Timeline Libya

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  Tripoli was a Barbary State of North Africa and then a province of Turkey before it became part of Libya.
 (WUD, 1994, p.1516)
  The national flag is green with no writing or decoration. Green is the traditional color of Islam.
 (SFC, 10/31/98, p.D4)

c1179BC    Ramessu III beat back a Libyan invasion in his fifth year, this invasion was accompanied by war galleys from the northern countries.
    (R.M.-P.H.C.p.22)

631BC        The city of Cyrene, in what later became Libya, was first developed by the Greeks. It was later settled by the Romans and destroyed in the earthquake of 365.
    (SFC, 9/11/07, p.A16)

630BC         Battus I of Cyrene (d.600) founded the Greek colony of Cyrenaica and its capital, Cyrene about this time. He was the first king of Cyrenaica, the first Greek king in Africa, and the founder of the Battiad dynasty. His son, Arcesilaus I of Cyrene, served as the second Greek king of Cyrenaica and the second king of the Battiad dynasty. Cyrenaica, the eastern coastal region of Libya, was also known as Pentapolis in antiquity. Herodotus later told of how the oracle at Delphi told the Libyans to organize along tribal lines and to keep the king in charge at his home area.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcesilaus_I_of_Cyrene)(SSFC, 4/24/11, p.F4)

19BC        Lucius Cornelius Balbus led 20,000 men of the 3rd Augusta Legion across the Hamada al-Hamra (Red Rocky Plain) in the first Roman attack on the Garamantian heartland (Libya). Romans turned Ghadames, Libya, into a garrison town.
    (Arch, 9/02, p.48)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garamantes)(SSFC, 6/27/04, p.D12)

158        Apulieus of Madaura (~124-~180), Romanised Berber and author of “The Golden Ass" (aka the Metamorphoses) defended himself at the Roman basilica in Sabratha (Libya) against charges of witchcraft in an oration known as Pro de se magia, or more commonly the Apologia. The Golden Ass is the only Latin novel which has survived in its entirety, and is an imaginative, irreverent, and amusing work which relates the ludicrous adventures of one Lucius, who experiments in magic and is accidentally turned into an ass.
    (Arch, 9/02, p.47)(http://tinyurl.com/lrgfb8)

193        Apr 14, Lucius Septimius Severus (d.211), a native son of Leptis Magna in Libya, was crowned emperor of Rome. Under his rule the empire reached its greatest extent with almost 50 provinces.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Septimius_Severus)(SSFC, 6/27/04, p.D12)

203        Lucius Septimus Severus (d.211), emperor of Rome, returned to visit home at Leptis Magna (Libya).
    (SSFC, 6/27/04, p.D12)

365        Jul 21, An earthquake, whose epicenter was in Crete, leveled the Egyptian Port of Alexandria as well as the Roman outpost of Leptis Magna in Libya. Some 50,000 people died.
    (www.earthscape.org/r2/jos/vol1-1june1997/pg55.html)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.18)

c1000BC    The Garamantes, a tribal people descended from Berbers and Saharan pastoralists, inhabited the area of the Fazzan in southern Libya.
    (AM, 3/04, p.24)

c500BC    The Garamantes of southern Libya began constructing underground tunnels to link shafts to sandstone aquifers.
    (AM, 3/04, p.27)
c500BCE    Phoenicians founded Tripoli about this time.
    (SSFC, 6/27/04, p.D12)

400-300BCE    The Greek writer Ephorus referred to the Celts, Scythians, Persians and Libyans as the four great barbarian peoples in the known world.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.11)

300-200BCE    The city of Berenice on the Mediterranean coast was named by the Greeks.
    (SFC, 6/15/99, p.C6)

30BCE     Construction began on the Temple of Isis in Sabratha, Libya. It was completed in 14CE.
    (SSFC, 6/27/04, p.D12)

19BCE        Romans turned Ghadames, Libya, into a garrison town.
    (SSFC, 6/27/04, p.D12)

0-100CE    Berenice was acquired by the Romans. The site later became a suburb of Benghazi and studied by British archeologist John Lloyd (d.1999) in the 1970s.
    (SFC, 6/15/99, p.C6)

70CE        A Roman punitive expedition forced the Garamantes of southern Libya to enter into an official relationship with Rome.
    (AM, 3/04, p.28)

193        Apr 14, Lucius Septimus Severus (d.211), a native son of Leptis Magna in Libya, was crowned emperor of Rome. Under his rule the empire reached its greatest extent with almost 50 provinces.
    (AM, 11/00, p.12)(MC, 4/14/02)(SSFC, 6/27/04, p.D12)


203        Lucius Septimus Severus (d.211), emperor of Rome, returned to visit home at Leptis Magna, Libya
    (SSFC, 6/27/04, p.D12)

632-661    The Rashidun Caliphate, also known as the Rightly Guided Caliphate, comprising the first four caliphs in Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death. At its height, the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant, Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and Central Asia in the east. It was the one of the largest empires in history up until that time.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rashidun_Caliphate)

700        The empire of Kanem began forming about this time under the nomadic Tebu-speaking Kanembu and. spanned bits of Chad, Cameroon, southern Libya, Niger and Nigeria. By the 15th century  the intermarriage of the Kanembu and Bornu peoples created a new people and language, the Kanuri.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanem-Bornu_Empire)

1109        Jul 12, Crusaders captured harbor city of Tripoli.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1177        Aug 2, Philip of Flanders arrived in Acre. A Christian army under the joint command of Philip of Flanders and Raymond of Tripoli marched west to campaign against the Muslims around Tripoli.
    (ON, 6/07, p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_of_Flanders)

1500-1800    Ottoman Turk rule extended over Libya.
    (SSFC, 6/27/04, p.D12)

1798        Nov 4, Congress agreed to pay a yearly tribute to Tripoli, considering it the only way to protect U.S. shipping.
    (HN, 11/4/98)

1801        May 14, The Pasha of Tripoli symbolically declared war on the US by cutting down the flagstaff in front of the US Consulate, after learning that Pres. Jefferson had refused to pay a renewed tribute of $225,000.
    (ON, 10/06, p.8)

1801        Jun 10, The North African state of Tripoli declared war on the United States in a dispute over safe passage of merchant vessels through the Mediterranean. Tripoli declared war on the U.S. for refusing to pay tribute.
    (AP, 6/10/97)(HN, 6/10/98)

1801        Jul 17, The U.S. fleet arrived in Tripoli after Pasha Yusuf Karamanli declared war for being refused tribute.
    (HN, 7/17/99)

1801        Aug 1, The American schooner Enterprise captured the Barbary cruiser Tripoli.
    (HN, 8/1/98)

1803        Oct, The USS Philadelphia was captured by the Tripolitans. 307 sailors were held for ransom by the Pasha of Tripoli.
    (www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/barb-war/burn-phl.htm)(ON, 10/06, p.8)

1803        Dec 23, Lt. Stephen Decatur, commanding the schooner Enterprise, captured a Barbary ketch, which was entered into the US Navy as the Intrepid.
    (ON, 2/03, p.2)

1804        Feb 16, Lt. Stephen Decatur attacked Tripoli, where pirates held the USS Philadelphia. Decatur and 76 volunteers, aboard the captured Intrepid, attempted to recapture the Philadelphia, which caught fire, exploded and sank. Decatur and his crew escaped.
    (AP, 2/16/98)(HN, 2/16/98)(ON, 2/03, p.2)

1804        Aug 3, US Commodore Edward Prebble’s squadron bombarded Tripoli inflicting heavy damages on the city.
    (ON, 2/03, p.4)

1805        Apr 27, US navy ships began to bombard the Tripoli port of Derna. Mercenaries gathered in Egypt and a small contingent of US Marines under former Tunis consul William Eaton attacked Tripoli and captured the city of Derna [later part of Libya].
    (AP, 4/27/97)(HN, 4/27/98)(ON, 10/06, p.9)

1805        Jun 4, The US signed a Treaty of Peace and Amity at Tripoli. The US agreed to pay Tripoli $60,000 in war reparations and was in turn absolved of tribute demands. The treaty was ratified by the US on Apr 17, 1806.
    (ON, 2/03, p.4)(www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/diplomacy/barbary/bar1805t.htm)

1815        Aug 5, A peace treaty with Tripoli, which followed treaties with Algeria and Tunis (Aug 28), brought an end to the Barbary Wars. Commodores Stephen Decatur and William Bainbridge had conducted successful operations against the Barbary States of Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli.
    (HN, 8/5/98)(WSJ, 10/9/01, p.A22)(ON, 10/06, p.10)

1823        British Major Dixon Denham and Captain Hugh Clapperton (1788-1827) entered Northern Nigeria from the north, crossing the desert from Tripoli.
    (Econ, 1/7/06, p.74)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_Clapperton)

1825        Jul 16, Alexander Gordon Laing (32), British Army Major, set off on camel from Tripoli in an attempt to become the 1st European to cross the Sahara Desert and reach the fabled city of Timbuktu (Mali).
    (SSFC, 1/1/06, p.M2)(ON, 11/06, p.5)

1837        Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi (1787-1860), an Algeria-born mendicant  founded the Sanusi, a Sufi order, in Mecca. Beida, Libya, later became the seat of the Sanusi.
    (Econ, 2/26/11, p.27)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senussi)

1843        Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi returned to North Africa from Mecca, settling in Jabal Akhdar in Cyrenaica (Libya). In the mountainous fastness of the area he founded a center of operations at al-Beida with the organization of the al-Sanusi Sufi lodge and built the Zawiya al-Baida (White Monastery).
    (http://tinyurl.com/5tkfked)

1911        Sep 30, Italy declared war on Turkey over control of Tripoli.
    (HN, 9/30/98)

1911        Oct 5, Italian troops occupied Tripoli.
    (MC, 10/5/01)

1911        Oct, Italian troops began deporting Libyans to Italian islands in the Adriatic. More then 5,000 Libyans were deported between 1911 and WW II in an effort to break the resistance.
    (AFP, 10/26/07)

1911        Nov 1, Italian planes performed the first aerial bombing on Tanguira oasis in Libya. Lt. Giulio Cavotti dropped a hand grenade on an oasis outside of Tripoli. In 2001 Sven Lindqvist authored "A History of Bombing."
    (HN, 11/1/98)(SFC, 4/22/01, BR p.3)

1911        Nov 5, Italy attacked Turkish North-Africa (Libya), and took Tripoli and Cyrenaica.  First use of a plane dropping bombs. [see Nov 1]
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1911        Nov 5, Italy attacked Turkish North-Africa (Libya), and took Tripoli and Cyrenaica.  First use of a plane dropping bombs.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1911-1931    Omar Mukhtar harassed the Italian forces attempting to subdue Libya. The 1981 film “Lion in the Desert" starred Anthony Quinn as Omar Mukhtar.
    (Econ, 11/26/05, p.29)

1915        In Libya during the war against the Italian colonial rulers, a Misratan rebel commander named Ramadan al-Sweihy was betrayed and then killed by the tribesmen of Bani Walid, who were taking money from the Italians.
    (AP, 9/2/11)

1922        Sep 13, In El Azizia, Libya, a temperature of 136.4 degrees Fahrenheit (57.8 Celsius) was the hottest ever measured on Earth.
    (AP, 7/23/03)

1931        Sep 16, Omar Mukhtar (b.1862), Libyan hero, was hanged by Italian authorities in the concentration camp of Solluqon. From 1912 he had led an insurrection against Italian invaders.
    (Econ, 11/14/09, p.101)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omar_Mukhtar)

1941        Jan 21, Australia & Britain attacked Tobruk, Libya.
    (MC, 1/21/02)

1941        Jan 22, British and Australian troops captured Tobruk from Italians.
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1941        Jan 28, French General Charles DeGaulle's Free French forces sacked south Libya oasis.
    (HN, 1/28/99)

1941        Feb 6, The RAF cleared the way as British took Benghazi, Libya, trapping thousands of Italians.
    (HN, 2/6/99)

1941        Feb 11, Lt-Gen Erwin Rommel arrived in Tripoli.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1941        Feb 14, German Afrika Korps landed in Tripoli, Libya.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1941        Mar 21, The last Italian post in East Libya fell to the British.
    (HN, 3/21/98)

1941        Mar 24, German troops occupied El Agheila, Libya.
    (MC, 3/24/02)

1941        Mar 30, The German Afrika Korps under General Erwin Rommel began its first offensive against British forces in Libya.
    (HN, 3/30/99)

1941        Apr 4, Field Marshal Erwin Rommel captured the British held town of Benghazi in North Africa.
    (HN, 4/4/99)

1941        Apr 13, There was a heavy German assault on Tobruk.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1941        May 1, A German assault took place on Tobruk.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1941        Nov 27, British 13th Army corp. reached Tobruk.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1941        Nov, The first British SAS operation, planned to see troops parachute deep behind enemy lines and destroy German and Italian aircraft at two airfields in Libya, took place. Strong winds and driving rain caused chaotic conditions, with several soldiers becoming injured as they attempted to parachute and one plane shot down, killing 15 troops and the crew. In 2011 a 600-page book, called "The SAS War Diary," detailed the regiment's role in the invasions of Sicily and Italy and famed D-Day landings in France.
    (AP, 9/23/11)

1941        Dec 7, The 8 month German siege of Tobruk ended.
    (MC, 12/7/01)

1941        Dec 13, British forces launched an offensive in Libya.
    (HN, 12/13/98)

1942        Jan 29, German and Italian troops took Benghazi in North Africa.
    (HN, 1/29/99)

1942        Mar 26, A German offensive took place in North-Africa under Colonel-General Rommel.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1942        May 27, German General Erwin Rommel began a major offensive in Libya with his Afrika Korps.
    (HN, 5/27/99)

1942        Jun 21, German General Erwin Rommel captured the port city of Tobruk in North Africa and 25,000 Allied troops.
    (HN, 6/21/98)(Camelot, 6/21/99)

1942        Jul 11(Jun 11), The German army was defeated at El-Alamein, North Africa.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1942        Aug 10, Gen. Bernard Law Montgomery was named commandant of the British 8th Army campaigning in N. Africa. He arrived Aug 13.
    (www.topedge.com/panels/ww2/na/frame.html)

1942        Moammar Gadhafi, the "Guide of the Masses," was born.
    (SFEC, 4/9/00, p.C12)

1943        Jan 13, General Leclerc's Free French forces merged with the British under Montgomery in Libya.
    (HN, 1/13/99)

1943        Jan 22, Axis forces pulled out of Tripoli for Tunisia, and destroyed bases as they left.
    (HN, 1/22/99)

1943        Apr 28, German-Italian forces launched a counter offensive in North-Africa.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1945        In Libya deadly attacks took place against the Jewish community, which numbered some 40,000, prompting many to leave.
    (WSJ, 1/10/07, p.A19)

1948        In Libya more deadly attacks took place against the Jewish community, prompting most of those remaining to leave. A few thousand remained until 1967.
    (WSJ, 1/10/07, p.A19)

1949        Nov 21, The UN Assembly decided for the eventual independence of Italy’s former colonies. In the meantime they remained under UN supervision. United Nations granted Libya its independence in the year 1952.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1176)(HN, 11/21/98)

1949        The Muslim Brotherhood, founded in Egypt (1928), formed in Libya. It was later banned by Colonel Qaddafi.
    (Econ, 2/18/12, p.50)

1951        Libya enacted a constitution that formally protected the minority rights of Jews, Italians, Maltese and Greeks.
    (WSJ, 1/10/07, p.A19)

1951-1963    Libya was a federal union during this period under King Idris I, which divided the country into three administrative states: Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan.
    (AFP, 4/17/12)

1952        Libya’s King Idris banned political parties.
    (Econ, 1/12/13, p.43)

1963        The three provinces of Libya, Cyrenaica in the east, Fezzan in the south, and Tripolitania in the west, were abolished and the country became a unitary state.
    (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/148654/Cyrenaica)    (Econ, 1/10/15, p.22)

1966        Occidental Petroleum under Armand Hammer won valuable drilling rights in Libya by bribing a key member of the Libyan royal family.
    (SFC, 1/17/96, p.D7)

1967        Jul, In the wake of the Six Day War some 2,000 Jews in Libya were compelled to leave the country.
    (WSJ, 1/10/07, p.A19)

1969        Sep 1, A coup in Libya overthrew the monarchy of King Idris and brought Moammar Gadhafi (27) to power. Crown Prince al-Hassan al-Reda, was acting ruler while King al-Senousi, al-Senousi's grandfather, was undergoing medical treatment in Turkey. Gadhafi emerged as leader of the revolutionary government and ordered the closure of a U.S. Air Force base.
    (AP, 9/1/99)(SFEC, 4/9/00, p.C12)(AP, 6/26/05)

1969-1984    Libya’s Crown Prince al-Reda and his family remained under house arrest for 7 years after the coup. He then spent 2 years in detention without trial where he was said to have been tortured. He suffered a brain tumor that paralyzed his body and traveled to Britain for treatment. He died 6 years later when the Libyan office in London suspended payment for the treatment.
    (AP, 6/26/05)

1970        Jun 11, The United States presence in Libya came to an end as the last detachment left Wheelus Air Base.
    (AP, 6/11/00)

1970        Jul 21, Libya ordered the confiscation of all Jewish property.
    (http://tinyurl.com/48p4fy)

1970        Nov 27, Syria joined the pact linking Libya, Egypt and Sudan.
    (HN, 11/27/98)

1970        Colonel Qaddafi expelled 20,000 Italians from Libya.
    (Econ, 8/2/08, p.54)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libyan_Italians)

1972        Libya’s leader Muammar Qaddafi proclaimed his Third Universal Theory, aimed at turning Libya into a model of applied socialism and popular democracy.
    (Econ, 9/22/07, p.61)

1973        Feb 21, Israeli fighter planes shot down a Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114 over the Sinai Desert, killing over 100 people.
    (AP, 2/21/98)

1973        Jul 20, The Japanese Red Army and Lebanese guerrillas hijacked a Japan Airlines plane over the Netherlands. The passengers and crew were released in Libya where the hijackers blew up the plane.
    (SFC, 11/9/00, p.C2)(www.cdi.org/friendlyversion/printversion.cfm?documentID=1771)

1973        Oct 16, OPEC, the Arab oil-producing nations, announced they would begin cutting back on oil exports to Western nations and Japan. The next day, the five Arab members of the OPEC committee were joined in Kuwait by the oil ministers of Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Libya, and Syria. The result was a total embargo that lasted until March 1974 and caused oil prices to quadruple.
    (www.harvardir.org/articles/1659/)(AP, 10/17/97)(WSJ, 7/28/03, p.A8)

1973        Nov 19, Saudi Arabia, Libya and other Arab states proclaimed a total ban on oil exports to the United States. Gasoline prices quadrupled from twenty-five cents per gallon to over one dollar. The New York stock market took its sharpest drop in 19 years.
    (HN, 11/19/98)(www.bullnotbull.com/archive/market-01222006.html)

1973        The Irish Navy caught Joe Cahill as he tried to smuggle 5 tons of Russian-made explosives, guns and ammunition from Libya.
    (SFC, 7/26/04, p.B4)

1974        Mar 17 Arab oil ministers, with the exception of Libya, announced the end the oil embargo on the US.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973_oil_crisis)

1974        May, Major Abdel Jalloud, Libya's second in command, traveled to Moscow and concluded the first in a series of arms sales agreements that remain the largest ever reached by the Soviets.
    (www.heritage.org/research/MiddleEast/bg362.cfm)

1975        Libya’s leader Muammar Qaddafi published The Green Book. The 3-part book rejects modern conceptions of liberal democracy and encourages the institution of a form of direct democracy based on popular committees.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Green_Book)

1977        Mar 2, Libya amended its constitution and changed its name from The Libyan Arab Republic to The Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahirya.
    (http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/dr_ibrahim_ighneiwa/libyans.htm)

1977        Nov 19, The Libyan flag was adopted, after Libya left the Federation of Arabs Republic, which consisted of Libya, Egypt and Syria.
    (www.worldflags101.com/l/libya-flag.aspx)

1977        Col. Moammar Gadhafi launched his Jamahariya, or "State of the Masses."
    (SFEC, 4/9/00, p.C12)

1978         Aug 31, Imam Moussa al-Sadr, the spiritual leader of Lebanon's Shiite Muslim community, disappeared along with 2 companions during a visit to Libya. In 2008 a Lebanese prosecutor charged Moammar Khadafy and 6 other Libyan officials in the disappearance.
    (AP, 9/3/03)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musa_al-Sadr)(SFC, 8/28/08, p.A7)

1979        Jan 10, Billy Carter, the brother of US Pres. Jimmy Carter, made allegedly anti-Semitic remarks. Billy eventually registered as a foreign agent of the Libyan government and received a $220,000 loan. This led to a Senate hearing over alleged influence peddling which some in the press dubbed "Billygate."
    (http://tinyurl.com/2krnv2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billy_Carter)

1979        Apr 11, Idi Amin was deposed as president of Uganda as rebels and exiles backed by Tanzanian forces seized control of Kampala. Amin escaped to Libya and settled into exile in Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 4/11/97)(SFC, 10/15/99, p.D7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Idi_Amin)

1979        Dec 2, Some 2,000 Libyans ransacked the US embassy at Tripoli, Libya, chanting support for the radical Islamic regime that took power in Iran earlier in the year.
    (AP, 12/30/03)

1980        Jul 23, The US Senator Judiciary Committee was reported to be officially joining those investigating allegations of misconduct in Billy Carter's relationship with Libya.
    (http://openweb.tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/1980-7/1980-07-23-ABC-2.html)

1980        Colonel Muammar Khaddafi of Libya recruited the nationless, disenfranchised nomads by implying that he would train the Kel Tamashek and provide weapons to fight for their independence from the Malian government. The rebels slowly realized that Khadaffi's only intention was to use them in his own wars. Some of these dejected fighters formed the band Tinariwen in Khadaffi's rebel camp.
    (www.jacneed.com/10Tinariwen.htm)

1981        May 6, The US expelled Libyan diplomats.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/target/etc/cron.html)

1981        Aug 12, President Reagan, citing alleged Libyan involvement in terrorism, ordered U.S. jets to attack targets in Libya.
    (AP, 12/19/03)

1981        Aug 19, Two U.S. Navy F-14 jet fighters shot down a pair of Soviet-built Libyan SU-22s in a dogfight over the Gulf of Sidra.
    (AP, 8/19/06)

1981        Dec 11, Concerned about the safety of Americans in Libya, the Reagan administration asked them to leave. It also invalidated the use of US passports for travel to Libya.
    (AP, 12/19/03)

1981        Libya froze state wages.
    (Econ, 3/11/06, p.42)

1981-1986    In Uganda Yoweri Museveni led a five-year bush war against Milton Obote. Museveni had trained in a Libya guerrilla camp.
    (SFC, 5/11/96, p.A-8)(AP, 12/16/02)

1982        Mar 10, Pres Reagan proclaimed economic sanctions against Libya and banned Libyan oil imports, because of the continued support of terrorism.
    (HN, 3/10/98)(www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=38082)

1983        Nov 25, Syria and Saudi Arabia announced a cease-fire in PLO civil war in Tripoli.
    (www.defense-update.com/2005/02/arafats-dissidents-challenge-to-abu.html)

1983        Edwin Wilson was convicted of running arms to Libya. In 2003 the conviction was thrown out because prosecutors knew he worked for the CIA and misled the court.
    (WSJ, 10/29/03, p.A1)

1984        Apr 17, Yvonne Fletcher (25), a British police officer, was killed from rifle shots fired from a window of the Libyan embassy in London during a demonstration against Moammar Khadafy. Diplomatic relations were soon severed and not restored until 1999. Libya later gave Fletcher’s family some compensation. In 2004 a joint British-Libyan investigation into the murder was launched.  In 2009 Moamer Kadhafi officially apologized for the shooting. In 2011 it was reported that a witness had identified Abdulmagid Salah Ameri, a junior diplomat working in the administrative section, as firing a gun from an embassy window.
    (SFC, 7/8/99, p.A8)(SFEC, 4/9/00, p.C12)(AP, 4/7/04)(AFP, 10/26/09)(AFP, 8/26/11)

1985        Jan 8, The Rev. Lawrence Martin Jenco was kidnapped in Lebanon. He was released 19 months later.
    (AP, 1/8/05)

1985        Aug 21, Tunisia expelled 253 Libyans in apparent retaliation for Libya’s expulsion of over 20,000 Tunisian workers in recent weeks.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yq3x4e)

1985        Charles Taylor escaped from a Plymouth County jail in Massachusetts while awaiting extradition to Liberia, where he was accused of embezzling money as an official in the dictatorship of Samuel Doe. He went to Libya received military training as a guest of Col. Moammar Ghadafi. Taylor met Foday Sankoh, a corporal from Sierra Leone while training in Libya.
    (SFC, 7/3/99, p.A10)(SFC, 12/13/00, p.B5)(AP, 12/16/02)

1986          Jan 1, Libyan leader Moammar Ghadafi threatened to retaliate if attacked as the United States built its strength in the Mediterranean .
    (HN, 1/1/99)

1986        Jan 7, US president Reagan proclaimed economic sanctions against Libya.
    (www.iie.com/research/topics/sanctions/libya.cfm)

1986        Jan 23, U.S. began maneuvers off the Libyan coast.
    (HN, 1/23/99)

1986        Apr 5, A Berlin nightclub was bombed and 2 US soldiers and a woman were killed and 230 injured. Palestinian Yasser Shraydi (Chraidi) was suspected of playing a lead role in the bombing of the La Belle discotheque. In 1996 he was extradited from Lebanon to face charges in Germany. In 1996 Andrea Hasler was arrested in Greece and extradited to Germany. Also a woman named Verena Chanaa, suspected of planting the bomb, and her former husband named Ali Chanaa were arrested in Berlin. In 1997 Musbah Abulghasen Eter was arrested by Italian police in Rome in connection with the bombing. In 2001 V. Chanaa was sentenced to 14 years, A. Chanaa and Eter were sentenced to 12 years, and Chraidi was sentenced to 14 years. Libya was implicated and in 2004 agreed to pay $35 million in compensation.
    (SFC, 5/234/96, p.A14)(SFC, 10/12/96, p.A12)(WSJ, 8/28/97, p.A1)(SFC, 8/28/97, p.C3)(SFC, 11/14/01, p.A18)(AP, 9/3/04)

1986        Apr 14, Americans got first word of the U.S. air raid on Libya (because of the time difference, it was the early morning of April 15th where the attack occurred). US aircraft attacked five terrorist locations in Libya in response to the Apr 5 terrorist attack in Berlin. In 2003 Joseph T. Stanik authored "El Dorado Canyon," an account of the military strike.
    (AP, 4/14/97)(HN, 4/14/98)(SFC, 12/18/99, p.C4)(WSJ, 2/11/03, p.D8)
1986        Apr 14, Italy, which opposed an American strike against Libya, warned Libya a day before the strike, which was launched from a NATO base on the Sicilian island of Lampedusa.
    (AP, 10/30/08)

1986        Apr 15, The United States launched an air raid with F-111 warplanes against Libya in response to the bombing of a discotheque in Berlin on April 5; Libya said 41 people, mostly civilians, were killed in Tripoli and Benghazi. The step-daughter of Moammar Gadhafi, Hana, was reportedly among those killed near Tripoli by the US bombing. In 2011 evidence emerged that Hana was not killed and completed medical school 2010. 
    (WSJ, 8/30/00, p.A1)(AP, 12/19/08)(AP, 10/31/08)(AP, 8/30/11)

1986        Apr 16, Dispelling rumors he was dead, Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi appeared on television to condemn the US raid on his country.
    (AP, 4/16/06)

1986        Peter Mass authored “Manhunt," the story of Edwin Wilson (1928-2012). Wilson had worked for the CIA but was arrested in 1982 for selling 20 tons of explosives to Libya. He was sentenced to 52 years in prison for smuggling arms and plotting to murder his wife.
    (SSFC, 9/23/12, p.C10)
1986        Ghadames, Libya, was designated a World Heritage site.
    (SSFC, 6/27/04, p.D12)

1987        In Burkina Faso Blaise Compaore, trained in Gadhafi's guerrilla camps, seized power in a bloody takeover. Libya and Burkina Faso later denied repeated accusations of gunrunning to West Africa hot spots.
    (SFC, 2/19/00, p.A10)(AP, 12/16/02)

1987        France ousted Libyan troops from a disputed area of northern Chad. In the proxy war, code-named Arid Farmer, France and the US backed government forces against Libyan troops.
    (SFC, 6/22/99, p.A12)(WSJ, 2/11/03, p.D8)

1988        Dec 21, Pan Am Flight 103 was downed over Lockerbie, Scotland by a terrorist bomb. 270 people were killed aboard the Boeing 747. Libya was accused of responsibility for the bombing, which killed 259 people onboard and 11 on the ground. Two Libyan operatives, Abdel Basset al-Megrahi and A-Amin Khalifa Fahimah, were indicted in 1991 and thought to be in hiding in Libya. They were sent to the Netherlands for trial in 1999 and implicated Mohammed Abu Talb, a Palestinian terrorist jailed in Sweden. In 2000 Ahmad Behbahani (32) told a 60 Minutes journalist from a refugee camp in Turkey that he proposed the Pan Am operation and coordinated the 1996 bombing of the Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabia. He also claimed that Iran was behind the 1994 bombing in Argentina that killed 86 people. Behbahani was later called a fraud by the CIA and FBI. In 2001 a Scottish court convicted Abdel Basset Ali al-Megrahi, a Libyan intelligence officer, of murder in the 1998 bombing of Pan am Flight 103. A 2nd Libyan, Lamen Khalifa Fhimah, was acquitted. The conviction was upheld in 2002. In 2003 Libya set up a $2.7 billion fund for families of 270 people killed.
    (WSJ, 12/18/95, p.A-9)(SFC, 5/11/96, p.A-8)(SFC, 6/7/97, p.A4)(AP, 12/21/97)(WSJ, 4/6/99, p.A1)(SFC, 11/25/99, p.A14)(SFC, 6/5/00, p.A9)(SFC, 6/6/00, p.A10)(SFEC, 6/11/00, p.A20)(SFC, 1/31/01, p.A11)(SFC, 3/15/02, p.A9)(AP, 8/15/03)

1989        Jan 4, US Navy F-14s shot down 2 Libyan jet fighters over Mediterranean.
    (www.history.navy.mil/wars/foabroad.htm)

1989        Jul 27, Eighty people were killed when a Korean Air DC-10 crashed in Libya.
    (AP, 7/27/99)

1989        Sep 19, A Paris-bound French DC-10, UTA Flight 772, was bombed over the Sahara desert of Niger and all 170 passengers died. French authorities placed the blame on Libya’s Abdallah Senoussi, brother-in-law of Moammar Khadafy and chief of foreign operations for the Libyan secret service. The six Libyan suspects were named by a French judge in 1998 and tried in absentia in 1999. The attack was in retaliation for French intervention on behalf of Chad in a war with Libya since the mid 1980s. In 2004 Libya signed a $170 million compensation accord with families of the people killed. In 2008 a federal judge in Washington ordered Libya and six of its officials to pay more than $6 billion in damages to the families of 7 Americans killed in the attack.
    (SFC, 5/7/97, p.C3)(SFEC,10/19/97, p.A26)(WSJ, 1/30/98, p.A1)(SFC, 6/13/98, p.A11)(SFC, 3/9/99, p.B10)(AP, 9/19/99)(AP, 1/9/04)(Reuters, 1/16/08)

1989        The Arab Maghreb Union was created to encourage free trade between Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia. It failed to hold summit meetings after 1994.
    (Econ, 5/29/10, p.50)

1989-1993    An outbreak of Old World Screwworm was eradicated by a coordinated int’l. effort.
    (SFC, 6/13/98, p.A7)

1991        Nov 14, U.S. and British authorities announced indictments against two Libyan intelligence officials in connection with the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103.
    (AP, 11/14/01)

1992        Mar 23, The president of the U.N. Security Council announced that Libya had offered to surrender two men suspected in the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 to the Arab League. Libya reversed itself two days later; however, the suspects surrendered for trial seven years later. One was subsequently convicted, the other found innocent.
    (AP, 3/23/02)

1992        Mar 25, Libyan leader Col. Moammar Gadhafi backed away from an offer to turn over two suspects in the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 to the Arab League.
    (AP, 3/25/97)

1992        Apr 7, PLO chairman Yasser Arafat survived the crash landing of his plane in the Libyan desert; three crew members were killed.
    (AP, 4/7/97)

1992        Apr 14, Libya cut itself off from the world for 24 hours to mark the sixth anniversary of the U.S. air raid, the same day the World Court rejected Libya's appeal to prevent sanctions against it for refusing to turn over suspects in the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103.
    (AP, 4/14/97)

1992        Apr 15, Countries barred Libyan jets from their airspace and ordered diplomats to go home because of Libya's refusal to turn over suspects in the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103. U.N. Security Council imposed sanctions on arms sales and air travel against Libya to prod Gadhafi into surrendering two suspects wanted in the Pan Am 103.
    (AP, 4/15/97)(AP, 12/19/03)

1992        Dec 22, A Libyan Boeing 727 jetliner crashed, killing 157 people.
    (AP, 12/22/97)

1992        An agreement was made on sharing water from Nubian sandstone aquifer system, the largest in the world, located under Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan.
    (Econ, 10/9/10, p.87)

1993        Dec 10, Mansour Rashid El-Kikhia, former Libyan ambassador to the UN, was kidnapped in Cairo. The US CIA later reported that he was taken to Libya and executed in early 1994.
    (SSFC, 5/21/06, p.E5)(http://tinyurl.com/lnqr5)

1993        In Libya Moammar Ghadafi uncovered a coup attempt and plot to assassinate him by 55 Warfala army officers. For years afterward Bani Walid, 90 miles (140 km) southeast of Tripoli, was in official disfavor.
    (SFC, 1/3/97, p.A17)(AP, 9/2/11)

1995        Sep 1, Moammar Ghadafi of Libya announced the expulsion of all 30,000 Palestinians from Libya. More than 1,200 ended up in a border camp between Libya and Egypt.
    (SFC, 8/22/96, p.E1)

1995        Libya declared jihad against NATO, but no concrete action was taken.
    (WSJ, 10/10/01, p.A10)

1995        The Libyan Islamic Fighting Group, an Islamist militant group, first announced its existence vowing to overthrow Gaddafi and launching a violent campaign.
    (AP, 9/6/09)

1996        Jan, Louis Farrakhan visited Libya and received a promise of $1 billion from Col. Moammar Ghadafi. His tour also included stops in Iran, Nigeria and the Sudan.
    (SFC, 8/27/96, p.A3)

1996        Feb, In Libya a plan to kill Moammar Ghadafi failed and several bystanders were killed. In 1998 David Shayler, a former member of the British intelligence services, revealed the information in France while fighting extradition to Britain. The British foreign secretary denied the attack. Shayler returned to London in 2000 to face charges.
    (SFC, 8/17/98, p.A9)(SFC, 8/22/00, p.A10)

1996        Mar 28, Col Gadhaffi of Libya sent troops to put down unrest in northeaster Libya after a 400 prisoners, many including dissidents and Islamic militants, escaped from prison last week.
    (WSJ, 3/28/96,p.A-1)

1996        Apr 4, US intelligence indicated that Libya was building a chemical weapons plant at Tarhunah, 40 miles southeast of Tripoli. The plant was reportedly designed to replace a plant at Rabta, 55 miles SW of Tripoli, where Libya insists that only pharmaceuticals are produced.
    (SFC, 4/4/96, p.A-3)

1996        May 17, Libya was preparing to expel some of its 30,000 Palestinians.
    (WSJ, 5/17/96,p.A-1)

1996        May 29, Col. Moammar Ghadafi left Cairo after a five-day visit. He went about town with his well-armed female bodyguards and spoke with numerous intellectuals, union leaders, business leaders and officials. He offered a vision of Libyan style democracy, a decentralized government based on popular committees.
    (SFC, 5/30/96, p.A10)

1996        Jun 28-1996 Jun 29, In Libya some 1270 inmates were killed at Tripoli's Abu Salim prison after protesting conditions there. They included more than 200 guards. Libyan enforcer Abdullah Sanussi ordered Gen. Mansur Dao to carry out the execution. Libya opened an investigation in 2009 into the incident. The killings took place amid confrontation between the government and rebels from the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group, an Islamist militant group which first announced its existence in 1995. In 2011 revolutionaries found their mass grave after getting information from captured officials and witnesses. The body count was put at 1700.
    (www.hrw.org/en/node/87096/section/9)(Econ, 3/5/11, p.50)(AFP, 9/26/11)(Econ, 9/17/11, p.46)
    (AFP, 6/29/12)

1996        Jul 12, In Libya at least 20 people were killed in Tripoli at a soccer match. Bodyguards loyal to the sons of Moammar Ghadafi fired at spectators who shouted hostile slogans. A stampede resulted.
    (SFC, 7/15/96, p.A11)

1996        Aug 23, The Nation of Islam applied to the US Treasury Dept. for permission to accept a $1 bil donation from Col. Moammar Gadhafi that was promised to Rev. Louis Farrakhan to help America’s black people.
    (WSJ, 8/26/96, p.A1)

1996        Oct 6, Turkey’s prime minister urged Moammar Ghadafi to sign a document to denounce Kurdish rebel terrorism but instead Ghadafi condemned Turkish repression of the Kurds. A trade deal hung in suspension.
    (SFEC, 10/7/96, A9)

1996        Nov 23, A member of the Fighting Islamic Group, Abdullah Guryou, hurled a grenade at Moammar Ghadafi in the desert town of Brak. Ghadafi was not hurt.
    (SFC, 1/3/97, p.A17)

1997        Jan 2, In Libya 6 military officers and 2 civilians were executed on charges of spying. Experts believed they case was related to the 1993 coup attempt.
    (SFC, 1/3/97, p.A17)

1997        Mar 10, The Vatican established diplomatic relations with Libya.
    (SFC, 3/11/97, p.A11)

1997        Oct 29, South Africa’s Nelson Mandela arrived in Libya to bestow the Order of Good Hope on Colonel Muammar Qaddafi.
    (Econ, 9/3/11, p.45)(www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/ir/sirga/ARboyd273.pdf)

1997        Dec 2, It was reported that Libya was constructing some 2,000 miles of tunnels with 13-foot concrete pipes. Libya called it the Great Man-Made River Project and it stretched from Tunisia to Egypt. Analysts feared it would be used for military purposes. The primary contractor was Dong Ah, a South Korean construction conglomerate and much of the equipment used was of US make.
    (SFC, 12/2/97, p.A11)

1997        Mansour Omar El-Kikhia published his book “Libya’s Qaddafi: The Politics of Contradiction" in the US. He was the cousin of Mansour Rashid El-Kikhia, Libya’s former UN ambassador, who was executed in 1994. 
    (SSFC, 5/21/06, p.E5)(http://tinyurl.com/lnqr5)

1998        Feb 27, The World Court ruled that it has the authority to decide on the location of a trial for the 2 Libyans accused of blowing up a jet over Lockerbie, Scotland in 1988.
    (SFC, 2/28/98, p.A10)

1998        Aug 24, The United States and Britain agreed to allow two Libyan suspects in the bombing of Pan Am flight 103 to be tried by a Scottish court sitting in the Netherlands. A former Libyan intelligence agent was later convicted of murder; the other suspect was acquitted.
    (AP, 8/24/08)

1998        Aug 26, Libya indicated that it would accept an American and British proposal that 2 suspects of the 1988 bombing of a Pan Am jet be tried in the Netherlands by Scottish judges.
    (SFC, 8/27/98, p.A10)

1998        Oct 5, Libyan leader Moammar Ghadafi was reported to have turned his face to Africa rather than a pan-Arab unity: ""I would like Libya to become a black country. Hence, I recommend to Libyan men to marry only black women, and to Libyan women to marry black men."
    (SFC, 10/6/98, p.A14)

1998        Dec 4, The London Guardian was cited in a report that 3 high security officials in Libya, were convicted and sentenced to prison for dereliction of duty. Abdullah Senussi, Musa Koussa and Mohammed al-Misrati were thought to be the superiors of the men wanted for the 1988Lockerbie Pan Am bombing.
    (SFC, 12/4/98, p.A16)

1998        Dec 15, The 500 members of Libya’s General People’s Congress voted for conditional approval for the trial of Pan Am Flight 103 bombing suspects in a 3rd country.
    (SFC, 12/16/98, p.A15)

1998        In Libya children at Al-Fateh Children’s Hospital were found diagnosed with  HIV. In all 438 children were found to be infected along with 20 nursing mothers. By 2007 57 children had died of AIDS.
    (SSFC, 4/1/07, p.A17)

1999        Feb, In Libya health workers including 5 Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian doctor were arrested on charges they intentionally infected some 393 children with the AIDS virus as part of an experiment to find a cure. The defendants were tortured daily for their 1st 3 months of captivity. On May 6, 2004, the nurses and doctor were sentenced to death.
    (www.wsws.org/articles/2004/sep2004/liby-s02.shtml)(AP, 5/6/04)(SSFC, 6/6/04, E3)

1999        Apr 5, Libya handed over to UN officials 2 men accused in the 1988 bombing of Pan Am flight 103. They were then flown to the Hague to be tried under Scottish law. UN Sec. Gen'l. Kofi Annan immediately suspended economic sanctions on Libya.
    (SFC, 4/6/99, p.A1)(SFC, 4/6/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/6/99, p.A1)

1999        Apr 18, Pres. Kabila of Congo and Ugandan Pres. Museweni signed a cease-fire agreement that was mediated by Libyan leader Moammar Ghadafi. Rwanda and Congolese rebels rejected the deal.
    (SFC, 5/29/99, p.A11)

