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4000 BC Artifacts dating to about
this time, later held in Kosovo, were believed to belong to the
Vinca, a prehistoric culture in southern Europe.
1315 The Church of the Holy
Virgin was built in Musutiste, Kosovo. In 1999 returning Albanians
blew up the church in retaliation for the Serb destruction of their
(SFC, 9/7/99, p.A12)
1389 Jun 15, The Serbs were
defeated by Ottoman Turks in the Battle of Kosovo at the Field of
the Blackbirds. In the battle, the Serb prince Lazar was captured by
the Turks and beheaded. Lazar's bones were placed in the monastery
at Grancanica in Kosovo. Sultan Murad, the Ottoman leader was killed
in the battlefield by the wounded son-in-law of King Lazar. Serbs
say that Albanians aided the Turkish invaders. Historical evidence
shows that both forces were multinational and that Serbs and
Albanian fought on both sides. In 1999 Ismail Kadare, Albanian
author, wrote "Elegy for Kosovo," in which he retells the story of
the battle. Bosnian King Tvrtko and other Balkan princes along with
Albanians fought under the command of Serbian Prince Lazar.
(SFC, 12/29/96, BR p.7)(SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)(WSJ,
5/5/98, p.A20)(HN, 6/15/98)(WSJ, 3/25/99, p.A17)(WSJ, 5/7/99,
p.A1,18)(SFEC, 7/23/00, BR p.7)
1389 Serbs, defeated by the
Ottoman Turks, moved from Kosovo to the Krajina region of Croatia.
(WSJ, 4/22/99, A12)
1448 Oct 19, The Ottoman Sultan
Murat II defeated Hungarian General Janos Hunyadi at Kosovo, Serbia.
1912 European powers awarded
Kosovo to Serbia rather than the new Republic of Albania. [see Nov,
(SFC, 10/28/00, p.A12)
1918 Kosovo became part of the
newly created Yugoslavia and was dominated by a Serbian monarchy
until WW II.
(SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)
1945 Kosovo became part of the
post-war Communist Yugoslavia under Tito.
(SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)
1945 An uprising in Kosovo was
put down by Tito’s Communists.
(SFC, 3/14/98, p.A8)
1950s Tito’s security chief,
Alexander Rankovic, a Serb, repressed Kosovo separatism.
(SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)
1968 In Kosovo, Serbia, ethnic
Albanians staged their first pro-independence demonstrations.
(USAT, 3/24/99, p.4A)
1974 In Yugoslavia under Tito a
decentralized federal system allowed the Kosovo region to develop
its own security, judiciary, defense, foreign relations and social
control. Mahmut Bakalli drafted a constitution that gave the region
a status equivalent in most respects to the other republics of
(SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)(SFC, 11/11/98, p.A16)(SFC,
1981 Mar 26, Police and
Albanian demonstrators battled in Kosovo.
1981 Mar, Kosovar Albanian
students organized protests seeking that Kosovo become a Republic
within Yugoslavia. The protests were harshly contained by the
centralist Yugoslav and Serbian governments.
1989 Jun 28, In a speech at
Kosovo Polje Slobodan Milosevic stated that "Yugoslavia is a
multinational community and it can survive only under the conditions
of full equality for all nations that live in it."
1989 Bujar Bukoshi was elected
the prime minister of the Kosovo Regional Government.
(WSJ, 4/28/99, p.A14)
1989 The Milosevic regime in
Yugoslavia made constitutional changes to consolidate power over the
provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina. Kosovo, whose 1.9 million people
are 90% Albanian, lost its autonomy and was placed under Serbian
rule. The constitution passed without the approval of the parliament
of Kosova. The Serbs fired most Albanians and closed many
enterprises. Muslim unrest followed and Kosovo was occupied. 90% of
the population of Kosovo was made up of some 2.2 million ethnic
(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 5/11/96, p.A-10)(WSJ,
8/5/96, p.A13) (SFC, 12/10/97, p.C2) (www, Albania, 1998)
1990 Jul, In Albania young
people demonstrated against the regime in Tirana, 5,000 citizens
sought refuge in foreign embassies. Delegates of the parliament of
Kosova declared the independence of Kosova from Serbia. Subsequently
Serbia abolished the parliament and government of Kosova, closed
down the only Albanian daily, and took over the state-owned
television and radio. The Albanians of Kosovo voted for sovereignty
and elected a shadow government that was banned by Milosevic. In
1992 Ibrahim Rugova (1944-2006) was elected president and Fehmi
Agani was the vice-president.
(SFC, 12/10/97, p.C2)(www, Albania, 1998)(Econ,
1991 In Kosovo the ethnic
Albanian faculty and students of Pristina Univ. were forced out and
Serbs took over.
(SFC, 8/3/99, p.A9)
1992 May 24, Kosovo Albanians
held unofficial elections for an assembly and president. Ibrahim
Rugova won an overwhelming majority and was elected President of
1992 Dec 24, Pres. Bush had the
US Embassy in Belgrade read to Pres. Milosevic the "Christmas
Warning" cable: "In the event of conflict in Kosovo caused by
Serbian action, the US will be prepared to employ military force
against Serbians in Kosovo and in Serbia proper.
(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A19)
1995 Aug, The extremist radical
party of Serbia under Vojislav Seselj published a manifesto titled:
"How To Solve the Problem of Kosovo." It advocated firing Albanian
workers, encouraging Serbian colonization, military occupation and
buffer zones along the Albanian and Macedonian borders.
(SFEC, 6/27/99, p.A7)
1995 Aug, Some 200,000 Serbs
were moved from the Krajina region. The blitz attack, dubbed Storm,
sent 200,000 minority Serbs fleeing the country in miles-long
columns of tractors, cars and horse-driven carts. More than 4,500
were killed and some 3,000 are still listed as missing in an
operation that was directed by retired American generals through
MPRI of Alexandria, Va. About 14,000 Krajina Serbs ended up in
Kosovo until 1998, when they left as violence spread.
(WSJ, 8/1/96 p.A15)(SFC, 7/6/99, p.B1)(AP,
1996 The Kosovo Liberation Army
(KLA) began launching attacks against police stations. The KLA was
led by Hashim Thaci and his lieutenants Azem Syla and Xhavit Halati.
(SFC, 12/10/97, p.C4)(SFC, 6/25/99, p.A10)
1997 Jan 16, Guerrillas of the
Kosovo Liberation Army set off a bomb that wounded Radivoje Papovic,
hard-line Serbian rector of the Univ. in Pristina.
(SFC, 2/21/96, p.A13)
1997 Feb 3, Belgrade police
beat up protestors and representatives of Kosovo’s Albanian majority
said 5 people were killed in a police sweep.
(SFC, 2/4/97, p.A8)
1997 May 30, A Serbian court
convicted 20 ethnic Albanians of terrorism for a wave of attacks in
Kosovo. They belonged to the National Movement for the Liberation of
(SFC, 5/31/97, p.A13)
1997 Jun, In Albania Ali Uka, a
journalist who criticized the Kosovo Liberation Army, was murdered.
Uka was brutally disfigured with a bottle and a screwdriver. Hashim
Thaci was his roommate at this time.
(Econ, 1/29/11, p.50)
1997 Oct 1, In Serbia It was
reported that Albanian students in Kosovo planned to demonstrate in
the streets for equal access to the university on par with the Serb
students at Pristina. Some 20,000 students protested and were
attacked by Serb police. At least 30 students were injured. 500
students were attacked by Serbian police.
(SFC, 10/2/97, p.A10)(SFC, 10/2/97, p.A12)(SFC,
1997 Nov 28, The KLA emerged in
Kosovo with expensive Swiss manufactured uniforms and purloined
(SFC, 5/5/99, p.A13)
1997 Nov, An Interpol report
said that Kosovo Albanians hold the largest share of the heroin
market in Europe.
(SFC, 5/5/99, p.A1)
1998 Feb 28, In Likoshan two
Serbian police officers were killed. Police blamed the Kosovo
Liberation Army. The Serbian SAJ, an anti-terrorist unit, was
immediately called to the scene and rounded up 10 males who were
summarily shot. Another 15 villagers were also killed.
(SFC, 3/11/98, p.A8)
1998 Mar 1, Weekend clashes in
Kosovo left 24 ethnic Albanians and 4 Serb policemen dead. Police
arrested 5 people and seized weapons caches.
(WSJ, 3/2/98, p.A1)(FT, 3/4/98, p.1)
1998 Mar 2, Serb police clashed
with 30,000 protesting Albanians in Kosovo.
(WSJ, 3/3/98, p.A1)
1998 Mar 5, Serbian police
mounted a counterinsurgency operation and killed 20 ethnic Albanians
in the Drenica region of Kosovo.
(SFC, 3/6/98, p.A13)
1998 Mar 6, Police in Kosovo
reported that they killed Adem Jashari, a leader in the Kosovo
Liberation Army, in Donji Prekaz in the Drenica region. 45 Albanians
and 6 Serb police were reported dead. Of the 46 bodies 11 were women
and 9 children. Six of the men were elderly.
(SFC, 3/7/98, p.A6)(SFC, 3/10/98, p.A8)
1998 Mar 8, In Kosovo 7,000
Albanian women marched against the crackdown on separatist
(SFC, 3/9/98, p.A10)
1998 Mar 10, In Kosovo Serbian
police seized the bodies of 51 ethnic Albanians, killed in a sweep
of separatists, and buried them into bulldozed over graves.
(SFC, 3/11/98, p.A1)
1998 Mar 12, Serbian leaders
proposed talks for autonomy in Kosovo, but residents dismissed the
(SFC, 3/13/98, p.A12)
1998 Mar 13, In Kosovo 40,000
ethnic Albanians protested against Serbia.
(SFC, 3/14/98, p.A8)
1998 Mar 19, Pres. Milosevic
agreed to pull back special police in Kosovo under a deadline by
(SFC, 3/20/98, p.A12)
1998 Mar 21, Six members of the
SF-based Peace workers group were arrested and sentenced to 10 days
in jail in Kosovo for not reporting their presence to police. 3 were
from the Bay Area. They were released Mar 23.
(SFEC, 3/22/98, p.A1)(SFC, 3/23/98, p.A11)(SFC,
1998 Mar 22, Kosovo Albanians
elected Ibrahim Rugova as president. Serb officials pronounced the
(SFC, 3/23/98, p.A9)
1998 Mar 23, Serbian and
Albanian leaders agree to allow ethnic Albanians into the state
university system in Kosovo.
(SFC, 3/24/98, p.A10)
1998 Mar 24, In Kosovo Albanian
separatists ambushed a police patrol and one policeman was killed.
(SFC, 3/25/98, p.A10)
1998 Mar 26, In Serbia Pres.
Milosevic ordered several hundred additional police to Kosovo. Serbs
protested the killing of a policeman and 2 ethnic Albanians were
killed in a police counterattack.
(SFC, 3/27/98, p.A12)(WSJ, 3/27/98, p.A1)
1998 Mar 31, The UN Security
Council imposed a new arms embargo on Yugoslavia to press Milosevic
to grant ethnic Albanians concessions in Kosovo.
(SFC, 4/1/98, p.A8)(AP, Internet, 3/31/99)
1998 Apr 22, Yugoslavian troops
claimed to have killed 23 ethnic Albanian infiltrators in the border
region in Kosovo.
(SFC, 4/24/98, p.A16)
1998 Apr 23, The president of
Montenegro, Milo Djukanovic, called for full autonomy for the Kosovo
(SFC, 4/24/98, p.A16)
1998 Apr 27, In Kosovo the
Yugoslav army clashed with ethnic Albanians and 3 insurgents were
killed. Albanian reports said up to a dozen were slain and that none
of them were militants.
(SFC, 4/28/98, p.A8)
1998 Apr 29, The US and
European powers decided to impose new sanctions and agreed to freeze
the assets of Yugoslavia. A ban on investments would follow in 10
days if security police was not withdrawn from Kosova.
(SFC, 4/30/98, p.A8)
1998 Apr, Ilir Konushevci, a
KLA commander, was ambushed and killed outside Tropoja in northern
Albania. He had recently accused Xhavit Haliti, a lieutenant of
Hashim Thaci, of buying grenades for $2 and selling them to the KLA
(SFC, 6/25/99, p.A12)
1998 May 1, A police raid in
Drenica left 4 ethnic Albanians dead.
(BS, 5/3/98, p.19A)
1998 May 3, Fighting began in
the Kosovo village of Ponosevac and 10 ethnic Albanians were
reported killed by Serbian police.
(WSJ, 5/5/98, p.A1)
1998 May 6, Fighting in Kosovo
continued. A Serb policeman and an ethnic Albanian separatist were
killed. The bodies of 2 Albanians who backed Serb rule were pulled
from a river and a local politician died in a third attack.
(WSJ, 5/7/98, p.A1)
1998 May 9, The leading Group
of Eight industrialized countries imposed an investment ban on
Serbia and froze and froze the assets abroad of Serbia and
Montenegro due to conditions in Kosovo. The sanctions did not go
into effect because Serbia began talks with ethnic Albanians in
(SFEC, 5/10/98, p.A13)(WSJ, 5/19/98, p.A1)
1998 May 13, In Kosovo Serbian
police clashed with ethnic Albanians and 2 ethnic Albanians were
reported killed in Pristina. The police had found the site of the
attack to be loaded with weapons.
(SFC, 5/13/98, p.A13)
1998 May 15, Serbian police
began to turn back truckers in a blockade of Kosovo. Shortage of
critical food supplies soon developed.
(SFC, 5/20/98, p.C16)
1998 May 22, A joint
peacekeeping force was set up by 7 European nations to maintain
peace in Kosovo. Deputy defense ministers of Albania, Bulgaria,
Macedonia, Greece, Italy, Romania and Turkey signed on after meeting
in Tirana. Slovenia and the US signed on as observers.
(SFC, 5/23/98, p.A14)
1998 May 29, In Kosovo a Serb
policeman was killed and another wounded in the Decani region. A
3-day Serb offensive began that left over 60 ethnic Albanians dead
in Vranoc and other villages in the area.
(SFC, 5/30/98, p.A11)(SFC, 7/16/98, p.A10)
1998 Jun 1, Refugees from
Kosovo poured into Albania to escape fighting that began last week
around Decani. 39 people were reported dead.
(WSJ, 6/2/98, p.A3)
1998 Jun 3, Special Serbian
forces reported 40 people killed in a 5-day operation in Kosovo.
(SFC, 6/4/98, p.A10)
1998 Jun 4, In Pristina,
Serbia, the Kosovo Albanians withdrew from negotiations with Serbia
due to the new Serbian offensive.
(SFC, 6/5/98, p.D2)
1998 Jun 7, Pres. Milosevic
agreed to allow diplomatic observers to enter and move about in
(SFC, 6/8/98, p.A10)
1998 Jun 14, In Kosovo the
fighting intensified as Serbs launched 500 grenades into villages in
(SFC, 6/15/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/15/98, p.A1)
1998 Jun 15, US F-16 fighter
jets took off as part of a 13-nation, 85 warplane show of force over
Albania and Macedonia. Meanwhile Serb forces attacked 4 Kosovo
villages with grenades and helicopter gunships and began sealing off
the border to Albania.
(SFC, 6/15/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/15/98, p.A1)(SFC,
6/16/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/16/98, p.A1)(SFC, 6/20/98, p.B2)
1998 Jun 16, In Serbia Pres.
Milosevic agreed to allow monitors into Kosovo and to begin talks
with Kosovo Albanian leaders, but not to withdraw his military
forces until "terrorist activities subside."
