Timeline Lithuania to 1929

Return to home

Lithuania is about the size of West Virginia.
    (SSFC, 7/22/07, p.G6)

Auksuciai Farm: www.dcn.davis.ca.us/go/aukfound/accomplishments.html
The Baltic Times:
http://www.baltictimes.com/
Beer:
http://www.svyturys.lt
Lith. Global Resources:
http://www.angelfire.com/ut/Luthuanian/index.html
Lith. History:
http://www.ldkistorija.lt/
Lithuanian Language School:
http://www.kalba.lt/
Lithuania on Line:
http://www.online.lt/
Lonely Planet:
http://www.lonelyplanet.com/dest/eur/lit.htm
Newspaper: Kaunas Day:
http://www.kaunodiena.lt/
Newspaper: Lithuanian Morning:
http://www.lrytas.lt/
Overview:
http://www.qedata.se/e_js_litauiskt_galleri.htm
Tourism:
www.visitlithuania.net/

10,000BC    Cultural relics have been found on the territory of Lithuania to this time.
    (DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)

c9,500BC Two cultures of migrating hunters lived in the present territory of Lithuania in the 2nd half of the 10th millennium BC. One group came from the banks of the middle Vistula river in the south-west. The other was from the north-west of Europe.
    (DrEE, 10/12/96, p.2)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

c8k-7kBC    In the early Mesolithic the climate warmed and settlers of the Paleolithic followed the deer north. Those who stayed mixed with the fisherman who moved from the west to form the ethnic groups of Baltic culture.
    (DrEE, 10/12/96, p.2)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

4000-3000BC    The Indo-European language group divided into different branches.
    (DrEE, 9/21/96, p.1)

c3k BC    At the end of the 3rd millennium a new wave of nomadic cattle-raisers moved in from the south and south-west and brought with them a corded pottery culture.
    (DrEE, 10/12/96, p.2)

2500BC    A study in 2015 said a wave of migrants from the eastern fringes of Europe about this time left their trace in the DNA — and possibly the languages — of modern Europeans. They found that DNA associated with the Yamnaya people appeared strongly in what is now northern Germany. The Yamnaya were herders who lived in the steppe north of the Black and Aral Seas.
    (AP, 3/3/15)

c1k BC     The first typical Baltic culture of brushed pottery formed at the turn of the last millennium BC in eastern Lithuania. It was the time when the first hill forts and barrows appeared and the cremation of the dead was introduced.
    (DrEE, 10/12/96, p.2)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

c500BC    Settlements situated on hills and protected by rivers and lakes started to predominate.
    (DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

98AD        Cornelius Tacitus referred to the Baltic peoples in his book Germania. "In the East the Svebes washes the shores inhabited by the Aistian tribes (Aestiorum gentes)."
    (DrEE, 10/12/96, p.2)

793        Jan 8, The beginning of the Viking period.
    (TB, LC)

800-1000    At the beginning of the ninth century, Arabian merchants frequented Lithuania to purchase fine furs, beeswax and precious amber. Brisk trading between Arabians and Lithuanians went on for about two hundred years.
    (VilNews, 12/17/10)

c853      The Baltic shoreline Curonians repulsed Danish Viking attempts at subjugation. King Olaf led Swedish Vikings in retaliation and overcame the towns of Seeburg and Apuole (Apulia).
    http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/anskar.html#lifeans
    (TB-Com, 10/11/00)

935             In the Icelandic "Egils-saga" there is an account of how Thorolf and Egil harried in Curonia (along the eastern Baltic shore) about this time.
    (DrEE, 11/23/96, p.3)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

c1000       Graves of rich Curonian warriors from near Kretinga in western Lithuania revealed cremated bones in a tree-trunk coffin, nine fibulae, a leather belt with bronze and amber beads, 3 spears and an iron battle-axe, an iron instrument for striking fire, a sickle, an iron key and bronze scales, a saddle and iron bridle bits along with miniature tools and weapons.
    (DrEE, 11/23/96, p.3)

1009        Feb 14, Lithuania was 1st mentioned in relation to an announcement of the death of St. Bruno. [see Mar 9]
    (LHC, 2/14/03)

1009        Mar 9, Lithuania’s name (Lituae) was first mentioned in Quedlinburg’s annals: "St. Bruno, an archbishop and monk, who was called Boniface, was struck in the head by Pagans during the 11th year of his conversion at the Russian and Lithuanian border (in confinio Rusciae et Lituae), and along with 18 of his followers, entered heaven on March 9th" (Feb 14 is cited in other sources).
    (DrEE, 10/12/96, p.2)(Book of the Millennium. Kaunas: Krastotvarka, 1999. Vol. 1: The State, p. 10, series "Acquaintance with Lithuania") http://www.krastotvarka.lt
    (DrEE, 10/12/96, p.2)

1012        The Arabian trade with Europe abruptly ceased and no more Cufic coins streamed into Europe.
    (VilNews, 12/17/10)

1185        The Bishopric of Livonia was founded by Meinhard of Germany.
    (TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1198      The German Bishop Bertold shipped up the Baltic with armed forces and attacked the native people of Livonia. The attack was repulsed.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p.39-40)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1200      Bishop Albert, the head of a group of pilgrim knights, led 23 ships of armed soldiers up the Baltic to Livonian lands at the mouth of the Dauguva River.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p.39-40)

1201      The Germans founded the city of Riga in Livonia, now Latvia, and built a castle  under the direction of Bishop Albert.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p.39-40)

1226        Following Prussian attacks on Polish lands, the Catholic Poles invited German religious-military orders to attack Prussia.
    (H of L, 1931, p.25)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1227        In the Polish Kulm region there was a struggle with Prussia over land. The Poles called in the German Knights of the Cross (aka Teutonic Knights) for help in exchange for the lands of Kulm. The Knights arrived and began to fight Prussia in wars that lasted some 60 years.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 41)

1228        A record in the Livonian Statute of A.D. 1228 stated that the death penalty will be imposed on those attempting to debase silver by adding to it even 1/16 part of other base metals. This is the reason why silver bar kapas / roubles, whenever found in Baltic States, are always nearly pure.
    (VilNews, 12/17/10)

1230        Mindaugas began to rule over Lithuania. Mindaugas found resistance amongst some local rulers who called in German military orders for assistance.
    (H of L, 1931, p.29)

1236      Aug 22, The German Master Volkwin of Riga had prepared a large force of his Knights of the Sword to attack Lithuania. The Lithuanians learned of the planned attack and called for forces across the land to repulse the Germans. The Germans were lured to a marsh near the town of Siauliai and were severely beaten. Only a tenth of their forces were said to escape back to Riga.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 41)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1237        The Bishop of Riga sent a request to Rome that the Pope unite the German Knights of the Sword and Knights of the Cross into one order. The Pope agreed and the two orders agreed to fight under one magistrate.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 41)

1237            The Knights of the Sword ended their activities in Livonia.
     (TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1238        The Knights of the Sword merged with the German Knights of the Cross.
    (TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1238            Mindaugas is mentioned for the 1st time. He ruled to 1263.
    (H of L, 1931, p.29)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1249        Feb 7, The Christburg Peace Treaty forced the Prussians to recognize the rule of the Teutonic Knights. Within about 50 years the German Teutonic Knights and Knights of the Cross overcame most of Prussia and established German as the dominant culture and language. The German orders then turned north to Lithuania.
    (H of L, 1931, p.25)(LHC, 2/7/03)

1249-1254     A civil war was fought in Lithuania. Mindaugas, the feudal ruler of Lithuania found resistance amongst some local rulers who called in German military orders for assistance. Mindaugas hosted the German magistrate who said that the only way to save Lithuania would be to convert to Catholicism and pass western territory over to the German Order.
        (H of L, 1931, p.29)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1251        Mindaugas accepted Christianity with his wife, 2 sons, about 600 of his nobility and many of his people. An envoy was then sent to Rome to request the Pope’s formal approval for coronation which was granted. The German Order then worked closely with Mindaugas in establishing the first Bishopric in Lithuania and were in turn granted lands in western Lithuania (Zemaiciuose). Pope Innocent IV authorized Mindaugas to be crowned King.
    (H of L, 1931, p.30,32)(XXIA, 7/21/99)

1252        The Livonian Order established the Memelburg Castle on the left bank of the [Dane] river.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.2)

1253        Jul 6, Mindaugas was crowned as King of Lithuania.
    (www.itar-tass.com/eng/level2.html?NewsID=12845046&PageNum=0)

1254      Mar 12, Mindaugas granted Christian, Lithuania’s 1st Bishop, lands in Samogitia.
    (LHC, 3/12/03)

1255      Mar 6, Pope Alexander IV permitted Mindaugas to crown his son as king of Lithuania.
    (LHC, 3/6/03)

1260       The people of western Lithuania (Zemaiciai) attacked the German Order of the Cross at a battle near Durbe Lake. This forced Mindaugas to turn against the Germans but he was not able to gain the full trust of the western Lithuanians.
    (H of L, 1931, p.32)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1260-1274    A large scale Prussian uprising took place against the Knights of the Cross.
    (TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1261        Feb 3, Samogitian fighters defeated the Livonian Knights of the Cross at Lielvarde.
    (LHC, 2/3/03)

1263        Feb 9, A Lithuanian army under Treniota defeated the Livonian Knights of the Cross.
    (LHC, 2/9/03)

1263        Mindaugas was assassinated along with his 2 sons by Duke Treniota.
      (H of L, 1931, p.32)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1263-1264     Treniota served as Grand Duke.
     (TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1264-1267    Vaisalgas (Vaiselga) served as Grand Duke.
      (TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1267-1269    Shvarno served as Grand Duke. 
    (TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1268        Jan 21, Pope Clement IV gave permission to Poland’s King Premislus II to take over Lithuania and establish Catholicism.
    (LHC, 1/18/03)

1269-1281    Traidenis served as Grand Duke. 
    (TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1270        Feb 16, In the Karusa Ice war in Estonia, Lithuanian forces defeated the Livonian Knights of the Cross.
    (LHC, 2/16/03)

c1274       Nadruva, Prussia, was the home of the pagan spiritual leader Krivis, who was dear to the Baltic people. 
    (H of L, 1931, p.25)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)(Petras Dusburgietis. Prusijos zemes kronika. Vilnius, 1985, p. 87)

1274-1277    The Knights of the Cross overcame the Prussian towns of Nadruva and Skalva.
    (Petras Dusburgietis. Prusijos zemes kronika (Chronicle of the Prussian Lands). Vilnius, 1985, p. 189-196)

1279      Mar 5, Lithuanians overcame Livonian forces at Aizkraukle.
    (LHC, 3/5/03)

1281-1285    Daumantas served as Grand Duke. 
    (TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1285        Mar 24, Lithuanian Grand Duke Daumantas (1281-1285) died.
    (LHC, 3/24/03) 

1285-1291    Butigeidis served as Grand Duke. 
    (TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1291-1295    Butvydas served as Grand Duke. 
    (TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1295      Vytenis began to rule over Lithuania. In response to German castle construction along the shores of the Nemunas River, Vytenis began constructing castles of wood  in addition to those at: Junigeda, Bisena, Kolainis, Medvegalis, and Putenikis. He also reorganized the army and ruled to 1316.
    (H of L, 1931, p.32)(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 41)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1297        The people of Riga rose against the Teutonic Knights. The local Bishop asked Vytenis to help and the Knights were pushed back. This opened a northern trade route for Vytenis for weapons and supplies.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 50)

