Timeline Great Britain 1711-1799

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1711        Feb 14, Handel's opera Rinaldo premiered. He composed his opera "Rinaldo," with the Italian librettist Giacomo Rossi. It was his 1st opera for London.
    (LGC-HCS, p.41)(WSJ, 11/13/00, p.A32)(MC, 2/14/02)

1711        Mar 1, "The Spectator" began publishing in London.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1711        Apr 26, David Hume, English empiricist, philosopher (Treatise of Human Nature), was born.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1711        Aug 23, A British attempt to invade Canada by sea failed.
    (HN, 8/23/98)

1711        Dec 25, London’s St. Paul’s Cathedral, designed by Sir Christopher Wren, was declared officially complete by Parliament. In fact construction was to continue for several years after that, with the statues on the roof only being added in the 1720s. In 2008 Leo Hollis authored “The Phoenix: St Paul’s Cathedral and the Men Who Made Modern London."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Paul%27s_Cathedral)

1711        Dec 31, Duke of Marlborough was fired as English army commander.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1711        Horse racing began at the Royal Ascot track west of London. The 1st four day royal meeting was held there in 1768.
    (SFC, 6/21/06, p.A2)(www.icons.org.uk/nom/nominations/royal-ascot)
1711        Daniel Defoe, author and enthusiast of Latin America, persuaded the British government to set up the South Sea Company to trade with the region. Speculation fueled value in the company’s shares, but the bubble crashed in 1720. In 1960 Virginia Cowles authored “The Great Swindle: The Story of the South Sea bubble."
    (Econ, 11/13/10, p.87)
1711        English ships captured the Spanish galleon San Joaquin, part of a fleet returning to Spain from Portobelo under Don Miguel Augustin de Villanueva, who was mortally wounded. New World wealth was on another ship, which managed to return to Spain.
    (WSJ, 1/31/07, p.D6)

1712        The poem “The Rape of the Lock" by English poet Alexander Pope (1688-1744) was anonymously published in Lintot’s Miscellany. It was revised, expanded and reissued under Pope’s name in 1714.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Rape_of_the_Lock)

1712        Jul 12, Richard Cromwell (85), English Lord Protector (1658-59), died.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1712        Nov 4, The Bandbox Plot, an attempt to kill Robert Harley, Earl of Oxford and Lord Treasurer, was foiled by Jonathan Swift (the author of Gulliver’s Travels), who happened to be visiting Harley.
    (Econ, 11/6/10, p.74)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bandbox_Plot)

1712        English Tories introduced a stamp tax, which taxed newspapers per sheet. Papers were then published as broadsheets, single sheets with huge pages
    (Econ, 6/12/04, p.18)

1712        Robert Walpole, later British prime minister, served a spell in the Tower of London on charges of financial impropriety.
    (Econ, 2/10/07, p.89)

1712-1862    England taxed soap with the declaration that it was a frivolous luxury of the aristocracy.
    (SFC, 4/17/99, p.B3)

1713        Apr 11, The Peace of Utrecht was signed, France ceded Maritime provinces to Britain. The French colony of Acadia, now Nova Scotia, was ceded to Great Britain. The Acadians had come from western France to fish and farm. Those who would not swear allegiance to the crown were deported. Many of these deportees went to the bayou country of Louisiana.
    (WUD, 1994, p.7)(WSJ, 9/4/96, p.A12)(HN, 4/11/98)
1713        Apr 11, Spain ceded the 2.5-sq. mile Gibraltar in perpetuity to Britain under the Treaty of Utrecht.
    (WSJ, 11/29/99, p.A29)(SFC, 2/19/02, p.A2)

1713        May 25, John Stuart 3rd earl of Bute, English premier (1760-63), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1713        Jul 7, The 1st performance of Georg F Handel's "To Deum" & "Jubilate."
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1713        Nov 20, Thomas Tompion, English clock maker (cylinder tunnel), died.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1713-1768     Laurence Sterne, English author: "Free thinkers are generally those who never think at all."
    (AP, 6/19/97)

1714        Jan 7, A typewriter was patented by Englishman Henry Mill. It was built years later.
    (MC, 1/7/02)

1714        Jul, Britain’s Parliament passed the Longitude Act. It established the Board of Longitude and offered monetary rewards (Longitude Prize) for anyone who could find a simple and practical methods for the precise determination of a ship's longitude.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longitude_Act)(Econ, 5/16/15, p.72)

1714        Aug 1, Queen Anne (1702-1714) of Britain died at age 48. By the 1701 Act of Settlement Prince George Louis (54) of Hanover succeeded her as King George I (d.1727).
    (PCh, 1992, p.279)(www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon53.html)

1714        Oct 20, Georg Ludwig of Hanover was crowned as George I of England. Queen Anne of England died and was succeeded by the Elector of Hanover.  The Hanoverian dynasty ruled to 1901. [see Oct 31]
    (LGC-HCS, p.36)(HN, 10/20/98)(WUD, 1994, p.644)

1714        Oct 31, Georg Ludwig van Hanover was crowned as King George I of England. [see Oct 20]
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1714        Tobias Swinden (1659-1719), English vicar, authored “an Enquiry into the Nature and Place of Hell."
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.26)
1714        A British comedy called “The Winder" was staged.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.132)
1714        Henrietta Howard (b.1689-1767) traveled with her husband to Hanover to the court of George Louis, heir to the English throne. In 1720 she was appointed as Woman of the Bedchamber to Princess Caroline and in 1723 became a royal mistress. In 2007 Tracy Borman authored “Henrietta Howard: King’s Mistress, Queen’s Servant."
    (Econ, 10/6/07, p.99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henrietta_Howard,_Countess_of_Suffolk)

1715        Apr 20, Nicholas Rowe's "Tragedy of Lady Jane Gray," premiered in London.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1715        Jul 20, The Riot Act went into effect in England.
    (HFA, '96, p.34)(HN, 7/20/01)

1715        Nov 12, Forces of King George I fought a rebel army at Preston, Lancashire. The rebels were defeated as government reinforcements arrived the next day. 1468 rebels, including over 1000 Scots, were taken prisoner. William Maxwell (36), Fifth Earl of Nithsdale, was soon condemned to death and taken to the Tower of London.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.9)(www.information-britain.co.uk/famdates.php?id=323)

1715        Nov 13, The pro-James Francis Edward Stuart rebellion surrendered following the battle at Preston, Lancashire.
    (www.information-britain.co.uk/famdates.php?id=323)
1715        Nov 13, The English fought the Scots at the Battle of Sheriffmuir in Scotland. The battle was inconclusive with both sides claiming victory. However in strategic terms Argyll had halted the Jacobite advance.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Sheriffmuir)

1715        Nov 24, The Thames River froze.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1715        Nov 25, England granted the 1st patent to an American. It was for processing corn.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1715        Mar, William Dampier (b.1651), English explorer and privateer, died. In 2004 Diana and Michael Preston authored "A Pirate of Exquisite Mind: Explorer, Naturalist and Buccaneer," a biography of Dampier.
    (WSJ, 4/16/04, p.W8)

1715        Daniel Parker (~1700-1775), English violin maker, visited Stradivari’s workshop about this time in Cremona, Italy, and acquired an abundance of the master’s secrets in making violins.
    (Econ, 1/2/10, p.11)(www.amacviolins.com/amac/gallery/doc/makers.htm)

1715-1721    Colen Campbell and William Kent built the Burlington House in London, England. In 1854 the Cavendish family sold it to the government. Lady Cavendish had complained that its rooms were too narrow for hooped-skirted ladies to waltz in.
    (Econ, 10/6/07, p.19)

1715-1770    France reneged on the terms of its debt five times during this period. Britain never missed an interest payment.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.104)

1716        Feb 23, Lady Nithsdale (25) planned and executed the escape of her husband, William Maxwell (36), Fifth Earl of Nithsdale, as he awaited execution in the Tower of London. They both escaped to France and settled in Rome as members of James Francis Stuart’s court-in-exile.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.10)(http://tinyurl.com/7hdz7oe)

1716        Dec 26, Thomas Gray, English poet, was born: Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard: "The paths of glory lead but to the grave."; also: "...where ignorance is bliss/’Tis folly to be wise."
    (440.com)

1716        Thomas Fairchild brushed with a feather pollen from a sweet William over the stigma of a carnation, creating the first human-made hybrid plant.
    (www.orangepippin.com/articles/yorkshireapples.aspx)(SSFC, 4/19/09, Books p.J7)

1717        Jun 4, The Freemasons established their Grand Lodge in London. They had begun in the 13th century as a guild of masons, who worked in soft stone called freestone.
    (HN, 6/4/98)(WSJ, 2/6/02, p.A16)

1717        Jul 17, Handel's "Water Music" was played for George I on the occasion of a royal barge trip on the Thames.
    (LGC-HCS, p.40)(Internet)

1717        Sep 24, Horace Walpole (1797), son of Robert Walpole, author and Fourth Earl of Orford, was born. He was a life time collector of bibelots and authored one of the first Gothic novels: "The Castle of Otranto" (1764). "The whole secret of life is to be interested in one thing profoundly and in a thousand things well." Wilmarth Lewis (d.1979) later edited Yale's 48-volume edition of Walpole's correspondence. He created the Gothic novel genre.
    (AP, 1/13/98)(WSJ, 10/19/99, p.A24)(HN, 9/24/00)

1717        Isaac Newton, England’s master of the mint, recommended a temporary freeze on the value of the gold guinea to establish an appropriate ratio between the prices of gold and silver and their supply.
    (WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A24)

1718        May 15, James Puckle, a London lawyer, patented the world's 1st machine gun.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1718        Jun 5, Thomas Chippendale, English furniture maker was baptized.
    (MC, 6/5/02)

1718        Nov 22, A force of British troops under Lt. Robert Maynard captured English pirate Edward Teach (b.~1682), better known as "Blackbeard" (aka Captain Drummond), during a battle near Ocracoke Island, off the North Carolina coast. They beheaded him. The governor of Virginia had put a price of 100 pounds on his head.
    (AP, 11/22/97)(www.outerbankschamber.com/relocation/history/ocracoke.cfm)

1718        Nov 13, John Montagu (d.1792), fourth Earl of Sandwich and purported inventor of the sandwich, was born. In 2012 the town of Sandwich staged a dramatic re-enactment of the moment when the earl was said to have invented the sandwich, to mark the 250th anniversary of the bread-based snack.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Montagu,_4th_Earl_of_Sandwich)(AFP, 5/13/12)

1719        Apr 25, Daniel Defoe's novel "Robinson Crusoe" was published in London. Crusoe was based on the story of Alexander Selkirk (1676-1721), a man who was voluntarily put ashore on a desert island (1704-1709).
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robinson_Crusoe)

1719        Jun 17, Joseph Addison (47), English poet, writer, secretary of state, died.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1720        Jan-1720 Aug, Speculators in London bid up the price of the South Sea Co., which had been granted a trading monopoly with South America and the Pacific. The South Sea Bubble burst and London markets crashed. Speculation in government chartered trading companies had led to artificially inflated equity prices with high leverage. The average stock dropped 98.5%. It reportedly took 100 years for markets to recover. In 1999 Edward Chancellor published "Devil Take the Hindmost: A History of Financial Speculation." In 2002 Malcolm Balen authored “The Secret History of the South Sea Bubble."
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.B2)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(WSJ, 6/1/99, p.A20)(Econ, 1/3/04, p.42)

1720        Feb 10, Edmund Halley was appointed 2nd Astronomer Royal of England.
    (MC, 2/10/02)

1720        Jun 9, The British Parliament passed the Bubble Act following the  collapse of the South Sea Company. It is also known as the Royal Exchange and London Assurance Corporation Act 1719, because those companies were incorporated under it. It delayed the development of the joint-stock company by over a century.
    (Econ, 3/2/13, p.66)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bubble_Act)

1720        Jun 10, Mrs. Clements of England marketed the 1st paste-style mustard.
    (MC, 6/10/02)

1720        Dec 31, Charles Edward Stuart, grandson of James II, known as the Young Pretender and Bonnie Prince Charlie, was born.
    (HN, 12/31/98)

1720        Jan-1720 Aug, Speculators in London bid up the price of the South Sea Co., which had been granted a trading monopoly with South America and the Pacific. The South Sea Bubble burst and London markets crashed. Speculation in government chartered trading companies had led to artificially inflated equity prices with high leverage. The average stock dropped 98.5%. It reportedly took 100 years for markets to recover. In 1999 Edward Chancellor published "Devil Take the Hindmost: A History of Financial Speculation." In 2002 Malcolm Balen authored “The Secret History of the South Sea Bubble."
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.B2)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(WSJ, 6/1/99, p.A20)(Econ, 1/3/04, p.42)

1720        England passed a law that prohibited the emigration of skilled craftsmen and the export of machinery, models and plans.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1721        Apr 14, William Augustus duke of Cumberland, English army leader ("Butcher of Culloden"), was born.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1721        Apr 26, The smallpox vaccination was 1st administrated. Lady Mary Wortley Montegu had returned to England following a stay in Turkey with her ambassador husband. She had learned of a procedure to inoculate against smallpox and began a campaign to have the procedure established.
    (ON, 9/01, p.1)(MC, 4/26/02)

1721        Aug 3, Grinling Gibbons (b.1648), Dutch-British sculptor and wood carver, died. He was known for his work in England.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grinling_Gibbons)

1721        Robert Walpole (1676-1745) began serving as England’s first lord of the treasury and chancellor of the exchequer. He shared power with John Carteret (later 1st Earl Granville) until 1724 and with Townshend, whom he left in charge of foreign affairs, until 1730. Thereafter his ascendancy was complete until 1742.
    (www.answers.com/topic/robert-walpole)

1722        Mar 29, Emanuel Swedenborg (b.1688), Swedish scientist and clairvoyant, died in London. In 1744 he entered into a spiritual phase in which he experienced dreams and visions. The foundation of Swedenborg's theology was laid down in “Arcana Cœlestia" (Heavenly Secrets), published in eight volumes from 1749 to 1756.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emanuel_Swedenborg)

1722        Apr 11, Christopher Smart, English journalist and poet, was born.
    (HN, 4/11/01)(MC, 4/11/02)

1722        Jun 16, John Churchill (b.1650), first Duke of Marlborough, English military strategist, died. In 2008 Richard Holmes authored “Marlborough: England’s Fragile Genius."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Churchill%2C_1st_Duke_of_Marlborough)(Econ, 6/21/08, p.99)

1722        Nov 7, Richard Steele's "Conscious Lovers," premiered in London.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1722        Jonathon Swift, author and pamphleteer, urged his fellow countrymen to boycott English goods and "burn everything that came from England, except their people and their Coals."
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, zone1 p.6)

1722-1735    Britain’s PM Walpole built his Palladian house in Norfolk.
    (Econ, 2/10/07, p.89)

1723        Jul 10, William Blackstone (d.1780), English jurist (Blackstone's Commentaries), was born in England. He wrote that: "Husband and wife are one, and that one is the husband." His "Commentaries on the Laws of England" were a dominant source for the men who ratified the US Constitution.
    (WUD, 1994, p.155)(SFC, 7/18/98, p.A15)(WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A19)(MC, 7/10/02)

1723        Jul 16, Sir Joshua Reynolds, British portrait painter and first president of the royal Academy of Arts, was born.
    (HN, 7/16/98)

1723        Britain’s Black Act, under the government of PM Robert Walpole, directed that anyone convicted of blackening or disguising his face to hunt dear could be hanged.
    (Econ, 2/10/07, p.89)
1723        Sir Christopher Wren (b.1632), British astronomer and architect, died. He designed the current St. Paul’s Cathedral in London. In 2003 Lisa Jardine authored "On a Grander Scale: The Outstanding Life of Sir Christopher Wren."
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)(HN, 10/20/98)(SSFC, 2/2/03, p.M1)

1724        Apr 1, Jonathan Swift published Drapier's letters.
    (OTD)

1724        Jun 8, John Smeaton, English engineer, was born.
    (HN, 6/8/01)

1724        Nov 16, Jack Sheppard, English robber, was hanged.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1724        Dec 9, Colley Cibber's "Caesar in Aegypt," premiered in London.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1724        Dec 24, Benjamin Franklin arrived in London.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1724        Handel composed his operas "Giulio Cesare" and "Tamerlano." The Julius Caesar opera premiered in London. [see Mar 2 and Nov 11, 1725]
    (LGC-HCS, p.41)(WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 3/1/00, p.A24)

1725        Mar 2, Georg F. Handel’s opera "Giulio Cesare in Egitto" premiered in London.
    (SC, 3/2/02)   

1725        Oct 17, John Wilkes (d.1797), English journalist, was born. He became a MP, Lord Mayor of London and called for independence of Britain's American colonies.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wilkes)

1725        Nov 11, Georg F. Handel's opera "Tamerlano," premiered in London.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1725-1774    Sir Robert Clive, soldier of fortune. Known as "Clive of India" he wrested Bengal away from the French on behalf of the British East India Co. [see 1757]
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1725-1809    Paul Sandby, considered to be the father of English watercolorists.
    (Hem., 3/97, p.92)

1726        Bishop George Berkeley wrote his poem: On the Prospect of Planting Arts and Learning in America, which included the line "Westward the course of empire takes its way." The poem was written on behalf of a plan to build an English college in Bermuda.
    (SFC, 3/28/03, p.A3)
1726        Jonathan Swift (1667-1745), Irish born clergyman and English writer, authored Gulliver's Travels.
    (Econ, 3/2/13, p.14)
1726        Britain’s Admiralty Building was built on a block of the Middle East section of London.
    (Econ, 6/21/14, p.58)

1727        Jan 2, James Wolfe, commanded British Army (captured Quebec), was born.
    (MC, 1/2/02)

1727        Mar 20, Sir Isaac Newton (b.1642), physicist, mathematician and astronomer, died in London. Michael White wrote the 1998 biography "Isaac Newton" in which he revealed Newton’s passion for alchemy. In 2003 James Gleick authored the biography "Isaac Newton." In 2011 Edward Dolnick authored “The Clockwork Universe: Isaac Newton, Royal Society, and the Birth of the Modern World." In 2014 Sarah Dry authored “The Newton Papers: The Strange and True Odyssey of Isaac Newton’s Manuscripts."
    (AP, 3/20/97)(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)(SSFC, 6/1/03, p.M1)(Econ, 3/12/11, p.99)(Econ, 6/21/14, p.81)

1727        May 14, Thomas Gainsborough (d.1788), English painter, was born (baptized). His work included "The Blue Boy."
    (HN, 5/14/01)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.579)(MC, 5/14/02)

1727        Jun 11, George I died on a journey to Hanover. George II became king of England.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_I_of_Great_Britain)

1727        Aug 14, William Croft (b.1678), English composer, died.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1727        The 1st English-language recipe for "English Katchop" was published in "E. Smith's Compleat Housewife, or Accomplished Gentlewoman's Companion."
    (SFC, 8/27/03, p.E4)

1727        Georg Friedrich Handel, German-born composer, became by act of Parliament a naturalized British citizen.
    (LGC-HCS, p.41)(AP, 4/14/97)(SFC, 9/16/97, p.E1)(Econ, 3/21/09, p.89)

1728        Jan 29, The Beggar’s Opera by John Gay (d.1732), with music arranged by John Christopher Pepusch, had its premier at the Lincoln's Inn Fields in London. Gay intended it to be a parody of Italian opera and a satirization of the Walpole administration. He wrote new lyrics to popular tunes and his "ballad opera" was a great success.
    (LGC-HCS, p.45)(ON, 2/04, p.11)

