Timeline Israel (B) 1961-1995

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1961        Feb 7, Immanuel Olsvanger (b.1888), Polish-born Jewish folklorist, died in Israel.
    (Econ, 5/18/13, p.87)(http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immanuel_Olsvanger)

1961        Apr 11, Israel began the trial of Adolf Eichmann in Jerusalem. He was accused of World War II war crimes.
    (WSJ, 4/28/97, p.A17)(HN, 4/11/98)

1961        Jul 31, Israel welcomed its 1,000,000th immigrant.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1961        Dec 9, SS Col. Adolf Eichmann was found guilty of war crimes in Israel.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1961        Dec 15, Adolf Eichmann, the former German Gestapo official accused of a major role in the Nazi murder of 6 million Jews, was sentenced by a Jerusalem court to be hanged. Adolf Eichmann was the administrator of the so-called Final Solution and supervised the transportation of prisoners to concentration camps.
    (AP, 12/15/97)(HN, 12/15/98)

1961        Raul Hilberg (1926-2007), American historian, authored “The Destruction of the European Jews." It is largely held to be the first comprehensive historical study of the Holocaust.
    (Econ, 9/14/13, p.18)(http://tinyurl.com/2vmhbq)

1961        Israel’s secret service, Mossad, sent a parcel bomb to Alois Brunner (b.1912), a fugitive Nazi. It cost him an eye. Another parcel bomb in July, 1980, took four fingers. He was last seen alive by reliable witnesses in 1992, and by journalists in 1996.
    (Econ, 11/6/10, p.74)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alois_Brunner)

1962        May 31, Adolph Eichmann (b.1906), Gestapo official and Nazi war criminal, was hanged near Tel Aviv, Israel, for his role in the Nazi murder of over one million Jews. He had been nabbed in Argentina by Peter Malkin in 1960 and taken to Israel for trial. This was the first execution to take place in the state Israel. Eichmann completed 1,300 notebook pages while in prison and they were OK'd for publication in 1999. In 1963 Hannah Arendt authored "Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil."
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, Par p.13) (AP, 5/31/97)(HN, 5/31/99)(SFC, 8/11/99, p.C4)(WSJ, 8/31/99, p.A22)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Eichmann)

1963        May 8, JFK offered Israel assistance against aggression.
    (MC, 5/8/02)

1963        Jun 15, Israeli premier David Ben-Gurion resigned.
    (MC, 6/15/02)

1963        Jun 21, Levi Eshkol began serving as Israel’s 3rd prime minister.
    (Economist, 9/22/12, p.93)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levi_Eshkol)

1963        Oct 12, Archaeological digs began at Masada, Israel.
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1963        Emma Berger, a German Christian, founded a sect of fervent believers in Germany in the 1950s and led a portion of them to Israel in 1963, where they founded a commune called Bethel-El.
    (WSJ, 2/6/98, p.A1)
1963        In Israel activated the main components of its Dimona nuclear plant.  At the time the government claimed that Dimona was a textile plant.
    (Econ, 5/21/16, p.40)
1963        South Africa conducted a joint nuclear test with Israel, but the Israelis did not confirm the report.
    (SFC, 5/17/02, p.A2)

1963-1994    King Hussein of Jordan (1935-1999) held at least 55 secret meetings with leading Israelis including at least seven prime and foreign ministers.
    (Econ, 11/24/07, p.88)

1964        Jan 17, The PLO charter was put together with articles that proclaimed Israel an illegal state and pledged "the elimination of Zionism in Palestine." The PLO was founded in Egypt.
    (SFC, 12/11/98, p.A18)(SFC, 4/30/02, p.A8)

1964        Dec 31, Syrian-based al-Fatah guerrillas of Yasser Arafat launched their 1st raid on Israel with the aim of provoking a retaliation and sparking an Arab war against Israel. Fatah, a Palestinian movement for independence, made the first terror attack on Israel and initiated the armed struggle for a state.
    (WSJ, 1/22/98, p.A1)(SFEC, 1/2/00, p.A24)(WSJ, 6/5/02, p.D7)

1964        The Sergei Courtyard in Jerusalem, part of a compound that had belonged to Moscow patriarchy, was sold for a load of oranges. Israel transferred it back to Russia in 2008.
    (Econ, 3/16/13, p.55)

1965        Jan 20, Generalissimo Francisco Franco met with Jewish representatives to discuss legitimizing Jewish communities in Spain.
    (MC, 1/20/02)

1965         Feb 23, Mossad agents in Uruguay assassinated Herbert Cukurs, a former deputy to the leader of the Latvian Arajs Commando, an auxiliary police unit formed after German forces captured Latvia. The unit had played a central role in the near annihilation of Latvia's Jewish community.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herberts_Cukurs)(AP, 10/30/14)

1965        Mar 14, Israel's cabinet formally approved establishing diplomatic relations with West Germany.
    (AP, 3/14/99)

1965        May 12, West Germany and Israel exchanged letters establishing diplomatic relations.
    (AP, 5/12/97)

1965        May 13, Several Arab nations broke ties with West Germany after it established diplomatic relations with Israel.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1965        May 18, Eli Cohen, who arrived in Syria in 1962, was hanged in a public square in Damascus for spying for Israel until his capture. As businessman Kamal Amin Thabit he worked his way into the upper echelons of Syrian government and society, feeding Israel with valuable political and military intelligence.
    (AP, 5/30/10)

1965        Jul 7, Moshe Sharett, Israel’s 2nd prime minister (1954-1955), died.
    (Economist, 9/22/12, p.93)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moshe_Sharett)

1965        Aug 19, Auschwitz trials ended with only 6 life sentences.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1965        Oct 28, Pope Paul VI issued a decree absolving Jews of collective guilt for the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
    (AP, 10/28/99)

1965        Rev. Edward Flannery (d.1998 at 86) of Providence, R.I., published "The Anguish of the Jews: Twenty-three Centuries of Anti-Semitism.
    (SFC, 10/23/98, p.D7)
1965        Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz (b.1938) began his translation and commentary on the Talmud. In 2010 he published the last book of his 46-volume series. His translation of the Talmud from Aramaic to Hebrew, with his own added comments, marked his crowning achievement.
    (AP, 11/9/10)
1965        Teddy Kollek (1911-2007) was elected as mayor of Jerusalem. He sought to bring Arabs into the Jewish governed city as social and economic equals. In 1993 he was defeated in a run for a 7th term by Ehud Olmert of the Likud Party.
    (SFC, 10/18/96, C8)(SFC, 1/3/07, p.A2)
1965        Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz (b.1938) began his translation and commentary on the Talmud. In 2010 he published the last book of his 46-volume series. His translation of the Talmud from Aramaic to Hebrew, with his own added comments, marked his crowning achievement.
    (AP, 11/9/10)
1965        Teddy Kollek (1911-2007) was elected as mayor of Jerusalem. He sought to bring Arabs into the Jewish governed city as social and economic equals. In 1993 he was defeated in a run for a 7th term by Ehud Olmert of the Likud Party.
    (SFC, 10/18/96, C8)(SFC, 1/3/07, p.A2)

1966        Jan 2, The 1st Jewish child was born in Spain since the 1492 expulsion.
    (MC, 1/2/02)

1966        Nov 10, A land mine near Hebron killed 3 Israeli policemen. Israel retaliated with a weekend strike against West Bank villagers and ran into Jordanian troops in Samu. Palestinians rioted and demanded the overthrow of Jordan’s Pres. Hussein. The Arab legion was forced to fire and killed at least 4.
    (WSJ, 6/5/02, p.D7)

1966        S.Y. Agnon (1888-1970), Jewish writer, shared the Nobel Prize in Literature with Nelly Sachs, a German-born Swede.
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/agnon.htm)(AP, 10/8/09)

1966        In South Africa PM B.J. Vorster (1915-1983) appointed P.W. Botha (1916-2006) as defense minister. In 2010 it was revealed that Botha, as South Africa’s defense minister, asked for nuclear warheads from Israel and that Israel’s defense minister Shimon Peres offered them in 3 sizes.

1966-1974    Abba Eban served as Israel’s foreign minister.
    (AP, 11/17/02)

1967        Apr 7, A, Israeli-Syrian minor border incident escalated into a full-scale aerial battle over the Golan Heights, resulting in the loss of six Syrian MiG-21s to Israeli Air Force (IAF) Dassault Mirage IIIs, and the latter's flight over Damascus.

1967        May 22, Egyptian president Nasser closed the Straits of Tiran to Israel.

1967         Jun 1, In Israel pressure from the army and a threat by some parties to quit the governing coalition forced PM Levi Eshkol to bring in Moshe Dayan as defense minister.
    (www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9029562)(Econ, 5/26/07, p.43)

1967        Jun 5, The Six Day War erupted in the Middle East as Israel, convinced an Arab attack was imminent, raided Egyptian military targets. Syria, Jordan and Iraq entered the conflict. Jordan lost the West Bank, an area of 2,270 sq. miles. War broke out as Israel reacted to the removal of UN peace-keeping troops, Arab troop movements and the barring of Israeli ships in the Gulf of Aqaba. Israel destroyed Egypt’s air force on the ground and knocked out the planes of Jordan, Iraq and Syria.
    (AP, 6/5/97)(HN, 6/5/98)(NG, 5/93, p.58)(HNQ, 5/22/00)(Econ 5/20/17, SR p.3)
1967        Jun 5-1967 Jun 10, Israel fought the Six-Day War against Syria and captured the Golan Heights, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Allegations that Israeli soldiers killed hundreds of Egyptian prisoners with the knowledge of national leaders were made by Israeli historians in 1995. Israel occupied Syrian territory. The Gaza Strip and the West Bank were captured by Israel. Israel annexed the largely Arab East Jerusalem, which included the Old City, and has since ringed it with Jewish neighborhoods.
    (WSJ, 8/17/95, p.A-1)(WSJ,11/24/95, p.A-1)(WSJ, 5/6/96, p.A-13)(SFC, 6/25/96, p.A10)(SFC, 1/22/98, p.B12)(SFC, 4/24/98, p.A17)

1967        Jun 6, Israeli troops occupied Gaza on the 2nd day of the 6-day war.
1967        Jun 6, An Arab oil embargo began one day after the beginning of the Arab-Israeli Six-Day War, with a joint Arab decision to deter any countries from supporting Israel militarily.

1967        Jun 7, Israel captured the Wailing Wall in East Jerusalem on the 3rd day of the 6-day war.

1967        Jun 8, On the 4th day of the Six-Day War Israel captured the Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, as well as the West Bank and Eastern Jerusalem from Jordan. Israel’s occupation of Gaza continued for the next 38 years.
    (SSFC, 6/3/07, p.E6)(Econ, 1/10/09, p.9)
1967        Jun 8, Israeli forces raided the USS Liberty, a US Navy ship stationed in the Mediterranean. Israel called the attack a tragic mistake. The Israeli Air Force attack on the intelligence gathering auxiliary ship Liberty killed 34 crewmen and wounded 171. The attack took place on the 4th day of the Six-Day War in international waters off the coast of Israel. While still a controversy, the official explanation was that Israel believed the Liberty was an Egyptian vessel. Commander William L. McGonagle (d.1999 at 73) was awarded the Medal of Honor for keeping Liberty afloat and remaining on the bridge for 17 hours despite his own wounds. Israel apologized and paid over $12 million in compensation.
    (AP, 6/8/97)(SFC, 3/9/99, p.A22)(WSJ, 5/9/01, p.A24)(WSJ, 5/16/01, p.A23)

1967        Jun 9, Israel completed its final offensive in the Golan Heights in the 6-Day Middle East War.
    (Econ 5/20/17, SR p.3)
1967        Jun 10, Israel and Syria agreed to observe a United Nations-mediated cease-fire. Israel took Gaza and the Sinai from Egypt, Old Jerusalem and the West Bank from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria. In 2002 Michael B. Oren authored "Six Days of War: June 1967 and the making of the Modern Middle East." Israeli military historian Arieh Yitzhaki later said that his research showed Israeli troops killed 300 Egyptian prisoners of war. Israel said soldiers on both sides committed atrocities. In 2007 Tom Segev authored “1967: Israel, the War and the Year that Transformed the Middle East."
    {Israel, Palestine, Syria, Egypt}
    (AP, 6/10/97)(WSJ, 6/5/02, p.D7)(AP, 3/6/07)(Econ, 5/26/07, p.97)

1967        Jun 11, Following the Six Day War Israel annexed the largely Arab East Jerusalem, which included the Old City, and has since ringed it with Jewish neighborhoods.
    (SFC, 6/25/96, p.A10)

1967        Jun 28, Israel formally declared Jerusalem reunified under its sovereignty following its capture of the Arab sector in the June 1967 war.
    (AP, 6/28/98)

1967        Jun 29, Jerusalem was reunified as Israel removed barricades separating the Old City from the Israeli sector.
    (AP, 6/29/97)(HN, 6/29/98)

1967        Jun, In 2017 it was revealed that Israel had the capability at this time to improvise a nuclear explosive device. Israel put together "Operation Shimshon," the codename for the hastily arranged contingency plan of placing an improvised nuclear device in Sinai to be detonated upon the prime minister's orders. It aimed to scare Arab armies into quitting their offensive should Israel face what was feared to be an existential threat.
    (AP, 6/5/17)

1967        Jul, In the wake of the Six Day War some 2,000 Jews in Libya were compelled to leave the country.
    (WSJ, 1/10/07, p.A19)

1967        Oct 21, The Israeli destroyer INS Eilat was sunk by Egyptian missile boats near Port Said; 47 Israeli crew members were lost.
    (AP, 10/21/07)

1967        Nov 22, The U.N. Security Council approved Resolution 242, which called for Israel to withdraw from territories it captured in 1967, and implicitly called on adversaries to recognize Israel's right to exist.
    (AP, 11/22/97)

1967        Dec 14, Israel submitted to the United Nations a five-year plan to solve the Arab refugee problem conditioned on a general peace settlement between Israel and the Arab states.
    (AP, 12/14/02)

1967        Michael Bar-Zohar authored "The Avengers." It covered the story of Holocaust survivors who formed a death squad after World War II to take revenge on their Nazi persecutors. One operation included attempts to poison hundreds of SS officers imprisoned after the war by the Americans at Dachau and Nuremberg in Germany. The group's 40 or so members were largely Jews who had not been sent to concentration camps and spent the war fighting Nazis.
    (AP, 12/23/05)

1967        Chaim Herzog became the first military governor of the West Bank.
    (SFC, 4/18/97, p.E2)
1967        Sheik Assad Bayyoud Tamini (d.1998 at 86), a militant Muslim leader who later advocated peace with Israel, was deported from Hebron for resisting Israeli occupation. He continued his resistance from Jordan.
    (SFC, 3/24/98, p.B2)
1967        Israel passed a new patent law that allowed Israeli companies to copy a foreign patent if the foreign company did not market it in Israel.
    (WSJ, 10/27/04, p.A1)

1968        Jan, An Israeli submarine, the Dakar, a British-made submarine with a 69-man crew, was lost in the Mediterranean Sea while onroute from England to Israel. The sunken ship was found May 28, 1999, between Crete and Cyprus.
    (SFC, 5/31/99, p.A8)

1968        Mar 21, Israeli forces attacked a Palestinian base belonging to Fatah in the  village  of Al-Karameh in Jordan. Israeli forces engage in a battle with Palestinian fighters for the first time. On 24 March 1968, the Security Council adopted resolution 248 (1968), condemning the large scale and premeditated military actions by  Israel against Jordan. The Karameh mission failed. Muki Betser, Israeli commando, was wounded. He later became commander of the Sayeret Matkal, Israel’s elite counter-terrorist unit.
    (SFC, 7/16/96, p.E5)(www.un.int/palestine/chron60.shtml)

1968        Apr, Jews moved into Hebron following its occupation in the wake of the 1967 6-Day War. They later settled in the new suburb of Kiryat Arba. Rabbi Moshe Levinger (1935-2015) left Jerusalem on Passover eve along with several dozen followers and checked into the Park Hotel posing as Swiss tourists. The next day, Levinger declared their true identity and announced their intention to re-establish Hebron's Jewish community.
    (SFC, 12/4/08, p.A27)(AP, 5/17/15)

1968        May 12, In Israel the Knesset passed the Jerusalem Day Law, making the day a national holiday. Israel’s government proclaimed Jerusalem Day, to be celebrated on the 28th of Iyar, the Hebrew date on which the divided city of Jerusalem became one.

