165 Million BP Madagascar broke away from the
continent of Africa. [see 160 mil BP]
(SFC, 1/15/98, p.A10)
160 Million BP Madagascar broke away from the
continent of Africa. [see 165 mil BP]
(WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W6)
75 Million BP The 30-foot dinosaur Majungatholus
atopus lived in Madagascar about this time. Its fossils were
discovered in 1996. It was similar to creatures whose fossils were
found in Argentina and India. The horned dinosaur was a remote
cousin of T. rex and had sharp serrated teeth. In 2003 scientists
determined that 2-ton, 30-foot creatures were cannibals.
(SFC, 5/15/98, p.A2)(SFC, 4/3/03, p.A2)
70Mil BC In Madagascar A frog lived in Madagascar
about this time that grew to 16 inches in length and weighed 10
pounds. In 1993 paleontologist David Krause began to find fossils of
(SFC, 2/19/08, p.A8)
66Mil BC In 2020 researchers described an
exquisitely preserved fossil of the plant-eating mammal named
Adalatherium hui, which lived in Madagascar about this time during
the Cretaceous Period and superficially resembled a badger with its
long torso and stubby tail.
c500 AD The first settlers of Madagascar began
arriving from the Malay Archipelago in the middle of the first
millennium. DNA studies in 2012 indicated that the number of women
in the first group of settlers numbered about 30.
(Econ, 3/24/12, p.84)
1000 AD Large portions of the island fauna of
Madagascar, that once included a lemur the size of bear and the
ostrich-like Elephant Bird, was eliminated by the Malagash people of
(NOHY, 3/90, p.188)
1000 The flightless elephant
bird Aepyornis maximus, which had stalked the savannah and
rainforests of Madagascar, was hunted to extinction about this time.
The elephant bird died out after a new wave of human settlers
arrived. Researchers in 2018 said the creature would have stood at
least three meters (10 feet) tall, and had an average weight of 650
kg, making it the largest bird genus yet uncovered.
1500 Aug 10, Diego Diaz
1761 Jul 31, The French ship
LíUtile, hit a coral reef near the Ile de Sable in the Indian
Ocean. Nearly half of 160 slaves were killed. The French crew of 163
survived. On Sep 27 a white crew of 123 set sail on the Providence,
built from the remains of LíUtile, and managed to reach Madagascar
with just one death in four days. Fifteen years later a rescue ship
found seven female survivors.
(Econ, 12/19/15, p.94)
1828-1861 Queen Ranavalona I ruled over
1835 Madagascarís Queen
Ranavalona I persecuted and expelled foreigners, including the
island's missionaries and extended her rule all over the island with
her 20,000-man army.
1861 Radama II (1829-1863), the
son of Queen Ranavalona I, succeeded her to rule Madagascar. During
his 2 year rule he reopened the country to Christian missionaries.
1863 Radama II, ruler of
Madagascar, was assassinated. He was succeeded by his wife
Rasoherina, who was later succeeded by another of Radama's wives,
1881 A writer named Carle Liche
published an article in the Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar
Magazine that described his travels in Madagascar. He claimed to be
the first European to contact the Mkodo tribe of cave-dwelling
pigmies and described a man-eating tree and a ceremony in which a
woman was sacrificed to the sacred tree. The story was debunked in
1955 by science writer Willy Ley, who established that Liche was a
pseudonym and that the Mkodos and their tree were fictional
(SSFC, 10/31/10, p.K2)
1942 Sep 10, British troops
landed on Madagascar.
1943 Jan 8, The British handed
Madagascar over to the Free French.
1947 Mar 29, Madagascar
rebelled against French colonial rule. Repression followed and an
estimated 100,000 Malagasy were killed. This became known as
Martyrís Day, first celebrated in 1967.
(SSFC, 3/25/12, p.H3)
1960 Jun 26, The Malagasy
Republic (Madagascar) gained independence from France.
(SFC, 8/19/96, p.A10)(PC, 1992, p.973)
1960-2000 Madagascar lost half of its forests over
(Econ, 3/1/14, p.94)
1975 Dec 21, Didier Ratsiraka,
Madagascar military commander, was elected to a seven-year term as
president in a national referendum. He published a "red book" of
Marxist principles and nationalized much of the economy. In the
1980s with severe economic decline Ratsiraka changed course and
established ties with the world Bank and the IMF.
1975-1992 Didier Ratsiraka led a Socialist regime.
(SFC, 6/9/99, p.C3)
1975 A major cyclone hit the
1976 A crystal of beryl, 59
feet long and almost 12 feet across, was found in Madagascar. It
weighed 187 tons.
(SFEC, 9/15/96, Z1 p.5)
1986 The Quebec Iron and
Titanium (QIT) subsidiary of Rio Tinto, an intíl. mining concern,
began pursuing rights in Madagascar to extract high-grade ilmenite,
a form of titanium dioxide used to whiten toothpaste, paint and
cleansing powders. A 15,000 acre site at Fort Dauphin was expected
to yield 750,000 tons a year over 60 years for an investment of $400
million. The Malagasy government would receive about $40 million per
year plus $10 million in taxes and fees. A decision was expected in
(SFC, 1/15/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 11/17/04, p.A1)
1990 In Madagascar the Malagasy
government agreed to an environmental action plan that called for
the creation of national parks and protected areas.
(SFC, 6/23/96, Z1 p.5)
1991 A man from the United Arab
Emirates found a large black rock that in 1996 was found to contain
the worldís largest emerald cluster. Bangkok geologists spent a week
removing a thick layer of black mica before finding a group of 127
medium green emeralds weighing 167 pounds.
(SFC, 10/5/96, p.C1)
1992 Mass demonstrations and
civil service strikes led to a march on the palace by 100,000
people. The elite guard killed an estimated 100. Didier Rastiraka
soon agreed to new elections that were won by Albert Zafy, a heart
surgeon. Zafy reversed the economic reforms begun by Rastiraka.
