Timeline Hungary

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http://www.state.gov/www/background_notes/hungary_9908_bgn.html

8Mil BC    In 2007 Hungarian scientists discovered a group of fossilized swamp cypress trees preserved from this time. The trees dated to the late Miocene geological period at a time when the Carpathian basin, present day Hungary, was a freshwater lake surrounded by swamps.
    (Reuters, 7/31/07)

c0-100AD    Hungary was the Roman province of Pannonia and Pecs was the capital.
    (Hem., 6/98, p.128)

375        Nov 17, Enraged by the insolence of barbarian envoys, Valentinian, the Emperor of the West, died of apoplexy in Pannonia in Central Europe.
    (HN, 11/17/98)

410        Flavius Aetius, the son of a Roman general, was sent to live as a hostage of the Huns.
    (ON, 4/12, p.1)

451        Jun 20, Roman and Barbarian warriors halted Attila’s army at the Catalaunian Plains (Catalarinische Fields) in eastern France. Attila the Hun was defeated by a combined Roman and Visigoth army. Theodoric I, the Visigothic king, was killed. The Huns moved south into Italy but were defeated again. Some sources date this on Sep 20. Attila and his brother Bleda jointly inherited the Hunnish Kingdom, headquartered in what later became Hungary. Attila later murdered Bleda to gain full control.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Catalaunian_Plains)(V.D.-H.K.p.88)(ON, 4/12, p.3)

451        Sep 20, Roman General Aetius defeated Attila the Hun at Chalons-sur-Marne (Battle of the Catalaunian Plains). Many sources date this on Jun 20.
    (http://tinyurl.com/6vaxufu)

896        The founding date of Hungary. Seven tribes of Magyars settled in the Carpathian Basin. Kingdom of Hungary was formed under Arpad by seven Magyar and three Khazar tribes.
    (WSJ, 12/26/96, p.4)(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T5)(TJOK, p. 206)(Reuters, 4/12/05)

933        Mar 15, Henry the Fowler routed the raiding Magyars at Merseburg, Germany.
    (HN, 3/15/99)

955        Aug 10, Otto organized his nobles and defeated the invading Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld in Germany.
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1000        Jan 1, Stephen became the first king of Hungary.
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T5)

1031        Sep 2, In Hungary Emeric (b.1007), the son of King Stephen, was killed by a boar while hunting. On Nov 5, 1083, King Ladislaus I unearthed Emeric's bones in a large ceremony. Emeric was canonized for his pious life and purity along with his father and Bishop Gerhard by Pope Gregory VII.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Emeric_of_Hungary)(Econ, 9/19/15, p.48)

1038        King Stephen died.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A8T5)

1046        Sep 24, In Hungary Gerard Sagredo (b.980), an Italian bishop from Venice (also known as Gellert or Gerhard), was placed on a 2-wheel cart, hauled to a hilltop and rolled down the later named Gellert Hill, and still being alive at the bottom was beaten to death. He operated in the Kingdom of Hungary (specifically in Budapest), and educated Saint Emeric of Hungary, the son of Saint Stephen of Hungary). Gellert played a major role in converting Hungary to Christianity. He was canonized in 1083 along with St. Stephen and St. Emeric and became one of the patron saints of Hungary.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerard_Sagredo)

1077        Apr 24, Geza I, King of Hungary (1074-7), died.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1096        Jun 26, Peter the Hermit’s crusaders forced their way across Sava, Hungary.
    (HN, 6/26/98)

1096        Jul 12, Crusaders under Peter the Hermit reach Sofia in Hungary.
    (HN, 7/12/99)

1102        Coats were forced to enter into a union with Hungary and to recognize the Hungarian king as their own.
    (WSJ, 7/14/99, p.A23)

1131        Mar 1, Stephen II, King of Hungary (1116-31), died.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1172        Mar 4, Stephan III, King of Hungary (1162-72), died.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1200-1300    The Csango people of Romania's remote eastern Carpathian mountains began settling around this time, dispatched by Hungarian rulers to defend the kingdom's easternmost frontier.
    (AP, 3/21/12)

1326        Mar 5, Louis I (the Great), King of Hungary (1342-1382) and Poland (1370-1382), was born.
    (HN, 3/5/98)(MC, 3/5/02)

1335        Charles I of Hungary-Croatia, Casimir III of Poland and John of Bohemia met in Visegrad, Hungary, and agreed to create new commercial routes to bypass the staple port Vienna and obtain easier access to other European markets.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visegr%C3%A1d_Group)

1347-1350    The Black Death: A Genoese trading post in the Crimea was besieged by an army of Kipchaks from Hungary and Mongols from the East. The latter brought with them a new form of plague, Yersinia pestis. Infected dead bodies were catapulted into the Genoese town. One Genoese ship managed to escape and brought the disease to Messina, Sicily. The disease quickly became an epidemic. It moved over the next few years to northern Italy, North Africa, France, Spain, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, Germany, the Low countries, England, Scandinavia and the Baltic. There were lesser outbreaks in many cities for the next twenty years. An estimated 25 million died in Europe and economic depression followed. In 2005 John Kelly authored “The Great Mortality: An Intimate History of the Black Death, the Most Devastating Plague of All Time."
    (NG, 5/88, p.678)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B1)(SFC, 10/13/11, p.A6)

1382        Sep 10, Louis I, the Great, King of Hungary and Poland, died. Mary (1372-1395), daughter of Louis I, became queen of Hungary.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.135)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_of_Hungary)

1386        Sigismund (1368-1437), son of Charles IV, became King of Hungary by his marriage to Queen Mary of Hungary (1372-1395).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigismund%2C_Holy_Roman_Emperor)

1387-1456    Janos Hunyadi, soldier and national hero. He was the father of Matthias Corvinus.
    (WUD, 1994, p.693,1672)

1390        Nov 22, Hungarian nobleman Miklos Toldi (b.~1320) died. He was remembered as a legendary strong hero in Hungarian folklore who protects women and children. Poet János Arany based his famous Toldi trilogy on his legend.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikl%C3%B3s_Toldi)(Econ, 9/19/15, p.48)

1396        Sep 25, The last great Christian crusade, led jointly by John the Fearless of Nevers and King Sigismund of Hungary, ended in disaster at the hands of Sultan Bajazet I's Ottoman army at Nicopolis.
    (HN, 9/25/98)

1397        Aug 16, Albrecht II von Habsburg, king of Bohemia, Hungary and Germany, was born.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1420        Jul 14, Jan Zizka (1360?-1424) led the Taborites in Battle at Vitkov Zizka's hill (Prague). The Taborites beat forces under Sigismund, the pro-Catholic King of Hungary and Bohemia. This was part of the Hussite Wars (1419-1436).
    (http://user.intop.net/~jhollis/janzizka.htm)

1429        Jan 10, Order of Golden Fleece was established in Austria-Hungary & Spain.
    (MC, 1/10/02)

1439        Oct 27, Albrecht II von Habsburg (42), king of Bohemia, Hungary and Germany, died.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1440        Feb 22, Ladislaus V Posthumous, King of Hungary and Bohemia, was born.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1444            Nov 10, During the Hungarian-Turkish War (1444-1456), Sultan Murad II beat the Crusaders in the Battle at Varna on the Black Sea.
    (DoW, 1999, p.217)

1448        Oct 19, The Ottoman Sultan Murat II defeated Hungarian General Janos Hunyadi at Kosovo, Serbia.
    (HN, 10/19/98)

1454        Aug 22, Jews were expelled from Brunn Moravia by order of King Ladislaus Posthumus (1440-1457), king of Hungary as Ladislaus V, king of Bohemia as Ladislaus I.
    (MC, 8/22/02)(Internet)

1456        Mar 1, Wladyslaw Jagiello, king of Bohemia (1471-1516), Hungary (1490-1516), was born.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1456        Jul 14, Hungarians defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Belgrade, in present-day Yugoslavia. The 1456 Siege of Belgrade decided the fate of Christendom.
    (HN, 7/14/98)

1456        Jul 22, At the Battle at Nandorfehervar (Belgrade), the Hungarian army under prince Janos Hunyadi beat sultan Murad II. The siege of Belgrade had fallen into stalemate when a spontaneous fight broke out between a rabble of Crusaders, led by the Benedictine monk John of Capistrano, and the city's Ottoman besiegers. The melee soon escalated into a major battle, during which the Hungarian commander, Janos Hunyadi, led a sudden assault that overran the Turkish camp, ultimately compelling the wounded Sultan Mehmet II to lift the siege and retreat.
    (MC, 7/22/02)(PC, 1992, p.150)(HNPD, 7/23/98)

1456        Aug 11, Janos Hunyadi (69), Hungarian Prince and general strategist died of plague at about age 49.
    (PC, 1992, p.150)(MC, 8/11/02)

1457        Nov 23, Ladislaus V (posthumous), king of Hungary and Bohemia, died at 17.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1458        Jan 24, Matthias Corvinus (1443-1490), the son of John Hunyadi, was elected king of Hungary. Under his  rule Hungary was the most important state in central Europe. For his fighting force he ordered every 20 houses to provide one horse soldier. "Husz" is 20 in Hungarian and so the light cavalryman became know as a Hussar. His illuminated breviary is held by the Vatican library.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1672)(Sky, 9/97, p.26)(HN, 1/24/99)

1490        Apr 6, Matthias Corvinus (b.1443), king of Hungary and Croatia (1458-1590), died. He has assembled one of Europe’s finest libraries, 2nd in size only to that in the Vatican. When Hungary later fell to the Turks the library was lost. In 2008 Marcus Tanner authored “The Raven King: Matthias Corvinus and the Fate of His Lost Library."
    (Econ, 7/19/08, p.93)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matthias_Corvinus_of_Hungary)

1503        Mar 10, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (1558-1564), was born. He was King of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526-1564.
    (HN, 3/10/01)(WUD, 1994 p.523)

1514        George Dozsa, soldier of fortune, instigated a peasant’s revolt in Hungary. He was later captured and grilled alive.
    (TL-MB, p.10)

1521        Suleiman I, the Ottoman Sultan, conquered Belgrade and invaded Hungary.
    (TL-MB, p.12)

1526        Nov 9, Jews were expelled from Pressburg, Hungary, by Maria of Hapsburg.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1526        Ferdinand of Austria was elected King of Bohemia and inaugurated the Austro-Hungarian state.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(WSJ, 7/14/99, p.A23)

1529        May 27, 30 Jews of Posing, Hungary, charged with blood ritual, were burned at stake.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1529        Sep 8, The Ottoman Sultan Suleiman re-entered Buda and established John Zapolyai as the puppet king of Hungary.
    (HN, 9/8/98)

1529        The Ottomans sieged Vienna in a key battle of world history. The Ottoman Empire reached its peak with the Turks settled in Buda on the left bank of the Danube after failing in their siege of Vienna.
    (WSJ, 3/27/96, p.A-16)(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1538        Feb 24, Ferdinand of Hapsburg and John Zapolyai, the two kings of Hungary, concluded the peace of Grosswardein.
    (HN, 2/24/99)

1541        Suleiman I annexed southern and central Hungary. The Turkish Ottomans occupied Budapest, Hungary, until 1546.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(Sm, 3/06, p.76)

1544        The Turks invaded Hungary for the third time and seized the crown jewels. (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1552        The Turks invaded Hungary again with a victory at the Battle Szegedin. Istvan Dobo led the defense of Eger against the Turks. The siege of Eger lasted 38 days.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(Hem., 6/98, p.126)

1556        Sep 13, Charles V and Maria of Hungary marched into Spain.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1566        Sep 7, Suleiman I (b.1494), Great Law Giver and sultan of Turkey (1520-66), died at Szigetvar, Hungary, as his troops besieged a fortress defended by Croatian-Hungarian nobleman Miklos Zrinyi. Suleiman’s great empire began a gradual decline under his slothful son, Selim II. Suleiman the Magnificent, during his reign, had commissioned the architect Sinan to build the Suleymanye, perhaps the finest mosque ever constructed.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(WSJ, 4/29/99, p.A24)(SFC, 9/21/13, p.A3)

1575        Hungarian mines abolished child labor.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1576        Oct 12, Rudolf II, the king of Hungary and Bohemia, succeeded his father, Maximillian II, as Holy Roman Emperor.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(HN, 10/12/98)

1586        The Turks attacked the fortress at Eger again. The mercenary occupants capitulated.
    (Hem., 6/98, p.126)

1595        Oct 28, Battle at Giurgevo: Sigmund Bathory of Transylvania beat the Turks.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1619?-1637    Ferdinand ruled as king of Hungary.
    (WUD, 1994, p.524)

1630        Mate Szepsy Laczko described the method for producing Tokaj wine made from botrytized grapes.
    (WSJ, 10/5/00, p.A24)

1637        Ferdinand II Holy Roman emperor, king of Bohemia and king of Hungary, died.
    (WUD, 1994, p.524)

1859        The onion-domed Great Synagogue was erected in the Jewish quarter of Budapest, Hungary.
    (Sm, 3/06, p.76)

1664        Jan 21, Count Miklos of Zrinyi set out to battle the Turkish invasion army.
    (MC, 1/21/02)

1664        Aug 1, The Turkish army was defeated by French and German troops at St. Gotthard, Hungary.
    (HN, 8/1/98)

1671        Apr 30, Peter Zrinyi (49), Hungarian banished to Croatia, was beheaded.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1681        Nov 9, Hungarian parliament promised Protestants freedom of religion.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1686        Jul 8, The Austrians took Buda, Hungary, from the Turks and annexed the country. Hapsburg rule lasted to 1918.
    (HN, 7/8/98)(Sm, 3/06, p.76)

1687        Aug 12, At the Battle of Mohacs, Hungary, Charles of Lorraine defeated the Turks.
    (HN, 8/12/98)

1732-1809     Joseph Haydn, Austrian composer, wrote some 175 baritone pieces for his patron, the Hungarian prince Nickolaus Esterhazy, who played the complex stringed instrument. The Canadian scholar David Schroeder wrote: Haydn and the Enlightenment."
    (CFA, '96,Vol 179,  p.42)(WUD, 1994, p.651)(WSJ, 8/26/97, p.A14)

1740        Oct 20, Maria Theresa became ruler of Austria, Hungary and Bohemia upon the death of her father, Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI.
    (AP, 10/20/06)

1769        Wolfgang von Kempelen of Hungary invented the Automoton Chess Player. It was 1st demonstrated to the Austrian court in 1770. In 2001 the deception was analyzed by James W. Cook in his book "The Arts of Deception." In 2002 Tom Standage authored "The Turk," an examination of the 18th century fascination with automatons.
    (WSJ, 7/12/01, p.A14)(WSJ, 4/12/02, p.W12)

1795        May 20, Ignac Martinovics, Hungarian physicist, revolutionary, was beheaded.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1781        May 1, Emperor Josef II decreed protection of population.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1787        Aug 17, Jews were granted permission in Budapest, Hungary, to pray in groups.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1802        Aug 13, Nikolaus Lenau, German poet (Faust, Die Albigenser), was born in Hungary.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1802        Sep 19, Lajos Kossuth (d.1894), Hungarian statesman and president, was born. "The instinctive feeling of a great people is often wiser than its wisest men."
    (AP, 7/2/97)(www.thenagain.info/WebChron/EastEurope/Kossuth.html)

1811        Franz Liszt was born near Sopron. He was the son of a steward of the Esterhazy family.
    (Hem., 6/98, p.128)

1818        Jul 1, Ignaz Semmelweis (d.1865), Hungarian gynecologist, was born. He later connected childbed fever to doctors who spread of germs due to their failure to wash their hands. In 2003 Sherwin B. Nuland authored "The Doctors' Plague: Germs, Childbed Fever and the Strange Story of Ignac Semmelweis."
    (MC, 7/1/02)(SSFC, 11/23/03, p.M3)

1823        Mar 3, Guyla Andrássy Sr., premier of Hungary (1867-71), was born.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1846        May 29, Albert Gyorgy, earl Apponyi, Hungarian minister of Education, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1847        Apr 10, American newspaper publisher Joseph Pulitzer (d.1911) was born in Mako, Hungary. "What is everybody's business is nobody's business -- except the journalist's."
    (CFA, '96, p.44)(AP, 4/10/97)(AP, 8/30/98)

1847        Hungarian doctor Ignac (Ignaz) Semmelweis (1818-1865) told his fellow doctors to start washing their hands.
    (SFEC, 12/8/96, Z  1 p.2)(Econ, 3/13/10, p.57)

1848        Mar 3, Lajos Kossuth made a speech demanding parliamentary government for Hungary and constitutional government for the rest of Austria.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lajos_Kossuth)

1848        Mar 15, In Hungary an uprising against Habsburg rule began in front of the national museum in Budapest. This was later remembered as a national holiday.
    (Reuters, 3/15/07)(Econ, 3/24/12, p.52)

