Timeline Madagascar

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Madagascar is an island a little larger than California.
    (WSJ, 5/6/05, p.A1)

c230 Mil BP    It was reported in 1999 that Madagascar dinosaur fossils, found in 1995 might be the oldest known. The creatures were long-necked prosauropods from about this time.
    (SFC, 10/22/99, p.A1)

165 Million BP    Madagascar broke away from the continent of Africa. [see 160 mil BP]
    (SFC, 1/15/98, p.A10)

160 Million BP    Madagascar broke away from the continent of Africa. [see 165 mil BP]
    (WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W6)

75 Million BP    The 30-foot dinosaur Majungatholus atopus lived in Madagascar about this time. Its fossils were discovered in 1996. It was similar to creatures whose fossils were found in Argentina and India. The horned dinosaur was a remote cousin of T. rex and had sharp serrated teeth. In 2003 scientists determined that 2-ton, 30-foot creatures were cannibals.
    (SFC, 5/15/98, p.A2)(SFC, 4/3/03, p.A2)

70Mil BC    In Madagascar A frog lived in Madagascar about this time that grew to 16 inches in length and weighed 10 pounds. In 1993 paleontologist David Krause began to find fossils of the frog.
    (SFC, 2/19/08, p.A8)

c500 AD    The first settlers of Madagascar began arriving from the Malay Archipelago in the middle of the first millennium. DNA studies in 2012 indicated that the number of women in the first group of settlers numbered about 30.
    (Econ, 3/24/12, p.84)

1000 AD    Large portions of the island fauna of Madagascar, that once included a lemur the size of bear and the ostrich-like Elephant Bird, was eliminated by the Malagash people of Madagascar.
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.188)

1500        Aug 10, Diego Diaz discovered Madagascar.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1828-1861    Queen Ranavalona I ruled over Madagascar.
    (WSJ, 10/10/06, p.A1)(www.gasikara.net/Historama.htm)

1835        Madagascarís Queen Ranavalona I persecuted and expelled foreigners, including the island's missionaries and extended her rule all over the island with her 20,000-man army.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ranavalona_I_Rabodoandrianampoinimerina)

1861        Radama II (1829-1863), the son of Queen Ranavalona I, succeeded her to rule Madagascar. During his 2 year rule he reopened the country to Christian missionaries.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radama_II_of_Madagascar)

1863        Radama II, ruler of Madagascar, was assassinated. He was succeeded by his wife Rasoherina, who was later succeeded by another of Radama's wives, Ranavalona II.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radama_II_of_Madagascar)

1881        A writer named Carle Liche published an article in the Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine that described his travels in Madagascar. He claimed to be the first European to contact the Mkodo tribe of cave-dwelling pigmies and described a man-eating tree and a ceremony in which a woman was sacrificed to the sacred tree. The story was debunked in 1955 by science writer Willy Ley, who established that Liche was a pseudonym and that the Mkodos and their tree were fictional creations.
    (SSFC, 10/31/10, p.K2)

1942        Sep 10, British troops landed on Madagascar.
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1943        Jan 8, The British handed Madagascar over to the Free French.
    (Historynet, 1/8/99)

1947        Mar 29, Madagascar rebelled against French colonial rule. Repression followed and an estimated 100,000 Malagasy were killed. This became known as Martyrís Day, first celebrated in 1967.
    (SSFC, 3/25/12, p.H3)

1960        Jun 26, The Malagasy Republic (Madagascar) gained independence from France.
    (SFC, 8/19/96, p.A10)(PC, 1992, p.973)

1975        Dec 21, Didier Ratsiraka, Madagascar military commander, was elected to a seven-year term as president in a national referendum. He published a "red book" of Marxist principles and nationalized much of the economy. In the 1980s with severe economic decline Ratsiraka changed course and established ties with the world Bank and the IMF.
    (SFC, 8/19/96, p.A10)(www.wildmadagascar.org/overview/loc/16-history_1975-1992.html)

1975-1992    Didier Ratsiraka led a Socialist regime.
    (SFC, 6/9/99, p.C3)

1975        A major cyclone hit the island.
    (NPR, 1/27/96)

1976        A crystal of beryl, 59 feet long and almost 12 feet across, was found in Madagascar. It weighed 187 tons.
    (SFEC, 9/15/96, Z1 p.5)