(SFC, 8/19/96, p.A8,10)(SFC, 6/9/99, p.C3)
1992-1997 The US Agency for International
Development has committed $85 mil for environmental programs here.
(SFC, 6/23/96, zone 1 p.5)
1993 In Madagascar Albert Zafy
defeated Didier Ratsiraka to become president. He was impeached
three years later amid accusations of corruption. Zafy ran again in
November 1996, losing this time to Ratsiraka.
1994 Pres. Albert Zafy and
Prime Minister Francisque Ravony balked at an economic overhaul
ordered by the Intíl. Monetary Fund and World Bank.
(SFC, 9/6.96, p.A14)
1995 Madagascar signed the
Convention on Biological Diversity.
(SFC, 1/19/00, p.A12)
1996 Apr 4, In the capital city
of Antananarivo, Madagascar, thousands of people demonstrated
against the president amid calls for a military coup.
(SFC, 5/5/96, p.T-9)
1996 Jun 5, On World
Environment Day 210,000 hectares on the Masoala Peninsula were
proclaimed a national park, the 6th on the island.
(SFC, 6/23/96, zone 1 p.5)
1996 Aug 19, The per capita
income stands at $240 per year.
(SFC, 8/19/96, p.A10)
1996 Aug, Pres. Albert Zafy was
impeached for corruption.
(SFC, 2/1/97, p.C1)
1996 Didier Ratsiraka was
elected president as a democrat.
(SFC, 6/9/99, p.C3)
1997 Jan 24, In Madagascar a
cyclone struck and that some 200 were killed. It was later reported
that 520,000 people were affected.
(WSJ, 1/27/97, p.A1)(SFC, 2/8/97, p.A11)
1997 Jan 31, A constitutional
court said that Didier Ratsiraka edged out Albert Zafy in last
(SFC, 2/1/97, p.C1)
1997 Apr 12, It was reported
that a plague of locusts was poised to sweep over the 5 million
acres of rich farmland in the south of the nation.
(SFC, 4/12/97, p.A12)
1998 Mar 28, A locust swarm was
reported to have covered an estimated 24 million acres in the south
of the country.
(SFC, 3/28/98, p.A5)
1998 Jun 13, The grasshopper
swarm, 7 miles long, flew into the capital city of Antananarivo.
(SFC, 6/13/98, p.A7)
1998 Major sapphire deposits
were discovered in Madagascar. A seam of high-quality sapphires was
found in the Ilakaka river valley, about 700 km (430 miles) south of
the capital Antananarivo.
(Econ, 7/30/05, p.42)(SSFC, 12/23/07, p.A26)(AFP,
1999 Oct 21, It was reported
that only some 4,000 diademed sifakas, the largest living lemurs,
were left in Madagascar.
(SFC, 10/21/99, p.AA7)
1999 Oct 22, It was reported
that dinosaur fossils, found 4 years ago in Madagascar, may be the
oldest known. The creatures were long-necked prosauropods from about
230 million years ago.
(SFC, 10/22/99, p.A1)
2000 Mar 3, In Madagascar an
estimated 600,000 people were affected by flooding from tropical
storm Gloria and at least 55 people were reported killed.
(SFC, 3/4/00, p.A12)
2000 Mar 8, In Madagascar
tropical storm Gloria left over 100 people dead just weeks after
Cyclone Eline left 54 dead.
(SFC, 3/9/00, p.A10)
2000 Mar 15, It was reported
that some 500 new cases of cholera had broken out following a year
long epidemic that had killed 1,350 people.
(SFC, 3/15/00, p.A10)
2000 Apr 3, A cyclone left 2
people dead and nearly flattened the town of Antalaha.
(WSJ, 4/4/00, p.A1)
2000 Apr 16, The winners of the
Goldman Environmental Prize included: Nat Quansah (46), an
ethnobotanist in Madagascar.
(SFC, 4/17/00, p.A2)
2000 Jun, The US government
passed the Africa Growth and Opportunity Act. It gave 23 sub-Saharan
countries the opportunity to ship a range of textile products to the
(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A1)
2000 In Antananarivo, capital
of Madagascar, Marc Ravalomanana, dairy mogul, took office as the
mayor and instituted a cleanup campaign.
(SFC, 8/21/00, p.A8)
2001 Dec 16, Elections were
held but no candidate won a majority. The results were annulled Apr
(SSFC, 1/13/02, p.C12)(SFC, 4/18/02, p.A11)
2001 Mauritius textile worker
wages reached $1.47 cents an hour compared with 37 cents in
(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A4)
2001 In Madagascar local people
set up an association named Anja Miray (the community of Anja),
which involved six villages in reforestation and the development of
ecotourism. At the beginning of the 1990s, half of the 13 hectares
(32 acres) of the forest of Anja were illegally chopped down. In
2012 the UN awarded Anja Miray the biennial Equator Prize, which
recognizes 25 communities from all over the world for their work in
safeguarding biodiversity and promoting ecotourism.
2002 Jan 7, In Antananarivo
some 30,000 protested the presidential election results.
(SSFC, 1/13/02, p.C12)
2002 Jan 25, The High
Constitutional Court certified Marc Ravalomanana with 46.2% of the
votes and Pres. Didier Ratsiraka with 40.8%. A runoff was set within
2 months as tens of thousands of opposition supporters protested the
(SSFC, 1/27/02, p.A19)
2002 Feb 22, Madagascar
declared a 3-month state of emergency after the main opposition
leader, Marc Ravalomanana, declared himself president following a
(SFC, 2/23/02, p.A11)
2002 Feb 28, Pres. Didier
Ratsiraka declared martial law following 2 months of strikes and
(SFC, 3/1/02, p.A17)
2002 Mar 8, The opposition
seized the defense ministry in a bid to install Marc Ravalomanana as
(WSJ, 3/11/02, p.A1)
2002 Mar 25, Opposition
supporters thwarted an attempt by the military to seize control of
(SFC, 3/26/02, p.A6)
2002 cMar 31, In Madagascar a
bridge linking the capital to a southern port was blown up.