1298        Mar 30, Duke Vytenis joined with Riga and its archbishop against the Livonian order.
    (LHC, 3/30/03)

1307        Vytenis added the fiefdom of Polocka, northeast of Vilnius, to Lithuania.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 51)

1307        Poland tried to gain back the Kulm territory but in their struggle with the Teutonic Knights they lost Pomerania and their access to the Baltic.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 69)

1315        Vytenis added the fiefdom of Brasta to Lithuania.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 51)

1316        The Greek Orthodox Church established a local Metrapole in Lithuania.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 51)

1316        Vytenis died at Skirsnemune while destroying castles built by the Knights of the Cross. Gediminas, brother of Vytenis, took over rule. He wrote a letter to the Pope that requested an end to attacks by the German orders. The Pope responded in accord but the Germans continued their pressure.
    (H of L, 1931, p.33,34)

1316-1341    Gediminas pushed back the German orders and extended his territory to the east into Russia. He invited foreign crafts, trades people and engineers. Under his rule, Vilnius became the capital with 2 new castles and the southern and eastern border of Lithuania was extended to include Smolensk, Kiev and Minsk. His rule did not interfere with local languages, religious beliefs or rights. Gediminas wed one daughter to the Prince of Moscow, another to the son of the Polish King and a third to the Prince of Mozur.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 52)

1316-1945    "The Jews of Lithuania - A history of a remarkable community 1316-1945." Masha Greenbaum (1995). Gefen Publishing ISBN 965-229-132-3.
    (http://www.btinternet.com/~ablumsohn/links.htm)

1317        Feb 3, Pope John XXII, under guidance from Gnesen Archbishop Borislav, offered Catholicism to Lithuania.
    (LHC, 2/3/03)

1320        Algirdas, son of Gediminas, married the princess of Vitebsk, and began to rule over that territory.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 51)

1323        Gediminas moved to Vilnius and began to call himself King of Lithuania and most of Russia.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 54)

1324        Feb 10, The pope officially chastised the Knights of the Cross for ill treatment of Catholics and for pushing pagans away from Christianity.
    (LHC, 2/10/03)

1330        Mar 23, Riga surrendered to the Livonian Order.
    (LHC, 3/23/03)

1331        Joint Lithuanian and Polish forces dealt a strong defeat to German Knights.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 59)

1336      Feb 25, The Knights of the Cross sieged the Pilenai Castle in Samogitia. The defenders burned all their goods and committed suicide.
    (LHC, 2/25/03)

1337-1338    With mercenaries from Bavaria and the rest of Europe, German Knights continued to press the western Lithuanians (Zemaicius).
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 59)

1340        German Knights again pushed into western Lithuania but were held in check. A new cannon was invented in western Europe and the Germans were eager to test it in Lithuania. They made a deal with the King of Bavaria to give him all of Lithuania and Russia in exchange the new cannon.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 60)

1341        Mar 9, Gediminas died while fighting the Teutonic Knights. His son Manvydas destroyed the Bavarian castle in Lithuania and repulsed the Germans. Jaunutis, the youngest son of Gediminas was given the local rule of Lithuania.
    (H of L, 1931, p.39) (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 61)

1341-1345    Jaunutis served as Grand Duke. 
    (TB-Com, 10/11/00) 

1345-1377    Algirdas served as Grand Duke. 
    (TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1345        The Germans prepared a major drive into Lithuania and the older brothers of Naujutis, Kestutis and Algirdas, decided to take over rule. Kestutis took over the 2 castles in Vilnius while Algirdas stood by at Krievos Castle. They divided their rule in 2 with Eastern Lithuania under Algirdas and western Lithuania under Kestutis. The Germans attacked Lithuania every fall and winter and Kestutis engaged them in about a hundred battles.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 62)

1348        Feb 2, The Knights of the Cross defeated a Lithuanian army at Streva.
    (LHC, 2/2/03)

1356        Algirdas of Lithuania acquired Bryansk through inheritance and gave it to his son, Dmitry the Elder. Until the end of the century, the town was contested between Jogaila, Vytautas, Svitrigaila, and Yury of Smolensk.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bryansk)

1361        Mar 21, Grand duke Kestutis was captured by the Knights of the Cross.
    (LHC, 3/21/03)

1362        A large German force with mercenaries from all over Europe attacked Kaunas Castle. 4,000 men inside the castle were under the rule of Vaidotas, son of Kestutis. After more than 2 weeks of battle the castle was put to flame and most everyone inside died.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 64)

1373        Feb 15, Utena was mentioned for the 1st time.
    (LHC, 2/15/03)

1377        Grand Duke Algirdas died. The son of his 2nd wife, Jogaila, took over as Grand Duke in Vilnius. Jogaila feared that his uncle, Kestutis, would attempt to pass leadership to his own son Vytautas. He thus established secret relations with the German Knights of the Cross.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 66)

1381        Kestutis took over Vilnius from Jogaila and discovered evidence that Jogaila signed a treaty with the German Knights. Kestutis assumed the role of Grand Duke.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 66)

1382        Jul, Jogaila, son of Algirdas, in a civil war with Kestutis took over Trakus Castle and turned it over to his brother Skirgaila. Kestutis and Vytautas marched against Jogaila and before engaging in battle negotiated a settlement. Kestutis and Vytautas went into the camp of Jogaila and were captured, separated and imprisoned. Kestutis was killed after five days under pressure from Russia. Vytautas managed to escape after he changed clothes with the maid Alena Mirga, who was then executed. Vytautas went to the German Knights of the Cross to seek assistance against Jogaila. With their aid he returned to Lithuania and raised an army of popular support against Jogaila.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.4)(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 66-68)(DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)

1382        Aug 15, Kestutis, Duke of Trakai, was executed at the castle of Kreva by order of Jogaila.
    (DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)

1383        Oct 21, Vytautas was baptized a Christian at Tepiava after having sought refuge with the Duke of Masovia.

1384        Jan 30, Vytautas handed over Samogitia to the Knights of the Cross and promised to serve as a vassal to the order following receipt of Trakai.
    (LHC, 1/30/03)

1385        Jan 18, A Lithuanian delegation under Skirgaila arrived in Cracow to ask for the hand of Jadvyga on behalf of Jogaila.
    (LHC, 1/18/03)

1385        Aug 14, Jogaila and his brothers signed a treaty with Poland at Krievos Castle. Here he agreed to convert to Christianity and to seek the conversion of all of Lithuania and that then Lithuania and Poland would unite. The treaty also included an agreement to free all captive Catholics and to help Poland regain all the land it had lost to the German Knights. Vytautas urged Jogaila to go to Poland and leave Lithuania to be ruled by himself.
    (H of L, 1931, p.48)(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 68)

1386        Feb 2, Jogaila was elected King of Poland.
    (LHC, 2/2/03)

1386        Feb 15, Christianity was introduced to Lithuania when Grand Duke Jogaila and Vytautas underwent a token Baptism at the cathedral in Crakow. Jogaila had married Queen Jadvyga (12) and was crowned King in Poland. Together they began to rule from Cracow over Lithuania and Poland. Jogaila submitted to restrictions that no major decisions could be made without the authorization of the Polish nobility.
    (Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.5)(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 69)(DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)

1386      Mar 4, Jogaila was crowned King of Poland.
    (LHC, 3/4/03)

1386        Jogaila returned to Lithuania and began to eradicate all pagan practices. Actual conversion to Catholicism was begun amongst the nobility. For conversion he gave the nobility eternal ownership of their lands and possessions and freedom from work for the Grand Duke. To thwart the growth of Greek Orthodoxy he forbade mixed marriages. A Polish priesthood was established free of all taxes.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 69)(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 70)

1387        Feb 17, Jogaila founded the archdiocese of Vilnius and provided land for the Bishop’s headquarters.
    (LHC, 2/17/03)
1387        Feb 17, Moletai was mentioned for the 1st time.
    (LHC, 2/17/03)

1387      Feb 22, Jogaila issued a proclamation for all Lithuanians to accept Catholicism.
    (LHC, 2/22/03)

1387        Mar 22, Jogaila gave Vilnius the rights of Magdeburg. Vilnius became the 1st self-governed Lithuanian city.
    (LHC, 3/22/03)

1388      Mar 12, Pope Urban VI authorized Poznan’s Bishop Dobrogost to establish a Vilnius archdiocese.
    (LHC, 3/12/03)

1388        Vytautas, as head of the Grodno region, allowed Jews to live, do business, lend money, and establish their own communities and judges in Lithuania. Similar freedoms were allowed other foreigners including the Tartars.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 73)

1389        Jan 10, Jogaila authorized the Bishops of Vilnius to build churches and urged believers to donate 10% for their upkeep.
    (LHC, 1/10/03)

1389        Jogaila re-established his relations with the Teutonic Knights and allowed them to become established in western Lithuania. The people rebelled against the Knights and captured a high official, whom they burned alive to their pagan gods.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 71)

c1389    When Jogaila returned to Poland he chose his brother Skirgaila to be Grand Duke over Vytautas, who was put in charge of Grodno.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 71)

1390        English king Henry IV spent a full year supporting the unsuccessful siege of Vilnius by Teutonic Knights with his 300 fellow knights. During this campaign Henry Bolingbroke also bought captured Lithuanian princes and then apparently took them back to England. King Henry's second expedition to Lithuania in 1392 illustrates the financial benefits to the Order of these guest crusaders. His small army consisted of over 100 men, including longbow archers and six minstrels, at a total cost to the Lancastrian purse of £4,360. Much of this sum benefited the local economy through the purchase of silverware and the hiring of boats and equipment. Despite the efforts of Bolingbroke and his English crusaders, two years of attacks on Vilnius proved fruitless.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Vilnius)

1392        Vytautas (d.1430), son of Kestutis,  accepted a truce with Jogaila. He had earlier sought aid from the Teutonic Knights at Marlburg for the 2nd time and used it to gain rule of Lithuania from Jogaila. The truce with Jogaila infuriated the Teutonic Knights, who resumed their attacks on the lowlands in western Lithuania.
    (H of L, 1931, p.52)(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 72)

1392        Serfdom began to be established under Vytautas when rich land holders acquired permanent ownership of their lands and the right to sell property.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 76)

1397        Jan 26, Vytautas signed a treaty with the Knights of the Cross but Samogitia was not included.
    (LHC, 1/26/03)

1398        An assembly of the country’s noblemen was held at Salynas by the river Nemunas. They named Vytautas King of Lithuania and negotiated with the Teutonic Order for independence.
    (DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)

c1399    In Poland Queen Hedwig died in childbirth at age 25.
    (SFC, 6/9/97, p.A10)
1399        Russian chronicles state that when Kiev was threatened by the Tartars, Kiev citizens had to pay to Khan Timur Kutluk a contribution of 3000 Lithuanian roubles.
    (VilNews, 12/17/10)

1400        Feb 8, The Knights of the Cross with the assistance of Vytautas and the hercog of Lotaringia defeated Samogitia for the 1st time.
    (LHC, 2/8/03)

1400        Jul, Under an edict of Jogaila, the Univ. at Cracow, Poland, was founded.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.4)

1401        Jan 9, In Marienburg some 80 Lithuanian barons were baptized to Catholicism.
    (LHC, 1/9/03)

1401        Jan 18, In Lithuania Vytautas and the country’s dukes submitted documents to Poland that Vytautas would rule Lithuania as a vassal to Poland and return the country to Poland upon his death.
    (LHC, 1/18/03)