1999        Apr 28, The US announced that it would allow US firms to sell food and medicine to Iran, Sudan and Libya.
    (SFC, 4/29/99, p.A3)

1999        Jun 11, The US and Libya engaged in their first official meeting in 18 years. The US stipulated conditions to be met prior to the lifting of sanctions.
    (SFC, 6/12/99, p.A13)

1999        Jun 13, In South Africa Pres. Mandela welcomed visiting Libyan leader Moammar Ghadafi as his last official guest. Ghadafi was on his first foreign tour since sanctions were lifted in April.
    (SFC, 6/14/99, p.A13)

1999        Jun 21, It was reported that Libya would pay $40 million to the families of those killed in the Sep 19, 1989 bombing of a French jet.
    (SFC, 6/22/99, p.A12)

1999        Jul 7, Britain and Libya announced a resumption of diplomatic relations.
    (SFC, 7/8/99, p.A8)

1999        Jul 27, The US eased sanctions against Iran, Libya and Sudan to allow the sale of food, medicine and medical equipment.
    (SFC, 7/27/99, p.A5)

1999        Sep 6, In Libya Moammar Ghadafi unveiled plans for a new, safe, 5-passenger "Rocket of the Jamahariya" automobile.
    (SFC, 9/8/99, p.A16)

1999        Nov 24, In Britain authorities intercepted Scud missile components labeled as auto parts originating in Taiwan and destined for Libya.
    (SFC, 1/10/00, p.A10)

1999        Dec 1, Prime Minister Massimo D'Alema of Italy began a 2-day visit that involved a $5.5 billion oil and gas project involving ENI, an Italian oil company. It was the 1st visit by a Western head of government since sanctions in 1992.
    (SFC, 12/2/99, p.D2)

1999         Algeria, Libya and Tunisia agreed to share the northwest Sahara aquifer system (NWSAS).
    (Econ, 10/9/10, p.87)(http://tinyurl.com/25w5boa)

2000        Jan 13, A Swiss Shorts 300-360 airplane carrying Libyan oil workers to a refinery at Marsa el-Brega crashed off the Libya coast and at least 15 of 41 people were killed.
    (SFC, 1/14/00, p.D2)(WSJ, 1/14/00, p.A1)

2000        Mar, Col. Gadhafi ordered the abolition of a dozen ministries and the supposed transfer of their power to the grass roots.
    (SFEC, 4/9/00, p.C12)

2000        Aug 29, In Libya 6 former hostages held captive in the Philippines arrived to thank Moammar Ghadafi for his role in securing their release.
    (SFC, 8/30/00, p.A12)

2000        Sep 8, In the Philippines Abu Sayyaf rebels freed 4 more hostages held since April 23. Libya paid a reported $1 million per hostage.
    (SFC, 9/9/00, p.A10)(SFEC, 9/10/00, p.C15)

2000        Oct 5, Nigerians from Libya arrived home on repatriation flights and bore tales of a pogrom by youths resentful of economic immigrants.
    (WSJ, 10/6/00, p.A1)

2001        Jan 4, It was reported that Africans from Guinea, Niger, Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroon and Congo had resumed treks across the Sahara to Libya for better economic conditions.
    (SFC, 1/5/01, p.A18)

2001        Jan 31, In the Netherlands a Scottish court sentenced Abdel Basset Ali al-Megrahi, a Libyan intelligence officer, to life in a Scottish prison for the 1998 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103. A second Libyan was acquitted.
    (SFC, 1/31/01, p.A11)(SFC, 2/1/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 2/1/01, p.A1)(AP, 12/19/03)

2001        May 30, Libya flew troops and weapons to the Central African Republic to help Pres. Patasse to put down a coup attempt.
    (WSJ, 5/31/01, p.A1)

2001        In 2004 the UN gathered evidence suggesting the North Korea supplied Libya with nearly 2 tons of uranium in 2001.
    (WSJ, 5/24/04, p.A1)

2002        May 28, Libya offered $10 million in compensation for each victim in the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 in exchange for removal from the US list of states that sponsor terrorism.
    (SFC, 5/29/02, p.A1)

2002        May 29, Libya denied that it had any relationship to the deal made by lawyers to pay $2.7 billion to the families of Pan Am Flight 103 victims. The move was seen as a ploy and a settlement was expected soon.
    (SFC, 5/30/02, p.A10)

2002        Aug 7, The first British Cabinet minister to visit this country in two decades met with Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi, saying Libya was making a serious attempt to move away from its international pariah status.
    (AP, 8/7/02)

2002        Oct 24, Libya has decided to withdraw from the Arab League, Moammar Gadhafi's government announced.
    (AP, 10/24/02)

2002        Dec 28, Libyan soldiers ended a yearlong deployment to protect the Central African Republic government against a string of coup attempts. They were to be replaced by troops from Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, Gabon and Mali.
    (AP, 12/31/02)

2003        Jan 20, The U.N. human rights watchdog elected a Libyan diplomat as its president for this year, despite concern from the United States about the country's poor record on civil liberties and its alleged role in sponsoring terrorism.
    (AP, 1/20/03)

2003        Jun, Libya announced it was breaking off diplomatic ties with Iraq and closing its embassy shortly after the US-led invasion of the country earlier this year.
    (AFP, 3/23/12)

2003        Apr 30, Libyan Foreign Minister Abdel Rahman Shalqam said his government accepted responsibility for the 1998 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland.
    (SFC, 5/1/03, A7)

2003        Aug 13, Libya agreed to set up a $2.7 billion fund for families of 270 people killed in the 1988 Pan Am bombing.
    (AP, 8/13/04)

2003        Aug 31, Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi said a second agreement over compensation has been reached between his country and the families of 170 victims of a French airliner that exploded in 1989.
    (AP, 9/1/03)

2003        Sep 12, The UN Security Council lifted 11-year-old sanctions on Libya after Moammar Gadhafi's government took responsibility for bombing a Pan Am jet over Scotland and agreed to pay the victims' families $2.7 billion.
    (AP, 9/12/03)

2003        Sep 24, Families of people killed when US jets bombed Libya urged Tripoli to suspend payments to relatives of the victims of the 1988 downing of a Pan Am airliner until they receive compensation from the United States.
    (AP, 9/24/03)

2003        Oct 4, A shipment of uranium-enriching centrifuge gear was seized at the Italian port of Taranto in 2003, forcing Libya to admit and eventually renounce its efforts to acquire nuclear weapons. In 2009 Urs Tinner, suspected of involvement in the world's biggest nuclear smuggling ring, said in a Swiss TV documentary that he tipped off US intelligence about a delivery of centrifuge parts meant for Libya's nuclear weapons program.
    (http://articles.latimes.com/2004/nov/28/world/fg-network28)(WSJ, 12/31/03, p.A1)(AP, 1/22/09)

2003        Dec 19, Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi, after secret negotiations with the United States and Britain, agreed to halt his nation's drive to develop nuclear and chemical weapons and the long-range missiles to deliver them. Libya admitted to nuclear fuel projects, including possessing centrifuges and centrifuge parts used in uranium enrichment. Libya showed American and British inspectors a significant quantity of mustard agent. Libya acknowledged it intended to acquire equipment and develop capabilities to create biological weapons. Libya admitted "elements of the history of its cooperation with North Korea" to develop extended-range Scud missiles.
    (AP, 12/19/03)(AP, 12/20/03)

2003        Dec 28, A team led by U.N. nuclear chief Mohammed ElBaradei toured 4 atomic facilities in Libya and found dismantled equipment. ElBaradei said Libya appeared to reach only an experimental level in its attempts to enrich uranium, essential for a nuclear bomb.
    (AP, 12/29/04)

2003        Libya planned a covert operation to assassinate Crown Prince Abdullah of Saudi Arabia according to 2004 testimony by 2 jailed participants.
    (SFC, 6/10/04, A10)

2004        Jan 5, Pres. Bush extended a 1986 order of sanctions against Libya.
    (WSJ, 1/6/04, p.A1)

2004        Jan 8, Libya agreed to compensate family members of victims of a 1989 bombing of a French passenger plane over the Niger desert that killed 170 people.
    (AP, 1/8/05)

2004        Jan 9, Libya signed a $170 million compensation accord with families of people who died in the 1989 bombing of a French jetliner.
    (AP, 1/9/04)

2004        Jan 14, A UN agency said Libya has ratified the nuclear test ban treaty. The treaty is 12 nations short of the 44 ratifications needed for it to enter into force. Once it comes into force, the treaty bans any nuclear weapon test explosion in any environment.
    (AP, 1/14/04)

2004        Feb 10, Italian Premier Silvio Berlusconi met with Libya leader Moammar Gadhafi, and the United States said it had restored diplomatic contacts with the country. In London, Prime Minister Tony Blair held talks with the Libyan foreign minister.
    (AP, 2/10/04)

2004        Feb 26, The US lifted a long-standing ban on travel to Libya after Moammar Gadhafi's government affirmed that it was responsible for the bombing of Pan Am flight 103 in 1988.
    (AP, 2/26/04)

2004        Mar 5, Libya acknowledged stockpiling 44,000 pounds of mustard gas and disclosed the location of a production plant in a declaration submitted to the world's chemical weapons watchdog.
    (AP, 3/5/04)

2004        Mar 25, British PM Tony Blair and Libyan leader Col. Moammar Gadhafi greeted each other with smiles and handshakes in a meeting that marked a major step back into the international mainstream for the North African state.
    (AP, 3/25/04)

2004        Mar, The US CIA worked closely with Moammar Gadhafi's intelligence services in the rendition of terror suspects to Libya for interrogation as revealed by documents uncovered in 2011. The documents appear to be American correspondence to Libyan officials to arrange for the rendition of Abdel-Hakim Belhaj (nom de guerre, Abdullah al-Sadiq), a leader of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG) with links to al-Qaida. Belhadj later claimed to have been tortured by CIA agents at a secret prison, then returned to Libya. Belhaj was detained in Thailand and transferred to Tripoli, where he spent years in prison. In 2013 he sued the British government over its alleged role in his detention and rendition offered to settle for 3 pounds ($4.50) and an apology.
    (AP, 9/3/11)(Econ, 9/10/11, p.62)(AP, 3/4/13)

2004        Apr 18, In Libya Moammar Gadhafi called for the abolition of Libya's three decade-old exceptional courts and other strict laws criticized by human rights groups.
    (AP, 4/18/04)

2004        Apr 27, Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi arrived in Brussels, his first trip to Europe in 15 years. Gadhafi sought "full normalization" of relations and entry to the aid and trade program the EU runs with countries around the Mediterranean, including Israel.
    (AP, 4/27/04)

2004        May 6, A Libyan court sentenced five Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian doctor to death on charges they intentionally infected some 393 children with the AIDS virus as part of an experiment to find a cure. 9 Libyan health workers were acquitted. Under Libyan law, death sentences generate an automatic 60-day  period for appeal.
    (AP, 5/6/04)(SSFC, 6/6/04, E3)

2004        May 13, Libya agreed to halt military trade with North Korea, Syria and Iran.
    (WSJ, 5/14/04, p.A1)

2004        May 28, Malaysia issued a detention order for Buhary Syed Abu Tahir, a Sri Lankan businessman, on charges that in 2002 he brought 7 Libyan technicians to Malaysia to be trained to operate machines to produce centrifuge parts for Libya’s nuclear weapons program. Tahir was a key associate of Abdul Qadeer Khan, former head of Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program.
    (WSJ, 6/4/04, p.A10)

2004        Jun 16, Libyan Arab Airline announced plans to spend a billion dollars over the next decade to buy 22 new aircraft, ranging from 14-seaters to jets with a capacity of 350 seats.
    (AP, 6/16/04)

2004        Jun 28, America resumed direct diplomatic ties with Libya after a 24-year break.
    (USAT, 6/29/04, p.12A)(AP, 6/28/05)

2004        Jul 4, It was reported that Libya's state-owned Tam Oil Co has bought the Niger unit of US oil major ExxonMobil Corp, in the first such deal following an end to US sanctions on Tripoli.
    (AP, 7/4/04)

2004        Jul 30, Abdurahman Alamoudi pleaded guilty in a Virginia court to moving cash from Libya and involvement in a Libyan plot to assassinate Saudi Prince Abdullah.
    (SFC, 7/31/04, p.A3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdul_Rahman_al-Amoudi)

2004        Aug 10, Libya agreed to pay $35 million to the non-US victims of the 1986 Berlin disco bombing. Libya's Kadhafi Foundation, which negotiated the terms of a compensation deal for victims of the bombing, demanded compensation from the United States for subsequent air strikes against the north African country.
    (AP, 8/10/04)(WSJ, 8/11/04, p.A1)

2004        Sep 3, Libya signed an agreement to pay a total of $35 million US in compensation for 168 non-U.S. victims of a 1986 Berlin disco bombing.
    (AP, 9/3/04)

2004        Sep 19, President George W. Bush has decided to lift sanctions against Libya, which he expects to trigger release of more than $1 billion US to families of Pan Am 103 victims.
    (AP, 9/20/04)

2004        Sep 22, The European Union agreed in principle to lift an arms embargo on Libya after pressure from Italy.
    (AP, 9/22/04)

2004        Oct 10, Libyan officials said police have arrested 17 non-Libyans suspected of being al-Qaida members who entered this North African country illegally.
    (AP, 10/11/04)

2004        Oct 11, The European Union ended 11 years of sanctions against Libya and eased an arms embargo to reward the North African country for giving up plans to develop weapons of mass destruction.
    (AP, 10/11/04)

2004        Oct 14, German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder arrived in Libya for an official visit during which he is to hold talks with Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi.
    (AP, 10/14/04)

2004        Oct 15, German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder and Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi clashed over Iraq during their first-ever meeting in Tripoli while German business leaders touted for business in the oil-rich former pariah state. Schroeder praised the reforms of Muammar Gaddafi and invited the Libyan leader to visit Germany.
    (AP, 10/15/04)(Reuters, 10/15/04)

2004        Nov 1, Libya’s PM Shukri Ghanem said he intends to abolish some five billion dollars worth of subsidies on electricity, fuel and basic food items in a move to liberalize the economy.
    (AFP, 11/1/04)

2004        Nov 24, President Jacques Chirac arrived in Libya in the first ever visit by a French head of state.
    (AP, 11/24/04)

2004        Nov 25, French President Jacques Chirac set aside years of acrimony over the bombing of a French passenger jet in the 1980s and declared a "new chapter" in relations with Libya.
    (AP, 11/25/04)

2004        Dec 7, Libya listed three conditions under which it is prepared to drop charges against five Bulgarian nurses condemned to death on suspect charges of spreading AIDS.
    (AFP, 12/8/04)

2004        Dec 8, Saif al-Islam Gadhafi (30), son of leader Moammar Gadhafi, said Libya will soon pass new laws that limit capital punishment to a small number of crimes. Saif was currently enrolled in a doctoral program in governance at the London School of Economics.
    (SFC, 12/9/04, p.A3)(SSFC, 9/23/07, p.A22)

2004        Dec 14, PM Shukri Ghanem said Libya is planning to open up its banking sector to Arab investors and is to privatize two major government banks.
    (AP, 12/14/04)

2004        Dec 15, Libya said its Central Bank has withdrawn $1 billion of assets which had been frozen for almost two decades in the United States on Washington's orders.
    (Reuters, 12/15/04)

2004        Dec 19, Canada’s PM Paul Martin met Moammar Gadhafi, the latest in a string of world leaders to visit Tripoli following the Libyan strongman's renunciation of terrorism. Martin said Canadian construction company SNC-Lavalin has won a $1 billion contract to help build a major water distribution system in Libya.
    (AP, 12/19/04)(Reuters, 12/19/04)

2004        Dec 22, Saudi Arabia announced it was withdrawing its ambassador to Libya and ordered out Libya's envoy in response to reports that Tripoli plotted to assassinate the Saudi crown prince.
    (AP, 12/22/04)

2004        Malawi Pres. Bingu wa Mutharika closed the country’s embassy in Libya soon after his election.
    (AFP, 12/23/07)

2005        Jan 4, Polish PM Marek Belka arrived in Tripoli for a two-day visit that will include talks on cooperation in the oil sector and a meeting with Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi.
    (AFP, 1/5/05)

2005        Jan 29, Libya granted its first oil exploration licenses in over four decades, awarding 15 permits to foreign companies, with US companies taking the lion's share. PM Shukri Ghanem said Libya has opted for a policy of open communication with total transparence."
    (AP, 1/29/05)

2005        Feb 8, Officials said Italian real estate services company Norman 95 has won a 300-million-euro (384-million-dollar) contract to develop a luxury holiday resort on the Libyan coast.
    (AFP, 2/8/05)

2005        Feb 11, The US State Department said Libyan diplomats can travel freely in the US.
    (AP, 2/11/05)

2005        Feb 18, Libya refused to extend the deadline of the Lockerbie compensation deal in a possible bid to pressure Washington to drop it from the U.S. list of state sponsors of terrorism.
    (AP, 2/19/05)

2005        Feb 19, Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi and Egyptian Pres. Hosni Mubarak backed an African solution to the crisis in Sudan's Darfur region during 2 rounds of talks in Cairo.
    (AFP, 2/19/05)

2005        Mar 3, Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi issued a call for economic liberalization in the North African state.
    (AP, 3/3/05)

2005        May 17, Eritrean President Issaias Afeworki met with Sudan Pres. Omar al-Beshir in Tripoli, Libya. Beshir demanded that Eritrea refrain from harboring armed Sudanese opposition and stops offering assistance to that opposition.
    (AP, 5/17/05)

2005        May 21, In Libya reporter Daif al-Ghazal (32) was taken from the northern city of Benghazi by armed men and taken to an unknown location. His body was found a week later.
    (AP, 6/5/05)

2005        May 23, Morocco's king pulled out of the first North African summit in more than a decade, over Algeria's latest comments in a long-running dispute over independence for Western Sahara. Moroccan King Mohammed VI will be represented at the two-day summit in Tripoli, Libya, by Morocco's foreign minister, Mohamed Benaissa.
    (AP, 5/23/05)

2005        May 28, Bulgarian President Georgi Parvanov flew Tripoli to meet with Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi, days before a Libyan court rules on the appeal of five Bulgarian nurses sentenced to death over an AIDS-tainted blood scandal.
    (Reuters, 5/27/05)

2005        Jun 7, A Libyan court acquitted 9 police officers and a doctor accused of torturing six foreign medics sentenced to death for allegedly infecting children with HIV.
    (AP, 6/8/05)

2005        Jul 4, In Libya Moammar Gadhafi called on African nations to stop "begging" during the opening of an African summit attended by more than 50 leaders from this crisis-wracked continent. African Union (AU) chairman Olusegun Obasanjo called on rich nations to provide "massive" financial help rather than sympathy in its fight against poverty at their summit in Scotland this week. UN Sec-Gen. Kofi Annan announced the creation of a fund to promote democratic institutions and practices around the world, an idea first proposed by the Pres. Bush in Sep 2004.
    (AP, 7/4/05)(AP, 7/5/05)

2005        Aug 17, Libya called on the Bulgarian government to negotiate a payment to win amnesty for five Bulgarian medics and a Palestinian sentenced to death for allegedly infecting 400 children with the AIDS virus.
    (AP, 8/18/05)

2005        Aug 20, Libya will free 131 political prisoners, including members of the Muslim Brotherhood, said Saif al-Islam, son of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, who heads a foundation dedicated to improving the country's image.
    (AP, 8/21/05)

2005        Sep 1, Libyan authorities pardoned 1,675 Libyan and foreign prisoners serving time for minor crimes to mark the 36th anniversary of the revolution, which brought Colonel Muammar Gaddafi to power.
    (AP, 9/3/05)

2005        Sep 17, US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice told Libya the US was committed to closer relations with its former enemy, which promised to work harder to fight terrorism.
    (AP, 9/17/05)

2005        Sep 28, President George W. Bush waived some defense export restrictions on Libya to allow U.S. companies to participate in destroying Tripoli's chemical weapons and to refurbish eight transport planes.
    (Reuters, 9/28/05)

2005        Oct 2, Libya awarded 44 oil exploration permits to predominantly Asian and European companies after a first batch was awarded earlier this year mainly to American firms.
    (AFP, 10/3/05)
2005        Oct 2, Portuguese Prime Minister Jose Socrates met Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi in Tripoli, as Libya continues its bid to warm relations with the West.
    (AP, 10/2/05)

2005        Oct 17, Libyan Foreign Minister Abdel Rahman Shalgam rejected a call by US President George W. Bush for Tripoli to spare the lives of five Bulgarian nurses sentenced to death for infecting hundreds of Libyan children with the AIDS virus.
    (AP, 10/17/05)

2005        Dec 23, Bulgaria and Libya agreed to set up a special fund for AIDS-infected children in Libya, where five Bulgarian nurses face the death penalty after being convicted of causing the infections.
    (AP, 12/23/05)

2005        Dec 25, Libya's Supreme Court scrapped death sentences against five Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian doctor and ordered a retrial of the cases which have harmed Tripoli's efforts to build ties with the West.
    (Reuters, 12/25/05)

2005        Dec 29, Three U.S. oil companies said they will end a 19-year absence in Libya and pay $1.83 billion to resume oil production.
    (AP, 12/29/05)

2006        Jan 2, More than 130 Libyan political prisoners, mostly members of the banned opposition Muslim Brotherhood group, started a hunger strike in a Tripoli prison, saying the government broke its promise to release them.
    (AP, 1/3/06)

2006        Jan 21, The families of 426 HIV-infected Libyan children asked for $12 million in compensation for each child as part of efforts to resolve the case of five Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian doctor charged with intentionally infecting the children.
    (AP, 1/22/06)

2006        Jan 27, Libya said it is heading toward allowing private newspapers, radio and television news in what has been a state-controlled media environment for more than 30 years.
    (AFP, 1/27/06)

2006        Feb 17, In Benghazi, Libya, 11 people were killed or wounded during a riot at the Italian consulate when police firing bullets and tear gas tried to contain more than 1,000 demonstrators hurling rocks and bottles. The Libyans were angry over caricatures of the Prophet Muhammad.
    (AFP, 2/18/06)(Econ, 3/26/11, p.32)

2006        Feb 18, Libya suspended Nasr al-Mabrouk, its interior minister, citing an "excessive use of force" in riots the day before that left at least 10 people dead in the bloodiest protest yet against the Prophet Muhammad cartoons roiling the Muslim world.
    (AFP, 2/18/06)
2006        Feb 18, Italy's Reforms Minister Roberto Calderoli resigned following deadly clashes in Libya over cartoons of the Prophet Mohammad that he had made into T-shirts and wore on state television.
    (AP, 2/18/06)

2006        Mar 2, Libya released all 84 jailed members of the banned Muslim Brotherhood movement who had been held since the late 1990s.
    (AFP, 3/2/06)

2006        Mar 5, State TV said Libya had named a new prime minister, Baghdadi Mahmudi, as part of a major cabinet reshuffle. Mahmudi replaced former premier Shukri Ghanem, who had held the post since 2003. Ghanem would no longer be part of the cabinet but would head the state-owned Libya National Oil.
    (AFP, 3/5/06)

2006        Mar 20, Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi said Saddam Hussein should still be considered Iraq's legal president and the current government illegitimate as it was elected under an occupation regime.
    (AFP, 3/20/06)

2006        Mar 21, A Kadhafi Foundation official said Libya is to return properties confiscated in the mid-1970s and pay compensation to their former owners, under a cabinet decree.
    (AFP, 3/21/06)

2006        Apr 15, In Libya US singer Lionel Richie jived and rocked for an adoring audience in a concert to mark the 20th anniversary of a US raid on the North African country. Libya renewed a demand that Washington apologize and pay compensation.
    (AP, 4/15/06)(Reuters, 4/16/06)

2006        May 10, Taiwan's President Chen Shui-bian made a surprise visit to Libya, after he turned down an offer to make a refueling stop in Alaska in an apparent sign of diplomatic pique.
    (AP, 5/10/06)

2006        May 15, The United States restored full diplomatic ties with Libya, rewarding the longtime pariah nation for scrapping its weapons of mass destruction programs.
    (Reuters, 5/15/06)

2006        May 17, In Libya Venezuela's anti-American president was given a warm welcome in Tripoli by Col. Moammar Gadhafi. Chavez and Gadhafi planned to discuss "social programs based on oil revenues."
    (AP, 5/17/06)

2006        Jun 17, In Libya engineer Ismail Al Khazmi (30) was arrested. He died from injuries while in detention. A medical report dated November 15, 2006, said he had died of natural causes from a heart attack. A 2nd autopsy, performed by a committee of three forensic medical doctors on September 11, 2007, concluded that his death was injury induced… from blows with a hard, blunt object of some sort. In 2010 the human rights groups Alkarama, Trial and Human Rights Watch charged that an investigation into his death was opened, but that it was blocked by General Saleh Ragab, Libya's public security secretary.
    (AFP, 11/20/10)(http://tinyurl.com/248e9wo)

2006        Jul 11, State Department official Paula Dobriansky held talks with Libyan PM Baghdadi Mahmudi and announced that the US has lifted sanctions on Libyan air transport.
    (AFP, 7/12/06)

2006        Jul 15, US Middle East envoy David Welch flew into Tripoli for talks with Libyan officials on strengthening economic and financial ties between the two countries.
    (AFP, 7/16/06)

2006        Sep 2, A small boat of African migrants from Eritrea was intercepted off the coast of Sicily. They said eight people died during their grueling trip. They had left from Libya 10-12 days earlier.
    (AP, 9/3/06)

2006        Sep 14, Libya's population grew by 1.8% per year to 5.3 million in 2006 from 1995. A rare government census showed that Libya had also cut its illiteracy rate to 11.9% from 19% a decade ago.
    (Reuters, 9/14/06)

2006        Oct 10, The government of Libya reached an agreement with One Laptop per Child, an American nonprofit group, to provide inexpensive laptop computers to all of its schoolchildren. The $250 million deal would provide the nation with 1.2 million computers, a server in each school, a team of technical advisers, satellite internet service and other infrastructure.
    (AP, 10/11/06)

2006        Oct 16, Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak and Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi held talks on how to resolve the Darfur crisis in Sudan without intervention from outside Africa.
    (AFP, 10/16/06)

2006        Oct 29, Libya took delivery of a Boeing jetliner for the first time in 30 years after the privately owned Buraq Air airline bought six of the US-made aircraft.
    (AFP, 10/28/06)

2006        Nov 5, In Libya Idrees Mohammed Boufayed (49), a vocal critic of Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi's regime, was detained after being summoned to the internal security agency. The doctor, who had lived in Switzerland for 16 years, returned from exile in September to develop the National Union for Reform opposition party he founded 18 months ago.
    (AFP, 12/4/06)

2006        Nov 15, Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi received assurances from German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier that Berlin would work to bolster ties with Tripoli when it assumes the EU presidency next year.
    (AFP, 11/15/06)

2006        Nov 21, Arab and African leaders in Libya agreed to work together to end the crisis in the Darfur region of Sudan.
    (AP, 11/22/06)

2006        Dec 11, The Hague-based Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) said it has granted the US and Russia a five-year extension to the 2007 deadline for destroying their chemical weapon stockpiles. The Chemicals Weapons Convention which went into effect in April 1997. Extensions were also granted to India and Libya as well as one country that requested anonymity.
    (AP, 12/11/06)

2006        Dec 19, A Libya court convicted five Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian doctor of deliberately infecting 400 children with HIV and sentenced them to death, despite scientific evidence the youngsters had the virus before the medical workers came to Libya. The verdict, which will be automatically referred to Libya's Supreme Court, drew quick condemnation from European nations. The six later had their death sentences commuted, and were transferred to Bulgaria, where they were pardoned and set free.
    (AP, 12/19/06)(AP, 12/19/07)

2006        Dec 24, Chad's president and the leader of a rebel faction that tried to oust him earlier this year signed a peace accord in Libya, but other Chadian insurgents dismissed the deal and vowed to fight on.
    (Reuters, 12/24/06)

2006        Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi lifted a ban on Berber names.
    (Econ, 8/13/11, p.44)

2007        Jan 25, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi chaired a meeting of African presidents and other top officials to prepare for an African Union summit as conflicts rage on the continent.
    (AP, 1/25/07)

2007        Jan 29, Libya will not execute five Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian doctor sentenced to death last month, the son of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi said in a newspaper interview, calling their trial "unfair."
    (AP, 1/29/07)

2007        Feb 2, Abdoulaye Miskine, the head of one of the Central African Republic's main rebel groups, inked in Libya a peace deal described as "historic" by the government. Under the deal, which CAR's other main rebel factions are expected to sign up to, there will be an immediate ceasefire and Miskine's rebels will be integrated into civilian life or absorbed into the army. Rebel prisoners are to be freed.
    (AFP, 2/3/07)

2007        Feb 12, Police conducted raids across northern Italy, breaking up a leftist militant group that was allegedly planning kidnappings or kneecappings of victims to finance its plots. The group traced back to the Red Brigades. Police said they arrested 15 suspects accused of belonging to the Politico-military Communist Party (PCPM) in Milan, Turin, Padua and other northern Italian cities. Police in 7 locations across Italy arrested 17 men, including four alleged arms traffickers: Massimo Bettinotti (39), Gianluca Squarzolo (39), Ermete Moretti (55), and Serafino Rossi (64). A 5th member, Vittorio Dordi, was believed to be in Congo, apparently involved in the diamond trade. The luggage of Squarzolo had yielded the original clue to the arms deal. They were involved in a $64 million deal negotiated with Libyan officials for some 500,000 Chinese-made assault rifles. Iraqi and Italian partners had haggled over shipping more than 100,000 Russian-made automatic weapons into Iraq.
    (AP, 2/12/07)(Econ, 2/17/07, p.54)(AP, 8/13/07)(WSJ, 12/13/07, p.A18)(AP, 4/12/08)

2007        Feb 21, At a regional meeting in Libya the leaders of Sudan and Chad said they agreed to redouble efforts to end violence spilling over their border from Darfur.
    (Reuters, 2/21/07)

2007        Feb 25, It was reported that Libya, 30 years after officially proclaiming itself socialist, is gradually opening up its banking system with a string of privatizations in the works and the establishment of foreign banks. In late January, the Central Bank of Libya announced its intention to sell a minority stake in one of the north African country's five state-owned commercial banks, Sahara Bank, to a "leading international financial institution."
    (AFP, 2/25/07)

2007        Mar 2, Moammar Gadhafi said in an unusual debate that it was time for his long-isolated nation to open up to the world and that one day Libya won't need him as leader. Still, he insisted that the ruling ideology he has entrenched here for three decades is superior to Western democracy.
    (AP, 3/2/07)

2007        Apr 4, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi urged Africa to form a unified continental army to defend its interests. He said former colonial powers should pay compensation for the raw materials they had extracted.
    (Reuters, 4/4/07)

2007        Apr 7, Libya’s foreign-exchange reserves were estimated at $56 billion. The population was reported to be about 5.6 million.
    (Econ, 4/7/07, p.46)

2007        Apr 20, Libya's National Oil Corporation and US firm Dow Chemical announced a joint venture to operate and expand the Ras Lanuf petrochemical complex in Libya.
    (AFP, 4/20/07)

2007        May 12, Yemen said it was recalling its ambassadors to Iran and Libya over what it sees as their support for Shi'ite Muslim rebels involved in bloody clashes with government forces. The government of Sunni-dominated Yemen accused the rebels of seeking to oust its secular administration and install Islamist rule.
    (AP, 5/12/07)

2007        May 27, A Libyan court acquitted 5 Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian medic of charges of slandering policemen by protesting that their confessions had been extracted under torture.
    (AFP, 5/27/07)

2007        May 29, Libya said it will sign a 900 million dollar exploration deal with energy giant BP, which plans to return after a 33 year absence. British PM Tony Blair arrived in Libya and welcomed improved relations as oil companies from both countries signed a major deal.
    (AP, 5/29/07)

2007        Jun 2, The Comoros and Guinea joined the Community of Sahel-Saharan States (CEN-SAD) at a summit of the nine-year-old African grouping in Libya, raising its membership to 25 countries.
    (AP, 6/2/07)

2007        Jun 3, In Libya African leaders sought to reconcile differences between neighbors Chad and Sudan over Darfur and boost Somalia's embattled transitional government at a regional summit.
    (AFP, 6/3/07)

2007        Jun 6, Los Angeles based Colony Capital LLC, private investment firm, said it has agreed to buy a controlling stake in Libyan state-owned Tamoil in a deal that valued the Italy-based refiner at 4 billion euros ($5.4 billion), double earlier estimates. Colony, founded in 1991 by Thomas Barrack, focuses on real estate-related assets, securities, and operating companies. In March, 2008, the deal was reported to be off.
    (Reuters, 6/6/07)(Reuters, 3/3/08)

2007        Jun 8, It was reported that Libya, citing cost and liability concerns, has informed the United States of plans to back out of a contract to destroy its mustard gas stocks as promised under a landmark 2003 agreement.
    (Reuters, 6/8/07)

2007        Jul 8, Libya invited international tenders for exploration of its onshore and offshore gas fields covering an area almost the size of Scotland.
    (AP, 7/9/07)

2007        Jul 10, The Gaddafi Foundation charity said it has reached an accord with the families of HIV-infected Libyan children that ends the crisis of the Bulgarian nurses sentenced to death for infecting them.
    (Reuters, 7/10/07)

2007        Jul 11, Libya's Supreme Court upheld the death sentences of five Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian doctor convicted of infecting more than 400 children with the AIDS virus. But the verdict may not be the final word in the case.
    (AP, 7/11/07)

2007        Jul 15, A Libyan foundation confirmed that families of Libyan children infected with AIDS have accepted compensation topping 460 million dollars, which could lead to a death sentence on six foreign medics being lifted.
    (AFP, 7/15/07)
2007        Jul 15, UN and African Union representatives gathered in Tripoli to evaluate Darfur.
    (AP, 7/15/07)

2007        Jul 17, Libya's foreign minister said the death sentences for five Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian doctor accused of infecting hundreds of Libyan children with HIV have been commuted to life in prison. The ruling came after the families of the children each received $1 million and agreed to drop their demand for the execution of the six.
    (AP, 7/17/07)

2007        Jul 24, Five Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian doctor, sentenced to life in prison in Libya for allegedly infecting children with HIV, came home to Bulgaria and were greeted with tears and hugs, and a presidential pardon that allowed them to walk free after 8 1/2 years behind bars. French President Nicolas Sarkozy said Qatar mediated the release and hinted the Gulf country may have had a broader role in resolving the crisis.
    (AP, 7/24/07)

2007        Jul 25, French President Nicolas Sarkozy headed for talks with Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi, a day after the release of six foreign medics, in a signal of normalized ties between Europe and Tripoli. France and Libya signed a memorandum of understanding to build a Libyan nuclear reactor for water desalination and clinched a raft of other deals.
    (AP, 7/25/07)(AFP, 7/25/07)

2007        Jul 28, Libya said the Czech Republic, Qatar and Bulgaria contributed to an international fund to support hundreds of children who contracted HIV at a Libyan hospital in the 1990s. Libya also denounced a decision by Bulgaria's president to pardon six medics from life jail terms in an AIDS case as a "betrayal" and an "illegal procedure."
    (Reuters, 7/28/07)(AFP, 7/28/07)

2007        Aug 2, A Libyan official said that Moammar Gadhafi's long-isolated country has signed contracts worth $405 million with French companies for missiles and communications equipment.
    (AP, 8/2/07)
2007        Aug 2, Bulgaria said it had decided to write off Libya's communist-era debt as a contribution to an international fund for the victims of an AIDS epidemic blamed by Tripoli on six Bulgarian medics.
    (AP, 8/2/07)

2007        Sep 3, Bulgaria donated $56.6 million in Soviet-era debt owned by Libya as its contribution to a deal that led to the release of 6 medics convicted of infecting Libyan children with HIV.
    (AP, 9/3/07)

2007        Oct 16, Libya, a former pariah state condemned by the U.S. as a sponsor of terrorism, won a seat on the UN Security Council without opposition from the Bush administration.
    (AP, 10/16/07)

2007        Nov 3, Al-Qaida's No. 2 figure harshly criticized Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi in a new audio tape, accusing him of being an enemy of Islam and threatening a wave of attacks against the North African country because it improved relations with the US.
    (AP, 11/3/07)

2007        Nov 11, Libya began enforcing new regulations demanding an Arabic translation of passports for visitors. A Libyan aviation official said the measures were in response to a decision to prevent Libyans with visas for the EU's Schengen border-free zone from entering certain European countries, notably France and Britain.
    (AFP, 11/12/07)

2007        Nov 17, Mauritanian President Sidi Ould Sheikh Abdallahi met Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi at the start of visit to Tripoli aimed at boosting relations after years of tension.
    (AFP, 11/17/07)

2007        Dec 10, Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi arrived on his first visit to France in 34 years, sparking protests from rights groups and criticism from the government's own human rights minister. Gadhafi got straight to business, cutting $14.7 billion in deals for arms and nuclear reactors on his first official visit to the West since renouncing terrorism and atomic weapons.
    (AFP, 12/10/07)(AP, 12/11/07)
2007        Dec 10, Petro-Canada, Canada's third largest oil and gas company, signed a $7 billion deal with Libya's state-run National Oil Corp. to invest in exploration in the North African nation.
    (AP, 12/10/07)

2007        Dec 12, Ashraf Juma Hajuj, the Palestinian-born doctor held with five Bulgarian nurses in a Libyan prison for over eight years, filed suit in Paris against Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi for torture. The six medics, who always maintained their innocence, said they were subjected to torture, including beatings, electric shocks, food and sleep deprivation, and even sexual abuse, in order to confess to their alleged crime.
    (AFP, 12/13/07)

2007        Dec 13, In the Philippines leaders of 2 separatist groups met with Seif al-Islam Khadafy, son of Libyan leader Moammar Khadafy, and said they should be able to resolve differences that dated back to 1976 when the Moro Islamic Liberation Front broke from the Moro National Liberation Front.
    (SFC, 12/15/07, p.A9)

2007        Dec 16, Spanish construction group BTP Sacyr Vallehermoso said it had created a joint company with the Libyan government to bid for infrastructure contracts there.
    (AP, 12/16/07)

2007        Dec 23, Media reported that Malawi has asked Libya to close its mission in Lilongwe. The Mutharika administration had suspicions that Libya funds Muluzi's United Democratic Front, which is seeking to unseat Mutharika in elections in 2009.
    (AFP, 12/23/07)

2007        Libya’s Col Gadhafi established the Libyan Investment Authority, a sovereign wealth fund with $50 billion slotted for investment.
    (WSJ, 5/21/08, p.A14)

2008        Jan 1, Libya took over the rotating presidency of the UN Security Council in a major step back to global respectability after decades as a pariah of the West.
    (AP, 1/1/08)

2008        Jan 3, Libya's foreign minister declared an end to confrontation with the US in a rare visit to Washington by a top Libyan diplomat aimed at cementing ties between the former foes.
    (AP, 1/4/08)

2008        Jan 18, Libya defended plans to carry out a massive expulsion of illegal immigrants, rejecting criticism from a human rights group that doing so would violate international law.
    (AP, 1/18/08)

2008        Jan 26, A security chief for Sunni tribesmen who rose up against al-Qaida in Iraq said the devastating explosion in northern Iraq was spearheaded by foreign fighters under the sponsorship of Seif al-Islam Gadhafi, son of the Libyan leader.
    (AP, 1/26/08)

2008        Feb 7, Libya’s National Oil Corp and Indonesia signed a deal for the north African state to supply the world's most populous Muslim nation with crude oil for the next 20 years.
    (AFP, 2/7/08)

2008        Apr 8, Libyan authorities released 90 members of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group,  a group with suspected links to al-Qaida, after they renounced violence.
    (AP, 4/9/08)

2008        Apr 16, Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi hailed Russian President Vladimir Putin's official visit as "historic and strategic" during a state dinner at the Bab Azizia palace.
    (AFP, 4/17/08)

2008        Apr 17, Russian President Vladimir Putin wrapped up his two-day visit with Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi by writing off $4.5 billion in Libyan debts in exchange for multibillion-dollar deals for Russian companies.
    (AP, 4/17/08)

2008        May 30, The US State Department said the US and Libya have agreed to try to resolve compensation claims from the 1988 Lockerbie bombing and other incidents Washington views as acts of terrorism by Libya.
    (AP, 5/31/08)

2008        Jun 7, A boat carrying 150 African migrants en route to Europe sank off the Libyan coast. The Libyan authorities later recovered 40 bodies. The Libyan government informed the Egyptian government of the incident on June 13 because they believe that 12 of the passengers were Egyptians.
    (AFP, 6/16/08)

2008        Jul 15, In Switzerland Hannibal Kadhafi (32), the son of Libya’s leader, was arrested along with his wife Aline at a luxury hotel in Geneva after the servants, a Moroccan and a Tunisian, alleged they had been abused by the couple. The 2-day detention led to reprisals by Libya. Days after Hannibal Kadhafi’s arrest, Swiss businessmen Max Goeldi and Rachid Hamdani were detained in Libya on alleged visa violations. The servants later dropped their legal complaints after receiving some compensation. In November, 2009, Goeldi and Hamdani were handed over to the Swiss embassy in Tripoli. Libya then announced that they would go on trial on accusations of tax evasion and violating residency laws.
    (AP, 9/2/08)(AP, 11/9/09)(AP, 11/12/09)

2008        Jul 24, Libya said it will halt fuel supplies to key oil client Switzerland in the latest reprisal for last week's brief detention in Geneva of a son of Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi.
    (AFP, 7/24/08)

