Timeline Ireland

Return to
home

The 3 Aran Islands are located off the west coast of Ireland. Inishmore is the largest.
    (SSFC, 11/14/04, p.F10)(www.visitaranislands.com)

Irish Aires, an Irish news blog: http://www.irishaires.blogspot.com
Irish Law History:
http://www.brehon.org
National Archives:
http://www.nationalarchives.ie/
Tourism:
www.irelandvacations.com

48000BC -18000BC    In 2011 the journal Current Biology reported that all polar bears today have descended from one female brown bear in Ireland between 20,000 and 50,000 years ago.
    (SFC, 7/8/11, p.A6)

3800BC-3200BC    At Poulnabrone Dolmen in County Clare, one of some 120 wedge tombs, bodies were interred over a 600 year period that ended about 3200BC. Poulnabrone means "cave of the quern." A quern is a hollowed out stone to grind grain. A dolmen is a megalithic monument.
    (SFEC, 11/12/00, p.T8) (SSFC, 12/24/00, p.T4)

300BC        In Ireland 2 men were murdered about this time. In 2005 their preserved remains were found in a peat bog. One dubbed Clonycavan Man was about 5 feet 2 inches and used hair gel. The other, dubbed Oldcroghan Man, stood 6 feet 6 inches. "Oldcroghan Man was stabbed through the chest. He was then decapitated and his body cut in half while Clonycaven Man had his head split open with an axe before he was disemboweled.
    (Reuters, 1/7/06)

c1AD        Stone forts were built on the 3 Aran islands: Inishmore, Inishmaan, and Isisheer, whose total area was 18 sq. miles. The islands are on the west coast of Ireland at the mouth of Galway Bay.
    (SFEC, 1/23/00, T8,9)

238AD        Solinus wrote that the Hibernian mother places the first morsel of food in her child’s mouth with the point of her sword.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.11)

300-400    In Ireland the Staigue Fort with circular drystone walls was built about this time on the Iveragh peninsula.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staigue_stone_fort)

377        Niall of the Nine Hostages, warlord and head of the most powerful dynasty in ancient Ireland, was crowned king. He reportedly had 12 sons, many of whom became powerful Irish kings themselves. In 2006 scientists in Ireland presented evidence that he was the country's most fertile male, with more than 3 million men worldwide among his offspring.
    (Reuters, 1/17/06)(www.irishclans.com/articles/famirish/niall9hostages.html)

c389        Mar 17, St. Patrick (d.461), the patron saint of Ireland, was born. Calpurnius, his father, was a deacon and local official who lost his son to Irish raiders when Patrick was 16. Patrick allegedly drove all the snakes (i.e. pagans) out of Ireland.
    (HN, 3/17/99)(HNQ, 3/17/01)(WSJ, 3/12/04, p.W13)

c389-461AD    St. Patrick, an English missionary and bishop of Ireland. March 17 is celebrated in his honor. He was a Celt born in Romanized Britain and was kidnapped by Irish pirates at 16, sold into slavery, and served for 6 years as a shepherd until he escaped.
    (SFC, 3/15/97, p.A16)(WUD, 1994, p.1057)(SFC, 3/17/97, p.A20)

c400AD    The Celtic ruler Niall of the Nine Hostages lived around this time.
    (SFC, 7/14/97, p.E1)
c400AD    People from the chiefdom Dal Riata in northern Ireland crossed the Irish Sea and settled along the Scottish coast of County Argyll.
    (AM, 7/01, p.46)

400-500    The leap year tradition of women proposing marriage to men began in 5th century Ireland.
    (SFEC, 6/8/97, Z1 p.6)

400-1177    Ireland was made up of at least 120 chiefdoms.
    (AM, 7/01, p.46)

c405        St. Patrick, aged 16, was sold in Northern Ireland as a slave by King Niall’s men.
    (WSJ, 3/15/02, p.W15)

c432        About this time Patrick was consecrated a bishop and returned to Ireland as a missionary. This period is covered in the 1995 book "How the Irish Saved Civilization" by Thomas Cahill.
    (SFC, 3/17/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W12)

438        Easter, St. Patrick used the 3-leaf clover to illustrate the Trinity.
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, p.D7)

441        Bishop Patrick allegedly fasted for 40 days on a 2,500-foot peak later named Croagh Patrick in county Mayo. He allegedly banished snakes from Ireland during this time.
    (SFCM, 10/14/01, p.23)

444        St. Patrick selected the site for the Cathedral of Armagh. It later became Ireland’s ecclesiastical center and preceded the 360 churches that he established.
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, p.D7)

461        Mar 17, According to tradition, St. Patrick (b.c389), the patron saint of Ireland, died in Saul, County Down. Some sources say he died in 493AD. He was an English missionary and bishop of Ireland. In 2004 Philip Freeman authored "St. Patrick: A Biography."
    (SFC, 3/15/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 3/12/04, p.W13)(AP, 3/17/08)

c500-600    Irish monks brought an alembic from the Middle East that was initially used to distill perfumes. They soon applied it to spirits and produced Uisce Beatha (water of life), better known as whiskey.
    (WSJ, 8/14/02, p.D8)

546AD        Colmcille, an Irish saint, founded a monastery at Derry.
    (SFC, 12/1/97, p.A14)

548        St. Kieran founded a monastery at Clonmacnoise, an Irish phrase meaning "the meadow of the sons of Nos."
    (SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)

550-1200AD    The period of Irish Monasticism.
    (NGM, 5/77)

563        The Irish Catholic monk Columba (Colum Cille) arrived on the Scottish island of Iona.
    (SFC, 2/10/99, p.A10)(AM, 7/01, p.51)

565        Aug 22, St. Columba reported seeing a monster in Loch Ness.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

c600        "The Navigatio Sancti Brendani Abbatis" (Voyage of St. Brendan the Abbott) recounts a 7-year trip to a land across the sea by the Irish saint and a band of acolytes about this time.
    (SFEM, 11/15/98, p.24)

600-700    Irish monastic monks founded a monastery at Skellig Michael (Michael’s Rock) during the 7th century and for the next 600 years the island was a center of their monastic life. In 1996 UNESCO listed it as a World Heritage Site.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skellig_Michael)(Econ, 9/12/09, p.94)

615        Nov 23, Columbanus, Irish explorer, monastery founder, poet and saint (Poenitentiale), died (aka St. Columba).
    (MC, 11/23/01)

697        An assembly was called at the hill of Tara to put an end to the participation of Irish women in battle.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.11)

700-800    Vikings settled the Faeroe Islands in the 8th century replacing Irish settlers. In 1948 the group of 18 islands, located between Britain and Iceland, became an autonomous region of Denmark.
    (SSFC, 7/29/07, p.G8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faroe_Islands) 

795        Vikings first raided Ireland.
    (SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)

c797        The 1,200 year-old Book of Kells, an illuminated manuscript of the Gospels, was made by Irish monks. It was later kept in the library of Dublin’s Trinity College. The Book of Kells is a richly decorated copy of the four gospels--Matthew, Mark, Luke and John--produced by Christian monks, possibly in the late 700s on the Scottish isle of Iona or in the Irish town of Kells. Joyce later used it as a model for Ulysses.
    (SFC, 3/17/97, p.A20)(HNQ, 1/13/99)(SFEM, 5/16/99, p.7)

840        Vikings settled in Ireland.
    (SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)

842        Vikings attacked the monastery at Clonmacnoise from bases in Ireland.
    (SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)

874        Vikings from Norway began to survey Iceland. The monks withdrew to Ireland. The 40,000-square-mile island situated 500 miles northwest of Scotland was first settled by Norwegians.
    (NH, 6/96, p.53)(Economist, 8/25/12, p.64)

878        Monks packed up their shrine of Collum Cille at Iona and moved to Kells, Ireland.
    (AM, 7/01, p.50)

918        There was a great flood in the region of Clonmacnoise.
    (SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)

1014        Apr 23, The Battle of Contarf ended Danish rule in Ireland but a Dane killed Irish King Brian Boru (87).
    (PCh, 1992, p.80)(MC, 4/23/02)
1014        Apr 23, Sweyn Forkbeard, Viking king of England (1013-14), died.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1100s        Bushmills Distillery in Northern Ireland began producing whiskey.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T8)

1100-1200    Cistercian monks established an abbey on Clare Island.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T8)

1100-1200    In Limerick a 12th century cathedral was built.
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T11)

1149        The yew tree of St. Kieran was struck by lightning and 113 sheep taking refuge there were killed.
    (SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)

1166        Diarmaid Mac Murchada, King of Leinster, met with Henry II in Aquitaine after he was dispossessed of land by Ruaidhri O Conchobair, the High King of Ireland. This meeting instigated the Norman invasion of 1169.
    (Econ, 5/28/11, p.18)

1169        May 1, The Norman invasion of Ireland, a two-stage process, began when a force of loosely associated Norman knights landed near Bannow, County Wexford. This was at the request of Dermot MacMurrough (Diarmait Mac Murchada), the ousted King of Leinster, who sought their help in regaining his kingdom. Stage 2 began in 1171 with the arrival of Henry II.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diarmait_Mac_Murchada)

1171        May 1, Dermot MacMurrough (b.1110), last Irish King of Leinster, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diarmait_Mac_Murchada)

1171        Oct 18, Henry II (1133-1189) arrived in Ireland from France with an army and declared himself "Lord of Ireland". All of the Normans, along with many Irish princes, took oaths of homage to Henry by November, and he left after six months. He never returned, but in 1177 he named his youngest son, Prince John, as Lord of Ireland.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_II_of_England)

1178        English raiders attacked the town of Clonmacnoise but spared the churches.
    (SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)

1180        Nov 14, Laurcan O'Toole (b.1128), Archbishop of Dublin (1161-1180), died in France. His name was later anglicized to Laurence O'Toole. He was canonized only forty-five years after his death.
    (http://www.cin.org/lauotool.html)(http://tinyurl.com/7zgxqxv)

1189        Giraldus Cambrensis authored "History of the Conquest of Ireland."
    (ON, SC, p.1)

1200-1300    In Limerick a 13th century castle was built overlooking the Shannon River.
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T11)

1202        The English again attacked the town and monastery at Clonmacnoise.
    (SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)

1209        In Kinnitty the Kinnitty Castle was built. It was later converted to a hotel.
    (WSJ, 2/27/98, p.B8)

1349        In Belgium a church was built in Geel to honor St. Dymphna (Dimpna). According to Christian tradition she was the daughter of a 7th century pagan Irish king and his Christian wife who fled to Geel, Belgium following the death of her mother. Her father found her in Geel and struck off her head when she refused to return home and rebuffed his incestuous desires.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dymphna)(Econ, 7/11/15, SR p.3)

1491        Perkin Warbeck appeared in Ireland and claimed to be the missing Duke of York, thought by many to have been murdered by Richard III. After winning support in France and Scotland, Warbeck's fortunes turned and he was captured and executed in 1497.
    (HNQ, 4/17/02)

1500-1600    The 1966 Disney film "The Fighting Prince of Donegal" was set in the 16th century as Irish clans rose up against the British.
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, DB p.57)

1541        Jun 18, Irish parliament "selected" Henry VIII as King of Ireland.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(MC, 6/18/02)

c1550-1600    Grace O’Malley led a 200-strong band on Clare Island financed by piracy.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T8)

1552        The English again attacked the town and monastery at Clonmacnoise and carried everything away.
    (SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)

1579        Jun 17, There was an anti-English uprising in Ireland.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1580        Nov 9, Spanish troops landed in Ireland.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1581        Jan 4, James Ussher (d.1656), Irish prelate and scholar, Archbishop of Armagh, was born. According to Ussher and Dr. John Lightfoot of Cambridge, the world was created on Oct 23, 4004BC, a Sunday, at 9 a.m.   
    (WUD, 1994, p.1574)(NG, Nov. 1985, edit. p.559)(HN, 10/23/98)(MC, 1/4/02)

1588        Aug 18, A storm struck the remaining 60 ships of the Spanish Armada under the Duke of Medina Sidonia after which only 11 were left. Many of the ships went to Ireland where most of the Spaniards were killed by the English. 600 Spaniards wrecked in Scotland were later returned to Spain. In 1978 Niall Fallon authored "The Armada in Ireland."
    (ON, 3/02, p.6)

1588        Sep 25, A heavy storm drove 3 Spanish ships onto the coast of Ireland. Francisco de Cuellar, an officer on the galleon Lavia, spent the next 6 months evading English forces and getting to Scotland and then the Netherlands. His letter from Antwerp to King Philip on Oct 4, 1589, was later valued for its descriptions of Ireland.
    (ON, 5/02, p.12)

1588        Dec, Sir William Fitzwilliam, the English Lord Deputy of Ireland, planned an attack against the McClancy clan led by chieftain Dartry. Francisco de Cuellar and a group of stranded Spanish Armada soldiers successfully held the clan’s Rossclogher Castle under a 17-day siege.
    (ON, 5/02, p.11)

1592        Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland, was founded after small group of Dublin citizens obtained a charter from Queen Elizabeth incorporating Trinity College juxta Dublin.
    (www.tcd.ie/info/trinity/history/)

1595        May 28, It was a shaken and demoralized English column that returned to its northern Irish base at Newry.
    (HN, 8/1/98)

1596        Oct 25, The Spanish fleet sailed from Lisbon to Ireland.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1598        Aug 15, Hugh O'Neill, the Earl of Tyrone, led an Irish force to victory over the British at Battle of Yellow Ford.
    (HN, 8/15/98)

1599        Mar 27, Robert Devereux became Lt-general of Ireland.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1599        Sep 7, Earl of Essex and Irish rebel Tyrone signed a treaty.
    (MC, 9/7/01)

1600-1972    This period was covered by R.F. Foster in "Modern Ireland 1600-1972" (1989).
    (WSJ, 11/13/96, p.A22)

1602        Jan 2, Battle at Kinsale, Ireland: English army beat the Spanish.
    (MC, 1/2/02)

1603        Mar 30, Battle at Mellifont: English army under Lord Mountjoy beat the Irish.
    (MC, 3/30/02)

1608        Bushmills Distillery in Northern Ireland acquired a license for whiskey production. They had been producing whiskey since the 1100s.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T8)

1610        The settlement at Derry was colonized by the English, who built a fortress surrounded by stone walls and renamed it Londonderry.
    (SFC, 12/1/97, p.A14)

1612        The first recorded sale of Irish slaves was to a settlement in the Amazon, seven years before the first African slaves arrived in Jamestown.
    (http://tinyurl.com/pz4vams)

1613        The Brazen Head pub on Bridge St. in Dublin was licensed. It allegedly date back to 1198.
    (SFEM, 5/16/99, p.7)

1625        Mar 27, Charles I (d.1649) became the English king. He was King of England, Ireland and Scotland until he was beheaded.
    (AP, 3/27/97)(WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A12)

1641        Oct 21, A Catholic uprising took place in Ulster. Thousands of English and Scots were killed. [see Oct 23]
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1641        Oct 23, Catholics in Ireland, under Phelim O'Neil, rose against the Protestants and cruelly massacred men, women and children to the number of 40,000 (some say 100,000). [see Oct 21]
    (HN, 10/23/98)

1641        A Catholic uprising in Ulster was suppressed. English Gen’l. Oliver Cromwell took away the land rights of 44,000 Catholics in Ulster and adjacent counties.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)

1649        Aug 15, Oliver Cromwell landed in Ireland with his New Model Army on behalf of England's Rump Parliament.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cromwellian_conquest_of_Ireland)

1649        Sep 11, Oliver Cromwell seized Drogheda, Ireland in a siege that began September 3. The week after the storming of Drogheda, the Royalist press in England claimed that 2,000 of the 3,000 dead were civilian.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Drogheda)

1649        Oct, English Parliamentarian troops broke into the town of Wexford while the commander of the garrison, David Sinnot, was trying to negotiate a surrender – massacring soldiers and civilians alike. Much of the town was burned and its harbor was destroyed.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sack_of_Wexford)

1649-1653    This period marks the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland or Cromwellian war in Ireland. The Parliamentarians deported about 50,000 people as indentured laborers. They were sent to the English colonies of America and West Indies.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cromwellian_conquest_of_Ireland)

1650        May, Oliver Cromwell left Ireland to fight the Third English Civil War against the new Scottish-Royalist alliance. He passed his command onto Henry Ireton.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cromwellian_conquest_of_Ireland)

1650        Jun, The Ulster army met a Parliamentarian army composed mainly of British settlers and commanded by Charles Coote at the Battle of Scarrifholis in Donegal. The Ulster army was routed and as many as 2000 of its men were killed.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cromwellian_conquest_of_Ireland)

1651        Oct 27, English troops occupied Limerick, Ireland.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1652        The English Parliament passed the Act for the Settlement of Ireland which classified the Irish population into one of several categories according to their degree of involvement in the uprising and subsequent war. Dr. William Petty, Physician-General to Cromwell's Army, estimated that as many as 100,000 Irish men, women and children were transported to the colonies in the West Indies and in North America as slaves.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_the_British_Isles)

1653        Dec 16, Oliver Cromwell took on dictatorial powers with the title of lord protector" of England, Scotland and Ireland. He served as dictator of England to 1658.
    (CFA, '96, p.44)(AHD, p.315)(AP, 12/16/97)(HN, 12/16/98)

1654        Apr 12, England, Ireland and Scotland united.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1656        Feb 20, James Ussher (76), Irish bible scholar, Anglican archbishop, died. [see Mar 21]
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1656        Mar 21, Armagh James Ussher (76), Archbishop (said world began 4004 BC), died. [see Feb 20]
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1667        Nov 30, Jonathan Swift (d.1745), English satirist who wrote "Gulliver's Travels," was born in Ireland.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1437)(HN, 11/30/98)

1681        May 17, Louis XIV sent an expedition to aid James II in Ireland. As a result, England declared war on France.
    (HN, 5/17/99)

1685        Feb 2, Charles II (54), King of England, Scotland, Ireland (1660-85), died. He made a deathbed conversion to the Roman Catholic faith. He had earlier ordered Christopher Wren to build an observatory and maritime college at Greenwich. In 2000 Stephen Coote authored the biography: "Royal Survivor."
    (WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)(www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon49.html)

c1685-1753    George Berkeley, Irish bishop and philosopher. He argued that the things we see around us exist only as ideas. This was in opposition to naive realism which held that we perceive objects as they really are.
    (WUD, 1994, p.140)(WSJ, 8/21/98, p.W13)

1689        Mar 12, Former English King James II landed in Ireland.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1689        Mar, In Northern Ireland the gates of Londonderry were shut in the face of Catholic forces. The event was later celebrated by the Protestant Apprentice Boys as the Lundy’s Day demonstration. [see August 1, 1689]
    (SFEC,12/14/97, p.A26)

1689        Apr 21, William III and Mary II were crowned joint king and queen of England, Scotland and Ireland.
    (HN, 4/21/98)

1689        Aug 1, A siege of Londonderry, Ireland, by the Catholic Army of King James II ended in failure. The Protestants were victorious and the event led to the annual Apprentice Boy’s March. The group is named in honor of 13 teenage apprentices, all Protestants, who bolted the city gates in front of the advancing Catholic forces at the start of the 105-day siege.
    (SFEC, 8/11/96, p.A13)(HN, 8/1/98)(AP, 8/13/06)

1690        Mar 16, French king Louis XIV sent troops to Ireland.
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1690        Jun 24, King William III's army landed at Carrickfergus, Ireland.
    (MC, 6/24/02)
   
1690        Jul 1, England's Protestant King William III of Orange was victorious over his father-in-law, the Catholic King James II (from Scot) in Battle of Boyne (in Ireland). This touched off three centuries of religious bloodshed. Protestants took over the Irish Parliament. This marked the beginning of the annual Drumcree parade, held by the Loyal Orange Lodge on the first Sunday of July. Due to calendar changes in 1752 this later became commemorated on Jul 12.
    (PC, 1992, p.265)(WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A1)(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(SFEC, 7/4/99, p.A18)

1690        Jul 12,  Due to British calendar changes in 1752, the July 1, 1690, Battle of Boyne (in Ireland) was adjusted for celebration on Jul 12.
    (SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.5)(AP, 7/11/05)

1691        Jul 12, William III defeated the allied Irish and French armies at the Battle of Aughrim, Ireland.
    (HN, 7/12/98)

1691        Oct 3, English and Dutch armies occupied Limerick, Ireland.
    (MC, 10/3/01)

c1696        Protestants were victorious over Irish Catholics. King William of Orange was victorious over Catholic King James II.
    (SFC, 6/26/96, p.A8)

1697        Sep 30, Under the Treaty of Ryswick, France recognized William III as King of England. The signees included France, England, Spain and Holland.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1675)

1700        William Congreve, an Anglo-Irishman playwright, published his last play, "The Way of the World."
    (WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)

1702        Mar 19, On the death of William III of Orange, Anne Stuart, sister of Mary, succeeded to the throne of England, Scotland and Ireland.
    (HN, 3/19/99)

1713        Nov 24, Laurence Sterne (d.1768), novelist and satirist (Tristram Shandy), was born in Ireland. "Free thinkers are generally those who never think at all."
    (MC, 11/24/01)(AP, 6/19/97)

1720        The first yacht club appeared in Cork Harbor.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1722        Jonathon Swift, author and pamphleteer, urged his fellow countrymen to boycott English goods and "burn everything that came from England, except their people and their Coals."
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)

1729        Jan 12, Edmund Burke (d.1797), British politician and author, was born in Dublin. Burke advocated consistent and sympathetic treatment of the American colonies: "A very great part of the mischiefs that vex this world arises from words."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Burke)(V.D.-H.K.p.224)(AP, 7/20/97)(AP, 11/29/98)

1742        Apr 13, George Frideric Handel's "Messiah" was first performed publicly, in Dublin, Ireland.
    (AP, 4/13/97)

1752        George Berkeley (1685-1753), Irish philosopher, wrote a poem that included the line "Westward the course of empire takes its way." The line later inspired the founders of Berkeley, Ca., to name their city and university after Berkeley.
    (SFEC, 4/18/99, Z1 p.2)