1728        Feb 28, Georg F. Handel’s opera "Siroe, re di Persia," premiered in London.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1728        May 4, Georg F. Handel's opera "Tolomeo, re di Egitto," premiered in London.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1728        Oct 27, Captain James Cook (d.1779), explorer, was born in a small village near Middlesbrough, Yorkshire. He discoveries included the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Cook)

1728        Ephraim Chambers (1680-1740) produced his Cyclopedia, a popular British reference work. An expanded French translation began in 1746.
    (WSJ, 6/29/05, p.D8)(www.nndb.com/people/027/000094742/)

1729        Jan 12, Edmund Burke (d.1797), British politician and author, was born in Dublin. Burke advocated consistent and sympathetic treatment of the American colonies: "A very great part of the mischiefs that vex this world arises from words."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Burke)(V.D.-H.K.p.224)(AP, 7/20/97)(AP, 11/29/98)

1729        Jan 19, William Congreve (58), English dramatist (Love for Love), died.
    (MC, 1/19/02)

1730        May 13, Marquess of Rockingham, British Prime Minister from 1765 to 1766 and 1782, was born.
    (HN, 5/13/99)

1730        May 15, Robert Walpole became the sole minister in the English cabinet following the resignation of Lord Townshend.
    (HN, 5/15/99)

1730        Jul 12, Josiah Wedgwood (d.1795), pottery designer, manufacturer (Wedgwood), was baptized in Burslem, England.
    (www.wedgwoodmuseum.org.uk/wedgwood_chronology.htm)

1730        Edward Scarlett, a London optician, began anchoring eyeglasses to the ears with rigid side pieces called temples.
    (SFEC, 8/2/98, Z1 p.8)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R21)
1730        Britain’s Stephenson Clarke Shipping Ltd was established. The company was forced to liquidate in 2012.
    (Reuters, 8/9/12)

1730s        In Buckinghamshire, England, the Palladian Bridge was built in the Stowe Landscape Gardens. Lancelot "Capability Brown did the landscaping.
    (SSFC, 3/16/03, p.C6)

1731        Apr 26, Daniel Defoe (~70), English author, died. His work included the novels "Robinson Crusoe," "Roxana" and the pamphlet "The Shortest Way With Dissenters."  In 1998 Richard West published the biography "Daniel Defoe: The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures."
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)(MC, 4/24/02)(MC, 4/26/02)

1731        Oct 10, Henry Cavendish, English physicist, was born. He later discovered  hydrogen.
    (HN, 10/10/98)(MC, 10/10/01)

1731        Nov 15, William Cowper, English lawyer and poet (John Gilpin), was born. [see Nov 26]
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1731        Nov 26 William Cowper, English pre-romantic poet (His Task), was born. [see Nov 15]
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1731        Henry Fielding (1707-1754) wrote his ballad-opera “The Lottery."
    (Econ, 7/10/10, SR p.15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Fielding)
1731        A pioneering collection of graffiti appeared in London titled: “The Merry-Thought: or, the Glass-Window and Bog-House Miscellany." The editor used the pseudonym Hurlo Thrumbo.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.94)

1731-1800    William Cowper, English poet: "No man can be a patriot on an empty stomach."
    (AP, 11/28/99)

1731-1802    Erasmus Darwin, noted physician and grandfather of biologists Charles Darwin and Francis Galton, explored evolutionary concepts in his work "Zoonomia" or the "Laws of Organic Life" that were related to those of French biologist Jean Baptiste Lamarck. Darwin believed that species modified themselves to their environment in a purposeful way. Combining 18th Century values of materialism with simple observations, he is usually noted as a transitional figure in evolutionary theory.
    (HNQ, 9/14/00)

1732        Apr 13, Frederick Lord North, British prime minister (1770-82) , was born.
    (HN, 4/13/98)

1732        Dec 4, John Gay (47), English poet (Beggar's Opera), died.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1732        Dec 6, Warren Hastings, England, 1st governor-General of India (1773-84), was born.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1732        Dec 23, Richard Arkwright (d.1792), English inventor (spinning frame) and industrialist, was born into a poor family in Preston. He amassed one of the first factory fortunes. He invented a water-powered cotton-spinning machine that became the basis for huge cotton mills.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4,8)(MC, 12/23/01)

1732        William Hogarth published his engravings of “The Harlot’s Progress." They were wildly popular.
    (Econ, 2/11/12, p.83)

1733        Feb 4, In England the widow Mrs Lydia Duncomb (80), her long term infirm companion Mrs Harrison (60), and servant Ann Price (26) were murdered during a robbery. The servant Sarah Malcolm (22) of County Durham was indicted. She strongly defended herself but was convicted and executed on Mar 7.
    (Econ, 9/28/13, p.80)(http://tinyurl.com/kcbjla7)

1733        Mar 13, Joseph Priestley (d.1804), English chemist, author and clergyman, was born. He is credited with the discovery of oxygen.
    (HN, 3/13/99)(WUD, 1994 p.1142)

1733        May 17, England passed the Molasses Act, putting high tariffs on rum and molasses imported to the colonies from a country other than British possessions.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1733        Voltaire authored his "Lettres Anglaises" in which he hailed England as a "nation of philosophers" and recognized the English Enlightenment.
    (WSJ, 12/5/00, p.A24)
1733        John Bartram, American farmer, began sending seed boxes from Philadelphia to Peter Collinson, a London cloth merchant and passionate plant collector.
    (WSJ, 4/25/09, p.W3)
1733        Gen. James Edward Oglethorpe sailed up the Savannah River with 144 English men, women and children and in the name of King George II chartered the Georgia Crown Colony. He created the town of Savannah, to establish an ideal colony where silk and wine would be produced, based on a grid of streets around six large squares.
    (SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-7)(SFEC,11/30/97, p.T4)

1735        Feb 27, Dr. John Arbuthnot (b.1667), English physician, satirist and polymath, died. In 1712 he invented the figure of John Bull, a national personification of Great Britain in general and England in particular, especially in political cartoons and similar graphic works.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Bull)

1735        Sep 22, Robert Walpole became the 1st British PM to live at 10 Downing Street.
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1735        William Hogarth made drawings for "The Rake’s Progress."
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, DB p.7)

1735        Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) translated a book on Abyssinia by a Portuguese Jesuit: “A Voyage to Abyssinia." In 1759 Johnson authored his prose fiction “The History of Rasellas, Prince of Abissinia." In the novel morality and happiness are shown not as matters of simple alternatives but sometimes impossible ones.
    (www.st-andrews.ac.uk/~www_se/personal/cjmm/Rasselas.html)(http://tinyurl.com/ld7bp)

1735        Henry Fielding set up his own theater company at the Little Theater in London's Haymarket. His 1st production was Pasquin.
    (ON, 9/03, p.8)

1735        In London, England, Col. Sir Thomas De Veil began dispensing justice from a house on Bow Street. De Veil was succeeded by Henry Fielding.
    (SFC, 7/14/06, p.A2)

1736        Feb 19, Georg F. Handel's "Alexander's Feast," premiered.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1736        May 26, British and Chickasaw Indians defeated the French at the Battle of Ackia. In northwestern Mississippi the Chickasaw Indians, supported by the British, defeated a combined force of French soldiers and Chocktaw Indians, thus opening the region to English settlement.
    (AHD, 1971, p.11)(HN, 5/26/98)

1736        Aug 8, Mahomet Weyonomon, a Mohegan sachem or leader, died of smallpox while waiting to see King George II to complain directly about British settlers encroaching on tribal lands in the Connecticut colony. The tribal chief was buried in an unmarked grave in a south London churchyard.
    (AP, 11/22/06)(http://tinyurl.com/ymbn3c)

1736        Henry Fielding presented his play "The Historical Register for the Year 1736," a pointed attack on the British government of PM Walpole.
    (ON, 9/03, p.8)

1736        Britain’s Mortmain Act (literally meaning 'dead hand') was introduced to protect the rights of heirs and frustrate benefactors determined to disinherit their families. It invalidated charitable gifts of land or buildings unless they were made in the last year of the donor's life.
    (www.pnnonline.org/article.php?sid=2398&mode=thread&order=0)

1736        Samuel Baldwin of Hampshire, England, had his body cast into the ocean. He requested this so that his wife could not carry out her threat to dance on his grave.
    (SFEC, 11/14/99, Z1 p.2)

1737        Jan 29, Thomas Paine, political essayist, was born in England and went on to write "The Rights of Man" and "The Age of Reason." He lived his final years in poverty and obscurity, and died June 8, 1809.
    (HN, 1/29/99)(HNQ, 9/21/99)

1737        May, Sir Robert Walpole argued for censorship of a play in the House of Commons of a satire called "The Golden Rump." Walpole pressed through Parliament a Licensing Act that lasted over 200 years.
    (WSJ, 10/14/97, p.A22)(ON, 9/03, p.8)

1737        The English puppet opera “The Dragon of Wantley" was written with music by John Frederick Lampe and libretto by Henry Carey.
    (ST, 5/20/04, p.C8)

1637        The Archbishop of Canterbury launched an effort to revoke the charter of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, but the boat carrying the English authorities sank on its way. This period in Pilgrim and Puritan history was covered by Sarah Vowell in “The Wordy Shipmates" (2008).
    (WSJ, 11/25/08, p.A13)

1738        Jun 4, George III was born (d.1820). He was the King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1760-1820, and the King of Hanover from 1815-1820. He was responsible for losing the American colonies. He passed the Royal Marriages Act, which made it unlawful for his children to marry without his consent.
    (HFA, '96, p.32)(AHD, 1971, p.552)(WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-10)

1738        Nov 15, Sir William Hershel, British astronomer who discovered Uranus, was born.
    (HN, 11/15/98)

1738        Dec 31, Charles Lord Cornwallis (d.1805), soldier and statesman, was born. "Fire when ready Gridley."
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1739        Apr 10, Dick Turpin was executed in England for horse stealing.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1739        Oct 17, King George II granted Thomas Coram, retired sea captain, a royal charter to establish "a hospital for the reception, maintenance and education of exposed and deserted young children."
    (ON, 9/02, p.8)

1739        Oct 19, England declared war on Spain over borderlines in Florida. The War is known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear because a member of Parliament waved a dried ear and demanded revenge for alleged mistreatment of British sailors. British seaman Robert Jenkins had his ear amputated following a 1731 barroom brawl with a Spanish Customs guard in Havana and saved the ear in his sea chest.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.555)(HN, 10/19/98)(PCh, 1992, p.292)

1739        Nov 22, Adm. Edward Vernon captured the Spanish city of Portobello, Panama, with a force of 6 ships.
    (PCh, 1992, p.292)

1740        Aug 1, Thomas Arne's song "Rule Britannia," which celebrated Britain’s military and commercial prowess, was performed for the 1st time. It grew to become the unofficial anthem.
    (HN, 8/1/98)(Econ, 2/3/07, SR p.3)

1740        Henry Fielding began working as a lawyer and read "Pamela or Virtue Rewarded" by Samuel Richardson. Fielding soon authored his satire "Shamela" in response.
    (ON, 9/03, p.1)
1740        The British sent a huge amphibious force to attack the Spanish in Santiago de Cuba as part of the War of Jenkin’s Ear. Of 28,000 men, 22,000 were dead within a year due to disease. Only about 1,000 perished in combat.
    (Econ, 8/13/11, p.80)

1740s        The domed Radcliffe Camera at Oxford, designed by James Gibbs, was completed in the late 1740s.
    (SSFC, 2/4/01, p.T8)

1740-1914    In 2001 Nicholas A. Brower authored "British Campaign Furniture, Elegance Under Canvas, 1740-1914."
    (SSFM, 4/1/01, p.47)

1741        Mar 4, English fleet under Admiral Ogle reached Cartagena, Colombia.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1741        Mar 25, The London Foundling Hospital opened in temporary accommodations in Hatton Garden following extensive efforts by former sea captain Thomas Coram (1668-1751).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foundling_Hospital)

1741        Sep 14, George Frederick Handel (1685-1759) finished "Messiah" oratorio, after working on it in London non-stop for 23 days. Messiah premiered April 13, 1742.
    (LGC-HCS, p.41)( http://www.gospelcom.net/chi/GLIMPSEF/Glimpses/glmps147.shtml)

1742        Jan 14, English astronomer Edmond Halley, who observed the comet that now bears his name, died at age 85. In 2005 Julie Wakefield authored “Halley’s Quest," in which she covered Halley’s travels to Brazil to map the Atlantic’s magnetic declinations and hopefully solve the problem of calculating longitude.
    (AP, 1/14/98)(WSJ, 12/20/05, p.D8)

1742        May 28, 1st indoor swimming pool opened at Goodman's Fields, London.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1742        Nov 12, The British warship Centurion, commanded by Commodore George Anson, sailed into Macao with a crew of some 200 sick with scurvy.
    (ON, 4/01, p.7)

1742        Henry Fielding authored his novel "Joseph Andrews." It dealt seriously with moral issues using a comic approach and was later regarded as a milestone in English literature.
    (ON, 9/03, p.1)

1742        Sir Robert Walpole resigned from his duties as British prime minister in order to avoid impeachment.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Walpole)

1743        Mar 23, George Frideric Handel's oratorio "Messiah" had its London premiere. During the "Hallelujah Chorus," Britain's King George II, who was in attendance, stood up — followed by the entire audience.
    (AP, 3/23/08)

1743        Jun 20, The British warship Centurion under Commodore George Anson engaged and overcame the Spanish treasure galleon, Nuestra Senora de Covadonga, near the Philippines. 58 Spaniards were killed and 83 wounded. Anson captured over 1 million Spanish silver dollars and 500 pounds of native silver.
    (ON, 4/01, p.7)

1743        Jun 27, King George of the English defeated the French at Dettingen, Bavaria. English armies were victorious over the French at Dettingen. This event was celebrated by Handel in his composition "Dettingen Te Deum."
    (BLW, Geiringer, 1963 ed. p. 317)(HN, 6/27/98)

1743        Sep 13, England, Austria & Savoye-Sardinia signed the Treaty of Worms.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1743        Edward Pococke (1604-1691), English Orientalist, authored his travel book “Description of the East."
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.127)
1743        Huguenots in Spitalfields, England, who had fled persecution in France as Calvinists, built their Nueve Eglise place of worship at Fournier Street and Brick Lane. Their community lasted until 1809. The church was later inherited by Methodists. In 1898 it became a synagogue for Jews fleeing pogroms in Russia. In 1976 it was transformed into a mosque for the Bangladeshis and Pakistanis who escaped poverty in South Asia.
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.85)(Econ, 6/30/12, SR p.8)
1743        "Kitchup" was declared a kitchen staple in a British housekeeper's guide. Fish, mushroom and walnut emerged as the 3 main ketchups.
    (SFC, 8/27/03, p.A1)
1743        Gen’l. James Oglethorpe of England departed Georgia following some small scandal.
    (SFEC,11/30/97, p.T4)

1744        Feb 9, Battle at Toulon: French-Spanish faced the English fleet of Adm. Matthews.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1744        Feb 21, The British blockade of Toulon was broken by 27 French and Spanish warships attacking 29 British ships.
    (HN, 2/21/98)

1744        Apr 4, Sarah Inglish was arrested and convicted at the Old Bailey for stealing a cloak, three linen aprons and about 7 yards of cloth from a home where she was babysitting. She was sentenced to transport for a term of 7 years.
    (SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T9)

1744        May 11, Elizabeth Robinson and 2 other women were tried and convicted at the Old Bailey on charges of stealing 104 imported China oranges from a grocer’s warehouse with the intent to sell them. She was sentenced to transport for a term of 7 years. She was pregnant and gave birth on ship.
    (SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T9)

1744        May, Jack Campbell, captain of the Justicia, transported convicted British criminals to the US and sold them as indentured servants.
    (SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T10)

1744        Jun 15, The warship Centurion under British Commodore George Anson returned to England with a treasure valued at £800,000. In 1748 Anson authored "A voyage Around the World."
    (WSJ, 9/4/98, p.W12)

1744        Oct 4, The HMS Victory sank in the English Channel with at least 900 men aboard. The 175-foot sailing ship had separated from its fleet during a storm. In 2009 Odyssey Marine Exploration reported finding the vessel about 330 feet beneath the surface and more than 50 miles from where anybody would have thought it went down.
    (AP, 2/1/09)

1744        Rules for cricket set the wicket to wicket pitch at 22 yards. The 1727 Articles of Agreement had set the distance at 23 yards.
    (www.sca.org.au/laurels/cricket.htm)

1744        This was the era of London’s gin fever.
    (SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T9)

1745        Jan 8, England, Austria, Saxony and the Netherlands formed an alliance against Russia.
    (HN, 1/8/99)

1745        Jan, Handel’s oratorio "Hercules," written in 1744, premiered at the King’s Theater in London. The libretto was based on writings by Sophocles and Ovid.
    (WSJ, 2/22/06, p.D12)(http://tinyurl.com/gdt6w)

1745        Feb 15, Colley Cibber's "Papal Tyranny," premiered in London.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1745        Mar 18, Robert Walpole (68), 1st British premier (1721-42), died. His children found that he had run up debts of over £50,000. In 2007 Edward Pearce authored “The Great Man – Sir Robert Walpole: Scoundrel, Genius and Britain’s First Prime Minister.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Walpole)(Econ, 2/10/07, p.89)(Econ, 5/18/13, p.89)

1745        May 11, French forces defeated an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army at Fontenoy.
    (HN, 5/11/98)

1745        Jun 16, English fleet occupied Cape Breton on St. Lawrence River.
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1745        Jul 23, Charles Stuart (1720-1788), the Younger, and 7 companions landed at Eriskay Island, in the Hebrides.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Edward_Stuart)

1745        Aug 31, Bonnie Prince Charlie reached Blair Castle, Scotland.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1745        Sep 17, Edinburgh was occupied by Jacobites under Young Pretenders.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1745        Sep 21, A Scottish Jacobite army commanded by Lord George Murray routed the Royalist army of General Sir John Cope at Prestonpans. At the Battle at Preston Pans Bonnie Prince Charles beat the English army.
    (HN, 9/21/98)(MC, 9/21/01)

1745        Sep 28, Bonnie Prince Charlie became "king" of Scotland.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1745        Oct 19, Jonathan Swift (b.1667), Irish born clergyman and English writer (Gulliver's Travels), died. In 1963 Prof. Edward Rosenheim (1918-2005) authored “Swift and the Satirist’s Art." In 1999 Victoria Glendinning published the biography: "Jonathan Swift: A Portrait."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1437)(SFEC, 8/1/99, BR p.8)(SFC, 12/1/05, p.B7)

1745        Nov 11, Bonnie Prince Charlie's army entered England.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1745        Nov 18, Bonnie Prince Charlie's troops occupied Carlisle. [see Nov 29]
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1745        Nov 29, Bonnie Prince Charlie's army moved into Manchester and occupied Carlisle. [see Nov 18]
    (MC, 11/29/01)

1745        Dec 4, Bonnie Prince Charles reached Derby.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1745        Dec 6, Bonnie Prince Charlie's army retreated to Scotland.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1745        Dec 31, Bonnie Prince Charlie's army met with de Esk.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1745        William Hogarth made his print series "Marriage A-la-Mode" in which he made fun of the new social mobility.
    (SFC, 1/28/98, p.E1)

1745        The Habeas Corpus Suspension Act 1745 was an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of Great Britain passed in 1745, and formally repealed in 1867.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habeas_Corpus_Suspension_Act_1745)

