Timeline Greenland

Return to home

CIA Factbook: http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/gl.html
Excite:
http://www.excite.com/travel/countries/greenland/
Lonely Planet:
http://www.lonelyplanet.com/dest/eur/green.htm

4Bil BC    In 2000 evidence in sedimentary rocks off of Greenland indicated chemical evidence of early life from about this time.
    (SFC, 12/1/00, p.A21)

360Mil BC    By late Devonian time some bony fish not only undoubtedly had lungs, but also had stumpy or lobed fins, the antecedents of legs. The 2-foot long ichthyostega from eastern Greenland was among the 1st fish to move on land.
    (DD-EVTT, p.254)(SFC, 9/12/05, p.A4)

800,000BC-450,000BC In 2007 researchers dated DNA from Greenland mud under 1.2 miles of ice to about this time. The DNA indicated the presence of pine, yew and alder trees, as well as insects. Due to uncertainties in the dating, scientists could not rule out that the samples dated to the last interglacial, 130,000 to 116,000 years before the present.
    (SFC, 7/6/07, p.A14)    

c250,000BC    The ice dome at Summit, the center of the Greenland ice cap, was about this age at its bedrock. The island has settled about 2,000 feet under the weight of the ice that stretches 810,000 sq. miles.
    (SFC, 10/9/97, p.C18)

10.7k BCE    Melting glaciers caused a deluge of some 2,000 cubic miles of fresh water from a prehistoric lake in southwestern Ontario. It sent temperatures over the North Atlantic plummeting. Temperatures in Greenland dropped by 18 degrees Fahrenheit.
    (WSJ, 7/17/03, p.A1)

c10,500BCE    The climate of the Earth abruptly warmed by 20 degrees or more and ended an ice age. Ice cores from Greenland later revealed a temperature increase of almost 59 degrees in the north polar region within a 50-year period.
    (SFC, 10/2/98, p.A10)

2500BC-800BC    The Saqqaq people, the earliest known culture in southern Greenland, thrived over this period. In 2010 scientists sequenced the DNA from four frozen hairs of a Greenlander who lived among the Saqqaq around 2,000BC. He appeared to have originated in Siberia and was unrelated to modern Greenlanders.
    (Reuters, 2/10/10)

982        Eric the Red (950-1003), killed a neighbor and some other men about this time and was banished from Iceland for 3 years.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erik_the_Red)
982        Eric the Red, father of Leif Ericson, landed in Greenland and spent the next 3 years exploring the area.
    (SFEM, 11/15/98, p.24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erik_the_Red)

985        Eric Thorvaldsson, aka Eric the Red, left Iceland and returned to Greenland establishing his 1st settlement there.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erik_the_Red)

986        Eric the Red and his followers began to settle Greenland.
    (SFEM, 11/15/98, p.24)

1000        Oct 9, Leif Ericson discovered "Vinland." [see 1001]
    (MC, 10/9/01)

c1001        Norse sagas claim that Leif Ericson and a band of 35 men sailed for western lands based on an account by the Viking Bjarni Herjulfsson, who had sighted land after being blown off course. They found a land they called Vinland and built houses but returned to Greenland before the winter.
    (HT, 5/97, p.31)

1002        Thorer Eastman (d.1002), a Norwegian sea captain, was blown off course on a trading voyage from Iceland to Greenland. He and his wife, Gudrid, along with a crew of 13 became stranded on a rock near the coast of Newfoundland for weeks until they were rescued by Leif Eriksson, who was on his way home to Greenland from North America with a cargo of timber. That fall an epidemic swept Greenland and Eastman died.
    (ON, 12/07, p.4)

1005        Leaf Ericson’s brother, Thorvald, had arrived in Vinland but was killed by native Indians and his Viking companions returned to Greenland. A 3-year settlement was begun a few years later when Thorfin Karlsefni established a base with around 100 men and women at the L’Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland.
    (HT, 5/97, p.33)(ON, 12/07, p.5)
1005        Gudrid Thorbjarnardottir and Thorstein Erikson set sail to the New World to recover the body of Thorvald Erikson and to start a new colony. They failed to catch easterly winds and spent the winter in northwest Greenland. That winter Thorstein died.
    (ON, 12/07, p.5)

1006         Thorfinn Karlsefni arrived in Greenland from Iceland and married Gudrid Thorbjarnardottir. She soon talked him into leading an expedition to the New World.
    (ON, 12/07, p.5)

1007         Thorfinn Karlsefni and Gudrid Thorbjarnardottir embarked with a 3-ship expedition to the new World. Snorri Thorfinnson, son of Gudrid Thorbjarnardottir and Thorfinn Karlsefni, was born in Vinland (probably Newfoundland), the 1st European born in the New World. The family later returned east and settled in Iceland.
    (SFC, 9/16/02, p.A2)(ON, 12/07, p.5)