1753        Mar 17, The 1st official St Patrick's Day was celebrated.
    (MC, 3/17/02)

1755        Arthur Guinness began brewing a dark-brown stout in the town of Leixlip, Ireland.
    (WSJ, 9/12/08, p.B7)

1759        Arthur Guinness purchased Mark Rainsford’s Ale Brewery in Dublin, Ireland, and began producing his own recipe. In 2009 Guinness, owned by Diageo, launched its Arthur’s Day celebration in honor of its founder.
    (SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T8)(AP, 9/26/13)

1763        Jun 20, Theobald Wolfe Tone (d.1798), Irish nationalist, was born.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1774        Apr 4, Oliver Goldsmith, Irish poet (She Stoops to Conquer), died.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1774        Sir Francis Beaufort (d.1857) hydrogapher, was born near Navan in Co. Meath, Ireland.
    (NH, 11/1/04, p.51)

1775-1847     Daniel O'Connell, Irish political leader: "Bigotry has no head, and cannot think; no heart, and cannot feel."
    (AP, 8/12/98)

1776        Nano Nagle, a wealthy Irish woman, founded the Sisters of Presentation. At this time it was a crime in Ireland for a Catholic to teach or be taught.
    (SFC, 11/12/04, p.F11)

1777        Mar 17, The Rev. Patrick Bronte was born on St. Patrick’s Day in County Down, Ireland. He married Maria Branwell of Cornwall in 1812 and they had six children that included the writers Charlotte and Emily. Mrs. Branwell died in 1821 at 38.
    (WP, 1952, p.34)

1779        May 28, Thomas Moore, Irish poet, was born.
    (HN, 5/28/01)

1780        Sheep were introduced to Ireland from Scotland.
    (SFCM, 10/14/01, p.25)

1782        Jul 26, John Field, pianist, composer (Nocturnes), was born in Dublin, Ireland.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1783        Jun 1, Charles Byrne (22), known as the Irish giant, died. Standing at seven feet seven inches tall (2.3 meters) he was a celebrity in his own lifetime. When he died the renowned surgeon and anatomist John Hunter was keen to acquire his skeleton. Byrne wanted to be buried at sea. The surgeon managed to bribe one of the Irishman's friends and took his body before it could be laid to rest in the English Channel. Hunter boiled Byrne's body down to a skeleton and it became a key feature of his anatomy collection. In 2011 Experts called for the skeleton to be buried at sea, as Byrne wanted.
    (AP, 12/21/11)(http://www.thetallestman.com/pdf/charlesbyrne.pdf)

1784        Apr 15, The first balloon flight occurred in Ireland. [see Jun 5, 1783 in France]
    (HN, 4/15/98)

1787        Robert Barker, an Irish painter, is credited with inventing the panorama and patented the idea in this year.
    (WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A20)

1791        The United Irishmen Society was formed. Inspired by the French Revolution many Catholics and Protestants took up the cause of Irish nationalism during the next decade.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)

1795        The Loyal Orange Institution was established in Portadown to proclaim Protestant ascendancy. The Orange Order was founded as a force for uniting disparate Protestant denominations under one anti-Catholic banner. It was instrumental in creating Northern Ireland in 1921 shortly before the predominantly Catholic rest of Ireland won independence from Britain.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 7/12/99, p.A19)(AP, 7/12/13)

1797        Jul 9, Edmund Burke (b.1729), Irish-born British statesman, parliament leader, died. His writing included “Reflections on the Revolution in France" (1790). In 2013 Jesse Norman authored “Edmund Burke: The First Conservative."
    (WUD, 1994 p.198)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Burke)(Econ, 5/25/13, p.85)

1798        May 24, Believing that a French invasion of Ireland was imminent, Irish nationalists rose up against the British occupation. It was put down by the Orange yeomanry who were enlisted by the government to restore peace. The slogan "Croppies lie down" originated here after some of the rebel Catholics had their hair cropped in the French revolutionary manner.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, p.A15)(HN, 5/24/99)

1798        May 26, British killed about 500 Irish insurgents at the Battle of Tara.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1798        Nov 1, Benjamin Lee Guinness, Irish brewer and Dublin mayor, was born.
    (HN, 11/1/00)(MC, 11/1/01)

1798        Nov 19, Theobald Wolfe Tone, Irish nationalist (United Irishmen), died.
    (MC, 11/19/01)(WSJ, 9/12/02, p.D8)

1798        Lord Edward Fitzgerald, an Irish rebel, was killed. He had fathered a daughter with Elizabeth Linley (d.1792), the wife of Richard Brinsley Sheridan.
    (WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)

1800        Mar 28, The Parliament in Westminster passed an Act of Union formally binding Ireland with England and abolished the Irish parliament. The Act of Union entailed the loss of legislative independence of the Irish Parliament. The Act of Union received royal assent on August 1 and became effective on Jan 1, 1801.
    (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/614673/Act-of-Union)(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)

1800-1850    Thomas Flanagan (d.2002 at 78), Irish-American author, wrote a scholarly work on the Irish novelists of this period: "The Irish Novelists: 1800-1850."
    (SFC, 3/30/02, p.A19)

1801        Jan 1, The Act of Union formally binding Ireland with England and abolishing the Irish parliament, became effective.
    (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/614673/Act-of-Union)(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)

1803        Jul 23, Irish patriots throughout the country rebelled against Union with Great Britain. Robert Emmett led the insurrection in Dublin.
    (HN, 7/23/98)(MC, 7/23/02)

1803        Sep 20, Robert Emmet, Irish nationalist, was executed.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1804        A stone signal tower was built on Clare Island as part of a series along the Irish west coast in fear of an invasion by Napoleon.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T8)

1805         Aug 4, William Rowan Hamilton (d.1865), Irish scientist, was born.
    (HN, 8/4/00)

1812        Jun 18, The War of 1812 began as the United States declared war against Great Britain and Ireland. The term "war hawk" was first used by John Randolph in reference to those Republicans who were pro-war in the years leading up to the War of 1812. These new types of Republicans, who espoused nationalism and expansionism, included Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun. Most of them came from the agrarian areas of the South and West. In 2004 Walter R. Borneman authored “1812: The War That Forged a Nation."
    (AP, 6/18/97)(HN, 6/18/98)(HNQ, 5/13/99)(WSJ, 12/16/04, p.D8)

1820-1920    Some 6 million Irish people, 90% of them Catholic, immigrated to America.
    (WSJ, 10/27/08, p.A15)

1822        Dec 26, Dion Boucicault, Irish-US actor and playwright (Rip van Winkle), was born.
    (MC, 12/26/01)

1824-1877     Julia Kavanagh, Irish novelist: "The slight that can be conveyed in a glance, in a gracious smile, in a wave of the hand, is often the ne plus ultra of art. What insult is so keen or so keenly felt, as the polite insult which it is impossible to resent?"
    (AP, 6/7/97)

1827        Catherine McAuley (1787-1841), founded the Sisters of Mercy in Dublin, Ireland. They engaged chiefly in works of spiritual and corporal mercy. Frances Warde led the sisters out from Ireland. In 2002 John J. Fialka authored "Sisters: Catholic Nuns and the Making of America."
    (WUD, 1994 p.1333)(SSFC, 1/19/03, p.M6)

1829        Daniel O’Connell, an Irish Catholic, took a seat in the House of Commons and began to work for the repeal of the union between Britain and Ireland. Nationalistic sentiments became identified mainly with the Catholics.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)

1832        Mar 12, Charles Boycott, estate manager who caused boycotts, was born in Ireland.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1832        Aug, In Pennsylvania 57 Irish immigrants died of cholera after traveling there to build a railroad. In 2009 their bones were found at a woodsy site known as Duffy's Cut, named after Philip Duffy, who hired the immigrants from Donegal, Tyrone and Derry to help build the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad.
    (AP, 3/25/09)

1837        Jan 11, John Field (54), Irish pianist, composer (Nocturnes), died.
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1838        Sep 11, John Ireland, US archbishop of St. Paul, was born in Ireland.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1839        Cesar Otway wrote "Tour of Connacht."
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T8)

1845        Aug, The Irish potato crop was attacked by the Phytophthora infestans fungus. It was first noticed in County Fermanagh. It blackened the potato leaves and caused the tubers in the ground to putrefy. In this year 40% of the crop was infected.
    (WSJ, 11/13/96, p.A22)(USAT, 1/15/97, p.2D)

1845        Frederick Douglas, African-American statesman, published “The Narrative Life of Frederick Douglass." He then traveled to Ireland where he received a hero’s welcome. Irish nationalist Daniel O’Connell saw common cause between Ireland’s quest for self-rule and the plight of American slaves. British admirers raised money to buy his freedom and he was officially manumitted after Hugh Auld, his alleged owner, received a payment of $711.66.
    (WSJ, 3/13/09, p.W2)(ON, 12/09, p.12)

1845-1846    As Ireland’s potato crop was consumed by blight. The nation’s peasants, who relied on the potato as their primary food source, starved. The famine took as many as one million lives from hunger and disease and caused mass emigration. The British government responded to the calamity too late with too little aid, even though eyewitnesses reported the suffering in the press.
    (HNPD, 3/17/99)

1845-1850    A fungus of the genus Phytophtora caused the Irish potato famine.
    (SFC, 8/1/00, p.A13)

1845-1855    Some 1.5 million people left Ireland and many of them made New York City their home.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.49)

1845-1857    Mary E. Daly, Dublin, covered this period in her essay on potato famine relief: "The Operations of Famine Relief."
    (WSJ, 11/13/96, p.A22)

1845-1998    This period is covered in the 3-part TV series "The Irish in America: Long Journey Home" by Thomas Lennon.
    (WSJ, 1/26/98, p.A16)

1846        Jan 25, The dreaded Corn Laws, which taxed imported oats, wheat and barley, were repealed by the British Parliament in response to the Irish potato famine of 1845. 
    (HN, 1/25/99)(WSJ, 3/29/04, p.A8)

1846        Jun 27, Charles Stewart Parnell (d.1891), Irish nationalist hero, was born.
    (HFA, '96, p.32)(AHD, 1971, p.954)(HN, 6/27/98)

1846        People began starving to death due to the potato famine.
    (USAT, 1/15/97, p.2D)

1847        Nov 8, Bram Stoker, author, was born. His novels included "Dracula" (1897). [see Nov 24]
    (WUD, 1994 p.432)(HN, 11/8/00)

1847        Nov 24, Bram Stoker, Irish theater manager and author (Dracula), was born. [see Nov 8]
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1847        Nov, Dennis Mahon, mayor of Strokestown, was shot dead in an ambush. He had thrown thousands of poor farmers off the land during the famine and had paid to have some 1000 small farmers shipped to North America so he could establish larger farms. He was killed after it was learned that half of the shipped people died enroute.
    (USAT, 1/15/97, p.2D)

1847        Britain passed a Vagrancy Act to combat begging as famine swept Ireland.
    (AP, 11/25/08)
1847        In Ireland a new British Poor Law dumped the cost of relief on the already strapped Irish landlords.
    (WSJ, 1/26/98, p.A1)

1847        The potato harvest was only 10% of normal and some 3 million people (40% of the populace) lined up for free food and soup.
    (USAT, 1/15/97, p.2D)

1848        Jul 29, An Irish rebellion against British rule was put down in a cabbage patch in Tipperary, Ireland. Irish Nationalists under William Smith O'Brien were overcome and arrested.
    (HN, 7/29/98)(WSJ, 5/15/08, p.A15)

1848        In Ireland a group of writers, poets and orators, collectively known as Young Ireland, attempted to spark the Irish people into rebelling against Britain. They included Thomas D’Arcy McGee (1825-1868), who had returned to Ireland from the US to support the cause. A warrant for his arrest forced him to return to the US.
    (WSJ, 5/15/08, p.A15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_D'Arcy_McGee)

1849        Mar 7, William Alexander Coulter (d.1936), maritime artist, was born in Glenariff, Ireland, where his father was captain in the Coast Guard.
    (www.edanhughes.com/biography.cfm?ArtistID=145)

1850        Mar 29, Ireland's SS Royal Adelaide sank in storm and 200 people died.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1850-1859    The 1st recipe for ginger ale was created in Ireland in the 1850s.
    (SFC, 6/29/05, p.F12)

1852        Mar 4, Lady (Isabella Augusta) Gregory, Irish playwright, was born. She helped found the Abbey Theatre.
    (HN, 3/4/01)

1852        Sep 30, Charles Villiers Stanford, Irish organist and composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/30/01)

1854        Oct 16, Oscar Wilde (born as Fingal O'Flahertie Wills, d.1900), dramatist, poet, novelist and critic, was born in Dublin. His work included "The Picture of Dorian Gray."  "Anybody can make history. Only a great man can write it." [see 1856-1900]
    (HN, 10/16/98)(AP, 2/16/99)(MC, 10/16/01)

1854        The first lighthouse on Fastnet rock off of southwest Ireland was completed. Work on a replacement began in 1896. In 2004 James Morrissey authored “A History of the Fastnet Lighthouse."
    (Econ, 12/20/08, p.100)

1854        Five Sisters of Presentation (f.1776) arrived in San Francisco from Ireland to teach the children of miners.
    (SFC, 11/12/04, p.F11)

1856        Jul 26, George Bernard Shaw (d.1950), Irish-born, English dramatist, critic and social reformer (Pygmalion-Nobel 1925), was born in Dublin. "The worst sin toward our fellow creatures is not to hate them, but to be indifferent to them; that's the essence of inhumanity."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.237)(HN, 7/26/98)(AP, 3/15/00)

1856-1900    Oscar Wilde, English [Irish] writer, poet and dramatist, a rebel of every kind, ended up playing the part of a mocking fool. He despaired of his countrymen ever waking up, but they did, for they became enraged by his mockery and jailed him, ruining his life. He wrote the play "The Importance of Being Ernest." He was found guilty of violating the Criminal Law Amendment Act which prohibited indecent relations between consenting adult males. He served 2 years in prison where he read the whole of Dante and wrote the letter "De Profundis," and the poem "The Ballad of Reading Gaol." "At every single moment of one's life one is what one is going to be no less than what one has been." [see 1854]
    (V.D.-H.K.p.279)(HT, 3/97, p.71)(AP, 10/10/99)

1857        Dec 17, Sir Francis Beaufort (b.1774), Irish-born hydrogapher, died in London. In 2004 Scott Huler authored “Defining the Wind: The Beaufort Scale, and How a Nineteenth-Century Admiral Turned Science into Poetry."
    (NH, 11/1/04, p.51)

1858        Mar 17, The Fenian Brotherhood, a brigade of the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB), a secret revolutionary group, was founded in Dublin by James Stephens. John O'Mahony headed the IRB's American wing, popularly known as the Fenian Brotherhood, which was composed of immigrants and Irish Americans whose ultimate goal was to free Ireland from British rule.
    (HNQ, 4/17/01)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fenian)

1858        Aug 5, Cyrus W. Field completed the first transatlantic cable. It linked Newfoundland to Ireland. The line went completely dead in October. William Thompson oversaw the operation at sea aboard the HMS Agamemnon, which laid half the cable. The other half was laid by the USS Niagara. The cables had been spliced at a central meeting point on June 26. A new attempt to lay newly designed cable failed in 1865. Another attempt in 1866 succeeded.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/cable/peopleevents/e_inquiry.html)(AP, 8/5/08)(ON, 10/10, p.2)

1864        Sep 1, Roger David Casement, Irish nationalist (Easter uprising 1916), was born.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1864        George Boole, Irish mathematician and inventor of Boolean algebra, died.
    (SFC, 12/2/97, p.C3)

1865        Jun 13, William Butler Yeats (d.1939), Irish poet and playwright, was born to an Anglo-Irish family in a Dublin suburb. He is best remembered for his poems "Byzantium" and "Easter 1916." He won the Nobel Prize in 1923. The first volume of his autobiography was "Reveries Over Childhood and Youth" (1915). Richard Ellman published a biography in 1948. The book "W.B. Yeats: A Life, Vol. 1: The Apprentice Mage 1865-1914," by R.F. Foster covered this period of Yeats’ life. "The Lake Isle of Innisfree" is his best known poem. "Too long a sacrifice / Can make a stone of the heart. / O when may it suffice?"
    (V.D.-H.K.p.365)(WSJ, 4/2397, p.A1)(AP, 4/29/98)(HN, 6/13/98)(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T6)(MC, 6/13/02)

1865        Sep 2, William Rowan Hamilton, Ireland's greatest man of science who made contributions in the study of optics and applications of algebra to geometry, died.
    (Internet)

1865        Dec 20, Maude Gonne, Irish nationalist (Irish Joan of Arc), was born.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1865-1914    The book "W.B. Yeats: A Life, Vol. 1: The Apprentice Mage," by R.F. Foster covered this period of Yeats’ life. "The Lake Isle of Innisfree" is his best known poem.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, BR p.6)

1865-1939    William Butler Yeats, Irish poet and playwright. The first volume of his autobiography was "Reveries Over Childhood and Youth" (1915). Richard Ellman published a biography in 1948. "Too long a sacrifice / Can make a stone of the heart. / O when may it suffice?"
    (V.D.-H.K.p.365)(WSJ, 4/2397, p.A1)(AP, 4/29/98)

1866        Jun 2, Renegade Irish Fenians surrendered to US forces.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1867        Mar 5, An abortive Fenian uprising against English rule took place in Ireland. The unsuccessful rebellion by the Irish Republican Brotherhood, known as the Fenians, gave Australia it final generation of convicts. The 1999 book "The Great Shame and the Triumph of the Irish in the English-Speaking World" by Thomas Keneally tells the story of the Irish shipped to Australia.
    (AP, 3/5/98)(SFEC, 9/26/99, BR p.1,6)

1867        Apr 10, A.E. (George William Russell), Irish poet and mystic, was born.
    (HN, 4/10/01)

1867        Jun 17, John Robert Gregg, inventor (shorthand), was born in Ireland.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1867            Oct 31, William Parson (b.1800), 3rd Earl of Rosse and maker of large telescopes, died. Parsons, an Irish astronomer, built the largest reflecting telescope of the 19th century. He learned to polish metal mirrors (1827) and spent the next few years building a 36-inch telescope. He later completed a giant 72-inch telescope (1845) which he named "Leviathan," It remained the largest ever built until decades after his death. He was the first to resolve the spiral shape of objects, previously seen as only clouds, which were much later identified as galaxies independent of our own Milky Way galaxy and millions of light-years away. His first such sighting was made in 1845, and by 1850 he had discovered 13 more. In 1848, he found and named the Crab Nebula (he thought it resembled a crab), by which name it is still known.
    (www.todayinsci.com)

1867        Dec 13, The Clerkenwell bombing killed 12 people. It was an attempt to free Richard O’Sullivan-Burke, a senior Fenian arms agent, and was the most infamous action carried out by the Fenians in Britain.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Barrett_%28Fenian%29)

1868        Apr 7, Thomas D’Arcy McGee, Irish patriot and author, was shot and killed in Ottawa, Canada. Patrick J. Whelan, a Fenian sympathizer, was accused, tried, convicted, and hanged for the crime. In 2008 David A. Wilson authored Thomas D’Arcy McGee: Passion, Reason and Politics 1825-1857."
    (WSJ, 5/15/08, p.A15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_D'Arcy_McGee)

1868        May 26, Michael Barrett, Irish nationalist, was executed for his part in the 1867 Clerkenwell bombing. This was the last British public execution.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Barrett_%28Fenian%29)

1870        William Robinson (1838-1935), Irish gardener and journalist, authored “The Wild Garden." His most famous contribution to gardening was his book The English Flower Garden, (1883).
    (www.theearthlyparadise.com/2008/02/william-robinson-and-wild-garden.html)(SFC, 11/19/08, p.G8)

1871        Apr 16, John Millington Synge (d.1909), dramatist and poet, was born in Ireland.
    (HN, 4/16/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Millington_Synge)

1871        John Tyndall, Irish scientist, authored “Fragments of Science." He was in effect the first science popularizer.
    (WSJ, 4/14/07, p.P10)

1874        Dion Boucicault, Irish playwright, authored "The Shaughraun." It was a serious picture of oppressed Ireland and a satirical take on human folly.
    (WSJ, 11/18/98, p.A20)

1880        Feb 9, James Stephens (d.1950), Irish poet and novelist, was born. His work included "The Charwoman's Daughter" and "The Crock of Gold." "Originality does not consist in saying what no one has ever said before, but in saying exactly what you think yourself."
    (AP, 5/21/99)(HN, 2/9/01)

1880        Mar 30, Sean O'Casey (d. 1964), Irish playwright, was born. "It is my rule never to lose me temper till it would be detrimental to keep it."
    (AP, 3/17/00)(HN, 3/30/01)

1880        Irish tenant farmers, seeking rent cuts after poor harvests, staged a protest and refused to respond to eviction notices from estate manager Charles Boycott [see 1897].
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1882        Feb 2, James Joyce (d.1941), Irish novelist and poet was born near Dublin. He wrote "Ulysses" and "Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man." From "Ulysses": "History, Stephen said, is a nightmare from which I am trying to awake." In 1998 John Wyse Jackson and Peter Costello published the biography: "John Stanislaus Joyce: The Voluminous Life and Genius of James Joyce’s Father."
    (AP, 6/22/98)(AP, 2/2/99)(HN, 2/2/99)

1882        Mar 26, Oscar Wilde arrived in SF for a series of lectures. His first lecture on “The English Renaissance," was given the next night at Platt’s Hall at Bush and Montgomery. 
    (SFEC,11/16/97, DB p.3)(SFC, 10/12/12, p.C3)

1882        Oct 14, Eamon DeValera, Taoiseach and President of Ireland (1937-48, 51-54, 57-59), was born in NY.
    (MC, 10/14/01)

1884        Jun 14, John McCormack, Irish-US singer (Irish folksongs), was born.
    (MC, 6/14/02)

1884        The Gaelic Athletic Association was founded in Ireland to promote traditional Irish sports.
    (Econ, 8/6/05, p.45)

1886        Jul 13, Father Edward J. Flanagan, catholic priest, founder of Boys Town, was born in Roscommon, Ireland.
    (AP, 7/13/07)

1886        Many islanders on Aran left after a parish priest sent the message: "Send us boats or send us coffins."
    (SFEC, 1/23/00, p.T9)

1888        Mar 10, Barry Fitzgerald, actor (Acad Award-Going My Way), was born in Dublin, Ireland.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1890        Oct 16, Michael Collins (d.1922), Irish revolutionist, was born.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1890        The Home Rule movement of the Irish Nationalist Party led by Charles Stewart Parnell was set back when his love affair with Katherine O’Shea was revealed in the London Times.
    (WSJ, 9/3/96, p.A14)