1401      Mar 13, The 1st Samogitian uprising supported by Vytautas took place against the German knights. (LHC, 3/13/03)

1401        Jul 25, Lithuanian and Polish forces surrounded Marienburg but were unable to take the city.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.4)

1401        The Vilnius-Radome Act between Lithuania and Poland. Agreements between Vytautas and Jogaila and between the noblemen of the 2 countries were drawn up. It recognized the independence of the Grand Dutchy of Lithuania.
    (DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)

1402      Mar 2, In Marienburg Svitrigaila crossed over to the Knights of the Cross and promised to uphold the Salyn treaty that was broken by Vytautas.
    (LHC, 3/1/03)

1406        Jan 7, Southern Lithuania surrendered to the Teutonic Knights a 2nd time.
    (LHC, 1/7/03)

1407        Jan 21, Duke Vytautas led Polish and German forces for a 2nd time against the Dutchy of Moscow.
    (LHC, 1/18/03)

1408        Feb 14, Vytautas gave self-rule status to Kaunas, which was 1st mentioned in the summer of 1361.
    (LHC, 2/14/03)     

1410        Jul 15, Lithuanian-Polish forces defeated the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Tannenberg, Prussia, thereby halting the Knights’ eastward expansion along the Baltic and hastening their decline. Vytautas and Jogaila with hired mercenaries from Belarus along with Tartars and Czechs defeated the Teutonic Knights between Grunvald (Zalgiriai) and Tannenberg southeast of Malburg. Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen and many of his nobles were killed. The war officially ended with the Treaty of Thorn in which the Knights gave up Zemaitija to Vytautas.
    (COE)(H of L, 1931, p.52)(DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)

1410        Russian chronicles say that Novgorod adopted Lithuanian money as legal tender, and the use of marten skins as money was discontinued.
    (VilNews, 12/17/10)

1411        Feb 1, Lithuania, Poland and the Knights of the Cross signed the Torun Peace Treaty. Samogitia was returned to Lithuania. The Teutonic Knights had regrouped and gone to battle against Vytautas and Jogaila. Peace was signed at Torun and western Lithuania was returned, but not Klaipeda (Memel).
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 71)(LHC, 1/31/03)

1413        Vytautas and Jogaila traveled through western Lithuania to convert the people to Christianity.
    (H of L, 1931, p.56)(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 71)

1413        The first joint congress of Lithuanian and Polish magnates was convoked in Horodlo. The legal acts drafter there established a joint union relationship.
    (DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)

1416        Feb 6, A Samogitian complaint against the Knights of the Cross was read at the Catholic Church Council at Constance.
    (LHC, 2/6/03)

1416        Feb 13, A Lithuanian and Polish delegation read their grievances against the Teutonic Knights at the Church Council at Constance.
    (LHC, 2/13/03)

1418      Feb 25, At the Constance church synod the Orthodox Metropolitan of Kiev and Lithuania, Gregory Camblak, proposed a union between the Orthodox and Catholic church.
    (LHC, 2/25/03)

1418        Jul, Ona Vytautiene died at Trakus.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.4)

1418        The people of western Lithuania (Zemaiciai) rebelled against the Church and nobility. Churches were destroyed and the estates of the nobles were attacked. Vytautas was forced to use major force to quell the rebellion.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 71)

1423        Mar 30, Lithuania and Poland reached an agreement at Kezmark with Emperor Sigismund, who agreed to recall Sigismund Kaributa from Poland.
    (LHC, 3/30/03)

1425       Feb 27, Moscow's Grand Duke Vasilii died and his brother-in-law, Vytautas, became guardian of his son, Vasilii, and daughter, Sophia.
    (LHC, 2/27/03)

1429        Jan 9, The conference at Luck began (Jan 9-29). Vytautas hosted a grand Congress at Luck ostensibly to unite the region against threats from the Turks to the south. Emperor Sigismund of Hungary agreed to the formation of the Kingdom of Lithuania and dispatched a crown from Hungary.
    (DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)(LHC, 1/9/03)

1429        Jan 23, At the Congress of Luck Emp. Sigismund of Luxembourg offered to crown Vytautas as King of Lithuania.
    (LHC, 1/23/03)

1430        Oct 27,  Vytautas the Great (b.1350), the ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania  (1392–1430) which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians, died. He had been preparing for coronation but Polish forces interrupted the arrival of his crown to Trakus. He began to ride to Vilnius but fell from his horse and was returned to Trakus where he died at the age of 80. He was also the Prince of Hrodna (1370–1382) and the Prince of Lutsk (1387–1389), postulated king of Hussites.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vytautas)(H of L, 1931, p.58)

1430-1432     Svitrigaila served as Grand Duke. 
    (TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1431        Jul, At the Battle of Luck the Lithuanian army clashed with Polish forces by the river Styre.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.4)

1440        Mar 20, In Trakai (samokslininkai) killed Grand Duke Zygimantas Kestutaitis.
    (LHC, 3/20/03)

1432-1440    Zygimantas Kestutaitis served as Grand Duke. 
    (TB-Com, 10/11/00) 

1440-1492    Casimir served as Grand Duke. 
    (TB-Com, 10/11/00) 

1447        Peasants rights were greatly reduced and left to the rule of their landlords.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 76)

1454        Mar 6,  Casimir proclaimed the attachment of Prussia to Polish rule. This began a 13-year war over Prussia (1454-1466).
    (LHC,3/6/03)

1455        Lithuanians captured the castle and city of Klaipeda.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.2)

1456        Mar 1, Wladyslaw Jagiello, king of Bohemia (1471-1516), Hungary (1490-1516), was born.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1466-1772    Danzig (Gdansk) was occupied by German religious-knights.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.10)

1478        Russia’s Ivan the Great destabilized territory under the control of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania much of which later became Ukraine. The policy was designed to encourage people living along the frontier to seek Muscovy’s protection.
    (Econ, 9/20/14, p.16)

1484      Mar 4, Casimir (Kazimierz), the son of Lithuania’s Grand Duke Casimir, died in Grodno at age 25. In 1602 he was declared a saint and protector of Lithuania. St. Casimir was born Oct 3,1458, in Cracow.
    (LHC, 3/4/03)

1486        Mar 4, Jogaila was crowned king of Poland.
    (LC, 1998, p.12)

1490-1568    Albrecht von Brandenburg, the last magistrate of the Teutonic Knights and the first ruler of Prussia.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.10)

1492        Jul 26, The Lithuanian nobility crowned as ruler the elected 4th son of Kasimir, Alexander, who ruled to 1506.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.4)

1493        Jan 4, Ivan III, Grand Duke of Moscow, announced the 1st war with Lithuania. In fact the war had begun in 1487.
    (LHC, 1/4/03)

1495        Feb 5, The 1st Lithuanian Russian war ended with the signing of a peace treaty in Moscow.
    (LHC, 2/5/03)

1495        Feb 15, Lithuanian Grand Duke Alexander wed Duchess Elena of Moscow.
    (LHC, 2/15/03)

1501      Mar 1, Lithuania and Livonia established a 10-year union for protection against Russia.
    (LHC, 3/1/03)

1501        Ivan III, Czar of Russia, invaded Lithuania.
    (TL-MB, p.8)

1503        Mar 28, The 2nd Lithuanian war with Russia (1500-1503) ended with a treaty. Lithuania lost a fourth of its territory.
    (LHC, 3/28/03)

1505      Feb 26, In Brest Polish Chancellor J. Laski invited the Lithuanian government to reconfirm and expand the 1501 Union of Melnik, but the offer was rejected.
    (LHC, 2/26/03)

1511      Feb 22, Silute was founded.
    (LHC,2/22/03)

1514        At the Battle of Orsha, Lithuanian forces defeated those of Moscow.
    (SFC, 9/9/96, p.A12)

1515        Feb 4, Michael Radvila the Black was born in Nesvizh. He later became palatine of Vilnius, chancellor of Lithuania, and supporter of Reformation.
    (LHC, 2/4/03)

1515        Jul 22, Emperor Maximillian and Vladislav of Bohemia forged an alliance between the Habsburg [Austria] and Jagiello [Polish-Lithuanian] dynasties in Vienna.
    (HN, 7/22/98)

1518        Apr 18, Bona Sforza (1494-1558) was crowned Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania in Wawel Cathedral, Krakow. The Italian niece of Bianca Maria Sforza, who in 1493 married Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, became the 3rd consort of Lithuania’s Grand Duke Sigismund the Old (1467-1548).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bona_Sforza)

1525        The area of Klaipeda (Memel) came under Prussian control.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.2)

1526      Feb 23, Joniskis was founded.
    (LHC, 2/23/03)

1537        Mar 25, The 5th Lithuanian war with Russia (1534-1537) ended with a peace treaty. It lasted until the start of war with the Livonian Order (1562-1582).
    (LHC, 3/25/03)

1538        King Sigismund I (1467-1548), King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, imposed the death penalty for bison poaching.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigismund_I_the_Old)(Econ, 9/14/13, SR p.10)

1544        Albrecht von Brandenburg founded a university at Konigsberg.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.10)

1546        Albrecht von Brandenburg visited Vilnius. He wanted to become the regent of his younger cousin Zigmantas Augustas.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.10)

1547        Jan 8, The first Lithuanian book was printed in Konigsburg (Karaliauciuje) at the printing shop of H. Weinreich. It was a catechism titled: "Katekizmusa prasti Zadei, makslas skaitima raschta yr giesmes" by the Lithuanian student Martynas Mazvydas (200-300 copies). He had been specifically invited by Albrecht von Brandenburg to prepare a book in Lithuanian that would assist the priests in teaching the native language and help spread the ideas of the Reformation, i.e. Lutheranism. It was a small format book of 79 pages part of which was taken up by 11 hymns presented with music. The text was a faithful translation of J. Seklucian’s (1545) and J. Malecki’s (1546) Polish catechisms.
     (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.10)(DrEE, 9/14/96, p.4)(LHC, 1/7/03)

1547        Mar 21, Matthew Stryjkovski (d.c1592), the 1st author of a printed history of Lithuania, was born in Strykov, Poland.
    (LHC, 3/21/03)

1561        Poland-Lithuania gaining control over Livonia. In response Sweden seized the territory of Estonia with the major port of Reval.  Denmark, also invested in the war, seized the Livonian Islands.
    (http://tinyurl.com/bngyy)

1562        Feb 5, Michael Radvila the Black accepted homage of G. Ketler, Duke of Courland, to Zigmantas Augustas.
    (LHC, 2/5/03)

1562         Mar 4,The Archdiocese of Riga was attached to Lithuania.
    (LHC, 3/4/03)

1563        Feb 15, Ivan IV led Russian forces in the takeover of Polocka, defended under the leadership of Stanislav Davaina.
    (LHC, 2/15/03)

1563        Mazvydas died at Ragainius.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.10)

1564        Jan 26, A Lithuanian Army under Radvila the Brown defeated a Russian force 5 time larger and stopped its entry into Lithuania.
    (LHC, 1/26/03)

1564      Mar 13, Zigmantas Augustas gave over to Poland his rights to Lithuania and supported the Warsaw parliament recess and summons for the 1st representatives on talks regarding union.
    (LHC, 3/13/03)

1566      Mar 11, The 2nd Lithuanian statutes went into effect and upheld a democracy of landowners. The Statute of Lithuania gave the Seimas legislative power. The parliament had developed since Casimir ascended to the Polish throne. It was composed of an upper chamber or Council of Lords and assemblies of noblemen. They assembled in Vilnius or Brest-Litovsk.
    (DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)(LHC, 3/11/03)