1986        The Quebec Iron and Titanium (QIT) subsidiary of Rio Tinto, an intíl. mining concern, began pursuing rights in Madagascar to extract high-grade ilmenite, a form of titanium dioxide used to whiten toothpaste, paint and cleansing powders. A 15,000 acre site at Fort Dauphin was expected to yield 750,000 tons a year over 60 years for an investment of $400 million. The Malagasy government would receive about $40 million per year plus $10 million in taxes and fees. A decision was expected in 2005.
    (SFC, 1/15/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 11/17/04, p.A1)

1990        In Madagascar the Malagasy government agreed to an environmental action plan that called for the creation of national parks and protected areas.
    (SFC, 6/23/96, Z1 p.5)

1991        A man from the United Arab Emirates found a large black rock that in 1996 was found to contain the worldís largest emerald cluster. Bangkok geologists spent a week removing a thick layer of black mica before finding a group of 127 medium green emeralds weighing 167 pounds.
    (SFC, 10/5/96, p.C1)

1992        Mass demonstrations and civil service strikes led to a march on the palace by 100,000 people. The elite guard killed an estimated 100. Didier Rastiraka soon agreed to new elections that were won by Albert Zafy, a heart surgeon. Zafy reversed the economic reforms begun by Rastiraka.
    (SFC, 8/19/96, p.A8,10)(SFC, 6/9/99, p.C3)

1992-1997    The US Agency for International Development has committed $85 mil for environmental programs here.
    (SFC, 6/23/96, zone 1 p.5)

1993        In Madagascar Albert Zafy defeated Didier Ratsiraka to become president. He was impeached three years later amid accusations of corruption. Zafy ran again in November 1996, losing this time to Ratsiraka.
    (AP, 12/10/06)

1994        Pres. Albert Zafy and Prime Minister Francisque Ravony balked at an economic overhaul ordered by the Intíl. Monetary Fund and World Bank.
    (SFC, 9/6.96, p.A14)

1995        Madagascar signed the Convention on Biological Diversity.
    (SFC, 1/19/00, p.A12)

1996        Apr 4, In the capital city of Antananarivo, Madagascar, thousands of people demonstrated against the president amid calls for a military coup.
    (SFC, 5/5/96, p.T-9)

1996        Jun 5, On World Environment Day 210,000 hectares on the Masoala Peninsula were proclaimed a national park, the 6th on the island.
    (SFC, 6/23/96, zone 1 p.5)

1996        Aug 19, The per capita income stands at $240 per year.
    (SFC, 8/19/96, p.A10)

1996        Aug, Pres. Albert Zafy was impeached for corruption.
    (SFC, 2/1/97, p.C1)

1996        Didier Ratsiraka was elected president as a democrat.
    (SFC, 6/9/99, p.C3)

1997        Jan 24, In Madagascar a cyclone struck and that some 200 were killed. It was later reported that 520,000 people were affected.
    (WSJ, 1/27/97, p.A1)(SFC, 2/8/97, p.A11)

1997        Jan 31, A constitutional court said that Didier Ratsiraka edged out Albert Zafy in last yearís elections.
    (SFC, 2/1/97, p.C1)

1997        Apr 12, It was reported that a plague of locusts was poised to sweep over the 5 million acres of rich farmland in the south of the nation.
    (SFC, 4/12/97, p.A12)

1998        Mar 28, A locust swarm was reported to have covered an estimated 24 million acres in the south of the country.
    (SFC, 3/28/98, p.A5)

1998        Jun 13, The grasshopper swarm, 7 miles long, flew into the capital city of Antananarivo.
    (SFC, 6/13/98, p.A7)

1998        Major sapphire deposits were discovered in Madagascar. A seam of high-quality sapphires was found in the Ilakaka river valley, about 700 km (430 miles) south of the capital Antananarivo.
    (Econ, 7/30/05, p.42)(SSFC, 12/23/07, p.A26)(AFP, 4/3/12)

1999        Oct 21, It was reported that only some 4,000 diademed sifakas, the largest living lemurs, were left in Madagascar.
    (SFC, 10/21/99, p.AA7)

1999        Oct 22, It was reported that dinosaur fossils, found 4 years ago in Madagascar, may be the oldest known. The creatures were long-necked prosauropods from about 230 million years ago.
    (SFC, 10/22/99, p.A1)

2000        Mar 3, In Madagascar an estimated 600,000 people were affected by flooding from tropical storm Gloria and at least 55 people were reported killed.
    (SFC, 3/4/00, p.A12)

2000        Mar 8, In Madagascar tropical storm Gloria left over 100 people dead just weeks after Cyclone Eline left 54 dead.
    (SFC, 3/9/00, p.A10)

2000        Mar 15, It was reported that some 500 new cases of cholera had broken out following a year long epidemic that had killed 1,350 people.
    (SFC, 3/15/00, p.A10)