(WSJ, 4/1/02, p.A1)
2002 Apr 17, The Supreme Court
annulled the disputed results of the Dec 16 presidential elections.
(SFC, 4/18/02, p.A11)
2002 Apr 29, The High Court
ruled that opposition leader Marc Ravalomanana received over 51% of
the vote in December elections and that Pres. Ratsiraka won close to
36%. Ratsiraka said he would not abide by the vote.
(SFC, 5/1/02, p.A13)
2002 May 6, Marc Ravalomanana
was sworn in as president. Talks with Ratsiraka were set for May
(SFC, 5/7/02, p.A12)
2002 Jun 26, The United States
became the first country to take a formal stand on the leadership
battle for control of Madagascar, recognizing Marc Ravalomanana as
the legitimate president.
2002 Jul 5, Former Madagascar
President Didier Ratsiraka fled to the Seychelles with his family,
apparently ending more than six months of turmoil in his island
2003 Dec 24, Madagascar's
former PM Didier Ratsiraka was sentenced to 12 years of hard labor
and ordered to pay $7.6 million in damages for his role in last
year's election crisis that led to the formation of two governments.
(AP, 12/24/03)(Econ, 1/1/05, p.34)
2004 Mar 7, The Samson, a ferry
carrying 113 people, vanished after it was caught in a cyclone as it
sailed between the Indian Ocean islands of Comoros and Madagascar.
There were 2 survivors. The drownings brought the death toll from
Cyclone Gafilo to 154.
(AP, 3/10/04)(AP, 3/11/04)
2004 Steven M. Goodman and
Jonathan P. Benstead co-edited ďThe Natural History of Madagascar.Ē
(Econ, 4/24/04, p.87)
2004 Alison Jolly authored
ďLords & Lemurs: Mad Scientists, Kings with Spears, and the
Survival of Diversity in Madagascar.Ē
(Econ, 4/24/04, p.87)
2005 Apr 18, Madagascarís Pres.
Ravalomanana signed a $110 million, 4-year aid package in
Washington, designed to fix problems with corruption and local bank
loans. The grant was from the Millennium Challenge Account, unveiled
by Pres. Bush in 2002 to fund honest governments pursuing sound
(WSJ, 4/18/05, p.A1)(Econ, 4/23/05, p.75)
2005 In Madagascar rising
commodity prices prompted Rio Tinto to begin investing $650 million
in operations to mine ilmenite, a mineral that contains titanium
oxide, which is used to make pigments and sunscreen.
(Econ, 3/17/07, p.73)
2006 Sep 9, The ship Moubarak
heading from Madagascar to the Comoros Islands sank in the Indian
Ocean this weekend in bad weather. Of the 76 people on board, 43
people were rescued after the boat sank. 33 people were missing.
2006 Dec 3, Madagascar's
president faced 13 challengers in the first elections since voting
five years ago led to a six-month power struggle that split the
Indian Ocean nation between two governments. President Marc
Ravalomanana, a charismatic dairy tycoon known as the "The Milkman,"
won 55 percent of the vote to beat 13 challengers.
2006 Dec 8, In Madagascar
police searched the property of former President Albert Zafy as part
of an ongoing investigation into the whereabouts of Gen.
Randrianafidisoa and opposition politician Pety Rakotoniaina.
2006 Dec, In Madagascar laws
came into effect requiring gold panners and collectors to register
with the government and pay for permits.
(SSFC, 7/8/07, p.C4)
2006 The GDP per person in
Madagascar stood at about $300 per year. Most of the nearly 19
million population survived on tiny plots of land for which they
held no title.
(Econ, 12/9/06, p.53)
2007 Jan 30, Jamal Khalifa, a
Saudi citizen married to a sister of Osama bin Laden, was killed
when gunmen broke into his house in village in Madagascar in an
2007 The population of
Madagascar was about 18.6 million, with an average income of $290
(Econ, 7/30/05, p.42)
2008 Feb 17, Madagascar was hit
by Cyclone Ivan. At least 44 people were killed and some 145,000
(Reuters, 2/18/08)(SFC, 2/26/08, p.A3)
2008 Apr 12, It was reported
that an international team of scientists had completed an inventory
of life on Madagascar, one of Earthís largest and most diverse
(SFC, 4/12/08, p.A4)
2008 Jul 11, A fishing boat,
carrying eight Taiwanese, one Chinese and six crew members from
Madagascar, sank after reporting engine problems.
2008 Dec 9, A South African man
accused of attempting to smuggle hundreds of rare chameleons,
snakes, lizards and frogs out of Madagascar inside his jacket and
luggage was convicted and sentenced to a year in jail.
2008 Madagascar banned exports
of rough sapphires in hopes of creating local polishing centers with
better jobs. The export ban was lifted in 2010.
2008 In Madagascar seven of ten
people lived on less than $2 per day. By 2014 this rose to nine of
(Econ, 1/4/14, p.36)
2009 Jan 26, In Madagascar
thousands of demonstrators demanding a new government in Madagascar
took to the streets and set the country's state TV complex on fire
to protest the apparent shutdown of the opposition's radio station.
2009 Jan 28, In Madagascar
thousands of opposition supporters demanded the resignation of Pres.
Marc Ravalomanana. The director of the main hospital said 43 people
had burned to death as protesters set fires in political violence
earlier in the week.
2009 Jan 29, Madagascar's
president made a conciliatory gesture, promising to put a radio
station back on air after its closure sparked anti-government
rioting that left at least 43 dead. A US envoy later estimated over
100 dead while police said 76 had died in the rioting.