1968        Jul 8, Golda Meir resigned from her post as secretary of the Labor Party.

1968        Aug, The play "You, Me and the Next War," by Hanoch Levin (1943-1999), Israeli dramatist, was produced.
    (SFC, 8/19/99, p.D2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanoch_Levin)

1968        Dec 26, A Palestinian terrorist attack in Athens on an Israeli civilian airliner killed one person. Mahmoud Mohammad (25) and Maher Suleiman (19) were later captured by Greek officials, In 1970, a Greek court convicted Mahmoud Mohammad for his role in the attack. In 1987 Mahmoud Mohammed Issa Mohammed entered Canada, where he was ordered to be deported in 1988. In 2007 he was still in Canada after some 30 appeals and reviews.
    (http://tinyurl.com/35olct)(Econ, 9/15/07, p.48)(www.skyjack.co.il/chronology.htm)

1968        Dec 27, The US agreed to sell fifty F-4 Phantom jets to Israel.
    (HN, 12/27/98)

1968        Dec 28, Israel attacked the Beirut Int’l. Airport, destroying 13 civilian planes. This was in response to an attack on an Israeli airliner in Athens by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP).

1968        Jerome Mintz (d.1997 at 67), US anthropologist, published "Legends of the Hasidim."
    (SFC,12/20/97, p.A21)
1968        Galgal Refaim, or the "wheel of ghosts" was first noticed by scholars, a year after Israel captured the Golan Heights from Syria. It consists of four circles, the outermost more than 500 feet across, made up of an estimated 42,000 tons of basalt stone, the remains of massive walls that experts believe once rose as much as high as 30 feet. The enormous feat of construction was carried out some 6000 years ago by a society about which little is known. A tomb existed in the center of the site, but scholars tend to agree it was added a millennia or two after the circles were erected in the Chalcolithic period, between 4500 and 3500 BC. In 2011 a scholar suggested that Galgal Refaim was an excarnation facility.
    (AP, 11/3/11)
1968        Charles de Gaulle switched sides to align France with the Arabs. This laid the foundation for Israel’s high-tech industry.
    (Econ 5/20/17, SR p.4)
1968        In Poland some 13,000 Jews were forced to leave the country following mass anti-communist protests. Students defending a banned anti-totalitarian play initiated the protests, which the ruling communist factions used in their infighting that climaxed in the purge of Jews.
    (AP, 3/6/18)

1969        Jan 27, In Iraq 14 people, including 9 Jews, were hanged for alleged espionage.

1969        Feb 18, The PLO (PFLP-GC) machine-gunned an Israeli El-Al plane in Zurich, Switzerland.  One Palestinian was killed and 4 were arrested.
    (www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Terrorism/incidents.html)(SFC, 5/21/02, p.A16)

1969        Feb 21, In Israel Hebrew University students Leon Kanner and Eddie Joffe were killed when a bomb exploded as they purchased groceries in a Jerusalem SuperSol supermarket. Rasmieh Yousef Odeh was arrested in March and soon sentenced by an Israeli military court to life in prison for her involvement in this and another terrorist bombing in Jerusalem. In 1980 she was among 78 prisoners released by Israel in an exchange with the PLO for an Israeli soldier captured in Lebanon.

1969        Feb 26, Levi Eshkol (b.1895), born in the Ukraine as Levi Shkolnik, died while serving as Israel’s 3rd premier (1963-1969).
    (Economist, 9/22/12, p.93)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levi_Eshkol)

1969        Mar 17, Golda Meir (d.1978) became the 4th prime minister of Israel. She held the office to 1974.
    (AP, 3/17/97)(AP, 12/8/97)

1969        May 25, The Israeli Army made the first of four unsuccessful assaults on Arab forces in the town of Latrun, Israel.
    (HN, 5/25/99)   

1969        Yair Rosenbloom (1944-1996), songwriter and composer composed the "Song to Peace" that was later sung by Prime Minister Rabin just before his assassination. It was initially an anti-war protest and denounced by the military as defeatist and banned from army radio.
    (SFC, 8/30/96, p.E5)

1970        Jan 28, Israeli fighter jets attacked the suburbs of Cairo.
    (HN, 1/28/99)

1970        Feb 17, S.Y. Agnon, Jewish writer and Nobel Prize winner (1966) died in Jerusalem. His books included “Days of Awe," a compendium of Jewish practices, legends and commentaries.
    (WSJ, 9/22/07, p.W6)(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/agnon.htm)

1970        Feb 21, The PFLP-GC, a Palestinian terrorist group, planted a parcel bomb on Swissair Flight 330 that blew up on a flight from Zurich to Tel Aviv. All 47 aboard were killed.
    (SFC, 5/21/02, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swissair_Flight_330)(Econ, 11/6/10, p.74)

1970        Jun, The Israeli government passed its initial decision to establish settlements in Gaza.
    (AP, 8/15/05)

1970        Jul 21, Libya ordered the confiscation of all Jewish property.

1970        Aug 7, Israel, Jordan and Egypt agreed to a ceasefire under the terms of the US proposed Roger Plan. The Roger Plan was originally proposed in a December 9, 1969, speech at an Adult Education conference. The plan was formally announced on 19 June 1970.

1970        Sep 17, The PLO was driven out of Jordan and forced to move to Lebanon.
    (SFC, 2/8/99, p.A6)

1970        George L. Mosse (1918-1999), a Univ. of Wisconsin historian, published "Germans and Jews: The Right, the Left, and the Search for a 'Third Force' in Pre-Nazi Germany."
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, p.D8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Mosse)
1970        Oded Fehr, Israeli actor, was born.
    (AP, 11/23/02)
1970        Hanoch Levin's play "The Queen of the Bathtub" mocked Prime Minister Golda Meir and caused a storm of protest.
    (SFC, 8/19/99, p.D2)
c1970        George L. Mosse (d.1999 at 80), a Univ. of Wisconsin historian, published "Germans and Jews: The Right, the Left, and the Search for a 'Third Force' in Pre-Nazi Germany."
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, p.D8)
1970        Benjamin Weiss, an Israeli-American mathematician, first posed the "Road Coloring Problem," which essentially assumed it's possible to create a "universal map" that can direct people to arrive at a certain destination, at the same time, regardless of starting point. In 2008 Avraham Trahtman (63), immigrant mathematician from Russia, provided an 8-page solution.
    (AP, 3/20/08)(www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23729600/)
1970        The Israeli military seized privately owned land in the West Bank in the name of security and soon made it available for settlement by Israeli civilians. By 2017 the Beit El settlement numbered some 6,500 people.
    (Econ, 2/11/17, p.41) 

1972        Feb 5, It was reported that the United States had agreed to sell 42 F-4 Phantom jets to Israel.

1972        May 8, A Belgian Sabena aircraft, bound for Tel Aviv, was hijacked by 4 Palestinians. At Lod Intl. 2 hijackers were shot and killed by Israeli military personnel, dressed as ground engineers. One passenger died 8 days later as a result of her wounds. The two women hijackers were subsequently sentenced to life imprisonment.

1972        May 30, Three militants of the Japanese Red Army staged a machine-gun and hand-grenade attack at the Lod Airport in Israel. 24 people were killed and a 100 injured. The terrorists found refuge in Lebanon until 1997 when they were arrested. Kozo Okamoto served 13 years of a life sentence in Israel. In 2000 Lebanon granted asylum to Kozo Okamoto. 4 other Japanese Red Army members were deported to Japan.
    (SFC, 2/19/96, p.A8)(SFC, 3/18/00, p.A3)

1972        Jun 7, German Chancellor Willy Brandt began a 5-day visit to Israel.

1972        Sep 5, Terror struck the Munich Olympic games in West Germany as Arab guerrillas attacked the Israeli delegation. Palestinian terrorists killed 2 athletes and took 9 others and their coaches hostage. Eleven Israelis, five guerrillas and a police officer were killed in a 20-hour siege. The Palestinian commandos were linked to Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez. In 1984 George Jonas authored “Vengeance," an account of an Israeli hit squad ordered to track down those responsible for the Munich attack. In 2000 the TV documentary "One Day in September" depicted the events. In 2005 Aaron J. Klein authored “Striking Back," and account of Israel’s response to the Munich attack. The 2005 the Stephen Spielberg film “Munich" was based on the book by George Jonas.
    (SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)(WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W4)(WSJ, 12/21/05, p.D10)(WSJ, 1/14/06, p.A9)

1972        Sep 19, A Black September letter bomb killed Ami Shehori (Shachori), Israeli attache at the embassy in London.

1972        Oct 29, Hijackers of a German Lufthansa passenger jet demanded the release of the three surviving terrorists, who had been arrested after the Fürstenfeldbruck gunfight and were being held for trial. They forced West Germany to release 3 terrorists who were involved in the Munich Massacre.

1972        Israel began establishing two army posts in Gaza, which later become the communities of Netzarim and Kfar Darom.
    (AP, 8/15/05)

1972        Abu Daoud at a cafe in Rome with fellow PLO guerrilla leader Abu Iyad and his assistant, Mohammed al-Omari, read in a newspaper that the International Olympics Committee had refused the PLO's request to send a Palestinian delegation to the Munich Olympics. They decided to “participate in their own way." Daoud was given the task of doing the operation's groundwork. Daoud first acknowledged having a role in the 1972 Munich operation in the 1999 book: "Palestine: From Jerusalem to Munich."
    (AP, 2/24/06)

1972        Arkady Gaydamak (20) arrived in Israel from Russia. By 2006 estimates of his wealth varied from between $800 million to more than $4 billion. He said he made all of his money on the Russian stock exchange. Gaydamak was never been convicted of a crime, but faced an international arrest warrant because of a French investigation into alleged arms trafficking to Angola in the early 1990s.
    (AP, 11/21/06)

1973        Feb 21, Israeli fighter planes shot down a Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114 over the Sinai Desert, killing over 100 people.
    (AP, 2/21/98)

1973        Jan 15, Pope Paul VI had an audience with Golda Meir at Vatican.

1973        May 26, Jacques Lipchitz (b.1891), Lithuanian-born, French-US cubist sculptor, died on Capri and was buried in Jerusalem.

1973        Jul 21, Israeli intelligence mistakenly assassinated Ahmed Bouchiki, a Moroccan living in Lillehammer, Norway, as part of its retribution for the Sep 5, 1972, terrorist attack in Munich. He was mistaken for Ali Hassan Salameh (d.1979). Mossad agent Michael Harari (1927-2014) escaped from Norway, but six Israeli agents were arrested. Five were later convicted and sentenced one to five years in prison. Norway later pardoned three of the agents.
    (WSJ, 12/21/05, p.D10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahmed_Bouchiki)(SFC, 9/29/14, p.C3)
1973        Sep 13, Israel shot down 12 Syrian aircraft to1 Israeli loss when IAF jets were attacked during a reconnaissance mission over Syrian territory.

1973        Oct 6, The fourth Arab-Israeli war in 25 years was fought. Israel was taken by surprise when Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Jordan attacked on the Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur, beginning the Yom Kippur War. Syria tried to regain the Golan Heights with a massive attack with 1,500 tanks. The assault, empowered by Russian equipment, was repulsed by air power.
    (WSJ, 5/6/96, p.A-13)(TMC, 1994, p.1973)(AP, 10/6/97)(HN, 10/6/98)(Econ, 3/16/13, p.54)
1973        Oct 6, The Egyptian Air Force under Hosni Mubarak launched a surprise attack on Israeli soldiers on the east bank of the Suez Canal. Egyptian pilots hit 90% of their targets, making Mubarak a national hero. The next year he was promoted to Air Chief Marshal in recognition of service during the October War of 1973 against Israel.

1973        Oct 14, US Air Force "Operation Nickel Grass" began resupply missions to Israel for a full month, until November 14.

1973        Oct 15 Israeli tanks under General Ariel Sharon crossed the Suez Canal and began to encircle two Egyptian armies.

1973        Oct 22, Israeli troops reconquered Mount Hermon from Syria. The UN Security Council Resolution 338 called for a cease fire to the Yom Kippur War. The UN Security Council issued Resolution 338 calling for a ceasefire and the start of negotiations aimed at implementation of  Resolution 242.

1973        Oct 23, In the Yom Kippur War Syria announced it had accepted a UN sanctioned cease-fire, and the Iraqi government ordered its forces home.

1973        Oct 24, The UNSC passed Resolution 339, serving as a renewed call for all parties to adhere to the cease fire terms established in Resolution 338. Organized fighting on all fronts ended by October 26.