2000        Apr 3, A cyclone left 2 people dead and nearly flattened the town of Antalaha.
    (WSJ, 4/4/00, p.A1)

2000        Apr 16, The winners of the Goldman Environmental Prize included: Nat Quansah (46), an ethnobotanist in Madagascar.
    (SFC, 4/17/00, p.A2)

2000        Jun, The US government passed the Africa Growth and Opportunity Act. It gave 23 sub-Saharan countries the opportunity to ship a range of textile products to the US duty-free.
    (WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A1)

2000        In Antananarivo, capital of Madagascar, Marc Ravalomanana, dairy mogul, took office as the mayor and instituted a cleanup campaign.
    (SFC, 8/21/00, p.A8)

2001        Dec 16, Elections were held but no candidate won a majority. The results were annulled Apr 17, 2002.
    (SSFC, 1/13/02, p.C12)(SFC, 4/18/02, p.A11)

2001        Mauritius textile worker wages reached $1.47 cents an hour compared with 37 cents in Madagascar.
    (WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A4)
2001        In Madagascar local people set up an association named Anja Miray (the community of Anja), which involved six villages in reforestation and the development of ecotourism. At the beginning of the 1990s, half of the 13 hectares (32 acres) of the forest of Anja were illegally chopped down. In 2012 the UN awarded Anja Miray the biennial Equator Prize, which recognizes 25 communities from all over the world for their work in safeguarding biodiversity and promoting ecotourism.
    (AFP, 6/12/12)

2002        Jan 7, In Antananarivo some 30,000 protested the presidential election results.
    (SSFC, 1/13/02, p.C12)

2002        Jan 25, The High Constitutional Court certified Marc Ravalomanana with 46.2% of the votes and Pres. Didier Ratsiraka with 40.8%. A runoff was set within 2 months as tens of thousands of opposition supporters protested the result.
    (SSFC, 1/27/02, p.A19)

2002        Feb 22, Madagascar declared a 3-month state of emergency after the main opposition leader, Marc Ravalomanana, declared himself president following a 2-month dispute.
    (SFC, 2/23/02, p.A11)

2002        Feb 28, Pres. Didier Ratsiraka declared martial law following 2 months of strikes and mass protests.
    (SFC, 3/1/02, p.A17)

2002        Mar 8, The opposition seized the defense ministry in a bid to install Marc Ravalomanana as president.
    (WSJ, 3/11/02, p.A1)

2002        Mar 25, Opposition supporters thwarted an attempt by the military to seize control of Parliament.
    (SFC, 3/26/02, p.A6)

2002        cMar 31, In Madagascar a bridge linking the capital to a southern port was blown up.
    (WSJ, 4/1/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr 17, The Supreme Court annulled the disputed results of the Dec 16 presidential elections.
    (SFC, 4/18/02, p.A11)

2002        Apr 29, The High Court ruled that opposition leader Marc Ravalomanana received over 51% of the vote in December elections and that Pres. Ratsiraka won close to 36%. Ratsiraka said he would not abide by the vote.
    (SFC, 5/1/02, p.A13)

2002        May 6, Marc Ravalomanana was sworn in as president. Talks with Ratsiraka were set for May 13-14.
    (SFC, 5/7/02, p.A12)

2002        Jun 26, The United States became the first country to take a formal stand on the leadership battle for control of Madagascar, recognizing Marc Ravalomanana as the legitimate president.
    (AP, 6/26/02)

2002        Jul 5, Former Madagascar President Didier Ratsiraka fled to the Seychelles with his family, apparently ending more than six months of turmoil in his island nation.
    (AP, 7/5/02)

2003        Dec 24, Madagascar's former PM Didier Ratsiraka was sentenced to 12 years of hard labor and ordered to pay $7.6 million in damages for his role in last year's election crisis that led to the formation of two governments.
    (AP, 12/24/03)(Econ, 1/1/05, p.34)

2004        Mar 7, The Samson, a ferry carrying 113 people, vanished after it was caught in a cyclone as it sailed between the Indian Ocean islands of Comoros and Madagascar. There were 2 survivors. The drownings brought the death toll from Cyclone Gafilo to 154.
    (AP, 3/10/04)(AP, 3/11/04)

2004        Steven M. Goodman and Jonathan P. Benstead co-edited ďThe Natural History of Madagascar."
    (Econ, 4/24/04, p.87)
2004        Alison Jolly authored ďLords & Lemurs: Mad Scientists, Kings with Spears, and the Survival of Diversity in Madagascar."
    (Econ, 4/24/04, p.87)

