Timeline Mali

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The Wodaabe nomads number about 40-50,000 and move constantly across the Sahel between Niger, Mali and Northern Nigeria. They are of Fulani origin, a race scattered all over West Africa.
    (SFEM, 10/11/98, p.40)
Mali is about the size of California and Texas combined.
    (WSJ, 6/22/04, p.A1)(Econ, 3/17/12, p.60)

955        Sufi saint Sidi Mahmoudou died. In 2013 his tomb in Timbuktu, Mali, was destroyed by Islamist extremists.
    (AP, 1/28/13)

1000-1100    The desert village of Araouane, 161 miles north of Timbuktu, was first mentioned about this time. It was a wealthy settlement that flourished off the caravans and drew water from 150-foot wells.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.84)

c1100    Timbuktu was founded about this time as a seasonal Tuareg nomad camp around a well that was maintained by a group of slaves under an old woman, Buktu, "the place of Buktu." Tuareg is a derisive Arab term meaning abandoned by the gods. Natives prefer to be know as Kel Tamashek people.
    (AM, 11/00, p.51)(SSFC, 4/11/04, p.D6)(SFC, 10/30/04, p.E1)

1200-1400    Timbuktu, a major trading center in the Malian Empire, reached a population of some 100,000 during this period.
    (WSJ, 2/1/06, p.D12)

1235        The king of Mali, Sundiata, defeated Sumanguru at the battle of Kirina. From then on Mali replaced Ghana as the major power in West Africa. Sundiata established his capital at Niana on the upper Niger.
    (ATC, p.113,118)

1307        Mansa Musa (d.1337), Mali~ez_rsquo~s greatest ruler, succeeded to the throne. He commissioned grand mosques.
    (ATC, p.119)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4,6)

1324-1325    Mansa Musa (Kankan Moussa), king of Mali, made the 3,500 mile pilgrimage to Mecca with gold valued at $115 million in 1999 prices. He traveled with a very large retinue that included 80 camels and 500 slaves. An Arab chronicler said he was surrounded by over 10,000 of his subjects.
    (ATC, p.119)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)(SSFC, 4/11/04, p.D6)

1332        Mansa Musa, King of Mali, died. His successors were not able to protect Mali~ez_rsquo~s vast territory and Berber nomads began attacking caravan routes in the desert and threatened to take Timbuktu. People from the southern rain forests attacked the southern boundary and to the west the Songhai of the middle Niger River began to revolt.
    (ATC, p.120)

1353        Ibn Battuta spent a few months in Mali and left a full description of his experiences.
    (Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.170)

1400        Mali (Africa) was under attack from all four sides and gradually weakened in power.
    (ATC, p.120)

1434        Nomadic Tuaregs seized Timbuktu, Mali, from invaders.
    (AP, 4/1/12)

1435        A Songhai prince, Sunni Ali, declares Gao~ez_rsquo~s independence. Aided by Songhai warriors, he successfully fought off Mali~ez_rsquo~s attempt to regain the city.
    (ATC, p.)

1558        Sidi Mahmoud Ben Amar (b.1463/64), a member of the Berber tribe of the Godala, died in Mali. He was named Cadi in 1498 or 99. His tomb in Timbuktu was later named a World Heritage site. 
    (SFC, 5/7/12, p.A2)(www.exploretimbuktu.com/culture/culture/saints.html)

1590        Apr 25, The Sultan of Morocco launched his successful attack to capture Timbuktu. Morocco sent 4,000 soldiers under the Muslim Spaniard Judar Pasha to conquer Songhai. After a five month journey across the Shara, Pasha arrived with only 1,000 men, but his soldiers carried guns. The 25,000 men of the Songhai were no match for the guns and Gao, Timbuktu and most of Songhai fall.
    (ATC, p.122)(HN, 4/25/98)

1591        Moroccan invaders sacked Timbuktu (Mali).
    (AM, 7/04, p.36)

1796        Jul, Mungo Park, Scottish surgeon, reached the Niger River at Segou, (Mali). Mansong, the African chief at Segou, gave Park enough money to return to the coast. Park described his journey in his book: "Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa."
    (ON, 7/00, p.10)

1805        Jan 31, Mungo Park set sail from Portsmouth to Africa where he planned to navigate the Niger River to its mouth.
    (ON, 7/00, p.10)