1891        Oct 6, Charles Stewart Parnell (b.1846) died in Brighton, England. Irish statesman and leader of the Irish nationalists in the British House of Commons from 1880-‘90, Charles Parnell’s popularity in Ireland was so great that he was called "the uncrowned king of Ireland." Parnell formed a coalition with William Gladstone, who became prime minister and introduced a bill for Irish home rule in 1886. The bill was defeated. In 1890, as a result of a divorce scandal, Parnell was deposed as leader of the Irish nationalists.
    (AP, 10/6/97)(HNQ, 7/20/98)

1891        Oct 11, Charles Stewart Parnell (d.Oct 6) was buried in Ireland.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1892        Jan 1, The US Immigration Service, after two years of construction, opened Ellis Island in New York Harbor, a new facility for "processing" immigrants. Annie Moore (15) of County Cork, Ireland, was the 1st person processed. The new facility replaced Castle Garden, which was closed because of massive overcrowding and corruption. The money changing concession was later granted to American Express to end the cheating of immigrants. Formerly used as a munitions dump and landfill, Ellis Island was designed, its architects claimed, to handle more than 8,000 newcomers a day. Orderly lines funneled bewildered immigrants past doctors and officials who examined them for signs of disease. The physically and mentally ill were refused admittance, forcing thousands of families to make the difficult decision to return home with a relative refused entry or push on without them. A final brusque interview by an immigration official determined whether the newcomers had already been promised jobs. About 80% of those who entered Ellis Island received landing cards permitting them to board ferries for NYC. In the 1890s, 75% of all immigrants entered the US through Ellis Island. It was closed in 1954.
    (AP, 1/1/98)(HNPD, 1/1/99)(AP, 1/1/98)(SFC, 3/21/98, p.E3)(HNPD, 9/18/98)(SFEC, 6/20/99, p.T10)

1892-1983    Dame Rebecca West, Irish author and journalist: "Those who foresee the future and recognize it as tragic are often seized by a madness which forces them to commit the very acts which makes it certain that what they dread shall happen." "There is no such thing as conversation. It is an illusion. There are intersecting monologues, that is all."
    (AP, 9/5/98)(AP, 4/9/99)

1895        Mar, Bridget Cleary (26) disappeared from her home in County Tipperary. Her burned body was found several days later. Her husband, father and several relatives and friends were charged with murder. Prosecutors maintained that she was burned because her husband believed her to be a changeling. In 2000 Angela Bourke authored "The Burning of Bridget Cleary: A True Story," and Joan Hoff and Marion Yeates authored ""The Cooper’s Wife Is Missing: The Trials of Bridget Cleary."
    (SFEC, 9/10/00, BR p.5)

1896        Aug 28, Liam O’Flaherty, Irish novelist, was born.
    (RTH, 8/28/99)

1896        Bewley’s Oriental Cafes opened a shop on Westmoreland Street in Dublin, Ireland. It later became a hangout for James Joyce. It was scheduled to close in 2004.
    (SSFC, 11/14/04, p.F2)
1896        Irish poet W.B. Yeats met Irish playwright John Millington Synge in Paris and suggested Synge go and live on the Aran Islands. Synge took his advice and spent years there developing a whole new language for his plays. Synge also spent time on Great Blasket. In 2012 Robert Kanigel authored “On an Irish Island."
    (SSFC, 3/11/12, p.F5)

1897        May 18, An Irish Music Festival was 1st held in Dublin.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1897        Jun 19, Charles Cunningham Boycott (b.Mar 12, 1832) English land agent in Ireland, died in England. He was a faulty estate manager whose tenants "boycotted" him into poverty; when the crops failed and the farmers went broke, he unsympathetically gave them the choice of paying immediately or being evicted. The farmers retaliated and his staff quit. His family was isolated. This tactic gave us the word whose last name became part of the English language.
    (www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Charles-Cunningham-Boycott)

1897        Dec 3, Kate O'Brien, Irish writer (Without My Cloak), was born.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1899        Jun 7, Elizabeth Bowen (d.1973), Irish-British novelist and short story writer (The Death of the Heart), was born in Dublin. "One can live in the shadow of an idea without grasping it." "The charm, one might say the genius of memory, is that it is choosy, chancy and temperamental: it rejects the edifying cathedral and indelibly photographs the small boy outside, chewing a hunk of melon in the dust."
    (AP, 4/19/97)(AP, 8/5/97)(HN, 6/7/01)

1900        Feb 22, Sean O’Faolain, Irish short story writer, was born.
    (HN, 2/22/01)

1900        Nov 30, Irish author Oscar Wilde (b.1856) died in Paris.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.279)(AP, 11/30/97)

1900        The US Navy commissioned its first submarine, the USS Holland, for $150,000. It was named after the Irish inventor John Holland. His first sub was the Fenian Ram, paid for by Irish rebels hoping to challenge British control of the seas.
    (SFEC, 8/11/96, zone 1, p.6)(WSJ, 4/28/00, p.W17)

1902        The British enacted a law that froze the number of pubs at the existing level to help reduce drinking.
    (WSJ, 3/17/99, p.A1)

1903-1966    Michael O’Donovan (aka Frank O’Connor), Irish writer, was born in Cork. His work included "The Big Fellow: Michael Collins & The Irish Revolution."
    (SFEM, 5/24/98, p.11)

1904        Jan 25, J.M. Synge's "Riders to the Sea," premiered in Dublin. [see Feb 25]
    (MC, 1/25/02)

1904        Feb 25, J.M. Synge's play "Riders to the Sea" opened in Dublin. [see Jan 25]
    (HN, 2/25/01)

1904        Apr 27, Cecil Day-Lewis, Irish poet, father of actor Daniel Day-Lewis, was born.
    (HN, 4/27/01)

1904        Jun 16, Bloomsday. The 1922 novel “Ulysses" by James Joyce was set on this day. It charts the wanderings of Leopold Bloom and Stephen Dedalus among Dublin streets and beaches, museums and galleries, pubs and brothels through the ebb and tide of their memories and emotions. The "same day that the penniless and Myopic Jimmy Joyce (22) first walked out with the redheaded chambermaid Nora Barnacle," (20) who became his Molly Bloom. In 1988 Brenda Maddox authored "Nora: The Real Life of Molly Bloom."
    (SFC, 6/13/96, p.C6)(SFEC, 10/31/99, BR p.7)(AP, 6/14/04)

1904        Jun 27, The 2nd Fastnet Lighthouse was completed off of southwest Ireland.
    (www.cil.ie/flat_areaEQLlighthousesAMPLighthouseIDEQL18_entry.html)(Econ, 12/20/08, p.98)

1904        Aug 20, Dublin’s Abbey Theatre was founded, an outgrowth of the Irish Literary Theatre founded in 1899 by William Butler Yeats and Lady Gregory.
    (HN, 8/20/00)

1904        Oct 8, James Joyce and Nora Barnacle left together for Switzerland for a job in a Berlitz school that never materialized. They continued on to Pola and then to Trieste where he wrote most of "The Dubliners."
    (SFEM, 1/25/98, p.69)

1904        George Bernard Shaw wrote his play "John Bull’s Other Island," a study of the Irish problem.
    (WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A13)

1905        Nov 28, Arthur Griffith formed Sinn Fein in Dublin. Sinn Fein is Gaelic for "we ourselves," but also for "ourselves alone." This political party became the unofficial political wing of militant Irish groups in their struggle against British rule.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1905-1967    Patrick Kavanaugh, poet, author of "Raglan Road," which Joan Osborne later put to the music of the song "At the Dawning of the Day."
    (WSJ, 3/17/99, p.A24)

1906        Apr 13, Samuel Beckett (d.1989), Irish (French) novelist-playwright, Nobel Prize winner in 1969, (Waiting for Godot), was born. He settled in France and wrote in French and then translated to English. Sometimes he reversed the process. His work included "Act Without Words" (1956), "Happy Days" (1960-61), "Rough for Theater II" (1976), "Catastrophe" (1982) and "What’s There" (1983). Also the prose trilogy "Molloy," "Malone Dies" and "The Unnamable." In 1996 James Knowlson wrote his study of Beckett: "Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett." "We are all born mad. Some of us remain so."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.369)(SFEC, 10/27/96, BR p.5)(HN, 4/13/98)(AP, 10/3/98)

1907        Jan 26, John Millington Synge’s “The Playboy of the Western World" opened at the Abbey Theater in Dublin. Many Irish nationalists found it so offensive that they embarked on a semi-organized campaign to bring down the production.
    (SFC, 12/30/06, p.E1)(www.litencyc.com/php/sworks.php?rec=true&UID=10167)

1907        Oct 17, Guglielmo Marconi began offering limited commercial wireless telegraph service between Nova Scotia and Ireland.
    (AP, 10/17/07)

1909        Mar 24, John Millington Synge (b.1871), Irish dramatist and poet, died in Dublin. He is best known for his play “The Playboy of the Western World," which caused riots during its opening run at the Abbey Theatre.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Millington_Synge)

1910        Oct 28, Francis Bacon (d.1992), English artist who painted expressionist portraits, was born in Dublin to English parents. He had no formal training as an artist. After earning a modest reputation in the 1920s as a modernist interior designer, he began oil painting in 1929. He first established himself as a major in 1944, when his now-famous triptych Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion was exhibited at London’s Tate Gallery.
    (HN, 10/28/98)(MIA, www,1999)

1911        May 17, Maureen O’Sullivan (d.1998), film actress, was born in Boyle, Ireland.
    (SFC, 6/24/98, p.C2)

1911        Oct 5, Flann O’Brien, Irish novelist and playwright, was born. His work included "The Hard Life" and "The Third Policeman."
    (HN, 10/5/00)

1912        Jan 30, The British House of Lords opposed the House of Commons by rejecting home rule for Ireland.
    (HN, 1/30/99)

1912        Apr 20, Bram Stoker, Irish theater manager, writer (Dracula), died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1913        Irish writer Howard Ward authored “The Mystery of Dr. Fu Manchu," his first Fu Manchu novel, under the pen-name Sax Rohmer. It collated various short stories published the preceding year.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Mystery_of_Dr._Fu-Manchu)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.76)

1913        Eamon de Valera (31), mathematics teacher in Dublin, joined the Irish Volunteers, a group that was preparing to use violence to win Ireland’s independence.
    (ON, 9/04, p.5)

1914        Apr 7, British House of Commons passed the Irish Home Rule Bill.
    (HN, 4/7/97)

1914        Jul 20, Armed resistance against British rule began in Ulster.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1914        Jul 27, British troops invaded the streets of Dublin, Ireland, and began to disarm Irish rebels.
    (HN, 7/27/98)

1914        Sep 18, The Irish Home Rule Bill became law, but was delayed until after World War I. The Government of Ireland Act became law. It was an act by the British government to take effect at the end of World War I.
    (WSJ,3/13/95, p.A-15)(HN, 9/18/98)

1915-1939    The book "W.B. Yeats: A Life, Vol. 2: The Arch Poet," by R.F. Foster covered this period of Yeats’ life.
    (WSJ, 11/13/03, p.D8)

1916        Apr 24, Some 1,600 Irish nationalist, the Irish Volunteers, launched the Easter Rising by seizing several key sites in Dublin, including the General Post Office. Eemon de Valera was one of the commandants in the uprising. It was provoked by impatience with the lack of home rule and was put down by British forces several days later. Michael Collins, a member of Sinn Fein, led the guerrilla warfare. 116 soldiers and 16 policemen were slain along with 62 rebels. The 1999 novel "A Star Called Henry" by Roddy Doyle was set in this period. Film footage of the Easter Rising was sold at auction in 2000 for $115,000 to a private Irish resident.
    (WSJ, 10/11/96, p.A8)(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(AP, 4/24/97)(SFEC, 9/19/99, BR p.1)(SFEC, 6/11/00, p.A30)(ON, 9/04, p.5)
1916        re: Apr 24, In "Easter" William Butler Yeats wrote: "All changed, changed utterly: A terrible beauty is born."
    (NOHY, 3/1990, p.212)
1916        re: Apr 24, "The history taught stopped at 1916, they didn’t deal with the war of independence or the civil war." Thus said Neil Jordan, director of the 1996 film "Michael Collins."
    (SFC, 9/22/96, Par p.31)

1916        Apr 28, The British declared martial law throughout Ireland.
    (HN, 4/28/98)

1916        Apr 29, The Easter Rising in Dublin collapsed as Irish nationalists surrendered to British authorities. Irish nationalists set post office on fire in Dublin during Easter Uprising.
    (AP, 4/29/98)(HN, 4/29/98)(MC, 4/29/02)

1916        May 3, Irish nationalist Padraic Pearse and two others were executed by the British for their roles in the Easter Rising.
    (AP, 5/3/97)

1916        Jun 29, Sir Roger David Casement, the Irish-born diplomat knighted by King George V in 1911, was convicted of treason for his role in Ireland's Easter Rebellion, and sentenced to death. He had been caught on an Irish beach during a foiled attempt to 20,000 German rifles.
    (www.firstworldwar.com/bio/casement.htm)(Econ, 7/7/12, p.75)

1916        Jul 1, British court martial was held for the Dublin Easter uprising.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1916        Aug 3, Roger Casement, knighted for his service in the Congo, was hanged at London’s Pentonville Prison for his activities on behalf of Irish independence.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.12)(www.firstworldwar.com/bio/casement.htm)

1916        The 1936 film "The Plough and the Stars" was an adaptation of a Sean O’Casey play. It starred Barbara Stanwyck and Barry Fitzgerald and was directed by John Ford. It was about events in Ireland leading up to the 1916 uprising.
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, DB p.57)

1916-1922    Charlie Dalton later wrote the book "With the Dublin Brigade" that covers this period.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, p.C13)

1917        Feb 8, The British steamship Mantola was torpedoed by a German submarine off the coast of Ireland. All but seven crew members, who drowned when their lifeboat overturned, were rescued by the HMS Laburnum. The ship sank the next day. The British Ministry of War Transport paid a War Risk Insurance Claim for £110,000 (in 1917 value) for silver that was on board when the ship sank. In 2011 Odyssey Marine Exploration discovered the ship.     
    (SFC, 10/11/11, p.A6)(www.shipwreck.net/ssmantola.php)

1917        Jun 15, Great Britain pledged the release of all Irish captured during the Easter Rebellion of 1916.
    (HN, 6/15/98)

1917        Eamon de Valera was released from prison after serving 14 months for his role in the 1916 Irish Easter Uprising. He soon won a seat in the British Parliament representing County Clare, and was elected leader of Sinn Fein and president of the Irish Volunteers.
    (ON, 9/04, p.5)

1917        W.B. Yeats (52) married Bertha Georgie Hyde-Lees (d.1968), his young spirit-medium (25). She became the oracular voice of his philosophy and poetry. In 2002 Ann Saddlemeyer authored "Becoming George: The Life of Mrs. W.B. Yeats."
    (SFEC, 10/31/99, BR p.7)(SSFC, 11/10/02, p.M2)

1918        May 17, British authorities arrested Irish leader Eamon de Valera and other Sinn Fein leaders on suspicion of conspiring with the Germans.
    (ON, 9/04, p.5)

1919        Jan 21, Several IRA members acting independently at Soloheadbeg, in County Tipperary, led by Seán Treacy, Seamus Robinson, Sean Hogan and Dan Breen, attacked and shot two Royal Irish Constabulary officers, Constables James McDonnell and Patrick O'Connell, who were escorting explosives.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_War_of_Independence)

1919        Feb 3, Eamon de Valera, Sinn Fein leader, and 2 other men escaped from England’s Lincoln Jail and made their way home to Ireland.
    (ON, 9/04, p.7)

1919        Apr 5, Eamon de Valera became Taoiseach (prime minister) of Ireland (Dail Eireann).
    (HN, 5/5/97)(MC, 4/5/02)

1919        May 1, Dan O'Herlihy, actor (Fail Safe, Last Starfighter, Robocop), was born in Ireland.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1919        Jun 11, Richard Todd, actor (Dorian Gray, Assassin Yangtze Incident), was born in  Ireland.
    (SC, 6/11/02)
1919        Jun 11, Eamon de Valera, Sinn Fein leader, arrived in NYC where he lived until 1921 raising funds for the nationalist cause in Ireland.
    (ON, 9/04, p.7)

1919        Jun 14, Pilot John William Alcock (1892-1919) and navigator Arthur Witten Brown (1886-1948) took off from St. John’s, Newfoundland, for Clifden, Ireland, on the first nonstop transatlantic flight. The flight lasted 16 hours and 28 minutes and carried the first transatlantic airmail. They won a 10 thousand pound prize, first offered by the Daily Mail in 1913.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Whitten_Brown)(ON, 4/09, p.1)

1919        Jul 15, Iris Murdoch (d.1999), philosopher-novelist, was born in Dublin. She wrote 28 novels and in 1998 published "Existentialists and Mystics," a collection of writings from 1950 to the 1980s. Herein she tried to "recover the moral dimension of art."
    (WSJ, 2/17/98, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_Murdoch)(SFC, 2/9/99, p.A20)

1919        Aug, The British regime banned Ireland’s Sinn Fein.
    (www.thehistorynet.com/mh/blmanagainstempire/)

1919        Sep, The British regime banned the Irish Parliament (Dail Eireann).
    (www.thehistorynet.com/mh/blmanagainstempire/)

1919        Joseph Larmor (1857-1942), Irish mathematician, proposed that the Earth’s magnetic field was generated spontaneously by the swirling of molten metal inside the planet.
    (Econ, 2/3/07, p.81)

1920        Mar 31, British parliament accepted Irish "Home Rule" law.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1920        Dec 23, Ireland was divided into 2 parts, each with its own parliament. An act of British Parliament split Northern Ireland from Ireland.
    (SFC, 6/18/96, p.A8)(MC, 12/23/01)

1920        Another Government of Ireland Act was passed by the British government. This act had a proviso that the reunification of Ireland was an ultimate goal.
    (WSJ,3/13/95, p.A-15)

1921        Feb 18, British troops occupied Dublin.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1921        Feb, The obscenity trial over the publication of James Joyce’s Ulysses in The Little Review , an American literary magazine,  effectively banned publication of Joyce's novel in the United States.
    (http://tinyurl.com/oq9glvj)

1921        Jul 8, Great Britain and Ireland agreed to end hostilities after centuries of strife. In December British and Irish representatives signed a treaty in London providing for creation of an Irish Free State a year later on the same date. Southern Ireland was granted independence and 6 counties in Northern Ireland remained part of the UK.
    (SFC, 10/14/99, p.C5)(AP, 12/6/06)

1921        Aug 17, Maureen O'Hara, actress (Miracle on 34th St), was born in Dublin, Ireland.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1921        Dec 5, The British Empire reached an accord with Sinn Fein; Ireland was to become a free state.
    (HN, 12/5/98)

1921        Dec 6, British and Irish representatives signed a treaty in London providing for creation of an Irish Free State a year later on the same date. The partition created Northern Ireland. [see Jul 8] Ireland’s 26 southern counties became independent from Britain forming the Irish Free State.
    (HN, 12/6/00)(AP, 12/6/06)

1921        Dec 8, Eamon de Valera publicly repudiated the Anglo-Irish Treaty.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

1921        Seamus MacManus authored "The Story of the Irish Race."
    (SFEC, 10/8/00, p.T5)
1921        Michael Collins and statesman Arthur Griffith set up the Irish Free State (the Republic of Ireland). Several northern counties went over to Britain.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)
c1921        Michael Collins, founder of the Irish Volunteers (precursor to the IRA), lost a political fight to Eamon de Valera, who went on to run the country for 50 years.
    (SFC, 9/22/96, Parade p.31)

1922        Apr 14, Irish Republic rebels occupied 4 government courts in Dublin.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1922        Jun 30, Irish rebels in London assassinated Sir Henry Wilson, the British deputy for Northern Ireland.
    (HN, 6/30/98)

1922        Aug 7, The Irish Republican Army cut the cable link between the United States and Europe at Waterville landing station.
    (HN, 8/7/98)

1922        Aug 22, Michael Collins, Irish politician, was killed in an ambush.
    (HN, 8/22/98)

1922        Sep 9, William T. Cosgrave replaced assassinated Irish leader Michael Collins.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1922        Oct 24, Irish Parliament adopted a constitution for an Irish Free State.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1922        Nov 6, King George V proclaimed Irish Free state.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1922        Dec 6, The Irish Free State came into being under terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty.
    (AP, 12/6/08)

1922        The Irish Republican Army refused to accept a separate Northern Ireland under British rule.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.7)

1922        A cease-fire was established.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, p.C4)

1922        Revolutionary Erskine Childers was killed by Irish Free State forces. His son later became president, and his grandson a UN official.
    (SFC, 4/9/96, p.A17)

1923        Feb 9, Brendan Behan, Irish playwright and poet, was born in Dublin, Ireland. His work included "The Hostage" and "The Quare Fellow."
    (HN, 2/9/01)(MC, 2/9/02)

1923        Aug 15, Eamon de Valera was arrested in Irish Free State.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1923        Sep 10, The Irish Free state joined the League of Nations.
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1923        W.B. Yeats wrote his poem "Leda and the Swan."
    (SFEC, 10/31/99, BR p.7)

1923        William Butler Yeats, Irish poet, won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T6)

1924        Mar 3, Sean O'Casey's "Juno and the Paycock" premiered in Dublin.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1924        Mar 19, Charles Villiers Stanford (71), Irish composer, author, died.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1924        Mar 29, Charles Villiers Stanford (71), Irish composer, writer, died.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1925        Aug, The first Fastnet race, with seven entries, was won by the Jolie Brise. The race starts off Cowes on the Isle of Wight in England, rounds the Fastnet Rock off the southwest coast of Ireland and then finishes at Plymouth in the South of England.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fastnet_race)

1925-1961    In Ireland 796 babies and toddlers were buried in a septic tank at a home for unmarried mothers in Tuam County, Galway. This was reported in 2014 and put the government under pressure to launch an investigation.
    (SSFC, 6/8/14, p.A4)(SFC, 6/9/14, p.A2)(Econ, 6/14/14, p.48)