(AP, 1/29/09)(WSJ, 2/4/09, p.A10)
2009 Jan, The population of
Madagascar numbered some 20 million. It was estimated that 70% of
the people lived on less than $1 per day.
(SSFC, 1/4/09, p.E4)
2009 Feb 3, In Madagascar the
government fired opposition leader Andry Rajoelina from his post as
mayor of the capital city, Antananarivo, after he led two weeks of
protests demanding that the president step down.
(WSJ, 2/4/09, p.A10)
2009 Feb 7, In Antananarivo,
Madagascar, at least 28 people were killed by security forces during
anti-government protests. Arrest warrants were issued the next day
for those deemed responsible for the political violence. A week of
violence left up to 100 people dead.
(SFC, 2/9/09, p.A2)(Econ, 3/21/09, p.50)
2009 Feb 9, In Madagascar
defense minister Cecile Manorohanta said she has resigned because
civilians were killed when security forces fired on anti-government
protesters on Feb 7.
2009 Feb 16, In Madagascar
anti-government protesters threw stones and police responded with
tear gas. Opposition leader Andry Rajoelina (34) continued his
attempts to force out the president. No casualties were immediately
2009 Feb 20, Madagascar
security forces regained control of four government ministries
overnight from opposition activists. Police arrested 50 people and
no injuries were reported.
2009 Mar 11, In Madagascar Col.
Andre Ndrianarijaona, the leader of a group of mutinous soldiers,
declared himself head of the army, raising questions about the
president's hold on power on this impoverished Indian Ocean island.
2009 Mar 16, Madagascar's
opposition leader called on the military to arrest the nation's
president as a power struggle between the two appeared to be
reaching a decisive moment.
2009 Mar 17, Madagascar's Pres.
Marc Ravalomanana ceded power to the military, instead of rival
Andry Rajoelina, who plunged the island nation into weeks of turmoil
with his bid for power.
2009 Mar 17, Madagascar's Pres.
Marc Ravalomanana ceded power to the military, instead of rival
Andry Rajoelina, who plunged the island nation into weeks of turmoil
with his bid for power. The military installed opposition leader
(AP, 3/17/09)(SFC, 3/18/09, p.A4)
2009 Mar 19, Southern African
nations declared they will not recognize Madagascar's new leader, an
army-backed politician who ousted an elected president. The US said
it would reconsider aid to the island nation.
2009 Mar 20, The African Union
suspended Madagascar, the strongest condemnation by the
international community since opposition leader Andry Rajoelina took
power with the support of the army.
2009 Mar 21, In Madagascar
Andry Rajoelina was sworn in as the new president in a ceremony
shunned by the international community after the ousting of the
elected president, Marc Ravalomanana. Rajoelina promised new
elections within two years.
2009 Mar 31, Madagascar's
neighbors suspended the impoverished nation from their regional
development and democracy club, and threatened to take further steps
if the Indian Ocean island's ousted president is not restored to
2009 Apr 21, Madagascarís
military-backed Pres. Andry Rajoelina banned demonstrations one day
after a policeman was killed.
(SFC, 4/25/09, p.A2)
2009 Apr 23, In Madagascar
armed forces fired tear gas to disperse demonstrators loyal to the
island nation's ousted president, as looters rampaged through the
streets of the capital.
2009 Apr 24, In Madagascar
police clashed with supporters of the ousted president leaving 2
(SFC, 4/25/09, p.A2)
2009 Aug 9, Madagascar's bitter
political rivals signed a power-sharing deal, agreeing to create an
interim government to end months of violence.
2009 Aug 28, In Mozambique
talks aimed at determining who should lead Madagascar in a new
interim government ended in failure with the ousted president and
the man who replaced him in a military coup both claiming the right
to do so. The parties set a deadline of Sept. 4 to arrive at a
2009 Aug 29, The EU signed a
temporary trade pact with Mauritius, Seychelles, Zimbabwe and
Madagascar calling for tariffs on European goods to be removed over
the next 15 years.
2009 Sep 10, The African Union
joined international condemnation of a new "unity" government named
by Madagascar leader Andry Rajoelina who overthrew the recognized
president this year.
2009 Oct 7, Madagascar's
opposing political factions agreed to retain the coup leader as head
of the transitional government, but will not allow him to run in
2009 Oct 10, Madagascar's
outgoing prime minister refused to quit, endangering a power-sharing
agreement brokered by mediators to keep peace on the island. Monja
Roindefo said he does not acknowledge the mediators' appointment on
Oct 6 of Eugene Mangalaza as a prime minister in the transitional
government. Members of the transitional government confirmed Eugene
(AP, 10/10/09)(AP, 10/11/09)
2009 Nov 6, Madagascar's
political rivals agreed on posts within a transitional government
that will hold power until next year's elections following a power
struggle that brought months of volatility to the country.
2009 Dec 23, The White House
said President Obama has removed Madagascar, Guinea and Niger from a
list of African countries receiving trade benefits, but reinstated
Mauritania. The US froze most aid to Niger and imposed travel bans
on some officials in response to President Mamadou Tandja's moves to
extend his rule over the impoverished West African nation.
(AFP, 12/23/09)(Reuters, 12/23/09)
2010 Jan 6, Madagascar security
forces used tear gas to disperse protesters in the capital near the
presidential palace. The demonstrators, who are aligned with three
of the country's previous presidents, went to present the country's
military-backed leader with a letter questioning whether or not coup
leader Andry Rajoelina still wants reconciliation.
2010 Feb 2, In Ethiopia African
leaders wrapped up their annual summit less divided and looking at
brighter economic prospects but still facing a raft of conflicts,
including Sudan's predicted break-up. An AU official said leaders of
the 53-member African Union want Madagascar's rival politicians to
stick to the agreements meant to help the Indian Ocean island out of
a prolonged crisis.