2008        Jul 30, Alexander Tsygankov, a Russian oil executive detained in Libya since last November, was freed, hours before Russian PM Vladimir Putin was due to host the country's prime minister.
    (Reuters, 7/31/08)

2008        Jul 31, The US Congress approved legislation that will allow the State Department to settle all remaining lawsuits against Libya by US terrorism victims.
    (AP, 7/31/08)

2008        Aug 4, President George W. Bush signed into law legislation paving the way for Libya to pay hundreds of millions of dollars to compensate US victims of bombing attacks that Washington blames on Tripoli.
    (Reuters, 8/4/08)

2008        Aug 13, Bolivia and Libya agreed to establish diplomatic relations and join efforts to develop the nations' energy resources.
    (AP, 8/13/08)

2008        Aug 14, Libya and the United States settled all outstanding lawsuits by American victims of terrorism, clearing the way for the full restoration of diplomatic relations.
    (AP, 8/14/08)

2008        Aug 18, Niger's Tuareg rebel leader Aghaly ag Alambo said his fighters would lay down their guns and, together with neighboring Mali's Tuareg rebellion, submit to mediation by Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi.
    (AP, 8/19/08)

2008        Aug 21, Seif al-Islam Gadhafi, the son of Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi, said he will no longer be involved in politics, defying in a surprise announcement long-held expectations he was preparing to succeed his father.
    (AP, 8/22/08)

2008        Aug 27, Two hijackers, who commandeered a jetliner from Sudan's Darfur region and diverted it to a remote desert airstrip in southern Libya, surrendered after a 22-hour standoff.
    (AP, 8/27/08)

2008        Aug 28, Libya announced an amnesty for more than 3,000 prisoners, including Europeans and Africans, to mark the 39th anniversary of Moamer Kadhafi's rule.
    (AFP, 8/28/08)

2008        Aug 30, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi and Italian PM Silvio Berlusconi met in Libya to sign a "friendship pact." Italy agreed to pay Libya US$5 billion as compensation for its 30-year occupation of the country, which ended in 1943. A provision stated that the parties commit themselves "not to resort to threatening or using violence."
    (Reuters, 8/30/08)(AP, 8/31/08)(AP, 2/27/11)

2008        Sep 5, US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice met Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, once reviled as a "mad dog" by President Reagan, on a historic visit which she said proved that Washington had no permanent enemies. John Foster Dulles was the last US Secretary of State to visit Tripoli, in May 1953.
    (Reuters, 9/6/08)

2008        Oct 5, The United States opened a trade office in Libya to boost economic ties with the oil-rich state.
    (AFP, 10/6/08)

2008        Oct 9, The Libyan oil company Tamoil said the Libyan government has again decided to halt oil deliveries to Switzerland.
    (AFP, 10/9/08)

2008        Oct 10, The Libyan news agency JANA said Libya will withdraw $7 billion of assets in Swiss banks, cut economic ties with Switzerland and stop supplying it with oil to protest against poor treatment of Libyan diplomats and businessmen.
    (AP, 10/10/08)

2008        Oct 31, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, starting his first visit to post-Soviet Russia, planned to discuss opening a Russian naval base in Libya to counterbalance US interests in the region.
    (AP, 10/31/08)
2008        Oct 31, Pres. Bush signed an executive order restoring the Libyan government’s immunity from terror-related lawsuits and dismissing pending compensation cases in response to Libya’s payment of $1.5 billion into a fund to compensate the families of victims the 1986 bombing of a German disco and the 1988 Pan Am bombing over Lockerbie, Scotland.
    (SFC, 11/1/08, p.A3)

2008        Nov 2, Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko greeted visiting Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi and said he hopes to boost ties between their countries.
    (AP, 11/2/08)

2008        Nov 5, Libya's Moamer Kadhafi met with Ukrainian Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko in his traditional Bedouin tent during a visit to Kiev expected to focus on energy and military cooperation.
    (AFP, 11/6/08)

2008        Nov 9, A Bahrain-based Islamic investment bank unveiled plans for a five-billion-dollar energy sector business hub at Sabratha, Libya.
    (AFP, 11/9/08)

2008        Dec 1, The Israeli navy turned away a Libyan ship heading to Gaza with 3,000 tons of humanitarian aid, ending the most high-profile effort yet to break a blockade of the Hamas-ruled territory.
    (AP, 12/1/08)

2008        Dec 30, Libya asked oil companies to slash production by 270,000 barrels per day from Jan. 1, the latest such reduction by an OPEC member as the producer group struggles to boost faltering oil prices.
    (AP, 12/30/08)

2008        Libya, under the leadership of Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, signed a 50-year, renewable lease for 100,000 hectares of agricultural land with Mali's government. The land in the Malibya project was provided rent free, with water rights included, on the condition that Libya build canals and roads to cultivate rice and cattle there. Some 60,000 small farmers residing within the area were left without water rights.
    (Reuters, 5/18/15)
2008        Libya exported some $46 billion worth of oil this year. Its population stood at about 6 million people.
    (Econ, 8/22/09, p.41)

2009        Feb 1, The African Union's 12th summit opened in Ethiopia with an agenda officially focused on infrastructure development. Leaders set aside the first day to discuss Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi's long-standing pet project to establish a United States of Africa.
    (AFP, 2/1/09)(Reuters, 2/1/09)

2009        Feb 2, In Ethiopia Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi was elected to head the 53-nation African Union at a summit amid concerns over deadly unrest in Madagascar and a bid to indict Sudan's president for war crimes.
    (AFP, 2/2/09)

2009        Mar 10, Libya released Jamal al-Haji and Faraj Humaid. They had been sentenced to prison in 2007 for planning a peaceful demonstration to commemorate protesters who had died in clashes with police.
    (SFC, 3/11/09, p.A2)

2009        Mar 26, Sudan's president Omar al-Bashir visited his third country in four days, this time touching down in Libya, the latest country to welcome the leader who's wanted by an international court on war crimes.
    (AP, 3/26/09)

2009        Mar 27, An overcrowded boat packed with migrants capsized in stormy seas off the coast of Libya. Only 20 survived when the wooden vessel with 257 people on board, mostly African migrants, including 70 women and two children, both of whom died, sunk only three hours off Libya.
    (AP, 3/31/09)(AP, 4/1/09)

2009        Mar 29, A second boat with about 350 migrants aboard was rescued safely off the coast of Libya.
    (AP, 3/31/09)

2009        Mar 30, In Qatar Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi stormed out of an Arab summit after denouncing the Saudi king and declaring himself "the dean of Arab rulers."
    (AP, 3/30/09)

2009        Apr 29, Britain and Libya ratified a prisoner transfer deal that could potentially allow Abdel Basset Ali al-Megrahi (57), the man convicted of the Lockerbie bombings, to serve out the remainder of his sentence in the North African country.
    (AP, 4/29/09)

2009        May 1, Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi held talks with visiting Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari on the situation in Pakistan and ways of bolstering ties between the two nations. Pakistan and Libya signed a string of agreements to bolster economic ties on the sidelines of Zardari’s visit. The countries also decided to bolster ties in the fields of banking, health, education, public works and construction.
    (AFP, 5/1/09)(AFP, 5/2/09)

2009        May 11, A Libyan newspaper reported that Ali Mohamed Abdelaziz al Fakhiri (46), also known as Ibn Sheikh al-Libi, has killed himself in his Libyan jail cell. His fabricated testimony about al Qaeda was used by the United States to justify its 2003 invasion of Iraq. Captured by US-led forces in Pakistan in the weeks after the September 11, 2001 attacks, Fakhiri later made up a story about links between al Qaeda and Iraq to avoid torture while in the custody of Egypt, according to a 2006 US Senate Intelligence Committee report. Fakhiri was extradited by the US to Libya in 2006, when Tripoli authorities sentenced him to life imprisonment. Al Qaeda's deputy leader Ayman al-Zawahri later accused Libya of torturing to death al Fakhiri.
    (Reuters, 5/11/09)(Reuters, 10/4/09)

2009        May 21, Fathi al-Jahmi, Libyan dissident and human rights activist repeatedly imprisoned in Libya for defying the country's leader Moammar Gadhafi, died after being released earlier this month to Jordan. He never regained consciousness after having slipped into a coma following a stroke on May 4 in a Libyan jail. He was sentenced to death in 2006 for failing to recognize Gadhafi's authority, and remained behind bars until his release to Jordan.
    (AP, 5/22/09)

2009        May 26, Libya and Ukraine signed deals to cooperate in both peaceful civilian nuclear energy and in defense during a visit by Ukrainian PM Yulia Tymoshenko.
    (AP, 5/27/09)

2009        Jun 10, Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi began his first visit to Italy with a warm embrace from Premier Silvio Berlusconi, evidence of better ties between the energy-rich desert nation and its former colonial ruler.
    (AP, 6/10/09)

2009        Jun 15, Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi sued three Moroccan newspapers for defamation, seeking eight million euros in damages for "attacks on the dignity of a head of state."
    (AFP, 6/15/09)

2009        Jun 29, Three Moroccan newspapers were ordered to pay a total of three million dirhams (270,000 euros) to Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi, who had sued them for writing critical articles.
    (AFP, 6/29/09)

2009        Jul 1, In Libya an African Union summit opened.
    (AP, 7/1/09)

2009        Jul 2, African heads of state meeting in Libya discussed a drastic new decision against the International Criminal Court that would in practice give Sudan's president impunity from prosecution for war crimes by the ICC, a draft document at the AU summit showed. Leaders also struggled to overcome divisions on a proposed "African government", as Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi pressed for a powerful new continental authority.
    (AP, 7/2/09)(AFP, 7/2/09)

2009        Jul 3, In Libya peacekeepers in Somalia and the war crimes warrant for Sudan's president dominated the final day of an African Union summit, after a late-night compromise on a new regional authority. Africa's leaders agreed to denounce the International Criminal Court and refuse to extradite Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir, who has been indicted for crimes against humanity in Darfur.
    (AFP, 7/3/09)(AP, 7/3/09)

2009        Jul 5, It was reported that Libya suffering an outbreak of  bubonic plague and that neighboring countries, Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia, were acting to prevent its spread across the borders.
    (SSFC, 7/5/09, p.M3)

2009        Jul 30, A Libyan officials said Libya and Canada have signed a memorandum of intent on nuclear power. Since July 2007, Libya has signed three similar agreements with France, Russia and Ukraine.
    (AFP, 7/30/09)

2009        Aug 13, Scottish officials said they were considering early release for the Lockerbie bomber, leading to sharp debate among victims' relatives in the US and Britain over whether he should be allowed to return home to Libya. British media said Abdel Baset Ali al-Megrahi could soon be freed on compassionate grounds because he is terminally ill with cancer.
    (AP, 8/13/09)

2009        Aug 14, In Libya a delegation of US senators led by John McCain met with Libya's leader to discuss the possible delivery of non-lethal defense equipment.
    (AP, 8/15/09)

2009        Aug 20, Kenny MacAskill, Scotland’s justice secretary, freed Abdel Baset al-Megrahi (57), former Libyan intelligence agent and alleged Lockerbie bomber (Dec 21, 1988), on compassionate grounds after eight years in jail allowing him to go home to Libya to die. Al-Megrahi has terminal prostate cancer and has been given less than three months to live. In 2010 Professor Karol Sikora, who assessed for the Libyan authorities, told The Sunday Times it was "embarrassing" that he had outlived his three-month prognosis and that al-Megrahi could survive for 10 years or longer.
    (AP, 8/20/09)(Econ, 8/29/09, p.48)(AP, 7/03/10)
2009        Aug 20, Swiss President Hans-Rudolf Merz and Libyan PM al-Baghdadi Ali al-Mahmoudi signed an accord pledging to restore relations between the two countries and to have Hannibal Gadhafi July 15, 2008, arrest examined by a joint arbitration tribunal in London. The next day Merz defended his apology to Libya for the arrest of Moammar Gadhafi's son, saying it was the only way to secure the release of two Swiss citizens detained by Tripoli.
    (AP, 8/21/09)

2009        Aug 30, Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi and Italian PM Silvio Berlusconi laid the foundation stone for an ambitious highway stretching along the entire Libyan coast.
    (AFP, 8/30/09)

2009        Aug 31, African leaders gathered in Libya for a special summit to discuss the continent's trouble spots, on the eve of celebrations to mark 40 years of Moamer Kadhafi's rule.
    (AFP, 8/31/09)

2009        Sep 6, British PM Gordon Brown said he would support compensation claims against Libya by families of IRA victims who say Tripoli helped to arm the guerrillas.
    (Reuters, 9/6/09)

2009        Sep 18, Canada-based oil producer Verenex Energy Inc. agreed to be sold to the Libyan Investment Authority for about $314.1 million Canadian ($293.7 million) in cash, after a better deal with a Chinese firm fell through.
    (AP, 9/20/09)

2009        Sep 28, In Venezuela Pres. Hugo Chavez and Libya's Muammar Gaddafi called for a new global definition of terrorism. Meeting a day after the end of a summit of African and South American leaders in Venezuela, the two men signed a declaration urging a global conference be held to sketch out new terms defining terrorism.
    (Reuters, 9/28/09)

2009        Oct 12, In Italy Mohamed Game (35), a Libyan, hurled a home-made bomb at the Santa Barbara police barracks in Milan, losing his hand from the blast and slightly wounding a policeman on duty outside. Game had lived in Italy since 2003 and had never been a suspect. Italian police detained two more suspects and found a large quantity of bomb-making chemicals during overnight searches.
    (AFP, 10/12/09)(AP, 10/13/09)

2009        Oct 15, Libya freed 88 Islamists with Al-Qaeda links from Abu Slim prison in Tripoli. Lawyers said "45 members of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG) and 43 members of other jihadist groups were freed thanks to the efforts of the Islamic Foundation," in a joint statement with the Foundation, headed by Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi's son Seif al-Islam.
    (AFP, 10/15/09)

2009        Oct 16, Libya's Oea newspaper said Saif al-Islam, the reform-minded son of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, has been named overall coordinator of a grouping of the country's most influential tribal, political and business leaders.
    (Reuters, 10/16/09)

2009        Nov 10, Libya signed an agreement with the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) to join forces to crack down on organized crime in the Maghreb region.
    (AFP, 11/11/09)

2009        Nov 11, A Libyan Foreign Ministry official said Max Goeldi and Rachid Hamdani, Swiss businessmen arrested in Libya amid a July, 2008, spat with Switzerland involving leader Moammar Gadhafi's son, are to go on trial on accusations of tax evasion and violating residency laws.
    (AP, 11/12/09)

2009        Dec 1, Libya sentenced two Swiss businessmen to 16 months in prison and a fine, in a row stemming from the arrest in Geneva last year of Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi's son.
    (AP, 12/2/09)

2009        Dec 10, In Libya a foundation run by Moamer Kadhafi's son, Seif al-Islam, published a new report cataloguing an array of cases of torture, wrongful imprisonment and other abuses. The publication of the Kadhafi Foundation's human rights report, its first since it was set up in 1999, came just two days before New York-based watchdog Human Rights Watch is due to bring out its own report on Libya.
    (AFP, 12/10/09)

2009        Dec 12, Human Rights Watch announced a report saying Libya continues to subject political dissidents to arbitrary detention and unfair trials despite limited improvements in freedom of expression since the country began to shed its pariah status in 2003.
    (AP, 12/12/09)

2009        Dec 17, Hannibal Kadhafi, the son of the Libyan leader, filed a civil lawsuit for "protection of personality" against the Swiss canton of Geneva and a local newspaper over the publication of police mugshots taken when he was arrested in Switzerland in July, 2008.
    (AFP, 12/23/09)

2010        Jan 28, Libyan Justice Minister Mustafa Abdeljalil said he wants to resign because of "hindrances" and his inability to secure freedom for hundreds of prisoners who have been found innocent.
    (AFP, 1/28/10)

2010        Jan 30, Russian PM Vladimir Putin was quoted as saying that Libya has signed an arms deal with Russia worth 1.3 billion euros ($1.8 billion).
    (Reuters, 1/30/10)

2010        Jan 31, A Libyan appeal court overturned a jail term slapped on Swiss businessman Rashid Hamdani on a charge of overstaying his visa, easing a Tripoli-Bern diplomatic spat.
    (AFP, 1/31/10)
2010        Jan 31, In Ethiopia UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon attended the AU's annual summit in Addis Ababa and again failed to pledge peacekeepers for Somalia. Ban Ki-Moon criticized power-grabs in Africa in a speech to the continent's leaders as Libya's Moamer Kadhafi reluctantly handed over the presidency of the African Union to Malawian President Bingu wa Mutharika. The AU agreed to consider a Senegalese proposal to resettle Haiti's earthquake homeless and possibly create a state for them in Africa.
    (Reuters, 1/31/10)(AFP, 1/31/10)(Reuters, 1/31/10)

2010        Feb 6, A Libyan court ordered Max Goeldi, one of two Swiss men entangled in a diplomatic row, to pay an 800-dollar fine for illegal business activities. Fellow businessman Rashid Hamdani was cleared last week of charges of overstaying his visa.
    (AFP, 2/6/10)

2010        Feb 7, A Libyan court dropped a case against Rashid Hamdani, a Swiss businessman for alleged illegal business activities, clearing the way for him to go home after 19 months stuck in the country.
    (AFP, 2/7/10)

2010        Feb 11, A Libyan appeal court reduced the 16-month jail sentence of Max Goeldi, a Swiss businessman, for overstaying his visa to four months.
    (AFP, 2/11/10)

2010        Feb 15, Libya suspended the issuing of entry visas to European citizens apart from British nationals. Italy's foreign ministry confirmed the measure and said it was in retaliation for Switzerland's recent decision to publish a blacklist of 180 Libyans banned from entering the country.
    (Reuters, 2/15/10)

2010        Feb 22, In Libya Rashid Hamdani, one of two Swiss businessmen held in Libya for 19 months amid a diplomatic row between the two states, left for home as Max Goeldi emerged from his country's embassy to serve 4 months in jail. Goeldi was released on June 10 and prepared to fly home.
    (AFP, 2/22/10)(AFP, 6/11/10)

2010        Feb 25, Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi turned up the heat in his country's dispute with Switzerland, calling for jihad over a recent Swiss ban on the construction of minarets.
    (AFP, 2/26/10)

2010        Mar 23, In Libya Seif al-Islam Gadhafi said 34 members of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group, including its leader, were sent home after they affirmed they had broken ties with the organization. The group is suspected of having links to al-Qaida.
    (AP, 3/24/10)

2010        Mar 24, In Libya some 200 former Islamist militants walked out the gate of at Tripoli's Abu Salim prison, accompanied by relatives weeping with joy, after a release brokered by a son of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi.
    (Reuters, 3/24/10)
2010        Mar 24, Switzerland said it will lift a travel ban on senior Libyan officials to ease tensions in a dispute that has drawn in much of Europe. The Swiss government expressed hope that Libya would respond by ending visa restrictions against citizens of Switzerland and 24 other nations in Europe's passport-free zone.
    (AP, 3/24/10)

2010        Mar 27, A two-day Arab League summit opened in Sirte, Libya. Amr Moussa, the head of the Arab League, urged the 22-nation bloc to engage Iran directly over concerns about its growing influence in the region and its disputed nuclear program.
    (AP, 3/27/10)
2010        Mar 27, Libya lifted a visa ban on citizens of 25 European countries after EU president Spain said a Swiss-instigated visa blacklist against 188 Libyans in those countries had been scrapped.
    (Reuters, 3/28/10)

2010        Mar 28, In Libya Arab leaders renewed their support for Mideast peace efforts, rejecting pressure from Syria and Libya on the Palestinians to abandon talks with Israel and resume armed resistance.
    (AP, 3/28/10)

2010        Apr 12, A Swiss court rejected Hannibal Gadhafi's demand for 100,000 Swiss francs ($94,500) in reparations for the publication of a police mug shot from his 2008 arrest in Geneva. Gadhafi was arrested in 2008 for allegedly beating up his servants in a luxury hotel. He was later released and charges were dropped.
    (AP, 4/13/10)

2010        May 12, A Libyan Afriqiyah Airways Airbus A330-200 carrying 104 people crashed on approach to Tripoli's airport. Ruben van Assouw, a Dutch boy (9), was the only known survivor. The Royal Dutch Tourism Board said 61 of the dead came from the Netherlands.
    (AP, 5/12/10)(AFP, 5/14/10)

2010        May 13, The UN General Assembly approved all 14 candidates for the 14 seats on the 47-member Human Rights Council. Human rights groups criticized the poor human rights records 7 of the candidates: Angola, Libya, Malaysia, Mauritania, Qatar, Thailand and Uganda.
    (SFC, 5/14/10, p.A2)

2010        Jun 8, The UN refugee agency said it is being expelled from Libya without explanation despite being responsible for thousands of refugees in the North African country. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees received a note from Libyan authorities last week ordering it to cease its work and leave the country.
    (AP, 6/8/10)

2010        Jun 9, Libya and Greece signed an accord that paves the way for "strategic cooperation" between the two countries during the Greek premier's visit to the oil-rich country. The memorandum of understanding envisages cooperation" in the areas of investment, energy, tourism, food production, finance and renewable energy.
    (AFP, 6/10/10)

2010        Jun 13, Libya said that Switzerland has paid $1.5 million for mistreating Moammar Gadhafi's son during his arrest there in 2008, and Switzerland expected the return of Max Goeldi , a citizen held in Tripoli, as the countries ended a two-year diplomatic row.
    (AP, 6/13/10)

2010        Jun 24, Libya justified its closure of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees office in a statement that included claims its representative had offered refugee status in exchange for sex.
    (AP, 6/25/10)

2010        Jun 28, Sudan said will close its border crossings with Libya next month as it ramps up security on the frontier in response to banditry. Leaders from the Misseriya and Rizeigat groups signed a reconciliation deal in the West Darfur town of Zalingei, raising hopes for an end to fighting that has killed more than 200 people since March.
    (AFP, 6/29/10)(Reuters, 6/29/10)

2010        Jul 8, Libya said that it has granted some 400 Eritreans permission to stay after human rights group warnings that refugees and asylum seekers among them risked abuse if forcibly repatriated.
    (AFP, 7/8/10)

2010        Jul 9, Libyan organizers said a charity headed by Saif Al-Islam Kadhafi, the second son of Libyan leader Moammar Kadhafi, is sending an aid boat from Greece to Gaza to break the Israeli "siege." Organizers of the initiative had earlier said the 25-year-old ship, owned by Piraeus-based ACA Shipping Corporation, was called Hope. The ship set sail from Greece on July 10 and headed for Egypt.
    (AFP, 7/9/10)(AFP, 7/10/10)

2010        Jul 13, An Israeli military vessel confronted a Libyan aid ship trying to breach Israel's three-year-old Gaza blockade and ordered it to divert to an Egyptian port.
    (AP, 7/13/10)

2010        Jul 14, A ship sent by a Libyan charity to break Israel's naval blockade of the Gaza Strip changed course in the Mediterranean Sea and docked at an Egyptian port after agreeing to deliver its cargo of aid through Egyptian territory.
    (AP, 7/14/10)(AP, 7/15/10)

2010        Aug 8, Libya's government announced it will pay compensation to some people it had wrongfully imprisoned, the latest step in an effort to draw a line under a history of human rights abuses.
    (Reuters, 8/8/10)

2010        Aug 9, Israeli photographer Rafael Rafram Chaddad, jailed by Libya for five months, returned home after an Austrian tycoon brokered a deal for his freedom that involved the delivery of 20 prefabricated homes from a Libyan charity to the Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 8/9/10)

2010        Aug 30, Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi and Premier Silvio Berlusconi marked a friendship treaty between their two countries amid increasing criticism here over Gadhafi's exhortation to Italians to convert to Islam.
    (AP, 8/30/10)

2010        Aug 31, Libya freed 37 prisoners, including at least one former detainee at the US military prison at Guantanamo Bay, who had been jailed for links to radical Islamist groups but have since renounced violence.
    (Reuters, 8/31/10)

2010        Sep 20, Libya's daily Oea newspaper reported that Douglas O'Reilly, a Canadian man, was detained after meeting a US diplomat suspected of being a CIA agent. He was detained on suspicion of spying on a planned BP offshore drilling project. O'Reilly claimed to be an archaeologist seeking to warn of the BP project's potential impact on archaeological sites. O'Reilly was given freedom to leave Libya on Sep 22.
    (AP, 9/21/10)(AP, 9/22/10)

2010        Oct 4, The European Commission offered Libya up to 50 million euros (70 million dollars) in aid to stop the flow of illegal migrants to Europe and protect refugees. Cecilia Malmstroem, EU home affairs commissioner, and European neighborhood policy commission Stefan Fuele signed a migration cooperation agenda with Libya.
    (AFP, 10/5/10)

2010        Oct 9, The Arab League opened a summit in Libya with the pressing Israeli-Palestinian conflict and Sudan added to the original agenda.
    (AFP, 10/9/10)

2010        Oct 25, Libya's Kadhafi Foundation announced projects costing eight million dollars to help Darfur refugees displaced by the conflict in western Sudan to return to their homes.
    (AFP, 10/25/10)

2010        Nov 6, Libyan authorities arrested 10 reporters for criticizing Libya's leadership. They worked for Libya Press, a news agency controlled by the son of leader Moammar Gadhafi. A further 10 journalists working for Al-Ghad titles were rounded up in a second wave of arrests. All the reporters were released on Nov 8, and Moamer Kadhafi asked that an inquiry be opened into the matter.
    (AP, 11/7/10)(AFP, 11/8/10)

2010        Nov 28, African foreign ministers, at a meeting on the eve of a summit on climate change in Libya, rejected the idea of a joint declaration, which was to have been signed at the conclusion of a two-day Africa-EU summit. The EU had hoped to deliver a joint statement at the gathering of 80 nations from the two continents to deliver "a strong symbol" as the Cancun conference on climate change opens in Mexico.
    (AFP, 11/29/10)
2010        Nov 28, Nuri al-Mismari, a top aide of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, was arrested in Paris after a request from Tripoli, which said he was suspected of embezzlement. France gave Libya 30 days to submit evidence backing its accusations. Supporters of al-Mismari later said he was a victim of a power struggle inside the ruling elite.
    (Reuters, 12/2/10)

2010        Dec 12, A foundation run by Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi's son, Seif al-Islam, released a mixed annual report on human rights in Libya, noting progress on some issues and failures in others.
    (AFP, 12/13/10)

2010        Dec 14, Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi pushed again his dream for a sole African government and was backed by Senegal's President Abdoulaye Wade as he urged the creation of a single African army.
    (AFP, 12/14/10)
2010        Dec 14, Amnesty International accused the European Union and Libya of cooperating to prevent migrants from Africa from reaching Europe.
    (AFP, 12/14/10)

2010        Dec 20, Iraqi army special forces killed three Libyans allegedly planning suicide bombings ahead of Christmas in a raid in the northern city of Mosul.
    (AFP, 12/20/10)

2010        Dec 21, The leaders of Egypt and Libya were in Khartoum for talks with Sudanese leaders on the future of Africa's largest country ahead of a referendum that's likely to break it into two.
    (AP, 12/21/10)

2011        Feb 15, In Libya at least one person was killed and dozens of people injured in clashes in Benghazi. Moamer Kadhafi faced rare Internet calls for a "Day of Anger" on Feb 17 by activists buoyed by the ouster of veteran strongmen on Libya's borders, in Egypt and Tunisia. Qaddafi was supported by an 18,000-strong air force with 13 bases, a 20,000 well-armed paramilitary force loyal to his clan, as well as mercenaries from Chad and Niger.
    (AFP, 2/16/11)(Econ, 2/19/11, p.53)(Econ, 3/5/11, p.51)

2011        Feb 16, In Libya at least four people were killed in clashes with security forces in Al-Baida, as the country faced a Feb 17 nationwide "Day of Anger" called by cyber-activists.
    (AFP, 2/17/11)

2011        Feb 17, Libyan protesters seeking to oust longtime leader Moammar Gadhafi defied a crackdown and took to the streets in four cities on what activists have dubbed a "day of rage." At least 14 demonstrators have been reported killed in clashes with pro-government groups.
    (AP, 2/17/11)

2011        Feb 18, In Libya Moamer Kadhafi's regime vowed to snuff any further attempt to challenge the Libyan leader, after an opposition "day of anger" turned into a bloodbath that a rights group said cost at least 24 lives. At least 35 people were killed in Benghazi.
    (AFP, 2/18/11)(SFC, 2/19/11, p.A4)

2011        Feb 19, In Libya Moammar Gadhafi's forces fired on mourners in the eastern city of Benghazi, wiped out a protest encampment and clamped down on Internet service throughout the country as the regime tried to squelch calls for an end to the ruler's 42-year grip on power. A doctor at one Benghazi hospital said 15 people died in the clashes. Today's deaths would push the overall toll to 99.
    (AP, 2/19/11)(AFP, 2/19/11)

2011        Feb 20, Libyan forces fired machine-guns at mourners marching in a funeral for anti-government protesters in the eastern city of Benghazi, a day after commandos and foreign mercenaries loyal to longtime leader Moammar Gadhafi pummeled demonstrators with assault rifles and other heavy weaponry. A doctor at one Benghazi hospital said his morgue had received at least 200 dead from six days of unrest. Mehdi Mohammed Zeyo (49) drove his car, containing 2 gas canisters and a can of gunpowder into the gate of a Benghazi security base. Security forces shot the car and the following explosion allowed protesters and defecting soldiers inside the base. Moammar Gadhafi's son, Seif al-Islam, went on state TV late at night, warning civil war will break out if protests continue. Seif al-Islam vowed that his father and security forces would fight "until the last bullet." Bloody clashes killed at least 60 people.
    (AP, 2/20/11)(AP, 2/21/11)(SFC, 3/2/11, p.A3)

2011        Feb 21, Libyan protesters celebrated in the streets of Benghazi, claiming control of the country's second largest city after bloody fighting, and anti-government unrest spread to the capital with clashes in Tripoli's main square for the first time. Justice minister Mustafa Abdel-Jalil resigned from his post to protest the "excessive use of force against unarmed protesters."
    (AP, 2/21/11)
2011        Feb 21, Spreading unrest in Libya shut down 6 percent of oil output in Africa's No.3 producer and prompted a host of energy firms to pull out international staff, sending oil prices to above $105 a barrel. Al Jazeera television said military aircraft fired live ammunition at crowds of anti-government protesters in Tripoli.
    (Reuters, 2/21/11)

2011        Feb 22, Libya's Muammar Gaddafi used tanks, helicopters and warplanes to fight a growing revolt, as the veteran leader scoffed at reports he was fleeing after four decades in power. Human Rights Watch said at least 233 people have been killed and opposition groups put the figure much higher. Libya's ambassador to the United States openly called for Moamer Kadhafi to end his "dictatorship regime" and step down, following other envoys deploring a deadly crackdown in the North African nation.
    (Reuters, 2/22/11)(AFP, 2/22/11)

2011        Feb 23, In Libya militiamen loyal to Moammar Gadhafi clamped down in Tripoli, but cracks in his regime spread elsewhere across the nation, as the protest-fueled rebellion controlling much of eastern Libya claimed new gains closer to the capital. Two pilots let their warplane crash in the desert, parachuting to safety, rather than bomb an opposition-held city. The International Federation for Human Rights (IFHR) said at least 640 people have been killed in Libya in protests against the regime of Moamer Kadhafi since they started on February 14.
    (AP, 2/23/11)(AFP, 2/23/11)
2011        Feb 23, France and Germany threatened to hit Libya with EU sanctions for Moammar Gadhafi's fierce crackdown on protesters, while the European Union said the violence in Libya could constitute "crimes against humanity" and urged an independent probe into it.
    (AP, 2/23/11)
2011        Feb 23, A UN spokesman said  Aisha al-Khadafy, the daughter of Libyan leader Moammar Khadafy, has been terminated as good will ambassador for the UN Development Program (UNDP).
    (SFC, 2/24/11, p.A2)

2011        Feb 24, In Libya forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi launched a counter-attack, fighting fierce gun battles with rebels who have threatened the Libyan leader by seizing important towns close to the capital. Key Libyan oil and oil product terminals to the east of the capital were in the hands of rebels. Fighting in the cities of Zawiya and Misrata  killed at least 30 people.
    (AP, 2/24/11)(Reuters, 2/24/11)(AP, 2/25/11)

2011        Feb 25, In Libya militias loyal to Moammar Gadhafi opened fire on protesters streaming out of mosques in Tripoli, demanding the regime's ouster, witnesses said, reporting at least 5 killed. Across rebellious cities in the east, tens of thousands held rallies in support of the first Tripoli protests in days. Libyan diplomats at the UN in Geneva declared they were defecting to the opposition, delivering another blow to Gadhafi's flailing regime as international pressure built over his violent attempt to cling to power. Pro-Gadhafi troops with tanks attacked the Misrata Air Base east of Tripoli that had fallen into rebel hands. They succeeded in retaking part of it in battles with residents and anti-Gadhafi army units and up to 27 people were said to have been killed. 11 members of Libya's Arab League mission said they have resigned en masse because of Gadhafi's use of force against his opponents.
    (AP, 2/25/11)(Reuters, 2/25/11)(AP, 2/26/11)(AP, 2/27/11)
2011        Feb 25, President Barack Obama signed an executive order freezing assets held by Gadhafi and four of his children in the United States.
    (AP, 2/26/11)

2011        Feb 26, Libyan residents said the embattled regime of Moammar Gadhafi is arming civilian supporters to set up checkpoints and roving patrols around Tripoli to control movement and quash dissent.
    (AP, 2/26/11)
2011        Feb 26, Russia joined other UN Security Council members in ordering an arms embargo against Libya and other sanctions (Resolution 1970). Russia stood to lose a total of up to $10 billion in arms sales, including almost $4 billion with Libya, from the wave of unrest currently destabilizing regimes in north Africa and the Middle East. The UN Security Council agreed to tell the prosecutor of the Int’l. Criminal Court (ICC) to probe the Libyan crisis.
    (AFP, 2/27/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Security_Council_Resolution_1970)

2011        Feb 27, In Libya hundreds of armed anti-government forces backed by rebel troops who control the city closest to the capital Tripoli prepared to repel an expected offensive by forces loyal to Moammar Gadhafi surrounding Zawiya, a city of 200,000. Armed forces loyal to Moammar Gadhafi captured 3 Dutch marines and their helicopter during a botched evacuation mission after landing near Sirte in a Lynx helicopter from the navy ship HMS Tromp. Two Europeans, one Dutch and one whose nationality was not released, were also captured. They were handed over unharmed to the Dutch embassy in Tripoli on Feb 3 and left Libya.
    (AP, 2/27/11)(AP, 3/3/11)
2011        Feb 27, Britain froze the assets of Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi in the country. The Daily Telegraph reported that the liquid assets amount to about £20 billion.
    (AFP, 3/4/11)

2011        Feb 28, Libyan rebels downed a military aircraft as they fought a government bid to take back Libya's third city, Misrata. French PM Francois Fillon said that France was sending two planes with humanitarian aid to Benghazi, the opposition stronghold in eastern Libya. Libya's oil chief said production was down 50 percent because of the exodus of foreign oil workers fleeing the country's violent uprising. Al Jazeera reported that the beleaguered Kadhafi regime has asked Bu Zaid Dorda, Libya's foreign intelligence chief, to hold a dialogue with opposition leaders in eastern Libya. Rebel forces repelled attackers at Misrata. 
    (Reuters, 2/28/11)(AP, 2/28/11)(AFP, 2/28/11)(AP, 3/1/11)
2011        Feb 28, A Pentagon official said the US military is repositioning naval and air forces around Libya, as international demands intensify for an end to Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi's decades-long rule.
    (Reuters, 2/28/11)
2011        Feb 28, The European Union slapped its own arms embargo, visa ban and other sanctions on Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi's regime.
    (AP, 2/28/11)

2011        Mar 1, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi dispatched forces to a western border area in defiance of Western military and economic pressure. Residents of Zawiya, the rebel-held city closest to Tripoli, passed out sweets and cold drinks to fighters and celebrated with a victory march after they managed to repel an overnight attack by forces loyal to Gadhafi. At least 1,000 people were feared dead in the bloody crackdown on anti-government protesters.
    (Reuters, 3/1/11)(AP, 3/1/11)(AFP, 3/1/11)
2011        Mar 1, The UN refugee agency said that the situation on Libya's border with Tunisia is reaching a crisis point after 70,000 to 75,000 people fled from the violence in Libya since February 20.
    (AFP, 3/1/11)
2011        Mar 1, Malta said it was refusing to return two Libyan fighter jets that landed on the island last week after their pilots defected.
    (AP, 3/1/11)
2011        Mar 1, The UN General Assembly suspended Libya from its top human rights body as governments worldwide pressured Moammar Gadhafi to halt the deadly crackdown on his people. It is the first time any country has been suspended from the 47-member council since it was formed in 2006.
    (AP, 3/2/11)

2011        Mar 2, Libyan strongman Moamer Kadhafi warned "thousands" would die if the West intervened to support the uprising against him. Government troops briefly captured Marsa El Brega, an oil export terminal, before being driven back by rebels. Shells splashed in the Mediterranean and a warplane bombed a beach where rebel fighters were charging over the dunes. At least five people were killed in the fighting. Thousands of Bangladheshi migrant workers, desperate to leave Libya, pressed up against the gates of the Tunisia frontier, angry at their government for sending no help. Britain, Spain, France and others launched emergency airlifts along Libya's borders, trying to prevent racially charged attacks on the tens of thousands of foreign workers try to flee.
    (AFP, 3/2/11)(Reuters, 3/2/11)(AP, 3/2/11)
2011        Mar 2, In Libya Andrei Netto of the Brazilian newspaper O Estado de Sao Paulo, was detained in Zawiyah. He had been travelling with Ghaith Abdul-Ahad, an Iraqi national who has been reporting from western Libya for the past two weeks. Abdul-Ahad was last in touch with the Guardian newspaper through a third party on March 6. Netto was released on March 10.
    (AFP, 3/10/11)(AP, 3/11/11)
2011        Mar 2, Britain seized £100 million ($160 million, 117 million euros) of Libyan currency found on a Libya-bound ship after escorting the vessel to an English port.
    (AFP, 3/4/11)
2011        Mar 2, In the Netherlands prosecutors at the International Criminal Court said they will open a formal investigation into possible crimes against humanity in Libya.
    (AP, 3/2/11)

2011        Mar 3, Libya’s Muammar Gaddafi struck at rebel control of a key Libyan coastal road for a second day but received a warning he would be held to account at The Hague for suspected crimes by his security forces. Mutinous army units deployed around the strategic oil installation at Brega, securing the site after the opposition repelled an attempt by loyalists of Moammar Gadhafi to retake the port in rebel-held east Libya. A spokesman for Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez said the Libyan government has accepted a Venezuelan plan that seeks a negotiated solution to the uprising in the North African country.
    (Reuters, 3/3/11)(AP, 3/3/11)(Reuters, 3/3/11)

2011        Mar 4, Libyan forces bombed the rebel town of Ajdabiya as anti-regime fighters pushed the front line westwards. Forces loyal to Moammar Gadhafi fired tear gas at protesters in Tripoli as a fierce crackdown that has terrorized parts of the capital the past week seemingly smothered attempts to revive demonstrations calling for the Libyan leader's ouster. Rebel witnesses in Raslanuf said at least four people have been killed in heavy clashes between pro- and anti-Kadhafi forces. Zawiyah was surrounded by Kadhafi loyalists and at least 13 people were killed by loyalists forces in fighting there. At least 10 people were killed and more than 20 wounded from fierce fighting for Ras Lanuf. Twin explosions at an arms dump at the Rajma military base just outside Benghazi killed at least 27. The cause of the blasts remained unclear.
    (AFP, 3/4/11)(AP, 3/4/11)(Reuters, 3/4/11)(AFP, 3/5/11)
2011        Mar 4, Interpol said it has issued an international alert for Moammar Gadhafi and 15 other family members and close associates in a move aimed at helping enforce international sanctions against the Libyan strongman and his regime.
    (AP, 3/4/11)

2011        Mar 5, The Libyan opposition fighting to overthrow Moamer Kadhafi announced its first formal meeting. Gadhafi loyalists swept into the opposition-held city closest to Tripoli, tightening security around the regime-held capital. To the east, rebel forces captured a key oil port as the country veered toward civil war. Thousands of migrant workers were on the move in Libya, trying to flee the fighting between rebels and forces loyal to Gadhafi's regime. A military arsenal at Rajma, outside Benghazi, exploded reportedly killing 40 people.
    (AFP, 3/5/11)(AP, 3/5/11)(Econ, 3/12/11, p.53)

2011        Mar 6, Libyan helicopter gunships fired on a rebel force advancing west toward the capital along the Mediterranean coastline and forces loyal to leader Moammar Gadhafi fought intense ground battles with the rival fighters. Four people were killed in fighting at Bin Jawwad and Ras Lanouf. 21 people, including a child, were killed and dozens wounded in the rebel-held city of Misrata during fighting and shelling by Moamer Kadhafi's forces.
    (AP, 3/6/11)(AFP, 3/7/11)

2011        Mar 7, Libyan warplanes launched fresh airstrikes on rebel positions around Ras Lanouf, a key oil port, trying to block the opposition fighters from advancing toward Moammar Gadhafi's stronghold in the capital, Tripoli. Pro-Gaddafi security forces bombarded the city of Zawiya from the east and west.
    (Reuters, 3/7/11)(AFP, 3/7/11)