1926        Feb 8, Sean O'Casey's "Plough & Stars" opened at Abbey Theater Dublin.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1926        Apr 7, Mussolini's Irish wife broke his Italian nose.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1926        May 16, In Ireland Eamon de Valera founded the Fianna Fail party. It emerged from a split among those in the Sinn Fein Party, who had rejected the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921.
    (www.ucd.ie/archives/html/collections/fiannafail.htm)

1927        Mar, J.W. Dunne (1875-1949), Irish engineer and author, published his essay “An Experiment with Time" on the subjects of precognition and the human experience of time. His theory suggested that in reality all time is eternally present, that is, that past, present and future are all happening together in some way. Human consciousness, however, experiences this simultaneity in linear form. It was very widely read, and his ideas were later promoted by several other authors, in particular by J. B. Priestley. Other books by J. W. Dunne are The Serial Universe, The New Immortality, and Nothing Dies.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/An_Experiment_with_Time)

1928        May 4, Thomas Kinsella, Irish poet, was born.
    (HN, 5/4/01)

1928        May 24, William Trevor, Irish short story writer and novelist (The Old Boys, The Boarding House), was born.
    (HN, 5/24/01)

1928        Jul 4, Stephen Boyd, [William Millar], actor (Fantastic Voyage, Ben-Hur), was born in Ireland.
    (MC, 7/4/02)

1928        In Dublin, Ireland, the Gate Theater playhouse was founded by Michael MacLiammoir and Hilton Edwards.
    (WSJ, 8/5/96, p.A10)(SFEM, 9/10/00, p.26)

1929        Tomas O Criomhthain of Great Blasket Island authored “The Islandman." It became an instant classic of Gaelic and a sensation following its translation to English.
    (SSFC, 3/11/12, p.F5)
1929        The 1st int'l. festival of dance was held in Paris. Lucia Joyce (22), daughter of James Joyce, qualified as one of the 6 finalists. Her beau was Samuel Beckett. Lucia (d.1982) spent her last 30 years in a mental hospital in England. In 2003 Carol Loeb Shloss authored "Lucia Joyce: To Dance in the Wake."
    (SSFC, 12/21/03, p.M3)

1930        Mar 30, David Staple, joint president of the Council of Churches for Britain and Ireland, was born.
    (MC, 3/30/02)

1932        Mar 9, Eamon De Valera was elected Taoiseach (prime minister) of Ireland and pledged to abolished all loyalty to the British Crown.
    (HN, 3/9/98)(http://www.clarelibrary.ie/)

1932        Mar 23, Britain warned Ireland that the loyalty oath was mandatory.
    (HN, 3/23/98)

1932        May 20, Amelia Earhart took off from Newfoundland to become the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic. Because of weather and equipment problems, Earhart set down in Northern Ireland after 13 ½ hours instead of her intended destination, France.
    (HFA, '96, p.30)(HN, 5/20/01)(AP, 5/20/07)(ON, 12/07, p.9)

1932        Jun 5, Christy Brown, Irish novelist and poet (My Left Foot), was born.
    (HN, 6/5/01)

1932        Aug 2, Peter O'Toole, actor (Lord Jim, Beckett, Lawrence  of Arabia), was born in Ireland.
    (HN, 8/2/00)(MC, 8/2/02)

1932        Fianna Fail, led by Irish premier Eamon de Valera, won a majority in the Dail Eireann, the Irish legislative assembly.
    (ON, 9/04, p.7)

1937        Jul 22, Irish premier Eamon de Valera won elections. Valera served as prime minister of Ireland until 1948. he served again from 1951-1954, and again from 1957-1959.
    (MC, 7/22/02)(ON, 9/04, p.7)

1937        Dec 29, Ireland’s new constitution came into force. The Irish Free State became Eire. The constitution included language that made blasphemy a criminal offense.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_Ireland)(SFC, 1/4/10, p.A2)

1938        May 4, Douglas Hyde, a protestant, became the 1st president of Eire.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1938        Jul 18, Douglas "Wrong Way" Corrigan arrived in Ireland. He had left NY for Calif. [see Jul 17]
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1939-1945    Ireland stayed neutral during WWII. It barred the Allies’ Atlantic convoys from sheltering in Irish ports, refused to accept Jewish refugees from continental Europe, and maintained cordial diplomatic relations with both Germany and Japan. Nearly 5,000 men deserted its armed forces to fight for Britain.
    (SFC, 5/8/13, p.A2)   

1939        Apr 13, Seamus Heaney, Irish poet, Nobel laureate (1995), was born.
    (HN, 4/13/01)

1939        Jun, In Britain 50 letter bombs exploded in postboxes and post offices in London, Birmingham and Manchester. The IRA claimed responsibility as part of their S-Plan campaign.
    (Econ, 11/6/10, p.74)

1939        Jul 27, Michael Longley, Irish poet, was born.
    (HN, 7/27/01)

1939        Sep 2, Ireland’s Taoiseach de Valera told the lower house of parliament that neutrality was the best policy for the country. The Irish constitution was amended to allow the Government to take emergency powers, and then the Emergency Powers Act 1939 was passed that included censorship of the press and mail correspondence. In 2007 Clair Wills authored “The neutral Island: A cultural History of Ireland during the Second World War."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Emergency)

1939        Nov 18, The Irish Republican Army exploded three bombs in Picadilly Circus.
    (HN, 11/18/98)

1939        Dec 8, James Galway, flutist (18k gold flute, Royal Phil), was born in Belfast, Ireland.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

1939        James Joyce had his book "Finnegan's Wake" published by Viking.
    (SFC, 12/9/99, p.B1)

1939        William Butler Yeats, Irish-born poet, died in Southern France at age 73. He was taken home to Ireland in 1949. In 1999 Brenda Maddux published "Yeats's Ghosts: The Secret Life of W.B. Yeats."
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T6)

1940        May 28, Maeve Binchy, Irish writer (Circle of Friends, The Copper Beach), was born.
    (HN, 5/28/01)

1940s-1950s    The Magdalene Laundries were a church-run social service for "fallen" or discarded women during this period. In 1994 Joni Mitchell recorded a song about them on her "Turbulent Indigo" album.
    (WSJ, 3/17/99, p.A24)

1941        Jan 13, James Joyce, Irish-born novelist, died in Zurich, Switzerland. In 1983 Richard Ellmann authored the 900-page "James Joyce" biography. In 1999 Edna O'Brien authored the pocket bio "James Joyce."
    (AP, 1/13/98)(SFC, 12/9/99, p.B1)

1942        May 19, Sir Joseph Larmor (b.1857), professor of mathematics, died in Ireland. His contributions bridged the old and the new physics. He published three papers all entitled “A dynamical theory of the electric and luminiferous medium" between 1894 and 1897. These papers presented his theory of the electron, which gained further weight in 1897 when J J Thomson experimentally identified the electron.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y9y5wg)(WSJ, 10/13/06, p.A13)

1944        Jan 28, U-271 & U-571 sank off Ireland.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1944        Feb 9, U-734 and U-238 sank off Ireland.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1944        Feb 11, U-424 sank off Ireland.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1944        Feb 19, U-264 sank off Ireland.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1944        Mar 10, The Irish refused to oust all Axis envoys and denied the accusation of spying on Allied troops.
    (HN, 3/10/98)

1944        Mar 12, Great Britain barred all travel to neutral Ireland, which was suspected of collaborating with Nazi Germany.
    (HN, 3/12/99)

1944        May 21, Mary Bourke Robinson, first woman president of Ireland (1990-1997), was born.
    (HN, 5/21/01)

1945        May 3, Ireland’s PM Eamon de Valera conveyed official condolences to diplomat Eduard Hempel. Pres. Douglas Hyde also visited German diplomat Eduard Hempel, a day after Ireland received reports of Hitler's death. Documents confirming Hyde’s visit were made public in 2005.
    (AP, 12/30/05)

1945        Aug 31, Van Morrison, singer (Here Comes the Night), was born in Belfast, Ireland.
    (YN, 8/31/99)

1945        Kevin Roche, architect, graduated following studies in Dublin. He pursued postgraduate work at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago after briefly working for firms in Dublin and London. In 1950, he joined Eero Saarinen and Associates, becoming the firm's principal associate from 1954 until Saarinen's death in 1961.
    (HNQ, 1/28/01)

1947        May 18, John Bruton, Prime Minister (Republic of Ireland), was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1947        The first airport duty-free store opened at Shannon Airport, Ireland.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1948        Dec 21, The state of Eire (formerly the Irish Free State) declared its independence.
    (AP, 12/21/97)

1949        Feb 10, Elections in Northern Ireland showed that at least 2/3 of the population favored continued union with Great Britain.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1166)

1949        Apr 17, At midnight 26 counties officially left the British Commonwealth. A 21-gun salute on O'Connell Bridge, Dublin, ushered in the Republic of Ireland.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1949_in_Ireland)

1949        Apr 18, The Republic of Ireland withdrew from the British Commonwealth and was officially proclaimed in Dublin on the anniversary of the 1916 Easter rebellion. King George VI sent his good wishes.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1166)(AP, 4/18/97)(HN, 4/18/98)

1949        May 17, The British house of commons adopted the Ireland Bill that recognized the independence of the Republic of Ireland, but affirmed the position of Northern Ireland within the United Kingdom.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1166)

1950        Jul 26, George Bernard Shaw (5.1856), Irish-born, English dramatist, critic and social reformer, died. Michael Holroyd later authored a 3-volume biography of Shaw.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.237)(HN, 7/26/98)(SFEC, 3/5/00, DB p.4)

1950        Nov 2, George Bernard Shaw (94), Irish author (Pygmalion), died. [see Jul 26]
    (MC, 11/2/01)

1951        Dec 23, Benito Lynch (66), Irish-Argentine writer (Palo Verde), died.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1951-1954    Eamon De Valera (b.1882) served his 2nd of 3 terms as Taoiseach (prime minister) of Ireland.
    (http://www.clarelibrary.ie/)(ON, 9/04, p.7)

1952        May 16, Pierce Brosnan, actor (Remington Steele, Golden Eye), was born in County Meath, Ireland.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1953        The last 21 residents of Ireland’s Great Blasket Island were repatriated to the mainland.
    (SSFC, 3/11/12, p.F5)

1955        Jan 20, Joe Doherty, IRA activist (jailed in US), was born in Ireland.
    (MC, 1/20/02)

1955        Norris (1925-2004) and Ross McWhirter (1925-1975) co-created the Guinness Book of Records as a book for settling bar bets on a commission from the Irish Guinness brewery.
    (WSJ, 4/21/04, p.A1)

1956        Liam Clancy (1935-2009) emigrated to the US from Ireland to join elder brothers Tom and Patrick in NYC, who were singing on the side as they pursued careers as Broadway actors. They recorded an album of Irish rebel songs and grew a NYC following, together with Tommy Makem, as the Clancy Brothers. Their appearance on the Ed Sullivan show in 1961 turned them into an Irish-American folk phenomenon.
    (SFC, 12/7/09, p.C4)

1956        A Vogue magazine article made famous the wool sweaters of Aran.
    (SFEC, 1/23/00, p.T10)

1957        Mar 5, Eamon de Valera's Fianna Fail-party won election in Ireland. DeValera (1882-1975) was elected Taoiseach (prime minister) and served his 3rd term as PM.
    (MC, 3/5/02)(www.apostles.com/devalera.html)(ON, 9/04, p.7)

1957        Jul 8, Irish premier Eamon de Valera arrested Sinn-Fein leaders.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1958        Jul 16, Michael Flatley, Irish choreographer (Lord of Dance), was born in Chicago, Ill.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1959        Jun 17, Eamon de Valera was elected president of Ireland.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1959        Sean Lemass became prime minister of Ireland.
    (AP, 6/13/06)
1959        In Ireland the first modern special economic zone (SEZ) was set up at Shannon Airport. The idea took off in the 1980s as China embraced them.
    (Econ., 4/4/15, p.65)

1961        Jul 31, Ireland formally applied for membership in the European Community.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1961/index_en.htm)

1961        Ireland’s PM Sean Lemass made his son-in-law, Charles J. Haughey, a Cabinet minister.
    (AP, 6/13/06)

1962        Nov, The Chieftains were founded by Paddy Moloney in northern Dublin as a traditional Irish band.
    (WSJ, 3/17/98, p.A16)

1962        In Ireland the Dubliners folk band formed in the Dublin pub O'Donoghue's. The founders included Barney McKenna (1939-2012), Ronnie Drew (d.2008), Ciaran Bourke (d.1988) and Luke Kelly (d.1984).
    (AP, 4/6/12)
1962        In Dublin Gay Byrne began hosting "The Late Late Show" on the new state run RTE TV station. Byrne retired after 37 years.
    (SFC, 5/22/99, p.A14)

1963        Jun 27, Pres. Kennedy spent his 1st full day in Ireland.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1964        Mar 20, Brendan Behan (41), Irish writer, poet, died.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1964        Sep 18, Sean O'Casey, Irish playwright (Playboy of Western World), died at 84.
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1966        Mar 8, An IRA bomb destroyed Nelson Column in Dublin.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelson%27s_Pillar)

1966        Seamus Heaney (b.1939), Irish poet (1995 Nobel laureate), authored his collection of verse “Death of a Naturalist."
    (Econ, 4/15/06, p.82)

1966-1973    Jack Lynch served his 1st term as prime minister (Taoiseach).
    (SFC, 10/22/99, p.B7)

1967        May 11, The United Kingdom re-applied to join the European Community. It is followed by Ireland and Denmark and, a little later, by Norway. General de Gaulle is still reluctant to accept British accession.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1967/index_en.htm)

1967        Oct 10, Brendan Behan's "Borstal Boy," premiered in Dublin.
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1967        Educational reform guaranteed the country’s youth a free secondary-school education.
    (WSJ, 12/5/96, p.A16)

1968        May 25, "Unicorn" by The Irish Rovers hit #7.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1969        Oct, The Nobel prize in Literature was awarded to Irish writer Samuel Beckett (1906-1989). He learned of the award while on holiday in Tunisia and avoided the ceremony.
    (WSJ, 7/11/97, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Beckett)

1969-1996    3,200 people have been killed in the political struggle in Northern Ireland.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)

1970        In Northern Ireland the Irish Republican Army (IRA) split between more Marxist officials and soon-to-be dominant Provisionals.
    (SSFC, 9/14/03, p.M3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_Republicanism_in_Northern_Ireland)

1970-2000    This period in Irish history was later covered by 2007 R.F. Foster in his “Luck & the Irish: A Brief History of Change 1970-2000."
    (Econ, 10/20/07, p.116)

1971        Samuel Beckett (1906-1989), Irish-born playwright, authored his play "Not I." Beckett spent most of his life in Paris and in 1969 he won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (SFEC, 1/17/99, BR p.7)(www.imagi-nation.com/moonstruck/clsc7.htm)

1972        Jan 22, Britain, Denmark, Ireland and Norway joined the European Economic Community.
    (AP, 1/22/02)

1973        Jan 1, The European Economic Community (EEC), the forerunner to the EU, admitted Britain, Ireland and Denmark even though they made chocolate containing a small percentage of vegetable fat.
    (WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A22)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_European_Union)

1973        Feb 22, Elizabeth Bowen (b.1899), Irish-British novelist and short story writer, died. Her books included “A Time in Rome" (1959).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_Bowen)(WSJ, 6/14/08, p.W10)

1973        Mar 28, The Irish Navy caught Joe Cahill (1920-2004) as he tried to smuggle 5 tons of Russian-made explosives, guns and ammunition from Libya.
    (SFC, 7/26/04, p.B4)(http://tinyurl.com/5lfwh2)

1973        Shaun Herron (1912-1989), Ireland-born author, authored “The Whore-Mother," a novel about the Troubles in Northern Ireland.
    (WSJ, 10/28/06, p.P12)(www.mhs.mb.ca/docs/people/herron_s.shtml)
1973        Louise O'Keeffe (9) was sexually abused by a lay teacher at a state-backed Roman Catholic school during lessons in his classroom. She later argued that the Irish state failed to put in place appropriate measures to stop "systematic abuse" at the Dunderrow National School.
    (AP, 1/28/14)

1973-1974    Erskine Hamilton Childers (1905-1974) served as the 4th president of Ireland.
    (SFC, 4/9/96, p.A17)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erskine_Hamilton_Childers)

1973-1989    In north Dublin, Ireland, Ray Burke, a Fianna Fail lawmaker, was accused in 2002 of corruption and taking some $300,000 in payments from property developers during this period.
    (SSFC, 9/29/02, p.F6)

1974        Mar 12, Billy Fox (b.1939), Protestant Dublin MP, was assassinated.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billy_Fox_(politician))

1974        Nov 25, Irish Republican Army was outlawed in Britain following deaths of 21. IRA bombs in British pubs killed 28 and wounded over 200 in the last 2 months.
    (MC, 11/25/01)(WSJ, 3/12/04, p.A11)

1974        Eisaku Sato (b.1901), premier of Japan, and Ireland’s Sean MacBride, president of the Int’l. Peace Bureau, won the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (www.almaz.com/nobel/nobel.html)

1975        Aug 29,  Eamon de Valera (92), Irish president (1937-59), died near Dublin. De Valera was born in NYC (1882) and emigrated to Ireland as a child and joined the Easter Rebellion of 1916 against British rule. He was saved from execution because of his American citizenship, and was released under a general amnesty in 1917.
    (AP, 8/29/97)(ON, 9/04, p.7)

1975        Oct 12, Archbishop Oliver Plunkett (1625-1681) became the 1st Irish-born saint in 700 years. He was  beheaded by Cromwell's troops.
    (www.archatl.com/parishes/saintoliverplunkett_snellville.html)

1975        The film "Barry Lyndon" by Stanley Kubrick featured the music of the Chieftains of Ireland.
    (WSJ, 3/17/98, p.A16)

1975        Tony Ryan (1921-2007), Irish-born aviation entrepreneur, set up Guinness Peat Aviation with money from Air Lingus, bankers in London and some of his own cash. GPA rented planes to airlines around the world. Its IPO in 1992 stumbled and General Electric Co. picked up most of the company at a bargain price.
    (WSJ, 10/6/07, p.A17)

1976        Jul 3, Shane Lynch, Irish singer (Boyzone), was born in Dublin, Ireland.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shane_Lynch)

1976        The rock band U2 initially formed in Dublin when Larry Mullen Jr. posted a message on a high school bulletin board asking for fellow musicians to form a band. Paul Hewson, David Evans, Adam Clayton and Dick Evans responded to the ad and it was at this stage along with Larry Mullen Jr. that the band 'Feedback' was formed.
    (WSJ, 12/28/04, p.D8)(http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~omzig/u2_the_band.htm)

1976        Iceland won a cod war and prohibited foreign vessels from shipping within 200 miles of its borders.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1977        Jan 23, Ireland set its fishing zone at 200 miles.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3atw5c)

1977        May 14, Capt. Robert Nairac (29), an underground British soldier, was abducted from a border pub by an IRA gang, taken across the border into a Republic of Ireland forest, and shot through the head. In 2008 the Police Service of Northern Ireland press office confirmed the arrest of Kevin Crilly (57), an IRA veteran, on suspicion of involvement in Nairac's killing.
    (AP, 5/20/08)

1977        Iris Murdoch (1919-1999), Irish born writer and philosopher, authored "The Fire and the Sun: Why Plato Banished the Artists." In 1994 Murdoch was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Disease. In 1998 her husband, John Bayley, published "Elegy for Iris."
    (WSJ, 2/17/98, p.A20)

1977        In northeast Ireland mining of a large deposit of zinc ore began at Navan. Mining employed about 1% of the Irish labor force.
    (www.mbendi.co.za/indy/ming/ldzc/eu/ir/p0005.htm)

1977-1979    Jack Lynch (d.1999 at 82) served his 2nd term as prime minister (Taoiseach).
    (SFC, 10/22/99, p.B7)

1978        Hugh Leonard (b.1926), Irish dramatist and journalist, won the Tony Award for best play for his comedy play: "Da" (1977).
    (www.imdb.com/title/tt0094934/)

1979        Aug 27, British war hero Lord Louis Mountbatten was killed off the coast of Ireland in his 29-foot sail boat in Sligo, Ireland; the Irish Republican Army claimed responsibility. Also killed were his 14-year-old grandson Nicholas, 83-year-old Lady Brabourne, and 15-year-old John Maxwell. Thomas McMahon (31) was the bombmaker and was jailed at Dublin’s Mountjoy prison. He was released in 1998 as part of the Northern Ireland peace agreement.
    (AP, 8/27/97)(SFC, 8/8/98, p.A13)(HN, 8/27/98)

1979        Sep 29, John Paul II became the first pope to visit Ireland as he arrived for a three-day tour.
    (AP, 9/29/99)

1979        Dec 11, Charles J. Haughey (1925-2006) was elected in Ireland as Taoiseach and leader of Fianna Fail. He led 3 administrations 1979-1981, 1982, and 1987-1992. In 2000 he agreed to pay $1.23 million in back taxes for gifts received while in office.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Haughey)(SFC, 4/4/00, p.A12)

1979        PM Charles J. Haughey made contraception available to married couples, with a doctor's prescription, despite the opposition of the Catholic hierarchy.
    (AP, 6/13/06)

1979        Aug 13-1979 Aug 14, A force 9 gale off the southwest coast of Ireland left 15 yachtsmen of the 28th Fastnet Race dead.
    (Econ, 12/20/08, p.98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1979_Fastnet_race)

1979-1996    During this period Ireland’s PM Charles J. Haughey took some 11.56 million euros in payments for favors.
    (Econ, 10/20/07, p.117)

1980        Apr 18, In Lebanon three UN peacekeepers were kidnapped. Derek Smallhorne and Thomas Barrett of Ireland were subsequently murdered and John O’Mahony seriously wounded. In 2014 a Mahmoud Bazzi (71), a suspect in the killings, agreed to return to Lebanon from Detroit, where he was living without proper documentation.
    (SFC, 8/12/14, p.A4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/At_Tiri_Incident)

1980        Dec 18, IRA's Sean McKenna became critically ill and ended his hunger strike.
    (www.pittsburghirish.org/AOHDiv32/Hungerstrike.htm)