1569      Feb 28, The Lithuanian delegation pulled out of union talks with Poland and departed Lublin.
    (LHC, 2/28/03)

1569      Mar 12, Zigmantas Augustas broke away from Lithuania and attached Volinija and Palenki to Poland.
    (LHC, 3/12/03)

1569        Jun 6, Lithuanians returned to Lublin for negotiations. Zigmantas Augustas, the last ruler of the Jogaila dynasty, called a meeting in Lublin, Poland, to firmly unite Poland and Lithuania.
    (H of L, 1931, p.72-74)(LC, 1998, p.20)

1569        Jul 1, The Lublin Union was signed and direct rule over Lithuania was passed to Poland. Lithuania maintained certain ministers, laws, money and an army. The territories of Volinija, Kiev and Podolija were transferred to Polish rule.
    (H of L, 1931, p.72-74)(LC, 1998, p.20)

1569        The Jesuits arrived in Lithuania to counter Protestant advances. Their task was made easy due to the fractured status of the reform sects which numbered as many as 60.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p.80)

1572        King Zigmantas Augustas, the last ruler of the Jogailo dynasty, died. The nobility gathered to choose a successor and settled on Prince Henry of France, who was elected but fled back to France after a few months. In new elections they chose  the Hungarian, John Batori, ruler of Romania.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p.81)

1573        Jan 28, In Warsaw a confederation act acknowledged freedom of religion in Lithuania and Poland.
    (LHC, 1/28/03)

1580        Jul, Some 540 Cossacks under Yermak invaded the territory of the Vogels, subjects to the Khan of Siberia. They were accompanied by 300 Lithuanian and German slave laborers, whom the Stroganoffs had purchased from the Tsar.
    (ON, 2/04, p.2)

1581        Jan 14, The city of Riga joined the Polish-Lithuanian union.
    (LHC, 1/14/03)

1581      Mar 1,The Warsaw government accepted the statutes of the Lithuanian high tribunal.
    (LHC, 3/1/03)

1582        Sep 8, A small Belorussian-Lithuanian force overcame a larger Muscovite force.
    (SFC, 9/2/96, p.A12)

1587        Aug 19, Sigismund III was chosen to be the king of Poland.
    (HN, 8/19/98)

1588        Jan 28, King Sigismund Vaza upheld the 3rd Lithuanian Statute that until 1795 stood as the fundamental code of law. In practice it was active until 1840.
    (LHC, 1/28/03)

1595      Feb 24, Mathias Casimir Sarbievius, poet and prof. at Vilnius Univ., was born in Sarbev, Poland. He died in Warsaw Apr 2, 1640.
    (LHC, 2/23/03)

1595        Canon Mikalojus Dauksa published a catechism translated from Polish.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p.80)

1599        Canon Mikalojus Dauksa published his "Postille Catholicka" in Vilnius. He was the first author of Lithuanian Proper.
    (DrEE, 9/21/96, p.4)

1600-1700    The first Lithuanian Bible was published in London.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p.80)

1605        Sep 27, Jan Karol Chodkiewicz (1560-1621), Lithuanian Hetman (Jonas Karolis Katkevičius-Katkus), led Lithuanian and Polish forces to victory against a Swedish army at Kircholm, Latvia. Chodkiewicz carried the day in a victory that, taking into account the disparity of power and strategic result, was huge. It is estimated that 6000 Swedes died. Sweden’s King Charles IX was wounded.
    (www.kismeta.com/diGrasse/images/kircholm_27_sept.htm)

1612        Nov 4, Russia drove Catholic Poles and Lithuanians out of Moscow. This marked the end of the "Time of Troubles," a period of popular uprisings and fighting between noblemen and pretenders to the throne. Russian Orthodox Church celebrated this day as the victory of the forces of Eastern Orthodoxy over the forces of Western Catholicism. In 2005 Russia chose this day for the new “People’s Unity Day" holiday.
    (http://bildt.blogspot.com/2005/11/meaning-of-1612.html)(Econ, 11/12/05, p.56)(Econ, 3/17/07, p.65)

1617        Jul 23, The Swedish Army took over Ventspili.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.4)

1653        The Grammatica lituanica was printed at Konigsberg. A copy is part of the Bonaparte collection that now belongs to the Newberry Library in Chicago.
    (DrEE, 9/28/96, p.4)

1654        Jan 10, Russia’s Czar Alexander announced a war against Lithuania and Poland. It lasted to 1667.
    (LHC, 1/9/03)

1654        Jan 18, The union of Ukraine and Russia was announced at the Council of Pereyaslav, but no original documents have been preserved. A treaty invoked only protection of the Cossack state by the Tsar and was intended as an act of official separation of Ukraine from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Pereyaslav)(Econ, 6/20/15, p.53)s

1654        The earliest circular coin bearing the inscription "rouble" on it in Russia was struck by Czar Alexiei Mikhailovitch.
    (VilNews, 12/17/10)

1655        Aug 8, Eastern Lithuania was occupied by Russian and Cossack forces. Western Lithuania was occupied by Swedish forces. Following three days of pillaging Vilnius was burned in a fire the lasted 17 days.
    (http://tinyurl.com/pm9nvcc)

1655-1661    In Vilnius some 8-10 thousand residents were killed by occupying Russian forces.
    (http://tinyurl.com/pm9nvcc)

1656        Jan 17, Prussian Duke Frederick Wilhelm withdrew ties with Lithuania and Poland and acknowledged vassal status with Sweden.
    (LHC, 1/17/03)

1656        Oct 24, Treaty of Vilnius (Lithuania): Russia and Poland signed an anti-Swedish covenant.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1659        Mar 22, The Warsaw parliament decided to issue metal currency, shillings, for Lithuania and Poland.
    (LHC, 3/22/03)

1667        Jan 30, Lithuania, Poland and Russia signed a 13.5 year treaty at Andrusov, near Smolensk. Russia received Smolensk and Kiev.
    (LHC, 1/30/03)
 
c1669    The King of Sweden took over Estonia and cast his eye over to Livonia, then under Lithuanian control. Jonas Karolis Katkus (Chodkevicius), a military leader, gathered a small army and moved to stop the Swedish advance. He approached Riga with some 4,000 men against a Swedish force of 14,000 and was able to repel them successfully.
    (H of L, 1931, p.76-78)

1674        May 21, John Sobieski was chosen as king of Lithuania and Poland. He ruled to 1696.
    (LHC, 5/21/03)

1689        Jul, Simonas Cechavicius, artist, was born. He died in 1775.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.4)

1696        Jun 17, Jan Sobieski (72), King of Lithuania and Poland (1674-96), died.
    (MC, 6/17/02)(LHC, 5/21/03)

1696        August III (d.1738), son of August II, was born. He was crowned King of Lithuania and Poland in 1734.
    (SSFC, 4/25/04, p.D12)

1699        Jul, Adomas-Frydrichas Simelpinigis, priest, poet and translator, was born.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.4)

1700          Feb 22, Augustus II with the help of the Saxon army attacked Swedish controlled Riga. This began the Northern War (1700-1721).
    (LHC, 2/22/03)

1700-1800    The Gaon of Vilna excommunicated the Hasidic Jews after they cast aside the traditional Jewish prayer book, replacing it with one composed by Isaac Luria.
    (WSJ, 5/22/98, p.W11)

1701      Mar 9, In Birzai Augustus II and Russia’s Czar Peter I signed a treaty.
    (LHC,3/9/03)

1704        Feb 16, Augustas II, King of Lithuania and Poland, was dethroned.
    (LHC, 7/11/03)

1710        Feb 4, Augustas II with the support of the Russian army was recognized by the parliament in Warsaw as King of Lithuania and Poland.
    (LHC, 2/4/03)

1714        Jan 1, Kristijonas Donelaitis (d.1780), writer, was born.
    (LC, 1998, p.8)

1717        Jan 30, Surrounded by the Russian army the Lithuanian-Polish parliament reduced its army by half and acknowledged Russian protection.
    (LHC, 1/30/03)

c1719-1724    A strong Russian Army led by the Czar attacked Lithuania and took control over all the major cities for 5 years. Following Swedish attacks and burnings across the country, plague and famine hit Lithuania.
    (H of L, 1931, p.72)

1727-1858    Six New Testaments, published in Lithuanian, are part of the Bonaparte collection that now belongs to the Newberry Library in Chicago.
    (DrEE, 9/28/96, p.4)

1733        Feb 1, Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony, Grand Duke of Lithuania (1697-1706) and twice King of Poland (1697-1706, 1709-1733), died in Warsaw.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustus_II_the_Strong)

1734        Jan 24, In Cracow the 2nd last king of Lithuania and Poland, Augustas III, was crowned.
    (LHC, 1/24/03)

1736        Jan 27, Stanislaw Leszczynski gave up the Polish-Lithuanian throne.
    (LHC, 1/27/03)

1746        Tadeusz Kosciusko (d1817), Polish patriot and general in the American Revolutionary army, was born in Lithuania. [see Feb 4, 1747]
    (WUD, 1994 p.794)

1747        Feb 4, Tadeusz Kosciusko, patriot, American Revolution hero (built West Point), was born in Poland. [see 1746]
    (MC, 2/4/02)

~1749        Following renewed Swedish attacks plague and famine again hit Lithuania along with bad weather.
    (H of L, 1931, p.79)

1762        Ignotas Masalskis became bishop of Vilnius. Within 2 years he called for a diocese independent of Polish control.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.13)

1763        Apr 4, Antanas Strazdelis (d.1833), priest and poet, was born.
    (LC, 1998, p.14)

1763        Oct 5, August III (b.1796), son of August II, died. He was crowned King of Lithuania and Poland in 1734.
    (SSFC, 4/25/04, p.D12)(WSJ, 6/1/04, p.D8)

1765        "The Seasons" by Pastor Kristijonas Donelaitis was published.
    (DrEE, 9/14/96, p.4)

1767        Mar 30, Jonas Kristupas Glaubicas, one of the founders of the Vilnius school of baroque architecture, died.
    (LHC, 3/30/03)

1768      Feb 24, Lithuania-Poland signed an eternal friendship treaty with Russia along with a guarantee of protection. Lithuania and Poland agreed not to change their state system.
    (LHC, 2/23/03)

1772         Upon the partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, or simply Galicia, became the largest, most populous, and northernmost province of Austria where it remained until the dissolution of Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I. Jews accounted for 10% of the 2.6 million population of Galicia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galicia_(Central_Europe))(Econ, 11/15/14, p.87)

1772        Poland took over the rule of Danzig.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.10)

1776        The School of Veterinary Medicine was founded in Gardinas (later Grodno, Belarus).
    (DrEE, 12/14/96, p.5)

1780        Feb 18, Kristijonas Donelaitis, writer, died.
    (LC, 1998, p.8)

1783        Mar 5, King Stanislav Augustas Poniatovski granted rights to Jews of Kovno.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1785        Jan 20, Theodor Grotthus, the 1st Lithuanian physical chemist, was born in Leipzig. He committed suicide Mar 26, 1822.
    (LHC, 1/20/03)

1785        Mar 31, Antanas Tyzenhauzas (B.1733), Lithuanian agricultural organizer, died in Warsaw.
    (LHC, 3/31/03)

1786        Mar 22, Joachim Lelevelis was born in Warsaw. He became a renowned historian and Prof. at Vilnius Univ. He died May 29, 1861 in Paris.
    (LHC, 3/22/03)