1805        Aug 9, Mungo Park reached the town of Bamako after losing 25 of his 35 soldiers.
    (ON, 7/00, p.11)

1805        Sep 27, Mungo Park reached the town of Sansanding with 11,000 inhabitants, where he planned to build boats to journey down the Niger.
    (ON, 7/00, p.12)

1805        Oct 28, Alexander Anderson, the brother of Mungo Park~ez_rsquo~s wife, died of fever at Sansanding.
    (ON, 7/00, p.12)

1805        Nov 20, Mungo Park departed Sansanding with 4 remaining soldiers , 3 slaves and a new guide.
    (ON, 7/00, p.12)

1806        cFeb, Mungo Park drowned in the Niger River during an attack by armed men near Bussa. He had traveled some 1500 miles down the Niger River.
    (ON, 7/00, p.12)

1815        The merchant ship Commerce, under Capt. James Riley (d.1840) of Connecticut, wrecked off the northwest coast of Africa. He survived captivity under Muslim slave traders and endured a lengthy trek across the Sahara. He later authored "An authentic Narrative of the Loss of the American Brig Commerce." In 2004 Dean King authored "Skeletons on the Zahara: A True Story of Survival."
    (SSFC, 2/22/04, p.M1)

1816        Robert Adams, the 1st Westerner to reach Timbuktu, transcribed an account of his experiences there as an enslaved American sailor.
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.126)

1825        Jul 16, Alexander Gordon Laing (32), British Army Major, set off on camel from Tripoli in an attempt to become the 1st European to cross the Sahara Desert and reach the fabled city of Timbuktu (Mali).
    (SSFC, 1/1/06, p.M2)(ON, 11/06, p.5)

1826        Aug 13, Major Gordon Laing, Scottish explorer, became the 1st European to enter Timbuktu (Mali), where some 12,000 people lived. Laing was killed by a Tuareg nomad spear on Sep 26 as he headed for Morocco. In 2005 Frank T. Kryza authored ~ez_ldquo~The Race for Timbuktu: In Search of Africa~ez_rsquo~s City of Gold.~ez_rdquo~
    (SSFC, 4/11/04, p.D6)(SSFC, 1/1/06, p.M2)(Econ, 1/7/06, p.75)(ON, 11/06, p.6)

1828        Rene Auguste Caillie of France reached Timbuktu disguised as a Muslim trader. In 1830 he published an account of his journey.
    (SSFC, 4/11/04, p.D6)(ON, 11/06, p.7)

1830        Richard Lander, British explorer, completed Mungo Park~ez_rsquo~s journey down the Niger from Bussa to the mouth of the river in 5 months.
    (ON, 7/00, p.12)

1880        The city of Timbuktu, later part of Mali, became part of the French colony of Upper Senegal.
    (ON, 11/06, p.7)

1893        France began colonizing West Africa and Timbuktu came under French rule until Mali became independent in 1960.
    (AP, 4/1/12)

1894        In Mali Touareg nomads first rebelled against the French and were bloodily suppresed.
    (Econ, 1/20/07, p.58)

c1929        Seydou Keida [Keita], photographer, was born. He ran a successful studio from his home city of Bamako from 1945-1977. He later achieved int~ez_rsquo~l. acclaim. A book of his work was published in 1997 edited by Andre Magnin: "Seydou Keita." Keita died Nov 22, 2001 in Paris.
    (SFC, 3/8/96, p.E1)(SFEC, 7/27/97, BR p.6)(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)

1932        In Mali French colonial authorities planned a 2.47 million acre irrigation project to grow cotton and rice and to develop hydropower in the Mali desert. By 1982 only 6% of the region was developed. The World Bank took over in 1985 with some success in farming rice.
    (SFC, 12/21/07, p.A31)

1946        France granted Malians French citizenship and limited self-rule.
    (www.angelfire.com/ri/georgev/bg8.html)

1950s        In the 1950s when the French gave independence to their West African colonies, the Touareg people and their ancestral lands were parceled out among the newly created nations of Mali, Niger, Algeria, Libya, Mauritania and Chad.
    (www.jacneed.com/10Tinariwen.htm)

1959        With French support the French Sudan and Senegal formed the Federation of Mali.
    (www.angelfire.com/ri/georgev/bg8.html)