1973        Oct 26, Organized fighting on all fronts of the Yom Kippur ended. Of Israel’s roughly 2,120 tanks, about 840 were destroyed over the 20 days of the war.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yom_Kippur_War)(Econ, 6/4/11, TQ p.19)

1973        Oct, In Israel 4 conservative parties, Gahal, Free Centre, State Party, and the Eretz Yisrael movement formed Likud. Menachim Begin became its first leader. Ariel Sharon helped found the Likud Party. He quit the party in 2005 in order to head a new centrist party called Kadima (Forward).
    (Econ, 11/26/05, p.57)(http://i-cias.com/e.o/likud.htm)

1973        Nov 11, Israel and Egypt signed a cease-fire.

1973        Nov 15-1973 Nov 22, Egypt and Israel exchanged prisoners of war.

1973        Dec 1, David Ben-Gurion (87), Israel's first prime minister (1948-1953 and 1955-1963), died in Tel Aviv.
    (AP, 12/1/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Ben-Gurion)

1973        Dec 21, Israel, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, US and USSR leaders met in Geneva. The Geneva Conference of 1973 was an attempt to negotiate a solution to the Arab-Israeli conflict as called for in UN Security Council Resolution 338 which was passed after the 1973 Arab-Israeli War.

1973        Primo Levi (1920-1987) authored "The Periodic Table," a memoir that incorporated many of his experiences at the Auschwitz concentration camp.
    (SSFC, 5/26/02, p.M1)
1973        Abba Eban (1915-2002), Israeli foreign minister, helped persuade the US administration of Pres. Richard Nixon to carry out an emergency airlift of weapons and supplies.
    (AP, 11/17/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abba_Eban)
1973        Canadian Judy Feld Carr established a network to help Syrian Jews, barred from traveling, to leave the country clandestinely. Over the next 28 years she helped over 3,000 Jews leave Syria.
    (SSFC, 6/28/09, p.A8)

1974        Jan 18, Israel and Egypt signed a Separation of Forces Agreement.

1974        Apr 10, Golda Meir announced her resignation as prime minister of Israel. Yitzhak Rabin replaced Golda Meir.
    (AP, 4/10/97)(HN, 4/10/98)

1974        May 15, PFLP terrorists took a school in Maalot, Israel. 26 people were killed including 21 children after an unsuccessful rescue attempt.
    (www.mfa.gov.il/mfa)(WSJ, 9/14/04, p.A20)

1974        May 31, Israel and Syria signed an agreement on the Golan Heights.
    (HN, 5/31/98)

1974        Jun 3, Yitzhak Rabin (1922-1995) formed a new Israeli government.

1974        Hanan Porat (1944-2011) founded the movement Gush Emunim, Hebrew for "the bloc of the faithful" (1974), a messianic movement committed to settling land Israel captured in the 1967 war.
    (AP, 10/4/11)
1974        The UN recognized the right of Palestinians to sovereignty and national independence.
    (SFC, 2/8/99, p.A6)
1974        The Palestinian Democratic Front took over an Israeli school in Maalot and 20 schoolchildren were killed.
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.A22)
1974        Intel's Israel Development Center opened in the northern port city of Haifa. This was the company's first design and development center outside the United States.
    (AFP, 5/1/14)

1975        Jan 3, President Gerald Ford signed the Jackson-Vanik amendment into law, after both houses of the United States Congress unanimously voted for its adoption. Congress had passed the Jackson-Vanik amendment for economic sanctions on Russia to pressure the Soviet Union to allow unfettered emigration for Soviet Jews. Pres. Bush in 2001 proposed that it be lifted.
    (WSJ, 11/5/01, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jackson-Vanik_amendment)

1975        May 20, The European Economic Community adopted a trade agreement with Israel.

1975        Jul 8, Israeli premier Yitzhak Rabin began a 4-day visit to West-Germany.

1975        Sep 1, Israel and Egypt initialed the Sinai II agreement on disengagement. A ceremonial signing was held in Geneva on Sep 4.

1975        Oct 17, A UN committee passed a resolution saying "Zionism is a form of racism." The resolution was reversed in 1991.
    (www.heritage.org/Research/InternationalOrganizations/bg851.cfm)(Econ, 4/25/09, p.62)

1975        Nov 10, The UN General Assembly approved a resolution equating Zionism with racism. However, the world body repealed the resolution in December 1991.
    (AP, 11/10/97)(www.heritage.org/Research/InternationalOrganizations/bg851.cfm)

1975-1985    Environmental designer Lawrence Halprin designed the Walter and Elise Haas Promenade in the hills of Jerusalem.
    (SFEM, 8/10/97, p.13)

1976        Mar 30, Israel killed 6 Palestinians protesting land confiscation. This event became remembered annually by Palestinians as Land Day.
    (www.balad.org/index.php?id=138)(AFP, 3/30/12)

1976        Jun 27, An Air France Airbus flight AF139, from Tel Aviv to Paris, was hijacked shortly after departing Athens and taken to Uganda. It was hijacked by members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine and a German radical group. The hijackers released 148 non-Israeli passengers after the plane landed in Uganda. French pilot Michel Bacos (d.2019) remained with the hostages despite offers of release.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_France)(AP, 3/27/19)

1976        Jul 3, Israel launched its daring mission to rescue 103 passengers and Air France crew members being held at Entebbe Airport in Uganda by pro-Palestinian hijackers.
    (AP, 7/3/97)

1976        Jul 4, Jonathan Netanyahu, brother of Benjamin, led and was killed in an Israeli raid called Operation Thunderball that rescued the [105] hostages held at Entebbe Airport in Uganda. The raid was by Sayeret Matkal, Israel’s elite counter-terrorist unit led by Muki Betser, and it freed all but 3 of the 104 Israeli and Jewish hostages and crew of an Air France jetliner seized by pro-Palestinian hijackers. A total of 45 Ugandan soldiers were killed during the raid. The events are described by Muki Betser and Robert Rosenberg in "Secret Soldier, The True Life of Israel’s Greatest Commando." The hijacking was linked to Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Entebbe)(AP, 7/4/97)(SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)

1976        Jul 9, Uganda asked UN to condemn Israeli hostage rescue raid on Entebbe.

1976        Dec 20, Israel's PM Yitzhak Rabin resigned.

1976        Israel convicted Monsignor Hilarion Capucci (1923-2017), a Greek Melkite Catholic archbishop in Jerusalem, of using his diplomatic status to smuggle arms to Palestinian militants in the occupied West Bank. Capucci served two years of the 12-year sentence, then was released due to Vatican intervention and deported.
    (AP, 1/2/17)
1976        Israel approved a 480-mile Trans-Israel Highway from the Galilee to the Negev Desert.
    (SFC, 6/12/00, p.A12)
1976        Israeli settlers established a West Bank community in Nabi Salen later called Halamish. In 2008 the local spring was seized leading to protest marches by the local extended Tamini family
    (Econ, 6/11/16, p.82)

1977        Jan 11, France set off an international uproar by releasing Abu Daoud, a Palestinian suspected of involvement in the massacre of Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympics. In 1999 Mohammed Oudeh, aka Abu Daoud, published an autobiography in France in which he admitted to playing a mastermind role in the 1972 Munich hostage episode.
    (AP, 1/11/98)(SFC, 6/14/99, p.A14)

1977        Jan 12, Anti-French demonstrations took place in Israel after Paris released Abu Daoud, responsible for the 1972 Munich massacre of Israeli athletes.

1977        Mar 7, Israeli PM Yitzhak Rabin met Pres. Carter.

1977        Mar 12, Egypt's Anwar Sadat pledged to regain Arab territory from Israel.

1977        Apr 8, Israel premier Rabin resigned as prime minister due to a bank account scandal after it was revealed that his wife, Leah, had illegally maintained a foreign currency account containing about $3,000 in the United States.
    (SFEC, 4/21/97, p.D4)(http://i-cias.com/e.o/rabin_yz.htm)

1977        Apr 22, Simon Peres became premier of Israel under Pres. Ephraim Katzir. Peres served until June 21. He served again as premier from 1984-1986, and 1985-1996. 

1977        May 17, Menachem Begin's Likud-party won election in Israel.

1977        Jun 21, Menachem Begin became Israel's sixth prime minister at the head of a Likud coalition. He became Likud’s first prime minister and continued to 1983.
    (AP, 6/21/97)(WSJ, 4/29/98, p.A22)(Econ, 7/28/12, SR p.8)

1977        Sep 26, Israel announced a cease-fire on Lebanese border.
    (HN, 9/26/99)

1977        Nov 19, Egyptian Pres. Anwar Sadat became the first Arab leader to visit Israel. Peace talks began in the Middle East with Sadat going to Israel.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1977)(AP, 11/19/97)

1977        Nov 20, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat became the first Arab leader to address Israel's parliament.
    (AP, 11/20/97)

1977        Dec 25, Israeli PM Menachem Begin met Egyptian Pres. Sadat (1918-1981) in Egypt.

1977        Ariel Sharon was elected to parliament and was appointed minister of agriculture in the Begin government.
    (SFC, 10/10/98, p.A8)

1977         More Israeli civilians were allowed to move into the army installations in Gaza, and new settlements were established.
    (AP, 8/15/05)

1978        Jan 8, The Israeli government voted to "strengthen" settlements in occupied Sinai.

1978        Mar 11, Palestinian Arab terrorists led by Dalal Mughrabi killed 37 people in an attack along the Tel Aviv coastal highway. The terrorists were identified as belonging to Fatah; 9 were killed and two captured.
    (AP, 3/11/98)(www.palestinefacts.org/pf_1967to1991_terrorism_1970s.php)

1978        Mar 14, An Israeli force of 22,000 invaded south Lebanon, hitting the PLO bases.

1978        Mar 19, Israeli army took control of almost all of Lebanon south of Litani River.
    (AP, 3/19/03)
1978        Mar 19, The UN Security Council adopted Resolution 425 demanding that Israel withdraw from Lebanon.
    (SFC, 5/24/00, p.A15)

1978        Mar 23, UNIFIL forces arrived in Lebanon setting up headquarters in Naqoura. In response to Israel’s invasion, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 425 and Resolution 426 calling for the withdrawal of Israeli forces from Lebanon. The UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) was created to enforce this mandate, and restore peace and sovereignty to Lebanon.

1978        Mar, Wadia Haddad, a Palestinian wanted for airplane hijackings, died in Iraq showing only symptoms of leukemia but no signs of poisoning. In 2006 Aaron Klein authored "Striking Back," which for the first time gave details of the killing. Klein said Mossad agents had fed Haddad poisoned Belgian chocolate over six months.
    (AP, 5/7/06)

1978        Jun 13, Israelis withdrew the last of their invading forces from Lebanon.
    (HN, 6/13/98)

1978        Jul 18, Cyrus Vance (1917-2002), US Sec. of State, met with the Egyptian and Israeli Foreign Ministers at Leeds Castle, England.

1978        Aug 20, Gunmen opened fire on an Israeli El Al Airline bus in London.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1978        Sep 5-1978 Sep 17, US Pres. Carter, Menachem Begin of Israel and Anwar Sadat of Egypt met at Camp David, Md. In 2014 Lawrence Wright authored “Thirteen Days in September: Carter, Begin, and Sadat at Camp David."
    (SFC, 6/2/97, p.D5)(Econ, 9/20/14, p.79)

1978        Sep 17, US Pres. Carter, Menachem Begin of Israel and Anwar Sadat of Egypt signed agreements at Camp David, Md. Israel promised to withdraw gradually from Sinai and to establish some form of autonomous Palestinian territory on the West Bank. Sadat's astrologer, Hasan al-Tuhami, was the only person Sadat trusted. In the Camp David Accord "Israel was the winner and Egypt the Loser." Thus wrote Boutros Boutros-Ghali in his 1997 book: "Egypt’s Road to Jerusalem: A Diplomat’s Story of the Struggle for Peace in the Middle East."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)(TL, 1988, p.119)(SFC, 6/2/97, p.D5)(SFC, 4/24/98, p.A17)

1978        Sep 25, Jacobo Timerman was released by Argentina’s ruling junta under international pressure. His citizenship was stripped, his newspaper confiscated and he was put on a plane for Israel.
    (SFC, 11/12/99, p.D6)

1978        Sep 28, The Israeli Knesset endorsed the Camp David accord.

1978        Oct 12, Representatives of Israel and Egypt opened talks in Washington.

1978        Oct 22, Negotiators for Egypt and Israel announced in Washington they had reached tentative agreement on the main points of a peace treaty.
    (AP, 10/22/98)

1978        Oct 27, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin were named winners of the Nobel Peace Prize for their progress toward achieving a Middle East accord.
    (AP, 10/27/97)

1978        Dec 8, Golda Meir (80), PM of Israel from 1969 to 1974, died of cancer in Jerusalem.
    (AP, 12/8/97)

1978        David Grossman created his documentary “The Yellow Wind." It engaged with the lives of Palestinians living in Gaza and the West Bank under Israeli occupation.
    (Econ, 9/18/10, p.103)
1978        Israelis tranformed a campsite named Ariel into the first Jewish city in the occupied West Bank.
    (Econ, 10/23/10, p.60)
1978        Yitzhak Navon (1921-2015) became Israel's fifth president and continued to 1983.
    (AP, 11/7/15)
1978        Ghassan Tueni (1926-2012, Lebanon’s UN ambassador (1977-1982), pushed for the adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 425, which called for the withdrawal of Israeli troops from Lebanon.
    (AFP, 6/8/12)

1979        Jan 22, Abu Hassan (Ali Hassan Salameh), the alleged planner of the 1972 Munich raid, was killed by a bomb in Beirut. He was the chief of operations for the Black September militant Palestinian group. Erica Chambers, a British passport holder, recruited by Mossad, triggered the huge car bomb. 
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ali_Hassan_Salameh)(HN,1/22/99)(Econ, 6/7/14, p.88)

1979        Mar 21, The Egyptian Parliament unanimously approved a peace treaty with Israel.
    (AP, 3/21/99)

1979        Mar 22, The Israeli parliament approved a peace treaty with Egypt.

1979        Mar 26, The Camp David peace treaty was signed by Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian President Anwar Sadat at the White House. [see Sep 5-17, 1978] Under the historic peace accord, Israel and Egypt agreed to operate flights between the countries.
    (AP, 3/26/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camp_David_Accords)(AP, 9/16/12)

1979        Mar 31, The Arab League suspended Egypt following its treaty with Israel.

1979        Apr 2, Israeli PM Menachem Begin visited Cairo, Egypt, and met with Pres. Sadat.

1979        Apr 22, Samir Kantar (1962-2015) participated in the killing of an Israeli policeman and the attempted kidnapping of an Israeli family in Nahariya that resulted in the deaths of four Israelis and two of his fellow PLF kidnappers.
    (AP, 10/25/04)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samir_Kuntar)

1979        May 1, Elton John and Ray Cooper performed the first of 5 concerts in Israel. They performed 3 times in Jerusalem and twice in Tel Aviv ending in Tel Aviv on May 6.