2011        Mar 8, Libyan warplanes launched at least five new airstrikes near rebel positions in the oil port of Ras Lanouf, keeping up a counteroffensive to prevent the opposition from advancing toward leader Moammar Gadhafi's stronghold in the capital Tripoli. Gadhafi loyalists recaptured Zawiya, the city closest to Tripoli that had fallen into opposition hands after heavy shelling by tank artillery and mortars. The conflict, entering its third week, has left at least 1,000 people dead, including many civilians.
    (AP, 3/8/11)(AFP, 3/8/11)
2011        Mar 8, Trading sources said Libyan oil trade has been paralyzed as banks decline to clear payments in dollars due to US sanctions. An official with a subsidiary of Libya's national oil company said that production has dropped by about 90 percent.
    (Reuters, 3/8/11)(AP, 3/8/11)
2011        Mar 8, The European Union agreed to slap new sanctions on Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi's regime, notably targeting the Libyan Investment Authority (LIA), the overseas investment vehicle for Tripoli's oil revenues.
    (AFP, 3/8/11)

2011        Mar 9, A high-ranking member of the Libyan military flew to Cairo with a message for Egyptian army officials from Moammar Gadhafi, whose troops pounded opposition forces with artillery barrages and gunfire in at least two major cities. Forces loyal to Gaddafi closed in on rebels in the western city of Zawiyah. Rebels said Gaddafi's forces hit an oil pipeline leading to Es Sider and dropped bombs on storage tanks in the Ras Lanuf oil terminal area. Libya's exiled crown prince asked foreign powers to impose a no-fly zone over Libya and strike Gaddafi's air defenses, but said the Libyan people would not want international forces on the ground.
    (AP, 3/9/11)(Reuters, 3/9/11)

2011        Mar 10, Libyan tanks fired on rebel positions around the oil port of Ras Lanuf and warplanes hit another oil hub further east as Muammar Gaddafi carried counter-attacks deeper into the insurgent heartland. Kadhafi's forces sent rebel forces fleeing from a key oil hub and recaptured a town near Tripoli. The New York Times reported that Kadhafi has "tens of billions" of dollars in cash hidden in Tripoli, which allows him to battle an uprising despite an international freeze on Libyan assets.
    (Reuters, 3/10/11)(AFP, 3/10/11)
2011        Mar 10, France blazed a diplomatic trail as it recognized a newly formed Libyan opposition group, drawing the ire of other European nations for stepping out on its own even as the situation in Libya remained unclear.
    (AP, 3/10/11)

2011        Mar 11, Libyan security forces used tear gas and fired in the air on Friday to disperse worshippers near a mosque in the capital before they could protest against Muammar Gaddafi. Rebels said that an air strike by forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi hit storage tanks of Libya's state-owned Ras Lanuf Oil and Gas Processing Company (RASCO). Rebels appealed for arms as they battled with Moamer Kadhafi's advancing forces.
    (Reuters, 3/11/11)

2011        Mar 12, Libyan rebels called for help from the Arab League as it met for key talks on the conflict, including recognition for their council and backing for a no-fly zone to help their battered forces. Europe and the US stepped up diplomatic pressure on Gaddafi to quit. Troops loyal to Gaddafi launched an assault on the city of Misrata, attempting to recapture the last town in the west of the country still in rebel hands. Matthew VanDyke (31), a Maryland writer, was last heard from as he set off for a daytrip to Brega from Benghazi. He sent GPS coordinates the next day and was not heard from since. 
    (AFP, 3/12/11)(Reuters, 3/12/11)(AP, 6/4/11)

2011        Mar 13, Libyan rebels abandoned Brega, another key town under heavy shelling from advancing government forces, as international backing grew only slowly for a no-fly zone over the country. In Benghazi, 240km east of Brega, all mobile telephone services were suddenly cut for an unknown reason. State television said Libya has asked foreign firms to resume oil exports, saying its ports are safe despite a deadly month-long conflict. Libya's de facto oil minister said the country's crude production has fallen "drastically" and that he has reached out to Italian oil giant Eni SpA for help in extinguishing a blaze at Ras Lanouf.
    (AFP, 3/13/11)(AP, 3/13/11)

2011        Mar 14, In Libya forces loyal to Moamer Kadhafi launched attacks on Ajdabiya, a key town that rebels have vowed to defend, as leading nations began talks on the crisis. Gaddafi forces also attacked the small western town of Zuwarah. State news agency said Kadhafi has invited Chinese, Russian and Indian firms to produce its oil instead of Western companies that fled the unrest.
    (AFP, 3/14/11)(Reuters, 3/14/11)

2011        Mar 15, In Libya Gadhafi's military blasted rebels with airstrikes and bombardment from warships, tanks and artillery in an overwhelming display of firepower, trying for the first time to take back the city of Ajdabiya in the opposition's eastern heartland. Rebel fighters rushed to the front as mosques in the city broadcast pleas for help defending the city. Four NYT journalists were detained the northern port city of Ajdabiya where they were covering the retreat of rebels. The 4 journalists were released on March 21.
    (AP, 3/15/11)(AP, 3/17/11)(Reuters, 3/21/11)
2011        Mar 15, Group of Eight (G8) powers shied away from imposing a no-fly zone to protect Libyans from assault by Kadhafi forces, laying it off to the UN Security Council. Flight restrictions sought by France and Britain were blocked by Russia and Germany.
    (AFP, 3/15/11)

2011        Mar 16, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi's forces used tanks and artillery to try to retake the city of Misrata, the last big rebel stronghold in western Libya. Gaddafi's son Saif al-Islam said "everything will be over in 48 hours."
    (Reuters, 3/16/11)

2011        Mar 17, Libyan rebels shot down at least two bomber planes that attacked the airport in Benina, a civil and military airport just outside Benghazi. The Red Cross said it was leaving Benghazi because of deteriorating security and moving to the city of Tobruk.
    (AP, 3/17/11)
2011        Mar 17, The UN Security Council voted to permit "all necessary measures" to establish a no-fly zone, protect civilian areas and impose a ceasefire on Kadhafi's military. Five countries on the 15-strong council abstained, including China, Russia, India, Brazil and Germany. Resolution 1973 outlined the "responsibility of the Libyan authorities to protect the Libyan population.
    (AFP, 3/18/11)

2011        Mar 18, Libya said it will halt all military operations immediately in compliance with a newly adopted UN Security Council resolution. A Libyan rebel spokesman dismissed the cease-fire announcement, claiming Moammar Gadhafi's forces are still attacking key cities in the east and the west.
    (AFP, 3/18/11)(AP, 3/18/11)
2011        Mar 18, President Barack Obama endorsed military action against Libya's Moammar Gadhafi, saying US values and credibility are at stake to stop "the potential for mass murder" of innocents.
    (AP, 3/19/11)
2011        Mar 18, Canada announced it was deploying CF-18 fighter jets to help enforce a no-fly zone over Libya and said the deployment would go ahead despite the ceasefire declared by Libyan strongman Moamer Kadhafi.
    (AFP, 3/18/11)
2011        Mar 18, Italy's foreign minister said his nation will allow its military bases to be used for the UN-backed military intervention to enforce a no-fly zone over Libya.
    (AP, 3/18/11)

2011        Mar 19, Libya’s Moammar Gadhafi took advantage of international indecision to attack the heart of the 5-week-old uprising, sending troops, tanks and warplanes to swarm the first city seized by the rebels. Fighting raged around Benghazi, with air strikes, tank fire and shelling rocking the Mediterranean city as a rebel warplane went down in flames.
    (AP, 3/19/11)(AFP, 3/19/11)
2011        Mar 19, Libyan officials detained the crew of an Italian ship docked in Tripoli and prevented the vessel from leaving port. The "Asso 22" tug of the Naples-based shipping company Augusta Offshore SrL had 8 Italian, 2 Indian and a Ukrainian crew member aboard.
    (AP, 3/20/11)
2011        Mar 19, Libyan military detained journalists Dave Clark (38), photographer Roberto Schmidt (45), of AFP; and Joe Raedle (45), a photographer for Getty Images.
    (AP, 3/22/11)
2011        Mar 19, In Libya Mohammed Nabbous (b.1983), a information technologist, blogger, businessperson and civilian journalist, was killed while reporting on attempts by government forces to fight revolutionaries and attack civilians in Benghazi. He had set up camera feeds to a video streaming site.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohammed_Nabbous)(Econ, 1/14/12, p.58)
2011        Mar 19, Pres. Obama authorized limited military action against Libya. Operation Odyssey Dawn became the US code name for the international military operation in Libya enforcing United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973. The Pentagon said 112 cruise missiles were launched from US and UK ships and subs, hitting 20 targets.
    (AP, 3/19/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Odyssey_Dawn)
2011        Mar 19, Six Danish F-16 fighter jets landed at the US air base in Sigonella, Sicily, and a half-dozen US aircraft arrived elsewhere as the military buildup mounted in Italy for possible action against Libya.
    (AP, 3/19/11)
2011        Mar 19, French President Nicolas Sarkozy said that French warplanes are already targeting Gadhafi's forces. 22 participants at a summit in Paris "agreed to put in place all the means necessary, in particular military" to make Gadhafi respect a March 17 UN Security Council resolution to protect civilian areas. Libyan government tanks and troops reached the edges of Benghazi in fierce fighting that killed more than 120. Gibreil Hewadi, a member of the rebel health committee, said the dead included rebel fighters and civilians, among them women and children.
    (AP, 3/19/11)(AP, 3/20/11)

2011        Mar 20, A defiant Moammar Gadhafi vowed a "long war" after the US and European militaries blasted his forces with airstrikes and over 100 cruise missiles, hitting air defenses and at least two major air bases. Despite the strikes, Gadhafi's troops lashed back, bombarding the rebel-held city of Misrata with artillery and tanks. Arab League chief Amr Moussa condemned the "bombardment of civilians" as the death toll from the Western air strikes rose to 64.
    (AP, 3/20/11)(Reuters, 3/20/11)
2011        Mar 20, Britain said its air and sea strikes on Libya had been "very successful" and stressed it was doing everything it could to avoid civilian casualties as it enforces a UN-sanctioned no-fly zone. at least seven demolished tanks smoldered in a field 12 miles (20 km) south of Benghazi, many of them with their turrets and treads blown off. Turkey was blocking NATO action, which requires agreement by all 28 members of the alliance.
    (AFP, 3/20/11)(AP, 3/21/11)

2011        Mar 21, The EU agreed to new economic sanctions against Moamer Kadhafi's regime, targeting both individuals and Libyan economic entities.
    (AFP, 3/21/11)
2011        Mar 21, A top French official said the international military intervention in Libya is likely to last "awhile," echoing Moammar Gadhafi's warning of a long war ahead as rebels said they were fighting to reclaim Ajdabiya. New fighting broke out in Misrata, the last rebel-held city in western Libya.
    (AP, 3/21/11)
2011        Mar 21, Abdul Rahman bin Hamad al-Attiyah, secretary general of the six-nation Gulf Cooperation Council, underscored the commitment of Qatar and the UAR to the international military coalition striking Libya but stressed the mission seeks only to protect civilians.
    (AP, 3/21/11)
2011        Mar 21, In Libya an American fighter jet crashed. Both crew members ejected safely.
    (AP, 3/21/11)

2011        Mar 22, In Libya Moammar Gadhafi's forces shelled rebels regrouping in the desert dunes outside Ajdabiya, a strategic eastern city. Gadhafi's snipers and tanks roamed the streets of Misrata, the last major opposition-held city in the west, signaling a prolonged battle ahead. 2 dozen Tomahawk cruise missiles were launched from US and British submarines in the last 24 hours.
    (AP, 3/22/11)
2011        Mar 22, China called for an immediate cease-fire in Libya.
    (AP, 3/22/11)
2011        Mar 22, France's foreign ministry said that NATO would provide support to military intervention by the Western-led coalition in Libya when the US scales back its participation.
    (Reuters, 3/22/11)
2011        Mar 22, Spain's Parliament overwhelmingly approved the prime minister's decision to take part in the US-led coalition enforcing a no-fly zone over Libya.
    (AP, 3/22/11)

2011        Mar 23, In Libya international airstrikes forced Moammar Gadhafi's forces to withdraw tanks that were besieging Misrata, while people fleeing Ajdabiya in the east said the situation was deteriorating amid relentless shelling. Libyan rebels appointed an executive committee under prime minister Mahmoud Jibril (b.1952).
    (AP, 3/23/11)(Econ, 9/10/11, p.53)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahmoud_Jibril)
2011        Mar 23, NATO nations offered an armada of ships and submarines to enforce an arms embargo against Libya, as Western allies sought to settle a row over the organization's role in a no-fly zone.
    (AFP, 3/23/11)

2011        Mar 24, French airstrikes hit an air base deep inside Libya and NATO ships patrolled the coast to block arms and mercenaries from flowing in to help Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi. Other coalition bombers struck artillery, tanks and parked helicopters. NATO envoys decided to maintain the no-fly patrols as authorized by a UN Security Council resolution last week.
    (AP, 3/24/11)(AP, 3/25/11)

2011        Mar 25, In eastern Libya rebel gunners fought artillery duels with Muammar Gaddafi's forces. Western warplanes struck at heavy armor used by the government to crush the revolt. NATO said its no fly zone operation could last three months, and France cautioned the conflict would not end soon.
    (Reuters, 3/25/11)
2011        Mar 25, A boat left Tripoli carrying 72 people. It drifted for more than two weeks after it ran out of fuel, water and food. Only 9 people survived. The survivors were arrested by pro-Gadhafi forces after their boat came ashore in Libya, but managed to flee again.
    (AFP, 5/13/11)(AP, 5/13/11)
2011        Mar 25, Africa's highest court on human rights ordered Libya to immediately cease any action that would result in the loss of life. The order also compelled Libya to report to the Tanzania-based court within two weeks. The ruling was not made public until March 30.
    (AP, 3/31/11)
2011        Mar 25, Canadian Defense Minister Peter MacKay said that Lt. Gen. Charles Bouchard has been designated to lead the alliance's military campaign in Libya. Bouchard will be in charge of both the air campaign and the naval task force implementing the arms embargo.
    {Canada, NATO, Libya}
    (AP, 3/25/11)(AP, 3/26/11)
2011        Mar 25, Qatar flew its first sortie after joining the forces of 10 other nations enforcing the no-fly zone over Libya.
    (AP, 3/26/11)

2011        Mar 26, Libyan rebels regained control of the eastern gateway city of Ajdabiya after international airstrikes crippled Moammar Gadhafi's forces, in the first major turnaround for an uprising that a week ago appeared on the verge of defeat. In the western city of Zwara the opposition lost to Gadhafi. A resident said security agents had lists of rebel sympathizers and were dragging them from their homes in Zwara and Zawiya.
    (AP, 3/26/11)
2011        Mar 26, In Libya Iman Al-Obeidi said she spent two days in detention after being arrested at a checkpoint, and sexually assaulted by up to 15 men while in custody. She shouted to tell her story at the Rixos hotel in Tripoli, after storming into the hotel's breakfast room to show her wounds to foreign media. Minders overpowered the woman and took her away. Days later Iman Al-Obeidi was sued for slander for naming her alleged attackers.
    (AP, 3/26/11)(Reuters, 3/29/11)

2011        Mar 27, Libyan rebels pushed further west to retake more territory abandoned by Muammar Gaddafi's retreating forces, which have been weakened by Western air strikes. Their gains put the rebels back in control of all the main oil terminals in the eastern half of Libya: Es Sider, Ras Lanuf, Brega, Zueitina and Tobruk. Misrata remained under siege by Gaddafi forces.
    (Reuters, 3/27/11)

2011        Mar 28, Libyan rebel forces fought their way to the doorstep of Moammar Gadhafi's hometown of Sirte, a key government stronghold guarding the road to the capital Tripoli. British jets bombed ammunition bunkers in southern Libya after weekend strikes took out a score of tanks and armored vehicles near the towns of Ajdabiya and Misrata. Libya's Foreign Ministry declared a ceasefire in Misrata.
    (AP, 3/28/11)(AFP, 3/28/11)(Reuters, 3/28/11)
2011        Mar 28, President Barack Obama explained to a hesitant America why he launched the military assault in Libya.
    (AP, 3/29/11)

2011        Mar 29, Libyan government tanks and rockets blunted a rebel assault on Moammar Gadhafi's hometown of Sirte and drove back the ragtag army of irregulars, even as world leaders prepared to debate the country's future in London. Rebels in Misrata said they were under renewed attack by forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi, and appealed to governments meeting in London to help them.  Forces loyal to Gaddafi killed 18 civilians in Misrata.
    (AP, 3/29/11)(Reuters, 3/29/11)(Reuters, 3/30/11)
2011        Mar 29, The UN refugee agency says over 2,000 people have arrived in Italy from Libya by boat since March 26 and more are believed to be en route.
    (AP, 3/29/11)

2011        Mar 30, Libya's government warned that it would sue any international company that concluded energy deals with rebels who control some of the country's oil infrastructure. Rebels retreated from the oil port of Ras Lanouf along the coastal road leading to the capital Tripoli after they came under heavy shelling from ground forces loyal to leader Moammar Gadhafi. Coalition aircraft sank 5 government ships blocking the supply of humanitarian aid to Misrata.
    (Reuters, 3/30/11)(AP, 3/30/11)(Econ, 4/2/11, p.42)
2011        Mar 30, US officials revealed that the CIA has sent small teams of operatives into rebel-held eastern Libya while the White House debates whether to arm the opposition. The British government said Libyan Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa had arrived in Britain from Tunisia and resigned.
    (AP, 3/31/11)
2011        Mar 30, Britain said it has expelled five Libyan diplomats loyal to Moammar Gadhafi's regime because of their intimidation of opposition supporters and their potential threat to the UK's national security.
    (AP, 3/30/11)

2011        Mar 31, Libyan rebels fought for control of the eastern oil town of Brega. Opponents took heart in the defection of Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa, one of the autocrat's closest confidants.
    (Reuters, 3/31/11)(AP, 3/31/11)
2011        Mar 31, The British government said in a human rights report published about 1,000 people are believed to have been killed in clashes between supporters and opponents of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi. Britain refused to offer Libyan Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa immunity from prosecution after his apparent defection.
    (AP, 3/31/11)
2011        Mar 31, Canadian Lt. Gen. Charles Bouchard, the new commander of international military operations in Libya, warned that anyone attacking civilians would be "ill-advised" to continue, and said he would look into a report by a Vatican envoy that air strikes had killed 40 innocent people.
    (AP, 3/31/11)

2011        Apr 1, A Libyan opposition leader said rebels will agree to a cease-fire if Moammar Gadhafi pulls his military forces out of cities and allows peaceful protests against his regime, as rebels showed signs that their front-line organization is improving. Gaddafi's forces stormed the western rebel outpost of Misrata with tanks and artillery. Sustained gunfire rang out near Gaddafi's heavily fortified compound in Tripoli and residents said they saw snipers on rooftops and pools of blood on the streets. A coalition air raid reportedly killed 13 people, four of them civilians, some 15 km east of the battleground town of Brega.
    (AP, 4/1/11)(Reuters, 4/1/11)(AFP, 4/2/11)
2011        Apr 1, A Libyan rebel official said a plan to sell rebel-held oil to buy weapons and other supplies has been reached with Qatar.
    (AP, 4/1/11)

2011        Apr 2, Libyan government forces killed six civilians in the city of Misrata in an unrelenting campaign aimed at driving rebels from the main city they hold in the west. Rebels claimed victory in the battle for Brega as heavy fighting ensued around the oil town. A British delegation arrived in Benghazi, nearly a month after a special forces team was seized in a bungled mission to contact the rebels. 13 rebels died in an air strike near Brega.
    (AP, 4/2/11)(AFP, 4/2/11)(AFP, 4/3/11)(AP, 4/7/11)

2011        Apr 3, Libyan rebels put their best troops in to battle Muammar Gaddafi's forces for the eastern oil town of Brega while Western warplanes flew overhead and the sound of explosions ripped through the air. At least one person was killed and several wounded when forces loyal to Gaddafi shelled a building in the rebel-held city of Misrata. Libyan Deputy Foreign Minister Abdelati Obeidi was reported to have crossed from Libya into neighboring Tunisia and from there flown to Athens.
    (AP, 4/3/11)(Reuters, 4/3/11)

2011        Apr 4, Libyan rebels insisted that the whole Kadhafi family must leave before there can be any truce with regime forces amid reports that his sons are offering to oversee a transition. Evacuees said Gaddafi forces using tanks and snipers were carrying out a "massacre" in Misrata with corpses on the streets and hospitals full of the wounded. Rebels advanced on the war-battered oil town of Brega and a Gadhafi envoy pressed other European countries for help in ending the crisis.
    (AFP, 4/4/11)(Reuters, 4/4/11)(AP, 4/4/11)
2011        Apr 4, Italy recognized opponents of Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi as the country's only legitimate voice, becoming the third country to do so, after France and Qatar.
    (AP, 4/4/11)
2011        Apr 4, A NATO official said the US military will pull its warplanes from front-line missions today and shift to a support role in the Libyan conflict.
    (AP, 4/4/11)

2011        Apr 5, Libya's government said it is ready to negotiate reforms but only as long as Moamer Kadhafi is not forced out. Government forces unleashed a bombardment of the rebels outside the key oil town of Brega pushing them back, even as the regime said Gadhafi might consider some reforms but would not step down. The ICC's prosecutor said the International Criminal Court has evidence Gaddafi's government planned to put down protests by killing civilians before the uprising in Libya broke out. A group of journalists came under attack by Gaddafi forces near Brega. South African photographer Anton Hammerl was wounded in the attack. Hammerl was initially reported to have been captured by militia, together with Americans Clare Morgana Gillis and James Foley, but it was later believed that he died from his wounds.
    (AFP, 4/5/11)(AP, 4/5/11)(Reuters, 4/5/11)(AP, 5/19/11)

2011        Apr 6, Libyan deputy foreign minister Khaled Kaim said in Tripoli that Moamer Kadhafi's regime will talk with the rebels about reforms provided they lay down their arms. France pledged to open a sea corridor to the besieged city of Misrata. Rebels regained ground in a new advance on an oil port but accused NATO of inaction hindering their quest to oust Gaddafi.
    (AFP, 4/6/11)(Reuters, 4/6/11)
2011        Apr 6, Between 130 and 250 people were missing and at least 20 appeared to be dead after a boat carrying refugees from Libya capsized south of Sicily. 53 survivors were plucked from the sea and 150 remained missing.
    (Reuters, 4/6/11)(AFP, 4/7/11)

2011        Apr 7, A NATO air strike killed at least five rebels near the Libyan port of Brega. Insurgents reported that Muammar Gaddafi's forces killed five more in a bombardment of besieged Misrata. NATO blamed forces loyal to Gaddafi for a fire in the Sarir oilfield, and denied the Western military alliance had launched air strikes in the area.
    (Reuters, 4/7/11)

2011        Apr 8, Libyan government forces tried to storm into the besieged city of Misrata as NATO generals acknowledged their air power was not enough to help insurgents remove Muammar Gaddafi by force alone. UNICEF said snipers are targeting children in Misrata. Loyalist forces shelled the edge of Ajdabiya forcing insurgents there to retreat. NATO expressed regret at the deaths caused by an alliance air strike on rebel tanks.
    (Reuters, 4/8/11)(AP, 4/8/11)(AFP, 4/8/11)

2011        Apr 9, In Libya rebels captured 15 Algerian mercenaries and killed another three during fierce fighting in Ajdabiya. At least 12 rebels were killed in and around Ajdabiya.
    (AP, 4/10/11)

2011        Apr 10, In Libya NATO airstrikes battered Moammar Gadhafi's tanks, helping rebels push back government troops advancing quickly toward the opposition's eastern stronghold. After destroying 14 tanks around Misrata early in the day, warplanes struck more tanks and anti-aircraft guns in the late afternoon. The African Union said Muammar Gaddafi has accepted a roadmap for ending the conflict in Libya including an immediate ceasefire, but an opposition representative said it would only work if Gaddafi left power.
    (AP, 4/10/11)(AP, 4/10/11)

2011        Apr 11, In Libya a delegation of African heads of state met rebel leaders in their stronghold of Benghazi to try to sell a peace plan already accepted by Muammar Gaddafi's regime. Forces loyal to Gaddafi shelled the besieged town of Misrata.
    (AFP, 4/11/11)(Reuters, 4/11/11)

2011        Apr 12, In Libya Moammar Gadhafi's forces shelled the only major city in the western half that remained under partial rebel control. France said NATO should be doing more to take out heavy weaponry targeting civilians. NATO knocked out 16 Qaddafi tanks.
    (AP, 4/12/11)(Econ, 4/16/11, p.53)

2011        Apr 13, Libyan rebels along the eastern front line pleaded again for more NATO airstrikes and expressed hope that political developments will allow them to advance on Moammar Gadhafi's territory. Top Western and Arab envoys gathered in Qatar's capital to discuss ways to end the Libyan crisis. Members of the Transitional National Council addressed the contact group as an alternative voice for Libya's people.
    (AP, 4/13/11)(AFP, 4/13/11)

2011        Apr 14, Libyan rebels begged for more NATO air strikes, saying they faced a massacre from government artillery barrages on the besieged city of Misrata. Western allies squabbled over the air campaign as forces loyal to Gadhafi shelled Misrata, killing at least 23 people. NATO warplanes launched air strikes on Tripoli. State-run Al-Libya TV channel reported that there were casualties. NATO allies rebuffed French and British calls to contribute more actively to the air war in Libya despite fears of a military stalemate.
    (Reuters, 4/14/11)(AFP, 4/14/11)
2011        Apr 14, NATO allies met in Berlin seeking to bridge differences over their campaign in Libya, as rebels fighting to topple Moamer Kadhafi reported an intensive bombing blitz by alliance warplanes.
    (AFP, 4/14/11)

2011        Apr 15, In Libya a fresh hail of government rockets crashed into Misrata after Western allies denounced a "medieval siege" of the city and vowed to keep bombing Muammar Gaddafi's forces until he stepped down. Gaddafi forces opened fire on rebels and killed one near the strategic eastern Libyan town of Ajdabiyah, after an insurgent plan for a new counter-assault fizzled out.
    (Reuters, 4/15/11)

2011        Apr 16, In Libya forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi fired at least 100 Grad rockets into Misrata, in a third day of heavy bombardment of the rebel-held city. A rights watchdog said Kadhafi's forces were using cluster bombs. Rebels made it into the outskirts of Brega but many fled back to Ajdabiyah after six were killed by rockets fired by Gaddafi loyalists on the exposed coastal road joining the two towns.
    (Reuters, 4/16/11)(AP, 4/16/11)(AFP, 4/16/11)(Reuters, 4/17/11)

2011        Apr 17, Libyan rebels came under fire on the outskirts of Ajdabiyah, hemming them in to their eastern outpost and denting their hopes of pushing west to try to end a stalemate in the war. Gaddafi's forces shelled Misrata again killing 17 people. The UN reached an agreement with the Libyan government to provide humanitarian aid in Tripoli.
    (AP, 4/17/11)(AP, 4/18/11)

2011        Apr 18, In Libya forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi bombarded Misrata with rockets and artillery. A senior UN official said Gadhafi's government has promised the UN access to Misrata, following weeks of heavy shelling of the city by government forces. A doctor reported 1,000 people killed in six weeks of fighting in the besieged city.
    (AP, 4/18/11)(AFP, 4/18/11)

2011        Apr 19, In Libya heavy fighting raged in Misrata. A NATO commander complained the alliance was having trouble destroying Gadhafi's mortars and rockets attacking rebels there. 8 people were reported killed in Misrata. The UN appealed for a ceasefire in Misrata, saying at least 20 children had been killed in attacks by besieging government forces on rebel-held parts of the city. Rebels put the death toll from two months of fighting at 10,000. NATO's commander in chief for the operation in Libya announced military strikes against Kadhafi's command centers, including Tripoli and a brigade accused of leading attacks on civilians.
    (AP, 4/19/11)(Reuters, 4/19/11)(AFP, 4/19/11)(Reuters, 4/20/11)
2011        Apr 19, Britain said it will send a team of up 20 senior military officers to Libya to help organize the country's haphazard opposition forces.
    (AP, 4/19/11)

2011        Apr 20, In Libya Gadhafi's troops clashed with opposition forces In Misrata and shelled the mountain town of Yifran. Yifran, Qalaa, Nalut and others near the Tunisian borders are inhibited by Berbers who suffered under Gadhafi repressive policies. France and Italy announced that they will join the UK in sending small teams of military advisers to eastern Libya. Among those killed today in Misrata were British photojournalist Tim Hetherington, co-director of Oscar-nominated war documentary "Restrepo," and American photographer Chris Hondros. A Ukrainian doctor was killed in a separate incident. The doctor's wife lost her legs.
    (AP, 4/20/11)(AP, 4/21/11)(Reuters, 4/21/11)
2011        Apr 20, US officials said the Obama administration plans to give the Libyan opposition $25 million in non-lethal assistance in what will be the first direct US aid to the rebels after weeks of assessing their capabilities and intentions.
    (AP, 4/20/11)

2011        Apr 21, Libyan government troops pounded the rebel-held city of Misrata overnight, undeterred by Western threats to step up military action against Muammar Gaddafi's forces. Mortar fire killed at least three rebels and wounded 17 in attacks on Tripoli Street. State television said NATO forces had struck the Khallat al-Farjan area of the capital Tripoli, killing seven people and wounding 18 others. Rebels overran a post on the Tunisian border, marking their first advance in weeks against Moamer Kadhafi's forces.
    (Reuters, 4/21/11)(AFP, 4/21/11)
2011        Apr 21, The United States started flying armed drones to bolster NATO firepower and try to break a battlefield stalemate with Moammar Gadhafi's forces.
    (AP, 4/22/11)

2011        Apr 22, Libyan rebels wrested control of a downtown office building in Misrata which had been a base for Gaddafi's snipers and other troops, after a furious two-week-long battle. Rebels welcomed US plans to deploy unmanned aircraft. Two people were killed in NATO raids on the Zintan region.
    (AP, 4/22/11)(AFP, 4/25/11)
2011        Apr 22, Gambia said it wants the Libyan ambassador loyal to Moammar Gadhafi to leave and declared its support for the Benghazi-based rebel council.
    (AP, 4/22/11)

2011        Apr 23, In Libya Kadhafi's regime gave its army an "ultimatum" to take Misrata but government troops retreated to the outskirts under rebel fire. The opposition claimed victory after officials in Tripoli decided to pull back forces following nearly two months of laying siege. At least 15 people were killed by booby-traps and in ambushes set up by Gaddafi brigades while withdrawing from Misrata. NATO air raids struck near a compound in the capital Tripoli where Kadhafi resides. The US carried out its first Predator drone strike in Libya. A US Predator drone destroyed a multiple rocket launcher in the Misrata area that was being used against civilians.
    (AFP, 4/23/11)(Reuters, 4/23/11)(AP, 4/24/11)

2011        Apr 24, Libyan rebel fighters drove Moammar Gadhafi's forces to the edge of Misrata, taking control of the main hospital where government troops had been holed up. At least 28 people have been killed and 85 wounded by fighting in the city over the last 24 hours. Salvos of Grad rockets exploded In Misrata in apparent contradiction of Gadhafi's vow to halt fire there. Residents said 4 people were killed in the mountain town of Zintan, around 160 km (100 miles) southwest of Tripoli, by fire from Gaddafi's tanks and rockets.
    (AP, 4/24/11)(AFP, 4/24/11)(AP, 4/25/11)(AP, 4/25/11)
2011        Apr 24, Kuwait announced a pledge of "urgent humanitarian aid" to Libyan civilians, through the Transitional National Council of Libya. The pledge was later said to be $180 million.
    (AFP, 5/7/11)

2011        Apr 25, In Libya Norwegian F-16s flattened a building inside Muammar Gaddafi's Bab al-Aziziyah compound, in what a press official from Gaddafi's government said was a NATO attempt on the Libyan leader's life. Refugees fleeing the Western Mountains told of heavy bombardment by Muammar Gaddafi's forces as they try to dislodge rebels in remote Berber towns.
    (AP, 4/25/11)(Reuters, 4/25/11)(Econ, 4/30/11, p.52)

2011        Apr 26, In Libya late night NATO warplanes broke up an attack by pro-Gadhafi forces in Misrata.
    (AP, 4/27/11)

2011        Apr 27, Libya's tribes urged Moamer Kadhafi to cede power, as rebels backed by NATO air strikes said they forced the strongman's missiles out of range of the lifeline port of Misrata. Gaddafi forces fired Russian-made Grad missiles into the rebel-held town of Zintan. A NATO airstrike in Misrata reportedly killed 12 rebels.
    (AFP, 4/27/11)(Reuters, 4/27/11)(AP, 4/28/11)

2011        Apr 28, Libyan government forces closed on rebel outposts, showering the western mountain city of Zintan with missiles and attacking insurgents holed up near the Tunisian border. Pro-Gaddafi forces also shelled rebel positions around the Dehiba-Wazin border crossing with Tunisia. 7 insurgents were killed overnight when a checkpoint in Misrata came under rocket and heavy artillery fire.
    (Reuters, 4/28/11)

2011        Apr 29, In Libya Moammar Gadhafi's forces holed up inside the airport in the key western city of Misrata have been shelling a civilian neighborhood around it. Rebels said at least two men died in the morning fighting. NATO warships intercepted several boats laying anti-shipping mines outside the harbor of Misrata. Forces loyal to Gaddafi fought a gun battle with Tunisian troops in a frontier town.
    (AP, 4/29/11)(Reuters, 4/29/11)

2011        Apr 30, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi said he was ready for a ceasefire and negotiations provided NATO "stop its planes," but he refused to give up power as rebels and Western powers demand. Rebels and NATO rejected the offer, as Gaddafi’s forces pressed an offensive against the key port city of Misrata. Gadhafi escaped a NATO missile strike in Tripoli, but his youngest son, Seif al-Arab (29), and three grandchildren under the age of 12 were killed. Gaddafi forces entered the towns of Jalu and Awlijah opened fire, killing at least five civilians and wounding more than 10.
    (Reuters, 4/30/11)(AFP, 4/30/11)(AP, 4/30/11)(Reuters, 5/1/11)

2011        May 1, Britain’s Foreign Secretary William Hague said he was expelling the Libyan ambassador to London following attacks on British embassy premises in Tripoli blamed on Moamer Kadhafi's forces.
    (AFP, 5/1/11)
2011        May 1, A seemingly endless flow of Libyans crossed into Tunisia from Libya at the Dehiba border post, a day after a record 5,000 refugees fled the conflict in their country.
    (AP, 5/2/11)

2011        May 2, In Libya Gadhafi's forces used tanks to shell the besieged western town of Misrata, as rumors fueled fears that the Libyan leader was preparing to use chemical weapons. Shelling in Misrata killed 14 people.
    (AP, 5/2/11)(AFP, 5/3/11)
2011        May 2, The Swiss government said it has identified potential assets belonging to Libya’s Moammar Khadafy and his entourage amounting to $415 million. Assets of $473 million were also found linked to Egypt’s Hosni Mubarak and $69 million to Tunisia’s Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali.
    (SFC, 5/3/11, p.AA2)

2011        May 4, In Libya Gadhafi's forces shelled Zintan a rebel town and a key supply route, part of a push to crush stubborn resistance in the mountains of western Libya.
    (AP, 5/4/11)

2011        May 5, In Libya NATO air strikes reportedly destroyed at least two helicopters near the town of Zintan as government forces transported them on trucks. Small helicopters flew over Misrata dropping mines into the harbor of Misrata. Rebels said the helicopters were marked with the Red Cross sign.
    (Reuters, 5/5/11)(AFP, 5/7/11)
2011        May 5, In Italy an international meeting on Libya agreed to set up a new fund to aid Libyan rebels, with US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton promising Washington would tap frozen assets of Moamer Kadhafi's regime.
    (AFP, 5/5/11)

2011        May 6, Moamer Kadhafi's regime reacted angrily to a NATO-led decision to provide funding to the three-month-old rebellion against his rule in Libya, describing as "piracy" plans to tap its assets frozen abroad.
    (AP, 5/6/11)
2011        May 6, A ship carrying up to 600 migrants trying to flee Libya sank off the coast of the North African country. At least three other boats that departed Libya in late March have disappeared, bringing to 800 the number of people believed to have perished at sea trying to reach European shores.
    (AP, 5/9/11)
2011        May 6, France ordered 14 diplomats loyal to Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi to leave the country within 48 hours.
    (AP, 5/6/11)

2011        May 7, In Libya forces loyal to Moamer Kadhafi fired on the lifeline port in the besieged city of Misrata and hit several fuel depots.
    (AFP, 5/7/11)

2011        May 8, In Libya intense fighting erupted near Misrata as smoke billowed from fuel depots bombed by regime forces laying siege to the lifeline port city where rebels awaited arms from Italy.
    (AFP, 5/8/11)

2011        May 9, In Libya NATO planes pounded government weapons depots southeast of the town of Zintan, in a sign of widening conflict in the Western Mountains region as rebels battled to unseat Muammar Gaddafi. Rebels were reported to have found a way to access badly needed cash, selling oil worth $100 million paid for through a Qatari bank in US dollars.
    (Reuters, 5/9/11)
2011        May 9, The Gambian high court granted an application allowing the government to seize millions of dollars worth of Libyan assets "until a government recognized by the United Nations is in place in Libya."
    (AFP, 5/9/11)

2011        May 10, In Libya NATO warplanes struck a command center in Tripoli in the heaviest bombing of the Libyan capital in weeks. Rebels, capitalizing on other NATO air strikes, reported battlefront gains that could ease the siege of the port city of Misrata.
    (AP, 5/10/11)

2011        May 11, In Libya rebels took total control of the airport in southern Misrata after two days of fighting that left five rebels killed and 105 injured. Five French nationals were stopped at a police checkpoint in Benghazi in the rebel-held east of Libya. 4 were released on May 21. A fifth Frenchman, Pierre Marziali, was shot and wounded and later died in a Benghazi hospital.
    (AP, 5/11/11)(SFC, 5/12/11, p.A3)(Reuters, 5/21/11)

2011        May 12, NATO airstrikes struck Moammar Gadhafi's sprawling compound in Tripoli and three other sites reportedly killing 3 people, hours after the Libyan leader was shown on state TV in his first appearance since his son was killed nearly two weeks ago.
    (AP, 5/12/11)(AFP, 5/12/11)

2011        May 13, In Libya NATO launched more airstrikes in Tripoli as Moammar Gadhafi's regime faced open defiance on the ground, with activists reporting gunfights between protesters and soldiers in several of the capital's neighborhoods. Libyan rebels met senior White House officials in Washington to seek cash and diplomatic legitimacy in their battle to topple Gaddafi. The US stopped short of granting Libyan rebels full diplomatic recognition, as Mahmud Jibril became the opposition's first senior official to have talks at the White House. Libya’s government accused the alliance of killing the 11 clerics as they were sleeping in a guesthouse. Government spokesman Moussa Ibrahim said those killed were part of a group that had gathered to pray for peace in the oil town of Brega.
    (AP, 5/13/11)(Reuters, 5/13/11)(AP, 5/14/11)(AFP, 5/14/11)
2011        May 13, Libyan students attending college in the US expected to lose financial support, effective May 31, after Libya lost access to about $30 billion in assets that were frozen by the United Nations and the US as a result of the military conflict in that country.
    (AP, 5/13/11)

2011        May 14, In Libya NATO conducted 147 air sorties, 48 of them strike sorties that aimed to identify and hit targets but not always deploy munitions. Targets included surface-to-air missile launchers, ammunition stores and artillery pieces.
    (AP, 5/16/11)
2011        May 14, Tunisian army troops deployed along the border thwarted an attempt by 200 troops from Gadhafi's army to cross the border aboard some 50 off-road vehicles. 3 pro-Gadhafi officers who defected landed at Tunisia's port of Zarzis on a boat. 2 people suspected of links to al-Qaida's North African affiliate were arrested overnight, one with a belt of explosives and the other carrying a grenade.
    (AP, 5/15/11)

2011        May 15, In Libya NATO aircraft blasted an oil terminal in the eastern port of Ras Lanouf.
    (SFC, 5/16/11, p.A2)

2011        May 16, Luis Moreno-Ocampo, International Criminal Court prosecutor, sought an arrest warrant for Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi accusing him of committing crimes against humanity by killing protesters during an uprising against his 41-year rule.
    (Reuters, 5/16/11)
2011        May 16, Libya's oil minister, Shukri Ghanem, reportedly defected and fled to Tunisia, one of the highest profile figures to abandon Moammar Gadhafi's government. Ghanem’s defection was later questioned as he maintained ties to oil firms. Overnight air strikes by NATO set fire to two buildings near Kadhafi's compound in the Libyan capital.
    (AP, 5/17/11)(AFP, 5/17/11)(Reuters, 5/24/11)

2011        May 17, In Libya Gadhafi forces started attacking the Maraba pass on the edge of the Nafusa mountains. Rebels lost 10 men to artillery and sniper fire.
    (Econ, 5/28/11, p.53)
2011        May 17, Canada announced it has decided to expel five Libyan diplomats for actions it called "inappropriate."
    (AFP, 5/17/11)

2011        May 18, The Libyan government released four foreign journalists. Americans Clare Morgana Gillis and James Foley, British freelance reporter Nigel Chandler and Spanish photographer Manuel Varela, appeared at a Tripoli hotel after being released from six weeks detention.
    (AP, 5/19/11)

2011        May 19, In Libya Gadhafi forces shelled the main rebel stronghold in the strategic Nafusa mountains southwest of the Libyan capital, pounding the area with rockets.
    (AP, 5/19/11)