1745-1833     Hannah More, English religious writer: "The world does not require so much to be informed as reminded." "Obstacles are those frightful things you see when you take your eyes off the goal."
    (AP, 4/28/97)(AP, 9/9/97)

1746        Jan 8, Bonnie Prince Charlie's troops occupied Stirling. [see Jan 19]
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1746        Jan 17, Charles Edward Stuart, the young pretender, defeated the government forces at the battle of Falkirk in Scotland.
    (HN, 1/17/99)

1746        Jan 19, Bonnie Prince Charlie's troops occupied Stirling. [see Jan 8]
    (MC, 1/19/02)

1746        Apr 16, Bonnie Prince Charles was defeated at the battle of Culloden, the last pitched battle fought in Britain. King George II won the battle of Culloden. Bonnie Prince Charlie used English rifleman and virtually annihilated the sword-wielding, rebellious, Highlander clans of Scotland at Culloden. It was the last major land battle fought on British soil. The Battle of Culloden was a crushing defeat for Bonnie Prince Charlie and the Highlander clans that backed him. About 50 English soldiers were killed. The Highlanders lost about 1,500 men.
    (PCh, 1992, p.297)(SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-7)(SFC, 12/4/96, p.B1)(SFEC,12/797, p.T4)(SSFC, 7/6/14, p.L6)

1746        Jun 29, Bonnie Prince Charlie fled in disguise to Isle of Skye.
    (PC, 1992, p.297)

1746        Britain’s King George II banned the kilt in Scotland following the Jacobite rebellion.
    (Econ, 7/31/10, p.67)

1746        William, the Duke of Cumberland, led an English military force into Scotland to defeat the rebels there.
    (SFC, 10/14/00, p.B3)

1746        A consortium of London publishers offered Samuel Johnson (36) a modest sum to compose a dictionary of the English Language. He promised to do the job in 3 years, but didn’t finish the 1st edition until 1755.
    (WSJ, 10/12/05, p.D13)

1747        Apr 9, Simon Fraser, 12th baron Lovat (Jacobite), became the last man to be officially beheaded in England.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1747        Jul 2, Marshall Saxe led the French forces to victory over an Anglo-Dutch force under the Duke of Cumberland at the Battle of Lauffeld.
    (HN, 7/2/98)

1747        Dec 9, England and Netherlands signed a military treaty.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1747        Mark Catesby, English naturalist, used his 220 watercolors for etchings in his work on the flora and fauna of North America. The paintings were purchased by George III in 1768 and preserved in the Royal Library. In 1997 they were reproduced in the book: "Mark Catesby’s Natural History of America: Watercolors from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle" by Henrietta McBurney.
    (NH, 6/97, p.12)
1747        The British government swiftly acted to break Scots' resistance. The wearing of tartan, teaching Gaelic and even playing the bagpipes were outlawed by the Act of Proscription.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)
1747        In Britain a tax was imposed on carriages.
    (SFC, 4/22/00, p.E3)

1748        Feb 15, Jeremy Bentham (d.1832), philosopher, originator (Utilitarian), was born in London, England.
    (www.britannica.com)

1748        Mar 19, English Naturalization Act was passed granting Jews right to colonize US.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1748        Apr 12, William Kent (b.c1685), English sculptor and architect (Kensington Palace), died. Kent introduced the Palladian style of architecture into England with the villa at Chiswick House.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Kent)(Econ, 3/22/14, p.83)

1748        British Commodore George Anson published an account of his trip to China.
    (WSJ, 9/4/98, p.W12)

1749        Feb 28, The 1st edition of "The History of Tom Jones: A foundling" was published. Henry Fielding (1707-1754) wrote the book and a film based on the novel was made in 1963. A TV production premiered in 1998.
    (SFEM, 11/24/96, p.59)(SFC, 4/2/98, p.E1)(MC, 2/28/02)(ON, 9/03, p.9)

1749        May 19, George II granted a charter to the Ohio Company to settle Ohio Valley.
    (DTnet 5/19/97)

1749        Jul 20, Earl of Chesterfield said: "Idleness is only refuge of weak minds."
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1749        Henry Fielding (1707-1754) wrote "Tom Jones." A film based on the novel was made in 1963. A TV production premiered in 1998.
    (SFEM, 11/24/96, p.59)(SFC, 4/2/98, p.E1)

1749        Henry Fielding, novelist and former magistrate, commissioned a half dozen constables known as the Bow Street Runners. The runners vanished in 1829 with the creation of the Metropolitan Police, who established their headquarters at Scotland Yard.
    (SFC, 7/14/06, p.A2)

c1750        By this time the British East India Company had gained virtual control of India.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)

1751        Feb 16, Thomas Gray's poem "Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard" was 1st published.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1751        Jun 10, The British Currency Act restricted New England colonies from creating paper money The colonies had issued paper fiat money known as “bills of credit" to help pay for the French and Indian Wars. The Act limited future issuance of bills of credit to certain circumstances (i.e. to pay public debts, such as taxes, but not private debts, such as to merchants).
    (http://tinyurl.com/pdokes2)

1751        Aug 24, Thomas Colley was executed in England for drowning a supposed witch.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1751        Aug 31, English troops under sir Robert Clive occupied Arcot, India.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1751        William Hogarth made his print series "The Four Stages of Cruelty." It illustrated that indulgence in vice caused corruption and cruelty.
    (SFC, 1/28/98, p.E1)

1751        In England Henry Pelham’s Whig government created the 3% consol. It paid 3% and consolidated the terms on a variety of previous issues with no maturity date.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.105)

1751-1816    Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Irish-born statesman and dramatist, spent most of life in England. His plays included "The Rivals" and "the Critic." He also wrote the comic opera "The Duenna." In 1998 Fintan O’Toole wrote the biography "A Traitor’s Kiss: The Life of Richard Brinsley."
    (SFEC, 11/1/98, BR p.4)(WSJ, 1/7/00, p.W4)

1752        Jun 13, Fanny Burney, English writer, was born.
    (HN, 6/13/01)

1752        Jul 20, John C. Pepusch (85), English composer (Beggar's Opera), died.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1752        Sep 3, The Gregorian Adjustment to the calendar was put into effect in Great Britain and the American colonies followed. At this point in time 11 days needed to be accounted for and Sept. 2 was selected to be followed by Sept. 14.
    (K.I.-365D, p.97)(SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.5)

1752            Nov 3, Georg Friedrich Handel underwent eye surgery to remove a cataract by William Bromfield, Surgeon to the Princess of Wales, to restore his sight. The operation was only a short-term success.
    (http://gfhandel.org/)

1752        Nov 20, Thomas Chatterton (d.1770), English poet (Christabel), was born. His early death marked him as the "prototype of the fragile poet withered by the hostility of philistines."
    (WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)(MC, 11/20/01)

1752-1840    Fanny Burney, English writer. Her books included "Evelina." In 1911 she underwent a mastectomy without anesthesia. In 2001 Claire Harman authored the biography: "Fanny Burney."
    (SSFC, 12/23/01, p.M5)

1753        Mar 26, Benjamin Thompson (d.1814), Count Rumford, English physicist and diplomat, was born. He was a Tory spy in the American Revolution and discovered that heat equaled motion, which led to the 2nd law of thermodynamics.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1477)(WSJ, 7/28/98, p.A16)(SS, 3/26/02)

1753        Apr 5, British Museum formed. It opened in 1759.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)(MC, 4/5/02)

1753        Jun 7, Britain's King George II gave his assent to an Act of Parliament establishing the British Museum [see Apr 5].
    (AP, 6/7/04)

1753        Jul 7, English parliament granted Jews English citizenship.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1753        Aug 3, Charles Earl Stanhope, radical politician, scientist, was born in England.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1753        Aug 12, Thomas Bewick (d.1828), artist (British Birds, Aesop's Fables) was born in England.
    (http://www.nndb.com/people/067/000094782/)

1753        Oct 12, Sir Danvers Osborn (b.1715), British colonial governor of New York, hanged himself 5 days after arriving in NYC. His wife had recently died and the New York assembly refused to support him in the style he felt his rank deserved.
    (Econ, 1/12/08, p.75)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danvers_Osborn)

1753        Dec 3, Samuel Crompton, English inventor (mule-jenny spinning machine), was born.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1753        The observation by Dr. James Lind, British naval surgeon, that fresh fruits and vegetables could cure scurvy marked the beginning of nutritional epidemiology. He conducted tests that showed the beneficial effects of lemons and oranges in treating the disease.
    (MT, Fall ‘96, p.4)(ON, 4/01, p.8)

1754        Sep 10, William Bligh, was born. He was the  British naval officer who was the victim of two mutinies, the most famous on the HMS Bounty which was taken over by Fletcher Christian in 1789.
    (HN, 9/10/98)

1754        Oct 8, Henry Fielding (b.1707), English lawyer and author, died at 47. He wrote "Tom Jones" in 1749. A film based on the novel was made in 1963. A TV production premiered in 1998.
    (SFEM, 11/24/96, p.59)(SFC, 4/2/98, p.E1)(MC, 10/8/01)

1754        Thomas Chippendale published the first English book on furniture designs. He was also an upholsterer and a cabinetmaker.
    (SFC,12/17/97, Z1 p.16)
1754        The Royal Society of Arts was established in Britain. Its mission statement was: “the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, in Great Britain, by bestowing Rewards, from Time to Time, for such Productions, Inventions, or Improvements, as shall tend to the Employing of the Poor, to the Increase of Trade, and to the Riches and Honour of this Kingdom, by the Promoting Industry and Emulation."
    (www.adelphicharter.org/RSA_and_Intellectual_Property.asp)
1754        Thomas Mudge (1715-1794), English horologist, invented the lever escapement, which became used in watches ever since.
    (Econ, 11/19/11, p.p.106)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Mudge_%28horologist%29)

1755        Feb 20, General Edward Braddock arrived from Great Britain to assume command of British forces in America and to lead the Virginia troops against the French and Indians in the Ohio Valley.
    (PCh, 1992, p.303)

1755        Apr 15, Dr. Samuel Johnson, English writer, published his “Dictionary of the English Language," a selective English dictionary, after 9 years of work. The 1st edition had 42,773 entries. In 2005 Henry Hitchings authored “Defining the World," an account of Johnson’s work.
    (WSJ, 9/14/98, p.A30)(HN, 4/15/01)(WSJ, 10/12/05, p.D13)

1755        Jun 14, In England work began on a 2nd edition of Dr. Johnson's "Dictionary" for publication in weekly installments.
    (http://www.lib.washington.edu/Preservation/saveabook4.html)

1755        Jun 16, British captured Fort Beausejour and expelled the Acadians. The Accadians of Nova Scotia were uprooted by an English governor and forced to leave. Some 10,000 people moved to destinations like Maine and Louisiana. Some moved to Iles-de-la-Madeleine off Quebec. The Longfellow story "Evangeline" is based on this displacement.
    (SFEC, 8/22/99, p.T8,9)(SSFC, 6/2/02, p.C7)(MC, 6/16/02)

1755        Jul 5, Sarah Siddons (d.1831), actress, was born at the Leg of Mutton Inn in Wales. She rose to fame as a protégé of Richard Brinsley Sheridan at the Drury Lane Theater and gained fame playing Lady Macbeth in Macbeth.
    (HN, 7/5/98)(WSJ, 7/27/99, p.A21)

1755        Jul 6, John Flaxman, the English sculptor who designed much of Wedgwood's original pottery, was born.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1755        Jul 8, Britain broke off diplomatic relations with France as their disputes in the New World intensified.
    (HN, 7/8/98)

1755        Jul 9, General Edward Braddock was mortally wounded when French and Indian troops ambushed his force of British regulars and colonial militia, which was on its way to attack France's Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh). Gen. Braddock's troops were decimated at Fort Duquesne, where he refused to accept George Washington's advice on frontier style fighting. British Gen'l. Braddock gave his bloody sash to George Washington at Fort Necessity just before he died on Jul 13.
    (A & IP, ESM, p.11)(HN, 7/9/98)(WSJ, 1/5/98, p.A20)

1755        Jul 13, Edward Braddock (60), British general, died following the July 9, 1755 battle at Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). Out of the 1,400 British soldiers who were in involved in the battle, 900 of them died. Future President George Washington carried Braddock from the field and officiated at his burial ceremony. The general was buried in a road his men had built. The army then marched over the grave to obliterate any traces of it and continued to eastern Pennsylvania. After the French and Indian War (1754-1763), the Braddock Road remained a main road. In 1804, some workmen discovered human remains in the road near where Braddock was supposed to have been buried. The remains were re-interred on a small knoll adjacent to the road. In 1913 the marker was placed there. Braddock was born in Perthshire, Scotland, about 1695, the son of Major-General Edward Braddock (died 1725).
    (www.nps.gov/fone/braddock.htm)

1755        Sep 8, British forces under William Johnson and 250 Indians defeated the French and their allied Indians at the Battle of Lake George, NY.
    (HN, 9/8/98)(SSFC, 4/23/06, p.G6)

1755        Oct 24, A British expedition against the French held Fort Niagara in Canada ended in failure.
    (HN, 10/24/98)

1755        William Russell Birch (d.1834), artist, was born in Warwickshire. He settled in Philadelphia with his son in 1794 and in 1800 published 28 drawn and engraved hand-colored images of Philadelphia.
    (SFC, 5/18/02, p.E6)

1755        The “last specimen" of a dodo bird, a stuffed but rotted relic, was burned at the Ashmoleum Museum at Oxford, England. Fortunately, someone removed the head and the foot of the specimen and saved them.  In 1996 by David Quammen authored The Song of the Dodo: Island Biogeography in an Age of Extinctions. In 2003 Clara Pinto-Correia authored “Return of the Crazy Bird." The London Museum of natural History later displayed a mounted specimen of Raphus cucullatus.
    (www.complete-review.com/reviews/divsci/pintocc.htm)(http://tinyurl.com/c9zpyw)

1756        Mar 3, William Godwin (d.1836), English philosopher, novelist, essayist, political writer (Caleb Williams), was born. He was the husband of Mary Wollstonecraft. Wordsworth as a young man was a follower of the radical philosopher Godwin.
    (WUD, 1994, p.606)(WSJ, 6/23/98, p.A18)(SC, 3/3/02)

1756        May 17, After a year and a half of undeclared war Britain declared war on France, beginning the French and Indian War. England hoped to conquer Canada. The final defeat of the French came in 1763 with the British victory at the Battle of Quebec on the Plains of Abraham.
    (HN, 5/17/98)(HNPD, 9/13/98)(http://tinyurl.com/afbze)

1756        Jun 20, In India rebels defeated the British army at Calcutta. British soldiers were imprisoned in a suffocating cell that gained notoriety as the "Black Hole of Calcutta." Most of them died. The exact circumstances of this incident, such as the number of prisoners, originally put at 146, are disputed.
    (HN, 6/20/98)(AP, 6/20/07)

1756        Aug 14, French commander Louis Montcalm took Fort Oswego, New England, from the British.
    (HN, 8/14/98)

1756        Aug 31, The British at Fort William Henry, New England, surrendered to Louis Montcalm of France.
    (HN, 8/31/98)

1756        Dec 6, British troops under Robert Clive occupied Fulta, India.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1756        The British government gave money to the London Foundling Hospital on condition that it accept all children under two months old, with no questions asked. Many unwanted babies soon began to arrive and some three-quarters of the 15,000 babies that reached the hospital died before the government ended its support in 1760.
    (Econ, 10/17/09, p.99)

1756-1763    The Seven Years War. France and Great Britain clashed both in Europe and in North America. In 2000 "Crucible of War" by Fred Anderson was published. France, Russia, Austria, Saxony, Sweden and Spain stood against Britain, Prussia and Hanover. Britain financed Prussia to block France in Europe while her manpower was occupied in America.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.223)(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.7)(WSJ, 2/10/00, p.A16)

1757        Jan 2, British troops occupied Calcutta, India.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Clive,_1st_Baron_Clive)

1757        Mar 14, John Byng (52), British Admiral, was executed by a firing squad on board HMS Monarch for neglect of duty. Early in the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), Byng was called on to relieve a British fort on the Mediterranean island of Minorca which was being attacked by French forces. He was sent with a small, undermanned fleet. Several ship were badly damaged in subsequent skirmishes with the French, prompting Byng to turn back to Gibraltar. The fort was eventually forced to capitulate. He was brought home, court-martialled and executed for breach of Articles of War. In 2007 his descendants sought a posthumous pardon.
    (HN, 3/14/99)(Reuters, 3/15/07)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Byng)

1757        Apr 6, English king George II fired minister William Pitt, Sr.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1757        Jun 23, Forces of the East India Company led by Robert Clive (1725-1774) defeated Indians at Plassey and won control of Bengal. Lord Clive defeated Siraj-ud-daula, the Nawab of Bengal and exacted a payment of $140 million from Moghul ruler Mir Jafar and a Moghul title of nobility and rights to land around Calcutta. This effectively marked the beginning of British colonial rule in India. Clive served 2 terms as the governor of Bengal.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(SSFM, 4/1/01, p.40)(AP, 6/23/07)

1757        Jul 26, Benjamin Franklin (51) arrived in London and soon established himself at a house on Craven Street, which served as home, except for 2 intervals, for the next 16 years.
    (Sm, 3/06, p.98)

1757        Aug 9, English Ft. William Henry, NY, surrendered to French and Indian troops.
    (MC, 8/9/02)

1757        Nov 28, William Blake (1757-1827), English artist-printer, was born in London. He wrote "Songs of Innocence" and "The Marriage of Heaven and Hell." His last book was "Jerusalem," of which he made only five copies. In 1996 Peter Ackroyd published : "Blake: A Biography."
    (LSA,Spg,1995,p.17)(WUD,1994,p.155)(WSJ,4/9/96,p.A16)(WSJ,4/2397,p.A16)(HN, 11/28/98)

1757        Benjamin Franklin sailed for England. He spent almost two decades there as colonial agent, a combination lobbyist, ambassador, and banker, for Pennsylvania and, eventually Georgia, New Jersey and Massachusetts. He lived in London at 36 Craven St.
    (WSJ, 8/8/95, p. A12)(USAT, 9/22/03, p.16A)

1758        Jun 23, British and Hanoverian armies defeated the French at Krefeld in Germany.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1758        Jul 8, During the French and Indian War a British attack on Fort Carillon at Ticonderoga, New York, was foiled by the French. Some 3,500 Frenchmen defeated the British army of 15,000, which lost 2,000 men.
    (HN, 7/8/98)(AH, 10/02, p.27)

1758        Jul 26, British battle fleet under Gen. James Wolfe captured France's Fortress of Louisbourg on Ile Royale (Capre Breton Island, Nova Scotia) after a 7-week siege, thus gaining control of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River.
    (HN, 7/26/98)(MC, 7/26/02)

1758        Sep 18, James Abercromby [was] replaced as supreme commander of British forces after his defeat by French commander, the Marquis of Montcalm, at Fort Ticonderoga during the French and Indian War.
    (HN, 9/18/98)

1758        Sep 29, Horatio Nelson (d.1805), British naval commander who defeated the French and her allies on numerous occasions during the age of Napoleon, was born in Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk. He was made post-captain at the young age of 21. Nelson died at the moment of his greatest victory at the Battle of Trafalgar. Although a national hero, he displayed common human frailty. His colorful private life, coupled with his genius and daring as a naval commander, seem to make the Nelson story irresistible to every generation.
    (AP, 9/29/97)(HN, 9/29/98)(HNQ, 6/3/01)