1979        May 25, Israel began to return Sinai to Egypt. Under the new peace treaty, Israel returned the captured Sinai to Egypt. In return, Egypt agreed to leave the area demilitarized.
    (www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/time70s.html)(AP, 1/31/11)

1979        Sep 22, A 2-3 kiloton thermonuclear device was set off in the waters off Bouvet Island, a little-visited possession of Norway located between the bottom of South Africa and the Prince Astrid Coast of Antarctica. The list of suspects quickly narrowed to South Africa and Israel.
    (SFCM, 9/25/05, p.6)(www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/israel/nuke-test.htm)

1979        Oct 21, Moshe Dayan, Israeli minister of foreign affairs, submitted his resignation.

1979        Nov 25, Israel returned the Alma oil field in A-Tour to Egypt.

1979        In Israel the 1st class of cadets entered Talpiot, a government sponsored program for science study to be followed by 6 years of paid service in the military. The cadets were charged with improving the armed services through technology.
    (WSJ, 1/6/07, p.A6)
1979        Stig Bergling (1937-2015), a former Swedish security officer who sold secrets to the Soviet Union, was caught in Israel. He had given Moscow details on the location of coastal defense sites and weapon systems, forcing neutral Sweden to revamp much of its defense system. In Sweden he was sentenced to life in prison, but fled while on leave in 1987. He and his wife returned to Sweden in 1994. He went back to prison, but was released in 1997 after his life sentence was commuted.
    (AP, 1/29/15)
1979        Israeli cousins Menachem Golan (d.2014) and Yoram Globus bought Canon Films. In 2015 they were the subjects of the documentary “The Go-Go Boys: The Inside Story of Canon Films."
    (SFC, 7/22/15, p.E1)

1980        Jan 26, Israel and Egypt established diplomatic relations, in accord with PM Begin’s agreement with Pres. Sadat on Jan 10 at Aswan.

1980        Feb 26, Egypt and Israel exchanged ambassadors for the 1st time.

1980        Jul 30, The Israeli Knesset passed a law reaffirming all of Jerusalem as the capital of the Jewish state.
    (AP, 7/30/00)

1980        Aug 19, Otto Frank (b.1889), the father of Anne Frank, died in Switzerland.

1980        Aug 20, The UN Security Council condemned (14-0, US abstains) Israel’s declaration that all of Jerusalem is its capital.

1980        Dec 31, A bomb blast wrecked the Jewish-owned Norfolk Hotel in Nairobi, Kenya, killing 16 people and wounding more than 80.

1980        Israel’s government allowed settlers to expand their presence in the Arab area of Hebron after a Palestinian attack killed 6 Jews returning from prayer at Abraham’s tomb.
    (SFC, 12/4/08, p.A27)
1980        Luz International was founded in Israel. It became the first company to implement solar thermal technology on a commercial scale. Luz began building solar-thermal power stations in California’s Mojave desert in the mid 1980s.
    (Econ, 6/6/09, p.23)

1981        Jun 7, Israeli F-16 fighter-bombers in “Operation Opera" destroyed a nuclear power plant in Iraq at Osirak, Iraq, before it went into operation. Israelis charged that the facility could have been used to make nuclear weapons. Ilan Ramon (d.2003) flew the last of the 8 planes that bombed the reactor. In 2004 Rodger W. Claire authored “Raid on the Sun."
    (WSJ, 7/23/96, p.A22)(AP, 6/7/97)(SFC, 2/3/03, p.A7)(WSJ, 6/1/04, p.D8)(Econ, 1/9/10, p.28)

1981        Jun 30, Elections for the tenth Knesset were held in Israel. Despite last minute polls suggesting a victory for Shimon Peres' Alignment, Menachem Begin's Likud won by just one seat. Voter turnout was 77.8%.

1981        Jun, The First World Gathering of Holocaust survivors took place in Israel. It was organized by Auschwitz survivor, Ernest Michel. Lani Silver (d.2009 at 60), a professor at San Francisco State Univ. returned from the meeting and founded the Bay Area Holocaust Oral History Project.
    (www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/78/a3011978.shtml)(SFC, 1/31/09, p.B5)

1981        Jul 31, The leader of Panama, General Omar Torrijos, died in a plane crash. Michael Harari, a former Israeli Mossad agent, reorganized, renamed and trained the Panamanian Defense Forces when Gen. Manuel Noriega succeeded Torrijos.
    (SFC, 1/2/97, p.A20)(AP, 7/31/99)(http://tinyurl.com/nmduqua)

1981        Oct 16, Israeli war hero Moshe Dayan died in Tel Aviv at age 66.
    (AP, 10/16/01)

1981        Dec 14, Israel annexed the Golan Heights, seized from Syria in 1967. The parliament approved the annexation of the Golan Heights with legislation in one day.
    (SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)(AP, 12/14/97)

1981        Daniel Halevi Bloom, American-Jewish author, invented the characters Bubbie and Zadie, Yiddish for grandma and grandpa, as an alternative to Santa Claus. In 1985 he wrote “Bubbie and Zadie Come to My House" and invited Jewish children to respond with letters.
    (SFC, 12/22/06, p.A1)
1981        Ariel Sharon was appointed defense minister in the Begin government.
    (SFC, 10/10/98, p.A8)
1981        Israel promised Canada that the Mossad spy agency would not use Canadian passports.
    (WSJ, 10/3/97, p.A1)
1981        In Iran Ayatollah Khomeini declared the celebration of “Al-Quds Day," the Arabic name for Jerusalem Day, to be held on the last day of Ramadan as an annual denunciation of Israeli control of the holy city.
    (WSJ,2/13/97, p.A18)(www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15343184/)
1981        The Islamic Jihad was founded with the aim of establishing an Islamic Palestinian state in the West Bank, Gaza and all of what is now Israel.
    (AP, 11/12/19)   
1981        Prince Fahd of Saudi Arabia proposed an 8-point peace plan to end the Arab-Israeli conflict. It was adopted by the Arab League after some controversy.
    (Econ, 8/6/05, p.71)

1982        Apr 11, In Israel Alan Goodman opened fire on Palestinians praying at the Temple Mount, the site of Islam’s third-holiest shrine. He killed 2 and was sentenced to life in prison. He was released to the US in 1997 after agreeing to spend the next 8 years in the US.
    (SFC,10/27/97, p.A9)

1982        Apr 25, In accordance with Camp David agreements, Israel completed the Sinai withdrawal. Ariel Sharon, as defense minister, directed the dismantling of Israeli settlements in the Sinai Peninsula. Nearly 5,000 residents and many more sympathizers were dragged off roofs and bundled onto buses.
    (HN, 4/25/98)(AP, 2/21/04)

1982        Jun 3, Israel's ambassador to Britain, Shlomo Argov (1929-2003), was shot and critically wounded outside a London hotel. Israel's invasion of Lebanon followed the assassination attempt. The attack was blamed on Abu Nidal’s Palestinian Fatah group.
    (WSJ, 8/20/02, p.A18)(NYT, 10/8/04, p.A12)(AP, 6/3/07)

1982        Jun 4, Israel attacked targets in south Lebanon one day after the attempted assassination of the Israeli ambassador in London.

1982        Jun 6, Israeli Defense Minister Ariel Sharon ordered his forces to invade southern Lebanon to drive Palestine Liberation Organization fighters out of the country. Israeli Gen. Rafael Eitan (d.2004) had convinced defense minister Ariel Sharon to invade southern Lebanon to clean out the PLO bases there. A 70-day siege by 30,000 Israeli troops left up to 14,000 Lebanese and Palestinian civilians dead. Islamic radicals, including Naim Qassem, formed Hezbollah (Hizbullah, i.e. Party of God) in response to Israel’s attack. The Israelis withdrew in June 1985. Hezbollah was formed with Iranian help as a radical offshoot of Amal, a Shiite Muslim movement. In 2005 Naim Qassem authored “Hizbullah: The Story from Within."
    (WSJ, 11/17/95, p.A-10)(SFC, 4/17/96, p.A-10)(AP, 6/6/97)(SFC, 6/15/98, p.A10)(SFC, 5/24/00, p.A15)(Econ, 12/4/04, p.88)(Econ, 4/23/05, p.79)

1982        Jun 9, Israel wiped out Syrian SAM missiles in Bekaa Valley.

1982         Jun 10, In Lebanon some 20 Israeli soldiers were killed at the Battle of Sultan Yacoub near the Syrian border. Sgt. First Class Zachary Baumel (b.1960) was listed as missing along with two other Israeli soldiers after the deadly battle with Syrian forces. In 2019 Russian and Syrian forces found his remains and returned them to Israel.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Sultan_Yacoub)(AFP, 4/4/19)

1982        Aug 9, In France grenade-throwing Palestinians burst into the Jo Goldenberg deli in Paris, and sprayed machine-gun fire. 6 people, including two Americans, were killed, and 21 injured. In 2015 international arrest warrants were issued for three suspects, who were believed to be members of the Abu Nidal group. On June 1, 2015, Souhaur Mouhamad Hassan Khalil Al-Abbassi, the alleged chief of the attack, was arrested in Jordan.
    (AP, 3/4/15)(SFC, 6/18/15, p.A3)

1982        Aug 12, Israel staged heavy bombardment of Beirut. The UN Security council expressed its most serious concern about continued military activities in Lebanon, particularly in and around Beirut.

1982        Sep 15, The Israeli army reoccupied Beirut.
    (SFC, 5/24/00, p.A15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sabra_and_Shatila_massacre)

1982        Sep 16-1982 Sep 18, The massacre of some 1,500 Palestinian men, women and children by Lebanese Christian militiamen began in west Beirut's Sabra and Chatilla (Shatilla) refugee camps. Elie Hobeika (d.2002), Christian militia chieftain, led the massacre of Palestinian refugees in the camps. Israel’s defense minister, Ariel Sharon, was held responsible and lost his top post. The massacre triggered peace rallies in Israel with some 400,000 demonstrating in Tel Aviv. In 2001 survivors lodged a complaint in Belgium against Sharon. British journalist Robert Fisk (1946-2020) was among the first to enter Sabra and Shatila, where more than a thousand people were massacred.
    (AP, 9/16/97)(SFC, 10/10/98, p.A8)(SFC, 5/24/00, p.A15)(SFC, 6/19/01, p.A8)(SFC, 1/25/02, p.A10)(WSJ, 8/1/06, p.A10)(Econ., 11/7/20, p.44)

1982        Sep 24, US, Italian and French peacekeeping troops began arriving in Lebanon. Some 400,000 Israelis gathered at the first of many demonstrations to protest the Lebanon War.

1982        Jacobo Timerman (d.1999 at 76) published "The Longest War: Israel in Lebanon."
    (SFC, 11/12/99, p.D6)
1982        The Jewish town of Misgav was built on land seized from the Palestinians over 3 decades. Its 7,000 Jewish residents have jurisdiction over 183,000 dunams (a quarter-acre), while the area’s 200,000 Arabs reside on 200,000 dunams.
    (MT, Fall. ‘97, p.16)
1982        In Lebanon Uri Avnery (1924-2018), a left-wing peace activist, became the first prominent Israeli to meet in public with Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat.
    (Reuters, 8/20/18)
1982        In 2005 Karin Linstad, a leading Norwegian pro-Palestinian activist, said she infiltrated the Israeli intelligence agency Mossad as a double agent in the 1980s. The Oslo newspaper Aftenposten said Mossad had been skeptical of Linstad's offer to act as an agent but was drawn in by her claims of tight contact with leading Palestinians. The newspaper, without citing sources, said she provided information about Palestinians in Beirut, Lebanon, ahead of Israel's 1982 invasion.
    (AP, 10/6/05)

1983        Mar, Chaim Herzog (1918-1997) was elected as the 6th president of Israel and served for 10 years.
    (SFC, 4/18/97, p.E2)

1983        Apr 15, The costliest theft in Israel's history saw 106 timepieces worth millions of dollars disappear from the L.A. Mayer Museum for Islamic Art. Among them was a pocket watch made for French queen Marie Antoinette that museum officials valued at more than $30 million. In 2008 detectives blamed Naaman Diller, a notorious Israeli thief, who fled to Europe and died in the United States in 2004. Diller apparently confessed the crime to his wife on his deathbed. When Israeli police and American law enforcement officials arrived at Diller's wife's Los Angeles home to question her, they found some more of the stolen clocks. Others were later found in hidden locations in Israel and around the world. They were put up for display again in 2009.
    (AP, 11/4/08)(AP, 7/20/09)

1983        Aug 28, Israel’s PM Begin, reportedly despondent over the death of his wife and the rising casualty toll of Israeli troops in Lebanon, announced his intention to resign as fighting continued in Lebanon with no apparent end in sight.
    (www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3284684,00.html)(AP, 8/28/08)

1983        Sep 2, Yitzhak Shamir (68), the Foreign Minister of Israel, was elected to succeed PM Menachem Begin as leader of the governing Herut Party.

1983        Sep 15, Israel’s premier Begin (d.1992) resigned. He was replaced by Yitzhak Shamir.

1983        Oct 10, Israel's 20th government was formed by Yitzhak Shamir.

1983        Nov 24, PLO exchanged 6 Israeli prisoners for 4,500 Palestinians and Lebanese.

1983        Nov 28, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir met with President Reagan at the White House to discuss ways to strengthen U.S.-Israeli military and economic ties.

1983        Dec 6, A bomb planted on a bus in Jerusalem exploded and killed 6 Israelis.

1983        Amos Oz, novelist, published "In the Land of Israel," a collection of essays.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, BR, p.4)
1983        Reform Judaism recognized patrilineal Jews as full Jews, provided they chose to live Jewish lives. This contradicted Israeli law, which takes matrilinealism as the criterion for Jewish descent.
    (Econ, 7/28/12, SR p.11)
1983        Israel sentenced Marcus Klingberg (1918-2015) to 20 years in prison for having passed information to Moscow on Israeli biological weapons research. In 2003 he was authorized to live with his daughter in Paris.
    (AFP, 12/1/15)

1984        Sep 13, Simon Peres formed an Israeli government with Likud. A national unity government (Likud and Labor) was formed.
    (SFC, 4/24/98, p.A17)(http://tinyurl.com/2vs7e2)

1984         Abba Eban helped prepare a 13-part television series about Jewish history called "Heritage: Civilization and the Jews." He later wrote a book by the same name.
    (AP, 11/17/02)
1984        The Shas Party first ran for the Knesset. This Israeli political party was founded by Ovadiah Yosef prior to the elections through the merger of regional lists established in 1983. Shas, the religious party of Jews of Eastern descent, emerged as a self-directed movement of Sephardic Jews. The name comes from the Hebrew and means Sephardi Torah Guardians. It had begun as a small faction on the Jerusalem City Council.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shas)(SFEC,10/26/97, p.A18)(SFC, 7/20/99, p.A10) (SFC, 7/20/99, p.A10)(Econ, 10/5/13, p.53)
1984        Israel’s public debt reached nearly 300% of GDP this year and hyperinflation peaked at 450% a year.
    (Econ 5/20/17, SR p.8)
1984        In the "Bus 300 affair" Ehud Yatom, Israeli member of the Shin Bet security agency, bludgeoned to death 2 Palestinian bus hijackers.
    (SFC, 6/16/01, p.A6)

1984-1990    Ariel Sharon served as the trade minister in the national unity government headed by Yitzhak Shamir of Likud and Shimon Peres of Labor. Avraham Shapira (d.2000 79) was an architect of the national unity government, which united Israel’s 2 main opposing parties to overcome the economic crises.
    (SFC, 10/10/98, p.A8)(SFC, 6/27/00, p.A23)

1985        Jan 5, Israel’s 6-week Operation Moses for the resettlement of 8,000 Ethiopian Jews ended. It began Nov 18, 1984, but new was blacked out for security reasons.