1848        Mar 23, Hungary proclaimed its independence of Austria.
    (HN, 3/23/99)

1848        Nov, Emperor Ferdinand abdicated in favor of Franz Joseph.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franz_Josef_of_Austria)

1848        Sep 28, Lajos Kossuth, finance minister, assumed control of the revolution in Hungary.
    (www.thenagain.info/WebChron/EastEurope/Kossuth.html)

1848-1849    Lajos Kossuth (1802-1894) led a failed revolt for Hungarian independence.
    (Sm, 3/06, p.81)

1849        Apr 14, Lajos Kossuth was named Governor and virtual dictator of the newly declared Hungarian Republic. Hungary proclaimed independence from the Great Church in Debrecen, temporarily ending 150 years of Hapsburg rule.
    (Hem., 6/98, p.125)(www.thenagain.info/WebChron/EastEurope/Kossuth.html)

1849        Jun 17, Russian troops invaded Hungary.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.448)

1849        Aug 11, Lajos Kossuth abdicated in favor of Gen. Gorgey as Russia intervened in the Hungarian revolution.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lajos_Kossuth)

1849        Aug 13, Hungary’s Gen. Gorgey surrendered to the Russian forces. Russia gave Hungary back to Austria.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.448)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lajos_Kossuth)

1853        Vilmos Zsolnay founded a pottery in Pecs, Hungary, that became renowned for its colored tile. The Zsolnay factory used a 5-tower mark from about 1878, which symbolized the 5 medieval churches in Pecs.
    (SFC, 8/31/05, p.G3)

1854        Elisabeth of Bavaria (16) married the Habsburg Emp. Franz Josef II (23).
    (WSJ, 12/8/97, p.A13)

1855        Oct 12, Arthur Nikisch, later conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic, was born in Szent-Miklos, Hungary.
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1860        Apr 8, Istvan Szechenyi (b.1791), Hungarian statesman, committed suicide.
    (WSJ, 3/13/09, p.A9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Istv%C3%A1n_Sz%C3%A9chenyi)

1861        Imre Madach (1823-1864), Hungarian writer, authored “The Tragedy of Man," a “Paradise Lost" for the industrial age.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.37)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imre_Mad%C3%A1ch)

1865        Aug 13, Ignaz Semmelweis (b.1818), Hungarian gynecologist, died from an infection in Vienna after being beaten up by warders in an asylum.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ignaz_Semmelweis)(Econ, 3/13/10, p.57)

1865        Sep 23, Emmuska Orczy (d.1947), baroness and writer, was born in Tarnaors, Hungary. Her family moved to London in 1880. Her books included "The Scarlet Pimpernel" (1905).
    (HN, 9/23/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baroness_Orczy)

1867-1994    In 1995 "A History of Modern Hungary" by Joerg K. Hoensch covered this period and was translated by Kim Traynor. 2nd edition. New York and London: Longman.
    (http://h-net2.msu.edu/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=14189848616848)

1869        Mark Pick founded a sausage company in Szeged.
    (SFC, 3/21/97, p.D2)

1870        The Gerbeaud confectioner opened on Vaci Utca, a pedestrian street in Pest.
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T5)

1870-1948    Franz Lehar, composer of operettas. His work included "The Merry Widow."
    (WUD, 1994, p.819)(WSJ, 6/10/97, p.A16)

1873        Jan 7, Adolph Zukor, movie producer, director, executive (Paramount), was born in Hungary.
    (MC, 1/7/02)

1873        Nov 20, Budapest was formed from 2 Rival cities, Buda and Obuda on the west bank of the Danube and Pest on the east bank.
    (WUD, 1994, p.193)(MC, 11/20/01)

1874        Mar 24, Harry Houdini (d.1926), magician, escape artist, was born as Erik Weisz (Ehrich Weiss) in Budapest. Young Ehrich Weiss emigrated with his parents to New York and then to Wisconsin (1878). Sometime around 1891 he and a partner in a magic act billed themselves as the Brothers Houdini, in homage to French magician Eugčne Robert-Houdin. As Harry Houdini, Weiss became world-famous for his mind-boggling escapes. At age 43 he had a volcanic love affair with the widow of Jack London, Charmian. In 1996 Kenneth Silverman wrote the biography: "Houdini!!! The Career of Ehrich Weiss."
    (WSJ, 10/29/96, p.A21)(HN, 3/24/98)(SFC, 7/7/98, p.B3)(WSJ, 4/22/99, A10)(HNQ, 5/16/99)

1877        Jul 27, Ernst von Dohnanyi, composer (Message to Posterity), was born in Hungary.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1878        Jan 12, Ferenc Molnar, Hungarian-US playwright (A Pal Utrai Fiuk), was born.
    (MC, 1/12/02)

1878        Bosnia came under Austro-Hungarian. This continued until 1918. A representative from Vienna governed the area.
    (Econ, 11/26/05, p.65)(Econ, 10/20/07, p.72)

1879        The Tisza River overflowed and destroyed 5,500 of 5,800 houses in the town of Szeged.
    (Hem., 6/98, p.127)

1882        Oct 20, Bela Lugosi (d.1956), film actor, was born in Lugos, Hungary, as Bela Blasko. He is famous for his portrayal of Count Dracula (1931).
    (Internet)

1884        The Hungarian State Opera House in Budapest was built in Italian Renaissance style.
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T4)

1885        Apr 16, Leo Weiner, composer (Fasching), was born in Hungary.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1888        Dec 19, Fritz Reiner, US conductor (Chicago Symphony Orch), was born in Budapest, Hungary.
    (MC, 12/19/01)

1892        Mar 29, Jozsef Mindszenty, [Joseph Prehm], Hungarian cardinal, was born.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1892        Sep 5, Joseph Szigeti, Budapest Hungary, violinist (Violinist Notebook 1933), was born.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1894        Mar 20, Lajos Kossuth (91), Hungarian freedom fighter, president (1849), died.
    (www.thenagain.info/WebChron/EastEurope/Kossuth.html)

1895        May 26, Paul Lukas, actor (Watch on the Rhine, Sphynx), was born in Budapest, Hungary.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1895        The Central Market Hall was built in Budapest, Hungary.
    (Sm, 3/06, p.82)

1896        Hungary celebrated the 1,000 the anniversary of the arrival of the Magyars.
    (SSFC, 10/11/15, p.M3)
1896        The first subway in Europe was installed under Andrassy Ut in downtown Pest.
    (WSJ, 12/26/96, p.A4)

1897        Jun 7, George Szell, conductor (Metropolitan 1942-45), was born in Budapest, Hungary.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1897        The 500 foot long Central Market Hall in Budapest opened.
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T5)

1898        Sep 10, Empress Elisabeth of Bavaria (60), Queen of Hungary and wife of Emp. Franz Josef II, was assassinated in Geneva by the Italian anarchist Luigi Luccheni.
    (EWH, 1968, p.744)(WSJ, 12/8/97, p.A13)

1899        Nov 18, Music conductor Eugene Ormandy was born in Budapest, Hungary.
    (AP, 11/18/99)

1900        Jan 5, Dennis Gabor, Hungarian-British physicist, inventor of 3D laser photography, was born. He was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1971. [see Jan 5]
    (HN, 6/5/98)(MC, 1/5/02)

1900        Jan 13, To combat Czech nationalism, Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary decreed that German would be the language of the imperial army.
    (HN, 1/13/99)

1901        Apr 29, Anti Semitic riot took place in Budapest.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1902        Mar 23, Kálmán Tisza (71), premier of Hungary (1875-90), died.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1902        Jun 23, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy renewed the Triple Alliance for a 12 year duration.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1902        Nov 17, Eugene Paul Wigner, Hungarian-born mathematician and physicist, was born. He won the Nobel Prize in 1963.
    (HN, 11/17/00)(MC, 11/17/01)

1903        Jan 3, The Bulgarian government renounced the treaty of commerce tying it to Austro-Hungarian empire.
    (HN, 1/3/99)

1903        Feb 19, The Austria-Hungary government decreed a mandatory two year military service.
    (HN, 2/19/98)

1903        The Gresham Palace Hotel was completed in Budapest, Hungary.
    (Sm, 3/06, p.81)

1905        Sep 5, Arthur Koestler (d.1983), Hungarian novelist and essayist, was born. He wrote about communism in “Darkness at Noon" (1941) and “The Ghost in the Machine."
    (HN, 9/5/98)(SFEC, 1/2/00, BR p.5)(WSJ, 8/26/06, p.P8)

1905        Oct 14, Eugene Fodor, Hungarian-born travel writer, was born.
    (HN, 10/14/00)

1905        The neo-Gothic Parliament building was constructed in Budapest, Hungary.
    (Sm, 3/06, p.79)

1906        Jun 26, Ferenc Szisz of Hungary won the first French Grand Prix. Szisz won the race in a 13 liter, 90 horsepower Renault.
    (HNQ, 7/25/00)(AHDD, p.262)

1906        Dec 2, Peter Carl Goldmark (d.1977), engineer, was born in Budapest, Hungary. He developed the first commercial color television and the long-playing phonograph record.
    (HN, 12/2/00)(AP, 12/2/06)

1907        Apr 18, Miklos Rozsa, movie composer (Atomic Cafe, Fedora), was born in Budapest, Hungary.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1908        Jan 15, Edward Teller (d.2003), US physicist known as the "Father of the H-bomb," was born in Budapest. In 2001 he authored his "Memoirs."
    (HN, 1/15/99)(WSJ, 10/30/01, p.A21)(SFC, 9/10/03, p.A1)

1908        Feb 1, Movie producer and animator George Pal was born in Austria-Hungary.
    (AP, 2/1/08)

1908        Victor Vasarely, the father of op art, was born in Pecs.
    (Hem., 6/98, p.128)

1909        Feb 16, Serbia mobilized against Austria and Hungary.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1909        Mar 8, Pope Pius X lifted the church ban on interfaith marriages in Hungary.
    (HN, 3/8/98)

1909        Ferenc Molnar (1878-1952), Hungarian dramatist and writer, wrote “Liliom," which later was turned into the musical “Carousel" (1945). During WWII he emigrated to the US.
    (SFC, 12/31/08, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferenc_Molnar)

1910        May 28, Kalman Mikszath (b.1847), Hungarian satirical novelist, died.
    (Sm, 3/06, p.79)(www.imdb.com/name/nm0586690/)

1911        Oct 29, Joseph Pulitzer (1847), Hungary-born American newspaperman, died in Charleston, S.C. In 2002 Denis Brian authored "Pulitzer: A Life." In 2010 James McGrath Morris authored “Pulitzer: A Life in Politics, Print , and Power."
    (WSJ, 1/30/02, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Pulitzer)(SSFC, 3/7/10, p.F4)

1912        Oct 21, Georg Solti, conductor (Fidelio), was born in Budapest, Hungary.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1913        Oct 18, Austrian-Hungary demanded that Serbia and Albania leave.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1913        Andre de Toth (d.2002), film director, was born in Mako, Hungary, as Sasvrai Farkasfalvi Tothfalusi Toth Endre Antal Mihaly.
    (SFC, 11/1/02, p.A28)

1914        Jun 28, Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to Austria-Hungary, and his wife, Sofia, were assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia, by a Serb nationalist. As the royal couple rode through the streets of Sarajevo in an open touring car, seven young radicals from an obscure Serbian-Bosnian nationalist group, called the Black Hand, lay in wait. An initial assassination attempt failed, but a wrong turn brought the car near Gavrilo Princip, who fired two shots at point-blank range into the couple's bodies. Within minutes, both the Archduke and Sophia were dead. Princip was arrested, but political tensions were so high between Austria-Hungary and Serbia that war broke out as a result. Like falling dominoes, international alliances brought one country after another into the conflict. The event triggered World War I. In 2011 Adam Hochschild authored “To End All Wars: A Story of Loyalty and Rebellion."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.252, 284-285,290)(AP, 6/28/97)(HNPD, 6/28/98)(Econ, 6/4/11, p.93)

1914        Jul 23, Austria and Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia after the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand; the dispute led to World War I.
    (AP, 7/23/98)

1914        Jul 26, Austrian-Hungary condemned a Serbian ultimatum.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1914        Jul 28, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, beginning World War I. The New York Stock Exchange closed for 4 1/2 months.
    (CFA, '96, p.50)(HN, 7/28/98)

1914        Aug 12, Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary.
    (MC, 8/12/02)

1915        Jan 2, Karl Goldmark (b.1830), Hungarian composer (Queen of Saba), died in Vienna.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Goldmark)

1915        May 23, Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary in World War I.
    (AP, 5/23/97)(HN, 5/23/98)

1916        Nov 21, Franz Jozef I, King of Austria and Hungary, died.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1916        Charles I took the throne and worked for peace as the Austro-Hungarian empire neared its end. He abdicated at the end of the war in 1918 and died in Portugal in 1922 at age 34. In 2003 the Vatican attributed a miracle to the last emperor of Austria-Hungary, paving the way for the eventual beatification and sainthood of Charles I.
    (AP, 12/21/03)

1917        Dec 7, The US declared war on Austria-Hungary with only one dissenting vote in Congress and became the 13th country to do so.
    (HN, 12/7/98)

1918          Mar 3, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which ended Russian participation in World War I. Germany and Austria forced Soviet Russia to sign the Peace of Brest, which called for the establishment of 5 independent countries: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Ukraine. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which ended Russian participation in World War I, was annulled by the November 1918 armistice. The treaty deprived the Soviets of White Russia.
    (HN, 3/3/99)(LHC, 3/1/03)(AP, 3/3/08)

1918        Oct 18, Czechs seized Prague, renounced Hapsburg's rule and declared independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Masaryk proclaimed the foundation of Czechoslovakia from Pittsburgh, Pa.
    (HN, 10/18/98)(http://tinyurl.com/856hg)

1918        Oct 31, Stephen Tisza, Hungarian PM (-1917), was assassinated by soldiers.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1918        The Gellert Pool was constructed at the Gellert Hotel on the Buda side of Budapest, Hungary.
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T1,4)(Sm, 3/06, p.76)

1919        Jan 27, Endre Ady (b.1877), Hungarian lyric poet, died.
    (Sm, 3/06, p.79)(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/ady.htm)

1919            Feb 11, Eva Gabor (d.1995), actress, was born in Budapest, Hungary.
    (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0001247/)

1919        Aug 1, In Hungary Bela Kun's government fell in the face of invasions from both the Czechs, Romanians and a French-sponsored counter-revolutionary force, led by Admiral Miklos Horthy de Nagybanya, which succeeded in establishing Horthy in government for many years.
    (www.firstworldwar.com/bio/kun.htm)

1920        Mar 1, Miklos Horthy (1868-1957) became Regent of Hungary and continued to 1944.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikl%C3%B3s_Horthy)

1920         Jun 4, The Treaty of Trianon, signed at Versailles, was forced upon Hungary by the victorious Allies after WWII and resulted in Hungary giving up nearly three-fourths of its territory to Romania, Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croat and Slovenes. Hungary lost more than half its population, including some 3 million Hungarians. Hungary ceded the hills of Transylvania to Romania.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Trianon)(HNQ, 7/5/98)(WSJ, 1/2/97, p.1)

1921        Nov 5, Gyorgy Cziffra, Hungarian-French pianist, was born.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1922        Apr 1, Karl I (b.1887), leader of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, died. Also known in the West as Charles I, he took the throne in 1916 and worked for peace, abdicating at the end of World War I, a few years before his death. In 2004 he was beatified by Pope John Paul VI.
    (AP, 10/3/04)(www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/KarlI/)

1922        Oct 31, Andras Hegedues (d.1999), made Premier in 1955, was born in Szilsarkany.
    (SFC, 10/26/99, p.B4)

1922        Hungary’s Regent Miklos Horthy passed the first of four anti-Jewish laws, limiting the number of Jewish students at universities.
    (Econ, 11/9/13, p.59)
1922        Their was a rainfall of spiders over Hungary.
    (SFC, 5/30/98, p.E4)

1923        Dutch physicist Dirk Coster (1889-1950) and Hungarian chemist George Charles de Hevesy (1889-1966) found element 72, Hafnium. It was identified in zircon (a zirconium ore) from Norway, by means of X-ray spectroscopic analysis. It was named in honor of the city in which the discovery was made, from the Latin name "Hafnia" meaning "Copenhagen."   
    (www.chemistryexplained.com/elements/C-K/Hafnium.html)(http://tinyurl.com/kj24t)
 
1924        Jul 5, Janos Starker, cellist (Chic Symph 1953-58), was born in Budapest, Hungary.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1924        Ferenc Molnar (b.1878), Hungarian playwright, wrote "The Play’s the Thing."
    (WSJ, 5/2/96, p.A-13)