2005        Apr 18, Madagascarís Pres. Ravalomanana signed a $110 million, 4-year aid package in Washington, designed to fix problems with corruption and local bank loans. The grant was from the Millennium Challenge Account, unveiled by Pres. Bush in 2002 to fund honest governments pursuing sound economic policies
    (WSJ, 4/18/05, p.A1)(Econ, 4/23/05, p.75)

2005        In Madagascar rising commodity prices prompted Rio Tinto to begin investing $650 million in operations to mine ilmenite, a mineral that contains titanium oxide, which is used to make pigments and sunscreen.
    (Econ, 3/17/07, p.73)

2006        Sep 9, The ship Moubarak heading from Madagascar to the Comoros Islands sank in the Indian Ocean this weekend in bad weather. Of the 76 people on board, 43 people were rescued after the boat sank. 33 people were missing.
    (AP, 9/11/06)

2006        Dec 3, Madagascar's president faced 13 challengers in the first elections since voting five years ago led to a six-month power struggle that split the Indian Ocean nation between two governments. President Marc Ravalomanana, a charismatic dairy tycoon known as the "The Milkman," won 55 percent of the vote to beat 13 challengers.
    (AP, 12/3/06)

2006        Dec 8, In Madagascar police searched the property of former President Albert Zafy as part of an ongoing investigation into the whereabouts of Gen. Randrianafidisoa and opposition politician Pety Rakotoniaina.
    (AP, 12/9/06)

2006        Dec, In Madagascar laws came into effect requiring gold panners and collectors to register with the government and pay for permits.
    (SSFC, 7/8/07, p.C4)

2006        The GDP per person in Madagascar stood at about $300 per year. Most of the nearly 19 million population survived on tiny plots of land for which they held no title.
    (Econ, 12/9/06, p.53)

2007        Jan 30, Jamal Khalifa, a Saudi citizen married to a sister of Osama bin Laden, was killed when gunmen broke into his house in village in Madagascar in an apparent robbery.
    (AP, 1/31/07)

2007        The population of Madagascar was about 18.6 million, with an average income of $290 per year.
     (Econ, 7/30/05, p.42)

2008        Feb 17, Madagascar was hit by Cyclone Ivan. At least 44 people were killed and some 145,000 left homeless.
    (Reuters, 2/18/08)(SFC, 2/26/08, p.A3)

2008        Apr 12, It was reported that an international team of scientists had completed an inventory of life on Madagascar, one of Earthís largest and most diverse islands.
    (SFC, 4/12/08, p.A4)

2008        Jul 11, A fishing boat, carrying eight Taiwanese, one Chinese and six crew members from Madagascar, sank after reporting engine problems.
    (AP, 7/14/08)

2008        Dec 9, A South African man accused of attempting to smuggle hundreds of rare chameleons, snakes, lizards and frogs out of Madagascar inside his jacket and luggage was convicted and sentenced to a year in jail.
    (AP, 12/9/08)

2008        Madagascar banned exports of rough sapphires in hopes of creating local polishing centers with better jobs. The export ban was lifted in 2010.
    (AFP, 4/3/12)
2008        In Madagascar seven of ten people lived on less than $2 per day. By 2014 this rose to nine of ten.
    (Econ, 1/4/14, p.36)

2009        Jan 26, In Madagascar thousands of demonstrators demanding a new government in Madagascar took to the streets and set the country's state TV complex on fire to protest the apparent shutdown of the opposition's radio station.
    (AP, 1/26/09)

2009        Jan 28, In Madagascar thousands of opposition supporters demanded the resignation of Pres. Marc Ravalomanana. The director of the main hospital said 43 people had burned to death as protesters set fires in political violence earlier in the week.
    (AP, 1/28/09)

2009        Jan 29, Madagascar's president made a conciliatory gesture, promising to put a radio station back on air after its closure sparked anti-government rioting that left at least 43 dead. A US envoy later estimated over 100 dead while police said 76 had died in the rioting.
    (AP, 1/29/09)(WSJ, 2/4/09, p.A10)

2009        Jan, The population of Madagascar numbered some 20 million. It was estimated that 70% of the people lived on less than $1 per day.
    (SSFC, 1/4/09, p.E4)

2009        Feb 3, In Madagascar the government fired opposition leader Andry Rajoelina from his post as mayor of the capital city, Antananarivo, after he led two weeks of protests demanding that the president step down.
    (WSJ, 2/4/09, p.A10)

