3-year-old son and two friends off the Somali coast a week ago. Two pirates were killed, and Lemacon died in an exchange of fire as he tried to duck down the hatch.
    (AP, 4/11/09)

2009        Apr 13, In France a 65-year-old man opened fire on three people apparently at random, killing two. The man, who had holed up in a house in the town of Douchy-les-Mines surrendered after the shootings.
    (AP, 4/14/09)

2009        Apr 14, France's government launched a campaign against forced marriages and genital mutilation, seeking to protect women from practices that quietly thrive in immigrant communities the nation is struggling to integrate.
    (AP, 4/14/09)
2009        Apr 14, French author Maurice Druon (b.1918), a fighter for France's World War II Resistance movement and writer of one of its anthems, died. After the conflict he wrote historical novels including the "Rois Maudits" (Accursed Kings) series.
    (AP, 4/15/09)

2009        Apr 15, A blockade by French fishermen angry at EU quotas cut ferry links with Britain for a second day as a union official threatened to block the Channel Tunnel in support of the movement.
    (AFP, 4/15/09)
2009        Apr 15, French forces detained 11 pirates during an assault on a pirate "mother ship" and thwarted a pirate attack on a Liberian-registered vessel.
    (AP, 4/15/09)

2009        Apr 16, French fishermen allowed traffic to resume to three English Channel ports after receiving a government promise of euro4 million ($5.27 million) in aid, but they vowed to keep up their fight against European fishing quotas.
    (AP, 4/16/09)

2009        Apr 18, French and Spanish security forces thwarted a new ETA attack with the arrest of Jurdan Martitegi, the military chief of the Basque separatist group, and seven other suspected members.
    (AFP, 4/19/09)(Econ, 4/25/09, p.56)
2009        Apr 18, Jon Anza Ortunez (47), a member of the armed Basque group ETA, was last seen. ETA blamed Spanish police for a role in his disappearance — a claim Spain denied. ETA said Anza had been transporting a large sum of money between the French cities of Bayonne, which is not far from the border with Spain, and Toulouse for the group when he vanished. In 2010 his body turned up in a morgue in France. French officials told Anza's family that he had fallen ill on a street on April 29 and was taken to a hospital in Toulouse, where he died May 11. At the time, no one was reportedly able to identify him.
    (AP, 3/12/10)

2009        Apr 20, In southeast France workers at a French subsidiary of the American company Molex detained two bosses to protest plans to close the plant.
    (AP, 4/21/09)

2009        Apr 21, French police detained around 200 undocumented migrants in a major operation in the Channel port of Calais.
    (AP, 4/21/09)

2009        Apr 22, In northern France  an auto parts factory was closed after employees angry over job losses ransacked offices and prompted new concern about increasingly violent French worker protests.
    (AP, 4/22/09)

2009        Apr 28, In California a charter bus carrying French tourists overturned near Soledad killing at least 5 people.
    (SFC, 4/29/09, p.B1)

2009        May 1, May Day protesters clashed with riot police in Germany, Turkey and Greece, while thousands angry at the government's responses to the global financial crisis took to the streets in France. Riot police battled 700 stone-throwing left-wing militants in Berlin for more than five hours in May Day clashes that stretched into early pre-dawn hours.
    (Reuters, 5/1/09)(AP, 5/2/09)

2009        May 3, A French naval vessel intercepted 11 suspected pirates traveling off the Somali coast in two assault vessels and a so-called "mothership" loaded with Kalashnikovs and rocket launchers.
    (AP, 5/3/09)

2009        May 12, Italian anti-terrorism investigators said two French citizens behind bars since last year on suspicion of smuggling migrants were al-Qaida propaganda point men in Europe and were heard talking in jail about a possible attack on a Paris airport. Bassam Ayachi (62) and Raphael Frederic Gendron (33) were served warrants in jail accusing them of criminal association for international terrorism. The men have been held in Bari since November when they were arrested on suspicion of smuggling two Syrians and three Palestinians into Italy.
    (AP, 5/12/09)

2009        May 14, A French rocket carrying the largest space telescope ever was launched into space on a mission that European scientists hope will help unravel the mystery of the universe's creation. The Ariane-5 rocket was loaded with the Herschel space telescope and the Planck spacecraft, carrying a payload of 5.3 tons (4.81 metric tons) when it launched from the city of Kourou near the jungles of French Guiana.
    (AP, 5/15/09)

2009        May 15, Lakhdar Boumediene (43), a Guantanamo Bay prisoner who was at the center of a Supreme Court battle over inmates' rights, arrived in France, which agreed to take in the Algerian in a gesture to the Obama administration.
    (AP, 5/15/09)

2009        May 20, British actress Lucy Gordon (28), an up-and-coming talent who played a role in Spider-Man 3 and will soon appear as Jane Birkin in a Serge Gainsbourg biopic, killed herself in Paris.
    (AFP, 5/21/09)

2009        May 24, At the Cannes Film Festival the film “The White Ribbon" by Austrian director Michael Haneke won the top prize. Christolph Waltz won the best actor prize for his role in Quentin Tarantino’s “Inglorious Bastards." Charlotte Gainsbourg won the best actress prize for her role in Lars von Trier’s “antichrist."
    (SFC, 5/25/09, p.E4)

2009        May 25, In Paris the Church of Scientology and six of its French leaders went on trial on charges of organized fraud that could lead to an outright ban on the organization in France.
    (AFP, 5/25/09)

2009        May 26, French President Nicolas Sarkozy opened his nation's first military base in the Gulf outside Abu Dhabi, boosting the naval presence along strategic oil routes and in pirate-infested waters off the Somali coast.
    (AP, 5/26/09)
2009        May 26, In Paris the body of Polish-born French woman Kinga Legg (36) was found at the exclusive Hotel Bristol. Police sought her English boyfriend Ian Griffin (39).
    (AFP, 5/30/09)

2009        May 30, In Paris a man, wearing a suit and a hat, walked into the Chopard jewelry boutique on the chic Place Vendome. He threatened employees with a gun and, minutes later, walked calmly out of the store with loot worth up to euro6.5 million. A suspect (52) was detained in the Belgian port city of Antwerp in mid-July at the request of French justice authorities. He was extradited to France several weeks later and put in custody here.
    (AP, 8/10/09)

2009        May, In France fashion house of Christian Lacroix filed for bankruptcy. It had been founded inside LVMH, a luxury goods group in 1987 and lost money every year since then.
    (Econ, 7/11/09, p.66)

2009        Jun 1, France implemented its revenue de solidarite active (RSA), a welfare payment introduced by anti-poverty campaigner Martin Hirsch.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revenu_de_solidarit%C3%A9_active)
2009        Jun 1, A missing Air France Airbus A330 jet, Flight 447, carrying 228 people from Rio de Janeiro to Paris ran into lightning and strong thunderstorms over the Atlantic Ocean. Brazil soon began a search mission off its northeastern coast.
    (AP, 6/1/09)

2009        Jun 2, An airplane seat, a life jacket, metallic debris and signs of fuel were found in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean by Brazilian military pilots searching for a missing Air France airliner Flight 447.
    (AP, 6/2/09)

2009        Jun 6, President Barack Obama at Omaha Beach, France, paid tribute to the Allies'  1944 D-Day landings, an invasion that turned the tide of World War II and cemented the trans-Atlantic alliance.
    (AP, 6/6/09)
2009        Jun 6, Jean Dausset (1916), French immunologist, died. The 1980 Nobel prize-winner was a pioneer behind organ transplants and the mapping of the human genome. Dausset's discovery in 1958 of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) tissue system allowed doctors to verify compatibility between donor and receiver for an organ transplant.
    (AP, 6/24/09)
2009        Jun 6, Brazilian search crews retrieved the first 2 bodies in the Atlantic from the May 31 crash of  Air France Flight 447. Investigators said faulty speed readings had been found on the same type of jets.
    (Reuters, 6/6/09)

2009        Jun 7, Brazilian and French ships recovered 14 more bodies from ocean near Air France crash, bringing the total to 16.
    (AP, 6/7/09)(SFC, 6/8/09, p.A3)

2009        Jun 8, Brazilian and French ships recovered 8 more bodies from Air France Flight 447, bringing the total recovered to 24. The tail section of the plane was also recovered. The plane disappeared during a flight from Rio de Janeiro to Paris on May 31 amid strong thunderstorms.
    (AP, 6/9/09)(SFC, 6/9/09, p.A3)

2009        Jun 9, In France Veronique Courjault (41), went on trial after admitting killing two baby boys born secretly in Seoul in 2002 and 2003, and a third child born in France in 1999. On June 18 she was convicted and sentenced to 8 years in prison.
    (AFP, 6/9/09)(SFC, 6/19/09, p.A2)

2009        Jun 10, The French nuclear submarine Emeraude reached the crash zone of Air France Flight 447 where 41 of 228 bodies have been recovered.
    (AP, 6/10/09)

2009        Jun 12, A Brazilian ship recovered three more bodies from the Atlantic bringing the total to 44. Searchers said weather and currents complicated their job and warned it is unlikely that all the dead from Air France Flight 447 will be found.
    (AP, 6/12/09)

2009        Jun 13, Brazil reported that a French ship had found six more bodies from Air France Flight 447, which would bring the total to 50. It went down May 31 with 228 on board.
    (AP, 6/13/09)

2009        Jun 19, Isamu Akasaki (80), a professor at Nagoya University in central Japan, was among the winners of this year's Kyoto Prizes. He will receive the advanced technology award for his pioneering work in the development of blue light-emitting diodes, or LEDs. Peter (72) and Rosemary Grant (72), a husband-and-wife team of biologists from Princeton University, won for their decades of research on evolution in the Galapagos Islands and will share an award of $515,000. This year's award in arts and philosophy went to French composer and conductor Pierre Boulez (84).
    (AP, 6/19/09)

2009        Jun 22, French President Nicolas Sarkozy declared that the Islamic burqa is not welcome in France, branding the face-covering, body-length gown as a symbol of subservience that suppresses women's identities.
    (AP, 6/22/09)

2009        Jun 23, The French parliament created a commission to study the wearing of body-covering burqas and niqabs in France, a day after President Nicolas Sarkozy said the Islamic garment turns women into prisoners.
    (AP, 6/23/09)
2009        Jun 23, Frederic Mitterrand (b.1947) was appointed to the French government as the Minister of Culture and Communications.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fr%C3%A9d%C3%A9ric_Mitterrand)

2009        Jun 26, French President Nicolas Sarkozy said that Martinique is free to hold a referendum on greater political autonomy but made clear the island would always belong to France.
    (AP, 6/26/09)

2009        Jun 30, A Yemenia Airbus 310 jet with 153 people on board crashed into the Indian Ocean as it tried to land during strong winds on the island nation of Comoros. The passengers were on the last leg of a journey from Paris and Marseilles to Comoros with a stop in Yemen to change planes. Bahia Bakari (14), the only person to survive, was plucked from the sea after clinging to wreckage for 13 hours. Investigators on Aug 28 retrieved the slightly damaged flight data recorder and 10 more bodies from the Yemenia Airways flight. The voice recorder was recovered on Aug 29. On Nov 15, 2013, France charged Yemenia Airways with manslaughter over the crash.
    (AP, 6/30/09)(SFC, 7/2/09, p.A3)(AP, 8/29/09)(AFP, 1/29/14)
2009        Jun 30, Shi Pei Pu (b.1938), a Chinese operatic soprano, died in Paris. His affair with French lover Bernard Boursicot (b.1945), inspired the 1988 play and 1993 film “M. Butterfly." Both were arrested for espionage in 1983 and convicted in 1986. Shi was pardoned in 1987.
    (SFC, 7/4/09, p.B3)

2009        Jul 1, In Iran Clotilde Reiss (24), a French academic, was among the hundreds of people detained following the disputed presidential elections. She was released on bail after a month and a half and later convicted of provoking unrest and spying. In May, 2010, she was released after paying a $300,000 fine.
    (AP, 5/15/10)(AP, 5/16/10)

2009        Jul 4, A joint French-Spanish operation captured 3 suspected members of ETA in the French city of Pau.
    (SFC, 7/6/09, p.A2)

2009        Jul 8, In France some 60 youths rioted outside Saint-Etienne after hearing that man had tried to hang himself in jail. Mohamed Benmouna (21) died soon after at a hospital.
    (SFC, 7/9/09, p.A2)

2009        Jul 14, In Somalia two French officials working as security advisers to the Somali government were kidnapped in Mogadishu. Agent Marc Aubriere managed to escape on August 26. Secret-agent Alexx Denis remained captive.
    (Reuters, 7/14/09)(AP, 8/26/09)(SFC, 8/27/09, p.A2)(Econ, 8/13/11, p.45)

2009        Jul 16, In Marseilles, France, a worker was killed immediately when the roof of a stage being built for a Madonna concert fell apart on top of several workers. Madonna canceled her scheduled July 19  performance. A 2nd worker died the next day.
    (AP, 7/17/09)

2009        Jul 21, French factory workers angry over layoffs and cost cuts locked up their bosses at a Michelin tire plant and a US-owned cigarette-paper mill. The managers were released the next morning after regional officials offered to mediate.
    (AP, 7/22/09)

2009        Jul 24, In Europe deadly summer wild fires spread across Spain, France, Italy and Greece with holidaymakers rescued from beaches and thousands of firefighters brought into the battle.
    (AFP, 7/24/09)

2009        Jul 27, A Congo government spokesman said The Democratic Republic of Congo has suspended transmission of French broadcaster Radio France International (RFI).
    (Reuters, 7/27/09)

2009        Aug 1, In Afghanistan 3 US troops were killed by improvised explosives in Kandahar province and a French soldier was killed in an insurgent attack in Kapisa province. Two more ISAF troops were killed when two bomb blasts struck their patrol in the south. A dozen rebels were killed in a gunfight with police in the southwestern province of Nimroz. 4 Afghan soldiers were killed when their vehicle struck a roadside bomb planted by "terrorists" in southern Helmand province. 3 policemen including a senior officer were killed when their vehicle struck a roadside bomb in the northern province of Baghlan.
    (AFP, 8/1/09)(AFP, 8/2/09)

2009        Aug 8, In Mauritania a suicide bomber killed himself outside the French Embassy, wounding two embassy guards and a woman in the street. An African branch of Al-Qaida later said the attack was a response to the aggression of "crusaders" including former colonial ruler France, and to Mauritanian leaders against Islam and Muslims.
    (AP, 8/8/09)(AP, 8/18/09)

2009        Aug 9, The French advertising group Publicis said it would buy the digital advertising agency Razorfish from Microsoft for 530 million dollars (380 million euros).
    (AFP, 8/9/09)

2009        Aug 11, In France restive youths in a Paris suburb torched a tourist bus and nearly a half-dozen cars and hurled objects at police, in a night of fullblown unrest prompted by the death of a teen fleeing police on Aug 9. Some witnesses claimed a police car hit the young motorcyclist after he tried to flee a document check outside the project.
    (AP, 8/11/09)

2009        Aug 12, A French teenager (16) shot and killed his parents and twin brothers, apparently while they were asleep in their home on the island of Corsica.
    (AFP, 8/13/09)
2009        Aug 12, In France a 35-year-old convert to Islam, identified only as Carole, complained of religious discrimination after trying to go swimming in a "burquini," a full-body swimsuit, in the town of Emerainville, southeast of Paris. Officials insisted they banned the woman's use of the Islam-friendly suit at a local pool because of France's pool hygiene standards.
    (AP, 8/13/09)

2009        Aug 19, French police with Spanish help detained three suspected members of Basque separatist group ETA in a French Alps ski resort and seized material for making explosives, after a series of bombings claimed by the group on the Spanish island of Mallorca.
    (AP, 8/19/09)

2009        Aug 20, A French government-sponsored report was released saying that decomposing algae covering some beaches in Brittany represent a serious health risk and gases that can kill within minutes were detected on a beach where a horse died last month.
    (AP, 8/20/09)

2009        Sep 1, Malaysian police arrested Alain Robert (47), a French climber nicknamed "Spiderman," after he scaled the iconic 88-story Petronas Twin Towers.
    (AP, 9/1/09)

2009        Sep 8, Deutsche Telekom AG and France Telecom SA said they intend to combine their British mobile phone units, shaking up the country's intensely competitive market and forming the country's biggest mobile operator. Analysts said Nokia Siemens Networks, the key equipment vendor to British operations of Deutsche Telekom and France Telecom, had most to lose in the merger.
    (AP, 9/8/09)(Reuters, 9/8/09)

2009        Sep 10, A new book, whose title translates as "Hold-Ups, Swindles and Treasons," by French journalists Antonin Andre and Karim Rissouli, hit French stores alleging that a vote last year to elect the leader of France's Socialist Party was rigged, sparking further disarray among the once-mighty champions of the left.
    (AP, 9/10/09)

2009        Sep 12, Willy Ronis (99), the last of the great French photographers, died. Lovers, nudes and scenes from Paris streets were the mainstay of Ronis' photographs in an award-winning career that began in the 1930s.
    (AP, 9/12/09)

2009        Sep 14, France Telecom SA summoned all 20,000 of its managers to a conference call in an effort to respond to a string of 23 employee suicides that unions blame partly on layoffs and restructuring at the telecommunications giant.
    (AP, 9/14/09)
2009        Sep 14, In Somalia foreign troops firing from helicopters killed at least two people in a car and then took two others captive in a town controlled by Islamic insurgents. One witness said the helicopters took off from a warship flying a French flag, but that could not be confirmed.
    (AP, 9/14/09)

2009        Sep 15, The Frankfurt auto show opened. The French company Renault unveiled a lineup that includes a purely electric sedan, without a backup internal combustion engine. Renault says the vehicle will be in showrooms by 2011.
    (www.nytimes.com/2009/09/14/automobiles/14electric.html)(Econ, 10/17/09, p.74)

2009        Sep 17, In Brussels French Pres. Sarkozy said EU leaders have agreed to impose a cap on bankers’ pay.
    (SFC, 9/18/09, p.A2)
2009        Sep 17, Serbian men brutally attacked Brice Taton (28), a French soccer fan, in front of a downtown cafe in the Serbian capital before Partizan Belgrade's Europa Cup match against Toulouse. On Jan 25 a Belgrade court convicted 14 Serbs of the fatal beating of Taton. Two of the convicted remain at large and were tried in absentia.
    (AP, 1/25/11)

2009        Sep 18, Angry French farmers dumped millions of liters of fresh milk next to next the famed Mont Saint-Michel, one of France's most famous tourist sites, to denounce the slumping cost of milk and an EU plan to end production quotas, which could further drive prices down.
    (AP, 9/18/09)

2009        Sep 22, French police cleared out, then bulldozed, a squalid forest camp near the northern city of Calais, detaining hundreds of illegal immigrants who had hoped to slip across the English Channel into Britain.
    (AP, 9/22/09)
2009        Sep 22, A sharply divided EU failed to protect the threatened bluefin tuna, as the bloc's Mediterranean nations refused to back even a temporary a ban on catching the fish prized by sushi aficionados. Greece, Cyprus, Malta, Spain, France and Italy, with strong fishermen's lobbies at home, insisted on continuing the hunt despite the precarious state of the species. Conservation groups had earlier criticized the EU for not pushing to list the bluefin tuna under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species.
    (AP, 9/22/09)

2009        Sep 24, Two French military fighter Rafale jets crashed into the Mediterranean Sea during a training mission and one pilot was missing.
    (AP, 9/24/09)

2009        Oct 1, Benjamin Chocat (20), from Choisy-Le-Roi south of Paris, and his mother Christiane Chocat (51), a councilor in Lumigny-Nesles-Ormeaux southeast of Paris, helped to smuggle at least 13 men and 3 women in a hire van on a ferry from Cherbourg in France to Portsmouth. The Vietnamese immigrants were hidden behind boxes of shrimp noodles.
    (AP, 1/4/10)

2009        Oct 2, In France Armenia's President Serge Sarkisian started his tour of Armenian communities worldwide amid violent protests from members of a diaspora angry over plans to establish ties with Turkey.
    (AP, 10/2/09)

2009        Oct 6, In Kazakhstan French President Nicolas Sarkozy scored a diplomatic coup during a visit, overseeing an agreement to allow military hardware for French forces fighting in Afghanistan to pass through Kazakh territory and clinching a raft of lucrative energy deals.
    (AP, 10/6/09)

2009        Oct 7, Egypt's antiquities department severed its ties with France's Louvre museum because it has refused to return what are described as stolen artifacts,
    (AP, 10/7/09)
2009        Oct 7, Somali pirates in two skiffs fired on a French navy vessel after apparently mistaking it for a commercial boat. The French ship gave chase and captured five suspected pirates.
    (AP, 10/7/09)

2009        Oct 8, French police arrested Adlene Hicheur, a nuclear physicist in Vienne, on suspicion that he had links to terrorist organizations in Algeria. The man had been working on analysis projects with the LHCb experiment at CERN since 2003.
    (AP, 10/9/09)(AFP, 3/29/12)
2009        Oct 8, French utility group GDF Suez said it had signed a contract worth 3.0 billion dollars (2.0 billion euros) to supply electricity to subsidiaries of the Chilean electricity company EMEL.
    (AP, 10/8/09)

2009        Oct 9, France's culture minister agreed to return painted wall fragments to Egypt after a row over their ownership prompted the country to cut ties with the Louvre Museum.
    (AP, 10/9/09)

2009        Oct 10, The French military fired on pirates in the Indian Ocean to protect two tuna fishing vessels.
    (Reuters, 10/10/09)

2009        Oct 11, Pope Benedict XVI canonized five new saints, including Father Damien, a 19th-century priest who worked with leprosy patients on a Hawaiian island; Zygmunt Szcezesny Felinski, a 19th-century Polish bishop who defended the Catholic faith during the years of the Russian annexation; Spaniards Francisco Coll y Guitart, who founded an order of Dominicans in the 19th century, and Rafael Arniaz Baron, who renounced an affluent lifestyle at age 22 to live a humble life in a strict monastery and dedicate himself to prayer; and Jeanne Jugan (d.1879), a French nun, who helped found the Little Sisters of the Poor.
    (AP, 10/11/09)

2009        Oct 13, French soldiers in the Indian Ocean opened fire on pirates, warding off an attack on two French tuna fishing vessels off the Seychelles Islands.
    (AP, 10/13/09)

2009        Oct 15, A French court turned down a bid by Fabienne Justel, a 39-year-old widow, to retrieve her late husband's frozen sperm in order to have his child by insemination in another country. A French law prohibited post-mortem insemination.
    (AFP, 10/15/09)
2009        Oct 15, Italy and NATO denied a newspaper report that the Italian intelligence secretly paid the Taliban thousands of dollars to maintain peace in an area in Afghanistan that was under Italian control. The Times of London had just reported that Italy had paid "tens of thousands of dollars" to Taliban commanders and warlords in the Surobi district. It accused Rome of failing to inform its allies about the payments and of misleading the French, who took over the Surobi district in mid-2008, into thinking the area was quiet and safe. An ambush of the French in a mountain pass on Aug. 18, 2008, was the biggest single combat loss for international forces in Afghanistan in more than three years.
    (AP, 10/15/09)

2009        Oct 16, French farmers struggling with slumping grain prices blanketed the Champs-Elysees with bales of hay and set them ablaze, and blocked highways around the country as they demanded government help.
    (AP, 10/16/09)

2009        Oct 19, French police apprehended suspected ETA militant Aitor Elizaran (30) in a car park at the wheel of a stolen car in the Brittany seaside town of Carnac, along with a woman suspect, Oihana Sanvicente (32). They were soon charged with conspiracy to collaborate with a terrorist organization.
    (AFP, 10/24/09)

2009        Oct 22, In Sudan gunmen kidnapped Gauthier Lefevre (35), a French staff member working for the International Committee of the Red Cross, in the western Darfur region. The kidnappers soon demanded a three-million-euro ransom.
    (AP, 10/22/09)(AFP, 10/27/09)

2009        Oct 23, In France Jean Sarkozy (23), President Nicolas Sarkozy's son, was elected to the board of the organization that runs France's most important business district after a dramatic withdrawal of his bid for the top spot amid fierce accusations of favoritism. He had been the leading candidate to head EPAD, a quasi-governmental organization overseeing real estate and the administration of La Defense, the neighborhood of skyscrapers west of Paris that is home to top companies and the workplace of 150,000 people.
    (AP, 10/23/09)

2009        Oct 27, A Paris court convicted the French branch of the Church of Scientology of fraud and fined it more than euro600,000 ($900,000), but stopped short of banning the group as prosecutors had demanded.
    (AP, 10/27/09)(SFC, 10/28/09, p.A4)

2009        Oct 28, Somali pirates exchanged fire with a French fishing vessel. They sped away, but were soon stopped by a Spanish naval helicopter. 7 pirates were detained on the German naval vessel, FGS Karlsruhe.
    (AP, 10/28/09)

2009        Oct 31, A Russian news agency reported that Moscow plans to buy a French amphibious assault ship, the first such purchase from a NATO country, as the Kremlin seeks to reaffirm Russia's global reach.
    (AP, 10/31/09)

2009        Nov 2, French-born writer Marie Ndiaye (b.1967) won France's top literary prize for "Three Strong Women," her moving tale of the struggles of women in Europe and Africa. She was born in Pithiviers, to a French mother and a Senegalese father and currently lived in Berlin.
    (AP, 11/2/09)

2009        Nov 3, Claude Levi-Strauss (b.1908), Brussels-born French intellectual, died. He was widely considered the father of modern anthropology for work that included theories about commonalities between tribal and industrial societies. His books included literary and anthropological classics such as "Tristes Tropiques" (1955), "The Savage Mind" (1963) and "The Raw and the Cooked" (1964).
    (AP, 11/3/09)(Econ, 11/14/09, p.106)

2009        Nov 5, In France security workers picked up euro11.6 million ($17.2 million) in cash at the Banque de France branch in Lyon. They then stopped at another bank and while two security workers were inside that bank, the driver made off with the cash. Loomis identified the alleged thief as Tony Musulin (39). As no violence was involved in the theft, Musulin risked only three years in jail if caught and charged. On Nov 9 Lyon Prosecutor Xavier Richaud said euro9.5 million ($14.25 million) in cash was found in a storage space near a railway track where police earlier found the security truck used in the theft. On Nov 16 Musulin handed himself in to police in Monaco. Musulin was convicted on May 11, 2010, and sentenced to 3 years in prison.
    (AP, 11/7/09)(SFC, 11/7/09, p.A2)(AP, 11/9/09)(AFP, 11/16/09)(SFC, 5/12/10, p.A2)

2009        Nov 9, In eastern Chad a French Red Cross staff member was abducted by several armed men, close to the border with Sudan. Laurent Maurice was freed in Sudan on Feb 6.
    (AFP, 11/10/09)(AP, 2/7/10)

2009        Nov 11, The leaders of France and Germany appeared together at a ceremony in Paris, for the first time since World War I, to commemorate the end of the conflict, saying it is now time to celebrate their countries' reconciliation and friendship.
    (AP, 11/11/09)

2009        Nov 13, The French government said its navy has seized 3 boats of Somalia’s coast and detained 12 suspected pirates, while seizing an arsenal including assault rifles and rocket launchers.
    (SFC, 11/14/09, p.A2)

2009        Nov 16, French tire maker Michelin announced plans to invest nearly 900 million dollars to build a tire plant to supply India's fast-growing vehicle market.
    (AFP, 11/16/09)

2009        Nov 18, In France a 2-day Congress of the International Association of Francophone Mayors opened in Paris. The mayors jeered a speech by PM Francois Fillon and denounced an effort to emasculate local power.
    (Econ, 11/21/09, p.54)(http://www.azi.md/en/story/7016)

2009        Nov 19, In France South Korean model Daul Kim (20), a fashion week regular in New York, Milan and Paris, was been found hanged in her Paris apartment.
    (AP, 11/20/09)

2009        Nov 20, In France a man with an automatic rifle opened fire on a car near a Paris train station, killing one man and wounding two others.
    (AP, 11/20/09)

2009        Nov 22, In the northeast of Central African Republic 2 French aid workers in Birao were kidnapped by a gang of armed men, close to the border with Sudan. Olivier Denis and Olivier Frappe wee freed on March 14, 2010, in Darfur.
    (AFP, 11/24/09)(AFP, 3/14/10)

2009        Nov 25, In Mali gunmen kidnapped Pierre Camatte, a French national, in the remote east. The kidnapping was attributed to Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM). Camatte was released on Feb 23, 2010.
    (Reuters, 11/26/09)(AFP, 12/1/09)(SFC, 2/24/10, p.A2)

2009        Nov 26, In Lyon, France, thieves used a sledgehammer to smash through the reinforced glass on a downtown Cartier storefront. They then swiped jewelry and watches from display cases. In Dec police recovered nearly euro800,000 ($1,181,900) in jewels stolen in the holdup. Officers came across the stash by accident while searching the apartment of a suspect in another jewelry theft. The suspect was still at large.
    (AP, 12/9/09)
2009        Nov 26, Georgia’s foreign minister said his country is very worried about the possible sale of French warships to Russia and intends to press the issue of security guarantees in France.
    (AP, 11/26/09)

2009        Nov 28, French Transport Minister Dominique Bussereau said Russia has given the green light for Air France's A380 superjumbo to overfly Siberia, opening the way for a projected Paris-Tokyo service. The accord was approved by PM Vladimir Putin at the end of a two-day visit to France which saw a number of business deals concluded. Putin's trip also secured a deal for French investment in a key pipeline project and the struggling Avtovaz car maker, as well as a promise that France will consider selling Moscow a huge amphibious assault ship.
    (AFP, 11/28/09)

2009        Nov 29, France and Rwanda agreed to restore diplomatic ties three years after they were cut off amid tensions over a French judicial investigation.
    (AP, 11/29/09)

2009        Dec 2, In France the Pompidou Center modern art museum and the Musee d'Orsay, with its famed paintings by the Impressionists, closed after workers angry about a government cost-cutting measure voted to strike. Workers at the Louvre also voted to strike, but by mid-morning parts of the sprawling complex had been opened to visitors. The Rodin Museum, the Arc de Triomphe and the Palais de Versailles were also affected.
    (AP, 12/2/09)

2009        Dec 8, Ratings agency Moody's warned of a "fiscal crisis" lasting "several years" in Britain, France, Germany and the United States, but saw no immediate threat to their top AAA credit assessments.
    (AFP, 12/8/09)

2009        Dec 16, France’s Finance Minister Christine Lagarde said France will follow Britain and slap a 50 percent tax on bankers' bonuses above 27,500 euros (40,000 dollars).
    (AFP, 12/16/09)
2009        Dec 16, Egypt's antiquities chief said the wall paintings that caused a feud between Egypt and the Louvre Museum will be returned to their original location in a tomb in Luxor.
    (AP, 12/16/09)

2009        Dec 18, A French judge filed preliminary charges against former Pres. Jacques Chirac over allegations that Paris City Hall paid for jobs in his political party when was mayor, part of a financing scandal that has long dogged the man who for decades dominated French politics.
    (AP, 12/18/09)
2009        Dec 18, A Paris court ruled that Google Inc. is breaking French law with its policy of digitizing books, handing the US Internet giant a euro10,000 ($14,300)-a-day fine until it rids its database of the literary extracts.
    (AP, 12/18/09)
2009        Dec 18, The European Medicines Agency (EMEA) recommended the withdrawal of all medicines containing benfluorex, a diabetes and weight-loss drug, in the European Union. In 2010 French officials said the drug, marketed as mediator, may have been linked to the deaths of 500 people over the 33 years it was on the market. Fenfluramine, a related drug, had been withdrawn from the market in 1997 after reports of heart valve disease, pulmonary hypertension, and development of cardiac fibrosis.
    (SFC, 11/17/10, p.A2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benfluorex)

2009        Dec 19, Four passenger trains broke down in the Channel Tunnel between Britain and France, stranding more than 2,000 passengers for hours, many without heating, light or water. Fatigued passengers arrived in London 10 hours late after a long night trapped on trains. The problem began because of the abrupt temperature change when trains traveled through extremely cold air in France and then entered the warm tunnel.
    (AP, 12/19/09)

2009        Dec 21, Eurostar halted services for a third day to probe a breakdown of trains through the Channel Tunnel that stranded thousands, prompting an angry French government to demand an explanation and call its own inquiry. President Nicolas Sarkozy summoned the head of the French train authority to the Elysee Palace and ordered him to get the Eurostar moving again after a three-day suspension of the cross-Channel train service that has wreaked havoc on the holiday travel plans of some 40,000 people. The death toll from winter storms across Europe rose to at least 80 as transport chaos spread amid mounting anger over the failure of high-speed trains.
    (AP, 12/21/09)(AFP, 12/21/09)(Reuters, 12/21/09)
2009        Dec 21, China and France hailed their reinvigorated ties and sealed a series of economic deals during a visit to Beijing by PM Francois Fillon. Electricite de France (EDF) and China Guangdong Nuclear Power Company (CGNPC) formalized their joint venture for the construction of two nuclear reactors at a power plant in Taishan in southern Guangdong province. French aerospace and defense industries group Safran and US conglomerate General Electric won a multi-billion-dollar contract to equip China's future C919 passenger jet with engines.
    (AFP, 12/21/09)

2009        Dec 22, Eurostar resumed its high-speed rail service linking Britain, France and Belgium after a three-day suspension that stranded tens of thousands of holiday travelers.
    (AP, 12/22/09)

2009        Dec 29, In France an armed robber burst into a jewelry store in southern Paris and made off with euro100,000 ($144,330) worth of watches and jewels.
    (AP, 12/29/09)

2009        John Bowen authored “Can Islam Be French: Pluralism and Pragmatism in a Secularist State."
    (Econ, 12/12/09, p.93)

2009        France’s 194 prisons, with a capacity of 51,000, housed some 63,000 prisoners. It was estimated that 20% of the inmates were mentally il. Over half of the inmates were Muslim.
    (Econ, 5/16/09, p.57)
2009        The US helped fund a training camp for nearly 1,000 Somali soldiers in neighboring Djibouti. The French-trained troops were supposed to earn $100 per month, but about half of them deserted because they were not paid. Some returned to ordinary life and others joined the al-Shabab rebels.
    (SFC, 4/28/10, p.A3)

2010        Jan 2, French police said about 30 works of art, including paintings by Pablo Picasso and Henri Rousseau, have been stolen from the home of a private collector in southern La Cadiere-d'Azur, near Marseilles. The theft comes days after a drawing by Impressionist Edgar Degas worth euro800,000 ($1.15 million) was stolen from the Cantini Museum in Marseilles.
    (AP, 1/3/10)