(WSJ, 6/17/98, p.A1)
1998 Jun 17, Serb troops killed
at least 10 Albanians they said were trying to cross the border into
(WSJ, 6/18/98, p.A1)
1998 Jun 20, In Kosovo 3
Serbian police were killed and four were held by the Kosovo
separatist army during fighting in the Decani area.
(SFEC, 6/21/98, p.A25)
1998 Jun 22, In Kosovo ethnic
Albanians kidnapped 3 Serbs and took over the mine pit at Belacevac.
(WSJ, 6/23/98, p.A1)(SFC, 6/30/98, p.A8)
1998 Jun 29, Serbian troops
opened a series of attacks in Kosovo in the mining town of Belacevac
(SFC, 6/30/98, p.A8)
1998 Jun 30, Serbian forces
recaptured the Kosovo coal mine at Belacevac.
(SFC, 7/1/98, p.A8)
1998 Jul 3, Serbian forces in
Kosovo broke through a stone blockade near Kijevo.
(SFC, 7/4/98, p.A8)
1998 Jul 4, Fresh fighting
erupted outside Suva Reka, a region with 60,000 residents.
(SFEC, 7/5/98, p.A17)
1998 Jul 8, The US and European
countries demanded an immediate cease fire in Kosovo and called for
a crackdown on the flow of funds to ethnic Albanian rebels.
(SFC, 7/9/98, p.A10)
1998 Jul 19, In Kosovo,
Yugoslavia, Albanian separatists claimed to have take the town of
Orahovac with 20,000 residents. Serbs forces denied the claim.
(SFEC, 7/20/98, p.A10)
1998 Jul 21, Serbian forces
forced the Kosovo Liberation Army out of Orahovac. The rebels and
some 15,000 refugees fled northeast to the city of Malisevo.
(SFC, 7/22/98, p.A10)
1998 Jul 25, Serb forces
attacked rebel positions in Kosovo to clear major roads.
(SFC, 7/27/98, p.A8)
1998 Jul 31, In Kosovo refugees
fled Serb attacks one day after Serbia declared that the military
offensive was over.
(SFC, 8/1/98, p.A10)
1998 Aug 6, NATO set exercises
in Albania for Aug 17-22 to show force against the Serb offensive in
(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.A1)
1998 Aug 10, In Kosovo ethnic
Albanians reportedly killed 10 police officers. 3 KLA rebels were
also reported killed.
(SFC, 8/11/98, p.A10)
1998 Aug 14, Adem Demaci agreed
to take the leadership of the political wing of the KLA.
(SFC, 8/15/98, p.A16)
1998 Aug 15, Serbian forces
seized the Kosovo rebel town of Junik
(SFC, 8/17/98, p.A8)
1998 Aug 27, In Kosovo a Serb
shell was said to have killed 11 of 14 members of the Asllani family
fleeing the village of Grape outside of Pristina.
(WSJ, 8/28/98, p.A1)(SFC, 8/28/98, p.D4)
1998 Sep 2, Serb forces in
Kosovo pressed attacks in the town of Prizren.
(WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A1)
1998 Sep 8, Serb forces opened
an offensive on Kosovo’s border with Albania and 2 people were
reported killed in Prilep.
(WSJ, 9/9/98, p.A1)
1998 Sep 9, In Kosovo some
25,000 civilians streamed out of the southwest as Serbian forces
shelled their villages.
(SFC, 9/10/98, p.A13)
1998 Sep 9, Pres. Clinton
released $20 million in aid for the refugees in Kosovo.
(SFC, 9/11/98, p.D3)
1998 Sep 16, Serb forces in
Kosovo attacked 12 villages between Mitrovica and Podujevo, 20 miles
north of Pristina.
(SFC, 9/17/98, p.A15)
1998 Sep 21, Ahmet Krasniqi, a
form Yugoslav colonel, was killed. He was the commander of the Armed
Forces of the Kosovo Republic and his murder was reportedly ordered
by KLA commander Hashim Thaci.
(SFC, 6/25/99, p.A12)
1998 Sep 22, In Kosovo Serbian
troops began an offensive against the last of stronghold of ethnic
Albanian separatists. Many rebels were reported killed.
(SFC, 9/23/98, p.A10)
1998 Sep 23, The UN adopted a
resolution calling for an immediate cease-fire in Kosovo.
(SFC, 9/24/98, p.A12)
1998 Sep 24, NATO instructed
its generals to begin preparing for air strikes on Yugoslavia unless
pres. Milosevic ends his attacks on ethnic Albanians.
(SFC, 9/25/98, p.A12)
1998 Sep 26, In Kosovo the
Yugoslav army and Serbian police shot and killed 15 women, children
and elderly of the Deliaj clan in Gornji Obrinje. Three men were
burned to death and 3 more villagers were killed in nearby Donji
(SFC, 9/30/98, p.A1)
1998 Sep 27, Serbian troops
bombarded and burned villages in southern Kosovo.
(SFC, 9/28/98, p.A10)
1998 Oct 1, The UN sent a new
warning to Pres. Milosevic of Serbia over the atrocities in Kosovo.
Seeking to head off threatened NATO attacks, Yugoslavia's Serb
leadership invited foreign experts to investigate massacres in
(SFC, 10/2/98, p.A1)(AP, 10/1/99)
1998 Oct 8, In Kosovo, Serbia,
ethnic Albanian rebels declared a unilateral cease-fire.
(SFC, 10/9/98, p.A12)
1998 Oct 9, US diplomats met
twice with Yugoslav Pres. Milosevic to resolve the crises in Kosovo
and avert a NATO attack.
(SFC, 10/10/98, p.A8)
1998 Oct 12, Yugoslav Pres.
Milosevic agreed to withdraw troops from Kosovo and allow int’l.
verification as NATO authorized air strikes if he does not comply.
(SFC, 10/13/98, p.A1)
1998 Oct 13, Serbian
authorities announced that elections will be held in Kosovo under
int’l. supervision next year.
(SFC, 10/14/98, p.A1)
1998 Oct 16, Serbian Pres.
Milosevic was given an additional 10 days to withdraw forces from
Kosovo and comply with UN demands.
(SFC, 10/17/98, p.A1)
1998 Oct 22, In Kosovo 4
refugees, that included 3 children, were killed trying to cross the
Albanian border. Pres. Milosevic claimed that he had met NATO
demands to pull Serb forces out of Kosovo.
(WSJ, 10/23/98, p.A1)(SFC, 10/24/98, p.A10)
1998 Oct 23, In Kosovo 4 people
were killed trying to cross into Albania when they stepped on mines.
(SFC, 10/24/98, p.A10)
1998 Oct 26, In Kosovo Serb
forces appeared to be withdrawing under the threat of NATO air
(SFC, 10/27/98, p.B1)
1998 Oct 27, Serb forces drew
back from former Kosovo battlefronts, holding off the immediate
threat of NATO airstrikes.
1998 Nov 6, In Kosovo 5 ethnic
Albanians were killed in a shootout with Serbian police after they
left a meeting with US diplomat Chris Hill at Dragobil. Two others
were killed the day before.
(SFC, 11/7/98, p.A13)(SFC, 12/10/98, p.C9)
1998 Nov 18, Pres. Milan
Milutinovic rejected a US blueprint for the future of Kosovo, saying
that it gave too much power to the ethnic Albanians.
(SFC, 11/19/98, p.A12)
1998 Dec 3, Yugoslav border
guards killed 8 ethnic Albanians as they tried to cross the border
into Kosovo. In Pristina Hizri Talla, a senior guerrilla commander
was killed along with Kosovar journalist Afrim Maliqi and student
(WSJ, 12/3/98, p.A1)(SFC, 12/10/98, p.C9)
1998 Dec 14, In Kosovo Serbian
border guards killed 31 ethnic Albanian guerrillas on the Albanian
(SFC, 12/15/98, p.A14)(WSJ, 12/15/98, p.A1)
1998 Dec 14, In Pec masked
Albanian rebels opened fire in the Panda barroom and killed 6 young
(SFC, 12/17/98, p.C2)(SFC, 12/18/98, p.D4)
1998 Dec 17, Serbian police
attacked a suspected rebel-controlled village in Kosovo. Two ethnic
Albanian fighters were killed and 34 were arrested in Glodjane.
(SFC, 12/18/98, p.D4)
1998 Dec 18, In Kosovo, Serbia,
Zvonko Bojanic, district mayor of Kosovo Polje, was found severely
beaten and shot between the eyes.
(SFC, 12/19/98, p.A6)
1998 Dec 21, In Kosovo, Serbia,
Milic Jovic (52), a Serbian police officer, was shot and killed in
(SFC, 12/22/98, p.C2)
1998 Dec 25, In Serbia US
diplomats in Kosovo persuaded army officers to pull back some of
(SFC, 12/26/98, p.A8)
1998 Dec 29, In Kosovo 5
Albanians died in fighting with Serb police as NATO repeated threats
of airstrikes. A group of US senators proposed to offer Milosevic
sanctuary in a 3rd nation if he would step down.
(WSJ, 12/30/98, p.A1)
1998 Noel Malcolm published
"Kosovo: A Short History," a history of the troubled region and
Albania. Malcolm earlier wrote "Bosnia: A Short History."
(WSJ, 5/5/98, p.A20)(SFEC, 9/6/98, BR p.8)
1999 Jan 8, In Kosovo ethnic
Albanians killed 3 Serbian police officers in separate ambushes.
Ethnic Albanians also seized 8 Yugoslav soldiers.
(SFC, 1/9/99, p.A9)(SFC, 1/12/99, p.A8)
1999 Jan 11, In Kosovo Enver
Maloku, the head of the Kosovo Information Center, was shot and
killed by 3 assassins in Pristina.
(SFC, 1/12/99, p.A8)
1999 Jan 13, In Kosovo rebels
freed 8 Yugoslav soldiers after getting private incentives from
(SFC, 1/14/99, p.A11)
1999 Jan 15, In Kosovo Yugoslav
army units killed 15 Albanian rebels. Later reports indicated that
45 Albanians were massacred at Racak (Recak). The mass killing soon
sparked international anger.
(SFC, 1/16/99, p.A10)(SFC, 1/22/99, p.A10)(AP,
1999 Jan 16, In Kosovo 45
ethnic Albanians were found massacred at Racak. It was later
reported that the killing was ordered by senior Serbian officials,
who attempted to orchestrate a coverup.
(SFEC, 1/17/99, p.A1)(SFC, 1/22/99, p.A10)(SFC,
1999 Jan 18, In Serbia Pres.
Milosevic ordered the expulsion of Ambassador William Walker within
48 hours. Walker had accused Serbian forces in the recent massacre
of 45 people in Kosovo.
(SFC, 1/19/99, p.A1)
1999 Jan 19, In Serbia Gen'l.
Wesley Clark and Gen'l. Klaus Naumann met with Pres. Milosevic and
threatened him with NATO airstrikes due to the massacre of ethnic
Albanians in Kosovo.
(SFEC, 4/18/99, p.A3)
1999 Jan 20, NATO moved forces
within striking distance of Yugoslavia and warned Belgrade to stop
its repression in Kosovo.
(WSJ, 1/21/99, p.A15)
1999 Jan 23, The Yugoslav
government released 9 ethnic Albanians, captured Dec 14, while the
KLA released 5 elderly Serbian civilians, captured Jan 21.
(SFEC, 1/24/99, p.A20)
1999 Jan 25, In Rakovina,
Kosovo 5 ethnic Albanians, including 2 children, were found riddled
(SFC, 1/26/99, p.A12)
1999 Jan 27, The Clinton
administration announced a plan to end fighting in Kosovo. It called
for NATO air strikes if autonomy to the region is not accepted by
(SFC, 1/28/99, p.A12)
1999 Jan 28, NATO allies warned
Pres. Milosevic that they were ready to use immediate force, and
Britain and France said they were prepared to send in ground troops
to enforce a peace settlement in Kosovo.
(SFEC, 4/18/99, p.A3)
1999 Jan 29, The US and major
European allies set Feb 19 as a deadline for Serbia to accept a
peace plan in Kosovo or face NATO bombing.
(SFC, 1/30/99, p.A1)
1999 Jan 29, In Kosovo Serbian
police killed 24 ethnic Albanians following the death of one Serbian
(SFC, 1/30/99, p.A10)
1999 Feb 2, In Kosovo members
of the KLA agreed to attend peace talks in France.
(SFC, 2/3/99, p.A9)
1999 Feb 3, In Kosovo members
of the KLA demanded that peace talks include a guaranteed vote for
(SFC, 2/4/99, p.A10)
1999 Feb 5, Serbian authorities
refused to grant re-entry travel documents to Albanian guerrilla
members for the peace conference in Paris. The 13 Serbian
negotiators appointed by Milosevic said they would not sit down with
members of the KLA.
(SFC, 2/6/99, p.A10)
1999 Feb 7, Delegates at the
Kosovo peace talks agreed on principles that would keep the province
within Yugoslavia for at least 3 more years.
(WSJ, 2/8/99, p.A1)
1999 Feb 10, In Kosovo Serbian
authorities returned the bodies of 40 civilian Albanians who were
killed at Racak.
(SFC, 2/11/99, p.A14)
1999 Feb 14, In Kosovo a bomb
explosion in Urosevac wounded at least 9 people. Serbian police
rounded up about 40 independence activist Albanians.
(SFC, 2/15/99, p.A8)
1999 Feb 14, In Rambouillet,
France, Madeline Albright brought together the Serb and Albanian
sides in the Kosovo peace talks and the talks were extended one
week. The plan for a 3-year interim settlement included a NATO force
of some 25,000 troops, who would collect the weapons of the Albanian
rebels. In the plan the KLA was given 120 days to surrender its
(SFC, 2/15/99, p.A8)(WSJ, 6/16/99, p.A20)
1999 Feb 20, In France the
peace talks between Serbs and ethnic Albanians of Kosovo were
extended for 2 days.
(SFEC, 2/21/99, p.A1)
1999 Feb 23, In France the
Kosovo Albanians agreed in principle to a peace settlement but asked
for 2 more weeks for consultations at home.
(SFC, 2/24/99, p.A1)
1999 Feb 24, In Kosovo ethnic
Albanians planned a provisional government, but Adem Demaci, a
leader in the rebel army, said that he would not recognize it.
(SFC, 2/25/99, p.A10)
1999 Mar 2, In Kosovo KLA
leader Adem Demaci announced that he would step down but would
continue to oppose the peace plan. Meanwhile Yugoslav tank and
mortar fire pounded rebel positions in the hillsides of the
Macedonian border. Demaci was replaced by Hashim Thaci (29).
(SFC, 3/3/99, p.A8)(SFC, 3/4/99, p.A12)
1999 Mar 3, In Kosovo the KLA
reverted to its earlier guerrilla tactics and killed 2 Serbians.
(SFC, 3/5/99, p.D3)
1999 Mar 8, Kosovo KLA leaders
agreed to accept a peace plan but commander Ramush Hajredinaj
insisted that they would not give up their arms.
(SFC, 3/9/99, p.A12)
1999 Mar 11, In Kosovo fighting
spread as Yugoslav forces shelled villages near Prizren.
(SFC, 3/12/99, p.A14)
1999 Mar 13, In Kosovo 2 bombs
struck in Podujevo and 1 in Kosovska Mitrovica killing 6 people and
wounding 58. The state TV blamed the Albanians, who in turn blamed
(SFEC, 3/14/99, p.A17)
1999 Mar 14, In Kosovo heavy
fighting preceded the resumption of peace talks in Paris.
(SFC, 3/15/99, p.A1)
1999 Mar 15, In Kosovo the
ethnic Albanians gave a written pledge to sign a peace proposal.
