Timeline Kurdistan

Return to home

History: http://www.akakurdistan.com/
Kurds are an ancient people whose language is related to Farsi, which is spoken in Iran.
    (SFC, 1/6/99, p.A7)
Almost all Kurds are Sunni Muslims.
    (SFC, 9/2/96, p.A12)(Econ, 9/2/06, p.12)
Kurds are the largest ethnic minority in Syria, centered in the poor northeastern provinces of Hasakeh and Qamishli, wedged between the borders of Turkey and Iraq. Areas of the capital Damascus and Syria's largest city of Aleppo also have sizable Kurdish communities. The Kurdish ethnic group stretches into contiguous areas of Turkey, Iraq and Iran.
    (AP, 4/18/12)

1169        Mar 23, Shirkuh,  Kurd General, vizier of Cairo, Saladin's uncle, died.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1193        Mar 3, Saladin [Salah ed-Din]) Yusuf ibn Ayyub (52), Kurdish sultan of Egypt and Syria (1175-1193), died.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1261)(SC, 3/3/02)(SSFC, 9/29/02, p.M6)

1835        Lt. Henry Creswicke Rawlinson (25) began examining the ancient inscriptions on the rock of Behistun in the Kurdish foothills of the Zagros mountain range. He soon found that they had been made to honor Darius the Great, Persian ruler in the 5th century BCE.
    (ON, 4/04, p.7)

1894        Nov 16, 6,000 Armenians were massacred by Turks in Kurdistan.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1894-1896    Thousands of Armenians were massacred by the Turks after attempts for autonomy and self-defense failed. This issue was then referred to as the “Armenian Question."
    (Compuserve Online Enc. / Armenia)

1915        Kurdish tribes took part in the mass slaughter by the Ottomans of around 1 million Armenians. Tens of thousands of Syriacs fell with them.
    (Econ, 12/4/10, p.64)(Econ, 11/3/12, p.52)

1917        Lord Curzon of Britain stated: “No Kurd appears to represent more than his own clan."
    (WSJ, 11/28/97, p.A8)

1920        Aug 10, The Ottoman sultanate at Constantinople signed the Treaty of Sevres with the Allies and associated powers. It promised a homeland for the Kurds, but the nationalist government in Ankara did not sign the treaty. It set the borders of Turkey recognized Armenia as an independent state. France and Britain backed the treaty and a Kurdish state, but refused to allow Kurds in Iraq and Syria to join it.
    (SFC, 2/17/99, p.A10)(www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/versa/sevres1.html) (EWH, 4th ed, p.1086)(Econ, 7/13/13, SR p.5)

1920-1990    Turkey virtually outlawed the Kurdish language.
    (WSJ, 5/24/00, p.A1)

1923        Jul 24, The Treaty of Lausanne, which settled the boundaries of modern Greece and Turkey, was concluded in Switzerland. It replaced the Treaty of Sevres and divided the lands inhabited by the Kurds between Turkey, Iraq and Syria. Article 39 allowed Turkish nationals to use any language they wished in commerce, public and private meetings, and publications. The treaty specifically protected the rights of the Armenian, Greek and Jewish communities. The former provinces of Baghdad, Basra and Mosul were lumped together to form Iraq. Both countries agreed to a massive exchange of religious minorities. Christians were deported from Turkey to Greece and Muslims from Greece to Turkey. A Muslim community of at least 100,000 was allowed in northern Greece. In 2006 Bruce Clark authored “Twice a Stranger: The Mass Expulsions that Forged Modern Greece and Turkey."
    (WSJ, 3/20/97, p.A17)(AP, 7/24/97)(SSFC, 12/22/02, p.A14)(Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.9)(Econ, 10/14/06, p.50)(Econ, 12/9/06, p.92)(Econ, 10/16/10, p.72)

1924        Mar 3, Kemal Ataturk forced the abolition of the Muslim caliphate through the protesting assembly and banned all Kurdish schools, publications and associations.
    (WSJ, 2/11/99, p.A24)

1925        Apr 28, Kurd rebels surrendered to Turkish army.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1930-1937    Kurdish revolts in Turkey were harshly suppressed.
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.A14)

1936-1939    Turkish forces used a bombing and strafing campaign to crush a Kurdish rebellion. Some 13,806 people were killed in the southeastern town of Dersim, now known as Tunceli. The military's campaign in Dersim was followed by forced migrations and massacres as well as policies of assimilation.
    (AP, 11/23/11)

1938        Turkey’s army crushed a rebellion in the southeastern province of Tunceli and villagers were burned alive of gassed. The government later admitted that some 15,000 Alevi Kurds died. Survivors spoke of least twice as many dead. In 2010 documentary titled ‘Two Locks of Hair: The Missing Girls of Dersim,’ which sheds light on the painful incidents of the 1938 Dersim Operation, four 80-year-old women tell of the trauma they experienced during the tragedy. 
    (Econ, 4/30/11, p.55)(www.kurdishcinema.com/DersimsLostGirls.html)

1945        The Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) was founded by Mullah Mustafa Barzani. He played a major role in establishing the short-lived Kurdish Republic of Mehabad, “Red" Kurdistan, in Iran. In the 30s and 40s he had organized “Pesh merga" guerrillas from clans in the Zagros region.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, p.A7)(WSJ, 12/20/02, p.A14)

1946        Mustafa Barzani fled with hundreds of followers to the Soviet Union.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, p.A7)

1961        Syria revoked the citizenship of its native Kurds.
    (Econ, 4/23/05, p.46)(http://tinyurl.com/7zamn)

1962        Jun 23, The Syrian government conducted a special population census only for the province of Jazira which was predominantly Kurdish. As a result, around 120,000 Kurds in Jazira were arbitrarily categorized as aliens.

1970        Mar 11, Iraq’s Ba’ath Party agreed to an autonomy accord with the Kurd nation.

1974        Mar 11, Iraq's "Law for Autonomy in the Area of Kurdistan" was promulgated. It stipulated that: "The Kurdish language shall be the official language of education for Kurds ... Kurdish shall be the official language of education for the Kurds."

1975        Mar 6, OPEC held a meeting in Algiers attended for the first time by its members’ top leaders. Here the Algiers Accord between Baghdad and Teheran put an end to their border dispute and brought all Iranian help to the Kurdish rebellion to a halt. The United States abruptly withdrew its support for the Kurds and the rebellion collapsed. Many thousands of Kurdish fighters and their families were forced to flee to Iran to escape the pursuing Iraqi army.
    (http://mondediplo.com/2002/10/06timeline)(SFC, 11/19/07, p.A11)

1975        Mar 9, Iraq launched an offensive against the rebellious Kurds.
    (HN, 3/9/98)

1975        Mar 18, Mulla Mustafa gave the order to the Kurdish army to abandon the struggle. This time round, Mulla Mustafa obtained refuge in the United States.

1975        Jun, The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) broke off from the KDP after Iran and Iraq resolved a border dispute and the US ended support for a Kurdish rebellion. The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) was founded by Jalal Talabani as a breakaway faction of the KDP. The PUK favored armed struggle with other Kurdish groups against Saddam Hussein.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/country_profiles/2893067.stm)(SFC, 9/4/96, p.A7)

1978        In Turkey Abdullah Ocalan and some fellow Turkish university students founded the Kurdistan Worker’s Party, PKK. It was based on a Marxist, separatist platform that targeted Kurdish landlords as well as Turkish agents.
    (SFC, 11/14/98, p.A11)(SFC, 1/6/99, p.A7)(Econ, 11/17/07, p.100)   

1979        Mar 3, Mustafa Barzani (b.1903), Iranian Kurd leader (KDP), died in Washington, DC. He was succeeded by his son Massoud.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, A7)(WSJ, 12/20/02, p.A14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mustafa_Barzani)

1979        Aug 18, Iran Ayatollah Khomeini sent the army to attack and occupy Paveh, Sanandaj and Saghez. Having defeated the Kurds in the cities, he appointed Khalkhali, as head of security for Kurdistan, who proceeded with a series of summary trials and executions.

1979        Aug 23, Iranian troops entered Iraqi Kurdish territory.

1979        Aug 27, In Sanandaj, Iran, 11 Kurdish prisoners were executed by a firing squad following a 30 minute trial under Shiite cleric Sadegh Khalkhali. Jahangir Razmi, a photographer for Iran’s independent Ettela’at newspaper, captured the execution on film. Within hours an anonymous photo of the execution ran across 6 columns of the paper. On Sep 8 the newspaper was seized by the Foundation for the Disinherited, a state-owned holding company. On April 14, 1980, the photo won a Pulitzer Prize. In 2006 Razmi made public 27 images from the execution that he had kept hidden.
    {Iran, Kurds, Photography}
    (WSJ, 12/2/06, p.A1)

1980        Abdullah Ocalan (b.1948), leader of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) crossed the border to Syria just before the September 12 Turkish military coup.
    (WSJ, 3/7/97, p.A10)(SFC, 1/6/99, p.A7)

1980-1991    Publications in Kurdish were banned in Turkey.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, p.A12)

1983        Turkey began battling a Kurdish insurgency in the southeast.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, p.A7)

1984        Abdullah Ocalan, founder of the PKK, turned the group toward armed struggle.
    (SFC, 11/14/98, p.A11)

1984-1996     Turkey was grappling with an 12-year old Kurdish insurgency. More than 21,000 people have died since fighting began.
    (WSJ, 12/27/95, p. A-6)(SFC, 9/6.96, p.A13)

1985        Mehmed Uzun published his 1st attempt at a modern Kurdish novel: “You." He followed it with an anthology of Kurdish literature in the Kermanci dialect.
    (WSJ, 5/24/00, p.A16)

1987-1988    Some 50-100 thousand Kurds were killed by poisonous gas from Iraqi forces. The Hussein regime bulldozed some 4,000 ethnic Kurd villages due to suspicions of Kurds siding with Iran.
    (SFC, 12/13/00, p.B6)(SFC, 9/24/02, p.A11)

1988        Mar 16-1988 Mar 17, Iraqi jets dropped a variety of chemical weapons on the Kurdish town of Halabja and some 5-7,000 residents were killed immediately. The Kurdish city of Halabja, held by Iranian troops and Iraqi Kurdish guerrillas allied with Tehran, was bombed by Iraq. Estimates of casualties varied from several hundred to several thousand.
    (SFC, 7/1/02, p.A6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halabja_poison_gas_attack)

1988        The Iraqi assault on Kurdish villages was part of a campaign known as Anfal. Estimates held as many as 182,000 Kurds dead or missing.
    (SFC, 4/18/03, p.A18)

1989        Jul 13, Abdul Rahman Qassemlu, Kurd leader in Iran, was murdered.

1991        Jan 17, The Persian Gulf War (Operation Desert Storm) began as Coalition planes struck targets in Iraq and Kuwait. The first Iraqi Scud missile attacks on Israel were launched. There were reports of death and injury, and possibly even chemical weapons being used. For a few tense hours, it looked as though Israel would retaliate against Iraq, causing the allied coalition to break up. Six months of preparation and diplomacy might be undone by a few poorly aimed, 1950s-vintage ballistic missiles. Later that evening, U.S. Patriot surface-to-air missiles were launched against the incoming Scuds, and for the first time in history, a ballistic missile was shot down by another missile. The use of Patriot missiles in Israel's defense helped to keep that country out of the Gulf War, thereby safeguarding the integrity of the American-European-Arab coalition.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, p.A8)(SFEC,12/797, p.A1,16) (HN, 1/17/99)(HNPD, 1/17/99)

1991        Mar 2, The Kurds rose up against Iraqi forces but were crushed by Iraqi armor that killed 50,000 and forced more than a million Kurds to flee to Turkey and Iran.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, p.A7)(SFC, 9/4/96, p.A8)

1991        Apr 2, Iraqi state media reported that only a few more days were needed to stamp out fighting with Kurdish rebels, who reported renewed skirmishes around the strategic oil center of Kirkuk.
    (AP, 4/2/01)

1991        Apr 5, The UN adopted Resolution 688, which condemned Sadam Hussein’s suppression of the Kurds and demanded respect and political rights for all citizens. A safe haven was established above Iraq’s 36th parallel.
    (www.fas.org/news/un/iraq/sres/sres0688.htm)(SFC, 9/4/96, p.A7)

1991        Apr 7, US military planes began airdropping supplies to Kurdish refugees who were facing starvation and exposure in the snow-covered mountains of northern Iraq. The United States warned Iraq not to interfere with the relief effort.
    (AP, 4/7/01)

1991        Apr 10, The US and Britain imposed a no-fly zone to protect 3 Kurdish provinces in northern Iraq.
    (SFC, 9/24/02, p.A11)

1991        Apr 12, Kurdish rebels reported the Iraqi army was attacking guerrillas in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 4/12/01)

1991        Apr 16, President Bush announced that US forces would be sent into northern Iraq to assist Kurdish refugees.
    (AP, 4/16/01)

1991        Apr 20, US Marines landed in northern Iraq to begin building the first center for Kurdish refugees on Iraqi territory. General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, the US commander of Operation Desert Storm, left Saudi Arabia for home.
    (AP, 4/20/01)

1991        Apr 24, A Kurdish rebel leader announced the guerrillas had reached an agreement in principle with Iraqi President Saddam Hussein to end the Kurds’ two-week rebellion.
    (AP, 4/24/01)

1991        Apr 27, A group of 250 Kurds became the first refugees to move into a new US-built camp in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 4/27/01)

1991        In Turkey a ban on the use of the Kurdish language in unofficial settings was lifted.
    (SFC, 2/18/99, p.A10)

1992        Iraqi Kurdistan held free elections, but the Kurdish government was never formally recognized.
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.A14)

1992        Rival Kurdish leaders Jalal Talabani and Massoud Barzani expressed unity. They agreed to share power and held elections where each faction received 50% of the vote.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, p.A8)

1992        Musa Anter, author of an early Turkish-Kurdish dictionary, was murdered by assassins. He had taught Mehmed Uzun to write Kurdish while they were in jail.
    (WSJ, 5/24/00, p.A16)

1993        May 24, Separatist Kurdish rebels fatally shot 33 Turkish soldiers and two civilians after forcing them and about two dozen other persons off a bus in the southeastern province of Bingol. This ended a unilateral cease-fire and led the military to intensify a campaign to annihilate the PKK. Testimony in 1999 by Abdullah Ocalan said a regional PKK commander carried out the slaying.
    (www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1P2-948140.html)(SFC, 6/2/99, p.C2)

1993        Jul 5, Kurd guerrillas murdered 32 villagers in East Turkey.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1993-1996    Turkey spent $50 million on drug dealers and assassins to kill a Kurdish rebel leader and others considered threats to the state. Abdullah Ocalan, a Kurdish rebel leader in Syria, was targeted as was Dursun Karatas, a leftist terrorist in Europe.
    (SFC, 1/24/98, p.A8)

1994        Jul 26, The Turkish air force bombed Kurds in Iraq and 79 people were killed.

1994-1997    Iraqi Kurds in the east and west fought a fratricidal war.
    (Econ, 4/20/13, p.51)   

1996        Apr 18, Kani Xulam, alleged head of the Kurdish guerilla group, the Kurdistan Worker’s Party PKK, was held in jail in Washington DC on charges of passport fraud.
    (SFC, 4/18/96, p.a-15)

1996        May 16, UN and Iraqi officials have reached a tentative agreement to resume oil sales of $4 billion a year to buy food and medicine. The food for oil program mandated that 13% of the UN resources go to northern Kurdish areas.
    (SFC, 5/16/96, p.A-9)(SFC, 9/3/01, p.A9)

1996        Jun 30, A young Kurdish rebel disguised as a pregnant woman blew herself up in the midst of a military ceremony and killed 9 soldiers.
    (SFC, 7/2/96, p.A12)