2009        Feb 7, In Antananarivo, Madagascar, at least 28 people were killed by security forces during anti-government protests. Arrest warrants were issued the next day for those deemed responsible for the political violence. A week of violence left up to 100 people dead.
    (SFC, 2/9/09, p.A2)(Econ, 3/21/09, p.50)

2009        Feb 9, In Madagascar defense minister Cecile Manorohanta said she has resigned because civilians were killed when security forces fired on anti-government protesters on Feb 7.
    (AP, 2/9/09)

2009        Feb 16, In Madagascar anti-government protesters threw stones and police responded with tear gas. Opposition leader Andry Rajoelina (34) continued his attempts to force out the president. No casualties were immediately reported
    (AP, 2/16/09)

2009        Feb 20, Madagascar security forces regained control of four government ministries overnight from opposition activists. Police arrested 50 people and no injuries were reported.
    (AP, 2/20/09)

2009        Mar 11, In Madagascar Col. Andre Ndrianarijaona, the leader of a group of mutinous soldiers, declared himself head of the army, raising questions about the president's hold on power on this impoverished Indian Ocean island.
    (AP, 3/11/09)

2009        Mar 16, Madagascar's opposition leader called on the military to arrest the nation's president as a power struggle between the two appeared to be reaching a decisive moment.
    (AP, 3/16/09)

2009        Mar 17, Madagascar's Pres. Marc Ravalomanana ceded power to the military, instead of rival Andry Rajoelina, who plunged the island nation into weeks of turmoil with his bid for power.
    (AP, 3/17/09)

2009        Mar 17, Madagascar's Pres. Marc Ravalomanana ceded power to the military, instead of rival Andry Rajoelina, who plunged the island nation into weeks of turmoil with his bid for power. The military installed opposition leader Andry Rajoelina.
    (AP, 3/17/09)(SFC, 3/18/09, p.A4)

2009        Mar 19, Southern African nations declared they will not recognize Madagascar's new leader, an army-backed politician who ousted an elected president. The US said it would reconsider aid to the island nation.
    (AP, 3/19/09)

2009        Mar 20, The African Union suspended Madagascar, the strongest condemnation by the international community since opposition leader Andry Rajoelina took power with the support of the army.
    (Reuters, 3/20/09)

2009        Mar 21, In Madagascar Andry Rajoelina was sworn in as the new president in a ceremony shunned by the international community after the ousting of the elected president, Marc Ravalomanana. Rajoelina promised new elections within two years.
    (AP, 3/21/09)

2009        Mar 31, Madagascar's neighbors suspended the impoverished nation from their regional development and democracy club, and threatened to take further steps if the Indian Ocean island's ousted president is not restored to power.
    (AP, 3/31/09)

2009        Apr 21, Madagascarís military-backed Pres. Andry Rajoelina banned demonstrations one day after a policeman was killed.
    (SFC, 4/25/09, p.A2)

2009        Apr 23, In Madagascar armed forces fired tear gas to disperse demonstrators loyal to the island nation's ousted president, as looters rampaged through the streets of the capital.
    (AP, 4/23/09)

2009        Apr 24, In Madagascar police clashed with supporters of the ousted president leaving 2 people dead.
    (SFC, 4/25/09, p.A2)

2009        Aug 9, Madagascar's bitter political rivals signed a power-sharing deal, agreeing to create an interim government to end months of violence.
    (AP, 8/9/09)

2009        Aug 28, In Mozambique talks aimed at determining who should lead Madagascar in a new interim government ended in failure with the ousted president and the man who replaced him in a military coup both claiming the right to do so. The parties set a deadline of Sept. 4 to arrive at a compromise.
    (AP, 8/28/09)

2009        Aug 29, The EU signed a temporary trade pact with Mauritius, Seychelles, Zimbabwe and Madagascar calling for tariffs on European goods to be removed over the next 15 years.
    (AP, 8/29/09)

2009        Sep 10, The African Union joined international condemnation of a new "unity" government named by Madagascar leader Andry Rajoelina who overthrew the recognized president this year.
    (AP, 9/11/09)

2009        Oct 7, Madagascar's opposing political factions agreed to retain the coup leader as head of the transitional government, but will not allow him to run in presidential elections.
    (AP, 10/7/09)

2009        Oct 10, Madagascar's outgoing prime minister refused to quit, endangering a power-sharing agreement brokered by mediators to keep peace on the island. Monja Roindefo said he does not acknowledge the mediators' appointment on Oct 6 of Eugene Mangalaza as a prime minister in the transitional government. Members of the transitional government confirmed Eugene Mangalaza.
    (AP, 10/10/09)(AP, 10/11/09)