2010        Jan 3, Eric Rohmer (b.1920), French new Wave film director and critic, died in Paris. His first feature film, “The Sign of Leo," was released in 1959.
    (SFC, 1/15/10, p.C5)

2010        Jan 7, Eurostar passengers faced further disruption after one of its high-speed trains got stuck for 2 hours in the Channel Tunnel again, weeks after a major breakdown due to the cold.
    (AFP, 1/7/10)
2010        Jan 7, Rwanda and France pledged to improve ties after a lengthy freeze in diplomatic relations triggered by a French judge issuing arrest warrants for top aides to President Paul Kagame.
    (AFP, 1/7/10)

2010        Jan 8, The beleaguered Eurostar train service cancelled half of its trains between London and Paris because of freezing temperatures.
    (AP, 1/8/10)

2010        Jan 9, Four suspected members of the Basque separatist group ETA were arrested in Portugal and France, one driving a van loaded with explosives near a police barracks. two police officers stopped the van in Spain when their suspicions were raised by its French license plates. The driver of the van then pushed passed the police and proceeded to flee the scene driving off in their patrol car which he stole. The police alerted their Portuguese counterparts who rapidly arrested the man and a woman, who had been following the van in a presumed getaway vehicle with French plates.
    (AP, 1/10/10)

2010        Jan 10, Heavy snowfall caused havoc in parts of Europe, causing hundreds of traffic accidents, downing power lines in Poland, halting flights out of southern France and trapping more than 160 people overnight on a frozen highway in northeastern coastal Germany.
    (AP, 1/10/10)
2010        Jan 10, Voters in French Guiana overwhelmingly rejected a proposal to give local government more autonomy while remaining a part of France. 70% voted "no," with 48% turnout.
    (AP, 1/10/10)
2010        Jan 10, Voters in Martinique overwhelmingly rejected a proposal to give local government more autonomy while remaining a part of France. Election officials said 80% of voters rejected the plan, with 55% participation. An estimated 50,000 people were unemployed on Martinique, home to some 400,000 inhabitants.
    (AP, 1/10/10)

2010        Jan 13, In France a Chinese student (26) stabbed to death a 49-year-old secretary and wounded three teachers in an attack at a university in the southern town of Perpignan.
    (AFP, 1/13/10)

2010        Jan 15, In Haiti the UN and other aid organizations struggled to get food and water to stricken millions. Fears spread of unrest among the people in their fourth day of desperation. France urged Haiti’s creditors to cancel the nation’s debt.
    (AP, 1/15/10)(SFC, 1/16/10, p.A2)

2010        Jan 20, A French court ruled that a Russian Orthodox cathedral built on the French Riviera nearly a century ago under Czar Nicholas II now belongs to Moscow. The ruling was a defeat for an association founded by Russians who fled the Bolshevik Revolution that has been fighting to maintain its control over the Saint Nicholas Cathedral in Nice, and its archbishop is accusing the Russian government of a land grab as part of a national pride campaign.
    (AP, 1/20/10)

2010        Jan 27, France's main Jewish organization, CRIF, says at least 18 tombstones at the Cronenbourg cemetery in Strasbourg were found marked with swastikas and 13 of them were overturned. The desecration came as Jews marked the 65th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz death camp.
    (AP, 1/27/10)

2010        Jan 28, France's ex-premier Dominique de Villepin was acquitted of charges of plotting to smear Nicolas Sarkozy and sabotage his presidential bid in a verdict seen as bolstering his chance at a comeback.
    (AFP, 1/28/10)

2010        Feb 2, Venezuela deported alleged major drug traffickers to the US and France. Suspected Colombian drug kingpin Salomon Camacho Mora, French smuggling suspect Jean Marie Bonnamy and alleged Colombian paramilitary member Oscar Ospino were ferried to the nation's main airport for deportation.
    (AP, 2/3/10)

2010        Feb 6, Interfax reported that French Pres. Sarkozy has sanctioned the sale of a Mistral amphibious assault ship to Russia.
    (SSFC, 2/7/10, p.A6)

2010        Feb 8, French engineering giant Areva said that it will buy Ausra, a Mountain View, Ca., startup specializing in large-scale solar power.
    (SFC, 2/9/10, p.D1)

2010        Feb 13, French transport and utility group Veolia was given the green light to run passenger trains in France in competition with national rail operator SNCF.
    (AFP, 2/13/10)

2010        Feb 17, France's Pres. Nicolas Sarkozy made the first visit ever by a French president to Haiti, once his nation's richest colony. Sarkozy said France will cancel Haiti’s 56 million in debt and pledged hundreds of millions in aid for the catastrophic Jan 12 earthquake.
    (AP, 2/17/10)(SFC, 2/18/10, p.A3)

2010        Feb 22, French President Nicolas Sarkozy met with Total Chairman Thierry Desmarest for talks about a labor strike that has shuttered over half of France's oil refining capacity. Workers at all six of Total SA's French refineries and at six of its 31 fuel depots have been on strike for five days over the uncertain future of a plant in Dunkirk, in northern France. Workers at France's fourth-largest refinery, British-owned chemicals company INEOS, met to vote on whether they too would join the widening strike.
    (AP, 2/22/10)

2010        Feb 24, French oil giant Total said it is to invest seven billion dollars (5.16 billion euros) in Nigerian oil and gas exploration and production over the next four to five years.
    (AFP, 2/24/10)

2010        Feb 25, In Rwanda French Pres. Nicolas Sarkozy visited with pres. Paul Kagame too cement improved diplomatic relations following years of acrimony, recriminations and diplomatic standoffs over events surrounding the 1994 genocide. He said France made serious errors of judgment over the genocide, and those responsible for the killings should be found and punished, including any who might be residing in France.
    (Reuters, 2/25/10)(AP, 2/25/10)

2010        Feb 26, In France a strike by air traffic controllers disrupted flight for a 4th day and some Air France pilots walked off the job to protest cost cutting measures.
    (SFC, 2/27/10, p.A2)

2010        Feb 28, The leader of the armed Basque group ETA was arrested in France, in another setback for the separatists, who have seen five of their commanders taken into custody in the last two years. Eta chief Ibon Gogeascoechea and two other suspected separatists, Jose Ayestaran and Beinat Aginagalde, were arrested in a joint French-Spanish police operation in the village of Cahan, France.
    (AP, 2/28/10)(Econ, 3/6/10, p.69)
2010        Feb 28, A violent late winter storm named Xynthia battered France, Spain, Portugal and Germany with fierce rain and hurricane-strength winds. The storm smashed sea walls and killed at least 62 people across western Europe.
    (AP, 2/28/10)(AP, 3/1/10)(SFC, 3/2/10, p.A2)

2010        Mar 1, France and Russia pursued their burgeoning courtship with a formal state visit by Russian President Dmitry Medvedev to Paris, which is angling to sell Moscow a massive warship and secure stakes in pipelines pumping Russian gas to western Europe.
    (AP, 3/1/10)

2010        Mar 2, French authorities arrested Agathe Habyarimana, the widow of the former Rwandan president killed in a plane crash, on a Rwandan warrant issued on genocide-related charges. She was soon freed on bail. The crash is widely considered the event that sparked the east African country's 1994 genocide. In 2004 France rejected her request for political asylum, alleging she was at the heart of the regime responsible for the genocide.
    (AP, 3/2/10)(Econ, 3/6/10, p.65)

2010        Mar 5, French President Nicolas Sarkozy summoned bank leaders to his Elysee palace to order them to boost lending to the economy and smaller companies.
    (AP, 3/5/10)
2010        Mar 5, Swarms of Somali pirates moved into the waters off East Africa, triggering four shootouts with French and Spanish fishing vessels including a skirmish with French military personnel that sunk a pirate skiff.
    (AP, 3/5/10)

2010        Mar 14, France voted in regional polls. French voters scarred by economic crisis dealt President Nicolas Sarkozy and his conservative leadership a stern blow by strongly favoring leftist candidates in regional elections.
    (AFP, 3/14/10)(AP, 3/15/10)

2010        Mar 21 In France the second-round regional poll left Pres. Sarkozy's right-wing UMP in charge of only one of the mainland regions in the last ballot-box test of his popularity before the 2012 presidential vote. The Socialists won 54% of the vote.
    (AFP, 3/22/10)(Econ, 3/27/10, p.18)

2010        Mar 24, Dozens of French sex workers proclaiming themselves proud to be prostitutes marched to protest a lawmaker's proposal to legalize brothels in France, arguing that such a law would deny them the freedom to work on their own.
    (AP, 3/24/10)

2010        Mar 25, Former French PM Dominique de Villepin announced the creation of a new center-right party set to challenge bitter rival President Nicolas Sarkozy in elections in two years' time.
    (Reuters, 3/25/10)

2010        Apr 4, In France masked men brandishing assault rifles burst into a crowded casino in Lyon, fired shots at the ceiling and made off with about euro28,000 ($37,800).
    (AP, 4/4/10)

2010        Apr 7, Auto giants Renault, Nissan and Daimler launched a partnership to save billions of euros and accelerate sales of low-pollution electric cars.
    (AP, 4/7/10)

2010        Apr 9, France and Italy agreed to cooperate more closely to increase nuclear power generation and vowed to come to the aid of debt-laden Greece in order to defend the euro.
    (AP, 4/9/10)

2010        Apr 10, French explorer Jean-Louis Etienne (63) made the first Arctic crossing by balloon, landing in the tundra of eastern Siberia five days after taking off in Norway.
    (AP, 4/10/10)

2010        Apr 16, Renault announced that it has pulled out of a joint venture with Indian car manufacturer Mahindra and Mahindra, which produced its first car for the growing South Asian market, the Logan.
    (AFP, 4/16/10)

2010        Apr 22, Al-Qaida in North Africa kidnapped Frenchman Michel Germaneau (78) in northern Niger. On May 14 a militant Web site said it wanted to trade him for the group's prisoners in France and other nations. A day before the kidnapping, four Sahara Desert nations opened a joint military headquarters in the Algerian city of Tamanrasset to combat terrorism and trafficking. On July 25 al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb said it had killed the 78-year-old French hostage in retaliation for the killing of six al-Qaida members in a recent raid by Mauritanian forces aided by the French military.
    (AP, 5/14/10)(AP, 7/25/10)

2010        Apr 26, Former Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega extradited was from the US to France to face money laundering charges in a French courtroom, opening up a whole new legal battle for the strongman who spent two decades behind bars in Florida for drug trafficking.
    (AP, 4/27/10)

2010        Apr 28, In Beijing France and China said they would work together to consider an overhaul of the global monetary system, at the start of a state visit by French President Nicolas Sarkozy.
    (AFP, 4/28/10)

2010        May 4, French lawmakers decided to return 16 tattooed and mummified Maori heads to New Zealand, ending years of debate on what to do with the human remains acquired long ago by French museums seeking exotic curiosities.
    (AP, 5/4/10)

2010        May 8, French President Nicolas Sarkozy and German Chancellor Angela Merkel announced that Europe will set up an intervention mechanism to calm markets rattled by the Greek debt crisis.
    (AP, 5/8/10)

2010        May 9, A plume of volcanic ash snaked its way through southern France, Switzerland, Italy and Germany, shutting down airports and disrupting flights across Europe.
    (AP, 5/9/10)

2010        May 11, French lawmakers unanimously passed a resolution, 434-0, asserting that face-covering Muslim veils are contrary to the principles of liberty, equality and fraternity.
    (SFC, 5/12/10, p.A2)

2010        May 16, Clotilde Reiss (24), a young French academic who battled spying charges in Iran for more than 10 months, returned to France and thanked President Nicolas Sarkozy and other officials for insisting on her innocence and pressing for her release.
    (AP, 5/16/10)

2010        May 17, France decided to send home an Iranian agent it had jailed for murdering the Shah's last prime minister, two days after Tehran freed a young French academic accused of spying. Ali Vakili Rad was serving a life sentence for stabbing Shapour Bakhtiar to death at his home outside Paris in August 1991.
    (AP, 5/17/10)

2010        May 19, The French government decided to impose a $185 fine on women who wear a full-face Islamic veil in public. The legislation was forwarded to Parliament.
    (SFC, 5/20/10, p.A2)

2010        May 20, In France a lone thief stole five paintings valued at $123 million, including major works by Picasso and Matisse, in an overnight heist from the Paris Museum of Modern Art.
    (AP, 5/20/10)(SFC, 5/21/10, p.A2)
2010        May 20, French police arrested the leader of Basque separatist group ETA and his second in command, calling it an important blow but not a death knell for the violent organization.
    (AP, 5/20/10)

2010        May 22,  At the Cannes film festival “Uncle Boonmee Who Can Recall His Past Lives," a surreal tale of the afterlife with giant monkeys and an erotic catfish scored gold for Thai director Apichatpong Weerasethakul.
    (AFP, 5/23/10)

2010        May 26, In France Eugene Rwamucyo, a Rwandan doctor accused of participation in the 1994 Tutsi genocide, was arrested. He was dismissed from his hospital post in northern France last month, and was wanted by Kigali for allegedly planning and carrying out atrocities in the Butare region of southern Rwanda.
    (AFP, 5/27/10)

2010        May 27, In France thousands of workers staged strikes across the country to protest government plans to raise the retirement age past 60, one of the lowest in Europe.
    (SFC, 5/28/10, p.A2)

2010        May 31, French President Nicolas Sarkozy opened a France-Africa summit saying Africa will fuel world economic growth for decades to come and must have a stronger voice in global affairs. Guinea Bissau's Pres. Malam Bacai Sanha, among the 38 African leaders attending the summit in Nice, called for an international effort to help him fight drug trafficking in his west African country.
    (AP, 5/31/10)(AFP, 5/31/10)

2010        Jun 2, France's former top anti-terrorism judge said the Turkish Islamic charity behind the flotilla of aid ships that was raided by Israeli forces on its way to Gaza had ties to terrorism networks, including a 1999 al-Qaida plot to bomb Los Angeles International Airport.
    (AP, 6/2/10)

2010        Jun 4, France's Interior Minister Brice Hortefeux was convicted of making racist comments and ordered to pay compensation in an controversy that prompted calls for his resignation. He was also fined euro750 ($900) and ordered to pay euro2,000 ($2,400) to an anti-racism group.
    (AP, 6/4/10)

2010        Jun 8, In France Maurice Dufresse, a former agent for the DGSE counterintelligence agency, was detained for questioning. The Defense Ministry had filed a complaint against Dufresse, who wrote his book "Twenty-Five Years in the Secret Services" under the pen-name Pierre Siramy. Among other things, the book describes how spies recruit sources and various espionage affairs.
    (AP, 6/10/10)
2010        Jun 8, France officially opened up its online gaming market, granting 17 licenses to 11 operators three days before the start of the soccer World Cup in South Africa. Online betting on horses, sport and poker was legalized.
    (AFP, 6/8/10)(Econ, 7/17/10, p.70)

2010        Jun 9, The US, Russia and France dismissed a proposal by Iran to swap some of its enriched uranium for reactor fuel hours before an expected UN Security Council vote on new sanctions. The UN Security Council adopted a resolution imposing a 4th round of sanctions on Iran. It banned Iran from undertaking any activity related to ballistic missiles capable of delivering nuclear weapons.
          (AP, 6/9/10)(Econ, 6/12/10, p.15)(SFC, 10/17/15, p.A3)

2010        Jun 12, French PM Francois Fillon said France will slash state spending by 45 billion euros (54.5 billion dollars) in the next 3 years to get its public deficit back down to 3%.
    (AFP, 6/12/10)
2010        Jun 12, A French fishing vessel rescued Abby Sunderland (16), a California teenager from her crippled sailboat in the turbulent southern Indian Ocean, bringing relief to her family but ending her around-the-world sailing effort. Sunderland had set out from Los Angeles County's Marina del Rey on Jan. 23, trying to become the youngest person to circumnavigate the globe solo and nonstop.
    (AP, 6/12/10)

2010        Jun 15, In southeastern France at least 25 people were killed and another 12 missing after flash floods hit the Var region, turning city streets into meters-high (feet-high) brown rivers that swept away cars, trees and parts of houses.
    (AP, 6/16/10)(AP, 6/17/10)

2010        Jun 16, The French government unveiled plans to raise the retirement age to 62 in a sweeping overhaul of the pensions system that labor unions have vowed to fight to the end.
    (AFP, 6/16/10)

2010        Jun 19, Former French PM Dominique de Villepin launched a new political movement to act as an alternative to the policies of President Nicolas Sarkozy, his longtime rival.
    (AP, 6/20/10)

2010        Jun 22, Britain, France and Germany committed to levying a fee on banks to shield taxpayers from the cost of resolving financial crises and said they would ask other countries to join them.
    (AP, 6/22/10)

2010        Jun 24, In France workers around the country went on strike to protest Pres. Sarkozy’s plans to raise the retirement age by 2 years to 62. Unions stage nearly 200 marches in several cities over a broad reform of the money-losing pension system.
    (SFC, 6/25/10, p.A2)

2010        Jun 25, In southern France Giuseppe Falsone, an Italian mobster and one of the country's top 30 most wanted fugitives, was arrested in Marseille.
    (AP, 6/25/10)

2010        Jul 6, In France Pres. Sarkozy came under mounting pressure over allegations that he took illegal cash donations from Liliane Bettencourt, owner of the L’Oreal cosmetics firm and the richest woman in France.
    (SFC, 7/7/10, p.A2)

2010        Jul 7, A French court convicted Manuel Noriega of money-laundering and sentenced Panama's former dictator to seven years in jail after he spent two decades in a US prison.
    (AFP, 7/7/10)

2010        Jul 8, In France exiled Darfur rebel leader Abdelwahid Nur announced his decision to join peace talks brokered by Qatar.
    (AFP, 7/9/10)

2010        Jul 15, French oil firm Total SA said it has signed a deal to acquire Chevron Corp.'s stake in an offshore oil block near Nigeria's coastline.
    (AP, 7/15/10)

2010        Jul 17, In France rioters exchanged gunfire with police in Grenoble early in the day, setting fire to shops and cars after police shot dead a man accused of robbing a casino.
    (AP, 7/17/10)

2010        Jul 20, Paris-based International Energy Agency said China has overtaken the United States as the world's largest energy consumer. The IE said China's 2009 consumption of energy sources ranging from oil and coal wind and solar power was equal to 2.265 billion tons of oil, compared to 2.169 billion tons for the US.
    (AP, 7/20/10)

2010        Jul 22, France and Mauritania carried out a military operation against al Qaeda's North African wing, believed to be holding Michel Germaneau, a 78-year-old French hostage in the desert Sahel region.
    (Reuters, 7/23/10)

2010        Jul 24, French-backed Mauritanian military operations against al Qaeda fighters in the Sahara desert wound up after four days of hunting Islamists deep inside Mali.
    (AP, 7/24/10)

2010        Jul 26, France said it is upgrading its diplomatic relations with the Palestinian Territories to try to spur international efforts toward creating a Palestinian state.
    (AP, 7/2610)
2010        Jul 26, French Defense Minister Herve Morin visited Vietnam marking the first time a French defense minister traveled to the country since Vietnam's 1954 surprise defeat at Dien Bien Phu. The next day Vietnam’s state media reported that Morin has agreed to help Vietnam modernize its military.
    (AP, 7/27/10)

2010        Jul 27, French PM Francois Fillon said France is "at war" with al-Qaida and will step up efforts to fight its North African offshoot after it executed a French hostage in the Sahara.
    (AP, 7/27/10)

2010        Jul 28, French Pres. Nicolas Sarkozy ordered authorities to expel Gypsy illegal immigrants and to dismantle their camps.
    (SFC, 7/29/10, p.A2)
2010        Jul 28, In northern France Dominique Cottrez (46) and her husband, Pierre-Marie Cottrez, were detained after two corpses were discovered in plastic bags by new owners in the garden of a house that had belonged to the woman's father in the town of Villers-au-Tertre. Under questioning, the woman admitted that there were six other corpses and told investigators that they were in plastic bags in the garage of her home where they were found. On June 25, 2015, Cottrez (51), a mother of two grown daughters, went on trial in the city of Douai.
    (AP, 7/29/10)(AP, 6/25/15)

2010        Jul 29, In Sierra Leone 'Papa Jacques,' Montouroy (63), French legendary aid worker, died of complications from an ulcer. He spent 41 years as a humanitarian worker for Catholic Relief Services and was known for delivering food in parts of the world no one else dared enter.
    (AP, 8/3/10)

2010        Aug 1, UNESCO added five cultural sites to its World Heritage List, including the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long-Hanoi in Vietnam. The other new sites include the historic monuments of Dengfeng in China, the archaeological site Sarazm in Tajikistan, the Episcopal city of Albi in France and a 17th-century canal ring in Amsterdam.
    (AP, 8/1/10)

2010        Aug 12, French Interior Minister Brice Hortefeux said that over 40 illegal gypsy camps have been dismantled around the country in the last two weeks and that 700 people among those in the camps will be returned to Bulgaria and Romania.
    (SFC, 8/13/10, p.A2)

2010        Aug 19, France deported nearly 100 Gypsies, or Roma, to their native Romania as part of a very public effort by conservative President Nicolas Sarkozy to dismantle Roma camps and sweep them out of the country.
    (AP, 8/19/10)

2010        Aug 20, France put about 100 Gypsies, or Roma, on a charter flight headed to their native Romania, the second day in a row that it has expelled Roma in a much criticized government crackdown.
    (AP, 8/20/10)

2010        Aug 26, The archbishop of Paris joined the tide of criticism over France's crackdown on Gypsies, calling it a "circus," while the EU's justice commissioner denounced French officials' discriminatory tone about the vulnerable minority.
    (AP, 8/26/10)

2010        Sep 3, Britain and France announced they are talking about sharing the cost of military aircraft programs, but rejected reports that they plan to merge their aircraft carrier fleets.
    (AFP, 9/3/10)

2010        Sep 4, In France Roma migrants whose camp was bulldozed led a protest in Paris against the French government's security crackdown, with similar demonstrations taking place across the country and abroad.
    (AFP, 9/4/10)

2010        Sep 7, Strikes hobbled public transit in London and across France, forcing tourists and commuters to alter their plans as they bore the brunt of a wave of discontent over government cost-cutting measures, a wave expected to soon prompt walkouts elsewhere on the continent. Some 1.2-2.7 million people in France took to the streets for the one-day strike.
    (AP, 9/7/10)(Econ, 9/11/10, p.31)

2010        Sep 9, The European Parliament called on France to suspend its expulsion of gypsies. The rare criticism of an EU state was backed by 337 lawmakers meeting in Strasbourg, France, with 245 opposed and 51 abstentions. To date France had deported 8,000 people to Romania and Bulgaria this year alone.
    (AP, 9/9/10)(Econ, 9/18/10, p.73)

2010        Sep 12, French film director Claude Chabrol (b.1930) died. His work included over 70 films and TV productions including “Les Biches" (Bad Girls - 1968) and “Story of a Woman (1988).
    (SFC, 9/13/10, p.C5)

2010        Sep 14, France introduced a law against face-covering. It became commonly known as the burqa ban.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_ban_on_face_covering)(Econ, 7/27/13, p.44)
2010        Sep 14, The European Commission threatened legal action against France over its crackdown on Roma minorities, drawing a parallel between their treatment and World War II-era deportations.
    (AFP, 9/14/10)

2010        Sep 15, France's National Assembly passed President Nicolas Sarkozy's controversial pension reform bill by 329 votes to 233 during a stormy session in the lower house. The measure would raise the minimum pension age to 62 by 2018. Unions have vowed to stage mass protests when the law goes before France's upper house, the Senate, on September 23.
    (AFP, 9/15/10)
2010        Sep 15, A French court rejected Kigali's request to extradite Rwandan doctor Eugene Rwamucyo, who is suspected of involvement in the 1994 genocide, sparking Rwanda's ire.
    (AFP, 9/15/10)

2010        Sep 16, In Niger armed AQIM assailants kidnapped 7 people, including 5 French nuclear experts, a person from Togo and a person from Madagascar, near the uranium mining town of Arlit, in the northern Sahara desert region. 3 of the hostages were released in February, 2011. Pierre Legrand, Thierry Dol, Marc Feret and Daniel Larribe were released on Oct 29, 2013. Some 20 to 25 million euros was paid to obtain their release.
    (AP, 9/17/10)(SFC, 9/22/10, p.A2)(SFC, 2/26/11, p.A2)(AP, 10/30/13)

2010        Sep 18, Frenchman Philippe Croizon (42), whose arms and legs were amputated, swam about 21 miles across the English Channel in 13½ hours using leg prostheses that have flippers attached.
    (AP, 9/19/10)

2010        Sep 20, French defense contractor Safran SA said it will pay $1.1 billion to buy Stamford, Connecticut-based security firm L-1 Identity Solutions Inc., to bolster its presence in the US homeland security market.
    (AP, 9/20/10)

2010        Sep 22, A Thai national and 3 French employees of marine services company Bourbon were kidnapped overnight in an attack on one of its ships, the Bourbon Alexandre, in an oil field off Nigeria. The hostages “in poor health" were released on Nov 10.
    (AP, 9/22/10)(AP, 11/10/10)(AFP, 11/12/10)

2010        Sep 23, French trade unions staged their second 24-hour strike in a month against President Nicolas Sarkozy's unpopular pension reform, seeking to force him to scrap plans to raise the retirement age to 62 from 60.
    (Reuters, 9/23/10)

2010        Sep 27, Indonesia and France served as co-chairs of the Group of 20 Working Group on Anti-corruption during a 2-day meeting in Jakarta. The WGAC was among the most significant outcomes of the G20 summit in Toronto in June 2010.
    (www.deplu.go.id/Pages/PressRelease.aspx?IDP=1002&l=en)

2010        Sep 29, The European Union decided to launch legal action against France over its expulsions of Gypsies, or Roma, to poorer EU nations.
    (AP, 9/29/10)
2010        Sep 29, Security sources and media reports said Western intelligence agencies have uncovered an Al-Qaeda plot to launch attacks in Britain, France and Germany by extremists based in Pakistan.
    (AFP, 9/29/10)

2010        Oct 2, French families, students and private sector workers joined mass demonstrations against the government's pension reforms, and unions hoped as many as 3 million protesters would take to the streets.
    (Reuters, 10/2/10)
2010        Oct 2, The Paris Motor Show opened. Renault unveiled the Twizzy, its smallest 4-wheeled electric vehicle.
    (Econ, 10/2/10, p.87)

2010        Oct 4, France's Sanofi-Aventis launched an $18.5 billion hostile takeover offer for Genzyme Corp., stepping up its effort to capture the US biotech company's promising drugs for high cholesterol and lucrative treatments for rare genetic disorders.
    (AP, 10/4/10)

2010        Oct 5, In France former Societe Generale SA trader Jerome Kerviel was convicted on all counts in one of history's biggest trading frauds. He was sentenced to three years in jail, with 2 years suspended, and was ordered to repay the bank euro4.9 billion ($6.7 billion) in damages.
    (AP, 10/5/10)(Econ, 10/9/10, p.110)
2010        Oct 5, Police in southern France arrested 12 suspects in sweeps against suspected Islamic militant networks, including three men linked to a network recruiting fighters for Afghanistan.
    (AP, 10/5/10)

2010        Oct 8, French President Nicolas Sarkozy met with the pope and top Vatican officials in a fence-mending visit following France's controversial crackdown on Gypsies, while a top Vatican cardinal urged France to welcome immigrants and those who have been persecuted.
    (AP, 10/8/10)
2010        Oct 8, The YM Uranus, a chemicals tanker loaded with 6,000 tons of solvent, ran into trouble after a collision off the coast of France but authorities said its crew was rescued and its cargo did not seem to be leaking. The 120-meter-long YM Uranus had been in a collision with the 179,000 dead-weight ton bulk carrier Hanjin Rizhao.
    (Reuters, 10/8/10)

2010        Oct 11, Callixte Mbarushimana, a Rwandan leader of the FDLR rebel group, was arrested in Paris on charges of leading rebels accused of mass rapes and killings in Congo. The International Criminal Court said he is charged with 11 counts of crimes against humanity and war crimes, including killings, rape, persecution based on gender and extensive destruction of property committed by the FDLR during most of 2009.
    (AP, 10/11/10)
2010        Oct 11, Al Arabiya TV said Al Qaeda's north African arm wants a repeal of a ban on the Muslim face veil in France, the release of militants and 7 million euros to free hostages who include five French. Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) is holding seven foreigners in the Sahara desert after kidnapping them last month.
    (Reuters, 10/11/10)

2010        Oct 12, In France hundreds of thousands of workers, students and functionaries staged protests, the 4th this month, aimed to reverse a new law requiring people to work until 62 rather than 60 before receiving their retirement pensions.
    (SFC, 10/13/10, p.A2)

2010        Oct 15, French President Nicolas Sarkozy sent in riot police to reopen fuel depots blocked by strikes, as the pipeline to Paris airports was cut in an escalating battle over pension reform.
    (AFP, 10/15/10)

2010        Oct 16, In France diesel and jet fuel supplies were running low in parts of the country as workers took to the streets for another nationwide protest against President Nicolas Sarkozy's plan to raise the retirement age to 62.
    (AP, 10/16/10)

2010        Oct 18, French truck drivers staged go-slow operations on highways, rail strikes intensified and petrol stations ran out of fuel as protests gathered pace ahead of a Senate vote on an unpopular pension overhaul.
    (Reuters, 10/18/10)

2010        Oct 19, In France masked youths clashed with police and set fires in cities across the country as protests against a proposed hike in the retirement age took an increasingly radical turn. Hundreds of flights were canceled, long lines formed at gas stations and train service in many regions was cut in half.
    (AP, 10/19/10)
2010        Oct 19, The European Commission said it will temporarily suspend its human rights complaint against France for its expulsions of Gypsies, or Roma, after Paris promised to alter some of its laws to match EU regulations.
    (AP, 10/19/10)
2010        Oct 19, European Union finance ministers sealed a deal to regulate the trillion-dollar hedge fund industry after Britain and France settled a long-running conflict.
    (AFP, 10/19/10)

2010        Oct 20, In France workers opposed to a higher retirement age blocked roads to airports around the country, leaving passengers in Paris dragging suitcases on foot along an emergency breakdown lane. Pres. Sarkozy sent in police to clear access to barricaded fuel depots and restore supply as trade unions kept up their resistance to an unpopular pension reform due for a final vote this week.
    (Reuters, 10/20/10)(AP, 10/20/10)

2010        Oct 21, In France protesters blockaded Marseille's airport, Lady Gaga canceled concerts in Paris and rioting youths attacked police in Lyon ahead of a tense Senate vote on raising the retirement age to 62.
    (AP, 10/21/10)

2010        Oct 22, French riot police forced a strategic refinery to reopen, aiming to halt growing fuel shortages. The French Senate voted 177-153 to back the contested retirement reform.
    (AP, 10/22/10)(SFC, 10/23/10, p.A4)

2010        Oct 23, French unions took their battle against extending retirement from 60 to 62 to the courts, challenging orders to return to work the day after the Senate backed the fiercely-contested reform.
    (AFP, 10/23/10)

2010        Oct 24, A quarter of French petrol stations were short on fuel as refinery strikes over pension reform continued to drain supply, and one official said several holiday spots were likely to be particularly hard-hit.
    (Reuters, 10/24/10)

2010        Oct 25, President Nicolas Sarkozy's government warned that strikes against pension reform have cost up to three billion euros and threaten to derail France's still fragile economy recovery. Finance Minister Christine Lagarde said the strikes are costing the economy up to euro400 million ($562 million) each day.
    (AFP, 10/25/10)(AP, 10/25/10)

2010        Oct 27, The French Parliament passed Pres. Sarkozy’s pension bill raising the minimum retirement age to 62 from 60, and the full-pension age to 67 from 65. Most French oil refineries were set to start outbound deliveries of fuel as work stoppages ended at two plants, further easing a strike movement that has led to pump shortages across France.
    (Reuters, 10/27/10)(SFC, 10/28/10, p.A2)
2010        Oct 27, Al-Qaida leader Osama bin Laden threatens in a new audio tape to kill French citizens to avenge their country's support for the US-led war in Afghanistan and a new law that will ban face-covering Muslim veils.
    (AP, 10/27/10)

2010        Oct 28, In France further strikes disrupted rail and air transport, but the broader protest over plans to raise the retirement age appeared to be waning a day after parliament adopted pension reform legislation.
    (AP, 10/28/10)
2010        Oct 28, A French helicopter crashed in Antarctica during rough weather conditions killing all 4 aboard. The downed AS350 Squirrel helicopter was operated in Antarctica from the French research vessel, L'Astrolabe, which was currently icebound about 230 miles (370 km) northeast of the Dumont-d'Urville station.
    (AP, 10/29/10)(AP, 10/30/10)

2010        Oct 29, French unions said they have decided to end strikes at all oil refineries and several major ports.
    (SFC, 10/30/10, p.A4)

2010        Oct 31, A French airliner landed at Baghdad International Airport, becoming one of the first passenger planes to fly into the Iraqi capital direct from western Europe since the Gulf War and opening a potential new route to stronger international business ties.
    (AP, 10/31/10)

2010        Nov 1, Police in Greece arrested two terrorism suspects carrying letter bombs addressed to French President Nicolas Sarkozy and western embassies in Athens. The two Greek men, aged 22 and 24, were arrested in central Athens after a parcel bomb addressed to the Mexican embassy in Athens exploded at a mail delivery service.
    (AP, 11/1/10)

2010        Nov 2, Britain and France vowed to work hand-in-glove as their leaders ushered in an unprecedented era of defense cooperation by agreeing to create a joint force and share nuclear test facilities.
    (AP, 11/2/10)

2010        Nov 3, A Paris appeals court said Callixte Mbarushimana could be extradited to the court in the Hague, Netherlands, but only on condition that he not be later sent to Rwanda. Rwanda has the death penalty, which France opposes.
    (AP, 11/3/10)

2010        Nov 4, China's President Hu Jintao landed in Paris for a three-day state visit set to see the signing of billions of dollars in deals for nuclear, aviation and energy technology. The visit resulted in more than $20 billion-worth of contracts, including an agreement by China to buy 66 more Airbus jets.
    (AFP, 11/4/10)(Econ, 11/13/10, p.51)

2010        Nov 5, In France environmentalists handcuffed themselves in front of a train carrying what activists claim is "the most radioactive ever" cargo of nuclear waste. The shipment was returning German waste for storage after it was treated in France by the Areva group.
    (AFP, 11/6/10)(SFC, 11/6/10, p.A2)
2010        Nov 5, France and China reached a "real convergence" over the need to reform the global financial system after two days of talks between President Nicolas Sarkozy and his Chinese counterpart Hu Jintao. France told China that balanced trade and close cooperation was the best way to shield the world from future crises and the menace of protectionism, and China promised its support for Paris as it takes over the G20 presidency this month.
    (Reuters, 11/5/10)