1759        Apr 14, Georg Friedrich Handel (74), German-born composer, died in London.  He had composed  some 30 oratorios.
    (LGC-HCS, p.41)(AP, 4/14/97)(SFC, 9/16/97, p.E1)

1759        Apr 23, British seized Basse-Terre and Guadeloupe in the Antilies from France.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1759        Apr 27, Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin (d.1797), English writer, feminist (Female Reader), was born. "The mind will ever be unstable that has only prejudices to rest on, and the current will run with destructive fury when there are no barriers to break its force."
    (AP, 11/10/97)(MC, 4/27/02)

1759        May 1, British fleet occupied Guadeloupe, in the West Indies. [see Apr 23]
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1759        May 26, Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, writer, mother of Mary Shelley, was born.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1759        May 28, William Pitt the Younger, prime minister of England from 1783-1801, was born. He has been considered England's greatest prime minister.
    (HN, 5/28/99)

1759        Jul 25, British forces defeated a French army at Fort Niagara in Canada. During their 7 Years' War.
    (HN, 7/25/98)(SC, 7/25/02)

1759        Jul 26, The French relinquished Fort Carillon in New York, to the British under General Jeffrey Amherst. The British changed the name to Fort Ticonderoga, from the Iroquois word Cheonderoga (land between the waters).
    (HN, 7/26/98)(AH, 10/02, p.26)

1759        Aug 1, British and Hanoverian armies defeated the French at the Battle of Minden, Germany. The marquis de Lafayette was killed by a British cannonball and his son, Gilbert du Motier (2), inherited the title. In 1777 Lafayette joined the American Continental Army.
    (HN, 8/1/98)(ON, 2/09, p.1)

1759        Aug 18, The French fleet was destroyed by the British under "Old Dreadnought" Boscawen at the battle of Lagos Bay.
    (HN, 8/18/98)

1759        Aug 24, William Wilberforce (d.1833), was born in Hull, Yorkshire, England. He became best known for his efforts relating to the abolition of slavery in the British Empire.
    (www.nndb.com/people/824/000049677/)(HNQ, 12/6/02)

1759        Sep 13, During the final French and Indian War, the Battle of Quebec [Canada] was fought. British Gen. James Wolfe’s army defeated Commander Louis Joseph de Montcalm’s French forces on the Plains of Abraham overlooking Quebec City. "Measured by the numbers engaged," wrote historian Francis Parkman, the Battle of Quebec "was but a heavy skirmish; measured by results, it was one of the great battles of the world." Fought on the rainy morning of September 13, 1759, the armies of England and France clashed outside the walls of Quebec City and altered the balance of power of an entire continent. The battle on the Plains of Abraham lasted less than half an hour. By the time the rain had washed away the blood, Quebec had surrendered to the British. Four years later, the Treaty of Paris gave England sole dominion over most of the land that Quebec City had governed, from Cape Breton Island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Mississippi River.
    (CFA, '96, p.54)(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.7)(AP, 9/13/97)(HNQ, 9/8/98)

1759        Sep 18, Quebec surrendered to the British after a battle which saw the deaths of both James Wolfe and Louis Montcalm, the British and French commanders.
    (AP, 9/18/97)(HN, 9/18/98)

1759        Samuel Johnson (1709-1784), English lexicographer, authored his novel “History of Rasselas," on the elusive nature of happiness.
    (WSJ, 9/18/08, p.A23)
1759        The British Museum opened and proclaimed itself as the world’s first independent national museum.
    (Econ, 12/21/13, SR p.4)
1759        John Smeaton built the Eddystone Lighthouse near Plymouth, England. It was the 3rd one erected at the site over 60 years.
    (WSJ, 6/27/00, p.A28)(ON, 5/06, p.5)
1759        Dr. Samuel Johnson denounced advertisements as over exaggerated and false.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1759        Britain triumphed over France in the naval victory at Quiberon Bay.
    (WSJ, 3/14/00, p.A28)
1759        A group of 9 English merchants launched a new ironworks in Dowlais, Wales, using the regions abundant coal. It was managed from its earliest years by the Guest family. In 1900 it was purchased by a nuts and bolts company run by Arthur Keen. Shortly afterwards Keen bought Nettlefolds, a maker of screws and fasteners. By 1902 the firm, known as Guest, Keen & Nettlefolds Ltd., was the world's largest producer of nails. In 1986 “Guest Keen and Nettlefolds" became GKN. In 1987 Edgar Jones authored "A History of GKN." Volume 2 was published in 1990. By 2004 GKN PLC had become a major auto parts supplier and had a new aerospace division.
    (WSJ, 3/16/04, p.A1,8)(Econ, 6/9/12, p.61)
1759        Josiah Wedgwood opened his first factory in Stoke-on-Trent, central England. It began making bone china in the 19th century.
    (SFC, 2/22/06, p.G6)(AP, 1/4/09)

1760        Apr 6, Charlotte Charke (b.1713), actress and writer, died. In 2005 Kathryn Shevelow authored “Charlotte: Being a True Account of an Actress’s Flamboyant Adventures in Eighteenth-Century London’s Wild and Wicked Theatrical World."
    (SSFC, 4/3/05, p.F3)(http://tinyurl.com/5jnfh)

1760        Apr 16, In England Laurence, 4th Earl Ferrers, was executed for the murder of his steward. [see May 5]
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1760        Apr 28, French forces besieging Quebec defeated the British in the second battle on the Plains of Abraham.
    (HN, 4/28/98)

1760        May 5, The fourth Earl Ferrers was driven from the Tower of London to be hanged as a felon, the last English nobleman to be executed this way.
    (HN, 5/5/99)

1760        Sep 8, The French surrendered the city of Montreal to the British. [see Sep 18, 1759]
    (HN, 9/8/98)

1760        Oct 25, George II (August), king of Great-Britain (1727-60), died at 76.
    (MC, 10/25/01)
1760        Oct 25, King George III of Britain was crowned. He succeeded his late grandfather, George II and ruled until 1820. With the rule of George III the civil list (government officers, judges, ambassadors and royal staff) was paid by the Parliament in return for the king's surrender of the hereditary revenues of the crown.    
    (AHD, 1971, p.552)(AP, 10/25/97)(HN, 10/25/01)

1760        Nov 29, Major Roger Rogers took possession of Detroit on behalf of Britain. French commandant Belotre surrendered Detroit.
    (HN, 11/29/98)(MC, 11/29/01)

1760        Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788), English artist, painted a portrait of Ann Ford playing a musical instrument with her legs crossed.
    (WSJ, 12/19/02, p.D10)

1760        The British government ended its support for the London Foundling Hospital.
    (Econ, 10/17/09, p.99)

1760-1820    George III, King of England and Ireland. [see 1738]
    (HFA, '96, p.32)(AHD, 1971, p.552)(WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-10)

1761        Feb 3, Richard Nash (b.1674), the “Master of Ceremonies" for Bath, England, died. Celebrated author, Oliver Goldsmith wrote “The Life of Richard Nash" in 1762. In 2005 John Eglin authored “The Imaginary Autocrat: Beau Nash and the Invention of Bath."
    (Econ, 6/18/05, p.81)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beau_Nash)

1761        Apr 17, Thomas Bayes (b.1702), English theologian and mathematician, died. He established a mathematical basis for probability inference based on sparse data. Sampling from a large population (the frequentist school) came to dominate the field in the modern era. In 2006 researchers suggested that the human brain might work in a Bayesian manner drawing strong inferences from sparse data.
    (www.britannica.com)(Econ, 1/7/06, p.70)

1761        Jul 4, Samuel Richardson, English novelist, died at 72 in London.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1231)

1761        Sep 21, King George III of England was crowned. George was German and had been Elector of Hanover. Coincidentally, the composer Handel, who was working in London when King George was crowned, had gone to London after skipping out on his last job...working for George in Hanover. Fortunately for Handel, King George forgave him.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1761        In western North Carolina British soldiers razed Kituwha, the heart of the Cherokee Nation. Punitive raids here were repeated in 1776.
    (Arch, 9/02, p.70)

1762        Feb 2, Thomas Arne's opera "Ataxerxes," premiered in London.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1762        Jun 5, English parliamentarian John Wilkes began publishing his North Briton journal.
    (www.lib.monash.edu.au/exhibitions/recent/xrecent.html)

1762        Aug 12, George IV, King of England (1820-1830), was born. He was named Prince Regent in 1810 when his father was declared insane.
    (HN, 8/12/98)(WSJ, 4/5/02, p.W12)

1762        Aug 12, The British captured Cuba from Spain after a two month siege.
    (HN, 8/12/98)

1762        Oct 5, The British fleet bombarded and captured Spanish-held Manila in the Philippines.
    (HN, 10/5/98)

1762        Nov 1, Spencer Perceval, British Prime Minister, was born.
    (HN, 11/1/98)

1762        Barings PLC, a British banking firm was founded [1763 also given]. It later financed the Louisiana Purchase [1803] and provided economic counseling to Queen Elizabeth II. The operation went bust in 1995.
    (WSJ, 2/27/95, p.A-10)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1762-1763    James Boswell experienced his 1st extended trip to London. His "London Journal" later recounted his meeting with Samuel Johnson numerous amorous affairs.
    (WSJ, 11/29/00, p.A24)

1763        Feb 10, Britain, Spain and France signed the Treaty of Paris ending the French-Indian War. France ceded Canada to England and gave up all her territories in the New World except New Orleans and a few scattered islands. France retained the sugar colonies of Martinique and Guadeloupe.
    (HN, 2/10/97)(AP, 2/10/97)(AP, 2/10/08)(SSFC, 7/6/14, p.L5)

1763        Apr 23, John Wilkes published issue No. 45 of his North Briton newspaper. His editorial denounced King George III’s praise for the recently concluded Treaty of Paris.  His attacks on the government upset King George III and led to Wilkes’ prosecution for seditious libel.
    (www.eastlondonhistory.com/wilkes.htm)(ON, 12/11, p.7)

1763        Apr 30, Britain’s King George II felt personally insulted and ordered general warrants to be issued for the arrest of John Wilkes, member of Parliament, and the publishers of The North Briton. Forty-nine people, including Wilkes, were arrested under the warrants. At his court hearing the Lord Chief Justice ruled that as an MP, Wilkes was protected by privilege from arrest on a charge of libel.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wilkes)(ON, 12/11, p.7)

1763        May 16, The English lexicographer, author and wit Samuel Johnson first met his future biographer, James Boswell.
    (AP, 5/16/97)

1763        Sep 26, English poet John Byrom (b.1692) died. The words "Tweedle-dum and Tweedle-dee" made their first appearance in print in "one of the most celebrated and most frequently quoted epigrams," satirizing the disagreements between George Frideric Handel and Giovanni Battista Bononcini, written by John Byrom. A nursery rhyme published in 1805 included the characters Tweedledum and Tweedledee as did Lewis Carroll’s “Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There" (1871).  
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tweedledum_and_Tweedledee)

1763        Oct 7, George III of Great Britain issued a royal proclamation reserving for the crown the right to acquire land from western tribes. This closed lands in North America north and west of Alleghenies to white settlement and ended the acquisition efforts of colonial land syndicates. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 guaranteed Indian rights to land and self-government.
    (www.bloorstreet.com/200block/rp1763.htm)(SSFC, 8/29/04, p.M5)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.46)

1763        Nov 16, John Wilkes (b.1725), English journalist, MP, and friend of American Colonies, was injured in duel. His protest of the Treaty of Paris of 1763 had appeared in the April 23 issue of North Briton No. 45.
    (ON, 12/11, p.8)

1763        Dec 6, The British government case against journalist John Wilkes was decided in favor of Wilkes and a general warrant for his arrest was declared illegal.
    (ON, 12/11, p.8)

1763        Mary Saunders (16), a servant, killed her boss with a cleaver. In 2001 the novel "Slammerkin" by Emma Donoghue was based on this event.
    (WSJ, 6/22/01, p.W12)

1764        Jan 20,  John Wilkes was expelled from the English House of Commons. In February he was found guilty, in absentia, of seditious libel (for the North Briton) and of obscene and impious libel (for Essay on Woman, a parody on Pope which he had co-written with Thomas Potter years before, intended for a select group of friends).
    (www.jamesboswell.info/biography/john-wilkes-essay-women-wilkes-and-liberty)

1764        Mar 13, Charles Earl Grey (Whig), British Prime Minister (1830-1834), was born.
    (HN, 3/13/98)(MC, 3/13/02)

1764        Apr 3, John Abernethy, surgeon, was born in London.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1764        Apr 19, The English Parliament banned the American colonies from printing paper money.
    (HN, 4/19/97)

1764        Horace Walpole (1717-1797), son of Sir Robert Walpole and 4th earl of Orford, authored "The Castle of Otranto," the 1st gothic novel.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1607)(SSFC, 8/11/02, p.M1)

1765        Mar 22, Britain enacted the Stamp Act to raise money from the American Colonies. This was the first direct British tax on the colonists. The Act was repealed the following year. The tax covered just about everything produced by the American colonists and began the decade of crisis that led to the American Revolution. The Stamp Act taxed the legal documents of the American colonists and infuriated John Adams.
    (AP, 3/22/97)(HN, 3/22/97)(A&IP, p.13,18)

1765        Mar 24, Britain enacted the Quartering Act, requiring American colonists to provide temporary housing to 10,000 British soldiers in public and private buildings.
    (AP, 3/23/97)(HN, 3/24/98)

1765        Apr 5, Edward Young (81), English poet (Love of Fame), died.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1765        May 7, Adm. Nelson's flagship HMS Victory ran aground.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1765        Jul 16, Prime Minister of England Lord Greenville resigned and was replaced by Lord Rockingham.
    (HN, 7/16/98)

1765        Aug 21, William IV (d.1837), king of England (1830-37) the "sailor king," was born.
    (WSJ, 4/27/00, p.A24)(SC, 8/21/02)

1765        Oct 20, William August (44) duke of Cumberland, English supreme commander, died. [see Oct 31]
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1765        Oct 31, Duke of Cumberland, English politician and general, died. He butchered Scots at Culloden. [see Oct 20]
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1765        Nov 1, The Stamp Act went into effect, prompting stiff resistance from American colonists.
    (AP, 11/1/97)(HN, 11/1/98)

1765        Nov 23, Frederick County, Md., became the first colonial entity to repudiate the British Stamp Act.
    (AP, 11/23/07)

1765        James Smithson (d.1829), English scientist, was born. He later bequeathed his entire estate to the United States to found an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge, to be named the Smithsonian Institution. Smithson had the mineral smithsonite (carbonate of zinc) named for him. Alexander Graham Bell, scientist and inventor, escorted the remains of James Smithson, founder of the Smithsonian Institution, to the United States in 1904 for interment in the original Smithsonian building. 
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Smithson)
1765        Joseph Priestley (1733-1804), English chemist and natural philosopher, created the innovation of the first timeline charts, in which individual bars were used to visualize the life span of a person, and the whole can be used to compare the life spans of multiple persons. "Priestley's timelines proved a commercial success and a popular sensation, and went through dozens of editions".
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Playfair)
c1765    A group of men began meeting at one another’s houses in Birmingham, England, and helped develop over time new technologies that helped transform England to an industrial power; they included Josiah Wedgwood, Erasmus Darwin, Matthew Boulton, James Watt, and Joseph Priestley. In 2002 Jenny Uglow authored "The Lunar Men," and account of their work.
    (WSJ, 11/14/02, p.D6)
1765        John Taylor and Sampson Lloyd established a bank in Birmingham that grew to become Britain’s Lloyds TSB.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.105)
1765        Scotsman James Watt further refined Thomas Newcomen’s piston system steam engine innovation by adding a separate condenser. Watt took out a patent on his improved engine in 1769.
    (HNQ, 1/18/01)

1766        Jan 1, James Francis Edward Stuart (b.1688), son of James III, died. The English prince was known as the Old Pretender.
    (HN, 1/1/99)(WUD, 1994 ed., p.1410)

1766        Jan, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, philosopher and writer, arrived in London with Theresa Levasseur, his governess and mistress. He was able to receive a modest pension from George III.
    (WSJ, 2/18/97, p.A18)

1766        Feb 13, Thomas Robert Malthus (d.1834), English economist, population expert (Law of Malthus), was born.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.253)(Internet)

1766        Feb 24, Samuel Wesley (d.1837), composer, organist (Exultate Deo), was born in Bristol, England. He studied, played, and preached Bach.
    (LGC-HCS, p.32)(MC, 2/24/02)

1766        Mar 18, Britain repealed the Stamp Act of 1765.
    (AP, 3/18/97)(PCh, 1992, p.311)

1766        Dec 5, London auctioneers Christie's held their 1st sale. The British auction house Christie’s was sold in 1998 to Francois Pinault, a French businessman and art collector.
    (HT, 3/97, p.74)(WSJ, 5/15/98, p.W12)(WSJ, 5/19/98, p.B10)(MC, 12/5/01)

1766        In London the first paved sidewalk was laid at Westminster.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.3)

1766        Henry Cavendish isolated hydrogen during experiments with H2O in England.
    (NH, 7/02, p.32)

1766-1841    Thomas Bruce, the 7th Earl of Elgin. He arranged for the 5th century BCE frieze sculpture of the Greek Parthenon, supposedly made under Phidias, to be sold to the British Museum for 35,000 pounds. This was arranged when Greece was under Ottoman rule. The marbles, originally painted, were unwittingly cleaned in the 1930s and their original patina removed.
    (SFC, 6/19/98, p.A12)(WUD, 1994, p.463)

1766-1848    Isaac D'Israeli, English author: "The wise make proverbs and fools repeat them."
    (AP, 2/26/00)

1767        May 14, British government disbanded the import duty on tea in America.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1767        Jun 29, The British Parliament approved the Townshend Revenue Acts, sponsored by statesman Charles Townshend (1725-1767), which imposed import duties on glass, lead, paint, paper and tea shipped to America. Colonists bitterly protested, prompting Parliament in 1770 to repeal the duties on all goods, except tea.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1499)(HN, 6/29/98)(AP, 6/29/07)

1767        Dec 8, In a London, England, cemetery: Ann Mann: Here lies Ann Mann, Who lived an old maid But died an old Mann.
    (e-mail, 5/16/99)

1767        Robert Clive returned from India to England with a huge fortune and was accused of embezzlement.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)
1767        English slave traders captured 2 native nobles, Little Ephraim Robin John and Ancona Robin Robin John on the west coast of Africa and took them in chains to Dominica. They soon escaped but were resold into slavery in Virginia. Some 4 years later they were taken to England and again resold and returned to Virginia. They later made it back to their home on the Calabar River (SE Nigeria) and became slave merchants themselves. In 2004 Randy J. Sparks authored “The Princes of Calabar."
    (WSJ, 5/21/04, p.W4)
1767        George Hodgeson, British entrepreneur, cut a deal with the East India Company to start providing beer to the British Civil-service and merchant classes in the India colonies. He doubled the hop content to help preserve the beer on its long voyage.
    (WSJ, 8/13/04, p.W6)
1767        Kitty Fisher, a prominent British courtesan, died.
    (Econ, 2/11/12, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kitty_Fisher)

1767-1849    Maria Edgeworth, English novelist: "A straight line is the shortest in morals as in mathematics."
    (AP, 6/25/99)

1768        Jan 9, English cavalry sergeant Philip Astley staged the first modern circus, performing elaborate feats on the backs of horses racing around a ring.
    (MC, 1/9/02)