1010        Thorfinn Karlsefni and Gudrid Thorbjarnardottir returned from the New World to Greenland and then moved to Iceland the following year, where they raised a large family.
    (ON, 12/07, p.5)

1378        The last bishop on Greenland died. No replacement was sent.
    (AM, 7/00, p.66)

1408        A marriage at the Hvalsey Church in the East Settlement was the last record of the Norse in Greenland.
    (SFEM, 11/15/98, p.25)(AM, 7/00, p.66)

c1440        Lief Eriksson drew a map of America about this time. The "Vinland Map" was introduced in 1965 by Yale University as being the 1st known map of America, drawn about 1440 by Norse explorer Lief Eriksson.
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1861        The first Eskimo newspaper began.
    (WSJ, 4/10/00, p.A44)

1888        Fridtjof Nansen of Norway led a 5-man team across Greenland on skis.
    (ON, 7/05, p.1)

1897        Robert Peary, Arctic explorer, took 6 Eskimos from Greenland back to NYC as living museum specimens. In 2000 Ken Harper authored "Give Me My Father’s Body," the story of Minik, one of the 6 Eskimos, who died in 1918 in a New Hampshire lumber camp at age 28.
    (SFEC, 7/16/00, Par p.8)

1906        Alfred Lothar Wegener (26), German meteorologist, joined an expedition to survey Greenland’s glacier-fringed coast.
    (ON, 9/04, p.8)

1924        Jul 10, Denmark took Greenland as Norway ended its claim.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1930        Nov, Alfred Wegener (50), German scientist and main proponent of the continental drift theory, was killed while on an expedition in Greenland.
    (DD-EVTT, p.190)(ON, 9/04, p.9)

1931-1932    Rockwell Kent (1882-1971), American artist, illustrator and printmaker, spent his first Arctic winter painting and exploring in the settlement of Igdlorssuit, Greenland. In 1935 he authored “Salamina," a memoir of his first Arctic winter in Greenland.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rockwell_Kent)

1933        Martin Lindsay and team with Andrew Croft (d.1998 at 91) made the world’s longest self-supporting dogsled expedition.
    (SFC, 7/4/98, p.C2)

1941        Apr 10, U.S. troops occupied Greenland to prevent Nazi infiltration.
    (HN, 4/10/98)

1943        Sep 13, The Scottish-built S.S. Terra Nova sank off the Greenland after being damaged by ice. It had gained fame by taking the explorer Robert Scott and a crew to the Antarctic in 1910 in an effort to become the first to reach the South Pole. Her crew were saved by a United States Coast Guard cutter Southwind. Wreckage of the ship was discovered in 2012.
    (AP, 8/18/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terra_Nova_%28ship%29)

1950        Denmark founded the Sirius Patrol, a unit of the Danish navy, to patrol Greenland.
    (SFC, 6/15/00, p.C4)

1951        Denmark consigned the Inuit hunting village of Pituffik to US authorities for the Thule Air Base.
    (SFC, 8/4/00, p.A16)

1953        Inuit inhabitants were forcibly relocated for the American Thule air base. 650 later sued and won a $71,400 settlement.
    (SFC, 11/3/01, p.C1)

1953-1958    The Alaska to Greenland Early Warning DEW network was built along the 69th parallel to thwart a Soviet attack. Some 30 tons of PCBs were used and never cleaned up. Canadian remediation was estimated at $500 million.
    (SFC, 11/3/01, p.C3)

1957        Denmark banned nuclear weapons from its soil.
    (AP, 10/29/10)

1964        In Greenland the US Army established a Camp Century, an early warning base for Soviet missile attacks.
    (WSJ, 6/8/06, p.D8)

1968        Jan 21, An American B-52 bomber carrying four hydrogen bombs crashed at North Star Bay, Greenland, killing one crew member and scattering radioactive material. Reports began to surface later and in 1995 the Danish government paid a $15.5 million settlement to some 1,700 exposed workers.
    (www.ens-newswire.com/ens/aug2004/2004-08-09-02.asp)(AP, 1/21/08)

1968        A Danish geologist published a paper on the Greenland Ice Cap that included melting threats to it. The study used core samples that drilled down to bedrock.
    (WSJ, 6/8/06, p.D8)

1977        Jun, The Inuit Circumpolar Council, a multinational non-governmental organization (NGO), met for the first time. Originally known as the Inuit Circumpolar Conference, the ICC represented the 150,000 Inuit (often referred to as Eskimo) people living in the United States, Canada, Greenland, and Russia.
    (Econ, 3/5/11, p.68)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inuit_Circumpolar_Council)