2010 Mar 10, Madagascar was hit
by Tropical Storm Hubert. Disaster officials soon reported at least
10 people dead.
2010 Mar 17, The African Union
slapped sanctions on Madagascar's rulers for failing to implement
accords to end a long political crisis, as fresh violence erupted in
the island's capital.
2010 May 20, In Madagascar
soldiers and police clashed in what a police colonel described as a
failed mutiny, leaving one police officer dead and five wounded. Lt.
Col. Raymond Andrianjafy and several others were soon arrested
(AP, 5/20/10)(AP, 5/22/10)
2010 May 24, It was reported
that Malagasy timer barons were robbing Madagascar of its sylvan
heritage, illegally cutting down scarce species of rosewood trees in
poorly protected national parks, and exporting most of the valuable
logs to China.
(SFC, 5/25/10, p.A2)
2010 Jul 30, UNESCO added a
region of mountainous forests in Sri Lanka and the Papahanaumokuakea
archipelago off Hawaii to the World Heritage list. Florida's
Everglades and Madagascar's tropical forest were added to the roll
of endangered sites, which is meant to ring alarm bells and
encourage protective measures.
2010 Oct 14, In Madagascar
conservationists said a new species of carnivorous mammal, likely
highly endangered, has been discovered in the wetlands of Lake
Alaotra, the largest expanse of fresh water on the Indian Ocean
island. It has been baptized Durrell's vontsira (Salanoia durelli)
after the late British naturalist Gerald Durrell, who led
conservation projects in Madagascar.
2010 Nov 11, In Madagascar
police detained three politicians who have called for boycotting a
constitutional referendum scheduled next week.
2010 Nov 17, In Madagascar Col.
Charles Andrianasoavina, who supported a politician's takeover last
year, claimed that he and other top-ranking officers have taken over
the country. The claim came on a day voters were deciding whether to
accept or reject a new constitution that calls for keeping Pres.
Rajoelina in power indefinitely. The constitutional referendum was
being held in defiance of regional efforts to find a negotiated
solution that would involve Marc Ravalomanana, the president ousted
in 2009, and other leaders. Rajoelina appeared confident of his hold
on power and told reporters the majority of the military was behind
(AP, 11/17/10)(AP, 11/18/10)
2010 Nov 20, Madagascar PM
Camille Vital told reporters that 16 officers have surrendered,
ending an impasse that began Nov 17, when a faction of officers
declared they were taking over from Andry Rajoelina.
2010 Nov 22, Madagascarís head
of the electoral commission said 74% of voters had approved a new
consitution, which could keep coup Pres. Rajoelina in power
2011 Feb 17, Madagascar's
ousted president said he will attempt to return from exile in South
Africa despite facing a life sentence in prison, as the regime that
forced him out in a coup vowed to keep order on the Indian Ocean
2011 Feb 19, Madagascar's
ousted president Marc Ravalomanana was barred by officials in his
homeland from returning from exile in South Africa, but the
politician told reporters at Johannesburg's airport that he would
keep trying to return.
2011 Feb 27, Officials in
Madagascar arrested 12 suspected pirates after they surrendered the
Aly Zoulfecar upon arriving in the Indian Ocean island nation. The
ship, controlled by pirates since Nov. 3, carried 20 passengers and
9 crew members and had been badly ravaged by a tropical storm before
arriving in Madagascar.
2011 Mar 26, A Madagascar
government official said Pres. Andry Rajoelina has announced a new
transitional government as part of a roadmap to resolve the island's
2011 Jul 22, UN food official
Olivier De Schutter ended a five-day visit to Madagascar. He said
nearly 70 percent of people living in the south of the island nation
are food insecure and that the country has one of the world's
highest levels of child malnutrition. He also said US and EU
sanctions have led to major job losses and hurt agricultural
development and urged nations to reconsider their sanctions.
2011 Sep 17, Madagascan parties
signed an agreement allowing the return of former president Marc
Ravalomanana whose 2009 ouster plunged the country into a political
paralysis. The agreement also called for a power-sharing arrangement
by the signatories until presidential and parliamentary elections
are held, with Andry Rajoelina in the interim remaining the
2011 Oct 18, Madagascar's
coup-appointed premier, Brig. Gen. Albert Camille Vitalis, presented
a letter of resignation, along with his government, to open the way
for a new premier to be chosen by consensus to lead a transitional
government that will end the Indian Ocean island's two-year
2011 Nov 2, Madagascar's new PM
Omer Beriziky (61) took office as part of a deal meant to take the
Indian Ocean island nation towards elections after years of
2011 Nov 21, Madagascar
announced a 35-member cabinet unveiled by consensus PM Omer
2011 Nov 23, Madagascar
opposition groups accepted to join a unity government and Didier
Ratsiraka, an exiled ex-president, announced he will return home
ending his nine-year exile in France, offering hopes of ending the
island nation's persistent crisis. A roadmap to new elections was
brokered by regional bloc the Southern African Development Community
was signed by the island's main political factions.
(AFP, 11/23/11)(AFP, 4/14/12)
2011 Nov 24, Madagascar's
former Pres. Didier Ratsiraka returned home, ending a 9-year exile
in France, and urged reconciliation to resolve the country's
long-running political crisis.
2011 In Madagascar 26,700
people contracted TB this year, a jump of more than 16 percent
compared with 2009.
2012 Jan 17, Madagascar police
fired teargas to disperse a crowd of opposition supporters addressed
by former president Albert Zafy in the capital city.
2012 Jan 21, Madagascar's
toppled Pres. Marc Ravalomanana tried to end his exile in South
Africa, but his commercial plane was forced to turn back mid-flight
when his landing was blocked by Andry Rajoelina, the populist former
disc jockey who toppled him. Ravalomananaís party walked out of a
fledgling unity government, after the island nation barred him from
flying home to end his three-year exile.