(SFC, 3/16/99, p.A8)
1999 Mar 16, In Kosovo Serbia
moved in heavy tanks and thousands more troops as their negotiators
insisted on major changes in the Paris peace talks.
(SFC, 3/17/99, p.A8)
1999 Mar 20, Serb forces in
Kosovo launched a new offensive along a 20-mile arc west and
northwest of Pristina.
(SFEC, 3/21/99, p.A1)
1999 Mar 21, On the 2nd day of
Serb attacks against Kosovo, envoy Richard Holbrooke met with Pres.
Milosevic with serious threats of NATO air strikes.
(SFC, 3/22/99, p.A1)
1999 Mar 24, In Serbia NATO
forces sent a broad wave of air attacks against Yugoslav forces in
an attempt to halt the Serbian offensive in Kosovo. Cruise missiles
and planes targeted military sites near Belgrade and some 40 sites
in total. Initial reports said 10 people were killed and 38 wounded
in the bombing. The airstrikes marked the first time in its 50-year
existence that NATO had ever attacked a sovereign country. NATO’s
78-day bombing ended on June 10.
(SFC, 3/25/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 3/25/99, p.A1)(SFC,
3/26/99, p.A6)(AP, 3/24/00)(Econ, 5/23/09, p.51)
1999 Mar 25, Some 70 men were
reported massacred at the village Bellacerk in Kosovo. In the
village of Velika Krusa 14 ethnic Albanians were killed and burned
by Serb police and paramilitaries. Selami Elshani played dead
escaped to tell the story. Investigators in Bela Crkva later
found the bodies of 12 people including 7 children, all shot in the
back of the head, killed during the rampage. Serb paramilitaries
along with the Serb army attacked the village of Krushe e Vogel, 90
km (55 miles) southwest of Pristina.
(SFC, 4/6/99, p.A8)(SFEC, 4/18/99, p.1,4)(AP,
1999 Mar 25, In Nerodimlje,
Kosovo, 8 male members of the Berisha family were executed in front
of a wall by a Serb gunman.
(SFC, 6/21/99, p.A8)
1999 Mar 25, In Kosovo Serbian
police officers took away Bajram Kelmendi, a human rights lawyer,
and his 2 sons. Their bodies were found the next day.
(SFEC, 3/28/99, p.A17)
1999 Mar 26, American-led NATO
forces launched a third night of airstrikes against Yugoslavia and 2
MiG-29 fighters were shot down as Serbian troops continued to sweep
ethnic Albanian villages in Kosovo.
(SFC, 3/27/99, p.A1)(AP, 3/26/00)
1999 Mar 26, Serbian forces
rounded up ethnic Albanian villages in Krushe e Vogel, Kosovo. Serb
forces herded 114 men and boys into a barn, including a disabled man
whose wheelchair was used to block one of the exits. The Serbs then
riddled the barn with bullets from automatic weapons before torching
it and all those inside. In 2011 a UN court sentenced former Serbian
police chief Vlastimir Djordjevic to 27 years in prison for
orchestrating the murder of hundreds of ethnic Albanians. In
2018 a Kosovo prosecutor brought war crime charges against a Serb
man (D.T.) his role in the Krushe e Vogel attack.
(SSFC, 9/8/02, p.F1)(AP, 2/23/11)(AP, 4/26/18)
1999 Mar 27, Serbian troops
ordered villagers of Mamusa, Kosovo, to drive refugees to the
border. 3 Turks and 4 ethnic Albanians were killed and 30 houses
(SFC, 3/12/02, p.A10)
1999 Mar 28, NATO broadened its
attacks on Yugoslavia to target Serb military forces in Kosovo in
the fifth straight night of airstrikes. UN officials reported that
some 500,000 ethnic Albanians had fled Kosovo. NATO officials raised
the possibility of using ground troops in Yugoslavia as low-level
strikes against tanks began. It was feared that anger over the war
would spill over to Bosnia.
(SFC, 3/29/99, p.A1,10)(AP, 3/28/00)
1999 Mar 28, The notorious
Scorpions unit stormed the northern Kosovo town of Podujevo. In 2004
a Belgrade court convicted Sasa Cvjetan, a member of the unit, of
killing 14 ethnic Albanian civilians, mostly women and children. The
verdict was overturned but in 2005 a re-trial confirmed his guilt
and 20-year sentence. In 2008 four members of the Scorpions
paramilitary group were tried by a Belgrade court for allegedly
gunning down 19 civilians in Podujevo. On June 18, 2009, they were
convicted sentenced to between 15 and 20 years in prison.
(AP, 6/17/05)(AP, 12/11/08)(AP,
1999 Mar 28, Muhamet Bajrahtar,
an American citizen from Chicago, was shot by Serbian police near
Glokovce, Kosovo. He died 2 days later. He was in Kosovo to help
bring out his family, who used his documents and made it to the US 2
(SFEC, 5/23/99, p.A24)
1999 Mar 29, Albania and
Macedonia appealed for help as thousands of refugees fled Kosovo on
the 6th day of bombing. NATO said Serbs were targeting ethnic
Albanian leadership for executions and the US accused Milosevic of
"crimes against humanity."
(WSJ, 3/30/99, p.A1)
1999 Mar 30, In Serbia Pres.
Milosevic said in a meeting with Premier Primakov of Russia that he
would resume peace talks if allied bombing stops. The US called the
offer "woefully inadequate." NATO moved to step up the air war and
Serbian forces continued unopposed in Kosovo as refugees streamed
(WSJ, 3/31/99, p.A1)
1999 Mar 30, Serbian forces in
Qysk yanked Arif Mazrekaj and 70 other men from a column of refugees
leaving Kosovo. Mazrekaj's body was later found at the bottom of a
(SFC, 8/28/99, p.A12)
1999 Mar 31, In the village of
Dzakovo, Kosovo, a witness reported the Serbian paramilitary forces
invade a mosque during morning prayers and killed some 80 people.
(SFC, 4/6/99, p.A8)
1999 Mar, Serbian police
rounded up members of a Kosovo Albanian family in their village of
Suva Reka, killing several men with machine-gun fire before forcing
the rest into a pizza restaurant and throwing hand-grenades at them.
In 2009 four former Serbian policemen were found guilty of the
massacre of 48 Kosovo Albanians. They were sentenced to up to 20
years in prison.
1999 Mar-1999 Jun, A US State
Dept. report in Dec. estimated that 10,000 Albanians were killed in
Kosovo during this period with 1.5 million expelled from their
(SFC, 12/10/99, p.D6)
1999 Apr 1, Serbian radio and
TV reported that Pres. Milosevic met with Dr. Ibrahim Rugova, leader
of the ethnic Albanians in Kosovo, and "came to a joint stand on
resolving problems… through political means."
(SFC, 4/2/99, p.A1)
1999 Apr 1, In Ljubenic,
Kosovo, an initial group of 80 people were executed by Serbian
paramilitaries. On Jul 9 peacekeepers said the remains of as many as
350 victims were found.
(SFC, 7/10/99, p.A10)
1999 Apr 2, NATO planners began
preliminary discussions about the possibility of sending ground
troops into Kosovo.
(SFC, 4/3/99, p.A1)
1999 Apr 2, At least 55 people
were gunned down by Serbian police and militiamen in the Kosovo city
(SFC, 4/29/99, p.D2)
1999 Apr 3, Montenegro
announced that over 31,000 Kosovar Albanians had entered the country
since NATO assaults began and that it was facing a humanitarian
(SFEC, 4/4/99, p.A10)
1999 Apr 4, NATO dropped more
bombs on downtown Belgrade and said that it would send some 8,000
troops into Albania to help Kosovo refugees. The Freedom Bridge over
the Danube at Novi Sad was destroyed. The US announced that it would
send 24 Apache helicopter gunships to attack Serbian troops and
tanks in Kosovo. Some 30,000 refugees crossed into Albania in the
last 24-hour period. Shipping on the Danube was not fully restored
(SFEC, 4/4/99, p.A1,12)(SFC, 4/5/99,
p.A1,10)(SSFC, 2/3/02, Par p.7)
1999 Apr 4, Bexhet Ahmeti
witnessed Serb militiamen shoot and burn 5 Kosovars.
(SFC, 4/21/99, p.A10)
1999 Apr 5, NATO attacks struck
Belgrade, Nis and Novi Sad in the most ferocious attacks to date.
The first Kosovo refugees were flown out to Norway and Turkey and
the US said it would take some 20,000 to Guantanamo Ari Base in
Cuba. Pres. Clinton asked for public donations for the relief
(SFC, 4/6/99, p.A1,8)
1999 Apr 7, Heavy NATO bombing
reportedly killed 10 civilians in Pristina, Kosovo. The Provincial
Executive Council Building, which housed the offices of Zoran
Andjelkovic, Kosovo's top Serbian official, were was hit by bombs.
(SFC, 4/8/99, p.AQ10)
1999 Apr 8, Serbia said it had
ended its Kosovo offensive and was allowing refugees to return home.
(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.A10)
1999 Apr 8, In Kacanik, Kosovo,
a Serbian firefight with the KLA left 17 people dead.
(SFC, 6/15/99, p.A12)
1999 Apr 10, Serbia allowed
some 1,500 refugees from Vragolija to leave Kosovo for Albania. Some
4,000 refugees crossed into Albania.
(SFEC, 4/11/99, p.A14,26)
1999 Apr 11, NATO restrained
bombing over the Orthodox Easter but struck at least 50 targets in
Kosovo alone. 3 Serbian civilians were reported killed.
(SFC, 4/12/99, p.A13)
1999 Apr 12, NATO allies
considered establishing a protectorate to shield Kosovo from
Yugoslav forces. Senior commander Gen'l. Wesley Clark asked the
Pentagon for 300 more warplanes. NATO bombs hit a train car at a
railroad bridge over the Juzna Morava River and 10 were killed and
(SFC, 4/13/99, p.A12)(WSJ, 4/13/99, p.A1)(SFC,
4/14/99, p.A13)(SFC, 4/20/99, p.A7)
1999 Apr 13, Aleksandar
Vukovic, a Serbian soldier, died from bullet wounds in northern
Kosovo. His father in 1999 rejected a war decoration from the
Milosevic government and blamed Milosevic for the loss of 75 young
men over 10 years from Kraljevo.
(SFC, 12/24/99, p.A17)
1999 Apr 14, NATO warplanes
mistakenly struck refugee vehicles and some 60-75 ethnic Albanians
were reported killed near Djakovica in Kosovo. NATO acknowledged the
next day that a civilian vehicle had been hit and broadcast a taped
interview with the US pilot who carried out the mission. A week
later NATO acknowledged that 2 separate groups of vehicles were hit.
(SFC, 4/15/99, p.A1)(SFC, 4/16/99, p.A1,16)(SFC,
1999 Apr 16, Thousands of
refugees poured out of Kosovo as NATO blasted oil refineries,
military barracks and airports around Yugoslavia. At least 5,000
refugees crossed into Macedonia, and 8,000 into Albania. Some
100,000 were believed to be enroute to Macedonia.
(SFC, 4/17/99, p.A1)
1999 Apr 16, Serbian
paramilitaries killed 15 people in the Kosovo town of Silovi. 16
people in the village of Sloviniya were killed by some 80
(SFC, 4/26/99, p.A12)(SFC, 4/27/99, p.A8)
1999 Apr 19, Yugoslav
authorities shut down the Morini border crossing to Albania. NATO
bombing continued and a Serb government headquarters building in
Novi Sad was badly damaged. An estimated 500,000 to 850,000 ethnic
Albanians remained were still inside Kosovo.
(SFC, 4/20/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/20/99, A1)
1999 Apr 19, In Hallac 20
Albanian men were killed by Serb paramilitaries. 11 were shot in a
vacant lot and 9 were killed in their homes. They were buried in a
mass grave and later reburied individually just before NATO forces
moved into Kosovo.
(SFC, 6/14/99, p.A12)
1999 Apr 22, An early morning
missile hit the home of Pres. Milosevic at 15 Uzicke St. in
Belgrade. NATO bombs also hit the Serbian TV station in Belgrade and
killed 15-16 people. Russian envoy Viktor Chernomyrdin after meeting
with Pres. Milosevic in Belgrade said Milosevic would accept an
int'l. presence in Kosovo.
(SFC, 4/23/99, p.A1,18)(USAT, 4/23/99, p.1A)(SFC,
1999 Apr 23, Yugoslav Foreign
Minister Zivadin Jovanovic ruled out allowing armed foreign soldiers
to enforce a peace agreement in Kosovo.
(SFC, 4/24/99, p.A12)
1999 Apr 26, Pres. Milosevic
met with Red Cross Pres. Cornelio Sommuraga and said the Red Cross
may return to Kosovo and "go anywhere." Sommuraga met briefly with
the 3 captive Americans and said they were ok.
(SFC, 4/27/99, p.A1,6)
1999 Apr 30, NATO undertook
over 600 sorties and strikes in Montenegro and Kosovo reportedly
killed 13 people.
(SFC, 5/1/99, p.A1)
1999 May 1, A NATO strike on a
bridge in Kosovo, 12 miles north of Pristina, hit a civilian bus and
killed between 34 and 60 people including 15 children.
(SFEC, 5/2/99, p.A17)
1999 May 3, Pres. Clinton said
that he would support a bombing pause if he was convinced that the
Yugoslav crackdown on Kosovo guerrillas and civilians was ending and
that Serbian forces were being withdrawn.
(SFC, 5/4/99, p.A1)
1999 May 5, Western allies and
Russia outlined an accord for "an international civil and security
presence" in Kosovo under a UN mandate following the withdrawal of
(SFC, 5/6/99, p.A1)
1999 May 5, NATO strategists
were reported to have a plan to send 60,000 ground troops into
Kosovo around July to take the province from retreating Serbs. Their
original plan called for 28,000 soldiers to supervise an interim
(WSJ, 5/5/99, p.A3)(SFC, 5/6/99, p.A12)
1999 May 6, Russia joined NATO
to back a framework for ending the conflict in Kosovo that included
an international security presence to enforce peace.
(SFC, 5/7/99, p.A1)
1999 May 9, NATO struck
artillery and mortar positions along with armored vehicles and
Serbian troops in Kosovo.
(SFC, 5/10/99, p.A8)
1999 May 9, Rexhep Emerllahu
(27), an ethnic Albanian, was killed in Gnjilane, Kosovo. In 2000
Milos Jokic (21), a Serb student, was sentenced to 20 years in
prison for the killing of Emerllahu and for ordering the killing of
another Albanian and raping an Albanian woman.
(SFC, 9/21/00, p.C4)
1999 May 10, The Yugoslav army
announced that it had completed its operations against the KLA and
had begun a partial withdrawal from Kosovo.
(SFC, 5/11/99, p.A1)
1999 May 10, A US State Dept.
report, "Erasing History: Ethnic Cleansing in Kosovo," based on
refugee accounts suggested that Serbian forces had killed over 4,000
(SFC, 5/11/99, p.A10)
1999 May 10, In Belgrade the
government claimed that the refugees coming out of Kosovo in the 1st
ten days of the war were 3000-4000 ethnic Albanians paid by the US
and NATO to march in a circle from Macedonia to Albania and
Montenegro and back to Kosovo. Belgrade also opened a legal
offensive and asked the World Court to stop NATO air attacks.
(SFC, 5/11/99, p.A10)
1999 May 13, NATO bombs struck
a group of some 500 refugees in Korisa (Kosovo) and at least 79
people were killed. Some 700 hundreds refugees had been locked up by
the Serbs inside the grounds of a warehouse in Korisa.