1996        Aug 31, Rival Kurdish forces under leaders Jalal Talabani of the Patriotic Union and Massoud Barzani of the Kurdish Democratic Party clashed. Barzani’s forces participated with Sadam Hussein’s troops in taking Irbil, a Talabani stronghold. Talabani’s forces were reportedly assisted by Iran.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, p.A8)

1996        Aug, The KDP invited Saddam into northern Iraq.
    (USAT, 3/24/99, p.18A)

1996        Sep 4, The US again launched Tomahawk cruise missiles at Iraqi air defense sites. The 2nd launch was deemed a success after the first launch failed to destroy intended targets. The Tomahawks were made by Hughes Aircraft Co. and cost about $1 mil apiece. Kurdish leader Barzani wrote a latter to Sec. of State Christopher Warren and asked that the US mediate.
    (SFC, 4/9/96, A1)(SFC, 9/5/96, p.A8)

1996        Sep 5, Turkey declared a new security zone inside northern Iraq and air attacks were staged on suspected Kurdish rebel bases.
    (SFC, 9/6.96, p.A13)

1996        Oct 13, In Iraq the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) regained Sulaymaniyah, its former headquarters.
    (SFC, 10/14/96, p.A12)

1996        Oct 29, In Turkey a Kurdish separatist suicide team of 2 killed themselves, 3 policemen and a civilian in the town of Sivas.
    (SFC, 10/30/96, p.A10)

1996        Dec 27, In France the foreign ministry said that it would no longer participate in the Operation Provide Comfort after the end of the year. The operation was a multi-national air reconnaissance effort to safeguard Kurdish civilians in northern Iraq.
    (SFC, 12/28/96, p.A12)

1997        May 18, In Turkey on the 5th day of a military offensive, the military reported 1,081 guerillas killed as 25-50 thousand Turkish troops crossed the Iraqi border to attack rebels of the Kurdistan workers Party (PKK).
    (SFC, 5/19/97, p.A14)

1997        May, Turkish commando units took control of the Bikhayr mountains used by Kurdish rebels as an escape route into Syria.
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.A10)

1997        Jun 26, Turkey announced the end of the 10-week Operation Hammer, its cross-border operation against the Kurds. The Turks reported to have lost 113 men and it was estimated that 3,000 guerrillas of the PKK were killed.
    (WSJ, 6/27/97, p.A13)

1997        Jul 20, Turkish troops killed 50 Kurdish guerrillas in the southeast. That raised the weekly total to 84.
    (SFC, 7/21/97, p.A9)

1997        Sep 25, Iraq demanded that Turkey pull back some 15,000 troops who crossed its border in pursuit of Kurdistan Workers Party guerrillas.
    (WSJ, 9/26/97, p.A1)

1997        Sep 29, Turkish planes attacked Kurdish rebel positions in northern Iraq and drove the guerrillas toward the Iran border.
    (WSJ, 9/30/97, p.A1)

1997        Oct 3, Turkish jets bombed escape routes used by Kurdish rebels in northern Iraq. Over the last 13 days the army reported 415 rebels dead vs. 6 of its own soldiers.
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.A10)

1997        Nov 28, The book “After Such Knowledge, What Forgiveness? My Encounters With Kurdistan" by Jonathan C. Randal was reviewed.
    (WSJ, 11/28/97, p.A8)

1997        Dec 27, Some 825 illegal immigrants, mostly Kurds, were rescued by Italian tugboats from the Turkish ship Ararat. They were attempting to smuggle into Italy from Turkey.
    (SFEC,12/28/97, p.A19)

1998        Feb 17, A UN refugee agency reported that 6,800 Kurds have fled their homes in northern Iraq following reported Turkish air raids on rebel positions.
    (SFC, 2/18/98, p.C3)

1998        Apr 13, Turkish army forces captured Semdin Sakik, a field commanded of the PKK, Kurdistan Workers Party, in a secret raid in northern Iraq.
    (SFC, 4/14/98, p.C12)

1998        Apr 15, Turkish troop clashed with Kurdish separatists near the Iraqi border and claimed to have killed 64 with a loss of 11.
    (WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A1)

1998        Jun 8, It was reported that Turkish soldiers had killed 37 Kurdish insurgents in the southeast provinces of Sirnak, Siirt, and Diyarbakir.
    (SFC, 6/9/98, p.A14)

1998        Jul 16, In Turkey some 2000 soldiers were flown into northern Iraq to hunt Kurdish rebels who fled there after killing 22 Turkish troops in a raid.
    (SFC, 7/17/98, p.A16)

1998        Oct 3, Turkey sent some 10,000 troops into northern Iraq to attack Kurdish rebels.
    (SFEC, 10/4/98, p.A11)

1998        Oct 21, Turkey and Syria signed an accord whereby Syria agreed to brand the Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) as a terrorist group.
    (SFC, 10/22/98, p.C5)

1998        Oct 23, In Turkey 5 Kurdish rebels burned themselves to death in loyalty to their leader Abdullah Ocalan, who was expelled from Syria.
    (SFC, 10/24/98, p.A14)

1998        Nov 12, Abdullah Ocalan, head of the PKK, was arrested in Rome.
    (SFC, 11/14/98, p.A11)

1998        Nov 17, In Turkey a Kurdish guerrilla killed herself and wounded 6 others in a suicide bombing in Yuksekova. In Moscow 2 men were seriously injured when they set themselves on fire, and in Rome some 10,000 marched to oppose the extradition of Ocalan.
    (SFC, 11/18/98, p.A12)

1998        Nov 27, In Germany Chancellor Schroeder said he would not seek extradition of Abdullah Ocalan from Italy and called for an int’l. court to try Ocalan on murder and terrorism charges.
    (SFC, 11/28/98, p.A10)

1998        Dec 16, In Italy Abdullah Ocalan, leader of the Kurdistan Workers Party, was freed by an appeals court in Rome. Turkish officials were outraged and renewed threats of economic retaliation.
    (SFC, 12/17/98, p.C4)

1999        Feb 16, Turkish commandoes captured Abdullah Ocalan in Kenya. Kurds seized Greek missions around Europe and took hostages.
    (SFC, 2/17/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 2/17/99, p.A1)

1999        Feb 17, In Berlin Israeli security guards shot and killed 3 Kurds who forced their way into the Israeli consulate over the arrest of Abdullah Ocalan.
    (SFC, 2/18/99, p.A1)

1999        Feb 23, Turkey formally arrested Abdullah Ocalan on treason charges.
    (SFC, 2/24/99, p.A8)

1999        Feb 24, In Iran 3 Kurds died while fighting police during a protest over the capture of Ocalan.
    (WSJ, 2/25/99, p.A1)

1999        Mar 21, In Turkey the Kurdish New Year began with unrest and police arrested 1,500 people across the country with the southeast under a virtual state of siege.
    (SFC, 3/22/99, p.A10)

1999        Aug 3, In Turkey Abdulah Ocalan called on the PKK to abandon its armed struggle and pull forces out of Turkey by Sept. 1.
    (SFC, 8/4/99, p.A1)

1999        Aug 5, Kurdish separatist rebels agreed to accept a cease-fire call by Abdullah Ocalan.
    (SFC, 8/6/99, p.A12)

1999        Aug 13, Iran agreed under pressure to join Turkey for simultaneous military operations against the PKK.
    (SFC, 8/14/99, p.A10)

1999        Nov 28, Turkey reported that some 70 Kurdish rebels in northern Iraq had been killed over the last 5 days by Turkish forces in 15 operations.
    (SFC, 11/29/99, p.A16)

1999        The Kurdistan KDP and PUK agreed to share power.
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.A14)

2000        May, The Turkish government banned 12 Kurdish language journals.
    (SFC, 11/10/00, p.D4)

2000        Oct 18, In southern Italy the bodies of 6 illegal immigrants, believed to be Kurds, were found dumped on the side of a highway.
    (SFC, 10/19/00, p.C10)

2000        Dec 11, In Iraq Saddam Hussein sent troops into the northern Kurdish zone. Kurds and other non-Arab Iraqis were being displaced further north.
    (WSJ, 12/12/00, p.A1)(SFC, 12/13/00, p.B6)

2001        Jan 7, Iraqi Kurdish officials reported that at least 500 Turkish troops had pushed 100 miles into northern Iraq in response to a call for help from the PUK. The PUK was fighting the PKK and had lost 200 soldiers in recent weeks. Some 10,000 Turkish troops had entered northern Iraq since Dec 20.
    (SFC, 1/8/01, p.A9)

2001        Sep 26, Turkey approved constitutional reforms that eased restrictions on broadcasting and publishing in the Kurdish language.
    (SFC, 9/27/01, p.A11)

2001        Ansar al-Islam, blamed for attacks in Iraq and supported by a network of members in Europe, was founded in late 2001 in Kurdish part of northern Iraq by Mullah Krekar, who had lived as refugee in Norway since 1991.
    (AP, 1/8/05)

2002        Mar 20, In Italy 928 illegal immigrants, mostly ethnic Kurds, arrived on a rusty cargo ship. A state of emergency was declared to deal with the problem.
    (SFC, 3/21/02, p.A10)

2002        Mar 21, In Diyarbakir, Turkey, thousands of Kurdish youths battled Turkish police after authorities banned the celebration of Nowruz, the Zoroastrian New Year.
    (SFC, 3/22/02, p.A10)

2002        Aug 3, Turkey's parliament approved a reform package aimed at boosting its chances of joining the European Union by abolishing the death penalty and granting greater rights to the nation's Kurds.
    (AP, 8/3/02)

2002        Aug 31, Five Kurdish migrants were found dead in the back of a cargo truck after they apparently suffocated during a harrowing ferry crossing from Greece to Italy.
    (AP, 8/31/02)

2002        Sep 8, The leaders of the two main Kurdish factions, KDP and PUK, that control northern Iraq signed a reconciliation agreement as the United States tries to forge a united front against Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein.
    (AP, 9/9/02)

2002        Oct 3, Turkey formally commuted Kurdish guerrilla leader Abdullah Ocalan's death sentence to life in prison after parliament abolished capital punishment two months ago in a bid to join the European Union.
    (AP, 10/3/02)

2002        Oct 4, Lawmakers from rival Iraqi Kurdish factions met for the first time in 8 years, in a rare show of political unity ahead of a possible U.S. attack on Iraq.
    (AP, 10/4/02)

2002        Oct 27, Kurdish rebels clashed with Turkish soldiers in the mainly Kurdish southeast, leaving an insurgent dead and five soldiers wounded.
    (AP, 10/27/02)

2002        Nov 30, Turkey lifted curfews and restrictions on gatherings in two predominantly Kurdish provinces, ending 15 years of emergency rule in southeastern Turkey and fulfilling a requirement toward joining the European Union.
    (AP, 11/30/02)

2002        Dec 4, Kurdish militiamen of the PUK battled Islamic militants (Ansar al-Islam) believed to be linked to al-Qaida in northern Iraq, and as many as 30 militiamen were killed or wounded.
    (AP, 12/4/02)(SFC, 12/6/02, p.A18)

2003        Feb 8, In Iraq gunmen posing as defectors from an Islamic extremist group killed  Gen. Shawkat Haji Mushir, a political leader of the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan and two other Kurdish officials.
    (AP, 2/9/03)

2003          Mar 4, In northern Iraq Kurdish soldiers killed 5 Muslim men in a possible case of mistaken identity.
    (AP, 3/4/03)(SFC, 3/5/03, p.A10)

2003        Mar 20, Norwegian police arrested Mullah Krekar, the leader of a Kurdish guerrilla group suspected of links to al-Qaida, on kidnapping charges. After settling in Norway in 1991, Krekar founded the Kurdish Ansar al-Islam during visits to Iraq.
    (AP, 3/20/03)(AP, 2/14/12)
2003        Mar 20, Turkey’s parliament approved a motion allowing over-flights for US warplanes. Turkey announced plans to send thousands of troops into Kurdish-controlled northern Iraq.
    (AP, 3/20/03)

2003        May 12, The Kurdish regional parliament in Erbil declared Apr 9, the date of the fall of Baghdad to US forces, as a national holiday.
    (USAT, 5/13/03, p.11A)

2003        Jul 10, In southeastern Turkey suspected Kurdish rebels raided a village, killing four villagers and injuring another.
    (AP, 7/11/03)

2003        Aug 22, Turkish troops clashed with Kurdish rebels in Batman province. 7 Kurds and 2 Turkish soldiers were killed.
    (SFC, 8/23/03, p.A3)

2003        Nov 11, The Kurdish guerrilla group that battled the Turkish army for some 15 years announced that it was dissolving itself and was planning to form a new group that would likely would pursue Kurdish rights through negotiations. The Kurdistan Workers Party changed its name to the Congress for Freedom and Democracy in Kurdistan, or KADEK, last year.
    (AP, 11/11/03)

2004        Jan 2, Norwegian police arrested Mullah Krekar, Muslim Kurd leader of Ansar al-Islam, on charges connected to 2 suicide bombings in Iraq 2 years ago. Norway ordered Krekar deported in 2005 after declaring him a national security threat, but postponed the move because of worries he could face execution or torture in Iraq.
    (SFC, 1/2/04, p.A3)(AP, 2/14/12)

2004        Jan 6, President Bashar Assad began the first-ever visit to Turkey by a Syrian head of state, hoping to further improve ties forge a joint position on growing Kurdish autonomy.
    (AP, 1/6/04)(WSJ, 1/7/04, p.A1)

2004        Jun 2, In southeast Turkey Kurdish guerrillas fired on troops a day after announcing an end to a 5-year cease fire.
    (WSJ, 6/3/04, p.A1)

2004        Jun 9, Kurdish parties warned that they might bolt Iraq's new government if Shiites gain too much power.
    (AP, 6/9/04)
2004        Jun 9, State-run Turkish TV aired its 1st ever broadcast in the Kurdish dialect of Kurmandji. Hours later Leyla Zana and 3 colleagues were released after spending 10 years in jail for belonging to the PKK rebel group.
    (Econ, 6/12/04, p.50)

2004        Jun 28, Iran’s Deputy Interior Minister Ali Asghar Ahmadi said two Iranian soldiers and eight rebels were killed in clashes with Kurds. A pro-Kurdish news agency said 16 soldiers and four rebels died.
    (AP, 7/10/04)

2004        Jul 8, Iranian troops killed two Turkish Kurdish rebels in clashes close to the Iraqi border, amid reports of a major offensive by Tehran on Ankara's behalf.
    (AP, 7/10/04)

2004        Oct 2, About 100,000 Kurds demonstrated outside provincial government offices, demanding that the turbulent, oil hub of Kirkuk be made part of the autonomous Kurdish region in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 10/2/04)
2004        Oct 2, Turkish troops and Kurdish rebels clashed in southeastern Turkey in fighting that killed two soldiers and a guerrilla.
    (AP, 10/3/04)

2004        Nov 12, Dutch police raided a suspected Kurdish separatist training camp in a small village in the southern Netherlands, arresting 29 people. 38 members of the group were arrested nationwide.
    (AFP, 11/12/04)(SFC, 11/13/04, p.A18)

2004        Nov 20, Ugur Kaymaz (12) and his father Ahmet Kaymaz (30), a Kurdish truck driver from Kiziltepe, Turkey, were reportedly shot dead by police officers in front of their house. In 2007 all 4 members of the special forces implicated in the killings were exonerated.
    (www.extrajudicialexecutions.org/communications/turkey.html)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.60)

2004        Dec 1, Unidentified gunmen in Iraq killed 5 leading members of a Kurdish group that led a 15-year rebellion in southern Turkey.
    (WSJ, 12/2/04, p.A1)