2012 Mar 6, Madagascar
authorities said Tropical Storm Irina killed at least 65 people,
most of them residents of the Ifanadiana district in the southeast
of the island, when the storm passed over the country last week.
2012 Apr 14, Madagascar
reported that it has passed an amnesty law that blocks ousted leader
Marc Ravalomanana from returning to the island country.
2012 May 19, Madagascar police
made several arrests after using tear gas to break up an
unauthorized protest of several thousand people who turned out to
support opposition radio Free FM.
2012 Jul 17, In South Africa
Madagascar's exiled former president Marc Ravalomanana was served
with a summons at his hotel in Pretoria over a $23 million lawsuit
filed by victims of 2009 unrest that led to his ouster.
2012 Jul 22, In Madagascar new
gunfire was heard from the direction of a military base near the
main airport after the defense minister asserted that a mutiny had
been brought under control. The leader of the renegade troops was
identified as Koto Mainty, or the "Black Corporal." An officer sent
in to start talks was shot and later died of his wounds. Another
government soldier and the alleged leader of the mutiny were killed
during a government assault.
(AFP, 7/22/12)(AP, 7/23/12)
2012 Jul 25, Madagascan leader
Andry Rajoelina and the man he toppled in 2009, Marc Ravalomanana,
met on a remote Seychelles island to force a breakthrough in
2012 Jul 27, The wife of
Madagascar's ousted leader Marc Ravalomanana was deported and put on
a flight to Thailand, hours after she landed at the island nation's
2012 Aug 1, Italian oil company
Eni SpA said it discovered more natural gas off the coast of
Mozambique, expanding the yield of a major field off the southeast
African nation that's the company's largest find.
2012 Aug 9, Madagascar's Pres.
Andry Rajoelina and ousted leader Marc Ravalomanana left the
Seychelles, after failing to strike a deal in talks aimed at ending
3 years of political crisis.
2012 Sep 3, Madagascar
officials said villagers have killed nearly 100 cattle thieves in a
wave of weekend attacks in southern areas of the Indian Ocean island
plagued by rustling.
2012 Madagascar was one of the
poorest countries in the world. 81.3 percent of the population lived
on less than $1.25 a day, according to the World Bank.
2013 Mar 5, Madagascar police
said two protesters were killed in a riot at a prison in Mandritsara
holding the alleged killers of French nun Sister Marie Emmanuelle
Helesbeux. Her body was found in the Mandritsara marketplace on
2013 Jul 23, Madagascar police
arrested an opposition leader on charges of holding an illegal
rally, compounding the island nation's political crisis.
2013 Aug 17, Madagascar's
special electoral court removed the country's incumbent president,
the wife of his longtime rival and a former president from its list
of presidential candidates. The court said Andry Rajoelina's filing
for candidacy did not occur during the statutory period and that
neither Lalao Ravalomanana nor former president Didier Ratsiraka met
the physical residence requirements for candidacy of living in the
country for six months.
2013 Sep 16, In Madagascar a
suspected bomb-maker was killed in Antananarivo when an explosive
device he is believed to have been building blew up prematurely.
2013 Oct 3, Madagascar police
said a crowd burned two Europeans and a local man alive on the Nosy
Be tourist island because they suspected them of trafficking human
organs after a dead child was found on a beach. 26 people were soon
arrested in the case.
(Reuters, 10/3/13)(AFP, 10/5/13)(AFP, 10/6/13)
2013 Oct 25, Madagascar
residents voted in a presidential election they hope will restore
security, improve lives and mark the end of political and economic
turmoil brought about by a 2009 coup.
2013 Nov 8, Madagascar
officials said the presidential race will go to a run-off vote next
month between two candidates linked to the island's main political
rivals, after an inconclusive first round.
2013 Nov 20, A Madagascar
government statement showed changes to 10 of the Indian Ocean
island's 22 regions. Three generals and five colonels assumed
control of eight regions while two civilians headed the remaining
two. This raised concern that the run-off vote in December will be
2013 Dec 20, Madagascar
residents went to the polls for a second round of presidential and
legislative elections. On Jan 3, 2014, Hery Rajaonarimampianina was
declared the winner with 53.5% of the vote.
(AP, 12/20/13)(Reuters, 1/3/14)
2013 Dec 21, Madagascar's
presidential candidates both claimed victory in run-off polls, each
accusing the other of rigging the run-off as results started to
2013 Dec 30, In Madagascar,
Hery Rajaonarimampianina, the candidate supported by strongman Andry
Rajoelina, held a seemingly unassailable 53% lead in the island's
run-off presidential poll, with ballots from over 96% of the voting
2014 Jan 3, Madagascarís
electoral commission said that former finance minister Hery
Rajaonarimampianina, the candidate backed by outgoing President
Andry Rajoelina who spearheaded the coup nearly five years ago, won
53.5 percent of the December 20 vote.
2014 Jan 17, Madagascar
declared Hery Rajaonarimampianina (55), a Canadian-educated former
finance minister backed by strongman Andry Rajoelina, as the
country's new president.
2014 Jan 25, In Madagascar a
grenade blast left a toddler dead and over 50 wounded just hours
after the inauguration of the island's new president.
2014 Mar 13, Madagascar said it
has restored ties with the International Monetary Fund for the first
time since a coup in 2009.
2014 Apr 11, Madagascar named
Kolo Christopher Laurent Roger as its new prime minister, part of a
process aimed at ending years of political crisis on the Indian
2014 Oct 13, Madagascar's
former president Marc Ravalomanana was arrested just hours after he
returned to the island nation following years in exile in South
2014 Nov 22, The WHO said a
plague outbreak has killed 40 people on the island nation of
Madagascar, with 119 people diagnosed with the bacterial disease
since August. WHO said only two percent of the cases have been from
the highly infectious pneumonic form of the disease.