1925        Jul 17, Laszlo Nagy, Hungarian poet, was born.
    (HN, 7/17/01)

1925-1939    Joseph Roth (1894-1939), an Austrian Jew, was assigned to Paris by a Frankfurt newspaper. After one year the job was given to a Nationalist. He stayed in Paris and wrote for emigre publications and railed against Germany and racism in his essays and novels. In 2004 his selected essays appeared in English as "Report From a Parisian Paradise: Essays from France, 1925-1939."
    (SSFC, 1/11/04, p.M4)(Econ, 2/2/13, p.74)

1927        Erno Laszlo (1891-1973) opened the Laszlo Institute for Scientific Cosmetology in Budapest. In 1939 he opened the Laszlo Institute on Fifth Ave in NYC.
    (Econ, 11/29/03, p.18)

1928        Feb 1, Tom Lantos, a Jewish Holocaust survivor, was born in Budapest, Hungary. Lantos later earned a doctorate in economics at UC Berkeley and served as a US Congressman from California (1980-2008).
    (SFC, 1/3/08, p.A10)

1929        Aug 28, Istvan Kertesz, conductor (Budapest Opera 1953-57/London Philharmonic), was born in Budapest, Hungary.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1929        In Nagyrev, Hungary, some 40 men were poisoned by their wives or daughters-in-law with arsenic laced duck soup, tea and wine. 6 local women were sentenced to die, but only 2 were executed. The midwife ringleader, who extracted the arsenic from flypaper, committed suicide. The 2003 Hungarian film “Hiccup" was based on the poisonings.
    (WSJ, 5/20/04, p.A1)

1930        George Soros, billionaire, was born in Budapest.
    (SFEC, 10/1/96, p.A1)

1932        Joseph Roth (1894-1939), an Austrian-Jewish writer, authored “The Radetzky March," a novel of the decline of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It was translated into English in 1995. Roth’s 1938 sequel was translated to English in 2013.
    (Econ, 2/2/13, p.74)

1934        Oct 9, In Marseilles, a Macedonian revolutionary associated with Croat terrorists in Hungary assassinated King Alexander of Yugoslavia and French Foreign Minister Louis Barthou. The two had been on a tour of European capitals in quest of an alliance against Nazi Germany. The assassinations brought the threat of war between Yugoslavia and Hungary, but confrontation was prevented by the League of Nations.
    (HN, 10/9/98)

1935        Denes Koromzay (d.2001 at 88) founded the Hungarian String Quartet. In 1962 he moved to Boulder, Colorado, and the group was named resident ensemble at the Univ. of Colorado.
    (SFC, 7/18/01, p.C16)

1936        Mar 8, Gabor Szabo, Hungarian jazz pianist (Perfect Circle), was born.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1936        Mar 23, Italy, Austria and Hungary signed Pact of Rome.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1936        Bela Kun (b.1886), Hungarian leftist revolutionary, died. He is believed to have met his end in one of Stalin's innumerable purges.
    (Sm, 3/06, p.79)(www.firstworldwar.com/bio/kun.htm)

1937        A Hungarian brigade joined the Spanish civil war to fight the fascists.
    (MT, Fall. ‘97, p.4)

1938        Apr 27, King Zog of Albania married Geraldine Apponyi (22) of Hungary.
    (SFC, 10/28/02, p.A17)

1938        Sep 29, British, French, German and Italian leaders signed the Munich Agreement, which was aimed at appeasing Adolf Hitler by allowing Nazi annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland, inhabited by a German-speaking minority. The treaty ceded three areas of Czechoslovakia to other powers: the Sudetenland was annexed into Germany, the Teschen district was given to Poland, and parts of Slovakia went to Hungary. British PM Neville Chamberlain gained a brief peace agreement from Hitler at Munich and without consulting the Czechs agreed that Nazi forces could occupy Sudetenland. Some mark this "appeasement policy" as the decisive event of the century. Chamberlain predicted "peace in our time." French PM Edouard Daladier was very depressed from the meeting. In 1980 Telford Taylor published "Munich: The Price of Peace." It is a detailed political & diplomatic history of the 1930's in Europe, culminating in the Munich conference. Taylor later helped write the rules for Nuremberg Trials. In 2008 David Vaughan authored “Battle for the Airwaves: Radio and the 1938 Munich Crises."
    (http://www.humboldt.edu/~rescuers/book/Chlup/chluplinks/munich.html)(SFC, 6/9/96, Z1 p.5)(SFC, 6/16/96, Z1 p.6)(WSJ, 6/8/98, p.A21)(AP, 9/29/06)(SFC, 5/26/98, p.B2)(Econ, 10/11/08, p.115)

1938        Lazlo Biro [Laszlo Biro] of Hungary invented the ball-point pen. He fled Hungary in 1943 and patented the ballpoint in Argentina.
    (TL, 1988, p.111)(SFEC, 5/23/99, p.B7)

1939        Feb 2, Hungary broke relations with the Soviet Union.
    (HN, 2/2/99)

1939        Feb 24, Hungary signed an anti-Communist pact with Italy, Germany and Japan.
    (HN, 2/24/98)

1939        Mar 15, The Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine, led by Avhustyn Voloshyn (d.1945), declared independence amid the Nazi dismemberment of Czechoslovakia. Independence ending that same evening by an invasion from Hungary. In 1946 the area became part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, as the Zakarpattia Oblast ('Transcarpathian Oblast'). After the break-up of the Soviet Union, it became part of independent Ukraine as Zakarpattia Oblast.
    (Econ, 3/14/09, p.57)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carpatho-Ukraine)

1939        Nov 30, Bela Kun (53), [Balazs Kolozsvary], Hungarian revolutionary, died.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1939-1945    The Hungarian Gendarmerie carried out orders to round up Jews for Nazi death camps where some 550,000 perished.
    (SFC, 2/25/00, p.A16)

1940        Sister Ida Peterfy (d.2000 at 77) founded a religious education order of nuns. She kept the order together during the war under the cover of a secretarial school and moved to Los Angeles in 1956.
    (SFC, 2/12/00, p.A21)

1940        Bela Bartok, Hungarian composer, fled Budapest, Hungary, and arrived in New York.
    (WSJ, 8/18/95, p.A-1)

1941        Apr 3, Pal Teleki-von Szek (61), PM Hungary (1920-21, 39-41), committed suicide.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1941        Apr, Hungary under Admiral Miklos Horthy (1868-1957, entered WWII as an ally of Germany.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikl%C3%B3s_Horthy)(Econ, 11/9/13, p.59)

1941        Aug 2, Jews were expelled from Hungarian Ruthenia.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1941        Arthur Koestler (1905-1983), Hungarian novelist and essayist, authored “Darkness at Noon," a story of life in Stalin’s Russia.
    (HN, 9/5/98)(SFEC, 1/2/00, BR p.5)(WSJ, 8/26/06, p.P8)


1942        Jan 23, At Novi Sad, Serbia, some 1200 people (predominantly Jewish), rounded up over a period of three days, were shot along the shores of the Danube. Their bodies were dumped into the frozen waters. Sandor Kepiro (1914-2011), a Hungarian gendarmerie officer, participated in the mass murder. In 1944 he was sentenced to 10 years in prison for his part in the atrocities, but conviction was later annulled. Kepiro, who was at the top of the Simon Wiesenthal Center's most-wanted war criminals list, returned to Hungary in 1996 after living for decades in Argentina. In 2011 Kepiro (96) was charged with war crimes in the slaughter, but was cleared by a court on July 18, 2011.
    (http://tinyurl.com/o5n5j3)(AP, 9/15/09)(AP, 2/14/11)(AP, 7/18/11)(AP, 9/3/11)

1942        Sep 4, Soviet planes bombed Budapest in the war's first air raid on the Hungarian capital.
    (HN, 9/4/98)

1942        The novel "Embers" by Sandor Marai was published in Budapest. Marai committed in San Diego in 1989. An English translation was published in 2001.
    (WSJ, 10/26/01, p.W10)

1943        Dec 11, U.S. Secretary of State, Cordell Hull, demanded that Hungary, Rumania, and Bulgaria withdraw from the war.
    (HN, 12/11/98)

1943        Laszlo Biro, fled his native Hungary to Argentina, where he patented his ballpoint pen. England soon manufactured some 30,000 pens for use by RAF navigators in unpressurized cockpits, where fountain pens failed.
    (SFEC, 5/23/99, p.B7)

1944        Jan, In Hungary Sandor Kepiro (1914-2011) was sentenced to 10 years in prison for his part in the Jan, 1942, atrocities at Novi Sad, Serbia, in which 1,200 Serb and Jewish civilians were killed by Hungarian forces, who raided Serbia in the wake of the Nazi occupation of Yugoslavia. He was freed by Hungary's fascist regime shortly after his trial and fled to Argentina after the war. In 1946, the Communist government of Hungary tried him again and sentenced him to 14 years in absentia. He returned to Budapest in 1996.
    (www.nytimes.com/2006/09/28/world/europe/28iht-hungary.2970014.html?_r=1)(AP, 9/15/09)

1944        Mar 19, Nazi German soldiers occupied Hungary.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

1944        Mar 31, Hungary ordered all Jews to wear yellow stars.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1944        Apr-Jul, Hungarian authorities facilitated the deportation of some 437,000 Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz.
    (SFC, 6/7/99, p.A9)(Econ, 4/24/04, p.48)

1944        May 16, The 1st of over 180,000 Hungarian Jews reached Auschwitz.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1944        May, A Budapest census identified houses to serve as holding locations for Jews before moving them to a planned walled ghetto in the city's seventh district, a precursor to the intended liquidation of the capital's 200,000 Jews in Nazi death camps. In 2016 some 6,300 documents from census were found in an apartment wall cavity.
    (AFP, 11/21/15)
1944        May, Laszlo Csatary was named chief of an internment camp at a brick factory in Kosice, a Slovakian city under Hungarian rule, from where 12,000 Jews were deported to Auschwitz and other Nazi death camps. In 1948 he was convicted in absentia for war crimes in Czechoslovakia and sentenced to death. He arrived in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia the following year, became a Canadian citizen in 1955 and worked as an art dealer in Montreal. He left Canada in 1997 and was arrested in Hungary in 2012. In 2013 Csatary was indicted in Hungary for war crimes.
    (AP, 7/18/12)(AP, 6/18/13)

1944        May-1944 Jun, Some 425,000 Jews from Hungary were brought to the Nazi-run Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland. At least 300,000 were almost immediately gassed to death. In 2014 German prosecutors charged Oskar Groening (93) with 300,000 counts of accessory to murder for serving as as SS guard at the Auschwitz death camp during this period.
    (SFC, 9/16/14, p.A2)

1944        Jun 30, A US B-24H bomber nicknamed "Miss Fortune," which was returning from a mission in Germany to its base in Italy, flew into bad weather with 3 others and were shot down by German gunners over western Hungary. The remains of Staff Sgt. Martin F. Troy, the tail gunner on the “Miss Fortune," were recovered in 2007.
    (AP, 8/11/07)

1944        Jun, The "Kasztner Train," with 1,684 Jews on board, departed Budapest for the safety of neutral Switzerland. Rudolf Kasztner's negotiations also saved 20,000 Hungarian Jews by diverting them to an Austrian labor camp instead of a planned transfer to extermination camps. Kasztner, a Zionist leader in Hungary, headed the Relief and Rescue Committee, a small Jewish group that negotiated with Nazi officials to rescue Hungarian Jews in exchange for money, goods and military equipment.
    (AP, 7/23/07)

1944        Jul 7, Hungary’s regent Miklos Horthy issued an order suspending Nazi deportations of Hungarian Jews.
    (ON, 10/20/11, p.1)

1944        Jul 9, Raoul Wallenberg, a Swedish National Guardsman, arrived in Budapest to head the local office of the US-sponsored War Refugee Board. He had been recruited in June by a US Embassy official in Stockholm and sent to Nazi-controlled Budapest under Swedish diplomatic cover. He used US funds to bribe Nazi officials and saved over 20,000 Hungarian Jews from Nazi death camps.
    (SFC, 5/5/96, p.A-7)(MT, Spg. ‘99, p.18)(WSJ, 2/28/09, p.A7)

1944        Jul 13, Erno Rubik, inventor (Rubik's cube), was born in Budapest.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1944        Jul 19, Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg 1st met SS ober Sturmbannfuhrer Adolf Eichmann.
    (MC, 7/19/02)

1944        Aug, Hungary’s regent Miklos Horthy fired his pro-German prime minister and opened peace talks with the Russians.
    (ON, 10/20/11, p.2)

1944        Oct 6, Soviets marched into Hungary and Czechoslovakia.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1944        Oct 15, Hungary’s regent Miklos Horthy announced in a radio broadcast that the German Reich has lost the war and that he was negotiating with the Russians for Hungarian self-determination. Nazi operatives kidnapped Horthy’s son and forced him to abdicate and surrender to the Germans.
    (ON, 10/20/11, p.2)

1944        Oct 16, In Hungary the Horthy government fell as Adolf Eichmann returned to Budapest and immediately ordered the resumption of the Jewish deportation program. Ferenc Szalasi (1897-1946) of the Arrow Cross Party became the prime minister.
    (ON, 10/20/11, p.2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferenc_Sz%C3%A1lasi)

1944        Oct 23, Soviet army invaded Hungary.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1944        Oct, In Hungary Eduard Benedek Brunschweiler, a Swiss representative of the International Red Cross, took charge of the Pannonhalma Abbey and kept it under Red Cross protection until Soviet forces expelled him in April 1945. Some 3,000 people, mostly children, spent the end of the war in the abbey, including dozens of Jews. In 2006 Hungarian officials unveiled a memorial at the abbey honoring Brunschweiler.
    (AP, 10/16/06)
1944        Oct, Ferencz Szalasi, leader of the extremist right-wing organization Arrow Cross, was put in charge of the Hungary by the occupying Germans when the Hungarian government sought an armistice with the Soviet Union.
    (HNQ, 5/7/99)

1944        Nov 3, Pro-German government of Hungary fled.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1944            Nov 7, Hannah Senesh (23), Jewish poet, was executed by Nazis in Budapest. Hannah Szenes was tortured for several months by the Gestapo before being executed by the Nazis because she was a member of the Jewish underground.
    (www.jbuff.com/c031303.htm)

1944        Nov 8, In Hungary Jews under Nazi custody and the command of Adolf Eichmann began marches of 120 miles to the Austrian border.
    (ON, 10/20/11, p.3)
1944        Nov 8, In Hungary Peter Balazs (18) was fatally beaten to death for failing to wear a yellow star marking him as a Jew. In 2009 Australia agreed to extradite Charles Zentai (87) to face charges regarding the fatal beating of Balazs. In 2012 Australia said Mr Zentai cannot be surrendered for extradition because the offence of 'war crime' did not exist under Hungarian law at the time of his alleged criminal conduct.
    (www.shalom-magazine.com/Article.php?id=480310)(AP, 11/12/09)(AFP, 8/15/12)

1944        Dec 3, Hungarian death march of Jews ended.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1944        Dec 15, In Hungary a gold train departed Budapest on orders from Adolf Eichmann. In May it was intercepted by American forces in Austria. Some of the valuables were requisitioned by US commanders and the rest was later auctioned in NY and the proceeds given to a UN agency to help Jewish refugees. Kenneth Alford later authored "The Spoils of World War II."
    (SFC, 10/15/99, p.A18)

1944        Dec 24, Adolf Eichmann fled Hungary to Austria as Soviet troops encircled Budapest. He left orders for German forces to massacre all the Jews in Budapest. German Gen. August Schmidthuber, assigned to oversee the mass execution, cancelled the operation after receiving word from Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg that the impending carnage would mark him as a war criminal. 
    (ON, 10/20/11, p.4)

1944        Dec 27, Sister Sara Salkahazi was killed by the Arrow Cross, the Hungarian allies of the Nazis, for hiding Jews in a Budapest building used by her religious order, the Sisters of Social Service. In 2006 she was beatified by Pope Benedict XVI.
    (AP, 9/18/06)

1944        Hungary’s Admiral Miklos Horthy passed the 4th of four anti-Jewish laws, outlawing sexual intercourse between Jews and non-Jews.
    (Econ, 11/9/13, p.59)
1944        Some 150,000 Hungarian troops fought under Nazi command at the Don River. The Red army killed about 90,000 and thousands died trying to walk back to Hungary.
    (SFC, 8/12/00, p.A11)
1944        Elemerne Marsovsky (aka Foto Ada), a Hungarian photographer, disappeared, presumably a victim of the Holocaust.
    (SFC, 5/14/98, p.E3)

1944-1956    The apartment building at 60 Andrassy Blvd. in Budapest was used by the fascist Arrow Cross Party from 1944-1945. The party was responsible for the deportation or execution of some 500,000 Hungarian Jews. It was then taken over by the Communist secret police until 1956. The basement was used for torture. It was later converted to a museum named the "House of Torture."
    (SFC, 6/14/02, p.E1)