2010        Nov 6, Tens of thousands of French protesters took to the streets once more for what might prove to be the last in their recent series of marches against President Nicolas Sarkozy's pension reform.
    (AP, 11/6/10)
2010        Nov 6, A train carrying what activists claim is "the most radioactive ever" cargo of nuclear waste ran the gauntlet of hundreds of protesters as it crossed the Rhine from France to Germany. The shipment was returning German waste for storage after it was treated in France by the Areva group.
    (AFP, 11/6/10)

2010        Nov 9, France's constitutional watchdog ruled that the bill raising the minimum retirement age to 62 is perfectly legal, marking a political victory for Pres. Sarkozy.
    (AP, 11/9/10)
2010        Nov 9, French detained 5 people (ages 25-30) suspected of a role in a network that allegedly sends French citizens to the tribal zone bordering Pakistan and Afghanistan to train for war. 2 of the five were detained at Charles de Gaulle airport, north of Paris, on their return from Egypt on Nov 8. Three others were picked up in Paris today. A woman was soon released. On Nov 13 four men were charged with "criminal association linked to a terrorist enterprise."
    (AP, 11/9/10)(AP, 11/13/10)
2010        Nov 9, France's highest court authorized a probe into the assets of three African heads of state, after two rights groups' alleged that the leaders laundered money through French villas, cars and bank accounts. The probe will target Gabon's late leader Omar Bongo, the Republic of Congo's President Denis Sassou-Nguesso and President Teodoro Obiang of Equatorial Guinea.
    (AP, 11/9/10)

2010        Nov 14, In France an early morning fire in a building housing immigrant workers in Dijon killed seven people, including two who jumped from the windows to try to escape. Some 90 other people were injured, of whom 11 are in life-threatening condition.
    (AP, 11/14/10)

2010        Nov 16, The UN Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recognized everything from the growing of corn, beans and chilies to Mexican dishes prepared with grinding stones and mortars as an ancient process worth safeguarding in the face of encroaching global influences. France's multi-course gastronomic meal, Flamenco in Spain and carpet-weaving in Azerbaijan also made the list.
    (AP, 11/17/10)

2010        Nov 19, French Pres. Sarkozy, infuriated by reports linking him to an investigation into possible kickbacks to French politicians in the 1990s, lashed out “off the record" at a journalist in Lisbon and said he could just as easily accuse him of being a pedophile.
    (AP, 11/23/10)

2010        Nov 27, In France delegates at an Atlantic conservation conference in Paris took measures to protect sea turtles and several types of sharks. ICCAT members agreed to reduce the allowable Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic bluefin tuna catch to 12,900 tons from 13,500 tons. The allowable western Atlantic catch was reduced to 1,750 tons from 1,800, a level that American and Canadian fisherman already had been unable to meet due to stock decline.
    (AP, 11/27/10)(SSFC, 11/28/10, p.A10)

2010        Nov 28, Nuri al-Mismari, a top aide of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, was arrested in Paris after a request from Tripoli, which said he was suspected of embezzlement. France gave Libya 30 days to submit evidence backing its accusations. Supporters of al-Mismari later said he was a victim of a power struggle inside the ruling elite.
    (Reuters, 12/2/10)

2010        Nov 29, The French daily Liberation reported that Pierre Le Guennec (71), a retired French electrician, and his wife have come forward with 271 undocumented, never-before-seen works by Pablo Picasso estimated to be worth at least $79.35 million. Police on Oct. 5 raided the couple's home, questioned them and hauled off the works, which are now held by France's official agency in charge of battling the illegal traffic of cultural items.
    (AP, 11/29/10)

2010        Dec 6, India and France signed a multibillion agreement to build two nuclear power plants in India as French President Nicolas Sarkozy worked to drum up business for his nation during his four-day visit.
    (AP, 12/6/10)

2010        Dec 7, An expert report submitted to the French foreign ministry said respected French epidemiologist Professor Renaud Piarroux conducted a study in Haiti last month and concluded the epidemic began with an imported strain of the disease that could be traced back to the Nepalese base.
    (AFP, 12/7/10)

2010        Dec 8, A French court put 14 former Chilean officials on trial in absentia over the 1973-1975 disappearance of four French citizens under the regime of Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet.
    (AP, 12/8/10)
2010        Dec 8, In France heavy snowfall forced the closure of Paris' Charles de Gaulle airport and shut down the Paris bus system.
    (AP, 12/8/10)

2010        Dec 10, A German battalion in a French-German military brigade officially took up arms at a ceremony in eastern France attended by the two countries' defense ministers. This was the first time since World War II that German combat troops were stationed in France, part of a conscious effort to show the two EU powers have forever buried former hatreds.
    (AP, 12/10/10)

2010        Dec 16, Lawyers said a French judge has filed preliminary charges against six people close to President Paul Kagame of Rwanda over the 1994 assassination of the country's then-president in a missile attack on his plane. Among the six people in question are ranking Rwandan army officers, including James Kabarebe, who has been Rwanda's defense minister since April, Charles Kayonga and Jackson Nkurunziza. The remaining three were identified as Jacob Tumwine, Sam Kaka and Franck Nziza.
    (AP, 12/16/10)

2010        Dec 17, A French court convicted 13 former officials who served under Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet for roles in the disappearance of 4 French nationals. It sentenced two to life in prison: Juan Manuel Contreras Sepulveda, who at the time headed Pinochet's political police, and Octavio Espinoza Bravo, an army colonel. All 14 of the defendants were tried in absentia.
    (AP, 12/17/10)

2010        Dec 21, A French judge charged exiled Rwandan Hutu rebel leader Callixte Mbarushimana (47) over his alleged role in the 1994 Rwandan genocide. The former "executive secretary" of the Hutu guerrilla FDLR, who had been living in France as a computer technician, was charged with crimes against humanity.
    (AFP, 12/22/10)

2010        Dec 22, In France 113 children arrived from Haiti to start new lives with adoptive parents in time for the holidays.
    (AP, 12/22/10)

2010        Dec 24, Russia announced a deal to buy at least two of France’s advanced Mistral-class amphibious warships. This was the first time in modern history that Russia has made a major defense acquisition abroad.
    (SFC, 12/25/10, p.A2)

2010        Stephane Hessel (93), a former French Resistance spy, authored “Indignez-Vous" (Get Indignant), a 32-page pamphlet calling people to action to protect human rights and combat against the yawning gap between rich and poor.
    (www.commondreams.org/view/2011/01/05-8)(SFC, 1/7/11, p.A5)
2010        In France there was an extortion attempt against Domaine de la Romanee-Conti, maker of the world’s most expensive wine. In 2014 Maximillian Potter authored “Shadows in the Vineyard: The True Story of a Plot to Poison the World’s Greatest Wine."
    (Econ, 7/19/14,p.71)
2010        The French public health system had a $16 billion (€12 billion) shortfall.
    (Econ, 2/12/11, p.58)
2010        The AR drone built by Parrot, a French company, became a best seller. The easy-to-fly quadcopter was able to beam video back to a smartphone.
    (Econ, 9/26/15, p.80)

2011        Jan 5, French automaker Renault suspended three top managers suspected of leaking secrets about electric cars, the auto industry's big hope for the future. Renault and the French secret service suspected Chinese involvement in the affair. In March the firm apologized to the managers after it emerged police found no trace of bank accounts the accused men were alleged to have held and that the source of the spying allegations may have been a fraudster.
    (AFP, 1/7/11)(AFP, 4/11/11)

2011        Jan 7, In Niger two French citizens, Antoine de Leocour and Vincent Delory, were kidnapped by four armed men while dining at a restaurant in the capital, Niamey. It was later reported that Leocour was shot dead by his captives during a French rescue attempt and that Delory died in a vehicle carrying fuel after it was hit by weapons fire during the rescue attempt.
    (www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jan/09/french-hostages-killed-niger)(AFP, 1/5/12)

2011        Jan 8, France’s Pres. Sarkozy said 2 French hostages, kidnapped a day earlier in the Niger capital Niamey, were killed by their captors despite a rescue attempt by French forces.
    (SSFC, 1/9/11, p.A5)

2011        Jan 11, Police in Spain and France arrested two suspected members of ETA, suggesting the government in Madrid will keep up pressure on the violent Basque separatist group despite the latter's declaration of a permanent cease-fire.
    (AP, 1/11/11)

2011        Jan 13, France's parliament gave final approval to a law forcing large companies to reserve at least 40 percent of their boardroom positions for women within six years.
    (Econ, 7/23/11, p.11)(http://tinyurl.com/447vuoy)

2011        Jan 16, France's far-right National Front party elected the daughter of its founder, Jean-Marie Le Pen, as its new leader, who says she wants to broaden the appeal of a party known best for its anti-immigration, anti-Islam platform.
    (AP, 1/16/11)

2011        Jan 19, In western France Laetitia Perrais, an 18-year-old waitress, disappeared after her restaurant shift in Pornic. Officials later filed preliminary charges against suspect Tony Meilhon (31), recently out of prison with 15 convictions on his record, for the "kidnapping followed by death." On Feb 3 Pres. Sarkozy said: "Our duty is to protect society from these monsters." The president's incautious comments about the suspect, and his complaints of incompetence in the legal system, sparked a revolt among judges, prosecutors and lawyers.
    (AP, 2/10/11)

2011        Jan 21, Osama bin Laden demanded that France withdraw its troops from Afghanistan in exchange for the release of French hostages being held by al-Qaida affiliates, according to an audio message broadcast on an Arabic news channel.
    (AP, 1/21/11)
2011        Jan 21, Dozens of Palestinians, enraged by France's sympathy for an Israeli soldier held by Gaza militants, ambushed the French foreign minister's motorcade in the Gaza Strip, pelting it with eggs and hurling a shoe that narrowly missed hitting her.
    (AP, 1/21/11)

2011        Jan 28, France's top constitutional watchdog ruled that law prohibiting gay marriage does not violate the constitution, all but challenging parliament to debate overturning the ban.
    (AP, 1/28/11)

2011        Feb 7, France-based Alcatel-Lucent unveiled technology that reduces the filing cabinet size of a wireless base station to that of Rubik’s cube.
    (Econ, 2/12/11, p.70)

2011        Feb 10, French President Nicolas Sarkozy declared that multiculturalism had failed, joining a growing number of world leaders or ex-leaders who have condemned it.
    (AFP, 2/11/11)
2011        Feb 10, French judges demonstrated in cities throughout France, with the main march in the western city of Nantes, where a teenage waitress disappeared on Jan 19. A police hunt found her severed limbs and head in the waters of an abandoned quarry. Pres. Sarkozy’s incautious comments about the suspect, and his complaints of incompetence in the legal system, sparked the revolt among judges, prosecutors and lawyers.
    (AP, 2/10/11)

2011        Feb 11, Diplomatic relations between France and Mexico deteriorated into a crisis, after a Mexican court upheld a 60-year prison term for Florence Cassez (36), a French woman convicted of kidnapping.
    (AFP, 2/12/11)

2011        Feb 14, France called on Algeria to allow anti-government protests, inspired by uprisings in Egypt and Tunisia, to take place freely and without violence.
    (AFP, 2/14/11)

2011        Feb 15, Venezuelan and French authorities seized 3.6 metric tons of cocaine aboard a vessel in the Caribbean Sea.
    (AP, 2/16/11)

2011        Feb 16, France-based Sanofi-Aventis agreed to buy Massachusetts-based Genzyme Corp., the world’s largest maker of medicines for rare genetic disorders, for at least 20.1 billion.
    (SFC, 2/17/11, p.D2)

2011        Feb 22, A French creator of specialized search engines filed a new complaint with the European Union about alleged anticompetitive behavior by Google Inc.
    (AP, 2/22/11)

2011        Feb 23, France and Germany threatened to hit Libya with EU sanctions for Moammar Gadhafi's fierce crackdown on protesters, while the European Union said the violence in Libya could constitute "crimes against humanity" and urged an independent probe into it.
    (AP, 2/23/11)

2011        Feb 25, The French film industry awarded the coveted Cesar award for best movie to "Of Gods and Men" ("Des Hommes et des Dieux") by Xavier Beauvois, a masterful drama based on the real-life tragedy of seven French monks abducted and beheaded during Algeria's civil war in 1996. Director Roman Polanski won Best Director for "The Ghost Writer," and "The Social Network" won Best Foreign Film.
    (AP, 2/25/11)

2011        Feb 27, French Pres. Sarkozy selected Defense Minister Alain Juppe to replace foreign minister Michele Alliot-Marie. Gerard Longuet, head of the conservative party in the Senate, will take over the defense portfolio.
    (SFC, 2/28/11, p.A2)

2011        Feb 28, Libyan rebels downed a military aircraft as they fought a government bid to take back Libya's third city, Misrata. French PM Francois Fillon said that France was sending two planes with humanitarian aid to Benghazi, the opposition stronghold in eastern Libya. Libya's oil chief said production was down 50 percent because of the exodus of foreign oil workers fleeing the country's violent uprising. Al Jazeera reported that the beleaguered Kadhafi regime has asked Bu Zaid Dorda, Libya's foreign intelligence chief, to hold a dialogue with opposition leaders in eastern Libya. 
    (Reuters, 2/28/11)(AP, 2/28/11)(AFP, 2/28/11)

2011        Mar 1, French fashion house Christian Dior said John Galliano has been immediately laid off, just days after he was suspended as its creative director pending an investigation into an alleged anti-Semitic incident in a Paris cafe last week.
    (AP, 3/1/11)

2011        Mar 3, French President Nicolas Sarkozy and his indebted government said they are abandoning a tax ceiling for big earners, once hailed as key to modernizing France and luring investors.
    (AP, 3/3/11)

2011        Mar 7, A long-awaited French corruption trial opened with former President Jacques Chirac (78) as the star defendant. Chirac was accused of embezzlement, breach of trust and conflict of interest, based on allegations linked to his tenure as Paris mayor, before he became president from 1995 to 2007.
    (AP, 3/7/11)
2011        Mar 7, French fashion colossus LVMH Moet Hennessy Louis Vuitton announced that it has agreed to buy Rome-based jeweler Bulgari SpA in a cash-and-shares deal worth euro4.3 billion ($6 billion).
    (AP, 3/7/11)

2011        Mar 10, France blazed a diplomatic trail as it recognized a newly formed Libyan opposition group, drawing the ire of other European nations for stepping out on its own even as the situation in Libya remained unclear.
    (AP, 3/10/11)

2011        Mar 10, In France the suspected leader of the Basque separatist group ETA's armed cells and three other alleged members of the organization were arrested in Willencourt in northern Pas-de-Calais region. They included Alejandro Zobaran Arriola (29), who an Interior Ministry statement described as the head of ETA's "military apparatus." Another was the alleged logistics chief, Mikel Oroz Torrea (31).
    (AP, 3/11/11)

2011        Mar 18, The European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg France, ruled that crucifixes in public schools do not violate a student’s freedom of conscience.
    (SFC, 3/19/11, p.A2)

2011        Mar 19, French President Nicolas Sarkozy said that French warplanes are already targeting Gadhafi's forces. 22 participants at a summit in Paris "agreed to put in place all the means necessary, in particular military" to make Gadhafi respect a March 17 UN Security Council resolution to protect civilian areas. Libyan government tanks and troops reached the edges of Benghazi in fierce fighting that killed more than 120. Gibreil Hewadi, a member of the rebel health committee, said the dead included rebel fighters and civilians, among them women and children.
    (AP, 3/19/11)(AP, 3/20/11)

2011        Mar 21, A top French official said the international military intervention in Libya is likely to last "awhile," echoing Moammar Gadhafi's warning of a long war ahead as rebels said they were fighting to reclaim Ajdabiya. New fighting broke out in Misrata, the last rebel-held city in western Libya.
    (AP, 3/21/11)
2011        Mar 21, France's data privacy regulator said it had imposed a record fine of 100,000 euros ($142,000) on Google for private information collected while compiling its panoramic Street View service.
    (AFP, 3/21/11)

2011        Mar 22, France's foreign ministry said that NATO would provide support to military intervention by the Western-led coalition in Libya when the US scales back its participation.
    (Reuters, 3/22/11)

2011        Mar 24, French airstrikes hit an air base deep inside Libya and NATO ships patrolled the coast to block arms and mercenaries from flowing in to help Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi. Other coalition bombers struck artillery, tanks and parked helicopters.
    (AP, 3/24/11)

2011        Mar 26, In Switzerland 1 person was missing after an avalanche swept away 11 French skiers near the southern border with Italy. 4 people were killed.
    (AP, 3/26/11)

2011        Mar 31, In China French President Nicolas Sarkozy and US Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner called for more flexible exchange rate regimes as G20 nations met on global monetary reform in Nanjing.
    (AFP, 3/31/11)

2011        Apr 3, The French air accident investigation agency BEA said that a team aboard the expedition ship Alucia using underwater robots "has located pieces of an aircraft ... in the past 24 hours." Air France Flight 447 slammed into the ocean June 1, 2009, after running into an intense high-altitude thunderstorm.
    (AP, 4/4/11)

2011        Apr 4, In Ivory Coast UN and French forces opened fire with attack helicopters on the home of incumbent Pres. Laurent Gbagbo and 3 strategic military garrisons as foot soldiers backing Alassane Ouattara pierced the limits of Abidjan.
    (SFC, 4/5/11, p.A4)

2011        Apr 6, France’s top court refused to allow citizenship for 10-year-old twin girls born to a surrogate mother in California, affirming France’s legal ban on surrogacy.
    (SFC, 4/7/11, p.A2)

2011        Apr 7, Forces allied with Ivory Coast's internationally recognized president Alassane Ouattara have stormed the gates of Laurent Gbagbo's home. French forces wearing night vision goggles rappelled from a helicopter to rescue the Japanese ambassador and 7 others, as strongman leader Laurent Gbagbo remained in an underground bunker amid the fighting.
    (AP, 4/7/11)

2011        Apr 8, France and Italy announced an agreement to joint sea-and-air patrols to try to block new Tunisian migrants from sailing to European shores.
    (AP, 4/8/11)

2011        Apr 10, Police in central France arrested a man and a woman allegedly linked to the Basque separatist group ETA following a pair of weekend shooting incidents against officers that injured at least one.
    (AP, 4/10/11)
2011        Apr 10, In the Ivory Coast UN and French helicopters fired rockets on strongman Laurent Gbagbo's residence in an assault the UN said was to retaliate for attacks by his forces on UN headquarters and civilians.
    (Reuters, 4/10/11)

2011        Apr 11, In France a law went into effect banning women from wearing full-face veils in public places. Several women appeared veiled in front of Paris' Notre Dame Cathedral and two were detained for taking part in an unauthorized protest. The $214 burqa fine also included mandatory lessons on being French.
    (SFC, 4/9/11, p.A2)(AP, 4/11/11)

2011        Apr 14, A top French security official said two French citizens have been arrested in Pakistan, where authorities have linked them to a top suspected al-Qaida militant over the 2002 nightclub bombing in Bali.
    (AP, 4/14/11)

2011        Apr 17, A train carrying Tunisian immigrants from Italy was halted at the French border in an escalation of an international dispute over the fate of North African migrants fleeing political unrest for refuge in Europe, unprecedented since the introduction of the Schengen travel-free zone.
    (AP, 4/17/11)

2011        Apr 21, French President Nicolas Sarkozy hosted Palestinian leader Mahmud Abbas in Paris as Europe reflects more and more openly on the prospect of recognizing an independent Palestine.
    (AFP, 4/21/11)
2011        Apr 21, French police began exhuming five bodies from a freshly dug grave at a house in the northwestern city of Nantes. They are believed to be those of Agnes Dupont de Ligonnes (49), and her four children, aged 13-21. The family went missing almost three weeks ago. The father, Xavier Dupont de Ligonnes, remained unaccounted for.
    (AP, 4/22/11)

2011        Apr 26, French dairy giant Lactalis offered $5 billion (€3.4 billion) for Parmalat, Italy’s biggest manufacturer of milk products.
    (Econ, 5/7/11, p.70)

2011        Apr 28, France based Total SA announced plans to buy a 60% stake in SunPower Corp. of San Jose, Ca.
    (SFC, 4/29/11, p.D1)

2011        May 1, A French submarine probing 3,900 meters (12,800 feet) below the ocean's surface located and recovered the flight data recorder of Air France Flight 447, which crashed June 1, 2009, in a remote area of the mid-Atlantic.
    (AP, 5/1/11)

2011        May 3, French investigators recovered the cockpit voice recorder from an Air France Flight 447 that plunged into the Atlantic Ocean on June 1, 2009, killing all 228 people on board.
    (AP, 5/3/11)

2011        May 6, France ordered 14 diplomats loyal to Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi to leave the country within 48 hours.
    (AP, 5/6/11)

2011        May 11, Three top French publishers said they were suing US Internet giant Google for scanning thousands of their books for its online library without permission.
    (AP, 5/11/11)
2011        May 11, The sculpture "Leviathan" was unveiled at Paris's Grand Palais by Mumbai-born British sculptor Anish Kapoor. It created an experience of being swallowed by a whale.
    (Reuters, 5/10/11)
2011        May 11, France canceled all of Togo's debt, amounting to 101.1 million euros, in a bid to encourage the West African nation to pursue economic reforms.
    (AFP, 5/12/11)
2011        May 11, The French government imposed a moratorium on fracking, the blasting of fissures in subterranean rock and pumping in water and sand to extract shale gas.
    (Econ, 6/25/11, p.79)

2011        May 14, Dominique Strauss-Kahn (62), the leader of the International Monetary Fund and a possible candidate for president of France, was yanked from an airplane moments before it was to depart for Paris and arrested in the alleged sexual assault of Nafissatou Diallo, a NYC hotel maid. The immigrant maid from Guinea identified him in a line-up. On Aug 8 Diallo sued Strauss-Kahn for sexual assault. In 2012 John Solomon authored “DSK: The Scandal That Brought Down Dominique Strauss-Kahn."
    (AP, 5/15/11)(Econ, 5/21/11, p.25)(SFC, 8/9/11, p.A5)(Econ, 5/12/12, p.88)

2011        May 22, The Cannes Film Festival awarded its top prize to the drama “Tree of Life" by Terence Malick. Kirsten Dunst too the best actress prize for “Melancholia." Jean Dujardin claimed the best actor prize for the silent film “The Artist."
    (SFC, 5/23/11, p.E2)

2011        May 23, A French diplomatic source said France and other members of a NATO-led coalition plan to deploy attack helicopters in Libya, a move aimed at ramping up pressure against Muammar Gaddafi's forces.
    (Reuters, 5/23/11)

2011        May 24, In France the world's most powerful Internet and media barons gathered in Paris in a show of strength to leaders at the G8 summit, amid rows over online copyright, regulation and human rights.
    (AFP, 5/24/11)
2011        May 24, The Libyan rebel council fighting to oust Muammar Gaddafi said it will open an office in Paris but a representative has not yet been named. Top US official Jeffrey Feltman said Libya's rebels have accepted an invitation to open a representative office in Washington as he renewed a US call for Moamer Kadhafi to step down immediately.
    (AFP, 5/24/11)

2011        May 26, In France G8 leaders met to discuss military operations in Libya, implications of the Arab Spring, and financial support for the recently toppled autocracies of Egypt and Tunisia.
    (SFC, 5/27/11, p.A2)

2011        May 27, Pres. Obama and other G8 leaders wrapped up a 2-day summit in France and announced plans for a $40 billion in aid to support democracy in Egypt, Tunisia and the rest of North Africa.
    (SFC, 5/28/11, p.A3)
2011        May 27, Japan's PM Naoto Kan used a G8 summit in France to reassure Tokyo's most powerful allies that his country would learn the lessons of its nuclear disaster and recover fully.
    (AP, 5/27/11)

2011        May 28, Yemen's government and armed tribesmen seeking President Ali Abdullah Saleh's ouster agreed to a temporary cease-fire to allow for negotiations after five days of clashes that killed at least 124 people. The truce was to expire in the evening. Three French aid workers, two women and one man, were abducted while working for the Triangle Generation Humanitaire. Men linked to an al-Qaida offshoot demanded $12 million in ransom. The 3 aid workers were freed on Nov 13 after Oman and Yemeni tribesmen negotiated their release.
    (AP, 5/28/11)(AP, 7/27/11)(AP, 11/14/11)

2011           Jun 5, In France, the Conseil Supérieur de l’Audiovisuel (CSL) announced that radio and TV stations would no longer be allowed to promote or recommend their Facebook pages and Twitter feeds on air, unless such sites are part of a news story.  The decision, which was first issued quietly on May 27, has now attracted international media outrage thanks to the French bloggers who began writing about it yesterday.
            (AP, 6/6/11)

2011        Jun 16, In France a 7th child was hospitalized with an E. coli infection after eating meat that manufacturers said could come from Germany, where an outbreak of the bacteria has killed 37 people.
    (AFP, 6/16/11)

2011        Jun 22, In France European plane maker Airbus won a slew of orders for its A320 medium-haul workhorse, including a record deal for 180 from Indian budget carrier IndiGo at a rainy Paris Air Show.
    (AFP, 6/22/11)

2011        Jun 23, France said it will pull its 4,000 troops out of Afghanistan on the same staggered timetable as the US withdrawal, helping pave the way for drawdowns by other allies.
    (AP, 6/23/11)
2011        Jun 23, The Paris-based International Energy Agency (IEA) said 28 countries have agreed to release 60 million barrels of crude to the market to offset disruptions prompted by Libya's war. The countries will make 2 million barrels a day available from their emergency stocks over a period of 30 days.
    (AP, 6/23/11)

2011        Jun 24, French junior transport minister Thierry Mariani said French engineering group Alstom is in exclusive talks to build a high-speed rail line between Baghdad and Basra in Iraq.
    (AFP, 6/24/11)

2011        Jun 25, In Paris tens of thousands turned out for a gay pride parade. In Germany thousands packed downtown Berlin for the 33rd annual CSD (Christopher Street Day) festival, an annual European LGBT celebration and demonstration held in various cities across Europe for the rights of LGBT people.
    (SSFC, 6/26/11, p.A10)
2011        Jun 25, Thailand announced its withdrawal from the UN's World Heritage Convention, at a meeting of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee in Paris. Thailand said it was withdrawing because the committee's consideration of Cambodia's plan for managing the Preah Vihear temple site could threaten Thai sovereignty and territory.
    (AP, 6/26/11)

2011        Jun 26, An English climber found the bodies of six mountaineers in the French Alps who appeared to have died after a fall caused by an avalanche of snow and stones.
    (AFP, 6/26/11)

2011        Jun 27, French President Nicolas Sarkozy said French banks are ready to help troubled Greece by accepting a significant debt rollover, a move that could push other banks to pitch in to the Europe-wide effort to keep Athens from defaulting.
    (AP, 6/27/11)

2011        Jun 28, French finance chief Christine Lagarde (55) was named as the first female head of the Int’l. Monetary Fund (IMF).
    (SFC, 6/28/11, p.D4)

2011        Jun 29, France-3 television said that their reporters Stephane Taponier and Herve Ghesquiere, held hostage in Afghanistan since December 2009, have been freed.
    (AP, 6/29/11)
2011        Jun 29, French daily Le Figaro reported that France has begun parachuting arms shipments to Berber rebels fighting Kadhafi's forces in the highlands south of Tripoli.
    (AFP, 6/29/11)

2011        Jul 1, In NYC former IMF chief Dominique Strauss-Kahn (62) was released without bail after a dramatic court hearing where the sexual assault case against him appeared to shift in his favor. Prosecutors said the credibility of the woman at the center of the case had been thrown into question.
    (Reuters, 7/1/11)

2011        Jul 5, French author Tristane Banon (31) filed charges of attempted rape against former IMF chief Dominique Strauss-Kahn. The incident took place in 2003. She had first recounted the incident on a 2007 TV show. The charges were dismissed on Oct 13 due to a 3-year statute of limitations.
    (SFC, 7/6/11, p.A5)(SFC, 10/14/11, p.A2)

2011        Jul 6, French police arrested ETA suspect Daniel Derguy on terrorism charges in Cahors.
    (AFP, 7/7/11)

2011        Jul 8, French police investigated a train robbery on the outskirts of Marseille in which a group of youths held up a passenger train and robbed a freight train following behind.
    (SFC, 7/9/11, p.A2)

2011        Jul 11, Air Algerie cabin crew went on strike. They wanted a 106-percent pay rise and left thousands of angry travelers stranded in Paris, Marseille and Nice airports.
    (AFP, 7/13/11)

2011        Jul 12, President Nicolas Sarkozy said that France would withdraw a quarter of its 4,000 troops from Afghanistan by the end of next year.
    (AFP, 7/12/11)

2011        Jul 13, In Afghanistan 5 French soldiers were killed in a suicide bombing in the northeastern province of Kapisa. A NATO soldier in the south was killed in an insurgent attack.
    (AFP, 7/13/11)

2011        Jul 14, In France thousands of angry travelers were still stranded in airports and in Algiers as a strike by Air Algerie cabin crew, who want a 106% pay rise, went into its 4th day. Air Algerie staff ended their four-day strike after mediation by the office of PM Ahmed Ouyahia.
    (AFP, 7/14/11)
2011        Jul 14, Switzerland suspended imports of some seeds, beans and sprouts from Egypt, after the EU blamed Egyptian fenugreek seeds for E.coli outbreaks in Germany and France. The temporary ban would expire in October 31, 2011, in line with the EU's suspension.
    (AFP, 7/14/11)

2011        Jul 24, Cadel Evans won the Tour de France, becoming the first Australian to capture cycling's most prestigious title.
    (AP, 7/24/11)

2011        Aug 2, French authorities agreed to extradite Manuel Noriega back to Panama.
    (SFC, 8/3/11, p.A2)

2011        Aug 6, France's Overseas Ministry said four people have been killed and another 23 injured in a conflict over an increase in airline ticket prices on Mare, an island in the South Pacific archipelago of New Caledonia.
    (AP, 8/6/11)
2011        Aug 6, Roman Opalka (b.1931), French-born Polish painter, died in France. In 1965 in his studio in Warsaw, Opalka began painting a process of counting – from one to infinity.
    (Econ, 8/20/11, p.79)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Opa%C5%82ka)

2011        Aug 16, French President Nicolas Sarkozy and Germany Chancellor Angela Merkel called for greater economic and political unity among the 17 nations that share the euro.
    (AP, 8/17/11)

2011        Aug 25, Libyan rebels battled forces loyal to Moammar Gadhafi on the streets of Tripoli.  European officials confirmed that small numbers of British, French and other special forces have been working inside Libya in recent months.
    (AP, 8/25/11)

2011        Aug, Belgium, France, Italy and Spain introduced bans to prevent the short selling of financial stocks. The EU banned naked shorting of shares in October, effective in Nov, 2012.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, p.88)

2011        Sep 8, British fashion icon John Galliano (50) was convicted of anti-Semitism for hurling abuse at bar patrons in Paris' Jewish quarter in a career-breaking outburst he has blamed on drink and drugs. In the French trial in July Galliano apologized for his conduct. He received suspended fines totaling 6,000-euro (£5,200, $8,400).
    (AFP, 9/8/11)

2011        Sep 12, In southern France the Centraco nuclear waste site had an explosion that killed one person, seriously burned another and slightly injured three others. Centraco is located on the 300-hectare Marcoule site, which also houses a research center and four industrial sites, including one that makes Mox, a fuel made from plutonium and uranium.
    (AP, 9/12/11)

2011        Sep 14, In France Dominique de Villepin, former chief of staff for former Pres. Jacques Chirac, was acquitted on appeal in the “Clearstream" trial (see July 2004).
    (Econ, 9/17/11, p.50)

2011        Sep 15, British PM David Cameron and French President Nicolas Sarkozy gave Libya's new rulers strong support during a landmark visit to Tripoli, vowing to release billions of dollars more in frozen assets and to push ahead with NATO strikes against Gadhafi's last strongholds. 11 fighters were killed and 34 wounded in a first assault on Sirte launched before sunset.
    (AP, 9/15/11)(AFP, 9/16/11)

2011        Sep 21, French President Nicolas Sarkozy called on the United Nations to admit Palestine as a non-member state, upgrading its status as a simple observer but opposing a Palestinian bid for full membership.
    (AFP, 9/21/11)

2011        Sep 23, French oil giant Total said it had restarted production from an offshore oil platform off Libya, making it the first major to return to work since the fall of Kadhafi.
    (AFP, 9/26/11)

2011        Sep 28, In France a fire in an abandoned building, set for demolition in the city-owned building in the Paris suburb of Pantin, killed six suspected illegal immigrants.
    (AP, 9/28/11)

2011        Sep 29, French President Nicolas Sarkozy arrived in Morocco to kick off work on Africa's fastest rail line, in a bid to highlight France's role in the project.
    (AFP, 9/29/11)

2011        Oct 1, The French press called Aga Kahn’s divorce settlement the most expensive in French history. A court has ordered Kahn, a billionaire and spiritual leader to 20 million Muslims, to pay $80 million to Gabriele Thyssen. He married the German princess in 1998.
    (SSFC, 10/2/11, p.A4)

2011        Oct 6, The European Court of Human Rights ruled that France did not violate George Soros' rights when convicting him of insider trading, defeating a years-long effort by the billionaire financier to clear his name. He was fined euro2.2 million in 2002, for purchasing shares in French bank Societe Generale in 1988, days after being informed about a planned takeover bid for the bank.
    (AP, 10/6/11)

2011        Oct 9, The governments of Belgium, France and Luxembourg said they had approved a plan for the future of embattled bank Dexia, but they offered no details. France and Belgium became part owners of the bank during a euro6 billion ($7.8 billion) 2008 bailout. They have promised to ensure that no Dexia depositors lose money. Luxembourg held a smaller stake. The cost of the bailout to French taxpayers was about €6.6 billion.
    (AP, 10/9/11)(Econ, 11/16/13, p.77)

2011        Oct 12, An Indian-French satellite that will study monsoon patterns and global warming was launched from a space center in southern India. Three other smaller satellites were also released from the rocket.
    (AFP, 10/12/11)
2011        Oct 12, Taiwan said that it was seeking nearly $100 million in compensation from France, in the latest twist to a long-running kickback scandal over the 1991 sale of warships to the island.
    (AFP, 10/12/11)

2011        Oct 13, In France a high school math teacher in the city of Beziers sprayed herself with a flammable product and set herself alight in the school yard during recreation. She was hospitalized with serious burns.
    (AP, 10/13/11)

2011        Oct 16, In France Francois Hollande was elected head of the Socialist Party by a margin of 58% to 43% over Martine Aubry.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, p.61)