(SFC, 5/15/99, p.A1)(SFC, 5/31/99, p.A8)
1999 May 14, In Kosovo
paramilitary fighters looted homes and killed 41 ethnic Albanian
civilians in the village of Cuska. In 2002 Fred Abrahams and Eric
Stover authored “A Village Destroyed, May 14, 1999: War Crimes in
Kosovo." In 2010 9 men, suspected in the killings in Cuska, were
detained and indicted by Serbian police.
1999 Jun 26, In southern Serbia
3 Albanian-American brothers Illy, Mehmet and Agron Bytyqi, strayed
outside of Kosovo's unmarked boundary and were arrested. They spent
15 days in a Serb jail for illegally crossing the border. Upon their
release they were taken by two Serb policemen to a training camp in
eastern Serbia, where they were summarily executed. In 2001 their
bodies were found bound and blindfolded in a trash-filled mass grave
near the training camp’s fence with bullet holes in the back of
their heads. They had left their New York pizza business in 1999 to
join Kosovo rebels fighting for secession from Serbia. In 2009 a
Serbian war crimes court acquitted two former Serb policemen of
collaborating in the execution-style slaying. In 2018 the US linked
former Serbian police commander Goran Radosavljevic to their murder
and banned him and his family from entering the United States.
(AP, 6/11/09)(AP, 9/22/09)(AP, 12/19/18)
1999 Hashim Thaci, later prime
minister of Kosovo, led a group of guerrillas. In 2010 they were
accused of killing Serb and other prisoners in Albania for their
kidneys. Thaci was also accused of being involved in the region’s
(Econ, 12/18/10, p.100)
1999 NATO acknowledged in 2000
that depleted uranium rounds were used during the 1999 Kosovo war
whenever American A-10 ground attack aircraft engaged armored
(SFC, 3/22/00, p.A14)
1999 In 2008 Carla Del Ponte,
former chief prosecutor at The Hague, alleged in a book that some
100-300 Kosovo Serbs were kidnapped this year and taken to Albania
to have their organs harvested. UN investigators found no
substantial evidence to support claims that ethnic Albanian
guerrillas killed dozens of Serbs in Kosovo and sold their organs.
(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/14/08, p.A13)(AP,
1999 The corn borer moth,
native to Central and North America, first appeared in Europe in
Kosovo. Since then it spread in concentric circles and by 2011 was
eating maize crops in Germany and Italy.
(Econ, 2/26/11, SR p.10)
2000 Jan 7, In Kosovo 2 Serbian
women were killed by an ethnic Albanian gang in Prizren. Attacks in
the last 2 days had left 4 Serb men wounded and 1 dead.
(SFC, 1/8/00, p.A10)
2000 Jan 13, Serbian
authorities charged 144 jailed ethnic Albanians with terrorism in
Kosovo during 1999.
(SFC, 1/14/00, p.D2)
2000 Jan 13, In Vitina, Kosovo,
Merita Shabiu, an 11-year-old Albanian girl, was raped and murdered.
On Jan 16 American soldier, Staff Sgt. Frank J. Ronghi (35), was
charged for the rape and murder. Ronghi later confessed and was
sentenced to life in prison.
(SFC, 1/17/00, p.A10)(WSJ, 1/17/00, p.A1)(SFC,
1/24/00, p.A9)(SFC, 8/2/00, p.A14)
2000 Jan 16, In Kosovo an
American soldier, Staff Sgt. Frank J. Ronghi (35), was charged with
the rape and murder of an 11-year-old Albanian girl.
(SFC, 1/17/00, p.A10)(WSJ, 1/17/00, p.A1)
2000 Jan 26, In Serbia police
killed 2 ethnic Albanian brothers on the southern border known as
(SFEC, 3/5/00, p.A25)
2000 Feb 2, In Kosovo a rocket
attack on a NATO escorted bus filled with Serb civilians killed 2
villagers and wounded 3.
(SFC, 2/3/00, p.A12)(WSJ, 2/3/00, p.A1)
2000 Feb 3, In Kosovo violence
broke out in Mitrovica with 2 grenade attacks that left 20 people
wounded and shootings that left 3 ethnic Albanians dead. The number
of deaths were later increased to 7.
(SFC, 2/4/00, p.D5)(SFEC, 2/6/00, p.A26)
2000 Feb 5, In Kosovo 41
people, including 11 French soldiers, were injured in during a 2nd
day of clashes between peacekeepers and Albanians.
(SFEC, 2/6/00, p.A26)
2000 Feb 13, In Kosovo snipers
wounded 2 French peacekeepers who responded by later killing an
ethnic Albanian and wounding at least 4 others. Serbs had earlier
thrown a grenade into a crowd of ethnic Albanians in Mitrovica.
(SFC, 2/14/00, p.A12)
2000 Feb 20, In Mitrovica,
Kosovo, angry Serbs pelted US troops in the northern district during
a citywide search for weapons.
(SFC, 2/21/00, p.A10)
2000 Feb 21, In Mitrovica,
Kosovo, some 10-25,000 ethnic Albanians clashed with NATO-led
troops, who kept them from crossing to the Serb section of town.
(SFC, 2/22/00, p.A8)(WSJ, 2/22/00, p.A1)
2000 Feb 27, In Serbia growing
numbers of Albanians had fled the southern towns of Presevo,
Bujanova and Medveda and crossed over to Kosovo as Yugoslav police
conducted aggressive searches for Albanian separatists. Belgrade
believed that the 480-sq. mile region planned to break away to join
(SFC, 2/28/00, p.A10)
2000 Mar 2, In Kosovo French
peacekeepers forced their way through Serb protestors to return 41
Albanians to their homes across the Ibar River.
(SFC, 3/4/00, p.A10)
2000 Mar 7, In Kosovo 24
civilians and 16 French peacekeepers were wounded in a street battle
that escalated from a fight between a Serb and Albanian in
(WSJ, 3/8/00, p.A1)
2000 Mar 15, In Kosovo US
troops raided 5 locations in southeastern Kosovo and seized large
quantities of arms and ammunition from militant Albanians.
(SFC, 3/16/00, p.A16)
2000 Mar 21, NATO acknowledged
that depleted uranium rounds were used during the 1999 Kosovo war
whenever American A-10 ground attack aircraft engaged armored
(SFC, 3/22/00, p.A14)
2000 May 22, In Yugoslavia a
Serbian court convicted 143 ethnic Albanians from Djakovica, Kosovo,
on terrorism charges for attacks against Serbian police during 1999
(SFC, 5/23/00, p.A14)
2000 May 28, In Kosovo,
Yugoslavia, an attacker shot and killed a 4-year-old Serb boy and 2
men in Cermica.
(SFC, 5/30/00, p.A14)
2000 Jun 1, In Kosovo Albanians
killed a woman and wounded 3 men when they opened fire on a group of
Serbs in the US zone.
(WSJ, 6/2/00, p.A1)
2000 Jun 2, In Kosovo 2 Serb
villagers were killed when their vehicle drove over a land mine near
Pristina. A mother and her 2 children were injured.
(SFC, 6/3/00, p.A12)
2000 Jun 15, In Kosovo 2 Serbs
were killed and another wounded when their vehicle ran over a land
mine. NATO peacekeepers raided an ethnic Albanian stronghold in
Drenica and seized a large quantity of weapons and ammunition. Halil
Dreshaj, a member of the Democratic League of Kosovo, was shot and
killed by masked men wearing uniforms of the disbanded KLA.
(SFC, 6/15/00, p.A19)(SFC, 6/17/00, p.A10)
2000 Jul 10, In Kosovo an
Albanian boy (5) was killed when an American soldier’s rifle
(SFC, 7/11/00, p.A14)
2000 Aug 1, A US military court
in Germany sentenced Army Staff Sergeant Frank Ronghi to life in
prison without parole for sexually assaulting and killing Merita
Shabiu, an eleven-year-old ethnic Albanian girl, while on
peacekeeping duty in Kosovo.
2000 Aug 1, Two Britons and 2
Canadians were arrested in northern Montenegro while driving to
Kosovo on suspicion of spying and terrorism.
(SFC, 8/8/00, p.A12)
2000 Aug 14, NATO peacekeepers
shut down the Serb-run Trepca smelter at Zvecan, Kosovo, due to
(SFC, 8/15/00, p.A12)
2000 Oct 23, The Int’l.
Commission on Kosovo recommended that Kosovo become a separate state
when the safety of its minorities can be guaranteed.
(SFC, 10/24/00, p.A16)
2000 Oct 28, In Kosovo
municipal elections were held. Ibrahim Rugova declared victory for
his League for a Democratic Kosovo and won 21 of 27 contested
(SFEC, 10/29/00, p.A17)(SFC, 10/29/00, p.A1)(SFC,
2000 Nov 9, In Kosovo 4 Gypsies
were killed in an ambush.
(WSJ, 11/10/00, p.A1)
2000 Nov 22, In Serbia ethnic
Albanians were blamed for police assaults in the Presevo Valley and
4 officers were reported killed over 2 days as rebel fighters moved
in from Kosovo.
(SFC, 11/23/00, p.D8)
2000 Nov 23, In Kosovo Xhemail
Mustafa (46), pacifist advisor to Ibrahim Rugova, was shot dead by 2
gunmen in Pristina.
(SFC, 11/24/00, p.A20)
2000 Nov 24, In Serbia police
gave NATO a 72-hour deadline to stop incursions from Kosovo by
ethnic Albanian militants.
(SFC, 11/25/00, p.A15)
2001 Mar 4, Macedonia sealed
its border with Kosovo after 3 soldiers were killed in heavy
fighting with ethnic Albanian rebels, led by Ali Ahmeti. Up to
200 people were killed during the seven-month conflict with
Macedonian armed forces.
(WSJ, 3/5/01, p.A1)(Econ, 4/14/12, p.62)(AFP,
2005 In Kosovo PM Haradinaj
resigned after 100 days into his first term after being indicted by
the UN war crimes tribunal in The Hague.
(Econ, 7/27/19, p.43)
2006 Jan 19, In northeastern
Hungary a Slovak military plane crashed as it ferried troops back
from Kosovo, killing at least 42 people. Only one person survived
the crash of the AN-24 aircraft.
2006 Jan 21, Kosovo President
Ibrahim Rugova (61), the ethnic Albanian leader and embodiment of
the province's decades-long struggle for independence from Serbia,
died of lung cancer.
(AP, 1/21/06)(Econ, 1/28/06, p.84)
2006 Jan 31, UN
Secretary-General Kofi Annan offered a grim assessment of Kosovo's
progress toward stability, saying in a report that the region had
fallen behind in efforts to create a multiethnic and democratic
2006 Feb 6, John Sawyers,
political director of the British foreign office, told a group of
Kosovo Serbs that the contact group of 5 western countries had
decided that Kosovo should have independence.
(Econ, 2/18/06, p.50)
2006 Feb 10, Kosovo lawmakers
elected Fatmir Sejdiu (54), a moderate new president, paving the way
for the start of talks on the province's future status.
2006 Feb 20, UN mediated talks
on the future status of Kosovo opened in Vienna as Serbs and ethnic
Albanians staked out tough positions. The talks produced no
agreement and were scheduled to resume in a month.
2006 Mar 1, Kosovo PM Bajram
Kosumi resigned, days after the start of crucial talks on whether
the province will gain full independence or remain part of Serbia.
2006 Mar 2, Kosovo's president,
Fatmir Sejdiu, issued a statement calling on Lt. Gen. Agim Ceku
(44), a former leader of the now disbanded Kosovo Liberation Army,
to become prime minister and form a new government.
2006 Mar 10, Kosovo's
parliament elected Agim Ceku (45), a former ethnic Albanian
guerrilla commander, as the new PM. Ceku said that anything short of
independence from Serbia was "out of the question," but emphasized
after his election that respect for the province's Serb minority
would be a priority for his government. Ceku became the Kosovo
Liberation Army (KLA) chief-of-staff during the 1998-1999 war with
2006 Mar 17, In Vienna,
Austria, ethnic Albanian and Serbian officials laid out their
demands at UN-mediated talks on the future of Kosovo, one of the
most intractable disputes left over from the disintegration of
2006 Mar 29, Serbs in northern
Kosovo warned the UN that the province would split in two if the
Albanian majority clinches independence in talks this year.
2006 Apr 3, Negotiations in
Vienna on the future of Kosovo appeared to founder as UN mediators
struggled to overcome Serb demands for autonomy within the majority
2006 Apr 14, Mahmut Bakalli
(70), Kosovo's communist-era leader, died of throat cancer. He lead
the disputed province's communists in the late 1970s and early
1980s, stepping down following disagreements with the central body
of the Yugoslav Communist Party over the handling of unrest by
ethnic Albanian students.
2006 Apr 3, Negotiations in
Vienna on the future of Kosovo appeared to founder as UN mediators
struggled to overcome Serb demands for autonomy within the majority
2006 Jul 24, Kosovo formally
made its pitch for independence in Vienna, Austria, face-to-face
with Serbia at their 1st top-level talks since NATO bombs drove Serb
forces from the province in 1999.
2006 Jul 31, Serbia’s PM
Vojislav Kostunica said in published remarks that Serbia will reject
independence as a solution for Kosovo and continue to consider the
province part of its territory.
2006 Sep 12, Serbia toughened
its stand on Kosovo as parliament decided that a planned new
constitution would refer to the disputed province as an "integral"
part of Serbia, regardless of U.N.-led negotiations on whether to
grant it independence.
2006 Sep 30, Serbia's
parliament approved a new constitution declaring UN-run Kosovo part
of the Balkan state despite ongoing negotiations on the breakaway
2006 Oct 29, Serbia flirted
with political crisis as a referendum to approve its first
constitution since the socialist era of Slobodan Milosevic hovered
on the brink of failure because of voter apathy. Serbia's top
leaders said that voters approved a new constitution reasserting
Serbia's claim over the UN-administered Kosovo province in a turnout
estimated at 53.3%. Serbia's opposition Liberal Party charged there
was "massive fraud" at polling stations in the final hours of
voting, with people allegedly voting several times and without
(AP, 10/29/06)(AP, 10/30/06)(SFC, 10/30/06,
2006 Nov 8, Serbia's parliament
formally adopted a new constitution reasserting Serbia's claim over
Kosovo and ruling out possible independence for the predominantly
ethnic Albanian province.
2006 Nov 10, The UN announced
it would postpone a decision on the future status of Serbia's
breakaway Kosovo province, hours after Serbia said it would hold an
early general election in January.
2006 Nov 28, Kosovo Albanians
fought UN police in a protest of a delay on a vote for independence
until after Serbian elections Jan 21.
(WSJ, 11/29/06, p.A1)
2006 Iain King and Whit Mason
authored “Peace at any Price: How the World Failed Kosovo." The book
analyzed NATO’s intervention in Kosovo since 1999.
(Econ, 9/23/06, p.94)
2006 The Gorani, a Kosovo
minority in the southern Gora region between Albania and Macedonia,
saw their population drop from about 18,000 at the beginning of the
war in Kosovo to some 8,000. The people were mainly Muslims and
spoke a language close to Serbian and Macedonian.
(Econ, 11/4/06, p.60)
2007 May, UN police detained
James Wasserstrom in at his home in Greece. He had been working for
Unmik, the UN Mission in Kosovo. He had raised concerns over links
between UN officials and a local utility company. He also hired by
Kosovo to fight corruption. In 2012 the UN Ethics office ruled that
his maltreatment was “perhaps excessive."