1981        Feb 14, In Ireland a blaze in a Dublin dance hall killed 48 people.
    (AP, 10/10/15)

1981        Apr 8, The short play "Rockaby" by Samuel Beckett (1906-1989), Irish novelist and playwright, premiered in Buffalo, NY.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rockaby)

1981        Apr 10, Imprisoned IRA hunger striker Bobby Sands was elected to the British Parliament.
    (HN, 4/10/98)

1981        May 5, Irish Republican Army hunger-striker Bobby Sands, an elected member of the Irish Parliament, died at the Maze Prison in Northern Ireland on his 66th day without food.
    (SFC, 11/15/96, p.B2)(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(AP, 5/5/97)

1981        July, Garret Fitzgerald (1926-2011), former Irish foreign minister (1973-1977), began serving his first term as Ireland’s Taoiseach at the head of a minority Fine Gael-Labour government. He served a 2nd term from 1982-1987.
    (Econ, 5/28/11, p.91)
   
1982        Mar 9, Charles J. Haughey was chosen as Premier of Ireland. Haughey later admitted that he received secret payments from businessmen, that included Ben Dunne, during a period of national recession.
    (HN, 3/9/98)(SFC, 12/10/99, p.AA4)

1982        Jul 20, Irish Republican Army bombs exploded in two London parks, killing 11 British soldiers, along with seven horses belonging to the Queen’s Household Cavalry. On May 22, 2013, British police charged John Downey (61) from County Donegal in Ireland, over one of the bombings that killed four soldiers and 7 horses in Hyde Park.
    (AP, 7/20/00)(AP, 5/22/13)

1983        Feb 8, Champion thoroughbred Shergar was kidnapped in Ireland and never found. Lloyds of London paid $10.6 million insurance.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/9/newsid_2538000/2538595.stm)

1983        Jun 18, IRA's Joseph Doherty was arrested in NYC for illegally entering the US. The British sought his extradition on charges relating to the death of a member of a British commando unit.
    (http://ftp.fas.org/irp/congress/1990_cr/h900803-terror.htm)

1983        Sep 7, Irish people voted in a referendum to amend the constitution to make abortion illegal. The 8th amendment, banning abortion, was signed into law on Oct 7, 1983.   
    (http://tinyurl.com/cqtafxh)(Econ, 8/23/14, p.52)

1983        Nov 24, An IRA unit disguised as police officers seized Don Tidey, an American former chief executive of Ireland's Superquinn grocery stores, outside his Dublin home. They held him for more than three weeks in woods near the Irish border and demanded the equivalent of US$7.5 million in ransom. A joint Irish police-army search stumbled on the kidnappers' hideaway, freeing Tidey, but the IRA kidnappers killed a police officer and soldier as they escaped.
    (AP, 3/7/06)(http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/othelem/chron/ch83.htm)

1983        F.S.L. Lyons, Irish historian, died. He had taught at Dublin’s Trinity College.
    (WSJ, 9/12/02, p.D8)

1984         Jun 1, President Ronald Reagan visited Ireland.
    (DT internet 6/1/97)

1985        Jul 13, Live Aid, an international rock concert in London, Philadelphia, Moscow and Sydney, took place to raise money for Ethiopia and Africa's starving people. It was organized by Bob Geldof of Ireland.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1985)(AP 7/13/97)(Econ, 6/4/05, p.56)

1985        Nov 15, British PM Margaret Thatcher and the Irish Taoiseach Garret FitzGerald signed the Anglo-Irish Agreement giving Dublin an official consultative role in governing Northern Ireland.
    (AP, 11/15/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Irish_Agreement)

1985        Nov 27, The British House of Commons approved the Anglo-Irish accord giving Dublin a consultative role in the governing of British-ruled Northern Ireland.
    (AP, 11/27/97)

1985        Nov 28, The Irish Senate approved the Anglo-Irish accord concerning Northern Ireland.
    (AP, 11/28/00)

1985        Mary Robinson resigned from the Labor Party of Ireland after her party supported the Anglo-Irish Agreement of this year. She opposed it on the grounds that it was unfair to Ulster Unionists.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-12)

1985        Ryanair was founded by Cathal and Declan Ryan (after whom the company is named), Liam Lonergan (owner of an Irish tour operator named Club Travel), and noted Irish businessman Tony Ryan (1936-2007), founder of Guinness Peat Aviation and father of Cathal and Declan. The small airline, flying a short hop from Waterford to London, grew to become one of Europe's largest carriers.
    (WSJ, 10/6/07, p.A17)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ryanair)

1986        May, A Vermeer painting, "Lady Writing a Letter with her Maid," was among 18 paintings worth $40 million stolen from Russborough House in Blessington, Ireland. Some of the paintings are later recovered.
    (AP, 2/11/08)

1986        Jun 27, An Irish referendum upheld a ban on divorce.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1986        Billy McCommiskey of Baltimore, Maryland, won the all-Ireland, senior category, championship of the button accordion. He soon teamed with Liz Carroll, the 1991 All-Ireland senior fiddle champion and singer-guitarist Daithi Sproule to produce the self-titled album “Trian" in 1992 and “Trian II" in 1995. In 1985 McCommiskey and his Baltimore band, Irish Tradition, recorded the album “The Times We’ve Had."
    (WSJ, 3/13/07, p.D5)

1987        Feb 17, Ireland held elections four weeks after the dissolution of the Dail on 20 January. The newly-elected 166 members of the 25th Dáil assembled at Leinster House on 10 March when a new Taoiseach and government were appointed.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_general_election,_1987)

1987        Mar 10, Garret Fitzgerald (b.1926), head of Ireland’s Fine Gael/Labor coalition government stepped down from office. Charles Haughey (1925-2006), head of Fianna Fail, was elected Taoiseach of Ireland for a 3rd term and held the position until 1992. Under his tenure ministers took cash from property and construction interests.
    (Econ, 10/16/04, Survey p.8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Haughey)

1987        In Ireland the Social Partnership Agreement was initiated. The 1st agreement, a Program for National Recovery, included a renewable 3-year pact between government, employers and unions that tied wage increases to the rate of growth.
    (SFC, 5/26/97, p.A10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_Partnership)

1987        Unemployment reached 17% with a national deficit of $1.35 billion and out-of-control inflation.
    (SFC, 12/10/99, p.AA4)

1988        Jan 15, Sean MacBride (b.1904), Ireland, commander of Irish Republican Army, died. He was a founding member of Amnesty Int’l. and was awarded the Nobel peace Prize in 1974. He wrote the Constitution of the Organization for African Unity and the first Constitution of Ghana, the first UK African Colony to achieve Independence.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ggzwn)

1988        Mar 6, 3 IRA suspects were shot dead in Gibraltar by SAS officers.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1988        Aug 20, Eight British soldiers were killed by an Irish Republican Army land mine that destroyed a military bus near Omagh, County Tyrone, in Northern Ireland.
    (AP, 8/20/98)

1988        Pernod Ricard SA acquired the Irish whiskies Jameson, Paddy and Bushmills.
    (WSJ, 9/7/05, p.B2)

1988        Tony Ryan, the founder of Guinness Peat Aviation, brought on Michael O’Leary to do whatever was necessary to make Ryanair profitable. In 2007 Alan Ruddock authored “Michael O’Leary: A Life in Full Flight."
    (Econ, 8/25/07, p.76)

1989        The film "My Left Foot" with Daniel Day-Lewis a biography of disabled Irish writer Christy Brown.
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, DB p.56)

1990        Apr 18, A Franco-German proposal was made at the Dublin summit for the political union of the 12 European Community member countries.
    (www.unesco.org/mitterrand/anglais/ieuroues.htm)(http://tinyurl.com/36pexa)

1990        Jun 15, The Dublin regime was established by the Dublin Convention and signed in Dublin, Ireland. It first came into force on 1 September 1997. The EU’s Dublin Rule said that people applying for asylum in an EU country other than the one they first entered should be returned to that first country.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dublin_Regulation)(Econ, 9/12/15, p.25)

1990        Jul 1, The first phase of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) comes into force. Four Member States (Spain, Portugal, Greece and Ireland) are granted an exceptional regime given their insufficient progress towards financial integration.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1990/index_en.htm)

1990        Nov 7, Mary Robinson was elected as 1st female president of Ireland for a 7 year term. She was later selected as the UN commissioner for human rights.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_presidential_election,_1990)(SFC,10/31/97, p.D3)

1992        Jan 30, Irish PM Charles Haughey (1926-2006) announced his resignation. The 8-year rule by PM Haughey ended. Later allegations arose that he had accepted cash from Dunnes Stores while in office. There were also allegations that Dunnes had given members of Parliament more than $5 million over 10 years. New evidence also showed that he had authorized the 1982 phone-tapping.
    (SFC, 4/23/97, p.A5)(AP, 1/30/02)(AP, 6/13/06)

1992        Feb 26, The Supreme Court of Ireland cleared the way for a 14-year-old girl to leave the country for an abortion.
    (AP, 2/26/02)

1992        Apr 11, The IRA bombed the London financial district killing 3.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1992        Jun 18, Ireland’s voters overwhelmingly approving a referendum on the Maastricht Treaty for a European union.
    (www.atlapedia.com/online/countries/ireland.htm)

1992        Oct 3, Sinead O'Connor, Irish rock singer, ripped up a picture of Pope John Paul II on Saturday Night Live.
    (www.notbored.org/sinead.html)

1992        Ireland’s Supreme Court ruling found abortion should be legalized for situations when the woman's life is at risk from continuing the pregnancy. However five following governments since have refused to pass a law resolving the confusion. In 2010 the European Court of Human Rights called on Ireland to clarify its abortion law.
    (AP, 11/14/12)(Econ, 2/2/13, p.43)

1993        Mar 28, About 10,000 people marched in Dublin, Ireland, to protest an IRA bombing that killed two young boys.
    (AP, 3/28/98)

1993        The film "In The Name of the Father and Junior" with Daniel Day-Lewis was directed by Jim Sheridan. It was about a man accused of an IRA bomb attack that he didn’t commit.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, Par p.5)(SFEC, 3/15/98, DB p.56)
1993        Ireland decriminalized suicide.
    (Econ, 6/27/15, p.17)

1994        Mar 8, The IRA launch the 1st of 3 mortar attacks on London's Heathrow Airport.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provisional_Irish_Republican_Army)

1994        Apr 30, The Eurovision Song Contest was held in Dublin’s Point Theater. The first performance of Riverdance was held there which featured a modern form of Irish stepdancing.
    (WSJ, 3/12/96, p. A-16)

1994        Sep 6, Irish Prime Minister Albert Reynolds and Gerry Adams, head of the IRA's political ally, Sinn Fein, made a joint commitment to peace after their first face-to-face meeting.
    (AP, 9/6/99)

1994        Nov 17, Irish Prime Minister Albert Reynolds resigned.
    (SFC, 6/18/96, p.A8)

1994        Dec, John Bruton’s 3-party coalition began governing after a Fiana Fail-Labor coalition collapsed.
    (SFC, 6/9/97, p.A10)

1994        In Ireland the case against Rev. Brendan Smyth (d.1997 at 70) led to the collapse of the government of Prime Minister Albert Reynolds. The attorney general had delayed processing requests from British authorities for the extradition of Smyth, who was charged for 74 instances of sexual abuse of 20 young people over 36 years. He was sentenced in 1997 to 12 years in Curragh Prison.
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.A14)(SFEC, 8/24/97, p.A24)
1994        Kevin Gardiner of Barclay’s Wealth coined the phrase “Celtic Tiger" to describe the dramatic rise of Ireland’s economy.
    (Econ, 2/19/11, p.28)

1995        May 10, Britain lifted a 23-year ban on ministerial talks with Sinn Fein.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1995        Nov 24, Voters in Ireland narrowly ended a 70-year ban on divorce and approved a constitutional amendment legalizing divorce and remarriage by 50.23%.
    (SFC, 1/18/96, p.A8)(AP, 11/24/00)

1995        Thomas Cahill, Irish-American writer, authored “How the Irish Saved Civilization."
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.149)

1995        The Chieftains of Ireland released their album "The Long Black Veil."
    (WSJ, 3/17/98, p.A16)

1995        The film "Broken Harvest" was a rural family drama set during the Irish civil war.
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, DB p.57)

1995        Gerry Adams was the leader of the Irish Republican Army's political wing.
    (WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-1)

1995        Prime Minister Bruton did not want to be rushed into talks on the stalled peace  process in Northern Ireland.
    (WSJ, 11/22/95, p.A-1)

1996        Jun 7, IRA men killed one police officer and wounded another in a robbery attempt in Adare, western Ireland. Detective sergeant Jerry McCabe was killed with 15 bullets from a Kalashnikov. In 1999 Pearse McCauley and Kevin Walsh were sentenced to 14 years in prison , Jeremiah Sheehy to 12 years, and Michael O’Neill to 11 years. O’Neill was released in 2007.
    (SFC, 6/18/96, p.A8)(SFC, 2/6/99, p.A11)(AP, 5/15/07)

1996        Jun 9, The latest unemployment rate was 14.5%.
    (SFC, 6/9/96, Parade, p.9)

1996        Jun 16, IRA guerrillas were caught making dozens of new bombs when police raided an arms factory west of Dublin. Prime Minister John Burton made the announcement ten days later.
    (SFC, 6/26/96, p.A9)

1996        Jun 26, In Dublin, Ireland, reporter Veronica Guerin, who covered the city’s crime world, was shot and killed at a traffic light ambush by 2 men on motorcycle. In Nov, 1998, Paul "Hippo" Ward (34) was convicted for the murder and sentenced to life in prison. John Gilligan and Brian Meehan also faced murder charges. Meehan (34), king of the Dublin cannabis dealers, was convicted and sentenced to life in prison in 1999. Meehan received an additional 47 years for drug dealing and weapons possession. In 2001 Gilligan was acquitted of the murder charges but was sentenced to 28 years in prison on drug charges.
    (USAT, 6/27/96, p.10A)(SFC, 11/28/98, p.A12)(SFC, 7/30/99, p.D3)(SFC, 3/16/01, p.A16)

1996        Dec 3, of Sophie Toscan du Plantier, the wife of high-profile French filmmaker Daniel Toscan du Plantier (d.2003), was found beaten to death near the remote house in Schull. On Mar 1, 2012, Ian Bailey, a British journalist and the chief suspect in the murder, won his appeal against extradition to France.
    (AFP, 3/1/12)

1997        Jan 17, A court granted the first divorce in modern Irish history.
    (SFC, 1/18/96, p.A8)

1997        Feb 27, Divorce became legal in Ireland. [see Jan 17]
    (AP, 2/27/98)(www.divorceuk.com/pages/keyissues/diveire.php)

1997        May 26, It was reported that Galway had become Europe’s fastest growing city with a rate of 12.3%.
    (SFC, 5/26/97, p.A8)

1997        Jun 8, Prime Minister John Bruton was defeated in elections. Opposition leader Bertie Ahern of Fiana Fail, a populist Dubliner, was expected to be asked to form a new government. Fiana Fail was Ireland’s largest and traditionally most anti-British party.
    (SFC, 6/9/97, p.A10)(SFC, 4/11/98, p.A8)

1997        Jun 12, Mary Robinson, Pres. of Ireland, was named the top human rights official for the United Nations.
    (SFC, 6/12/97, p.A16)

1997        Jun 26, Bertie Ahern became the prime minister and appointed Mary Harney, leader of the right-wing Progressive Democrats, as his assistant.
    (SFC, 6/27/97, p.A3)

1997        Jul 25, Rev. Brendan Smyth (71) was sentenced to 12 years in prison for 74 instances of sexual abuse of 20 young people over 36 years.
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.A14)

1997        Oct 20, It was reported that a British firm has proposed a rail tunnel to link Britain and Ireland. The 56-mile tunnel was estimated to cost $22.6 billion.
    (SFC,10/20/97, p.A12)

1997        Oct 30, Mary McAleese, a lawyer and academic from Belfast, was elected as president to succeed Mary Robinson.
    (SFC,10/31/97, p.D3)

1997        Dec 25, A gale hit Britain and Ireland with 100 mph winds and 4 people were killed. A French fishing vessel was feared to have sunk off Wales.
    (WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A1)

1997        Frank McCourt, a retired New York schoolteacher, won the Pulitzer Prize for his memoir "Angela’s Ashes." It was based on his childhood in Limerick from age 14-19.
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T11)(WSJ, 4/24/98, p.W14)

1997        Dorothy Walker authored "Modern Art in Ireland."
    (SFEC, 2/7/99, DB p.29)
1997        The Vatican’s top diplomat in Ireland told bishops that their policy of mandatory reporting suspected of sex abuse cases to police "gives rise to serious reservations of both a moral and canonical nature." In 2011 the Vatican insisted the letter had been "deeply misunderstood."
    (AP, 1/19/11)

1998        Apr 10, The Good Friday Agreement was announced 17 hours after the deadline as negotiators reached a landmark settlement to end 30 years of bitter rivalries and bloody attacks. Gerry Adams signed for the IRA. It was to face referendums in the Irish Republic and Northern Ireland on May 22. If approved there would be June elections to create a local governing assembly for Northern Ireland.
    (SFC, 4/11/98, p.A1)(AP, 4/10/99)(SSFC, 9/14/03, p.A1)

1998        Apr 22, In Ireland legislation was passed for a May 22 referendum on the Northern Ireland peace agreement. Northern Ireland voters would also vote on the referendum. A constitutional amendment would result in which Ireland would renounce its claim on the territory of Northern Ireland.
    (SFC, 4/23/98, p.A12)

1998      May 22, A vote on the referendum on the Northern Ireland peace agreement was held in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Voters showed 71% support in Northern Ireland and 94% support in the Republic of Ireland.
    (SFC, 4/23/98, p.A12)(SFC, 5/23/98, p.A1)(SFEC, 5/24/98, p.A1)

1998        May 23, Official returns showed two convincing "yes" votes for the Northern Ireland peace accord: a surprisingly strong 71.1 percent in British-linked Northern Ireland, and 94.4 percent in the Republic of Ireland.
    (AP, 5/23/99)

1998        Jul 10, Police in England and Ireland arrested 9 people and thwarted a plot to bomb central London. The arrested were members of the 32 County Sovereignty Committee, a hard-line dissident Catholic group opposed to the peace settlement that was led by Bernadette Sands. Her husband, Michael McKevitt, was the reputed leader of the Real IRA.
    (SFC, 7/11/98, p.A1)(SFC, 8/18/98, p.A8)(SFC, 8/20/98, p.A14)

1998        Aug 19, The Irish government announced plans to sharply tighten its anti-terrorist laws.
    (SFC, 8/20/98, p.A14)

1998        Oct 17, The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to John Hume, head of the Irish Catholic Social Democratic and Labor Party, and to David Trimble, leader of the Protestant Ulster Unionist Party.
    (SFEC, 10/18/98, p.D1)

1998        Oct 29, The deadline for the creation of a new North-South Ministerial Council faced delay due to a dispute over disarmament. An estimated 100 ton arsenal including several tons of Semtex was still hidden on both sides of the border.
    (SFC, 10/26/98, p.A8)

1998        The Irish black comedy film "I Went Down" starred Peter McDonald and Brendan Gleeson. It was directed by Paddy Breathnach.
    (SFC, 7/1/98, p.E3)
1998        The Irish film "Walking Ned Devine" was about two men on a quest to collect lottery winnings.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, DB p.50)
1998        Ireland’s Supreme Court emphasized a mother's right to privacy, and said mothers should be consulted regarding adopted children. This prevented adopted persons from trying to contact a birth parent who didn't want to be approached. Catholic Ireland's system of compelling unwed mothers to give up their babies to secret adoptions ended in the 1980s.
    (Reuters, 2/27/14)

1999        Jan 1, The Maastricht Treaty specified that a monetary union will be established by this date, and laid down several criteria that EU nations must fulfill in order to join. Some of the criteria included: maximum budget deficits of 3% of GDP, a cap on government debt of 60% of GDP. The European economic and monetary union (EMU) was scheduled to start with a new "Euro" currency. Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain made the transition. Public use was set for Jan 1, 2002.
    (WSJ, 9/25/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 12/5/95, p.A-14)(SFC, 11/16/96, p.A1)(SFC, 1/1/99, p.A8)

1999        Feb 8, Iris Murdoch (b.1919), Dublin-born novelist, died. Her husband, John Bayley, published "Iris: A Memoir of Iris Murdoch" in 1998. It was published in the US as "Elegy for Iris."
    (SFC, 2/9/99, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_Murdoch)

1999        Feb 29, In Ireland and Northern Ireland police arrested 7 men associated with the 1998 Omagh car bombing that killed 29 people.
    (SFC, 2/22/99, p.A14)   

1999        Oct 20, Jack Lynch, former prime minister, died at age 82.
    (SFC, 10/22/99, p.B7)

1999        Dec 1, Ireland joined NATO's Partnership for Peace program.
    (SFC, 12/2/99, p.D2)

1999        Dec 13, Ireland and Northern Ireland began cross-border cooperation with a meeting in Armagh. Twice yearly summits called the North-South Ministerial Summit represented the first political link since partition in 1920.
    (SFC, 12/14/99, p.A12)

1999        Thomas Keneally authored "The Great Shame and Triumph of the Irish in the English-Speaking World." It was a 700-page survey of Irish writers, revolutionists and common folks.
    (SFEC, 10/24/99, Par p.9)

1999        Legislation established that anyone born in Ireland, north or south, could claim Irish citizenship.
    (Econ, 6/5/04, p.49)

1999        In Ireland a corruption tribunal identified over $10 million in lavish gifts that former PM Haughey had received from businessmen and the way his bank had cancelled a large chunk of his overdraft.
    (Econ, 6/24/06, p.101)

2000        Jan 2, Patrick O'Brian, (born in England as Richard Patrick Russ), celebrated novelist, died at age 85 in Ireland while writing his 21st novel set during the Napoleonic wars. His 1st Aubrey and Maturin novel was "Master and Commander," begun in 1969 was published in 1970. His first novel was "The Golden Ocean" written in 1956.
    (SFC, 1/8/00, p.A19)(WSJ, 11/7/03, p.W15)

2000        Jul 21, Former Prime Minister Charles Haughey took the witness stand in a corruption probe. He was accused of soliciting $12 million in bribes while in office for 3 terms in the 1980s and 1990s.
    (SFC, 7/21/00, p.B6)(SFC, 7/22/00, p.A11)