2004        Dec 3, In Germany 3 Iraqi citizens of Kurdish origin were arrested for plotting to kill Iraqi PM Ayad Allawi. In 2008 the 3 men were convicted and sentenced to prison. The Stuttgart state court convicted the three men of attempted participation in murder and membership in terrorist organization Ansar al-Islam, a radical Islamic group linked to al-Qaida.
    (AP, 7/15/08)

2004        Hiner Saleem, filmmaker, authored “My Father’s Rifle," a memoir of his life growing as the son of a Kurdish peshmerga fighter.
    (WSJ, 12/22/04, p.D8)
2004        Mike Tucker authored “Hell Is Over: Voices of the Kurds After Saddam."
    (SSFC, 1/30/05, p.C3)

2005        Jan 26, A suicide car bomber attacked an office of a major Kurdish party, killing or injuring at least 20 people.
    (AP, 1/26/05)

2005        Feb 2, Kurdish leader Massoud Barzani outlined a set of demands for Shiite political parties and said Kurds would back only Shiites willing to maintain the current Kurd autonomy.
    (WSJ, 2/3/05, p.A15)

2005        Mar 10, Iraq's main Shiite party and a Kurdish bloc reached a deal that sets the stage for a new government to be formed when the National Assembly convenes next week.
    (AP, 3/10/05)

2005        May 4, An Iraqi carrying hidden explosives detonated them outside a police recruitment center where people were applying for jobs, killing at least 60 Iraqis and wounding some 100. The Iraqi militant group Ansar al-Sunnah claimed responsibility for the bombing at a police recruitment center that killed about 50 Iraqis and wounding about 100, saying in a Web statement the attack was revenge for the Kurds' alliance with US forces.
    (AP, 5/4/05)(SFC, 5/5/05, p.A1)

2005        May 13, Turkish soldiers killed 9 Kurdish rebels in Turkey's predominantly Kurdish southeast. Automatic weapons, plastic explosives, grenades, and a rocket-propelled grenade launcher were seized in the operation. A Syrian citizen was among those killed.
    (AP, 5/14/05)

2005        May 16, In Turkey 2 Kurdish guerillas trying to attack the home of a Turkish governor were killed after police fired on them as they approached the building.
    (AP, 5/16/05)

2005        cJun 4, In southeastern Turkey Kurdish rebels killed 4 Turkish soldiers in a clash near Tunceli.
    (AP, 6/5/05)

2005        Jul 9, In southeastern Turkey a land mine believed to have been planted by Kurdish rebels killed 3 soldiers. Two other land mines injured seven people in separate explosions.
    (AP, 7/10/05)

2005        Jul 11, Kurdish guerrillas kidnapped a Turkish soldier after stopping dozens of cars at a makeshift roadblock in the southeast.
    (AP, 7/11/05)

2005        Jul 19, A top Turkish general said the US had given direct orders for the capture of rebel Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) leaders in Iraq.
    (AP, 7/19/05)

2005        Jul 21, A Kurdish party official said Kurdish leaders have presented a redrawn map with a larger Kurdistan to the Iraqi National Assembly for consideration in the new constitution.
    (AP, 7/21/05)
2005        Jul 21, Turkish forces killed 5 Kurdish rebels, including a woman, in a gunbattle in the southeast.
    (AP, 7/23/05)

2005        Aug 1, The directors of Turkey's eight privately owned Kurdish language schools announced they were closing them due to bureaucratic hurdles and Kurdish demands for the language to be part of the regular school curriculum.
    (AP, 8/1/05)

2005        Aug 5, In southeastern Turkey Kurdish rebels killed 5 Turkish soldiers in a rocket attack.
    (AP, 8/5/05)

2005        Aug 13, In Iran at least 17 people were reported killed and many more wounded during anti-government protests in the western province of Kurdistan.
    (AP, 8/13/05)

2005        Aug 19, A Kurdish rebel group fighting for autonomy in Turkey's southeast announced a one-month cease-fire and said it planned to pursue indirect negotiations with the government.
    (AP, 8/20/05)

2005        Sep 4, In Turkey a group of nationalist Turks attacked dozens of buses carrying pro-Kurdish demonstrators with stones, following violent clashes between Kurdish demonstrators and police in Istanbul.
    (AP, 9/4/05)

2005        Nov 9, In Semdinli, Turkey, 2 government intelligence officers and a PKK informant were caught trying to blow up a bookshop owned by a PKK sympathizer. The affair was said to have been organized by the “deep state," a shadowy coalition of rogue officers and bureaucrats whose powers were being sapped by EU-inspired laws.
    (Econ, 4/15/06, p.54)(Econ, 1/27/07, p.52)

2005        At least 68 people, including 9 children, were killed this year in landmine blasts in Turkey’s Kurdish areas bordering Iran and Iraq.
    (Econ, 2/10/07, p.52)

2006        Jan 24, Banaz Mahmod (20) was raped, beaten, strangled, stuffed in a suitcase and buried in a back garden in Birmingham, England, on her father's orders for becoming involved with a man of whom he did not approve. Mahmod's father was given a life sentence in 2007 for ordering the killing. In 2010 two of her Kurdish cousins were jailed for life by a London court for murdering Mahmod because her family disapproved of her boyfriend.
    (www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/crime/article5263475.ece)(AP, 11/10/10)

2006        Feb 9, In Turkey a bomb attack wounded at least 17 people at an Internet cafe in Istanbul. A hardline Kurdish militant group claimed responsibility.
    (AP, 2/9/06)

2006        Feb 13, In Turkey a bomb exploded at an Istanbul supermarket during the afternoon rush, injuring 15 people. A Kurdish news agency reported that a Kurdish militant group claimed responsibility for the attack.
    (AP, 2/13/06)

2006        Feb 15, Kurdish protesters armed with firebombs and stones battled with Turkish police to mark the seventh anniversary of guerrilla leader Abdullah Ocalan's capture.
    (AP, 2/15/06)

2006        Feb, Iranian security forces, according to a Kurdish group, killed 10 demonstrators.
    (Econ, 6/3/06, p.42)

2006        Mar 4, Iraq's Kurdish president said that he joined Sunni Arab and secular politicians in trying to block the Shiite Muslim prime minister from a second term because Ibrahim al-Jaafari has become a divisive figure.
    (AP, 3/4/06)

2006        Mar 11, Turkish and Kurdish intellectuals gathered under tight security for a major 2-day conference in Istanbul to discuss a peaceful resolution to the 22-year-old Kurdish conflict.
    (AP, 3/11/06)

2006        Mar 21, More than 100,000 Turkish Kurds celebrated the ancient spring festival of Newroz with dancing, singing and calls for political reform and the release of jailed Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Ocalan.
    (AP, 3/21/06)

2006        Mar 24-2006 Mar 25, In southeastern Turkey government troops killed 14 Kurdish guerrillas near the hamlet of Senyayla.
    (AP, 3/26/06)

2006        Mar 28, Thousands of Kurdish protesters rampaged after funerals for Kurdish guerrillas killed by Turkish troops, hurling firebombs at armored police vehicles and smashing windows at a police station. Forty people were injured.
    (AP, 3/29/06)

2006        Mar 29, In southeastern Turkey riot police fired water cannons and used pepper spray to disperse stone-throwing Kurdish rioters in a second day of violence that an official said left at least three people dead and 250 injured.
    (AP, 3/29/06)

2006        Mar 30, In southeast Turkey violent protests by thousands of Kurdish demonstrators left at least 20 hurt as protesters hurled firebombs and police opened fire to disperse the crowds.
    (AP, 3/3006)

2006        Mar 31, In Turkey a bomb hidden in a garbage can exploded near an Istanbul bus stop, killing a street vendor and injuring 13 people.
    (AP, 3/31/06)

2006        Apr 1, Fresh clashes between Kurdish protesters and police in southeast Turkey killed one protester and injured 10.
    (Reuters, 4/1/06)

2006        Apr 2, In southeastern Turkey one protester died after police opened fire to disperse Kurdish demonstrators, raising the death toll in six days of street violence to nine. A group of men stopped a passenger bus and tossed gasoline bombs at it, sending the vehicle careening into pedestrians and killing 3 in Istanbul as pro-Kurdish riots continued to spread. The countrywide death toll from nearly a week of unrest climbed to 15.
    (AP, 4/2/06)(AP, 4/3/06)

2006        Apr 8, Local security sources said Turkish security forces had killed seven Kurdish rebels in the past 24 hours in the southeast of the country.
    (AP, 4/8/06)

2006        Apr 27, Turkey said it has deployed more than 30,000 additional troops in its predominantly Kurdish southeast and along its rugged border with Iraq and Iran to fight Kurdish guerrillas and stop them from coming across the frontier.
    (AP, 4/27/06)

2006        Jul 16, Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan signaled that his government was planning a tough response to mounting violence by Kurdish rebels after 13 members of the security forces were killed in the southeast over the past week.
    (AFP, 7/16/06)

2006        Jul 21, Turkey killed 4 Kurdish rebels after a soldier died in an attack.
    (WSJ, 7/22/06, p.A1)

2006        Aug 19, A suspected Kurdish rebel attack caused an explosion and huge fire on a natural gas pipeline in eastern Turkey.
    (AP, 8/19/06)

2006        Aug 23, A leader of Kurdish rebels battling Turkey's government said in a rare interview that his guerrillas will not give in to US pressure to disarm without a "political project" that fulfills their calls for autonomy. PKK party officials met with a group of journalists in the rugged, isolated Qandil Mountain in Iraq's northeast corner where the group is based.
    (AP, 8/24/06)

2006        Aug 29, An extremist Kurdish militant group warned that "the fear of death will reign everywhere in Turkey" and it urged tourists to avoid travel to the country.
    (AP, 8/30/06)

2006        Sep 1, Kurdish leader Massoud Barzani ordered the Iraqi national flag to be replaced with the Kurdish one in his northern autonomous region. Gunmen fatally shot one policeman in each of two towns outside of Baghdad in separate incidents. Police said they found the body of a Saddam Hussein-era intelligence officer who had been kidnapped and shot. A US soldier died from wounds sustained during action in Anbar province.
    (AP, 9/1/06)(AP, 9/3/06)

2006        Sep 19, The Iraqi government said it will shut down all offices belonging to the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) around the country. A rocket attack on a Shiite neighborhood in southern Baghdad killed 10 people and wounded 19. In northern Iraq at least 17 people were killed and 11 wounded in twin bombings in the town of Al-Shurqat.
    (AP, 9/19/06)(AFP, 9/20/06)

2006        Sep 23, In eastern Turkey suspected Kurdish guerrillas set off an explosive-laden minibus across from a police guest house, injuring 17 people.
    (AP, 9/23/06)

2006        Sep 26, In Turkey 56 Kurdish mayors stood trial, accused in a freedom-of-speech case on charges of helping terrorists by arguing to keep a Kurdish TV station on the air.
    (AP, 9/26/06)

2006        Sep 28, Jailed Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Ocalan has appealed to his Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) to call a ceasefire in its separatist campaign against the Turkish government.
    (AFP, 9/28/06)

2006        Sep 30, A Kurdish guerrilla group declared a new unilateral cease-fire in its war for autonomy in Turkey's southeast, heeding a call from its imprisoned rebel leader.
    (AP, 9/30/06)

2006        Sep, The English-language Univ. of Kurdistan opened in Kurdish controlled Iraq with some 300 undergraduates and 50 graduate students.
    (SFC, 8/3/07, p.A10)

2006        Dec 7, In Armenia 3 teenagers and their grandmother set themselves on fire in Yerevan to protest what they said was authorities' inaction on investigating a relative's death, a family member said. Two of them were injured. They argued that the case was not being investigated because of discrimination against the Yazidi, a Kurdish ethnic group. About 50,000 Yazidi live in Armenia.
    (AP, 12/8/06)

2006        The Kurdish populace was spread across Turkey (14m), Iran (4m), Iraq (5m), Syria (2m), Armenia and Azerbaijan. They claimed to be the world’s largest ethnic populations without a state of their own. Almost all Kurds are Sunni Muslims.
    (SFC, 9/2/96, p.A12)(Econ, 9/2/06, p.12)

2007        Apr 12, Turkey's army chief said the military had launched several "large scale" offensives against rebels in the predominantly Kurdish southeast, and he asked the government for approval to launch an incursion into neighboring northern Iraq.
    (AP, 4/12/07)

2007        Apr 25, A UN report was released that said that violence in Baghdad remains at high levels. The UN Assistance Mission in Iraq singled out Kurdistan in its 10th human rights report on Iraq, expressing concern over infringements on freedom of expression by the regional government. A suicide bomber wearing a hidden belt of explosives attacked a police station in Iraq's volatile province of Diyala, killing at least four policeman. Roadside bombs, mortar rounds and drive-by shootings also killed 10 Iraqis and wounded 23 in the Baghdad area and the cities of Kirkuk, Mosul and Fallujah.
    (AP, 4/25/07)(AP, 4/26/07)

2007        May 25, Kurdish guerrillas bombed and derailed a Syria-bound train from Iran near the town of Genc in Turkey’s southeastern Bingol province. Turkish authorities later seized weapons hidden among construction materials found on the train following the attack.
    (AP, 5/31/07)

2007        May 31, Turkish lawmakers approved again a constitutional amendment that would see the president elected by popular vote, a change vetoed last week by the outgoing head of state. Turkey's top general said the military was ready to stage a cross-border offensive to fight Kurdish guerrillas in Iraq and that he already had sought government approval to mount military action.
    (AFP, 5/31/07)(AP, 5/31/07)

2007        Jun 1, In southeast Turkey soldiers killed two Kurdish militants overnight in Tunceli, where troops massed along the border threatened an incursion into Iraq.
    (AP, 6/1/07)

2007        Jun 3, Turkish troops shelled a border area in northern Iraq in an attack on Kurdish rebels based there.
    (AP, 6/3/07)

2007        Jun 4, Seven Turkish paramilitary police were killed when Kurdish militants attacked their headquarters in eastern Tunceli province.
    (AP, 6/4/07)(Econ, 6/9/07, p.58)

2007        Jun 6, A premature report said several thousand Turkish troops had crossed into northern Iraq to chase Kurdish guerrillas who operate from bases there. Turkey declared several areas near the border with Iraq to be "temporary security zones" in a sign of increasing activity by the military in its campaign against Kurdish rebels. Turkey's foreign minister denied there was a cross-border operation.
    (AP, 6/6/07)(AP, 6/7/07)(Econ, 6/9/07, p.58)

2007        Jun 11, In London, England, Mahmod Mahmod (52), a Kurdish father who ordered his daughter brutally slain for falling in love with the wrong man in a so-called "honor killing," was found guilty of murder. Banaz Mahmod (20) was strangled with a boot lace, stuffed into a suitcase and buried in a back garden.
    (AP, 6/11/07)

2007        Jun 12, Kurdish separatist rebels declared a "unilateral cease-fire" in attacks against Turkey and said they were ready for peace negotiations, but the group maintained the right to defend itself.
    (AP, 6/12/07)

2007        Jun 23, In Turkey a separatist Kurdish rebel and a civilian were killed in a botched suicide attack in the eastern province of Tunceli. Paramilitary troops opened fire on the truck as it was approaching a military outpost at which point the vehicle exploded. Fighting elsewhere left five rebels and a government militia member dead.
    (AFP, 6/24/07)

2007        Jun 27, Gen. Yasar Buyukanit, Turkey's military chief, asked his government to set political guidelines for an incursion into northern Iraq to fight Kurdish guerrillas.
    (AP, 6/27/07)

2007        Jul 3, A human rights group said Kurdish security forces in northern Iraq routinely torture detainees with methods including electric shock and hold them in overcrowded facilities without formal charges or access to legal aid.
    (AP, 7/3/07)