(Econ, 6/30/12, p.64)
2008 Jan 9, Hashim Thaci (39),
a former rebel leader, was elected Kosovo's prime minister, vowing
that the province is only weeks away from independence and calling
on Serbia to give up its claim to the territory.
2008 Feb 17, Kosovo declared
itself a nation, mounting a historic bid to become an "independent
and democratic state" backed by the US and key European allies but
bitterly contested by Serbia and Russia. Kosovo’s parliament
approved a new flag, a blue background with a yellow map of the
Connecticut-sized province. Russia denounced Kosovo's independence
declaration and called for an emergency meeting of the UN Security
Council, underlining its opposition.
(AP, 2/17/08)(SFC, 2/18/08, p.A13)
2008 Feb 18, Kosovo's leaders
sent letters to 192 countries seeking formal recognition of
independence, and suspense gripped the province as its citizens
awaited key backing from the US and key European powers.
2008 Feb 18, President Bush
hailed Kosovo's bold and historic bid for statehood, saying "The
Kosovars are now independent."
2008 Feb 19, Serbs set off
sporadic explosions and torched checkpoints between Serbia and
Kosovo to protest Kosovo's declaration of independence and
international recognition of the new nation.
2008 Feb 21, In Serbia
protesters, outraged at US support for Kosovo, stormed the US
Embassy in Belgrade and set part of it on fire. Zoran Vujovic (21)
died in the fire and 150 people were injured. Police arrested almost
200 rioters involved in the protests.
(SSFC, 2/24/08, p.A4)(WSJ, 2/25/08, p.A1)
2008 Feb 22, Serbs protesting
Kosovo's independence for a fifth straight day Friday attacked UN
police guarding a key bridge in northern Kosovo with stones, glass
bottles and firecrackers.
2008 Feb 23, In northern Kosovo
up to 2,000 Serb protesters chanting "Kosovo is Serbia!" marched
through Kosovska Mitrovica, an ethnically divided town, in a sixth
day of demonstrations against Kosovo's declaration of independence.
(AP, 2/23/08)(SFC, 2/23/08, p.A3)
2008 Feb 25, Up to 2,000 Serb
protesters rallied against Kosovo's independence in the new nation's
tense north, a few setting fire to EU flags in what has become a
daily challenge following the country's secession from Serbia.
2008 Feb 29, Hundreds of Serb
police in Kosovo vowed not to follow the orders of the
Albanian-dominated force after the territory split from Serbia.
2008 Mar 11, Serbia and Russia
demanded that the UN administration in Kosovo halt the transfer of
authority to the European Union, calling a handover illegal and
declaring they will never recognize the independence of the Serb
2008 Mar 14, Hundreds of Serbs
stormed a UN courthouse in northern Kosovo, took control of the
site, and raised a Serbian flag.
(WSJ, 3/15/08, p.A1)
2008 Mar 17, UN forces pulling
Serb demonstrators from a UN courthouse were attacked by hundreds of
furious protesters who massed outside, setting off an hours-long
battle with rocks, grenades and live ammunition. One UN policeman
(AP, 3/17/08)(WSJ, 3/19/08, p.A1)
2008 Mar 18, Canada formally
recognized the breakaway republic of Kosovo, a decision Serbia said
was a major mistake that could encourage separatists in the province
2008 Mar 19, Kosovo
independence was recognized by Bulgaria, Croatia and Hungary.
(WSJ, 3/20/08, p.A1)
2008 Mar 22, The population of
Kosovo was about 2 million, with about 90% ethnic Albanian.
(Econ, 3/22/08, p.60)
2008 Mar 23, Serbian PM
Vojislav Kostunica accused NATO peacekeepers and UN police of using
"snipers and banned ammunition" to quell a Serb riot against
2008 Apr 2, Russia's foreign
minister said that Moscow will not allow newly independent Kosovo to
become a member of the UN.
2008 Apr 3, The UN tribunal in
The Hague, Netherlands, ruled that there was not enough evidence to
convict former Kosovo PM Ramush Haradinaj of murder, torture and
rape of Serbs and non-Albanians during the Kosovo war.
2008 Apr 7, Kosovo’s leaders
signed the country’s new Constitution.
(SFC, 4/8/08, p.A3)
2008 May 11, A divided Serbia
voted in a parliamentary election that gave its people the stark
choice of entering or rebuffing the EU after the trauma of losing
Kosovo. Voting went ahead in Kosovo despite opposition from the UN
and Kosovo Albanians, who see the polls as an illegal attempt by
Serbia to partition the breakaway territory.
2008 Jun 12, UN
Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon told Kosovo's leaders he intends to
reshape the UN mission there to allow the EU to take on key tasks,
according to a letter in the letter to Kosovo President Fatmir
Sejdiu. Russia demanded disciplinary action against the head of the
UN mission in Kosovo for preparing to hand over powers to a EU
mission that Moscow says is illegal.
2008 Jun 15, Kosovo's
government took control of the newly independent nation as the
country's constitution went into force after nine years of UN
2008 Jul 11, International
donors pledged more than half of the euro1.5 billion ($2.36 billion)
in aid requested by Kosovo to build up its infrastructure and
2008 Oct 9, Montenegro and
Macedonia recognized Kosovo's independence, despite opposition from
Serbia, which called the moves by its Balkan neighbors a betrayal
and expelled the Montenegrin ambassador from Belgrade.
2008 Oct 30, A Swiss court
convicted 2 brothers from Kosovo of running a massive drug smuggling
ring that prosecutors said supplied Western Europe with up to half
of its heroin. Ragip and Kemal Shabani channeled 1.5 tons of heroin
through Europe from the mid-1990s until 2003, when they were shut
2008 Nov 1, Malaysia defended
its recognition of Kosovo as an independent state, a move that
caused Serbia to expel the Southeast Asian nation's ambassador.
2008 Nov 26, The UN Security
Council approved the deployment of a EU mission (Eulex) throughout
Kosovo under the UN umbrella.
(AP, 11/26/08)(Econ, 11/15/14, p.55)
2008 Dec 23, Kosovo threatened
to ban products coming from Serbia if Belgrade does not reverse its
policy of blocking goods that carry a customs stamp from its former
2008 Dec 26, Serbia arrested 10
former Kosovo Albanian guerrilla fighters suspected of involvement
in killings and abductions in the former Serbian province of Kosovo
2009 Jan 21, Kosovo armed
forces took over security duties, less than a year after the
territory declared independence and in the face of strong protests
2009 Feb 17, Kosovo celebrated
the first anniversary of its unilateral declaration of independence
from Serbia. Thus far it was recognized by only 54 of the UN’s 192
countries. Five of the EU’s 27 countries so far refused recognition.
(Econ, 2/14/09, p.16)
2009 Apr 27, In Kosovo Serbs
protesting the building of homes for ethnic Albanians in northern
Kosovo threw two hand grenades and fired gunshots at European Union
police officers, who responded with tear gas and stun grenades to
drive the crowd away.
2009 Jun 23, Bulgarian
authorities detained Agim Ceku (59), a former Kosovo prime minister
(2006-2008), on an international arrest warrant issued by Interpol
at Serbia's request. He is wanted for war crimes allegedly committed
during the 1998-1999 war when he was military chief of the Kosovo
Liberation Army, made up of ethnic Albanian guerrillas.
2009 Jun 26, Serbian
prosecutors filed war crimes charges against 17 former Kosovo
guerrillas for the alleged murder, rape and torture of Serb
civilians. The suspects were charged in connection with the
kidnapping of 159 Serbs and the deaths of at least 51 of them in the
eastern Kosovo town of Gnjilane in the wake of Kosovo's 1998-99 war.
2009 Jun 29, Kosovo, a former
province of Serbia, became the 186th member of the International
Monetary Fund and the World Bank. The ceremony was held in
Washington, DC, because the US government is the repository for the
1944 Bretton Woods agreement that created the post-World War II
international financial system.
2009 Sep 23, Four Serbs were
arrested in Novo Brdo, Kosovo, 20 miles east of Pristina, under
suspicion of committing war crimes against Albanian civilians during
the 1998-1999 Kosovo war.
(SFC, 9/24/09, p.A2)
2009 Oct 16, Kosovo's
authorities said they have demarcated a disputed border with
Macedonia, a scene of tensions in the past.
2009 Nov 1, In Kosovo thousands
of ethnic Albanians braved low temperatures and a cold wind in the
capital Pristina to welcome former President Bill Clinton as he
attended the unveiling of an 11-foot (3.5-meter) statue of himself
on a key boulevard that also bears his name.
2009 Nov 15, Kosovo held its
first elections since independence from Serbia, with some minority
Serbs ignoring a call to boycott and casting ballots alongside
ethnic Albanians. The voting ended peacefully, with the prime
minister claiming his party won convincingly.
2009 Dec 1, Kosovo told the
UN's highest court that its independence is irreversible and warned
that any attempt to cancel it could set off a renewed conflict.
2010 Mar 7, NATO said it is
suspending the training of Kosovo's security troops after a
military-style parade that broke the force's agreement to focus only
on civil emergencies. An armed honor guard had appeared at a parade
on March 5 marking the 12th anniversary of the killing of the leader
of the Kosovo Liberation Army.
2010 Mar 12, Serbian police
detained nine former paramilitary fighters suspected of killing
civilians and looting homes during the Kosovo war. The nine were
accused of killing 41 ethnic Albanian civilians in the village of
Cuska in May 1999.
2010 May 10, Serbian war crimes
prosecutors said a mass grave has been discovered in Serbia believed
to contain the bodies of 250 ethnic Albanians who were killed in
Kosovo during the 1998-99 Serbian crackdown on separatists.
(AP, 5/10/10)(SFC, 5/11/10, p.A2)
2010 May 30, In Kosovo riot
police used tear gas and pepper spray to separate hundreds of ethnic
Albanian protesters and Serbs voting in local Serbian elections in
the tensely divided town of Mitrovica.
2010 Jun 17, In Kosovo Bajram
Asllani (29) of Mitrovica was arrested and accused of being part of
a terrorism plot that originated in North Carolina among people who
planned attacks both at a US military installation and abroad.
2010 Jul 2, In Kosovo an
explosion tore through a Serb protest in Mitrovica fatally injuring
one man and leaving 11 others with shrapnel wounds.
(SFC, 7/2/10, p.A2)
2010 Jul 5, In Kosovo a gunman
wounded legislator Petar Miletic (35), a Serb member of Kosovo’s
parliament, as he walked out of his home in Mitrovica.
(SFC, 7/6/10, p.A2)
2010 Jul 21, The Yugoslav war
crimes tribunal ruled that Kosovo's former prime minister must be
retried on murder and torture charges related to the country's
1998-99 war with Serbia, calling his acquittal two years ago "a
miscarriage of justice." Tribunal President Patrick Robinson said
the original trial for Ramush Haradinaj and two former Kosovo
Liberation Army comrades was marred by intimidation that left two
prosecution witnesses too scared to testify.
2010 Jul 22, The UN's highest
court said that Kosovo's declaration of independence from Serbia in
2008 did not break international law.
2010 Jul 23, EU police
investigating corruption arrested Hashim Rexhepi, Kosovo’s central
2010 Jul 27, Serb lawmakers
passed a resolution vowing that their country will never recognize
Kosovo as an independent state, despite a UN court ruling backing
the independence declaration by the former Serbian province.
2010 Sep 12, In Kosovo a French
Gendarme was shot and wounded during clashes between ethnic
Albanians and Serbs in the ethnically divided city of Mitrovica as
European Union police fired tear gas to disperse the violent crowd.
2010 Oct 3, Thousands of Serb
pilgrims gathered in a medieval monastery in western Kosovo amid
tight security to attend the enthronement ceremony of the new
Serbian Patriarch Irinej.
2010 Oct 26, Authorities in
Bosnia and Serbia said they had recovered the skeletal remains of at
least 97 people from the banks of a border lake that was partially
drained this summer for maintenance. Most were killed by Serbs in
the nearby town of Visegrad at the start of the 1992-1995 Bosnian
War. But on the Serbian side experts found the remains of what they
presume to be 11 Albanians killed during the Kosovo war in
2010 Nov 11, An EU indictment
revealed that at least 9 people, including former Kosovo senior
health ministry official Ilir Rrecaj, were suspected of involvement
in an international network that falsely promised poor people
payment for their kidneys and then sold the organs for as much as
euro100,000 ($137,000). Five Kosovo nationals, Turkish doctor Yusuf
Sonmez and Moshe Harel, an Israeli citizen, were listed as wanted by
(AP, 11/12/10)(SFC, 11/13/10, p.A2)
2010 Dec 12, Kosovars voted in
the first general poll since the country's declaration of
independence from Serbia in 2008, a critical election already marred
by ethnic tension that many fear will split the world's newest
country. Incumbent PM Hashim Thaci claimed victory with 31% of the
vote. The Democratic League of Kosovo trailed at 25%,
(AP, 12/12/10)(SFC, 12/13/10, p.A2)
2010 Dec 15, A Swiss prosecutor
wrote a report for the Council of Europe implicating Kosovo's PM
Hashim Thaci (b.1968) in drug smuggling and murder.
2010 Dec 20, Serbia urged
international authorities to investigate allegations of a trade in
the kidneys and other organs of civilians slain in the aftermath of
Kosovo's 1999 war for secession.
2010 Dec 22, Albania invited an
international investigation into claims it was linked with the
trafficking of organs from slain civilians during the war in
2010 Kosovo’s population was
about 2 million.
(SFC, 10/27/10, p.A2)
2011 Feb 23, The UN Yugoslav
war crimes tribunal in the Hague sentenced Vlastimir Djordjevic (62)
to 27 years in prison after pronouncing him guilty of murdering at
least 724 Kosovo Albanians, as well as committing inhumane acts,
persecution and deportations.
2011 Mar 2, In Germany a gunman
shot dead 2 US airmen at Frankfurt airport. The gunman was
identified as Arid Uka (21), a Kosovo national who was working on a
short-term contract at the Frankfurt international postal center.
The airmen were later identified as Senior Airman Nick Alden (25) of
South Carolina and Airman 1st Class Zachary R. Cuddeback (21) of
Virginia. On Feb 10, 2012, Uka was convicted and sentenced to life
(AP, 3/2/11)(Reuters, 3/3/11)(AP, 3/10/11)
2011 Mar 16, A senior Kosovo
politician and former rebel leader was indicted by an EU prosecutor
for allegedly executing and torturing Serb prisoners of war during
the 1998-99 war. Fatmir Limaj, a top former commander of the Kosovo
Liberation Army, was among 11 former rebels named in the indictment.
2011 Mar 30, Kosovo's
Constitutional Court said that the newly elected multimillionaire
businessman Behgjet Pacolli must step down from his post as
president because his election violated the country's constitution.
Pacolli said he would abide by the court's decision.
2011 Apr 7, Kosovo’s parliament
elected Atifete Jahjaga (35) as its first woman president.
2011 Jul 2, Kosovo and Serbia
agreed to a deal on recognizing car license plates, identity cards
and university diplomas.
(Econ, 7/9/11, p.50)
2011 Jul 25, Kosovo’s
government sent special police units to the Serb-inhabited north to
seize two border points which had been beyond its control since
(Econ, 8/6/11, p.43)
2011 Jul 26, Kosovo's special
police forces, that moved into the country's disputed north
overnight to extend the government's writ at borders with Serbia,
will withdraw as part of a deal between Kosovo and Serbia and
mediated by NATO.