1768        Apr 27, John Wilkes (b.1725), English journalist, was arrested for seditious libel following his February return from exile in Europe.
    (ON, 12/11, p.8)

1768        May 10, The imprisonment of the journalist John Wilkes as an outlaw provoked violence in London. Wilkes had returned to parliament as a member for Middlesex. The “Massacre of St. George’s Fields" left 6 people dead as soldiers fired on a mob cheering Wilkes.
    (HN, 5/10/99)(ON, 12/11, p.9)

1768        Aug 26, Capt James Cook departed from Plymouth with Endeavour to the Pacific Ocean. Daniel Solander and Joseph Banks accompanied Cook to catalog plants and animals of Australia and New Zealand on the 3-year journey.
    (www.artstor.org/what-is-artstor/w-html/col-endeavour-london.shtml)(SSFC, 4/19/09, Books p.J7)

1768        Oct 1, English troops under general Gage landed in Boston.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1768        The 1st four day royal meeting was held at the Royal Ascot track west of London. Horse racing there had begun in 1711.
    (SFC, 6/21/06, p.A2)(www.icons.org.uk/nom/nominations/royal-ascot)

1768        Seamen in London formed a union and imposed a port strike that virtually halted all shipping.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R27)
1768        British academicians formed the Royal Academy of Arts. In 2006 James Fenton authored “School of Genius: A History of the Royal Academy of Arts."
    (Econ, 4/22/06, p.81)
c1768        William Smellie, a young Edinburgh botanist, was given the task of editing the first edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica.
    (NH, 5/96, p.3)(WSJ, 4/22/99, A1)
1768         The Massachusetts colonial assembly voted 92-17 to refuse British demands for repeal of the Massachusetts Circular Letter, which had been penned by Samuel Adams in protest of the Townshend Revenue Act. Silversmith and legendary Patriot Paul Revere later crafted his Liberty Bowl to commemorate the two "Patriotic numbers" 92 and 45. The bowl, which weighed 45 ounces and held 45 gills, was inscribed with "Ninety-Two." The numbers had special significance to American Patriots, representing resistance to British taxation and the No. 45 issue of Wilkes’ North Briton newspaper.
    (www.mfa.org/collections/object/39072)

1768-1771    Capt. James Cook charted the coasts of both the north and south islands of New Zealand and Australia. Cook made his historic voyages in colliers, slow but strong ships designed primarily for carrying coal. His ship was named the Endeavour. Cook's voyage to Australia kept a botanical record called the Banks Florilegium. The 738 original plates commissioned by Sir Joseph Banks was not printed until a 100 set limited edition in 1989.
    (SFC, 6/18/96, p.D1)(WSJ, 10/5/99, p.A24)

1769        Feb 4, Journalist John Wilkes was expelled from the British Parliament.
    (ON, 12/11, p.9)

1769        Mar 16, Journalist John Wilkes was elected unopposed to his former seat in the British Parliament.
    (ON, 12/11, p.9)

1769        Apr 24, Arthur Wellesley, general, Duke of Wellington, was born. [see May 1]
    (HN, 4/24/98)

1769        May 1,    Arthur Wellsley, Duke of Wellington "Iron Duke," was born. He defeated Napoleon at Waterloo and later became the British prime minister (1828-30). [see Apr 24]
    (HN, 5/1/99)(MC, 5/1/02)

1769        Construction of Britain’s Kew Observatory, built within the Old Deer Park of the former Richmond Palace in Richmond, Surrey, was completed. It was an astronomical and terrestrial magnetic observatory founded by King George III.
    (ON, 4/12, p.6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kew_Observatory)
1769        The Swinford toll bridge in Oxfordshire was built across the River Thames. In 2009 it was up for auction offering buyers a tax-free investment with a bit of historic charm. It has been free of income tax since the 18th century, when Parliament granted ownership of the bridge and its tolls to the Earl of Abingdon and "to his heirs and assignees for ever."
    (AP, 11/18/09)

1770        March 5, British troops taunted by a crowd of colonists fired on an unruly mob in Boston and killed five citizens in what came to be known as the Boston Massacre. The fracas between a few angry Boston men and one British sentry ended with five men dead or dying in the icy street corner of King Street and Shrimton’s Lane. Captain Thomas Preston did not order the eight British soldiers under his command to fire into the hostile crowd. The nervous soldiers claimed to be confused by shouts of "Why do you not fire?" coming from all sides. Versions of the event rapidly circulated through the colonies, bolstering public support for the Patriot cause. The British Captain Preston and seven soldiers were defended by John Adams. The captain and five of the soldiers were acquitted, the other two soldiers were found guilty of manslaughter and were branded on the hand with a hot iron. The first colonist killed in the American Revolution was the former slave, Crispus Attucks, shot by the British at the Boston Massacre. The event was later illustrated by Boston engraver Paul Revere.
    (HFA, '96, p.26)(A&IP, Miers, p.18)(SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)(AP, 3/5/98)(HN, 3/5/98)(HNPD, 3/5/99)(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.W14)

1770        Apr 7, William Wordsworth, English poet laureate, was born. He wrote "The Prelude" and "Lyrical Ballads." In 1998 Kenneth R. Johnston published "The Hidden Wordsworth: Poet, Lover, Rebel, Spy." The biography covered the first 30 years of the poet’s life. In 1896 Emile Legouis also published a biography of the poet’s youth. The poet was responsible for such phrases as: "love of nature," "love of man," and "emotion recollected in tranquility."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.230) (WSJ, 6/23/98, p.A18)(SFEC, 8/23/98, BR p.5)(HN, 4/7/99)

1770        Apr 11, George Canning, British prime minister (1827) , was born.
    (HN, 4/11/98)

1770        Apr 12, British Parliament repealed the 1967 [Townshend] Townsend Acts that put duties on certain products imported to the US.   
    (WUD, 1994, p.1499)(HN, 4/12/98)

1770        Jun 7, Earl of Liverpool, (C) British PM (1812-27), was born.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1770        Jun 11, Capt. James Cook, commander of the British ship Endeavour, discovered the Great Barrier Reef off Australia by running onto it.
    (AP, 6/11/97)(HN, 6/11/98)

1770        Aug 24, Thomas Chatterton (b.1752), English poet (Revenge), committed suicide.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1770        Nov 13, George Grenville (58), British premier (1763-65), Stamp Act, died.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1770        George Stubbs, Britain’s finest painter of animals, did a portrait of the Duke of Richmond’s imported yearling bull moose. It was commissioned by anatomist William Hunter (1718-1783) to see if the moose was related to the fossil Irish giant deer.
    (NH, 8/96, p.17)
1770        In India a famine wiped out a third of the population of Bengal. This hardened opinion against the British East India Company.
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.111)

1770s        Shakers originated in England as the United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearance.
    (SFC, 6/21/01, p.C2)

1771        Apr 13, Richard Trevithick, inventor of the steam locomotive, was born in Cornwall, England.
    (ON, 4/04, p.4)

1771        May 14, Robert Owen, English factory owner, socialist, was born.
    (MC, 5/14/02)
1771        May 14, Thomas Wedgwood, English physicist, was born. He is acknowledged as the first photographer.
    (HN, 5/14/99)

1771        Jun 3, Sydney Smith, preacher, reformer, author, was born in Woodford, Essex.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1771        Jul 12, James Cook sailed Endeavour back to Downs, England.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1771        Jul 30, Thomas Gray (54), English poet, died. His work included "Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard" (1751).
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1771        Britain’s Parliament named Benjamin Franklin to a committee to investigate how lightning rods might help protect gunpowder.
    (WSJ, 8/15/05, p.D8)

1771        By this time some 50,000 British convicts were dumped on American shores. Most of them came from Middlesex, the county that includes London.
    (SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T9)

1771        A group of 79 underwriters established their Society of Lloyd's, Lloyd's of London, at the Lloyd's coffee shop.
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.89)

1771        Joseph Priestley, English minister, grasped the rudiments of the carbon cycle after his experiments showed that mint in a sealed jar refreshed the air.
    (NG, Feb, 04, p.28)

1772        May 10, British Parliament passed the Tea Act, taxing all tea in the colonies. [see Apr 27, 1973]
    (HN, 5/10/98)

1772        May 20, William Congreve (d.1828), English officer (design fire rocket), was born.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1772        Jun 9, The 1st naval attack of Revolutionary War took place when residents of Providence, RI., stormed the British revenue cutter HMS Gaspee, burned it to the waterline and shot the captain.
    (WSJ, 6/24/03, p.A1)

1772        Jun 22, Slavery was in effect outlawed in England by Chief Justice William Murray, First Earl of Mansfield, following the trial of James Somersett. In 2005 Steven Wise authored “Though the Heavens May Fall: The Landmark Trial that Led to the End of Human Slavery."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somersett%27s_Case)(Econ, 2/5/05, p.76)(ON, 12/08, p.9)

1772        Jul 13, Capt James Cook began a 2nd trip on the ship Resolution to South Seas.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1772        Oct 21, Samuel Taylor Coleridge (d.1834), English poet and author, was born. His work included "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner" (1797) and "Kubla Khan."
    (AP, 9/12/97)(HN, 10/21/00)

1772        Shoelaces were invented in England.
    (SFC, 8/28/98, p.B4)

1772-1823    David Ricardo, English Economist and stockbroker. He postulated that landlords become rich at the expense of society.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.253)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)

1773        Apr 6, James Mill (d.1836), English philosopher, historian (Hist of British India) and economist, was born in Scotland.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.253)(WUD, 1994 p.909)(MC, 4/6/02)   

1773        Apr 27, British Parliament passed the Tea Act. [see May 10, 1772]
    (HN, 4/27/98)

1773        May 10, To keep the troubled East India Company afloat, Parliament passed the Tea Act, taxing all tea in the American colonies.
    (HN, 5/10/99)

1773        Oct 14, Britain's East India Company tea ships' cargo was burned at Annapolis, Md.
    (HN, 10/14/98)

1773        Nov 22, Robert Clive (~48), English occupier (India), died.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1773        Dec 16, Some 50-60 "Sons of Liberty" of revolutionary Samuel Adams disguised as Mohawks defied the 3 cents per pound tax on tea boarded  a British East India Tea Company ship and dumped more than 300 chests of British tea into the Boston Harbor in what became known as the Boston Tea Party. Parliament had passed the 1773 Tea Act not to regulate trade or make the colonies pay their own administrative costs, but to save the nearly bankrupt British East India Tea Company. The Tea Act gave the company a monopoly over the American tea trade and authorized the sale of 17 million pounds of tea in America at prices cheaper than smuggled Dutch tea. In spite of the savings, Americans would not accept what they considered to be taxation without representation. Overreacting to the Boston Tea Party, the British attempted to punish Boston and the whole colony of Massachusetts with the Intolerable Acts of 1774--another in the series of events that ultimately led to American independence. A bill for the tea ($196) was paid Sep 30, 1961.
    (HFA, '96, p.44)(A&IP, Miers, p.18)(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14)(AP, 12/16/97) (HNPD, 12/16/98)(MC, 9/30/01)

1773        Dec 27, George Cayley, founder of the science of aerodynamics, was born in England.
    (MC, 12/27/01)

1773        Thomas Day, English abolitionist, wrote a poem with his friend John Bicknell called “The Dying Negro."
    (Econ, 2/16/13, p.83)
1773        John Harrison (1693-1776) received a monetary award in the amount of £8,750 from the British Parliament for his achievements regarding the invention of the marine chronometer solving the problem of establishing the East-West position or longitude of a ship at sea. He never received the official award, proclaimed in 1714, which was never awarded to anyone.
    (www.surveyhistory.org/john_harrison%27s_timepiece1.htm)(Econ, 5/1/10, p.80)
1773        Sir Robert Clive was acquitted of embezzlement.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)
1773        The Samuel Deacon & Co. ad agency opened in London.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1773        A group of English traders broke away from Jonathan's coffee house and moved to a new building. This became the forerunner of the London Stock Exchange (f.1801).
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.89)

1773-1785    Warren Hastings served as the British governor-general of India.
    (WSJ, 5/1/00, p.A24)

1774        Feb 22, English House of Lords ruled that authors do not have perpetual copyright.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1774        Mar 7, A 2nd Boston tea party was held.
    (SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14)

1774        Mar 7, The British closed the port of Boston to all commerce.
    (HN, 3/7/98)

1774        Mar 28, Britain passed the Coercive Act against Massachusetts. [see May 20]
    (HN, 3/28/98)

1774        May 19, Ann Lee and eight Shakers sailed from Liverpool to New York. The religious group originated in Quakerism and fled England due to religious persecution. (They become the first conscientious objectors on religious grounds and were jailed during the American Revolution in 1776.) In 1998 Suzanne Skees published "god Among the Shakers."
    (DTnet 5/19/97)(WSJ, 3/26/98, p.W10)

1774        May 20, The British Parliament passed the Coercive Acts to punish the colonists for their increasingly anti-British behavior. The acts closed the port of Boston. [see Mar 28]
    (HN, 5/20/99)

1774        Mar 25, English Parliament passed the Boston Port Bill.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1774        Jun 2, The Quartering Act, requiring American colonists to allow British soldiers into their houses, was reenacted.
    (HN, 6/2/98)

1774        Aug 1, British scientist Joseph Priestley succeeded in isolating oxygen from air in Calne, England. He called his new gas "dephlogisticated air."
    (ON, 10/05, p.2)(AP, 8/1/07)

1774        Aug 12, Robert Southey, English poet laureate (1813-1843) and biographer of Nelson, was born.
    (HN, 8/12/98)(SC, 8/12/02)

1774        The Privy Council subjected Ben Franklin to a ritual of humiliation for distributing the private letters of Gov. Thomas Hutchinson of Massachusetts.
    (WSJ, 8/8/95, p. A12)

1774        Nicholas Cresswell, Englishman, arrived in the US and spent 3 years traveling and meeting prominent Americans of the time including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and British Gen. William Howe. Cresswell kept a journal and in 2009 it was published as “A Man Apart: The Journal of Nicholas Cresswell 1774-1781."
    (WSJ, 4/11/09, p.W9)

1774        English journalist John Wilkes (1725-1797 was elected Lord Mayor of London.
    (ON, 12/11, p.9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wilkes)
1774        Georgiana Spencer (1757-1806) married William Cavendish, the 5th Duke of Devonshire. Spencer was the great-great-great-great-aunt of Princess Diana.
    (WSJ, 1/7/00, p.W4)
1774        Sir Robert Clive (b.1725), considered by some as the richest man ever, committed suicide.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1774        A Scottish printer finally overturned a copyright monopoly that had allowed English booksellers to lock up the works of Shakespeare and other authors for nearly 2 centuries.
    (WSJ, 3/26/04, p.W6)

1774-1852    George Chinnery, watercolorist. He lived and worked in Hong Kong, Macao and Canton.
    (Hem., 3/97, p.92)

1775        Jan 8, John Baskerville (68), English printer, type designer, died.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1775        Feb 9, English Parliament declared the Mass. colony is in rebellion.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1775        Feb 10, Charles Lamb (d.1834), critic, poet, essayist, was born in London, England.
    (AP, 12/31/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Lamb)

1775        Mar 22, British statesman Edmund Burke made a speech in the House of Commons, urging the government to adopt a policy of reconciliation with America.
    (AP, 3/22/99)

1775        April 19, The American Revolutionary War began with the Battle of Lexington-Concord in the US. The war between the British and the American colonists began.
    (HFA, '96, p.28)(V.D.-H.K.p.224)(AP, 4/19/97)

1775        Apr 20, British troops began the siege of Boston.
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1775        Apr 23, Joseph Mallord William Turner (d.1851), landscape painter, was born in England.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._M._W._Turner)(SFC, 6/20/15, p.E3)

1775        May 20, North Carolina became the first colony to declare its independence. Citizens of Mecklenburg County, NC, declared independence from Britain.
    (HN, 5/20/98)(MC, 5/20/02)

1775        Jun 12, In the 1st naval battle of Revolution the US ship Unity captured the British ship Margaretta.
    (MC, 6/12/02)

1775        Jun 17, The Battle of Bunker Hill was actually fought on Breed’s Hill near Boston. It lasted less than 2 hours and was the deadliest of the Revolutionary War. The British captured the hill on their third attempt but suffered over 1,000 casualties vs. about 400-600 for the Americans. Patriotic hero Dr. Joseph Warren died in the battle. Patriot General William Prescott allegedly told his men, "Don't one of you fire until you see the whites of their eyes!" British casualties were estimated at 226 dead and 828 wounded, while American casualties were estimated at 140 dead and 301 wounded.
    (SFC, 4/2/97, Z1 p.6)(AP, 6/17/98)(HNQ, 4/1/99)(AH, 10/07, p.72)

1775        Jul 5, The Olive Branch Petition was adopted by the Continental Congress and professed the attachment of the American people to George III. It expressed hope for the restoration of harmony and begged the king to prevent further hostile actions against the colonies. The following day, Congress passed a resolution written by Thomas Jefferson and John Dickinson, a "Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms," which rejected independence but asserted that Americans were ready to die rather than be enslaved. King George refused to receive the Olive Branch Petition on August 23 and proclaimed the American colonies to be in open rebellion.
    (HNQ, 7/2/99)

1775        Jul 30, Captain Cook returned to England.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1775        Aug 23, Britain's King George III refused the American colonies' offer of peace and proclaimed the American colonies in a state of "open and avowed rebellion."
    (HN, 8/23/98)(AP, 8/23/07)

1775        Oct 16, Portland, Maine, was burned by British.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1775        Nov 7, Lord Dunmore promised freedom to male slaves who would join the British army.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1775        Dec 16, Jane Austin (d.1817), novelist, was born in [Steventon] Hampshire, England, as the 6th of 7 children [7th of 8]. Her well-educated parents encouraged reading and writing. Her work included "Sense and Sensibility" (1811), "Pride and Prejudice" (1812), "Mansfield Park" (1814) "Lady Susan" and "Emma" (1815). Her books "Persuasion" (1817) and "Northanger Abbey" were published posthumously. Austin’s witty, well-constructed stories about realistic middle-class characters challenged the limits of women writers. Although she called herself a "merely domestic" novelist, she greatly influenced the development of the modern novel. Austin’s most famous works were published between 1811 and 1816, shortly before she died in July 1817. Later in the 19th century critics appreciated Austin’s writing more, and her novels remain popular today--for both literary critics and moviegoers, as they are widely read and adapted for the silver screen. "One does not love a place the less for having suffered in it unless it has all been suffering, nothing but suffering." Two biographies were published in 1997 with the same title: "Jane Austen: A Life," one by Calire Tomalin and the other by David Nokes.
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, BR p.10)(Hem., 5/97, p.102)(AP, 5/31/97)(SFEC, 11/9/97, BR p.4)(WSJ, 11/17/97, p.A24)(HN, 12/16/98)(HNPD, 12/18/98)

1775        Dec 31, The British repulsed an attack by Continental Army generals Richard Montgomery and Benedict Arnold at Quebec; Montgomery was killed.
    (AP, 12/31/97)

1775        Joseph Priestley published his book “Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air." He refuted some opinions of Lavoisier, who had recently named oxygen based on experiments modeled after Priestley’s work. In 1777 German chemist Karl Wilhelm Schele verified that he had independently isolated oxygen in 1772.
    (www.woodrow.org/teachers/chemistry/institutes/1992/Priestley.html)(ON, 10/05, p.2)