2011        Oct 20, France said that the Somali kidnappers of Marie Dedieu (66), a disabled Frenchwoman who died after being snatched from her home in Kenya, are demanding a ransom for the return of her body.
    (AP, 10/20/11)
2011        Oct 20, ETA announced it was ceasing its 43-year-long bloody campaign for an independent Basque state in territory straddling northern Spain and southwest France. But the group stopped short of declaring defeat and called on Spain and France to open talks on the conflict.
    (AP, 10/21/11)

2011        Oct 22, France's Socialist Party announced Francois Hollande (57) as its candidate for presidential elections in six months, culminating a weeks-long process of primaries.
    (AP, 10/22/11)

2011        Oct 24, A French military spokesman said France would soon help supply Kenyan troops fighting al-Qaida-linked militants.
    (AP, 10/24/11)

2011        Oct 27, France's nuclear monitor said that the amount of cesium 137 that leaked into the Pacific from the Fukushima disaster was the greatest single nuclear contamination of the sea ever seen.
    (AFP, 10/27/11)

2011        Nov 2, France's PM Sarkozy condemned an apparent overnight arson attack that destroyed the offices of Charlie Hebdo weekly, satirical French newspaper that had "invited" the Prophet Muhammad as a guest editor this week.
    (AP, 11/2/11)

2011        Nov 3, French President Nicolas Sarkozy branded Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu "a liar" in a private conversation with US President Barack Obama that was accidentally broadcast to journalists during the G20 summit in Cannes.
    (Reuters, 11/8/11)

2011        Nov 4, G20 nations, meeting in France, pledged to fight cross-border tax evasion under an agreement, which supporters say could raise tens of billions of dollars at a time when indebted European nations are scrambling for more revenue. Eurozone leaders accepted that a member could default and leave the euro.
    (AP, 11/4/11)(Econ, 11/12/11, p.62)

2011        Nov 7, The French government unveiled its 2nd austerity plan in three months. This promised savings of €7 billion in 2012 in addition to €11 billion announced in August.
    (Econ, 11/12/11, p.59)
2011        Nov 7, France marked the resumption of security cooperation with Ivory Coast after a seven-year hiatus with the delivery of police vehicles in Abidjan.
    (AFP, 11/7/11)

2011        Nov 8, A French court ruled that the News of the World had violated the privacy of former world motorsport chief Max Mosley when it published photographs of him in a sadomasochistic orgy. The court fined Rupert Murdoch's News Group, publisher of the now-defunct tabloid, 10,000 euros ($13,800) and ordered it to pay 7,000 euros in damages for violating Mosley's privacy, but said there was no defamation. Mosley (71) had already won a case in a British court against News Group, after the News of the World published a front-page story in March 2008 entitled "F1 boss has sick Nazi orgy with 5 hookers."
    (AFP, 11/8/11)

2011        Nov 11, French Pres. Sarkozy presided over the traditional Armistice Day ceremony, which marks 93 years since fighting in WWI came to an end. He lay a wreath at the tomb of the unknown soldier under Paris' Arc de Triomphe and lit a flame, but strayed from convention by declaring Nov. 11 a day to remember the dead from all of France's wars.
    (AP, 11/11/11)

2011        Nov 12, French Foreign Minister Alain Juppe vowed to help Nigeria in its fight against extremist groups as the country faces an intensifying Islamist insurgency. Nigeria is France's biggest trading partner in sub-Saharan Africa.
    (AFP, 11/12/11)

2011        Nov 17, It was reported that French company Fonroche plans invest $115 million to build a 44-megawatt solar farm in Puerto Rico. The farm will be built on 160 acres (65 hectares) and will provide power to the state-owned electric company as part of a 20-year, $240 million contract.
    (AP, 11/17/11)

2011        Nov 22, In France Danielle Mitterrand (b.1924), a decorated member of the French Resistance and combative advocate for the poor who broke the mold as first lady alongside France's first Socialist president, died.
    (AP, 11/22/11)

2011        Nov 23, A French court ruled that former dictator Manuel Noriega can be extradited to Panama to serve time for past crimes, more than 20 years after being ousted and arrested in a US invasion.
    (AP, 11/23/11)

2011        Nov 24, In Mali a gang kidnapped two French geologists at gunpoint from their hotel in the eastern desert village of Hombori. The body of geologist Philippe Verdon was found and identified in July, 2013. Serge Lazarevic was freed on Dec 9, 2014.
    (AFP, 11/24/11)(Reuters, 7/14/13)(SFC, 12/10/14, p.A3)

2011        Nov 25, A shipment of nuclear waste reprocessed in France crossed into Germany on its way to a controversial storage site near the town of Dannenberg that protesters say is unsafe.
    (AP, 11/25/11)

2011        Nov 30, A French court jailed five Somali men for between four and eight years and acquitted a sixth in the Sep 2, 2008, hostage taking of a French couple on their yacht in the Gulf of Aden.
    (AFP, 11/30/11)

2011        Dec 2, Britain’s PM David Cameron held emergency talks with French President Nicolas Sarkozy, while France and Germany tried to drum up support for a new EU treaty to enforce budget discipline.
    (AFP, 12/2/11)


2011        Dec 5, France and Germany reached a compromise agreement to seek mandatory limits on budget deficits among debt-laden European governments.
    (SFC, 12/6/11, p.A9)
2011        Dec 5, In France Greenpeace activists broke into the Electricite de France’s Nogent-sur-Seine plant. EDF said 9 people were arrested.
    (SFC, 12/6/11, p.A2)
2011        Dec 5, Paris, France, launched an electric car sharing program with 250 vehicles. 3000 vehicles were planned for the program over the next two years.
    (SFC, 12/5/11, p.A3)

2011        Dec 11, Former French PM Dominique de Villepin, who gained international renown as France's spokesman against the war in Iraq, announced he'll run as an independent.
    (AP, 12/12/11)

2011        Dec 15, A French court convicted former Pres. Jacques Chirac (79) of embezzling government money while he was mayor of Paris (1977-1995) and handed him a 2-year suspended sentence.
    (SFC, 12/16/11, p.A7)
2011        Dec 15, A French court convicted Carlos the Jackal (62), already serving a life sentence for a triple murder in 1975, was convicted of instigating four bombings in France in 1982-1983 that killed 11 people. He was sentenced to another life term in prison.
    (SFC, 12/16/11, p.A7)

2011        Dec 16, A court in Paris charged Sosthene Munyemana, a Rwandan doctor living in France, on suspicion he took part in the country's 1994 genocide.
    (AFP, 12/16/11)

2011        Dec 19, Mauritania said it has signed an agreement with French oil group Total to explore for oil at sea and to extract any oil discovered.
    (AFP, 12/19/11)

2011        Dec 22, French officials prepared to decide if thousands of women should have their implants surgically removed. Silicone gel implants, made by a company called Poly Implant Prothese (PIP) which was shut down in 2010, appear to have an unusually high rupture rate and have sparked an investigation in France into possible links to cancer. Fears over the safety of  the breast implants made by PIP spread to Australia, South America and across Europe.
    (Reuters, 12/22/11)
2011        Dec 22, Turkey's PM Erdogan said his country is recalling its ambassador to France and halting official contact in retaliation for a vote in the French Parliament making it a crime to deny the 1915 mass killings of Armenians was a genocide. The bill, just passed in France's lower house, still needed approval in the Senate.
    (AP, 12/22/11)

2011        Dec 23, The International Criminal Court (ICC) at The Hague freed Rwandan rebel Callixte Mbarushimana and returned him to France after dismissing murder and rape charges against him. He spent 11 months in detention and was the first war crimes suspect to be arrested and freed without trial since the court began work in 2002.
    (AP, 12/23/11)
2011        Dec 23, Turkey responded to French genocide allegations with a charge of its own, accusing France of committing genocide during its colonial occupation of Algeria. He alleged that beginning in 1945, about 15 percent of the population of Algeria was massacred by the French. He also said Algerians were burned in ovens. Most historians contend the Ottoman killings of up to 1.5 million Armenians constituted the first genocide of the 20th century.
    (AP, 12/23/11)

2011        Dec 23, It was reported that a herpes virus has decimated oysters along its coast for a 4th straight season. 70-80% of France’s young stock have died this year.
    (SFC, 12/23/11, p.A4)

2011        Dec 24, The French national insurance agency said it will file a criminal complaint against Poly Implant Prothese, the maker of faulty breast implants after authorities agreed to pay women for the removal of tens of thousands of potentially faulty breast implants.
    (SSFC, 12/25/11, p.A6)

2011        Dec 31, In France Leon Kengo (76), CongoDRC Senate chief, was attacked at the Gare du Nord train station "by bands of those who call themselves 'fighters' close to Etienne Tshisekedi." According to initial reports, Kengo had some teeth knocked out, was trampled underfoot, and rolled on the ground.
    (AFP, 1/1/12)
2011        Dec 31, Britain's biggest cosmetic surgery chain revealed that rupture rates on allegedly faulty French-made breast implants are seven times higher than previously thought.
    (AFP, 1/1/12)

2011        Elaine Sciolino authored “La Seduction: How the French Play the Game of Life."
    (Econ, 6/11/11, p.87)

2012        Jan 6, French President Nicolas Sarkozy vowed to push ahead with a new tax on financial transactions, also known as a Tobin tax, even without France's EU partners, in the face of stiff British resistance. The EU's executive European Commission adopted plans last September for a financial transaction tax under which stock and bond trades would be taxed at the rate of 0.1 percent, with derivatives taxed at 0.01 percent.
    (Reuters, 1/8/12)

2012        Jan 11, In Syria French journalist Gilles Jacquier was killed and another wounded during a grenade barrage in Homs. President Assad joined thousands of his supporters in a rare public appearance, telling a pro-regime rally in the capital that the "conspiracy" against his country will fail.
    (AP, 1/11/12)(AP, 1/12/12)

2012        Jan 13, France was stripped of its top-notch credit rating by Standard & Poor’s.
    (SFC, 1/13/12, p.A2)
2012        Jan 13, Japanese energy firm Inpex and French giant Total announced a huge $34 billion gas project in Australia, as Tokyo looks for alternatives to nuclear power in the wake of the Fukushima disaster.
    (AFP, 1/13/12)

2012        Jan 14, A French Mirage and a Saudi F-15 collided in the kingdom's northern region of Tabuk without causing casualties.
    (AFP, 1/14/12)

2012        Jan 15, Spain’s Interior Ministry said French police acting alongside Spanish counterparts have arrested three men at a railway station in France on suspicion of belonging to Basque separatist group ETA. They were identified as Jon Echeverria Oyarbide (33), Ruben Rivero Campo, and Inigo Sancho Marco.
    (AP, 1/15/12)

2012        Jan 20, An Afghan soldier shot dead four unarmed French troops during a sports session inside a base. Pres. Sarkozy suspended French military training and joint combat operations with Afghan troops, and sent Defense Minister Gerard Longuet to probe the attack in which at least 15 French soldiers were also wounded.
    (AFP, 1/20/12)

2012        Jan 23, Turkey threatened more sanctions for France if the Senate in Paris votes later today to make it a crime to deny the 20th-century killing of Armenians by Ottoman Turks constitutes a genocide. France's parliament approved the bill later in the day.
    (AP, 1/23/12)(AP, 1/24/12)

2012        Jan 24, Turkey warned the French president against signing a law that makes it a crime to deny that the killings of Armenians by Ottoman Turks nearly a century ago constituted genocide, saying such a move would deal a heavy blow to the relations between the two countries.
    (AP, 1/24/12)

2012        Jan 26, In southeast France Jean-Claude Mas (72), the former head of a French company at the center of a breast implant scandal affecting tens of thousands of women worldwide, was arrested along with his former deputy, Claude Couty.
    (AP, 1/26/12)

2012        Jan 27, France announced it would withdraw its troops from Afghanistan a year earlier than the 2014 date agreed by NATO. Pres. Sarkozy, alongside Afghan President Hamid Karzai who was in Paris for a previously planned visit, said France had told the US of its plan, and will present it at a Feb. 2-3 meeting of NATO defense ministers in Brussels.
    (AP, 1/28/12)

2012        Jan 31, Rafale, made by Dassault, emerged as preferred bidder in the contest to supply India with 126 warplanes in what will be a $15 billion (9 billion pounds) deal. Its competitor, the Eurofighter Typhoon, is developed by a consortium comprising the German and Spanish branches of EADS, Britain's BAE Systems and Italy's Finmeccanica.
    (Reuters, 2/1/12)

2012        Feb 6, Air France pilots and other personnel began a 4-day walkout to protest a bill requiring air transport workers to give 48 hours notice before striking.
    (SFC, 2/6/12, p.A2)

2012        Feb 13, Suspected Nigerian pirates fired on a cargo ship around 110 nautical miles off the coast of Nigeria killing the captain and chief engineer. The French navy came to the aid of the cargo ship.
    (AFP, 2/13/12)(AP, 2/16/12)

2012        Feb 14, French police searched an upmarket Paris residence of the son of Equatorial Guinea's President Teodoro Obiang Nguema as part of a corruption probe.
    (AFP, 2/14/12)

2012        Feb 17, In France British PM David Cameron and French President Nicolas Sarkozy put recent disputes behind them to unveil a nuclear power deal and renew their own sometimes shaky political alliance. Cameron said the British engineering firm Rolls-Royce will secure a £400 million (481 million euro, $632 million) share in the work to build Britain's first French-pioneered EPR reactor at Hinkley Point in southern England.
    (AFP, 2/17/12)
2012        Feb 17, France and Britain pledged to help the Syrian opposition in its struggle against Bashar al-Assad's regime but said conditions were not right for a foreign intervention as in Libya. Pres. Sarkozy urged anti-Assad forces to unite and be better organized.
    (AFP, 2/17/12)

2012        Feb 19, In northern France a coach taking 47 British holidaymakers home from a school skiing trip rolled into a ditch, killing a teacher and injuring 23 people.
    (AFP, 2/19/12)

2012        Feb 26, Hollywood gave its best film award to the silent French movie "The Artist." It also collected Oscars for its star Jean Dujardin and director Michel Hazanavicius, as well as for musical score and costume design. Meryl Streep won as Best Actress for playing former British PM Margaret Thatcher in "The Iron Lady." Veteran Christopher Plummer made history by becoming the oldest winner ever at age 82 with his role as an elderly gay man in "Beginners."
    (Reuters, 2/27/12)

2012        Feb 28, Paris-based Interpol said 25 suspected members of the loose-knit Anonymous hacker movement have been arrested in a sweep across Europe and South America.
    (SFC, 2/29/12, p.A4)
2012        Feb 28, The French Constitutional Assembly struck down a draft law that would have criminalized the denial of the (1915-1919) Armenian genocide by Ottoman Turks.
    (SFC, 2/29/12, p.A2)

2012        Mar 2, France said it is closing its embassy in Syria, a day after two French journalists escaped to Lebanon.
    (AP, 3/2/12)

2012        Mar 10, Jean Giraud (b.1938), French cartoonist aka Moebius, died overnight in Paris.
    (SFC, 3/13/12, p.C3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Giraud)

2012        Mar 11, In France a non-commissioned officer, dressed in civilian clothes, was shot dead in the street in Toulouse at point blank range.
    (AFP, 3/19/12)

2012        Mar 12, French police raided the home of L’Oreal heiress Liliane Bettencourt and seized a computer as part of a probe involving suspected illegal party financing and tax evasion.
    (SFC, 3/13/12, p.A2)

2012        Mar 15, France rejected weapons requests by the Syrian rebel forces, saying that arming the Syrian opposition could lead to catastrophic civil war.
    (AP, 3/16/12)
2012        Mar 15, In southern France a gunman on a motorbike opened fire on three uniformed paratroopers at a bank machine in Montauban, killing two and critically wounding the other. Four days earlier, a gunman on a motorbike shot and killed another paratrooper in Toulouse, about 50 km (30 miles) away. The same caliber of weapon was used in both attacks.
    (AP, 3/16/12)

2012        Mar 19, In France a gunman burst into a Jewish school in Toulouse shooting dead Jewish rabbi Jonathan Sandler (30), his two sons and another child in the third such deadly attack in a week. The next day police identified Mohamed Merah (b.1988), a French petty criminal of Algerian origin, as the killer. Special forces cornered him in a building. Merah had spent time in Pakistan and Afghanistan and claimed to be an Al-Qaeda operative.
    (http://tinyurl.com/pakkrd9)(AP, 3/19/12)(AFP, 3/21/12)(Econ, 3/1/14, p.2014)

2012        Mar 21, In France 3 police officers were wounded in a predawn raid while trying to arrest Mohamed Merah, a 24-year-old Frenchman of Algerian descent. The gunman was suspected of killing three Jewish children, a rabbi and three French paratroopers in recent days.
    (AP, 3/21/12)
2012        Mar 21, In France a package bomb exploded at Indonesia’s embassy in Paris. French investigators soon confirmed that the main suspect is Frederic C. Jean Salvi, who is believed to have studied for several years with Islamic militants in Indonesia.
    (AP, 3/29/12)

2012        Mar 22, In France Mohamed Merah shot at police with a Colt .45 handgun and was killed with a bullet to the head as he jumped from a balcony following a 32-hour siege in Toulousse.
    (AFP, 3/22/12)

2012        Mar 25, France handed down preliminary murder and terrorism charges against Abdelkader Merah alleging he helped his brother Mohamed plan recent attacks against Jewish schoolchildren and paratroopers.
    (SFC, 3/26/12, p.A2)

2012        Mar 26, In France former IMF chief Dominique Strauss-Kahn was handed preliminary charges alleging he was involved in a French prostitution ring.
    (SFC, 3/27/12, p.A2)

2012        Mar 29, France barred a group of Muslim clerics, including one of the most prominent voices in Sunni Islam, from entering the country to attend a conference. The clerics had been invited by the French Islamic Union to speak  April 6-9 at a congress in Le Bourget near Paris. Police detained 19 people as they launched a crackdown on suspected Islamist extremists in cities around the country.
    (AP, 3/29/12)(AP, 3/30/12)
2012        Mar 29, Franco-Algerian nuclear physicist Adlene Hicheur (35) went on trial in Paris for allegedly plotting terror attacks in France. Police arrested Hicheur, a researcher studying the universe's birth, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), in October 2009 after intercepting emails he wrote. He stood trial charged with criminal association as part of a terrorist enterprise.
    (AFP, 3/29/12)
2012        Mar 29, Equatorial Guinea warned that French firms would face the consequences if Paris did not scrap an arrest warrant for the son of President Teodoro Obiang Nguema. A day earlier the ruling Democratic Party (PDGE) said the country's first son, also the party's vice president, could not be judged by a French court.
    (AFP, 3/29/12)

2012        Mar, French public debt stood at 90% of GDP and was rising. Public spending was at 56% of GDP and the country had not balanced its books since 1974.
    (Econ, 3/31/12, p.15)

2012        Apr 3, In France preliminary charges were filed against 13 people who were picked up in a sweep last week, all members of a banned group, Forsane Alizza, or Knights of Pride. Those charged were reportedly calling for Muslim Sharia law to be implemented in France.
    (AP, 4/4/12)
2012        Apr 3, Richard Descoings (53), director of one of France’s top colleges, was found dead in NYC where he was on an official visit. He pioneered efforts to open elitist schools to the underprivileged and bring in foreign students.
    (AP, 4/4/12)

2012        Apr 4, French police rounded up 10 people in their second country-wide sweep in several days. The arrests were part of a high-profile crackdown on radical Islamists in the wake of attacks on soldiers and a Jewish school.
    (AP, 4/4/12)

2012        Apr 10, Raymond Aubrac (b.1914), one of the last major figures of the French Resistance, died. He got away from the Nazis' grasp in a now-legendary escape led by his equally renowned wife.
    (AP, 4/11/12)

2012        Apr 14, French energy giant Total said it had made progress on plans to fix the gas leak at well G4 on its Elgin platform, 150 miles (240km) off Aberdeen on Scotland's east coast.
    (AFP, 4/14/12)

2012        Apr 22, France held its first round of presidential elections. The first-round balloting trimmed down a list of 10 candidates to two finalists for a May 6 runoff. Final results showed Socialist Francois Hollande won 28.6% of the vote and incumbent conservative Nicolas Sarkozy 27.2%. Far-right nationalist Marine Le Pen was in third with 17.9%.
    (AP, 4/22/12)(AP, 4/23/12)

2012        May 5, Voters in France's overseas territories began casting ballots for Nicolas Sarkozy or Francois Hollande in a presidential election that could affect everything from Europe's efforts to fight its debt crisis to how long French troops stay in Afghanistan.
    (AP, 5/5/12)

2012        May 6, France voted in a presidential run-off election. Socialist challenger Francois Hollande (51.62%) defeated incumbent Nicolas Sarkozy (48.38%) by capitalizing on public anger over the government's austerity policies. Sarkozy became the first French one-term president since Valery Giscard d'Estaing lost his re-election bid in 1981.
    (AP, 5/6/12)(AP, 5/7/12)

2012        May 15, Francois Hollande became president of France.
    (AP, 5/15/12)
2012        May 15, French energy giant Total said it has begun the operation to plug a gas leak under one of its North Sea platforms by pumping it full of mud at high pressure.
    (AFP, 5/15/12)

2012        May 16, In France Jean-Marc Ayrault, previously the mayor of Nantes, took office as the new prime minister. He replaced Francois Fillon.
    (SFC, 5/16/12, p.A2)(Econ, 11/17/12, SR p.4)
2012        May 16, French energy giant Total said it had plugged a gas leak under the North Sea Elgin platform that cost the firm hundreds of millions of dollars and threatened to trigger a major explosion off the coast of Scotland.
    (AFP, 5/16/12)
2012        May 16, In French Guiana an Ariane 5 rocket successfully launched two Asian telecoms satellites into orbit from the Kourou space center. It placed into orbit two geostationary satellites, the JCSAT-13 for the Japanese SKY Perfect JSAT Corporation, and the VINASAT-2 of the Vietnam Posts and Telecommunications Group.
    (AFP, 5/16/12)

2012        May 17, Members of France's new Socialist-led government promised to take a pay cut, a gesture of shared sacrifice by leaders who must now both reduce the country's massive debts and tackle spiraling unemployment.
    (AP, 5/17/12)

2012        May 18, French Pres. Francois Hollande, on his first visit to the Oval Office, told Pres. Obama that he will withdraw all French troops from Afghanistan by year’s end.
    (SFC, 5/19/12, p.A2)

2012        May 19, A fishing boat sank off the French island of Mayotte in the Indian Ocean. At least 2 adults and 3 children died and 15 people remained missing.
    (SFC, 5/21/12, p.A2)

2012        May 25, French President Francois Hollande for the first time provided details of his plan to pull France's combat troops out of Afghanistan by the end of the year, saying he would leave around 1,400 soldiers behind to help with training and logistics.
    (AP, 5/26/12)

2012        May 27, In France the film “Amour," directed by Michael Haneke of Austria, won 1st prize the Cannes Film Festival.
    (SFC, 5/28/12, p.E3)

2012        May 30, Canadian authorities issued a "Canada-wide arrest warrant" for porn actor Luca Rocco Magnotta (29), a suspect police have connected to a homicide and the mailings of two body parts from Montreal to Ottowa. Police suspected he killed Jun Lin (33), last seen on May 24. Police said Magnotta had dated Lin, filmed the murder and then fled to France.
    (SFC, 5/31/12, p.A2)(AP, 6/1/12)(SFC, 6/2/12, p.A2)

2012        Jun 17, France held legislative elections. Final results showed the Socialist Party won 280 seats, while two closely allied parties garnered a total of 34 seats, giving the Socialist-led bloc 314 seats.
    (AP, 6/18/12)

2012        Jun 18, French President Francois Hollande's Socialist government formally resigned after the legislative elections. He immediately re-appointed Jean-Marc Ayrault as prime minister and asked him to form a new government, which was expected to be nearly identical to the outgoing cabinet.
    (AP, 6/18/12)

2012        Jun 20, In France a gunman, who authorities say had past psychiatric problems, took four people hostage in a bank in Toulouse, claiming he was acting for religious reasons. The gunman released one hostage mid-afternoon, a woman in her late 20s.
    (AP, 6/20/12)

2012        Jun 21, French PM Jean-Marc Ayrault named two new female ministers in a minor government adjustment, bringing the total number of women in the 38-member Cabinet to 19.
    (AP, 6/21/12)

2012        Jun 23, In France thousands of Iranian exiles led a Paris rally to demand democratic change in Iran and help for Iranian resistance members in Iraq's refugee camps.
    (AP, 6/23/12)

2012        Jun 29, French authorities arrested a Tunisia-born man, the administrator of an extremist French website, who is suspected of playing a key role in financing and recruiting for al-Qaida and other terrorist groups in several countries.
    (AP, 7/3/12)

2012        Jul 2, Corsican separatist gunmen (FNLC) attacked the luxury holiday villa of a French banker, evacuated the occupants and detonated 4 explosives inside.
    (SFC, 7/3/12, p.A2)

2012        Jul 4, In Afghanistan the French military handed over Kapisa province to local forces, completing an important stage in France's accelerated withdrawal from the war-torn country.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)

2012        Jul 12, France issued an arrest warrant for the son of Equatorial Guinea's President Teodoro Obiang Nguema after he refused to be interviewed by magistrates on graft charges. He declined to be interviewed claiming immunity as Equatorial Guinea's vice president.
    (AFP, 7/13/12)
2012        Jul 12, Struggling French carmaker PSA Peugeot-Citroen, facing diving sales in crisis-hit southern Europe, announced a drastic cost-cutting plan to slash 8,000 jobs in France and close a major factory north of Paris.
    (AP, 7/12/12)
2012        Jul 12, A slab of ice broke off high in the French Alps, sparking an avalanche that swept nine Europeans to their deaths as they tried to climb Mont Blanc. 11 other climbers were hospitalized and at least four are still unaccounted for.
    (AP, 7/12/12)

2012        Jul 13, In southern France three Americans, crew members of Universal Jet Aviation, died when a private plane crashed at Le Castellet airport.
    (AP, 7/14/12)

2012        Jul 14, An Italian Alpine rescue team military official said the bodies of a Polish woman and Spanish man were found 4,400 meters (14,436 feet) up on the Mont Blanc Dome du Gouter peak on the Italian-French border after spending more than 24 hours in a snow hole.
    (AP, 7/15/12)

2012        Jul 19, France seized a six-storey mansion on the chic Avenue Foch in the 16th district, reportedly worth between 100 and 150 million euros, in connection with an investigation into Teodorin Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guinea leader Teodoro Obiang Nguema.
    (AFP, 8/3/12)

2012        Jul 22, In Spain a vacationing French family of five jumped off a seaside cliff in a desperate attempt to escape a raging wildfire in Portbou, with the father and one of his children plummeting some 50 meters (165 feet) to their deaths. Two other people were also killed by the weekend fires in northeastern Spain.
    (AP, 7/23/12)

2012        Jul 25, In France a helicopter crashed in the Verdon Gorge and killed all 6 people on board. They were all employees of Eurocopter, an EADS-owned firm.
    (SFC, 7/26/12, p.A7)

2012        Jul 31, The French Parliament approved legislation making sexual harassment a crime.
    (SFC, 8/1/12, p.A2)

2012        Aug 2, It was reported that France planned to offer financial incentives to French fishermen for hunting bull sharks, a threatened shark species, following recent attacks on people off the coast of Reunion.
    (SFC, 8/2/12, p.A4)

2012        Aug 13, A government spokesman says Iraq has asked French oil giant Total S.A. to choose between working with the self-ruled northern Kurdish region or to quit developing one of the major oil fields in southern Iraq.
    (AP, 8/13/12)
2012        Aug 13, In northern France months of tension between police and young people exploded in Amiens, with dozens of youths facing off against riot officers in a night of violence. Some 17 officers were injured after more than 200 riot police were stationed to the area.
    (AP, 8/14/12)(AP, 8/15/12)

2012        Aug 17, In France Patrick Ricard (67), chairman of the board of directors of Pernod Ricard, died. He transformed a small firm based on his father's anis-flavored liquor into a global entity with some of the most famous names in alcohol.
    (AP, 8/18/12)

2012        Aug 28, French sources said prosecutors have opened a murder enquiry into Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat's 2004 death near Paris following claims he may have died of polonium poisoning.
    (AFP, 8/29/12)

2012        Aug, France launched its latest campaign to drive Gypsies from their camps.
    (AP, 8/15/12)

2012        Sep 5, In the French Alps the bodies of 3 British vacationers and French cyclist, Sylvain Mollier (45), were found slain near the village of Chevaline. A 4-year-old girl was found alive among the bodies. Her sister (7) was beaten and shot but survived. Their BMW car was registered to Baghdad-born Saad al-Hilli (b.1962), who had lived in Britain since at least 2002. His family had been in France since August. A Swedish passport and Iraqi passport were also found at the scene. A family feud was suspected. On June 24, 2013, the brother of Saad al-Hilli was arrested after investigators gathered evidence that the siblings were fighting over their father's inheritance.
    (AP, 9/6/12)(AP, 9/7/12)(AP, 6/24/13)

2012        Sep 9, France's richest man, Bernard Arnault, the CEO of luxury giant LVMH, confirmed reports that he is seeking Belgian citizenship.
    (AP, 9/10/12)

2012        Sep 14, A French magazine published photos of Prince William's wife Kate sunbathing topless at a private house in southern France, prompting a strong condemnation from the royal family.
    (AP, 9/14/12)

2012        Sep 19, A French magazine ridiculed the Prophet Mohammad on by portraying him naked in cartoons, threatening to fuel the anger of Muslims around the world who are already incensed by a film depiction of him as a lecherous fool. A grenade exploded at a kosher grocery store in a Jewish neighborhood in the Paris suburb of Sarcelles. One person was slightly injured.
    (Reuters, 9/19/12)

2012        Sep 24, A court in southwestern France convicted a factory chief and a subsidiary of oil giant Total of manslaughter for an explosion at a chemical plant in September, 2001, that killed 31 people.
    (AP, 9/24/12)

2012        Sep 28, The French government presented a budget that was heavy on taxes — including a controversial 75 percent income rate on high earners. It committed to reduce the deficit to 3% next year.
    (AP, 9/28/12)(Economist, 10/6/12, p.17)

2012        Sep 30, In France thousands of demonstrators marched peacefully in Paris to denounce austerity measures in Europe that have sparked violent protests in other EU countries struggling to avert fiscal crises.
    (AP, 9/30/12)

2012        Oct 6, French police carried out raids across the country after DNA on a grenade that exploded last Sep 19 at a kosher grocery store led them to a suspected jihadist cell of young Frenchmen recently converted to Islam. A man named by police as Jeremy Louis-Sydney, was killed by police after he opened fire on them, slightly wounding three officers in the eastern city of Strasbourg. Eleven other suspects were arrested across the country. Some of the 12 suspected cell members arrested over the weekend appeared to have plans to go to Syria to fight in its civil war.
    (AP, 10/6/12)(AP, 10/10/12)

2012        Oct 9, French police discovered bomb-making materials in an underground parking lot near Paris as part of a probe of an "extremely dangerous terrorist cell" linked to an attack on a kosher grocery.
    (AP, 10/10/12)

2012        Oct 11, In France a court in Creteil, outside Paris, sentenced 4 of 14 men accused of rape to prison terms, although most of the time was suspended. The longest term any will serve is a year. French women's organizations decried the acquittals and lenient sentences for the gang raping two teenage girls more than a decade ago.
    (AP, 10/12/12)

2012        Oct 13, French President Francois Hollande said his country was committed to facilitating freedom of movement, exchange and trade within the French-speaking world during a visit to Congo for the Francophonie Summit.
    (AP, 10/13/12)

2012        Oct 17, France's foreign minister Laurent Fabius said Syria's air force is using so-called barrel bombs — makeshift weapons consisting of containers stuffed with TNT — to heavily damage neighborhoods. Fabius met with representatives of about 20 countries to share details about a secret French aid program and encourage others to join it.
    (AP, 10/17/12)

2012        Oct 20, In France some 70 far-right extremists from around the country stormed the construction site of a mosque in Poitiers to show their hostility toward it and denounce immigration that has brought millions of Muslims into the country.
    (AP, 10/20/12)

2012        Oct 22, A French defense official said that France plans to move two surveillance drones to western Africa from Afghanistan by year-end, though he did not provide details. France is also reported to have special forces in the region around Mali, and to have contracted out surveillance of Mali to a private company.
    (AP, 10/22/12)

2012        Oct 24, French police arrested former Seattle real estate developer Michael Mastro and his wife, Linda at their apartment in the town of Doussard near Lake Annecy. A day later, US authorities handed them a 43-count grand jury indictment on charges of money laundering and bankruptcy fraud, including allegedly lying about the whereabouts of two huge diamonds valued together at $1.4 million as part of a bankruptcy proceeding.
    (AP, 10/27/12)

2012        Oct 27, In France several hundred striking Air France workers, protesting a restructure plan to cut 10% of the work force, clashed with police at Paris’ Roissy-Charles de Gaulle airport.
    (SSFC, 10/28/12, p.A3)
2012        Oct 27, In Greece Costas Vaxevanis, publisher of Hot Doc magazine, printed a list of 2,059 Greek depositors at a bank in Switzerland. The list, dating from 2007, was allegedly given to the Greek government by French officials in 2010. Vaxevanis was arrested, faced trial and was acquitted. On Oct 8, 2013, he appeared in court again to stand trial again for violating privacy laws.
    (SFC, 10/29/12, p.A2)(Econ, 11/3/12, p.54)(Reuters, 10/8/13)

2012        Oct 28, French police arrested Izaskun Lesaka (37) and another suspected ETA member, Joseba Iturbide Ochoteco (35), in a hotel in Macon. Police said Lesaka was considered one of ETA's top three leaders and that police also seized abundant computer equipment and a stolen car with false number plates.
    (AP, 10/28/12)

2012        Nov 9, An Algerian military cargo plane crashed in southern France with six people aboard. The plane returning to Algeria carried five military personnel and one official of the Algerian national bank.
    (AP, 11/9/12)

2012        Nov 13, France became the first Western country to formally recognize Syria's newly formed opposition coalition as the sole legitimate representative of the Syrian people.
    (AP, 11/13/12)
2012        Nov 13, In France Thierry Tilly (48), arrested in Switzerland in 2009, was sentenced to eight years in prison. His manipulation of the de Vedrines family has led to comparisons to the Russian mystic Rasputin's legendary influence over the tsar.
    (AP, 11/13/12)

2012        Nov 14, On France’s island of Corsica Jacques Nacer, a shopkeeper and chief of Corsica's chamber of commerce, was killed. He was the second high-profile killing on the island in a month.
    (AP, 11/15/12)