1788-1792    Bishop Ignotas Masalskis of Vilnius went bankrupt in his efforts to finance the building of the Vilnius Cathedral and other projects.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.3)

1791        May 3, Poland adopted a new Constitution. It was designed to redress long-standing political defects of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and its traditional system of "Golden Liberty." The constitution put Lithuania under Polish domination. It is generally regarded as Europe's first and the world's second modern codified national constitution, following the 1788 ratification of the US Constitution.
    (SFC, 4/25/09, p.B1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_May_3,_1791)(Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.13)

1791        Jul, The city of Telsiai was founded.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.4)

1793        Jan 21, Prussia & Russia signed a partition treaty that divided Poland. [see Jan 21]
    (MC, 1/21/02)

1793        Jan 23, Prussia and Russia signed an accord on the 2nd partition of Lithuania and Poland. The 2nd partition of Poland. Polish patriots had attempted to devise a new constitution which was recognized by Austria and Prussia, but Russia did not recognize it and invaded. Prussia in turn invaded and the two agreed to a partition that left only the central portion of Poland independent.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1677)(LHC, 1/23/03)

1793        Oct 28, Simonas Daukantas (d.1864), writer, historian and author of the 1st book on the history of Lithuania written in Lithuanian. His portrait is on the 100-litas note.
    (LC, 1998, p.5,26)

1793        After Russia ended its war against Turkey, a 2nd division of the Lithuanian-Polish Republic was made between Prussia and Russia.
    (H of L, 1931, p.80-81)

1793        Danzig was joined to Prussia.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.10)

1794        Mar 24, In Cracow a revolutionary manifesto was proclaimed. The Lithuanian and Polish nobility under the leadership of Tadas Kosciusko revolted against Russian control.
     (H of L, 1931, p. 81-82)(LHC, 3/23/03)

1794        Apr 18, Forces under Tadeus Kosciusko arrested Etmon Ozarovskis, Bishop J. Kosakovskis, Lith. vice-marshal Zabiela and Grodno marshal Ankievicius.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.13)

1794        May, The Bishop of Vilnius, Ignotas Masalskis, was arrested at the Warsaw castle of King Stanislas Augustus.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.13)

1794        May 9, The 4 leaders arrested Apr 18  by rebels under T. Kosciusko were tried and hanged for treason.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.13)

1794        Jun 28, The Bishop of Vilnius, Ignotas Masalskis, was hanged without trial in Warsaw on grounds of alleged treason by forces under the control of Polish Revolutionary Tadeus Kosciusko. Masalskis had helped to seek free-city status for Palanga and freedom for the local serfs and in his efforts had appealed for Russian military aid. Later 17 of the 18 men responsible for the direct hanging without trial were themselves tried and hung under the direction of Kosciusko.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.3)

1794        Jul 19-20, A Czarist army under Gen’l. Knoring attacked Vilnius but did not take it over.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)

1794        Aug 11, Vilnius was offered amnesty by the Czarist army.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)

1794        Aug 12, The army of the Czar took over Vilnius.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)

1794        Aug 12-Sep 30, The army of the Czar attacked Kaunas and Ukmerge but were held back. The revolutionaries of the Kosciusko uprising retreated back to Poland to defend Warsaw.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)

1794        Oct 10, The Russian Army under Gen’l. Alexander Suvorov took Warsaw and captured Tadeus Kosciusko at Maciejowice. T. Vavzeckis was became the new commander of the revolutionary forces.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)(HN, 10/10/98)

1794        Nov 16, Warsaw capitulated to the Russian Army and the revolution ended.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)

1795        Jan 3, The 3rd division of the Lithuanian Polish Republic was made between Russia and Austria.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)

1795        Mar 22, A Lithuanian delegation under L. Tiskevicius went to Catherine II in St. Petersburg and declared that its union with Poland was ended.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)(LHC, 3/22/03)

1795        Oct 24, Russia, Austria and Prussia held a convention in Petersburg to finalize the 3rd division of the Polish-Lithuanian Republic. Most of Lithuania with Vilnius went to Russia, Warsaw and the left bank of the Nemunas River went to Prussia and Cracow went to Austria. King Stanislovas Augustas of Poland was forced from his capital and moved to Grodno (Gardinas).
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)(MC, 10/24/01)

c1796    Elijah ben Solomon Zalmen, the Gaon of Vilna, urged Jews to study grammar, astronomy and other disciplines as well as the Torah. His writings survived and in 1996 were being stored under controversy in a Roman Catholic Church in Vilnius as property of the Lithuanian National Library.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, p.A15)

1797        Jan 15, In St. Petersburg Russia, Prussia and Austria signed and act that terminated the Lithuanian-Polish state.
    (LHC, 1/15/03)

1797      Mar 16, Pope Pius VI established the Vygris bishopric. On Jun 30, 1818, it became the Seiniai bishopric.
    (LHC, 3/16/03)

1797        Oct 9, In Lithuania Elijahu ben Solomon Zalman (b.1720), the Great Gaon of Vilnius, died. He was one of the most influential Rabbinic authorities since the Middle Ages.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vilna_Gaon)

1798        Dec 24, Adomas Mickevicius, writer, was born.
    (LC, 1998, p.30)

1801      Feb 28, Motiejus Valancius, Lithuanian educator, historian, writer and bishop, was born in Nasrenai in the Kretinga region. He died May 29, 1875, in Kaunas. His portrait is on the 2-litas note.
    (LC, 1998, p.4,10)(LHC,2/28/03)

1804        The Veterinary Faculty was founded at Vilnius Univ. and was headed by Prof. L. Bojanus.
    (DrEE, 12/14/96, p.5)

1806        Nov 13, Emilija Pliateryte, Lithuanian rebel leader, was born in Vilnius, Lithuania. In 1831 she organized a rebel detachment in Dusetos with her cousin Cesar Pliateris (1810-1869) and both took an active part in the uprising. [see Dec 23, 1831]
    (http://www.mmlab.ktu.lt/mmlab/ZarasaiE/zmo/za_pli.htm)

1807        Serfdom was abolished in the Lithuanian territories known as Suvalkija and Dzukija as far as the Nemunas river. This area had been given to Prussia in the 1795 division and then included into the Warsaw Principality.
    (DrEE, 10/12/96, p.2)

1811-1881    Prof. Ferdinand Neselman of Koenigsberg Univ. first referred to the Aistians as the Balts in his book "The Language of the Prussians According to its Surviving Fragments."
    (DrEE, 10/12/96, p.2)

1812        Jun 24, Napoleon crossed the Nieman River [in Lithuania] and invaded Russia. The French army under Napoleon crossed the Nemunas River near Kaunas. Prior to his march into Russia, Napoleon had taken land from Russia and returned it to Polish control in Warsaw. This assured him safe passage through Poland and Lithuania on his way to Russia. In 1824 the book “History of the Expedition to Russia, Undertaken by the Emperor Napoleon in the Year 1812" by Count de Segur, a general in Napoleon’s army, was first published. An English translation edited by Gerard Shelley was published in 1928.
    (HN, 6/24/98)(WSJ, 8/25/07, p.P9)(H of L, 1931, p.83-84)

1812         Dec 6, The majority of Napoleon Bonaparte's Grand Armeé staggered into Vilnius, Lithuania, ending the failed Russian campaign. An estimated 50,000 soldiers reached Lithuania and as many as 20,000 died there. As many as 450,000 soldiers from France, Italy, Spain, Croatia, Germany and at least 15 other countries died in the Russian campaign.
    (HN, 12/6/99)(Arch, 9/02, p.41)

1812        Dec, 14, The last French units of Napoleon’s Grand Armeé crossed the Nieman River of Lithuania, leaving Russia.
    (ON, 10/2010, p.11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_invasion_of_Russia)

1812        Dec 24, Joel Barlow, aged 58, American poet and lawyer, died from exposure near Vilna, Poland [Lithuania], during Napoleon's retreat from Moscow. Barlow was on a diplomatic mission to the emperor for President Madison.
    (HN, 12/24/98)

1812        Dec, Vilnius, Lithuania, was recaptured by Russian forces.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Duke_of_Lithuania)

1813        Jan 2, In Vilnius Russian Army head M. Kutuzov announced the end of war in Russia.
    (LHC, 1/3/03)

1823        A veterinary school was opened near Vilnius,
    (DrEE, 12/14/96, p.5)

1823-1842    Veterinarians received their qualification at the Vilnius Academy of medicine and Surgery.
    (DrEE, 12/14/96, p.5)

1826        Jul 26, Riots in Vilnius, Lithuanian, caused the death of many Jews.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1831        Mar 26, An interim government was set up in Raseiniai as a Lithuanian revolt against Russian rule began. There was a major uprising led by the Polish nobility in Warsaw against Russian rule. Russian forces began to march through Lithuania and this led many people of Lithuania to join in the rebellion against Russian rule. Serf uprisings also followed. The rebellion was eventually quelled by Russian force.
    (H of L, 1931, p.85-86)(LHC, 3/26/03)

1831        Mar 27, The Lithuanian uprising encompassed the area around Kaunas.
    (LHC, 3/27/03)

1831        Mar 28, The Lithuanian uprising, which began in Upyte, extended over Telsiai.
    (LHC, 3/28/03)

1831        Mar 29, The Lithuanian uprising spread to Siauliai.
    (LHC, 3/29/03)

1831         Dec 23, Emilija Pliateryte (b.1831), Lithuanian rebel leader, died in Kapciamiestis while retreating to Prussia with the rebel army. She had organized a detachment in Dusetos with her cousin Cesar Pliateris (1810-1869) and both took an active part in the uprising. Together with the detachment of H. Horodeckij they defeated Zarasai. Pliateryte took part in many battles: at Maišiagala, Kaunas, and Šauksnai.
    (http://www.mmlab.ktu.lt/mmlab/ZarasaiE/zmo/za_pli.htm)

1833        Antanas Strazdelis (b.1763), priest and poet, died.
    (LC, 1998, p.14)

1835        Jan 17, Antanas Baranauskas (d.1902), Lithuanian poet and bishop, was born in Anyksciai.
    (LC, 1998, p.8)(LHC, 1/17/03)

1835        Jan 18, Cesar A. Cui, fort architect, composer, was born in Vilna, Lithuania.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1841        Sep 14, Antanas Vienazindis (d.1892), priest and poet, was born.
    (LC, 1998, p.22)

1841-1863    Povilas Bagdanavicius, was shot to death in the uprising of 1863.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.4)

1842        Jan 11, Russian authorities closed down the Vilnius Medicine and Chiropractic Academy.
    (LHC, 1/11/03)

1845        May 31, Zemaite (d.1921), pioneer of realism in Lithuanian literature, was born. Her portrait is in the one litas note.
    (LC, 1998, p.4)

1846      Mar 16, Jurgis Bielinis, Lithuanian publisher and "king of the (underground) book carriers" was born in Purviskis. He died there Jan 18, 1918. This day was later declared "Book Carriers Day."
    (LHC, 3/16/03)

1851        Nov 23, Jonas Basanavicius (d.1927), doctor, scientist and signatory of the Feb 16, 1918, Declaration of Independence, was born. His portrait is on the 50-litas note.
    (LC, 1998, p.4,28)

1855        Nov 26, Adam Bernard Mickiewicz (b.1798) died in Constantinople. He was a poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, and political activist. Mickiewicz is regarded as national poet in Poland, Lithuania (Adomas Mickevičius) and Belarus.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adam_Mickiewicz)