1945        Jan 17, Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg, credited with saving tens of thousands of Jews, disappeared in Hungary while in Soviet custody. Raoul Wallenberg was jailed by the Soviets who believed that he was an American spy. He had saved more than 20,000 Hungarian Jews from Nazi death camps. Wallenberg was a graduate of the Univ. of Michigan and studied there from 1931-1935.
    (SFC, 5/5/96, p.A-7)(AP, 1/17/98)(MT, Spg. ‘99, p.18)

1945        Jan 18, The German Army launched its second attempt to relieve the besieged city of Budapest from the advancing Red Army.
    (HN, 1/18/99)
1945        Jan 18, The Red Army liberated the Budapest ghetto. Some 50,000 Soviet soldiers lost their lives in the liberation of Budapest.
    (AFP, 1/18/15)

1945        Jan 20, The Allies signed a truce with the Hungarians.
    (HN, 1/20/99)

1945        Jan 24, A German attempt to relieve the besieged city of Budapest was finally halted by the Soviets.
    (HN, 1/24/99)

1945        Feb 13, During World War II, the Soviets captured Budapest, Hungary, from the Germans ending a 50-day siege in which 159,000 people died.
    (HN, 2/13/98)(AP, 2/13/98)(MC, 2/13/02)

1945        Feb 14, The siege of Budapest ended as the Soviets took the city. Only 785 German and Hungarian soldiers managed to escape.
    (HN, 2/14/99)

1945        Mar 14, Sgt. 1st Class Marvin Steinford, a native of Iowa, was part of a 10-man crew of a B-17 bomber which was hit, while returning to its base in Italy from a mission over Hungary. In 2004 his remains were found in a grave in the town on Zirc in western Hungary, where he had been buried with 26 Soviet soldiers. In 2009 his remains were returned to the US.
    (AP, 8/4/09)

1945        Apr 4, Hungary was liberated from Nazi occupation (National Day).
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1945        May, In Austria US Army officers and troops plundered a “gold train" on its way to Germany from Hungary that carried gold, jewels, paintings and other valuables seized by the Nazis from Jewish families. A 2001 suit filed in Miami said the army falsely classified it as unidentifiable and enemy property, which avoided having to return the goods to their rightful owners. The suit alleged that the US made no effort to return the goods and lied to Hungarian Jews who sought information about their property after the war. In 2004 the property was estimated to be worth ten times its original $200 million valuation. In 2005 the US government reached a $25.5 million settlement with families of the Hungarian Holocaust victims for distribution to needy Holocaust survivors.
    (AP, 12/20/04)(SFC, 3/12/05, p.A5)

1945        Sep 26, Bela  Bartok (b.1881), Hungarian pianist and composer, died at age 64.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B%C3%A9la_Bart%C3%B3k)

1945        Nov, Hungary held national elections. The communists took 17% of the vote.
    (Econ, 10/20/12, p.75)

1945        The AVO, Hungary’s State Security Agency, was formed under Soviet masters. Its first leader was a Hungarian called Gabor Peter. The role of the AVO was to hunt out anyone who was even vaguely against the rule of Moscow over Hungary.
    (www.historylearningsite.co.uk/hungarian_secret_police.htm)

1945-1956    Matyas Rakosi  served as General Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.102)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%A1ty%C3%A1s_R%C3%A1kosi)

1945-1990    The era of the Soviet occupation.
    (WSJ, 12/27/96, p.A5)

1946         Feb. 1, Hungary declared itself a republic.
    (G&M, 2/1/96, p.A-2)

1946        Jul, Hungary’s hyperinflation peaked at 42 quadrillion per cent a month.
    (http://goldnews.bullionvault.com/inflation_history_Zimbabwe_USA_101620073)(Econ, 7/19/08, p.57)

1946        George Mikes (1912-1987), a Hungarian living in England, published “How to Be An Alien." It was about a foreigner’s view of England.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.110)

1946        Prime Minister Laszlo Bardossy was executed for his role in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Jews.
    (SFC, 5/5/01, p.D2)

1947        May 30, In Hungary Soviet-backed communists forced PM Ferenc Nagy (1903-1979) into exile. Dinnyés Lajos (1901-1961) was appointed as successor and served as the last non-communist Prime Minister of Hungary until December, 1948.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lajos_Dinny%C3%A9s)

1948        Oct 24, Franz Lehar, Austrian-Hungarian composer (Wiener Frauen), died at 78.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1948        Dec 26, Hungarian Cardinal Mindszenty was arrested.
    (MC, 12/26/01)

1948        In Hungary the Manfred Weiss Steelworks was nationalized and renamed after Matyas Rakosi (1892-1971), Hungary’s Stalinist leader.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.102)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%A1ty%C3%A1s_R%C3%A1kosi)

1949        Feb 8, Cardinal Mindszenty was sentenced to life imprisonment for high treason.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1949)

1949        May 15, A general election with open voting gave complete victory to the Communist controlled National Independence Front.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1188)

1949        May-Dec, Hungarian Communists were victorious at the polls. They purged their opponents, proclaimed a new constitution, nationalized all major industries, and announced a five-year plan.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1684)

1949        Jun 16, Laszlo Rajk, the Hungarian Communist foreign minister, was arrested on charges of conspiracy. This set off a purge of Hungarian Communists accused of deviating from the Soviet line.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1188)

1949        Aug 7, Hungary announced a new constitution, similar to that of the Soviet Union.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1188)

1949        Oct 15, Laszlo Rajk, Hungarian Sec. of State and Foreign minister, was hanged.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1949        Dec 28, Hungary decreed the nationalization of all major industries and announced the start of a 5-year plan.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1188)

1951        Nov 9, Sigmund Romberg (64), Hungarian-US composer (Blossom Time), died.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1951        Nov 26, Illona Staller, Italian member of Parliament (La Cicciolina), was born in Budapest, Hungary.
    (MC, 11/26/01)(AP, 11/26/02)

1951        Dec 28, The U.S. paid $120,000 to free four fliers convicted of espionage in Hungary.
    (HN, 12/28/98)

1952-1953    The Alba Regia was a Hungarian microcar project produced by both the Ministry of Metallurgy and Machine Industry in conjunction with the Vehicle Developing Institute.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.102)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alba_Regia_%28car%29)

1953        Jul 4, Imre Nagy succeeded Matyas Rkosi as premier of Hungary.
    (Maggio)

1954        Mar 21, Paul Selenyi (b.1884), Hungarian physicist, died in Budapest. He was the first to record images with an electrostatic marking process. This was the foundation for Chester Carlson’s Xerox copiers.
    (www.thehungarypage.com/sciencemathandtech.htm)

1954        Mar 24, Britain opened trade talks with Hungary.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1954        Jul 4, West Germany beat Hungary 3-2 to win the 5th World Cup soccer match in Bern, Switz.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1954_World_Cup)

1955        Mar 20, Count Mihaly Karolyi (b.1875), a nationalist who helped form modern Hungary’s 1st government (1918), died.
    (Sm, 3/06, p.79)(www.britannica.com/eb/article-9044761)

1955        May 14, Representatives from eight Communist bloc countries: Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland & Romania, signed the Warsaw Pact in Poland. Andras Hegedues signed for Hungary.
    (AP, 5/14/97)(SFC, 10/26/99, p.B4)(MC, 5/14/02)

1955        Andras Hegedues (1922-1999) became Hungary's youngest premier.
    (SFC, 10/26/99, p.B4)

1956        Oct 23, An anti-Stalinist revolt began in Hungary. As the revolution spread, Soviet forces started entering the country, and the uprising was put down within weeks. In 2001 Bela Liptak authored "A Testament of Revolution." In 2006 three books were published that covered Hungary’s October Revolution: “Failed Illusions" by Charles Gati; “Journey to a Revolution" by Michael Korda; and Viktor Sebestyen’s “Twelve Days: The Story of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution."
    (SFC, 10/23/96, p.A8)(WSJ, 6/19/01, p.A20)(WSJ, 10/20/06, p.W4)(Econ, 10/21/06, p.94)(AP, 10/23/07)

1956        Oct 24, Soviet troops invaded Hungary and Imre Nagy became PM of Hungary.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yydkfe)

1956        Oct 31, President Dwight D. Eisenhower praised the promise by Moscow made the previous day of major concessions to Hungarians in revolt as "the dawning of a new day" in Eastern Europe. Anti-government demonstrations in Budapest a week earlier had forced a reshuffling of the Hungarian government and demands that the new government denounce the Warsaw Pact and seek liberation from Soviet domination.
    (HNQ, 10/1/99)

1956        Nov 2, Hungary appealed for UN assistance against Soviet invasion. The Soviets chose Janos Kadar to form a counter-government.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yydkfe)

1956        Nov 4, Russian troops and tanks attacked Budapest and crushed the Hungarian revolt under Premier Imre Nagy. Soviet troops marched into the country. Martial law was proclaimed and mass arrests followed. The UN censured the USSR. The repression was organized by Yuri Andropov who later became Chief of the KGB in 1967. 25,000 people were killed. Janos Kadar was installed by the Soviet Union as head of Hungary's Communist Party.
    (WSJ, 12/14/95, p.A-12)(SFC, 10/23/96, p.A8)(WSJ, 12/27/96, p.A5)(AP, 5/22/98)

1956        Nov 8, UN demanded USSR leave Hungary.
    (MC, 11/8/01)

1956        Nov 14, The Hungarian revolt was put down.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1956        Nov 22, Melbourne opened the 16th Olympiad. 65 countries and 4,276 athletes competed. Closing ceremonies were held on Dec 8. The Netherlands and Spain withdrew from the summer Olympics in support of Hungary following Russia’s invasion. 45 athletes from Hungary defected during the games. Egypt, Lebanon and Iraq boycotted the games in protest over British and French actions over the Suez Canal. China boycotted protesting the inclusion of athletes from Taiwan.  
    (SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T8)(WSJ, 9/15/00, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.R2)

1956        Nov, Austria provided humanitarian aid to nearly 200,000 Hungarians fleeing their homeland after Soviet tanks crushed freedom fighters aiming to overthrow repressive communist rule.
    (AP, 10/20/06)

1956        Dec 6, In Hungary civilians were shot dead during protests in Budapest. A communist party committee directly governed the leading body of a militia, the so called Military Council, responsible for the shooting. Party committee member Bela Biszku was named interior minister in 1957.
    (AP, 3/18/14)

1956        Dec 8, In Hungary at least 46 civilians were shot dead during protests in the town of Salgotarjan.
    (AP, 3/18/14)

1956        In Hungary the Festival microcar, designed by Kalman Szabadi (d.2010), was introduced in Vac. The car was three meters long, had a conventional door for the passengers and a gull-wing for the driver, and weighed 380 kilos. It was powered by the same 298cc engine that BMW built for its Isetta. Only one car was completed.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.103)(http://tinyurl.com/23p2gt2)
1956        George Soros (b.1930), a Hungarian-born financier, emigrated to the United States.
    (AP, 10/6/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Soros)

1957        Janos Kornai (b.1928), Hungarian economist, authored “Overcentralization." This was the 1st book by an economist behind the Iron Curtain to examine the command of “actual socialism" and to criticize central planning.  
    (WSJ, 1/30/07, p.B15)
1957        In Hungary Bela Biszku became interior minister in the wake of the anti-Soviet revolution, when over 220 people who participated in the uprising were executed and many thousands imprisoned or persecuted. Biszku continued serving as interior minister to 1961. In 2014 he faced charges with war crimes over the suppression of the 1956 uprising.
    (AP, 1/27/11)(AP, 3/18/14)

1958        Jun 16, Imre Nagy (b.1896), former Hungarian premier (1956) and symbol of the 1956 uprising against Soviet rule, was hanged by the Communist government of Janos Kadar.
    (www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/kbank/profiles/nagy/)(Econ, 10/21/06, p.95)

1960        Sep 13, Leo Weiner, Hungarian composer (Toldi), died at 75.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1964        May 30, Leo Szilard (66), Hungarian-US nuclear physicist, died.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1967        Mar 6, Zoltan Kodaly (b.1882), Hungarian composer, died. His major works, notably the comic opera Hary Janos, the Psalmus hungaricus, the Peacock Variations for orchestra and the Dances of Marosszek and Galanta drew on Magyar folk music.
    (www.malaspina.org/kodalyz.htm)

1968        Aug 3, The Bratislava statement conceded Czechoslovakia’s right to pursue its own path. The conference was held in Bratislava, Slovakia, for representatives of the communist and workers' parties of the People's Republic of Bulgaria, the Hungarian People's Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Polish People's Republic, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(http://library.thinkquest.org/C001155/documents/doc41.htm)

1969        Clifford Irving (b.1930), American writer, published "Fake," the story of Hungarian art forger Elmyr de Hory (1906-1976). The int'l. de Hory scam became public in 1967. Irving and De Hory were featured in the 1975 Orson Welles film "F" for Fake.
    (SFC, 7/29/99, p.E6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clifford_Irving)

1970        Jul 30, George Szell (73), Hungarian-US conductor (Cleveland Orch), died.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1971        Sep 28, Cardinal Josef Mindszenty (1892-1975) of Hungary, who had spent 15 years in refuge in the US Embassy in Budapest, ended his exile and flew to Rome.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J%C3%B3zsef_Mindszenty)

1973        Feb 20, Joseph Szigeti (80), Hungarian-US violinist, died.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1973        Apr 16, Istvan Kertesz (b.1929), Hungarian-born German conductor, drowned. Kertész was the principal conductor of the London Symphony Orchestra from 1965 to 1968,
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Istv%C3%A1n_Kert%C3%A9sz)

1973        Andras Hegedues, former premier, was expelled from the Hungarian Communist Party for his criticism of the government.
    (SFC, 10/26/99, p.B4)

1974        Hungarian professor Erno Rubik designed the Rubik's Cube. Sales peaked at 100 million in 1980. Some 250 million units were sold worldwide.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(SFC, 8/8/03, p.D1)

1975        May 6, Jozsef Mindszenty (83), [Joseph Prehm], Hungarian cardinal, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J%C3%B3zsef_Mindszenty)

1976        Dec 11, Hungarian art forger Elmyr de Hory (b.1906) died of a lethal overdose of barbiturates in Ibiza, Spain. The 1969 book "Fake" by Clifford Irving was about De Hory and both Irving and de Hory were featured in the 1975 Orson Welles film "F" for Fake.
    (SFC, 7/29/99, p.E6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elmyr_de_Hory)

1982        Feb 26, Gabor Szabo (b.1936), Hungarian jazz pianist (Perfect Circle), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G%C3%A1bor_Szab%C3%B3)

1983        Mar 1, Arthur Koestler (b.1905), Hungary-born British writer (Dialogue With Death), died in a double suicide with his wife in London. His novels included "Darkness at Noon" (1940). In 1998 David Cesarani authored "Arthur Koestler: The Homeless Mind." In 2009 Michael Scammell authored “Koestler: The Literary and Political Odyssey of a Twentieth-Century Skeptic."
    (SSFC, 1/3/10, Books p.F3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Koestler)

1984        Gyula Halasz, Hungarian born photographer (aka Brassai), died. He was a friend of Picasso and Henry Miller and was known as the "Eye of Paris" for his night time photographs in the 1930s. His "Secret Paris of the 30s" was published in 1976. He published 2 books on Henry Miller and "Conversations With Picasso."
    (WSJ, 1/15/98, p.W12)

1986        Oct 22, Albert Szent-Gyorgyi (b.1893), Hungarian-born bio-chemist, died. He received the Nobel Prize in 1937 for discovering vitamin-C and the biochemical steps of catalysis of the fumaric acid in the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article-9070804/Albert-Szent-Gyorgyi)

1988        May 22, Janos Kadar, installed by the Soviet Union as head of Hungary's Communist Party in 1956, was replaced by Prime Minister Karoly Grosz.
    (AP, 5/22/98)

1988        Sep 26, A Trade and economic cooperation agreement between the European Community and Hungary was signed in Brussels.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1988/index_en.htm)

1988        Nov 13, Antal Dorati (82), Hungarian-US conductor and composer, died.
    (www.classical-composers.org/comp/dorati)

1989        Jan 28, In Hungary official Imre Pozsgay described the 1956 Hungarian Revolution as a popular uprising, a startling contradiction of the official Communist view that the revolt was a counter-revolution.
    (AP, 1/28/99)

1989        Jun 16, Hungarians paid homage to former premier Imre Nagy and four associates executed for leading the anti-Soviet revolt of 1956. At least 250,000 people attended the ceremonial reburial of PM Imre Nagy and four others hanged 31 years earlier and buried face down in unmarked graves. The reburial, broadcast live on TV from Budapest's Heroes' Square, came as Hungary's communist leadership and the democratic opposition were beginning to negotiate the country's transition to democracy. Sandor Racz, a 1956 veteran, called on the world to "help the Soviet Union" withdraw its troops from Hungary. Viktor Orban, then 26 and later to become prime minister, also urged the Russians to withdraw but blasted the country's communist leadership for making the 1956 revolution a taboo subject.
    (AP, 6/16/99)(AP, 6/16/09)