2014 Dec 10, In western
Madagascar 2 people died in violence at a Chinese-run sugar
refinery. A part of the refinery was destroyed in unrest sparked by
a dispute over contracts for seasonal workers and wages for
2014 Dec 24, Madagascar's Pres.
Hery Rajaonarimampianina pardoned five political prisoners who had
got stiff prison sentences for allegedly plotting against his
predecessor, who took power in a coup.
2015 Jan 17, In Madagascar at
least 46 people perished as tropical storm Chedza battered the
country over the last 48 hours, affecting almost 80,000 residents.
(AFP, 1/18/15)(AP, 1/19/15)(AFP, 1/21/15)
2015 Jan 28, Madagascar's
government appealed for international aid after a tropical storm
earlier this month killed 68 people and devastated large swathes of
the Indian Ocean island, with damages at around $40 million.
2015 Jan, In Madagascar at
least 57 people died of Plague in the wake of cyclones Chedza and
(SSFC, 2/8/15, p.D18)
2015 May 26, Madagascar
lawmakers voted to impeach the countryís president. Pres. Hery
Rajaonarimampianina disputed the outcome. His supporters alleged
that the final count was falsified and that only about 80
parliamentarians voted for impeachment.
2015 May, American explorer
Barry Clifford presented what was said to be a silver ingot to
Madagascar Pres. Hery Rajaonarimampianina. Clifford said the ingot
belonged to 17th century pirate Captain Kidd and had been found in a
bay off the coast of the island. On July 14 the UN said the ingot
was actually a piece of ballast made of lead from a broken segment
of port construction.
(SFC, 7/15/15, p.A5)
2015 Jun 8, Madagascan police
smashed open the car windows of an opposition lawmaker late today
and seized the equivalent of $74,000 in cash, two weeks after
parliament voted to dismiss the president. Female lawmaker Lanto
Rakotomanga was stopped by police in the capital Antananarivo
outside a meeting held by Andry Rajoelina, who came to power in the
2009 coup and is now a rival to the president.
2015 Sep 14, Madagascar police
said at least 18 people, including a paramilitary policeman, were
killed in cattle-rustling violence over the weekend when thousands
of animals were also stolen.
2015 Sep 28, Madagascarís
customs officials found 771 endangered tortoises hidden in socks and
baby diapers in unaccompanied freight due to be flown to Malaysia.
(SFC, 10/1/15, p.A2)
2015 Dec, Madagascar held
senatorial elections. On Jan 9 preliminary results said President
Hery Rajaonarimampianina's HVM party won more than 60 percent of the
vote in each of the country's seven provinces.
2016 Jun 26, In Madagascar a
grenade exploded in the Mahamasina stadium, killing two people and
injuring more than 80 as the country marked its 1960 independence
from France. Authorities describe it as a terrorist attack.
2016 Jul 23, In Madagascar a
house fire broke out during a party. 38 people including 16 children
were killed as the blaze ripped through a thatched roof.
2016 Jul 28, The UN Food and
Agriculture Organization (FAO) said some 23 million farmers in
drought-hit Southern Africa need urgent help to prepare for the next
planting season with only a few weeks left before it begins. It said
Botswana, Swaziland, South Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe have
reported more than 640,000 drought-related livestock deaths. Farmers
and cattle herders in 10 countries have requested assistance:
Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa,
Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
2016 Aug 21, In Madagascar the
bodies of the two French citizens, a man and a woman aged in their
20s, were found on a beach of Sainte Marie with head injuries.
Police soon arrested five suspects.
2016 Nov, In Madagascar a rush
for sapphires led the government to hold meetings and declare
protection for the eastern Corridor Ankeniheny-Zahamena a national
priority. Miners over the next six months cut down thousands of
acres of forest in the area.
2017 Jan 18, It was reported
that nearly a million people are hungry and in urgent need of food
aid in the Madagascar area, according to the World Food Program
2017 Jan 28, In Madagascar at
least 47 people, including 10 children and a newly-wed couple, were
killed when a truck carrying a wedding party and guests veered off
the road and plunged into the Mananara river.
2017 Mar 7, Cyclone Enawo
slammed into Madagascar. The Indian Ocean tropical storm packed
winds up to 300 kph (185 mph). At least 38 people were killed and
some 50,000 people driven from their homes.
(Reuters, 3/8/17)(SSFC, 3/12/17, p.A4)
2017 Sep 28, Madagascarís
health minister said an outbreak of plague has killed 19 people and
may have infected 85 others in just two months.
2017 Sep 30, Madagascarís
government banned public meetings in the capital Antananarivo in
response to a plague outbreak that has killed 24 people. A day later
the World Health Organization said it was boosting its response to a
2017 Oct 13, The International
Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies said it is
deploying its first-ever plague treatment center to Madagascar where
dozens have been reported killed by the outbreak.
2017 Oct 20, The World Health
Organization said an unusually large plague outbreak in Madagascar
has taken 94 lives.
2017 Madagascar courts
handed down unprecedented sentences of life terms with hard labor to
20 people found guilty of the 2015 abduction of two Karana
teenagers. In the last 10 years, at least 100 kidnappings have
targeted Karanas, reaching a peak in 2017.
2017 The price of black
non-split Madagascar vanilla, the benchmark for the giant Indian
Ocean island's leading export, shot up to a record $635 per kilo
from just $100 two years earlier. Over the next year police and
vigilante groups guarding the northern Malagasy forests of Sava, the
world's vanilla capital due to its perfect climate, caught more than
a thousand vanilla rustlers.
2018 Jan 6, Tropical cyclone
Ava passed through eastern Madagascar over the last 24 hours.
Authorities later said the cyclone killed at least six people and
injured three others while two people were reported missing.
2018 Apr 21, In Madagascar at
least 16 were wounded after clashes between thousands of opposition
activists and security forces in a public square in Antananarivo.