2009        Nov 6, Madagascar's political rivals agreed on posts within a transitional government that will hold power until next year's elections following a power struggle that brought months of volatility to the country.
    (AP, 11/7/09)

2009        Dec 23, The White House said President Obama has removed Madagascar, Guinea and Niger from a list of African countries receiving trade benefits, but reinstated Mauritania. The US froze most aid to Niger and imposed travel bans on some officials in response to President Mamadou Tandja's moves to extend his rule over the impoverished West African nation.
    (AFP, 12/23/09)(Reuters, 12/23/09)

2010        Jan 6, Madagascar security forces used tear gas to disperse protesters in the capital near the presidential palace. The demonstrators, who are aligned with three of the country's previous presidents, went to present the country's military-backed leader with a letter questioning whether or not coup leader Andry Rajoelina still wants reconciliation.
    (AP, 1/6/10)

2010        Feb 2, In Ethiopia African leaders wrapped up their annual summit less divided and looking at brighter economic prospects but still facing a raft of conflicts, including Sudan's predicted break-up. An AU official said leaders of the 53-member African Union want Madagascar's rival politicians to stick to the agreements meant to help the Indian Ocean island out of a prolonged crisis.
    (AFP, 2/2/10)

2010        Mar 10, Madagascar was hit by Tropical Storm Hubert. Disaster officials soon reported at least 10 people dead.
    (AP, 3/12/10)

2010        Mar 17, The African Union slapped sanctions on Madagascar's rulers for failing to implement accords to end a long political crisis, as fresh violence erupted in the island's capital.
    (AFP, 3/17/10)

2010        May 20, In Madagascar soldiers and police clashed in what a police colonel described as a failed mutiny, leaving one police officer dead and five wounded. Lt. Col. Raymond Andrianjafy and several others were soon arrested pending investigations.
    (AP, 5/20/10)(AP, 5/22/10)

2010        May 24, It was reported that Malagasy timer barons were robbing Madagascar of its sylvan heritage, illegally cutting down scarce species of rosewood trees in poorly protected national parks, and exporting most of the valuable logs to China.
    (SFC, 5/25/10, p.A2)

2010        Jul 30, UNESCO added a region of mountainous forests in Sri Lanka and the Papahanaumokuakea archipelago off Hawaii to the World Heritage list. Florida's Everglades and Madagascar's tropical forest were added to the roll of endangered sites, which is meant to ring alarm bells and encourage protective measures.
    (AFP, 7/31/10)

2010        Oct 14, In Madagascar conservationists said a new species of carnivorous mammal, likely highly endangered, has been discovered in the wetlands of Lake Alaotra, the largest expanse of fresh water on the Indian Ocean island. It has been baptized Durrell's vontsira (Salanoia durelli) after the late British naturalist Gerald Durrell, who led conservation projects in Madagascar.
    (AFP, 10/15/10)

2010        Nov 11, In Madagascar police detained three politicians who have called for boycotting a constitutional referendum scheduled next week.
    (AP, 11/12/10)

2010        Nov 17, In Madagascar Col. Charles Andrianasoavina, who supported a politician's takeover last year, claimed that he and other top-ranking officers have taken over the country. The claim came on a day voters were deciding whether to accept or reject a new constitution that calls for keeping Pres. Rajoelina in power indefinitely. The constitutional referendum was being held in defiance of regional efforts to find a negotiated solution that would involve Marc Ravalomanana, the president ousted in 2009, and other leaders. Rajoelina appeared confident of his hold on power and told reporters the majority of the military was behind him.
    (AP, 11/17/10)(AP, 11/18/10)

2010        Nov 20, Madagascar PM Camille Vital told reporters that 16 officers have surrendered, ending an impasse that began Nov 17, when a faction of officers declared they were taking over from Andry Rajoelina.
    (AP, 11/21/10)

2010        Nov 22, Madagascarís head of the electoral commission said 74% of voters had approved a new consitution, which could keep coup Pres. Rajoelina in power indefinitely.
    (AP, 11/22/10)

2011        Feb 17, Madagascar's ousted president said he will attempt to return from exile in South Africa despite facing a life sentence in prison, as the regime that forced him out in a coup vowed to keep order on the Indian Ocean island nation.
    (AP, 2/17/11)

2011        Feb 19, Madagascar's ousted president Marc Ravalomanana was barred by officials in his homeland from returning from exile in South Africa, but the politician told reporters at Johannesburg's airport that he would keep trying to return.
    (AP, 2/19/11)