1858        Aug 7, Martynas Jankus was born in Bitenai.
    (LC, 1998, p.22)

1858        Dec 31, Vincas Kudirka (d.1899), author of the Lithuanian national anthem, was born in Vilkaviskis County.
    (LC, 1998, p.30)(LHC, 12/31/02)

1860        Dec 30, Jonas Jablonskis (d.1930), linguist and author of a prescriptive grammar of the Lithuanian language.
    (LC, 1998, p.4,30)

1861      Mar 3, Russian Czar Alexander II issued a manifest and statutes to end feudal control of serfs as part of a program of westernization. [see Feb 19]
    (HN, 3/3/99)(LHC,3/1/03)

1861      Mar 7, Dr. Jonas Sliupas, activist, publicist, and editor of "Ausra", was born in Rakandziai, Sauliai region. He died Nov 11,1944 in Berlin and was buried in Chicago.
    (LHC, 3/7/03)

1862        cOct 21-Nov 2, Maironis (d.1932), priest and romantic poet, was born. His portrait is on the 20-litas note.
    (LC, 1998, p.4)

1863        Jan 22, The interim Lithuanian government in Warsaw announced an uprising against Russian rule. The uprising aspired to restore the Polish-Lithuanian state and was supported by large numbers of peasants.
    (DrEE, 9/14/96, p.4)(LHC, 1/22/03)

1863        Feb 1, A committee in Vilnius issued a manifesto and took up a leadership role for a national revolution.
    (LHC, 2/1/03)

1863      Mar 11, A Lithuanian ruling group replaced a committee for the lead in an uprising.
    (LHC,3/11/03)

1864        Feb 10, Konstanty Kalinowski, the last Lithuanian provincial rebel leader, was captured. He was hanged a month later. [see Mar 10]
    (LHC, 2/10/03)

1864      Mar 2, Russian Czar Alexander II upheld reforms in Poland that gave landholders ownership of their lands.
    (LHC,3/1/03)

1864        Mar 10, Konstantinas Kalinauskas, one of the leaders of the 1863 rebellion, was executed in Vilnius. [see Feb 10]
    (LC, 1998, p.12)

1864-1943    Jonas Galvydis-Bykauskas, one of the founders of the Lithuanian army.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.4)

1865        Sep 6, Russia forbade the use of Latin letters in the Lithuanian language.  Following the 1863 uprising the Czarist authorities prohibited the publication of Lithuanian books in Roman letters. Books in Cyrillic were allowed but not accepted by the people. Secret book couriers smuggled in Latin lettered books until 1904.
    (DrEE, 9/14/96, p.4)(LC, 1998, p.24)

1865-1959    Bernard Berenson, Lithuanian-American art critic and author: "Life has taught me that it is not for our faults that we are disliked and even hated, but for our qualities."
    (AP, 7/17/00)

1867        Sep 28, The writer known as Lazdynu Peleda was born. Sep 16 is also given as a birth date.
    (LC, 1998, p.24)

1868        Mar 22, Wilhelm Storasta-Vydunas, Lithuanian philosopher and writer, was born in Jonaiciai. He died Feb 2, 1920, in Germany.
    (LHC, 3/22/03)

1869        Jun 27, Emma Goldman, Lithuanian born American anarchist, feminist and birth control advocate, was born. She was deported to the Soviet Union for inciting World War I draft riots in New York.
    (HN, 6/27/99)

1869        Sep 20, Juozas Tumas (Vaizgantas), writer,  was born in Maleisiai.
    (LC, 1998, p.24)

1869        The first US Lithuanian community was established in Danville, Pennsylvania.
    http://w3.arobas.net/~simunye/coalmine.html

1870        Feb 13, Leopold Godowsky, virtuoso pianist, composer, was born in Lithuania.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1871        The area of Klaipeda (Memel) came under German control.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.2)

1873        Apr 20, Jurgis Baltrusaitis (d.1944), poet and ambassador, was born.
    (LC, 1998, p.14)

1874        Jan 13, Vladas Lošas (d.1966), founder of Lithuanian studies in physiology, was born.
    (LHC, 1/12/03)

1874        Aug 10, Antanas Smetona (d.1944), the 1st president of Lithuania, was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antanas_Smetona)

1875        May 17, Motiejus Valancius (b.1801), bishop and writer, died.
    (LC, 1998, p.10)

1875        Sep 10, M.K. Ciurlionis (d.1911), Lithuanian artist and composer, was born. Sep 22 is also given as a birth date.
    (LC, 1998, p.12,24)

1876        Feb 10, Pranas Vaicaitis (d.1901), poet, was born in Santaka.
    (LC, 1998, p.10)

1877        Marija Peckauskas (d.1930), aka Satrijos Ragana, was born.
    (LC, 1998, p.20)

1879        Jan 3, Steponas Kairys (d.1964), signer of the Feb 16, 1918, Act of Independence, 1st chairman of VLIKAS, was born.
    (LHC, 1/3/03)

1879        Mar 3, Jonas Biliunas (d.1907), writer, was born.
    (LC, 1998, p.12)

1882      Feb 21, Michael Slezevicius, organizer of the fights for independence and head of the 2nd, 4th and 13th governments, was born in Drembliai, Raseiniai region. He died Nov 11, 1939 in Kaunas.
    (LHC, 2/21/03)

1882        Apr 7, Antanas Zukauskas (A. Vienuolis), writer, was born.
    (LC, 1998, p.14)

1882        Oct 19, Vincas Kreve (d.1954), Lithuanian writer and poet, was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vincas_Kr%C4%97v%C4%97-Mickevi%C4%8Dius)

1883        Ausra became the first Lithuanian periodic publication of secular patriotic content. It was published from Tilsit on the Lithuanian border in East Prussia. This year marked the beginning of the rebirth of the Lithuanian nation.
    (DrEE, 9/14/96, p.4)

1884        Dec 2, Prof. Vaclovas Birziska was born.
    (LC, 1998, p.30)

1885      Feb 26, Alexander Stulginskis, the 2nd president of Lithuania, was born at Kutaliai in the Silale region. He died Sep 22, 1969 in Kaunas.
    (LHC, 2/26/03)

1885        May 26, Al Jolson (d.1950), American jazz singer and silent film actor, was born in Seredzius, Lithuania as Asa Yoelson. His father Morris was a rabbi and a cantor and so Asa started singing early, alongside his elder brother Harry and two elder sisters. In 1894 the family set off for America in search of a new life.
    (www.unionsquaremusic.co.uk/titlev4.php?ALBUM_ID=576&LABEL_ID=5)

1885        Kayak races were staged at least this far back. Neptunas, the first rowing club in Lithuania, was founded in Klaipeda.
    (DrEE, 11/23/96, p.2)

1889        Jan 14, The 1st issue of the Lithuanian "Varpas" (Bell) newspaper was published.
    (LHC, 1/14/03)

1890        May 2, Jurgis Savickis, writer, was born.
    (LC, 1998, p.16)

1890        Jul, Ignas Musteikis, one of the founders of the Lith. army, was born.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.4)

1890        The Neo-classic regional court at 40 Gediminas prospect in Vilnius was built. It was later used by the KGB and became known as the KGB Museum, aka the Museum of Genocide Victims.
    (DrEE, 12/14/96, p.4)

1892        Antanas Vienazindis (b.1841), priest and poet, died at Laizuva.
    (LC, 1998, p.22)

1893        Jan 6, Vincas Mykolaitis-Putinas (d.1967), writer and poet, was born in Lithuania.
    (LHC, 1/6/03)

1893      Mar 10, Vytautas Landsbergis-Zemkalnis, Lithuanian architect, was born. He died May 21, 1993, in Vilnius.
    (LHC,3/10/03)

1893        Nov 4, Kazys Binkis, writer, was born.
    (LC, 1998, p.28)

1894        Jan 24, Vincas Mykolaitis-Putinas, writer, was born.
    (LC, 1998, p.8)

1896        Jan 8, Steponas Darius (d.1933), transatlantic pilot, was born in Rubiskis, Lithuania.
    (LHC, 1/8/03)

1896        Feb 2, Balys Sruoga (d.Oct 16, 1947), writer, was  born at Baibokai (Birzai region).
    (LHC, 2/2/03)

1896      Mar 13, The 1st telephone station in Vilnius began operating.
    (LHC, 3/13/03)

1896-1987    Marija Aukstaite, poet, fiction writer, and journalist. She emigrated to Canada in 1930. Her autobiography was titled: "The Bygone Days of Childhood" (Nubangave kudikystes dienos).
    (DrEE, 9/21/96, p.3)

1897        Engineer E. Golyskinas gave the city of Kaunas his paleontology collection which began the Kaunas Museum.
    (Dr, 7/7/96, p.4)

1897        Feliks Tyszkiewicz, Policsh count, established a beach estate at Palanga, Lithuania. It later became Palanga’s Amber Museum.
    (CNT, 3/04, p.151)

1898        Mar 26, Antanas Gustaitis, aviation engineer, was born in Marijampole region. He designed 9 ANBO airplanes. He was shot to death in Moscow Oct 16, 1941.
    (LHC, 3/26/03)

1898        Sep 12, Ben Shahn (d.1969), American painter (1964 Arts & Letters), was born In Kaunas, Lithuania.
    (WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ben_Shahn)

1898        The Lithuanian hymn, composed and written by Vincas Kudirka (1858-1899), was first published.
    (LC, 1998, p.3)

1898-1903    In downtown Vilnius at the prison a hospital (Lukiskiu Ligonine) was built during the Russian Czar occupation.
    (DrEE, 1/4/97, p.2)

1899      Mar 19, Juozas Matulis, physical chemist, founder and long time president of the Lithuanian Academy of Education, was born. He died Jun 25, 1993, in Vilnius.
    (LHC, 3/19/03)

1899        Nov 16, Vincas Kudirka (d.1858), author of the Lithuanian national anthem, died.
    (LC, 1998, p.30)(LHC, 12/31/02)

1900        At the turn of the century there were more than 100 synagogues in Vilnius and nearly 40% of the population was Jewish. Six daily Yiddish papers were published. The Bund, a Jewish labor guild, was founded in Vilnius as was the Vilna Troupe, a Yiddish repertory theater. The Strashun Library, a landmark of Jewish learning, was in Vilnius.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, p.A15)

1901        Feb 2, Jascha Heifetz (d.1987), US violin virtuoso (Carnegie Hall), was born in Vilnius, Lithuania.
    (www.musicianguide.com/biographies/1608002800/Jascha-Heifetz.html)

1901        Sep 21, Pranas Vaicaitis (d.1901), poet, died.
    (LC, 1998, p.10)

1902        Nov 26, Antanas Baranauskas, author of the poem "Anyksciu Silelis," died.
    (LC, 1998, p.8)

1904        Jonas Aistis (d. Jun 13, 1973), poet, was born. In 1939 he left Lithuania and in 1946 moved to  the US where he died.
    (XXIA, 7/21/99)

1905        Jan 24, In Vilnius a mass worker strike began and lasted to Jan 29.
    (LHC, 1/24/03)

1905        May 29, There was a pogrom against Jewish community in Brisk, Lithuania.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1905        Dec 4-6, The Great Seimas of Vilnius was convened with 2,000 delegates.
    (DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)(LC, 1998, p.30)

1905        The Lithuanian hymn, tautine giesme, was first performed in Vilnius.
    (LC, 1998, p.3)

1906        Feb 13, Adolfas Dapoka, historian, was born at Grybeliai in the Utena region. He died in Toronto, Canada Mar 3, 1961.
    (LHC, 2/13/03)