1960        Jun 20, The Federation of Mali became independent.
    (www.angelfire.com/ri/georgev/bg8.html)

1960        Aug 20, Senegal broke from Mali federation and declared independence.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1960        Sep 22, Mali became an independent republic. Pres. Modibo Keita was elected the first president and introduced a one-party dictatorship.
    (www.angelfire.com/ri/georgev/bg8.html)

1968        Nov 19, Gen'l. Moussa Traore (b.1936) began serving as the 2nd president of Mali after leading the military ouster of Pres. Modibo Keita (1915-1977. Traore then ruled for 23 years.
    (SFC, 9/23/99, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moussa_Traor%C3%A9)

1968        Dec 6, The original Malian constitution was abrogated after a military coup d'etat and replaced by a new fundamental law.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_Mali)

1968-1973    A severe famine hit the Sahel region of North Africa. Mauritania, Mali, Upper Volta (Burkina Faso) and Niger were most affected.
    (Econ, 8/20/05, p.57)

1975        May 25, ECOWAS Treaty1 was signed. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) was formed in Nigeria with 15 members that included: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo.
    (www.sec.ecowas.int/sitecedeao/english/achievements.htm)

1977        May 16, In Mali former Pres. Modibo Keita (1915-1977) died in prison. His reputation was rehabilitated in 1992 following the overthrow of Moussa Traore and subsequent the election of president Alpha Oumar Konare. A monument for Modibo Keita, was dedicated in Bamako on June 6, 1999.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modibo_Ke%C3%AFta)

1979        Jun 19, In Mali presidential and general elections were held. Moussa Traore was elected President and Mady Sangare was elected as Speaker of the National Assembly.
    (www.etat.sciencespobordeaux.fr/_anglais/chronologie/mali.html)

1980        Colonel Muammar Khaddafi of Libya recruited the nationless, disenfranchised nomads by implying that he would train the Kel Tamashek and provide weapons to fight for their independence from the Malian government. The rebels slowly realized that Khadaffi's only intention was to use them in his own wars. Some of these dejected fighters formed the band Tinariwen in Khadaffi's rebel camp.
    (www.jacneed.com/10Tinariwen.htm)

1982        The founding members of Tinariwen came together as a band, whilst they were in exile in Libya. They were deeply involved in the Touareg~ez_rsquo~s armed struggle.
    (www.french-music.org/scr_artist.php?artist_id=21907)

1985        The town of Sanankoroba established a sister-town relationship with Sainte-Elizabeth, Quebec.
    (SFC, 2/27/98, p.D2)

1990        The "Second Tuareg Rebellion" broke out, a struggle to liberate a region in the north from the Malian government.
    (http://sonomu.net/person/~stephenfruitman/texts/?page=2)

1991        Mar 26, Mali became a democracy after a Revolution. Gen. Amadou Toumani Toure seized power in a coup. Prior to the period of French colonialism, each of 12 ethnic groups governed itself.
    (SFC, 6/7/96, p.A12)(Econ, 7/30/05, p.41)(AFP, 3/26/12)

1992        Feb 25, The Republic of Mali proclaimed a new Constitution.
    (AP, 4/1/12)
 
1992        Gen. Amadou Toumani Toure introduced multi-party democracy in Mali.
    (Econ, 7/30/05, p.41)

1993        Gen'l. Moussa Traore was condemned to death for ordering the killing of over 100 demonstrators, but the sentence was commuted to life in prison. He was again condemned to death in 1999 for misappropriating public funds, but his sentence was again commuted to life in prison.
    (SFC, 9/23/99, p.A12)

1994-2004    Gold production in Mali grew from 6.3 million tons to 39.3 million tons.
    (SFC, 9/22/05, p.A14)

c1995        In Mali a Swiss development worker invented a low-cost machine for milling and grinding. By 2002 the $4,000 machine was in some 300 villages and benefited numerous women who had previously hours pounding and grinding grains for daily meals.
    (WSJ, 7/26/02, p.A1)

1995        Prof. Pamela Ronald and colleagues isolated the blight-resistance gene from a variety of wild rice cultivated in Mali. The blight was caused by the Xanthomonas orizae bacterium. She pushed for a got a percentage of the royalty rights to be used for fellowships for scientists from Mali.
    (SFC, 5/26/97, p.A16)

1996        Jun, The administration of Pres. Alpha Oumar Konare was privatizing and encouraging investment, foreign and domestic. The leading radio station in the capital, Bamako, was owned by Modibo Diallo.
    (SFC, 6/7/96, p.A12)