2007        Jul 6, Turkey's foreign minister said his government and military have agreed on plans for a possible cross-border operation against Kurdish rebels based in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 7/6/07)

2007        Jul 11, Kurdish leaders spoke out against a key oil law, raising further doubts over efforts to pass one of the political benchmarks sought by the United States.
    (AP, 7/11/07)
2007        Jul 11, Turkey's ambassador to Washington said that US weapons have been turning up in the hands of Kurdish guerrillas staging attacks in Turkey.
    (AP, 7/11/07)

2007        Jul 12, Iranian artillery shelled near Iraqi Kurd villages as Iranian troops clashed with Kurdish guerrillas making an incursion across the border.
    (AP, 7/12/07)

2007        Aug 7, Kurdish guerrillas killed a Turkish lieutenant in the southeast, as the Iraqi prime minister arrived for a visit. Turkey and Iraq agreed to try to root out a Kurdish rebel group from northern Iraq, but Iraq's prime minister said his parliament would have the final say on efforts to halt the guerrillas' cross-border attacks into Turkey. Iraq's semi-autonomous Kurdish government approved a regional oil law, paving the way for foreign investment in their northern oil and gas fields even as similar US-backed legislation for the entire country remained stalled. Two US Marines died west of Baghdad, one in fighting and the other in a non-combat incident that was under investigation.
    (AP, 8/7/07)(AP, 8/9/07)

2007        Aug 10, A car bomb struck a market in a Kurdish area in the northern city of Kirkuk, killing at least eight people and wounding dozens. Scattered violence struck Iraqis nationwide, with at least 15 people killed or found dead. South of Baghdad, the US military said a helicopter was forced down, leaving two soldiers injured.
    (AP, 8/10/07)

2007        Aug 12, In southeast Turkey 12 were injured, three of them seriously, when Kurdish guerrillas detonated a roadside bomb.
    (AP, 8/12/07)

2007        Aug 26, A US helicopter attacked two Kurdish police outposts, killing four policemen and wounding eight. A spokesman for the Kurdish Peshmerga militia believed the attack was mistaken friendly fire. Waves of Shiite pilgrims descended on Karbala for the Shabaniyah festival marking the birth of the 9th century Hidden Imam. A woman making the 50-mile trek from Baghdad was shot to death by men in a passing car in the southwest of the capital.
    (AP, 8/26/07)

2007        Aug 30, Turkish legislators said that American weapons have been turning up in the hands of Kurdish guerrillas staging attacks in Turkey.
    (SFC, 8/31/07, p.A17)

2007        Sep 10, It was reported that the regional government of Kurdistan had signed a deal with Dallas-based Hunt Oil Co. to explore for oil in their region.
    (WSJ, 9/10/07, p.A1)

2007        Sep 12, Turkish troops killed 4 Kurdish guerrillas in a the southeastern province of Siirt.
    (AP, 9/12/07)

2007        Sep 26, Officials said Turkey and Iraq have agreed to sign a counterterrorism deal cracking down on separatist Kurdish rebels holed up in bases in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 9/26/07)

2007        Sep 30, In southeastern Turkey Kurdish rebels ambushed a minibus carrying pro-government village guards and civilians and killed 12 people.
    (AP, 9/29/07)

2007        Oct 7, Kurdish rebels killed 13 Turkish soldiers in a clash in the country's southeast, and troops responded by shelling an area near Iraq to try to stop the rebels from escaping across the border.
    (AP, 10/7/07)

2007        Oct 9, Turkish PM Tayyip Erdogan gave the green light for a possible military incursion into northern Iraq to crush Kurdish rebels hiding there after several deadly attacks on Turkish security forces.
    (Reuters, 10/9/07)

2007        Oct 10, It was reported that Turkey had begun shelling suspected Kurdish rebel camps across the border in northern Iraq. The government appeared unlikely to move toward sending ground troops until next week.
    (AP, 10/10/07)

2007        Oct 17, Turkey’s Parliament gave the government a one-year window in which to launch cross-border offensives against Turkish Kurd rebels who've been conducting raids into Turkey. The vote removed the last legal obstacle to an offensive.
    (AP, 10/18/07)(AP, 10/20/07)

2007        Oct 18,     Thousands of Kurds and supporters took to the streets in northern Iraq to protest the Turkish parliament's decision to authorize the government to send troops across the border to root out Kurdish rebels who have been conducting raids into Turkey.
    (AP, 10/18/07)

2007        Oct 21, Kurdish rebels ambushed a Turkish military convoy less than three miles from the Iraqi border, killing 12 soldiers with 8 missing. The rebels said they are holding them hostage. Turkey shelled the border region in response to the attack, and Iraqi President Jalal Talabani, himself a Kurd, ordered the rebels to lay down their arms or leave Iraq.
    (AP, 10/21/07)(WSJ, 10/22/07, p.A1)(AP, 10/25/07)

2007        Oct 23,     Turkey's foreign minister rejected any cease-fire by Kurdish rebels as he met with Iraqi leaders in Baghdad to press them to crack down on the guerrillas. Turkish forces massed on the border and tensions rose over a threatened military incursion.
    (AP, 10/23/07)

2007        Oct 24, Turkish warplanes and helicopter gunships reportedly attacked positions of Kurdish rebels just inside Turkey along the border with Iraq, as Turkey's military stepped up its anti-rebel operations. Masoud Barzani, president of Iraq’s Kurdish region, called on the PKK to end its violence in Turkey.
    (AP, 10/24/07)(Econ, 10/27/07, p.61)

2007        Oct 26, A high-level Iraqi delegation held talks with Turkish officials to try to defuse tensions over Kurdish rebels based in northern Iraq. Turkish helicopters and fighter jets pounded Kurdish rebel positions as diplomatic efforts began in Ankara.
    (AP, 10/26/07)(Reuters, 10/26/07)

2007        Oct 28, Turkish troops killed some 20 Kurdish guerrillas in fighting in eastern Tunceli province. Turkey's PM Erdogan called for unity between Turks and Kurds against the rebels.
    (Reuters, 10/28/07)(AP, 10/29/07)(WSJ, 10/29/07, p.A1)

2007        Oct 29, Turkey's state-run news said soldiers battled separatist Kurdish rebels across southeast Turkey, trapping about 100 in caves near the Iraqi border after blocking escape routes across the frontier. Helicopter gunships bombed Kurdish rebel positions in southeast Turkey and the government flexed its military muscle with big national day parades and flypasts in major cities.
    (AP, 10/29/07)(Reuters, 10/29/07)

2007        Oct 30, Turkish Cobra attack helicopters blasted suspected Kurdish rebel targets near the southeastern border with Iraq in a second day of fighting in the area. PM Erdogan said an escalation of military action was unavoidable.
    (AP, 10/30/07)

2007        Oct 31, The Turkish army said it killed 15 Kurdish separatists near the Iraqi border, as ministers discussed possible economic sanctions against Iraq's autonomous Kurdish government.
    (AFP, 10/31/07)
2007        Oct 31,     The US acknowledged that it had undertaken military moves against Kurdish rebels in Iraq, including spy planes and providing Turkey with more intelligence.
    (WSJ, 11/1/07, p.A1)

2007        Nov 2, Iraqi police found only six bodies dumped in three Iraqi cities, and no reports of shootings or bombings. The prime minister of Iraq's northern Kurdish region condemned attacks by Kurdish rebel fighters inside Turkey and said he hopes a weekend summit in Istanbul will reduce the threat of Turkish military strikes inside Iraq.
    (AP, 11/2/07)(AP, 11/3/07)

2007        Nov 3, Some 5,000 Turkish Kurds protested against a military incursion into Iraq, saying such a move would enflame ethnic tensions in the region and plunge the local economy into ruin. Iraq said it was ready to hunt down and arrest Kurdish guerrilla leaders responsible for cross-border raids into Turkey in an effort to avert a major incursion by the Turkish military.
    (AFP, 11/3/07)(Reuters, 11/3/07)

2007        Nov 4, Two carloads of gunman ambushed a top aide to Iraq's Finance Ministry in Baghdad, killing him and his driver. The two were among 15 people killed or found dead in Iraq. Kurdish rebels released eight Turkish soldiers in northern Iraq two weeks after they were captured in a deadly ambush that intensified pressure on the Turkish government to attack the guerrillas in Iraq.
    (AP, 11/4/07)

2007        Nov 6, Kurdish rebels released another Iranian soldier captured two months ago in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 11/6/07)

2007        Nov 13, Turkish helicopter gunships attacked abandoned villages inside Iraq, the first such airstrike since border tensions have escalated in recent months. Kurdish guerrillas killed four Turkish soldiers in a clash in southeastern Turkey.
    (AP, 11/13/07)

2007        Nov 16, Turkish authorities took steps to ban the country's leading pro-Kurdish political party and expel several of its lawmakers from parliament on charges of separatism.
    (AP, 11/16/07)

2007        Dec 1, The Turkish military said it fired on 50 to 60 Kurdish rebels inside Iraqi territory, inflicting "significant losses."
    (AP, 12/1/07)

2007        Dec 5, Turkish soldiers killed eight Kurdish rebels, increasing the rebel death toll to 14 in a two-day clash near the border with Iraq.
    (AP, 12/5/07)

2007        Dec 16, Turkish warplanes hit Kurdish rebel targets, marking an escalation of force against the outlawed separatist group. An Iraqi official said the planes attacked several villages, killing one woman. Turkey’s military later said up to 175 rebels were killed on this day. A Kurdish leader said the figure was exaggerated.
    (AP, 12/16/07)(AP, 12/25/07)

2007        Dec 18, The Turkish army sent soldiers about 1.5 miles into northern Iraq in an overnight operation. A Turkish official said the troops seeking Kurdish rebels were still in Iraq by midmorning.
    (AP, 12/18/07)

2007        Dec 22, Turkish warplanes bombed Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq in the third confirmed cross-border offensive by Turkish forces in less than a week.
    (AP, 12/22/07)

2007        Dec 23, Turkish fighter jets bombed Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 12/23/07)

2007        Dec 26, Turkish warplanes hit eight suspected Kurdish rebel hideouts in northern Iraq, the third cross-border air assault in 10 days. Troops killed 6 rebels near the Iraqi border.
    (AP, 12/26/07)(WSJ, 12/27/07, p.A1)

2007        Ian Klaus authored “Elvis Is Titanic: Classroom Tales from the Other Iraq," an account of his time as a teacher in the Kurdistan region of northern Iraq. Klaus, a former boyfriend of Chelsea Clinton, taught there in 2005.
    (WSJ, 9/1/07, p.P9)
2007        Aliza Marcus authored “Blood and Belief: The PKK and the Kurdish Fight for Independence."
    (Econ, 11/17/07, p.100)
2007        In western Iran Kurdish Law student Habibollah Latifi was arrested accused of carrying activities on behalf of "anti- revolutionary" groups. He was sentenced to death in 2008.
    (AP, 12/26/10)
2007         The Kurdish population in Turkey numbered about 14 million.
    (Econ, 6/23/07, p.60)

2008        Jan 3, In Turkey a car bomb exploded in the Kurdish-dominated southeastern city of Diyarbakir, killing 6 people, including 5 students. 67 people were wounded, including military personnel.
    (AP, 1/3/08)(Reuters, 1/4/08)(AP, 1/8/08)

2008        Jan 7, In Turkey an accused Kurdish rebel suspected of detonating a deadly car bomb last week in Diyarbakir was captured. Six other suspects also were detained.
    (AP, 1/8/08)

2008        Jan 8, Pres. Bush met with Turkey’s Pres. Abdullah Gul to discuss US policy on Turkey's fight against Kurdish rebels. Bush prepared to leave later in the day on his first major trip to the Mideast to try to build momentum for peace.
    (AP, 1/8/08)

2008        Jan 15, Turkish warplanes bombed Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq in the latest in a series of cross-border air strikes.
    (AFP, 1/15/08)

2008        Feb 4, Turkey’s warplanes bombed some 70 Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 2/4/08)

2008        Feb 15, In southeast Turkey hundreds of Kurdish protesters battled police, leaving a young demonstrator dead and dozens injured on the ninth anniversary of guerrilla leader Abdullah Ocalan's capture.
    (AP, 2/16/08)

2008        Feb 21, Turkish troops launched a ground incursion across the border into Iraq in pursuit of separatist Kurdish rebels.
    (AP, 2/22/08)

2008        Feb 25, Turkey's military said it had killed 41 more separatist Kurdish rebels in clashes in northern Iraq, raising the reported guerrilla death toll in a cross-border operation to 153.
    (AP, 2/25/08)

2008        Feb 26, The Iraqi government demanded for the first time that Turkey immediately withdraw from northern Iraq, warning it feared the ongoing incursion could lead to clashes with the official forces of the semiautonomous Kurdish region.
    (AP, 2/26/08)

2008        Feb 27, Turkey said the death toll for rebels reached 230 during the operation in northern Iraq that began last week. The death toll for soldiers stood at 24. Troops killed 77 Kurdish rebels in night-long clashes with 5 Turkish soldiers killed.
    (AP, 2/27/08)

2008        Feb 29, Turkey's military said it has ended a ground offensive against Kurdish rebels in Iraq, but said that foreign influence did not play a role in its decision.
    (AP, 2/29/08)

2008        Mar 6, A Kurdish demonstrator wounded a day earlier in clashes with police in eastern Turkey died of his injuries.
    (AP, 3/7/08)

2008        Mar 7, Suspected Kurdish rebels killed a civilian and took another hostage in a southern Turkish province near the border with Syria.
    (AP, 3/7/08)

2008        Mar 12, Turkish troops killed 11 Kurdish rebels during clashes near the border with Iraq.
    (WSJ, 3/13/08, p.A1)

2008        Mar 20, Turkish warplanes bombed Kurdish rebel hideouts in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 3/20/08)

2008        Mar 21, In Turkey unrest erupted when celebrations marking Newroz day, or the Kurdish new year, degenerated into demonstrations in favor of the armed separatist Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), which Ankara lists as a terrorist group.
    (AFP, 3/22/08)

2008        Mar 22, In Turkey dozens of people were injured and scores detained as police used truncheons and tear gas to break up violent Kurdish protests in several eastern cities.
    (AP, 3/22/08)

2008        Mar 23, Iranian artillery shelled three border towns in northern Iraq where Iranian Kurdish rebels are believed to be operating.
    (AP, 3/23/08)

2008        Mar 23, In southeast Turkey Kurdish protesters clashed with police for a 4th day. Two people have been killed In the clashes and dozens injured.
     (WSJ, 3/24/08, p.A1)

2008        Mar 27, Turkey's armed forces killed 15 members of the outlawed Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) in northern Iraq using long-range land weapons.
    (Reuters, 3/29/08)

2008        Mar 28, Turkish warplanes hit Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 3/29/08)

2008        Mar 31, Turkey's top court decided to put the Islamist-rooted ruling party on trial for alleged anti-secular activity, in a case that could threaten national stability and Ankara's bid to join the EU. Clashes between Turkish troops and Kurdish rebels left nine rebels and three soldiers dead in Turkey's southeast.
    (AFP, 3/31/08)(AP, 4/1/08)

2008        Apr 16, Turkish warplanes hit a group of Kurdish rebels reportedly trying to infiltrate Turkey from the Avasin-Basyan region of northern Iraq. A clash between Turkish troops and Kurdish rebels near Turkey's southeastern border with Iraq left a Turkish soldier dead.
    (AP, 4/17/08)

2008        Apr 25, Turkish warplanes and artillery units struck Kurdish rebels in northern Iraq who were preparing to cross the border to carry out attacks. The strikes continued the next day.
    (AP, 4/26/08)