2012        Nov 17, In France groups opposed to President Francois Hollande's plans to legalize gay marriage and gay adoptions took to the streets. Large groups marched in Paris, Lyon and Toulouse.
    (AP, 11/18/12)

2012        Nov 19, French oil firm Total SA said it has sold a stake in an offshore oil field in Nigeria for $2.5 billion to Chinese state oil company Sinopec Corp. The cash deal requjired approval by Nigerian authorities.
    (AP, 11/19/12)

2012        Nov 20, France ended its combat operations in Afghanistan, pulling hundreds of troops from a base in a volatile region northeast of Kabul and fulfilling promises to end its combat role on a faster track than other NATO allies.
    (AP, 11/20/12)

2012        Nov 22, Former French Pres. Nicolas Sarkozy spent 12 hours in a Bordeaux court answering questions about whether he accepted illegal campaign donations from the 90-year-old L'Oreal heiress, Liliane Bettencourt.
    (AP, 11/22/12)(SFC, 11/23/12, p.A2)

2012        Nov 23, Former French tennis coach Regis de Camaret (70) was convicted and sentenced to eight years in prison for raping young students at his academy, ending a seven-year legal case that began when a former ranked player published a book describing years of abuse at his hands.
    (AP, 11/23/12)

2012        Nov 24, In western France protesters squatting in treetop tents and makeshift shelters battled for a 2nd day with French riot police trying to expel them from the site of a planned airport near Nantes.
    (AP, 11/24/12)

2012        Nov 26, France's EDF and partner Centrica have received the first UK site licence for a new nuclear plant in 25 years, paving the way for Britain's first new nuclear station since 1995.
    (AP, 11/26/12)

2012        Nov 27, France announced that it plans to vote in favor of recognizing a Palestinian state at the UN General Assembly this week.
    (AP, 11/27/12)

2012        Dec 5, The Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa announced that it has accepted a $5.8 billion deal with French company Alstom SA to refurbish the nation's passenger trains.
    (AP, 12/5/12)

2012        Dec 12, French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said more than 100 countries have recognized a new Syrian opposition coalition. Fabius called the "Friends of the Syrian People" conference meeting in Marrakech, Morocco, "extraordinary progress." US and NATO said President Bashar Assad's forces had fired Scud missiles at rebel areas.
    (AP, 12/12/12)(AP, 12/13/12)

2012        Dec 14, French mountaineer Maurice Herzog died (93), six decades after his 1950 Annapurna climb made him a household name.
    (AP, 12/15/12)

2012        Dec 16, French actor Gerard Depardieu said in an open letter that he is turning in his passport following his move to tax-friendly Belgium after PM Jean-Marc Ayrault called Depardieu pathetic and unpatriotic.
    (SFC, 12/17/12, p.A2)

2012        Dec 19, In northern Nigeria more than 30 assailants stormed a house, killing two people and kidnapping French engineer Francis Collomp in the town of Rimi, Katsina state. On Nov 17, 2013, it was reported that Collomp had escaped and was on his way to France.
    (AP, 12/20/12)(Reuters, 11/17/13)

2012        Dec 20, French President Francois Hollande acknowledged the "unjust" and "brutal" nature of France's occupation of Algeria for 132 years, but stopped short of apologizing for the past as many Algerians have demanded on the second day of his state visit to Algeria.
    (AP, 12/20/12)

2012        Dec 26, Angry Central African Republic protesters carrying clubs threw rocks at the French Embassy, criticizing the former colonial power for failing to do more to stem a rapid rebel advance as fears grew that the insurgents aim to seize the capital.
    (AP, 12/26/12)

2012        Dec 29, Embattled French President Francois Hollande suffered a fresh setback when France's highest court threw out a plan to tax the ultrawealthy at a 75 percent rate, saying it was unfair. The court's ruling took issue not with the size of the tax, but with the way it discriminated between households depending on how incomes were distributed among its members.
    (AP, 12/29/12)

2012        Dec 30, French reinforcements arrived in the Central African Republic from nearby Gabon, bringing the total French military force in the capital, Bangui, to nearly 600.
    (AP, 12/30/12)

2012        Martin Evans authored “Algeria: France’s Undeclared War."
    (Econ, 12/31/11, p.67)
2012        Marilyn Yalom authored “How the French Invented Love: Nine Hundred Years of Passion and Romance."
    (SSFC, 10/28/12, p.F5)
2012        The French government made an administrative change that allowed minors with valid ID to leave the country without parental authorization.
    (SFC, 12/9/14, p.A2)

2013        Jan 1, French  Interior Minister Manuel Valls said  young revelers set afire 1,193 vehicles, lamenting that this has become a way to mark the arrival of the New Year. His announcement was the first time in three years that such figures have been released.
    (AP, 1/1/13)

2013        Jan 3, The Basque nationalist group known as Batasuna, legal in France but banned in Spain, announced that it is dissolving after 11 years.
    (AP, 1/3/13)
2013        Jan 3, In France Internet Service Provider Free, run by Xavier Niel, upgraded software on its customer modems with online ads blocked by default. The move was aimed chiefly at Google.
    (Econ, 1/12/12, p.57)
2013        Jan 3, Russia announced that President Vladimir Putin has approved French actor Gerard Depardieu's application for citizenship.
    (AP, 1/3/13)

2013        Jan 5, A Moroccan family of 5 returning home died when their plane crashed shortly after takeoff from Grenoble airport near the French Alps.
    (AP, 1/5/13)

2013        Jan 8, A Paris court convicted nine people for links to a militant group that the UN Security Council has described as an al-Qaida affiliate. Suspected ringleader, Irfan Demirtas (53), a Turkish-Dutch national, was given an eight-year sentence, €20,000 ($26,170) fine and barred from French territory after his sentence is up.
    (AP, 1/8/13)

2013        Jan 9, In France 3 Kurdish women, including one of the founders of a militant group battling Turkish troops since 1984, were "executed" at a Kurdish center in Paris. Protesters blamed Turkey. A Turkish lawmaker claimed the women were slain in a dispute between PKK factions.
    (AP, 1/10/13)
2013        Jan 9, British health officials said a new strain of the winter vomiting disease norovirus has spread to France, New Zealand and Japan from Australia and is overtaking all others to become the dominant local strain.
    (Reuters, 1/9/13)

2013        Jan 11, In Mali radical Islamists held on to the central city of Konna after sending the Malian military reeling in retreat. French President Francois Hollande ordered air strikes to stop the Islamist extremists. This was the start of Operation Serval. French airstrikes began over Konna leaving civilian casualties.
    (AP, 1/11/13)(AP, 1/26/13)(Econ, 1/19/13, p.53)

2013        Jan 12, In Mali French airstrikes overnight drove back Islamist rebels from Konna and destroyed a militant command center, as West African nations authorized the immediate deployment of troops to the country. At least 11 civilians were killed in Konna. A French pilot was killed after the Islamists downed his combat helicopter.
    (AP, 1/12/13)(AP, 1/13/13)
2013        Jan 12, In Somalia a French commando raid to free a captive intelligence agent, code-name Denis Allex, ended in the deaths of 17 Islamists and a French soldier. France said the hostage also died in the failed rescue, but the man's captors denied he had been killed and claimed to have seized a 2nd soldier. Allex was captured in Somalia on July 14, 2009.
    (AP, 1/12/13)

2013        Jan 13, In France some 300,000 people marched toward the Eiffel Tower from three different points in the city to protest against President Francois Hollande’s plan to legalize gay marriage.
    (AP, 1/13/13)

2013        Jan 14, In Mali despite intensive aerial bombardments by French warplanes, Islamist insurgents grabbed more territory and got much closer to the capital.
    (AP, 1/14/13)

2013        Jan 15, French Pres. Francois Hollande opened talks with top leaders in Abu Dhabi in hopes of pushing ahead efforts to sell up to 60 Rafale fighter jets to the United Arab Emirates and strengthen French ties in Gulf energy and defense industries.
    (AP, 1/15/13)
2013        Jan 15, French forces led an all-night aerial bombing campaign to wrest control of Diabaly, a small Malian town, from armed Islamist extremists, as more French troops arrived in preparation for a possible land assault. France announced it tripling the number of troops deployed to Mali from 800 to 2,500.
    (AP, 1/15/13)(AP, 1/16/13)

2013        Jan 16, French troops pressed northward in Mali toward territory occupied by radical Islamists. The start of the land assault put soldiers in direct combat.
    (AP, 1/16/13)
2013        Jan 16, Somalia's most dangerous militant group reportedly killed French hostage Denis Allex, whom French military forces tried to rescue last weekend during a botched raid. French officials have said they believe Allex was killed the night of the raid and that claims by al-Shabab of an execution were simply propaganda.
    (AP, 1/17/13)

2013        Jan 17, French journalist, Yves Debay was shot and killed in Aleppo by a regime sniper while covering clashes between rebels and forces loyal to President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 1/18/13)
2013        Jan 17, In Mali fighting raged in Konna, airstrikes hit Diably and army troops raced to protect Banamba, on the seventh day of the French-led military intervention to wrest back Mali's north from al Qaida-linked groups.
    (AP, 1/17/13)

2013        Jan 20, London's Heathrow Airport cancelled a fifth of flights and airlines scrapped 40 percent of flights to Paris's main airports as snow continued to blanket parts of Europe, with more forecast.
    (AP, 1/20/13)

2013        Jan 21, Malian and French troops took control of the town of Diabaly, patrolling the streets in armored personnel carriers. American planes began transporting French troops and equipment to Mali. French and Malian troops arrived in Douentza to find that the Islamists already had retreated from the town.
    (AP, 1/21/13)(AP, 1/22/13)

2013        Jan 22, French and German Cabinets held a joint meeting before both countries' Parliaments met in the landmark Reichstag building to mark the anniversary of the signing of the 1963 Elysee Treaty, a milestone for two countries that had fought three wars in 70 years.
    (AP, 1/22/13)
2013        Jan 22, A foul-smelling cloud of gas escaped from a factory in northern France, making life unpleasant from the outskirts of Paris to Britain's shores and prompting scores of emergency calls. The mercaptan gas from the Rouen chemical factory was said to be harmless.
    (AP, 1/22/13)

2013        Jan 23, A France-based human rights group charged that Malian forces had committed about 33 killings since new fighting erupted Jan 10.
    (AP, 1/23/13)

2013        Jan 24, Frenchwoman Florence Cassez (38), who spent seven years in prison in Mexico on kidnapping charges, returned to a hero's welcome in Paris. She was ordered freed a day earlier because of flaws in her trial. She was arrested in 2005 and convicted of helping her Mexican then-boyfriend run a kidnapping gang.
    (AP, 1/24/13)

2013        Jan 26, In Mali French forces took control of the airport and a key bridge in the radical Islamist stronghold of Gao under the cover of darkness early today, marking a significant inroad into the heart of territory held by the al-Qaida-linked extremists.
    (AP, 1/26/13)

2013        Jan 27, In France thousands of supporters of a government-sponsored bill, that would legalize marriage and adoption for same-sex couples, marched in Paris.
    (AP, 1/27/13)

2013        Jan 30, In Mali French forces took control the airport in Kidal, seizing a key position in the last remaining urban stronghold of Islamist extremists, whose fighters escaped with their weapons into a desert region the size of Texas and are poised to mount counterattacks.
    (AP, 1/30/13)

2013        Feb 2, In Mali  French President Francois Hollande, bathed in the cheers and accolades of the thousands of people of Timbuktu, made a triumphant stop six days after French forces parachuted into the city.
    (AP, 2/2/13)

2013        Feb 3, A French-owned oil tanker, the M/T Gascogne, was reported missing off Ivory Coast with 17 sailors on board. On Feb 6 Sea Tankers said the ship has been released and that 2 workers suffered injuries in the hijacking.
    (AP, 2/4/13)(AP, 2/6/13)
2013        Feb 3, In Mali French troops launched overnight airstrikes on Islamic militant sites around Kidal and Tessalit in Mali's far north.
    (AP, 2/3/13)

2013        Feb 4, In northern Mali French airstrikes targeted the fuel depots and desert hideouts of Islamic extremists. French forces planned to hand control of Timbuktu to the Malian army this week.
    (AP, 2/4/13)

2013        Feb 6, France's defense minister said French forces clashed with extremists firing rocket launchers near the northern Malian city of Gao.
    (AP, 2/6/13)

2013        Feb 7, In Mali French troops began to withdraw from Timbuktu after securing the fabled city as they ramped up their mission in Gao, searching for Islamic extremists who may be mixing among the local population.
    (AP, 2/7/13)

2013        Feb 8, In northern Mali French forces wrested Tessalit from control of Islamic insurgents. In Gao the conflict's first suicide bombing increased fears of terror attacks. In Bamako soldiers from a unit allied with the leader of last year's military coup stormed the camp of the presidential guard, and at least one person was killed and five were wounded.
    (AP, 2/8/13)

2013        Feb 9, The French and British governments promised to punish those found responsible for selling horsemeat in beef products. French consumer safety authorities said companies from Romania, Cyprus and the Netherlands were part of a supply chain that resulted in horsemeat being disguised as beef in frozen lasagna sold around the continent.
    (Reuters, 2/9/13)(AP, 2/10/13)

2013        Feb 11, French and Malian government forces regained control of Geo.
    (AP, 2/11/13)

2013        Feb 12, French workers fired flares and paint bombs and riot police answered with tear gas in a standoff over layoffs at a plant for US tire maker Goodyear, amid tensions over a slump in Europe's car industry. Another demonstration targeted the headquarters of carmaker PSA Peugeot Citroen, which is laying off thousands of people.
    (AP, 2/12/13)
2013        Feb 12, Two French aid workers were convicted of fraud and sentenced to 2 years in prison for trying to bring 103 children from central Africa to France for adoption, claiming they were orphans from Darfur.
    (AP, 2/12/13)

2013        Feb 22, French catering and vouchers group Sodexo said it was withdrawing all frozen beef products from the market in Britain after finding horse meat in some of its products.
    (Reuters, 2/22/13)

2013        Feb 26, In Mali a suicide car bombing killed six government allies in the northern city of Kidal. The French confirmed that they are engaged in heavy fighting in northern Mali.
    (AP, 2/27/13)

2013        Mar 19, French budget minister Jerome Cahuzac, ensnared in a ballooning scandal over suspected tax fraud and money laundering, became the first resignation in President Francois Hollande's 10-month-old Socialist government. On April 2 Cahuzac admitted to holding a foreign bank account for 20 years.
    (AP, 3/19/13)(Econ, 4/6/13, p.59)
2013        Feb 19, In Cameroon a vacationing French family of seven was kidnapped and whisked toward Nigeria. The family was freed after two months in captivity, returning on April 19 to safety in Douala.
    (AP, 2/20/13)(AP, 4/19/13)

2013        Mar 20, Mexico’s National Institute of Anthropology and History said Mexico has sent a diplomatic note to the French government seeking assistance in heading off an auction of 51 pre-Columbian Mexican artifacts scheduled in Paris for March 22-23, arguing they are protected national historical pieces. Mexico has had laws prohibiting the export of such artifacts since at least 1827.
    (AP, 3/21/13)

2013        Mar 21, In France the Union of Jewish French Students sued Twitter for some $50 million for failing to honor a court ruling to identify users who post Holocaust jokes and calls to kill Jews.
    (SSFC, 3/24/13, p.A4)

2013        Mar 30, In northern France five young siblings, aged 2-10, died after a fire erupted in a home in the town of Saint Quentin.
    (AP, 3/31/13)
2013        Mar 30, Xabier Lopez Pena (alias Thierry), a former leader of armed Basque separatist group ETA, died from a stroke in a French hospital.
    (AP, 3/30/13)

2013        Mar, France’s highest legal authority said no individual tax should exceed 66.6%.
    (Econ, 4/6/13, p.60)
2013        Mar, French entrepreneurs decided to launch a new 3-year school for software developers. The school, named “42," soon received 50 thousand applications for 1,000 student positions.
    (Econ, 5/11/13, p.47)

2013        Apr 7, In France Wilfred De Bruijn was beaten unconscious near his home in central Paris, sustaining five fractures in his head and face, abrasions and a lost tooth. His boyfriend, who was also beaten up, said he witnessed three to four men shouting "Hey, look they're gays," before they attacked. A photo of the victim went viral on social media.
    (AP, 4/10/13)

2013        Apr 10, French Pres. Francois Hollande called for the abolition of tax havens in Europe and elsewhere.
    (Econ, 4/13/13, p.55)

2013        Apr 12, The French Senate voted to legalize same-sex marriage, putting a landmark bill on track to become law by summer.
    (AP, 4/12/13)
2013        Apr 12, In France a contested auction of dozens of Native American tribal masks went ahead following a Paris court ruling, in spite of appeals for a delay by the Hopi tribe, its supporters including actor Robert Redford, and the US government.
    (AP, 4/12/13)

2013        Apr 13, In France Redoine Faid's took four guards hostage and used explosives hidden inside tissue packets to blast his way out of a prison in Lille, near the Belgian border. On May 29 the French Interior Ministry said Faid was arrested overnight in Pontaut-Combault with an accomplice.
    (AP, 4/15/13)(AP, 5/29/13)

2013        Apr 15, This was the deadline for French ministers to declare their assets as set earlier by PM Jean-Marc Ayrault. Foreign minister Laurent Fabius dedclarewd €6m in assets.
    (Econ, 4/13/13, p.55)(Econ, 4/20/13, p.53)
2013        Apr 15, In France clashes again erupted over the construction on a new airport near the city of Nantes. 3 demonstrators were reported injured as anarchists and beret-wearing farmers joined against the project.
    (AP, 4/16/13)

2013        Apr 21, In France tens of thousands of demonstrators took to sunny Paris boulevards to protest the expected passage this week of a bill legalizing gay marriage.
    (AP, 4/21/13)

2013        Apr 23, France legalized gay marriage after a wrenching national debate that exposed deep conservatism in the nation's heartland and triggered huge protests that tapped into deep discontent with the Socialist government.
    (AP, 4/23/13)
2013        Apr 23, In Libya a car bomb targeted the French Embassy in Tripoli, wounding two French guards and a Libyan teenager.
    (AP, 4/23/13)

2013        Apr 26, France's Defense Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian reaffirmed that his country will keep 1,000 of its troops in Mali to fight radical Islamic militants even after the arrival later this year of more than 12,000 UN peacekeepers.
    (AP, 4/26/13)

2013        Apr 28, In France a possible gas explosion ripped off the side of a five-story residential building in Reims, killing at least 3 people and injuring at least 10 others.
    (AP, 4/28/13)
2013        Apr 28, French troops in Mali arrested overnight Gilles Le Guen, a French citizen who converted to Islam. Le Guen had taken on the jihadist cause and threatened his native country in a video last fall.
    (AP, 4/30/13)

2013        Apr 29, France’s Pres. Hollande announced a clutch of pro-business measures, such as cutting the capital gains tax he had raised just six months earlier.
    (Econ, 5/4/13, p.67)
2013        Apr 29, France said it will effectively freeze its military spending for the next several years, cutting nearly 10% of defense jobs. A defense review white paper opted to keep air, ground and sea capabilities, while freezing defense budgets over 6 years and cutting 34,000 mioitary posts between 2014 and 2019.
    (SFC, 4/30/13, p.A2)(Econ, 5/4/13, p.55)

2013        May 5, In France tens of thousands of supporters of leftist parties marched through central Paris to express disappointment with President Hollande's first year in power, criticizing the leader for reneging on his promises to rein in the world of finance and enact economic stimulus.
    (AP, 5/5/13)

2013        May 7, French authorities detained six suspected members of Basque separatist group ETA in simultaneous police operations at three sites: Blois, Montpellier and Brive-la-Gaillarde.
    (AP, 5/7/13)

2013        May 8, Belgian, French and Swiss authorities arrested at least 31 people in a sweep for robbers who pulled off a diamond theft on Feb 18 with clockwork precision at Brussels Airport.
    (AP, 5/8/13)

2013        May 16, In France, a dozen students and a teacher saw a man kill himself with a shot in the head at a private Catholic school. People expressed surprise that the man gained access to the private La Rochefoucauld school, in the heart of Paris' 7th district.
    (AP, 5/16/13)

2013        May 17, In France PSA Peugeot Citroen said that it has signed an agreement with the CGT union to end a strike at a factory north of Paris, which started January 16. Workers said they will still fight a plan to close the plant.
    (AP, 5/17/13)
2013        May 17, French officials said thieves overnight had ripped a safe from the wall of a hotel room near the Cannes Film Festival and made off with some $1 million worth of jewelry.
    (SFC, 5/18/13, p.A2)

2013        May 18, French President Francois Hollande signed a law authorizing gay marriage and adoption by same-sex couples. This means the first gay marriages may be celebrated in France within about 10 days.
    (AP, 5/18/13)
2013        May 18, French police arrested Julian Stevenson (48), a British unemployed man after the bodies of his daughter (5) and son (10) were found with their throats slit at his apartment in a suburb of Lyon. Stevenson hanged himself in prison on Dec 30.
    (Reuters, 5/19/13)(AFP, 12/31/13)

2013        May 25, In France a man stabbed a soldier in uniform in the throat in the commercial district of La Defense outside Paris. Cedric Cordier (23) remained hospitalized but his throat wound wasn't life-threatening. A suspect (22) in the stabbing was arrested on May 29.
    (AP, 5/26/13)(SFC, 5/27/13, p.A2)(AP, 5/29/13)

2013        May 26, In France thousands of people protested in central Paris against the country’s new gay marriage law.
    (AP, 5/26/13)
2013        May 26, The Palm d’Or of the 66th Cannes Film Festival went to “Blue Is the Warmest Color: The Life of Adele," a tender lesbian romance by Tunisian director Abdellatif Kechiche.
    (SFC, 5/27/13, p.A2)

2013        May 28, French defense contractor Thales was reported to have won a 10-year contract worth 600 million pounds ($906 million) to service the British Royal Navy's submarines and ships.
    (Reuters, 5/28/13)

2013        May 29, Vincent Autin (40) and his partner, Bruno Boileau (30) became the first gay couple to marry in France.
    (AP, 5/29/13)
2013        May 29, The EU granted France, Spain, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and Slovenia more time to bring their budget deficits under control to support the bloc's shrinking economy. The European Commission approved France’s request to postpone by 2 years the target of cutting its budget deficit to 3% of GDP.
    (AP, 5/29/13)(Econ, 6/1/13, p.55)

2013        Jun 4, Britain and France made back-to-back announcements that the nerve gas sarin was used in Syria's conflict. A UN probe said it had "reasonable grounds" to suspect small-scale use of toxic chemicals in at least four attacks in March and April in Syria.
    (AP, 6/4/13)

2013        Jun 5, In France a group of skinheads attacked a far-left activist in the heart of Paris' shopping district, leaving Clement Meric (18) brain-dead in the hospital. The attack raised fears of increased far-right violence. A murder investigation soon followed against a security guard, identified only as Esteban. Charges of group violence also followed against Esteban and 3 other men over the fight that led to Meric's death.
    (AP, 6/6/13)(AP, 6/9/13)

2013        Jun 6, The British Competition Commission barred France's Groupe Eurotunnel from docking its ferries at Dover for at least two years due to concerns its purchase of three ferries would allow it to dominate over half of the market.
    (Reuters, 6/6/13)

2013        Jun 7, In France former PM Pierre Mauroy (84) died in Paris. He served from 1981-1984 under Socialist President Francois Mitterrand. His reforms included cutting the legal work week, lowering the retirement age and raising the number of paid holidays.
    (AP, 6/7/13)

2013        Jun 10, The Int’l. Energy Agency in Paris said the world’s energy-related carbon dioxide emissions rose 1.4% in 2012 to a record high of 31.6 billion tons.
    (SFC, 6/11/13, p.A2)

2013        Jun 12, A strike by French air traffic controllers forced cancellations of more than 60% of flights and disrupted travel elsewhere in Europe.
    (AP, 6/12/13)

2013        Jun 13, French rail workers walked off the job to protest a reorganization of the national rail and train companies. Up to 70% of train journeys in France were canceled. The action began the previous evening and was set to end the morning of June 14.
    (AP, 6/13/13)

2013        Jun 14, In France the Airbus A350's maiden flight ended with a safe landing, setting the stage for intensifying competition with US rival Boeing in the long-haul wide-body aircraft market.
    (AP, 6/14/13)
2013        Jun 14, EU trade ministers at a meeting in Luxembourg agreed to France's demand to keep its movie and television industry out of the hotly anticipated trans-Atlantic talks.
    (AP, 6/14/13)

2013        Jun 17, In France Airbus and Boeing both won pledges for big purchases of long-haul, wide-body jets, as the Paris Air Show got off to a robust, if rainy start.
    (AP, 6/17/13)

2013        Jun 18, Vincent Clerc of the Copenhagen-based company's shipping unit said MSC Mediterranean Shipping Company S.A. and CMA CGM of France, the world's three biggest shipping container operators, will form the P3 alliance with Maersk Line.
    (AP, 6/18/13)

2013        Jun 25, In France the Eiffel Tower Paris was shut down due to a labor dispute over salaries, profit sharing and other issues. It reopened after workers returned on June 27.
    (SFC, 6/26/13, p.A2)(AP, 6/27/13)

2013        Jun, In Syria four French journalists went missing in two incidents. On April 19, 2014, French officials said Edouard Elias, Didier Francois, Nicolas Henin and Pierre Torres had been released.
    (AP, 4/19/14)

2013        Jul 6, Russia's Interior Ministry said French authorities have detained Alexei Kuznetsov, a former Russian politician. He has been on an Interpol wanted list since November, accused of fraud worth 3.5 billion roubles. ($105 million).
    (Reuters, 7/6/13)

2013        Jul 12, In central France a train derailment killed at least six people at the station of Bretigny-sur-Orge. The next day French train operator SNCF said it may have been caused by a loose steel plate at a junction.
    (Reuters, 7/13/13)

2013        Jul 15, In France Greenpeace activists occupied a nuclear power plant site before dawn, a media stunt deeply embarrassing to the government, which is intent on demonstrating that France's reliance on nuclear power is safe.
    (AP, 7/15/13)

2013        Jul 16, In southwestern France a neo-Nazi linked to Norwegian mass killer Anders Behring Breivik was arrested after investigators decided he might stage a large "terrorist act." Kristian Vikernes (40), who is also a convicted murderer from Norway, had in the past received a copy of a manifesto from Breivik, the far-right militant who killed 77 people in 2011.
    (Reuters, 7/16/13)

2013        Jul 20, In France 6 people were arrested after overnight violence that erupted in Trappes near Versailles. The trouble began two days earlier when police checked the identity of a woman wearing a Muslim veil and engaged in a scuffle with her husband. It is illegal in France for women to wear full face veils in public but the law is contested in the mainly Muslim suburbs that ring major cities.
    (Reuters, 7/20/13)(Econ, 7/27/13, p.44)

2013        Jul 21, Britain’s Chris Froome pedaled through the streets of Paris as victor of the 2013 Tour de France.
    (CSM, 7/21/13)

2013        Jul 21, In France Gilles Bourdouleix, a member of parliament and mayor for the town of Cholet near Nantes, had a confrontation with Gypsies, when he visited a field owned by the town where Gypsies were illegally living in caravans. He asked them to leave. Some of the Gypsies made Nazi salutes at Bourdouleix and he responded by saying: "Maybe Hitler didn't kill enough of them."
    (AP, 7/23/13)

2013        Jul 24, The French government said it would close down two more far-right militant groups after outlawing three others this month in response to the death of a militant left-wing student in June in a brawl between fringe groups.
    (Reuters, 7/24/13)

2013        Jul 28, In France some 40 million euro ($53 million) worth of diamonds and other jewels were stolen from the Carlton Intercontinental Hotel in Cannes by a single robber. A day later the value of the stolen jewels was raised to $136 million.
    (AP, 7/28/13)(AP, 7/29/13)
2013        Jul 28, NY-based Omnicom Group Inc. and Paris-based Publicis Groupe SA said they are combining in a "merger of equals" that will create the world's largest advertising firm, one worth more than $35 billion.
    (AP, 7/28/13)

2013        Jul 31, Dissident Kazakh oligarch Mukhtar Ablyazov (50), accused at home of embezzling more than $5 billion, was arrested near the French Riviera resort of Cannes. The next day he was told by a French judge that he faced extradition, but his family vowed to fight an expulsion it said was politically motivated.
    (Reuters, 8/1/13)

2013        Aug 6, In France masked farmers began dumping pallets holding tens of thousands of eggs in front of a grocery store in Ploumagoar. The action has continued nightly in the region due to low egg prices. Over-production and expensive renovations to meet new European norms on hen houses have reduced egg farmer incomes.
    (AP, 8/9/13)

2013        Aug 10, Spain’s Interior Ministry said that 75 people have been arrested in a joint operation by Spanish and French police. They included 51 in Spain and 24 in France. Two Barcelona-based suspected heads of the gang, that allegedly smuggled Chinese citizens into Europe and the United States, were among those arrested.
    (AP, 8/10/13)

2013        Aug 19, French police stormed a villa in the Provence town of Bedarrides and arrested Zoran Tomovic (47), a member of the notorious Pink Panther gang of jewel thieves. He had escaped from a Swiss prison earlier this year.
    (AP, 8/21/13)

2013        Aug 24, Four people were killed when a helicopter carrying 16 oil workers and two crew crashed off Scotland's Shetland islands, the fourth incident in the area involving different models of the widely used aircraft in just over four years. The Super Puma L2, made by EADS unit Eurocopter, was operated by CHC Helicopter for France's Total.
    (Reuters, 8/24/13)

2013        Sep 9, In France four men rammed their car into an upmarket jewellery store in central Paris, smashing the shop window and making off with a two-million-euro ($2.6-million) booty.
    (AFP, 9/9/13)

2013        Sep 10, France announced it will put forward a resolution in the UN Security Council aimed at forcing Syria to ultimately dismantle its chemical weapons program, seizing on a diplomatic opening from Syrian ally Russia amid Western threats of force against President Bashar Assad's regime.
    (AP, 9/10/13)
2013        Sep 10, French trade union strikes against pension reforms won only limited support, with most trains running in a sign President Francois Hollande's modest proposals were unlikely to stir broad opposition.
    (Reuters, 9/10/13)

2013        Sep 12, French car makers Bollore and Renault said they would collaborate in the field of electric vehicles.
    (Econ, 9/21/13, p.68)

2013        Sep 16, Representatives from 15 Caribbean nations gathered in St. Vincent to seek slavery reparations from Britain, France and the Netherlands.
    (SFC, 9/17/13, p.A2)

2013        Sep 17, French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said a report by UN inspectors, who investigated an August 21 chemical weapons attack in Syria, leaves no doubt about the responsibility of President Bashar al-Assad's government.
    (Reuters, 9/17/13)

2013        Sep 20, A French judicial source said judges have charged a Rwandan doctor for planning to "commit the crime of genocide" in 1994, after Kigali issued an international warrant against him. Eugene Rwamucyo was wanted by Kigali for having allegedly planned and carried out atrocities in the Butare region of southern Rwanda. In 2010 a French court had rejected a request to extradite him.
    (AFP, 9/20/13)

2013        Sep 25, Amnesty Int’l. said more than 10,000 Roma, also known as Gypsies, have been evicted from French squatter camps from January to August, with many forced to return to Romania and Bulgaria despite EU rules requiring free movement for all EU citizens.
    (SFC, 9/25/13, p.A2)

2013        Sep 27, French police arrested six men in and around Paris over their suspected involvement in the theft of gold bars worth about 1.6 million euros ($2.1 million) from an Air France plane flying to Zurich. The bars were stolen from the plane just before it left Paris's Charles de Gaulle airport on September 19.
    (AFP, 9/27/13)

2013        Sep, French investigating judges began bugging the telephone of former Pres. Nicolas Sarkozy. This was only revealed on March 7, 2014.
    (Econ, 3/15/14, p.51)

2013        Oct 1, Officers with France's DCRI domestic intelligence agency arrested a Paris woman (21) suspected of possible links to al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula.
    (AFP, 10/1/13)

2013        Oct 7, A French oceanographic vessel rescued 29 Syrian refugees, part of a group of 363 asylum-seekers that have landed in Italy in the past 24 hours.
    (AFP, 10/7/13)
2013        Oct 7, In France Patrice Chereau (68), a celebrated actor and director in film, theater and opera, died. He was renowned for cutting-edge productions.
    (AP, 10/8/13)

2013        Oct 11, France's constitutional council upheld a ban on the energy extraction process known as fracking, two days after the European Parliament voted to require full environmental reports from companies that want to establish hydraulic fracturing sites.
    (AP, 10/11/13)
2013        Oct 11, A French court convicted 26 members of three Croatian Roma families of forcing children to carry out more than 100 robberies in European countries.
    (AFP, 10/11/13)

2013        Oct 12, In Niger thousands of people protested against French nuclear firm Areva, which has been mining uranium in the impoverished country for nearly 50 years.
    (AFP, 10/12/13)

2013        Oct 14, French President Francois Hollande, on a visit to South Africa, announced the signing with South Africa of a $2-billion pact for a thermal power plant in South Africa.
    (AFP, 10/14/13)
2013        Oct 14, French authorities detained Davit Kezerashvili, a former Georgian defence minister, wanted in his homeland on corruption charges. Kezerashvili, who also headed the financial police, was charged in January with taking a bribe of $12 million (nine million euros) to facilitate alcohol smuggling in the ex-Soviet nation.
    (AFP, 10/15/13)

2013        Oct 17, In France hundreds of pupils blocked high schools in the Paris region and joined protests after Leonarda Dibrani, a 15-year-old girl, was taken off a school bus on Oct 9 and deported to Kosovo.
    (AP, 10/16/13)(Reuters, 10/17/13)

2013        Oct 18, France's constitutional court ruled that mayors cannot refuse to carry out same-sex marriages just because they oppose them.
    (AP, 10/18/13)
2013        Oct 18, A French court sentenced three Somali pirates to nine years in prison each for the 2009 hijacking off the Somali coast of a French yacht that led to the death of its skipper.
    (AFP, 10/18/13)
2013        Oct 18, French osteopath Pierre Pallardy (72) was sentenced to 10 years in jail for raping and sexually assaulting female patients. His list of famous clients included Pablo Picasso and Rudolf Nureyev.
    (AFP, 10/18/13)

2013        Oct 19, French Socialist Pres. Francois Hollande, under fire from the far left and members of his own party,  said that a 15-year-old girl who was detained in front of her classmates and expelled as an illegal immigrant can return to France. But the rest of the family cannot come with her.
    (AP, 10/19/13)