2011 Jul 27, In Kosovo some 200
Serbs attacked police outposts on the border with Serbia, setting
one of them on fire and killing Kosovo policeman Enver Zymberi. As
the masked Serbs attacked, European Union police on the scene leaped
into their cars and fled the area. In late August EU special police
launched an operation related to a criminal investigation of the
(AP, 7/28/11)(AP, 8/31/11)
2011 Jul 28, In Kosovo American
and French peacekeepers under NATO took control of two customs posts
on the northern border with Serbia after they were attacked by Serbs
armed with firebombs.
2011 Jul 29, NATO forces in
Kosovo withdrew from a barricade put up by hundreds of Serbs on
Friday to avoid confrontation with Serb extremists blocking the
peacekeepers from reaching a base in the Serb-run north.
2011 Jul 31, Serbia's
parliament, after a heated 10-hour debate, passed a resolution
calling for a peaceful resolution of the nation's worst crisis with
Kosovo since the province declared independence three years go.
2011 Aug 1, NATO sent reserve
forces to Kosovo and removed roadblocks put up by Serbs in Kosovo's
north, but barricades still remain following a week of violence that
left one Kosovo policeman dead.
(AP, 8/1/11)(AP, 8/2/11)
2011 Sep 16, The EU said
helicopters are being used to ferry staff and supplies to border
crossings in the north after minority Serbs blocked main roads in
anger over Kosovo's efforts to take over customs posts. Both
northern crossings remained closed for commercial goods, but
Kosovo's trade minister Mimoza Kusari said Serbian goods started
entering Kosovo's eastern border with Serbia minutes after the EU
mission took over control.
2011 Sep 27, NATO troops shot
at Serb protesters after the military alliance's troops were
attacked near Kosovo's border with Serbia.
2011 Oct 11, Kosovo's foreign
minister said Kuwait has recognized Kosovo's 2008 declaration of
independence from Serbia.
2011 Oct 12, Serbia received
European Union notice for recommendation to become an official EU
candidate. The recommendation must formally be approved by the EU's
Council of Ministers on Dec 9. A date to begin formal accession
talks depended on the country and neighboring Kosovo to improve
(AP, 10/12/11)(AP, 10/15/11)
2011 Oct 19, Kosovo Serb
leaders, defying a NATO warning, refused to unconditionally lift
their roadblocks in the north of the country. A day earlier the
5,500-strong NATO-led force in Kosovo, known as KFOR, said it will
take unspecified "resolute" action if the Serbs fail to lift the
2011 Oct 20, Kosovo's NATO-led
peacekeepers confronted crowds of angry Serbs as they tried to
remove Serb roadblocks in the volatile north of the country.
2011 Oct 22, NATO-led
peacekeepers tried to remove roadblocks in northern Kosovo, but were
prevented by Serbs guarding the blockade that has paralyzed travel
in the tense region.
2011 Nov 11, Senior Kosovo
politician Fatmir Limaj, a former ethnic Albanian rebel commander,
and eight other defendants went on trial for allegedly torturing and
executing Serb prisoners during the 1998-99 Kosovo war.
2011 Nov 28, A German NATO
officer and a soldier were shot and wounded in a clash with Serb
protesters in northern Kosovo after the military alliance's troops
used heavy machinery to remove trucks and buses blocking a main road
in the tense region.
2011 Dec 2, Kosovo and Serbia
agreed on normalizing border procedures, one of the thorniest issues
in current talks between the two rivals. An EU statement said, "The
parties will gradually set up the joint, integrated, single and
secure posts at all their common crossing points."
2011 Dec 13, A convoy of 25
Russian trucks was stopped by US soldiers guarding the Kosovo border
with Serbia, increasing tensions in the volatile region.
Peacekeepers said the convoy's cargo consisting of canned food,
blankets, tents and power generators looked to be intended for those
manning the roadblocks, and not for the general Kosovo Serb
population. EU officials in Kosovo said the Russians can pass if
they allow an international police escort. Three EU police vehicles
escorted the convoy on Dec 16 after taking a roundabout way through
Serbia to bypass roadblocks.
(AP, 12/14/11)(AP, 12/17/11)
2012 Jan 24, Kosovo moved a
step closer to full control of its own affairs, with a multinational
organization announcing it will end its mandate this year pending
continued progress on democratization and human rights.
2012 Jan 24, A respected human
rights group, the Humanitarian Law Center, accused Serbia's new army
chief of staff, Gen. Ljubisa Dikovic, of war crimes against
civilians in Kosovo during the 1998-99 war, but officials denied the
2012 Feb 11, In Kosovo at least
nine members of one family died in an avalanche that hit the village
of Restelica near the border with Macedonia. Ansera Reka (5) was
pulled from the rubble of one house after being buried for over 10
2012 Feb 24, Serbia and its
one-time province of Kosovo reached agreement on two key issues that
will significantly enhance Serbia's chances of becoming an official
candidate for EU membership next week. The agreements allow Kosovo
to represent itself in international conferences and spell out the
technical details of how Serbia and Kosovo will manage their joint
borders and border crossings.
2012 Jun 1, In Kosovo NATO
peacekeepers exchanged fire with angry Serb protesters seeking to
prevent int’l. troops from removing roadblocks in the tense north.
(SFC, 6/2/12, p.A2)
2012 Sep 10, In Kosovo the
Int’l. Civilian Office (ICO) closed. It had helped keep Kosovo
stable since 2008.
(Economist, 9/15/12, p.51)
2012 Oct 19, The EU mediated
the first official talks between the leaders of Serbia and Kosovo,
the bitter Balkan rivals, and Serbian PM Ivica Dacic said he is
ready for a "historic compromise."
2012 Nov 29, A UN war crimes
tribunal acquitted Kosovo's former PM Ramush Haradinaj for the
second time of murdering and torturing Serbs and their supporters in
Kosovo's war for independence. PM Hashim Thaci said the ruling
vindicated the ethnic-Albanian guerrilla force that fought Serbia in
2012 Dec 9, Officials said 4
people have died in Croatia and 2 in Serbia as a result of blizzards
in southwestern Europe over the weekend. The death toll in the
region reached at least 9 people, with deaths in Bulgaria amd
Kosovo, as the cold snap continued through the week.
(AP, 12/9/12)(SFC, 12/15/12, p.A2)
2012 Dec 10, Traffic began
moving over border crossings between Kosovo and Serbia.
(Econ, 12/15/12, p.53)
2013 Jan 13, Serbia adopted a
set of guidelines for reconciliation talks with the leaders of
Kosovo, in a strong first signal it is loosening its claim to its
former province in hopes of getting closer to EU membership.
2013 Feb 5, Serbian
ultranationalists held a rally to accuse their country's president
of treason for agreeing to hold talks with the president of Kosovo.
2013 Feb 22, German authorities
returned 7 artifacts dating as far back as 4,000 BC to Kosovo after
police stumbled on them in an unrelated raid in 2005. The artifacts
date to the Neolithic period and are believed to belong to the
Vinca, a prehistoric culture that traces back to 5,500 BC in
2013 Mar 28, A Kosovo court
found three ethnic Serbs guilty of storming a UN-run court and
inciting riots that led to the death of a Ukrainian peacekeeper in
2008. Marijan Ilincic and Dragan Milojevic were sentenced to 22 and
18 months in prison, respectively. Zoran Cavic was convicted of
similar charges and given a 9-month sentence that was suspended for
one year. Three other defendants were cleared of all charges.
2013 Apr 6, The influential
Serbian Orthodox Church appealed against a deal with Kosovo
Albanians that would pave the way for Serbia's European Union
2013 Apr 8, Serbia rejected a
European Union-brokered deal for reconciliation with its former
province of Kosovo.
(SFC, 4/9/13, p.A2)
2013 Apr 19, Kosovo and Serbia
reached a potentially historic agreement to normalize relations
between the Balkan neighbors, end years of acrimony and put them
both on a solid path to EU membership.
2013 Apr 22, The Serbian
government approved a landmark agreement to normalize relations with
breakaway Kosovo, but thousands of Kosovo Serb demonstrators —
chanting "Treason, Treason" — rejected the deal.
2013 Apr 26, Serbian lawmakers
overwhelmingly supported an agreement normalizing relations with
2013 Apr 29, A Kosovo court
found two citizens guilty of human trafficking and organized crime
in a trial against 7 people suspected of running an int’l. organ
(SFC, 4/30/13, p.A2)
2013 May 5, Kosovo police in
Pristina arrested Naser Kelmendi (56), a suspected Balkan drugs
kingpin. He was wanted on an international arrest warrant and
blacklisted by US authorities. Bosnian authorities wanted him as
part of an investigation into at least six murders, illegal money
transfers and drug trafficking.
2013 Jun 27, Kosovo's
parliament approved an EU-brokered agreement on creating normal ties
with neighboring Serbia as protesters opposing the deal clashed with
riot police in Pristina.
2013 Jul 11, Kosovo adopted an
amnesty for minority Serbs who previously rebelled against the
government, a significant step in settling relations with former
master Serbia so both can move closer to the EU.
2013 Sep 9, Kosovo officials
said they have banned the import of all products from neighboring
Macedonia, in a tit-for-tat trade dispute that could cost Macedonian
producers one of their most lucrative markets. A day earlier Skopje
said it would impose fees on all Kosovo citizens entering Macedonia.
2013 Sep 10, Macedonian truck
drivers blocked the main border crossing with Kosovo in a deepening
trade row between the Balkan neighbors that hurt Macedonian
producers in one of their biggest markets.
2013 Sep 15, Goods from Kosovo
and Macedonia crossed their border, ending a trade dispute that
closed the frontier between the Balkan neighbors to goods and
vehicles for six days.
2013 Sep 19, In Kosovo gunmen
shot dead an EU police officer from Lithuania in a mainly Serb
region, dealing the mission its first fatality since deploying in
2008 and shaking a fragile accord between the Balkan country and its
former master Serbia.
2013 Oct 9, In France Leonarda
Dibrani, a 15-year-old Roma girl, was taken off a school bus and
deported with her family to Kosovo.
(Econ, 10/26/13, p.60)
2013 Oct 17, In France hundreds
of pupils blocked high schools in the Paris region and joined
protests after Leonarda Dibrani, a 15-year-old girl, was taken off a
school bus on Oct 9 and deported to Kosovo.
(AP, 10/16/13)(Reuters, 10/17/13)
2013 Nov 3, In Kosovo violence
and low turnout in elections underscored the deep divisions in the
territory and dealt a blow to Belgrade, which had sought to further
its EU membership bid by urging ethnic Serbs to vote peacefully.
2013 Nov 8, A European Union
prosecutor indicted 15 former ethnic Albanian rebels suspected of
torturing, mistreating and murdering civilians detained in central
Kosovo during the 1998-99 war against Serbia.
2013 Nov 17, In Kosovo NATO
soldiers and EU police secured polling stations in the flashpoint
town of Mitrovica for a re-run election central to a
Western-sponsored plan to end the country's ethnic partition.
2013 Dec 13, The European Union
Rule of Law Missio said a suspected mass grave has been discovered
at the Rudnica quarry in Serbia believed to contain bodies of ethnic
Albanians who were killed during the 1998-99 war between Serbia and
2014 Jan 28, A French court
barred the return to France of a Roma family including Leonarda
Dibrani, the teenage girl whose arrest in front of her schoolmates
and expulsion to Kosovo became a cause celebre.
2014 Feb 5, Uke Rugova, a
Kosovo lawmaker who is also a son of late President Ibrahim Rugova,
was arrested by European Union police and justice workers for
alleged involvement in organized crime and fraud.
2014 Apr 5, The European Union
said it plans to set up an international court in Kosovo to deal
with alleged crimes committed by ethnic-Albanian guerrillas during
the war with Serbia.
2014 Apr 23, Kosovo's
parliament approved an EU-backed special court to try ethnic
Albanian ex-guerrillas accused of harvesting organs from Serbs
captured in the 1998-99 Kosovo war.
2014 May 6, Leaders of Kosovo's
main parties agreed to dissolve parliament this week and hold an
early election on June 8 after Serb minority lawmakers nixed a vote
on creating a national army by failing to show up.
2014 May 7, Kosovo deputies
voted 90-4 to dissolve Parliament, meaning elections must take place
within 45 days. The next day President Atifete Jahjaga set June 8
for the elections.
(AP, 5/7/14)(AP, 5/8/14)
2014 Jun 6, In Kosovo a huge
explosion rocked the country’s main power plant in Pristina, causing
casualties and damaging nearby houses.
2014 Jun 8, Kosovo's citizens
voted in an early parliamentary election with former PM Hashim Thaci
bidding for a third term. The ruling party of ex-guerrilla leader
Hashim Thaci won 31% of the votes. The result did not give Thaci
enough seats to form his third successive government alone.
(AP, 6/8/14)(Reuters, 6/9/14)
2014 Jun 15, In Kosovo
parliamentary candidate Elvis Pista, from the party of PM Hashim
Thaci, was shot dead one week after an inconclusive general election
in the tiny Balkan nation.
2014 Jun 22, In Kosovo special
EU police backed by NATO fired tear gas and rubber bullets at ethnic
Albanian rioters burning police cars and lobbing rocks in the
ethnically-divided town of Mitrovica, in protest over the blockage
of the main bridge by ethnic Serbs.
2014 Aug 11, Kosovo police
arrested at least 40 people in a major operation targeting Islamic
radicals suspected of fighting alongside extremists in Iraq and
Syria. Police in Kosovo say at least 16 Kosovars who joined the
militant group as volunteers have been killed in battles with Syrian
and Iraqi authorities.
2014 Sep 17, In Kosovo at least
nine imams were among 15 people arrested in the second major
operation in weeks to try to stem the flow of young ethnic Albanians
joining Islamist fighters in Iraq and Syria.
2014 Oct 9, In Kosovo nine
health officials and doctors were arrested under an investigation
into private clinics suspected of offering bribes to receive heart
2014 Oct 23, A Kosovo foreign
minister traveled to Serbia for the first time since Kosovo declared
independence in 2008. Enver Hoxhaj urged Serbia to recognize Kosovo
(AP, 10/23/14)(Reuters, 10/23/14)
2014 Nov 19, Kosovo’s Pres.
Jahjaga said PM Hashim Thaci’s Democratic Party and Isa Mustafa’s
Democratic League have pledged to form a coalition government,
ending five months of political fighting.
(SFC, 11/20/14, p.A2)
2014 Dec 2, Kosovo authorities
destroyed more than 2,000 small arms and rifles as part of an
ongoing effort to increase security in the Balkan country.
2015 Jan 16, In Montenegro
hundreds of Serb nationalists demonstrated against a visit by Kosovo
Foreign Minister Hashim Thaci, chanting "Kill! Kill!" as he met with
his counterpart Igor Luiksic. Serb nationalists accuse Thaci, a
former ethnic Albanian rebel leader, of war crimes against Kosovo
Serbs during the 1998-99 war for independence.
2015 Jan 21, In Kosovo over 400
employees went on strike inside the Trepca mine demanding the
government takes over the administration of the Yugoslav-era giant
complex to stop it from liquidation. A day earlier Kosovo's assembly
amended a law on public enterprises which enabled it to delayed
resolving the issue for another 18 months.
2015 Jan 27, Kosovo police
fired volleys of tear gas and used water cannons to disperse
thousands of stone-throwing anti-government protesters demanding the
resignation of Serbian minister Aleksandar Jablanovic, who has
denied that war crimes were committed against ethnic Albanians
during the 1998-99 war with Serbia.
2015 Apr 7, Albania’s PM Edi
Rama said the unification of Albania and Serbia's majority-Albanian
former province of Kosovo is "inevitable", whether it happens
through membership of the EU or not. The suggestion was denounced in
2015 Apr 21, In Macedonia a
group of about 40 people wearing uniforms of the disbanded Kosovo
Liberation Army, or UCK, attacked a police watchtower in Gosince on
the country's northern border with Kosovo. Four police officers were
released after 30 minutes.