1985        May 20, Israel exchanged 1,150 Palestinian prisoners for 3 Israeli soldiers. The exchange was later referred to as the Jibril deal after the leader of the PFLP-GC, Ahmad Jibril.

1985        Jun 10, The Israeli army pulled out of Lebanon after 1,099 days of occupation.
    (HN, 6/10/98)

1985        Jun, Israel pulled back to a security zone in southern Lebanon to protect its border.
    (SFC, 5/24/00, p.A15)

1985        Aug, Syrian Sedki al-Maket was arrested for resisting the Israeli occupation of the Golan Heights. He served a 27 year prison sentence and in 2012 returned to his home town.
    (AFP, 8/22/12)

1985        Oct 1, Israeli forces staged an air raid on PLO-headquarter at Tunis and 68 people were killed.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1985        Oct 7, Four Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) gunmen hijacked the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro in the Mediterranean and demanded the release of 50 Palestinians held by Israel. 413 people were held hostage for 2 days in the seizure that was masterminded by Mohammed Abul Abbas. American Leon Klinghoffer was shot while sitting in his wheelchair and thrown overboard. A case was filed against the PLO and settled in 1997. The hijackers surrendered to Egyptian authorities and were turned over to Italy which let Abbas slip out of the country.
    (SFC, 8/12/97, p.A4)(AP, 10/7/97)(HN, 10/7/98)

1985        Nov 17, Olaf Palme stopped an illegal shipment of 80 HAWK missiles through Sweden from Israel to Teheran, as he mediated an end of the Iran-Iraq war for the UN.

1985        Nov 21, Former U.S. Navy intelligence analyst Jonathan Jay Pollard was arrested, and accused of spying for Israel. Pollard was sentenced to life in prison in 1987.
    (AP, 11/21/97)(WSJ, 1/28/98, p.A18)(SFC, 3/1/00, p.A23)

1985        Dec 27, Palestinian guerrillas opened fire inside the Rome and Vienna airports; a total of twenty people were killed, including five of the attackers, who were slain by police and security personnel. Abu Nidal was considered responsible. President Reagan blamed Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi.
    (AP, 12/27/97)(SFC, 8/25/98, p.A6)(NYT, 10/8/04, p.A12)

1985        Israel established a 440 sq. mile security zone in southern Lebanon. The 9-mile wide zone was abandoned by some 400,000 inhabitants and by 2000 only 100,000 remained.
    (SFC, 4/18/96, p.a-14)(SFC, 3/10/00, p.A12)

1985        Abraham Mondrowitz (38) fled to israel as NYC police investigated charges against him. In December 1984, New York police had charged that on two occasions in June of that year, Mondrowitz abused a 10-year-old boy at his home. The US requested Mondrowitz's extradition and Israel ordered his expulsion in 1987, but it was unable to carry out the order as its extradition treaty with the US did not cover sodomy.
    (AP, 11/19/07)

1986        Mar 25, US Supreme Court ruled that the Air Force could ban wearing of yarmulkes.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1986        May 24, The Union Jack was flown in Israel for the first time in 38 years as Margaret Thatcher became the first British prime minister to visit the Jewish state.
    (AP, 5/24/06)

1986        Jun 4, Jonathan Jay Pollard, a former Navy intelligence analyst, pleaded guilty in Washington to spying for Israel. He was later sentenced a life prison term.
    (AP, 6/4/97)(WSJ, 1/28/98, p.A18)

1986        Sep 6, An attack on the Neve Shalom synagogue in Istanbul killed 22 people. The Palestinian Abu Nidal group was blamed.
    (NYT, 10/8/04, p.A12)

1986        Sep 11, Egypt's Pres Mubarak received Israeli premier Peres.

1986        Sep 30, Israeli Mossad agents snatched Mordechai Vanunu in Rome. The Israeli nuclear technician had recently divulged Israel's nuclear secrets to the London Sunday Times.
    (SFC, 4/22/04, p.A3)

1986        Oct 10, Israel Prime Minister Shimon Peres resigned.
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1986        Oct 16, Ron Arad, an Israeli airman, was the navigator in a plane that was shot down while bombing a Palestinian refugee camp in southern Lebanon. He was reportedly handed over to a Lebanese Shiite group led by Mustafa Dirani. In 2004 it was reported that Arad died in 1996, sometime after he was handed by Lebanese fighters to their Iranian sponsors. In 2008 a Hezbollah report said Arad had escaped from a holding cell in 1988 and probably died while trying to make his way home through difficult terrain.
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, p.A14)(AP, 10/25/04)(http://tinyurl.com/yz3zza)

1986        Nov 9, Israel said it was holding Mordechai Vanunu, a former nuclear technician who had vanished after providing information to a British newspaper about Israel's nuclear weapons program. He was lured from London by a blond female Mossad agent called "Cindy." Vanunu was convicted of treason and sentenced to 18 years in prison. Mordechai Vanunu was later convicted of giving data on Israel’s nuclear program to a newspaper and put into solitary confinement until Mar 12, 1988.
    (WSJ, 3/13/98, p.A1)(AP, 11/9/99)(SFC, 11/25/99, p.D2)

1986        Israel evicted the Palestinian residents of Susiya after declaring the village to be an archeological site. Many of its residents became homeless following further demolitions in 2001 and 2011.
    (Econ, 8/1/15, p.44)
1986        Soviet dissident Anatoly B. Sharansky was released from a Soviet prison as part of a prisoner exchange between the East and West and soon moved to Israel. He changed his name to Natan Sharansky and became head of the new-immigrants party, Yisrael Ba-Aliya. He later became a deputy PM. 
    (AP, 7/14/98)(SFC, 5/4/02, p.A21)

1986-1991    Michael Bruno (1932-1996) was governor of the Bank of Israel.
    (SFC, 12/27/96, p.A24)

1986        Feb 27 John Demjanjuk (66), a retired auto worker from Ohio, was extradited to Israel on charges of being "Ivan the Terrible," a Nazi death camp guard who had killed tens of thousands of people. He was later convicted, but the Israeli Supreme Court overturned the ruling.
    (AP, 4/25/98)(SFC, 2/22/02, p.A3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Demjanjuk)

1987        Mar 29, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir was re-elected chairman of the right-wing Herut Party, the largest party in the Likud bloc governing Israel as part of a coalition.
    (AP, 3/28/97)

1987        Mar, Jonathon Pollard, a US naval intelligence analyst convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage, was sentenced to life in prison without parole. He had sought to share US intelligence on Iraqi weapons with Israel and did so when after his superiors disagreed.
    (WSJ, 1/25/96, p.A-16)(WSJ, 1/28/98, p.A18)

1987        Apr 11, Primo Levi (b.1920), Italian chemist, Auschwitz survivor and writer, died in Italy. In 2002 Carole Angier authored: "Primo Levi: A Biography." His books included the 1947 memoir "If This Is a Man" and "The Periodic Table." In 2002 Carole Angier authored the biography "The Double Bond."
    (SSFC, 5/26/02, p.M1)(WSJ, 6/14/02, p.W10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primo_Levi)

1987        Apr 27, The US Justice Department barred Austrian President Kurt Waldheim from entering the US, saying he aided in the deportation and execution of thousands of Jews and others as a German Army officer during World War II.
    (AP, 4/27/97)

1987        May 12, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir rejected Foreign Minister Shimon Peres' proposal for an international Middle East peace conference, calling it "perverse and criminal." Peres angrily accused Shamir of arrogance.
    (AP, 5/12/97)

1987        Jul 12, For the first time in 20 years, a delegation of Soviet diplomats arrived in Israel for what was described as a "technical mission" to document Soviet citizens and make an inventory of Soviet property.
    (AP, 7/12/97)

1987        Jul 27, Retired Ohio autoworker John Demjanjuk, accused of being the sadistic Nazi guard known as "Ivan the Terrible," testified at his trial in Jerusalem that he was not "the hangman you're after." His subsequent conviction was overturned by the Israeli Supreme Court.
    (AP, 7/27/97)

1987        Sep 5, Some four-dozen people were killed in an Israeli air raid on targets near the southern Lebanese port town of Sidon.
    (AP, 9/5/97)

1987         Nov 25, In the "Night of the Gliders" two fighters of the PFLP-GC crossed from Lebanon into Israel on hang-gliders and killed six Israeli soldiers. The attack was considered as one of the triggers for the first intifada.

1987        Dec 6, In Moscow security agents roughed up Jewish activists and journalists during demonstrations over Kremlin policy one day before the arrival of Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev to the US, where hundreds of thousands of demonstrators pressing for free emigration of Soviet Jews marched in Washington.
    (AP 12/6/97)

1987        Dec 8-1987 Dec 9, The first Palestinian intefadeh (Arabic for uprising) began as riots broke out in Gaza and spread to the West Bank, triggering a strong Israeli counter-response.
    (AP 12/8/97)(SFC, 4/24/98, p.A17)(AP, 12/9/07)

1987        Dec 19, The Palestinian uprising in Israel's occupied territories spread to Arab east Jerusalem.
    (AP, 12/19/97)

1987        Dec 27, Scores of Palestinian prisoners appeared before Israeli military courts in the first trials of several hundred protesters arrested in the "intefadeh," or uprising, in the occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 12/27/97)

1987        Dec, Sheik Ahmed Yassin founded Hamas, a Palestinian social welfare and military organization. He urged the killing of Palestinians who collaborated with Israeli authorities. Its military wing, called the Izzeddine al-Qassam, used armed operations against Israel. In 2006 Matthew Levitt authored “Hamas: Politics, Charity, and Terrorism in the Service of Jihad."
    (SFC, 5/25/96, p.A12)(SFC,12/27/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 5/2/06, p.D8)

1987        Neil Folberg published "In a Desert Land: Photographs of Israel, Egypt, and Jordan." It focused on the Sinai Desert and was re-issued in 1998.
    (SFEC, 4/26/98, BR p.6)
1987        Walter Laqueur (b.1921) authored “A History of Zionism."
    (WSJ, 3/9/06, p.D7)

1987        Shabattai Kalmanovitch was arrested in Tel Aviv and charged with being a KGB spy and sentenced to nine years in prison for spying for the Soviet Union. He was released from prison after five years and returned to Russia.
1987        In Jerusalem, Israel, an ancient roadway was discovered that skirts the western foundation of the Temple Mount. A 534-yard tunnel was constructed to follow the roadway.
    (SFC, 9/25/96, p.A1)
1987        An Israeli parliamentary commission declared the Church of Scientology a cult, but the practice remained legal. In 2012 a new headquarters was built in Jaffa with some 200 staff and claims to serve thousands.
    (AP, 11/8/12)

1987-1993    The Intifada, a stone-throwing revolt against Israel, began in Gaza’s Jebaliya refugee camp. The Ansar-3 detention camp in the Negev Desert was one of a number established to hold Palestinian men arrested in the uprising. In 1998 the documentary film "Diogenes: Ansar 3" was produced by Hans Fels and Eitan Wetzler of The Netherlands and Israel.
    (SFC, 6/10/97, p.A12)(Cinemayyat, 2000)

1988        Jan 3, The Israeli Army ordered nine Palestinian activists deported from West Beirut as part of a controversial crackdown to stop the uprising in the occupied territories. Israeli raids on Palestinian and Progressive Socialist Party positions in the region of Saida make killed 21 persons and wounded 11.
    (AP, 1/3/98)(http://tinyurl.com/zz87m)

1988        Jan 5, The U.N. Security Council voted unanimously to ask Israel not to deport Palestinians from the occupied territories in the first council vote against Israel since 1981.
    (AP, 1/5/98)

1988        Jan 15, In Jerusalem, riot police charged into the Al Aqsa and Dome of the Rock mosques after worshipers beat a policeman and stole his pistol during some of the worst clashes seen on the revered Temple Mount.
    (AP, 1/15/98)

1988        Jan 23, More than 50,000 Israelis demonstrated in Tel Aviv to protest the treatment of Palestinians in the occupied territories.
    (AP, 1/23/98)

1988        Jan 30, Israeli troops fired on hundreds of demonstrators in the West Bank while protests also rocked the Gaza Strip, shattering three weeks of relative quiet in the occupied territories.
    (AP, 1/30/98)

1988        Jan, Women in Black began at the start of the Palestinian uprising, when about 30 Israeli women gathered in the center of Jerusalem in silent protest, each with a sign saying "Stop the Occupation." By the 1990-1991 Gulf War, there were 30 vigils all over Israel.
    (AP, 4/5/12)

1988        Feb 1, Denying any wrongdoing, US Attorney General Edwin Meese III said he didn't recall part of a memo about a proposed Iraqi pipeline project that referred to a plan to bribe Israeli officials.
    (AP, 2/1/97)

1988        Mar 7, Three Israelis were killed when three Arab gunmen hijacked a commuter bus in the Negev Desert; the hijackers themselves were killed when Israeli forces stormed the vehicle.
    (AP, 3/7/98)

1988        Mar 14, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir arrived in Washington, D.C., with what he called new ideas for Middle East peace talks, despite maintaining a hard-line on Israel's retention of the occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 3/14/98)

1988        Mar, Israel found Mordechai Vanunu, former Israeli nuclear technician, guilty of divulging nuclear secrets. He was sentenced to 18 years in prison.
    (SFC, 4/22/04, p.A3)(http://tinyurl.com/mysea)

1988        Apr 3, Secretary of State George P. Shultz arrived in Israel to launch a fresh U.S. peace initiative, telling the Israelis that the Palestinians must be included in negotiations.
    (AP, 4/3/98)

1988        Apr 6, Tirza Porat (15), was killed in a West Bank melee, becoming the first Israeli civilian to die in the occupied territories since the start of the Palestinian uprising. Although Arabs were initially blamed, the army concluded that a Jewish settler accidentally shot the girl.
    (AP, 4/6/98)