2013        Oct 21, A Le Monde newspaper report said the US National Security Agency swept up 70.3 million French telephone records in a 30-day period and offered new details of the massive scope of a surveillance operation that has angered some of the country's closest allies.
    (AP, 10/21/13)

2013        Oct 24, In Mali the French military said it has engaged with UN and Malian forces in a major operation aimed at preventing a resurgence of Islamist rebels in Mali.
    (AFP, 10/24/13)

2013        Oct 28, A major storm, dubbed the St Jude storm, lashed southern Britain, the Netherlands and parts of France, knocking down trees, flooding low areas and causing travel chaos. 5 deaths were reported.
    (AP, 10/28/13)

2013        Nov 2, French riot police fired tear gas at thousands of demonstrators in the north-west, after some protesters hurled stones and iron bars at them in a rally against a controversial green tax and layoffs.
    (AFP, 11/2/13)
2013        Nov 2, Britain’s Guardian newspaper reported that spy agencies in Germany, France, Spain and Sweden are carrying out mass surveillance of online and phone traffic in collaboration with Britain, according to documents leaked by Edward Snowden.
    (AFP, 11/2/13)
2013        Nov 2, In Mali two French journalists were snatched by gunmen in the northern town of Kidal. Ghislaine Dupont and Claude Verlon of Radio France Internationale were grabbed by armed men in a 4x4 just after finishing an interview with the acting head of the rebel National Movement for the Liberation of the Azawad (NMLA). Their bodies were dumped a dozen km outside the town.
    (Reuters, 11/2/13)(AP, 11/3/13)

2013        Nov 5, Lyon-based Interpol said it was waiting for information from Dutch authorities after a rights group said it had identified 1,000 paedophiles by offering online sex with a computer-generated girl (10).
    (AFP, 11/5/13)

2013        Nov 6, Cameroonian author Leonora Miano scooped France's Femina literary prize and used her acceptance speech to denounce racist insults directed at the French justice minister.
    (AFP, 11/7/13)

2013        Nov 9, World powers and Iran held a third day of crunch talks on Tehran's nuclear program. France's foreign minister said Iran's refusal to suspend work on a plutonium-producing reactor and downgrade its stockpile of higher-enriched uranium was standing in the way of an interim agreement to curb Tehran's nuclear program in return for easing of sanctions.
    (AFP, 11/9/13)(AP, 11/9/13)

2013        Nov 11, French authorities filed preliminary charges against Bob Dylan over a 2012 interview in which he is quoted comparing Croatians to Nazis and the Ku Klux Klan.
    (AP, 12/3/13)

2013        Nov 13, Fugitive eco-activist Paul Watson (62) said in France that green warriors were being classed as "terrorists" and accused Japan of coercing other countries into making demands for his arrest. The Canadian-born founder of Sea Shepherd, a marine conservation organisation, arrived in California on October 28, more than a year after fleeing arrest in Germany. Watson said he was in talks to seek refuge in France, the only country apart from the United States where he said he expects a fair trial.
    (AFP, 11/13/13)
2013        Nov 13, Gunmen in Cameroon kidnapped Georges Vandenbeusch, a French priest working in the lawless northern region. Vandenbeusch was released on Dec 31.
    (Reuters, 11/14/13)(AP, 12/31/13)

2013        Nov 14, A French commercial court ordered TUeV Rheinland, a German product-testing company, to pay damages to more than 1,600 women and six distributors after ruling that it failed to properly check silicone breast implants that turned out to be prone to leakage.
    (AP, 11/14/13)

2013        Nov 16, In France between 2,000 and 4,000 freight trucks have closed off major highways and slowed traffic to a crawl on nine roadways to protest a proposed environmental tax on heavy loads.
    (AP, 11/16/13)

2013        Nov 17, French President Francois Hollande arrived in Israel for a visit and said France will never tolerate nuclear proliferation. The visit will also see him traveling to the Palestinian territories to discuss Middle East peace talks which have been limping along for three months with little signs of progress.
    (AFP, 11/17/13)

2013        Nov 18, In Paris, France, a gunman opened fire in the lobby of the Liberation newspaper office, gravely wounding a photographer's assistant before fleeing. Soon afterward, shots were fired at the headquarters of a major French bank west of Paris, and a gunman briefly took a man hostage nearby. Suspect Abdelhakim Dekhar (48) was found Nov 19 after a tipoff. Police found him in a "semi-conscious state" after an attempt to kill himself with medication.
    (AP, 11/18/13)(AP, 11/21/13)

2013        Nov 19, France, Germany and other European countries formed a "drone users club" to develop a rival to the US and Israeli pilotless aircraft that dominate the field.
    (AP, 11/19/13)
2013        Nov 19, In France a small plane crashed in the central Burgundy region, killing six people.
    (AFP, 11/19/13)

2013        Nov 20, European Union lawmakers overwhelmingly voted to meet only in Brussels and avoid costly monthly treks to Strasbourg, France. The proposal must be approved by the 28 EU governments and France is certain to nix any change under the current conditions.
    (AP, 11/20/13)
2013        Nov 20, In France Pakistani teenager Malala Yousafzai was handed the EU's prestigious Sakharov human rights prize in recognition of her crusade for the right of all children, girls and boys, to an education.
    (AFP, 11/20/13)

2013        Nov 21, Security sources said French special forces have killed Hacene Ould Khalill the second-in-command of the veteran Islamist commander Mokhtar Belmokhtar in an operation in Mali's northern region of Tessalit. The Mauritanian, known by his nickname Jouleibib, was deputy commander of Belmokhtar's "Those Who Sign in Blood" Brigade, formed when the Algerian jihadist split with al Qaeda's North African wing.
    (Reuters, 11/21/13)

2013        Nov 24, In France thousands of riding enthusiasts protested a sales tax increase. France planed to nearly triple the value added tax on riding schools as of January, 2014.
    (SFC, 11/25/13, p.A2)

2013        Nov 25, France offered weapons, training and intelligence cooperation to help Iraq combat worsening violence amid fears the country is on the verge of returning to all-out sectarian bloodshed.
    (AFP, 11/25/13)

2013        Nov 26, France said it would send hundreds of extra troops to the strife-torn Central African Republic after the UN warned the country was descending into "complete chaos."
    (AFP, 11/26/13)

2013        Nov 30, The French parliament backed a reform of the country's prostitution law that will impose a 1,500-euro fine on anyone paying for sex. The bill will give France some of the toughest legislation on prostitution in Europe, similar to that of Sweden.
    (Reuters, 11/30/13)

2013        Dec 2, French police arrested 45 people in a vast sweep against international arms traffickers.
    (AFP, 12/2/13)
2013        Dec 2, At a ceremoney in Londonderry, Northern Ireland, French artist Laure Prouvost won Britain's Turner prize for contemporary art for her video installation set among a mock-tea party setting entitled "Wantee."
    (AFP, 12/3/13)

2013        Dec 3, French PM Jean-Marc Ayrault said in a published interview that France will allow private security forces to protect its shipping fleet against the threat of piracy.
    (Reuters, 12/3/13)
2013        Dec 3, Retired French general Paul Aussaresses (b.1918) died. He led a "death squadron" that tortured people during Algeria's 1954-1962 war of independence. In 2004 he was fined 7,500 euros ($10,200) for defending torture and had his membership of the prestigious Order of the Legion d'Honneur removed by then President Jacques Chirac.
    (AFP, 12/4/13)
2013        Dec 3, French experts released findings that ruled out the poisoning theory of Yasser Arafat and went in the sense of a natural death. This differed significantly from those of Swiss scientists, who said last month their research offered some support for the suggestion Arafat was killed by polonium poisoning.
    (AFP, 12/4/13)

2013        Dec 5, Heavy gunfire erupted in Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic. French troops killed several rebels who were bearing down on them in a pickup truck. Ex-Seleka fighters stormed Amite Hospital and abducted at least nine patients by gunpoint in front of horrified medical staff. The bodies of 11 young men were later found just outside the hospital. Over 280 people were killed in the violence in Bangui.
    {CAR, France}
    (AP, 12/5/13)(AP, 12/6/13)(AP, 12/8/13)

2013        Dec 6, French President Francois Hollande told some 40 African leaders at a Paris summit that the continent must "ensure its own security" in order to "take charge of its destiny."
    (AFP, 12/6/13)

2013        Dec 7, French President Francois Hollande said France will increase its troop deployment in Central African Republic to 1,600 soldiers by this evening. The African Union agreed to increase its troops there to 6,000.
    (Reuters, 12/7/13)(SSFC, 12/8/13, p.A4)

2013        Dec 9, A Paris auction of sacred objects from the Hopi and San Carlos Apache Native American tribes kicked off despite objections from the US and activists. The auction fetched more than 550,000 euros. On Dec 11 a US charitable foundation said that it was the anonymous bidder that paid $530,000 for 24 Native American masks in the auction and will return them to the Hopi Nation in Arizona and the San Carlos Apache tribe
    (AFP, 12/9/13)(AFP, 12/10/13)(AP, 12/11/13)

2013        Dec 10, French businessman Jean-Claude Ma, who sold tens of thousands of breast implants filled with industrial-grade silicone and prone to leaks, was convicted of fraud and sentenced to the maximum four years in prison.
    (AP, 12/10/13)
2013        Dec 10, Two French soldiers were killed in overnight fighting in the Central African Republic, France's first casualties in an operation to restore stability in its former colony. Officials said over 500 people have been killed in Bangui over the past week in sectarian fighting.
    (Reuters, 12/10/13)(SFC, 12/11/13, p.A4)

2013        Dec 15, French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius confirmed that 19 armed Islamists had been killed in a French-led military operation this week targeting Al Qaeda-linked rebels in restive northern Mali.
    (AFP, 12/15/13)
2013        Dec 15, France and Spain inaugurated high-speed rail service between Barcelona and Paris cutting travel time by half to about six hours.
    (SFC, 12/16/13, p.A2)

2013        Dec 16, French police made 21 arrests as part of an investigation into claims that meat from horses used to produce anti-rabies and other serums got into the food chain.
    (AFP, 12/16/13)

2013        Dec 17, In France Claude Gueant, the former right-hand man of ex-President Nicolas Sarkozy, was arrested for questioning about alleged misuse of public funds when he served the conservative leader at the interior ministry.
    (Reuters, 12/17/13)
2013        Dec 17, French troops took on armed Christian militias in Bangui, Central African Republic, where the UN said 210,000 people had been uprooted in two weeks of deadly sectarian violence.
    (AFP, 12/17/13)

2013        Dec 20, In France a helicopter went down carrying Lam Kok, a Chinese tea tycoon, overflying his newly-purchased vineyard. The body of Kok's 12-year-old son was pulled out of the Dordogne River. French winemaker James Gregoire, the helicopter pilot and owner of Chateau de la Riviere, and their interpreter were also killed.
    (AFP, 12/21/13)(SFC, 12/24/13, p.A2)

2013        Dec 21, In Niger up to 1,000 demonstrators marched in Niamey to protest their country's "unbalanced" partnership with nuclear firm Areva as the French giant negotiates a new uranium mining agreement with the government.
    (AFP, 12/21/13)

2013        Dec 24, Hurricane-force winds and torrential rain disrupted transport networks and cut power supplies in Britain and France, one of the busiest travel days of the year just before Christmas, pushing the death toll to at least 6 people.
    (Reuters, 12/24/13)

2013        Dec 25, Powerful winds and torrential rain swept southern France, grounding flights and cutting off power to tens of thousands of homes.
    (Reuters, 12/25/13)

2013        Dec 26, In France a surprise strike by Lufthansa workers at the main Paris airport prompted flight cancellations and brought a new headache to holiday travel. Lufthansa said in statement that only two flights were officially canceled, and that travel was resuming in the afternoon.
    (AP, 12/26/13)

2013        Dec 27, Henri Rechatin (82), aka Henry’s, the celebrated French tightrope walker who balanced above high the Alps, the Grand Canyon and Niagara Falls, died.
    (AP, 12/28/13)

2013        Dec 29, French President Francois Hollande arrived in Saudi Arabia for a visit aimed at boosting prospects of commercial cooperation between the countries and addressing escalating tensions in the Middle East.
    (AFP, 12/29/13)
2013        Dec 29, France's Constitutional Council gave the green light on to a 'millionaire's tax', to be levied on companies that pay salaries of more than 1 million euros ($1.38 million) a year.
    (Reuters, 12/29/13)
2013        Dec 29, Lebanon's President Michel Suleiman said Saudi Arabia is giving the Lebanese army $3 billion to buy equipment from France, calling it the largest grant ever given to the country's armed forces.
    (Reuters, 12/29/13)(SSFC, 1/5/14, p.A5)

2013        Thomas Piketty, an economist at the Paris School of Economics, authored “Capital in the Twenty-First Century." An English version was published in 2014.
    (Econ, 1/4/14, p.60)(Econ, 5/3/14, p.12)
2013        French judges started tapping Sarkozy's phones after opening a formal investigation into allegations that the late former Libyan dictator Moamer Kadhafi helped finance his 2007 election campaign. This only was made public on March 7, 2014.
    (AFP, 3/7/14)

2014        Jan 6, France's interior minister said that local officials have the right to ban shows on a national tour of comic Dieudonne M'Bala M'Bala whose performances are considered anti-Semitic.
    (AP, 1/7/14)
2014        Jan 6, In France two Goodyear managers were trapped in a conference room with angry workers demanding more money in exchange for the inevitable loss of their jobs in Amiens. The managers were released after police intervened on Jan 7.
    (AP, 1/6/14)(AP, 1/7/14)

2014        Jan 8, German authorities said they have charged Werner C. (88), a former member of an SS armored division, with 25 counts of murder over allegations that he took part in the June 10, 1944, slaughter in Oradour-sur-Glane in southwestern France, the largest civilian massacre in Nazi-occupied France.
    (AP, 1/8/14)

2014        Jan 9, A French court suspended a ban the city of Nantes imposed to prevent a show tonight by comic Dieudonne M'Bala M'Bala whose performances are considered anti-Semitic.
    (AP, 1/9/14)
2014        Jan 9, A French court ruled that dissident Kazakh Mukhtar Ablyazov, accused of embezzling up to $6 billion from his former bank BTA, should be extradited from France to Ukraine or Russia.
    (Reuters, 1/9/14)
2014        Jan 9, French engineering group Alstom said it has won a contract worth 120 million euros ($163 million) to build Israel's first hydroelectric storage facility.
    (AFP, 1/9/14)

2014        Jan 10, French President Francois Hollande threatened legal action over a Closer magazine report saying he is having a secret affair with actress Julie Gayet. Hollande’s wife Valerie Trierweiler was hospitalized following the news.
    (AP, 1/10/14)(SFC, 1/13/14, p.A2)

2014        Jan 11, Thousands of Kurdish demonstrators from around Europe marched in Paris to call for a speedier investigation into the murder of three Kurdish activists a year ago.
    (Reuters, 1/11/14)

2014        Jan 13, France's Total said it has agreed to explore for shale gas in Britain, making it the first major oil company to enter the country's market in the face of widely publicized environmental protests.
    (AP, 1/13/14)

2014        Jan 19, In southeastern France "historic" floods left two people dead and more than 150 were airlifted to safety.
    (AFP, 1/20/14)

2014        Jan 21, France said it will create new outposts and broaden its military presence in Africa's turbulent Sahel region to better fight the terror threat from extremist groups like al-Qaida. Defense Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian said France is moving toward a regional counterterrorism approach in former colonies like Chad, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Niger and Mali.
    (AP, 1/21/14)

2014        Jan 24, President Francois Hollande spoke of "convergence" on international issues after talks with Pope Francis amid a swirling scandal over the French leader's love life and divisions in France over issues like abortion and euthanasia.
    (AFP, 1/24/14)
2014        Jan 24, In northern Mali a French counter-terrorism offensive ended with 11 Islamist militants killed and a French soldier wounded.
    (AFP, 1/24/14)

2014        Jan 25, French Pres. Francois Hollande announced his separation from first lady Valerie Trierweiler following a media storm over allegations he is having an affair with an actress nearly 20 years his junior.
    (AFP, 1/26/14)

2014        Jan 26, In France some 17,000 people marched through central Paris to criticize President Francois Hollande.
    (AP, 1/26/14)

2014        Jan 28, France's crackdown on Dieudonne M'bala M'bala intensified with police raiding premises linked to the controversial comic as part of a probe into suspected fraud.
    (AFP, 1/28/14)
2014        Jan 28, A French court barred the return to France of a Roma family including Leonarda Dibrani, the teenage girl whose arrest in front of her schoolmates and expulsion to Kosovo became a cause celebre.
    (AP, 1/28/14)
2014        Jan 28, Europe's top human rights court in Strasbourg, France, ruled that Ireland's government failed in its duty to protect children in the case of a woman sexually abused by a lay teacher at a state-backed Roman Catholic school in 1973. Louise O'Keeffe (48) said she was abused by her teacher during lessons in his classroom when she was 9 years old. She argued that the Irish state failed to put in place appropriate measures to stop "systematic abuse" at the Dunderrow National School.
    (AP, 1/28/14)

2014        Jan 29, In France Bayern Munich winger Franck Ribery and Real Madrid forward Karim Benzema were acquitted on charges of soliciting an underage prostitute, ending a case that has lasted more than three years and tarnished both players' reputation.
    (AP, 1/30/14)

2014        Jan 30, In France about 20 percent of flights in and out of Paris' airports were canceled because air traffic controllers are on strike over plans to combine European air space. Controllers in several other European countries also plan work stoppages.
    (AP, 1/30/14)

2014        Feb 2, Thousands of demonstrators gathered in Paris and Lyon in a renewed protest against France's legalization of gay marriage.
    (Reuters, 2/2/14)
2014        Feb 2, In France a video, posted on Facebook, was filmed in the southeastern town of Fontaine showing two boys pushing an 18-year-old mentally-disabled man in a park, making him fall and shouting at him before shoving him into a stream, from which the bewildered-looking victim emerges and walks away. Over the next two days four boys were detained over the assault and one (12) was released.
    (AFP, 2/4/14)

2014        Feb 3, French comedian Dieudonne M'bala M'bala was banned from entering Britain after he reportedly planned to visit to support Nicolas Anelka over the footballer's use of the "quenelle" gesture. The "quenelle" is Dieudonne's trademark stiff-armed gesture that critics say is a disguised Nazi salute but that he defends as a generic "up yours" to the French establishment.
    (AFP, 2/3/14)

2014        Feb 5, The Luno, mostly empty Spanish cargo ship, broke in two after hitting a sea wall off the southwestern coast of France in high winds and was leaking some fuel into the water.
    (Reuters, 2/5/14)

2014        Feb 6, In France more than 3 tons of illegal ivory seized by customs agents was pulverized into dust in Europe's first destruction of a stockpile of the banned elephant tusks.
    (AP, 2/6/14)

2014        Feb 11, French Pres. Francois Hollande arrived in the US for a formal state visit.
    (SFC, 2/11/14, p.A5)

2014        Feb 18, French police arrested a 48-year-old man in connection with the Sep 2012 killings of a British-Iraqi family and a cyclist in the Alps, in their first breakthrough in the case.
    (AFP, 2/18/14)

2014        Feb 19, French industrialist and senator Serge Dassault (88), the billionaire manufacturer of fighter jets, was taken into custody for alleged vote buying in his former fiefdom east of Paris from 2008-2010.
    (AFP, 2/19/14)

2014        Feb 22, Iran some 100 French corporate bigwigs held business talks in Tehran. American business representatives were also in town.
    (Econ, 2/22/14, p.39)

2014        Feb 24, France passed the Florange law in response to ArcelorMittal’s 2013 closure of the Florange blast furnace in northeast France. It was set to go fully into force in March 2016 at which point shareholders in listed French companies will see their voting rights double.
    (http://tinyurl.com/loqnsvl)(Econ., 5/2/15, p.12)

2014        Feb 27, French Pres. Francois Hollande arrived in Abuja and said France stood shoulder-to-shoulder with Nigeria in its battle against Boko Haram. He arrived as a guest of honor for celebrations to mark 100 years since Nigeria's unification.
    (AP, 2/27/14)

2014        Mar 1, French filmmaker Alain Resnais (91) died. His cryptic "Last Year at Marianbad" (1961) extended its influence across generations. His films included the acclaimed "Hiroshima Mon Amour" (1959) and most recently "Life of Riley," honored at the Berlin Film Festival just weeks ago.
    (AP, 3/2/14)

2014        Mar 11, France returned three paintings stolen by the Nazis during WWII to their rightful owners. This brought the number of looted paintings returned by France to their rightful owners to 10 in less than a year.
    (AP, 3/11/14)
2014        Mar 11, The parliament of Ukraine's Crimea peninsula voted for full independence from Ukraine in preparation for a referendum to join Russia. France threatened sanctions against Moscow as early as this week. Gunmen took over air traffic control of the airport in the regional capital Simferopol and refused landing rights to a flight from the Ukrainian capital.
    (AFP, 3/11/14)

2014        Mar 13, The Paris-based OECD said it has postponed all activities related to Russia's accession to the organization following a request from its 34 members.
    (Reuters, 3/13/14)

2014        Mar 14, A French court ordered an ex-aide of Nicolas Sarkozy to pay 10,000 euros ($14,000) in damages and costs to the former French president over secret recordings that were published in an online journal, and instructed the publication to pull down the links.
    (AP, 3/14/14)
2014        Mar 14, A French court sentenced Pascal Simbikangwa (54), a former member of the Rwandan presidential guard, to 25 years in prison. He was found guilty of perpetrating genocide and of complicity in crimes against humanity in 1994.
    (AFP, 3/15/14)
2014        Mar 14, Most of France went under some sort of pollution alert with levels in the Parisian region surpassing those in cities such as Beijing and New Delhi.
    (SFC, 3/15/14, p.A2)

2014        Mar 16, In France the body of a cyclist hit by a high-speed TGV trains was embedded into the front of the driver's carriage and carried 40 km (25 miles) before anyone noticed.
    (AFP, 3/17/14)

2014        Mar 17, Paris, France, imposed drastic measures to combat its worst air pollution in years.
    (AP, 3/17/14)

2014        Mar 18, French foreign minister Laurent Fabius said that leaders of the Group of Eight world powers have suspended Russia's participation in the club amid tensions over Ukraine and Russia's incursion into Crimea.
    (AP, 3/18/14)
2014        Mar 18, French police arrested 57 Greenpeace activists who used a truck to ram their way into a nuclear power plant operated by EDF in eastern France.
    (Reuters, 3/18/14)

2014        Mar 19, France’s highest court upheld the prison sentence for Jerome Kerviel (37), the rogue trader convicted of one of the biggest trading frauds in history.  [In 2010 he was sentenced to 3 years in jail with two years suspended.] The court threw out the $7 billion in civil damages he’d been ordered to pay back.
    (SFC, 3/20/14, p.A2)

2014        Mar 21, France said it is suspending military cooperation with Russia as Defense Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian visited Baltic states in a trip designed to reassure them as tensions mount with Russia over its seizure of Ukraine's Crimea region.
    (Reuters, 3/21/14)

2014        Mar 22, In France two masked robbers wielding a pump gun and an axe burst into the Colette boutique in the heart of Paris, making off with about 600,000 euros worth of goods from the trendy concept store.
    (AFP, 3/22/14)

2014        Mar 23, In the first round of French local elections the governing left took 38% of the vote, behind the mainstream right with 46%.
    (Econ, 3/29/14, p.58)
2014        Mar 23, France provided new satellite data showing possible debris from Malaysia Airlines Flight 370, missing since March 8, as searchers continued combing a remote part of the southern Indian Ocean.
    (AP, 3/23/14)

2014        Mar 24, France-based Airbus Defence & Space captured images showing 122 potential objects in a 400-sq-km (155-sq-mile) area in the southern Indian Ocean.
    (AP, 3/26/14)

2014        Mar 27, A French court ordered Closer magazine to pay 15,000 euros for publishing photos of what it said was a helmeted President Francois Hollande visiting an actress for a secret tryst. Julie Gayet had sued the magazine for violation of privacy.
    (AP, 3/27/14)

2014        Mar 30, France held a second round of voting in local elections that are set to result in a breakthrough by the far right and trigger a reshuffle of the beleaguered Socialist government. 155 towns swung to the center-right UMP and the far-right National Front claim 11.
    (AFP, 3/30/14)(AP, 3/31/14)

2014        Apr 1, In France Manuel Valls took up the post of President Francois Hollande's prime minister, replacing Jean-Marc Ayrault who resigned in the wake of the ruling Socialists' rout in local elections at the weekend.
    (Reuters, 4/1/14)

2014        Apr 5, In France Anne Hidalgo (54), the first female mayor of Paris, took office, hailing a "great advance for all women" and saying she feels the weight of responsibility in her new job.
    (AP, 4/5/14)

2014        Apr 7, Swiss-based Holcim and its French counterpart, Lafarge, two of the world's largest suppliers of building materials, announced plans for a merger of equals.
    (AP, 4/7/14)

2014        Apr 8, In France Manuel Valls used his first speech to parliament as prime minister to announce corporation tax cuts and outline public spending savings.
    (Reuters, 4/8/14)

2014        Apr 9, A French court blocked the extradition of exiled Kazakh oligarch Mukhtar Ablyazov, an opposition figure wanted on embezzlement charges. Russia alleges Ablyazov embezzled $5 billion (3.6 billion euros). Ukraine accuses him of pilfering another $400 million.
    (AFP, 4/9/14)

2014        Apr 10, A French judicial source said billionaire industrialist and senator Serge Dassault (89) has been charged with vote buying in Corbeil-Essonnes, where he was mayor from 1995 to 2009.
    (AFP, 4/10/14)

2014        Apr 12, France's foreign minister arrived in Cuba for a brief but historic visit, the first by such a high-ranking French official in 30 years and a sign of the quickening pace of improving ties between the European Union and Havana.
    (Reuters, 4/12/14)

2014        Apr 14, French police demanded that male students and staff at a high school in western France — 527 people in total — give DNA samples as they searched for the assailant who raped a teenage girl in La Rochelle. Investigators had exhausted all other leads in the Sept. 30 rape of the girl in a dark bathroom at the school.
    (AP, 4/14/14)

2014        Apr 15, Imperial Tobacco announced the closure of factories in Britain and France with the loss of 900 jobs, citing declining sales, tougher anti-smoking measures and the growth of contraband sales.
    (AFP, 4/15/14)

2014        Apr 16, Jacques Servier (92), the founder of France's second-largest pharmaceutical group, died. He and his lab were ensnared in a scandal in which the diabetes drug Mediator was alleged to be responsible for the deaths of hundreds of people.
    (AP, 4/17/14)
2014        Apr 16, The ultra-deep Angolan offshore oil project called Kaombo generated the third huge contract in three days when French group Total picked two firms to carry out underwater engineering worth $3.5 billion.
    (AFP, 4/16/14)

2014        Apr 17, In Mali French Special Forces backed by helicopters freed five humanitarian aid workers who had gone missing on Feb 8.
    (SFC, 4/18/14, p.A2)

2014        Apr 24, Four French police officers were held in custody on suspicion of raping a 34-year-old Canadian woman at their Paris headquarters. The alleged rape took place overnight April 22-23 at the headquarters of the Paris police station.
    (AFP, 4/25/14)

2014        May 5, A Paris court found a South African artist guilty of sexual exhibitionism after a performance in Paris that saw him dance with a rooster tied to his penis. But the criminal court imposed no penalty on the artist Steven Cohen (51), noting that no complaint had been filed against him and that he had not engaged in sexual acts.
    (AFP, 5/514)

2014        May 6, In France Helene Pastor, whose family built a real estate empire in Monaco with wealth rivaling that of the royal family, was shot after visiting her son in a hospital in Nice. Pastor and her chauffer died some days later. The attackers fled. Police in June detained 23 people in the case including the son-in-law and daughter of Pastor.
    (AP, 6/24/14)

2014        May 8, France said it will deploy 3,000 soldiers to combat Islamist violence in the vast and largely lawless Sahel region to pursue counter-terrorism in north Mali, the north of Niger and in Chad.
    (AFP, 5/8/14)

2014        May 13, In Central African Republic the body of French journalist Camille Lepage (26) was found by a patrol of French peacekeeping troops in the Bouar region. Lepage was with the anti-balaka militia as part of her efforts to report on the conflict when they were attacked on May 12.
    (AFP, 5/14/14)

2014        May 14, In France the Grace Kelly melodrama "Grace of Monaco" kicked off the 67th annual Cannes Film Festival.
    (AP, 5/14/14)

2014        May 17, France and five African countries (Benin, Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria) declared war on the Boko Haram extremist Islamic sect. West African leaders met in Paris to improve cooperation in the fight against Boko Haram and other militant groups.
    (Reuters, 5/17/14)(SSFC, 5/18/14, p.A5)

2014        May 19, European law enforcement officials announced that police worldwide, acting on an FBI tipoff, have arrested 97 people in 16 countries suspected of developing, distributing or using malicious software called BlackShades that allows criminals to gain surreptitious control of personal computers. French detectives said they arrested more than two dozen people during their May 13 raids.
    (AP, 5/19/14)

2014        May 25, In France Marine Le Pen’s populist National Front (FN) won 25% of the European elections vote. The center-right opposition UMP came in 2nd with 21% and the ruling Socialist won 14%.
    (Econ, 5/31/14, p.45)

2014        May 26, French President Francois Hollande said his Socialist government won't resign and will press forward with tax cuts and other reforms despite a record victory for the far right in European parliament elections.
    (AP, 5/26/14)

2014        May 28, France's highest administrative court annulled the decree setting wind power feed-in tariffs, marking the end of a complex legal procedure that has stifled investment in the French onshore wind sector.
    (Reuters, 5/28/14)
2014        May 28, French police raided makeshift camps in the English Channel port of Calais, clearing out ramshackle shelters that housed hundreds of illegal migrants from Syria, Afghanistan and Africa.
    (AP, 5/28/14)

2014        May 30, French police in Marseille arrested Mehdi Nemmouche (29) over the May 24 killings at a Belgian Jewish museum after he arrived on a bus from Amsterdam. Nemmouche had spent about a year in Syria and claimed responsibility for the shootings in a video.
    (Reuters, 6/1/14)

2014        May, Wiko, a 2-year-old French company, introduced its smartphone in Britain. Prices in France started at about €70 ($96). 
    (Econ, 4/5/14, p.57)

2014        Jun 6, Russian President Vladimir Putin and Ukraine's newly elected leader Petro Poroshenko met in France at the sidelines of ceremonies to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the D-Day landing in Normandy. They spoke of their desire for a quick end to hostilities in southeastern Ukraine.
    (AP, 6/6/14)

2014        Jun 11, Taxi drivers staged protests in London, Berlin, Barcelona, Madrid and Paris. Cabbies and train workers walked off the job, leaving traffic snarled, as they protested changes to the travel industry that they say could endanger passengers and give untested upstarts an unfair advantage.
    (AP, 6/11/14)

2014        Jun 12, French trade unions said they will extend for another day a strike that has caused the worst disruption to the country's rail network in years, following an inconclusive meeting with the transport minister.
    (Reuters, 6/12/14)

2014        Jun 13, In France a Roma boy named Darius (16) was beaten into a coma in the town of Pierrefitte.
    (AP, 7/12/14)

2014        Jun 17, French riot police clashed with striking train workers, who hurled bottles and blocked traffic in anger over a bill to reform the state-run railway system.
    (AP, 6/17/14)

2014        Jun 19, Growing numbers of French railway employees returned to work after lawmakers voted to approve the broad outline of a railway reform that has triggered a nine-day strike.
    (Reuters, 6/19/14)

2014        Jun 23, General Electric was declared the winner for the energy business of Alstom, a French engineering group. A day earlier the French government said it would take a 20% stake in Alstom.
    (Econ, 6/28/14, p.53)(http://tinyurl.com/n3hbmn7)

2014        Jun 24, France's top administrative court ordered an end to the treatment of a comatose man — a decision blocked hours later by the European Court of Human Rights.
    (AP, 6/25/14)
2014        Jun 24, The Paris Club of creditor nations announced Israel's induction, bringing the club's membership to 20 countries. It was created in 1956, and has worked out loan deals for 90 countries.
    (AP, 6/24/14)

2014        Jun 25, A French doctor was acquitted of poisoning charges after giving lethal injections to seven terminally ill patients. Relatives of Dr. Nicolas Bonnemaison's patients had testified in his favor.
    (AP, 6/25/14)

2014        Jun 26, The European Court of Human Rights ruled that France had violated the rights of a child born to a surrogate mother — and of two other children similarly born — by refusing to recognize the parent-child relationship. It ordered France to pay 5,000 euros in damages.
    (AP, 6/26/14)

2014        Jun 27, British authorities ordered Eurotunnel to stop running its ferry service to France on grounds of unfair competition.
    (AFP, 6/27/14)

2014        Jun 30, France said the leaders of Russia and Ukraine have agreed to work on the adoption of a ceasefire in Ukraine as well as the establishment of effective border controls.
    (Reuters, 6/30/14)
2014        Jun 30, BNP Paribas, France’s largest bank, pleaded guilty in a New York state court admitting that it had transferred billions of dollars on behalf of Sudan, Cuba and Iran, all blacklisted by the US. The bank agreed to pay $8.9 billion to settle the charges.
    (SFC, 7/1/14, p.D2)(Econ, 7/5/14, p.58)

2014        Jul 1, Former French President Nicolas Sarkozy was held for questioning over suspicions he used his influence to secure leaked details of an inquiry into alleged irregularities in his 2007 election campaign.
    (Reuters, 7/1/14)
2014        Jul 1, The European Court of Human Rights upheld France's law banning face-covering Muslim veils from the streets.
    (AP, 7/1/14)

2014        Jul 2, Former French President Nicolas Sarkozy was placed under formal investigation on suspicions he tried to use his influence to thwart an investigation of his 2007 election campaign.
    (Reuters, 7/2/14)

2014        Jul 4, In southern France the mother of a pupil at a pre-school in Albi stabbed a teacher (34) to death in front of her class on the last day of the school year.
    (AP, 7/4/14)

2014        Jul 5, England began hosting the first three stages of the three-week Tour de France race before it enters France.
    (AP, 7/6/14)

2014        Jul 9, In France Yoo Somena, daughter of billionaire Yoo Byung-eun, faced extradition to South Korea based on suspicions of embezzling $8 million between 2004 and 2013. Yoo Byung-eun is the South Korean fugitive businessman believed linked to a deadly April ferry disaster.
    (AP, 7/9/14)

2014        Jul 10, Arianespace launched a rocket from French Guiana carrying four satellites that will help provide Internet and mobile connectivity to people in nearly 180 countries.
    (AP, 7/11/14)