2011        May 20, In Libya NATO fighter jets struck three ports in bombing runs overnight, targeting Gadhafi's navy with a goal of protecting the nearby rebel-held port of Misrata. A NATO strike this morning hit a police academy in the Tripoli neighborhood of Tajoura. An international aid group said that 3,800 Chadians who fled fighting in Libya are stranded in a remote desert town in northern Chad. NATO warplanes bombed command centers near Tripoli and in the southwest as part of a continuing effort to cut communications links between Gadhafi and his units on the battlefields.
    (AP, 5/20/11)(AP, 5/21/11)

2011        May 22, In Libya NATO warplanes carried out raids against the port of Tripoli and the residence of Moamer Kadhafi near the center of the capital.
    (AFP, 5/22/11)
2011        May 22, The European Union established formal diplomatic contact with the opposition seeking to topple Moammar Gadhafi by opening an office in the eastern rebel stronghold of Benghazi and promised support for a democratic Libya.
    (AP, 5/22/11)

2011        May 23, A French diplomatic source said France and other members of a NATO-led coalition plan to deploy attack helicopters in Libya, a move aimed at ramping up pressure against Muammar Gaddafi's forces.
    (Reuters, 5/23/11)

2011        May 24, The Libyan rebel council fighting to oust Muammar Gaddafi said it will open an office in Paris but a representative has not yet been named. Top US official Jeffrey Feltman said Libya's rebels have accepted an invitation to open a representative office in Washington as he renewed a US call for Moamer Kadhafi to step down immediately.
    (AFP, 5/24/11)
2011        May 24, Libyan forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi cut electricity supplies to much of the Western Mountains, threatening water supplies and stepping up a war of attrition with rebels who hold the plateau. NATO launched its most intense bombardment yet against Gadhafi's Tripoli stronghold. Government spokesman Moussa Ibrahim said at least 3 people were killed.
    (Reuters, 5/29/11)(AP, 5/24/11)

2011        May 25, A Libyan rebel commander said his fighters have clashed with Sudanese mercenaries fighting for Moammar Gadhafi near the border with Sudan, destroying one of their weapons-laden vehicles.
    (AP, 5/25/11)
2011        May 25, President Barack Obama warned Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi there would be 'no let up' in pressure on him to go, following a second successive night of heavy NATO bombing in Tripoli.
    (AP, 5/25/11)

2011        May 26, Libya’s government pushed a cease fire proposal. African leaders demanded an outright end to NATO air strikes on Libya. Spain says it and other European governments have received a message from Libyan PM Baghdadi al-Mahmoudi proposing an immediate cease-fire in his country's war. Global Witness said Goldman Sachs and HSBC together held $335 million of the Libyan oil fund's assets, while Societe Generale held $1 billion in structured products for the fund.
    (AFP, 5/26/11)(AP, 5/26/11)(Reuters, 5/26/11)(SFC, 5/27/11, p.A2)

2011        May 27, NATO reported that Moamer Kadhafi's forces had laid landmines in Misrata. Russia joined the call of Western powers for Kadhafi to step down as G8 leaders met in France.
    (AFP, 5/27/11)

2011        May 28, NATO aircraft destroyed the guard towers at Muammar Gaddafi's compound in Tripoli, then staged a rare daytime air strike, heightening pressure on him to quit.
    (Reuters, 5/28/11)

2011        May 29, It was reported that 259 Libyan women responded on questionnaires that they have been raped by militiamen loyal to Moammar Khadafy.
    (SSFC, 5/29/11, p.A6)

2011        May 30, South Africa President Jacob Zuma arrived in Tripoli for talks on ending the Libyan conflict as NATO chief Anders Fogh Rasmussen said Moamer Kadhafi's "reign of terror" was near its end. 5 generals, 2 colonels and a major announced they had defected from Kadhafi's forces, and said the regime's army was now at 20-percent capacity.
    (AFP, 5/30/11)(AFP, 5/31/11)

2011        May 31, NATO pounded Tripoli, only hours after South African President Jacob Zuma left Libya's capital having failed to close the gap between Kadhafi and rebels fighting to oust him since February. Zuma said Kadhafi was "ready to implement the roadmap of the AU" and that he had insisted "all Libyans be given a chance to talk among themselves" to determine the country's future.
    (AFP, 5/31/11)

2011        Jun 1, NATO agreed to extend its Libyan air war by three months and dismissed charges by Moamer Kadhafi's regime that the bombing campaign has already killed 718 civilians. Libyan oil minister Shukri Ghanem said in Rome that he now supports the rebel insurgency who have set up a de-facto capital in Benghazi. A UN panel said government forces have committed crimes against humanity and war crimes in a conflict that has left an estimated 10-15 thousand people dead.
    (AP, 6/1/11)(AP, 6/2/11)(SFC, 6/2/11, p.A4)

2011        Jun 2, NATO blasted Tripoli with a series of air strikes, sending shuddering booms through the city. Official Tunisian news reported that another 13 servicemen loyal to Gadhafi, including a colonel and four commanders, have fled to neighboring Tunisia. It was the second group of military men to defect to Tunisia this week.
    (AP, 6/2/11)

2011        Jun 3, In Libya a series of at least 10 NATO strikes hit in and around Tripoli, targeting military barracks close to Gadhafi's sprawling compound, a police station and a military base. A rebel military leader said his troops had broken the siege of two towns in the western Nafusa mountain range, Yefren and Shakshuk. The Chinese Foreign Ministry said that China's ambassador to Qatar had recently met with the head of Libya's rebel council.
    (AP, 6/3/11)

2011        Jun 4, In Libya British Apache and French attack helicopters struck targets for the first time in NATO's campaign, hitting Moammar Gadhafi's troops near a key coastal oil city.
    (AP, 6/4/11)
2011        Jun 4, Japan’s Yomiuri Shimbun newspaper reported that Japan has frozen $4.4 billion in assets belonging to Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi and his entourage under the terms of a UN Security Council resolution.
    (AFP, 6/4/11)

2011        Jun 5, In Libya NATO pounded Tripoli hours after Britain's top diplomat met rebel chiefs in Libya and Russia voiced concerns the alliance's military operation is sliding towards a land campaign.
    (AFP, 6/5/11)

2011        Jun 7, The EU imposed sanctions on 6 ports still held by Colonel Qaddafi. Russian President Dmitri Medvedev sent an envoy to Libya for the first time to meet with rebel leaders in the city of Benghazi and promise support. At least 40 NATO strikes hit Tripoli as Khadafy spoke in an audio address and vowed never to surrender.
    (Econ, 6/18/11, p.53)(AFP, 6/7/11)(SFC, 6/8/11, p.A4)

2011        Jun 8, In Libya Khadafy forces shelled Misrata killing 10 rebel fighters.
    (SFC, 6/9/11, p.A5)

2011        Jun 9, Nations currently involved in supporting the rebels in their fight against Libyan dictator Moammar Khaddafi have pledged more than one billion dollars in aid to the anti-Khaddafi forces. Among the nations pledging the aid were Australia, France, Italy, and Turkey.
            (NYT, 6/9/11)

2011        Jun 10, Libyan rebels staged an uprising in the western city of Zlitan. 22 fighters were reported killed. Turkey’s PM Erdogan said his country has offered to help Khadafy leave.
    (SFC, 6/11/11, p.A4)

2011        Jun 12, In Libya resurgent rebel forces fought to retake the port city of Zawiya, but were repelled by Khadafy’s forces.
    (SFC, 6/13/11, p.A2)

2011        Jun 13, In Libya NATO attack helicopters struck two of Khadafy’s military boats of the coast of Misrata.
    (SFC, 6/15/11, p.A3)

2011        Jun 14, In Libya NATO forces resumed airstrikes on the capital city of Tripoli.  Journalists were not told what specific sites were being targeted, nor how long the bombardments would continue.
            (AP, 6/14/11)  

2011        Jun 15, The White House said the United States has spent more than $715 million for military and humanitarian operations in Libya since unrest began in the north African country earlier this year.
    (AFP, 6/16/11)

2011        Jun 16, In Libya NATO airstrikes pounded the area near Moammar Gadhafi's compound. Kadhafi's regime told visiting Russian envoy Mikhail Margelov that the embattled Libyan leader is "not ready" to go, despite growing calls for him to quit and a months-long uprising. Muammar Gaddafi’s son said his father is willing to hold elections and step aside if he lost, an offer unlikely to placate his opponents but which could test the unity of the Western alliance trying to force him out. A NATO air strike took place near Ajdabiyah, eastern Libya, and six rebel pickup trucks fitted with anti-aircraft guns were destroyed and 16 rebel fighters injured.
    (AP, 6/16/11)(AFP, 6/16/11)(Reuters, 6/16/11)(Reuters, 6/18/11)

2011        Jun 17, Libyan rebels and pro-Gaddafi forces exchanged heavy artillery fire near the western city of Zlitan as the rebels tried to push deeper into government-held territory east of the capital.
    (AP, 6/17/11)
2011        Jun 17, Italy signed an agreement with Libyan rebels meant to stem a stream of migrants fleeing unrest, prompting concerns at the UN refugee agency that people seeking asylum won't have proper protection.
    (AP, 6/17/11)
2011        Jun 17, A 90-day deadline passed on the American government, under the 1973 War Powers Resolution, for asking permission from Congress for continuing hostilities against Libya. Pres. Obama held that America’s supporting role no longer amounts to hostilities.
    (Econ, 6/25/11, p.44)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_Powers_Resolution)

2011        Jun 18, Libya's rebel oil chief accused the West of failing to keep up its promises to deliver urgent financial aid, saying his authority had now run out of cash completely after months of fighting. Fighting between forces loyal to Libya's Muammar Gaddafi and rebels trying to close in on his territory killed at least eight rebels near the northwestern city of Nalut.
    (Reuters, 6/18/11)

2011        Jun 19, The Libyan government accused NATO of bombing a residential neighborhood in the capital and killing civilians, adding to its charges that the alliance is striking nonmilitary targets. 9 people, including two children, were reported killed. NATO admitted it carried out an air strike that killed civilians in Tripoli.
    (AP, 6/19/11)(Reuters, 6/20/11)

2011        Jun 20, Libya's government said a NATO airstrike on a large family compound belonging to Khoweildi al-Hamidi, a close associate of Moammar Gadhafi, killed 13 people, including three children, west of Tripoli. Hamadi escaped unharmed, but his wife and 2 grandchildren were among the dead. NATO acknowledged obliterating the compound. On July 28 attorneys for Hamadi filed a civil lawsuit in Belgium accusing NATO of killing the 13 civilians.
    (AP, 6/20/11)(SFC, 6/21/11, p.A2)(AP, 7/28/11)

2011        Jun 21, In Libya a US drone helicopter lost radar contact with NATO. It was a Fire Scout, an unmanned US chopper, revealing the use of the new robotic aircraft in the war.
    (AFP, 6/21/11)
2011        Jun 21, China said that a meeting with Mahmud Jibril, the Libyan rebels' diplomatic chief, who is in Beijing for a two-day visit, was an effort to seek a quick solution to the crisis in the North African nation, a situation it said could not go on.
    (Reuters, 6/21/11)

2011        Jun 22, In Libya NATO warplanes resumed daytime strikes on targets in Tripoli as alliance member Italy called for the "immediate suspension" of hostilities there. Gaddafi forces landed rockets in the center of Misrata for the first time in several weeks.
    (AP, 6/22/11)(Reuters, 6/22/11)

2011        Jun 24, In Libya a ship carrying 51 prisoners docked in Benghazi. 249 people from the West wishing to be reunited with family in eastern Libya also were on board.
    (AP, 6/24/11)
2011        Jun 24, The war-weary US House of Representatives delivered a harsh, symbolic rebuke to President Barack Obama over the conflict in Libya but beat back efforts to cut funds for direct US air strikes.
    (AP, 6/25/11)

2011        Jun 25, Libyan authorities accused NATO of killing 15 people in an airstrike that hit a restaurant and bakery in the east, while the alliance said there were no indications that civilians had died. Two loud explosions were heard in Tripoli as jets flew over the city. The rebel authority said 4 members of Libya's national soccer team and 13 other football figures have defected.
    (AP, 6/25/11)(Reuters, 6/25/11)

2011        Jun 26, The Libyan government renewed its offer to hold a vote on whether Muammar Gaddafi should stay in power, a proposal unlikely to interest Gaddafi's opponents but which could widen differences inside NATO. Rebels in the western mountains said they have advanced and are battling Moammar Gadhafi's forces in Bair al-Ghanam, located around 50 miles (80 km) south of the capital.
    (Reuters, 6/26/11)

2011        Jun 27, In Libya NATO operations entered a 100th day with airstrikes having eased the siege of key rebel cities but with Moamer Kadhafi still in power and fears of an open war lingering. Rebels south of Tripoli advanced to within about 80 km (50 miles) of the capital and fought government troops for control of the town of Bir al-Ghanam.
    (AFP, 6/27/11)(Reuters, 6/27/11)
2011        Jun 27, The International Criminal Court in the Netherlands issued arrest warrants for Moammar Gadhafi, his son Seif, and his intelligence chief for crimes against humanity in the Libyan leader's four-month battle to cling to power.
    (AP, 6/27/11)

2011        Jun 29, French daily Le Figaro reported that France has begun parachuting arms shipments to Berber rebels fighting Kadhafi's forces in the highlands south of Tripoli.
    (AFP, 6/29/11)

2011        Jul 1, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi threatened to target European "homes, offices, families" unless NATO halts its bombing campaign.
    (AP, 7/2/11)
2011        Jul 1, In Equatorial Guinea Africa's heads of state signed off on a road map designed to help Libya emerge from civil war, but carefully dodged the issue of what role the country's entrenched dictator Moammar Gadhafi should play in its future government.
    (AP, 7/1/11)

2011        Jul 2, NATO said it has begun ramping up its airstrikes on military targets in the western part of Libya, where rebel forces claim a string of advances through territory still largely under Moammar Gadhafi's control.
    (AP, 7/2/11)

2011        Jul 3, Turkey's foreign minister visited Libya and recognized the rebel leaders as the country's legitimate representatives and promised them an additional $200 million in aid.
    (AP, 7/3/11)

2011        Jul 4, Turkey froze Libya's holdings in a Turkish bank, a day after it recognized Libya's rebel leaders as the country's legitimate representatives and quietly removed its ambassador from Tripoli.
    (AP, 7/4/11)

2011        Jul 5, In Libya shelling by forces loyal to Moamer Kadhafi killed 11 people and wounded dozens more, the majority civilians, around the besieged rebel enclave of Misrata.
    (AFP, 7/5/11)

2011        Jul 6, Libyan rebels launched a promised assault on a key gateway to Tripoli, attacking government positions just 50 km (30 miles) from the capital. Rebel forces moved into Qawalish (Gualish) and Kikla. 18 fighters were killed and about 30 were injured as fighters seized Al-Qawalish. Another group advanced to within 13 km of the center of the town of Zlitan. 2 civilians, including a 12-year-old girl, were killed when a rocket hit their Misrata house.
    (AFP, 7/6/11)(AP, 7/6/11)(Reuters, 7/7/11)

2011        Jul 7, A senior Libyan official accused NATO of intensifying its bombing campaign and backing foreign mercenaries to lay the groundwork for an advance by rebels.
    (AP, 7/7/11)
2011        Jul 7, In Libya the International Organization for Migration (IOM) began an operation to return home around 2,000 Chadian migrants, mostly women and children, trapped in Libya.
    (AP, 7/9/11)

2011        Jul 8, Thousands of Libyans poured into Tripoli's main square for mass prayers and a rally in support of Moammar Gadhafi. Rebels battled to within two km (one mile) of the center of Zliten town with the loss of five dead and 17 wounded. NATO struck targets in several areas, including tanks, rocket launching sites, artillery pieces, military storage facilities and command and control centers. 4 boats carrying about 1,000 migrants fleeing the conflict arrived on the Italian island of Lampedusa.
    (AP, 7/8/11)(AFP, 7/9/11)

2011        Jul 10, In Libya forces loyal to Moamer Kadhafi launched a counterattack on against rebel advance positions 50 km (30 miles) southwest of Tripoli. Rebels replied with anti-tank fire as they sought to maintain their grip on Gualish. Rebel troops advancing into the loyalist stronghold of Zliten said they lost one fighter and had 32 wounded by landmines laid by Moamer Kadhafi's retreating troops.
    (AFP, 7/10/11)

2011        Jul 11, In Libya 4 rebels were killed and 22 wounded in overnight clashes against forces loyal to Moamer Kadhafi in the western town of Zliten.
    (AFP, 7/11/11)

2011        Jul 13, In Libya Kadhafi forces caught rebels off guard and attacked Gualish, which the insurgents captured a week earlier, and seized nearly all of it. Rebels poured in from surrounding villages and drove the loyalists out. At least eight rebels were killed and around 30 wounded in the fighting. The Kadhafi regime said it was seeking to prosecute NATO chief Anders Fogh Rasmussen in Libyan courts for "war crimes" over the alliance's air strikes.
    (AFP, 7/14/11)

2011        Jul 14, Libyan forces repelled a coordinated attack by NATO forces and rebels against the strategic oil town of Brega.
    (AP, 7/15/11)
2011        Jul 14, The Canadian head of the NATO mission over Libya said Gaddafi has ordered his troops to blow up refineries and other facilities if they have to retreat. Russia’s special envoy to Libya told the Izvestia newspaper that Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi has a "suicidal plan" to blow up the capital Tripoli if it is taken by rebels.
    (Reuters, 7/14/11)(AFP, 7/14/11)

2011        Jul 15, In a statement following a meeting in Istanbul of the so-called Contact Group on Libya, more than 30 nations, including the United States, declared that Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi's regime is no longer legitimate and formally recognized Libya's main opposition group as the legitimate government until a new interim authority is created.
    (AP, 7/15/11)

2011        Jul 16, In Libya 12 rebel fighters were killed in an advance on the strategic oil town of Brega, with rebel forces sweeping the outskirts for land mines so they could move in.
    (AP, 7/16/11)(AFP, 7/17/11)

2011        Jul 17, In Libya rebel attacks on the eastern oil city of Brega stretched into their fourth day, with reports of pitched battles in the residential areas. NATO jets destroyed a military storage facility and other targets in Tripoli's eastern outskirts.
    (AP, 7/17/11)

2011        Jul 19, In Libya government forces shelled rebel positions near the strategic oil town of Brega. 27 rebels were killed with 83 wounded. More than 50 rebels have been killed in six days of fighting for Brega.
    (AP, 7/19/11)(AP, 7/20/11)

2011        Jul 22, In Libya NATO planes reportedly struck a pipe factory near the embattled oil city of Brega killing six guards.
    (AP, 7/22/11)

2011        Jul 24, In Libya NATO warplanes blitzed a string of military targets in Tripoli, as Moamer Kadhafi blamed a "colonial plot" for the conflict engulfing his country. The latest NATO strikes came after rebel forces said they had lost 16 fighters in two days of fighting for Zliten and had infiltrated the capital and attacked a regime command post where a son of the strongman was among officials targeted.
    (AFP, 7/24/11)
2011        Jul 24, Germany said that it is loaning Libya's rebel leadership €100 million ($144 million) to help with the country's rebuilding and humanitarian needs.
    (AP, 7/24/11)

2011        Jul 25, The Libyan government showed foreign journalists a destroyed flu clinic in Zlitan and food warehouses it said had been hit earlier in the day by NATO airstrikes, killing eight people. NATO denied that it had targeted civilians and said it had only hit a number of military objectives in the area.
    (AP, 7/25/11)

2011        Jul 27, Britain officially recognized Libya's main opposition group as the country's legitimate government, and expelled all diplomats from Moammar Gadhafi's regime.
    (AP, 7/27/11)

2011        Jul 28, In western Libya hundreds of rebels launched a broad offensive against government forces, seizing three small towns and advancing on others to secure a major supply route near the Tunisian border. Four rebel fighters were killed and several wounded. Abdel-Fattah Younis, the rebel military chief, was killed along with two aides while on route to Benghazi for questioning by rebel authorities. Younis was Gadhafi's interior minister before defecting to the rebels early in the uprising. Rebel minister Ali Tarhouni later said Younes was killed by the Obaida Ibn Jarrah Brigade, which was mainly comprised of former prisoners of Gaddafi's notorious Abu Salim prison in the capital Tripoli, who had always distrusted Younes.
    (AP, 7/28/11)(AP, 7/29/11)(Reuters, 7/30/11)

2011        Jul 30, NATO warplanes bombed three Libyan state TV satellite transmitters in Tripoli overnight, targeting facilities that have been used to incite violence and threaten civilians. 3 state television journalists were killed and 15 other people were reported wounded.
    (AP, 7/30/11)(AP, 7/31/11)

2011        Jul 31, Libya's rebels overran the base of a rogue faction, members of the al-Nidaa Brigade, suspected of breaking pro-Gadhafi fighters out of an opposition prison. The violence came two days after suspected al-Nidaa members attacked two prisons in Benghazi, facilitating the escape of some 200 to 300 inmates, including mercenaries, pro-Gadhafi fighters and regime loyalists.
    (AP, 7/31/11)

2011        Aug 1, In Libya forces loyal to Kadhafi were again in control of the village of Josh at the foot of the western Nafusa mountains. Rebels had taken the village a day earlier.
    (AFP, 8/1/11)

2011        Aug 2, A boat carrying 330 migrants from Libya arrived late in the day on the Italian island of Lampedusa, a day after officials found 25 people choked to death in the engine room of another Libyan refugee boat.
    (AFP, 8/3/11)

2011        Aug 3, Libya’s Seif al-Islam Kadhafi, the high-profile son of leader Moammar Gadhafi, said his family had forged an alliance with Islamist rebels among the insurgents to drive out the secular opposition to his father's 40-year rule. He claimed to have negotiated the pact with Ali Sallabi, a leading Islamist in the rebel-held east. Sallabi acknowledged their conversations but denied the Islamists had switched sides. Rebels reportedly seized the Cartagena, which NATO had prevented from delivering oil to Tripoli.
    (AFP, 8/4/11)(Econ, 8/6/11, p.38)

2011        Aug 5, Libya's rebels said they have reports that Moammar Gadhafi's youngest son, was killed in a NATO airstrike in the western town of Zlitan. Khamis Gadhafi (27) commanded one of the regime's strongest military brigades. He was reportedly among 32 troops killed when NATO hit a government operations center. Deputy Foreign Minister Khaled Kaim said Khamis is alive. NATO reportedly struck and destroyed a caravan of camels carrying heavy caliber machine guns, mortars and ammunition from neighboring Chad. State television later said 33 children and 32 women were among 85 people killed in the NATO attack.
    (AP, 8/5/11)(AP, 8/6/11)(AP, 8/11/11)

2011        Aug 6, Libyan rebels fighting Moammar Gadhafi's forces in the country's west launched a major push toward key towns along the Mediterranean coast near the capital Tripoli. NATO warplanes attacked 45 targets across Libya, including an ammunition storage facility and a multiple rocket launcher system in the Bir Ghanam area.
    (AP, 8/6/11)(AFP, 8/7/11)

2011        Aug 7, Libyan PM Baghdadi Mahmudi said government troops have recaptured the strategic town of Bir Ghanam, southwest of Tripoli, from rebel forces.
    (AFP, 8/7/11)

2011        Aug 8, In Libya a rebel spokesman in Misrata said forces loyal to Moamer Kadhafi had launched an assault on rebel positions in Zliten's Souk Telat area, killing 3 and wounding 15. A rebel source at Al-Qusbat, around 90 km (55 miles) east of Tripoli, said that town was living through its fourth day under siege. Libya's rebels sacked their executive committee. Mahmoud Jibril, who was the head of the outgoing committee, was asked to form a new board.
    (AFP, 8/8/11)(AP, 8/9/11)

2011        Aug 10, Libyan state television broadcast images of a man it said was Moammar Gadhafi's youngest son, Khamis Gadhafi. The national council chief Mustafa Abdel-Jalil ordered all fighters to be incorporated into the national liberation army individually. 5 rebels were reported killed when regime forces attacked the rebel-held town of Bir Ghanam. The European Union said it was adding two more Libyan businesses to its list of companies and individuals targeted by sanctions. Fresh fighting meanwhile erupted at the strategic oil town of Brega.
    (AP, 8/10/11)(AP, 8/11/11)(AFP, 8/11/11)

2011        Aug 11, Libyan loyalists killed one rebel and wounded 10 others as the insurgents moved on the town of Taurga in a bid to snuff out rocket fire on the besieged city of Misrata. Rebel fighters gained control of a residential unit in Brega. 11 rebels died in the clashes and 40 were wounded.
    (AFP, 8/11/11)(AP, 8/12/11)

2011        Aug 12, Libya's news agency, JANA, reported that those carrying a satellite phone without a permit could be sentenced to death as punishment for treason.
    (AP, 8/12/11)

2011        Aug 13, Libya's rebels fought with regime troops for control of Gharyan, a key mountain town that is a strategic gateway on the road to Tripoli.
    (AP, 8/13/11)

2011        Aug 14, Libyan rebels and troops loyal to Moammar Gadhafi fought for control of Zawiya, a day after opposition forces pushed from the western mountains into the strategic city in their most dramatic advance in months. Rebel officials said they had captured the town of Gharyan, 50 miles (80 km) south of Tripoli, which sits on the supply road from southern Libya to the capital. Rebels said they also captured the town of Surman.
    (AP, 8/14/11)(AP, 8/15/11)

2011        Aug 15, Libya's interior minister, Nassr al-Mabrouk Abdullah, and nine of his family members flew into Cairo from Tunisia on their private plane in what appeared to be the highest level defection from Moammar Gadhafi's regime in months. Rebels consolidated positions in some parts of Zawiya, but appeared to have lost ground in others. In an audio message Gadhafi urged his supporters to dig in and fight.
    (AP, 8/15/11)

2011        Aug 16, In Libya rebels clashed with Gadhafi troops for control of the refinery in Brega. A rebel doctor said 18 rebels had been killed and 74 injured.
    (AP, 8/17/11)

2011        Aug 17, In Libya rebels battled Moammar Gadhafi loyalists for control over the only functioning oil refinery in the western city of Zawiya, as the opposition tried to cut off fuel supplies to the regime's stronghold of Tripoli. NATO warplanes sunk a tugboat carrying troops loyal to Gadhafi away from Zawiya as rebels advanced closer to Tripoli.
    (AP, 8/17/11)(AP, 8/19/11)

2011        Aug 18, In Libya 5 loud explosions shook the center of Tripoli, as rebels in the western mountains claimed control of the Zawiya oil refinery. Gadhafi troops were still in control of Gamal Abdel-Nasser Street and were hiding in the hospital there. PM al-Baghdadi Ali al-Mahmoudi said the government was in negotiations with rebels. NATO planes took out five tanks in Zawiya. NATO hit four military facilities in Tripoli.
    (AP, 8/18/11)(AP, 8/19/11)

2011        Aug 19, In Libya explosions shook Tripoli as NATO jets were heard circling overhead. Flames lit up the Tripoli skies near Gadhafi's Bab al-Aziziya headquarters and army barracks. Rebel spokesman Mahmoud Shammam said that Abdel Salam Jalloud, a close Moammar Gadhafi associate, had fled to a rebel-held area in the western mountains and was on his way to Europe.
    (AP, 8/19/11)

2011        Aug 20, Libyan rebels gained full control of the strategic western city of Zawiya, pushing Moammar Gadhafi's troops back on the road east to Tripoli. Rebel military spokesman Col. Ahmed Bani said fighters gained control of the industrial section of Brega, after having captured its residential areas last week.
    (AP, 8/20/11)

2011        Aug 21, In Libya large anti-regime protests erupted in several Tripoli neighborhoods where thousands braved the bullets of snipers perched atop high buildings. At the same time, hundreds of rebel forces advanced to within 15 miles west of the capital and were rushing forward in pickup trucks and on foot. Rebels swarmed into Tripoli late in the day and  restored the country’s internet connection.
    (AP, 8/21/11)(AP, 8/22/11)(Econ, 8/27/11, p.11)

2011        Aug 22, Libyan rebels claimed to be in control of most of Tripoli after their lightning advance heralded the fall of Moammar Gadhafi's nearly 42-year regime. Scattered battles erupted, and the mercurial leader's whereabouts remained unknown. NATO said it will continue its combat air patrols over Libya until all pro-Gadhafi forces surrender or return to barracks.
    (AP, 8/22/11)

2011        Aug 23, In Libya fierce fighting erupted around Moammar Gadhafi's main military compound in Tripoli, hours after the Libyan leader's son and heir apparent turned up free to thwart Libyan rebel claims he had been captured and rally supporters. 64 NATO airstrikes turned the Bab al-Azizya military compound to rubble. A representative from Sirte on the rebels' National Transitional Council said that the situation in the city was extremely volatile because Gadhafi brigades had retreated to the city after fleeing the Brega oil terminal. Loyalist guards in Tripoli opened fired at some 130 civilian detainees in a lockup, a hangar, and fired again when prisoners tried to flee.
    (AP, 8/23/11)(AP, 8/28/11)

2011        Aug 24, In Libya pro-regime snipers cut off the road to Tripoli's airport, fired at motorists near the capital's port and launched repeated attacks on Moammar Gadhafi's government compound, stormed by thousands of rebels a day earlier. Dozens of foreign journalists were released at the Rixos Hotel in Tripoli. Rebels offered a $2 million bounty for Gadhafi.
    (AP, 8/24/11)(SFC, 8/25/11, p.A3)

2011        Aug 25, Libyan rebels battled forces loyal to Moammar Gadhafi on the streets of Tripoli.  European officials confirmed that small numbers of British, French and other special forces have been working inside Libya in recent months. It was reported that the bullet-riddled bodies of over 30 pro-Khadafy fighters were found at a military encampment in central Tripoli. 
    (AP, 8/25/11)(SFC, 8/26/11, p.A2)

2011        Aug 26, In Libya British warplanes struck a large bunker in Moammar Gadhafi's hometown of Sirte, his largest remaining stronghold, as NATO turned its attention to loyalist forces battling advancing Libyan rebels in the area. The two main tribes in Sirte, the Gadhadhfa and the Urfali, remained loyal to the Libyan leader. About 80 decomposing bodies were found in an abandoned hospital in Tripoli.
    (AP, 8/26/11)(AFP, 8/26/11)

2011        Aug 27, In Libya rebels claimed victory over the suburb of Qasr bin Ghashir, near Tripoli's airport, after an overnight battle. Egyptian news agency MENA reported from Tripoli that six armored Mercedes sedans have crossed the border at the southwestern Libyan town of Ghadamis into Algeria. Khamis Gaddafi and Abdullah al-Senussi were reportedly killed by a unit of the national liberation army during clashes in Tarhouna. Khamis had been reported dead twice before during the uprising.
    (AP, 8/27/11)(Reuters, 8/29/11)
2011        Aug 27, Tunisia arrested a member of Libya's pro-Kadhafi forces in the southeast of the country for planning attacks on Libyan refugees and rebel supporters.
    (AFP, 8/27/11)

2011        Aug 28, Libyan rebels rejected an offer by Moammar Gadhafi to negotiate and said they have captured the eastern town of Bin Jawwad, forcing regime loyalists to flee after days of fighting. A reporter found some 50 charred corpses in a makeshift lockup near a military base that had been run by the Khamis Brigade, an elite unit commanded by Gadhafi's son, Khamis.
    (AP, 8/28/11)
2011        Aug 28, Security sources said hundreds of armed Tuaregs from Mali and Niger who fought for toppled Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi have started to return to their home nations.
    (AFP, 8/28/11)

2011        Aug 29, Libyan members of the National Transitional Council announced further steps to becoming an effective government. Suleiman Mahmoud al-Obeidi, the rebels' deputy military chief, announced the formation of a 17-member committee to represent the 30 or local military councils he said had been set up in the country's west. Moammar Gadhafi's wife, Safiya Gadhafi, her daughter Aisha and sons Hannibal and Mohammed entered Algeria.
    (AP, 8/29/11)(AP, 8/30/11)

2011        Aug 30, Libyan rebels pledged to launch an assault within days on Sirte, Moammar Gadhafi's hometown. Rebels told Khadafy backers to give up by Sep 3 or face assault. Gadhafi's daughter gave birth to a baby girl in Algeria. NATO planes bombed Gaddafi forces near Sirte, targeting tanks and other armored vehicles as well as military facilities. They also hit targets in the area of Bani Walid, another Gaddafi stronghold 150 km southeast of Tripoli.
    (AP, 8/30/11)(Reuters, 8/31/11)(SFC, 8/31/11, p.A3)

2011        Aug 31, Libyans delighted at Muammar Gaddafi's downfall celebrated the end of Ramadan feast, even though the ousted leader remains on the run and forces loyal to him defied an ultimatum set by Libya's interim council.
    (Reuters, 8/31/11)

2011        Sep 1, Libyan rebels extended the deadline for the surrender of Gadhafi's hometown of Sirte, originally set for Sep 3, giving the loyalist forces there one more week to surrender. Rebels said they have captured Foreign Minister Abdul Ati al-Obeidi. 60 world leaders and top-level envoys met in Paris on Libya's future.
    (AP, 9/1/11)
2011        Sep 1, Russia recognized Libya's rebels as the governing authority in the country.
    (AFP, 9/1/11)

2011        Sep 3, Libya’s new civilian leaders put all military commanders in Tripoli under their control in an effort to reign in Islamist influence and paper over internal tensions.
    (SSFC, 9/4/11, p.A6)

2011        Sep 4, Libyan rebels said that tribal leaders in Bani Walid, a besieged pro-Moammar Gadhafi stronghold, are divided over what to do and will likely surrender rather than see their followers fight one another. NATO reported bombing a military barracks, a police camp and several other targets near Sirte overnight.
    (AP, 9/4/11)

2011        Sep 5, In Libya rebels reportedly arrested Khalid Kaim, Gadhafi's deputy foreign minister in Tripoli. A large convoy of Gadhafi loyalists rolled into the central Niger town of Agadez. At the head of the convoy was Tuareg rebel leader Rissa ag Boula.
    (AP, 9/6/11)
2011        Sep 5, The EU's counter-terrorism coordinator said Al-Qaeda's north African branch has acquired a stockpile of weapons in Libya, including surface-to-air missiles threatening air travel.
    (AFP, 9/5/11)

2011        Sep 6, In Libya tribal elders from one of Moammar Gadhafi's last strongholds tried to persuade regime loyalists holed up there to lay down their arms. Mansour Dao, Gadhafi's security chief, was at the head of the first convoy to roll into Niamey, the capital of Niger. NATO made a number of airstrikes around Sirte, hitting six tanks, six armored fighting vehicles and an ammunition storage facility, among other targets. They also targeted the Gadhafi loyalist strongholds of Hun, Sabha and Waddan.
    (AP, 9/6/11)(AP, 9/7/11)

2011        Sep 8, In Libya Moammar Gadhafi's loyalists fired at least 10 rockets from inside Bani Walid, one of his last strongholds, hours after the ousted leader urged his fighters to crush opponents he ridiculed as "germs, rats and scumbags." The barrage followed a close-quarters gunfight in the same area between a patrol of fighters and several loyalist youths in a civilian car. One of the Gadhafi gunmen was killed. NATO said overnight bombing targets included 5 armored vehicles near Sirte and 18 surface-to-air missile systems near the town of Waddan. (AP, 9/8/11)

2011        Sep 9, In Libya revolutionary forces battled loyalists near the Gadhafi hometown of Sirte, but withdrew after heavy casualties. Gadhafi holdouts fired mortars and rockets from Bani Walid. Interpol said it has issued its top most-wanted alert for the arrest of Gadhafi, his son Seif al-Islam and the country's ex-chief of military intelligence, all sought by the International Criminal Court for alleged crimes against humanity. Niger Justice Minister Amadou Morou said that the Libyan chief of staff of the air force, his pilot and the commanders of two Libyan military regions have arrived in Niger.
    (AP, 9/9/11)(AP, 9/10/11)

2011        Sep 10, Libyan fighters battled with Moammar Gadhafi loyalists as more volunteers poured in from Tripoli and other towns held by the former rebels to join what they expect to be the final battle for Bani Walid. Fighters launched a widespread assault on Bani Walid but then withdrew for "tactical reasons."
    (AP, 9/10/11)(AFP, 9/10/11)
2011        Sep 10, The International Monetary Fund said it now recognizes the transitional government in Libya, paving the way for the fledgling administration to benefit from the IMF's financial help.
    (AFP, 9/10/11)

2011        Sep 11, In Libya NATO warplanes struck several targets in areas still loyal to fugitive leader Moammar Gadhafi. At least 12 people were killed and 16 wounded when a brigade from Gharyan and Kikla came under fire at the western town of Asabah. Many people in Asabah were Kadhafi supporters. 20 of his fighters were reported captured during the fighting. Anti-Gadhafi forces in Tripoli captured the former head of the regime's external intelligence service, Abu Zayd Dourda. Rebel fighters pushed back into Bani Walid. A convoy carrying al-Saadi Gadhafi (37), son of ousted leader Moammar Gadhafi, crossed into neighboring Niger.
    (AP, 9/11/11)(AFP, 9/11/11)

2011        Sep 12, In Libya suspected Moammar Gadhafi's loyalists staged twin attacks at the key Ras Lanuf oil refinery in possibly coordinated strikes that suggest revolutionary forces still face resistance in areas under their control. At least 15 attackers were killed. Rebels captured most of the northern half of Bani Walid.
    (AP, 9/12/11)

2011        Sep 13, In Libya NATO warplanes pounded targets in a number of strongholds of support for fugitive dictator Moammar Gadhafi, as an offensive by revolutionary forces on Bani Walid, a key loyalist town, stalled.
    (AP, 9/13/11)

2011        Sep 14, In Libya NATO airstrikes hit targets 24 targets near the three main strongholds of Gadhafi's supporters, his hometown of Sirte, Bani Walid, Sabha, as well as the smaller holdouts of Waddan and Zillah.
    (AP, 9/15/11)

2011        Sep 15, British PM David Cameron and French President Nicolas Sarkozy gave Libya's new rulers strong support during a landmark visit to Tripoli, vowing to release billions of dollars more in frozen assets and to push ahead with NATO strikes against Gadhafi's last strongholds. 11 fighters were killed and 34 wounded in a first assault on Sirte launched before sunset.
    (AP, 9/15/11)(AFP, 9/16/11)

2011        Sep 16, Libyan revolutionary forces faced fierce resistance as they streamed into Bani Walid and Sirte, among the last remaining bastions of support for Moammar Gadhafi. The battles coincide with a visit to Tripoli by Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan. The UN General Assembly also voted to give Libya's seat in the world body to the National Transitional Council.
    (AP, 9/16/11)(AP, 9/17/11)

2011        Sep 19, In Libya fierce fighting raged in Bani Walid as new regime fighters attacked the oasis town where a son of Moamer Kadhafi is believed holed up. General Belgacem Al-Abaaj, Kadhafi's intelligence chief in the Al Khofra region, was captured some 100 km (60 miles) from southern Libyan town of Sabha. 10 people were reported killed in Sabha. Rebel forces captured the town of Sultana.
    (AFP, 9/19/11)(AP, 9/21/11)(AFP, 9/22/11)

2011        Sep 20, Libyan families in pickup trucks stacked with mattresses and jugs of water fled Moammar Gadhafi's hometown of Sirte ahead of an expected new push by revolutionary forces to seize the city from die-hard loyalists of the fugitive leader. At least 4 people were killed and 7 wounded. Another 18 people were reported killed in Sabha. Rebel forces captured Waddan.
    (AP, 9/20/11)(AP, 9/21/11)(AFP, 9/22/11)

2011        Sep 21, In Libya NATO airstrikes pounded an area in Moammar Gadhafi's hometown of Sirte as revolutionary forces surrounding the city came under rocket fire. NATO allies agreed to extend their air campaign in Libya by another 90 days. Rebel forces captured the base between Waddan and Hun at dawn and took Hun during the day. Rebels began a 3-day attack on the region of the al-Meshashya tribe, which had earlier pledged support for Gadhafi. Public property was destroyed, private cars and farm animals were stolen, and homes were burned.
    (AP, 9/21/11)(AFP, 9/21/11)(AFP, 9/22/11)(AP, 9/28/11)

2011        Sep 22, Libyan commanders said that new regime forces were in control of all three main towns in the Al-Jufra oasis. NATO said that its aircraft had again pounded Kadhafi's remaining armor.
    (AFP, 9/22/11)

2011        Sep 23, In Libya Kadhafi spokesman Mussa Ibrahim called for continued resolve against "agents and traitors." A fighter for the interim government helping desperate residents flee Kadhafi's hometown of Sirte was killed and a packed family car was destroyed when pro-Kadhafi forces fired on their convoy. The UN atomic agency confirmed the existence of raw uranium in Libya.
    (AFP, 9/23/11)
2011        Sep 23, French oil giant Total said it had restarted production from an offshore oil platform off Libya, making it the first major to return to work since the fall of Kadhafi.
    (AFP, 9/26/11)

2011        Sep 24, In Libya hundreds of revolutionary fighters pushed into Moammar Gadhafi's hometown of Sirte in the first significant assault in about a week as the new rulers try to rout remaining loyalists of the fugitive leader. 7 men were killed and 152 wounded, 17 seriously. Gunmen loyal to Gadhafi crossed the Libyan border from Algeria and attacked revolutionary forces in Ghadamis near the frontier, killing six people.
    (AP, 9/24/11)(AFP, 9/24/11)(AP, 9/25/11)