1989        Jul 6, Janos Kadar, who helped restore Soviet domination and led Hungary for over 30 years before being replaced in May 1988, died. This same day Hungary's Supreme Court finally rehabilitated the 1956 revolutionaries.
    (AP, 6/16/09)

1989        Jul 12, President Bush continued his visit to Hungary, where he held talks with officials and made a speech at Karl Marx University in Budapest.
    (AP, 7/12/99)

1989        Aug 19, The "Pan-European Picnic" helped precipitate the fall nearly three months later of the Berlin Wall. Members of Hungary's budding opposition organized a picnic at the border with Austria to press for greater political freedom and promote friendship with their Western neighbors. Some 600 East Germans got word of the event and turned up among the estimated 10,000 participants. They took advantage of the excursion to escape to Austria.
    (AP, 8/19/09)

1989        Aug 23, Hungary removed its physical border defenses with Austria, and in September more than 13,000 East German tourists in Hungary escaped to Austria.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin_Wall)

1989        Sep 10, Hungary gave permission for thousands of East German refugees and visitors to emigrate to West Germany.
    (AP, 9/10/99)

1989        Oct 7, Hungary's Communist Party renounced Marxism in favor of democratic socialism during a party congress in Budapest.
    (AP, 10/7/99)

1989        Oct 23, Hungary proclaimed itself a republic and declared an end to communist rule.
    (http://tinyurl.com/qrnfm)

1989        Nov 26, In a national referendum, voters decided that Hungary's next president would be chosen by parliament, following free elections.
    (AP, 11/26/99)(www.world66.com/europe/hungary/budapest/history)

1989        Nov 28, Romanian gymnast Nadia Comaneci arrived in New York after escaping her homeland by way of Hungary.
    (AP, 11/28/99)

1989        Andras Torok (34) published “Budapest: A Critical Guide."
    (Sm, 3/06, p.79)

1989        The end of Communism and the economic cooperation pact of the former Eastern Bloc countries.
    (WSJ, 12/4/95, p.B-8A)

1990        Mar, Several people were killed and hundreds injured in clashes between Romanians and ethnic Hungarians in the Transylvanian city of Targu Mures. The Szeklers make up about a third of Romania's 1.4 million Hungarian minority.
    (AP, 10/8/06)

1990        May, In Hungary Gyula Horn became president of the Socialist Party, which he had helped shape out of the ruins of the former communist party. The party had just been soundly defeated in the first democratic elections in over four decades.
    (AP, 6/20/13)

1991        Feb 15, In Visegrad, Hungary, a declaration of co-operation was signed by Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The 4 became known as the Visegrad countries.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visegr%C3%A1d_Group)(Econ, 11/22/03, p.10S)

1991        Aug 16, Pope John Paul the Second began the first-ever papal visit to Hungary.
    (AP, 8/16/01)

1991        Dec 16, "Europe Agreements" are signed with Poland, Hungary and Czechoslovakia.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1991/index_en.htm)

1991        Dec, Hungarian officials discovered 11 tons of rocket launchers and automatic weapons being loaded on trucks headed for Croatia in violation of a UN arms embargo. They had been labeled as Chilean humanitarian aid for Sri Lanka. In Chile Col. Gerardo Huber, who directed purchases at the army's weapons manufacturer, turned up dead shortly after testifying in a military investigation. His head had been blown apart by a blast from a machine gun. In 2009 former Chilean Army Gen. Guillermo Letelier and Air Force Gen. Vicente Rodriguez were sentenced to prison for shipping arms to Croatia at the time of its battle for independence from Yugoslavia. 11 people were sentenced by a military court in June, 2009, for their roles in the deal. In October, 2009, retired Gen. Victor Lizarraga and retired Col. Manuel Provis got 10 and eight years, respectively, for conspiracy and homicide. Gen. Carlos Krum and Col. Julio Munoz, also both retired, got nearly 2 years for conspiracy and murder, respectively. The identity of the gunman in Huber's murder remained unknown.
    (AP, 6/10/09)(AP, 10/5/09)

1993        Jun 29, In Budapest, Hungary, the Szobor Park Museum held its grand opening. It was a collection of Communist era sculpture about 20 minutes from Budapest.
    (WSJ, 12/27/96, p.A5)(www.szoborpark.hu/en/en_museum_faq.php)

1993        Dec, Ameritech Corp. and Deutsche Telekom AG teamed up to by a 30% stake in Matav Rt., the state telephone system. By 1995 their stake was 67%. The government permitted Matav to maintain a monopoly status for 8 years.
    (WSJ, 6/25/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 8/27/97, p.A8)

1993        Voluntary pension funds operated by private financial institutions became available.
    (WSJ, 10/21/97, p.A18)

1993-1999    Attila Ambrus, Romanian-born hockey player, robbed 29 banks in Hungary. In 2004 Julian Rubinstein authored “Ballad of the Whiskey Robber: A True Story of Bank Heists, Ice Hockey, Transylvanian Pelt Smuggling, Moonlighting Detectives and Broken Hearts."
    (SSFC, 10/3/04, p.M6)

1994        Mar 18, Zsa Zsa Gabor, Hungarian-born actress, filed for bankruptcy.
    (www.nndb.com/people/530/000025455/)

1994        May 29, Hungary's Socialist Party won parliamentary election. Socialist Prime Minister Gyula Horn was elected to lead the Socialist-Free Democrat coalition. The coalition slashed the communist welfare state and solidified free-market democracy.
    (SFC, 5/25/98, p.A10)(SC, 5/29/02)

1994        Jul 15, In Hungary Gyula Horn, president of the Socialist Party, began serving as prime minister.
    (AP, 6/20/13)

1994        Dec 5, President Clinton, on a whirlwind visit to the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Budapest, Hungary, urged European leaders to "prevent future Bosnias." In the so-called Budapest memorandum Britain, Russia and the US affirmed their commitment to respect the independence, sovereignty and existing borders of Ukraine.
    (AP, 12/5/99)(AFP, 3/3/14)

1994        In Hungary paprika stocks were adulterated with minium, a red oxide of lead, and many people were stricken lead poisoning. Once lead enters the biosphere, it is retained and recycled indefinitely. Lead atoms combine with cysteine’s sulfur atoms and disrupt the disulfide bridges of proteins. Thus many enzymes will malfunction.
    (NH, 7/96, p.52,53)

1995        Jul 27, Miklos Rozsa (88), Hungarian movie composer (Atomic Cafe, Fedora), died.
    (www.sospeso.com/contents/composers_artists/rozsa.html)

1995        Budapest, the Independent Smallholders is a right-wing opposition party led by Mr. Jozsef Torgyan, and recent polls suggest that it is now Hungary's most popular party.
    (WSJ, 11/8/95, p.A-14)

1996        Apr, Sony Corp. plans to build a plant to produce audiovisual products by early next year in the town of Godollo about 19 miles northeast of Budapest. CD-players, stereo systems, VCR players and color TVs are planned for production.
    (WSJ, 4/5/96, p.B-3A)

1996        Jul 7, The average cost of a Big Mac in Hungary was $1.43.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, Parade, p.17)

1996        Sep 16, Romania and Hungary signed a treaty over the status of 1.6 million Hungarians in Romania and a guarantee of borders.
    (SFE, 9/17/96, p.A12)

1997        May 15, In Hungary the government approved the payment of $553.8 million to the Roman Catholic Church  for assets lost under Communist rule. Negotiations on a concordat with the Vatican were in the final stages. Physical assets would be gradually returned through 2011.
    (WSJ, 5/16/97, p.A14)

1997        Jul 8, NATO issued formal invitations to Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary.
    (SFC, 7/9/97, p.A1)

1997        Jul, The parliament passed legislation to privatize pensions starting Jan 1.
    (WSJ, 10/21/97, p.A18)

1997        Oct 22, In Chechnya relief workers Istvan Olah and Gabor Dunajsky of Hungary were captured and held as hostages. They were released in July, 1998.
    (SFC, 7/27/98, p.A10)

1997        In Hungary a Y2000 report by the Parliamentary Commission said Roma children in this year accounted for 67.9% of the students in "special" schools. Roma children were commonly channeled into schools for the mentally handicapped.
    (SFC, 6/26/00, p.A10)

1998        Mar, In Hungary Viktor Orban (34) founded  Fidesz, a center-right opposition party.
    (Econ, 4/10/10, p.54)

1998        May 10, Gyula Horn and the ruling Socialists led in the first round of parliamentary elections.
    (SFC, 5/11/98, p.A10)

1998        May 24, The Young Democrats-Civic Party (Fidesz) led by Viktor Orban (34) won the elections and opened the way for a center-right coalition to rule. Fidesz won only 148 seats of the 386-member Parliament and planned to form a coalition with The Hungarian Democratic Forum (17 seats) and the Smallholders (48 seats). Orban was elected prime minister and served to 2002.
    (SFC, 5/25/98, p.A10)(SFC, 5/27/98, p.A12)(WSJ, 8/2100, p.B13F)(Econ, 4/10/10, p.54)

1998        Jun 24, The Young Democrats Party and the Smallholders Party agreed to form the next government.
    (SFC, 6/25/98, p.A12)

1998        Jul 2, A gangland car bomb killed 4 and injured 25 people in Budapest. It was directed at Jozsef Tamas Boros, a restaurateur who was cooperating with a police investigation. A turf war between Russian, Ukrainian, Romania, Turkish and Arab gangs had led to 140 bombings since 1991.
    (SFC, 7/3/98, p.D2)

1998        The film "The Last Days" was produced by Steven Spielberg. It was the stories of 5 Hungarian Jews who survived the Holocaust.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, DB p.50)

1999        Feb 14, In Hungary the death toll from the Feb 10 snow storm reached 19 and army helicopters were used to drop food snow-bound villages.
    (SFC, 2/15/99, p.A10)

1999        Mar 12, Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic formally joined NATO in a ceremony at Independence, Mo., where Pres. Truman announced in 1949 the formation of the Atlantic alliance for defense against the Soviet bloc.
    (SFC, 3/11/99, p.C14)

1999        Mar, Hungary approved unlimited use of its airspace and airfields for NATO operations but ruled out direct involvement of its own military.
    (SFC, 5/6/99, p.A13)

1999        Apr 11, Hungary turned back a Russian aid convoy headed for Belgrade.
    (SFC, 4/12/99, p.A12)

1999        Apr 12, In Hungary a Russian aid convoy bound for Serbia was allowed to proceed.
    (WSJ, 4/13/99, p.A1)

1999        Jun 23, In Hungary torrential rains caused the evacuation of thousands and shut down roads and railways across the country.
    (SFEC, 7/4/99, p.T8)

2000        Jan 30, In Romania a dam at the Baia Mare gold mine overflowed and caused cyanide to pout into the Lapus River and then into the Somes River. It flowed into Hungary and within weeks into the Tisa (Tisza) River in Yugoslavia.
    (SFC, 2/12/00, p.A9)(SFC, 2/18/00, p.A1)

2000        Feb 21, It was reported that the US FBI planned to open an office in Budapest in March at the request of the Hungarian government in order to help break up Russian gangs. The FBI would hire 10 Hungarian agents to work alongside 5 US agents.
    (SFC, 2/21/00, p.A12)

2000        Jun 6, Ferenc Madl (69), law professor, was elected president by the Parliament. He replaced Arpad Goencz.
    (SFC, 6/7/00, p.B8)

2001        Mar 8, Flooding in the Ukraine and northeastern Hungary left at least 5 people dead. Tens of thousands were driven from their homes as the Tisza and other Carpathian streams rose.
    (WSJ, 3/9/01, p.A1)

2001        Mar 15, The Hungarian Truth and Life Party (MIEP) held a rally in Budapest that drew as many as 50,000. They included pensioners, urban students and professionals mixed with dozens of skinheads.
    (SFC, 5/5/01, p.D1)

2001        Jul 22, Miklos Meszoely, author, died at age 80. His 1st book was published in 1948.
    (SFC, 7/24/01, p.A20)

2001        Nov 23, The Council of Europe ratified the Budapest Convention which allowed one country to give chase, at least electronically, to criminals in another.
    (http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/EN/Treaties/html/185.htm)(Econ, 4/24/10, p.60)

2001        The new Maria Valeria Bridge over the Danube reunited Sturovo, Slovakia, with Esztergom, Hungary. Germans blew up the old bridge in 1944.
    (WSJ, 4/5/05, p.A15)
2001        In Budapest, Hungary, a meeting on scientific publishing by the Open Society Institute (later the Open Society Foundation) coined the phrase “open access" as it sought to make scientific papers free to users. Open access publishing had already begin in 2000 with launch in Britain of BioMed Central and in America of the Public Library of Science (PLOS).
    (Econ, 9/27/14, p.83)
2001        Gyorgy Gattyan, a Hungarian entrepreneur, launched LiveJasmin, an Internet cam company featuring live sex chats. The garage project later became Docler Holding. In 2013 the company became headquartered in Luxembourg. By 2015 he was Hungary’s richest man and his porn site LiveJasmin received 40m visitors a day.
    (www.itone.lu/article/gyorgy-gattyan-simple-recipe)(Econ, 10/1/11, p.64)(Econ, 9/26/15, p.62)

2002        Apr, PM Viktor Orban urged Hungarians to look forward to EU membership in 2004, the introduction of the euro in 2007 and the "Budapest Olympics" in 2012.
    (WSJ, 4/3/02, p.A18)

2002        Apr 21, In Hungary the Socialists and allies won elections over the governing center-right coalition, the Fidesz-Hungarian Civic Party (188 seats), with 198 of 386 seats in parliament. Peter Medgyessey became prime minister.
    (SFC, 4/22/02, p.A5)

2002        Jun 18, PM Peter Medgyessey was accused of having secretly served in Hungary’s Communist-era counter-espionage service.
    (SFC, 6/19/02, p.A8)

2002        Jul 1, In southwestern Hungary a bus carrying Polish pilgrims to a shrine in Bosnia struck a stone barrier and overturned in a ditch killing 19.
    (AP, 7/1/02)

2002        Sep, Hungary’s governing coalition swept elections, winning the mayoral races in 17 of 23 big cities, including Budapest, and a majority in 15 of 19 county assemblies.
    (AP, 10/1/06)

2002        Oct 9, The European Union's executive Commission declared Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, and Slovakia nearly ready for EU membership and recommended they be invited to join in 2004. Romania and Bulgaria likely will be delayed until 2007 because of weak economies, the Commission said, adding Turkey was the weakest link among candidates.
    (AP, 10/9/02)

2002        Oct 10, Imre Kertesz (72), a Hungarian novelist and secular Jew, won the Nobel Prize for literature. His books included "Fiasco" (1988) and "Kaddish for a Child Not Born" (1990).
    (SFC, 10/11/02, p.A2)(SFC, 12/5/02, p.E5)

2002        Nov 29, Romania urged the EU on to reject a request by Hungarian producers for the exclusive right to sell a regional brandy in EU countries under the generic name "palinka." The Eastern European brandy, made from fermented fruit pears, plums, apricots or grapes, has been produced in the region under different names. In Hungary and in Romania's northwest region of Transylvania, it is called "palinka," or "palinca," while in southern Romania it is called "tuica," and in Moldova and Bulgaria "rakiya."
    (AP, 11/30/02)

2002        Dec 13, The EU reached agreement to accept 10 new countries in 2004. These included Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia.
    (SFC, 12/14/02, p.A3)

2003        Apr 12, Some 83.8% of voters in Hungary agreed to be part of the historic eastward expansion of the European Union.
    (AP, 4/13/03)

2003        May 8, In Hungary a passenger train collided with a double-decker bus, slicing the bus in two. At least 30 people were killed, all German tourists on the bus.
    (AP, 5/8/03)

2003        Sep, In Hungary Tibor Rejto, CEO of K&H Bank, was arrested as part of an alleged $40-50 million fraud scandal centered around stockbroker Attila Kulscar.
    (Econ, 9/27/03, p.78)

2003        Nov, Hungary’s government under PM Peter Medgyessy introduced a bonus monthly payment to all retirees that became known as the “13th month."
    (WSJ, 3/25/09, p.A10)(http://tinyurl.com/c4dxl4)

2003        In Hungary the Jobbik Party was launched and grew to become the country's biggest far-right political force.
    (AP, 8/14/12)

2004        Feb, Tibor Draskovics was appointed as Hungary‘s finance minister.
    (WSJ, 8/24/04, p.A10)

2004        Apr 13, Hungarian authorities said they arrested three Arabs who were plotting to assassinate visiting Israeli President Moshe Katsav.
    (AP, 4/13/04)