2015 May 11, A Macedonian
prosecutor said that 18 citizens of Kosovo were among 30 men charged
over a weekend shootout in Macedonia that left 22 people dead,
including 8 policemen.
2015 May 27, In Kosovo EU
judges sentenced 11 former Kosovo Albanian guerrillas, two of them
close to ex-prime minister Hashim Thaci, to prison terms for war
crimes committed during Kosovo's 1998-99 pro-independence uprising.
2015 Jun 17, Slovenian police
confirmed that former Kosovo PM Ramush Haradinaj (2004-2005), a
guerrilla commander during the 1998-99 Kosovo war, has been detained
by the Slovenian police on a 2006 Serbian arrest warrant.
2015 Aug 4, Kosovo lawmakers
approved a law overnight to set up a special war crimes court paving
the way for indictments to be filed against top wartime leaders and
current politicians. A day earlier the assembly amended the
constitution so that the court could be created.
2015 Aug 4, Kosovo police said
they have arrested three people suspected of committing cyber
crimes, following a joint investigation with the US Federal Bureau
2015 Aug 25, Kosovo and Serbia
reached the agreement brokered in Brussels by EU foreign policy
chief Federica Mogherini on four areas including energy and
2015 Oct 8, In Kosovo
opposition lawmakers disrupted Parliament's session, using tear gas
and whistles to protest the government's recent EU-sponsored deal
with Serbia giving the country's Serb-majority areas greater powers.
2015 Oct 15, Kosovo opposition
lawmakers angry at recent deals with Serbia and Montenegro set off
tear gas canisters in Parliament, forcing the suspension of the
2015 Oct 27, Kosovo took a step
towards possible European Union membership, signing a trade and
political pact with Brussels less than a decade after unilaterally
declaring independence from Serbia.
2015 Nov 2, Kosovo's Parliament
voted overwhelmingly to ratify a stabilization and association
agreement with the EU, considered a milestone for its economic
growth. The opposition boycotted the voting.
2015 Nov 9, Members of the UN
cultural agency narrowly rejected Kosovo's bid for membership, in a
victory for Serbia and Russia and a blow to Kosovo's mission for
global recognition as a state.
2015 Nov 17, Kosovo's
opposition used tear gas and pepper spray inside parliament and
pelted police with rocks and pink paint outside the building in
another attempt to force the government to renounce recent deals
with Serbia and Montenegro.
2015 Nov 28, In Kosovo some 35
thousand opposition supporters held a protest against the deals with
Serbia and Montenegro — a peaceful one in contrast to recent
disruption of parliament. Opposition leader Albin Kurti and 86
others were arrested.
(AP, 11/28/15)(SSFC, 11/29/15, p.A6)
2015 Dec 14, Kosovo’s
opposition lawmakers released tear gas in parliament as they once
again tried to pressure the government into renouncing deals with
Serbia and Montenegro.
2015 Dec, In Kosovo Slobodan
Gavric (b.1968), a Serbian man, was arrested after police found 12.2
kilos of explosives in his car in an area where the United States
and other Western embassies are located. On June 29, 2016, a court
sentenced Gavric to 13 years in jail on charges of preparing a
2016 Jan 9, Kosovo police used
water cannons and tear gas to disperse a group of violent opposition
supporters who pelted them with rocks and Molotov cocktails
following an anti-government protest in the capital. Several
thousand people called on Kosovo's government to resign, arguing the
executive has broken the country's constitution in reaching deals
with Serbia and Montenegro last year.
2016 Jan 21, In Kosovo an
international tribunal convicted and jailed Oliver Ivanovic (62), a
top Kosovo Serb politician, for nine years for committing war crimes
against ethnic Albanians during the late 1990s conflict.
2016 Feb 17, Thousands of
Kosovo opposition supporters gathered in Pristina, calling for the
government to resign, accusing it of violating the country's
constitution in reaching deals with Serbia and Montenegro.
2016 Feb 19, Kosovo opposition
lawmakers again used tear gas to block work from being done in
Parliament to pressure the government into renouncing deals with
Serbia and Montenegro.
2016 Feb 26, Kosovo's
Parliament elected Hashim Thaci, foreign minister and former
guerrilla leader, as the next president. He was elected in the
absence of opposition lawmakers who accuse him of being responsible
for two deals with Serbia and Montenegro that they reject.
2016 Mar 29, Kosovo and the
United States signed an extradition agreement which they believe
will enable them better fight terrorism, transnational crime and
domestic corruption in the tiny Balkan nation.
2016 Apr 7, Kosovo's powerful
former premier Hashim Thaci was sworn in as president in a session
boycotted by opposition parties which dispute his election to the
2016 Apr 7, In Kosovo Milovan
Bojovic, a former Serb general suspected of war crimes against
ethnic Albanian civilians, was detained after illegally crossing
into Kosovo at the Merdare border point.
2016 Apr 27, The EU's police
mission in Kosovo conducted a major operation against an
Albanian-Serb organized crime ring. Six people were arrested and
authorities were hunting for a governing party lawmaker suspected of
being the ringleader.
2016 May 17, In Kosovo a few
hundred people from the gay and lesbian community held their first
ever pride parade, seeking acceptance and respect of their rights in
the conservative society.
2016 Jun 13, The Kosovo
government amended a draft law to prolong the European Union rule of
law mission, known as EULEX, for two years. Since 2008, EULEX has
supported Kosovo on its path to greater European integration in the
areas of rule of law and the fight against corruption.
2016 Aug 4, Kosovo's government
ratified a border demarcation agreement with neighboring Montenegro,
despite disapproval from the opposition. The government sent the
deal to the Parliament, which was expected to concur.
2016 Aug 4, Montenegro's police
arrested Vlado Zmajevic (47) suspected of killing at least six
ethnic Albanians, including two women, in a Kosovo village in 1999.
2016 Aug 9, In Kosovo an
opposition lawmaker used tear gas to disrupt the work of a
parliamentary commission on a border demarcation agreement with
neighboring Montenegro. The protest was seen on live television.
2016 Nov 5, In Kosovo medical
student Astrit Dehari (26) died in jail in the southeastern city of
Prizren, where he had been detained since August along with five
fellow members of the opposition Self-Determination (Vetevendosje)
party. Prosecutors later said the activist had killed himself.
2016 Nov 21, Kosovo police said
they arrested 11 people over the weekend and collected 36 minors
countrywide in a crackdown on child beggars. Thirteen of the
children were from neighboring Albania.
2016 Dec 15, A Kosovo court
sentenced two former culture ministers and two movie producers for
misusing public funds by signing contracts for movies that never got
2016 Dec 23, Kosovo's
government decided to create a commission of experts to measure the
country's territory, an effort to convince the opposition they are
not losing land in a deal with neighboring Montenegro.
2016 Dec 29, Kosovo's
Parliament voted to demolish a concrete wall erected by the Serb
ethnic minority in the northern city of Mitrovica that the
government sees as a statement of defiance.
2017 Jan 4, In France former
Kosovar PM Ramush Haradinaj was arrested at Basel Mulhouse Freiburg
airport on a Serbian warrant. He faced possible extradition to
Serbia to face war crimes charges.
2017 Jan 14, Serbia launched
provocative train service to Kosovo's Serbian north. Because the
central Kosovo government has no real control over the predominantly
ethnic Serb north and that region's borders with Serbia, it has
appealed to the European Union to "stop this illegal train".
2017 Jan 19, A Kosovo court
sentenced seven Albanian citizens on charges of terror,
participating in terror groups and recruiting for Islamic terror
groups in Syria. The defendants received prison sentences ranging
from 2 ˝ to 4 ˝ years.
2017 Jan 20, Kosovo’s Deputy PM
Hajredin Kuci said that the government wanted to modernize its
property system and foster greater equality and prosperity in the
Balkan country. This will, for the first time, clearly define formal
ownership and encourage women to inherit and own land in their own
2017 Feb 3, Serbia blamed
Kosovo for the collapse of European Union-mediated talks as tensions
escalated in the Balkans amid reports of troop movements and war
2017 Feb 5, A 50-meter concrete
wall in the northern Kosovo city of Mitrovica was pulled down
following an agreement between the government and the country's
ethnic Serb minority. The Serbs, who do not recognize Kosovo as a
state, started constructing the wall in December, saying it was to
protect against a landslip.
(AP, 2/5/17)(Reuters, 2/5/17)
2017 Feb 7, The European Union
appointed 19 international judges to a special court that will
prosecute ethnic Albanian rebels for crimes during and immediately
after Kosovo's war for independence (1998-2000). The Kosovo
Specialist Chambers judges come from 12 EU countries and the United
States and Canada.
2017 Mar 7, Kosovo's Pres.
Hashim Thaci asked parliament to transform the country's lightly
armed security forces into a regular army, a move immediately
denounced by Serbian leaders who refuse to recognize Kosovo's
2017 Mar 10, Kosovo police
arrested two people after finding counterfeit currency valued at
about 2 million euros.
2017 Mar 20, Serbian police
said they have seized over a ton of marijuana and arrested six
suspected traffickers. Police said the marijuana was packed in
Kosovo and was bound for western Europe.
2017 Mar 30, Italian police
arrested three Kosovans in the lagoon city of Venice after one was
caught on a phone intercept proposing they bomb the famed Rialto
bridge while others lauded the recent attack in London. A minor was
2017 Apr 7, Kosovo President
Hashim Thaci bowed to pressure from traditional allies the United
States and NATO by putting off plans to establish an army strongly
opposed by the country's minority Serbs.
2017 Apr 27, A French court
turned down a Serbian request to extradite Ramush Haradinaj, a
former guerilla commander and prime minister of Kosovo. A prosecutor
said Haradinaj, who was arrested earlier this year, has been
(SFC, 4/28/17, p.A2)
2017 May 10, Kosovo President
Hashim Thaci issued a decree dissolving the parliament just hours
after the government lost a no-confidence vote 78-34.
2017 May 13, In Kosovo
prominent journalist Arbana Xharra, who this week joined the
Democratic Party of Kosovo (PDK), a political party she had long
criticized, was beaten up in a car park close to her apartment.
2017 Jun 11, Kosovo began
voting for a new parliament that will have to navigate tense
relations with Serbia, endemic corruption and possible war crimes
indictments for some of its leaders. A coalition of ethnic Albanian
former leaders of a war of independence against Serbian troops in
1998-1999 led with a third of the vote. The nationalist Movement for
Self-determination had about 27 percent, more than a point ahead of
a coalition led by former PM Isa Mustafa.
(AFP, 6/11/17)(AP, 6/12/17)
2017 Aug 2, US VP Mike Pence
spoke in Montenegro at the opening of a US-backed summit of top
Balkan officials. He pledged Washington's commitment to the area
that Russia also considers a zone of interest. Kosovo's president
said Pence pledged to help eliminate the obstacles to Kosovo
becoming a full NATO member.
2017 Aug 21, Serbia recalled
its embassy staff from Macedonia in protest at "offensive actions"
which coincided with reports that Skopje was joining diplomatic
efforts to secure Kosovo membership of the UN cultural agency
2017 Aug 26, In Albania prime
ministers from Western Balkans countries agreed on a road map to
deepen their regional economic cooperation as part of the process
for joining the European Union. Albanian PM Edi Rama hosted his
counterparts from Serbia, Kosovo, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Macedonia
2017 Sep 5, Kosovo President
Hashim Thaci and religious leaders from Kosovo and Albania were
among the hundreds of people in Pristina who attended a consecration
ceremony consecrating the Roman Catholic cathedral in Kosovo's
capital to the saint formerly known as Mother Teresa of Calcutta,
who died 20 years ago today.
2017 Sep 7, In Kosovo Ramush
Haradinaj, a former guerrilla fighter who has twice stood trial for
war crimes, was chosen to form a new government, ending a political
deadlock that has persisted since elections on June 11.
2017 Oct 9, Kosovo’s Pres.
Hashim Thaci accused the international community of not keeping its
end of the bargain after the country created an unpopular war crimes
court to prosecute ethnic Albanians in cases linked to Kosovo's war.
2017 Oct 10, In Kosovo about
300 people marched through Pristina at the first gay pride parade in
the strongly conservative country which has a large Muslim majority.
2017 Oct 11, Albania's
president turned down a request from his Kosovo counterpart Hashim
Thaci to issue Albanian passports for citizens in neighboring
Kosovo, the only nation in Europe excluded from a visa-free European
2017 Oct 22, Kosovo held
municipal elections in a challenging test for its center-right
governing coalition, which has focused its efforts on capturing City
Hall in Pristina.
2017 Nov 17, Kosovo opposition
lawmaker Frasher Krasniqi and three other supporters were convicted
of terror charges and sentenced to prison for the Aug. 4, 2016,
rocket-propelled grenade attack that damaged the parliament
building's exterior but caused no casualties. Krasniqi was sentenced
to eight years in prison.
2017 Dec 20, In Kosovo two men
pleaded guilty to planning attacks at a World Cup soccer match in
Albania against the visiting Israel team last year.
2017 Dec 20, Kosovo's
government signed a 1 billion-euro ($1.18 billion) deal with the New
York-based power generator ContourGlobal PLC to build a 500 megawatt
coal-fired power plant.
2017 Nov 24, Kosovo police
arrested three lawmakers, including the popular main opposition
leader whom they handcuffed in the street, after the three failed to
appear in court on charges of releasing tear gas in parliament in
2015 and 2016.
2017 Dec 26, In Kosovo a
non-governmental organization has hung hundreds of ties from the
fence outside a government building to protest a pay raise for PM
Ramush Haradinaj, who has said in TV interviews that he needs the
money for new ties and shirts. Last week, Haradinaj's Cabinet
decided to double his salary to 2,950 euros ($3,497) a month before
taxes. The average salary in the country is 354 euros a month
2018 Jan 3, Four Kosovo
opposition lawmakers were handed suspended jail terms of between 15
and 18 months for obstructing parliamentary work by releasing tear
gas in the chamber.
2018 Jan 6, Kosovo police said
Moshe Harel, Israeli ringleader of a global gang of organ
traffickers, has been arrested in Cyprus. He was suspected of
organizing dozens of illegal kidney transplants at the Medicus
clinic in the capital Pristina in 2008.
2018 Jan 16, In northern Kosovo
leading Serb politician Oliver Ivanovic (64) was gunned down, an
attack that raised ethnic tensions in the Balkans and prompted the
suspension of EU-mediated talks between Kosovo and Serbia. The
assailants escaped in a car that was later found burned out.
2018 Jan 20, Serbia's Pres.
Aleksandar Vucic arrived in the Serb-dominated, northern part of
Kosovo and pledged to help build a lasting peace days after the
killing this week of a moderate Kosovo Serb politician fueled fears
of instability in the Balkans.
2018 Jan 31, Kosovo's PM Ramush
Haradinaj suspended significant pay increases for top government
officials amid a wave of criticism.
2018 Jan 31, In Kosovo hundreds
of people staged a protest in Pristina, urging the government to
fight extremely high pollution.
2018 Feb 1, A Kosovar court has
sentenced Naser Kelmendi (60), a Balkan drug kingpin, to six years
in prison for trafficking 25 kg (55 pounds) of heroin to
Bosnia-Herzegovina in 2003.
2018 Feb 6, The EU warned
Balkan countries hoping to join the bloc that none will be invited
until they have resolved all disputes with their neighbors. This
applied to Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro,
Serbia and its former territory of Kosovo.