1907        Jan 9, Vilnius held its 1st art show.
    (LHC, 1/9/03)

1907        Feb 2, Bernardas Brazdzionis, poet, was born in Stebeikiskis.
    (LC, 1998, p.10)

1907      Mar 5, The 2nd Russian Duma, which included 7 Lithuanians, began work. The Duma stayed in session until June 15.
    (LHC, 3/5/03)

1907        Dec 8, Jonas Biliunas (b.1879), writer, died.
    (LC, 1998, p.12)

1908        Jan 27, Antanas Maceina (d. Jan 27, 1987), philosopher and representative of modern Lithuanian Catholicism, was born.
    (LHC, 1/27/03)

1909      Mar 15, Jonas Zemaitis was born in Palanga. He was a founder of the Lithuanian independence movement and served as presidium head. He was shot to death in Moscow Nov 26, 1954.
    (LHC, 3/15/03)

1909        Jul 25, Draugas, "The Friend," a Lithuanian newspaper, began publishing in Chicago.
    (Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.3)

1909        Jul, Jeronimas Cicenas, journalist and author of "Vilnius Between Storms" (Vilnius Tarp Audru), was born. He died in 1987.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.4)

1909        Scouting first came to Lithuania, as part of tsarist Russia. The indigenous Lithuanian Scout movement began in 1918, when the first Scout troop was founded in Vilnius by Scouter Petras Jurgela. In 1922, the first Scout General Assembly united the Lithuanian Scout Movement into the Scout Association of Lithuania. In 1924, the Scout Association of Lithuania was registered as a member of the World Bureau. Lithuania was a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement from 1923 to 1940.
    (www.experiencefestival.com/world_federation_of_independent_scouts)

1910        Jul, Kotryna Grigaitis, poet, was born. Her books included: Akys pro Veduokle, Paslaptis, Sirdis Pergamente, and Rudens Sapna.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.4)

1911        Mar 28, M.K. Ciurlionis (b.1875), Lithuanian artist and composer, died.
    (LC, 1998, p.12)

1911         Jun 30, Czeslaw Milosz (d.2004), Polish poet and critic and Nobel winner, was born in Lithuania. In 2001 his Polish "Milosz’s ABC’s" was published in English.
    (SFC, 3/21/01, p.C1)(HN, 6/30/01)

1913        Apr 27, The Knights of Lithuania were begun as a youth organization.  Its purpose was to unite the Lithuanian youth living in the USA, and through them, preserve Lithuanian culture and restore freedom to Lithuania, then divided between Russia and Germany.
    (http://vilnews.com/, 4/14/11)

1914        Aug 1, A Lithuanian Constitution was proclaimed.
    (LC, 1998, p.22)

1915        Feb 10, President Wilson blasted the British for using the U.S. flag on merchant ships to deceive the Germans. He also warned the Kaiser that he would hold Germany "to a strict accountability" for U.S. lives and property endangered. In Europe [Lithuania], the Germans encircled and captured 100,000 Russians near Nieman River. When the United States entered World War I, propagandist George Creel set out to stifle anti-war sentiment.
    (HN, 2/10/97)

1915-1919    More than 50,000 Lithuanian-Americans fought for the USA in World War I. This remarkable number was later leveraged to lobby US President Woodrow Wilson to recognize the newly independent Lithuanian state that emerged from the War’s aftermath.
    (http://sangamoncountyhistory.org/wp/?p=6506)

1916      Mar 1, A conference of Lithuanians in Berne (Mar 1-5) demanded for the 1st time the full independence of Lithuania.
    (LHC, 3/1/03)

1917      Mar 9, A Lithuanian committee in St. Petersburg accepted a declaration for Lithuanian autonomy. (LHC, 3/9/03)
1917      Mar 9, Algirdas Julius Greimas, Lithuanian semiologist and mythologist, was born in Tula, Russia. He died Feb 27, 1992, in Paris.
    (LHC, 3/9/03)

1917        Apr 30, Julius Janonis (b.1896), poet, disappointed by Bolshevism, committed suicide by throwing himself under a train in Petrapilis.
    (LC, 1998, p.14)

1917        May 27-Jun 3, The Lithuanian parliament convened in Petrapilis.
    (LC, 1998, p.16)

1917        Sep 18-23, A Lithuanian Conference was held in Vilnius.
    (LC, 1998, p.24)

1917        Dec 11, The first declaration of independence was claimed by Lithuania and an economic and military union was established with Germany.
    (LC, 1998, p.30)

1918        Jan 18, Jurgis Bielinis, major secret book courier, died.
    (LC, 1998, p.8)

1918        Feb 15, Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania adopted the Gregorian calendar.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1918        Feb 16, The Council of Lithuania declared the independence of the State of Lithuania. The council also declared that the foundations of the state would be determined by a Constituent Assembly to be elected by the inhabitants on the basis of universal, equal and secret suffrage. Independence lasted until World War II. It again declared independence in 1990.
    (DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)(LHC, 2/16/03)(AP, 2/16/07)

1918        Feb 18, Lithuania achieved independence.
    (Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.3)

1918        Feb 22, Germany claimed the Baltic states, Finland and Ukraine from Russia.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1918      Mar 3, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which ended Russian participation in World War I. Germany and Austria forced Soviet Russia to sign the Peace of Brest, which called for the establishment of 5 independent countries: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Ukraine. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which ended Russian participation in World War I, was annulled by the November 1918 armistice. The treaty deprived the Soviets of White Russia.
    (HN, 3/3/99)(LHC, 3/1/03)(AP, 3/3/08)

1918      Mar 6, Adolfas Ramanauskas-Vanagas was born in the US, New Berten. He later became a partisan in southern Lithuania and was shot to death Nov 29, 1957, in Vilnius.
    (LHC, 3/6/03)

1918        Mar 23, Germany became the 1st country to recognize the independence of Lithuania. This was based on the Lithuanian legislative act of Dec 11, 1917.
    (LHC, 3/23/03)

1918        Jul 11, German Prince Herzog von Urach (1864-1928) was elected King of Lithuania with the regnal name Mindaugas II. He never assumed the crown, however, as German authorities declared the election invalid. The invitation was withdrawn in November 1918.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilhelm_Karl,_Duke_of_Urach)

1918        Nov 5, A committee elected Voldemaras to organize a ruling authority.
    (LC, 1998, p.28)

1918        Nov 23, The first order was issued to begin organizing an army.
    (DrEE, 11/23/96, p.3)

1918        Julius Bielskis headed the Lithuanian information bureau in Washington to help establish recognition of Lithuania.
    (Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.4)

1918        The Lithuanian hymn by Vincas Kudirka became the official national anthem.
    (LC, 1998, p.3)

1919        Jan 5-6, The Bolsheviks took over Vilnius.
    (LC, 1998, p.8)

1919        Feb 8, Lithuanian and German military forces forced the Bolsheviks from Kedainiai.
    (LHC, 2/8/03)

 1919      Feb 27, The Bolsheviks took Lithuania and joined it with Belarus as a single Soviet republic. Litbel lasted until June 25.
    (LHC, 2/27/03)

1919        Mar 5, The first call was made for the Lithuanian army.
    (LC, 1998, p.12)

1919        Apr 4, Antanas Smetona began serving as the 1st president of Lithuania.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antanas_Smetona)

1919        Apr 19-20, Polish Army captured Vilno (Vilnius), Lithuania from Soviet Army.
    (HN, 4/20/98)(LC, 1998, p.14)

1919        Jun 28, The Versailles Treaty was signed. It in part transferred control of Klaipeda to the oversight of a joint commission from Britain, France, Italy and Japan.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.2)(LC, 1998, p.18)

1919        Oct 2, War with the Bolsheviks ended.
    (LC, 1998, p.26)

1919        Nov, A group of officers of the American Brigade, 112th United Stated Infantry, left the United States and arrived in Kaunas on December 31. They had had to sail from Quebec because of a steamship strike in New York. They visited Lithuanian Minister Count A. Tyszkiewicz in London, where they first heard of the Lithuanian victory at Šiauliai over Bermondt. Approximately 10,000 enlisted men were ready to go to Lithuania. The US government would not allow direct transportation so arrangements were made for them to be taken to Canada as laborers. From there they were to sail to Riga. The expedition was financed by the Lithuanians, with some assurance that there would be unpublicized indirect support from the US government.
    (www.arlingtoncemetery.net/sjharris.htm)

1919        Alfonsas Cipkus (Nyka-Niliunas), poet, was born. His work included "Lost Symphonies" (1946).
    (XXIA, 7/21/99)   

1919        The Central Library of Lithuania was founded and named after Martynas Mazvydas, the 16th century author of the first Lith. book.
    (WWW)

1919        The Red Army with the collaboration of Lithuanian communists led by Mickevicius-Kapsukas occupied Vilnius.
    (DrEE, 12/14/96, p.4)

1919        A war with the Bolsheviks was fought in Lithuania. Partisan activity of this time was documented in the 1979 book by Petras Gudelis: "Joniskelio Apskrities  Partizanai" (The Partisans of Joniskelis County) his 1983 "Joniskelio Apskrities Partizanu Atsiminimai" (Memoirs of Partisans of Joniskelis County).
    (DrEE, 10/12/96, p.3)

1919        Jonas Vileisis led a Lithuanian government mission in Washington to secure loans for the newly established government of Lithuania.
    (Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.4)

1919        Draugas, a Lithuanian newspaper, began daily publication. It was published by the congregation of Lithuanian Marion fathers in Chicago.
    (Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.3)

1919        A yachting club was established in Kaunas.
    (DrEE, 11/23/96, p.2)

1920        Jan 27, In Kaunas higher education classes began marking the beginnings of Kaunas University.
    (LHC, 1/27/03)

1920        Feb 12, The last German forces withdrew from Klaipeda as French and English naval forces arrived.
    (LHC, 2/12/03)
1920        Feb 12, French troops occupied the area of Klaipeda.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.2)

1920        Feb 17, A directorship for the Klaipeda (Kaliningrad) region was formed.
    (LHC, 2/17/03)

1920      Feb 21, A Prussian Lithuanian National Council urged the Lithuanian government and the Allies to take measures for uniting the Klaipeda region to Lithuania.
    (LHC, 2/21/03)

1920        Feb 24, Samuel J. Harris (b.1896), First Lieutenant, American Brigade, Republic of Lithuania, died in an army revolt in Kaunas, Lithuania. The insurrection was due to Communist agitation among the inexperienced peasant boys in the Lithuanian army. The uprising was quelled immediately, through the activity of the American and British officers of the military missions present in Lithuania. Harris was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
    (www.arlingtoncemetery.net/sjharris.htm)

1920      Feb 27, The Lithuanian government offered the representatives of the National Council of Prussian Lithuania assent to cooptation in the Lithuanian government. They co-opted March 20.
    (LHC, 2/27/03)

1920        Apr 14-15, Elections to the Constituent Seimas took place. 112 representatives were elected to the parliament: 59 Christian Democrat, 28 Peasant and social populists, 12 Social Democrats, 7 Jews, 3 Poles, 1 German and 2 Independents. The Seimas elected Aleksandras Stulginskis the first President. A coalition government was formed by Kazys Grinius.
    (DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)

1920        May 15, The Constituent Assembly opened to promulgate fundamental state laws.
    (DrEE, 10/12/96, p.3)

1920        Jun, The Seimas adopted a Provisional Constitution.
    (DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)