2000        Sep 15, Truckers across Europe blocked highways to protest high fuel costs. Protests hit Spain, Germany, Ireland, Poland and the Czech Republic.
    (SFC, 9/16/00, p.A10)

2000        Dec 12, Pres. Clinton spoke at the northern Irish border town of Dundalk and urged the protection of the 1998 Good Friday peace agreement.
    (SFC, 12/13/00, p.B2)

2001        Mar 22, A case of foot-and-mouth disease was confirmed in County Louth, on the border with Northern Ireland. 40,000 cattle were destroyed.
    (SFC, 3/23/01, p.D5)(WSJ, 3/23/01, p.A1)

2001        Mar 29, Michael McKevitt (51) was arrested in Dundalk for his membership and leadership role in the Real IRA.
    (SFC, 3/31/01, p.A14)

2001        Jun 8, Irish voters rejected the EU’s Nice treaty to pave the way for 12 new members. The Irish reportedly feared immigrants in search of jobs and participation in an EU Rapid Reaction Force.
    (SFC, 6/9/01, p.A9)(Econ, 3/17/07, SR p.10)

2001        Dec 8, The bodies of 8 illegal immigrants, including 3 children, were found in a shipping container in Wexford. 5 people were still alive.
    (SSFC, 12/9/01, p.A16)

2002        Jan 30, In Ireland the Roman Catholic Church agreed to pay $110 million in cash and property to Irish children sexually abused by priests, nuns and other church officials in past decades. There were as many as 7,000 potential claimants for payouts ranging from $43k to 260k.
    (SFC, 1/31/02, p.A9)(SFC, 2/1/02, p.A16)

2002        Mar 7, Irish voters narrowly rejected an abortion proposal that would have tightened a near total ban.
    (SFC, 3/8/02, p.A14)

2002        Mar 22, Thomas Flanagan (d.2002 at 78), Irish-American author, died in Berkeley, Ca. His novels included a trilogy on Ireland: "The Year of the French" (1979), "The Tenants of Time" (1988), and "The End of the Hunt" (1994). He also authored: "The Irish Novelists: 1800-1850."
    (SFC, 3/30/02, p.A19)

2002        May 17, In Ireland national elections the Fianna Fail Party of PM Bertie Ahern won 80 of the 166 seats in Parliament. Another coalition with the conservative Progressive Democrats was expected. IRA-allied Sinn Fein won 5 seats.
    (WSJ, 5/16/02, p.A1)(SSFC, 5/19/02, p.A18)(SFC, 5/20/02, p.A7)(WSJ, 5/20/02, p.A1)

2002        Jun 11, Sir Paul McCartney and his new wife, former model Heather Mills, were married in a lavish Irish wedding in Glaslough.
    (AP, 6/12/02)

2002        Jul 16, The Irish Republican Army issued an unprecedented apology for hundreds of civilian deaths over 30 years.
    (AP, 7/16/03)

2002        Oct 19, Irish residents endorsed the European Union's plans to expand eastward. 63 percent of voters in the referendum approved the expansion proposal, which will admit up to 12 new members and bring the EU's membership to almost 500 million.
    (AP, 10/21/02)

2002        Oct 25, Richard Harris (72), Irish film actor, died in London. His work included appearances in over 80 films.
    (SFC, 10/26/02, p.A2)(AP, 10/25/07)

2002        Oct 30, Senior Sinn Fein-IRA figure Martin McGuinness declared his war has ended in a documentary broadcast by the British Broadcasting Corp.
    (AP, 10/29/02)

2002        R.F. Foster authored "The Irish Story."
    (WSJ, 9/12/02, p.D8)

2003        Nov 17, Donald Jordan (58), historian, died in Berkeley, Ca. His books included "Land and Popular Politics in Ireland: A Study of 19th Century Irish Land Policies."
    (SFC, 11/29/03, p.A20)

2003        Dec 6, In the beach resort of Sanya, China, Miss Ireland, 19-year-old Rosanna Davison, won the Miss World competition. Second place went to Miss Canada, Nazanin Afshin-Jam, while the host country's Miss China, Guan Qi, took third.
    (AP, 12/6/03)

2003        Richard English authored "Armed Struggle: The History of the IRA."
    (SSFC, 9/14/03, p.M3)
2003        PayPal, an online payments company acquired by eBay, set up an office in Ireland with 25 people. In 2004 eBay announced plans to move customer operations to Ireland and by 2014 their combined operations employed some 2,000 people there.
    (SSFC, 3/9/14, p.9)

2004        Feb 18, Ireland's government announced plans to ban smoking in all enclosed workplaces as of March 29.
    (SFC, 2/19/04, p.A3)

2004        Mar 29, Ireland outlawed smoking in workplaces, imposing the strictest anti-tobacco measure ever adopted by any country on earth.
    (AP, 3/29/04)

2004        Jun 11, Irish voters have overwhelmingly approved a constitutional amendment to tighten their liberal citizenship laws.
    (AP, 6/12/04)

2004        Jun 25, Pres. Bush stopped in Ireland to meet with EU leaders, while on his way to Turkey for a summit with NATO leaders. Thousands of protesters demonstrated against his actions in Iraq.
    (SFC, 6/26/04, p.A3)

2005        Jan 1, Ireland's 2nd city of Cork became the European capital of culture for 2005, offering up a program of theatre, music, art, literature as well as sporting and other events.
    (AFP, 1/1/05)
2005        Jan 1, Ireland was forecast for 4.9% annual GDP growth with a population at 4.1 million and GDP per head at $48,250.
    (Econ, 1/8/05, p.88)

2005        Jan 25, Irish Prime Minister Bertie Ahern prepared to meet with Sinn Fein leaders, in his first talks with the IRA-linked party since the Dec 20 bank theft.
    (AP, 1/25/05)

2005        Feb 20, The Irish government identified 3 top Sinn Fein figures, including Gerry Adams, as members of the IRA command.
    (SFC, 2/21/05, p.A3)

2005        Mar 28, Ireland enacted a law outlawing English on road signs and official maps on much of the nation’s western coast, where many people speak Gaelic.
    (SFC, 3/29/05, p.A2)

2005        May 23, In Ireland a bus full of high school students collided with two cars northwest of Dublin on and tipped over into a ditch, killing five teenage girls and injuring 50 people.
    (AP, 5/24/05)

2005        May 26, Police killed 2 gunmen in a Dublin post office, the first fatal shootings by Ireland's largely unarmed force in five years.
    (AP, 5/26/05)

2005        Jun 7, Irishman Bob Geldof urged people to sail to France "in their thousands" and bring activists back to Britain to press world leaders into doing more to end poverty in Africa at their July summit in Scotland.
    (AFP, 6/7/05)

2005        Aug 5, It was reported that 3 men linked to the Irish Republican Army, who were convicted of training rebels in Colombia, have returned surreptitiously to Ireland, eight months after going on the run. Colombia demanded their extradition.
    (AP, 8/5/05)

2005        Sep 8, Wyeth Co. officially opened a $2 billion Irish production facility, a move that will make the US company the biggest pharmaceutical employer in Ireland.
    (AP, 9/8/05)

2005        Sep 23, Sinn Fein and Irish government leaders said the outlawed Irish Republican Army is ready to dispose of its stockpiled arms in a long-sought peace move, possibly within the next week, after their first meeting in eight months.
    (AP, 9/24/05)

2005        Oct 11, Irish author John Banville beat higher profile favorites to become the surprise winner of Britain's prestigious Booker Prize for fiction. His 14th novel "The Sea" was described by the judges as "a masterly study of grief, memory and love recollected".
    (AP, 10/11/05)(Econ, 10/15/05, p.91)

2005        Nov 13, In Dublin, Ireland, 2 men wearing bulletproof vests were shot to death at point-blank range in what police said was the latest bloodshed in a five-year turf war between drug-dealing gangs. The attack raised to 18 the number of gun killings within Ireland's criminal underworld this year.
    (AP, 11/14/05)

2005        Dec 9, In Ireland more than 10,000 labor union members protested in Dublin and other cities over shipping company Irish Ferries' plan to replace its workers with Latvians making $4.25 an hour, half the local minimum wage. It was the country's most bitter industrial showdown in decades.
    (AP, 12/09/05)(WSJ, 12/10/05, p.A1)

2005        Dec 14, Irish Ferries and Ireland’s largest labor union reached a deal over plans to replace 543 Irish workers with lower paid EU employees. Irish Ferries will reflag ships to avoid the jurisdiction of Irish employment law.
    (WSJ, 12/15/05, p.A16)

2005        In Ireland property developers Raymond and Danny Grehan bought a Dublin site for a record 82 million euros per acre. They were later ordered by an Irish court to pay the state-run National Asset Management Agency (NAMA) 312 million and 308 million euros respectively. Raymond Grehan declared bankruptcy in London in Dec, 2011. Brother Danny followed on Jan 6, 2012.
    (Reuters, 1/11/12)

2006        Jan 24, Biotechnology company Amgen Inc. said it will build a manufacturing plant in Ireland to supply its growing European customer base.
    (AP, 1/24/06)

2006        Feb 1, A joint British and Irish report said the Irish Republican Army has halted violence but is still gathering intelligence on enemies and remains deeply involved in organized crime.
    (AP, 2/1/06)

2006        Feb 25, Riots broke out in Dublin, Ireland, as republican demonstrators mounted a counter-march to a scheduled loyalist rally. Damages were estimated at $12 million.
    (Econ, 3/4/06, p.48)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006_Dublin_Republican_riots)

2006        Mar 7, The Irish Supreme Court ruled that Brendan "Bik" McFarlane, a legendary Irish Republican Army figure who in 1983 oversaw the biggest prison breakout in British history, should stand trial for kidnapping.
    (AP, 3/7/06)

2006        Mar 9, More than 300 police backed by British and Irish troops mounted dawn raids on the home turf of Thomas "Slab" Murphy, reputedly the Irish Republican Army's veteran chief of staff and its most lucrative smuggler.
    (AP, 3/9/06)

2006        Mar 30, John McGahern (71), Irish writer, died in Dublin. His stark depiction of love and despair in repressive rural Ireland made him one of his country's most acclaimed fiction writers.
    (www.nytimes.com/2006/03/31/books/31mcgahern.html)

2006        Apr 3, PM Bertie Ahern pledged that Ireland will legalize civil partnerships for gay couples, as he opened new offices for the country's main gay rights group.
    (AP, 4/3/06)

2006        Apr 4, Denis Donaldson (55), former British agent inside Sinn Fein, was killed by shotgun blasts in northwest Ireland.
    (AP, 4/5/06)

2006        May 16, Irish rock star Bono began a new African tour in Lesotho where he planned to unveil a new initiative to fight AIDS in its ailing textile industry.
    (AP, 5/16/06)

2006        May 20, Irish police removed Afghan hunger-strikers from a Dublin cathedral, where some 40 protesters gathered on May 15 demanding asylum and warning they would kill themselves if officers came near.
    (AP, 5/21/06)

2006        May 31, A Dublin jury convicted Rev. Daniel Doherty, a Roman Catholic priest, of raping a 13-year-old girl in 1985.
    (AP, 5/31/06)

2006        Jun 2, Ireland passed an emergency bill on under-age sex, and the Supreme Court ordered a man at the center of the controversy to be reimprisoned for having sex with a 12-year-old girl.
    (AP, 6/2/06)

2006        Jun 13, Charles Haughey (80), former Irish prime minister, died following a long battle with cancer. He served 4 terms as Ireland's PM (1979-1982 and 1987-1992) in a career overshadowed by ethical questions. He preached austerity, yet practiced prodigality.
    (AP, 6/13/06)(Econ, 6/24/06, p.101)

2006        Jun 27, The Cabinet of PM Bertie Ahern agreed to use the Republic of Ireland's Gaelic name, Eire (pronounced AIR-uh), during EU summits.
    (AP, 6/28/06)

2006        Jul 1, The cost of an average house in Ireland was reported to be $380,000 (€300k).
    (Econ, 7/1/06, p.48)

2006        Jul 19, A government report said Ireland's population has surged this year to a modern high of more than 4.2 million people largely because of immigrants from the newest EU nations.
    (AP, 7/19/06)

2006        Jul 25, Israeli troops sealed off the town of Bint Jbail, a Hezbollah stronghold in fierce fighting in south Lebanon. Warplanes struck Nabatiyeh and destroyed a house killing seven people, four from the same family. Guerrillas fired rockets at northern Israel, killing a girl. An Israeli airstrike killed 4 UN observers at a UNIFIL post in southern Lebanon. The observers were from Austria, Canada, China and Finland. Irish observers had warned that airstrikes were too close. UNIFIL was created in 1978 after Israel's first major invasion of southern Lebanon and has been there ever since.
    (AP, 7/25/06)(Reuters, 7/25/06)(WSJ, 7/27/06, p.A1)

2006        Aug 18, Steorn, an Irish company, said it has developed technology that it claims produces free energy. The company said its discovery is based on the interaction of magnetic fields and allows the production of clean, free and constant energy.
    (AFP, 8/18/06)

2006        Aug 28, In Ireland the government and directors of the state-owned airline announced that Aer Lingus Group PLC expects to raise more than $500 million by selling stock for the first time in a public offering next month.
    (AP, 8/28/06)

2006        Sep 29, Ireland’s PM Bertie Ahern faced mounting pressure to explain why he received money from Irish businessmen in England, a scandal threatening to torpedo his leadership after nine years in power.
    (AP, 9/29/06)

2006        Dec 6, Egypt’s Pres. Hosni Mubarak arrived in Dublin at the start of a five-day European tour that will also include France and Germany. He said renewing the Middle East peace process is top of his agenda.
    (AFP, 12/7/06)

2006        Dec 19, An official report into Ireland's biggest political scandal said former PM Charles Haughey received more than $15 million in secret payments and lied about his knowledge of the funds.
    (AP, 12/19/06)

2007        Jan 23, Bertie Ahern, taoiseach of Ireland, launched a $238 billion national-development plan for the economy over the next 7 years.
    (Econ, 2/3/07, p.54)

2007        Mar 17, Lithuanian musicians, drum-beating Punjabis and West African dancers used Dublin's St. Patrick's Day parade to celebrate their place in a booming Ireland that has become a land of immigrants.
    (AP, 3/17/07)

2007        Apr 4, In Northern Ireland protestant leader Ian Paisley shook hands with Irish PM Bertie Ahern in public for the first time, marking another small step on the path to peace.
    (AP, 4/4/07)

2007        Apr 22, The annual Goldman Environmental Prizes were announced on Earth Day. The winners included Julio Cusurichi of Peru for his work to fight illegal logging; Willie Corduff of Ireland for his work to halt an energy project that disregarded local and environmental concerns; Sophia Rabliauskas of Canada for her work to help protect the boreal forest in Manitoba; Orri Vigfussen of Iceland for his work on the North Atlantic Salmon Fund; Ts. Munkhbayar for his work against unregulated mining in Mongolia; and Hammerskjoeld Simwinga for his work in organizing microloan programs in Zambia.
    (SSFC, 4/22/07, p.E1)

2007        May 15, PM Bertie Ahern became the first Irish leader to address the joint houses of the British Parliament.
    (AP, 5/15/08)

2007        May 24, In Ireland voters began casting their ballots in an election that analysts say is likely to return PM Bertie Ahern to power, but with new, left-wing partners in government. An exit poll gave his Fianna Fail party a surprisingly strong lead in parliamentary elections.
    (AP, 5/24/07)(AP, 5/25/07)

2007        Jun 3, Pope Benedict XVI named four new saints from France, Malta, the Netherlands and Poland at a ceremony in St. Peter's Square. Among those honored was Sister Marie Eugenie de Jesus Milleret, a French nun who in 1839 founded the Religious of the Assumption to educate young girls; the Rev. George Preca of Malta, who founded the Society of Christian Doctrine in 1932 as a group of lay people who teach the faith to others; the Rev. Szymon z Lipnicy of Poland, a Franciscan monk who comforted Poles afflicted by the plague that broke out in Krakow from 1482-83 and died of it himself; and the Rev. Charles of St. Andrew (Dublin), who was born Karel Van Sint Andries Houben in the Netherlands in 1821.
    (AP, 6/3/07)

2007        Jun 13, Ireland’s environmentalist Green Party, perennial outsiders in Irish politics, voted to join the next government and extend PM Bertie Ahern's 10-year run in power.
    (AP, 6/13/07)

2007        Aug 1, Tommy Maken (74), Irish-American folk musician who performed for years with the Clancy Brothers, died in Dover, NH.
    (SFC, 8/4/07, p.B5)

2007        Sep 3, Ireland’s government said almost all the children who could not find elementary school places in a Dublin suburb this year were black.
    (AP, 9/3/07)

2007        Oct 3, Tony Ryan (b.1936), Irish-born aviation entrepreneur and co-founder of Ryanair (1985), died.
    (WSJ, 10/6/07, p.A17)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ryanair)

2007        Oct 16, Anne Enright, Irish author, won the Man Booker prize for her novel “The Gathering."
    (SFC, 10/17/07, p.A2)

2007        Oct 25,     Irish PM Bertie Ahern gave himself a hefty pay increase, putting his salary higher than both President Bush and British Prime Minister Gordon Brown.
    (AP, 10/25/07)

2007        Nov 29, The European Parliament voted to allow Britain and Ireland to keep some of their old imperial measurements so pubs can still serve pints and road signs can show miles instead of kilometers.
    (AP, 11/29/07)

2007        Dec 13, Ireland's government announced it will organize new nonreligious primary schools in the capital, a move that reflects growing immigration and declining church power in this traditionally Roman Catholic nation.
    (AP, 12/13/07)

2007        Dec 26, Joe Dolan (68), one of Ireland's first pop music stars, died from a brain hemorrhage. He had entertained audiences for decades with Vegas-style showmanship. His last Irish No. 1 came in 1997, when he re-recorded "Good-Looking Woman" with a popular fictional TV comedian, a puppet named Dustin the Turkey.
    (AP, 12/27/07)

2007        James Smith, an English professor at Boston College, authored "Ireland's Magdalene Laundries and the Nation's Culture of Containment." The so-called Magdalene Laundries, a network of 10 workhouses, operated in independent Ireland from the 1920s to the mid-1990s. The Irish Human Rights Commission later said that Ireland's civil authorities for decades dumped women, often teenagers being punished for petty crimes or becoming pregnant out of wedlock, into the so-called Magdalene Laundries.
    (AP, 11/9/10)

2008        Jan 13, Irish PM Bertie Ahern arrived in Cape Town as part of a five-day visit to South Africa and Tanzania.
    (AP, 1/13/08)

2008        Jan 22, In Lithuania Michael Campbell (35), a prominent IRA dissident, was arrested along with a female companion in a sting operation while allegedly trying to purchase weapons and explosives.
    (www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2008/jan/24/northernireland.uknews4)

2008        Apr 2, Irish PM Bertie Ahern, one of Europe's longest serving leaders, announced that he will resign next month amid growing pressure over alleged financial irregularities.
    (AP, 4/2/08)

2008        Apr 14, German Chancellor Angela Merkel arrived in Dublin to discuss a European Union reform treaty that still bemuses most Irish voters ahead of a June referendum that will determine the pact's fate.
    (Reuters, 4/14/08)

2008        May 7, In Ireland Finance Minister Brian Cowen was elected new prime minister, and he pledged to keep the country on its pro-European course through choppy economic waters.
    (AP, 5/8/08)

2008        May 19, In Ireland UN chief Ban Ki-Moon called for a "visionary" global deal to ban cluster bombs, as delegates from over 100 countries opened a conference aimed at outlawing the lethal weapons.
    (AFP, 5/19/08)

2008        May 21, Brian Keenan (66), a commanding figure during the Irish Republican Army's long march from war to peace, died of cancer.
    (AP, 5/21/08)

2008        May 28, In Ireland diplomats for over 100 nations agreed on a treaty to ban current types of cluster bombs. The talks did not involve the biggest makers and users, which included the US, Russia, China, Israel, India and Pakistan. Nations were expected to sign the document in December in Oslo, Norway.
    (SFC, 5/29/08, p.A3)

2008        May 30, Diplomats from 111 nations, meeting in Ireland, formally adopted a landmark treaty banning cluster bombs after futile calls for participation by the weapons' biggest makers and users, particularly the United States. Participants planned to sign the treaty in the Oslo, Norway, in December. It would go into effect in mid-2009.
    (AP, 5/30/08)

2008        Jun 13, Substantial election returns showed that Ireland's voters have rejected the EU reform treaty, a blueprint for modernizing the 27-nation bloc that cannot become law without Irish approval. A majority of voters appeared determined to register their opposition to the growth of a continental government that would erode Ireland's sense of independence.
    (AP, 6/13/08)

2008        Sep 30, In Ireland Brian Cowen, the Fianna Fail prime minister, decided to guarantee all bank deposits in Ireland. By late 2010 the bill for this reached almost a third of GDP.
    (Econ, 11/13/10, p.103)

2008        Oct 5, Germany joined Ireland and Greece in guaranteeing all private bank accounts, putting Europe's biggest economy at odds with calls for a unified European response to the global financial meltdown.
    (AP, 10/5/08)

2008        Nov 25, It was reported that Ireland plans to impose tough new penalties on beggars for the first time since the Potato Famine 160 years ago.
    (AP, 11/25/08)

2008        Dec 6, The Irish government ordered the recall of all pig meat products made in the Republic of Ireland after dioxins were discovered in slaughtered pigs thought to have eaten contaminated feed.
    (AFP, 12/7/08)

 2008        Dec 9, Ireland's farm minister said Irish cattle have tested positive for chemicals which have triggered a cancer scare previously confined to pork.
    (AFP, 12/9/08)

2008        Dec 12, European Union leaders agreed to give concessions to Ireland so it will hold a new referendum on the EU's stalled Lisbon reform treaty, which aims to make the 27-nation bloc a stronger player on the world stage.
    (AP, 12/12/08)

2008        Dec 18, Conor Cruise O’Brien (89), Irish diplomat and man of letters, died. His books included “To Katanga and Back" (1962) and “Religion and Politics"
    (1984).
    (SSFC, 12/21/08, p.B6)

2008        Dec 23, The director of an Irish security company was forced to steal euro1.2 million ($1.7 million) from his own company and deliver it to an armed gang that had kidnapped his wife and daughter.
    (AP, 12/23/08)