2018 Feb 16, Kosovo and
Montenegro announced they had reached a deal on a 2015 border
agreement between the two countries, a step toward Kosovo gaining
visa-free travel to the European Union.
2018 Feb 17, Kosovo began
celebrating 10 years of independence from Serbia in two-day
festivities that started today around the country.
2018 Mar 21, Kosovo's
opposition used tear gas to disrupt a parliamentary vote on a border
demarcation deal with Montenegro. The opposition used tear gas again
when the session resumed.
2018 Mar 24, Kosovo's state
telecom company said it has stopped using Serbia's country code for
landline phone calls, and instead will use its own new code.
2018 Mar 26, Kosovo sent
special police units to its volatile northern region to enforce a
decision to stop two senior Serbian officials coming in, as
relations between the two countries worsen. Senior Serb official
Marko Djuric was briefly detained as officers fired tear gas and
stun grenades at Serb protesters.
(Reuters, 3/26/18)(SFC, 3/27/18, p.A2)
2018 Mar 27, Kosovo Serbs set
up a roadblock in northern Kosovo and their representatives walked
out of Kosovo's government a day after the arrest and expulsion of a
senior Serbian government official that has refueled tensions
between the Balkan foes.
2018 Mar 28, In Albania some
150 truck drivers from Kosovo held a peaceful protest against
Albania's first planned toll road.
2018 Mar 29, Turkish state-run
news agency Anadolu said that six Turkish nationals arrested in
Kosovo over links to schools financed by the Fethullah Gulen
movement that Ankara blames for a failed 2016 coup have been
extradited to Turkey.
2018 Mar 30, Kosovo's PM Ramush
Haradinaj said he has fired his interior minister and the
intelligence chief for deporting six Turks without his permission.
2018 Apr 4, Kosovo formally
complained to Albania over tariffs at a main road linking the two
2018 May 4, Kosovo's President
Hashim Thaci agreed the country's border with Montenegro, a
development that takes Kosovo one step nearer to joining Europe's
free travel Schengen zone. Montenegro has already approved the deal.
2018 May 7, The European Union
said it has appointed US prosecutor Jack Smith to head the special
prosecutor's office that investigates former members of the Kosovo
Liberation Army for crimes against ethnic Serbs in Kosovo's war for
2018 May 9, Serbia banned a
Kosovo team from taking part in a karate competition it is hosting,
over a political dispute stemming from the former province's
declaration of independence.
2018 May 9, An international
report was released into the situation of the Roma people in the
Western Balkans. It showed that up to 93 percent of Roma women are
unemployed, with one-third of all Roma families there going to bed
hungry. The study covered Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo.
2018 May 16, Bosnian tycoon
Fahrudin Radoncic, who leads a party in the ruling coalition, was
cleared of charges of organizing a criminal group and interfering in
a high-profile court case in Kosovo against Balkan drug boss Naser
2018 May 24, Two Kosovo doctors
were convicted for a second time of involvement in an organ
trafficking ring that performed illegal kidney transplants at a
clinic near the capital Pristina. The director of the Medicus
clinic, urologist Lutfi Dervishi, had his sentence reduced by six
months to seven-and-a half years. Anesthetist Sokol Hajdini had his
sentence cut to one year from three.
2018 Jun 29, Kosovo police said
they had arrested three people on terrorism charges and a fourth was
arrested in Germany on an international arrest warrant issued by a
2018 Aug 1, Kosovo President
Hashim Thaci rejected the idea of dividing the country along ethnic
lines to resolve a dispute over its independence from Serbia. Thaci
said there would be no "division but a correction of borders," with
the possible inclusion of the Presevo Valley with Kosovo.
2018 Sep 9, Kosovo Albanians
blocked roads and burned tires on a planned route by Serbia's
President Aleksandar Vucic in the former Serbian province, further
fueling tensions between the two Balkan foes.
2018 Sep 29, In Kosovo
thousands of people marched in Pristina against a possible territory
swap with former war foe Serbia. The Serbian government put its
troops on alert after special police were deployed to Kosovo's
2018 Oct 10, In Kosovo hundreds
of people took part in a gay parade in Pristina, demanding "freedom"
and "equal rights" in the patriarchal and Muslim majority country.
2018 Nov 6, Representatives
from Bosnia, Croatia, Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia signed an
agreement to identify victims of the 1990s wars. Around 12,000
people were still not accounted for out of the 40,000 missing from
the wars that tore apart the former Yugoslavia.
2018 Nov 20, Interpol's general
assembly, meeting in Dubai, voted against allowing Kosovo to join
the international police agency. The bids of Pacific island nations
Kiribati and Vanuatu were approved by delegates, but Kosovo did not
secure the required two-thirds majority.
2018 Nov 21, Kosovo's
government said it will put a 100 percent import tax on all goods
imported from Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. A day earlier, Kosovo
failed to join Interpol due to what it claimed was campaigning by
2018 Nov 23, Kosovo police
arrested three ethnic Serbs, including two police officers, early
today on suspicion of involvement in the killing earlier this year
of a leading Serb politician in the north of the country.
2018 Nov 27, A few thousand
Kosovo Serbs people rallied in the divided town of Mitrovica
demanding that the government abolish a 100 percent tax it has
slapped on all goods imported from Serbia.
2018 Dec 4, Serbia sought
support from allies Russia and China in opposing the formation of a
Kosovo army, warning that a military in its former province could
lead to renewed clashes in the Balkans.
2018 Dec 5, Serbia's PM Ana
Brnabic warned that the formation of a Kosovo army could trigger
Serbia's armed intervention in the former province.
2018 Dec 14, Kosovo passed laws
to build an army, asserting its statehood in a US-backed move that
has angered Serbia, which does not recognize the former province's
2019 Jan 22, A Kosovo court
convicted a man for participating in terror groups in Syria and
jailed him for five years. In a separate trial, the same court in
Pristina convicted five others to prison terms for participation in
terror groups and other acts related to terrorism.
2019 Jan 24, In Kosovo around
500,000 pupils and students stayed at home as a strike by teachers
demanding a 30 percent pay rise entered its second week. Doctors and
miners have also taken strike action for higher wages, and other
public sector workers are threatening to do so.
2019 Jan 25, The United States
strongly advised Kosovo to revoke a 100 percent tariff on Serb and
Bosnian goods, saying the duty runs counter to US strategic
interests. Kosovo's government imposed the measure last year and
says it won't be lifted until Belgrade recognizes its sovereignty
and stops preventing it from joining international organizations.
2019 Feb 7, In Kosovo hundreds
of protesters called on authorities to jail a police officer accused
of sexually abusing a girl (16).
2019 Feb 16, In Germany Serbian
President Aleksandar Vucic and Kosovo President Hashim Thaci
appeared together at the Munich Security Conference, both expressing
interest in reaching an agreement but neither appearing to give
2019 Mar 2, The European
Parliament called on Kosovo to suspend a 100-percent tariff on Serb
goods to help restart reconciliation talks.
2019 Mar 8, A Kosovo court
acquitted the ethnic Serb identified only as M.Z. of war crimes and
genocide charges following suspicion of his involvement committed in
crimes in June-July 1998 in the Kline municipality.
2019 Mar 13, A human rights
expert urged the UN to take "immediate action" to provide justice
and remedies to displaced minority communities in Kosovo who were
sheltered on lead-contaminated wasteland.
2019 Mar 28, Kosovo banned all
gambling for the next decade in a bid to crack down on crime after
two casino staff were murdered last week.
2019 Apr 4, Six Balkan
countries (Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, North Macedonia,
Montenegro and Kosovo) signed an EU-backed agreement in Belgrade to
abolish roaming charges by 2021 as part of efforts to boost
cooperation in the region.
2019 Apr 5, An international
climate conference in Albania was disrupted over tensions between
Kosovo and Serbia. The conference proceeded, but only with technical
2019 Apr 8, Kosovo's Pres.
Hashim Thaci ordered four Serb-dominated communities to hold new
municipal elections on May 19. Four mayors from the Serb-dominated
northern municipalities in Kosovo resigned in November to protest
the Kosovo government's 100% tariff on goods imported from Serbia.
2019 Apr 17, Serbia sought to
secure a greater Russian role in European Union-mediated talks with
the former province of Kosovo, which could further strain the Balkan
country's relations with the West.
2019 Apr 20, Kosovo authorities
announced they have brought back from Syria 110 Kosovar citizens,
mostly women and children, with the assistance of the United States.
2019 May 28, Kosovo police said
five police officers and six civilians were injured during an
operation against organized crime and corruption in the
Serb-dominated north that primarily targeted other police officers.
19 police officers and a number of other people were arrested during
the operation that involved special police forces.
2019 May 28, Russia's Ministry
of Foreign Affairs accused Kosovo of provocation after its police
detained what Moscow said were 13 Serbians in Serb-populated
municipalities in Kosovo's north.
2019 May 31, The Kosovo
government said that Mikhail Krasnoshchenkov, a Russian national
working for the UN mission would not be allowed back into the
country after his expulsion.
2019 Jun 3, A UN said people in
all major cities across the western Balkans face alarming levels of
air pollution that are reducing their life expectancies because the
underdeveloped, politically fragile region is still heavily reliant
on burning coal to generate power. The report was prepared
cooperation with the WHO and air quality management institutions in
Albania, Bosnia, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia.
2019 Jul 1, In northern Kosovo
shops, restaurants and bakeries in the Serb-dominated area closed
their doors to protest against a 100% tax the country has imposed on
goods imported from Serbia. The government introduced the tax last
year in retaliation for Belgrade blocking Kosovo, its former
province, from joining the international police organization
Interpol as a separate nation.
2019 Jul 19, Kosovo PM Ramush
Haradinaj said he was stepping down from his post after he was
summoned again as a suspect to the international war-crimes tribunal
in The Hague.
2019 Aug 22, Kosovo lawmakers
voted to dissolve parliament, paving the way for a parliamentary
election after Prime Minister Ramush Haradinaj resigned last month.
2019 Sep 4, A court in Kosovo
said it had jailed six people, including a woman, for terms ranging
from one to 10 years, for planning attacks last year on NATO troops
and the public in Kosovo, Belgium and France.
2019 Sep 11, Czech Pres. Milos
Zeman sparked ire when he said he’d ask his nation’s leadership
whether the European Union member could undo its recognition of
Kosovo, making him an unexpected backer of Serbia in the Balkans’
biggest territorial dispute.
2019 Oct 6, Kosovo held
national elections. The main issues for the country's 1.9 million
eligible voters included tackling corruption and normalizing
relations with Serbia which would pave the way for UN membership.
Vetevendosje (Albanian for “self-determination") won about 26% of
the vote, and another opposition party, the Democratic League of
Kosovo (LDK), garnered close to 25%. This was the first election
since Kosovo’s independence from Serbia in 2008 that didn’t give
plurality support to the Democratic Party of Kosovo (PDK), which
received only 21%, largely because of the party’s poor record on
(Reuters, 10/6/19)(Bloomberg, 10/7/19)
2019 Dec 5, A Kosovo court
sentenced a former ethnic Serb minister to two years in prison for
inciting ethnic hatred. The Pristina court said that Ivan
Todosijevic incited national, racial, religious and ethnic hatred
when he denied a massacre of Kosovo civilians in Recak in 1999,
which prompted NATO to step in and stop the war.
2019 Dec 6, Kosovo's Pres.
Hashim Thaci accused the European Union maintaining double standards
for blocking a visa-free travel deal with his country but opening
new chapters in Serbia's integration process despite its affiliation
2019 Dec 9, Turkey said it
would join Albania and Kosovo in boycotting the Nobel awards
ceremony in protest against 2019 literature prize laureate Peter
Handke, who has been criticized for backing late Serbian strongman
2020 Jan 14, Kosovo prosecutors
filed terrorism charges against an Albanian woman and a man for
allegedly joining the Islamic State group in Syria. In April, they
were part of a group of 110 Kosovo citizens repatriated from Syria.
2020 Jan 15, Kosovo’s Pres.
Hashim Thaci denounced what he called “an international amnesty" for
Serbia’s crimes in the 1998-1999 war.
2020 Jan 20, Kosovo and Serbia
agreed to launch direct commercial flights after a two-decade
interval in a deal mediated by the United States in an attempt to
push the two former foes closer to normalizing relations.
2020 Jan 22, A Kosovo court
convicted eight ethnic Albanian men of preparing terrorist acts and
trying to destabilize the country's constitutional order. The court
in Pristina handed out prison terms ranging from 2 to 12 years to
eight members of the so-called People’s Eye group.
2020 Feb 2, Kosovo’s two
biggest parties reached a deal to create a new government almost
four months after the Balkan country held snap elections following
the prime minister's resignation. Albin Kurti (44), leader of the
leftist Vetevendosje (Self Determination) party, said he would
become prime minister under the deal and work with the center-right
Democratic League of Kosovo (LDK) and other groups.
2020 Feb 12, It was reported
that Kosovo's PM Albin Kurti and cabinet ministers will accept a
halving of their salaries in an attempt to demonstrate that the new
government plans to tackle wage inequality.
2020 Feb 14, Kosovo and Serbia
signed US-brokered deals on restoring railway and highway links. The
deals were signed during an international security conference in
2020 Feb 27, Kosovo said it
will gradually lift tariffs on Serbian imports, a step toward easing
a standoff between the neighbors that Donald Trump’s envoy to the
region criticized as insufficient.
2020 Mar 10, Kosovo's
government approved the 2020 budget after the small Balkan country
held a snap election in October and elected the government after
months of negotiations.
2020 Mar 22, Kosovo reported
the country's first victim of the coronavirus. The country has
registered 31 cases of people infected with the virus.
2020 Mar 25, In Kosovo a
majority of deputies in the parliament voted to snuff out the
government of Albin Kurti, a radical reformer, ostensibly over a
declaration of a state of emergency owing to covid-19.
(Economist, 4/4/20, p.41)
2020 Jun 3, Kosovo’s parliament
elected a new government with PM Avdullah Hoti promising to reach a
deal on normalizing ties with Serbia that would enable it to get a
UN seat. Hoti was voted for by 61 deputies in the country’s 120-seat
parliament after weeks of legal wrangling.
(The Telegraph, 6/3/20)
2020 Jun 24, A Hague-based
tribunal said Kosovo President Hashim Thaci has been charged with 10
counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity for his role in the
country's conflict in the 1990s. Prosecutors at the Kosovo
Specialist Court (KSC) laid the charges on April 24, but decided to
unveil them publicly two months later.
2020 Sep 4, President Donald
Trump announced that Serbia and Kosovo have agreed to normalize
economic ties as part of US-brokered talks that include Belgrade
moving its Israeli embassy to Jerusalem, and mutual recognition
between Israel and Kosovo.
2020 Sep 7, The European Union
warned Serbia and Kosovo that they could undermine their EU
membership hopes by moving their Israeli embassies to Jerusalem.
2020 Sep 18, Kosovo's awarded
US President Donald Trump with one of the country's highest honors
for his government's efforts on peace and reconciliation in the
former war-torn region.
2020 Sep 24, The Kosovo
Specialist Chambers in The Hague said former Kosovo Liberation Army
commander Salih Mustafa, an ethnic Albanian, has been arrested as
part of a war crimes against humanity probe from the 1998-1999 war
(SFC, 9/25/20, p.A2)
2020 Nov 5, Kosovo's President
Hashim Thaci (52), a guerrilla leader during Kosovo's war for
independence from Serbia in the late 1990s, resigned and will face
charges for war crimes and crimes against humanity at a special
court based in The Hague.
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Subject = Kosovo
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