1920        Jul 4, Poland gave de facto recognition to Lithuania.
    (LC, 1998, p.20)

1920        Jul 12, Lithuania and Russia signed a peace treaty in Moscow.
    (LC, 1998, p.20)

1920        Aug 26, The Lithuanian army marched into Vilnius.
    (LC, 1998, p.22)

1920        Oct 7, A peace treaty was signed with Poland.
    (LC, 1998, p.26)

1920        Oct 9, Poland’s Gen. Zeligovski  took over Vilnius one day before the new peace treaty was to take effect.
    (LC, 1998, p.26)(XXIA, 7/21/99)

1920        Dec 26, The Drama Theater began operating.
    (LC, 1998, p.30)

1920        Dec 31, The Lithuanian Opera began operating.
    (LC, 1998, p.30)

1920        Adomas Varnas, artist, designed the first Lithuanian postal stamp. It featured a portrait of Grand Duke Vytautas and was issued for the inauguration of the National Assembly.
    (DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)

1920-1939    The era of Polish occupation of Vilnius.
    (DrEE, 12/14/96, p.4)

1920-1940    Kaunas was the capital of Lithuania.
    (DrEE, 11/23/96, p.4)

1921        Jan 22, The War Museum in Kaunas was dedicated.
    (LC, 1998, p.8)

1921        Jan 23, Marija Alseika-Gimbutas, archeologist and pre-historian, was born in Vilnius. She died in LA, Ca., on Feb 2, 1994.
    (LHC, 1/23/03)

1921        Feb 16, The War Museum in Kaunas was officially opened.
    (Dr, 7/7/96, p.4)(LHC, 2/16/03)

1921        Mar 21, The Lithuanian army marched into Palanga.
    (LC, 1998, p.12)

1921        May 31, American Lithuanians gave Pres. Harding a million signatures requesting de jure recognition of Lithuania.
    (LC, 1998, p.16)

1921        Sep, Lithuania was admitted to the League of Nations.
    (DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)

1921        The first basketball court in Lithuania was constructed in Kaunas.
    (DrEE, 11/9/96, p.2)

1921        Zemaite (b.1845), pioneer of realism in Lithuanian literature, died. Her portrait is in the one litas note.
    (LC, 1998, p.4)

1922        Jan 22, The museum at Klaipeda was established.
    (LHC, 1/22/03)

1922        Feb 1, In Vilnius the "Middle Lithuanian" parliament gathered.
    (LC, 1998, p.10)

1922        Feb 16, The Univ. of Vytautas the Great re-opened in Kaunas. It was Lithuania’s main university until 1930.
    (DrEE, 11/23/96, p.4)(LHC, 2/16/03)

1922        Feb 20, The "Middle Lithuanian" parliament announced the attachment of Vilnius to Poland.
    (LC, 1998, p.10)
1922        Feb 20, Vilnius, Lithuania, agreed to separate from Poland.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1922        Mar 24, The Polish parliament endorsed the transfer of the Vilnius area to Lithuania.
    (LHC, 3/23/03)
   
1922        Mar 29, The Lithuanian government announced a land reform act enacted Feb 15.
    (LC, 1998, p.12)(LHC, 3/29/03)

1922        Apr, The first Lithuanian basketball match was staged.
    (DrEE, 11/9/96, p.2)

1922        Jul 13, A conference of ambassadors gave de jure recognition to Lithuania.
    (LC, 1998, p.20)

1922        Jul 27, The US government recognized the Lithuanian government de jure.
    (Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.3)

1922        Jul 28, A statement drafted by the Diplomatic Service of the USA specified in the concealed form temporariness of self-dependence of the state system of Lithuania and,  at the same time, Latvia and Estonia, as long as the Bolshevist Russia exists, as well as conditionality of the states by acknowledging their governments only, and not the states themselves.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ojrbvyl p.43)

1922        Aug 1, Lithuania adopted a new Constitution.
    (DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)(LC, 1998, p.22)

1922        Aug 16, The litas was proclaimed the national currency.
    (LC, 1998, p.22)

1922        Sep 25, The litas was issued as the national currency.
    (LC, 1998, p.24)

1922        Oct 10-11, The first Lithuanian parliament was elected.
    (LC, 1998, p.26)

1922        Oct 11, The US officially accredited Voldemaras Carneckis as the Lithuanian representative and the official Lithuanian Legation in Washington began.
    (Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.4)

1922        Nov 10, Sweden recognized Lithuania de jure.
    (LC, 1998, p.28)

1922        Nov 13, Following elections the first Seimas of 78 representatives was convened.
    (DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)

1922        Dec 12, Lithuania was recognized de jure by Britain, France, Italy and Japan.
    (LC, 1998, p.30)

1922        A veterinary branch was opened at the Kaunas Univ. Medical Faculty.
    (DrEE, 12/14/96, p.5)

1923        Jan 9, The uprising at Klaipeda began.
    (LC, 1998, p.8)

1923        Jan 10, Troops of the Lithuanian army crossed the Klaipeda border with assistance from local rebels.
    (LHC, 1/9/03)

1923        Jan 15, Lithuanians took Klaipeda back from French control.
     (LC, 1998, p.8)(LHC, 1/15/03)

1923        Feb 3, The National Union committee divided a neutral zone between Lithuania and Poland and drew a final line of demarcation.
    (LHC, 2/3/03)

1923      Mar 11, The Ausra Museum was founded in Siauliai on the 40th anniversary of the Ausra newspaper.
    (LHC, 3/11/03)

1923      Mar 15, An ambassador's conference set the demarcation line between Lithuania and Poland as a national border, which Lithuania did not recognize.
    (LHC, 3/15/03)

1923        Mar, The Seimas was dissolved due to equal representation in parliament that made it difficult to govern.
    (DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)

1923        Apr 18, Poland annexed Central Lithuania.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1923        May 12-13, The 2nd Seimas was elected. The Christian Democrats achieved a majority of the 78 seats. It served for 3 years but went through 4 sets of leadership: Ernestas Galvanauskas, Antanas Tumenas, Vytautas Petrulis, and Leonas Bistras.
    (DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)(LC, 1998, p.16)

1923        Dec 29-30, The first Lithuanian boxing competition was held in Kaunas.
    (DrEE, 11/9/96, p.2)

1923        The first Greco-Roman wrestling contests were held in Kaunas.
    (DrEE, 11/23/96, p.2)

1923-1927    Kazys Bikauskas replaced Mr. Carneckis as the Lithuanian representative in Washington. Mr. Bikauskas arranged the purchase of the embassy on 16th St.
    (Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.4)

1924        May 8, In Paris a convention on Klaipeda was signed.
    (LC, 1998, p.16)

1924        May 17, The foreign entente in charge of Klaipeda granted suzerainty to Lithuania by a treaty signed in Paris.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.2)

1924        Jul 16, American war ships first entered Klaipeda.
    (LC, 1998, p.20)

1924        Aug 23, The first Lithuanian national song festival was held in Kaunas.
    (LC, 1998, p.22)

1924        US Lithuanians purchased a home on the 2200 block of 16th St. owned by Senator John B. Henderson for $90,000 as its embassy in Washington DC.
    (Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.4)

1924        The external Lithuanian Community published the following periodicals: the leftist Keleivis (Pilgrim), the religious Darbininkas (Worker), the 2 nationalist Vienybe (Unity), and Tevyne (Fatherland).
    (DrEE, 10/5/96, p.3)

1925        Jan 18, The museum at Panevezys, Lithuania, opened.
    (LHC, 1/18/03)

1925        Jun 25, A British fleet visited Klaipeda.
    (LC, 1998, p.18)

1925        Feb 10, Poland made an accord with the Vatican and the archdiocese of Vilnius was revived as one of 5 Polish dioceses.
    (LHC, 2/10/03)

1925        The YIVO Institute, devoted to Jewish and Yiddish culture and scholarship, was founded in Vilnius, Lithuania. It promoted the Yiddish language as the linchpin of European Jewish culture. By 1933 under Max Weinreich it succeeded in raising $10,000 re renovate a building beyond the crowded streets of the Jewish quarter.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, p.A15)(SSFC, 6/3/12, p.F4)

1925        The first Lithuanian weightlifting championship was held.
    (DrEE, 11/9/96, p.2)

1925        The first Lithuanian Greco-Roman wrestling championships were held.
    (DrEE, 11/23/96, p.2)

1926        Mar 30, Feliks E. Dzerzjinski (48), Lithuanian organizer (KGB), died. Felix Dzerzhinsky was the founder of the communist secret police, the Cheka.
    (MC, 3/30/02)(WSJ, 10/15/02, p.D6)

1926        May 8-10, Elections for the 3rd Seimas took place. The formerly dominant right-wing parties were replaced by the moderate leftists (Peasant Populists and Social Democrats). Kazys Grinius was elected president and Mykolas Slezevicius was Prime Minister. Martial law and restrictions on democratic freedoms were abolished. A Non-aggression Treaty was signed with the Soviet Union and Lithuania’s right to Vilnius, which was under Polish occupation, was recognized.
    (DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)

1926        Apr 4, The Papal Bull "Lituanorum Gente" established Lithuanian as a province of the Catholic Church.
    (LC, 1998, p.14)

1926        Jun 7, Dr. Kazys Grinius was elected president by the 3rd Parliament.
    (LC, 1998, p.18)

1926        Sep 27, Lithuania and the Soviet Union agreed to a 5-year peace treaty.
    (LC, 1998, p.16,24)
1926        Sep 27, A Concordat was signed with Sweden.
    (LC, 1998, p.24)

1926        Nov 21, Nationalistic students organized an illegal march to protest the liberal government’s soft policy on communists and other perceived provocateurs.
    (DrEE, 10/12/96, p.3)

1926        Dec17, The military right-wing opposition executed a coup d’etat in Lithuania and a dictatorship was established under Antanas Smetona, who remained president until the country was annexed by the USSR in 1940.
    (Compuserve, Online Encyclopedia)(DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)

1926        Dec 19, Former Lithuanian Pres. Aleksandras Stulginskis served for a few hours as acting president, the 5th president of Lithuania, following a coup that returned Antanas Smetona (1874-1944) to office.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aleksandras_Stulginskis)

1926-1927    The first 2 years of the right-wing regime under Prime Minister Augustinas Voldemaras were particularly harsh.
    (DrEE, 10/12/96, p.3)

1927        Feb 16, Dr. Jonas Basanavicius died in Vilnius.
    (LC, 1998, p.10)

1927        Apr 12, The Seimas (parliament) was dissolved.
    (DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)

1927-1928    Mikas Bagdonas replaced Mr. Bizauskas as Lith. representative in Washington.
    (Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.4)

1927-1929    Over this period 522 people were convicted in field military courts for communist or other alleged subversive activities.
    (DrEE, 10/12/96, p.3)

1928        Jan 29, Lithuania and Germany signed a boundary agreement that established the Nemunas River as a border up to Klaipeda.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.2)(LHC, 1/29/03)

1928        Jul 1, The 2nd national song festival was held in Kaunas.
    (LC, 1998, p.20)

1928        The School of Animal Husbandry was opened in Gruzdziai (Siauliai region).
    (DrEE, 12/14/96, p.5)

1928-1934    Bronius Kazys Balutis replaced Mr. Bagdonas as Lith. representative in Washington.
    (Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.4)

1929        An addition due to prison in downtown Vilnius was built.
    (DrEE, 1/4/97, p.2)

Go to 1930