Police fired teargas at an opposition demonstration held in protest
against new electoral laws, where one person died. A 2nd person died
the next day from injuries during the unrest. Demonstrators claimed
new electoral laws could stop some candidates from standing in
upcoming presidential elections.
(AFP, 4/22/18)(Reuters, 4/23/18)
2018 Apr 23, In Madagascar
thousands marched in protest against the government in Antananarivo
after the president denounced unrest in which two people were killed
as a "coup" intended to divide the country's people.
2018 Apr 24, In Madagascar
hundreds of opposition activists called for the president to step
down on a fourth straight day of anti-government protests in which
at least two people have died.
2018 Apr 28, In Madagascar more
than 1,000 opposition activists rallied in Antananarivo demanding
the resignation of the president on the eighth straight day of
anti-government protests in which at least two people have died.
2018 May 3, Madagascar's High
Court ruled that the state's new election laws are unconstitutional.
2018 May 11, Madagascar's
president approved a new election law lifting a provision that would
have prevented the main opposition candidate from standing for
office, which had provoked a political crisis and deadly street
2018 Jun 4, Madagascar's
President Hery Rajaonarimampianina appointed local International
Labour Organization representative Christian Ntsay as prime
minister. Olivier Mahafaly resigned the premiership earlier today to
comply with a court ruling that ordered the formation of a consensus
government to end a political crisis.
2018 Jun 11, Madagascar's Pres.
Hery Rajaonarimampianina and PM Christian Ntsay unveiled a new
government. Opposition supporters reacted with disdain, dismissing
the new cabinet as stuffed with old faces tainted by corruption.
2018 Nov 7, Madagascar voted
for a president to tackle unemployment, poverty and corruption on
the Indian Ocean island, with the incumbent and two former heads of
state leading a field of 36 contenders. Former president Marc
Ravalomanana garnered 35.35 percent of the vote in the first round,
behind his successor, Andry Rajoelina, who got 39.23 percent.
(Reuters, 11/7/18)(Reuters, 11/28/18)
2018 Nov 8, Former Madagascan
president Hery Rajaonarimampianina alleged that "many voting
irregularities" pointed to fraud in this week's election,
heightening fears of protests and a disputed result.
2018 Dec 19, Madagascar voted
in a two-man contest between former presidents Andry Rajoelina and
Marc Ravalomanana, who have waited years to come face-to-face in a
fiercely personal battle for power in the Indian Ocean island.
2018 Dec 22, In Madagascar
former president Andry Rajoelina was set to return to power as
partial election results gave him a clear lead over his predecessor
Marc Ravalomanana, who has alleged the vote count was fraudulent.
2018 Dec 27, The Madagascar
electoral commission said former president Andry Rajoelina (44) has
beaten his rival and predecessor Marc Ravalomanana in the Dec. 19
election beset by allegations of fraud from both sides. Results
showed that Rajoelina had won 55.66 percent of the vote against
44.34 percent for Ravalomanana.
(AFP, 12/27/18)(AFP, 12/29/18)
2018 Dec 29, In Madagascar some
two thousand opposition supporters took to the streets in
Antananarivo to protest against the victory of ex-president Andry
Rajoelina in last week's elections.
2019 Jan 2, Madagascan security
forces fired tear gas to break up a protest by supporters of losing
presidential candidate Marc Ravalomanana, who claims he was denied
victory in last month's election because of fraud.
2019 Jan 5, Madagascar police
fired teargas to disperse some 500 supporters of the losing
candidate in last month's presidential election, in the fifth such
protest this week.
2019 Jan 8, Madagascar's
Constitutional Court confirmed Andry Rajoelina as the winner of the
country's Dec. 19 presidential election after his opponent lodged a
complaint alleging fraud.
2019 Jan 19, Madagascan
President Andry Rajoelina used his inauguration speech to pledge to
fight corruption in a country where politics and business are widely
seen as beset by graft.
2019 Jan 26, In Madagascar six
people from the same family were "killed on the spot" by a lightning
strike while sheltering from a storm.
2019 Feb 14, The World Health
Organization (WHO) said that at least 922 children and young adults
have died of measles in Madagascar since October, despite a huge
emergency vaccination program.
2019 Feb 21, The World Health
Organization (WHO) said that an epidemic of measles in Madagascar
has caused more than 900 deaths since the outbreak began last
2019 May 27, Madagascar held
parliamentary elections in what was being seen as the latest round
of a bitter feud between President Andry Rajoelina and his
longstanding rival Marc Ravalomanana.
2019 Sep 6, Conservationists
hoped the arrival of the environmentally-conscious Pope Francis will
spotlight Madagascar's loss of 2% of primary rainforest last year,
the highest of any tropical nation according to the World Resources
Institute. Slash-and-burn farmers were driving humanity's smallest
relative - the Madame Bertheís mouse lemur - to extinction.
2019 Sep 7, In Madagascar Pope
Francis denounced the illegal logging and exploitation of the
island's unique natural resources as he opened a visit to the Indian
Ocean nation with a plea for the government to fight the corruption
that is ravaging the island's environment and keeping its people in
2019 Sep 8, In Madagascar Pope
Francis celebrated Father Pedro Opeka (71), a former student of his,
who is now sometimes called the country's "living saint" for having
changed the lives of thousands of poor people who once lived in
garbage dumps. Francis also condemned what he said was its clan
culture of privilege and corruption that allows a very few to live
in wealth while the vast majority languish in grinding poverty.
2020 Jan 23, Madagascar's
national disaster office said floods across the island have killed
at least 12 people this week, with 18 missing, after unseasonably
heavy rain. The death toll was soon raised to 26 with 15 people
(Reuters, 1/23/20)(SFC, 1/25/20, p.A2)
2020 Apr 29, Researchers
described an exquisitely preserved fossil of the plant-eating mammal
named Adalatherium hui, which lived in Madagascar 66 million years
ago during the Cretaceous Period and superficially resembled a
badger with its long torso and stubby tail.