2004        Apr 15, In Hungary government leaders and the Israeli president inaugurated this country's first Holocaust museum in memory of Hungary's 600,000 Holocaust victims.
    (AP, 4/15/04)

2004        Apr 27, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov and EU officials signed an accord extending the EU-Russia partnership accord to Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Cyprus and Malta, which join May 1.
    (AP, 4/27/04)

2004        May 1, Revelers across ex-communist eastern Europe celebrated their historic entry to the European Union. 10 new members (Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia) joined. Malta joined with 70 exemptions to EU rules. Poland had 43 exemptions. Latvia had 32. The Turkish occupied area of Cyprus was suspended from entry.
    (AP, 5/1/04)(Econ, 2/28/04, p.50)(Econ, 4/16/05, p.16)

2004        Aug 19, In Hungary the Socialist Party effectively ousted Prime Minister Peter Medgyessy from office and said it would nominate his replacement next week.
    (AP, 8/19/04)

2004        Aug 25, Hungary chose Ferenc Gyurcsany (43), one of the nation’s richest businessmen, as the new premier. He made his fortune from privatization deals in the 1990s.
    (WSJ, 8/26/04, p.A1)(Econ, 8/28/04, p.48)

2004        Aug 28, In Hungary hundreds of thousands of young people thronged the streets of Budapest to the sounds of techno music for the city's fifth annual electronic music parade.
    (AP, 8/28/04)

2004        Aug, Sandor Demjan and Andrew Vajna planned to construct the world’s largest movie studio in Etyek, Hungary.
    (WSJ, 8/26/04, p.A1)

2004        Nov 3, Hungary said it will withdraw its 300 non-combat troops from Iraq by March 31.
    (AP, 11/3/04)

2004        Dec 5, Hungarians voted in a referendum on extending citizenship to millions of ethnic Hungarians living in the region.
    (AP, 12/5/04)

2004        Hungary passed legislation to fully open the state security archives. It allowed names to be kept secret to protect modern day national security.
    (Econ, 5/31/08, SR p.13)
2004        In Hungary Ramil Safarov of Azerbaijan killed fellow-student Gurgen Margarjan of Armenia while both men studied at a NATO English language course for military officers of non-member countries. Safarov was sentenced to life in prison, but was released to Azerbaijan on Aug 31, 2012.
    (Economist, 9/8/12, p.51)

2005        Jan 1, Hungary was forecast for 4% annual GDP growth with a population at 10 million and GDP per head at $11,210.
    (Econ, 1/8/05, p.88)

2005        Feb 11, A political consulting firm posted the names of 19 agents and informants of Hungary's communist secret police on a Web site, and it threatened to list more.
    (AP, 2/11/05)

2005        Apr 8, Kalman Ferenczfalvi (84), credited with saving the lives of some 2,000 Jews during the Holocaust, died in Hungary.
    (AP, 4/13/05)

2005        Jun 7, In Hungary legislators narrowly elected Laszlo Solyom (63), a center-right opposition candidate as the new president, in a setback for the governing coalition.
    (AP, 6/7/05)

2005        Oct 21, Hungary’s health minister told a local news agency that the country has developed a bird-flu vaccine from humans.
    (WSJ, 10/22/05, p.A1)

2005        Hungary’s debt stood at almost 60% of GDP.
    (Econ, 8/5/06, p.63)

2006        Jan 19, In northeastern Hungary a Slovak military plane crashed as it ferried troops back from Kosovo, killing at least 42 people. Only one person survived the crash of the AN-24 aircraft.
    (AP, 1/20/06)

2006        Feb 21, Tests confirmed H5N1 in three birds found dead in Hungary, making the country the seventh EU nation with an outbreak of the deadly strain of bird flu.
    (AP, 2/21/06)

2006        Mar 14, Hungary’s PM Ferenc Gyurcsany said Hungarian researchers have devised a vaccine for humans against the current form of the H5N1 bird flu virus. “If the virus were to mutate, we would not have to experiment with new technology but would be able to manufacture a real vaccine within eight weeks."
    (AFP, 3/14/06)

2006        Apr 9, Hungary's ruling Socialists appeared to hold a narrow lead in the first round of parliamentary elections.
    (AP, 4/9/06)

2006        Apr 23, In Hungary Socialist PM Ferenc Gyurcsany's coalition won the runoff parliamentary ballots, becoming Hungary's first administration to win re-election since communism fell.
    (AP, 4/23/06)

2006        May 13, PM Ferenc Gyurcsany announced a plan to stabilize Hungary's economy involving massive public sector layoffs, in an effort to get the country into the eurozone by 2010.
    (AFP, 5/13/06)
2006        May 13, In southern Hungary a model airplane crashed into a crowd at an air show killing two spectators.
    (AP, 5/13/06)

2006        Jun 12, Hungary’s director of national epidemic affairs some 1,200 people the northeast had fallen ill from drinking contaminated water. Flooding caused by heavy spring rainfall contaminated the spring water that flows into the city water system.
    (AP, 6/12/06)

2006        Jun 12, Gyorgy Ligeti (b.1923), Hungarian composer, died in Vienna, Austria. Stanley Kubrick used his scores in the 1968 film “2001: A Space Odyssey." Ligeti’s opera “Le Grand Macabre," based on a play by Belgian surrealist Michel Ghelderode, premiered in Stockholm in 1978.
    (SFC, 6/12/06, p.B7)

2006        Jun 22, Hungarian PM Ferenc Gyurcsany said he and Pres. Bush had discussed calls to relax US rules which exclude citizens of nine of the bloc's 10 new member states, including Hungary, from visa waivers enjoyed by most of its other 15 member states. President Bush said war-weary Iraqis could learn from the Hungarians' long and bloody struggle against tyranny.
    (Reuters, 6/22/06)(AP, 6/22/07)

2006        Jul 8, In Hungary several thousand labor union members demonstrated in Budapest against a government austerity package they say requires a disproportionate sacrifice from workers.
    (AFP, 7/8/06)

2006        Jul 24, Hungary’s central bank raised its core interest rate half a percentage point to 6.75% in an aggressive move to stabilize its currency. This followed a quarter point raise in June. Inflation stood at 2.8%.
    (WSJ, 7/25/06, p.A8)(Econ, 8/5/06, p.64)

2006        Sep 1, Hungarian poet Gyorgy Faludy (95), a legend of resistance to the rise of Nazism and Communism, died at his home in Budapest. He spent 1950-1953 in the Stalinist concentration camp at Recsk. Faludy won international fame with his autobiographical novel "My Happy Days in Hell" in the 1960s, which related his escape from fascist Hungary and his return, and imprisonment, in a country under communist rule.
    (Reuters, 9/2/06)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.96)

2006        Sep 19, Some 2,000-3,000 protesters stormed the headquarters of Hungarian state television and forced it off the air briefly in an explosion of anger. The protests began after a recording of PM Gyurcsany's comments made in May was leaked to Hungarian media. In his speech to a meeting of Socialist deputies, the prime minister admitted that the government had lied about the state of the economy in order to ensure victory in the elections.
    (AP, 9/19/06)

2006        Sep 20, Hungarian PM Ferenc Gyurcsany vowed to crack down on rioters. Police blaming the violence on football hooligans and extreme right-wing groups. Thousands of protesters demonstrated for a 4th day demanding that PM Gyurcsany resign.
    (AFP, 9/20/06)(SFC, 9/21/06, p.A3)

2006        Sep 23, A square in front of Hungary's parliament overflowed with demonstrators demanding that PM Gyurcsany quit in the largest protest yet since a recording was leaked on which he admitted lying to the people about the economy. Hungary’s current-account deficit reached 9% of GDP and the budget deficit hit 10%.
    (AP, 9/24/06)(Econ, 9/23/06, p.64)

2006        Oct 6, Hungarian PM Ferenc Gyurcsany convincingly won a confidence motion in parliament but a crowd of over 50,000 opposition supporters gathered in front of the building to demand he quit.
    (AP, 10/6/06)

2006        Oct 8, In Hungary tens of thousands of anti-government protesters called for the ouster of the Socialist PM Ferenc Gyurcsany because of his admission on a leaked tape that he had lied to the country about the economy. A new leaked recording of a Socialist minister was broadcast, raising more questions about the government's integrity.
    (AP, 10/8/06)

2006        Oct 23, In Hungary riots left 167 injured, including 17 police officers, while 131 were detained. The anti-government demonstrations coincided with Hungary's commemoration of the 50th anniversary of its uprising against Soviet rule. The next day Viktor Orban, Hungarian conservative opposition leader, came under withering attack for his role in fueling the far-right protests in Budapest.
    (AFP, 10/24/06)(AP, 10/23/07)

2007        Mar 15, In Hungary thousands of people protested against Socialist PM Ferenc Gyurcsany at ceremonies to mark the country's national holiday, demanding his resignation and shouting "traitor."
    (AP, 3/15/07)

2007        May 2, The grave of Hungary's last communist ruler, Janos Kadar (1956-1988), was pried open and his remains and his wife's urn were thought to have been stolen.
    (Reuters, 5/2/07)

2007        May 20, Hungary’s PM Ferenc Gyurcsany said that the justice minister resigned and the national and Budapest police chiefs were dismissed in an effort to restore public confidence in the force after cases accusing officers of rape, corruption and theft.
    (AP, 5/21/07)(Econ, 6/2/07, p.51)

2007        Jul 19, In southern Hungary a tourist bus collided with a truck. The truck driver and six bus passengers were killed, and 16 others were injured.
    (AP, 7/19/07)

2007        Sep 24, Hungarian officials said that in an effort to bring prostitutes into the legal economy, they will allow sex workers to apply for an entrepreneur's permit, a move that could generate government revenues from an industry worth an estimated $1 billion annually.
    (AP, 9/24/07)

2007        Oct 5, Nearly 300 participants started twisting and turning a small multicolored cube on the first day of the Rubik's Cube World Championships in Budapest, the birthplace of the cult puzzle.
    (AFP, 10/7/07)

2007        Oct 7, In Budapest, Hungary, Yu Nakajima of Japan (16) took the top prize at the Rubik's Cube World Championships, solving the cube 5 times in an average of 12.46 seconds.
    (AP, 10/8/07)

2007        Nov 21, In Hungary several trade unions and civic groups held a series of strikes and protests against the Socialist-led government's plans to privatize health insurance and close some railway lines.
    (AP, 11/22/07)

2007        Nov 28, Two Hungarians and a Ukrainian were arrested in eastern Slovakia and Hungary in an attempted sale of a kilo (2.2 lbs) of uranium, material believed to be from the former Soviet Union. Police said it was enriched enough to be used in a radiological "dirty bomb."
    (AP, 11/29/07)

2007        Dec 20, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovenia, Slovakia and the Czech Republic halted land and sea border controls at midnight in a wave of new members of Europe's passport-free Schengen zone. They all joined the EU on May 1, 2004.
    (AFP, 12/20/07)(WSJ, 12/21/07, p.A1)

2007        Janos Kornai (b.1928), Hungarian economist, authored “By Force of Thought: Irregular Memoirs of an Intellectual Journey."
    (WSJ, 1/30/07, p.B15)

2008        Feb 26, Hungary’s central bank adopted a new currency regime allowing its currency to float rather than trade in a band against the euro, which began in 2001. Adoption of the euro was predicted to take place in 2014 at the earliest.
    (WSJ, 2/26/08, p.A5)

2008        Mar 17, The US administration signed deals with Hungary, Lithuania and Slovakia paving the way for visa-free travel for their citizens despite concerns in Brussels over the bilateral agreements.
    (AFP, 3/17/08)

2008        Mar 9, In Hungary 80% of voters in a referendum rejected small charges for doctor visits, and hospital stays as well as tuition fees for higher education.
    (Econ, 3/29/08, p.67)
 
2008        Apr 1, Hungary’s coalition partner pulled out of the government leaving the Socialists without a parliamentary majority.
    (WSJ, 4/2/08, p.A1)

2008        Apr, Exxon Mobil bought into a venture seeking to extract natural gas from a huge reservoir in the Mako Trough of Hungary.
    (WSJ, 6/26/08, p.B1)

2008        Oct 9, Trading in Hungary’s bond market broke down as buyers practically disappeared for a 10-year auction. The government raised less than planned. A day earlier it left its key lending rate at 8.5%.
    (WSJ, 10/10/08, p.A4)

2008        Oct 16, The European Central Bank extended emergency loans to Hungary’s central bank. The ECB said it will lend up to $6.75 billion.
    (SFC, 10/17/08, p.A5)

2008        Oct 22, The DJIA tumbled 514.45 to close at 8519.21, its 7th biggest point drop in history, as investors believed that the global economy is heading into a deep recession. Hungary’s central bank raised interest rates by 3 points, from 8.5% to 11.5%, to prevent a run on its currency. Argentine and Brazilian stock markets each fell about 10%. Former Fed Chief Alan Greenspan said he was wrong to think that financial markets could police themselves.
    (WSJ, 10/22/08, p.A1)(SFC, 10/24/08, p.C1)(Econ, 10/25/08, p.33)

2008        Oct 26, Hungary reached agreement with the IMF and the EU on a broad economic rescue package, including substantial financing, steadying its battered currency. The deal was expected to be finalized over the next few days.
    (AP, 10/27/08)

2008        Oct 29, Officials said that EU governments promised to lend Hungary 6.5 billion euros ($8.1 billion) as part of a 20 billion euro ($25 billion) international rescue package to help it weather a financial crisis that has sharply devalued its currency.
    (AP, 10/29/08)

2008        Nov 6, Authorities said Hungary is preparing a financial aid package worth up to 600 billion forints ($3 billion, 2.3 billion euros) to boost domestic banks' capital and help them refinance debts.
    (AP, 11/6/08)

2008        Nov 24, The National Bank of Hungary cut its key interest rate by half a percentage point to an annual rate of 11% to support the economy amid the global financial crisis.
    (AP, 11/24/08)

2008        Dec 8, The National Bank of Hungary cut its key interest rate by half a percentage point to an annual rate of 10.5% due to the deteriorating economy outlook.
    (WSJ, 12/9/08, p.C2)

2008        Dec 15, Hungary's Constitutional Court annulled a law giving rights to domestic partners because it would diminish the importance of marriage.
    (AP, 12/15/08)

2008-2009    In Hungary six Roma, including a 5-year-old boy, were killed in a series of attacks. In 2015 an appeals court agreed with the life sentences without the possibility for parole given to Zsolt Peto and brothers Arpad and Istvan Kiss. It also confirmed the 13-year prison sentence for Istvan Csontos, the driver in some of the attacks.
    (AP, 5/8/15)
   

2009        Jan 3, Russian gas flows to four European Union countries fell normal levels after Moscow cut off supplies to Ukraine in a pricing row with no talks in sight to resolve the dispute. Bulgaria's Bulgargaz joined energy firms in Poland, Romania and Hungary in saying they had noted falls in supply.
    (Reuters, 1/3/09)

2009        Jan 7, In Hungary a masked gunman shot to death Jozsef Takacs (62), a school principal, and Laszlo Papp (32), a teacher, at a school in the Budapest neighborhood of Csepel. 2 suspects were arrested the next day. Police said a security guard shot the two men, hours after he and an accomplice, a 36-year-old former administrator at the school, were fired by the principal on suspicion of embezzling up to 4 million forints ($20,000, euro14,600).
    (AP, 1/7/09)(AP, 1/8/09)

2009        Feb 27, Leading international financial institutions said Eastern Europe's struggling banks will receive euro24.5 billion ($31.1 billion) worth of emergency help to shore up their battered finances. Regional leaders were scheduled to meet this weekend. The Hungarian, Polish and Czech currencies strengthened on the news of the aid package.
    (AP, 2/27/09)

2009        Mar 1, Germany rejected appeals for a single multibillion euro (dollar) bailout of eastern Europe, even after Hungry begged EU leaders not to let a new "Iron Curtain" divide the continent into rich and poor.
    (AP, 3/1/09)

2009        Mar 15, In Hungary several thousand people held right wing, anti-government protests in Budapest during a national holiday. Police detained 35 people. The holiday commemorated the unsuccessful 1848 revolution against the Habsburgs.
    (AP, 3/15/09)

2009        Mar 21, Hungary’s PM Ferenc Gyurcsany offered his resignation to allow the formation of a new government, citing a loss of popularity and worsening economic crisis. The former communist youth leader was quickly re-elected as party chairman.
    (AFP, 3/21/09)(Econ, 3/28/09, p.63)

2009        Mar 24, In Hungary former bank governor Gyorgy Suranyi emerged as the preferred candidate to replace PM Gyurcsany.
    (WSJ, 3/25/09, p.A1)

2009        Mar 30, Hungary’s ruling Socialist Party nominated economy minister Gordon Bajnai (b.1968) to become the country’s next prime minister.
    (WSJ, 3/31/09, p.A14)