1775        Richard Brinsley Sheridan’s wrote "The Duenna." In 1940 Prokofiev composed the opera "Betrothal in a Monastery," based on Sheridan’s work. The Prokofiev work had its premiere in Prague.
    (WSJ, 5/7/98, p.A21)(SFC, 11/25/98, p.D1)

1775-1781    The Royal Welch Fusiliers, a British regiment, was among the British troops that fought in the American Revolution during this period. In 2007 mark Urban authored “Fusiliers: the Saga of a British Redcoat Regiment in the American Revolution.
    (WSJ, 11/15/07, p.D6)

1776        Jan 10, Thomas Paine (1737-1809), British émigré and propagandist, anonymously published "Common Sense," a scathing attack on King George III's reign over the colonies and a call for complete independence. It sold some 120,000 copies in just a few months, greatly affecting public sentiment and the deliberations of the Continental Congress leading up to the Declaration of Independence. He advocated an immediate declaration of independence from Britain. An instant bestseller in both the colonies and in Britain, Paine baldly stated that King George III was a tyrant and that Americans should shed any sentimental attachment to the monarchy. America, he argued, had a moral obligation to reject monarchy.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Paine)(AP, 1/10/98)

1776        Feb 17, Edward Gibbon (1737-1794), English historian, published his 1st volume of " The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." He completed the 6-volume classic in 1788.
    (WUD, 1994 p.596)(WSJ, 5/26/07, p.P6)

1776        Mar 2, Americans began shelling British troops in Boston.
    (HN, 3/2/99)

1776        Mar 17, British forces evacuated Boston to Nova Scotia during the Revolutionary War. In some of the bloodiest fighting of the Revolutionary War, American and French troops failed to take Savannah.
    (HN, 3/17/98)

1776        Apr 12, North Carolina's Fourth Provincial Congress adopted the Halifax Resolves, which authorized the colony's delegates to the Continental Congress to support independence from Britain.
    (AP, 4/12/07)

1776        Jun 11, John Constable (d.1837), English landscape painter (Hay Wain), was born.
    (SFC, 4/29/97, p.B5)(SC, 6/11/02)

1776        Jun 28, Colonists repulsed a British sea attack on Charleston, South Carolina.
    (HN, 6/28/98)

1776         Jul 4, The Continental Congress approved adoption of the amended Declaration of Independence, prepared by Thomas Jefferson and signed by John Hancock--President of the Continental Congress--and Charles Thomson, Congress secretary, without dissent. However, the New York delegation abstained as directed by the New York Provisional Congress. On July 9, the New York Congress voted to endorse the declaration. On July 19, Congress then resolved to have the "Unanimous Declaration" inscribed on parchment for the signature of the delegates. Among the signers of the Declaration of Independence, two went on to become presidents of the United States, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson.
    (HNQ, 7/4/98)(AP, 7/4/97)(HN, 7/4/98)(HNQ, 5/15/99)
1776         Jul 4, The Declaration of Independence was signed by president of Congress John Hancock and secretary Charles Thomson. John Hancock said, "There, I guess King George will be able to read that." referring to his signature on the Declaration of Independence. Other signers later included Benjamin Rush and Robert Morris. Of the 56 signers of the Declaration of Independence, eight were born outside North America.
    (SFC,12/19/97,p.B6)(SFC,2/9/98, p.A19)(HNQ, 7/4/99)(HNQ, 2/1/00)(HNQ, 9/10/00)

1776        Jul 12, Capt. Cook departed with Resolution for 3rd trip to Pacific Ocean.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1776        Aug 27, The Americans were defeated by the British at the Battle of Long Island, New York.
    (HN, 8/27/98)

1776        Sep 11, An American delegation consisting of Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and Edward Rutledge met with British Admiral Richard Lord Howe to discuss terms upon which reconciliation between Britain and the colonies might be based. The talks were unsuccessful. In 2003 Barnet Schecter authored “The Battle for New York: The City at the Heart of the American Revolution."
    (AH, 6/03, p.61)(www.patriotresource.com/people/howe/page2.html)

1776        Sep 15, British forces occupied New York City during the American Revolution. British forces captured Kip's Bay, Manhattan, during the American Revolution.
    (AP, 9/15/97)(HN, 9/15/99)

1776         Sep 22, Nathan Hale was hanged as a spy by the British during the Revolutionary War.
    (AP, 9/22/97)

1776        Oct 11, The first naval battle of Lake Champlain was fought during the American Revolution. American forces led by Gen. Benedict Arnold suffered heavy losses, but managed to stall the British.
    (AP, 10/11/97)

1776        Oct 13, Benedict Arnold was defeated at Lake Champlain by the British.
    (HN, 10/13/98)

1776        Nov 16, British troops captured Fort Washington during the American Revolution.
    (AP, 11/1697)

1776        Nov 20, The British invaded New Jersey.
    (NH, 5/97, p.76)

1776        Nov 30, Captain Cook began his 3rd and last trip to the Pacific South Seas.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1776        Dec 26, The British suffered a major defeat in the Battle of Trenton during the Revolutionary War. After crossing the Delaware River into New Jersey, George Washington led an attack on Hessian mercenaries and took 900 men prisoner.
    (AP, 12/26/97)(HN, 12/26/98)

1776        Sir William Chambers began building Somerset House on the site of a palace built by Edward Seymour, Protector Somerset, in the 1540s. It was designed to house public offices and the 3 learned societies: the Royal Academy of Arts, the Royal Society and the Society of Antiquaries. In 2000 the royal society of Literature was housed there.
    (WSJ, 6/15/00, p.A24)

1776-1781    It is estimated that 30,000 Hessian soldiers fought for the British during the American Revolution. After Russia refused to provide troops for the war, the German states of Brunswick, Hesse-Cassel, Hesse-Hanau, Waldeck, Anspach-Bayreuth and Anhalt-Zerbst supplied mercenary soldiers, collectively referred to as Hessians. Seven thousand Hessians died in the war and another 5,000 deserted and settled in America. The British paid the German rulers for each soldier sent to North America and an additional sum for each killed.
    (HNQ, 3/31/99)

1777         Jan 3, Gen. George Washington's army routed the British in the Battle of  Princeton, N.J.
    (AP, 1/3/98)

1777        Apr 16, New England's minute men, Green Mountain Boys, routed British regulars at the Battle of Bennington.
    (HN, 4/16/98)(MC, 4/16/02)

1777        May 1, Richard Brinsley Sheridan's "School for Scandal," premiered in London with Georgiana Cavendish as Lady Teazle. "Its assumptions are that lust and greed - when allied with beauty and cunning - deserve to triumph over dullness and age." He also wrote "A Trip to Scarborough," a rewrite of a Restoration original.
    (WSJ,11/24/95, p.A-6)(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)(MC, 5/1/02)

1777        Jul 6, During the American Revolution, British forces captured Fort Ticonderoga.
    (AP, 7/6/97)

1777        Aug 22, With the approach of General Benedict Arnold's army, British Colonel Barry St. Ledger abandoned Fort Stanwix and returned to Canada.
    (HN, 8/22/98)

1777        Sep 11, General George Washington and his troops were defeated by the British under General Sir William Howe at the Battle of Brandywine in Pennsylvania. Posing as a gunsmith, British Sergeant John Howe served as General Gage's eyes in a restive Massachusetts colony.
    (HN, 9/11/98)

1777        Sep 19, During the Revolutionary War, American soldiers won the first Battle of Saratoga, aka Battle of Freeman's Farm (Bemis Heights). American forces under Gen. Horatio Gates met British troops led by Gen. John Burgoyne at Saratoga Springs, NY.
    (AP, 9/19/97)(www.americanrevolution.com/BattleofSaratoga.htm)

1777        Sep 20, British Dragoons massacred sleeping Continental troops at  Paoli, Pa.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1777        Sep 25, English general William Howe conquered Philadelphia. [see Sep 26]
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1777        Sep 26, The British army launched a major offensive during the American Revolution, capturing Philadelphia.
    (HN, 9/26/99)(AP, 9/26/97)

1777        Sep 27, At the Battle of Germantown the British defeated Washington's army. English General William Howe occupied Philadelphia. [see Sep 25,26]
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1777        Oct 4, George Washington's troops launched an assault on the British at Germantown, Penn., resulting in heavy American casualties. British General Sir William Howe repelled Washington's last attempt to retake Philadelphia, compelling Washington to spend the winter at Valley Forge.
    (AP, 10/4/97)(HN, 10/4/98)

1777        Oct 7, The second Battle of Saratoga began during the American Revolution. During the battle General Benedict Arnold was shot in the leg. Another bullet killed his horse, which fell on Arnold, crushing his leg. The "Boot Monument" sits close to the spot where Arnold was wounded, and is a tribute to the general’s heroic deeds during that battle. Although Arnold’s accomplishments are described on the monument, it pointedly avoids naming the man best known for betraying his country. The British forces, under Gen. John Burgoyne, surrendered 10 days later.
    (AP, 10/7/97)(HNQ, 7/20/01)
1777        Oct 7, Simon Fraser, English general, died in the battle of Saratoga, NY.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Simon_Fraser_of_Balnian)

1777        Dec 12, Rev. Benjamin Russen was hanged at Tyburn, England, for rape.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1777        In England Charles Hall founded a brewery in Dorset. In 1847 the Woodhouses married into the family and it became the Hall & Woodhouse brewery.
    (Econ, 5/10/14, SR p.3)

1778        Jan 18, English navigator Captain James Cook discovered the Hawaiian Islands, which he dubbed the "Sandwich Islands" after the First Lord of the Admiralty, Lord Sandwich. About 350,000 Hawaiians inhabited them. Cook first landed on Kauai and then Niihau where his men introduced venereal disease.
    (Wired, 8/95, p.90)(AP, 1/18/98)(HN, 1/18/99)

1778        Feb 6, England declared war on France.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1778        Mar 5, Thomas A. Arne (67), English composer (Alfred, Rule Britannia), died.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1778        Apr 10, William Hazlitt (d.1830), essayist, critic, was born in Maidstone, Kent, England.
    (AP, 11/10/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Hazlitt)

1778        Apr 18, John Paul Jones attacked the British revenue cutter Husar near the Isle of Man, but it escaped. Soon thereafter he raided Whitehaven and burned one coal ship.
    (ON, 2/04, p.6)

1778        Apr 23, US Captain John Paul Jones attempted to kidnap the Earl of Selkirk, but he only got Lady Selkirk's silverware.
    (ON, 2/04, p.6)

1778        Apr 24, US Ranger Captain John Paul Jones captured the British ship Drake.
    (ON, 2/04, p.6)(Internet)

1778        May 11, William Pitt Sr. (69), English premier (1756-61, 66-68), died.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1778        Jun 7, George Byran "Beau" Brummell (d.1840), English wit, was born. He influenced men's fashion and introduced trouser to replace breeches.
    (HN, 6/7/99)

1778        Jul 10, In support of the American Revolution, Louis XVI declared war on England.
    (HN, 7/10/98)

1778        Jul 27, British and French fleets fought to a standoff in the first Battle of Ushant.
    (HN, 7/27/98)

1778        Aug 9, Captain Cook reached Cape Prince of Wales in the Bering straits.
    (MC, 8/9/02)

1778        Aug 14, Augustus Montague Toplady (b.1740), English Calvinist hymn writer (Rock of Ages), died. His best prose work is the "Historic Proof of the Doctrinal Calvinism of the Church of England" (London, 1774).
    (MC, 8/14/02)(Wikipedia)

1778            Nov 11, British redcoats, Tory rangers and Seneca Indians in central New York state killed more than 40 people in the Cherry Valley Massacre. A regiment of 800 Tory rangers under Butler (1752-1781) and 500 Native forces under the Mohawk war chief Joseph Brant (1742-1807), fell upon the settlement, killing 47, including 32 noncombatants, mostly by tomahawk.
    (www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Cherry-Valley-Massacre)(AP, 11/11/07)

1778        Dec 17, Humphrey Davy (d.1829), English chemist who discovered the anesthetic effect of laughing gas (1799), was born.
    (HN, 12/17/98)(Dr, 7/17/01, p.2)(ON, 12/01, p.7)

1778        Dec 29, British troops, attempting a new strategy to defeat the colonials in America, captured Savannah, the capital of Georgia.
    (HN, 12/29/98)

1778        Thomas West, a Jesuit priest (c.1720-1779), wrote the “Guide to the Lakes," the first guidebook to the Lake District of England.
    (Econ, 4/3/10, p.88)(http://tinyurl.com/y4prxbr)

1778        In England the Catholic Relief Act was enacted. It inspired London riots in Jun 1780.
    (HNQ, 2/24/99)

1778        Botanist Joseph Banks (1743-1820) became president of the British Royal Society. He had accompanied Capt. Cook to catalog plants and animals of Australia and New Zealand on the 3-year journey (1768-1771).
    (Econ, 7/11/09, p.87)(www.nndb.com/people/077/000100774/)

1778        Benjamin Franklin, on a diplomatic mission in France, approved a plan by John Paul Jones to disrupt British merchant shipping along Britain's undefended west coast.
    (ON, 2/04, p.6)

1779        Feb 14, Captain James Cook (b.1728), English explorer, was killed on the Big Island in Hawaii. In 2002 Tony Horwitz authored "Blue Latitudes," and Vanessa Collingridge authored "Captain Cook: A Legacy Under Fire."
    (WSJ, 10/2/02, p.D12)(www.royal-navy.mod.uk/static/pages/3521.html)

1779        Feb 16, William Boyce, English organist, composer (Cathedral Music), died.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1779        Feb 25, The British surrendered the Illinois country to George Rogers Clark at Vincennes.
    (HN, 2/25/98)

1779        Jun 15, General Anthony Wayne captured Stony Point, New York, from the British.
    (HN, 6/15/98)

1779        Jun 16, Spain, in support of the US, declared war on England.
    (MC, 6/16/02)
1779        Jun 16, Vice-Admiral Hardy sailed out of Isle of Wight against the Spanish fleet.
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1779        Sep 23, During the Revolutionary War, the American navy under John Paul Jones, commanding from Bonhomie Richard, defeated and captured the British man-of-war Serapis. An American attack on a British convoy pitted the British frigate HMS Serapis against the American Bon Homme Richard. The American ship was commanded by Scotsman John Paul Jones, who chose to name the ship after Benjamin Franklin's “Poor Richard’s Almanack." Fierce fighting ensued, and when Richard began to sink, Serapis commander Richard Pearson called over to ask if Richard would surrender and Jones responded, "I have not yet begun to fight!"--a response that would become a slogan of the U.S. Navy. Pearson surrendered and Jones took control of Serapis. The Bonhomie Richard sank 2 days after the battle. In 1959 the film Jean Paul Jones starred Robert Stack.
    (TVM, 1975, p.294)(AP, 9/23/97)(HN, 9/23/98)(HNPD, 9/23/98)(Arch, 9/02, p.17)

1779        Sep 27, From the US John Adams was named to negotiate the Revolutionary War's peace terms with Britain.
    (AP, 9/27/97)

1779        Oct 9, The Luddite riots being in Manchester, England in reaction to machinery for spinning cotton. [see 1811]
    (HN, 10/9/00)

1779        Nov 13, Thomas Chippendale (61), English furniture maker, died.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1779        Richard Samuel (d.1787), British painter, sent the Royal Academy exhibition his “Nine Living Muses of Great Britain." The 1778 painting featured a group of female writers and artists that included the Swiss-Austrian painter Angelica Kauffman (1741-1807).
    (Econ, 3/22/08, p.97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angelica_Kauffmann)

1779        Frances Trollope was born the daughter of a clergyman and raised near Bristol. She produced 35 novels and 5 travel books. In 1998 Pamela Neville-Sington wrote the biography "Fanny Trollope: The Life and Adventures of a Clever Woman."
    (WSJ, 12/11/98, p.W10)

1779        Richard Brinsley Sheridan wrote his play "The Critic." It was a rewrite of a Restoration original.
    (WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)

1779        Catherine the Great of Russia bought 204 works of art from the collection of Sir Robert Walpole (d.1745) from Walpole’s grandson. The sale was brokered by pioneering auctioneer James Christie. In 1789 the Picture Gallery at Walpole’s Houghton estate was destroyed by fire.
    (WSJ, 1/04/00, p.A16)(Econ, 5/18/13, p.89)(Econ, 9/28/13, p.63)

1779         The British adopted a strategy to seize parts of Maine, especially around Penobscot Bay, and make it a new colony to be called "New Ireland." In July a British naval and military force under the command of General Francis McLean sailed into the harbor of Castine, Maine, landed troops, and took control of the village. After peace was signed in 1783, the New Ireland proposal was abandoned.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Ireland_%28Maine%29)

1780        Feb 14, William Blackstone (56), English lawyer, died.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1780        Mar 26, The 1st British Sunday newspaper appeared as the British Gazette and Sunday Monitor.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1780        Jun, The London riots led by George Gordon in opposition to the Catholic Relief Act of 1778 took place. Anti-Catholic protesters wrought anarchy for a week in the Gordon riots.
    (HNQ, 2/24/99)(Econ, 10/19/13, p.88)

1780        Aug 16, American troops were badly defeated by the British at the Battle of Camden, South Carolina.
    (HFA, '96, p.36)(HN, 8/16/98)

1780        Aug 22, HMS Resolution returned to England without Capt Cook.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1780        Sep 23, British spy John Andre was captured along with papers revealing Benedict Arnold's plot to surrender West Point to the British.
    (AP, 9/23/97)

1780        Sep 25, American General Benedict Arnold joined the British.
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1780        Oct 2, British spy John Andre was hanged in Tappan, N.Y., for conspiring with Benedict Arnold.
    (AP, 10/2/97)

1780        Oct 7, Colonial patriots slaughtered a loyalist group at the Battle of King's Mountain in South Carolina. Patrick Ferguson (36), English Major in South Carolina, died in the battle along with some 200 Loyalists. Patriot losses numbered 30 with 62 wounded.
    (HN, 10/7/99)(ON, 12/07, p.7)

1780        Oct 31, The HMS Ontario was lost with barely a trace and as many as 130 people aboard during a gale on Lake Ontario. In 2008 explorers found the 22-gun British warship. Canadian author Arthur Britton Smith chronicled the history of the HMS Ontario in a 1997 book, "The Legend of the Lake."
    (AP, 6/14/08)

1780        George Stubbs, British painter, created his portrait of a poodle.
    (SFC, 6/25/99, p.A3)

1780        William Wilberforce (21) entered Parliament as an independent from Hull.
    (ON, 4/05, p.1)
1780        Richard Brinsley Sheridan, playwright, entered Parliament as a supporter of the Whig politician Charles James Fox, who supported the American colonies against George III.
    (WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)(WSJ, 1/7/00, p.W4)

1780        US Gen’l. Benedict Arnold, newly married and strapped for cash to maintain an extravagant lifestyle, began providing information to the British. He eventually joined the British as a brigadier general.
    (SFC, 7/1/97, p.A3)

1780-1783    A 4-year war between England and the Dutch was fought.
    (SFC, 3/31/98, p.F4)

1781        Jan 5, A British naval expedition led by Benedict Arnold burned Richmond, Va.
    (AP, 1/5/98)

1781        Jan 17, Daniel Morgan’s Continental regiments routed British forces at Cowpens, South Carolina. Some 100 British soldiers were killed, 299 wounded and 600 taken prisoner. 12 American were killed.
    (ON, 12/01, p.10)(AH, 2/06, p.71)

1781        Feb 25, American General Nathanael Greene crossed the Dan River on his way to his March 15th confrontation with Lord Charles Cornwallis at Guilford Court House, N.C.
    (HN, 2/25/98)