1996        Cheick Oumar Sissoko, Paris educated and Mali-based writer and director, showed his film "Guimba the Tyrant" at the SF Int~ez_rsquo~l. Film Festival.
    (SFC, 1/17/96, p.D3)

1996        In Mali ~ez_ldquo~the Flame of Peace~ez_rdquo~ ceremony, in which thousands of weapons were incinerated, marked a reconciliation between the Touareg nomads and the government. The annual ~ez_ldquo~Festival in the Desert~ez_rdquo~ music festival grew as an outshoot of this. It took place near Essakane, an oasis some 40 miles north-west of Timbuktu.
    (Econ, 1/20/07, p.58)

1996        A peace accord in Mali allowed Kel Tamashek people to integrate into Malian society.
    (SFC, 10/30/04, p.E5)

1997        Aug, From Chad a plague of locusts began to spread across the country with as many as 200 locusts per square yard.
    (SFC, 9/27/97, p.A21)

1998        Jun 26, In the Ivory Coast Alioune Blondin Beye, a diplomat from Mali, crashed in a small plane near Abidjan. He had just met with Togo Pres. Gnassigbe Eyadema to support peace talks in Angola. Three other passengers were Koffi Adjovi of Togo, journalist Moktar Gueye of Senegal, and Baendegar Dessandre of Chad.
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, p.A18)

1998        Nov 11, It was reported that Pfizer and the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation initiated a $66 million effort to attack trachoma, a disease of the eye caused by chlamydia. A one-gram dose of zithromax given once a year would treat the disease. Focus was to be on Ghana, Mali, Morocco, Tanzania and Vietnam.
    (SFC, 11/11/98, p.D6)

1999        Jan 4, In Sierra Leone Nigerian troops repelled a rebel attack on Freetown's airport. Gambia and Mali agreed to send troops to join the Nigerian forces.
    (WSJ, 1/5/99, p.A1)

2000        Oct, In southern Mali the Morila gold mine opened near Sanso. By 2005 it had generated nearly $180 million in profits. Randgold Resources and Anglo-Gold Ashanti of South Africa divided an 80% stake and the Mali government owned the rest. Benefits to local people proved miniscule and after 5 years Sanso still had no electricity and no paved roads.
    (SFC, 9/22/05, p.A14)

2000        Dec 23, In Niger William Bultemeier, a US Defense Department official, was killed. Staff Sergeant Christopher McNeely, who had run to Bultemeier's aid, survived the shooting but suffered lasting injuries. Alhassane Ould Mohamed and a co-conspirator fled in a US Embassy vehicle after searching Bultemeier and McNeely's pockets. The car was later found in Timbuktu, in neighboring Mali. On Sep 13, 2013, US prosecutors unsealed an indictment against Alhassane Ould Mohamed (42), a Malian man, for the killing and who remained at large.
    (AP, 9/19/13)

2001        May 23, US Sec. of State Colin Powell began his 4-nation African tour in Mali and met with Pres. Alfa Omar Konare.
    (SFC, 5/24/01, p.C2)

2001        Nov 22, Seydou Keida [Keita], photographer, died in Paris at age 78 or 81. He had run a successful studio from his home city of Bamako from 1945-1977. He later achieved int~ez_rsquo~l. acclaim. A book of his work was published in 1997 edited by Andre Magnin: "Seydou Keita."
    (SFC, 3/8/96, p.E1)(SFEC, 7/27/97, BR p.6)(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 12/7/01, p.A23)

2002        Apr 28, Elections were held for 24 candidates in the presidential race. A run-off for the top 2 was set for May 12.
    (SFC, 5/3/02, p.A10)

2002        May 12, In Mali runoff elections were held. Retired Gen. Amadou Toure won 68% of the vote. The coalition candidate Siumaila Cisse, a wealthy former finance minister, conceded with 32%.
    (SFC, 5/16/02, p.A8)

2002        Jun 8, In Mali former junta leader Amadou Toumani Toure was sworn in for a five-year term as the new democratically elected president.
    (AP, 6/9/02)

2002        Aug 10, In Mali a Constitutional Court reversed the outcome of last month's parliamentary elections, giving an opposition alliance a comfortable lead.
    (AP, 8/10/02)