2009        Apr 14, In Hungary Gordon Bajnai (b.1968) began serving as the country’s 7th prime minister. He continued to May 29, 2010.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gordon_Bajnai)

2009        Jun 8, Final election results showed a British far-right party won its first-ever parliamentary seats in EU elections. The British National Party, which does not accept nonwhite members and calls for the "voluntary repatriation" of immigrants, won two of Britain's 72 seats in the European Parliament. Austria's Freedom Party, which also campaigned on an anti-Islam platform, more than doubled its share of the vote to 13.1%. Hungary's Jobbik party, which describes itself as Euro-skeptic and anti-immigration and wants police to crack down on what it calls "Gypsy crime," won three of the country's 22 seats and almost 15% of the vote. The Greater Romania Party, which is, among other things, pro-religion, anti-gay and anti-Hungarian, made surprise gains, winning almost 9% of the vote and taking two of Romania's 33 seats. A bloc of center-right parties remained the largest group.
    (AP, 6/8/09)(Econ, 11/14/09, p.63)

2009        Jul 13, Turkey and four EU countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary) formally agreed to route the Nabucco natural gas pipeline across their territories, pushing ahead with a US- and EU-backed attempt to make Europe less dependent on Russian gas.
    (AP, 7/13/09)(Econ, 7/18/09, p.47)

2009        Aug 21, Slovakia stopped Hungary’s Pres. Laszlo Solyom from crossing its border. This was a breach of EU rules on freedom of movement.  Solyom had planned to unveil a statue of St. Stephen, the first king of Hungary, in the predominantly Hungarian city of Komarno. Slovakia’s government had objected to the visit as the date coincided with the “Prague Spring" of 1968, when Hungary, as part of the Warsaw pact, took part in the Soviet crush of Czechoslovakia’s independence movement.
    (Econ, 8/29/09, p.46)

2009        Sep 1, In Slovakia a new language law was scheduled to come into force to promote the use of Slovak in public. Hungarian speakers, who numbered about a fifth of the population, viewed this as a direct attack on their right to speak their mother-tongue.
    (Econ, 8/1/09, p.47)

2009        Sep 16, Hungary said it will accept a detainee from Guantanamo Bay, inching President Barack Obama closer to his pledge to close the U.S. military detention center.
    (AP, 9/16/09)

2009        Oct 9, In Hungary contestants showed off breast implants, nose jobs and face lifts as Miss Plastic Hungary 2009 strove to promote the benefits of plastic surgery.
    (AP, 10/10/09)

2009        Oct 29, In Hungary Laszlo Majtenyi, the chairman of Hungary's national body in charge of awarding frequencies (ORTT), announced his resignation after ORTT took away 2 nationwide licenses from foreign-owned stations and gave them to 2 local firms, one with links to Fidesz, the right-wing opposition party.
    (www.bbj.hu/?col=1002&id=50638)(Econ, 11/7/09, p.60)

2009        Nov 14, In Moscow Magnus Carlsen (18) of Norway became the new No. 1 chess player in the world with a tournament victory over Peter Leko of Hungary.
    (SSFC, 11/15/09, p.A6)

2009        Nov 26, In southern Hungary a student (23) opened fire at a university in the city of Pecs, killing one student and wounding three other people.
    (Reuters, 11/26/09)

2010        Jan 25, The National Bank of Hungary cut its main interest rate by a quarter percentage point to 6 percent, its lowest since September 2005.
    (AP, 1/25/10)

2010        Feb, Hungarian lawmakers made it a crime punishable by up to three years in prison to publicly deny, call into question or minimize the Holocaust. In June, the law was amended to refer instead to crimes against humanity committed by the Nazi and communist regimes.
    (AP, 1/27/11)

2010        Mar 10, Hungarian President Laszlo Solyom signed a law making Holocaust denial punishable by three years in prison.
    (AP, 3/10/10)

2010        Apr 11, Hungarians voted in a general election that looked likely to bring the right-wing Fidesz party back to power, while giving the far-right Jobbik its first ticket into parliament. The National Election Office said the party led by former PM Viktor Orban got 52.8 percent of the votes in the first round, followed by the governing Socialist Party with 19.3 percent. Jobbik, a far-right party with anti-Gypsy and extreme nationalist agenda got 16.7 percent, over three times as much as any other far-right party since the country's return to democracy from communism in 1990.
    (AFP, 4/11/10)(AP, 4/11/10)

2010        Apr 25, Hungarians went to the polls for the 2nd round of general elections. The center-right Fidesz party, led by Viktor Orban, a former prime minister who promised to restore "law and order" and pull Hungary out of recession, won a two-thirds parliamentary majority taking 263 of 386 seats. The ruling Socialists won just 59 seats and the far-right Jobbik party won 47.
    (AFP, 4/25/10)(AP, 4/25/10)(Econ, 5/1/10, p.52)

2010        Apr 26, Hungary's central bank cut its main interest rate by a quarter point to a new all-time low of 5.25 percent, continuing its run of monetary easing as inflation appears under control and financial investors more confident in the country's stability.
    (AP, 4/26/10)

2010        May 8, In Hungary Andor Lilienthal (99), the last surviving member of 27 original grandmaster chess players, died in Budapest.
    (AP, 5/8/10)

2010        May 14, In Hungary Gabor Vona, the leader of Hungary's nationalist Jobbik party, wore a banned black vest while taking his oath of office. The Hungarian Guard was disbanded last year and its black outfits banned, although the group has continued its activities.
    (AP, 5/15/10)

2010        May 18, In southern Poland 2 days of flooding killed at least five people. Officials closed the Auschwitz-Birkenau memorial site to protect its Holocaust archives and artifacts. Heavy rains that began in central Europe last weekend also caused flooding in areas of Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, with rivers bursting their banks and inundating low-lying homes and roads, and cutting off villages.
    (AP, 5/18/10)

2010        May 26, Hungary‘s new government gave ethnic Magyars abroad the right to Hungarian passports.
    (Econ, 6/5/10, p.60)(http://tinyurl.com/2amef5g)

2010        May 31, Hungary‘s new government passed a bill submitted by the new center-right government to introduce a National Unity Day on June 4.
    (Econ, 6/5/10, p.60)(http://tinyurl.com/2btntca)

2010        Jun 5, Hungary's government said it aimed to meet this year's budget deficit target, seeking to draw a line under "exaggerated" talk of a possible Greek-style debt crisis that unnerved global markets a day earlier.
    (Reuters, 6/5/10)

2010        Jun 8, Hungary's new PM Victor Orban said he would cut public wages, overhaul the tax system and ban mortgage lending in foreign currencies as he strove to reassure nervous investors he can contain the budget deficit. Orban said he would introduce a flat 16 percent income tax.
    (Reuters, 6/8/10)

2010        Jul 7, In Philadelphia, Pa., a 250-foot barge collided on the Delaware River with a stalled amphibious sightseeing boat. 2 visitors from Hungary were killed. In 2011 tug pilot Matt Devlin agreed to plead guilty to involuntary manslaughter following evidence that he was talking on a cell phone during the accident.
    (AP, 7/9/10)(SFC, 7/15/11, p.A7)

2010        Sep 18, In Hungary Hacktivity 2010, the largest computer hackers' conference in eastern Europe, kicked off, with some 1,000 participants expected to attend the two-day event.
    (AP, 9/18/10)

2010        Oct 4, In Hungary a torrent of toxic red sludge from an alumina plant tore through Kolontar and two other villages. The next day Hungary declared a state of emergency in three counties. After some days 9 people were reported killed and some 150 injured.
    (Reuters, 10/5/10)(AFP, 10/8/10)(AP, 10/11/10)(Econ, 10/16/10, p.63)

2010        Oct 6, Hungary scrambled to contain a toxic mud spill that left four people dead and more than 100 injured in what is being described as an ecological catastrophe. The spill raised fears that pollution leeching from it could reach the Danube River, which courses through Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania and Ukraine before flowing into the Black Sea.
    (AFP, 10/6/10)

2010        Oct 7, Hungary's most prestigious organization of scientists and researchers said tests of the red sludge flowing into the Danube show no dangerous heavy metal levels. Disaster relief officials said more than 150 people, most of them suffering chemical burns, were treated in hospitals after part of the MAL Zrt company metals factory reservoir collapsed and a toxic torrent swept through three villages killing 8 people.
    (AP, 10/7/10)(AP, 10/8/10)(AP, 10/11/10)

2010        Oct 9, Hungarian police and soldiers evacuated 800 from the village of Kolontar as authorities said a second flood of toxic sludge from a chemicals plant was likely after new cracks appeared in a dyke.
    (AFP, 10/9/10)

2010        Oct 10, A Hungarian official said the wall of a reservoir filled with caustic red sludge will inevitably collapse and unleash a new deluge of red sludge that could flow about a half-mile (1 km) to the north.
    (AP, 10/10/10)

2010        Oct 11, Hungary took over control of the Hungarian Aluminum Production and Trade Company (MAL). PM Orban said that Zoltan Bakonyi, the managing director of MAL, has been arrested. Bakonyi’s father, Arpad Bakonyi, had played a central role in the privatization of the country’s aluminum industry and remained its largest shareholder.
    (SFC, 10/12/10, p.A3)

2010        Oct 13, Hungarian authorities said the threat of another chemical spill had been averted and villagers could return home, as the plant responsible prepared to resume production. The municipal court in Veszprem released MAL's managing director Zoltan Bakonyi, who had been brought in for questioning.
    (AFP, 10/13/10)(AP, 10/13/10)

2010        Dec 21, Hungary’s Fidesz party passed the second part of contentious legislation placing broadcast, print and online media under the supervision of a new authority with power to impose large fines for ill-defined offenses.
    (Econ, 1/8/11, p.53)

2010        Dec 23, Hungary’s lawmakers approved new budget plans and pledged to get the budget deficit below 3 percent of national income next year. Fitch Ratings said the measures proposed, particularly on pensions, could actually worsen the public finances in coming years.
    (AP, 12/23/10)

2011        Jan 1, In Hungary a new media law went into effect the same day Hungary took over the rotating EU presidency from Belgium. The law greatly expanded the state's power to monitor and penalize private news outlets, including on the Internet. Publications deemed to be unbalanced or offensive in their coverage could face large fines.
    (AP, 1/7/11)

2011        Jan 15, In Hungary three young women died in a stampede at the West-Balkan nightclub in downtown Budapest. Thousands of people were caught up in the stampede and the victims may have been trampled by the rushing crowd.
    (AP, 1/16/11)

2011        Jan 27, In Hungary Bela Biszku (89), a former Hungarian interior minister, was charged with publicly downplaying the regime's crimes. He was seen as one of the main architects of repression after the country's 1956 anti-communist uprising. Biszku was charged because of comments he made during an appearance on state television on Aug. 4, 2010 in which he said he had nothing to apologize for.
    (AP, 1/27/11)

2011        Apr 18, Hungary's center-right-dominated parliament adopted a socially and fiscally conservative new constitution, with 262 votes in favor, 44 against and one member abstaining. It included a ban on gay marriage protection of the life of a fetus from conception.
    (AFP, 4/18/11)(SFC, 4/19/11, p.A2)

2011        Apr 22, The Hungarian Red Cross evacuated hundreds of Roma women and children from their homes because they were frightened of a far-right vigilante group that was setting up a training camp near their village.
    (AP, 4/22/11)

2011        Apr 25, Hungarian President Pal Schmitt formally signed the country's new constitution into law, despite heavy criticism from civil groups, rights organizations and opposition parties.
    (AFP, 4/25/11)

2011        Jun 18, In Bulgaria nearly 1,000 marchers joined the fourth gay pride rally in Sofia. Gay pride rallies were also held in Croatia and Hungary. Hundreds of police were on duty to protect the marchers following calls by extremist groups to stop the demonstrations.
    (AP, 6/18/11)

2011        Jun 24, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao embarked on a three-country tour of Europe, mired in currency and sovereign debt woes. After talks with Hungary’s PM Viktor Orban and a reception at a Budapest university, Wen moves on to London and Berlin before returning home.
    (AFP, 6/24/11)

2011        Jun 25, China’s PM Wen Jiabao, during a visit to Budapest, announced Beijing would purchase Hungarian government bonds and extend a one-billion-euro credit to the country.
    (AFP, 6/25/11)

2011        Sep, Hungary Fidesz government under PM Viktor Orban passed legislation allowing Hungarians to repay the entirety of their mortgages at a fixed rate of 180 forints ($.85) to the franc. Banks were forced to swallow the difference.
    (Econ, 10/1/11, p.55)

2011        Nov 6, In Egypt 11 Hungarian tourists were killed and 27 injured when their bus overturned in the Red Sea resort of Hurghada.
    (AFP, 11/6/11)

2011        Nov 17, The UN nuclear agency said a Hungarian manufacturer of medical radioactive substances was "most probably" the source of increased radiation levels measured in several European countries in the past weeks.
    (AP, 11/17/11)

2011        Dec 15, The director of Hungary's state news service was fired and the editor-in-chief reassigned due to the censorship of images in a newscast of a former head of Hungary's Supreme Court. On Dec 10 three television employees began holding a hunger strike seeking the dismissal of managers they say are responsible for censorship and restricting news coverage in state-owned media.
    (AP, 12/16/11)

2011        Dec 23, Hungary’s police detained former PM Ferenc Gyurcsany and several other opposition politicians who were protesting against the government outside Parliament. Government lawmakers were in the process of approving several contentious laws, including a new central bank law that has drawn criticism from the European Union.
    (AP, 12/23/11)

2011        Dec 27, Hungarian media officials say two employees, who have been on hunger strike for over two weeks in protest at alleged political meddling with journalists' work in state-funded media, have been fired. The state Media Service Support and Asset Management Fund (MTVA, said that Balazs Nagy Navarro and Aranka Szavuly were dismissed because their fast — in which they have only been ingesting liquids since Dec. 10 — is illegal and a "provocation" of their employer.
    (AP, 12/27/11)

2012        Jan 6, Fitch Ratings downgraded Hungary's credit grade to junk status, citing a standoff between the country and the EU and the IMF over rescue loans.
    (AP, 1/6/12)

2012        Jan 17, The European Union and Hungary brought their fight over democratic rights fully into the open, with the EU Commission launching legal challenges against the former Soviet-bloc country many fear may be slipping back into authoritarianism.
    (AP, 1/17/12)

2012        Jan 18, PM Viktor Orban said that Hungary's new constitution is based on the core principles of the EU but acknowledged questions over the independence of the central bank and the judiciary are understandable.
    (AP, 1/18/12)

2012        Feb, Malev, Hungary’s flag air carrier, went bankrupt.
    (Econ, 5/19/12, p.73)

2012        Mar 28, Hungary’s Pres. Pal Schmitt refused to resign a day after his alma mater confirmed media reports that he copied most of his doctoral thesis form other works 20 years earlier and failed to give credit to them.
    (SFC, 3/29/12, p.A2)

2012        Apr 2, Hungarian President Pal Schmitt (69) resigned because of a plagiarism scandal regarding a doctoral dissertation he had written 20 years ago.
    (AP, 4/2/12)

2012        Apr 24, The UN released a report slamming Hungary for the treatment of migrants from violence-ridden countries detained for months without convictions.
    (SFC, 4/25/12, p.A2)

2013        Apr 30, Hungary approved a new measure which in effect nationalized the sale of tobacco. It cut the number of licensed outlets from 44,000 to 5,400, effective on July 1.
    (Econ, 5/11/13, p.47)(http://tinyurl.com/q3gnad5)

2012        May 2, The Hungarian parliament chose Janos Ader (52), a close ally of PM Viktor Orban, to be country's new president, guaranteeing that his conservative Fidesz party will be able to pass laws at will without interference. The Hungarian Socialist Party, the largest opposition formation in parliament, boycotted the presidential election.
    (AP, 5/2/12)

2012        Jul 15, The Nazi-hunting Simon Wiesenthal Center confirmed that Laszlo Csatary (97), accused of complicity in the killings of 15,700 Jews, had been tracked down to the Hungarian capital. He served during World War II as a senior Hungarian police officer in the Slovakian city of Kosice, then under Hungarian rule. Csatary was taken into custody on July 18 and charged with war crimes.
    (AFP, 7/16/12)(AP, 7/18/12)

2012        Aug 31, Armenia broke off diplomatic ties with Hungary after an Azerbaijani military officer sentenced to life in prison here for killing an Armenian officer was sent back to his homeland and, despite assurances, immediately pardoned and freed. Lt. Ramil Safarov (35) was given a life sentence in 2006 by the Budapest City Court after he confessed to killing Lt. Gurgen Markarian of Armenia while both were in Hungary for a 2004 NATO language course.
    (AP, 9/1/12)