2008        Jay P. Dolan authored “The Irish Americans: A History."
    (WSJ, 10/27/08, p.A15)
2008        R.F. Foster authored “Luck and the Irish: A Brief History of Change from 1970."
    (WSJ, 2/23/08, p.W8)

2008-2012    In Ireland as many as 560 suicides during this period were later linked to the country’s economic recession.
    (SSFC, 3/9/14, p.A4)

2009        Jan 8, Dell Inc. announced that it is moving its Irish manufacturing operations to Poland by 2010, as part of a cost cutting measure that will result in the loss of some 1,900 Irish jobs.
    (WSJ, 1/9/09, p.B4)

2009        Jan 15, The Irish government nationalized Anglo Irish Bank after its chairman, Sean Fitzpatrick, failed to disclose some €83 million in personal loans.
    (Econ, 2/28/09, p.54)(www.gavinsblog.com/2009/01/15/anglo-irish-bank-nationalised/)

2009        Jan 19, Patrick Rocca (42), Irish property tycoon, was found dead of apparent suicide at his home near Dublin.
    (WSJ, 1/21/09, p.A13)

2009        Feb 14, Irish authorities learned about an oil spill through surveillance carried out by the European Maritime Safety Agency in Lisbon, Portugal. Irish military aircraft flew over the area and saw the Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov, a Russian oil tanker, and a Russian oceangoing tug near the slick. this was the biggest oil spill in the waters around Ireland in the last ten years.
    (AP, 2/17/09)

2009        Feb 20, Christopher Nolan (43), an Irish poet and novelist, died in Dublin. He had refused to let cerebral palsy get in the way of his writing. Using a "unicorn stick" strapped to his forehead to tap the keys of a typewriter, Nolan laboriously wrote out messages and, eventually, poems and books as well. His autobiography, "Under the Eye of the Clock: The Life Story of Christopher Nolan," won the prestigious Whitbread Award in 1988.
    (AP, 2/22/09)

2009        Feb 21, In Ireland around 100,000 people filled the streets of Dublin in protest at the government's handling of the country's economic crisis.
    (AP, 2/21/09)

2009        Feb 27, In Ireland the family of banker Shane Travers was freed uninjured after he delivered millions of euros stolen from his own branch. A gang had taken his family hostage and threatened to kill them unless he cooperated. Irish media put the amount at euro7 million ($9 million). The next day police recovered millions in stolen cash and interrogated seven suspected robbers.
    (AP, 2/27/09)(AP, 2/28/09)(SFC, 2/28/09, p.A2)

2009        Mar 17, Police in the Republic of Ireland made public-order arrests from St. Patrick’s Day festivities that easily exceeded 200, typical for recent years. Inebriated mobs annually turned districts of Dublin and Belfast into a nightmare.
    (AP, 3/18/09)

2009        Apr 22, In Ireland about 15 masked men armed with steel bars, chains and nail-studded clubs ransacked a Shell pipeline site, in the latest trouble for Ireland's most controversial energy project. Shell has spent four years battling opponents of the project in both the courts and on the ground in rural County Mayo, where the global energy giant has government permission to pump natural gas from an untapped field 80 kilometers (50 miles) out in the Atlantic. It was the first time a paramilitary-style gang has attacked a Shell site in Ireland.
    (AP, 4/23/09)

2009        May 8, In Ireland Dr. Yuri Melini (47), a leading Guatemalan environmentalist who recently survived an assassination attempt, won a human rights award for his efforts to stop the rapid growth of mines in his mineral-rich nation. Melini received the annual Front Line Award for Human Rights Defenders at Risk in a Dublin City Hall ceremony.
    (AP, 5/8/09)

2009        May 20, Ireland’s High Court Justice Sean Ryan unveiled a 2,600-page final report of Ireland's Commission to Inquire Into Child Abuse, which is based on testimony from thousands of former students and officials from more than 250 church-run institutions. The nine-year investigation into Ireland's Roman Catholic-run institutions says priests and nuns terrorized thousands of boys and girls in workhouse-style schools for decades, and government inspectors failed to stop the chronic beatings, rapes and humiliation.
    (AP, 5/20/09)

2009        Jun 26, Ireland recognized the legal rights of same-sex couples for the first time in a civil partnership bill that gave people in long-term relationships many of the statutory rights of married couples.
    (AP, 6/26/09)

2009        Jun 27, In Ireland some 12,000 people marched in this year’s Gay Pride Parade in downtown Dublin.
    (SSFC, 6/28/09, p.A4)

2009        Jul 3, In Sudan gunmen kidnapped an Irish and Ugandan women from the office of the Irish aid group Goal in the North Darfur city of Kutum. A Sudanese watchman was also seized before being released later. Arab tribes supported by the government were implicated. Sharon Commins (33) and her Ugandan colleague, Hilda Kuwuki (42), were released on Oct 18.
    (AFP, 7/4/09)(AP, 10/18/09)(AFP, 10/24/09)

2009        Jul 8, The Irish government said Irish voters who rejected the EU's Lisbon Treaty last year will be asked to vote again Oct. 2 on the long-delayed blueprint for reform.
    (AP, 7/8/09)

2009        Jul 29, Ireland said it has agreed to accept two inmates from the Guantanamo prison camp in Cuba within the next two months.
    (AP, 7/29/09)

2009        Jul 31, The Irish Times newspaper won a long-running legal battle to protect the identity of a key source who provided documents showing that former PM Bertie Ahern was under investigation for corruption. Colm Keena and Geraldine Kennedy had refused to comply with an October 2007 High Court judgment ordering them to identify their source for the confidential documents from a fact-finding tribunal into political corruption. The scandal spurred Ahern to resign in May 2008 after 11 years in power.
    (AP, 7/31/09)

2009        Aug 20, Drug developer Warner Chilcott, which focuses on women's healthcare and dermatology, completed its move to Ireland from Bermuda.
    (AP, 8/21/09)

2009        Sep 24, Ireland, the first nation to tax plastic bags as a way to stop them littering the countryside, announced plans to double its levy to a 44 euro cents (59 US cents) per bag.
    (AP, 9/24/09)

2009        Sep 27, Two Uzbeks, including Oybek Jabbarov (31), freed from the Guantanamo Bay prison arrived in Ireland. Amnesty International appealed to other EU nations to deliver on pledges to give new homes to US terror detainees.
    (AP, 9/27/09)

2009        Oct 2, Ireland voted 67% to 33% in favor of the EU's Lisbon Treaty, overturning a previous no vote and taking a key step towards ending the 27-nation bloc's deadlock.
    (AFP, 10/3/09)(Econ, 10/10/09, p.25)

2009        Oct 6, In Ireland the Rev. Aengus Finucane (77), a Roman Catholic missionary, died. He braved the civil war in Biafra (1967-1970) as a pioneer of Irish aid efforts worldwide. That aid effort, initially known as Concern Africa, shortened its name to Concern in 1970 as it gained ambitions to provide food, medical support and education in many of the world's poorest countries. He served as the charity's chief executive from 1981 to 1997.
    (AP, 10/6/09)

2009        Oct 10, Stephen Gately (33), a singer with the Irish boy band Boyzone, died while visiting Spain’s island of Mallorca. He made headlines a decade ago when he came out as gay. An autopsy revealed that he died of excess fluid in his lungs due to acute pulmonary edema.
    (AP, 10/11/09)(AFP, 10/13/09)

2009        Oct 18, In Sudan Irish national Sharon Commins and Ugandan Hilda Kawuki, who worked for Irish charity GOAL, were freed. They had been kidnapped on July 3 at gunpoint. The Irish Times newspaper reported on Oct 24 that a 150,000-euro (225,000-dollar) ransom was paid to secure the release of two aid workers in the western Darfur region.
    (AFP, 10/24/09)

2009        Nov 26, In Ireland an official report said the Roman Catholic archdiocese of Dublin obsessively covered up widespread sexual abuse of children by priests until the mid-1990s in a misuse of the Church's central role in Irish society.
    (Reuters, 11/26/09)

2009        Dec 17, The Vatican said Bishop Donal Murray (69), a Roman Catholic bishop in Ireland, has resigned after a probe of child sex abuse by clergymen accused him of ignoring reports of crimes by priests in his diocese from 1982-1996.
    (AP, 12/17/09)

2010        Jan 1, In Ireland a new law against blasphemy went into effect. It was already a criminal offense under the country’s 1937 constitution, but the language was too murky to make prosecutions feasible.
    (SFC, 1/4/10, p.A2)

2010        Jan 4, Irish writer Colm Toibin was named novelist of the year in Britain's lucrative Costa Book Awards for his emigrant saga "Brooklyn."
    (AP, 1/4/10)

2010        Jan 26, The prime ministers of Britain and Ireland held a second day of talks with political parties in Northern Ireland as they struggled to keep the fractious Catholic-Protestant government there from collapsing.
    (AP, 1/26/10)

2010        Jan 27, The prime ministers of Britain and Ireland presented a compromise plan to keep Northern Ireland's fractious politicians from breaking up their Catholic-Protestant government, but neither side accepted the deal.
    (AP, 1/27/10)

2010        Mar 4, Liam Adams, the brother of Sinn Fein party leader Gerry Adams, surrendered to Irish authorities to face 23 charges of sexually abusing his daughter. He fled to the Republic of Ireland to avoid a November 2008 Belfast hearing over the charges of abusing his daughter Aine for eight years when she was a child.
    (AP, 3/4/10)

2010        Mar 10, At least three Swedish newspapers published a cartoon depicting the Prophet Muhammad with the body of a dog after an alleged plot to murder Swedish artist Lars Vilks, who created it, was uncovered in Ireland. Irish police said those arrested were two Algerians, two Libyans, a Palestinian, a Croatian and an American woman married to one of the Algerian suspects. They were not identified by name. On March 13 Irish police said they had released three of the arrested Muslims and American Jamie Paulin-Ramirez (31) without charges.
    (AP, 3/10/10)(AP, 3/13/10)

2010        Mar 15, Irish police charged two men from Algeria and Libya with minor offenses following a weeklong investigation into Muslim extremists allegedly involved in efforts to kill a Swedish artist. Ali Charafe Damache (49) of Algeria was charged with sending a threatening text message. A Libyan who used the false name Abdul-Salam Mansour Al-Jehani was charged with immigration violations.
    (AP, 3/15/10)

2010        Mar 24, Pope Benedict XVI accepted the resignation of Bishop John Magee, a former papal aide who stands accused of endangering children by failing to follow the Irish church's own rules on reporting suspected pedophile priests to police.
    (AP, 3/24/10)

2010        Mar 25, In Ireland a judge in Limerick ruled that the city’s 110 pubs can open on April 2 because the city is hosting a major Irish rugby match. This will be the 1st time that pubs anywhere in Ireland will open on Good Friday.
    (SFC, 3/26/10, p.A2)

2010        Apr 22, Pope Benedict XVI accepted the resignation of Irish Bishop James Moriarty of Kildare, who acknowledged failing to report abuse to police, while a German bishop also offered to step down.
    (AP, 4/22/10)

2010        Apr 30, Ireland mourned the shock loss of one of the nation's best-known broadcasters, Gerry Ryan (53), who was found dead in his Dublin apartment after failing to broadcast his morning radio show, an Irish institution.
    (AP, 4/30/10)

2010        May 4, Iceland's volcanic ash renewed its threat to European air space, forcing Ireland to shut services temporarily for the first time in 12 days. Ireland and Britain lifted flight restrictions after temporarily closing airspace due to the return of ash.
    (AP, 5/4/10)(AFP, 5/4/10)

2010        May 5, Britain and Ireland grounded flights again after a fresh cloud of ash swept in from the Icelandic volcano which sparked unprecedented air travel chaos in Europe last month.
    (AFP, 5/5/10)

2010        May 11, The Irish government passed a law outlawing the sale of many “head shop" products. Anyone caught selling cocaine, cannabis and ecstasy substitutes  would face up to life in prison and any caught in possession would face up to 7 years in jail.
    (SSFC, 5/16/10, p.A4)

2010        Jun 15, Ireland's government called on Israel to withdraw a staffer at its Dublin embassy over the use of fake passports in the January assassination of a Hamas commander in Dubai.
    (Reuters, 6/15/10)

2010        Jul 30, Patrick Joseph McCabe (74), a former Catholic priest, surrendered to US authorities in Alameda, Ca.. They sought to extradite him to Ireland to face sexual assault charges dating back from 1973-1981. On June 5, 2011, McCabe was handed over to Ireland’s national police service.
    (SFC, 8/11/10, p.A1)(SFC, 6/8/11, p.C4)

2010        Sep 8, Ireland announced it plans to split its most troubled financial institution, Anglo Irish Bank, in two as part of wider efforts to reassure international lenders that the Irish are dealing with their debt crisis.
    (AP, 9/8/10)

2010        Sep 21, Ireland sold euro1.5 billion ($2 billion) in government bonds in a closely watched test of whether international investors would keep buying Irish treasuries despite the country's deficit, the biggest in debt-burdened Europe.
    (AP, 9/21/10)

2010        Sep 28, Ireland's borrowing costs leapt again after two credit rating agencies warned its debt is at risk of further downgrades, piling pressure on the government to bring forward its budget.
    (Reuters, 9/28/10)
2010        Sep 28, Irish Nobel laureate and peace activist Mairead Maguire (66) was detained after arriving in Israel because she had been deported in June for trying to reach Gaza by boat in defiance of an Israeli naval blockade. Airport officials told her she would not be allowed in to Israel for 10 years. Her appeal on Oct 1 was rejected. She was deported on Oct 5.
    (AP, 10/1/10)(AP, 10/5/10)

2010        Sep 29, In northwest Ireland managers at Anderson's Mink Farm said that many of their cages and fences were cut and opened over the weekend, freeing an estimated 5,000 animals into the wilds of County Donegal. About 28,000 others declined to bolt for freedom.
    (AP, 9/29/10)

2010        Sep 30,  Europe's debt crisis dumped more woe on Ireland's weary taxpayers, as the government said it needed to pour billions more of their money into a collapsed banking system.
    (AP, 9/30/10)

2010        Oct 6, Ratings agency Fitch cut Ireland's credit worthiness another notch, citing the country's long fight to emerge from record deficits, the toughest bank-bailout effort in Europe and a lagging economy.
    (AP, 10/6/10)

2010        Oct 8, Ireland's police force detectives arrested nine suspected Irish Republican Army dissidents and seized weapons. Police arrested two men aged 20 and 33 at a house near the Northern Ireland border and seized a gun and ammunition. They arrested seven people aged 19 to 71 in southeast Ireland and sealed off a home where they found bomb components.
    (AP, 10/8/10)
2010        Oct 8, In Mozambique a settling pond breached its wall at the Irish mining firm Kenmare Resources’ Moma titanium and zircon mine in the northern province of Nampula, flooding the area with a mixture of water, sand and clay. A four-year-old girl was missing after the dam burst, flooding an area housing 3,000 families.
    (AFP, 10/11/10)

2010        Oct 11, Irish police uncovered a major arms and explosives cache hidden in a wood in County Louth. The find included a machine gun, bomb-making equipment and assorted ammunition. They described it as a significant blow to dissident republicans.
    (AP, 10/11/10)

2010        Nov 1, Ireland's health minister, Mary Harney, was pelted with red paint as tempers flared over government plans to slash euro1 billion ($1.4 billion) from the costs of running an overloaded hospital network.
    (AP, 11/1/10)

2010        Nov 4, Ireland’s government said planned budget cuts worth €6 billion in 2011.
    (Econ, 11/13/10, p.85)

2010        Nov 9, Ireland's human rights watchdog appealed to the government to investigate the abuse of women and girls in prison-style Catholic laundries, an issue left unresolved by state probes into scandals inside other church-run institutions. The so-called Magdalene Laundries, a network of 10 workhouses, operated in independent Ireland from the 1920s to the mid-1990s.
    (AP, 11/9/10)

2010        Nov 10, Ireland's financial troubles loomed large as investors, betting that the country soon could join Greece in seeking a bailout from the European Union, drove the interest rate on the country's 10-year borrowing to a new high.
    (AP, 11/10/10)

2010        Nov 16, The European Union issued a stark assessment of the Irish debt crisis, warning that the future of the 27-nation bloc was at risk as ministers headed for talks on an increasingly probable rescue.
    (AFP, 11/16/10)

2010        Nov 17, Ireland agreed to work with an EU-IMF mission on urgent steps to shore up its shattered banking sector.
    (Reuters, 11/17/10)

2010        Nov 20, Ireland moved towards finalizing its four-year crisis plan for cutting its budget deficit which could pave the way for a multi-billion euro bailout.
    (AFP, 11/20/10)

2010        Nov 21, Ireland became the second European country to ask for a multibillion euro emergency loan to help stabilize its debt-ridden banks. Finance Minister Brian Lenihan (1959-2011) recommended to a cabinet meeting that the government should apply for a financial bailout program from the EU and the IMF.
    (AP, 11/21/10)(AFP, 11/21/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brian_Lenihan,_Jnr)

2010        Nov 22, Ireland's the government said banks will be pruned down, merged or sold as part of a massive EU-IMF bailout taking shape. Ireland's Greens pulled the plug on the deeply unpopular coalition government by calling for a national election in January after an EU/IMF bailout package is in place.
    (AP, 11/22/10)(Reuters, 11/22/10)

2010        Nov 23, Ireland's banks are up for sale, the country's central bank chief said, as the government sought to cut them down in size after their reckless lending forced the country to seek an international bailout.
    (Reuters, 11/23/10)
2010        Nov 23, The European Union urged Ireland to adopt an austerity budget on time to unlock promised EU/IMF funding, responding to a deepening political crisis that threatens to derail the financial rescue.
    (Reuters, 11/23/10)

2010        Nov 24, Ireland set out a four-year plan, aiming to make 15 billion euros worth of savings to bring down its record deficit.
    (Reuters, 11/24/10)

2010        Nov 28, The EU's finance ministers agreed in an emergency meeting in Brussels to give Ireland a euro67.5 billion bailout to help it survive its massive banking crisis, and sketched out new rules for future emergencies to restore faith in the euro currency.
    (AP, 11/29/10)

2010        Dec 6, In Ireland Tony Walsh (56) was convicted of raping 3 boys over a 5-year period three decades earlier. Investigators had concluded that Walsh actually raped and molested hundreds of boys and girls while serving as a Dublin priest from 1978 to 1996. Investigators also reported that the Vatican had tried to stop the Dublin church from defrocking Walsh.
    (SFC, 12/18/10, p.A4)

2010        Dec 15, Ireland's parliament approved an €85 billion ($113 billion) EU/IMF bailout package in the face of opposition threats to renegotiate the deal to force losses on some senior bondholders in Irish banks.
    (Reuters, 12/15/10)(Econ, 1/8/11, p.50)

2010        Dec 23, The Irish government gained court approval to nationalize Allied Irish Banks, the fourth bank taken over by Ireland amid a financial crisis brought on by speculative real estate lending.
    (AP, 12/23/10)

2010        Dec 29, In Northern Ireland frustration and fears of disease mounted as 36,000 people were left without water, some for more than a week, after a deep freeze and a sudden thaw caused aging pipes to burst.
    (AP, 12/29/10)

2010        Dec, Oliver O'Grady (66) was arrested in Dublin, Ireland, after leaving a computer containing pornographic images of children on a flight from Amsterdam. O'Grady had worked as a priest in northern California from 1971 until 1993, when he was arrested for abusing two brothers. He served seven years in prison and was deported to his native Ireland in 2000. In 2012 he was sentenced to 3 years in prison in Ireland for possessing child pornography.
    (AP, 1/31/12)

2010        David Lynch authored “When the Luck of the Irish Ran Out: The world’s Most Resilient Country and Its Struggle to rise Again."
    (Econ, 11/13/10, p.102)
2010        Fintan O’Toole authored “Enough is Enough: How to Build a New Republic," a call for Ireland to start afresh.
    (Econ, 11/13/10, p.102)

2011        Jan 10, In Mauritius Michaela McAreavey (27), an Irish beauty queen and daughter of a high-profile Gaelic football manager, was found strangled to death at the five-star Legends hotel on her honeymoon.
    (AFP, 1/11/11)

2011        Jan 22, Ireland’s PM Brian Cowen announced his resignation as leader of the dominant Fianna Fail party but intends to keep leading the government through the March election.
    (AP, 1/22/11)

2011        Jan 25, Ireland said it is upgrading its diplomatic relations with the Palestinian territories in recognition of progress being made by the Palestinian Authority. The decision recognizes Ireland's long-standing support for Palestinian statehood, but does not involve any recognition of a Palestinian state.
    (AP, 1/25/11)

2011        Feb 1, Ireland's PM Brian Cowen (51) declared a formal end to his government, in a farewell address tinged with regret over the nation's plunge to the brink of bankruptcy. Analysts forecast Feb. 25 as the most likely election date.
    (AP, 2/1/11)
2011        Feb 1, Ireland ordered a Russian diplomat to be expelled, after an investigation concluded that the country's intelligence service used stolen Irish identities as cover for spies operating in the United States.
    (AP, 2/1/11)

2011        Feb 6, Rock guitarist Gary Moore (58), a former member of influential Irish band Thin Lizzy, was found dead at a hotel on Spain's Costa del Sol. Thin Lizzy had global hits in the 1970s with songs like "The Boys are Back in Town" and "Whiskey in the Jar." Frontman Phil Lynott died in 1986, but with a different lineup the band continues to tour today.
    (AP, 2/6/11)

2011        Feb 10, In Ireland a commuter plane crashed and burst into flames, killing six people and injuring another six, as it tried to land in heavy fog at Cork airport.
    (AFP, 2/10/11)

2011        Feb 25, Polls opened in Ireland in a national election. Fine Gael leader Enda Kenny (59), Ireland's longest-serving parliamentarian, looked almost certain to be the next prime minister. Fine Gael won 76 seats; Labor won 37 seats. Fianna Fail lost 58 seats, dropping from 78 to 20.
    (AP, 2/25/11)(Reuters, 2/26/11)(AFP, 2/27/11)(AP, 3/6/11)(Econ, 3/5/11, p.58)