1988        Apr, Israeli agents killed Abu Jihad (Khalil al-Wazir), a PLO military commander.
    (SFC, 11/25/96, p.A3)

1988        Apr 16, Abu Jihad, [Khalil al-Wazzir], PLO-leader, was murdered by Israeli assassins in Tunisia. They left the chief strategist of the Palestinian uprising with 170 bullets in his body. The Palestine Liberation Organization accused Israel of assassinating al-Wazir, a top PLO military figure. Palestinians reacted angrily, and at least 14 were shot and killed by Israeli troops during clashes in the occupied Gaza Strip and West Bank.
    (AP, 4/16/98)(AP, 1/22/06)

1988        Apr 18, An Israeli court convicted John Demjanjuk, a retired auto worker from Cleveland, of committing war crimes at the Treblinka death camp. (However, Israel's Supreme Court later overturned Demjanjuk's conviction.)
    (AP, 4/18/98)

1988        Apr 25, "Nightline" went on location to Jerusalem, Israel.
    (SS, 4/25/02)
1988        Apr 25, To the cheers of spectators, a judge in Jerusalem sentenced John Demjanjuk to death after the retired Ohio autoworker was convicted of being "Ivan the Terrible," a Nazi death camp guard who had killed tens of thousands of people. Demjanjuk's conviction was later overturned.
    (AP, 4/25/98)

1988        Jun 4, US Secretary of State George Shultz flew to Jordan, where he met with King Hussein. Afterward, Shultz said the Jordanian monarch was reluctant to engage in peace talks with Israel unless Israel agreed to give up land on the West Bank.
    (AP, 6/4/98)

1988        Aug 18, Hamas published a manifesto calling for a holy war to create an Islamic state from the Jordan River to the Mediterranean Sea, including Israel. It challenged the PLO's claim as the sole representative of the Palestinian people. The Hamas founding charter declared that all Palestine is Islamic trust land, can never be surrendered to non-Muslims and  is an integral part of Muslim world.
    (SFC, 3/23/04, p.A11)(www.mideastweb.org/hamashistory.htm)

1988        Sep 19, Israel succeeded in launching a test satellite, the Ofeq ("Horizon") 1, over the Mediterranean Sea.
    (AP, 9/19/08)

1988        Oct 5, Israel banned Meir Kahane's Kach Party on grounds of racism.

1988        Oct 11, China agreed to the opening of an Israeli Scientific Exchange office in Beijing.

1988        Oct 17, Israel's supreme court upheld a ban on Meyer Kahane's Kach Party as racist.

1988        Oct 19, Eight Israeli soldiers were killed in a suicide car bomb attack in south Lebanon.
    (AP, 10/19/98)

1988        Nov 1, Israeli voters went to the polls in parliamentary elections that resulted in a narrow victory for the right-wing Likud bloc, requiring the creation of a coalition government.
    (AP, 11/1/98)

1988        Nov 3, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir, whose Likud bloc won a narrow victory in parliamentary elections, began meeting with representatives of religious and rightist parties, seeking support for a coalition government.
    (AP, 11/3/98)
1988        Nov 3, The Soviet Union agreed to allow the teaching of Hebrew.

1988        Dec 2, The 5 gunmen, who hijacked Soviet Aeroflot jet, surrendered in Israel.

1988        Dec 6, Arafat met prominent American Jews in Stockholm, Sweden.

1988        Dec 13, PLO chairman Yasser Arafat addressed the U.N. General Assembly in Geneva, where it had reconvened after the United States refused to grant Arafat a visa to visit New York. Arafat accepted UN Resolutions 242 and 338, which recognized Israel's right to exist.
    (AP, 12/13/98)(SSFC, 6/3/07, p.E6)(www.mideastweb.org/arafat1988.htm)

1988        Dec 15, Yasser Arafat in exile declared Palestinian independence. It was considered a symbolic act and no state boundaries were delineated.
    (SFC,11/15/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 11/15/00, p.A1)

1988        Dec 17, In his first public statement since the US decided to open direct talks with the PLO, Israeli PM Yitzhak Shamir expressed shock, calling the US decision a "painful" blow.
    (AP, 12/17/98)

1988        Dec 19, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir agreed to a Likud-Labor coalition to govern the Jewish state.
    (AP, 12/19/98)

1988        Paul Johnson published "A History of the Jews."
    (WSJ, 4/29/98, p.A22)
1988        Israel repealed its anti-sodomy laws. The laws had not been enforced for 30 years.
1988        In Israel members of the multi-denominational Women of the Wall began coming to the Western Wall 11 times a year to pray on the first day of the new Jewish month, except on the New Year. They were not allowed to wear prayer shawls. A Supreme Court decision from 2003 ruled that allowing the group to pray with the shawls at the Western Wall constituted a danger to public safety.
    (AP, 12/15/12)

1988        In Jordan soon after the beginning of the "intifada," King Hussein renounced rights to the West Bank and retained a role as guardian of Jerusalem's holy places.
    (SFC, 2/6/99, p.A13)

1988-1991    Michael Bruno (1932-1996) as governor of the Bank of Israel helped to formulate the government’s economic stabilization policy.
    (SFC, 12/27/96, p.A24)

1989        Jan 19, Israel’s Minister of Defense Rabin proposed that Palestinians end the intifadah in exchange for an opportunity to elect local leaders who would negotiate with the Israeli government.

1989        May, Sheik Ahmed Yassin, the founder and spiritual leader of Hamas, was arrested by Israel and sentenced to life in prison for involvement in attacks against Israelis. He was released to Jordan in 1997.
    (SFC, 10/2/97, p.A12)(www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/yassin.html)

1989        Jul 6, A Palestinian grabbed the steering wheel of an Israeli bus, causing a crash that claimed 15 lives.
    (AP, 7/6/99)

1989        Jul 22, Nearly 200,000 Palestinian children returned to classrooms in the West Bank after the Israeli army lifted an order that had kept their schools closed during the Palestinian uprising.
    (AP, 7/22/99)

1989        Jul 28, Israeli commandos abducted a pro-Iranian Shiite Muslim Hezbollah cleric, Sheik Abdul-Karim Obeid, from his home in south Lebanon.
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, p.A14)(AP, 7/28/99)

1989        Sep, Israel outlawed Hamas as a terrorist organization following dozens of shooting attacks that killed Israelis.
    (SFC, 3/23/04, p.A11)(www.ict.org.il/inter_ter/orgdet.cfm?orgid=13)

1989        Dec 31, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir fired Science Minister Ezer Weizman, accusing him of meeting with officials of the Palestine Liberation Organization.
    (AP, 12/31/99)

1989        In Israel Dov Moran founded M-Systems, the original maker of USB flash drives (1999). He sold the business to SanDisk in 2006 for $1.6 billion.

1990        Feb 4, Nine people were killed as guerrillas attacked a bus carrying Israeli tourists near Cairo, Egypt.
    (AP, 2/4/00)

1990        Mar 15, The Israeli government of Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir lost a vote of confidence in the Knesset after Shamir refused to accept a U.S. plan for Israeli-Palestinian peace talks.
    (AP, 3/15/00)

1990        Apr 2, Saddam Hussein of Iraq threatened to hit Israel with binary chemical weapons.

1990        Apr 26, Israeli PM Yitzhak Shamir, leader of the right-wing Likud bloc, was chosen to form a new government after Labor Party leader Shimon Peres failed to form a coalition.
    (AP, 4/26/00)

1990        May 20, An Israeli opened fire on a group of Palestinian laborers south of Tel Aviv, killing seven; the gunman was sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 5/20/00)

1990        May 21, Israeli soldiers shot and killed three Palestinians in violence sparked by the slayings of seven Palestinians by an Israeli civilian a day earlier.
    (AP, 5/21/00)

1990        Jun 8, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir announced he had succeeded in forming a new right-wing coalition government, ending a three-month-old political crisis.
    (AP, 6/8/00)

1990        Jun 13, Secretary of State James A. Baker the Third, testifying before the House Foreign Affairs Committee, urged Israel to accept a US plan for peace talks. Baker gave out the telephone number for the White House switchboard, telling the Israelis publicly, "When you’re serious about this, call us."
    (AP, 6/13/00)

1990        Oct 5, Meir Kahane (58), founder of Jewish defense league, was assassinated in NYC by an Arab extremist.

1990        Oct 7, Israel began handing out gas masks to its citizens in case of attack by Iraq.

1990        Oct 8, Israeli police opened fire on rioting Palestinians on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, killing 17.
    (AP, 10/8/00)

1990        Oct 21, A Palestinian stabbed three Israelis to death during a rampage in a Jerusalem neighborhood in retaliation for the police killings of 17 Arabs on the Temple Mount.
    (AP, 10/21/00)

1990        Dec 24, Saddam said Israel would be Iraq's 1st target.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1990        Victor Ostrovsky, a former agent of Mossad, published a book about the security agency.
    (SFC, 2/25/98, p.A8)

1990        Avishai Raviv began working as a minor agent for the Shin Bet security service. He was assigned to work with right-wing activists.
    (SFC,11/6/97, p.D2)

1990        In Israel Brig. Gen. Rami Dotan (44), was convicted of embezzling $10 million while purchasing military equipment from the United States during the 1980s. Dotan, suffering from poor health, was released from jail in 2002.
    (AP, 10/27/02)

1990        Israelis began investing in Romania and by 2006 had put in as much as $2 billion, much of it routed through 3rd countries in order to take advantage of tax deals.
    (WSJ, 10/4/06, p.A1)

1990-1992    Ariel Sharon served as the housing minister and presided over the settlement drive in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.
    (SFC, 10/10/98, p.A8)

1991        Jan 17, The Persian Gulf War began as Coalition planes struck targets in Iraq and Kuwait. The first Iraqi Scud missile attacks on Israel were launched. There were reports of death and injury, and possibly even chemical weapons being used. For a few tense hours, it looked as though Israel would retaliate against Iraq, causing the allied coalition to break up. Six months of preparation and diplomacy might be undone by a few poorly aimed, 1950s-vintage ballistic missiles. Later that evening, U.S. Patriot surface-to-air missiles were launched against the incoming Scuds, and for the first time in history, a ballistic missile was shot down by another missile. The use of Patriot missiles in Israel’s defense helped to keep that country out of the Gulf War, thereby safeguarding the integrity of the American-European-Arab coalition. Jeffrey Zahn became the 1st US pilot shot down. Lt. Cmdr. Michael Scott Speicher (33) was shot down over western Iraq. In 1993 the ruins of his plane were found. In 2009 his remains were found and positively identified.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, p.A8)(SFEC,12/797, p.A1,16)(HN, 1/17/99)(AP, 8/2/09)

1991        Jan 18, Iraq fired more Scud missiles at Israeli cities. Israel refrains from responding at the request of President Bush.
    (HN, 1/18/99)

1991        Jan 19, During the Gulf War, Israel’s anti-missile force was boosted by additional Patriot missile batteries and U-S crews. A second Iraqi missile attack caused 29 injuries in Tel Aviv. Allied forces began bombarding Iraq’s elite Republican Guard.
    (AP, 1/19/01)

1991        Jan 22, During the Gulf War, Iraq fired six Scud missiles into Saudi Arabia; all were either intercepted, or fell into unpopulated areas. However, in Tel Aviv, a Scud eluded the Patriot missile defense system and struck the city, resulting in three deaths.
    (AP, 1/22/01)

1991        Jan 25, During the Gulf War, military officials said Iraq had sabotaged Kuwait’s main supertanker loading pier, dumping millions of gallons of crude oil into the Persian Gulf. Missiles fired from western Iraq struck in the Tel Aviv and Haifa areas, killing one Israeli and injuring more than 40 others.
    (AP, 1/25/01)

1991        May 10, Alexander Bessmertnykh became the first Soviet foreign minister to visit Israel as he met with Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir and Foreign Minister David Levy.
    (AP, 5/10/01)

1991        May 16, US Secretary of State James A. Baker the Third wrapped up his latest Mideast visit in Israel without an agreement for Arab-Israeli peace talks.
    (AP, 5/16/01)

1991        May 25, Israel completed "Operation Solomon," which had evacuated some 14,000 Ethiopian Jews, members of the Beta Israel, to their promised land.
    (AP, 5/25/01)(Econ., 10/17/20, p.42)

1991        Jun 9, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir insisted his country have a say in the selection of Palestinians who would attend a US-sponsored Middle East peace conference.
    (AP, 6/9/01)

1991        Jul 21, US Secretary of State James A. Baker the Third met with Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir, trying to persuade the Israelis to agree to the talks.
    (AP, 7/21/01)

1991        Aug 1, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir accepted a US formula for Middle East peace talks with the Arabs.
    (AP, 8/1/01)

1991        Aug 4, Israeli Cabinet members overwhelmingly backed a Middle East peace conference under conditions set by Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir.
    (AP, 8/4/01)

1991        Sep 11, In the Middle East hopes grew for the release of Western hostages in Lebanon after Israel freed 51 prisoners.
    (AP, 9/11/01)

1991        Sep 19, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir accused the United States of tilting toward the Arabs in its eagerness to organize a Mideast peace conference.
    (AP, 9/19/01)

1991        Oct 30, The Middle East peace conference in Madrid, Spain, opened with addresses to the delegates by President George Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev. The Madrid Two conference was organized by the US.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 9/19/01, p.A14)(AP, 10/30/01)

1991        Oct 31, On the second day of the Middle East peace conference in Madrid, Spain, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir and Arab delegates clashed bitterly over land issues.
    (AP, 10/31/01)

1991        Nov 1, The 3-day session of the Middle East peace conference recessed in Madrid, Spain. The conference led to Israeli deals with Jordan and the Palestinians and established the principle of land for peace.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madrid_Conference_of_1991)(AP, 11/1/01)(Econ, 5/24/08, p.68)

1991        Nov 3, Israeli and Palestinian representatives held their first-ever face-to-face talks in Madrid, Spain.
    (AP, 11/3/01)
1991        Nov 3, Syria opened its first one-on-one meeting with Israel in 43 years.
    (AP, 11/3/01)

1991        Nov 5, Robert Maxwell (68), media tycoon, was found floating dead near his yacht off the Canary Islands. He was born in Czechoslovakia as Jan Hoch (Abraham Leib) and lost his whole family in the Holocaust. He escaped at 16 through the French Underground and got out of a British prison camp by volunteering for the British army, who changed his name to Robert Maxwell. He founded the Pergamon Press and went on to build a media empire. He served in Parliament from 1964-1970. In the 1970s Israel recruited him as a spy. He covertly sold Israeli computer software to the governments of Russia, China, India and Egypt that contained secret trapdoors. In 2003 Gordon Thomas and Martin Dillon authored Robert Maxwell, Israel’s Superspy: The Life and Murder of a Media Mogul."
    (Wired, 2/99, p.86)(AP, 11/5/01)(SSFC, 2/2/03, p.M4)