1781        Apr 29, French fleet stopped Britain from seizing the Cape of Good Hope.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1781        May 13, British Gen. William Phillips died of a fever Petersburg, Va., as his forces confronted the American army under Lafayette. Phillips had commanded the artillery battery whose fire had killed Lafayette’s father at the Battle of Minden (1759).
    (ON, 2/09, p.5)

1781        Jun 9, George Stephenson, English engineer, inventor of the steam locomotive, was born in Newcastle, England.
    (HN, 6/9/01)(MC, 6/9/02)

1781        Aug 1, English army under Lord Cornwallis occupied Yorktown, Virginia.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1781        Sep 5, The British fleet arrived off the Virginia Capes and found 26 French warships in three straggling lines. Rear Adm. Thomas Graves waited for the French to form their battle lines and then fought for 5 days. Outgunned and unnerved he withdrew to New York. The French had some 37 ships and 29,000 soldiers and sailors at Yorktown while Washington had some 11,000 men engaged. French warships defeated British fleet, trapping Cornwallis in Yorktown.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.763)(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.19)(MC, 9/5/01)

1781        Oct 19, Major General Lord Charles Cornwallis, surrounded at Yorktown, Va., by American and French regiments numbering 17,600 men, surrendered to George Washington and Count de Rochambeau at Yorktown, Va. Cornwallis surrendered 7,157 troops, including sick and wounded, and 840 sailors, along with 244 artillery pieces. Losses in this battle had been light on both sides. Cornwallis sent Brig. Gen. Charles O'Hara to surrender his sword. At Washington's behest, Maj. Gen. Benjamin Lincoln accepted it. Washington himself is seen in the right background of “The Surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown" by artist John Trumbull. After conducting an indecisive foray into Virginia, Lt. Gen. Charles Lord Cornwallis retired to Yorktown on August 2, 1781. On August 16, General Washington and Maj. Gen. Jean Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau, began marching their Continental and French armies from New York to Virginia. The arrival of a French fleet, and its victory over a British fleet in Chesapeake Bay, sealed the trap.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.808)(AP, 10/19/97)(HNPD, 10/19/98)(HN, 10/19/98)

1781        Nov, British Capt. Luke Collingwood, commander of the slave ship Zong, in the face of endemic dysentery that had already killed 7 crewmen and 60 of 470 slaves, ordered his crew to throw sick slaves overboard in order to claim insurance money at the end of the voyage. Over 100 slaves were cast overboard. In 2007 Marcus Rediker authored “The Slave Ship," an account of this and the slave trade from 1700-1808.
    (www.umich.edu/~ece/student_projects/slavery/the_zong.html)(WSJ, 10/11/07, p.D8)

1781        Samuel Johnson (1709-1784), English lexicographer, essayist and poet, authored “Lives of the English Poets."
    (ON, 11/06, p.9)(WSJ, 9/18/08, p.A23)

1781        Asprey of London was founded. They established themselves based on accouterments and paraphernalia for tea parties.
    (SFEM,10/26/97, p.4)

1782        Mar 24, Loyalist militiamen captured a fort on the New Jersey coast. Revolutionary commander Captain Joshua Huddy was captured and taken to New York. A few days later loyalist soldier Philip White was killed in Monmouth County, New Jersey.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joshua_Huddy)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.49)

1782        Apr 12, The British navy won its only naval engagement against the colonists in the American Revolution at the Battle of Les Saintes in the West Indies off Dominica. A British fleet beat the French.
    (HN, 4/12/99)(MC, 4/12/02)

1782        May 26, British officer Capt. Charles Asgill (20), a captive from Yorktown, drew a short straw and was thereby selected to be executed should Capt. Lippincott not be turned over to the Patriots for trial. Asgill was spared following an appeal by French foreign minister Comte de Vergennes.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joshua_Huddy)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.49)

1782        Sep 13, The British fortress at Gibraltar came under attack by French and Spanish forces.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1782        Nov 30, The United States and Britain signed preliminary peace articles in Paris, recognizing American independence and ending the Revolutionary War.
    (AP, 11/30/97)(HN, 11/30/98)

1782        Dec 14, Charleston, SC, was evacuated by British.
    (MC, 12/14/01)

1783        Jan 19, William Pitt became the youngest Prime Minister of England at age 24.
    (HN, 1/19/99)

1783        Jan 20, The fighting of the Revolutionary War ended. Britain signed a peace agreement with France and Spain, who allied against it in the American War of Independence.
    (HFA, '96, p.22)(HN, 1/20/99)

1783        Feb 4, Britain declared a formal cessation of hostilities with its former colonies, the United States of America.
    (AP, 2/4/97)

1783        Apr 11, After receiving a copy of the provisional treaty on 13 March, the US Congress proclaimed a formal end to hostilities with Great Britain.
    (HN, 4/11/99)

1783        Apr 29, David Cox (d.1857), English watercolorist, was born. He books included “Treatise on Landscape Painting" (1813).
    (SFC, 4/29/97, p.B5)(www.chrisbeetles.com/pictures/artists/Cox_David/Cox_David.htm)

1783        Jun 1, Last British troops sailed from New York. (MC, 6/1/02)
1783        Jun 1, Charles Byrne (22), known as the Irish giant, died. Standing at seven feet seven inches tall (2.3 meters) he was a celebrity in his own lifetime. When he died the renowned surgeon and anatomist John Hunter was keen to acquire his skeleton. Byrne wanted to be buried at sea. The surgeon managed to bribe one of the Irishman's friends and took his body before it could be laid to rest in the English Channel. Hunter boiled Byrne's body down to a skeleton and it became a key feature of his anatomy collection. In 2011 Experts called for the skeleton to be buried at sea, as Byrne wanted.
    (AP, 12/21/11)(http://www.thetallestman.com/pdf/charlesbyrne.pdf)

1783        Aug 7, John Heathcoat (d.1861), English inventor of lace-making machinery (1809), was born. In 1816 Luddites burned down his Nottingham factory.
    (MC, 8/7/02)(Internet)

1783        Sep 3, The Treaty of Paris between the United States and Great Britain officially ended the Revolutionary War. The Treaty of 1783, which formally ended the American Revolution, is also known as the Definitive Treaty of Peace, the Peace of Paris and the Treaty of Versailles. Under the treaty, Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States. The treaty bears the signatures of Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and John Jay.
    (AP, 9/3/97) (HNQ, 7/19/98)(HN, 9/3/98)(MC, 9/3/01)

1783        Dec 9, The 1st execution at English Newgate-jail took place.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1783        In Britain William Pitt (24) became prime minister and the youngest leader of the Tories. He was one of Great Britain‘s greatest peacetime leaders and served a prime minister from 1783-1801 and from 1804 until his death in 1806. Pitt was the son of William Pitt the Elder, who served as prime minister from 1766 to 1768.
    (SFC, 6/20/97, p.A22)(WSJ, 3/26/99, p.W10)(HNQ, 1/29/00)
1783        English Architect Thomas Leverton (1795-1885) designed the fanlight window above an entry in London’s Bedford Square.
    (WSJ, 11/18/06, p.P11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Leverton_Donaldson)
1783        Executions were moved from Tyburn Gallows in Hyde Park to Newgate Prison.
    (SFEM, 3/21/99, p.24)
1783        James Man founded a sugar cooperage and brokerage at 23 Harp Lane in the City of London. The company later became known as the Man Group.
    (www.mangroupplc.com/assets/pdf/media/press-pack.pdf)(Econ, 5/22/10, p.78)

1783-1881    In the Highland Clearances about 150,000 people were forced off their land to make way for large-scale sheep farming, an act many blame on Britain's ruling establishment.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)

1784        Jan 14, The United States ratified a peace treaty with England, the Treaty of Paris, ending the Revolutionary War.
    (HFA, '96, p.22)(AP, 1/14/98)

1784        Feb 28, John Wesley (1703-1791) chartered the Methodist Church. His teaching emphasized field preaching along with piety, probity and respectability. In 2003 Roy Hattersley authored "A Brand from the Burning: The Life of John Wesley."
    (MC, 2/28/02)(WSJ, 6/13/03, p.W19)

1784        Mar 1, E. Kidner opened the 1st cooking school in Great Britain.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1784        May 20, Peace of Versailles ended the war between France, England, and Holland.
    (HN, 5/20/98)

1784        Oct 19, Leigh Hunt (d.1859), English journalist, essayist, poet and political radical, was born. He was a friend and advisor to Shelley and Lord Byron and wrote the poems "Abou Ben Adhem" and "Jenny Kissed Me."
    (HN, 10/19/99)(www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/PRleigh.htm)

1784        Nov 29, American Dr. John Jeffries paid Frenchman Jean-Pierre Blanchard £100 pounds for a balloon flight in England during which he made some atmospheric measurements.
    (ON, 10/03, p.6)

1784        Dec 13, Samuel Johnson (b.1709), English lexicographer, essayist, poet and moralist best known for "The Dictionary of the English Language," died. "Patriotism is the last refuge of a scoundrel." -- (To which Ambrose Bierce replied, "I beg to submit that it is the first.") Johnson, an antagonist of slavery, left behind an annuity and much of his personal property to his black valet, Francis Barber (b.1735-1801). In 1791 Boswell wrote the celebrated "The Life of Samuel Johnson." In 1955 Walter Jackson Bate (1918-1999) published "The Achievement of Samuel Johnson" and in 1977 the biography "Samuel Johnson." In 2000 Adam Potkay authored "The Passion for Happiness," in which he argued that Samuel Johnson should be included in the Anglo-Scottish Enlightenment along with David Hume, Adam Smith and Edward Gibbon. In 2000 Peter Martin authored "A Life of James Boswell." In 2008 Peter Martin authored “Samuel Johnson: A biography."
    (AP, 10/8/97)(WSJ, 11/29/00, p.A24)(ON, 11/06, p.10)(SSFC, 10/28/07, p.M3)(WSJ, 9/18/08, p.A23)

1784        England’s Quarry Bank Mill on the river Bollin at Styal was built by merchant Samuel Greg to supply cotton to the weavers of Lancashire. Raw cotton from America was processed on the latest machinery, Richard Arkwright’s water frame.
    (Econ, 9/24/11, SR p.3)

1785        Jan 1, The Daily Universal Register (Times of London) published its 1st issue. It became The Times on Jan 1, 1788.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Times)

1785        Jul 17, France limited the importation of goods from Britain.
    (HN, 7/17/98)

1785        May 9, British inventor Joseph Bramah patented a beer-pump handle.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1785        Aug 15, Thomas De Quincey, English writer (Confessions of English Opium Eater), was born.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1785        Romney painted Emma, Lady Hamilton, the passion of sea-hero Nelson.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)

1785        William Paley (1743-1805), an orthodox Anglican and conservative moral and political thinker, published “The Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy."
    (www.wmcarey.edu/carey/paley/paley.htm)

1785        Prince George of England after mentioning to his wife that he liked her right eye, was presented with a Christmas painting of the eye. It started a London fad and eye paintings flourished for a brief time.
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, Z1 p.6)

1785        John Adams, the new US ambassador to Britain, presented himself to King George.
    (Econ, 1/28/06, p.80)

1786        Feb 24, Charles Cornwallis, whose armies had surrendered to US at Yorktown, was appointed governor-general of India. [see Sep 12]
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1786        Apr 16, Sir John Franklin, arctic explorer, was born. He discovered the North-West Passage.
    (HN, 4/16/99)

1786        Apr 20, John Goodricke (21), English deaf and dumb astronomer, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1786        Sep 12, Despite his failed efforts to suppress the American Revolution, Lord Cornwallis was appointed governor general of India. [see Feb 24]
    (HN, 9/12/98)

1786        Sep 26, France and Britain signed a trade agreement in London.
    (HN, 9/26/99)

1786        Meg Nicholson (d.1828) attempted to stab King George III. She was sent to Bedlam and died there at age 77.
    (WSJ, 1/29/03, p.D10)

1786        William Playfair, Scottish draughtsman for James Watt, produced an “atlas" of Britain using 44 charts and no maps. It was titled “The Commercial and Political Atlas: Representing, by Means of Stained Copper-Plate Charts, the Progress of the Commerce, Revenues, Expenditure and Debts of England during the Whole of the Eighteenth Century."
    (Econ, 1/8/05, p.75)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Playfair)

1786        Capt. Francis Light landed in Penang (Malaysia) and built Fort Cornwallis. Light, acting on behalf of the East India Company, swindled the island from the ruling sultan with a promise of protection. The British usurped the land to break the Dutch monopoly on the spice trade.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, p.T8)(SFEM, 12/19/99, p.8)(SFC, 12/8/05, p.E7)

1787        May 10, The British Parliament impeached Warren Hastings. There was an effort to impeach the governor-general of India. Edmund Burke indicted Warren Hastings, governor-general of India (1773-1785), on 21 charges for high crimes and misdemeanors. The trial lasted 7 years and Hastings was acquitted on all charges.
    (SFEC, 11/1/98, BR p.11)(WSJ, 5/1/00, p.A24)(MC, 5/10/02)

1787        May 13, Arthur Phillip set sail from Portsmouth, Great Britain, with 11 ships of criminals to Australia. By year’s end some 50,000 British convict servants were transported to the American colonies in commutation of death sentences. After the American Revolution, Britain continued dumping convicts in the US illegally into 1787. Australia eventually replaced America for this purpose. Penal transports continued until 1853, which left a remarkable legacy: an almost totally unexplored continent settled largely by convicted felons.
    (HNQ, 1/24/99)(www.foundingdocs.gov.au/item.asp?dID=35)

1787        Dec, William Wilberforce, on the suggestion of PM William Pitt, introduced a motion in British Parliament for the abolition of the slave trade.
    (ON, 4/05, p.2)

1787        Granville Sharp, English abolitionist, formed the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade.
    (ON, 12/08, p.9)
1787        Thomas Clarkson, deacon in the Church of England, led the formation of the original abolitionist committee, the interdenominational “Committee to Effect the Abolition of the Slave Trade." His anti-slavery committee distributed 1,000 copies of “A Letter to our Friends in the Country, to inform them of the state of the Business." This was later considered as possibly the 1st direct-mail fund-raising letter. In 2004 Adam Hochschild authored “Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire’s Slaves."
    (SSFC, 1/23/05, p.F1)(ON, 4/05, p.1)
1787        Henry Hobhouse, a Bristol slave trader, bought the Hadspen country house in Somerset, England, and rebuilt it.
    (Econ, 5/3/08, p.23)
1787        English ships transported some 38,000 slaves this year.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.93)
1787        British settlers bought land from African tribal leaders in Sierra Leone and used it as a haven for freed African slaves. The indigenous community, dominated by the Mende, wiped out the first settlers. A 2nd group followed in 1792. The settlers intermarried but held themselves aloof, monopolized power and discriminated against the original population. In 2005 Simon Schama authored “Rough Crossings: Britain, the Slaves and the American Revolution."
    (SFC, 3/11/98, p.A10)(SFC, 2/14/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 5/31/00, p.A26)(Econ, 8/27/05, p.66)(MT, summer 2003, p.8)
1787        Gen. Thomas Gage, former commander of British forces in North America, died at age 66. In 1948 John Richard Alden authored "General Gage in America."
    (ON, 3/01, p.4)

1788        Jan 1, London’s Daily Universal Register began publishing as The Times.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Times)

1788        Jan 22, George Gordon (d.1824), (6th Baron Byron) aka Lord Byron, English poet, was born with a deformed foot. His work included "Lara," "Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage" and "Don Juan." He died in Greece at Missolonghi on the gulf of Patras preparing to fight for Greek independence. In 1997 the biography: "Byron: The flawed Angel" by Phyllis Grosskurth was published.
    (WUD, 1994, p.204,917)(SFC, 6/9/97, p.D3)(SFEC, 11/15/98, Z1 p.10)(HN, 1/22/99)

1788        Jan 26, The 1st fleet of ships carrying 736 convicts from England landed at Sydney Cove, New South Wales, Australia. The first European settlers in Australia, led by Capt. Arthur Phillip, landed in present-day Sydney. The day is since known as Australia’s national day. In 2006 Thomas Keneally authored “The Commonwealth of Thieves: The Story of the Founding of Australia."
    (AP, 1/26/98)(HN, 1/26/99)(WSJ, 9/19/00, p.A1)(Econ, 7/15/06, p.83)

1788          Jan 31, Charles Edward Stuart (67), The Young Pretender, died.
     (HN, 1/31/99)(MC, 1/31/02)

1788        Feb 5, Sir Robert Peel (d.1850), British prime minister through the early 1800s, was born. He founded the Conservative Party and the London Police Force whose officers were called "bobbies."
    (HN, 2/5/99)(Econ, 6/30/07, p.93)

1788        Apr 15, Mary Delany (b.1700), English artist and writer, died. She became known for her “Flora Delanica," a collection of 985 botanically accurate portraits of flowers in bloom. In 2011 Molly Peacock authored “"The Paper Garden: An Artist Begins Her Life’s work at 72."
    (Econ, 6/11/11, p.86)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Delany)

1788        May 9, English parliament abolished slave trade.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1788        Jun 11, The 1st British ship to be built on Pacific coast was begun at Nootka Sound, BC.
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1788        Aug 2, Thomas Gainsborough (61), English painter, died. His work included the 1771 portraits of the Viscount and Viscountess Ligonier and "Blue Boy."
    (HN, 5/14/01)(AAP, 1964)(MC, 5/14/02)(WSJ, 12/19/02, p.D10)(MC, 8/2/02)

1788        Sep 15, An alliance between Britain, Prussia and the Netherlands was ratified at the Hague.
    (HN, 9/15/99)

1788        Sep 22, Theodore Hook, English novelist best known for "Impromptu at Fulham," was born.
    (HN, 9/22/98)

1788-1789    King George III suffered a mental breakdown.
    (WSJ, 1/29/03, p.A1)

1789        Apr 28, Fletcher Christian lead a mutiny on the Bounty as the crew of the British ship set Captain William Bligh and 18 sailors adrift in a launch in the South Pacific. Richard Hough later authored: "Captain Bligh and Mr. Christian."
    http://www.visi.com/~pjlareau//bounty1.html
    (AP, 4/28/97)(HN, 4/28/98)(SFC, 10/9/99, p.A20)(MC, 4/28/02)

1789        May 12, In England William Wilberforce laid out his case for the abolition of slavery to the House of Commons. This speech directly led to Britain’s abolition of slavery in 1807.
    (WSJ, 5/12/07, p.P14)

1789        Jun 14, Captain William Bligh of the HMS Bounty arrived in Timor in a small boat.
    (HN, 6/14/98)

1789        Sep 1, Lady Marguerite Blessington, beautiful English socialite and author, was born. She wrote a biography of Lord Byron.
    (HN, 9/1/99)

1789        Edward IV was exhumed and he was found to have been 6’3" tall.
    (MH, 12/96)

1789        Part of the art collection, 181 paintings, of Sir Robert Walpole was sold by his heirs to Catherine the Great for 40,000 Pounds.
    (WSJ, 3/3/97, p.A16)

1789        English Thomas Clarkson and his fellow abolitionists published 700 posters with the image of the slave ship Brookes loaded with 482 slaves. The ship, owned by the Brookes family of Liverpool, operated between the Gold Coast of Africa and Jamaica.
    (Econ, 2/24/07, p.72)

1789-1837    Ben Wilson covered this period in his 2007 book “The Making of Victorian Values: Decency and Dissent in Britain, 1789-1837."   
    (WSJ, 3/24/07, p.P12)(Econ, 4/7/07, p.81)