1979        May 1, Denmark gave home rule to Greenland, but continued to make key decisions on law and order. The legislative basis for the Home Rule Administration is Act no 56 of 21 February 1979 which came into force on 1 May 1979 following a referendum in Greenland.
    (WSJ, 1/13/04, p.A4)(www.gh.gl/uk/govern/organiza.htm)

1979        Jonathan Motzfeldt became the first premier of Greenland after home rule was introduced. He served to 1991. He served a 2nd term from 1997-2002 and was later considered one of the founding fathers of its home rule agreement with Denmark.
    (AP, 10/29/10)

1980-2006    Rising temperatures in Greenland allowed for an increase in farmland from 620 acres to 2,500 acres over this period.
    (WSJ, 7/18/06, p.A12)

1982        Feb 23, In a consultative referendum, Greenland, which became a member of the European Community as part of Denmark, opted for withdrawal from the Community.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1982/index_en.htm)

1984        Mar 12, The EU Council signed an agreement on future relations between Greenland and the Community.
     (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1984/index_en.htm)

1985        Feb 1, Greenland left the European Community but remains associated with it as overseas territory.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1985/index_en.htm)

1991        3 Radar sites of the Early Warning DEW line were abandoned.
    (SFC, 11/3/01, p.C3)

1995        Danish Foreign Minister Niels Helveg Petersen told reporters that no nuclear weapons were deployed in Greenland. 2 weeks later US Sec. of Defense William Perry wrote in a confidential letter that warheads and surface to air missiles had been stored at the Thule air base without Greenland’s knowledge. The crisis became known as "Thulegate" in Denmark.
    (SFC, 11/3/01, p.C3)

1996        A Danish government admitted in a report that the United States had stored nuclear weapons in Greenland during the Cold War, although Denmark had banned nuclear weapons from its soil in 1957.
    (AP, 10/29/10)

1999        Mar 13, It was reported that ice sheets in the low-lying areas were melting at the rate of 3-feet per year.
    (SFC, 3/13/99, p.A6)

2000        Jul 21, It was reported that warming climate was causing Greenland to lose 11 cubic miles of ice a year, 0r 12.5 trillion gallons, enough to raise sea level by .005 inches annually.
    (SFC, 7/21/00, p.B3)

2000        Aug 4, Inuits made up nearly 90% of Greenland’s 56,000 population.
    (SFC, 8/4/00, p.A16)

2002        Sep 24, The Danish government announced that the US will return to Denmark a section of the U.S. air base at Thule in northern Greenland that was created in 1953.
    (AP, 9/24/02)

2002        In Greenland Jonathan Motzfeldt lost an internal party struggle to fellow Siumut Hans Enoksen who replaced him as premier. Motzfeldt then became speaker of Greenland's Parliament, but resigned in 2008 amid allegations that he groped a female civil servant. He denied wrongdoing and was never charged.
    (AP, 10/29/10)

2003        Jan 16, In Greenland Premier Hans Enoksen, head of the social democratic Siumut party, struck a deal with the island's liberal Atassut party. 2 days earlier Enoksen evicted the left-wing Inuit Ataqatigitt party, leaving the Arctic island of 56,000 without a government. A spat had developed over the use of a healer to chase away evil spirits from government offices.
    (AP, 1/17/03)

2003        Jul 6, Dennis Schmitt and 5 companions stepped on a 120-foot-long pile of dirt at 83°42’ latitude, Earth’s farthest north piece of known land. The Arctic site was 432 miles from the North Pole and under the jurisdiction of Greenland. In 2004 Danish authorities discounted the find in favor of a larger island called Kaffklubben.
    (SFC, 6/17/04, p.B1)(SFC, 6/18/04, p.B10)

2006        Feb 16, Scientists reported that glaciers in Greenland were melting twice as fast as previously believed. The melting of glaciers in South America and in the Himalayas was also accelerating due to global warming.
    (SFC, 2/17/06, p.A14)

2006        Aug 10, NASA satellite data showed that the ice sheet in Greenland is melting faster than expected.
    (WSJ, 8/11/06, p.A1)

2006         Some 57,000 people inhabited Greenland. The GDP for the 840,000 square-mile island was $1.1 billion.
    (WSJ, 7/18/06, p.A12)

2007        Aug 10, Denmark was reported to be planning a monthlong expedition, to begin Aug 12, to seek evidence that the Lomonosov Ridge, a 1,240-mile underwater mountain range, is attached to the Danish territory of Greenland, making it a geological extension of the Arctic island.
    (AP, 8/10/07)

2007        Sep 7, Sunni, Shiite, Buddhist, Hindu, Jewish, Christian, and Shinto leaders gathered in Greenland for a 6-day coastal tour and symposium called "The Arctic: Mirror of Life," designed to focus global attention on climate change.
    (www.enn.com/climate/commentary/22800)(Econ, 9/22/07, p.70)