2008        May 2, A rebel spokesman said Turkish warplanes bombed Kurdish rebel bases deep inside Iraq for three hours overnight. The Turkish military said the raid in northern Iraq killed more than 150 Kurdish rebels.
    (AP, 5/2/08)(AP, 5/3/08)

2008        May 9, In southeast Turkey a land mine explosion killed 3 people and injured 3 others. Air strikes launched in retaliation for a rebel raid killed 19 Kurdish fighters. Six soldiers died in the violence. The PKK denied the military's claims of 19 rebel deaths saying "not a single guerrilla was killed."
    (AP, 5/9/08)(AP, 5/10/08)

2008        May 10, Turkish warplanes and artillery units destroyed key Kurdish rebel positions in northern Iraq, including a communications center, in a second day of raids on rebel positions.
    (AP, 5/11/08)

2008        May 12, Iraqi Kurdish officials said Turkish jets overnight struck suspected Kurdish rebel targets close to the border in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 5/12/08)

2008        May 17, In eastern Turkey a clash between soldiers and Kurdish rebels left 6 rebels dead in Van province.
    (AP, 5/17/08)

2008        May 22, Two Turkish soldiers were killed in an overnight clash with Kurdish rebels in southeastern Turkey. Troops killed two Kurdish rebels near the southeastern city of Sirnak,
    (AP, 5/22/08)(AP, 5/24/08)

2008        May 23, In Turkey one rebel and one village guard were killed in a clash near the border with Iran.
    (AP, 5/24/08)

2008        May 28, Turkey's state-run media said soldiers killed two Kurdish rebels during a clash near the border with Iran.
    (AP, 5/28/08)

2008        May 29, Turkish warplanes attacked several Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq. No casualties were immediately reported. Air raids destroyed 16 Kurdish rebel facilities.
    (AP, 5/29/08)(AP, 5/31/08)

2008        Jun 5, A Turkish TV station quoted a senior military commander as saying that Turkey and Iran have carried out coordinated strikes against Kurdish rebels in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 6/5/08)

2008        Jul 8, In eastern Turkey Kurdish guerrillas kidnapped three German tourists on a climbing expedition. The Germans were released on July 20.
    (AP, 7/20/08)

2008        Jul 9, In Istanbul, Turkey, men armed with pistols and shotguns attacked a police guard post outside the US consulate, sparking a gunbattle that left 3 attackers and 3 officers dead.
    (AP, 7/9/08)(Reuters, 7/9/08)

2008        Jul 11, A Turkish news agency reported that army troops clashed with Kurdish rebels in the southeast and that 10 of the rebels were killed.
    (AP, 7/11/08)

2008        Jul 16, Turkey’s military said 11 Kurdish rebels were killed in an ongoing operation in Hakkari province, near the border with Iraq.
    (AP, 7/16/08)

2008        Jul 18, In southeastern Turkey 10 members of the separatist Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) were killed in clashes with Turkish military forces.
    (Reuters, 7/19/08)

2008        Jul 23, Iraq's Kurdish government has denounced a draft law paving the way for US-backed provincial elections and urged the presidential council to reject it. The 18-year-old son of the chief editor of a US-sponsored newspaper was shot to death as an American patrol passed nearby in the northern city of Kirkuk.
    (AP, 7/23/08)(AP, 7/25/08)

2008        Jul 23, Turkish warplanes bombed 13 Kurdish rebel targets in the Zab region of northern Iraq.
    (AP, 7/24/08)

2008        Jul 27, In Istanbul, Turkey, bomb blasts killed 17 people in a crowded square in the residential neighborhood of Gungoren. 5 of the dead were children. Turkish warplanes bombed 12 Kurdish rebel targets on Mount Qandil in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 7/28/08)(AP, 7/27/08)

2008        Jul 29, Turkish warplanes attacked Kurdish rebels in Iraq's north, killing a group of guerrillas gathered at a mountain cave.
    (AP, 7/29/08)

2008        Aug 5, In Turkey an oil pipeline that has allowed the West to tap the rich fields of Azerbaijan, bypassing Iran and Russia, was set on fire. A Kurdish rebel organization later admitted sabotaging the pipeline.
    (AP, 8/7/08)

2008        Aug 13, In northwest Iran three Kurdish separatists and one Iranian soldier were killed in a shootout.
    (AP, 8/14/08)

2008        Sep 25, Turkish warplanes bombarded Kurdish rebel territory in northern Iraq, damaging a school and wounding three people.
    (AP, 9/26/08)

2008        Oct 3, Fighting between Kurdish rebels and Turkey's army and air force in southeastern Turkey and northern Iraq killed 15 soldiers and at least 23 insurgents, in the deadliest battle between the longtime enemies this year.
    (AP, 10/4/08)

2008        Oct 6, Turkish warplanes bombed a Kurdish rebel hideout in northern Iraq, the third air strike in retaliation for an attack that killed 15 soldiers three days ago.
    (AP, 10/6/08)

2008        Oct 7, Turkish warplanes bombed suspected Kurdish rebel positions in northern Iraq and southeast Turkey, in new air strikes responding to an attack that killed 17 soldiers at a military outpost four days ago.
    (AP, 10/7/08)

2008        Oct 8, In Turkey rebels ambushed a police bus, killing four policemen and the driver in the Kurdish-dominated city of Diyarbakir, further escalating tensions.
    (AP, 10/11/08)

2008        Oct 10, In Iraq Diyar Abbas Ahmed (28), a Kurdish journalist, was gunned down in Kirkuk. A New York-based journalists' group said it was the 136th killing of a reporter since the US-led invasion of Iraq five years ago.
    (AP, 10/11/08)

2008        Oct 11, Turkish warplanes and artillery bombed dozens of Kurdish rebel targets overnight in northern Iraq following an escalation in rebel attacks. Engin Ceber (29), a left-wing activist, was tortured and beaten to death in an Istanbul prison.
    (AP, 10/11/08)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.61)(http://erkansaka.net/blog2/2008/10/engin_ceber.html)

2008        Oct 15, The Turkish military clashed with Kurdish rebels near the Iraqi border in battles in which four soldiers and five rebels were killed. A Turkish helicopter crashed during the clash. A soldier was killed and 15 security personnel were slightly injured in the crash.
    (AP, 10/16/08)

2008        Oct 17, Turkish warplanes carried out successful airstrikes inside Iraq on the main bases used by Kurdish rebels. The air strikes on Qandil Mountain killed 25 Kurdish rebels and wounded many more. Earlier in the day, the military said it intercepted Kurdish rebel radio chatter indicating that up to 35 guerrillas had been killed in clashes with troops earlier this week in southeastern Sirnak province.
    (AP, 10/17/08)(AP, 10/24/08)

2008        Oct 19, Turkish warplanes again bombed Kurdish rebel hideouts across the border in northern Iraq. The bombings targeted four towns near the Turkish border.
    (AP, 10/19/08)

2008        Oct 20, A Kurdish demonstrator died after a clash with police in eastern Turkey. Kurdish protesters staged demonstrations in many parts of Turkey over the weekend following allegations that Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Ocalan was mistreated in prison.
    (AP, 10/20/08)

2008        Oct 21, Turkish soldiers killed two Kurdish guerrillas during a clash near the village of Dallitepe in the country's southeast.
    (AP, 10/22/08)

2008        Oct 28, Turkey's warplanes and artillery struck Kurdish rebel targets inside northern Iraq.
    (AP, 10/28/08)

2008        Nov 19, Iran's official news agency said Iranian border guards have killed several Kurdish separatists in a shootout in the western part of the country. The gunmen were said to be part of the Kurdish separatist group, known as the PEJAK, the Iranian wing of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK).
    (AP, 11/19/08)

2008        Dec 7, A Kurdish rebel group declared a nine-day holiday cease-fire in their fight against Turkey, calling it a "first step toward peace."
    (AP, 12/7/08)

2009        Jan 19, In Turkey Abdulkarim Kirca committed suicide. He was found shot in the head in his apartment in Ankara, following allegations in the Turkish press that he had been involved in extra-judicial killings of Kurds.
    (Econ, 1/31/09, p.58)(www.journalistinturkey.com/date/2009/01/)

2009        Jan 23, Iraqi Foreign Minister Hoshiyar Zebari said Turkey, Iraq and the United States have agreed to set up a joint command center in northern Iraq to gather intelligence to fight Kurdish PKK rebels in the region.
    (Reuters, 1/23/09)

2009        Feb 15, In Turkey police clashed with stone-throwing demonstrators across the country's predominantly Kurdish southeast during protests marking the 10th anniversary of a separatist rebel leader's capture.
    (AP, 2/15/09)

2009        Feb 24, A Kurdish politician spoke to lawmakers in Turkey's parliament in the Kurdish language, openly defying the law, to celebrate UNESCO world languages week. State-run television immediately cut off the live broadcast.
    (AP, 2/24/09)

2009        Mar 12, Turkish warplanes carried out new bombing raids against Kurdish rebel positions in northern Iraq. The strike targeted hideouts of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) in the Zap-Avashin region of the Kurdish-held autonomous north of Iraq.
    (AFP, 3/13/09)

2009        Mar 23, Turkey's president began the first visit to Iraq by a Turkish head of state in more than 30 years, seeking to press Iraqi leaders to stop Kurdish rebels from launching cross-border attacks on Turkey. In northern Iraq a suicide bombing against a Kurdish funeral in Jalula killed 27 people. 8 people were killed in a bombing at a bus stop west of Baghdad. A suicide blast in Tel Afar killed police officer and wounded 8 people.
    (AP, 3/23/09)(AP, 3/24/09)(SFC, 3/24/09, p.A2)

2009        Mar 24, Kurdish rebels rejected calls by Iraq's president to stop fighting against Turkey and leave Iraqi territory as the visiting Turkish president stepped up pressure on the Baghdad government to act against the group.
    (AP, 3/24/09)

2009        Apr 27, In Turkey a five-hour police shootout with a leftist militant in Istanbul left three people dead, including the militant described as a top member of a group tied to the Kurdish separatist PKK. The militant was identified as Orhan Yilmazkaya, one of three top members of the Revolutionary Headquarters.
    (AP, 4/27/09)

2009        Apr 29, In southeastern Turkey suspected Kurdish rebels detonated a roadside bomb that killed nine soldiers in a US-made armored personnel carrier.
    (AP, 4/29/09)

2009        Apr 30, Turkey's military said its warplanes struck Kurdish rebel targets overnight in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 4/30/09)

2009        May 4, Iraq’s Foreign Ministry summoned the Iranian ambassador to Baghdad and handed him a letter of protest, demanding that Iran halt shelling against Kurdish rebels in the country's north and warned the "extremely dangerous violations" of Iraqi territory could harm relations between the two countries.
    (AP, 5/5/09)

2009        May 28, Turkish warplanes attacked Kurdish rebels in northern Iraq, hours after a land mine blast on the Turkish side of the border killed six soldiers.
    (AP, 5/28/09)

2009        Jun 13, A Turkish soldier and a Kurdish rebel were killed in fighting in the southeast of Turkey near the border with Iraq.
    (AFP, 6/14/09)

2009        Jul 25, Iraqis voted in elections in the self-ruled Kurdish north. Regional Kurdish President Massoud Barzani, who has been a consistent critic of the central government, won re-election with almost 70% of the vote, while the leading candidate from the opposition party, Kamal Mirawdeli, received 25%. A coalition of the two ruling parties, Barzani's Kurdistan Democratic Party and Iraqi President Jalal Talabani's Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, received a little over 57% of the vote for the 111-seat parliament, while the opposition Gorran, or Change, party took about 23%.
    (AP, 7/25/09)(AP, 7/29/09)

2009        Jul 29, Turkey's government said it is prepared to grant more rights to the nation's Kurds in an effort to end the 25-year insurgency by Kurdish rebels.
    (AP, 7/29/09)

2009        Aug 25, Turkey's military indicated that it would back government efforts to grant more rights to Kurds and improve the economy of their region. The military, however, drew the line at moves that would involve negotiating with Kurdish rebels, harm Turkey's unity or make Kurdish an official language.
    (AP, 8/25/09)

2009        Sep 5, In Iraq hundreds of Sunni Arabs opposed to the presence of Kurdish troops in disputed areas of northern Iraq demonstrated against a plan to deploy a mixed force of American, Kurdish and Iraqi soldiers in the area.
    (AP, 9/5/09)

2009        Oct 15, Iraq’s PM Nouri al-Maliki warned Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan to stop conducting military operations across Iraq's northern border targeting Kurdish rebels and stressed that Iraq's sovereignty can not be violated. The two met in Baghdad and were to sign agreements boosting economic ties between their countries. A roadside bomb struck an Iraqi army patrol in Baghdad, killing one Iraqi soldier.
    (AP, 10/15/09)

2009        Oct 19, In Turkey tens of thousands of Kurds flocked to the Iraqi border to greet 34 PKK fighters and their sympathizers, who gave themselves up following a call by PM Erdogan to return home.
    (Econ, 10/24/09, p.63)

2009        Oct 20, Turkish prosecutors sought charges against 5 Kurdish rebels who surrendered in a peace gesture, raising questions about whether thousands of other guerrillas can be persuaded to end their decades-long fight. The 5 were later released on the orders of a judge.
    (AP, 10/20/09)(Econ, 10/24/09, p.63)

2009        Oct 28, Kurdish President Massoud Barzani said the Kurds would not accept a proposed "special status," referring to distinct voting rules specifically for Kirkuk in Iraq's January election, which Kurds say would favor other ethnicities.
    (AP, 10/30/09)

2009        Nov 11, Iran executed Ehsan Fattahian (28), a Kurdish activist, at a prison in Sanandaj. He was a member of the Party of Free Life in Kurdistan, a militant group outlawed by Iran.
    (SFC, 11/12/09, p.A2)

2009        Nov 13, Turkey's government announced new measures aimed at reconciling with minority Kurds and ending a 25-year-old insurgency, but there was no mention of the sweeping amnesty sought by Kurdish rebels.
    (AP, 11/13/09)

2009        Dec 1, Turkey's government approved a plan to open the country's first Kurdish-language department at a university as part of its efforts to reconcile with the Kurdish minority. Small scale violence continued for the third day in a row as stone-throwing Kurdish militants clashed with police across the nation in the wake of last week's anniversary of the 1978 founding of the PKK rebel group.
    (AP, 12/1/09)

2009        Dec 7, In Turkey a Kurdish rebel group, acting on its own initiative, carried out an assault in the central city of Tokat killing 7 Turkish soldiers. 3 soldiers were also wounded in the rebel ambush on a military vehicle.
    (AP, 12/10/09)

2009        Dec 12, In Turkey angry Kurds battled Turkish police with rocks and firebombs to protest a decision by the country's top court to shut down a pro-Kurdish political party on charges of ties to militants.
    (AP, 12/12/09)

2009        Dec 13, Turkish nationalists and Kurdish activists clashed in Istanbul, leaving at least one person injured from a gunshot during street battles.
    (AFP, 12/13/09)

2009        Dec 15, In Turkey two Kurds were killed in Bulanik after a shop-keeper fired on protesters.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.91)

2009        Dec 19, An Iraqi official said a mass grave discovered in northeast Iraq contains dozens of bodies, mostly of women and children, believed killed during a crackdown against Kurds by former dictator Saddam Hussein. The grave was originally found nearly two years ago west of Kirkuk, though its discovery was only made public this week after forensic pathologists began examining it.
    (AP, 12/19/09)

2009        Dec 24, Turkish police detained 31 people, including eight Kurdish mayors, in a sweeping dawn operation targeting Kurdish separatists.
    (AP, 12/24/09)

2009        Syria’s population numbered about 22 million people, including about 1.5 million Kurds.
    (Econ, 11/28/09, p.50)