2011        Feb 27, Officials in Madagascar arrested 12 suspected pirates after they surrendered the Aly Zoulfecar upon arriving in the Indian Ocean island nation. The ship, controlled by pirates since Nov. 3, carried 20 passengers and 9 crew members and had been badly ravaged by a tropical storm before arriving in Madagascar.
    (AP, 2/28/11)

2011        Mar 26, A Madagascar government official said Pres. Andry Rajoelina has announced a new transitional government as part of a roadmap to resolve the island's political crisis.
    (AP, 3/26/11)

2011        Jul 22, UN food official Olivier De Schutter ended a five-day visit to Madagascar. He said nearly 70 percent of people living in the south of the island nation are food insecure and that the country has one of the world's highest levels of child malnutrition. He also said US and EU sanctions have led to major job losses and hurt agricultural development and urged nations to reconsider their sanctions.
    (AP, 7/23/11)

2011        Sep 17, Madagascan parties signed an agreement allowing the return of former president Marc Ravalomanana whose 2009 ouster plunged the country into a political paralysis. The agreement also called for a power-sharing arrangement by the signatories until presidential and parliamentary elections are held, with Andry Rajoelina in the interim remaining the president.
    (AFP, 9/17/11)

2011        Oct 18, Madagascar's coup-appointed premier, Brig. Gen. Albert Camille Vitalis, presented a letter of resignation, along with his government, to open the way for a new premier to be chosen by consensus to lead a transitional government that will end the Indian Ocean island's two-year political crisis.
    (AP, 10/18/11)

2011        Nov 2, Madagascar's new PM Omer Beriziky (61) took office as part of a deal meant to take the Indian Ocean island nation towards elections after years of political crisis.
    (AFP, 11/2/11)

2011        Nov 21, Madagascar announced a 35-member cabinet unveiled by consensus PM Omer Beriziky.
    (AFP, 11/23/11)

2011        Nov 23, Madagascar opposition groups accepted to join a unity government and Didier Ratsiraka, an exiled ex-president, announced he will return home ending his nine-year exile in France, offering hopes of ending the island nation's persistent crisis. A roadmap to new elections was brokered by regional bloc the Southern African Development Community was signed by the island's main political factions.
    (AFP, 11/23/11)(AFP, 4/14/12)

2011        Nov 24, Madagascar's former Pres. Didier Ratsiraka returned home, ending a 9-year exile in France, and urged reconciliation to resolve the country's long-running political crisis.
    (AFP, 11/24/11)

2011        In Madagascar 26,700 people contracted TB this year, a jump of more than 16 percent compared with 2009.
    (AFP, 7/9/12)

2012        Jan 17, Madagascar police fired teargas to disperse a crowd of opposition supporters addressed by former president Albert Zafy in the capital city.
    (AFP, 1/17/12)

2012        Jan 21, Madagascar's toppled Pres. Marc Ravalomanana tried to end his exile in South Africa, but his commercial plane was forced to turn back mid-flight when his landing was blocked by Andry Rajoelina, the populist former disc jockey who toppled him. Ravalomananaís party walked out of a fledgling unity government, after the island nation barred him from flying home to end his three-year exile.
    (AFP, 1/21/12)
    (AP, 2/15/12)

2012        Mar 6, Madagascar authorities said Tropical Storm Irina killed at least 65 people, most of them residents of the Ifanadiana district in the southeast of the island, when the storm passed over the country last week.
    (AFP, 3/6/12)

2012        Apr 14, Madagascar reported that it has passed an amnesty law that blocks ousted leader Marc Ravalomanana from returning to the island country.
    (AFP, 4/14/12)

2012        May 19, Madagascar police made several arrests after using tear gas to break up an unauthorized protest of several thousand people who turned out to support opposition radio Free FM.
    (AFP, 5/19/12)

2012        Jul 17, In South Africa Madagascar's exiled former president Marc Ravalomanana was served with a summons at his hotel in Pretoria over a $23 million lawsuit filed by victims of 2009 unrest that led to his ouster.
    (AFP, 7/17/12)

2012        Jul 22, In Madagascar new gunfire was heard from the direction of a military base near the main airport after the defense minister asserted that a mutiny had been brought under control. The leader of the renegade troops was identified as Koto Mainty, or the "Black Corporal." An officer sent in to start talks was shot and later died of his wounds. Another government soldier and the alleged leader of the mutiny were killed during a government assault.
    (AFP, 7/22/12)(AP, 7/23/12)