2008        Aug 28, In Greenland local police said dozens of massacred narwhals, an Arctic whale with a single long tusk, have been discovered on the east coast in what could be a case of poaching. A scientific expedition from New Zealand discovered the carcasses as they sailed along the coastline about two weeks ago.
    (AFP, 8/28/08)

2008        Nov 25, Greenland polling stations opened in a referendum on expanding home rule. Voters overwhelmingly approved a plan for more autonomy from Denmark and to take advantage of potential oil reserves off the glacial island's coast.
    (AP, 11/25/08)(AP, 11/26/08)

2008        Dec 16, NASA said satellite data indicated that more than 2 trillion tons of land ice in Alaska, Antarctica and Greenland since 2003 among the latest signs of global warming.
    (SFC, 12/17/08, p.A20)

2009        Jun 2, In Greenland the Inuit Ataqatigiit party, or IA, won 44% of votes to take 14 of the 31 seats in Greenland's Parliament, the Landsting. The left-wing opposition party defeated the long-governing Social Democrats. Siumut got 26% of the votes and lost the majority it held with its smaller coalition partner Atasut. Premier Hans Enoksen called the snap election after Greenlanders decided in a November referendum to loosen ties with Denmark.
    (AP, 6/3/09)

2009        Jun 10, Kuupik Kleist (b.1958) assumed office as prime minister of Greenland.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kuupik_Kleist)

2009        Greenland’s population numbered about 57,000. Danish subsidies amounted to about $11,000 per person per year.
    (Econ, 7/18/09, p.57)

2010        Jun 25, In Morocco a 5-day meeting of the International Whaling Commission ended. Native people of Greenland won a long battle to extend their annual whale hunt to humpbacks, overriding objections from conservation-minded members of the IWC. A 2008 investigation showed about one-fourth of the whales the Greenlanders caught were sold on the market in violation of the commission's rules.
    (AP, 6/26/10)

2010        Aug 7, It was reported that an ice island measuring 100 square miles has broken off the Petermann Glacier in northern Greenland.
    (SFC, 8/7/10, p.A2)

2010        Aug 20, The European Union's high court temporarily exempted Inuit hunters in Canada and Greenland from the bloc's new trade ban on seal products, while asking European Parliament and EU governments to justify the ban.
    (AP, 8/20/10)

2010        Aug, Cairn Energy, a British petrochemicals company, announced the discovery of worthwhile oil deposits off the coast of Greenland. Its licensed acreage was estimated to hold some 4 billion barrels of oil.
    (Econ, 8/28/10, p.43)

2010        Oct 28, Former Greenland premier Jonathan Motzfeldt (72) died. He had spearheaded a drive for more self-rule and opposed US bases on the semi-autonomous Danish territory. Motzfeldt led the Arctic island's government between 1979-1991 and again between 1997-2002 and is considered one of the founding fathers of its home rule agreement with Denmark.
    (AP, 10/29/10)

2011        May 3, The Arctic Monitory and Assessment Program (AMAP) reported that the ice of Greenland and the Arctic is melting faster than expected and could raise global sea levels by as much as five feet this century.
    (SFC, 5/4/11, p.A3)

2011        May 12, Arctic Council members signed an agreement in Greenland to coordinate search and rescue operations and pledged to create int’l. protocols to prevent and clean up offshore oil spills. The 8 members included the Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the USA.
    (SFC, 5/13/11, p.A2)

2011        Jun 4, Greenpeace said 18 of its members have climbed a 53,000-ton oil rig in the Arctic waters off Greenland to protest deepwater drilling by a Scottish oil company there. The activists demanded Cairn Energy release a plan for how to manage a potential oil spill. Police arrested 14 activists, while 4 remained on Leiv Eiriksson oil rig.
    (AP, 6/4/11)(SFC, 6/5/11, p.A4)

2012        Jul 5, In Panama the International Whaling Commission rejected a request from Denmark for a whaling quota for indigenous groups in Greenland. Two days earlier it approved the renewal of bowhead whale quotas for indigenous subsistence whaling in Alaska and Russia and for St. Vincent and the Grenadines in the Caribbean. The United States says it doesn't support a South Korean plan to restart whale hunting for purportedly scientific purposes.
    (AP, 7/6/12)

2013        Mar 12, Greenland held elections. Aleqa Hammond (47) looked set to be Greenland's first female prime minister after her social democratic Siumut party won 42 percent of the 31-seat parliament on a platform of greater control and heavier taxation of foreign mining.
    (AP, 3/13/13)(Econ, 3/16/13, p.54)

2013        Oct 24, Greenland's parliament agreed to remove a 25-year-old ban on uranium mining, paving the way for an industrial boom that the Arctic island hopes will help it gain independence from former colonial master Denmark.
    (AP, 10/25/13)

Go to http://www.timelinesdb.com
Subject = Greenland
End of file