2011        Sep 26, Hundreds of Libyan civilians fled Gadhafi's hometown of Sirte to escape growing shortages of food and medicine and escalating fears that their homes will be struck during fighting between revolutionaries forces and regime loyalists.
    (AP, 9/26/11)
2011        Sep 26, Italian oil giant ENI said it has resumed oil production in Libya more than six months after civil unrest brought oil and gas output in the country to a near standstill.
    (AFP, 9/26/11)

2011        Sep 27, Libyan revolutionary forces battled their way into the eastern outskirts of Moammar Gadhafi's hometown of Sirte, in a bid to link up with anti-Gadhafi fighters besieging the city from the west and tighten the noose around the loyalist stronghold. Anti-Kadhafi fighters overran Sirte's port. A member of the NTC said that formation of a transitional government, already delayed by squabbling over power-sharing, has been postponed until the entire country is liberated.
    (AP, 9/27/11)(AFP, 9/27/11)

2011        Sep 29, In Libya Moamer Kadhafi diehards fought pitched battles with combatants loyal to the new rulers for control of the ousted despot's birthplace Sirte, with the heaviest fighting at the port. Interpol placed another of ousted Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi's sons on the equivalent of its most-wanted list, placing pressure on the government of Niger to surrender a man accused of overseeing bloody repressions. Kadhafi sons Seif al-Islam was said to be in Bani Walid and Mutassim in Sirte.
    (AFP, 9/29/11)

2011        Oct 1, Libyan fighters completely surrounded Moammar Gadhafi's hometown of Sirte and engaged in heavy clashes with his loyalists on the city's streets. A path was left for civilians who still wanted to leave the coastal city. A family of four was killed while driving out from the Gadhafi holdout toward the revolutionaries positions. NATO planes hit a command and control node, an infantry and anti-aircraft artillery staging area, two armed vehicles, four armored infantry vehicles and a tank in and around Sirte.
    (AP, 10/1/11)(AFP, 10/2/11)

2011        Oct 2, In Libyan civilians fled Kadhafi's besieged home town of Sirte as battles raged for the fugitive strongman's bastion. The Red Cross warned of a medical emergency. 4 fighters were killed in friendly fire.
    (AFP, 10/2/11)

2011        Oct 3, Libya's transitional leaders named a new Cabinet and said they would step down after the country is fully secured. Revolutionary forces seized the village of Abu Hadi south of Sirte. 2 anti-Gadhafi fighters were killed and 28 wounded in intense battles in Sirte.
    (AP, 10/3/11)(AP, 10/4/11)

2011        Oct 4, Libyan revolutionary forces fired rockets into the western half of Sirte, Moammar Gadhafi's hometown, even as hundreds of residents streamed out of the city to flee the fighting.
    (AP, 10/4/11)
2011        Oct 4, British company Heritage Oil PLC said that it has acquired a controlling interest in a Libyan company licensed to provide oil field services including offshore and land-based drilling. Heritage said it paid $19.5 million for a 51% stake in Sahara Oil Services Holdings Ltd.
    (AP, 10/4/11)

2011        Oct 7, Libyan revolutionary fighters assaulted a convention center in the center of Sirte that forces loyal to Moammar Gadhafi turned into their main base. At least 17 fighters were killed and 180 wounded.
    (AP, 10/7/11)(AP, 10/8/11)(AFP, 10/8/11)

2011        Oct 8, In Libya Seif al-Islam was seen distributing cash to his loyalists in Bani Walid.
    (AP, 10/9/11)

2011        Oct 9, Libya's revolutionary forces seized a convention center that had served as a key base for fighters loyal to Moammar Gadhafi in the fugitive leader's hometown, as they squeezed remaining regime loyalists in the besieged coastal city. In Bani Walid, advancing fighters drove Gadhafi forces out of the airport.
    (AP, 10/9/11)

2011        Oct 11, In Libya new regime fighters seized the police headquarters in the center of Moamer Kadhafi's hometown Sirte as they moved against the strongman's remaining diehards.
    (AFP, 10/11/11)

2011        Oct 12, Libya’s new regime fighters captured Khaled Tantoosh, the Kadhafi regime's top cleric, as he attempted to flee Sirte with his beard shaved off to disguise his appearance. Amnesty Int’l. said revolutionary fighters were holding over 2,500 detainees in makeshift prisons.
    (AFP, 10/13/11)(SFC, 10/13/11, p.A2)

2011        Oct 13, In Libya new regime fighters moved from house to house in Sirte, hunting for weapons or suspected Kadhafi fighters and sometimes making off with bags full of looted possessions and leaving trashed homes in their wake. NTC commanders said the Kadhafi remnants were cornered within about two square km (500 acres) of the city.
    (AFP, 10/13/11)(AFP, 10/14/11)

2011        Oct 14, Libya's new regime forces launched an intensive assault on two areas of fallen strongman Moamer Kadhafi's hometown of Sirte, bombarding his diehards with artillery, mortars and rockets. At least four people were killed and 46 wounded. Pro-Kadhafi gunmen took on fighters loyal to the National Transitional Council (NTC) in Abu Salim, a district around 10 km (six miles) south of Tripoli city center. 2 Kadhafi loyalists and one NTC fighter were killed while another 30 people were wounded.
    (AFP, 10/14/11)

2011        Oct 16, Libyan fighters were reported looting Moammar Gadhafi's hometown of Sirte, alongside fierce battles to drive out loyalists of the fugitive leader. Two fighters were killed and 70 wounded in fierce fighting.
    (AP, 10/16/11)(AFP, 10/16/11)

2011        Oct 17, Libyan fighters raised the new government's flag over the desert oasis of Bani Walid and hailed an exodus of regime families from the only other redoubt of Moamer Kadhafi's forces, his hometown Sirte. For a 2nd straight day NATO announced no hits in its air war.
    (AFP, 10/17/11)

2011        Oct 18, The Obama administration on increased US support for Libya's new leaders as Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton made an unannounced visit to Tripoli and pledged millions of dollars in new aid. About 1,000 revolutionary troops launched a major assault on Gadhafi's hometown of Sirte.
    (AP, 10/18/11)

2011        Oct 19, Libyan revolutionary forces fought building by building against the final pocket of resistance in Sirte, the last major city in Libya to have been under the control of forces loyal to the fugitive leader.
    (AP, 10/19/11)

2011        Oct 20, Libya’s National Transition Council said that its fighters found and shot dictator Moammar Gadhafi (69). Sirte finally fell to the rebels today after weeks of tough fighting. NATO  war planes struck a convoy of armed vehicles in the vicinity of Sirte. Gadhafi was in the convoy. Gadhafi was shot in the head after being captured at a sewage culvert on the outskirts of Sirte. The NATO strikes marked the culmination of a NATO-led air war mandated by the UN to protect civilians from Gadhafi's forces. In 2012 Human Rights Watch issued a 50-page report, titled "Death of a Dictator: Bloody Vengeance in Sirte," detailing the last hours of Gadhafi's life.
    (AP, 10/20/11)(AP, 10/21/11)(AP, 10/17/12)

2011        Oct 21, NATO announced plans to end its 7-month mission in Libya on October 31 but will issue a formal decision next week after consulting the UN and Libya's interim authorities.
    (AFP, 10/22/11)

2011        Oct 23, Libya’s National Transitional Council (NTC) declared liberation in the wake of Kadhafi's capture and death. It said the new Libya will be governed in line with Islamic sharia law, but stressed it would remain a "moderate" Muslim country.
    (AFP, 10/24/11)

2011        Oct 24, Libya’s interim leader Mustafa Abdel Jalil set a two-week target for Libya to have a new government and said a commission of inquiry is being formed to probe Moamer Kadhafi's killing. Human Right Watch urged the NTC to probe the killing of 53 people whose decaying bodies were found in Sirte, where the pro-Kadhafi camp put up its final stand.
    (AFP, 10/24/11)

2011        Oct 25, In Libya Moammar Gadhafi was buried in secrecy and anonymity, laid to rest in an unmarked grave before dawn in the Libyan desert that was home to his Bedouin tribal ancestors. A Human Rights Watch team saw trucks drive out of Tawergha with furniture and carpets that had apparently been looted, and that Misrata fighters who claimed to be guarding the town did not intervene.
    (AP, 10/25/11)(AP, 10/29/11)

2011        Oct 26, Libya's interim leader Mustafa Abdel Jalil urged NATO to continue its Libya campaign until year's end, saying loyalists of slain despot Moamer Kadhafi still pose a threat to the country. NATO unexpectedly postponed a definite decision to end its bombing campaign.
    (AFP, 10/26/11)(SFC, 10/27/11, p.A4)
2011        Oct 26, Marcel Ceccaldi, a French lawyer representing the family of Moamer Kadhafi said he plans to file a war crimes complaint against NATO with the International Criminal Court (ICC) for the alliance's alleged role in his death.
    (AFP, 10/26/11)
2011        Oct 26, Abdullah al-Senoussi, Moammar Gadhafi's former intelligence chief, entered Mali late at night, after making his way across Niger where he has been hiding for several days in the country's northern desert. Gadhafi's hunted son, Seif al-Islam, was also reported on his way to Mali, traveling across the invisible line separating Algeria from Niger.
    (AP, 10/27/11)

2011        Oct 27, Five Arab Spring activists won the European parliament's Sakharov prize awarded to campaigners for freedom. They include Mohamed Bouazizi of Tunisia, awarded posthumously, Egyptian militant Asmaa Mahfouz, Libyan dissident Ahmed al-Zubair Ahmed al-Sanusi, Syrian lawyer Razan Zeitouneh and Syrian cartoonist Ali Farzat.
    (AFP, 10/27/11)

2011        Oct 28, NATO allies formally agreed to end the seven-month mission in Libya Oct 31.
    (AFP, 10/28/11)

2011        Oct 29, In Libya volunteers reportedly buried more than 500 bodies across Sirte since October 23, most of them believed to be fighters. This included more than 50 bodies of civilians were found under the rubble of a several-storey building flattened in a NATO air strike.
    (AFP, 10/29/11)

2011        Oct 30, Libya's interim PM Mahmoud Jibril confirmed the presence of chemical weapons in Libya and said foreign inspectors would arrive later this week to deal with the issue. A clash took place in a Tripoli neighborhood between fighters from the towns of Zintan and Misrata. A Zintan fighter was killed and another, from Misrata, was wounded and taken by his friends to Tripoli's Central Hospital.
    (AP, 10/30/11)(AP, 11/1/11)

2011        Oct 31, Libya's interim leadership chose Abdel-Rahim al-Keeb, an electronics engineer from Tripoli, as the country's new prime minister.
    (AP, 10/31/11)
2011        Oct 31, NATO’s Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen arrived in Tripoli for talks with Libya's interim leaders before NATO operations end at midnight today. The NATO 7-month air campaign left at least 40 civilians dead.
    (AP, 10/31/11)(SSFC, 12/18/11, p.A13)

2011        Nov 6, Niger's army intercepted a convoy of cars traveling south from Libya toward Mali, and a cache of arms was seized in the ensuing clash. Libyan nationals and ethnic Tuaregs were in the convoy. One Nigerien soldier was killed and four wounded during the clash.
    (AP, 11/9/11)

2011        Nov 10, In Germany some 300 police officers searched the headquarters of Heckler & Koch amid allegations the German arms maker bribed Mexican officials in connection with arms deliveries between 2005 and 2010. Heckler & Koch was also under investigation following the discovery of its assault rifles in Libya.
    (AP, 11/10/11)

2011        Nov 11, In Libya 2 people were killed in connection to a dispute between rival militias near Tripoli, amid rising concern about the uncontrolled ownership of weapons.
    (AP, 11/12/11)
2011        Nov 11, Niger President Mahamadou Issoufou, during a visit to South Africa, said his government has decided to grant Moamer Kadhafi's son Saadi asylum for humanitarian reasons, adding that his brother Seif al-Islam is not in the country. He also said Niger's army has clashed repeatedly with arms traffickers from neighboring Libya.
    (AFP, 11/11/11)(AP, 11/11/11)

2011        Nov 12, EU foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton officially opened a delegation in Tripoli before holding talks with Libya's interim leaders as the bloc moved to cement relations.
    (AFP, 11/12/11)

2011        Nov 13, In Libya rival militias clashed on the outskirts of Tripoli for a fourth day, the most sustained violence since the capture and killing of Moammar Gadhafi last month. The fighting has left at least four people dead since late last week. A local commander of fighters from Tripoli, said gunmen from Zawiya and Warshefana were fighting for control of a camp midway between the capital of Tripoli and Zawiya.
    (AP, 11/13/11)

2011        Nov 17, Libyan militiamen, who fought the regime of ousted leader Moammar Gadhafi, marched through Tripoli demanding a voice in the formation of a new interim government. Libya's Muslim Brotherhood, repressed under the regime of fallen strongman Moamer Kadhafi, opened its first public congress inside the country for almost 25 years.
    (AP, 11/18/11)(AFP, 11/18/11)

2011        Nov 18, Moammar Gadhafi's son Seif al-Islam (39), the only wanted member of the ousted ruling family to remain at large, was captured as he traveled with aides in a convoy in Libya's southern desert. He was captured by revolutionary forces from the mountain town of Zintan who had been tracking him for days.
    (AP, 11/19/11)

2011        Nov 20, Libya’s the information minister said Seif al-Islam Gadhafi, Moammar Gadhafi's son and one-time heir apparent, will be tried in Libya and not handed over to the International Criminal Court even though the country's new rulers have yet to set up a justice system.
    (AP, 11/20/11)

2011        Nov 21, In Libya Abdullah Al-Senoussi, Moammar Gadhafi's intelligence chief, was captured alive by revolutionary fighters not far from where Gadhafi's son was seized a day earlier.
    (AP, 11/21/11)

2011        Nov 22, The International Criminal Court's prosecutor said that Libya can put Moammar Gadhafi's son and one-time heir apparent on trial at home, but that The Hague court's judges must be involved in the case.
    (AP, 11/22/11)

2011        Nov 23, Some of Libya's clans said they would not recognize the government, a day after the unveiling of a new cabinet revived regional and tribal rivalries which threaten the country's stability.
    (Reuters, 11/23/11)

2011        Nov 26, In Libya dozens of women rallied in Tripoli to pressure the new government to do more to help women raped during the country's civil war.
    (AP, 11/26/11)

2011        Nov 27, Hundreds of Libya's minority Amazigh Berbers marched to the premier's office for the second time in three days, stepping up pressure to be represented in the government. During Kadhafi's rule the Amazighs, whose name means "free men," were banned from publicly speaking, writing or printing anything in their own tongue, tamazight.
    (AFP, 11/27/11)

2011        Nov 28, The UN released a report a detailing alleged torture and ill treatment in lockups controlled by the forces that overthrew dictator Moammar Gadhafi. The report says that Libyan revolutionaries still hold about 7,000 people, many of them sub-Saharan Africans who in some cases are accused or suspected of being mercenaries hired by Gadhafi.
    (AP, 11/29/11)

2011        Nov 29, Aisha Kadhafi, the daughter of the slain Libyan leader, called for the overthrow of Libya's interim government in an audio message aired on Syrian-based Arrai television.
    (AFP, 11/30/11)

2011        Dec 1, Libya's interim interior minister Fawzi Abdelali said security forces will integrate 50,000 fighters who battled loyalists of late dictator Moamer Kadhafi.
    (AFP, 12/1/11)

2011        Dec 2, Tunisia closed the second main border post into Libya following attacks on Tunisians on the Libyan side, two days after the first closure.
    (AFP, 12/2/11)

2011        Dec 6, Libya's government gave its firm support to a 2-week deadline for militias to quit Tripoli, backing up a threat from the capital's council to lock down the city if they fail to do so.
    (AFP, 12/6/11)

2011        Dec 10, In Libya the army chief of staff, Gen. Khalifa Hifter, was in a convoy traveling from his home in Tripoli to the military headquarters when a group of armed men at a fake checkpoint tried to stop them. Soldiers arrested two gunmen. Fighters from the western mountain town of Zintan, who control Tripoli's international airport, opened fire on two occasions on the convoy of Gen. Khalifa Hifter. The Zintan fighters blamed the violence on the army's failure to notify them that the general was coming.
    (AP, 12/10/11)(AP, 12/11/11)

2011        Dec 13, In Libya around 500 disgruntled protesters from Benghazi, cradle of the uprising against Moamer Kadhafi, demonstrated for a second day against the nation's new rulers despite assurances the former rebel bastion will be Libya's economic capital.
    (AFP, 12/13/11)

2011        Dec 15, Tunisia reopened its Ras Jidr crossing with Libya after Tripoli took steps to prevent the kind of incidents that led to the border's closure two weeks ago.
    (AFP, 12/16/11)

2011        Libya’s population was about 6.5 million.
    (Econ, 2/26/11, p.25)

2012        Jan 3, Libya’s National Transitional Council said Yussef al-Mangush, a former colonel in Kadhafi's military, has been appointed as the new chief of staff of the Libyan army. Mangush was arrested in the oil town of Brega in April by Kadhafi's forces and freed in late August following the fall of Tripoli. Two former rebel factions clashed in hours of gunbattles in central Tripoli that left five fighters dead. The clashes were triggered by arrest of a Misrata fighter on New Year's Eve by Tripoli fighters. He was suspected of robbery and the Misrata fighters were trying to free him.
    (AFP, 1/3/12)(AP, 1/3/12)

2012        Jan 10, Libya’s foreign minister said Libya has received roughly $20 billion in assets that were held overseas by Moamer Kadhafi's regime and frozen during the conflict that ousted him. The UN Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) signed a status of mission agreement with Libya, paving the way for the world body to continue assisting the war-torn country during its current transitional period.
    (AFP, 1/10/12)

2012        Jan 15, In Libya a militia from the town of Gharyan, approximately 80 km (50 miles) south of Tripoli, clashed with a rival armed group from the nearby town of Assabia. Fighting between the two militias began Jan 13 and by the next day left 2 dead. The clash erupted after an Assabia resident killed a local from Gharyan. Late in the day the rival fighters settled their deadly dispute through a prisoner swap and agreed to a ceasefire.
    (AFP, 1/16/12)

2012        Jan 19, In Libya Abdelhafiz Ghoga, the deputy head of the National Transitional Council, was manhandled by protesters at the University of Ghar Yunis in Benghazi. Students have been demonstrating on the campus for weeks to protest against the perceived lack of transparency of the administration.
    (AFP, 1/19/12)
2012        Jan 19, In Libya a Tripoli-based militia from the town of Zintan detained Omar Brebesh (62), the country‘s ex-ambassador to France. His body appeared at a hospital in Zintan the next day and a preliminary autopsy found the cause of death included "multiple bodily injuries and fractured ribs."
    (AFP, 2/3/12)

2012        Jan 21, In Libya around 200 protesters frustrated with the pace of reforms stormed the grounds of the country's transitional government headquarters in Benghazi to demand a meeting with the nation's interim leaders.
    (AP, 1/21/12)

2012        Jan 22, The head of Libya's transitional government suspended delegates from Benghazi. Abdul-Jalil said he appointed a council of religious leaders to investigate corruption charges and identify people with links to the Gadhafi regime. NTC deputy head Abdel Hafiz Ghoga resigned from his post, as thousands of students demonstrated against him in Benghazi's University of Ghar Yunis.
    (AP, 1/22/12)(AFP, 1/22/12)

2012        Jan 23, In Libya supporters of slain Libyan dictator Moamer Kadhafi reportedly seized control of Bani Walid, his one-time bastion. At least 7 people were killed and 25 others wounded. The fighters who rose up in Bani Walid belong to Brigade 93, a militia created by Gadhafi loyalists who reassembled after the fall of the regime in August. These claims were strongly denied by Interior Minister Fawzi Abdelali. The fighting pitted the May 28 Brigade of former rebel fighters against a group of heavily armed residents who had come to the base to seek the release of a relative from custody.
    (AFP, 1/23/12)(AP, 1/24/12)(SFC, 1/24/12, p.A2)(AFP, 1/24/12)(AFP, 1/27/12)

2012        Jan 25, In Libya Defense Minister Osama al-Juwali sought a solution to the clashes in Bani Walid between locals still loyal to Gadhafi and forces of the new regime. Juili said that Bani Walid was under government control and that the fighting was an internal problem between two groups of young men, one of them being the May 28 Brigade.
    (AP, 1/25/12)(AFP, 1/25/12)
2012        Jan 25, At least 15 Somali migrants were killed and 40 left missing after their boat capsized off the coast of Libya. The boat had been carrying 55 Somalis and the other passengers were still missing.
    (AFP, 1/28/12)

2012        Jan 26, The medical aid group Doctors Without Borders said it has suspended its work in prisons in the Libyan city of Misrata because it said detainees are being tortured and denied urgent medical care. 30 representatives from clans of the powerful Werfelli tribe, which is spread across Libya but whose stronghold is Bani Walid, came together to discuss terms for the return of fighters of the May 28 Brigade who fled the town during the clashes.
    (AP, 1/26/12)(AFP, 1/27/12)

2012        Jan 28, Libya’s ruling National Transitional Council adopted a new electoral law to form its first constituent assembly in June, dropping a 10% quota set aside for women. It now said each political party must have equal numbers of men and women in its list of candidates for the 136 seats.
    (AFP, 1/28/12)

2012        Feb 5, Libya put 41 loyalists of dead dictator Moamer Kadhafi on trial, in the first legal proceedings launched against members of the former regime. The trial was later adjourned to February 15, with the military prosecutor saying the accused will have fair trials.
    (AFP, 2/5/12)

2012        Feb 10, From Niger Saadi Kadhafi, one of the sons of Libya's slain dictator Moamer Kadhafi, said a nationwide rebellion is brewing against the country's new rulers as he vowed to return to his homeland.
    (AFP, 2/11/12)

2012        Feb 11, Libya demanded Niger hand over Al-Saadi Gadhafi, one of Moammar Gadhafi's sons who is under house arrest there, after he warned in a television interview that his homeland was facing a new uprising.
    (AP, 2/11/12)

2012        Feb 12, In Libya clashes erupted between members of the Zwai and Tobu tribes in the town of Kufra and continued into the next day. At least 17 people were killed in the two days of fighting with another 22 wounded.
    (AFP, 2/13/12)

2012        Feb 13, Libyan members of a hundred militias announced a new unified military council.
    (SFC, 2/15/12, p.A2)

2012        Feb 14, A Tunisian court cleared Libyan former PM Al-Baghdadi al-Mahmudi (70) on a charge he had crossed illegally into Tunisia as he fled Libya last year.
    (AFP, 2/14/12)

2012        Feb 21, Libya’s leader Mustafa Abdul-Jalil acknowledged that his government is powerless to control militias that are refusing to lay down their arms after ousting Moammar Khadafy. The Swehli militia of Misrata, which also operates in Tripoli, seized Nicholas Davies and Gareth Montgomery-Johnson while they were reportedly filming in the capital. The two British journalists, working for Iran's English-Language Press TV, were being held for illegal entry and possible espionage. On March 18 deputy interior minister Omar al-Khadrawi said the men had committed no crime and were free to leave Libya.
    (SFC, 2/22/12, p.A4)(http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-17260958)(AFP, 3/20/12)
2012        Feb 21, Libyan tribal sources said fierce clashes between two tribes in the remote southeastern desert have killed more than 100 people over the past 10 days. They said at least 113 people from the Toubu tribe and another 23 from the Zwai tribe have been killed in the town of Kufra since fighting erupted on February 12. Control of lucrative smuggling routes was at the root of the conflict.
    (AFP, 2/21/12)

2012        Feb 22, A Libyan military court declared itself incompetent in the first trial of alleged loyalists of the toppled regime of Moamer Kadhafi.
    (AFP, 2/22/12)

2012        Mar 3, Libyan Islamists and independents formed a new political party, electing Mohammed Sawan as its leader, a Muslim Brotherhood member who was a political prisoner under the regime of dead dictator Moamer Kadhafi.
    (AFP, 3/3/12)
2012        Mar 3, In Libya Estonian technician Kaido Keerdo (31) working for Danish church Aid was killed while examining unexploded munitions scattered near a police compound in Ad Dafniyah.
    (www.libyaherald.com/deadly-cluster-bomb-killed-estonian-mine-expert/)

2012        Mar 4, The Libyan national army graduated its first batch of soldiers (225) drawn from the ranks of former rebels in the capital of Tripoli. The newly established 23 of October brigade takes its name from the date when the now ruling National Transitional Council of Libya declared "liberation" of the country from Kadhafi's 42-year-old rule.
    (AFP, 3/4/12)
2012        Mar 4, Libyan authorities said they have uncovered a mass grave with 163 bodies of rebel fighters and civilians in Bin Jawad, a major battleground in the 2011 civil war. The bodies were those of rebels killed between February and March 2011 in Brega, Ras Lanuf, Bin Jawad and on the outskirts of Sirte.
    (SFC, 3/5/12, p.A2)(AFP, 3/5/12)

2012        Mar 5, Gambia's Supreme Court upheld a request by the government to lift economic sanctions imposed on Libyan assets during the toppled regime of Moamer Kadhafi. The move restores tens of millions of dollars (euros) in property invested by the Libyan Arab African Investment Company (LAAICO) in Gambia to the ruling National Transitional Council in Tripoli.
    (AFP, 3/5/12)

2012        Mar 6, In Libya tribal leaders and militia commanders declared a semiautonomous region. Thousands of representatives of tribal leaders, militia commanders and politicians made the unilateral declaration at a conference in Benghazi. The conference said the eastern state, known as Barqa, would have its own parliament, police force, courts and capital at Benghazi.
    (AP, 3/6/12)

2012        Mar 7, Libyan leader Mustafa Abdel Jalil said he would defend national unity "with force" if necessary, after tribal leaders and a political faction declared autonomy for an eastern region.
    (AFP, 3/7/12)

2012        Mar 8, Libyan militias, who helped oust Moamer Kadhafi, promised to turn over to the interim government strategic sites, such as airports and border crossings, that they have held since capturing them in last year's uprising.
    (AFP, 3/8/12)

2012        Mar 9, The Libyan transitional government won possession of a plush London mansion belonging to a son of the late Libyan dictator Moamer Kadhafi. The house, in the exclusive Hampstead Garden Suburb district of north London, was worth in excess of £10 million ($15.7 million, 12 million euros).
    (AFP, 3/9/12)

2012        Mar 15, Libya's stock market opened with a yawn, the first day of trading since the fall of Moamer Kadhafi, with turnover of less than $10,000. The LSM index closed at 1,473 points.
    (AFP, 3/15/12)

2012        Mar 16, In Libya backers and opponents of federalism clashed in the eastern city of Benghazi with guns, rocks and knives, amid conflicting reports on casualties.
    (AFP, 3/16/12)

2012        Mar 17, Mauritania arrested Abdullah al-Senoussi, Moammar Ghadafi's former intelligence chief, accused of attacking civilians during the uprising in Libya last year and the 1989 bombing of a French airliner. The International Criminal Court, France and Libya all said they want to prosecute al-Senoussi.
    (AP, 3/17/12)

2012        Mar 18, In Libya a clash erupted in Tripoli between a militia and residents of the Abu Selim neighborhood, a pro-Gadhafi stronghold, killing at least one person.
    (AP, 3/18/12)

2012        Mar 21, A Libyan spokesman said the Mauritanian government has given their agreement for the extradition of former Libyan intelligence chief Abdullah al-Senoussi to Libya so he can be judged by a fair process. Mauritania denied the claim.
    (AP, 3/21/12)(AFP, 3/21/12)

2012        Mar 22, Libya restored full diplomatic relations with Iraq and plans to send an ambassador to Baghdad more than eight years after cutting off ties.
    (AFP, 3/23/12)

2012        Mar 23, The UN Human Rights Council adopted a resolution urging Libya's new rulers to probe all alleged abuses, but threw out a Russian proposal calling for a halt to arbitrary detentions.
    (AFP, 3/23/12)

2012        Mar 28, Libyan government spokesman Nasser al-Manaa said 3 days of clashes between tribes in the southern town of Sabha have killed more than 70 people. The clashes erupted in the city center when the Toubou refused to hand over to local authorities one of their men accused of killing a member of the Bussif tribe.
    (AFP, 3/28/12)
2012        Mar 28, Italy seized more than 1.1 billion euros ($1.5 billion) of assets controlled by the Libyan dictator Moamer Kadhafi's family including stakes in top companies, land and a Harley Davidson motorcycle.
    (AFP, 3/29/12)

2012        Mar 31, Libya's transitional government head Abdel Rahim al-Kib announced that a ceasefire deal has been struck between tribes at Sabha. At least 16 people were killed in tribal clashes in the southern desert oasis of Sabha. Toubou fighters, who had been pushed back several km south of Sabha, launched a counter-attack early today in a bid to re-enter the city. The toll reached 147 dead and 395 wounded in six days.
    (AFP, 3/31/12)(AP, 3/31/12)
2012        Mar 31, The Libyan ministry of defense enlisted more than 8,000 former rebels who will be trained in the protection of borders and strategic sites including the nation's vital oil installations.
    (AFP, 3/31/12)

2012        Apr 2, A Libyan police brigade moved to quell clashes that broke out between two rival towns, brokering a cease-fire and securing the release of hostages. The fighting erupted after fighters from Ragdalein said they took 34 brigade men hostage from the neighboring town of Zwara a day earlier.
    (AP, 4/2/12)

2012        Apr 4, In west Libya fresh fighting erupted after two days of deadly clashes near the border with Tunisia, but there were no reports of new casualties. The clashes since April 2 have left up to 18 people killed.
    (AFP, 4/4/12)

2012        Apr 9, Libya's official LANA news agency reported that interim authorities have stopped paying bonuses to former rebels due to widespread fraud costing millions of Libyan dinars.
    (AFP, 4/9/12)

2012        Apr 10, Libyan ex-fighters furious over a decision to halt a cash rewards scheme opened fire against the headquarters of the interim government, but no injuries were reported.
    (AFP, 4/10/12)
2012        Apr 10, In Egypt residents blocked a motorway on the Libyan border to protest security restrictions on cross-border traffic and increased tariffs for lorries. Security forces intervened, leading to clashes that left two people dead and four injured.
    (AFP, 4/11/12)

2012        Apr 17, In Libya hundreds of federalism backers massed in east Libya insisting on the region's autonomy and challenged the framework for electing a constituent assembly. Participants issued a statement stressing their commitment to the autonomy of Cyrenaica stretching from the border with Egypt (in the east) to Syrte. Cyrenaica comprises half of the country's territory and holds about three-quarters of Libya's vast oil reserves.
    (AFP, 4/17/12)
2012        Apr 17, The Tunisian League for Human Rights said that around 100 people working near the town of Zaouia, some 50 km (30 miles) west of Tripoli, had been taken hostage by armed men demanding the release of a group of Libyans held in Tunisia. The workers' seizure had been in retaliation for the arrest of Libyan nationals in Tunisia. 3 Libyans had been arrested on April 14 near the north African countries' border.
    (AFP, 4/18/12)

2012        Apr 18, Tunisia said some 100 Tunisian workers kidnapped by armed men in western Libya have been released. 3 Libyans arrested on April 14 wee also reported freed.
    (AFP, 4/18/12)

2012        Apr 21, In Libya fresh fighting flared in the desert town of Kufra overnight leaving three people dead and 17 others wounded. The fighting erupted after Zwai tribesman shot dead a Toubu man.
    (AFP, 4/21/12)

2012        Apr 25, Libya's ruling National Transitional Council issued a new law that bans parties based on religious principles, the council spokesman said. The surprise move was denounced by Islamists organizing to compete in upcoming elections. The interim ruling council fired the nation's Cabinet just five months after it took office, citing incompetence, just two months before the country's first national election. 65 of the NTC's 72-members approved a no-confidence motion against PM Abdurrahim el-Keib.
    (AFP, 4/25/12)(AP, 4/26/12)

2012        Apr 26, In Libya six prisoners and guards were killed in an exchange of gunfire in the eastern city of Benghazi, when a group of inmates tried to break out of the al-Kawifiya prison.
    (AP, 4/26/12)

2012        Apr 29, Libya's National Transitional Council decided that the interim government should stay in place, notably to ensure the success of June elections for a constituent assembly.
    (AFP, 4/29/12)
2012        Apr 29, In Austria the body of former Libyan oil minister Shukri Ghanem (69), was found floating in the Danube river. Police said he died from drowning.
    (AP, 4/30/12)

2012        May 3, Libyan authorities passed legislation granting immunity to former rebels who fought to oust Moamer Kadhafi's regime and criminalized any glorification of the former leader.
    (AFP, 5/3/12)

2012        May 8, Former Libyan rebels angry over unpaid stipends opened fire on the headquarters of the interim government after surrounding the building in Tripoli. Militias armed with machine guns and mortars tried to storm the prime minister's office. A gunbattle with security forces left one guard dead.
    (AFP, 5/8/12)(AP, 5/8/12)

2012        May 13, In southern Libya "Khaled Abu Saleh, a candidate in the upcoming poll for a constituent assembly, was murdered in the southern desert shortly after submitting his registration.
    (AFP, 5/13/12)

2012        May 14, Human Rights Watch said NATO's bombing campaign in Libya left 72 civilians dead last year and accused the military alliance of failing to acknowledge the deaths.
    (AFP, 5/14/12)

2012        May 16, In western Libyan clashes in the Berber city of Ghadamis (Ghadames) left six dead and at least 20 injured.
    (AP, 5/16/12)

2012        May 20, In Libya Abdel Baset al-Megrahi (60), a Libyan intelligence officer who was the only person ever convicted in the 1988 Lockerbie bombing, died nearly three years after he was released from a Scottish prison.
    (AP, 5/20/12)

2012        Jun 4, A Libyan military court handed stiff prison terms to 19 Ukrainians, three nationals from Belarus and two Russians accused of serving as mercenaries for ousted leader Moamer Kadhafi in Libya's conflict last year. One of the Russians, judged to have been the coordinator, was condemned to life imprisonment while the others were sentenced to 10 years' hard labor.
    (AFP, 6/4/12)
2012        Jun 4, A militia of Libyan ex-rebels entered Tripoli International airport with tanks and armored vehicles and completely blocked air traffic, a day after their leader Abu Ajila al-Habshi was arrested. By the evening authorities wrested back control of the airport.
    (AFP, 6/4/12)

2012        Jun 7, In Libya hundreds of armed men calling for Islamic law staged a demonstration in the eastern city of Benghazi. A counter rally, which included dozens of activists and several women in its ranks, emerged in protest over the presence of weapons. It succeeded in pushing the men out of the square after sunset without incident. Authorities in Zintan, southwest of Tripoli, detained Australian defense lawyer Melinda Taylor. She was one of two lawyers assigned by the ICC to help defend the legal interests of Seif al-Islam Gadhafi, who has been held by revolutionary fighters since his capture in November.
    (AFP, 6/7/12)(AP, 6/9/12)

2012        Jun 9, In southern Libya new fighting broke out between members of the Toubou minority and government forces, with unconfirmed reports that at least five people were killed.
    (AFP, 6/9/12)
2012        Jun 9, The International Criminal Court demanded the release of four of its staffers it says are being detained in Libya, where they are part of an official mission sent to meet with the imprisoned son of deposed dictator Moammar Gadhafi.
    (AP, 6/9/12)

2012        Jun 10, Members of Libya's Toubou minority and government forces fought for a 2nd consecutive day, leaving at least 23 people dead since the clashes erupted. A new ICC team arrived in Libya to negotiate with the authorities over 4 detained staffers.
    (AFP, 6/10/12)(AFP, 6/11/12)

2012        Jun 11, A Libyan judicial source said four International Criminal Court (ICC) envoys have been put into "preventive" detention in prison for 45 days while investigating an alleged threat to national security.
    (AFP, 6/11/12)

2012        Jun 13, Libyan state news said tribal clashes in the west and south have left at least 15 people dead over the last 48 hours.
    (SFC, 6/14/12, p.A2)

2012        Jun 16, Libyan authorities declared warring mountain towns in the west of the country a "military zone" and called for an immediate ceasefire.
    (AFP, 6/16/12)

2012        Jun 24, Tunisia sent back ex-Libyan PM Baghdadi al-Mahmoudi, a stalwart of slain leader Moamer Kadhafi's regime, to face trial in Tripoli.
    (AFP, 6/24/12)

2012        Jun 27, Libya’s official TAP news agency said a Tunisian seaman died after the Libyan coastguard fired on a Tunisian fishing boat with a crew of 19 off the north African coast.
    (AFP, 6/27/12)

2012        Jul 2, Libya released four envoys of the International Criminal Court, held since June 7, who were detained after visiting the son of slain leader Moamer Kadhafi.
    (AFP, 7/2/12)

2012        Jul 6, In Libya militias shut down three oil refineries, in Ras Sedr, Brega and Sedra, in the country's east on the eve of national elections to press the transitional government to cancel the vote. They want the July 7 vote for a 200-member national assembly canceled because they say the vote will marginalize the oil-rich east, which has been allocated less than a third of the parliamentary seats.
    (AP, 7/6/12)

2012        Jul 7, In Libya hundreds of protesters burned ballots to demand greater representation although most residents of the Mediterranean city of Benghazi voted in historic elections. Acts of sabotage, mostly in the east of the country, prevented 101 polling stations from opening. 80 seats were set aside for party lists, while the remaining 120 were for individual independent candidates. In Benghazi the liberal National Forces Alliance took 95,733 votes against 16,143 for the Islamist Justice and Construction Party (JCP). The National Forces Alliance, a liberal coalition led by wartime prime minister Mahmud Jibril, gained 39 of 80 seats open to parties in the General National Congress. The Justice and Construction Party, which was launched by Libya's Muslim Brotherhood, took only 17 seats. The remainder of party seats went to a constellation of smaller, lesser-known parties.
    (AFP, 7/7/12)(AP, 7/8/12)(AFP, 7/11/12)(AFP, 7/17/12)

2012        Jul 15, Jordanian anti-riot police fired tear gas to break up a crowd of some 200 angry Libyans who attacked Tripoli's embassy with stones, over unpaid medical bills.
    (AFP, 7/15/12)

2012        Jul 16, The president of Libya's Olympic Committee Nabil al-Alam was kidnapped by gunmen in the center of Tripoli and taken to a secret location. He was released on July 22.
    (AFP, 7/16/12)(AFP, 7/22/12)

2012        Aug 1, In Libya an explosion believed to have been caused by a bomb ripped through the military intelligence building in Benghazi at dawn, causing damage to the structure and nearby homes but no injuries. The blast took place hours after gunmen stormed a jail in Benghazi and freed Islamist militant Salem al-Obeidi, the suspected killer of former rebel chief Abdel-Fattah Younis in July, 2011.
    (AP, 8/1/12)

2012        Aug 4, In Libya a gunbattle over market space and a car explosion rocked the center of Tripoli.
    (AFP, 8/6/12)

2012        Aug 5, In Libya three men suspected of planning bomb attacks were killed in a sting operation outside the capital. Armed assailants laid siege to a residence of Red Cross staff in the western Libyan city of Misrata, causing major damage to the building.
    (AFP, 8/6/12)

2012        Aug 8, Libya's first elected assembly took over power from the transitional council that has ruled the country since last year's uprising against longtime dictator Moammar Gadhafi. A timetable called for the new assembly to name a president within a day and then form a government within 30 days of its first session.
    (AP, 8/8/12)

2012        Aug 10, In Libya gunmen shot dead army general and high-ranking defense ministry official Mohamed Hadia in the eastern city of Benghazi. He was one of the first officers to defect and join the opposition during last year's revolution that ousted Moamer Kadhafi.
    (AFP, 8/10/12)

2012        Aug 19, In Libya two car bombs exploded in the capital, Tripoli, killing two people and injuring several others. Officials blamed loyalists of Moammar Gadhafi. Security services the next day announced the arrests of a number of people suspected to be behind the bomb attack.
    (AP, 8/19/12)(AFP, 8/20/12)

2012        Aug 23, A Libyan security official said a conflict between 2 armed tribes in Zlitan left 12 people dead and dozens injured.
    (SFC, 8/24/12, p.A2)

2012        Aug 25, In Libya Islamist hardliners bulldozed part of a revered mausoleum in Tripoli. A day earlier hardliners blew up the mausoleum of Sheikh Abdessalem al-Asmar in Zliten, 160 km (100 miles) east of Tripoli.
    (AFP, 8/25/12)
2012        Aug 25, A boar carrying some 40 Egyptian migrants sank off the coast of Libya. Fisherman rescued 33 migrants but 7 remained missing.
    (AFP, 8/27/12)(AFP, 8/28/12)

2012        Sep 2, In Libya a car bomb in the eastern city of Benghazi killed a former security official who served under slain dictator Moamer Kadhafi's regime.
    (AFP, 9/2/12)

2012        Sep 5, Deposed Libyan dictator Moammar Gadhafi's spy chief, Abdullah al-Senoussi, was put under detention in Tripoli after being extradited from Mauritania.
    (AP, 9/5/12)

2012        Sep 7, A lawyer representing one of the sons of toppled Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi confirmed that Niger has given al-Saadi Gadhafi permission to leave the country, so long as another nation is willing to receive him.
    (AP, 9/7/12)

2012        Sep 11, In Libya US ambassador Chris Stevens died of severe asphyxiation in Benghazi. Also killed were Sean Smith (34), information management officer, Glen Doherty (42) and Tyrone Woods, security guards, died when the US Consulate in Benghazi came under attack. It was initially reported that the attack was due to a mob angry over an anti-Islam film made in the US. Sam Bacile (56), a California real estate developer who identifies himself as an Israeli Jew and who said he produced, directed and wrote the two-hour film, "Innocence of Muslims," said he had not anticipated such a furious reaction. The jihadist group Ansar al-Sharia was later blamed for the attack.
    (AP, 9/12/12)(SFC, 9/14/12, p.A2)(Econ, 9/22/12, p.56)(SFC, 11/12/13, p.A8)