2003        Jan 8, In Mali the 3rd annual Festival of the Desert ended in Essakane.
    (SFC, 1/11/03, p.D1)

2003        Aug 18, A six-month ordeal for 14 European tourists kidnapped by Islamic extremists while on desert safaris in Algeria has ended with their release to officials in neighboring Mali.
    (AP, 8/19/03)

2003        Sep 8, In Mali  authorities said torrential rains have killed scores and caused heavy property damage, warning of worse to come if the Niger River spills its banks.
    (AP, 9/8/03)

2003        Anthony Sattin authored "The Gates of Africa: Death, Discovery and the Search for Timbuktu.
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.126)

2004        Aug 6, Mali said swarms of locusts had spread across most of its vast arid territory. The swarms were moving across the Sahara desert toward countries including Senegal, Niger, Chad and Gambia
    (AP, 8/6/04)

2004        Sep 15, Eight French speaking African countries began retiring over 1 billion in decaying currency with new CFA francs. Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal and Togo had until Dec 31 to turn in old bills for new ones.
    (SFC, 9/15/04, p.C8)

2004        US Special Forces began training local troops in Mauritania and Mali under a program called the Pan-Sahel Initiative. The program was renamed the Trans-Sahara Counter-Terrorism Initiative and taken over by Marines, who extended the training to Chad and Niger.
    (SFC, 10/2/04, p.A8)

2004        Mali~ez_rsquo~s population numbered 11-12 million people.
    (WSJ, 6/22/04, p.A1)(Econ, 7/30/05, p.41)

2005        Jun, The Trans-Sahara Counter-Terrorism Initiative began operations. The US funded plan intended to provide military equipment and development aid to 9 north-east African countries considered fertile ground for Muslim militant groups. Participating countries included Algeria, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Tunisia.
    (SFC, 12/27/05, p.A1)

2005        Jul, Mali officials estimated that 4 million people faced starvation in Mali and Niger, due to drought and locusts from the previous year. 10% of the Mali~ez_rsquo~s population faced starvation.
    (Econ, 7/30/05, p.41)

2005        Dec 2, African leaders and French President Jacques Chirac converged on Mali for a two-day summit expected to focus on Africa's conflict hotspots, immigration and the problems of African youth.
    (AFP, 12/02/05)

2005        Dec 4, In Mali at a weekend Franco-African summit President Jacques Chirac called upon the US to remove the subsidies to their cotton producers. Chirac also urged rich countries to double development aid, as African leaders warned tackling poverty was crucial to stem a growing tide of illegal immigration.
    (AP, 12/05/05)

2006        Jan 14, In Bamako, Mali, China unveiled plans to boost its ties with Africa, outlining a new relationship with the continent based on a "win-win" concept of economic and military cooperation.
    (AFP, 1/15/06)

2006        Jan 23, In Mali a closing ceremony was held for a gathering of the World Social Forum. Other gatherings were set for Pakistan and Venezuela. The first World Social Forum was held in Brazil in 2001 and coincides each year with the market-friendly World Economic Forum of political and business leaders in Davos, Switzerland.
    (AP, 1/24/06)(SFC, 1/24/06, p.A2)

2006        Mar 7, Ali Farka Toure (b.1939), a traditional African musician who won two Grammy Awards, died in his home in Bamako, Mali, after a long illness.
    (AP, 3/7/06)

2006        Nov 13, The US signed a 461 million dollar aid "compact" with Mali to finance a giant irrigation project and expand the international airport in the poverty-stricken African nation.
    (AP, 11/13/06)

2006        Dec 6, A conference on bird flu opened in Mali. Experts were increasingly concerned for Africa as an international conference heard that Egypt, Nigeria, and Sudan continued to record outbreaks of the deadly disease.
    (AFP, 12/6/06)

2007        Apr 28, The 1st round of the Mali presidential election garnered a turnout of around 36%. Incumbent President Amadou Toumani Toure (59), one of 8 candidates, was widely expected to win a second term. General Amadou Toumani Toure and Soumaila Cisse, candidate for the ruling party Adema, faced each other for the 2nd round.
    (AFP, 5/6/07)(http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/1982814.stm)

2007        May 5, The 12 million people of Mali earned on average less than $400 a year.
    (Econ, 5/5/07, p.62)

2007        Jun 29, Laura Bush wrapped up a tour of Africa by visiting a school and sitting in on a math class in Mali, saying she was impressed by education efforts in the country.
    (AP, 6/29/07)