2010        Jan 22, Some 124 refugees, who said they are Kurds and Tunisians, landed on the southern shore of Corsica after a lengthy journey at sea.
    (AP, 1/22/10)

2010        Feb 21, Iranian state television reported that intelligence agents have killed four members of an armed Kurdish separatist group near the Kurdish town of Sardasht. The report accused the four of killing three policemen in a clash on Dec 26.
    (AP, 2/21/10)

2010        Feb 22, In Spain Hokman Joma tried to hit Turkey’s PM Erdogan with a shoe as the Turkish leader got into a car during a visit to the southern city of Seville. Hokman shouted "Long live Kurdistan" in Spanish before being arrested. In June the Syrian Kurd was sentenced to three years in jail in Spain.
    (AP, 9/22/10)

2010        Mar 21, Syrian police opened fire at a group of Kurds celebrating the new year, killing at least one person despite signs that tensions were easing between the government and its restive Kurdish minority.
    (AP, 3/29/10)

2010        Apr 30, Kurdish rebels killed four Turkish soldiers and wounded seven others in eastern Turkey in the largest attack on troops in several months.
    (AP, 5/1/10)

2010        May 3, In Iraq two American soldiers died from injuries sustained in separate incidents unrelated to combat. Sardasht Othman (23), a Kurdish journalist, was kidnapped in front of the campus of University of Salahuddin in the regional capital of Irbil. His handcuffed and bullet-riddled body was found four days later outside the Kurdish region in Mosul.
    (AP, 5/4/10)

2010        May 4, In Iran 5 Kurdish rebels, including two women, were killed after they battled Iran's elite Revolutionary Guards in the western province of Kermanshah.
    (AFP, 5/5/10)

2010        May 7, The Turkish air force struck Kurdish rebel hideouts in neighboring northern Iraq after an attack inside Turkey left two soldiers dead.
    (AFP, 5/8/10)

2010        May 9, Iran hanged five Kurdish activists, including one woman, convicted of membership of armed opposition groups and involvement in bombings.
    (AP, 5/9/10)

2010        May 12, In Iraq more than a thousand Kurds poured into the streets of the northern Iraqi city of Sulaimaniyah in a growing wave of outrage, blaming authorities for the kidnapping and murder of a young Kurdish journalist. A late night car bomb tore through a cafe in Baghdad's Sadr City neighborhood killing nine people. It appeared to have detonated prematurely, also blowing up three suspected militants in the vehicle. The dead included young people who had gathered to drink tea and play dominoes. A roadside bomb exploded near a police patrol in Baghdad's central al-Nahda square, killing a bystander and wounding 8 others, including five policemen. An Iraqi army lieutenant was shot dead by a sniper in the afternoon while manning a checkpoint in New Baghdad.
    (AP, 5/12/10)(AP, 5/13/10)(SFC, 5/13/10, p.A2)(AP, 5/14/10)

2010        May 20, Twenty Turkish warplanes bombed Kurdish rebels in northwestern Iraq.
    (SFC, 5/21/10, p.A2)

2010        May 29, A Kurdish newspaper said imprisoned Kurdish rebel chief Abdullah Ocalan has accused Turkey of ignoring his calls to establish dialogue with his rebels and that he would withdraw from the process, leaving his rebel command in charge.
    (AP, 5/29/10)
2010        May 29, Turkey’s military said 3 security forces members were killed and two soldiers were wounded in clashes with Kurdish rebels in southeast Turkey.
    (Reuters, 5/29/10)

2010        May 31, Kurdish rebels launched a rocket attack on a military vehicle near naval base in southern Turkey, killing six soldiers and wounding seven.
    (AP, 5/31/10)

2010        Jun 4, Kurdish rebels based in northern Iraq announced they had ended their unilateral ceasefire with Turkey a day after Iraqi Kurdish leader Massoud Barzani met Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu and pledged "all efforts" to stop rising rebel violence.
    (AP, 6/4/10)

2010        Jun 5, A senior Kurdish official in northern Iraq said Iranian troops have crossed the Iraqi border in pursuit of Iranian Kurdish rebels. Jabar Yawar, a deputy minister in the Kurdish autonomous region in northern Iraq, said that 35 Iranian soldiers remain in the Iraqi village of Perdunaz after crossing the border on June 3.
    (AP, 6/5/10)

2010        Jun 10, An Iranian state-owned newspaper said three policemen in western Iran have been killed by a roadside bomb detonated by Kurdish rebels. Members of the Party for Free Life in Kurdistan (PEJAK) were blamed.
    (AP, 6/10/10)

2010        Jun 16, Human Rights Watch called on Kurdish authorities in northern Iraq to ban the practice of female genital mutilation, and said in a new report that the majority of women in the self-ruled region undergo the medically risky and emotionally painful procedure.
    (AP, 6/16/10)

2010        Jun 18, Turkey's military said it killed as many as 120 Kurdish rebels in an air raid on rebel hideouts in northern Iraq last month and a daylong incursion by elite commandos into Iraq this week. Maj. Gen. Fahri Kir said another 30 Kurdish rebels were killed inside Turkey since March in anti-rebel operations. He said the Turkish losses were 43 in the same period.
    (AP, 6/18/10)

2010        Jun 19, Turkish warplanes launched air raids at suspected Kurdish rebel positions in northern Iraq after a rebel attack on a military outpost in Turkey touched off clashes in which eight soldiers and 12 PKK rebel fighters died.
    (AP, 6/19/10)

2010        Jun 20, Turkish forces pushed into northern Iraq, killing 4 people, including a girl (15), as they hit back against hideouts of Kurdish rebels who killed 12 soldiers over the last 2 days.
    (AFP, 6/20/10)

2010        Jun 21, Turkish commando units rappelled down from helicopters and mechanized infantry units blocked escape routes of Kurdish rebels in a major operation along the Iraqi border.
    (AP, 6/21/10)

2010        Jun 22, In Turkey Kurdish rebels detonated a remote-controlled bomb in Istanbul, killing 5 people and wounding 12 on a bus carrying military personnel and their families.
    (AP, 6/22/10)

2010        Jul 1, The Turkish military said fighting near the border with Iraq killed 12 Kurdish guerrillas, 2 government soldiers and 3 government-paid village guards. Clashes erupted after rebels fired long range weapons and rockets at a military unit in Slirt province.
    (WSJ, 7/2/10, p.A10)

2010        Jul 13, Iraqi Oil Minister Hussain al-Shahristani said the cabinet had decided to summon representatives of the Kurdish regional government to discuss oil smuggling to Iran and "to put an end to it, as it harms Iraq's national and economic interests." Reports about the oil smuggling surfaced just over a week after the US imposed new sanctions barring the export of refined fuels to Iran.
    (AP, 7/13/10)

2010        Jul 20, Kurdish rebels killed six Turkish soldiers and wounded 15 in an overnight raid on a military outpost along the border with Iraq. Another soldier died in a separate attack.
    (AP, 7/20/10)

2010        Aug 10, In Turkey suspected Kurdish rebels blew up part of an Iraqi-Kurdish pipeline killing 2 people and cutting the flow of oil in Sirnak province.
    (SFC, 8/11/10, p.A2)

2010        Aug 13, In Iran PJAK Kurdish rebels killed a commander of the elite Revolutionary Guards and two Islamist militiamen in clashes near northwestern Orumieh city.
    (AP, 8/14/10)

2010        Sep 4, Iran’s hardline Kayhan newspaper reported that security forces have killed four members of an outlawed Kurdish group in the western province of Kordestan. Nasrin Sotoudeh (45) was summoned by official notice to Tehran's Evin Prison, and did return home. He has represented opposition activists and political figures on suspicion of spreading propaganda against the ruling system.
    (AFP, 9/5/10)(AP, 9/8/10)

2010        Sep 16, In Turkey a roadside bomb attack killed 10 people traveling on a minibus near the village of Gecitli in the rugged Hakkari province, where Kurdish guerrillas have been fighting for autonomy for decades.
    (AP, 9/16/10)

2010        Sep 22, Iran’s pro-reform Sharq daily said that Emadoddin Baghi (48), a human rights activist, was convicted of "spreading propaganda" against the ruling establishment as well as planning to "violate national security." He was sentenced to 6 years in prison. Baghi has been on trial or in jail almost continually since 2000 over similar charges. In the northwest a bomb exploded at a military parade in Mahabad killing 12 people. One official blamed Kurdish separatists who have fought Iranian forces in the area for decades.
    (AP, 9/22/10)(Reuters, 9/26/10)

2010        Sep 26, Iran media said elite Revolutionary Guards said they had killed the "main elements" behind the Sep 22 bomb attack in the Mahabad. Gen. Abdolrasoul Mahmoudabadi of the elite Revolutionary Guards said the "terrorists" were killed the previous day in a clash "beyond the border" and that his forces were still in pursuit of two men who escaped the ambush.
    (Reuters, 9/26/10)(AP, 9/26/10)

2010        Sep 30, The Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) rebel group extended a ceasefire with Turkey by one month in a move it said is aimed at giving a chance to efforts to end a war that has killed 40,000 people.
    (Reuters, 9/30/10)

2010        Oct 7, In Iran a pair of gunmen opened fire on a police patrol in its Kurdish region, killing four officers and a bystander.
    (AP, 10/7/10)

2010        Oct 31, In Turkey a suspected suicide bomber wounded 15 officers and 17 civilians in Istanbul's main square, as an extended unilateral ceasefire by the separatist PKK came to an end. The radical Kurdistan Freedom Falcons (TAK) later claimed responsibility.
    (AFP, 10/31/10)(AP, 11/1/10)(AFP, 11/4/10)

2010        Nov 1, Turkey's main Kurdish rebel group extended a truce until elections next summer, denying responsibility for a suicide attack in Istanbul thought to have been the work of its own hardliners.
    (AP, 11/1/10)

2010        Nov 4, Thousands of Iranians chanted "Death to America" as they staged a mass protest against the "Great Satan" to mark the 31st anniversary of the capture of the American embassy by Islamist students. Iran reported the arrest of four Kurdish rebels of the banned Komala group, who worked for commander Jalil Fattahi, a militant based in Britain. The were arrested in Iran's western city of Marivan.
    (AFP, 11/4/10)

2011        Jan 5, In Turkey authorities searching for mass graves of Kurds, who disappeared in the 1990s, unearthed the bones of eight people in a field in Bitlis province in southeast Turkey.
    (AP, 1/5/11)

2011        Feb 17, In Iraq Kurdish security forces opened fire in Sulaimaniyah on a crowd of protesters surrounding the headquarters of the party affiliated with Kurdish President Massoud Barzani. At least five people were injured in the incident. Hundreds of demonstrators massed in the southern city of Basra to demand the local governor's ouster. Protesters in Nasir stormed a local government building. Gunmen in a speeding car shot and killed a spokesman for the provincial government in the northern city of Mosul.
    (AP, 2/17/11)

2011        Feb 20, In Iraq gunmen burst into the Kurdish NRT television station in Sulaimaniyah, shooting up the equipment and setting fire to the building, apparently in retaliation for footage they aired earlier in the week of a deadly protest.
    (AP, 2/20/11)

2011        Feb 24, In Iraq a suicide bomber trying to assassinate the deputy head of the provincial council killed 11 people including 7 policemen and a bodyguard in Ramadi, Anbar province. Security forces killed al-Nasser Lideen Allah Abu Suleiman, the top military leader of an al-Qaida front group, surrounding his hideout and firing shots that blew up his booby-trapped getaway car in Hit, Anbar province. The Kurdish government sent thousands of its troops into positions around Kirkuk saying it feared that demonstrations planned for the next day could turn violent.
    (AP, 2/24/11)(AP, 2/25/11)(AP, 3/9/11)

2011        Mar 15, In northern Iraq 2 top Kurdish politicians resigned from local government in what appeared to be a political maneuver to challenge Arabs for control of the oil-rich city of Kirkuk.
    (AP, 3/15/11)

2011        Apr 7, Syria’s Pres. Bashar Assad granted citizenship to thousands of Kurds living in a northeastern province. Kurds, the largest ethnic minority in Syria, made up 15 percent of the country's 23 million population and have long complained of neglect and discrimination. Assad also sacked Governor Mohammad Iyad Ghaza of central Homs province, the scene of clashes between anti-government protesters and security forces in the past three weeks.
    (AP, 4/7/11)

2011        Apr 17, Iraqi police opened fire on stone-throwing crowds protesting corruption in the northern Kurdish region. At least 35 people were wounded.
    (SFC, 4/18/11, p.A2)

2011        Apr 19, In Turkey Kurdish protesters clashed with police in two cities and the main Kurdish party threatened to boycott the upcoming election because of a decision the previous day to bar some Kurdish candidates.
    (AP, 4/19/11)

2011        Apr 20, In southeastern Turkey one person was killed when police opened fire on Kurdish protestors in Bismil town.
    (AFP, 4/20/11)

2011        Apr 23, A Kurdish protester (28) died of gunshot wounds, becoming the tenth person killed in more than two months of rallies in Iraq's northern autonomous region. Hardi Farukh was wounded by a bullet to the head during demonstrations on April 18 in Sulaimaniyah.
    (AFP, 4/23/11)

2011        May 14, Turkey's military in Sirnak province killed 12 Kurdish rebels over the last 24 hours who trying to infiltrate the country from northern Iraq.
    (AP, 5/14/11)

2011        Jun 2, New York-based Human Rights Watch said Iraq's central government and regional Kurdish leaders are beating and illegally detaining protesters to try to stop demonstrations calling for reforms.
    (AP, 6/2/11)

2011        Jun 21, Iraqi Kurdistan approved a draft law banning female genital mutilation by the regional government. The Family Violence Bill has to be ratified by the regional president, Massud Barzani.
    (AFP, 7/26/11)

2011        Jul 6, In Iraq two police officers were killed in a suicide bombing outside a car dealership in al-Hedaid, just outside Baqouba, Diyala province. Authorities uncovered a mass grave with 900 corpses near the central city of Diwaniyah, believed to be Kurds killed during the rule of ousted dictator Saddam Hussein.
    (AP, 7/6/11)(AFP, 7/6/11)

2011        Jul 14, An umbrella group that includes Turkey's Kurdish party proclaimed Kurdish autonomy in Diyarbakir, hours after a clash left 13 soldiers and seven Kurdish guerrillas dead.
    (AP, 7/15/11)

2011        Jul 15, Turkish prosecutors launched an investigation into a Kurdish proclamation of autonomy in the country's southeast as the military deployed elite forces to the region where tensions are running high following the deadliest clash between troops and rebels in about three years.
    (AP, 7/15/11)

2011        Jul 17, Several Iranian Kurdish rebels based in Iraq were wounded in hours of clashes with Tehran's forces along the two countries' border.
    (AFP, 7/17/11)

2011        Jul 18, Iran’s state news said Revolutionary Guard forces have taken control of three bases of an Iranian Kurdish opposition group in neighboring Iraq and that "a large number" of members of the Iranian Kurdish opposition group PEJAK have been killed in fierce ongoing clashes over the past two days. PEJAK claimed to have killed 53 Iranian soldiers and wounded 43 while only two PEJAK members were killed and seven wounded in clashes.
    (AP, 7/18/11)

2011        Jul 25, Iranian forces shelled suspected rebel outposts in Iraq's semiautonomous Kurdish region, killing two Iraqi civilians.
    (AP, 7/25/11)

2011        Jul 28, In Iraq a suicide bomber and a car bomb struck an Iraqi bank in Tikrit where policemen were picking up their paychecks, killing 12 and wounding 34 people. An Iraqi Kurd boy (10) was killed in shelling by Tehran's forces of Iranian Kurdish separatist bases in Battas, northern Iraq.
    (AP, 7/28/11)(AP, 7/29/11)