2012        Jul 25, Madagascan leader Andry Rajoelina and the man he toppled in 2009, Marc Ravalomanana, met on a remote Seychelles island to force a breakthrough in reconciliation efforts.
    (AFP, 7/25/12)

2012        Jul 27, The wife of Madagascar's ousted leader Marc Ravalomanana was deported and put on a flight to Thailand, hours after she landed at the island nation's capital.
    (AFP, 7/27/12)

2012        Aug 1, Italian oil company Eni SpA said it discovered more natural gas off the coast of Mozambique, expanding the yield of a major field off the southeast African nation that's the company's largest find.
    (AP, 8/1/12)

2012        Aug 9, Madagascar's Pres. Andry Rajoelina and ousted leader Marc Ravalomanana left the Seychelles, after failing to strike a deal in talks aimed at ending 3 years of political crisis.
    (AFP, 8/9/12)

2012        Sep 3, Madagascar officials said villagers have killed nearly 100 cattle thieves in a wave of weekend attacks in southern areas of the Indian Ocean island plagued by rustling.
    (AFP, 9/3/12)

2012        Madagascar was one of the poorest countries in the world. 81.3 percent of the population lived on less than $1.25 a day, according to the World Bank.
    (AFP, 4/3/12)

2013        Mar 5, Madagascar police said two protesters were killed in a riot at a prison in Mandritsara holding the alleged killers of French nun Sister Marie Emmanuelle Helesbeux. Her body was found in the Mandritsara marketplace on March 2.
    (AP, 3/5/13)

2013        Jul 23, Madagascar police arrested an opposition leader on charges of holding an illegal rally, compounding the island nation's political crisis.
    (Reuters, 7/23/13)

2013        Aug 17, Madagascar's special electoral court removed the country's incumbent president, the wife of his longtime rival and a former president from its list of presidential candidates. The court said Andry Rajoelina's filing for candidacy did not occur during the statutory period and that neither Lalao Ravalomanana nor former president Didier Ratsiraka met the physical residence requirements for candidacy of living in the country for six months.
    (AP, 8/18/13)

2013        Sep 16, In Madagascar a suspected bomb-maker was killed in Antananarivo when an explosive device he is believed to have been building blew up prematurely.
    (Reuters, 9/16/13)

2013        Oct 3, Madagascar police said a crowd burned two Europeans and a local man alive on the Nosy Be tourist island because they suspected them of trafficking human organs after a dead child was found on a beach. 26 people were soon arrested in the case.
    (Reuters, 10/3/13)(AFP, 10/5/13)(AFP, 10/6/13)

2013        Oct 25, Madagascar residents voted in a presidential election they hope will restore security, improve lives and mark the end of political and economic turmoil brought about by a 2009 coup.
    (AP, 10/25/13)

2013        Nov 8, Madagascar officials said the presidential race will go to a run-off vote next month between two candidates linked to the island's main political rivals, after an inconclusive first round.
    (AFP, 11/8/13)

2013        Nov 20, A Madagascar government statement showed changes to 10 of the Indian Ocean island's 22 regions. Three generals and five colonels assumed control of eight regions while two civilians headed the remaining two. This raised concern that the run-off vote in December will be rigged.
    (Reuters, 11/22/13)

2013        Dec 20, Madagascar residents went to the polls for a second round of presidential and legislative elections. On Jan 3, 2014, Hery Rajaonarimampianina was declared the winner with 53.5% of the vote.
    (AP, 12/20/13)(Reuters, 1/3/14)

2013        Dec 21, Madagascar's presidential candidates both claimed victory in run-off polls, each accusing the other of rigging the run-off as results started to trickle in.
    (AFP, 12/21/13)

2013        Dec 30, In Madagascar, Hery Rajaonarimampianina, the candidate supported by strongman Andry Rajoelina, held a seemingly unassailable 53% lead in the island's run-off presidential poll, with ballots from over 96% of the voting stations in.
    (AFP, 12/30/13)

2014        Jan 3, Madagascarís electoral commission said that former finance minister Hery Rajaonarimampianina, the candidate backed by outgoing President Andry Rajoelina who spearheaded the coup nearly five years ago, won 53.5 percent of the December 20 vote.
    (Reuters, 1/3/14)

2014        Jan 17, Madagascar declared Hery Rajaonarimampianina (55), a Canadian-educated former finance minister backed by strongman Andry Rajoelina, as the country's new president.
    (AFP, 1/17/14)

2014        Jan 25, In Madagascar a grenade blast left a toddler dead and over 50 wounded just hours after the inauguration of the island's new president.
    (AFP, 1/26/14)

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