2012        Sep 12, Libya's parliament elected Mustafa Abu-Shakour, a leading member in the country's oldest opposition movement, to be its new prime minister.
    (AP, 9/1/12)

2012        Sep 21, In Libya tens of thousands marched in Benghazi to the gates of one of the country's strongest armed Islamic extremist groups, demanding it disband. Protesters attacked the base of the jihadist militia known as Ansar al-Sharia, which was responsible for the Sep 11 attack that killed US ambassador Chris Stevens. Two Libyan protesters were killed and dozens wounded as hundreds of demonstrators attacked militia compounds in a surge of anger at armed groups.
    (AP, 9/21/12)(AP, 9/22/12)(Economist, 9/29/12, p.54) 

2012        Sep 22, The Libyan Islamist militia Ansar al-Sharia said it had evacuated its bases in Benghazi in the interest of security.
    (Reuters, 9/22/12)(AP, 9/22/12)

2012        Sep 23, Libya's army ordered rogue armed groups in and around the capital to leave state and military premises in Tripoli or be ejected by force.
    (AP, 9/23/12)

2012        Sep 25, In Libya Omran Shaaban, one of the young rebels credited with capturing Moammar Gadhafi in a drainage ditch nearly a year ago, died of injuries after being kidnapped, beaten and slashed by the late dictator's supporters.
    (AP, 9/25/12)

2012        Sep 28, Hundreds of Libyans held a demonstration in Tripoli demanding the breakup of militia groups and the formation of a national army and police.
    (AP, 9/28/12)

2012        Sep 29, Hundreds of Libyans converged on a main square in Benghazi and another in Tripoli in response to a call from the military to hand over their weapons.
    (AP, 9/29/12)

2012        Oct 3, Turkish authorities arrested Ali Harzi for reported links to the Sep 11 attack on a US consulate in Libya. He was repatriated to Tunisia on Oct 11 and faced terrorism charges there. Harzi was one of two Tunisians reportedly arrested in Turkey when they tried to enter the country with false passports.
    {Turkey, Tunisia, Libya}
    (AP, 10/25/12)

2012        Oct 7, Libya's parliament ousted Mustafa Abushagur, the country's new prime minister, in a no-confidence vote. He had 25 days from his Sep. 12 appointment by parliament to form a Cabinet and win the legislature's approval, but that deadline expired today.
    (AP, 10/7/12)

2012        Oct 14, Libya's Congress elected Ali Zidan (b.1950), a human rights lawyer, as interim prime minister, a week after his predecessor was sacked for failing to present a Cabinet line-up that political factions could agree on. Zidan was a diplomat under Gadhafi before defecting in the 1980s and joining Libya's oldest opposition movement, National Front for the Salvation of Libya, from Geneva where he lived.
    (AP, 10/14/12)

2012        Oct 17, Libyan authorities identified Ahmed Abu Khattala, a leader of the Benghazi-based Islamist group Ansar al-Shariah, as commander in the Sep 11 attack that killed US ambassador J. Christopher Stevens. At least six people died and 80 were wounded on the first day of renewed fighting at Bani Walid after negotiations failed to hand over the suspects for the death of a well-known anti-Gadhafi rebel.
    (SFC, 10/18/12, p.A4)(AP, 10/18/12)

2012        Oct 21, In Libya clashes in Bani Walid entered their fifth day. The state news agency said 22 pro-government militiamen were killed in an assault on late dictator Moammar Gadhafi's last stronghold.
    (AP, 10/21/12)

2012        Oct 23, Egypt's security forces intercepted a group of smugglers bringing in weapons from Libya.
    (AP, 10/24/12)

2012        Oct 24, Libyan pro-government militiamen captured the center of Ben Walid, a city that was one of the last strongholds of former dictator Moammar Gadhafi's loyalists, following fierce clashes that left dozens dead and tens of thousands displaced.
    (AP, 10/24/12)

2012        Oct 31, Libya's Congress endorsed the new government formed by PM Ali Zidan. It included Foreign Minister Ali al-Alouji and the Minister of Religious Endowment who both served under Gadhafi.
    (AP, 11/2/12)

2012        Nov 1, In Libya some 200 mostly armed protesters and militiamen occupied an area near the parliament building for a 3rd day, blocking nearby roads and beating up journalists in protest of the country's new Cabinet.
    (AP, 11/1/12)

2012        Nov 21, In Libya National Security Chief Col. Farag al-Dersi (Faraj Mohammed al-Drissi) was shot dead while returning from work in Benghazi.
    (AP, 11/21/12)(SFC, 11/22/12, p.A2)

2012        Dec 16, Libya's parliament voted to close the country's borders with Sudan, Niger and Chad, declaring the south a restricted military area. Four policemen were shot dead in the eastern city of Benghazi when gunmen fired rocket-propelled grenades on a security compound there.
    (AP, 12/16/12)

2012        Dec 20, In Libya 4 people were killed when a protest outside a base for security forces in Benghazi turned violent less than a week after suspected Islamic militants killed four policemen at the same compound.
    (AP, 12/20/12)

2012        Dec 30, In Libya an explosion at an Egyptian Coptic church in Misrata has killed two people and wounded two others.
    (AP, 12/30/12)

2013        Jan 6, Libya's interim president Mohammed al-Megarif survived an overnight assassination attempt in an oasis city in the country's southern deserts.
    (AP, 1/7/13)

2013        Jan 25, A Canadian police report said a son of deposed Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi allegedly received 120 million euros ($162 million) in bribes for giving major contracts in Libya to SNC-Lavalin Inc, Canada's biggest engineering and construction company. The report did not make clear when the alleged bribes occurred.
    (Reuters, 1/25/13)

2013        Feb 12, In Libya 4 foreigners were arrested in Benghazi on suspicion of distributing books about Christianity and proselytizing. Spreading Christianity is a crime in Libya. Police said they found 45,000 books in their possession and that another 25,000 have already been distributed.
    (AP, 2/17/13)

2013        Mar 2, A Libyan security official said 50 Egyptians, who were arrested in Benghazi last week for allegedly spreading Christianity, are being charged with illegally entering and working in the country and will be deported.
    (AP, 3/2/13)

2013        Mar 7, Dozens of Libyan militiamen stormed the headquarters of a private TV network in Tripoli, looting and smashing equipment before abducting staffers. News editor Sulieman Abu-Azza suspected the attack could have been carried out in retaliation to the network's heavy criticism of the unruly militia and its coverage of assaults against the country's National General Congress.
    (AP, 3/7/13)

2013        Mar 10, An Egyptian Foreign Ministry official said a man suspected of trying to spread Christianity in Libya has died in prison there. The diplomat said Ezzat Atallah, who suffered from diabetes and heart ailments, likely died of natural causes.
    (AP, 3/10/13)

2013        Mar 12, Libya’s top security official in Tripoli said 79 people have died over the past four days from drinking homemade alcohol, suspected of containing poisonous methanol.
    (AP, 3/12/13)

2013        Mar 17, Libya's health minister said the death toll from drinking homemade alcohol that contained poisonous methanol has risen to 87. The deaths were first reported a week ago.
    (AP, 3/17/13)0

2013        Mar 19, Egyptian security forces arrested Ahmed Ahmed Qaddaf al-Dam, a former Libyan intelligence official and a cousin of former dictator Moammar Gadhafi, following an hours-long siege of his home in Cairo.
    (AP, 3/19/13)

2013        Mar 24, In Libya about 200 militiamen and protesters demanding the resignation of Libya's PM Ali Zidan have ended their day-long siege of his office. The protest in Tripoli ended after the prime minister sneaked out of the building through the back door late today.
    (AP, 3/25/13)

2013        Mar 25, Libya's foreign minister said the widow of the late ruler Moammar Gadhafi and other family members have been granted asylum in Oman.
    (AP, 3/25/13)

2013        Mar 26, In Libya 3 British female activists of Pakistani origin were kidnapped and raped in the eastern city of Benghazi. Pro-government militiamen were suspected. The women were part of an overland aid convoy bound for Gaza.
    (AP, 3/29/13)
2013        Mar 26, In Libya nearly 50 inmates fled a prison in an oasis city in the country's southern desert. Authorities shot one dead during the escape.
    (AP, 3/26/13)
2013        Mar 26, Egyptian authorities extradited two Libyan officials from the regime of deposed dictator Moammar Gadhafi back to their home country. Former ambassador to Cairo Ali Maria (71) and ex-official Mohammed Ibrahim Gadhafi (44) were handcuffed after resisting the transfer.
    (AP, 3/26/13)

2013        Apr 2, Staff members at Libya's state TV news channel suspended work indefinitely after an employee was allegedly assaulted by a member of a militia guarding their building.
    (AP, 4/2/13)

2013        Apr 3, An Egyptian court ruled against the extradition to Libya of Ahmed Qaddaf al-Dam, a former close aide of Moammar Gadhafi. Al-Dam had coordinated relations between Libya and Egypt for decades.
    (AP, 4/3/13)

2013        Apr 8, Libya's PM Ali Zidan said his country is "weak" as militias continue to run prisons and abduct people, including his chief of staff, Mohamed Ali Ghatous, now missing for eight days.
    (AP, 4/8/13)

2013        Apr 9, A Libyan lawmaker said parliament has approved a law that criminalizes torture and abduction.
    (SFC, 4/10/13, p.A2)

2013        Apr 21, Libyan military officers demanded the dismissal of Maj. Gen. Youssef al-Mangoush, the army chief of staff, pledging to go on strike if he is not replaced. They gave the government 10 days to comply with their demands, threatening to walk away from their posts.
    (AP, 4/22/13)

2013        Apr 23, In Libya a car bomb targeted the French Embassy in Tripoli, wounding two French guards and a Libyan teenager.
    (AP, 4/23/13)

2013        Apr 26, In Libya a militiaman was killed when armed men attacked the headquarters of his pro-government group, Uqba ibn Nafi, in the eastern city of Darnah.
    (AP, 4/27/13)

2013        Apr 27, In Libya an explosion at the Barka police station in Benghazi destroyed the facade but left no causalities.
    (AP, 4/27/13)

2013        Apr 28, In Libya some 200 armed men surrounded the Foreign Ministry building in Tripoli, demanding that it reform and hire former fighters who helped overthrow former dictator Moammar Gadhafi. Gunmen also stormed the Interior Ministry and a state-owned television station. They charged that the ministry is not paying them their salaries.
    (AP, 4/28/13)

2013        Apr 30, In Libya dozens of militiamen in trucks mounted with anti-aircraft guns surrounded the Justice Ministry, the third day of confrontation between the government and armed groups in Tripoli. Protesting militias and others who want a thorough purge of the political class.
    (AP, 4/30/13)

2013        May 3, Hundreds of Libyan pro-democracy advocates marched in Tripoli, denouncing militias' recent blockade of government buildings and coming under attack briefly by supporters of the armed groups.
    (AP, 5/4/13)

2013        May 5, Libya's parliament, under pressure from armed militias,  passed a sweeping law that bans anyone who served as a senior official under Moammar Gadhafi during his 42 year-long rule from working in government.
    (AP, 5/5/13)

2013        May 7, Libya's defense minister said he has resigned to protest to a show of force by militias who have been besieging government buildings to push their political demands. Al-Barghathi then withdrew his resignation based on a request from PM Ali Zidan.
    (AP, 5/7/13)

2013        May 10, Scores of Libyan militiamen descended on a rally in Tripoli, kicking and beating protesters who had taken to the streets as part of a call for mass demonstrations against the country's unruly militias. Similar rallies in Benghazi and Tobruk passed without violence.
    (AP, 5/10/13)

2013        May 13, In Libya a car bomb exploded near a hospital in a busy area packed with civilians in Benghazi, destroying part of the facility. Conflicting reports said 3-10 people were killed.
    (AP, 5/13/13)

2013        May 15, In Libya protesters and disgruntled job seekers forced the closure of the eastern Zueitina oil terminal for the second time in six months, disrupting exports.
    (AP, 5/15/13)

2013        May 20, In Libya militiamen attacked the Mellitah Oil and Gas complex near Zwara, injuring two guards and stealing weapons and military vehicles.
    (AP, 5/20/13)

2013        May 29, Libya's parliament chief, Mohammed al-Megarif, who served under Moammar Gadhafi before becoming an opposition leader in exile, resigned, just weeks after lawmakers passed a bill banning former regime officials from senior government posts.
    (AP, 5/29/13)

2013        Jun 3, In southern Libya a personal feud sparked clashes between tribes of African and Arab origins, leaving five people dead.
    (AP, 6/3/13)

2013        Jun 5, Libya's premier ordered relocation of the headquarters of the state-run oil company to the eastern city of Benghazi, fulfilling a long-standing demand by residents of the region and comes days after tribal declared semi-independent region in the east.
    (AP, 6/5/13)

2013        Jun 8, In Libya clashes broke out between protesters and militias aligned with the military in Benghazi. 35 people were killed and dozens wounded. Some 200 protesters were demanding that militias leave their camp and submit to the full authority of Libya's security forces. The clashes prompted Army Chief of Staff Maj. Gen. Youssef al-Mangoush to resign the next day.
    (AP, 6/9/13)(Econ, 6/15/13, p.48)

2013        Jun 11, Libya's interim army chief of staff, Col. Salem Qineydi, insisted that militias will have to lay down their arms or join the military by year's end.
    (AP, 6/11/13)

2013        Jun 14, In southern Libya army Col. Omar Salah was killed in an ambush on his brigade in Kira. 3 assailants were also killed in the fighting.
    (AP, 6/15/13)

2013        Jun 15, In Libya rooftop snipers and knife-wielding assailants killed 6 soldiers in Benghazi. At least five other security posts were attacked throughout the night by hundreds of plain-clothed gunmen.
    (AP, 6/15/13)

2013        Jun 16, Libya's official news agency said unidentified militants assassinated Mohammed Naguib, a senior judge in Derna, an eastern city known to be a stronghold of Islamic militants.
    (AP, 6/17/13)

2013        Jun 26, In Libya three car bombs exploded, killing two and injuring 16 in the southern city of Sabha.
    (AP, 6/27/13)

2013        Jun 27, Libya’s PM Ali Zidan sacked the defense minister, after three days of gun battles in Tripoli and amid a deteriorating security situation. Security officials said at least 10 were killed and dozens injured in the clashes.
    (AP, 6/27/13)

2013        Jul 15, In Libya assailants shot air force Colonel Fathi al-Omami as he opened a shop he owned in Derna.
    (Reuters, 7/16/13)

2013        Jul 25, In Libya unidentified assailants fired a rocket-propelled grenade at the United Arab Emirates embassy compound in Tripoli, the latest in a series of attacks on foreign targets in the North African country.
    (Reuters, 7/25/13)

2013        Jul 26, In Libya Abdelsalam al-Mosmary, a prominent critic of the Muslim Brotherhood, was shot dead after leaving a mosque in Benghazi. Two military officials were also killed in Benghazi.
    (Reuters, 7/27/13)
2013        Jul 26, Italy's coastguard helped rescue 22 migrants and coordinated a search for missing people after receiving a distress call from a boat that ran into difficulties off the coast of Libya. 31 people were reported still missing on July 28.
    (Reuters, 7/26/13)(Reuters, 7/28/13)

2013        Jul 27, In Libya protesters in Benghazi attacked offices of the Muslim Brotherhood and the headquarters of a liberal coalition after demonstrations sparked by assassinations turned violent. In Tripoli a crowd stormed JCP headquarters before heading on to ransack the headquarters of the liberal National Forces Alliance (NFA), the country's biggest political party founded by wartime rebel PM Mahmoud Jibril. More than a thousand inmates escaped  al-Kweifiya prison in Benghazi.
    (Reuters, 7/27/13)(AP, 7/27/13)

2013        Jul 28, In Libya explosions in Benghazi targeted buildings used by the judiciary. 43 were people wounded. Hours later clashes erupted in the western Gwesha district between an armed group and military special forces.
    (Reuters, 7/29/13)

2013        Jul 29, In Libya at least one soldier was killed in overnight fighting in the eastern city of Benghazi.
    (Reuters, 7/29/13)

2013        Jul 31, In Libya  Ahmed Ibrahim, a former minister in the government of Muammar Gaddafi, was sentenced to death for inciting violence against protesters during the uprising that led to the Libyan dictator's overthrow.
    (Reuters, 8/1/13)

2013        Aug 2, In Libya five people were wounded in a bomb blast at a police station in Benghazi.
    (Reuters, 8/2/13)

2013        Aug 3, Libya's Deputy PM Awad al-Barassi resigned citing failed government policies and the deterioration of security following a string of assassinations.
    (AP, 8/4/13)

2013        Aug 8, Human Rights Watch said a picked-up wave of political assassinations in Libya has killed 51 people as the country lacks any effective law enforcement.
    (AP, 8/8/13)

2013        Aug 13, In Libya members of the ethnic Berber minority forced their way into the parliament building in Tripoli, smashing windows and destroying furniture, in a demonstration to press for greater recognition.
    (Reuters, 8/13/13)

2013        Aug 17, In Libya a bomb blast ripped through the garden wall of the Egyptian consulate in the eastern city of Benghazi, injuring a security guard who needed hospital treatment.
    (4, 8/18/13)

2013        Aug 18, Libya's Interior Minister Mohammed Khalifa al-Sheikh stepped down in protest against what he saw as interference in his work by PM Ali Zeidan and parliament.
    (Reuters, 8/18/13)

2013        Aug 23, In Libya gunmen killed an army colonel in a drive-by shooting after he left a mosque in Benghazi.
    (AFP, 8/23/13)

2013        Sep 12, In Libya fighting in Derj between border guards from the western tribe of Zintan and Garamna tribesmen killed 11, and forced several residents to flee.
    (AP, 9/13/13)

2013        Sep 29, In Libya unknown attackers assassinated 3 army officers in the eastern city of Benghazi.
    (AP, 9/29/13)

2013        Oct 1, In western Libya a gas pipeline supplying several power stations was cut for the third day running by Berber activists demanding constitutional rights.
    (AFP, 10/1/13)
2013        Oct 1, A new UN report said 27 people have been tortured to death in Libya, 11 this year, since the 2011 downfall of Moammar Khadafy.
    (SFC, 10/2/13, p.A2)

2013        Oct 2, Gunmen shot dead a Libyan marine colonel in city of Benghazi where militants have increasingly targeted security forces in a challenge to central government control.
    (Reuters, 10/2/13)
2013        Oct 2, In Libya security guards fired shots to disperse a group of about 60 people who tried to storm the Russian embassy. One of the attackers was killed by the gunfire. Unconfirmed reports said that a Russian woman had murdered a Libyan.
    (AP, 10/2/13)(Reuters, 10/3/13)

2013        Oct 5, In Libya gunmen attacked a military post near Bani Walid, a former stronghold of supporters of Muammar Gaddafi, killing 16 soldiers.
    (AFP, 10/5/13)
2013        Oct 5, In Libya  the US Army’s Delta Force seized  Nazih Abdul-Hamed al-Ruqai (1964-2015), aka Abu Anas al-Libi, outside his Tripoli home and whisked him out of the country. The senior al-Qaida militant is accused by the US of involvement in the Aug 7, 1998, bombings of two American embassies in Africa.
    (AP, 10/6/13)(SSFC, 1/3/15, p.A5)

2013        Oct 7, In Libya dozens of unarmed soldiers occupied the prime minister's office in Tripoli to demand unpaid wages.
    (AFP, 10/7/13)

2013        Oct 10, Libyan PM Ali Zidan was abducted by gunmen who snatched him from his hotel and held him for several hours in apparent retaliation for a US special forces raid that captured an al-Qaida suspect in the capital last weekend.
    (AP, 10/10/13)

2013        Oct 14, A large blast exploded near a Libyan Islamist stronghold east of Tripoli, killing at least two people.
    (Reuters, 10/14/13)

2013        Oct 18, In Libya gunmen killed Col. Ahmed Mostafa el-Barghathy, the head of the regional military police in the eastern city of Benghazi, as he was headed to a mosque to attend Friday prayers.
    (AP, 10/18/13)

2013        Oct 21, Spain's oil company Repsol announced a high quality light oil find in Libya's Sahara Desert.
    (AP, 10/21/13)

2013        Oct 24, A Libyan court indicted around 30 Moamer Kadhafi aides, including the slain dictator's son Seif al-Islam, for a raft of alleged offences during the 2011 revolt. A Libyan air force colonel was killed in Benghazi.
    (AFP, 10/24/13)

2013        Oct 28, In Libya gunmen stole over $50 million after attacking a van belonging to the Central Bank on a road along the Mediterranean coast.
    (AP, 10/29/13)

2013        Oct 29, In Libya attackers in Benghazi opened fire on a five-men sit-in, killing 2 and wounding three. The men were protesting the 2011 assassination of former army chief Abdel-Fatah Younis.
    (AP, 10/29/13)

2013        Nov 2, In Libya a soldier was killed by a mine in Benghazi.
    (Reuters, 11/3/13)

2013        Nov 3,  In  Libya 16 people were wounded in clashes at a prison in Kuafiya prison, Benghazi.
    (Reuters, 11/3/13)

2013        Nov 8, In Libya at least 4 people died in overnight clashes between militias in the center of Tripoli.
    (AFP, 11/8/13)(AP, 11/9/13)
2013        Nov 8, Libyan protesters prevented a tanker from loading 600,000 barrels of crude bound for Italy at the eastern port of Hariga, blocked by a strike for more than two months.
    (Reuters, 11/8/13)

2013        Nov 9, In Libya gunmen shot dead 2 policemen in Benghazi and state attorney Mohammed Khalifa al-Naas was killed when a bomb blew up his car in Darna, an Islamist militant stronghold.
    (AP, 11/9/13)

2013        Nov 10, In Libya supporters of a federal system have set up a company to sell oil from terminals they have seized in the east, in the latest challenge to the government. The announcement was made by the Cyrenaica Political Bureau, an autonomous group that set up in October its own government in the east in a move that angered the central authorities.
    (AFP, 11/11/13)

2013        Nov 14, In Libya attacks in Benghazi killed an air force chaplain, a former police officer and a soldier.
    (AFP, 11/14/13)

2013        Nov 15, In Libya 43 people were killed and more than 450 people wounded in Tripoli when militiamen from Misrata opened fire on hundreds of protesters who had marched on their brigade headquarters to demand that they leave the capital.
    (Reuters, 11/15/13)(AP, 11/16/13)

2013        Nov 16, In Libya fresh clashes erupted in Tripoli leaving 4 people dead. The weak, post-revolutionary government appealed for restraint.
    (AFP, 11/16/13)(SSFC, 11/17/13, p.A6)
2013        Nov 16, Libya's National Oil Company said Berber protesters have ended their occupation of a gas terminal in western Libya that prompted the shutdown of an export pipeline to Italy.
    (AFP, 11/16/13)

2013        Nov 17, Libya's deputy intelligence chief Mustafa Nuh was abducted in Tripoli shortly after his arrival from a trip abroad. Residents of Tripoli began a three-day general strike against militia violence and to mourn dozens killed in clashes at an anti-militia protest over the weekend.
    (AFP, 11/17/13)(SFC, 11/18/13, p.A2)

2013        Nov 18, In Libya  convoys of the military deployed in the capital city of Tripoli to force out militiamen from Misrata. Deputy intelligence chief Mustafa Nuh was freed by his abductors a day after they seized him near Tripoli airport.
    (AP, 11/18/13)(AFP, 11/18/13)

2013        Nov 19, Libyan protesters again took to the streets of Tripoli, repeating their call for the country's recalcitrant militias to leave the capital after a militia attack on a similar protest killed 47 and wounded more than 500 last week.
    (AP, 11/19/13)

2013        Nov 22, In Libya residents of Tripoli turned out again to press militias remaining in the city to follow others and withdraw, aiming to keep up the momentum following deadly clashes last weekend.
    (AFP, 11/22/13)

2013        Nov 23, In eastern Libya gunmen in Derna shot dead Fares al-Zarruk, a former member of Moamer Kadhafi's security services.
    (AFP, 11/23/13)

2013        Nov 25, Libyan troops struggling to establish control across the country clashed with militants in the eastern city of Benghazi and at least 9 people were killed in the fighting.
    (Reuters, 11/25/13)

2013        Nov 26, In Libya shops and schools closed across Benghazi as residents responded to calls for civil disobedience to protest deadly clashes between radical Islamists and the army.
    (AFP, 11/26/13)

2013        Nov 27, Libya's army clashed with Islamist militants in the eastern city of Benghazi and three soldiers were shot dead.
    (Reuters, 11/27/13)

2013        Nov 28, In Libya gunmen opened fire on a vehicle in Benghazi killing a soldier. More than 40 people were killed in an explosion at an army depot in southern Libya after locals tried to steal ammunition.
    (AFP, 11/28/13)(Reuters, 11/28/13)

2013        Nov 29, In Libya 40 inmates have escaped from a prison in the southern city of Sabha after it came under attack by unknown gunmen.
    (AP, 11/30/13)

2013        Nov 30, In Libya unidentified assailants overnight gunned down a soldier outside his home and attacked a special forces base in Benghazi.
    (AP, 11/30/13)

2013        Dec 4, Libya's national assembly voted to make sharia, Islamic law, the basis of all legislation and for state institutions in a decision that may impact banking, criminal and financial laws.
    (Reuters, 12/4/13)

2013        Dec 5, In Libya unknown assailants shot American teacher Robert Thomas Smith II to death as he was jogging in Benghazi.
    (AP, 12/5/13)(SFC, 12/6/13, p.A5)

2013        Dec 9, In Libya gunmen killed senior police officer Col. Ramadan al-Turouk in Sirte, the hometown of former dictator Moammar Gadhafi.
    (AP, 12/9/13)

2013        Dec 20, In Libya the head of military intelligence in Benghazi was shot dead during a visit to his family in nearby Derna. 3 tribesman and 5 soldiers were killed in fighting that grew out of disputes between army units under conflicting orders over who controls key resources in the east.
    (AFP, 12/20/13)(AP, 12/23/13)

2013        Dec 22, In Libya a suicide car bomb attack on a military checkpoint on the outskirts of Benghazi killed 13 people.
    (AP, 12/22/13)

2013        Dec 23, Libya's interim parliament voted to extend the country's post-revolutionary transition, giving itself an extra year to oversee the writing of a constitution and the holding of new elections.
    (AP, 12/23/13)

2013        Dec 24, A Libyan soldier was shot dead and a civilian wounded by a bomb under his car in separate attacks in the eastern city of Benghazi.
    (AFP, 12/24/13)

2013        Dec 26, Dozens of Libyan militiamen briefly blocked the entrance to the central bank, demanding the resignation of PM Ali Zeidan.
    (Reuters, 12/26/13)

2013        Dec 27, In Libya 3 gunmen shot to death Maj. Mohammed Faraj al-Ziwi from the military's air defense unit in the al-Salam district of Benghazi.
    (AP, 12/27/13)

2013        Dec 30, Libyan forces in Misrata captured Saifallah Benahssine, the leader of Tunisia's Islamist militant group Ansar al-Sharia. Benahssine had declared loyalty to al Qaeda and was accused of inciting an attack on the US embassy in Tunisia in September 2012.
    (Reuters, 12/30/13)

2014        Jan 2, Libyan troops found the bodies of Mark De Salis, a British man, and a New Zealand woman shot dead southwest of Tripoli.
    (AFP, 1/3/14)(AP, 1/4/14)

2014        Jan 5, Libya's navy blocked an oil tanker from illegally loading crude at an eastern port that has been held for months by armed protesters demanding more autonomy from Tripoli.
    (AP, 1/6/14)

2014        Jan 6, In Libya an explosion at a guard post outside a courthouse in Benghazi killed one judiciary policeman and seriously wounded another.
    (AFP, 1/6/14)

2014        Jan 8, Libya's PM Ali Zeidan warned oil tankers trying to reach ports seized by armed protesters must stay away or they could be sunk by the navy. Libya said it will sue any foreign firms trying to buy oil from eastern ports seized by armed protesters and stop doing business with them.
    (Reuters, 1/8/14)

2014        Jan 9, In southern Libya a militia chief linked to Awled Sleiman was killed. The tribe accused Toubou tribesmen, traditionally black oasis farmers, of murdering him.
    (AFP, 1/12/14)

2014        Jan 11, In Libya fighting broke out in the southern town of Sebha and nearby Murzuq and Al-Shati pitting gunmen from the Arab Awled Sleiman tribe against tribesmen from the Toubou minority.
    (AFP, 1/12/14)

2014        Jan 12, In Libya assailants in Sirte gunned down a deputy minister Hassan al-Droui overnight, in the first killing of a government member since the 2011 overthrow of dictator Moamer Kadhafi. The toll from tribal clashes in the southern town of Sebha rose to 27 dead, with another 72 people wounded in the unrest.
    (AFP, 1/12/14)

2014        Jan 18, Libya's General National Congress declared a state of emergency, after fresh clashes erupted in the south when gunmen group seized a military base. Libya sent troops to the restive south after gunmen stormed an air force base in Sabha. In the east two Italian construction workers were reported abducted in the Islamist stronghold of Derna.
    (Reuters, 1/18/14)(AFP, 1/18/14)

2014        Jan 19, In Libya unknown gunmen kidnapped Han Seok-woo, a South Korean trade official, in Tripoli.
    (Reuters, 1/20/14)

2014        Jan 21, The political arm of Libya's Muslim Brotherhood withdrew its ministers from the Cabinet of embattled PM Ali Zidan, after failing to secure enough support in the divided parliament for a no-confidence vote.
    (AP, 1/21/14)

2014        Jan 25, In Libya kidnappers seized Egypt's cultural attache and three other embassy staff in Tripoli, a day after another of its diplomats was abducted.
    (AFP, 1/25/14)

2014        Jan 27, In a coordinated swap, Egypt released a Libyan militia commander detained over suspected links to the Muslim Brotherhood while six abducted Egyptians, including two diplomats, were released in Libya.
    (AP, 1/27/14)

2014        Jan 30, In Libya gunmen kidnapped the son of the army's special forces commander, the latest high-profile abduction in the eastern city of Benghazi where the military has been battling Islamist militants.
    (Reuters, 1/30/14)

2014        Jan 31, In Libya Abdel Fatah Al Barasi, a retired police colonel, died after being shot in the head while in his car in the eastern city of Benghazi. Salah Abd Al Razak and Zakaria Abdullah Al Darsi, both sons of colonels, were also shot and killed in the street by assailants.
    (AP, 2/1/14)

2014        Feb 1, In Libya over 54 detainees escaped from a prison in Tripoli. Officials said the prison was short five guards at the time of the breakout.
    (AP, 2/2/14)

2014        Feb 3, Libyan PM Ali Zeidan said he has ordered the army to lift the blockade imposed by protesters on the main oil terminals in the east of the country.
    (AFP, 2/3/14)

2014        Feb 4, Libya's armed forces said they have not received orders from PM Ali Zeidan to move against eastern oil ports and use force to end a six-month blockade there by protesters.
    (Reuters, 2/4/14)
2014        Feb 4, Libyan officials said they have destroyed the last stockpile of chemical weapons from the end of the Khadafy era.
    (SFC, 2/5/14, p.A3)

2014        Feb 5, In Libya a bomb rocked the playground of a primary school in Benghazi during recess, wounding 12 children, hours after gunmen had rampaged through the streets.
    (AFP, 2/5/14)

2014        Feb 11, Libyan media said six journalists have been kidnapped in recent days in Tripoli, and though one has been released the whereabouts of the other five remained unknown.
    (SFC, 2/12/14, p.A2)

2014        Feb 14, Libya's government and armed forces moved to quash rumors of an impending coup after a retired general called for parliament and the government to be suspended.
    (AFP, 2/14/14)

2014        Feb 16, In Libya the wreckage of a helicopter was found near es-Sider port. Authorities began searching for the bodies of the five people who were on board.
    (Reuters, 2/18/14)

2014        Feb 18, In Libya security guards forced Benghazi airport to close for six hours to demand back wages as well as an investigation into the crash of a helicopter which took off from the airport last week.
    (Reuters, 2/18/14)

2014        Feb 19, In Libya a threat by powerful militias to dissolve parliament ramped up pressure on the weak central government on the eve of a vote to elect a constitution-drafting panel.
    (AFP, 2/19/14)
2014        Feb 19, Libya said it will offer compensation to women raped during the 2011 NATO-backed uprising that toppled Moammar Khadafy.
    (SFC, 2/20/14, p.A2)

2014        Feb 20, Libyans voted on who should draft a new constitution they hope will help defuse a potentially deadly conflict between powerful militias and parliament members backed by armed factions.
    (AP, 2/20/14)

2014        Feb 21, In Tunisia an Islamist official in Libya's government and 10 other passengers and crew were killed when a Libyan military plane carrying medical patients crashed near Tunis.
    (Reuters, 2/21/14)

2014        Feb 22, Libyan police arrested six Qataris at Benghazi airport as they tried to board a plane to Turkey using forged Libyan passports and carrying almost $146,000.
    (Reuters, 2/22/14)

2014        Feb 24, Libyan police found 7 Egyptian Christians shot dead on a beach outside Benghazi. This was the second such execution-style killing in Libya since the start of the year.
    (Reuters, 2/24/14)

2014        Feb 28, In Libya gunmen shot dead Colonel Wanis Massoud al-Barghathi, an officer in the air defense branch in Benghazi.
    (AP, 3/1/14)

2014        Mar 2, In Libya gunmen shot dead French engineer Patrice Real in Benghazi. A member of the security forces was also killed by a bomb placed under his car and a former policeman was seriously wounded. Five unidentified bodies were found in and around the city.
    (AFP, 3/2/14)

2014        Mar 4, In Libya Col. Adam Faraj al-Abdali was discovered early today with shots to his head and chest inside his car near a cemetery in Benghazi. Col. Al-Abdali had pioneered the use of Russian jets in Libya.
    (AP, 3/4/14)

2014        Mar 6, Niger extradited to Libya one of Moammar Gadhafi's sons, al-Saadi, who fled as his father's regime crumbled in 2011 and who was under house arrest in the desert West African nation ever since.
    (AP, 3/6/14)

2014        Mar 8, In Libya armed protesters controlling eastern ports said they had started independently exporting oil, bypassing the central government in a major escalation of their blockade to demand a share of the nation's petroleum wealth.
    (Reuters, 3/8/14)

2014        Mar 9, Libya's Defence Ministry said it has authorized the military to use force to stop a North Korean-flagged tanker from loading crude oil at a rebel-held port, bypassing the Tripoli government.
    (Reuters, 3/9/14)

2014        Mar 10, Libyan officials said parliament has ordered a special force be sent within one week to "liberate" all rebel-held ports in the volatile east, raising the stakes over a blockage that has cut off vital oil revenues.
    (Reuters, 3/10/14)

2014        Mar 11, In Libya angry MPs ousted PM Ali Zeidan after the North Korean-flagged Morning Glory, a tanker laden with oil from a rebel-held terminal, broke through a naval blockade and escaped to sea. Zeidan flew to Malta on a Libyan state plane, but then switched to a private jet after a brief stopover before departing for Germany. Libyan commander Ibrahim Jedran, whose militia took over vital oil terminals in the country's east, said he is seeking help from the United States in a standoff with the government over the seizure.
    (AP, 3/11/14)(AP, 3/12/14)(AFP, 3/12/14)

2014        Mar 16, US special forces seized a commercial tanker that fled with a cargo of oil from a Libyan port controlled by anti-government rebels, halting their attempt to sell petroleum on the global market.
    (Reuters, 3/17/14)

2014        Mar 17, In Libya A car bomb targeting a military academy in Benghazi killed at least 7 soldiers and wounded twelve.
    (AFP, 3/17/14)

2014        Mar 18, In Libya Adison Karkha (54), a Christian Iraqi medical school professor, was found slain inside his car in a central city.
    (AP, 3/18/14)

2014        Mar 21, In Libya two rockets struck a runway at the international airport in Tripoli, forcing the suspension of flights. Since October, 2011,the airport has been under the control of former insurgents from Zintan, 170 km (105 miles) southwest of Tripoli.
    (AFP, 3/21/14)

2014        Mar 22, Libyan rebels occupying oil ports clashed with troops when they attacked an army base, wounding 16 people before tribal leaders brokered an end to the fighting.
    (Reuters, 3/22/14)
2014        Mar 22, The US Navy handed over to Libyan authorities the M/T Morning Glory oil tanker it intercepted after the vessel took to sea with crude illegally loaded at a rebel-held port.
    (AFP, 3/22/14)

2014        Mar 27, In Libya slain dictator Moamer Kadhafi's son Saadi asked Libyans for forgiveness in a taped interview released by prison authorities three weeks after his extradition from neighboring Niger.
    (AFP, 3/28/14)

2014        Mar 31, The Libyan Investment Authority, a sovereign wealth fund set up in 2006, said it is suing French bank Societe Generale in a British court for $1.5 billion (1.1 billion euros) for allegedly channeling bribes to allies of the son of slain dictator Moamer Kadhafi.
    (AFP, 3/31/14)

2014        Apr 2, In Libya employees at state-owned Jumhuriya, one of Libya's biggest banks, began a two-day strike demanding greater protection after a colleague was shot dead at work a day earlier.
    (Reuters, 4/2/14)

2014        Apr 6, A key Libyan militia in the east agreed to hand back control of four oil terminals it captured and shut down last summer in its demand for a share in oil revenues.
    (AP, 4/7/14)

2014        Apr 7, In Libya residents of the Benghazi observed a general strike to protest against militant violence, as youths blocked streets of the capital in a show of support.
    (AFP, 4/7/14)

2014        Apr 8, Libya's parliament charged interim PM Abdullah al-Than with forming a new cabinet after the weak central government had earlier requested wider powers.
    (AP, 4/8/14)

2014        Apr 9, Libya’s army announced it has taken control of Al-Hariga and Zueitina ports under a deal to end a crippling nine-month blockade by rebels seeking autonomy in the country's east.
    (AFP, 4/10/14)
2014        Apr 9, In Libya air force officer Abdel-Hamid al-Fetori died when a bomb attached to his car exploded, seriously injuring his wife and toddler. In response protesters took to the streets of Benghazi, burning tires and chanting anti-militia slogans.
    (AFP, 4/9/14)

2014        Apr 10, Libya's National Oil Co (NOC) lifted a force majeure on a crude export terminal recovered from rebel hands, opening the way for renewed exports.
    (AFP, 4/10/14)

2014        Apr 13, Libya's PM Abdullah al-Thani stepped down, saying he and his family had been the victims of a "traitorous" armed attack the previous day. Thani said he would stay on in a caretaker capacity until a new prime minister is appointed.
    (AFP, 4/13/14)

2014        Apr 15, Jordan's ambassador to Libya was kidnapped in Tripoli by masked gunmen who attacked his car and shot his driver. Fawaz al-Itan was released on May 13. In exchange his government sent back to Tripoli Libyan Islamist militant Mohammed Dersi, who had been serving a life sentence for a bombing plot.
    (Reuters, 4/15/14)(Reuters, 5/13/14)

2014        Apr 17, In Libya a Tunisian diplomat was kidnapped in Tripoli. He was the 2nd to be kidnapped since last month. Both men were released on June 30.
    (Reuters, 4/17/14)(AP, 6/30/14)

2014        May 2, In Libya suspected Islamic militants attacked the security headquarters in the eastern city of Benghazi early, killing 9 soldiers and policemen and wounding 24.
    (AP, 5/2/14)

2014        May 4, Libyan businessman Ahmed Maiteeq (Miitig) was sworn in as the country’s new prime minister after a chaotic vote in parliament.
    (Reuters, 5/4/14)

2014        May 8, In Libya 3 policemen were killed instantly when the thieves opened fire on officers who chased them during the theft of a car in Tripoli. Two more policemen died later of their wounds. The armed group took one policeman captive.
    (AP, 5/9/14)

2014        May 11, At least 40 people died and 51 were rescued after a boat carrying migrants sank off Libya's coast east of Tripoli.
    (Reuters, 5/11/14)

2014        May 13, The International Criminal Court's prosecutor said the Libyan government must surrender the son of slain dictator Moammar Gadhafi for trial on charges of crimes against humanity despite its appeal of the handover and legal proceedings in Libya.
    (AP, 5/13/14)

2014        May 16, In eastern Libya fierce fighting broke out between army troops believed to be loyal to rogue Gen. Khalifa Hifter (Haftar) and two influential militias in the city of Benghazi. More than 70 people were killed and more than 100 wounded.
    (AP, 5/16/14)(Reuters, 5/18/14)

2014        May 18, In Libya forces loyal to rogue Libyan Gen. Khalifa Hifter attacked the parliament in Tripoli, forcing lawmakers to flee an assault that targeted Islamists there who protect the extremist militias now plaguing the nation. Two people were reportedly killed and more than 50 wounded.
    (AP, 5/18/14)(AP, 5/19/14)

2014        May 19, Libya’s parliament chief Nouri Abu Sahmein, an Islamist-leaning politician, ordered a powerful umbrella group of mainly Islamist militias known as "Libya's Central Shield" to mobilize to defend against forces under rogue Gen. Khalifa Hifter. The umbrella group is dominated by a militia from Libya's third largest city, Misrata. A Libyan air force base in the eastern city of Tobruk said it has decided to join forces of Gen. Khalifa Hifter.
    (AP, 5/19/14)(Reuters, 5/19/14)