2014        Jul 11, A Paris court convicted nine people of belonging to a terrorist network that trained in Afghanistan and reportedly planned attacks in France. Three of the defendants were tried in absentia, with one in custody in Turkey and two at large.
    (AP, 7/11/14)

2014        Jul 13, France said its military offensive that freed northern Mali from the grip of Islamists would be replaced by an operation spanning the wider, largely lawless Sahel region to combat extremist violence.
    (AFP, 7/13/14)

2014        Jul 14, In France soldiers carrying the flags of 76 countries marched down the Champs-Elysees in Paris, as the traditional Bastille Day military parade commemorated the centenary of World War I.
    (AP, 7/14/14)
2014        Jul 14, In northern Mali a French soldier died from wounds in a suicide bombing.
    (Reuters, 7/15/14)

2014        Jul 17, French President Francois Hollande began a visit to Ivory Coast to boost economic ties with a nation emerging from a long conflict that divided it and set back production. Ivory Coast still hosts hundreds of French companies. His 3-day tour proceeded to Niger and Chad.
    (AFP, 7/17/14)(Econ, 7/19/14, p.45)
2014        Jul 17, France's parliament adopted a law calling for more use of probation and other measures to reduce overcrowding in a creaking prison system.
    (Reuters, 7/17/14)

2014        Jul 18, Palestinian president Mahmud Abbas reached out for French help to lobby Hamas's regional allies to influence it into accepting a truce with Israel. France has asked Qatar, which has close links with Hamas, to use its influence with the Palestinian Islamist group to reach a ceasefire in the conflict in Gaza.
    (AFP, 7/19/14)(Reuters, 7/18/14)

2014        Jul 19, French police clashed with thousands of pro-Palestinian protesters who defied a ban on a Paris demonstration over the Israeli offensive in Gaza.
    (AP, 7/19/14)

2014        Jul 20, A French rally against the deadly Israeli offensive in Gaza once again descended into chaos as protesters looted shops and riot police lobbed tear gas and rubber bullets into the crowds.
    (AFP, 7/20/14)

2014        Jul 23, Air France and Germany's two largest airlines canceled more flights to Tel Aviv because of ongoing safety concerns amid the fighting between Israel and Hamas.
    (AP, 7/23/14)

2014        Jul 24, President Francois Hollande announced an 11-million-euro ($14.8 million) aid package to the besieged Gaza Strip.
    (AFP, 7/24/14)
2014        Jul 24, Air Algerie Flight 5017 carrying 116 people from Burkina Faso to Algeria's capital disappeared from radar early today over northern Mali after heavy rains were reported. Air navigation services lost track of the MD-83 about 50 minutes after takeoff from Ouagadougou. Half the dead were from France. Others included at least 19 Lebanese citizens.
    (AP, 7/24/14)(SSFC, 7/27/14, p.A4)

2014        Jul 26, In France Pro-Palestinian protesters clashed with police in central Paris when thousands of marchers defied a ban by French authorities to rally against Israel's offensive in the Gaza Strip.
    (Reuters, 7/26/14)

2014        July, France launched Operation Barkhane, an anti-Islamist operation in Africa's Sahel region. This was a re-organization of some 3,000 French troops already stationed in the Sahel.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Barkhane)(Econ, 11/29/14, p.47)

2014        Aug 2, Air France cancelled some of its short and medium-haul flights from airports across France due to a strike by ground staff on one of the busiest travel days of the year.
    (AFP, 8/2/14)

2014        Aug 5, France passed a sweeping gender equality law that eases current restrictions on abortion, encourages paternity leave and promotes gender parity at home and in the workplace.
    (Reuters, 8/6/14)
2014        Aug 5, In France police intervened in clashes between Sudanese and Eritreans migrants as they massed in Calais in a bid to cross the English Channel to Britain. This was their 3rd clash in 48 hours.
    (SFC, 8/6/14, p.A2)

2014        Aug 13, France said it would start supplying arms to the Kurdish forces fighting Sunni extremists from the Islamic State group.
    (AP, 8/13/14)
2014        Aug 13, In France 6 mountain climbers wee reported dead after falling hundreds of feet during their descent from l’Aiguille d’Argentiere in the Mont Blanc range.
    (SFC, 8/14/14, p.A2)

2014        Aug 17, In France heavily armed robbers attacked the motorcade of a Saudi prince in Paris, making off with 250,000 euros ($335,000) in cash and reportedly stealing "sensitive" documents.
    (AFP, 8/18/14)

2014        Aug 19, Air France said some of its flight crews were refusing to board planes bound for Guinea, Sierra Leone and Nigeria over fears of the Ebola outbreak.
    (AFP, 8/19/14)

2014        Aug 25, French Pres. Francois Hollande dissolved the government after open feuding among his Cabinet over the country's stagnant economy.
    (AP, 8/25/14)

2014        Aug 31, In France a four-story building in a northeastern Paris suburb collapsed after an explosion. At least 7 people were killed.
    (Yahoo News, 8/31/14)

2014        Sep 1, In Canada Jacobus Marinus van Nierop, a fugitive Dutch dentist, was arrested in Nackawic, New Brunswick, following an int’l. manhunt. He was accused of mutilating dozens of French patients.
    (http://tinyurl.com/n6poox4)(AFP, 9/4/14)

2014        Sep 3, President Francois Hollande's office said France is suspending the delivery of a hulking warship to Russia amid security concerns about Moscow's actions in neighboring Ukraine. The Vladivostok, the first of two Mistral-class helicopter carriers ordered by Russia, was to be delivered by late October.
    (AP, 9/3/14)

2014        Sep 9, French carmaker Renault said it has signed a deal with conglomerate Bollore to build a three-seater version of the four-seater Bluecar electric vehicle used in Bollore's 'Autolib' self-service auto hire scheme in France. Until now, Bollore's Bluecars were all built in Italy under a joint venture with its designer Pininfarina.
    (AP, 9/9/14)

2014        Sep 10, French authorities arrested Mourad Fartes (30), a suspected top recruiter of jihadists for the civil war in Syria.
    (SFC, 9/12/14, p.A2)

2014        Sep 13, French police detained Kemi Seba (aka Stellio Capo Chichi), a convicted anti-Semite and radical black power activist, after he arrived in Paris to promote a new book. Seba had been living in Senegal.
    (AFP, 9/14/14)

2014        Sep 15, In France world powers backed military measures to help defeat Islamic State fighters in Iraq, boosting Washington's efforts to set up a coalition, but made no mention of the tougher diplomatic challenge next door in Syria. Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said French aircraft would begin reconnaissance flights over Iraq. Iran ruled out working with any international coalition and rejected American requests for cooperation against the militants.
    (Reuters, 9/15/14)(AP, 9/15/14)
2014        Sep 15, French flag carrier Air France scrapped half of its flights as pilots began a strike against the company's plan to develop its low-cost subsidiary.
    (AFP, 9/15/14)

2014        Sep 16, In France a pilots strike at Air France entered its second day, with the two sides appearing no closer to resolving a dispute over cost cuts that has forced the airline to cancel 60 percent of flights.
    (Reuters, 9/16/14)

2014        Sep 17, An estimate by the French national auditor showed that fraud in France's indebted welfare system costs the country between 20-25 billion euros ($26-32 billion) per year and only a tiny fraction of that amount is ever recovered.
    (Reuters, 9/17/14)
2014        Sep 17, French prosecuting judges in Paris dropped all charges of money laundering and fraud against nine people close to an exiled Iranian opposition group more than 10 years after they were arrested on terrorism charges. The five women and four men were among 167 sympathizers of the People's Mujahideen Organization of Iran (PMOI) who were rounded up in 2003 during a police raid on the outskirts of Paris.
    (Reuters, 9/17/14)

2014        Sep 18, French President Francois Hollande said he's agreed to Iraq's request for air support against Islamic State fighters who've captured swathes of the country. Hollande ruled out carrying out any military action against Islamic State militants in Syria.
    (AP, 9/18/14)(Reuters, 9/18/14)

2014        Sep 19, France said it has joined American forces in military action in Iraq by conducting its first airstrikes against the militant Islamic State group, destroying a logistics depot that it controlled.
    (AP, 9/19/14)

2014        Sep 20, French air pilots voted to extend their walkout  until at least Sep 26 to protest Air-France-KLM’s new strategy to shift much of its European operation to Transavia, a low-cost subsidiary.
    (SSFC, 9/21/14, p.A3)

2014        Sep 21, The Algerian group Jund al-Khilifa (Soldiers of the Caliphate)  kidnapped Herve Pierre Gourdel (55), a French national. They threatened to kill the hostage within 24 hours unless Paris halts air strikes on the Islamic State in Iraq. On Sep 24 Jund al-Khilifa posted a video and claimed to have beheaded Gourde.
    (AFP, 9/23/14)(AFP, 9/24/14)

2014        Sep 23, A French court suspended a probe into corruption and influence-peddling targeting former French president Nicolas Sarkozy, days after he dramatically announced a political comeback.
    (AFP, 9/24/14)

2014        Sep 24, The Algerian group Jund al-Khilifa (Soldiers of the Caliphate)  beheaded Herve Pierre Gourdel (55), a French national. His body was reported found on Jan 15, 2015.
    (Econ, 10/4/14, p.53)(AP, 1/15/15)

2014        Sep 25, French fighter jets struck targets in Iraq and the US and its allies stepped up air raids in Syria against Islamic State militants. The strikes reportedly killed 14 Islamic State fighters and at least 5 civilians. US-led airstrikes targeted Syrian oil installations held by the extremist Islamic State group.
    (Reuters, 9/25/14)(AP, 9/25/14)
2014        Sep 25, Airbus sent its latest jet up for its first flight above the skies of southern France, amid high demand for the single-aisle A320neo and its promised fuel economy.
    (AP, 9/25/14)

2014        Sep 26, The head of Interpol, based in Lyon, France, said an international database of foreign fighters that started 18 months ago with little fanfare — and just three countries participating — has expanded to include 33 countries and 1,300 names.
    (AP, 9/26/14)

2014        Sep 28, Air France's leading pilots union announced an end to a 14-day strike that grounded roughly half of the airline's flights, stranded passengers worldwide and led to stern shows of frustration by the French prime minister. The union was ending the walkout so that service could resume and negotiations continue peaceably.
    (AP, 9/28/14)

2014        Oct 2, In France a helicopter that took off from neighboring Switzerland crashed in the yard of a home in eastern France, killing at least 5 people in the town of Bart.
    (AP, 10/2/14)

2014        Oct 5, In France tens of thousands took to the streets in Paris and Bordeaux to demonstrate for what protesters called "traditional family values" and against assisted pregnancies and surrogacy. It was organized by the "Manif pour Tous" ("Protest for Everyone") group.
    (AFP, 10/5/14)

2014        Oct 8, France said it will soon provide weapons and military equipment to the Lebanese army as part of a $3 billion grant from Saudi Arabia to help it fight jihadis encroaching into Lebanon from Syria.
    (Reuters, 10/8/14)

2014        Oct 9, Patrick Modiano (69) of France won the 2014 Nobel Prize in literature. He has made a lifelong study of the Nazi occupation and its effects on his country. Modiano's novel "Missing Person" won the prestigious Prix Goncourt in 1978 and is among the more than 40 of his works published in French.
    (AP, 10/9/14)

2014        Oct 13, French economist Jean Tirole won the Nobel economics prize for showing how to encourage better products and competitive prices in industries dominated by a few companies.
    (AP, 10/13/14)(SFC, 10/14/14, p.D1)

2014        Oct 14, French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius and South African Tina Joematt Pettersson signed an intergovernmental agreement on cooperation in nuclear energy development which is necessary for any commercial deal.
    (AFP, 10/14/14)

2014        Oct 20, In Russia Christophe de Margerie, the charismatic CEO of Total SA, was killed at a Moscow airport late today when his private jet collided with a snowplow whose driver, Vladimir Martynenko, was reportedly drunk. 3 French crew members also died when the Dassault Falcon 50 burst into flames after it hit the snowplow. Relatives said Martynenko was sober in the morning and that he doesn't drink at all due to chronic heart disease.
    (AP, 10/21/14)(Reuters, 10/21/14)

2014        Oct 22, French oil giant Total SA named Patrick Pouyanne as chief executive to replace Christophe de Margerie, who was killed Oct 20 in a plane crash in Moscow.
    (AP, 10/22/14)

2014        Oct 25, French police arrested 14 teenagers dressed as the pranksters, carrying pistols, knives and baseball bats in the port town of Agde. The phenomenon of dressing up as an evil clown and terrifying passers-by cropped up in the north of France in early October.
    (AFP, 10/26/14)

2014        Oct 26, In France Remi Fraisse (21) died in the early hours during violent clashes between security forces and protesters against the Sivens dam project on the river Tescou in the southwestern Tarn region. On Oct 31 authorities decided to suspend work on a controversial dam.
    (AFP, 10/31/14)(Econ, 11/8/14, p.56)

2014        Oct 27, In France the new Fondation Louis Vuitton museum, designed by Frank Gehry, opened in Paris.
    (Econ, 10/11/14, p.90)

2014        Nov 4, France and Saudi Arabia signed an agreement for Paris to provide the Lebanese army with $3 billion worth of weapons paid for by Riyadh.
    (AP, 11/4/14)

2014        Nov 5, In southern France flamenco guitarist Manitas de Plata (93) died.  His “Gypsy Flamenco" album was released in 1963. He had sold nearly 100 million records worldwide and broke boundaries for Gypsy musicians.
    (AP, 11/6/14)(Econ, 11/15/14, p.94)

2014        Nov 8, The French military said 24 jihadists were killed in a recent operation carried out in northern Mali that left one French soldier dead. A news release from Operation Barkhane said that two other extremists had been captured during the late October offensive in the region of Kidal.
    (AP, 11/8/14)

2014        Nov 13, In France hundreds of students barricaded school entrances across Paris and demonstrated in protests against alleged police brutality, just as a major union of police officers staged its own rally to demand more personnel and equipment.
    (AP, 11/13/14)
2014        Nov 13, Alexander Grothendieck (86), French mathematician, died. He was an opinionated and reclusive giant of 20th-century mathematics who shunned accolades and supported pacifist and environmental causes. In 1966, he was awarded the Fields Medal, but refused to travel to Moscow to accept it for political reasons.
    (AP, 11/14/14)

2014        Nov 16, French President Francois Hollande said he would not be pressured into delivering two warships to Russia, after delaying their handover due to the Ukraine crisis.
    (AFP, 11/16/14)

2014        Nov 17, France's top security official said Maxime Hauchard (22), a young Frenchman, is believed to be among the killers on an Islamic State propaganda video showing a beheaded American aid worker and the deaths of more than a dozen Syrian soldiers.
    (AP, 11/17/14)

2014        Nov 19, In northern Iraq French Rafale jets struck Islamic State targets alongside coalition planes near Kirkuk to help breach the group's frontlines. France said it was sending six fighter jets to Jordan to ramp up its strikes.
    (Reuters, 11/19/14)

2014        Nov 20, France formally opened a terrorism investigation into three French recruits of the Islamic State group calling for attacks back home in a propaganda video.
    (AP, 11/20/14)

2014        Nov 21, French junior minister Kader Arif stepped down after he was accused in a preliminary investigation of favoring relatives in the award of public contracts.
    (Reuters, 11/21/14)

2014        Nov 25, France suspended the delivery of a warship to Russia, after months of speculation about what would be the biggest arms sale ever by a NATO country to the Kremlin.
    (AP, 11/25/14)
2014        Nov 25, Pope Francis spoke before delegates of the EU Council in Strasbourg, France. He warned them that Europe had become too fearful and self-absorbed urged them to focus on poverty, immigration and joblessness.
    (SFC, 11/26/14, p.A2)

2014        Nov 27, French President Francois Hollande said France will eliminate export credits for energy projects in developing countries which involve coal, the most polluting fossil fuel.
    (Reuters, 11/27/14)

2014        Nov 28, British scientists announced trials on a 15-minute Ebola test in Guinea as France's Francois Hollande arrived in Conakry, becoming the first Western leader to visit one of the countries devastated by the epidemic. France has pledged 100 million euros ($125 million) in the fight against the epidemic focusing its efforts on Guinea.
    (AFP, 11/28/14)

2014        Dec 1, In Creteil, France, three armed assailants broke into an apartment around noon and tied up a Jewish couple before proceeding to steal bank cards and jewelry. They then raped the 19-year-old woman. The assailants declared: “you Jews, you have money," as they forced their way into the couple’s home. Four suspects were arrested within the month.
    (http://tinyurl.com/q2vdfal)

2014        Dec 2, France’s lower house of Parliament in a non-binding vote (339-151) urged the government to recognize a Palestinian state.
    (SFC, 12/3/14, p.A2)

2014        Dec 3, In France Faouzi Lamdaoui, an adviser to President Francois Hollande, resigned after being summoned to answer charges of fraud by a Paris criminal court. Lamdaoui, an equality and diversity advisor, was suspected of misusing corporate assets, money laundering and forgery from 2007 to 2008 related to a transport company he founded.
    (Reuters, 12/3/14)

2014      Dec 5, A French-US fund announced it will pay thousands of Holocaust survivors and family members in the United States and elsewhere will be entitled to compensation from a $60 million.
    (Reuters, 12/5/14)

2014         Dec 6, French President Francois Hollande met with Russian President Putin in Moscow.
    (Reuters, 12/6/2014)

2014        Dec 9, President Francois Hollande said that Serge Lazarevic (50), the last French citizen held hostage since 2011 by Al Qaeda's north African arm, has now been freed. Five prisoners in Mali were reported exchanged for the Frenchman.
    (Reuters, 12/9/14)

2014        Dec 14, French Defence Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian said that French forces have either killed or captured nearly 200 jihadists in the Sahel region of west Africa in the past year.
    (AFP, 12/14/14)

2014        Dec 15, France’s the interior ministry said the UberPop transport service will be banned in France from Jan. 1 to avoid unfair competition.
    (Reuters, 12/15/14)
2014        Dec 15, French police dismantled a network sending jihadist fighters to Syria in a series of dawn raids that saw them nab 10 suspects across the country.
    (AFP, 12/15/14)

2014        Dec 18, French regulators fined 13 consumer-products makers about 950 million euros ($1.2 billion) for price fixing on goods like shampoos, detergents and toothpaste.
    (AP, 12/18/14)

2014        Dec 20, In France Bertrand Nzohabonayo, born in Burundi in 1994, was shot dead after entering a police station in the central town of Joue-les-Tours armed with a knife, seriously wounding two officers. Police viewed the attack as motivated by radical Islamist motives.
    (AFP, 12/21/14)
2014        Dec 20, Burundi's National Intelligence Service detained Brice Nzohabonayo in the capital Bujumbura shortly after his brother Bertrand Nzohabonayo attacked a police station in Joue-les-Tours, France.
    (AFP, 12/22/14)

2014        Dec 21, A Frenchman (b.1974) in Dijon ploughed into pedestrians shouting "Allahu Akbar" and left 13 people injured before he was shot dead. He had been to psychiatric hospital 157 times and had no known links to jihadist groups.
    (AFP, 12/22/14)

2014        Dec 22, In France a driver ploughed into a Christmas market in western France, injuring 10 people in Nantes. The driver stabbed himself in the chest "at least nine times", causing himself serious, but not life-threatening, injuries.
    (AFP, 12/23/14)
2014        Dec 22, France-based Airbus delivered its first next-generation A350-900 plane to Qatar Airways in a formal ceremony that kickstarts its bid to erode rival Boeing's dominance in the lucrative long-haul market.
    (AFP, 12/22/14)
2014        Dec 22, The Algerian army killed Abdelmalek Gouri, the head of a militant group that beheaded French tourist Herve Gourdel in September after it had pledged allegiance to the Islamic State group. 2 other militants were also killed in the operation in Isser.
    (AFP, 12/23/14)

2014        Dec 24, A French court ordered gossip magazine Closer to pay 20,000 euros ($24,400) in damages for "invasion of privacy." Earlier this month, the magazine published four pages of photos taken in Vienna of the far-right National Front’s Vice President Florian Philippot with a "television journalist" presented as his boyfriend.
    (AFP, 12/24/14)

2014        Dec 28, Long queues of vehicles lined routes to French ski slopes for a second day after snow, ice and heavy traffic forced some 15,000 people into emergency overnight accommodations.
    (Reuters, 12/28/14)

2014        Dec 31, In France a 50 percent tax paid by employers on income earned above one million euros ($1.22 million) ended today. Socialist President Francois Hollande's 75% super tax had been rejected by a court and re-written to 50%.
    (AP, 12/31/14)

2014        Douglas Coupland authored “Kitten Clone: Inside Alcatel Lucent."
    (Econ, 10/25/14, p.88)
2014        Andrew Hussey authored “The French Intifada: The Long War Between France and Its Arabs."
    (Econ, 2/22/14, p.83)
2014        A French parliamentary report said some 60% of the country’s prison population is Muslim.
    (Econ, 1/17/15, p.22)
2014        America fined Alstom, a French industrial group, $772 million in the largest FCPA (Foreign Corrupt Practices Act) criminal penalty to date.
    (Econ, 5/9/15, p.62)

2015        Jan 1, France's Interior Ministry said 940 cars were set alight by revelers ringing in the New Year, 12 percent fewer than the 1,067 set aflame last year.
    (AP, 1/1/15)

2015        Jan 7, In France heavily armed gunmen shouting Islamist slogans stormed a Paris office of satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo and shot dead 10 staff and 2 police officers in the deadliest attack in France in four decades. The masked attackers reportedly hijacked a car and sped off. Al Qaeda in Yemen later claimed responsibility for the attack. Cartoonist Stephane Charbonnier (47) was among those killed.
    (AFP, 1/7/15)(AP, 1/7/15)(Reuters, 1/14/15)(Econ, 1/10/15, p.45)(Econ, 1/17/15, p.90)
2015        Jan 7, French writer’s Michel Houellebecq “Soumission" was published. It depicted a near future (2022) in which Islamists win France’s presidency and compromise its freedoms.
    (Econ, 1/10/15, p.7)(Econ, 1/10/15, p.46)

2015        Jan 8, In France Amedy Coulibaly killed a policewoman on the southern edge of Paris, killing her and injuring a nearby street sweeper before fleeing. He later claimed to have coordinated with the two gunmen who attacked the Charlie Hebdo magazine on Jan 7.
    (AP, 1/8/15)(AFP, 1/11/15)
2015        Jan 8, In northern France police and counter-terrorism officers searched for the two armed suspects, Said and Chérif Kouachi, who are brothers, the chief suspects in the deadly Jan 7 attack in Paris on the offices of Charlie Hebdo. A third suspect, Hamyd Mourad, turned himself in at a police station in a small town northeast of Paris after learning his name was linked to the attack.
    (AP, 1/8/15)

2015        Jan 9, In France a hostage-taking at a Jewish deli left four hostages and the gunman, Amedy Coulibaly, killed.
    (Reuters, 1/11/15)

2015        Jan 11, In France at least 3.7 million people took part in marches of support for Charlie Hebdo and freedom of expression. World leaders linked arms to lead more than one million people through Paris in an unprecedented homage to the victims. 17 people were killed in three days of violence that began when two Islamist gunmen burst into Charlie Hebdo's offices.
    (Reuters, 1/13/15)

2015        Jan 12, Ukraine, Russia, Germany and France scrapped plans to hold a summit in Kazakhstan later this week because of the failure to implement a four-month-old ceasefire agreement fully and there was no sign of when it might be rescheduled.
    (Reuters, 1/13/15)

2015        Jan 14, In France the first edition of Charlie Hebdo after the Jan 7 attack by Islamist gunmen sold out within minutes.
    (Reuters, 1/14/15)
2015        Jan 14, Notorious French comedian Dieudonne was arrested for condoning terrorism over a comment suggesting he sympathized with one of the Paris attacks gunmen, in a move that sparked a debate about free speech.
    (AFP, 1/14/15)
2015        Jan 14, In France a 28-year-old attacker forced the front door of his neighbors' house in the picturesque village of Beaucet near Avignon just after midnight shouting "I am your god, I am your Islam" before repeatedly stabbing to death Mohamed El Makouli. The man was soon charged with murder, attempted murder and possession of drugs, before being committed to a psychiatric hospital in nearby Montfavet.
    (AFP, 1/16/15)
2015        Jan 14, France ordered prosecutors around the country to crack down on hate speech, anti-Semitism and those glorifying terrorism. Authorities said 54 people have been arrested since the terror attacks in Paris last week.
    (SFC, 1/15/15, p.A2)

2015        Jan 15, In Belgium two men believed to have fought in Syria were shot dead after opening fire on police with assault weapons in Verviers. Fifteen suspects were soon arrested after a dozen raids around Brussels and in Verviers. Two of those under arrest were seized in France.
    (Reuters, 1/16/15)

2015        Jan 16, French police arrested 12 people suspected of helping militant Islamist gunmen in last week's killings in Paris. An armed man who took several hostages at a post office northwest of Paris surrendered with no one hurt.
    (Reuters, 1/16/15)

2015        Jan 20, In southern France a local mayor said five Russians from Chechnya have been arrested, including one with a cache of explosives in Beziers. Four other men appeared at a court in Paris, the first to face charges in the Paris terror attacks.
    (AP, 1/20/15)

2015        Jan 21, France announced sweeping new measures to counter homegrown terrorism, including giving security forces better weapons and protection, going on an intelligence agent hiring spree and creating a better database of anyone suspected of extremist links.
    (AP, 1/21/15)
2015        Jan 21, In four-way talks in Berlin involving Ukraine, Russia, Germany and France foreign ministers agreed a "demarcation line" between pro-Russian fighters and Kiev's forces from which withdrawal of heavy weapons could start. There were no details.
    (Reuters, 1/22/15)

2015        Jan 25, In France rescue workers found the bodies of six skiers who went missing a day earlier after being carried away by an avalanche.
    (AFP, 1/25/15)

2015        Jan 26, Poland led EU criticism of bilateral farm deals with Moscow following a French accord with Russia to lift its ban on live pig and pork imports.
    (Reuters, 1/26/15)

2015        Jan 27, Police in Belgium and France arrested suspected militant Islamists in dawn raids; 5 in France and 3 in Belgium.
    (Reuters, 1/27/15)

2015        Jan 28, France unveiled a video and web site designed to dissuade potential jihadists from joining Islamist fighting groups in Syria and Iraq.
    (Reuters, 1/28/15)
2015        Jan 28, France's highest court ruled that a gay French-Moroccan couple are allowed to marry despite the North African kingdom's refusal to recognize marriages between two men.
    (AP, 1/28/15)

2015        Jan 30, France pledged tanks and armored vehicles to bolster NATO forces in Poland, where leaders are increasingly uneasy about Russia.
    (AP, 1/30/15)

2015        Feb 5, The leaders of Germany and France announced a new peace plan for Ukraine, planning to fly together to Kiev and Moscow with a proposal to resolve the conflict.
    (Reuters, 2/5/15)

2015        Feb 6, German Chancellor Angela Merkel and French President Francois Hollande arrived in Moscow for talks with Russian President Vladimir Putin on the Ukraine crisis.
    (Reuters, 2/6/15)

2015        Feb 8, French police detained six people suspected of recruiting potential jihadists, just days after another operation saw five charged on similar grounds.
    (AFP, 2/8/15)

2015        Feb 10, In France a three-day trial began for Pierre Le Guennec and his wife, Danielle. They claimed that the artist, or his wife, gave them 180 lithographs, collages and paintings and 91 sketchbook drawings around 1970 when Le Guennec began working as a general handyman for Picasso.
    (AP, 2/10/15)

2015        Feb 12, France and Egypt agreed a deal worth more than 5 billion euros ($5.7 billion) for the sale of Dassault Aviation-built Rafale fighter jets, a naval frigate and missiles.
    (Reuters, 2/12/15)
2015        Feb 12, Germany, France, Russia and Ukraine agreed a deal on that offers a "glimmer of hope" for an end to fighting in eastern Ukraine after marathon overnight talks in Belarus. The deal envisages a ceasefire between Ukrainian forces and Russian-backed separatists starting on Feb 15, followed by the withdrawal of heavy weapons from the front line and constitutional reform to give eastern Ukraine more autonomy.
    (Reuters, 2/12/15)

2015        Feb 15, In France some 250 graves were found vandalized at a Jewish cemetery in Sarre-Union. Five teens were later arrested and admitted to the destruction in the Alsace region.
    (SFC, 2/19/15, p.A2)

2015        Feb 16, The leaders of France, Germany and Ukraine said that observers from the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) must have "free access" for their work in eastern Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 2/16/15)

2015        Feb 19, The French victim of a racist incident, involving Chelsea soccer fans in the Paris metro on Feb 17, lodged an official complaint with police. He had not initially know the incident had been filmed and widely broadcast.
    (Reuters, 2/19/15)(SFC, 2/19/15, p.A2)
2015        Feb 19, A German government spokesman said Russian President Vladimir Putin has agreed in a conference call with the leaders of France, Germany and Ukraine to use his influence on separatists to start an agreed prisoner swap with Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 2/19/15)

2015        Feb 21, French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius arrived in Chad as part of a 48-hour trip to countries affected by Boko Haram's insurgency. He will travel to Cameroon and Niger next.
    (Reuters, 2/21/15)

2015        Feb 23, A French aircraft carrier launched operations in the Gulf against the Islamic State group as the new Pentagon chief summoned top generals and diplomats to Kuwait to review war efforts.
    (AFP, 2/23/15)

2015        Feb 24, French president Francois Hollande and Italian PM Matteo Renzi signed an agreement for a long-standing rail project to ease transport of freight across the Alps. The line would not open before 2028.
    (AP, 2/24/15)
2015        Feb 24, In Yemen gunmen kidnapped Isabelle Prime, a Frenchwoman (30) working for the World Bank, and her Yemeni driver as she was on her way to work in Sanaa. The Houthis said that Pres. Hadi had lost his legitimacy as head of state and was being sought as a fugitive from justice. Prime and her translator arrived in France on August 7.
    (Reuters, 2/24/15)(Reuters, 2/25/15)(SFC, 8/8/15, p.A2)

2015        Feb 25, France outlined plans for a broader dialogue with its Muslim minority after the faith's official council proved unable to deal with the challenges presented by Islamist radicalization.
    (Reuters, 2/25/15)
2015        Feb 25, French police arrested three Al Jazeera journalists for illegally flying drones in Paris.
    (SFC, 2/26/15, p.A2)

2015        Feb 27, Britain and France dismissed any suggestion of restoring relations with Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, saying this would likely end all hope of a political transition and push moderates into the arms of radical Islamist groups.
    (Reuters, 2/27/15)

2015        Mar 1, In France 15 pieces of art were stolen from the the Chinese Museum at Fontainebleau Castle.
    (SFC, 3/2/15, p.A2)

2015        Mar 3, A French court fined a British journalist 1,000 euros ($1,100) for flying a drone over central Paris and confiscated the machine.
    (AFP, 3/3/15)

2015        Mar 4, France's highest appeals court paved the way for the extradition to either Russia or Ukraine of jailed Kazakh tycoon Mukhtar Ablyazov, accused of embezzling up to $6 billion from his former bank BTA.
    (Reuters, 3/4/15)
2015        Mar 4, France, Portugal and Spain sealed the agreement on boosting energy cooperation in Madrid as a major step toward breaking Europe's dependence on Russian gas supplies.
    (AP, 3/5/15)

2015        Mar 9, French police detained five Greenpeace activists after they dangled from a bridge in Paris and unfurled banners on the Seine River that call for cuts in nuclear power.
    (AP, 3/9/15)

2015        Mar 11, In France a group of armed thieves attacked two secure vans carrying jewels at a motorway toll overnight, making off with a haul worth some nine million euros ($11 million).
    (AFP, 3/11/15)

2015        Mar 12, France’s competition authority hit eleven companies with $203 million in fines for fixing prices on many yogurt-related goods.
    (SFC, 3/13/15, p.A2)

2015        Mar 13, Japan and France signed an arms transfer agreement, paving the way to develop drones and other unmanned equipment together as Japan seeks to play a greater international military role.
    (AP, 3/13/15)

2015        Feb 17, The French government passed the Macron law by decree for fear of not winning a majority. It allowed intercity coaches to compete with railways, relaxed Sunday trading restrictions and lifted barriers to becoming a notary.
    (Econ., 2/21/15, p.51)
2015        Mar 17, Germany, France and Italy followed Britain in announcing that they plan to join the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, a proposed Chinese-led Asian regional bank, swinging Europe's biggest economic powers behind a project that is viewed with concern in Washington.
    (AP, 3/17/15)

2015        Mar 18, A French court handed controversial comedian Dieudonne a two-month suspended jail sentence for condoning terrorism after a comment suggesting he sympathized with one of the jihadists who attacked Paris.
    (AFP, 3/18/15)

2015        Mar 19, In France employees at Radio France went on strike to protest a cut in public subsidy and an attempt to control Radio /France’s deficit.
    (Econ., 4/11/15, p.50)
2015        Mar 19, The International Agency for Research on Cancer, a French-based research arm of the World Health Organization, reclassified the herbicide glyphosate as a result of what it said is convincing evidence the chemical produces cancer in lab animals and more limited findings it causes non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in humans. The glyphosate-containing herbicide Roundup has been a mainstay of industrial agriculture. This raised more questions for an aerial spraying program in Colombia that is the cornerstone of the US-backed war on drugs.
    (AP, 3/22/15)

2015        Mar 21, The mayor of Paris, France, said the number of cars on the road will be cut in half beginning March 23. Public transit will be made free to combat a spike in pollution that has obscured even the Eiffel Tower under a smoggy haze.
    (AP, 3/21/15)

2015        Mar 22, France held the first round of council elections. Victory will determine which candidates can contest a second vote March 29.
    (AP, 3/22/15)

2015        Mar 24, An Airbus A320 Germanwings airplane, operated by Lufthansa, crashed in the French Alps as it flew from Barcelona to Duesseldorf. 150 people were killed. On March 26 investigators said Co-pilot Andreas Lubitz of the doomed Germanwings jet barricaded himself in the cockpit and "intentionally" sent the plane full speed into a mountain in the French Alps.
    (AP, 3/24/15)(Reuters, 3/26/15) 

2015        Mar 26, Airlines rushed to change their rules so as to require a second crew member in the cockpit at all times, hours after French prosecutors suggested co-pilot Andreas Lubitz (27) had barricaded himself alone at the controls of a German jetliner and crashed it on purpose.
    (Reuters, 3/26/15)

2015        Mar 29, France held elections for local councils. Nicolas Sarkozy's conservative UMP party and its allies won 46 percent of the vote. The left captured 32 percent of the vote and the National Front won 22 percent with 62 of 4,108 available seats.
    (AP, 3/30/15)