2011        Aug 3, Turkey said it would put 106 more Kurdish politicians on trial for alleged terrorist propaganda, choosing to go ahead with prosecutions despite lingering tensions over the trial of dozens of others accused of fanning separatist violence.
    (AP, 8/3/11)

2011        Aug 17, In Turkey Kurdish PKK rebels ambushed a military convoy in Cukurca township near the border with Iraq killing 9 soldiers. Officials vowed strong military retaliation. Turkey's air force attacked 60 suspected Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq. The military it vowed to continue the assault until the guerrilla group is "rendered ineffective."
    (AP, 8/17/11)(AP, 8/18/11)(Econ, 8/27/11, p.43)

2011        Aug 18, In southern Turkey the PKK attacked police and military stations in simultaneous overnight rocket strikes in Siirt province, killing two soldiers and wounding three civilians. Turkey's air force attacked 28 suspected Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq, in a second day of cross-border strikes in retaliation for stepped up attacks by the guerrillas.
    (AP, 8/19/11)

2011        Aug 19, Turkey's military hit 85 rebel targets with artillery fire. Warplanes bombed 20 suspected Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq in a third day of cross-border strikes.
    (AP, 8/20/11)

2011        Aug 21, Turkish airstrikes on suspected rebel targets in northern Iraq killed seven Iraqi civilians, including five children and a woman, in an attack on Kortak mountain. Police used tear gas and pepper spray to disperse Kurdish protesters who tried to march to a main square in Istanbul to denounce the Turkish raids. In demonstrators marched to protest the PKK.
    (AP, 8/21/11)

2011        Aug 23, Turkey's military said air strikes on suspected Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq this week have killed an estimated 90 to 100 guerrillas and warned that it would press ahead with offensives against the group both inside Turkey and across the border.
    (AP, 8/23/11)

2011        Aug 28, Nechirvan Barzani, deputy chief of the most powerful political party in Iraq's autonomous Kurdish region, called on separatist groups in the area to lay down their arms in an interview published.
    (AFP, 8/28/11)

2011        Aug 29, Turkey’s military said its air strikes and artillery fire on suspected Kurdish rebel targets this month  killed up to 160 guerrillas.
    (SFC, 8/30/11, p.A2)

2011        Sep 3, A young Kurdish shepherd was killed by an Iranian sniper on the Iraq-Iran border. Iran also shelled the border area, appearing to target bases of the Iranian Kurdish rebel group PEJAK, which has been involved in sporadic cross-border clashes with Iranian forces in recent years.
    (AP, 9/3/11)
2011        Sep 3, Around 50 expatriated Syrian Kurds gathered in Sweden for a two-day conference on how to strengthen Kurds inside Syria and get them more involved in efforts to overthrow Bashar al-Assad's regime.
    (AFP, 9/3/11)

2011        Sep 5, Iran said its Revolutionary Guard soldiers have killed at least 30 members of Kurdish opposition group in fighting outside the border city of Sardasht in an operation that began on Sep 2. Inside Iraq a PEJAK spokesman declared an immediate, unilateral cease-fire, which Iran rejected.
    (AP, 9/5/11)

2011        Sep 11, Iraq's autonomous Kurdistan region halted crude exports, nearly a week after it rejected a new oil and gas law approved by the central government.
    (AFP, 9/11/11)

2011        Sep 12, Kurdish rebels attacked a police station and a paramilitary police headquarters near Turkey’s border with Iraq killing 5 people including 3 civilians.
    (SFC, 9/13/11, p.A2)

2011        Sep 21, Turkey reportedly bombed the main Kurdish rebel base in northern Iraq and chased rebels in a mountainous area in the southeast in response to escalated attacks by the autonomy-seeking guerrillas.
    (AP, 9/21/11)

2011        Sep 24, Kurdish rebels attacked a Turkish army outpost, killing 5 soldiers and wounding 10 in the country's southeast. Three rebels also were killed.
    (AP, 9/25/11)

2011        Sep 28, In Turkey a pro-Kurdish party said it is ending its four-month-old boycott of parliament, even as tensions grew over a surge in attacks by Kurdish separatist rebels.
    (AP, 9/28/11)

2011        Oct 4, Turkish police detained over 140 pro-Kurdish political activists in a nationwide sweep. The detainees included a number of elected mayors in the Kurdish southeast.
    (SFC, 10/5/11, p.A2)

2011        Oct 7, Syrian security forces opened fire at protesters in several parts of the country, killing at least eight people and wounding scores. Leading opposition figure Riad Seif was beaten up by pro-government gunmen and rushed to a hospital in Damascus. Russia’s Pres. Dmitry Medvedev told Syrian leader Bashar al-Assad to either reform or resign. In Qamishli Mashaal Tammo, a prominent and charismatic Kurdish opposition figure, was gunned down by masked gunmen.
    (AP, 10/7/11)(AP, 10/8/11)

2011        Oct 8, Syrian security forces opened fire on tens of thousands of mourners who turned out for the funeral of a slain Kurdish opposition leader in Qamishli, killing at least 5 people. Kurds, the largest ethnic minority in Syria, make up 15% of the country's 23 million people and have long complained of neglect and discrimination.
    (AP, 10/8/11)(AP, 10/9/11)

2011        Oct 10, Turkish air raids in northern Iraq reportedly killed 7 Kurdish rebels including three senior operatives.
    (AP, 10/22/11)

2011        Oct 13, Turkey's foreign minister said that Iraq should move to prevent Kurdish attacks on his country from Iraqi soil as the two countries renewed their commitment to fight the rebels.
    (AP, 10/13/11)

2011        Oct 16, In Iraq hundreds rallied in the disputed town of Khanaqin to demand the reversal of a central government ruling barring the flag of the autonomous Kurdish region in official buildings.
    (AFP, 10/16/11)

2011        Oct 18, Turkey shelled northern Iraq's autonomous Kurdistan region, in the first report of Turkish bombardment there in more than two weeks. The shelling began the previous evening. A roadside blast killed five policemen and two civilians in Turkey's southeast Bitlis province.
    (AFP, 10/18/11)(AP, 10/18/11)

2011        Oct 19, Turkish soldiers, air force bombers and helicopter gunships launched an incursion into northern Iraq, hours after Kurdish rebels killed 24 soldiers and wounded 18 in attacks along the border. The United States and NATO both issued statements supporting the offensive, the largest in more than three years.
    (AP, 10/19/11)(AFP, 10/21/11)

2011        Oct 20, About 10,000 elite Turkish soldiers took part in a ground offensive against Kurdish rebels in southeastern Turkey and across the border in Iraq, making it the nation's largest attack on the insurgents in more than three years.
    (AP, 10/20/11)

2011        Oct 21, Turkish jets kept up bombing raids on Kurdish rebel bases in northern Iraq overnight, as the rebels confirmed that some Turkish troops crossed into Iraq. Turkey and Iran vowed to collaborate against the PKK and its Iranian wing, the Party of Free Life of Kurdistan, or PJAK, during a visit by Iranian Foreign Minister Ali Akbar Salehi.
    (AFP, 10/21/11)(AP, 10/22/11)

2011        Oct 22, Turkey’s military said its troops over the last 2 days have killed at least 49 Kurdish rebels in a valley near the Iraqi border, as hundreds of troops also pursued Kurdish fighters within northern Iraq.
    (AP, 10/22/11)

2011        Oct 25, In Turkey crowds of Kurds pelted journalists and police with stones in the quake-hit city of Van as their anger at the media's coverage of the disaster boiled over. The stoning of the reporters in the eponymous provincial capital, which left several people injured, was brought to a halt only after police used pepper-spray.
    (AFP, 10/26/11)

2011        Nov 12, Turkish commandos in civilian clothes slipped onto the Kartepe, a hijacked passenger ferry, and posed as hostages before fatally shooting a suspected Kurdish rebel carrying explosives in a 12-hour drama that ended before dawn.
    (AP, 11/12/11)

2011        Nov 13, Turkish warplanes bombed the Qandil border area in Iraqi Kurdistan for about an hour.
    (AFP, 11/13/11)

2011        Dec 3, The London-based Iranian and Kurdish Women's Rights Organization (IKWRO) reported that more than 2,800 so-called honor attacks, punishments for bringing shame on the family, were recorded by Britain's police in 2010.
    (AFP, 12/3/11)

2011        Dec 19, A Turkish news agency reported that security forces may have killed as many as 20 Kurdish separatist rebels in the country's southeast.
    (AP, 12/19/11)

2011        Dec 20, Turkish police detained 48 people, including journalists, as part of a growing investigation into a Kurdish group that prosecutors accuse of links to Kurdish rebels.
    (AP, 12/20/11)(AP, 12/24/11)

2011        Dec 24, Turkish authorities released an AFP photographer, along with 12 other people who were detained as part of an investigation into a group prosecutors accuse of having links to Kurdish rebels. A court ordered 35 other suspects formally arrested pending trial over their alleged involvement in the Union of Kurdistan Communities.
    (AP, 12/24/11)

2011        Dec 28, Turkish warplanes killed at least 34 people in an air strike on the Iraq border in an attack which a pro-Kurdish political party described as a "massacre" of civilians. Ankara's joint military command said in a statement that its jets bombed an area inside Iraq "regularly used" by PKK rebels. Those killed were smugglers aged 18-28, who routinely brought in Iraqi fuel and cigarettes with the full knowledge of local authorities. On Jan 2 Turkey said it will compensate the families of the civilians mistakenly killed in the airstrike in Uludere township.
    (AFP, 12/29/11)(AP, 1/3/12)(Econ, 1/7/12, p.46)(Econ, 6/9/12, p.59)

2012        Jan 19, Turkish authorities exhumed the bodies of three Kurds near the village of Yagizoymak as part of their investigation into alleged extrajudicial killings by Turkish security forces in the 1990s. Lawyer Ridvan Dalmis, who witnessed the excavation, said the remains allegedly are those of civilians who were killed by security forces in June 1993 and hastily buried by Kurdish villagers before they were forced to evacuate the area.
    (AP, 1/20/12)

2012        Jan 28, Iraqi Kurdish leader Massud Barzani backed minority Kurds in Syria, who have rallied against the rule of President Bashar al-Assad during 10 months of nationwide protests. He spoke at a two-day conference of Syrian Kurds in the Iraqi Kurdish capital of Arbil.
    (AFP, 1/28/12)

2012        Feb 11, Turkish warplanes bombed suspected Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 2/12/12)

2012        Feb 13, A clash in Turkey's mostly Kurdish southeast has left 15 Kurdish rebels and two Turkish soldiers dead.
    (AP, 2/14/12)

2012        Feb 27, Iraqi Kurdistan said it has granted refugee status to 30 Kurdish Syrian troops who defected to the region in the first such instance in the revolt against Bashar al-Assad's regime.
    (AFP, 2/27/12)

2012        Mar 8, Turkey's air force carried out air strikes on border areas of north Iraq.
    (AFP, 3/9/12)

2012        Mar 18, In Turkey thousands of Kurds massed in Diyarbakir and Istanbul to celebrate the Kurdish new year (Nowruz). A Kurdish politician and Turkish policeman died as riot police fired tear gas to disperse the crowds.
    (Econ, 3/24/12, p.54)

2012        Mar 23, Turkish forces killed 15 female Kurdish rebel fighters in Bitlis province.
    (SSFC, 3/25/12, p.A6)

2012        Mar 29, In Bulgaria Massud Barzani, the leader of Iraq's autonomous Kurdistan, sought investment in the region's farming, health and construction sectors during a meeting with PM Boyko Borisov.
    (AFP, 3/29/12)

2012        Mar, In Norway Mullah Krekar (56), Iraqi founder of the Iraqi Kurdish Islamist group Ansar al-Islam, was sentenced to five years in jail for issuing death threats against a former government minister and others. In July Krekar, whose real name is Najmeddine Faraj Ahmad, faced three new charges of inciting terrorist acts, threatening witnesses in a case against him and criminal damage.
    (AFP, 7/12/12)

2012        Apr 2, Iraq’s Kurdish region said it has halted oil exports over a payment quarrel with the central government, which reportedly has failed to send any money since May even as the region has been exporting 50,000 barrels per day.
    (SFC, 4/3/12, p.A2)

2012        Apr 5, In south-eastern Turkey overnight blasts temporarily shut down a pipeline pumping oil from Iraq. Kurdish rebels were suspected to be behind the explosions.
    (AFP, 4/5/12)
2012        Apr 5, US President Barack Obama dropped in on a meeting between Vice President Joe Biden and Massud Barzani, the visiting leader of Iraq's autonomous Kurdish region. Barzani, also met with US Defense Secretary Leon Panetta.
    (AFP, 4/5/12)

2012        May 13, The Philippines foreign ministry said it has lifted an 8-year ban on its nationals working in Iraq, but only for the Middle Eastern country's autonomous Kurdistan region.
    (AFP, 5/13/12)

2012        May 27, In southeast Turkey Kurdish rebels killed a soldier in a clash, prompting the military to launch a large-scale offensive in the area.
    (AP, 5/27/12)

2012        Jun 4, Turkish security officials said two security personnel were killed when they stepped on an improvised explosive device laid by PKK militants in the Lice district of Diyarbakir province. One of the men killed was the commander of Lice's military police force.
    (Reuters, 6/4/12)

2012        Jun 12, Turkey announced plans to introduce elective Kurdish language instruction in schools, a step aimed at easing tension that Kurdish minority activists argued didn't go far enough. Activists and Kurdish politicians insisted on full Kurdish education in schools.
    (AP, 6/12/12)

2012        Jun 19, Kurdish rebels attacked Turkish military units with mortars and rocket-propelled grenades in southeastern Turkey, sparking clashes in which 10 rebels and eight soldiers died.
    (AP, 6/19/12)

2012        Jun 24, Turkey’s army said its warplanes have carried out strikes on suspected Kurdish militant targets in northern Iraq. Air strikes had hit 9 PKK targets over the last 3 days. Kurdish rebels killed one policeman and wounded 3 others in a roadside bomb attack.
    (AFP, 6/24/12)(SFC, 6/25/12, p.A2)

2012        Jul 3, The Syrian Revolution General Commission (SRGC) pulled out of the Cairo conference, citing political disputes. The Syrian Kurdish National Council stormed out of the meeting, protesting that the final document failed to specifically mention the Kurds.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)

2012        Jul 8, Iraqi Kurdistan said it has begun sending oil produced in its three-province autonomous region out of the country without the express permission of the central government. It was being exported to Turkey so it could be refined into various products before being brought back to Kurdistan.
    (AFP, 7/8/12)

2012        Jul 19, Chevron made public a deal to hunt for oil in the Kurdish region of northern Iraq.
    (SFC, 7/20/12, p.A1)

2012        Aug 2, Turkish warplanes and attack helicopters are pounding Kurdish rebel positions in a major clash in a rugged area near Turkey's borders with Iraq and Iran. Turkish troops and Kurdish rebels have been clashing in the area for about two weeks.
    (AP, 8/2/12)

2012        Aug 5, Turkey’s interior minister said security forces have killed as many as 115 Kurdish rebels during a major offensive over the past 2 weeks. Rebels fired on military posts in Hakkari on the Iraq border triggering clashes that left dead 22 rebels, soldiers and village guards.
    {Turkey, Kurds}
    (AFP, 8/5/12)(SFC, 8/6/12, p.A2)

2012        Aug 6, In southeastern Turkey an overnight blast interrupted oil flow from Iraq. Kurdish rebels were suspected to be behind the explosions. The blast hit the Kirkuk-Ceyhan pipeline in Mardin province close to the border with Syria. Repairs were expected to take up to 10 days. The oil flow was reported restored on August 28.
    (AFP, 8/6/12)(AFP, 8/28/12)