2014        May 20, In Libya gunmen killed a Chinese engineer after kidnapping him and two others from their worksite. The two others were released.
    (Reuters, 5/21/14)

2014        May 21, In Libya at least 2 people were killed when heavy fighting erupted near Tripoli. Heavy fighting involving anti-aircraft batteries also broke out near an army camp in Tajoura, an eastern suburb.
    (Reuters, 5/21/14)

2014        May 23, In Libya at least 2 people were killed when missiles fired at a special forces army base missed their target and struck family homes in the eastern city of Benghazi.
    (AP, 5/24/14)

2014        May 25, Libya’s embattled parliament approved an Islamist-backed government headed by Ahmed Maiteg despite a boycott by non-Islamists and the threats from Gen. Khalifa Hifter.
    (AP, 5/26/14)

2014        May 26, In Libya gunmen shot dead Moftah Abu Zeid, chief editor of the Brnieq newspaper and an outspoken critic of Islamists in Benghazi.
    (AP, 5/26/14)

2014        May 28, Libyan warplanes bombed militia bases in Benghazi as part of a renegade former general's campaign to purge the chaotic North African state of Islamist militants.
    (Reuters, 5/28/14)

2014        Jun 1, A Libyan air force jet bombed positions held by Islamic militants in the eastern city of Benghazi, apparently as part of a renegade general's ongoing offensive.
    (AP, 6/1/14)

2014        Jun 2, In Libya at least 20 people were killed and almost 70 wounded when the army and forces of renegade Gen. Khalifa Haftar fought Islamist militants in Benghazi.
    (Reuters, 6/2/14)

2014        Jun 3, Libya’s newly elected PM Ahmed Maiteg took office as the interim premier Abdullah Al-Thinni vowed not to hand over power.
    (SFC, 6/4/14, p.A2)

2014        Jun 4, In Libya gunmen killed a Swiss national working for the International Committee for the Red Cross when they intercepted his car in Sirte. Gunmen also fired a grenade the office of PM Ahmed Maiteeq. A suicide bomber exploded a Land Cruiser packed with explosives Gen. Khalifa Haftar's base in Benghazi killing 4 men from his force.
    (Reuters, 6/4/14)

2014        Jun 5, In Libya a prosecutor told the Supreme Constitutional Court that the election of Ahmed Maiteeq as the new prime minister was conducted in violation of the country's temporary constitution.
    (Reuters, 6/5/14)

2014        Jun 9, Libya's top court rejected the Islamist-led parliament's appointment of a new prime minister in a contested vote, ending one power struggle as a renegade general's offensive against Islamist militias in the east raged on.
    (AP, 6/9/14)

2014        Jun 11, In Libya a huge explosion, likely caused by a suicide bomber, at an army checkpoint in Barsis, 50 km (30 miles) east of Benghazi killed the attacker and wounded six others.
    (Reuters, 6/14/14)

2014        Jun 13, Italian sailors recovered 10 bodies of migrants after their rubber dinghy sank off the Libyan coast. Thirty-nine migrants were rescued after the vessel sank.
    (AP, 6/14/14)

2014        Jun 14, Turkey said it has temporarily pulled its diplomatic staff out of the Libyan city of Benghazi and urged its nationals to leave the east of the country amid mounting security concerns.
    (AP, 6/14/14)

2014        Jun 15, In Libya renegade Gen. Khalifa Haftar launched an offensive against Islamist militants in the eastern city of Benghazi, prompting dozens of families to flee the port in the latest bout of turmoil to hit the North African oil-producing nation. A ground assault left 5 people dead.
    (Reuters, 6/15/14)(SFC, 6/16/14, p.A2)
2014        Jun 15, In Libya American commandoes seized Ahmed Abu Khattala. He and the Ansar al-Shariah militant group were accused by the US of involvement in the 2012 attack on its consulate in Benghazi that left 4 Americans dead, including Ambassador Chris Stevens.
    (AP, 6/18/14)(SFC, 6/18/14, p.A3

2014        Jun 25, Libya held elections for a new parliament. Turnout was only 630,000 out of 1.5m registered to vote.
    (AP, 6/25/14)(Econ, 6/28/14, p.42)
2014        Jun 25, In Libya Salwa Bugaighis, a lawyer and rights activist,  was assassinated in Benghazi when gunmen stormed her house. She was among the most outspoken voices against militiamen and Islamic extremists who have run rampant in the country since Gadhafi's fall.
    (AP, 6/26/14)

2014        Jul 3, French director Florent Marcie filmed Libyan insurgents from Zintan from the start of the Libyan uprising to the fall of leader Muammar al-Gaddafi and screened his film for the first time at Sarajevo's WARM festival. Some 120 Zintan fighters chartered a plane and traveled to Sarajevo to watch the premiere of the documentary.
    (AP, 7/3/14)

2014        Jul 5, In Libya Marco Vallisa (54), working in the coastal city of Zwara for Italian building group Piacentini Costruzioni, was kidnapped. On Nov 13 a security source in Libya said Vallisa was freed by an armed militia after they obtained a ransom of around one million euros ($1.25 million).
    (AFP, 11/13/14)

2014        Jul 6, Libyan officials said three Europeans working for an Italian construction company have been kidnapped after their car was found abandoned in the town of Zuwara. A Macedonian national and a Bosnian were found by Libyan authorities the next day. No mention was made of the abducted Italian worker.
    (Reuters, 7/6/14)(AP, 7/7/14)
2014        Jul 6, Libya’s National Oil Corporation lifted a force majeure from two other eastern ports, Ras Lanuf and al-Sidra, following an agreement with rebels in the area to end their control over them.
    (AP, 7/9/14)

2014        Jul 8, Libya restarted production at the Sharara oilfield, one of the country’s largest oilfields, pumping at more than 90 percent of its capacity.
    (AP, 7/9/14)

2014        Jul 12, Libya’s state firm National Oil Corp (NOC) said protesters have shut down the eastern oil port Brega.
    (Reuters, 7/12/14)

2014        Jul 13, In Libya at least 6 people were killed and 25 injured when rival militias battled for the control of the international airport in Tripoli. Civil aviation authorities announced the airport will be closed for three days because of security concerns. At least five people were killed and nine wounded in Benghazi after heavy fighting between security forces and rival militias erupted late today.
    (AP, 7/13/14)(Reuters, 7/14/14)

2014        Jul 15, In Libya a Filipino construction worker was kidnapped by militia men. He was later beheaded by his captors, becoming the first Filipino casualty in the renewed violence. His decomposed body was found July 20 in a hospital in Benghazi. In response the Filipino foreign ministry soon announced a "mandatory" evacuation of all 13,000 of its nationals living in Libya.
    (AP, 7/22/14)(AFP, 8/1/14)

2014        Jul 17, In Libya several shells hit the terminal of the main airport in Tripoli, as fighting between rival militias for control of the airport continued for a fifth day.
    (Reuters, 7/17/14)
2014        Jul 17, Libya’s navy said it has retrieved the bodies of three would-be migrants and rescued almost 100 others after their boat sank.
    (AFP, 7/17/14)

2014        Jul 19, In Egypt militants firing rocket-propelled grenades and machine guns attacked the El-Farafrah border security post., 630 km (390 miles) west of Cairo, killing 22 soldiers and wounding another four near the border with Libya.
    (AFP, 7/20/14)

2014        Jul 20, In Libya heavy fighting erupted around Tripoli International Airport, where rival militias have been battling for control, killing at least four people and forcing thousands from their homes.
    (Reuters, 7/20/14)

2014        Jul 21, In Libya Islamist militants attacked an army base in the eastern city of Benghazi, triggering fierce clashes involving helicopters and jets that killed at least one person and wounding 20 others. A week of fighting between rival militias for control of Tripoli International Airport in the capital has killed at least 47 people.
    (Reuters, 7/21/14)

2014        Jul 23, In Libya at least 9 people were killed and 19 wounded, mostly civilians, in Benghazi after heavy clashes between Islamist fighters and regular forces trying to oust the militants from the city.
    (Reuters, 7/24/14)

2014        Jul 24, In Libya armed men abducted Abdel-Moaz Banoun, a well-known political activist, in Tripoli. Banoun has been an outspoken critic of the militias and urged that they all be disbanded.
    (AP, 7/25/14)(SFC, 7/26/14, p.A2)

2014        Jul 26, In Libya 23 people, all Egyptian workers, were killed in the capital Tripoli when a rocket hit their home during clashes between rival militias battling over the city's main airport.
    (Reuters, 7/27/14)
2014        Jul 26, The United States evacuated its Libyan embassy staff under air cover as they faced a "real risk" from fierce fighting around Tripoli airport.
    (AFP, 7/26/14)

2014        Jul 27, In Libya at least 36 people were killed in Benghazi, many of them civilians, in clashes between Libyan Special Forces and Islamist militants over the last 24 hours. A tank containing six million liters of fuel was set ablaze by rocket fire late today near Tripoli’s airport.
    (Reuters, 7/27/14)(AFP, 7/28/14)

2014        Jul 29, Libyan forces battled Islamist militants with rockets and warplanes for control of an army base in the eastern city of Benghazi after at least 30 people were killed in overnight fighting. Armed factions in Tripoli agreed to a brief cease-fire to allow emergency services to fight the blazing fuel storage tanks containing millions of liters of fuel.
    (Reuters, 7/29/14)

2014        Jul 30, In Libya rival militias fighting for control of Tripoli airport agreed to a temporary ceasefire to allow firefighters to try to control a huge blaze at a fuel depot hit by a rocket. Islamist groups seized the army special forces headquarters in Benghazi after days of fighting left at least 35 soldiers dead.
    (Reuters, 7/30/14)(AFP, 7/30/14)
2014        Jul 30, In Libya unknown gunmen kidnapped and raped a Filipina nurse in Tripoli. Following the incident Filipino medical personnel left hospitals in Tripoli to await evacuation.
    (AFP, 7/30/14)
2014        Jul 30, Tunisia said up to 6,000 people a day were fleeing into the country from Libya as violence between rival militias continued.
    (SFC, 7/31/14, p.A6)

2014        Jul 31, In Libya Islamic hard-line militias claimed control of Benghazi after overrunning army barracks and seizing heavy weapons.
    (AP, 7/31/14)
2014        Jul 31, In Libya 2 Egyptians were killed when Libyan guards opened fire to disperse them as they tried to cross the border to Tunisia.
    (Reuters, 8/1/14)

2014        Aug 1, Greece safely evacuated embassy staff and more than one hundred Chinese and European nationals from Libya with a navy frigate sailing back to the Greek port of Piraeus.
    (Reuters, 8/1/14)
2014        Aug 1, Tunisia closed its main border crossing with Libya after thousands of stranded Egyptian and foreign nationals, fleeing militias' fighting and violence in Libya, tried to break through the passage. Tunisian guards shot into the air and fired tear gas to stop a group of Egyptians from storming across the border.
    (AP, 8/2/14)(Reuters, 8/1/14)

2014        Aug 2, Libya's new nationalist-dominated parliament held its first consultative meeting in Tobruk, boycotted by Islamists, as violence-racked country from which thousands were fleeing.
    (AFP, 8/2/14)
2014        Aug 2, The Philippines urged its thousands of workers in Libya to leave the strife-torn nation now while they still can, warning that the remaining exit routes were closing fast.
    (AFP, 8/2/14)

2014        Aug 3, In Libya the exodus of foreigners gathered pace as the government said at least 22 people were killed in clashes in Tripoli and warned of a "worsening humanitarian situation." Thousands of Egyptians seeking to flee were being airlifted home after being allowed into neighbouring Tunisia.
    (AFP, 8/3/14)

2014        Aug 4, Libya's newly elected parliament met in Tobruk and held its first formal session as armed factions continued to battle for dominance.
    (Reuters, 8/4/14)

2014        Aug 5, Sudan reported that 18 Sudanese people have been killed by a rocket strike in the Libyan capital. Khartoum said the situation does not yet warrant an evacuation of its nationals.
    (AFP, 8/6/14)

2014        Aug 6, An umbrella group for eastern Libya's extremist militias said it overran three more army bases in Benghazi and seized large amounts of heavy weapons, including armored vehicles. The newly inaugurated Libyan parliament threatened to act against warring militias who don't abide by its call for an immediate cease-fire, which it says will be supervised by the United Nations.
    (AP, 8/6/14)(AP, 8/7/14)

2014        Aug 8, In Libya a UN delegation held talks in Tripoli to try to broker a ceasefire between armed factions that have turned the capital into a battleground after the worst fighting since the fall of Muammar Gaddafi.
    (Reuters, 8/8/14)

2014        Aug 10, In Libya heavy shelling resumed in Tripoli after three days of relative calm following more than a month of street fighting between rival armed factions battling for control of the city's airport.
    (Reuters, 8/11/14)

2014        Aug 12, Libya’s new parliament agreed that the next president would be elected by a popular vote as lawmakers sought to overcome a confrontation between two armed factions. Tripoli police chief Col. Mohammed Sweissi, who supported the battle against Islamist militias, was killed after he came under attack by masked gunmen after leaving a meeting in the Tajoura neighborhood. Two associates were abducted.
    (Reuters, 8/12/14)(AP, 8/12/14)

2014        Aug 13, Libya's newly elected parliament asked the UN for an "international intervention" as militia violence raged across the country.
    (AP, 8/13/14)

2014        Aug 18, In Libya unidentified warplanes bombed militia positions in Tripoli. They were later identified as aircraft based in Egypt and flown by pilots from the UAE.
    (Reuters, 8/18/14)(Reuters, 8/19/14)(Econ, 8/30/14, p.44)

2014        Aug 21, Egypt's Cairo airport and Tunisia cancelled most flights to and from Libya, days after the Libyan government said unidentified war planes had attacked positions of armed groups in Tripoli.
    (Reuters, 8/21/14)

2014        Aug 22, A boat of migrants sank about a km off the coast east of Tripoli, Libya. 16 people were rescued but more than 250 migrants were believed killed.
    (AP, 8/24/14)(SSFC, 8/24/14, p.A6)

2014        Aug 23, In Libya unidentified war planes attacked positions of an armed faction in Tripoli. They were later identified as aircraft based in Egypt and flown by pilots from the UAE. 15 fighters were reported killed and dozens wounded. Islamist fighters in the Fajr Libya (Libyan Dawn) coalition said they have captured Tripoli's battered international airport. Fighting erupted between renegade general Khalifa Haftar’s troops and allied army special forces with Islamists in two Benghazi suburbs, killing 8 soldiers and wounding 35. Egypt denied any air operations in Libya.
    (AP, 8/23/14)(AFP, 8/24/14)(Reuters, 8/24/14)(SFC, 8/25/14, p.A2)(Econ, 8/30/14, p.44)

2014        Aug 24, Libya’s parliament in Tobruk named a new military chief of staff tasked with tackling armed militias that control vast areas of the country. Colonel Abdel Razzak Nadhuri was chosen by 88 out of 124 MPs present and promoted to the rank of general.
    (AFP, 8/25/14)

2014        Aug 25, The former Libyan parliament replaced in national elections in June reconvened to elect an Islamist-backed deputy as prime minister, challenging the authority of the turbulent country's new legislature. The GNC met in Tripoli and elected Omar al-Hasi as its new leader.
    (Reuters, 8/25/14)
2014        Aug 25, Libyan jihadist group Ansar al-Sharia, which Tripoli and Washington have both labelled a terrorist organization, urged other Islamist militias in the nation to unite under one banner. Ansar al-Sharia controls around 80 percent of its heartland Benghazi.
    (AFP, 8/25/14)
2014        Aug 25, American officials confirmed that jets of the United Arab Emirates launched two attacks in seven days on the Islamists in Tripoli using bases in Egypt.
    (AFP, 8/26/14)

2014        Aug 29, Libya's interim government said it has submitted its resignation to the newly elected parliament, raising the possibility that a more inclusive government will be formed. Militias in Tripoli accepted a UN call for a cease-fire. Islamist militias in the east claimed to have shot down a fighter jet, said to be under the command of renegade General Khalifa Hifter, that had been flying over the city of Bayda.
    (AP, 8/29/14)

2014        Aug 30, In Libya heavy clashes broke out between the forces of a renegade general and Islamist fighters in the eastern city of Benghazi, killing at least 10 people and showering the airport with rockets.
    (Reuters, 8/30/14)

2014        Aug 31, A Libyan coast guard official said a boat carrying over 100 migrants capsized off the coast near Tripoli.
    (SFC, 9/1/14, p.A2)

2014        Sep 1, Libya's parliament reappointed PM Abdullah al-Thinni as the government lost control of ministries in the capital where armed groups have taken over and a separate parliament has claimed legitimacy. Islamist militants launched a new attempt to seize Benghazi's civilian and military airport from army forces allied to a renegade general. 31 fighters on both sides were reported killed.
    (Reuters, 9/1/14)(AP, 9/2/14)

2014        Sep 3, Libyan government forces and helicopters belonging to a renegade general bombed ammunition sites of suspected Islamist militants in the eastern city of Benghazi.
    (Reuters, 9/4/14)

2014        Sep 4, A UN report on Libya said four months of fighting by militias in Libya's two biggest cities, Tripoli and Benghazi, has forced some 250,000 people to flee, including 100,000 who have been internally displaced.
    (AP, 9/4/14)

2014        Sep 6, Libya’s government said a Sudanese military transport plane bound for a Tripoli airport under control of an armed faction had entered its airspace to supply a "terrorist group" with ammunition. 12 people were reportedly killed and ten wounded in the shelling of Warshefana residential areas near Tripoli.
    (Reuters, 9/7/14)

2014        Sep 9, In Libya 5 soldiers were killed and seven others wounded when Islamist fighters belonging to a group called Majlis al-Shoura attacked an army checkpoint in Benghazi. 25 soldiers were reported missing and likely kidnapped by Islamists at checkpoints in Benghazi.
    (Reuters, 9/10/14)

2014        Sep 14, Libyan PM Abdullah al-Thinni said Qatar had sent three military planes loaded with weapons and ammunition to a Tripoli airport controlled by an armed opposition group.
    (Reuters, 9/14/14)
2014        Sep 14, A boat packed with some 200 African emigrants trying to reach European shores sank off the Libyan coast. Only 36 survivors were rescued. As many as 500 migrants were feared to have drowned after traffickers rammed and sank their boat.
    (Reuters, 9/14/14)(AP, 9/15/14)(AFP, 9/15/14)

2014        Sep 15, In Libya unidentified warplanes conducted four airstrikes near the Libyan capital of Tripoli, leaving one dead and five wounded.
    (AP, 9/15/14)
2014        Sep 15, A boat carrying at least 250 African migrants to Europe capsized before leaving the coast near Tripoli, drowning dozens.
    (AP, 9/15/14)

2014        Sep 16, In Libya Mohamed al-Kilani, a senior militia commander and former MP, was slain while commanding elements of the Fajr Libya (Libya Dawn) alliance in clashes with fighters accused of being loyal to Kadhafi in the suburb of Warshefana.
    (AFP, 9/17/14)

2014        Sep 17, Libya's acting PM Abdullah al-Thinni sought to reassert authority over the country by naming a new cabinet. Libya's elected parliament rejected the new cabinet. Islamist fighters launched another offensive on the airport in Libya's Benghazi. 9 soldiers from a special forces unit loyal to renegade former general Khalifa Haftar were reported killed and another 30 wounded in the fighting over the past three days.
    (Reuters, 9/17/14)(AFP, 9/17/14)(Reuters, 9/18/14)

2014        Sep 22, A Libyan security source said at least 11 people were killed by an accidental blast at a military base in the eastern city of Al Bayda.
    (Reuters, 9/22/14)
2014        Sep 22, The UN, the EU and 13 countries, including those suspected of supporting rival sides in Libya, signed an agreement that calls for an end to any "outside interference" in the country that is plagued by violence and torn between two governments and parliaments.
    (AP, 9/22/14)

2014        Sep 28, Libya's internationally recognized parliament in Tobruk held a swearing-in ceremony for the 10-member Cabinet, a day after calling for international aid in its battle with Islamist-allied militias.
    (AP, 9/28/14)

2014        Sep 30, In Libya Islamist-allied militias in control of Tripoli rejected the United Nations' call for a cease-fire in the battered nation, insisting instead that their rivals be disarmed.
    (AP, 9/30/14)

2014        Oct 2, In Libya some 36 soldiers were killed and more than 70 wounded in car bomb attacks and clashes between troops and Islamists around Benghazi airport. 4 people were also killed in a separate attack by suspected Islamists on an army checkpoint in Qubah, east of Benghazi.
    (Reuters, 10/2/14)(AFP, 10/3/14)

2014        Oct 5, In eastern Libya the Shura Council of Islamic Youth in Derna pledged allegiance to the Islamic State.
    (Econ, 10/11/14, p.57)
2014        Oct 5, Human Rights Watch accused the United Arab Emirates of secretly arresting 10 Libyan citizens and six Emiratis in August and September and called on authorities in Abu Dhabi to reveal their whereabouts.
    (AP, 10/5/14)

2014        Oct 12, In western Libya a hospital official said fighting over Kikla between Islamist militias and rival groups has killed at least 23 people.
    (AP, 10/12/14)

2014        Oct 15, Libyan army troops and armed residents clashed with Islamist fighters in the eastern port of Benghazi, killing at least 4 people, a day after renegade former general Khalifa Haftar, who backs the army, vowed to retake the city from the militants.
    (Reuters, 10/15/14)

2014        Oct 17, In Libya at least 14 people were killed when fighting erupted between armed youths and Islamist militias in Benghazi.
    (AP, 10/17/14)

2014        Oct 19, Libya's beleaguered elected parliament in Tobruk declared a formal alliance with renegade former general Khalifa Haftar, as it struggled to assert authority in a country many fear is sliding into outright civil war.
    (Reuters, 10/20/14)

2014        Oct 20, A Libyan official said fighting in the eastern city of Benghazi between Islamist militias and pro-government fighters has left 65 people dead as fierce battles continued for a sixth day.
    (AP, 10/20/14)

2014        Nov 1, In Libya rocket fire forced the closure of Labraq airport, the main gateway into the government-held east.
    (Reuters, 11/1/14)

2014        Nov 3, In Libya heavy fighting broke out near the seaport of the eastern Benghazi city as the army, backed by forces loyal to a former general, attacked Islamist groups.
    (Reuters, 11/3/14)

2014        Nov 6, Libya's supreme court invalidated the internationally recognized parliament, setting the stage for deepening political chaos. The Tripoli court also nullified a constitutional amendment that led to elections on June 25, thereby invalidating the polls and all decisions that resulted from them. The ruling followed intense clashes between pro-government militias and Islamist fighters in Benghazi that have killed more than 30 people in the past three days.
    (AFP, 11/6/14)

2014        Nov 8, Libyan state security guards started a protest at the 120,000 barrels a day Hariga oil port in the east, halting any oil exports.
    (Reuters, 11/8/14)

2014        Nov 15, Italian engineer Gianluca Salviato, abducted last March in Libya, returned home. He was working on a sewer construction project for an Italian company when he went missing in Tobruk.
    (AP, 11/16/14)

2014        Nov 24, Libyan PM Omar al-Hassi said the Cabinet will now adopt "a policy of confrontation and war," comments directed at his rivals in Libya's internationally recognized government based in the country's east.
    (AP, 11/25/14)

2014        Nov 25, Libyan security officials said warplanes have again bombed the Matiga military air base that until a day earlier was Tripoli's only functioning airport.
    (AP, 11/25/14)

2014        Dec 2, In Libya army airstrikes hit a warehouse and a factory in the western city of Zwara, killing 8 people and wounding 24. One strike reportedly hit a warehouse used to store food and the other a chemical factory. An army spokesman said the buildings were arms depots.
    (AP, 12/2/14)

2014        Dec 3, In Libya warplanes struck the western port of Zuwara.
    (AP, 12/3/14)

2014        Dec 11, The EU banned Libya's seven airlines from operating in European skies, citing safety concerns linked to the ongoing fighting there.
    (AP, 12/11/14)

2014        Dec 13, In Libya forces loyal to the recognized government of PM Abdullah al-Thinni conducted air strikes on targets near the eastern oil ports of Ras Lanuf and Es-Sider to stop an advance by a rival force.
    (Reuters, 12/13/14)

2014        Dec 14, The minister of oil in Libya's Tripoli-based government said the Sidra terminal, the country's largest oil shipping terminal, has been shut down due to clashes between rival militias.
    (AP, 12/14/14)

2014        Dec 21, Libya's Islamist-backed rival government called for diplomats and foreign firms to return to Tripoli, pledging to protect them despite an attack on the empty home of the Swiss ambassador.
    (AFP, 12/21/14)

2014        Dec 22, In Libya clashes in Benghazi killed another 16 people and wounded dozens.
    (AFP, 12/23/14)

2014        Dec 23, In Libya armed men in Sirte killed an Egyptian Coptic Christian couple, both doctors, and abducted their teenage (13) daughter. The body of the girl was found on Dec 25.
    (AFP, 12/26/14)
2014        Dec 23, The UN human rights office and the UN Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) said recent fighting has killed hundreds of civilians and forced hundreds of thousands to flee their homes.
    (AFP, 12/23/14)

2014        Dec 25, In Libya Islamists killed at least 22 soldiers after a surprise attack in which they used speedboats in a failed bid to seize some of Libya's main oil terminals. An oil tank also caught fire in separate fighting.
    (AFP, 12/25/14)

2014        Dec 27, Libya said it has called on Italy to send firefighters to prevent a fire spreading out of control at Es Sider, the country's biggest oil port. The fire had spread to a total of five oil tanks. The fire was reported extinguished on Jan 2.
    (Reuters, 12/27/14)(Reuters, 1/2/15)

2014        Dec 28, In Libya forces loyal to the recognized government staged air strikes on targets in Misrata in the first such attacks on the city allied to an armed group. The internationally recognized PM Abdullah al-Thinni has been forced to run a rump state in the east since a group known as Libya Dawn took control of Tripoli in August.
    (Reuters, 12/28/14)

2014        Dec 30, In Libya a suicide car bomber rammed his vehicle into the outer gate of the headquarters of the internationally recognized parliament in Tobruk. 18 people were lightly injured including a lawmaker and three children.
    (AP, 12/30/14)

2015        Jan 2, In Libya armed militants shot and killed 17 soldiers and one civilian at a checkpoint in the central district of Jufra.
    (AP, 1/2/15)

2015        Jan 3, In central Libya masked gunmen kidnapped 13 Coptic Christians in Sirte after seven were abducted days earlier. Forces loyal to the internationally recognized government staged air strikes on the commercial port of Misrata, a western city allied to a group that holds the capital Tripoli.
    (AP, 1/3/15)(Reuters, 1/3/15)

2015        Jan 4, Forces loyal to Libya's internationally recognized government launched air strikes on the country's biggest steel plant at Misrata. A warplane from forces loyal to the internationally recognized government bombed a Greek-operated oil tanker anchored offshore, killing 2 crewmen. The Liberian-flagged ARAEVO was carrying 12,600 tons of crude oil when it was struck off the eastern port of Derna. No oil was spilled.
    (Reuters, 1/4/15)(Reuters, 1/5/15)

2015        Jan 5, Libya's official government banned Palestinians, Syrians and Sudanese from entry because their countries are undermining the oil producing nation's security. The government of PM Abdullah al-Thinni runs only a rump state in eastern Libya and would therefore only be able to enforce the ban at the eastern airports of Tobruk and Labraq and the land crossing with Egypt.
    (Reuters, 1/6/15)

2015        Jan 6, Turkish Airlines, the last foreign airline still flying to Libya, suspended flights to Libya.
    (Econ, 1/10/15, p.23)

2015        Jan 16, In Libya the Fajr Libya (Libya Dawn) militia alliance said it has agreed to a ceasefire on the condition rival factions respected the truce.
    (AFP, 1/18/15)

2015        Jan 18, Libya's army announced a ceasefire, joining an Islamist-backed militia alliance in declaring a truce that the UN hailed as a "significant" step towards ending months of violence.
    (AFP, 1/18/15)

2015        Jan 22, In Libya fighters for one of the factions battling for control of the country seized the Banghazi branch of the country’s central bank.
    (SFC, 1/23/15, p.A2)

2015        Jan 23, In Libya Mohamed al-Zahawi, the leader of Libyan Islamist group Ansar al-Sharia, was reported to have died of wounds suffered when fighting pro-government troops last September.
    (Reuters, 1/23/15)

2015        Jan 24, In Bayda, Libya, gunmen kidnapped Hassan al-Saghir, the deputy foreign minister of the internationally recognized government.
    (Reuters, 1/25/15)

2015        Jan 25, In Libya 6 people were killed when rockets hit residential houses in the city of Benghazi.
    (Reuters, 1/25/15)

2015        Jan 27, In Libya gunmen stormed the Corinthia hotel in Tripoli popular with diplomats and officials, killing 10 people including an American and 4 Europeans before blowing themselves up. The "Islamic State in Tripoli Province," soon said it launched the attack to avenge the death of Abu Anas al-Libi, who was snatched in Tripoli by US special forces in 2013 and died in US custody earlier this month due to complications from liver surgery.
    (AFP, 1/27/15)(AP, 1/28/15)(Econ, 1/31/15, p.42)

2015        Feb 3, In Libya new clashes erupted between rival factions fighting for control of the country's biggest oil port Es Sider, killing several people. Gunmen attacked a partly French-owned al-Mabrouk oil field and shot to death 3 guards.
    (Reuters, 2/3/15)(AP, 2/4/15)

2015        Feb 5, Libya's only commercial flight link to mainland Europe was severed when the state carrier said its foreign partner had pulled out of the country after a deadly attack last week on a Tripoli hotel. Georgia-based Afriqiyah had only just restarted the route to Duesseldorf last month.
    (Reuters, 2/5/15)
2015        Feb 5, In Libya pro-Haftar forces reportedly expelled Islamist militias from Benghazi port.
    (AP, 2/6/15)

2015        Feb 6, In Libya a suicide car bomber, attempting to strike an army post in the battleground second city of Benghazi, was intercepted and blew up his car short of the target killing a father and son.
    (AFP, 2/6/15)

2015        Feb 7, Libya's eastern oil export port Hariga shut down due to a strike of security guards, closing the country's last functioning export port apart from two offshore fields. Only Brega port was still open, but it is used to supply the 120,000 bpd-Zawiya refinery with crude.
    (Reuters, 2/8/15)

2015        Feb 8, In Libya heavy fighting flared up in Benghazi as forces loyal to the internationally recognized elected government tried to retake areas controlled by extremist militias.
    (AP, 2/8/15)
2015        Feb 8, Two Italian patrol boats picked up 105 migrants late today from the boat drifting in extreme sea conditions. At least 29 migrants died of hypothermia aboard Italian coast guard vessels. Survivors later confirmed the existence of a fourth rubber boat that left Libya with as many as 300 people unaccounted-for.
    (Reuters, 2/9/15)(SFC, 2/10/15, p.A2)(AP, 2/11/15)

2015        Feb 11, In Libya UN negotiators restarted talks in Ghadames with delegates from Libya's warring factions, meeting separately with rival parties in an attempt to end the political crisis and reach a ceasefire.
    (Reuters, 2/11/15)

2015        Feb 12, In Libya gunmen from an al-Qaida inspired militia took over radio and television stations in Sirte.
    (AP, 2/14/15)

2015        Feb 14, In Libya a bomb exploded at an oil pipeline from the El Sarir field, halting flows to Hariga port as the country struggles to restore crude exports battered by factional fighting.
    (Reuters, 2/14/15)

2015        Feb 15, Islamic State militants in Libya released a video showing the beheading of 21 Egyptian Christians. The 21 Egyptian Coptic Christians, who had gone to Libya in search of work, were marched to a beach, forced to kneel and then beheaded on video.
    (Reuters, 2/16/15)
2015        Feb 15, Italy closed its embassy in Libya due to the worsening conflict there and stepped up its call for a UN mission to help calm the situation.
    (Reuters, 2/15/15)

2015        Feb 16, Egyptian jets bombed Islamic State targets in Libya, a day after the group there released a video showing the beheading of 21 Egyptian Christians. 40 to 50 militants were reported killed along with 7 civilians.
    (Reuters, 2/16/15)(Econ., 2/21/15, p.44)

2015        Feb 20, In Libya three car bombs ripped through the eastern city of Qubbah, killing at least 45 people and wounding 70. Islamic State militants said it was a revenge attack for Egyptian air strikes on IS targets.
    (Reuters, 2/20/15)(AP, 2/20/15)(SFC, 2/21/15, p.A4)

2015        Feb 21, In Libya militants claiming loyalty to Islamic State executed a rocket strike on the eastern Labraq airport.
    (Reuters, 2/22/15)

2015        Feb 22, Libya resumed oil exports from the eastern port of Zueitina after an almost year-long suspension and is also testing a pipeline to restart exports from Hariga port. Zueitina is under the control of troops loyal to the internationally recognized Libyan government.
    (Reuters, 2/22/15)
2015        Feb 22, Libya's internationally recognized government said it will end all contracts with companies from Turkey, a country it has accused of supporting a rival administration.
    (Reuters, 2/23/15)
2015        Feb 22, In Libya militants claiming loyalty to Islamic State executed twin bomb attacks on the residence of the Iranian ambassador in Tripoli.
    (Reuters, 2/22/15)

2015        Feb 23, Libya's internationally recognized parliament suspended its participation in UN-brokered talks on the future of the war-wracked North African state. A parliamentarian, on condition of anonymity, said the decision to pull out of talks was taken over fears that the international community would exert pressure to include Islamists in a future unity government.
    (AFP, 2/23/15)

2015        Feb 24, Libya's internationally recognized parliament created a new army chief post, with a lawmaker and state media saying the job will go to once retired General Khalifa Haftar, fighting to eradicate Islamist forces.
    (AFP, 2/24/15)

2015        Feb 26, Libya's internationally recognized PM Abdullah al-Thinni said his government would stop dealing with Turkey as it was sending weapons to a rival group in Tripoli so "the Libyan people kill each other", ramping up his rhetoric against Ankara.
    (Reuters, 2/27/15)

2015        Mar 2, Libya’s internationally recognized parliament appointed Major General Khalifa Belgacem Haftar for the post of commander-in-chief of the army after promoting him to the rank of lieutenant general.
    (AFP, 3/2/15)

2015        Mar 3, Rival Libyan forces carried out tit-for-tat air strikes on oil terminals and an airport, escalating their battle for control of the oil-producing country days before UN peace talks are to resume in Morocco.
    (Reuters, 3/3/15)

2015        Mar 4, In Libya two unidentified warplanes bombed the airport of the western town of Zintan, allied with the country's internationally recognized government, damaging electricity systems but not the runway.
    (Reuters, 3/4/15)
2015        Mar 4, Libya's National Oil Co declared force majeure at 11 oil fields after attacks by Islamists, a legal step protecting it from liability if it cannot fulfill contracts for reasons beyond its control.
    (AFP, 3/4/15)

2015        Mar 5, Warplanes from Libya's internationally recognized government carried out air strikes on a Tripoli airport just hours before United Nations-backed peace talks were due to start in Morocco.
    (Reuters, 3/5/15)

2015        Mar 6, Libya's oil security forces said they had retaken control of the Al-Ghani oilfield after militants attacked the facility. An employee watched the beheadings of the 8 oil guards and subsequently died of a heart attack. Nine foreign workers, including a Czech, an Austrian and 7 non-EU citizens, were missing after gunmen attacked the oilfield.
    (Reuters, 3/7/15)(SSFC, 3/8/15, p.A3)(AP, 3/9/15)

2015        Mar 12, In Libya airport guards stopped PM Abdullah al-Thinni from getting on a plane to Tunis in protest against his choice of interior minister. The guards were unhappy with Thinni's appointment of economy minister Munir Ali Asr as caretaker interior minister, demanding the job go to a southerner.
    (Reuters, 3/12/15)

2015        Mar 14, In central Libya clashes erupted between Islamic State fighters and a force loyal to a Tripoli-based faction.
    (Reuters, 3/14/15)

2015        Mar 16, In Libya families fled the coastal city of Sirte in their dozens after two days of clashes between Islamic State militants and fighters loyal to a government based in Tripoli.
    (Reuters, 3/16/15)
2015        Mar 16, The Islamic State group reported the death of one of its top field commanders in Libya. Ahmed al-Rouissi, one of the most wanted militants in Tunisia, was killed recently in clashes around the city of Sirte.
    (AP, 3/17/15)

2015        Mar 18, In Libya fighting, between Islamic State militants and forces loyal to the government based in Tripoli, killed 12 troops near Nofaliya.
    (AP, 3/18/15)(SFC, 3/19/15, p.A2)

2015        Mar 20, EU leaders, concerned about migrants using Libya as a jumping-off point to reach the continent, pledged to help the conflict-torn country regain stability but ruled out deploying any security operation.
    (AP, 3/20/15)

2015        Mar 21, Libyan army troops battled militias west of Tripoli. The Libyan army said it's carrying out airstrikes on multiple targets.
    (AP, 3/21/15)

2015        Mar 31, In Libya lawmakers in the Tripoli-based General National Congress (GNC) voted to sack prime minister Omar al-Hassi, accusing him of failing to tackle corruption.
    (AFP, 4/1/15)

2015        Apr 4, Libya’s PM Thinni announced late today that he had authorized his government's oil corporation to open a separate bank account in the United Arab Emirates for oil revenues, and to seek independent oil sales.
    (Reuters, 4/5/15)

2015        Apr 5, In Libya a suicide bomber killed at least 6 people outside the militia-controlled third city Misrata in an attack claimed by the Islamic State group.
    (AFP, 4/5/15)(Econ., 4/11/15, p.44)

2015        Apr 12, In Libya gunmen opened fire early today at the local guards of the South Korean Embassy in Tripoli, killing one of them as well as a civilian who was in the area.
    (AP, 4/12/15)
2015        Apr 12, A vessel capsized off the Libyan coast, with survivors who were brought to Italy telling charity workers that as many as 400 others perished.
    (AFP, 4/15/15)

2015        Apr 13, The Italian coastguard said it recovered 9 bodies and rescued 145 people after a boat carrying migrants sank off Libya. Italian coastguards intercepted 42 boats over the last two days as a surge of attempted illegal immigration to Europe saw almost 6,000 other migrants rescued since April 10.
    (AFP, 4/13/15)(AFP, 4/15/15)
2015        Apr 13, Jordan’s King Abdullah II pledged Jordan's support for efforts by Libya to confront "terrorist organizations", in talks with Libyan army chief Khalifa Haftar.
    (AFP, 4/13/15)

2015        Apr 16, Italian police said they had arrested 15 African migrants after witnesses said they had thrown 12 passengers overboard following a brawl between Muslims and Christians on a boat heading to Italy. Four survivors told Italian police that their inflatable vessel carrying 45 people sank on the crossing from Libya.
    (AFP, 4/16/15)

2015        Apr 19, The new video was posted by the Islamic State appeared to show militants shooting and beheading about 30 Ethiopian Christians in Libya.
    (Reuters, 4/19/15)
2015        Apr 19, Over 800 migrants were believed drowned after their packed boat capsized overnight off Libya, the deadliest such disaster to date in the Mediterranean. Only 28 people survived the wreck. When the Portuguese-registered King Jacob merchant ship arrived at the scene the fishing boat hit the ship and capsized as terrified passengers stampeded to one side in their desperation to get off. Survivors later reported that up to 800 people were locked into two levels of the hold by the smugglers. On May 7 Italian navy ships located what is believed to be the capsized fishing boat.
    (AFP, 4/19/15)(AP, 4/21/15)(AP, 5/7/15)

2015        Apr 23, The Fajr Libya militia alliance that controls Tripoli carried out air strikes against positions of the Islamic State jihadist group in the coastal city of Sirte.
    (AFP, 4/24/15)

2015        Apr 24, A judge in Sicily confirmed the arrest warrants against the suspected captain, Mohammad Ali Malek (27) from Tunisia, and crew member Mahmud Bikhit (25) of Syria, of the smuggling boat that capsized in the April 19 migrant disaster that left some 800 people dead.
    (AP, 4/24/15)

2015        Apr 27, In Libya 5 crew members from a private TV network were found dead near Bayda, after they were abducted last August in eastern Libya.
    (AP, 4/27/15)

2015        May 1, In Libya a rocket hit a medical center in Benghazi, killing 3 people.
    (Reuters, 5/2/15)

2015        May 3, Italian Coast Guard and commercial vessels came to the rescue of at least 16 boats of migrants, saving hundreds of them and recovering 10 bodies off Libya's coast, as smugglers took advantage of calm seas to send packed vessels across the Mediterranean.
    (AP, 5/3/15)

2015        May 7, In Libya 2 people were killed when a rocket hit a residential building in the Benghazi, bringing the death toll from recent fighting to at least 53 people in the past five weeks.
    (Reuters, 5/7/15)

2015        May 10, Libya's internationally recognised government attacked a Turkish-owned cargo vessel from ground and air, killing a seaman, after it entered territorial waters "without permission".
    (AFP, 5/11/15)

2015        May 14, In eastern Libya random shelling of residential areas in Benghazi killed 8 people from one family, including 7 children.
    (AP, 5/15/15)

2015        May 18, Tunisia said that it was negotiating for the release of 172 nationals held by a Libyan militia as bargaining chips for one of its commanders detained in Tunis.
    (AFP, 5/18/15)

2015        May 24, Warplanes from Libya's official government attacked the Anwar Afriqya oil tanker off the coast near the city of Sirte, wounding two people. The tanker had been unloading gasoil for Sirte's power plant when it came under attack.
    (Reuters, 5/24/15)

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