1789-1854    John Martin, British artist. He was known as "Mad Martin" for his paintings of monumental disasters. His work included "Assuaging of the Waters," "The Eve of the Deluge," and "The Deluge."
    (SFEC, 5/4/97, DB p.9)

1790        Mar 14, Captain Bligh returned to England with news of the mutiny on the Bounty.
    (ON, 3/04, p.9)

1790        Mar 24, King George ordered the Admiralty to capture Fletcher Henderson for the mutiny on the Bounty.
    (ON, 3/04, p.9)

1790        Nov 11, Chrysanthemums were introduced into England from China.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1790        Dec 19, Sir William Parry, England, Arctic explorer, was born.
    (HN, 12/19/98)

1790        Thomas Rowlandson, English artist, painted "The Lock-Up."
    (WSJ, 4/1/99, p.A20)

1790        Gustavus Brander, a collector of books and antiquities, sold a fair copy of sections of the inventory of Henry VIII to the Society of Antiquaries.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.20)

1791        Apr, William Wilberforce again introduced a motion in British Parliament for the abolition of the slave trade, but lost by a vote of 163 to 88.
    (ON, 4/05, p.2)

1791        May 16, James Boswell’s celebrated 2-volume work, "The Life of Samuel Johnson," was published. In 2001 Adam Sisman authored "Boswell’s Presumptuous Task," an account of how Boswell came to write the Johnson biography.
    (WSJ, 8/24/01, p.W8)(ON, 11/06, p.10)

1791        Jul 14-1791 Jul 17, Riots took place in Birmingham, England. The houses of Joseph Priestley and other political dissenters were burned to the ground. Priestley had rejected various supernatural elements of Christianity, criticized the Church of England, and supported the French Revolution.
    (SFC, 1/9/09, p.E3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Priestley_Riots)

1791        Aug 29, The Pandora under Capt. Edward Edwards sank in Endeavour Strait (later Torres Strait) between Australia and New Guinea. 33 crewmen and 4 prisoners died. They managed to use small boats and arrived in Timor on Sep 16.
    (ON, 3/04, p.9)

1791        Sep 22, Michael Faraday (d.1867), English physicist, was born in London. He demonstrated that a magnetic field induces a current in a moving conductor. He invented the dynamo, the transformer and the electric motor.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.269)(HN, 9/22/00)

1791        Dec 4, Britain's Observer, oldest Sunday newspaper in world, was 1st published.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1791        John Wesley (b.1703), English evangelist and theologian, died. He founded the Methodist movement.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1622)(WSJ, 6/13/03, p.W19)

1792        Feb 23, Joseph Hayden’s 94th Symphony in G premiered.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1792        Feb 23, Joshua Reynolds (68), English portrait painter (Simplicity), died.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1792        Mar 10, John Stuart (78), 3rd earl of Bute, English premier (1760-63), died.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1792        Mar 23, Franz Joseph Haydn’s "Symphony No. 94 in G Major," also known as the "Surprise Symphony," was performed publicly for the first time, in London.
    (AP, 3/23/97)

1792        Apr 30, John Montague (73), 4th Earl of Sandwich, English Naval minister, died.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1792        May 8, British Capt. George Vancouver sighted and named Mt. Rainier, Wash.
    (MC, 5/8/02)

1792        Jun 4, Captain George Vancouver claimed Puget Sound for Britain. Englishman George Vancouver sailed into the SF Bay on his ship Discovery. He explored the Santa Clara Valley. Vancouver sailed the Inside Passage, the 1000-mile waterway between Puget Sound and Alaska.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)(HN, 6/4/98)(WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W12)

1792        Aug 4, Percy Bysshe Shelley (d.1822), English poet and author who wrote "Prometheus Unbound," was born in Field Place, England. He married Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, author of "Frankenstein." He wrote the poem "Adonais."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1314)(HN, 8/4/98)

1792        Aug 5, Frederick 7th baron Lord North (60), English premier, died. He presided over Britain's loss of its American colonies (1770-82).
    (MC, 8/5/02)

1792        Aug 18, Lord John Russel, Prime Minister of England from 1846 to 1852 and 1865 to 1866, was born.
    (HN, 8/18/98)

1792        Aug 29, The English warship Royal George capsized in Spithead and 900 people were killed.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1892        Sep 18, At Spithead, England, verdicts and sentences were announced for the 10 prisoners from the mutiny on the Bounty. 4 men were acquitted, and 6 were found guilty and condemned to death. 2 of the condemned were pardoned and another was freed on a technicality. 3 were later hanged.
    (ON, 3/04, p.9)

1792        Sep 27, George Cruikshank, London, caricaturist (Oliver Twist), was born.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1792        Nov 13, Edward John Trelawney, traveler and author (Adventure of a Younger Son), friend of Byron and Shelley, was born in England.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1792        Dec 26, Charles Babbage (d.1871), English inventor of the calculating machine, was born.
    (HN, 12/26/98)

1792        Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin) wrote her essay "Vindication of the Rights of Woman." She married Godwin in 1797 after learning that she was pregnant and died in childbirth.
    (SFEM, 6/28/98, p.28)(Econ, 2/26/05, p.84)

1792        In England consumers began an organized boycott against West Indian sugar. The Anti-Saccharine Society displayed a cross-section of a slave ship with men shackled head-to-toe like sardines.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.94)

1792        William Wilberforce introduced a new motion in British Parliament for the gradual abolition of the slave trade. The “gradual" wording, proposed by home office minister Henry Dundas, led to passage of the bill in the House of Commons 230 to 85.
    (ON, 4/05, p.2)
1792        James Penny, Liverpool slave trader, was presented with a magnificent silver epergne for speaking in favor of the slave trade to a parliamentary committee. Liverpool’s Penny Lane was named after him.
    (SSFC, 7/9/06, p.A2)(www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/maritime/slavery/liverpool.asp)

1792        Arthur Phillip, the 1st governor of New South Wales, Australia, returned to England accompanied by Bennelong, an Aboriginal who had earlier attacked and wounded him. Philip later gave Bennelong a house on a point in Sydney Cove. In 1973 it became the site of the Sydney Opera House.
    (Econ, 7/15/06, p.83)

1792        The British St. George’s Bay Company transported a 2nd group of settlers to Freetown. This included 1,196 Blacks from Nova Scotia, 500 Jamaicans and dozens of rebellious slaves from other colonies.
    (MT, summer 2003, p.8)

1793        Feb 1, France declared war on Britain and the Netherlands.
    (HN, 2/1/99)

1793        Jul 13, John Clare, English poet, was born. He was discovered in 1819 and spent his last 30 years in an asylum. In 2003 Jonathan Bate authored "John Clare: A Biography."
    (HN, 7/13/01)(Econ, 10/11/03, p.85)

1793        Sep 6, French General Jean Houchard and his 40,000 men began a three-day battle against an Anglo-Hanoverian army at Hondschoote, southwest Belgium, in the wars of the French Revolution.
    (HN, 9/6/98)

1793        Sep, The 1st British soldiers came ashore at St. Domingue.
    (SFCM, 5/30/04, p.10)

1793        Dec 19, French troops recaptured Toulon from the British. Napoleon Bonaparte led the intense shelling of British positions. This led to his promotion to brigadier general.
    (ON, 2/12, p.6)

1793        The British took over the island of St. Vincent. A series of wars ensued against the black Caribs.
    (SFC, 7/25/07, p.E2)
1793        The Minton dishware company was established in Stoke, Staffordshire, England.
    (SFC,11/5/97, Z.1 p.3)(SFC, 3/19/08, p.G6)
1793        China’s Emperor Qianlong accepted gifts from Lord George Macartney, but turned away the British fleet under his command with the declaration that China had all things in abundance and had no interest in “foreign manufactures."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.13)(Econ, 8/23/14, p.43)

1793-1795    The British engaged in the ill-fated Flanders Campaign.
    (SSFM, 4/1/01, p.42)

1793-1835    Felicia Dorothea Browne Hemans, English poet: "Though the past haunt me as a spirit, I do not ask to forget."
    (AP, 12/31/98)

1794        Feb 10, Joseph Hayden’s 99th Symphony in E, premiered.
    (MC, 2/10/02)

1794        Jun 1, English fleet under Richard Earl Howe defeated the French. (MC, 6/1/02)

1794        Jun 18, George Grote, British historian, was born.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1794        Aug 21, France surrendered the island of Corsica to the British.
    (HN, 8/21/98)

1794        Sep 28, The Anglo-Russian-Austrian Alliance of St. Petersburg, which was directed against France, was signed.
    (HN, 9/28/98)

1794        Nov 19, The United States and Britain signed the Jay Treaty, which resolved some issues left over from the Revolutionary War. This was the 1st US extradition treaty.
    (AP, 11/19/97)(MC, 11/19/01)

1794        British Admiral Earl Howe defeated the French fleet.
    (SFEC,10/26/97, p.T4)

1794-1815    An anthology of first hand reports on the naval war between France and Britain was edited by Dean King and John B. Hattendorf and published in 1997.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, Par p.10)

1795        Jan 3, Josiah Wedgwood (b.1730), British ceramics manufacturer, died. His daughter, Susannah, was the mother of Charles Darwin. In 2004 Brian Dolan authored “Wedgwood: The First Tycoon."
    (SSFC, 12/5/04, p.E5)(www.wedgwoodmuseum.org.uk/wedgwood_chronology.htm)

1795        Feb 2, Joseph Haydn’s 102nd Symphony in B premiered.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1795        Apr 8, The Prince of Wales, later England’s King George IV, married his German cousin, Caroline, to produce an heir and increase his income. On their wedding night the drunken bridegroom spent the night "under the grate, where he fell, and where I left him." The story is told by Flora Fraser in her book: "The Unruly Queen: The Life of Queen Caroline." Masterpiece Theater made a TV presentation in 1997.
    (SFC, 7/14/96, DB p.3)(WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caroline_of_Brunswick)

1795        Apr 23, In Britain the trial to impeach Warren Hastings, governor-general of India (1773-1785), on 21 charges for high crimes and misdemeanors ended after 7 years. Hastings was acquitted on all charges.
    (SFEC, 11/1/98, BR p.11)(WSJ, 5/1/00, p.A24)(MC, 4/23/02)

1795        May 19, James Boswell (54), friend and biographer of Samuel Johnson, died. His 1791 biography, the Life of Samuel Johnson," changed the way biographies were written by its emphasis on character and careful research.
    (ON, 11/06, p.10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Boswell)

1795        May, Mungo Park, Scottish surgeon, sailed from England on behalf of the British African Association to search for the Niger River.
    (ON, 7/00, p.10)

1795        Aug 15, Franz Joseph Haydn left England for the last time.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1795        Oct 31, John Keats (d.1821), English poet, was born in London.
    (WUD, 1994, p.781)(AP, 10/31/97)(HN, 10/31/98)

1795        The Orange Order was founded as a force for uniting disparate Protestant denominations under one anti-Catholic banner. It was instrumental in creating Northern Ireland in 1921 shortly before the predominantly Catholic rest of Ireland won independence from Britain.
    {Ireland, Northern Ireland, Britain}
    (AP, 7/12/13)
1795        Britain reinforced its forces in St. Domingue. It was the largest expedition that had ever left England.
    (SFCM, 5/30/04, p.12)
1795        Lime juice was issued to all British sailors to aid in prevention of scurvy. Captain James Cook (d.1779) had prepared a paper detailing his groundbreaking work against scurvy. He was awarded the gold Copley Medal-one of the highest honors of England's Royal Society. Scurvy epidemics were once common among sailors on long voyages. Cook was the first to beat the problem, recognizing the need for an appropriate diet for his sailors.
    (HNQ, 7/21/98)
1795        In England the Coalport Porcelain Works began operations about this time.
    (SFC, 5/28/08, p.G2)(www.thepotteries.org/allpotters/283.htm)

1796        May 14, English physician Edward Jenner administered the first vaccination against smallpox to his gardener's son, James Phipps (8). A single blister rose up on the spot, but James later demonstrated immunity to smallpox. Jenner actually used vaccinia, a close viral relation to smallpox. [see July 21, 1721]
    (Econ, 11/22/03, p.77)(AP, 5/14/08)

1796         Jun 1, In accordance with the Jay Treaty, all British troops were withdrawn from U.S. soil.
    (DTnet 6/1/97)

1796        Jane Austen began her novel “Pride and Prejudice." Its initial title was “first Impressions." It was finally published in 1830.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.104)(ON, 12/09, p.8)

1796        Cuba exported Havana cigars to Britain.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1796        Mary Lamb (31) killed her mother with a carving knife. England deemed her a lunatic and released into the custody of her brother Charles. In 1806 they published “Tales From Shakespeare." In 2005 Susan Tyler Hitchcock authored “Mad Mary Lamb."
    (WSJ, 2/18/05, p.W6)

1797        Feb 14, The Spanish fleet was destroyed by the British under Admiral Jervis (with Nelson in support) at the battle of Cape St. Vincent, off Portugal.
    (HN, 2/14/99)

1797        Feb 21, Trinidad, West Indies surrendered to the British.
    (HN, 2/21/98)

1797        Feb 22, The last invasion of Britain took place when some 1,400 Frenchmen landed at Fishguard, in Wales.
    (HN, 2/22/99)

1797        Feb 26, Bank of England issued 1st £1-note.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1797        Mar 2, The Directory of Great Britain authorized vessels of war to board and seize neutral vessels, particularly if the ships were American.
    (HN, 3/2/99)
1797        Mar 2, Horace [Horatio] Walpole (79), British horror writer, died.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1797        Apr, A British armada of 68 vessels and 7,000 men under Scotsman Sir Ralph Abercromby attacked San Juan, Puerto Rico. The Spanish defenses held.
    (HT, 4/97, p.34)

1797        May 2, A mutiny in the British navy spread from Spithead to the rest of the fleet.
    (HN, 5/2/99)

1797        Jul 9, Edmund Burke (b.1729), Irish-born British statesman, parliament leader, died. His writing included “Reflections on the Revolution in France" (1790). In 2013 Jesse Norman authored “Edmund Burke: The First Conservative." In 2014 David Bromwich authored “The Intellectual Life of Edmund Burke: From the Sublime and Beautiful to American Independence.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Burke)(Econ, 5/25/13, p.85)(Econ, 7/5/14, p.69)

1797        Aug 30, Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin) Shelley (d.1851), the creator of "Frankenstein," or the Modern Prometheus, was born in London. Her mother died in childbirth.
    (AHD, p.1193)(AP, 8/30/97)(HN, 8/30/98)(Econ, 2/26/05, p.84)

1797        Jun, Hatchards bookstore on Piccadilly was founded.
    (Hem., 5/97, p.99)

1797        Oct 16, Lord Cardigan, leader of the famed Light Brigade which was decimated in the Crimean War, who eventually had a jacket named after him, was born.
    (HN, 10/16/98)

1797        Dec 29, John Wilkes (b.1725), British journalist and politician, died. He opposed King George’s policies in Massachusetts. In 1974 Audrey Williamson authored “Wilkes: A Friend to Liberty." 
    (WSJ, 8/31/05, p.B1)(www.eastlondonhistory.com/wilkes.htm)(ON, 12/11, p.9)

1797        The Bank of England suspended the convertibility of its notes to gold in order to better finance Britain’s war with France. This continued to 1821.
    (Econ, 11/5/11, p.92)
1797        A British publisher produced “The Young Man’s Valentine Writer," a collection of writing and verses for men who couldn’t create their own.
    (Econ, 2/15/14, p.54)(http://tinyurl.com/mp3582r)
1797        French forces attacked Britain at the port of Fishguard. The event was depicted in the tapestry "The Last Invasion of Britain."
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T5)

1798        May 2, The black General Toussaint L'ouverture forced British troops to agree to evacuate the port of Santo Domingo. After 5 years of fighting over 60% of 20,000 British troops were buried on St. Domingue.
    (HN, 5/2/99)(SFCM, 5/30/04, p.12)

1798        May 10, George Vancouver (40), British explorer, (Voyage of Discovery), died.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1798        May 26, British killed about 500 Irish insurgents at the Battle of Tara.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1798        Jul 13, English poet William Wordsworth visited the ruins of Tintern Abbey.
    (HN, 7/13/01)

1798        Aug 1, Admiral Horatio Nelson routed the French fleet in the Battle of the Nile at Aboukir Bay, Egypt.
    (HN, 8/1/98)

1798        Oct, In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Toussaint L’Ouverture negotiated a secret peace agreement in which the British renounced all claim to the colony’s lands in exchange for the right to trade freely on an equal basis with France.
    (ON, 2/10, p.7)

1798        Nov 16, The British boarded the U.S. frigate Baltimore and impressed a number of crewmen as alleged deserters, a practice which contributed to the War of 1812.
    (HN, 11/16/98)

1798        Dec 24, Russia and England signed a Second anti-French Coalition.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1798        Thomas Robert Malthus authored his “An Essay on the Principle of Population As it affects the future improvement of society with remarks on the speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and other writers." His forecast for a population crash was based on the calculation that it was impossible to improve wheat yields as fast as people make babies. His 2nd edition in 1803 introduced the idea of moral restraint.
    (www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorists/Malthus/essay2.htm)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.29)(Econ, 5/17/08, p.94)

1798        Samuel Solomon published “Guide to Health or, advice to both sexes with an essay on a certain disease, seminal weakness, and a destructive habit of private nature. Also an address to parents, tutors, and guardians of youth. To which one added, observations on the use and abuse of cold bathing" gave advice on topics including abortion, onanism, asthma, barrenness and bleeding. The main remedy for all ailments was Dr Solomon’s "Cordial Balm of Gilead."
    (http://tinyurl.com/2rrttq)(www.erudit.org/revue/ron/2001/v/n23/005993ar.html)

1798        In Northern Ireland there was a rebellion against England. It was put down by the Orange yeomanry who were enlisted by the government to restore peace. The slogan "Croppies lie down" originated here after some of the rebel Catholics had their hair cropped in the French revolutionary manner.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, p.A15)

1798        Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Wordsworth published "Lyrical Ballads." In 2006 Adam Sisman authored “The Friendship: Wordsworth and Coleridge."
    (WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A20)(Econ, 9/30/06, p.94)

1798-1799    Wordsworth spent time in Germany and it was later alleged that he acted as a spy for Pitt’s government.
    (WSJ, 6/23/98, p.A18)

1799        May 4, In India Tipu Sultan was killed in a battle against 5,000 British soldiers who stormed and razed his capital, Seringapatanam. British forces defeated the sultan of Mysore at the Battle of Seringapatam.
    (www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20080048779)(SSFM, 4/1/01, p.42)

1799        May 23, Thomas Hood (d.1845), English poet, composer (Song of the Shirt), was born. "I saw old Autumn in the misty morn Stand shadowless like silence, listening To silence."
    (AP, 9/23/98)(MC, 5/23/02)

1799        May, In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Toussaint L’Ouverture signed a trade agreement with Britain. Certain elements were kept secret in order not to alienate France.
    (ON, 2/10, p.8)

1799        Jul 3, In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Toussaint L’Ouverture formally declared Gen. Andre Rigaud, the leader of a revolutionary army in the south and west of Saint-Domingue, a rebel.
    (ON, 2/10, p.8)

1799        Jul 17, Ottoman forces, supported by the British, captured Aboukir, Egypt from the French.
    (HN, 7/17/99)

1799        Richard Sheridan wrote his play "Pizzaro." It implied an equivalence between persecuted Indians and the Irish.
    (WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)

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