2012        Aug 13, A government spokesman says Iraq has asked French oil giant Total S.A. to choose between working with the self-ruled northern Kurdish region or to quit developing one of the major oil fields in southern Iraq.
    (AP, 8/13/12)

2012        Aug 20, In Turkey a car bomb in a southeastern Turkish city of Gaziantap left 9 people dead. Authorities blamed rebels of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) of being behind the powerful blast that went off close to a police station. The PKK denied the attack.
    (AFP, 8/21/12)

2012        Aug 23, Turkish media reported that Kurdish rebels have ambushed a military convoy in the southeast, setting off clashes that killed 16 militants and five soldiers.
    (AFP, 8/23/12)

2012        Aug 25, Turkish warplanes bombed areas of northern Iraq in a bid to target rear bases of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK).
    (AFP, 8/25/12)

2012        Sep 2, In Turkey Kurdish militants killed 10 police and soldiers in an assault in Sirnak province. Some Kurdish guerrillas were also killed.
    (SFC, 9/4/12, p.A2)

2012        Sep 10, Turkey’s military announced that it had conducted air strikes over the past week in northern Iraq, where Kurdish rebels have bases. Some 25 guerrillas were reported killed in the operation.
    (AP, 9/11/12)

2012        Sep 12, In Turkey hundreds of Kurds began a hunger strike in prisons across the country.
    (Econ, 11/17/12, p.2)

2012        Sep 16, In eastern Turkey suspected Kurdish rebels detonated a landmine along a highway in Bingol province, killing eight police officers and wounding nine. Officials in southeastern Hakkari province said a total of 123 "terrorists," a reference to Kurdish rebels, had been killed in military operations in the past 10 days.
    (AP, 9/16/12)

2012        Sep 18, In Turkey suspected Kurdish rebels in Bingol province attacked a military convoy with a rocket killing 10 soldiers and wounded over 70 others.
    (SFC, 9/19/12, p.A2)

2012        Oct 7, Turkish jets struck suspected Kurdish rebel targets in two separate cross-border raids in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 10/8/12)

2012        Oct 18, Turkey's state-run news said security forces have killed 12 Kurdish rebels in clashes in the southeast, raising the two-day death toll in the fighting to 18.
    (AP, 10/18/12)

2012        Oct 20, Turkey's state-run agency said clashes between Turkish security forces and Kurdish rebels in Hakkari province, have left nine people dead.
    (AP, 10/20/12)

2012        Nov 9, In Turkey the office for the governor for Hakkari province said as many as 42 Kurdish rebels have been killed in the past three days in operations that were backed by airpower.
    (AP, 11/10/12)

2012        Nov 20, Iraqi President Jalal Talbani, a leading Kurdish figure, met the head of the autonomous region, Massoud Barzani. The commander of Kurdish Peshmerga forces warned that his troops might attack Iraqi government soldiers at "any minute" after the central government sent tanks and armored vehicles toward the disputed city of Kirkuk.
    (AP, 11/20/12)

2012        Nov 23, In Syria a suicide attacker blew up his car in the northwestern Idlib province, killing at least three people and wounding four. Islamic extremists, including members of the al-Qaida inspired Jabhat al-Nusra group, battled with pro-government Kurdish gunmen in the northern town of Ras al-Ayan, near the border with Turkey.
    (AP, 11/23/12)

2012        Nov 26, Syrian rebels captured a hydroelectric dam on the Euphrates River in the country's north after days of heavy clashes. Rebels and pro-government Kurdish gunmen struck a truce to end days of fighting in the town of Ras al-Ayn. Airstrikes by government warplanes killed and wounded several people in the border town Atmeh.
    (AP, 11/26/12)

2012        Dec 6, Iraq’s PM Nouri al-Maliki said Baghdad and leaders of the Kurds' self-ruled autonomous region have agreed that units will be formed from local ethnic and sectarian groups to replace Iraqi and Kurdish forces currently in the disputed areas, claimed by Arabs, Turkomen and Kurds.
    (AP, 12/6/12)

2012        Dec 13, Iraq's President Jalal Talabani announced that the central government and Kurdish leaders have reached a deal aimed at easing a military standoff that began last month.
    (AP, 12/13/12)

2012        Dec 16, In Iraq a car bomb explosion near a Kurdish party office killed two people in Julala, a disputed city north of Baghdad.
    (AP, 12/16/12)

2012        Dec 25, An Iraqi-Kurd official said the northern Kurdish region has suspended oil exports over a payment dispute with baghdad.
    (SFC, 12/26/12, p.A5)

2012        Dec, In Turkey Huda-Par (Party of Allah) was launched on a platform of Islamic values and greater rights for the country’s 14 million Sunni Kurds.
    (Econ, 11/23/13, p.55)

2013        Jan 9, In France 3 Kurdish women, including one of the founders of a militant group battling Turkish troops since 1984, were "executed" at a Kurdish center in Paris. Protesters blamed Turkey. A Turkish lawmaker claimed the women were slain in a dispute between PKK factions.
    (AP, 1/10/13)

2013        Jan 14, Turkish jets struck suspected Kurdish rebel targets in a cross-border raid in northern Iraq, even as Turkey prepared to start peace talks with the rebels' imprisoned leader.
    (AP, 1/15/13)

2013        Jan 16, In northern Iraq a suicide bomber driving a vehicle packed with explosives blew himself up outside the offices of a major Kurdish party in Kirkuk killing at least 19 people. A 3rd bomb at a nearby facility used by Kurdish security forces killed 4 more. Morning attacks across the country killed at least 33 people.
    (AP, 1/16/13)(AP, 1/17/13)(SFC, 1/17/13, p.A5)

2013        Jan 17, In Syria an air raid killed at least 15 people in the town of Kfar Nabouedeh in the central province of Hama. Violence continued in different parts of the country. Clashes in the northern town of Ras al-Ayn least eight rebels and one Kurdish PYD fighter.
    (AP, 1/17/13)

2013        Feb 24, Iran’s semi-official Fars news agency reported that Gen. Hamid Tabatabaei, a commander of the powerful Revolutionary Guards, has been killed in the country's Kurdish northwest.
    (AP, 2/24/13)

2013        Mar 13, Kurdish rebels based in northern Iraq freed eight captured Turkish soldiers and officials as part of peace efforts between Turkey and the rebel group aimed at ending a decades-long conflict.
    (AP, 3/13/13)

2013        Mar 21, Jailed Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Ocalan called for an immediate cease-fire and for thousands of his fighters to withdraw from Turkish territory, a major step toward ending one of the world's bloodiest insurgencies.
    (AP, 3/21/13)

2013        Apr 25, A pro-Kurdish news agency said Kurdish rebels will start withdrawing thousands of guerrilla fighters from Turkey on May 8 and retreat across the border to northern Iraq, in an important milestone toward ending the nearly three-decade old insurgency that has cost tens of thousands of lives.
    (AP, 4/25/13)

2013        May 9, Iraq rejected a key element of an accord to bring an end to a long Kurdish uprising in Turkey — offering refuge to rebel fighters in country's north.
    (AP, 5/9/13)

2013        May 14, The first Kurdish fighters crossed from Turkey into northern Iraq as part of a peace deal to end a long uprising despite Iraqi objections to the transfer. The Iraqi Cabinet reiterated its rejection of the deal and of the presence of PKK fighters.
    (AP, 5/14/13)

2013        Jun 9, Iraq's PM Nouri al-Maliki made a rare visit to the self-ruled northern Kurdish region in a bid to melt the ice between the Kurds and the Shiite-led central government. A suicide attack in Baghdad claimed the lives of 7 people.
    (AP, 6/9/13)

2013        Jun 18, US oil giant Chevron said it has signed a deal with Iraq's Kurdish regional government to expand its oil exploration territory in the northern self-rule region.
    (AP, 6/18/13)

2013        Jun 20, Syrian rebels and Kurdish gunmen reached an agreement to end a rebel siege on the northern predominantly Kurdish region of Afrin that triggered a shortage of food and medicine there. Violence was reported between government forces and rebels in different parts of the country, mostly near Damascus and in Aleppo.
    (AP, 6/20/13)

2013        Jul 7, The president of Iraqi Kurdistan, Masoud Barzani, visited Baghdad for the first time in more than two years, in a step towards resolving long-running disputes between the central government and the autonomous region over land and oil.
    (Reuters, 7/7/13)

2013        Jul 17, The Turkish military said a Syrian Kurdish party with links to Kurdish militants in Turkey has seized control of a Syrian border town after days of clashes with Islamist fighters.
    (Reuters, 7/18/13)

2013        Jul 19, A Syrian Kurdish group said it aims to set up an independent council to run Kurdish regions until Syria's civil war has ended, a move likely to alarm Syrian rebels and neighboring Turkey, both wary of a possible Kurdish state.
    (Reuters, 7/19/13)

2013        Aug 2, In northern Syria overnight clashes between Kurdish opposition fighters and rebels linked to al-Qaida killed 12 Islamic fighters.
    (AP, 8/2/13)

2013        Aug 10, The president of Iraqi Kurdistan vowed to defend the large Kurdish population across the border in neighboring Syria from al-Qaida-linked fighters.
    (AP, 8/10/13)

2013        Aug 15, Thousands of Syrian refugees poured into the Kurdistan region of northern Iraq, taking advantage of a new bridge along the largely closed border.
    (Reuters, 8/16/13)

2013        Aug 20, In northeastern Syria Kurdish militias battled al-Qaida-linked rebel groups in the latest round of heavy fighting that has helped fuel a mass exodus of civilians from the region into neighboring Iraq.
    (AP, 8/20/13)

2013        Sep 9, Kurdish rebels announced they are suspending their withdrawal from Turkey into bases in northern Iraq over what they say is the Turkish government's failure to advance peace talks aimed at ending a nearly 30-year-old conflict.
    (AP, 9/9/13)

2013        Sep 12, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said clashes between Kurdish fighters and members of the al-Qaida-linked Nusra Front and the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant in the past two days left 13 Kurdish gunmen and 35 militants dead.
    (AP, 9/12/13)

2013        Sep 21, Iraq's Kurds voted in their first election in four years as their autonomous region grapples with disputes with Baghdad and as fellow Kurds fight bloody battles in neighbouring Syria. The Kurdistan Democratic Party, led by Kurdish regional President Massoud Barzani, secured 38 seats in the vote for the 111-seat regional parliament.
    (AFP, 9/21/13)(AP, 10/2/13)

2013        Sep 25, In Turkey 18 members of the outlawed Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) escaped overnight from prison in the southeast by digging a 70-meter-long tunnel. All but one were caught by the next day.
    (Reuters, 9/25/13)(Reuters, 9/26/13)

2013        Sep 29, In Iraq 6 people were killed in a series of blasts targeting a security directorate of the usually peaceful autonomous Kurdistan region, the first such attack since 2007. A wave of attacks killed at least 46 people across the country.
    (Reuters, 9/29/13)(SFC, 9/30/13, p.A2)

2013        Sep 30, Turkish PM Tayyip Erdogan announced long-anticipated reforms seen as designed to salvage a fragile peace process with Kurdish insurgents, including changes to the electoral system and increasing language rights.
    (Reuters, 9/30/13)

2013        Oct 25, Iran's Revolutionary Guard killed 3 rebels and arrested three others in Baneh, a Kurdish populated region in northwestern Iran.
    (AFP, 10/27/13)

2013        Oct 26, Kurdish militants seized a Syrian border post on the frontier with Iraq, after three days of clashes with an al Qaeda-linked group which had held the crossing since March.
    (Reuters, 10/26/13)

2013        Nov 7, Turkish riot police fired tear gas to disperse Kurdish protesters demonstrating against government plans to build a wall along part of the border with Syria.
    (AP, 11/7/13)

2013        Nov 13, In Syria forces loyal to President Assad captured a suburb of Damascus, part of a broader advance that has brought him major gains south of the capital before proposed international peace talks. A mortar round slammed into a mainly-Christian sector of Damascus killing 2 people and wounding seven. Activists said Kurdish militias have seized another seven villages in the northeast.
    (Reuters, 11/13/13)(AFP, 11/13/13)

2013        Nov 16, Masoud Barzani, the president of Iraqi Kurdistan, called on Turkey's Kurds to back a flagging peace process with Ankara, making his first visit to southeastern Turkey in two decades in a show of support for PM Tayyip Erdogan.
    (Reuters, 11/16/13)
2013        Nov 16, In Germany some 20,000 people marched through central Berlin to demand the government lift its 20-year ban on the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK).
    (AFP, 11/16/13)

2013        Nov 27, Turkey and Iraqi Kurdistan signed a package of landmark contracts that will see the semi-autonomous region's oil and gas exported via pipelines through Turkey.
    (Reuters, 11/29/13)

2013        Dec 2, Turkey said it stood by a bilateral oil deal with Iraq's Kurdistan region that bypassed central government but sought to appease Baghdad by drawing it into the arrangement.
    (Reuters, 12/2/13)

2013        Dec 5, In Iraq gunmen shot dead magazine editor Kawa Ahmed Germyani (32). He was investigating corruption in the autonomous Kurdistan region. Police stormed a mall in Kirkuk killing 3 militants. Attacks elsewhere in the country left 7 dead.
    (AFP, 12/6/13)(SFC, 12/6/13, p.A2)
2013        Dec 5, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said Jihadists in northern Syria have kidnapped more than 50 Kurds in the past three days.
    (AFP, 12/5/13)

2013        Dec 6, In southeastern Turkey two Kurdish protesters, aged 34 and 32, were shot dead in a violent confrontation with police. The clashes were sparked by claims that Kurdish rebel cemeteries had been destroyed.
    (AFP, 12/7/13)

2013        Dec 9, Kurdish rebels freed four Turkish soldiers abducted in the southeast of the country in the worst flareup of violence since a fragile ceasefire nine months ago.
    (AFP, 12/9/13)

2014        Jan 3, A Turkish court ordered the release from jail of two Kurdish lawmakers being tried for links to militants in a potential boost to a fragile peace process. Turkish prosecutors said they have charged 36 protesters with terrorism over mass anti-government demonstrations that swept the country last year.
    (Reuters, 1/3/14)(AFP, 1/3/14)

2014        Jan 4, A Turkish court ordered the release from jail of three Kurdish lawmakers, in addition to two freed a day earlier.
    (Reuters, 1/4/14)

2014        Jan 7, Turkey’s Anadolu state news said military prosecutors have dropped a case against five officers who were being investigated for negligence in the military air strike on Dec 11, 2011, that killed 34 smugglers mistaken for Kurdish rebels, saying there was no ground for any legal action.
    (AP, 1/7/14)

2014        Jan 8, Iraq's self-ruled northern Kurdish region said it has unilaterally started sending its crude to Turkey and is going ahead with plans to export oil despite objections by the central government in Baghdad. The flow of oil to Turkey started in early January.
    (AP, 1/9/14)

2014        Jan 11, Thousands of Kurdish demonstrators from around Europe marched in Paris to call for a speedier investigation into the murder of three Kurdish activists a year ago.
    (Reuters, 1/11/14)

2014        Jan 12, Iraqi PM Nuri al-Maliki threatened to cut central government funding for Iraq's autonomous Kurdistan region if the Kurds pursued a drive to pipe oil exports to Turkey without Baghdad's approval.
    (Reuters, 1/12/14)

2014        Jan 21, Iraq's Shiite-led government said it has decided in principle to create three new provinces from contested parts of the country in an apparent attempt to address Sunni grievances and counter the expansion of the Kurdish self-rule region.
    (AP, 1/21/14)
2014        Jan 21, Kurds in northeast Syria, on the eve of peace talks in Switzerland,  declared a provincial government in the area.
    (Reuters, 1/22/14)

Go to http://www.timelinesdb.com
Subject = Kurds
End of file.