2007        Jul 7, Mali~ez_rsquo~s decentralized government numbered 702 local communes as opposed to 18 in 1991.
    (Econ, 7/7/07, p.28)

2007        Aug 30, A transport vehicle hit a land mine in tense northern Mali, killing 10 people.
    (AP, 8/31/07)

2007        Aug, In Mali Ag Bahanga took up arms and kidnapped 36 soldiers, in spite of a peace pact signed in neighboring Algeria in July 2006. The last 22 of those troops were released on March 8, 2008, following intervention by Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi.
    (AFP, 3/23/08)

2008        Mar 20, In Mali clashes began around Tinzaouatene, near the Algerian border, as insurgents attacked soldiers clearing mines in what the rebels feared was a prelude to a government offensive. 3 soldiers were killed when their vehicle was blown up by a mine and four captured in combat by the rebels.
    (AFP, 3/23/08)

2008        Mar 21, In Mali 5 civilians, including a child, were reported killed, again when their vehicle hit a mine near Tinzaouatene. 29 soldiers were taken prisoner when a convoy of wounded soldiers heading for Kidal was intercepted by rebels.
    (AFP, 3/23/08)

2008        May 3, Insurgents attacked an army convoy in northern Mali, violating a cease-fire and sparking a fire fight that left five people dead.
    (AP, 5/3/08)

2008        May 6, In northern and central Mali attacks by Tuareg rebels on several army posts left one person dead.
    (AFP, 5/6/08)

2008        May 21, In northern Mali 27 people were killed, including 10 soldiers, following an insurgent attack on an army base. Ethnic Tuareg rebels active in the area claimed responsibility for the attack. They said only one of their fighters died in the skirmish and that they had taken some 60 soldiers hostages.
    (AP, 5/22/08)

2008        Jul 18, In Algeria the government of Mali and ethnic Tuareg rebels reached a truce agreement in dangerous northern Mali. One faction of the Tuareg group refused to sign the deal, saying it did not do enough to help the Tuaregs.
    (AP, 7/22/08)

2008        Dec 14, On the Niger-Mali border Tuareg rebels of the Front for the Forces of Redress (FFR) kidnapped Robert Fowler, a Canadian UN special envoy, and Louis Guay, a Canadian diplomat, along with their local driver. Days later the FFR made contradictory statements both claiming and condemning responsibility. On March, 2009, rebels released the driver. The Canadian diplomats were released in April, 2009.
    (AP, 12/16/08)(http://tinyurl.com/djsmd7)(AP, 4/23/09)

2008        Dec 20, In Mali suspected Tuareg rebels attacked an army outpost in the country's remote north, setting off a battle in which 20 people were killed.
    (AP, 12/21/08)

2009        Jan, Four tourists, two Swiss, a German and a Briton, were kidnapped on the Mali-Niger border. They were transferred to Al-Qaida's North Africa branch, which asked for a ransom and the release of a radical Islamist preacher held in Britain. A Swiss and a German tourist were released in April. Edwin Dyer of Britain, was killed by his captors on May 31. The 2nd Swiss citizen, Werner Greiner, was released in July.
    (AP, 4/23/09)(AP, 7/12/09)

2009        Feb 12, China's President Hu Jintao arrived in Mali at the start of a four-country African tour which Beijing insists is about strengthening cooperation and not solely for economic gain.
    (AP, 2/12/09)

2009        Feb 27, The UN Children's Fund said 53 million children are being targeted by a mass immunization drive against polio in Benin, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Togo. Some 844 polio cases were reported in the 8 countries in 2008, 95% of them in Nigeria.
    (AFP, 2/27/09)

2009        May 31, In Mali it was believed that Al-Qaida terrorists killed British hostage Edwin Dyer. The fate of a Swiss hostage taken at the same time was unknown. Dyer was abducted in January and his captors had threatened to kill him by the end of May if Britain refused to release extremist preacher Abu Qatada from prison.
    (AP, 6/3/09)

2009        Jul 4, In Mali dozens of people were killed during clashes in the Timbuktu region between the army and Al-Qaeda of the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) fighters.
    (AFP, 7/21/09)

2009        Jul 17, The Malian army announced that it had killed 26 "Islamist fighters" in the far north of the country.
    (AFP, 7/21/09)