2011        Mar 6, In Ireland the two opposition parties that triumphed in elections, conservative Fine Gael and left-wing Labor, announced they have reached agreement to form the country's next coalition government following five days of negotiations.
    (AP, 3/6/11)

2011        Mar 9, Ireland's Enda Kenny was elected prime minister with a record majority on and pledged to lift the euro zone struggler out of its "darkest hour" as talks on a bailout loom.
    (Reuters, 3/9/11)

2011        May 17, Britain's Queen Elizabeth arrived in Dublin for a historic state visit steeped in symbolism and surrounded by security after a makeshift bomb was found, highlighting the lingering hostility of a small minority.
    (AP, 5/17/11)

2011        May 19, Garret FitzGerald (b.1926)), Ireland's most popular elder statesman, died. He twice served as prime minister (1981-1982, 1982-1987) and played a crucial role in paving the way for peace in Northern Ireland.
    (Reuters, 5/19/11)

2011        May 23, President Obama arrived in Ireland to begin a six-day European tour. The president took a helicopter from Dublin for a quick visit to Moneygall, the site of a piece of his ancestry. Falmouth Kearney, a shoemaker and Obama's thrice-removed grandfather on his Kansas-born mother's side, left Moneygall for the US in 1850 at the height of Ireland's Great Famine. Obama's roots in the town were discovered during the 2008 presidential campaign.
    (AP, 5/23/11)

2011        Jul 7, The journal Current Biology reported that all polar bears today have descended from one female brown bear in Ireland between 20,000 and 50,000 years ago.
    (SFC, 7/8/11, p.A6)

2011        Jul 20, Ireland’s lawmakers declared that the Vatican encouraged Catholic bishops not to tell police about suspected pedophile priests sabotaging the 1996 Irish bishops’ decision to begin reporting suspected cases of child abuse to police.
    (SFC, 7/21/11, p.A3)

2011        Jul 21, EU leaders cut the interest rate on the Irish bailout.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, p.63)

2011        Oct 8, A Global Irish Economic forum in Dublin announced Diaspora 2016, a plan to gather industry leaders with Irish roots to serve on Irish state boards until 2016. The plan was formed by the Irish Technology Leadership Group in San Jose, Ca.
    (SFC, 12/9/11, p.D1)

2011        Oct 10, An Irish court ordered independent opposition politician Mick Wallace to repay almost 20 million euros (£17.4 million) in bank loans, raising the possibility that the builder could face bankruptcy and have to quit parliament.
    (Reuters, 10/10/11)

2011        Oct 19, British police in riot gear used sledgehammers and crowbars to clear the way for the eviction of Irish Travelers from the Dale Farm site, in fields 30 miles (50 km) east of London, where they have lived illegally for a decade. There are estimated to be between 15,000 and 30,000 Irish Travelers in Britain, where they are recognized as a distinct ethnic minority.
    (AP, 10/19/11)

2011        Oct 24, Ireland's U2 were named as the greatest rock band of the past quarter of a century by readers of music magazine Q. Chart-topping act Adele was a double winner at the event, landing the prizes for best female and best track for her hit Rolling In The Deep.
    (AFP, 10/24/11)

2011        Oct 25, In Ireland 2 people died and hundreds were stranded in northern and eastern Ireland after torrential rain closed roads and rail lines, left shops and homes under water. Dublin was put on an emergency footing.
    (Reuters, 10/25/11)

2011        Oct 28, Ireland held presidential elections. Michael D. Higgins (70), a champion of Palestinian rights and a member of junior coalition partner Labour Party, was ahead in most voting tallies across the country. Labor candidate Higgins won with nearly 57 percent of votes, clear of nearest rival, businessman Sean Gallagher.
    (Reuters, 10/28/11)(AP, 10/29/11)

2011        Nov 3, Catholic Ireland announced that it is closing its embassy to the Vatican. Dublin's foreign ministry said the embassy was being closed because "it yields no economic return" and that relations would be continued with an ambassador in Dublin.
    (Reuters, 11/4/11)

2011        Nov 23, Pope Benedict XVI accepted the resignation of another Irish bishop, leaving seven of Ireland's 26 Catholic dioceses without one and raising expectations of major cutbacks in the size of the Irish church following child-abuse scandals. Seamus Hegarty (71) offered his resignation two weeks ago as bishop of Derry, citing an unspecified "irreversible" illness as the reason for quitting.
    (AP, 11/23/11)

2011        Dec 5, Ireland’s Expenditure Minister Brendan Howlin announced $2.9 billion in spending cuts to help reduce the country’s debt. Budget cuts will close 31 police stations around the country.
    (SSFC, 12/11/11, p.A4)

2012        Jan 10, A British court annulled the bankruptcy of Sean Quinn (64), once the Republic of Ireland's richest man, in a victory for Irish Bank Resolution Corporation which has been pursuing debts of up to 2.9 billion euros (2.4 billion pounds). He had turned a rural quarrying operation into a 4 billion euro fortune before running up a large stake in the now failed Anglo Irish Bank. Quinn made the bankruptcy declaration in November, taking advantage of British laws which would have allowed him to go back into business in under a year.
    (Reuters, 1/10/12)

2012        Jan 18, Defrocked Irish priest Peter Kennedy (72) returned to Dublin after being extradited from Brazil. He faced 55 counts of sexually abusing 18 children from 1968-1984. Kennedy had fled to England in 2002 and to Brazil in 2003.
    (AP, 1/25/12)

2012        Feb 9, In Buncrana, Ireland, Andrew "Chubby" Allen (24) died after a gunman on foot opened fire through a window of his home and struck the victim at least once in the head. Allen last year fled his Northern Ireland hometown of Londonderry after receiving death threats from Republican Action Against Drugs, an organization forged by former members of both the IRA and a rival group called the Irish National Liberation Army.
    (AP, 2/10/12)

2012        Feb 20, China's Vice President Xi Jinping bade farewell to Ireland after a three-day visit during which Dublin sought to provide Beijing with a financial foothold in the EU.
    (AFP, 2/20/12)

2012        Mar 3, In Ireland the heart of St. Laurence O’Toole (1128-1180), the patron saint of Dublin, was stolen from Christ Church Cathedral in Dublin.
    (SFC, 3/5/12, p.A2)

2012        Mar 9, In Ireland Paul Begley (46), head of Ireland's largest fruit and vegetable producers, was found guilty of dodging taxes and sentenced to 6 years in prison. He had instructed Chinese food suppliers from 2003-2007 to produce false invoices labeling garlic as apples avoiding some $1.8 million in taxes.
    (SFC, 3/10/12, p.A2)

2012        Mar 22, In Ireland the Mahon Tribunal published a 3,270 page report on corruption in the planning process in Dublin. It said corruption was endemic up to the late 1990s.
    (Econ, 3/31/12, p.62)

2012        Mar 25,  Bertie Ahern (60), former Irish PM (1997-2008), announced he has resigned from the Fianna Fail party rather than be expelled over an investigation into secret payments he received while in office, but vowed to clear his name.
    (AFP, 3/25/12)

2012        Apr 2, Ireland estimated that about 50% of its 1.6 million homeowners failed to pay a new, flat-rate $133 property tax by the march 31 deadline.
    (SFC, 4/3/12, p.A2)

2012        May 24, In Japan Nicola Furlong (21), an Irish fan of Rapper Nicki Minaj, was found dead in a Tokyo hotel after attending a concert. Police arrested two American men, dancer James Blackston (23) and a musician, 19, as part of an investigation into her death. On June 14 police arrested a 19-year-old American musician on suspicion of murdering Furlong.
    (AFP, 6/1/12)(AFP, 6/14/12)

2012        May 27, In Ireland a race car went out of control on a rural road and crashed into a crowd of about 30 spectators, killing 2 people and seriously injuring 7. Organizers of the Cavan Stages Rally involving about 100 cars in the border county of Cavan canceled the event following the accident.
    (AP, 5/27/12)

2012        May 31, Ireland's voters agreed to ratify the European Union's deficit-fighting treaty with "yes" votes reaching 60 percent. Leading Irish opponents of European austerity conceded defeat even before all ballots were counted.
    (AP, 6/1/12)

2012        Nov 2, Bankrupt tycoon Sean Quinn (65), once Ireland's richest man and a celebrated self-made billionaire, was sent to jail for nine weeks after a judge found him guilty of stripping foreign assets from his crumbling business empire in violation of court orders.
    (AP, 11/4/12)

2012        Nov 11, Ireland's PM Enda Kenny laid a wreath in Enniskillen to honor fallen soldiers at a British Remembrance Day service for the first time, the latest gesture of reconciliation between historic foes. Deputy Prime Minister Eamon Gilmore became the first Irish minister to attend a Remembrance Day service at Belfast City Hall, laying a wreath at the city's cenotaph.
    (AP, 11/11/12)

2012        Nov 14, The debate over legalizing abortion in Ireland flared after the government confirmed Savita Halappanavar, a miscarrying Indian woman suffering from blood poisoning, was refused a quick termination of her pregnancy and died on Oct 28 in an Irish hospital.
    (AP, 11/14/12)

2012        Nov 17, In Ireland about 10,000 people marched through Dublin and observed a minute's silence Saturday in memory of the Indian dentist who died of blood poisoning in an Irish hospital after being denied an abortion.
    (AP, 11/17/12)

2012        Nov 21, Ireland's police force arrested 113 suspected drug dealers and seized five marijuana growing facilities in a two-day operation in the nation's biggest-ever crackdown on triad drug-trafficking gangs. Police said most of those arrested are Chinese and Vietnamese nationals involved in growing, smuggling and selling marijuana.
    (AP, 11/21/12)

2012        Nov, Intrade, a Dublin-based “prediction market" was sued by America’s Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC)  for offering illegal contracts on the price of goods regulated by the agency. In May Intrade shit down citing financial irregularities.
    (Econ, 4/13/13, p.70)

2012        Dec 4, Eamon Kelly (65), a senior figure in Ireland's criminal underworld, was chased down the street and shot to death near his Dublin home, two years after surviving a similar assassination bid. The Real IRA paramilitary group was suspected of being behind the hit. Real IRA figures in recent years have demanded a slice of the gangsters' drug-trafficking profits in exchange for not killing them or burning down their business fronts.
    (AP, 12/4/12)

2013        Jan 17, A British judge sentenced Achilleas Kallakis (44), a fake property tycoon, to seven years in jail for defrauding two banks out of over 700 million pounds ($1.1 billion), but said Allied Irish Banks and Bank of Scotland deserved some blame for poor risk controls. Co-defendant Alexander Williams (44), convicted of the same counts for his role in producing forged documents to back up Kallakis's applications for loans, was sentenced to 5 years.
    (AP, 1/18/13)

2013        Jan 24, Britain’s and Ireland’s energy ministers signed a memorandum of understanding in Dublin, agreeing to assess the costs and benefits of trading renewable energy, to look at potential projects and to consider sharing renewable energy statistics.
    (Reuters, 1/24/13)

2013        Feb 5, In Ireland an official report, that ran to almost 1,000 pages, said that more than a quarter of the women and girls subjected to harsh discipline and unpaid work at 10 laundries, run by Catholic nuns, were sent there by the Irish state.
    (AP, 2/6/13)

2013        Feb 7, Ireland dissolved one of its "bad banks", the Irish Bank Resolution Corp (IBRC), in an emergency measure designed to pave the way for a new debt-repayment deal with the European Central Bank.
    (AP, 2/7/13)

2013        Feb 9, In Ireland trade unionists marched in Dublin and other cities to protest the continuing high cost of the country’s bank bailout program.
    (SSFC, 2/10/13, p.A4)

2013        Feb 19, Ireland’s PM Enda Kenny apologized on behalf of the government for decades of abuses in the Magdalene Laundries.
    (SFC, 2/20/13, p.A6)

2013        Feb 22, Ireland’s government said B&F Meats in Carrick-on-Suir, County Tipperary, has been caught labeling horse meat as beef and shipping it to a company in the Czech Rep.
    (SFC, 2/23/13, p.A2)

2013        Feb 27, In Ireland Ali Charaf Damache (47) was arrested while leaving a courthouse in Waterford. He had just walked free from the court, after three years in prison when detectives acting on an American extradition warrant rearrested and escorted him, handcuffed, to an unmarked police car. The FBI and US Justice Department accuse Damache of being the ringleader behind an unrealized 2009 conspiracy to target artist Lars Vilks in Sweden over his series of drawings depicting the Muslim prophet Muhammad as a dog.
    (AP, 2/27/13)

2013        Mar 5, Frozen food maker Birds Eye said horse meat DNA found in two of its products came from an Irish meat processor that is part of one of Ireland's largest agricultural businesses. The company said investigations had found its Belgian supplier Frigilunch NV had unknowingly sourced meat with horse DNA from Irish meat processor QK Meats.
    (Reuters, 3/5/13)

2013        Mar 22, In Ireland Patrick McCabe (77), a former Catholic priest who had worked in California, was sentenced to 18 month in prison for assaulting two boys decades ago in Ireland. McCabe was soon released based on his age and statements of contrition and the fact that he had already served 21 months of a maximum 2-year sentence.
    (SFC, 3/23/13, p.C2)(SFC, 3/26/13, p.A2)

2013        Apr 12, European Union finance ministers said they've agreed to extend the repayment of emergency loans to Ireland and Portugal for a further seven years, easing the pressure on both countries to exit their bailout programs and resume normal borrowing.
    (AP, 4/12/13)

2013        Apr 16, A majority of Irish public sector workers rejected a new pay deal and warned the government against unilaterally cutting wages, giving it a headache as it seeks to exit an EU-IMF bailout later this year.
    (AP, 4/16/13)

2013        Apr 18, Irish company ABP Foods, at the center of a scandal in Europe over horsemeat in beef products, said it is leaving the frozen burger market after selling the factory where burgers containing horse DNA were first discovered.
    (Reuters, 4/18/13)

2013        Apr 29, Ireland's Supreme Court ruled that a paralyzed Irish woman, who wants to die, cannot legally commit suicide with her partner's help. Judges said lawmakers could pass such a law to permit Marie Fleming (59) to die at a time of her choosing, but no such statute existed yet.
    (AP, 4/29/13)

2013        May 7, The Irish government said it is pardoning nearly 5,000 men who deserted its armed forces to fight for Britain during WWII.
    (SFC, 5/8/13, p.A2)

2013        Jun 26, The Irish government agreed to pay up 58 million euros ($75 million) to hundreds of women forced to work at the Catholic Church's notorious Magdalene Laundries after a report found that a quarter of them were sent there by the Irish state.
    (Reuters, 6/26/13)

2013        Jul 5, Irish police charged eight men with Irish Republican Army membership after police raided a suspected meeting of the outlaws' Dublin leadership, inflicting what a senior policeman called a major blow to the "New IRA" splinter group.
    (AP, 7/5/13)

2013        Jul 12, Irish lawmakers voted 127-31 to back the country’s first bill on abortion, legalizing the practice in exceptional cases where doctors deem the woman's life at risk from her pregnancy.
    (AP, 7/12/13)(SFC, 7/12/13, p.A2)

2013        Jul 30, Ireland's President Michael D. Higgins signed the country's first bill on abortion into law, legalizing the practice in exceptional cases where doctors deem a woman's life at risk.
    (AP, 7/30/13)

2013        Aug 30, Seamus Heaney (74), Ireland's foremost poet and Nobel Prize winner (1995), died in Dublin after a half-century exploring the beauty of Ireland and the political torment within the nation's soul.
    (AP, 8/30/13)

2013        Oct 4, Ireland held a  nationwide referendum to abolish the country's Senate. Proponents said the upper house wields no essential powers and its closure could save taxpayers 20 million euros ($27 million) annually. Voters rejected the referendum with a 51.7% no vote.
    (AP, 10/5/13)(SSFC, 10/6/13, p.A3)

2013        Oct 24, An Austrian student group fighting for online privacy in Europe got the go-ahead for a legal challenge in Ireland's High Court over the transfer of personal data to a US spy agency.
    (Reuters, 10/24/13)

2013        Nov 14, EU officials welcomed the end of bailout support for Spain and Ireland, saying that showed the effectiveness of more than four years of efforts to cut excessive government debt.
    (AP, 11/14/13)

2013        Dec 15, Ireland formally exited its three-year bailout program, becoming the first eurozone nation to do so, but authorities warned of further austerity to ensure economic recovery.
    (AFP, 12/15/13)

2014        Jan 13, In Ireland Saverio Bellante (34) of Italy was charged with the murder of Tom O'Gorman. Bellante said he was guilty of cutting open his Dublin landlord's chest and tried to eat his heart following a fight over a chess match.
    (AP, 1/13/14)

2014        Jan 28, Europe's top human rights court in Strasbourg, France, ruled that Ireland's government failed in its duty to protect children in the case of a woman sexually abused by a lay teacher at a state-backed Roman Catholic school in 1973. Louise O'Keeffe (48) said she was abused by her teacher during lessons in his classroom when she was 9 years old. She argued that the Irish state failed to put in place appropriate measures to stop "systematic abuse" at the Dunderrow National School.
    (AP, 1/28/14)

2014        Feb 18, Irish drugmaker Actavis PLC said it plans to buy Forest Laboratories Inc. in an approximately $25 billion deal that will boost the company's presence in US primary-care doctor offices and bulk up its portfolio of branded drugs.
    (AP, 2/18/14)

2014        Mar 10, Fruit supply companies Chiquita of the United States and Fyffes of Ireland said they had agreed to merge to create the world's biggest banana supplier. Fyffes is Europe's biggest banana importer and the oldest industry brand, dating to 1929.
    (AP, 3/10/14)

2014        Mar 25, Ireland's police chief Martin Callinan resigned following months of criticism of his force's handling of allegations of illegal wire-tapping and corrupt enforcement of traffic laws.
    (AP, 3/25/14)

2014        Apr 8, President Michael Higgins became the first Irish head of state to make a state visit to Britain, crowning a big improvement in historically fraught relations between Dublin and its former colonial master.
    (Reuters, 4/8/14)

2014        Jun 10, Ireland's government said it is launching an investigation into mistreatment and burial of babies who died between 1925-1962 in nun-operated homes for unmarried mothers.
    (AP, 6/10/14)

2014        Jun 15, US medical device manufacturer Medtronic said it has agreed to buy Ireland-based competitor Covidien for $42.9 billion in cash and stock.
    (AP, 6/16/14)

2014        Sep 30, The EU published a warning to Ireland that the country had granted Apple tax advantages the could amount to illegal state aid.
    (SFC, 10/1/14, p.C1)

2014        Nov 1, In Ireland some 100,000 people marched against a new tax on water, imposed on Oct 1 as part of the country’s successful exit from an int’l. bailout. Charges were espected to cost a typical household $350/year.
    (SSFC, 11/2/14, p.A3)

2014        Dec 10, The Irish Parliament adopted a nonbinding resolution supporting an independent Palestine.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lkn9ehu)(SFC, 12/12/14, p.A2)

2014        Dec 26, Ireland's second-highest court ruled that life support should be removed from a brain-dead pregnant woman because her living 18-week-old fetus can't survive to birth.
    (AP, 12/26/14)

2015        Jan 5, Ireland said the United States will permit imports of beef from the country, the first European Union state allowed to resume sales since the mad cow disease scare over 15 years ago.
    (AP, 1/5/15)

2015        Jan 7, Shareholders of medical device maker Medtronic, based in Minneapolis, Minn., approved the acquisition of Ireland-based surgical supplier Covidien PLC in a corporate deal valued at about $48 billion. The acquisition moves the legal headquarters of the combined company to Ireland.
    (AP, 1/7/15)

2015        Jan 18, Ireland’s Health Minister Leo Varadkar said he's gay on his 36th birthday, becoming the first openly homosexual government figure in the history of the traditionally conservative Catholic country.
    (AP, 1/18/15)

2015        May 13, In Ireland two improvised explosive devices were found and disarmed near Leitrim and other bomb-making equipment was found elsewhere as 20 searches were conducted ahead of a planned visit by Britain's Prince Charles. Six men were arrested for suspected terrorist offenses.
    (AP, 5/14/15)

2015        May 22, Ireland voted on whether to allow gay marriage. Irish voters backed same-sex marriage by a margin of 62.1% making it the first country to adopt same-sex marriage via a popular vote.
    (Reuters, 5/22/15)(AP, 5/23/15)

2015        Jun 27, In Ireland tens of thousands of revelers created a carnival atmosphere in Dublin’s gay Pride parade.
    (AFP, 6/27/15)

2015        Jul 15, Ireland’s transgender people won legal recognition of their status through the passage of the Gender Recognition Bill, allowing them to change their legal gender with no medical or state intervention.
    (Reuters, 7/16/15)

2015        Jul 27, Israel's Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. said it is purchasing Dublin-based Allergan PLC's generic pharmaceuticals business for $40.5 billion, in what Israeli analysts called the largest-ever acquisition by an Israeli company.
    (AP, 7/27/15)

2015        Aug 11, At a forum in Dublin, Ireland, Amnesty Int’l. approved a controversial policy to endorse the decriminalization of the sex trade.
    (SFC, 8/12/15, p.A2)

2015        Sep 10, Irish retailer Primark, owned by Associated British Foods (ABF) opened its first shop in America with a flagship store in Boston.
    (http://tinyurl.com/peo64ze)(Econ, 9/5/15, p.65)

2015        Oct 2, In Ireland Brian Friel (86), Tony Award-winning playwright, died. He created "Dancing at Lughnasa" (1990) and more than 30 other plays.
    (AP, 10/2/15)

2015        Oct 5, Irish-born William Campbell (85) and Japan's Satoshi Omura (80) won half of the Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering avermectin, a derivative of which has been used to treat hundreds of millions of people with river blindness and lymphatic filariasis, or elephantiasis. China's Tu Youyou (84) was awarded the other half of the prize for discovering artemisinin, a drug that has slashed malaria deaths.
    (AP, 10/5/15)   

2015        Oct 10, In Ireland 9 people, including an infant, died in a fire at a Dublin mobile home camp for native Gypsies.
    (AP, 10/10/15)

2015        Oct 19, Lawyers said Ireland has agreed to pay the Romanian Gypsy parents of a blond boy 60,000 euros ($68,000) in compensation after conceding that police in 2013 employed prejudicial racial profiling when seizing the child.
    (AP, 10/19/15)

Go to http://www.timelinesdb.com
Subject = Ireland
Return to home

privacy policy