1991        Nov 27, Israel signaled its anger with what it regarded as the high-handedness of the United States by rejecting an invitation to attend Mideast peace talks in Washington on Dec. 4.
    (AP, 11/27/01)

1991        Robert S. Wistrich (1945-2015) authored “Antisemitism: The Longest Hatred."
    (SFC, 5/29/15, p.D4)
1991        Israel ratified the 102-nation Convention Against Torture.
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, p.C14)
1991        Hamas formed its military wing, "Izzedine al-Qassam Brigades," for attacks against Israel.
    (SFC, 3/23/04, p.A11)

1992        Jan 13, Israeli, Palestinian and Jordanian negotiators began talks in Washington on Palestinian autonomy.
    (AP, 1/13/98)

1992        Jan 14, Historic Mideast peace talks continued in Washington, with Israel and Jordan holding their first-ever formal negotiations, and the Israelis continuing exchanges with Palestinian representatives.
    (AP, 1/14/02)

1992        Jan 28, A multinational Middle East peace conference opened in Moscow.
    (AP, 1/28/02)

1992        Feb 16, Israeli helicopters attacked a convoy in Sidon, Lebanon, killing Sheik Abbas Musawi, leader of the pro-Iranian group Hezbollah. Sheik Hassan Nasrallah (b.1960) took over Hezbollah after the Israeli assassination of Sheik Abbas Musawi. He has led the group since, controlling its operational activities.
    (AP, 2/16/02)(AP, 6/3/06)

1992        Feb 24, Secretary of State James A. Baker III told a House subcommittee that Israel should stop building settlements in the occupied territories, or forfeit $10 billion in U.S. loan guarantees. A fourth round of Mideast peace talks began in Washington, D.C.
    (AP, 2/24/02)

1992        Mar 4, Another round of Middle East peace negotiations concluded in Washington, D.C., with Israel rejecting a plan for Palestinian elections.
    (AP, 3/4/02)

1992        Mar 7, An Israeli security chief was killed in a car bomb attack in Ankara, Turkey. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
    (NYT, 10/8/04, p.A12)

1992        Mar 9, Menachem Begin, former Israeli Prime Minister (1977-80, 81-83, Nobel 1979) died in Tel Aviv at age 78. In 1987 Amos Perlmutter (d.2001 at 69) authored "The Life and Times of Menachim Begin."
    (AP, 3/9/98)(SSFC, 6/17/01, p.A27)

1992         Mar 17, A truck bombing at the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina, killed 29 people. Iran denied any role. Hezbollah leader Imad Mughniyeh was suspected of involvement. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
    (AP, 3/17/97)(WSJ, 11/24/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 9/19/01, p.A14)(NYT, 10/8/04, p.A12)

1992        Apr 6, Molly Picon (94), Yiddish actress (Milk and Honey), died of Alzheimer's.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1992        Jun 23, Israel's Labor Party upset the hard-line Likud bloc in parliamentary elections. Israeli voters elected the Labor Party’s Yitzhak Rabin as prime minister.
    (WSJ, 6/18/96, p.A17)(AP, 6/23/97)

1992        Jul 3, Rabbi Marc Tannenbaum, the only Jew to attend Vatican II, died.
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1992        Jul 19, US Secretary of State James A. Baker III opened a fresh round of Mideast diplomacy, meeting in Jerusalem with Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and other officials.
    (AP, 7/19/97)

1992        Jul 21, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin met in Cairo with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, who said afterward that he'd accepted Rabin's invitation to visit Israel.
    (AP, 7/20/97)

1992        Aug 10, President Bush met at his Kennebunkport, Maine, vacation home with Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin. Afterward, Bush announced that Mideast peace talks would resume in two weeks in Washington, D.C.
    (AP, 8/10/97)

1992        Sep 1, Ahmed Qatamesh was jailed on suspicion of being a leader of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. He was held without trial for 5 1/2 years and released in 1998.
    (SFC, 4/16/98, p.A12)

1992        Oct 4, In the Netherlands an Israeli El Al Jumbo Jet transport, enroute from New York to Tel Aviv, crashed into an Amsterdam apartment complex and killed 43 people. Since then scores of people complained of unidentified health problems. In 1998 it was revealed that the jet carried 50 gallons of dimethyl methylphosphonate, a non-poisonous ingredient of sarin nerve gas, destined for Israel. A report on the crash was released in 1999 and said that the plane's ballast included carcinogenic depleted uranium.
    (www.pacificnews.org/jinn/stories/5.03/990211-cargo.html)(AP, 10/4/97)(WSJ, 4/22/99, A1)

1992        Dec 13, An Israeli border guard was kidnapped near Tel Aviv and later killed by the Hamas fundamentalist organization. The slaying prompted Israel to expel hundreds of Palestinians, sending them into Lebanese territory. Abdel Aziz Rantisi was among the 400 deported members of Hamas.
    (AP, 12/13/97)(SSFC, 4/18/04, p.A18)

1992        Dec 17, Israel ordered the deportation of 418 suspected Muslim fundamentalists from the occupied territories.
    (AP, 12/17/02)

1992        Dec 18, The U.N. Security Council unanimously denounced Israel's deportation of more than 400 Palestinians to Lebanon and demanded their immediate return.
    (AP, 12/18/97)

1992        Dec 19, More than 400 suspected Muslim fundamentalists deported by Israel were confined to a makeshift refugee camp in a "no man's land" in Lebanon because of the Lebanese government's refusal to accept them.
    (AP, 12/19/97)

1992        Prof. Yizhar Hirschfeld authored “The Judean Desert Monasteries."
    (SFC, 9/6/04, p.A4)
1992        David Landau (1947-2015), Israeli journalist, authored “Piety and Power: The World of Jewish Fundamentalism."
    (Econ, 1/31/15, p.42)
1992        The Israeli military disclosed in 2003 that it had planned a daring assassination attempt against Saddam Hussein in 1992. The plot would have involved landing commandos in Iraq and firing sophisticated missiles at him during a funeral, an Israeli legislator and media.
    (AP, 12/16/03)
1992        China established diplomatic relations with Israel.
    (Econ, 5/11/13, p.52)
1992        In Norway the 1993 Oslo I peace accord was begun in 1992 following a research project on Palestinian living conditions by Terje Roed Larsen. Larsen arranged discussions between Uri Savir of Israel and Ahmed Qureia (Abu Ala) for Palestine.
    (SFEC, 10/31/99, p.A21)
1992        Syria’s Pres. Assad allowed many Syrian Jews to travel abroad freely after nearly 45 years of official prohibition from leaving the country.
    (SSFC, 6/28/09, p.A8)

1993        Jan 19, Israel recognized the PLO as no longer criminal.

1993        Jan 28, The Israeli Supreme Court unanimously upheld the deportations of 400 Palestinians from the occupied territories to Lebanon.
    (AP, 1/28/98)

1993        Feb 1, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin announced that his country would repatriate about 100 Palestinians deported to Lebanon, an offer rejected by the deportees.
    (AP, 2/1/97)

1993        Mar 15, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin met at the White House with President Clinton, after which Rabin offered to negotiate the return of part of the Golan Heights to Syria.
    (AP, 3/15/98)

1993        Mar 24, Ezer Weizman was elected Israel's seventh president.
    (AP, 3/24/98)

1993        Mar 30, Israeli authorities barred West Bank Palestinians from entering Israel after two traffic police officers were shot to death.
    (AP, 3/30/98)

1993        Apr 16, In Israel 20 soldiers and civilians were injured in Hamas's first suicide attack against Israelis. Shahar al-Nabulsi, detonated a car, rigged by bombmaker Yahya Ayyash, between two buses at Mehola Junction. The blast killed al-Nabulsi and a Palestinian who worked in the rest area.

1993        Apr 27, After a hiatus of more than four months, Israeli and Arab delegates resumed Middle East peace talks in Washington, D.C.
    (AP, 4/27/98)

1993        Jul 25, Israel launched its heaviest artillery and air assault on Lebanon since 1982 in an attempt to eradicate Hezbollah and Palestinian guerrilla threats. Guerrillas fired rockets into Israel. The fighting ended July 31 with a U.S.-brokered cease-fire. Israel and Hezbollah then agreed not to attack civilian targets, but the cease-fire was short lived.
    (AP, 7/25/98)(SFC, 5/24/00, p.A15)   

1993        Jul 27, Israeli guns and aircraft pounded southern Lebanon in reprisal for rocket attacks by Hezbollah guerrillas.
    (HN, 7/27/98)

1993        Jul 29, The Israeli Supreme Court acquitted retired Ohio autoworker John Demjanjuk of being Nazi death camp guard "Ivan the Terrible," and threw out his death sentence. Demjanjuk was set free. Soviet archives opened after 1991 seemed to prove that he was not Ivan the Terrible.
    (AP, 7/29/98)(Econ, 3/24/12, p.98)

1993        Aug 29, Negotiations continued between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization, with Israel reported on the verge of recognizing the PLO.
    (AP, 8/29/98)

1993        Aug 30, Israel's Cabinet approved a framework for Palestinian autonomy in the occupied territories.
    (AP, 8/30/98)

1993        Aug, Norwegian academic Terje Roed-Larsen and other Norwegian mediators helped broker a secret peace accord in which the Palestinians formally recognized Israel's right to exist and Israel agreed to establish self-rule in the West Bank and Gaza. The accord allowed thousands of PLO guerrillas to return to Palestine without Israeli interference.
    (SFC, 6/19/96, p.A8)(SFC, 6/4/98, p.C3)(AP, 11/12/04)

1993        Sep 9, PLO leaders and Israel agreed to recognize each other, clearing the way for a peace accord.
    (AP, 9/9/98)

1993        Sep 13, In a historic scene at the White House, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO chairman Yasser Arafat shook hands after signing an accord granting limited Palestinian autonomy. It gave Arafat control of most of the Gaza Strip and 27% of the West Bank. In 2002 Neal Kozodoy edited ""The Mideast Peace Process: An Autopsy."
    (AP, 9/13/97)(WSJ, 2/11/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/12/04, p.A11)

1993        Sep 14, Israel and Jordan signed a framework for negotiations, a day after the signing of a PLO-Israeli peace accord.
    (AP, 9/14/03)

1993        Sep 23, The Israeli parliament ratified the Israel-PLO accord.
    (AP, 9/23/98)

1993        Sep 24, The 1st Israeli was killed by Islamics after PLO signed the peace accord.

1993        Oct 6, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO chief Yasser Arafat held their first official meeting in Cairo, Egypt, to begin work on realizing terms of the Israeli-PLO accord.
    (AP, 10/6/98)

1993        Oct 11, Yasser Arafat won endorsement for his peace accord with Israel from the Palestine Central Council.
    (AP, 10/11/98)

1993        Nov 25, Violence broke out in the Gaza Strip, a day after Israeli undercover soldiers killed Imad Akel, the head of the military wing of Hamas.
    (HN, 11/25/98)

1993        Dec 5, A Palestinian boarded a bus and opened fire with an assault rifle in the first major attack in Israel since the signing of a peace pact with the PLO; the gunman killed a reservist before being gunned down.
    (AP, 12/5/98)

1993        Dec 19, Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres and senior PLO officials ended two days of closed-door talks in Oslo, Norway, in which they sought to break a deadlock over Palestinian self-rule in the occupied territories.
    (AP, 12/19/98)

1993        Dec 25, Full-fledged Christmas celebrations returned to Bethlehem for the first time since the Palestinian uprising began six years earlier.
    (AP, 12/25/98)

1993        Dec 30, Israel and the Vatican agreed to recognize one another. Pope John Paul II normalized relations between the Vatican and Israel.
    (SFC,12/25/97, p.A14)(AP, 12/30/97)

1993        Adel Darwish authored "Water Wars," an examination of the water crises in the Middle East.
    (SFC, 9/19/02, p.A12)

1993        Jerome Mintz (d.1997 at 67), US anthropologist, published "Hasidic People: A Place in the New World."
    (SFC,12/20/97, p.A21)

1993        Abdel Wahab al Miseri, author of an encyclopedia on Zionism, authored "Secret Societies of the World: the Protocols, Masonism, and Bahaism," in which he debunked "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion."
    (SFC, 10/31/02, p.A10)

1993        Benjamin Netanyahu published his book "A Place Among Nations."
    (SFC, 5/25/99, p.A6)

1993        A new Jewish Museum opened in Vienna.
    (USAT, 9/24/04, p.3D)

1993        Tel Aviv began hosting an annual gay pride parade.
    (SFC, 6/8/02, p.A12)

1993        Benjamin Netanyahu won the leadership of the Likud party. He appointed his aid, Avigdor Lieberman, to manage Likud.
    (SFC,11/25/97, p.A8)

1993        In Israel Yoram Skolnick fired 9 bullets and killed a captured and bound Arab militant, Moussa Abu Sabha (21), who had been caught stabbing a Jewish settler. Skolnick was sentenced to life in prison but was released in 2001.
    (SFC, 2/19/01, p.A10)

1993        Erel Margalit (32) founded Jerusalem Venture Partners (JVP), an Israeli venture capital firm.
    (Econ, 7/8/06, p.60)

1994        Jan 10, Talks between Israeli and Palestinian negotiators resumed in Taba, Egypt.
    (AP, 1/10/99)

1994        Feb 9, PLO leader Yasser Arafat and Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres initialed an agreement on security measures that had been blocking a peace accord.
    (AP, 2/9/99)

1994        Feb 25, In the Hebron massacre, Jewish settler Dr. Baruch Goldstein opened fire on Palestinians praying in the Tomb of the Patriarchs in Hebron and killed 29 people. Some 100 others were wounded. Surviving Palestinians killed him before he could reload.
    (SFC, 6/18/96, p.A12)(SFC, 6/20/96, p.A8)(MT, Fall/03, p.15)

1994        Mar 13, The Israeli Cabinet outlawed two Jewish extremist groups, Kach and Kahane Lives, branding them terrorist organizations.
    (AP, 3/13/99)

1994        Mar 31, The PLO and Israel agreed to resume talks on Palestinian autonomy, more than a month after the Hebron mosque massacre.
    (AP, 3/31/99)

1994        Apr 6, A car rigged with explosives detonated next to a bus in Afula, Israel. 8 Israelis were killed and 45 wounded in Hamas's 1st car bombing.
    (WSJ, 3/6/96, p. A-15)(G&M, 7/31/97, p.A8)(AP, 4/6/99)(SFC, 3/23/04, p.A11)

1994        Apr 7, Pope John Paul II made remarks at the conclusion of a concert in commemoration of the Shoah (holocaust), in which he acknowledged the Nazi Holocaust killing of Jews.