2015        Apr 2, In France two men, who worked as cleaners for a pair of elderly sisters, were detained for stealing hundreds of thousands of euros the women kept in cash in their home near Lyon. A two-year police investigation had begun shortly after the bodies of the sisters were discovered in their home in the suburb of Bron in April 2013.
    (AFP, 4/5/15)

2015        Apr 5, In France an 18-day-old dispute at Radio France stemmed from concerns over job losses and service reductions aimed at reining in a budget deficit. The longest strike in a decade at France's public radio broadcaster has left paralyzed news stations playing music and shows no sign of ending after weekend talks failed to defuse a standoff over cost cuts.
    (Reuters, 4/5/15)

2015        Apr 6, In Mali French special forces, in an operation that killed several jihadists, rescued Dutch train driver Sjaak Rijke, kidnapped in November, 2011, in Timbuktu by Al-Qaeda's north Africa arm.
    (AFP, 4/6/15)

2015        Apr 8, French air traffic controllers launched a two-day strike over working conditions. Hundreds of flights were cancelled in and out of the country.
    (AFP, 4/8/15)
2015        Apr 8, In France Jean-Louis Cremieux-Brilhac (98), a Jewish member of the French Resistance in charge of propaganda during World War II, died in Paris.
    (AP, 4/10/15)
2015        Apr 8, In France hackers purporting to be supporters of Islamic State knocked out channels belonging to public television station TV5Monde and posted material on its social media feeds to protest French military action in Iraq. The network signal was restored the next day but only for recorded programs.
    (Reuters, 4/9/15)(SFC, 4/10/15, p.A2)

2015        Apr 9, In France the Eiffel Tower closed, many school kids had no classes and air traffic controllers were staying off work in a nationwide day of protests and strikes to air an array of grievances against the government.
    (AP, 4/9/15)
2015        Apr 9, France announced the cancellation of $68.7 million (64.8 million euros) in debt owed by Mali. The debt from 1984 was initially the equivalent of 229 million euros and was due to its rejoining the CFA franc backed by the French treasury.
    (AFP, 4/10/15)

2015        Apr 13, In France Arlette Ricci (73), the heiress of the Nina Ricci fashion and perfume house, was sentenced to a year in prison and ordered to pay heavy fines and back taxes for having hidden millions of euros in HSBC bank accounts in Switzerland.
    (AP, 4/13/15)

2015        Apr 15, Finland-based Nokia said it is to buy ailing French telecom company Alcatel-Lucent for around 15.6 billion euros ($16.5 billion) through a public exchange of shares in France and the United States.
    (AP, 4/15/15)

2015        Apr 16, France's top administrative court overturned a ban on the display in a pastry shop of "racist" cakes in the shape of a naked man and woman coated in dark chocolate.
    (AFP, 4/16/15)

2015        Apr 17, French PM Manuel Valls unveiled a 100-million-euro ($108-million) plan to fight rising racism and anti-Semitism, notably through tougher punishment.
    (AP, 4/17/15)

2015        Apr 19, In France Sid Ahmed Ghlam (24) was arrested after police stumbled upon his plans to attack churches when he called paramedics saying he had accidentally shot himself in the leg. An arsenal of four Kalashnikov rifles, several handguns and bulletproof vests were discovered in his car and at his student flat as well as jihadist literature mentioning Al-Qaeda and the Islamic State group. His DNA was linked to the murder of Aurelie Chatelain (32), a young mother in Villejuif, who was found shot dead today in the passenger seat of her car.
    (AFP, 4/23/15)(SFC, 4/24/15, p.A2)

2015        Apr 20, Lebanon received the first installment of $3 billion worth of French weapons paid for by Saudi Arabia, part of a four-year plan to help arm Beirut in its battle against jihadi groups.
    (AP, 4/20/15)

2015        Apr 22, French President Francois Hollande acknowledged for the first time that France will have to give Russia a refund if it doesn't receive the Mistral-class warship whose delivery has been suspended last year because of the conflict in Ukraine.
    (AP, 4/22/15)

2015        Apr 27, French investigators provided details to AFP of their year-long probe into the finances of Rifaat al-Assad, the younger brother of Syria’s late dictator Hafez al-Assad. He was under investigation for amassing a 90-million-euro fortune, including a stud farm and luxury apartments, despite being kicked out of Syria "with nothing" 30 years ago.
    (AFP, 4/27/15)

2015        Apr 29, A report in the Guardian newspaper said fourteen French soldiers are implicated in a probe into the alleged rape of children in the Central African Republic, in what could be a potentially devastating scandal for the army.
    (AFP, 4/30/15)(SFC, 4/30/15, p.A2)

2015        May 4, In Qatar the CEO of French aerospace firm Dassault, Eric Trappier, signed a 6.3-billion-euro ($7-billion) deal with Qatari defense officials in Doha. The agreement includes an order for 24 Rafale fighter jets, with an option on a further 12. French President Francois Hollande oversaw the signing.
    (AFP, 5/4/15)

2015        May 5, In France four robbers looted 17.5 million euros in jewelry and watches from a boutique in the resort town of Cannes at the Cartier boutique on the beachfront promenade known as the Croisette.
    (AFP, 5/7/15)

2015        May 11, Francois Hollande became the first French president to visit Cuba, using a one-day trip to build business and diplomatic relations five months after a detente between Havana and Washington.
    (AP, 5/11/15)

2015        May 12, French President Francois Hollande arrived in Haiti to sign cooperation agreements and support reconstruction efforts that continue since the deadly 2010 earthquake.
    (AFP, 5/12/15)

2015        May 15, A French court sentenced Gilles Le Guen (60) to eight years behind bars for fighting alongside an Al-Qaeda group in Mali. The former member of the French merchant navy was arrested by special forces in late April 2013.
    (AFP, 5/15/15)
2015        May 15, Russia said it wants 1.163 billion euros ($1.32 billion) from France in compensation for cancelling a contract to deliver two Mistral helicopter carriers. Paris was offering to pay 785 million euros.
    (Reuters, 5/15/15)

2015        May 18, French police arrested around a dozen suspects in connection with a spectacular robbery on the convoy of a Saudi prince in Paris last year that netted the thieves 250,000 euros.
    (AFP, 5/18/15)
2015        May 18, France, Germany and Italy agreed to develop a European drone program for reconnaissance and surveillance, seeking to inject momentum into a proposal first considered in 2013.
    (Reuters, 5/18/15)

2015        May 20, CERN scientists operating the world's biggest particle collider set a new energy record ahead of the massive machine's full restart in June. The Large Hadron Collider is located in a 27-km (16.8-mile) tunnel beneath the Swiss-French border.
    (AP, 5/21/15)

2015        May 24, In France the 68th Cannes film festival came to a close. The Grand Prix went to “Son of Saul," directed by Laszlo Nemes. The Palme d’Or went to “Dheepan," directed by Jacques Audiard. The Jury Prize went to “The Lobster," directed by Yorgos Lanthimos.
    (Econ, 5/30/15, p.84)

2015        May 28, In France thousands of doctors, nurses and other hospital personnel demonstrated in central Paris to protest planned working-hours changes they say will result in more burnout and worse patient care.
    (AP, 5/28/15)
2015        May 28, A French court sentenced photographer Francois-Marie Banier to three years in prison and ordered him to pay $174 million in damages and a $383,000 fine for swindling millions from L’Oreal heiress Liliane Bettencourt (92).
    (SFC, 5/29/15, p.A2)
2015        May 28, French and Spanish police detained two people and found weapons and explosives in a raid on a villa in southwest France targeting Basque separatist group ETA.
    (AP, 5/28/15)

2015        May 31, India said it will only buy 36 Rafale fighter jets as they are "way too expensive." Defense Minister Manohar Parrikar said the previous government's plans to buy 126 French jets from Dassault were "economically unviable and not required".
    (AFP, 5/31/15)

2015        Jun 2, In France police evacuated hundreds of migrants from a makeshift tent camp near a major train station and tourist area in Paris, then bulldozed their leftover debris from a patch of pavement that had become a symbol of Europe's migrant crisis.
    (AP, 6/2/15)

2015        Jun 5, Europe's rights court backed the decision of a French court to allow a man in a vegetative state to be taken off life support.
    (AFP, 6/5/15)

2015        Jun 12, In France ex-IMF chief Dominique Strauss-Kahn (66) was acquitted of sex crime accusations by a court in Lille, the final chapter in a transatlantic scandal that destroyed the political ambitions of a man once tipped to become his country's president. The court also acquitted the owner of a string of Belgian bordellos nicknamed "Dodo the Pimp", who was accused of providing prostitutes at sex parties attended by Dominique Strauss-Kahn.
    (Reuters, 6/12/15)(AFP, 6/12/15)
2015        Jun 12, France's data privacy agency ordered Google to remove search results worldwide upon request, giving the company two weeks to apply the "right to be forgotten" globally.
    (AP, 6/12/15)

2015        Jun 14, Italy threatened to turn to a Plan B to deal with migrants which "would hurt Europe" if the country is not given greater help with the crisis, as Austria and France expelled asylum seekers back onto Italian soil.
    (AFP, 6/14/15)

2015        Jun 17, France said it will create 11,000 more places in centers for asylum seekers and housing for refugees as part of a plan to help deal with the flow of thousands of migrants crossing the Mediterranean Sea.
    (AP, 6/17/15)

2015        Jun 18, The Russian government condemned the freezing of Russian accounts in France and Belgium as part of an effort to enforce a $50 billion judgment for the destruction of the Yukos oil company.
    (AP, 6/18/15)

2015        Jun 19, In France the families of surrogate children who have been effectively denied French citizenship went to the country's highest court to challenge the law denying birth certificates for babies born abroad. Europe's top human rights court ordered France to change the law last year.
    (AP, 6/19/15)
2015        Jun 19, In France the hulking shell of "Harmony of the Seas," the world's largest cruise ship, slid into the waters at Saint-Nazaire. Workers aimed to have the ship, owned by Royal Caribbean International cruise lines, ready for a 2016 inaugural trip.
    (AFP, 6/19/15)

2015        Jun 23, Bosnian and French police arrested 15 members of a human trafficking ring that forced women and children to beg and steal in cities across France. Seven suspects were arrested in Bosnia and eight in France.
    (AFP, 6/23/15)
2015        Jun 23, Eurostar said it has canceled all passenger trains for the rest of the day through the tunnel that links France and England, after striking ferry workers swarmed the train line setting tires alight.
    (AP, 6/23/15)
2015        Jun 23, Wikileaks revealed that America’s NSA had spied on three French presidents from 2006-2012.
    (Econ, 6/27/15, p.42)

2015        Jun 24, French lawmakers voted to create a $60-million fund to compensate Holocaust victims transported by French state rail firm SNCF to Nazi concentration camps in a move also intended to protect the company from future US litigation.
    (Reuters, 6/25/15)

2015        Jun 25, Protests in France against ride-booking app Uber turned violent as taxi drivers burned cars and blocked access to airports and train stations.
    (AFP, 6/25/15)

2015        Jun 26, In southeastern France a decapitated body daubed with Arabic writing was found at a US gas company after an assailant rammed a car into the premises, triggering an explosion. Suspect Yassim Salhi (35) was arrested minutes later while opening canisters containing flammable chemicals. His wife, sister and a fourth person were also detained. Salhi confessed on June 28 and his wife and sister were released.
    (Reuters, 6/26/15)(Reuters, 6/27/15)(Reuters, 6/28/15)

2015        Jun 29, French police brought in two executives from US technology company Uber for questioning as the government clamp down on the taxi and ride-sharing service intensifies.
    (Reuters, 6/29/15)
2015        Jun 29, In France employees of a ferry service recently sold by Eurotunnel renewed a blockade of the northern port of Calais after a court rejected their bid to extend the service's charter contract with Eurotunnel.
    (Reuters, 6/29/15)

2015        Jun 30, Striking ferry workers invaded the railroad tracks leading to the Eurotunnel linking France and England, and train service across the Channel was suspended until further notice.
    (AP, 6/30/15)

2015        Jun, British-Indian artist Anish Kapoor installed his "Dirty Corner" sculpture in the gardens of France's Palace of Versailles. Kapoor has described the piece as "the vagina of a queen who is taking power." The piece was soon sprayed with yellow paint.
    (AFP, 9/6/15)

2015        Jul 2, A French court reinstated Jean-Marie Le Pen as a member of the far-right National Front party he founded decades ago, delivering a biting blow to his daughter and party president Marine Le Pen, who had suspended him after a series of controversial and anti-Semitic statements.
    (AP, 7/2/15)

2015        Jul 5, In France at least 150 detonators and a stock of plastic explosives were stolen from into the vast army logistics base in Miramas near Marseille, triggering immediate probes into a theft that put authorities on high alert.
    (AFP, 7/7/15)
2015        Jul 5, In France a boy (14) accidentally shot his twin brother dead during a family meal while playing with guns that he did not know were loaded in the town of Hennezel.
    (AFP, 7/6/15)

2015        Jul 7, A French court jailed a woman for conning thousands of Chileans into buying a kit to make "magic cheese" they could sell back to French cosmetics firms for use in luxury beauty products. Gilberte Van Erpe (74) was given a six-year prison sentence -- three years suspended -- and a 250,000-euro ($270,000) fine for her scam. The scam. Which began in 2005, collapsed in July 2006 and Van Erpe was arrested in the French Riviera city of Nice in 2008, but it was not possible to extradite her.
    (AFP, 7/7/15)

2015        Jul 8, A French court suspended a postal ballot organized by the far-right National Front on whether to scrap founder Jean-Marie Le Pen's post as honorary president.
    (AFP, 7/8/15)

2015        Jul 10, In France the leader of a banned group was sentenced to nine years in jail on terrorism charges after police raids found weapons and a list of Jewish targets in his personal files. Mohamed Achamlane (37) was one of 14 people tried on charges of criminal conspiracy related to a terrorist enterprise. Forsane Alizza (Horsemen of Pride in Arabic) was banned in 2012.
    (AP, 7/10/15)
2015        Jul 10, European plane-maker Airbus flew its E-fan plane from Lydd, England, to the French port of Calais. About 12 hours before Airbus' Channel flight, French pilot Hugues Duval took his two-engine, one-seat Cricri electric plane from Calais to Dover and back.
    (AP, 7/10/15)

2015        Jul 14, France celebrated Bastille Day with a spectacular display of fighter jets and with anti-terror forces marching in the yearly parade in Paris for the first time.
    (AP, 7/14/15)
2015        Jul 14, French sources said two explosions which sparked huge fires at a petrochemical plant in in Berre-l'Etang near Marseille-Marignane airport early today are believed to have been the result of a "malicious act".
    (AFP, 7/14/15)

2015        Jul 18, Formula One driver Jules Bianchi (25) died in a French hospital from head injuries sustained in a crash at the Oct 5, 2014, Japanese Grand Prix.
    (AP, 7/18/15)

2015        Jul 23, Angry French farmers blocked the Mont Saint-Michel causeway and highways leading to the Alps to denounce low milk and meat prices.
    (AP, 7/23/15)

2015        Jul 24, France’s Constitutional Council approved a law giving its intelligence services sweeping new spying abilities.
    (SFC, 7/25/15, p.A2)

2015        Jul 25, King Salman of Saudi Arabia arrived in France for a Riviera beach holiday at the family's seafront villa in Vallauris, bringing with him no fewer than 1,000 people from his entourage.
    (Reuters, 7/25/15)

2015        Jul 26, French police searched for the driver of a car that smashed through a security barrier in central Paris near the finish line of cycling's Tour de France. Witnesses saw two men and two women leaving the bullet-ridden car. Two people soon surrendered including a woman injured in the crash.
    (AFP, 7/26/15)(AP, 7/27/15)
2015        Jul 26, French police discovered nearly six tons of cannabis resin, known as hashish, in a villa in the southern city of Marseille and arrested three men.
    (AFP, 7/27/15)
2015        Jul 26, In eastern France 433 hot air balloons lifted off from fChambley-Bussieres air base and soared straight into the record books. The previous record was set at the same spot in 2013 when 391 balloons went up.
    (AP, 7/26/15)

2015        Jul 27, French farmers angry over low prices turned back hundreds of trucks at the German border, looking for cargos of foreign meat and milk products.
    (AP, 7/27/15)

2015        Jul 28, French archaeologists said two students have found a human tooth from about 560,000 years ago in a famous prehistoric cave at Tautavel in southwestern France, the oldest human body part ever discovered in the country.
    (AP, 7/28/15)

2015        Jul 29, In France one man died as overwhelmed authorities for a 2nd night fought off some 2,000 desperate attempts by migrants to enter England through the Channel Tunnel, prompting France to beef up its police presence.
    (AFP, 7/29/15)(SFC, 7/30/15, p.A4)

2015        Jul 30, A Kremlin aide said Russia has reached a compensation deal with France for the non-delivery of two Mistral warships, but Paris the next day refused to confirm a final agreement.
    (AFP, 7/31/15)

2015        Jul 31, France’s Constitutional Council confirmed the ban on the creation of new cockfighting rings — called cockpits. The law, dating back to 1964, aims to gradually get rid of all cockpits and therefore, cockfighting.
    (AP, 7/31/15)

2015        Aug 1, French riot police sprayed migrants with a chemical irritant as they tried to storm the Channel Tunnel. Some 200 migrants broke down several security fences but were forced to retreat by riot police as they attempted to breach the final fence near the entrance of the 50-km (30-mile) tunnel under the English Channel.
    (AP, 8/2/15)

2015        Aug 2, Britain and France vowed that a cross-Channel migrant crisis was their "top priority" in a united front that belied simmering anger over an issue which has become a political hot potato.
    (AFP, 8/2/15)

2015        Aug 4, Migrants in France made hundreds of attempts overnight to penetrate the Channel Tunnel to get to Britain overnight, as an unidentified "anomaly" in the tunnel slowed traffic.
    (AFP, 8/4/15)

2015        Aug 20, In France Jean-Marie Le Pen (87) was excluded from the far-right National Front, which he had founded, following a disciplinary hearing.
    (SFC, 8/21/15, p.A2)

2015        Aug 21, In northern France two people were wounded in the struggle to subdue a Kalashnikov-toting attacker aboard a high-speed train from Amsterdam to Paris. US servicemen Spencer Stone and Alek Skarlatos, American Anthony Sadler and French-American Mark Moogalian were among the passengers who stopped the gunman, later identified as Ayoub el Khazzani (26) of Morocco and known to European authorities as a suspected Islamist militant. Moogalian, who wished to remain anonymous was the first person to discover the attacker leaving a restroom with a Kalashnikov slung over his shoulder. He tried to tackle him before the attacker fired several shots with a hand gun. Moogalian was hospitalized with a bullet wound. Stone and another passenger suffered knife wounds.
    (Reuters, 8/22/15)(Reuters, 8/23/15)(SFC, 8/22/15, p.A3)(Reuters, 8/24/15)(AP, 8/25/15)(SFC, 8/27/15, p.A5)

2015        Aug 24, French President Francois Hollande awarded France's highest honor, the Legion d'honneur, to three US citizens and Briton Chris Norman, who on August 21 helped disarm a suspected Islamist militant on a train.
    (Reuters, 8/24/15)

2015        Aug 25, In northern France a police officer and 3 other people, including a woman and a baby, were killed in a shootout in a Gypsy camp in the Somme department. The attacker was injured in the melee.
    (SFC, 8/26/15, p.A2)

2015        Aug 27, French police cleared out one of the country’s biggest Roma camps, dismantling a sprawling network of makeshift shelters next to a Paris region highway under pouring rain. The camp had housed 200-300 people for at least three years.
    (AP, 8/27/15)
2015        Aug 27, Two French investigative journalists were arrested and soon charged in Paris with trying to blackmail the king of Morocco out of two million euros ($2.2 million) in hush money. Eric Laurent and Catherine Graciet were working on a book about King Mohammed VI, which was due for release early next year.
    (AFP, 8/29/15)

2015        Aug 29, The leaders of France, Germany and Russia backed a new ceasefire in eastern Ukraine in a three-way phone call.
    (Reuters, 8/29/15)

2015        Sep 2, Hundreds of migrants poured overnight onto the high-speed railway linking Paris with London near the French port of Calais, stranding thousands of passengers in darkness for hours aboard Eurostar trains.
    (Reuters, 9/2/15)
2015        Sep 2, In France 8 people, including 2 children, were killed in a fire in a Paris apartment building that investigators believe may have been started deliberately. Police arrested a man in his 30s who might have been at the scene.
    (AFP, 9/2/15)

2015        Sep 3, France and Germany agreed that the European Union, facing an unprecedented influx of migrants, should impose binding quotas on the numbers member states take in.
    (AFP, 9/3/15)
2015        Sep 3, In France more than 1,000 tractors descended on Paris in a boisterous protest by farmers who blocked highways to express their anger over falling prices for their goods and high taxes.
    (AP, 9/3/15)

2015        Sep 6, In France ministers and diplomats from 57 countries gathered in Paris to discuss the make-or-break issue of finance in a climate rescue deal to be sealed in the French capital in December.
    (AFP, 9/6/15)

2015        Sep 7, President Francois Hollande said France is ready to take in 24,000 refugees as part of EU plans to welcome more than 100,000 in the next two years.
    (Reuters, 9/7/15)
2015        Sep 7, France’s culture ministry agreed to demands by artist Anish Kapoor that anti-Semitic graffiti not be cleaned off a giant sculpture, dubbed the “queen’s vagina" at Palace of Versailles.
    (AFP, 9/8/15)

2015        Sep 8, France carried out its first surveillance flights over Syria to prepare possible attacks on Islamic State jihadists.
    (AFP, 9/8/15)

2015        Sep 15, In France 7 people were killed when an avalanche swept them away at the Snow Dome in the Alps' Massif des Ecrins.
    (AFP, 9/15/15)
2015        Sep 15, Russian state news agencies said French supermarket chain Auchan has been fined over $370,000 by Russian officials over alleged food safety violations.
    (AP, 9/15/15)

2015        Sep 17, In France PM Manuel Valls signed a decree authorizing the extradition to Russia of jailed Kazakh tycoon Mukhtar Ablyazov. Ablyazov was notified in October at the prison where he is being held outside Paris. The businessman accused of embezzling up to $6 billion from his former bank BTA planned to lodge an appeal.
    (Reuters, 10/12/15)
2015        Sep 17, France said it will use a new European opt-out scheme to ensure a ban on the cultivation of genetically modified crops in the country remains in place.
    (Reuters, 9/17/15)
2015        Sep 17, French startup Blablacar, which hooks up travelers who want to share a car for long-distance trips, announced it has raised $200 million in new funds from US and other investors as it seeks to ramp up global expansion.
    (AP, 9/17/15)

2015        Sep 19, French President Francois Hollande arrived in Morocco for a two-day visit aimed at strengthening cooperation against terrorism and boosting economic partnership with the former colony.
    (AP, 9/19/15)
2015        Sep 19, In France a judge ruled that anti-Semitic graffiti must be removed from Anish Kapoor’s funnel-like sculpture at the Palace of Versailles. The ten-meter high structure, dubbed the "queen's vagina" but officially called "Dirty Corner," was first vandalized in June and then cleaned.
    (AFP, 9/23/15)

2015        Sep 21, France's labor court ordered the national railway to pay 150 million euros ($169 million) in compensation after finding that Moroccans had faced discrimination in benefits compared with their French colleagues.
    (AP, 9/21/15)
2015        Sep 21, French police fired tear gas as they broke down several makeshift camps around the port city of Calais, leaving nearly 400 people, mostly Syrian refugees, without shelter.
    (AP, 9/22/15)

2015        Sep 22, Spain’s Interior Ministry said in a statement that ETA leaders David Pla and Iratxe Sorzabal were detained in a country house in the western mountain town of Saint-Etienne-de-Baigorry, a few km (miles) from the Spanish border, in a joint operation by French and Spanish police.
    (AP, 9/22/15)

2015        Sep 23, Egypt agreed to buy two Mistral warships which France built for Russia before scrapping the sale over the Ukraine crisis, showing Paris increasingly values Cairo as a stable partner in a chaotic region.
    (AFP, 9/23/15)

2015        Sep 25, A report in Le Monde newspaper cited a French intelligence source saying French jihadist Salim Benghalem was currently part of the Islamic police of IS and participated in executions and corporal punishments. He was named along with Mehdi Nemmouche, who carried out a fatal attack on the Jewish Museum in Brussels last year, as suspected jailers for the Islamic State group.
    (AFP, 9/25/15)

2015        Sep 27, France launched its first air strikes against Islamic State in Syria in an act of "self-defense" to stop to the militant group from carrying out attacks inside France.
    (AP, 9/27/15)
2015        Sep 27, Paris, France, held its first car-free day.
    (Econ, 9/26/15, p.53)

2015        Oct 2, The leaders of France, Germany, Russia and Ukraine met in Paris to consolidate a fragile peace in Ukraine. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) said monitors have spotted a Russian mobile TOS-1 'Buratino' weapons system in rebel-held Ukraine this week.
    (AFP, 10/2/15)(Reuters, 10/2/15)

2015        Oct 4, French authorities said violent storms and flooding along the chic French Riviera overnight have killed at least 16 people and left another five missing.
    (AFP, 10/4/15)

2015        Oct 5, Air France executives fled an angry mob after having their shirts ripped off by striking workers. Seven people were hurt, including a security guard who was knocked unconscious. The company has proposed job cuts, believed to involve 300 pilots, 900 air hostesses and stewards, and 1,700 ground staff.
    (AFP, 10/6/15)

2015        Oct 8, In France trash piled up on Paris streets because of a garbage collectors' strike. Workers occupied a city building amid frustration over spending cuts across the French economy.
    (AP, 10/8/15)   

2015        Oct 9, France launched a new air strike overnight in Syria against an Islamic State training camp and said further strikes will follow.
    (Reuters, 10/9/15)

2015        Oct 10, Egypt signed a deal with France to buy two Mistral warships originally ordered by Russia as French PM Manuel Valls began an Arab tour.
    (AFP, 10/10/15)

2015        Oct 12, In France police arrested several Air France workers at their homes as investigators tracked down protesters who hounded executives from a meeting about mass job cuts last week and tore the clothes of two fleeing managers.
    (Reuters, 10/12/15)

2015        Oct 13, France and Saudi Arabia announced signed deals worth 10 billion euros, the latest example of the deepening alliance between the two nations.
    (AP, 10/13/15)

2015        Oct 16, In France executives of ten of the world's largest oil and gas companies decided not to take a common position on the price of carbon because of differences among the groups' members.
    (Reuters, 10/16/15)

2015        Oct 18, France's finance minister said police made the country's biggest drug seizure in two years when they found 7.1 tons of hashish in Paris' chic 16th arrondisement.
    (AP, 10/18/15)
2015        Oct 18, The parents of French saint Therese of Lisieux -- dubbed "The Little Flower" -- were raised to sainthood, in a move Pope Francis hopes will underscore the importance of the family. Louis (d.1894) and Zelie Martin (d.1887) had nine children, four of whom died at a young age, while the other five all became nuns.
    (AP, 10/18/15)

2015        Oct 22, French Pres. Francois Hollande arrived in Athens for a two-day visit, as Greece seeks help from European rescue lenders for relief on its massive bailout debts.
    (AP, 10/22/15)

2015        Oct 23, In France at least 43 people on a bus carrying elderly day-trippers were killed early today when the bus hit a truck head-on and caught fire near Puisseguin in the Gironde region.
    (AFP, 10/23/15)

2015        Oct 24, French pilots Pascal Fauret and Bruno Odos arrived in France after escaping from the Dominican Republic, where they were convicted and sentenced to 20 years in prison for possession of cocaine with intent to traffic. They denied the charges. Two other Frenchmen who were also convicted in connection with the same case remained in the Dominican Republic.
    (Reuters, 10/27/15)(Reuters, 10/28/15)

2015        Oct 25, It was reported that carbon nanotubes have been found in the lung fluid of asthmatic children living in Paris. The nanomaterial has only recently been used to manufacture items such as bicycle parts, sporting goods and wind turbines.
    (SSFC, 10/25/15, p.D16)

2015        Nov 2, China and France agreed to push for long-term monitoring of a UN accord to combat climate change due in Paris next month by reviewing cuts in greenhouse gas emissions every five years.
    (Reuters, 11/2/15)
2015        Nov 2, A young French fisherman was among eight people arrested on suspicion of helping migrants cross the Channel to Britain in a high-speed inflatable boat. The fisherman had been smuggling migrants to Britain "for several months" on an inflatable Zodiac boat that could carry some 20 people at a time.
    (AFP, 11/4/15)

2015        Nov 4, France said it will lift a ban on gay men giving blood, but only if they abstain from sex in the months beforehand, an exclusion denounced as discriminatory by rights groups.
    (AFP, 11/4/15)

2015        Nov 5, France announced it would deploy an aircraft carrier to boost its fight against the Islamic State group, which has seized control of large parts of Iraq and Syria.
    (AFP, 11/5/15)

2015        Nov 8, In France more than 60 environment and energy ministers tasked with inking a global pact in December to rein in climate change, met in Paris seeking to narrow political rifts.
    (AFP, 11/8/15)

2015        Nov 9, In eastern Syria the French army bombed an oil supply center near Deir Ezzor held by the Islamic State group, targeting part of an oil distribution station and secondly a gas separation plant.
    (AFP, 11/9/15)(AFP, 11/10/15)

2015        Nov 9, In France President Francois Hollande met with with Bolivian President Evo Morales, who approved buying a radar system from France that will be used to fight drug trafficking. Thales Air Systems will provide the equipment.
    (AP, 11/10/15)
2015        Nov 9, French philosopher Andre Glucksmann (78) died. He bridged the intellectual worlds of Jean-Paul Sartre and Michel Foucault and was a towering fighter against totalitarianism.
    (AP, 11/10/15)

2015        Nov 10, In France riot police and migrants camped near the port of Calais clashed in overnight violence that aid workers said reflects the growing frustration of refugees' inability to smuggle themselves aboard trucks and trains bound for England.
    (AP, 11/10/15)

2015        Nov 13, In France gunmen and bombers attacked restaurants, a concert hall and a sports stadium at locations across Paris, killing 129 people in what a shaken President Francois Hollande called an unprecedented terrorist attack. Seven gunmen, all of whom were wearing suicide vests packed with explosives, died in the multiple assaults. The first to be identified was named as Ismael Omar Mostefai, a 29-year-old who lived in the city of Chartres, southwest of Paris. The death toll rose to 130 on Nov 20 as one of the wounded succumbed to injuries.
    (Reuters, 11/13/15)(Reuters 11/15/15)(AP, 11/20/15)

2015        Nov 14, In France a high-speed train derailed into the Marne au Rhin canal during a test run near Strasbourg. At least 11 people were killed and 5 were missing.
    (AFP, 11/15/15)(SSFC, 11/15/15, p.A3)
2015        Nov 14, The Islamic State group claimed responsibility for a wave of attacks in Paris that killed 127 people.
    (AP, 11/14/15)
2015        Nov 14, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad said that French policy had contributed to the "spread of terrorism" that culminated in attacks claimed by the Islamic State group which killed 128 people in Paris.
    (AFP, 11/14/15)

2015        Nov 15, Seven people were detained in Belgium in connection with the Nov 13 deadly attacks in Paris as the city entered three days of mourning for the 129 people killed in the worst violence in France in decades.
    (AP, 11/15/15)

2015        Nov 16, French police raided homes of suspected Islamist militants across the country overnight arresting 23 people. Investigators identified Abdelhamid Abaaoud, a Belgian national living in Syria, as the possible mastermind behind the Nov 13 attacks in Paris.
    (Reuters, 11/16/15)(SFC, 11/17/15, p.A4)

2015        Nov 17, France made an unprecedented demand that its EU allies support its military action against the Islamic State group. EU nations unanimously backed the French request. French police named two of the Nov 13 French attackers as Ismael Omar Mostefai, 29, from Chartres, southwest of Paris, and Samy Amimour, 28, from the Paris suburb of Drancy.
    (AP, 11/17/15)(Reuters, 11/17/15)(AFP, 11/17/15)
2015        Nov 17, France and Russia staged air strikes on Islamic State targets in northern Syria, punishing the group for the Nov 13 attacks in Paris and against a Russian airliner on Oct 31 that together killed 353 people.
    (Reuters, 11/17/15)
2015        Nov 17, The head of Russia's FSB security service said a homemade explosive device brought down a Russian passenger plane over Egypt last month. President Vladimir Putin ordered the Russian navy in the Mediterranean to establish contact with its French counterparts and work together.
    (AP, 11/17/15)(AFP, 11/17/15)

2015        Nov 18, In France a woman suicide bomber, Hasna Aitboulahcen (26), blew herself up and another militant died when police raided an apartment in the Paris suburb of St. Denis seeking suspects in last week's attacks in Paris. Seven people were arrested in the operation in which nearly 5,000 bullets were fired.  Abdelhamid Abaaoud, a cousin of Aitboulahcen and the suspected Islamic State mastermind of the Paris attacks, was identified the next day as the 2nd dead militant. On Nov 20 authorities said a 3rd body had been found at the site.
    (Reuters, 11/18/15)(Reuters 11/19/15)(AP, 11/20/15)(SSFC, 11/22/15, p.A25)
2015        Nov 18, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights monitoring group said French and Russian bombardments on Raqqa have killed at least 33 Islamic State militants over the past three days.
    (Reuters, 11/18/15)

2015        Nov 19, France's lower house of parliament extended a state of emergency imposed after attacks in Paris for three months and toughened a series of security measures which date back to 1955.
    (Reuters, 11/19/15)

2015        Nov 21, A Turkish official said a Belgian man of Moroccan origin has been arrested on suspicion of involvement in Islamic State's Nov 13 attacks in Paris that killed 130 people. Ahmet Dahmani (26) was arrested at a luxury hotel in the southern coastal city of Antalya after traveling from Amsterdam on Nov 14.
    (Reuters, 11/21/15)

2015        Nov 24, President Francois Hollande of France arrived in Washington for talks with US President Barack Obama on how to confront the threat posed by the Islamic State group in the wake of the Paris attacks.
    (AFP, 11/24/15)

2015        Jonathan Fenby authored “The History of Modern France: From the Revolution to the Present Day."
    (Econ, 7/25/15, p.68)
2015        Robert Gildea authored “Fighters in the Shadows: A New History of the French Resistance."
    (Econ, 8/29/15, p.67)
2015        Sudhir Hazareesingh authored “How the French Think: An Affectionate Portrait of an Intellectual People.
    (Econ, 6/13/15, p.79)
2015        The construction of a $10-20 billion new airport was planned to begin near Chartres, southwest of Paris.
    (WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A11)

Go to http://www.timelinesdb.com
Subject = France
End of file.