2012        Oct 1, The Hungarian Parliament filed a bill to ban most slot machines, allowing them in only three casinos. Last year a monthly tax on the machines was increased fivefold from $450 to $2250.
    (SFC, 10/2/12, p.A2)

2012        Dec 2, In Hungary thousands of people attended an anti-Nazi rally in Budapest to protest a call by far-right lawmaker Marton Gyongyosi to screen Jews for national security risks.
    (SFC, 12/3/12, p.A2)

2013        Jan 5, In Hungary journalist Zsolt Bayer, a founding member of the governing Fidesz party, wrote a newspaper column in which he said: "a significant part of the Roma are unfit for coexistence. They are not fit to live among people. These Roma are animals and they behave like animals."
    (AP, 1/8/13)

2013        Feb 26, Hungary’s National Food Chain Safety Office (Nebih) horse meat labeled as beef has been sold in the country.
    (AP, 2/26/13)

2013        Mar 11, Hungary’s parliament voted to amnend the constitution, despite pleas from the European Commission that the amendments conflict with EU law.
    (Econ, 3/16/13, p.53)

2013        Mar 15, A snowstorm in Hungary brought drifts 10 feet (3m) high and violent gusts of wind, forcing thousands of people to spend the night in their cars or emergency shelters after being stranded on a major highway.
    (AP, 3/15/13)

2013        Mar 19, Hungary's Minister of Human Resources asked journalist  Ferenc Szaniszlo to return a state award he received onmarch 16 after Israel and the United States complained about disparaging remarks  Szaniszlo had made earlier about Gypsies and Jews.
    (AP, 3/20/13)

2013        Apr 28, Janos Starker, world-renowned cellist, died in Indiana. Starker, born in Hungary in 1924, had arrived in the in the US in 1948.
    (SFC, 5/7/13, p.C3)

2013        Jun 9, At least 21 flood-related deaths have been reported in central Europe. A week of heavy rains and flooding caused extensive damage in central and southern Germany, the Czech Republic, Austria, Slovakia and Hungary.
    (AP, 6/9/13)

2013        Jun 18, Hungarian prosecutors indicted Laszlo Csatary (98), a former police officer, for abusing Jews and assisting in their deportation to Nazi death camps during World War II. They said Csatary was the chief of an internment camp for 12,000 Jews at a brick factory in Kosice — a Slovak city then part of Hungary — in May 1944, and that he beat them with his bare hands and a dog whip.
    (AP, 6/18/13)

2013        Jun 19, In Hungary former PM Gyula Horn (b.1932) died. He had served as prime minister from 1994-1998.
    (AP, 6/19/13)

2013        Jul 10, In Hungary a government minister said wages for 150,000 teachers will rise from September by an average 34%. Further hikes were promised every year until 2017.
    (Reuters, 7/10/13)

2013        Aug 6, A Hungarian court jailed four neo-Nazis for killing Roma families in a spree of racist violence in 2008 and 2009 that shocked the country and led to accusations that police had failed to protect an historically persecuted minority.
    (Reuters, 8/6/13)

2013        Aug 10, In Hungary Laszlo Csatary (98), a former police officer indicted in June by Hungarian authorities for abusing Jews and contributing to their deportation to Nazi death camps during World War II, died.
    (AP, 8/12/13)

2013        Oct 27, In Romania thousands of ethnic Hungarians held rallies in 14 communities of Transylvania to demand autonomy in the areas where they live.
    (AP, 10/27/13)

2014        Jan 26, Randolph L. Braham (91), a Romanian-born American professor and prominent Holocaust survivor and scholar, said he was handing back a 2011 Hungarian state award in protest at the government's "falsification of history."
    (AFP, 1/26/14)

2014        Jan 27, Hungary’s Pres. Janos Ader, on Holocaust Memorial Day, clearly stated that Hungarian officials had collaborated with the Nazis during WWII.
    (Econ, 2/1/14, p.44)

2014        Feb 6, Hungary's parliament authorized a deal with Russia to build two reactors at the country's only nuclear power plant in Paks.
    (AP, 2/6/14)

2014        Mar, Hungary signed a €10 billion loan agreement with Russia to expand and modernize Paks, a nuclear power station.
    (Econ, 7/19/14, p.48)

2014        Apr 6, Hungary held elections. PM Viktor Orban's Fidesz party won the parliamentary elections by a wide margin, with a left-wing coalition and the far-right Jobbik party in second place. An official projection gave Orban's Fidesz party 133 of 199 parliament seats, guaranteeing it will form the next government.
    (AP, 4/6/14)(Reuters, 4/7/14)(SSFC, 5/11/14, p.A6)

2014        Apr 30, The Council of Europe said Hungary's prison system needs to reduce overcrowding, stop discrimination against Roma prisoners and offer inmates work or recreational activities so they don't spend 23 hours a day in their cells.
    (AP, 4/30/14)

2014        May 10, Hungarian lawmakers elected Viktor Orban to his 3rd term as prime minister.
    (SSFC, 5/11/14, p.A6)

2014        May 13, In Hungary a Budapest court found Bela Biszku (92), a former senior official in the Hungarian Communist Party, guilty of war crimes during the suppression of the 1956 anti-Soviet uprising. He was sentenced to 5 years and six months imprisonment.
    (Reuters, 5/13/14)

2014        May 27, In Hungary Gergo Saling, an editor at origo.hu, pulbished an expose of lavish business expenses claimed by Janos Lazar, chief of cabinet to PM Vikto Orban. Saling was soon out of a job and some 30 journalists resigned amid claims that political pressure forced Saling out.
    (Econ, 6/14/14, p.47)

2014        Jun 11, Hungary’s parliament passed a new tax on advertising revenue which media said would bankrupt them.
    (Econ, 6/14/14, p.47)
2014        Jun 11, London’s new Trafficking and Kidnap Unit of its Metropolitan Police arrested six people suspected of sex trafficking. The arrests were part of an ongoing investigation of a Hungarian organized crime group.
    (AP, 6/11/14)

2014        Jul 22, Canada’s Public Safety Minister said twenty members of a Hungarian human trafficking ring have been deported.
    (SFC, 7/23/14, p.A2)c

2014        Jul 26, Hungary’s PM Viktor Orban said that the 2008 financial crisis showed that liberal democracies would likely no longer remain competitive and pointed to Singapore, China and Russia as successful role models.
    (AP, 7/29/14)

2014        Jul 29, A Hungarian opposition group said it would ask the EU to step up its oversight of democracy in Hungary after PM Orban said he wants to transform the country from a liberal democracy into an "illiberal state."
    (AP, 7/29/14)

2014        Sep 8, Hungarian police raided two NGOs responsible for distributing Norwegian grants aimed at strengthening civil society in poorer parts of Europe. Norway suspended payments in response to a government audit of NGOs such as the Roma Press Center, Women for Women against Violence and the Labrisz Lesbian Association.
    (Econ, 9/13/14, p.68)

2014        Sep 25, Hungary unexpectedly cut off natural gas shipments to Ukraine. Hungary had been sending an estimated 3 million cubic meters of natural gas a day to Ukraine, which has not received any from Russia since June.
    (AP, 9/26/14)

2014        Oct 12, In Hungary PM Viktor Orban’s Fidesz party was the clear winner in municipal elections. The far-right Jobbik party made significant gains in rural areas, where it has become the main challenger to Orban's Fidesz party.
    (AP, 10/13/14)(SFC, 10/13/14, p.A2)

2014        Oct 17, The United States said it has issued entry bans to several Hungarians suspected of corruption, including people connected to the government.
    (AP, 10/17/14)

2014        Oct 28, In Hungary tens of thousands of protesters marched in Budapest against a plan by the government to tax Internet use from 2015. This was the 2nd big rally in three days.
    (SFC, 10/29/14, p.A2)

2014        Oct 31, Hungary's PM Viktor Orban said that the government would suspend a planned tax on Internet use and reconsider the matter next year.
    (AP, 10/31/14)

2014        Nov 5, The head of Hungary's tax authority, Ildiko Vida, acknowledged in a published report that she has been banned from entering the US because of suspected links to corruption. She denied the unspecified allegations, and said that the ban also affects other officials from NAV, Hungary's tax authority.
    (AP, 11/5/14)

2014        Nov 17, In Hungary over 10,000 people gathered outside the parliament in Budapest to protest against alleged corruption and the centralization of power.
    (Econ, 11/22/14, p.46)

2014        Dec 4, Hungary's economy minister says the state has signed a preliminary deal to buy Budapest Bank, the country’s 8th largest bank by assets, from General Electric by June 30.
    (AP, 12/4/14)

2014        Dec 7, Russia’s Prers. Vladimir Putin dicussed energy collaboration with leaders of Hungary and Sebia.
    (Reuters, 12/7/14)

2014        Dec 9, The Hungarian government said it has signed three contracts with a Russian company which will allow construction in 2018 of new reactors at the country's only nuclear power plant.
    (AP, 12/9/14)

2014        Dec 11, The head of Hungary's tax authority sued a senior American diplomat in Budapest for libel after the envoy said the US had knowledge of corruption at the tax office.
    (AP, 12/11/14)

2014        Dec 17, China secured a deal to construct a high-speed train link between the Belgrade and Budapest that will cut travel time between the Serbian and Hungarian capitals from eight hours to less than three.
    (AP, 12/17/14)

2015        Jan 2, In Hungary some 5000 thousand people protested at what they see as the country's move towards Russia in the latest demonstration against the government of controversial PM Viktor Orban.
    (AFP, 1/2/15)

2015        Jan 26, Hungary’s PM Viktor Orban overcame unease within his government to acknowledge the country’s role in the Holocaust, saying many people in the central European country acted "shamefully" in World War II.
    (Reuters, 1/26/15)

2015        Feb 1, In Hungary some three thousand protesters in Budapest demanded the ouster of PM Viktor Orban's government.
    (AP, 2/1/15)

2015        Feb 17, In Hungary PM Viktor Orban hosted Russian Pres. Vladimir Putin and reached a political agreement on a new gas deal.
    (SFC, 2/18/15, p.A2)

2015        Feb 22, Hungary's ruling right-wing alliance lost its two-thirds majority in parliament after the opposition won a by-election, hampering PM Viktor Orban's chances of changing the constitution and passing major legislation.
    (Reuters, 2/23/15)

2015        Feb 27, Hungarian PM Victor Orban denounced multiculturalism and liberalism and vowed to fight a wave of migration that he says is threatening to turn his country into a refugee camp.
    (AP, 2/27/15)

2015        Apr 14, Hungary approved a proposal to send up to 150 troops to help guard a military training center in the northern Iraqi city of Irbil as part of international efforts against Islamic State extremists in a mission to continue to December 2017.
    (AP, 4/14/15)

2015        May 19, Britain’s Man Booker Int’l. Prize was awarded to Hungarian novelist Laszlo Kraszhnahorkai, shortly after his latest novel “Seiobo There Below" was translated by Ottilie Mulzet.
    (Econ, 5/23/15, p.72)

2015        Jun 6, China's foreign ministry said Hungary has become the first European country to sign a cooperation agreement for the new "Silk Road" initiative to develop trade and transport infrastructure across Asia and beyond.
    (Reuters, 6/6/15)

2015        Jun 22, Hungary said its police will help patrol the Serbia-Macedonia border to try to stem the flow of migrants and refugees attempting to reach the European Union.
    (AP, 6/22/15)

2015        Jul 6, Hungary's parliament overwhelmingly approved the construction of a controversial fence on the border with Serbia to keep out migrants.
    (AFP, 7/6/15)

2015        Jul 13, Hungary said it has begun building a fence on the country's southern border with Serbia, meant to stem the unprecedented flow of migrants. Around 80,000 migrants and refugees have reached Hungary so far this year. About 80 percent of them are from war-torn countries like Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan. 900 soldiers were tasked with building the fence using materials prepared by inmates.
    (AP, 7/13/15)(SFC, 7/17/15, p.A3)

2015        Aug 3, Hungarian soldiers began building a fence on the border with Serbia meant to stop the flow of migrants trying to enter the EU.
    (SFC, 8/4/15, p.A2)

2015        Aug 7, The European Union appealed to member countries to live up to pledges to provide planes and other assets so that its border agency can help Greece and Hungary cope with a migrant influx.
    (AP, 8/7/15)

2015        Aug 25, A record 2,533 mainly Syrians, Afghans and Pakistanis crossed from Serbia into EU member Hungary.
    (Reuters, 8/26/15)

2015        Aug 26, Hungary made plans to reinforce its southern border with helicopters, mounted police and dogs, and was also considering using the army as record numbers of migrants, many of them Syrian refugees, passed through coils of razor-wire into Europe. Over 140,000 have been caught entering so far this year.
    (Reuters, 8/26/15)

2015        Aug 29, Hungary arrested four men suspected of being involved in the deaths of 71 migrants found in a truck in Austria. They included three Bulgarians and one Afghan. A fifth suspect, a Bulgarian national, was arrested in the evening.
    (AP, 8/29/15)(AP, 8/30/15)

2015        Sep 1, In Hungary hundreds of angry migrants demonstrated outside Budapest's Eastern Railway Terminus demanding they be allowed to travel on to Germany, as EU asylum rules came close to collapse under the strain of unprecedented migration.
    (Reuters, 9/1/15)

2015        Sep 3, Hungarian police halted a train packed with migrants bound for the Austrian border and tried to force them to disembark in a town with a detention camp, a confrontation that has become a focus of Europe's migration crisis.
    (Reuters, 9/3/15)

2015        Sep 4, Hungary's parliament introduced emergency anti-migration laws, in a tough response to the record number of refugees and migrants crossing the EU member's border as they try to reach western Europe. Hundreds of migrants broke out of a border camp and others set off on foot from Budapest as authorities scrambled to contain a migrant crisis that has brought Europe’s asylum system to breaking point.
    (AFP, 9/4/15)(Reuters, 9/4/15)
2015        Sep 4, In a joint statement the prime ministers of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia rejected any quota system for accepting migrants in the European Union's 28 members.
    (AP, 9/4/15)

2015        Sep 5, Austria and Germany threw open their borders to thousands of exhausted migrants, bussed to the Hungarian border by a right-wing government that had tried to stop them but was overwhelmed by the sheer numbers reaching Europe’s frontiers.
    (Reuters, 9/5/15)

2015        Sep 11, Hungary's PM Viktor Orban angrily accused illegal migrants of "rebelling" against the rule of law in his country as security forces across Europe struggled to control record flows of hungry, scared refugees.
    (Reuters, 9/11/15)

2015        Sep 14, Hungarian police rounded up a total of 7,437 migrants crossing the Serbian border by 1400 GMT (10 a.m. EDT), by far the highest daily figure this year.
    (Reuters, 9/14/15)

2015        Sep 15, Germany called for an EU summit on Europe's biggest migrant crisis since World War II as Hungary's right-wing government shut the main land route for migrants into the EU, taking matters into its own hands to halt Europe's influx of refugees. Berlin called for financial penalties against countries that refused to accommodate their share of migrants, drawing a furious response from central Europe.
    (Reuters, 9/15/15)(AFP, 9/15/15)

2015        Sep 16, Hungarian police fired tear gas and water cannon at protesting migrants demanding they be allowed to enter from Serbia as a border crackdown by Budapest turned violent.
    (Reuters, 9/16/15)

2015        Sep 18, Croatia’s PM Zoran Milanovic warned matters were out of control and that his government would no longer be able to register or accommodate the migrants. Hundreds of migrants crossed into Hungary from Croatia, handed over by bus under the watch of Hungarian security forces. Some 8,000 migrants arrived in Hungary from Croatia with more on their way.
    (Reuters, 9/18/15)(Reuters, 9/19/15)

2015        Sep 20, Hungary erected a steel gate and fence posts at a border crossing with Croatia.
    (Reuters, 9/20/15)

2015        Oct 6, Arpad Goncz (93), Hungary's first democratically-elected president (1990-2000 and widely-respected former dissident, died.
    (AFP, 10/6/15)

2015        Oct 15, The Hungarian government announced that it has completed its construction of a fence alongside its southern border with Croatia, to stem the massive daily influx of migrants. The government said it would decide on a date to completely seal the border in the coming days.
    (AFP, 10/15/15)

2015        Oct 16, Hungary said it will close down its border with Croatia, where it has built a razor-wire fence, to the free flow of migrants at midnight. Croatia said it has a plan to manage the flow of migrants agreed with Slovenia that it will start implementing when Hungary seals off the Hungarian-Croatian border.
    (AP, 10/16/15)(Reuters, 10/16/15)

2015        Oct 17, Hungary said it will temporarily reinstate border controls on its frontier with Slovenia, after his government sealed off its border with Croatia overnight to stem the flow of migrants. Migrants streaming across the Balkans reached Slovenia, diverted overnight by the closure of Hungary’s border with Croatia.
    (Reuters, 10/17/15)

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