1994        April 13, A Palestinian blew himself up on a bus in Hadera in central Israel. Six Israelis were killed and 25 wounded. It was Hamas's 1st suicide bombing.
    (WSJ, 3/6/96, p. A-15)(G&M, 7/31/97, p.A8)(SFC, 3/23/04, p.A11)

1994        Apr 20, Israeli and PLO negotiators wrapped up an agreement transferring civilian government powers to Palestinians in the Gaza Strip and Jericho.
    (AP, 4/20/99)

1994        Apr 29, Israel and the PLO signed an agreement in Paris granting Palestinians broad authority to set taxes, control trade and regulate banks under self-rule in the Gaza Strip and Jericho.
    (AP, 4/29/99)

1994        May 1, Israeli and PLO delegates opened a final round of talks in Cairo, Egypt, on Palestinian autonomy prior to the signing of an agreement on self-rule.
    (AP, 5/1/99)

1994        May 4, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO leader Yasser Arafat signed a historic accord on Palestinian autonomy that granted self-rule in the Gaza Strip and Jericho.
    (AP, 5/4/97)

1994        May 14, The West Bank town of Jericho saw its first full day of Palestinian self-rule following the withdrawal of Israeli troops, an event celebrated by Palestinians.
    (AP, 5/14/99)

1994        May 16, Israel began its final withdrawal from the Gaza Strip, shutting down the prison and military headquarters where Israeli soldiers had been in charge since the 1967 Middle East War.
    (AP, 5/16/99)

1994        May 17, Drive-by shootings left 2 people dead. In 1998 Atia Abu Asab was sentenced to 2 life terms for this and another killing on Jul. 7.
    (SFC, 8/14/98, p.D3)

1994        May 18, Israel's three decades of occupation in the Gaza Strip ended as Israeli troops completed their withdrawal and Palestinian authorities took over.
    (AP, 5/18/99)

1994        May 21, Israeli commandos swept into Lebanon’s eastern mountains and abducted Mustafa Dirani, a Shiite Muslim guerrilla leader. Dirani was released in Jan 2004, as part of a complex prisoner exchange between Hezbollah and Israel.
    (AP, 5/21/04)

1994        Jun 15, Israel and the Vatican established full diplomatic relations.
    (AP, 6/15/97)

1994        Jun, An Israeli helicopter gunship at Ein Darbara, Lebanon, killed at least 30 Hezbollah trainees.
    (SFC, 12/5/96, p.C5)

1994        Jul 7, A 17-year-old Israeli girl was killed. In 1998 Atia Abu Asab was sentenced to 2 life terms for this and other killings on May 17.
    (SFC, 8/14/98, p.D3)

1994        Jul 18, In Buenos Aires a terrorist attack killed 85 people at the city’s Jewish Center, the Argentine Israelite Mutual Aid Society (AMIA). Some 300 people were injured. In 1996 three senior policemen and a retired officer were charged in connection to the bombing. Iran denied any role. Police inspector, Juan Jose Ribelli, accepted a $2.5 million several days before the attack for providing the car in which the bomb exploded. It was later revealed that he and his colleagues sold protection to car thieves in return for stolen goods. In 2000 Ahmad Behbahani (32) told a 60 Minutes journalist from a refugee camp in Turkey that Iran was behind the 1994 bombing in Argentina. In 2002 it was reported that Iran paid Pres. Menem $10 million to cover up Iran’s involvement. In 2004 a federal court acquitted 5 men of being accessories to the bombing. [see Nov 9, 2005] In 2009 a court ruled that Carlos Alberto Telledin, accused of loading the van with explosives, should be tried again for his participation in the bombing. In 2015 ex-President Carlos Menem, a former top judge and several other officials went on trial for allegedly derailing the investigation.
    (WSJ, 8/1/96 p.A1)(WSJ, 11/24/97, p.A1)(SFC,12/9/97, p.B10)(HN, 7/18/98)(SFC, 6/6/00, p.A10)(SFC, 7/22/02, p.A1)(SFC, 9/3/04, p.A18)(NYT, 10/8/04, p.A12)(SSFC, 12/20/09, p.A31)(AP, 8/6/15)

1994        Jul 19, A bomb ripped apart a Panama commuter plane, killing 21, including 12 Jews, a day after a car bomb destroyed a Jewish community center in Buenos Aires, Argentina, killing 95 people.
    (AP, 7/19/99)

1994        Jul 25, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Jordan's King Hussein signed a declaration at the White House ending their countries' 46-year-old formal state of war.
    (AP, 7/25/97)

1994        Jul 26-1994 Jul 27, A car bomb heavily damaged the Israeli embassy in London, injuring 14; hours later, a second bomb exploded outside a building housing Jewish organizations in north London.
    (AP, 7/26/99)(NYT, 10/8/04, p.A12)

1994        Aug 8, Israel and Jordan opened the first road link between the two once-
    warring countries.
    (AP, 8/8/99)

1994        Aug 24, Israeli and PLO negotiators agreed on an accord to give the Palestinians control of health care, taxation, education and other services in West Bank areas still controlled by Israel.
    (AP, 8/24/99)

1994        Sep 1, Morocco established low-level diplomatic relations with Israel.
    (AP, 9/1/99)

1994        Oct 9, Israeli soldier Nachshon Wachsman (19) was kidnapped in Lod by 4 members of Hamas. Hamas demanded the release of a jailed Hamas leader and 200 other fundamentalist prisoners by Oct 14.
    (SFC, 3/28/09, p.A9)

1994        Oct 14, The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to PLO leader Yasser Arafat, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A13)(AP, 10/14/99)
1994        Oct 14, Kidnapped Israeli soldier Nachshon Wachsman was killed when Israeli commandos raided the hideout of Islamic militants in Jerusalem. An Israeli soldier and 3 kidnappers were also killed in the ensuing firefight. In 2006 his family files suit against Iran for providing training and support to Hamas. In 2009 a US judge awarded a $25 million settlement to the family.
    (AP, 10/14/99)(SFC, 3/28/09, p.A9)

1994        Oct 17, Leaders of Israel and Jordan initialed a draft peace treaty.
    (AP, 10/17/99)

1994        Oct. 19, A Palestinian suicide bomber killed 22 Israelis and wounded 48 in a bus explosion in Tel Aviv. Hamas took responsibility.
    (WSJ, 3/6/96, p. A-15)(G&M, 7/31/97, p.A8)

1994        Oct 26, Israel's PM Yitzhak Rabin of Israel and Jordan's PM Abdel Salam Majali of Jordan signed a peace treaty in a ceremony attended by President Clinton. The peace agreement allowed Israel to lease two small areas, Baqura and Ghamr, from the Jordanians for 25 years. The Naharayim park on the border was established as a symbol of the landmark peace agreement.  In 2018 Jordan chose not to renew a clause of the peace treaty that granted Israel use of two enclaves inside Jordanian territory. The site was set to revert to full Jordanian control in early November, 2019.
    (WSJ, 5/30/96, p.A4)(SFC, 6/15/96, p.A7)(SFC, 4/24/98, p.A17)(AP, 10/26/97)(AP, 10/21/18)(AP, 10/25/19)(AP, 11/6/19)

1994        Nov 11, A suicide bomber killed three soldiers at an Israeli military checkpoint in Gaza. The Islamic Jihad took responsibility.
    (AP, 11/11/99)

1994        Dec 10, Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres and Yitzhak Rabin received the Nobel Peace Prize, pledging to pursue their mission of healing the anguished Middle East.
    (AP, 12/10/99)

1994        Dec 25, A Palestinian suicide bomber blew himself up on a bus in Jerusalem and wounded 12 Israelis. Hamas took responsibility.
    (WSJ, 3/6/96, p. A-15)(G&M, 7/31/97, p.A8)(AP, 12/25/99)

1994        Ali Salem, Egyptian playwright, traveled across Israel and authored “My Drive to Israel." I sold some 60,000 copies and angered Egyptian intellectuals.
    (SFC, 12/19/08, p.A24)
1994        The Israelis abducted Mustafa Dirani, the leader of a Lebanese Shiite group - the Believer's Resistance, from his Lebanese home. In 2000 Dirani sued Israel with charges of torture and sodomy.
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, p.A14)(SFC, 3/14/00, p.A10)
1994        Israel established the elite squad, Egoz (walnut in Hebrew), to track Shiite guerrillas in southern Lebanon.
    (SFC, 12/5/96, p.C5)
1994        In Ohio Najeh Ottallah pleading guilty in a $3.2 million food stamp fraud case and then fled to Israel. In 2016 Ottallah (54) arrested in Israel and returned to Ohio.
    (AP, 6/21/16)

1995        Jan 22, Two Palestinians blew themselves up at Beit Lid junction in central Israel and killed 21 Israelis. The Islamic Jihad took responsibility.
    (WSJ, 3/6/96, p. A-15)(G&M, 7/31/97, p.A8)

1995        Feb 2, The leaders of Egypt, Israel, Jordan and the Palestinians held an unprecedented summit in Cairo to try to revive the Mideast peace process.
    (AP, 2/2/00)(http://tinyurl.com/255pml)

1995        Mar 19, Palestinian gunmen opened fire on a bus carrying Jewish settlers, killing two people.
    (AP, 3/19/00)

1995        April 9, Two Palestinians blew themselves up outside two Jewish settlements in the Gaza Strip and killed seven Israeli soldiers and an American, Alisa Flatow (20). The Islamic Jihad and Hamas took responsibility. In 1998 a US district court judge ordered the government of Iran to pay $247 million in damages to the family of Flatow.
    (WSJ, 3/6/96, p. A-15)(G&M, 7/31/97, p.A8)

1995        Jul 24, A Palestinian suicide bomber blew up a crowded commuter bus in Tel Aviv and killed six Israelis and wounded 28. Hamas took responsibility.
    (WSJ, 3/6/96, p. A-15)(G&M, 7/31/97, p.A8)(AP, 7/24/00)

1995        Aug 21, A Palestinian suicide bomber blew up a bus in Jerusalem and killed 4 Israelis, 1 American, and wounded more than 100 people. Hamas took responsibility.
    (WSJ, 3/6/96, p. A-15)(G&M, 7/31/97, p.A8)   

1995        Sep 24, Israel’s Rabin and the PLO under Arafat, signed a pact, Oslo II, in Taba, Egypt, ending nearly three decades of Israeli occupation of West Bank cities. They scheduled a 9/7/97 date for Israel’s departure from the West Bank, except for Jewish settlements and certain military locations. A final accord was scheduled for 5/7/99. The Oslo Accords stipulated that 80% of the water from the “mountain aquifer" beneath land occupied by Israel in 1967 should go to Israel, and the rest to the Palestinians.
    (SFC, 1/9/96, p.A10)(AP, 9/24/00)(SFC, 4/30/02, p.A8)(Econ, 7/30/16, p.38)

1995        Sep 28, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO chairman Yasser Arafat signed an accord to transfer much of the West Bank to the control of its Arab residents.
    (AP, 9/28/98)

1995        Sep, Adel Kaadan, an Arab with Israeli citizenships, filed suit when he was not allowed to move into a Jewish cooperative at Katsir.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.A15)

1995        Oct 10, Israel began a West Bank pullback and freed hundreds of Palestinian prisoners.

1995        Oct 23, The US Congress passed the Jerusalem Embassy Act, effective as of Nov 8, 1995, calling for the US embassy to be moved from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. As of 2017 every US president since has signed a national security waiver suspending the act.
    (Econ, 12/24/16, p.74)

1995        Oct 26, Islamic Jihad leader Fathi Shakaki was shot to death on the Mediterranean island of Malta in a killing his supporters blamed on Israel.
    (LVRJ, 11/1/97, p.17A)(AP, 10/26/05)

1995        Oct, The Finance Minister was Abraham Shohat.
    (WSJ, 10/23/95, p.A-1)

1995        Nov 4, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, 73 years old, was killed by a right-wing, 27 year old Israeli law student, Yigal Amir, at a Tel Aviv peace rally. Shimon Peres assumed the post of acting Prime Minister. His wife, Leah, published "Rabin: Our Life, His Legacy in 1997." It was later revealed the Amir was working under the influence of Avishai Raviv, an agent of the Shin Bet security service.
    (WSJ, 11/6/95, p.A-1)(SFC, 4/21/97, p.A1)(AP, 11/4/97)(SFC,11/6/97, p.D2)

1995        Nov 6, Funeral services were held in Jerusalem for assassinated Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin. President Clinton led the US delegation; Arab dignitaries also attended, including Jordan’s King Hussein and Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak.
    (AP, 11/6/00)

1995        Nov 9, Yasser Arafat made a secret trip to Israel to offer condolences to the widow of assassinated PM Rabin.
    (SFC, 11/11/04, p.A18)

1995        Nov 12, Israel’s ruling Labor Party unanimously approved Shimon Peres as its new leader, replacing slain Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin.
    (AP, 11/12/00)

1995        Nov 21, Israel granted citizenship to jailed US spy Jonathan Jay Pollard.

1995        Nov 22, Acting Prime Minister Shimon Peres appointed Ehud Barak, a popular general, to the post of foreign minister.
    (WSJ, 11/22/95, p.A-1)

1995        Nov, Lebanese guerrillas of the Hezbollah fired rockets into northern Israel. Israeli warplanes retaliated by hitting rebel strongholds. Hezbollah or Party of God is the Iranian-backed political and military group that is fighting to dislodge Israeli soldiers from southern Lebanon.
    (WSJ, 11/29/95, p.A1)(SFC, 4/14/96, p.1)

1995        Dec 21, The city of Bethlehem passed from Israeli to Palestinian control.
    (AP, 12/21/97)

1995        Dec, Israeli warplanes retaliate against rocket attacks with strikes at Hezbollah strongholds in Lebanon.
    (WSJ, 11/29/95, p.A-1)

1995        Dec, US Ambassador Indyk expresses pride in the $3 billion annual US grant aid to Israel and complains of Israeli purchases from Europe.
    (WSJ, 12/18/95, p.A-10)

1995        Binjamin Wilkomirski published in Switzerland the memoir "Fragments," which purported to be about his survival at the Majdanek concentration camp. In 2002 Blake Eskin authored "A Life in Pieces" that told the story of how Bruno Doessekker (b.1941) fabricated the story.
    (WSJ, 2/5/02, p.A16)
1995        Miriam Ben-Porat, Israeli comptroller, issued a report that said Shin Bet security routinely mistreated Palestinian detainees between 1988 and 1992. The report was not made public until 2000.
    (SFC, 2/10/00, p.A10)
1995        VocalTec, an Israeli company, was the first company to release commercial PC-to-PC calling software, which it called Internet Phone. However, many competitors soon followed. In 2010 VocalTec merged with YMax Corp, maker of magicJack, an Internet phone gadget.
    (AP, 8/14/10)

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