2009        Jul 21, Mali's president's office announced that Spain plans to help Mali fight Al-Qaeda of the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), which is active in the desert north of the west African nation.
    (AFP, 7/21/09)

2009        Sep 22, The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs announced that flash floods and lighting have claimed 187 lives and affected 635,273 people in west Africa since the rainy season started in June. This included 103 dead in Sierra Leone, followed by Ghana (24), Mali (20), Ivory Coast (19), Burkina Faso (8), Niger (7) and Senegal (6).
    (AFP, 9/22/09)

2009        Oct 20, The United States presented Mali security forces with more than $5 million in new vehicles and other equipment.
    (AP, 10/21/09)

2009        Nov 2, In Mali the burned debris of a Boeing cargo plane was discovered on Nov. 2 in the Gao region. It was assumed to have landed on a clandestine landing strip and either failed to take off again or was destroyed on purpose. Ample traces of cocaine were found on board. Drug smugglers had flown the plane from Venezuela, unloaded it and torched it. In 2010 it was reported that drug smugglers were buying old jets  and flying them across the Atlantic to feed Europe~ez_rsquo~s growing coke habit.
    (AP, 12/3/09)(SFC, 11/16/10, p.A6)

2009        Nov 25, In Mali gunmen kidnapped Pierre Camatte, a French national, in the remote east. The kidnapping was attributed to Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM). Camatte was released on Feb 23, 2010.
    (Reuters, 11/26/09)(AFP, 12/1/09)(SFC, 2/24/10, p.A2)

2009        Nov 29, In Mauritania 3 Spanish volunteers were kidnapped by gunmen. Spain's interior minister said the next day that he suspected al-Qaida-linked Islamists were behind the attack. On Dec 2 a Mauritanian official said the 3 aid workers were being taken by their captors to neighboring Mali. Aid worker Alicia Gamez (35) was released on March 10, 2010. Businessmen Roque Pascual and Albert Vilalta remained captive. Al-Qaida's offshoot in North Africa said on March 12 that it had released Gamez because she voluntarily converted to Islam. Pascual and Vilalta were released in August 2010.
    (AP, 11/30/09)(AP, 12/2/09)(AP, 3/10/10)(AP, 3/12/10)(Reuters, 8/23/10)

2010        Feb 25, In Mali at least 15 people died in a stampede in a Timbuktu mosque during services celebrating the birth of the Prophet Muhammad.
    (AP, 2/26/10)

2010        Apr 21, The Algerian Defense Ministry said Algeria, Mauritania, Mali and Niger are opening a joint military headquarters in the Algerian city Tamanrasset, in a united effort to combat terrorism and kidnapping in northwestern Africa. The Committee of Joint Chiefs (CEMOC) was based in  Tamanrasset.
    (AP, 4/21/10)(AP, 12/20/11)

2010        Jul 9, Aid agency Oxfam warned that the food crisis gripping the Sahel region of Africa was reaching disastrous levels and called on governments and the international community to act now. The crisis stretched across the region taking in Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Niger and northern Nigeria.
    (AFP, 7/9/10)

2010        Jul 24, French-backed Mauritanian military operations against al Qaeda fighters in the Sahara desert wound up after four days of hunting Islamists deep inside Mali.
    (AP, 7/24/10)

2010        Aug 23, Two Spanish aid workers held by al Qaeda's North African wing were freed in Mali, ending a kidnapping that lasted nearly nine months, the longest period of captivity in the Sahara desert. Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) said it seized Albert Vilalta and Roque Pascual while they were traveling through Mauritania with a relief aid convoy last November.
    (AP, 8/23/10)

2010        Sep 17, The Mauritanian army launched an offensive against the North African branch of al-Qaida in neighboring Mali. At least 12 militants died and five Mauritanians were killed in the operation, which was launched  inside northern Mali with permission.
    (AP, 9/18/10)

2010        Sep 30, Algerian daily Al-Watan said spy chiefs from four north African countries (Algeria, Mauritania, Mali and Niger) have set up a center for joint operations against Al Qaeda in the Sahel region during a meeting in Algiers.
    (AFP, 9/30/10)

2011        Jan 5, In Mali an assailant hurled an explosive at France's embassy in Bamako in an attack that wounded two Malian security guards. The blast appeared to be small, however, and caused only minor damage to an outer gate of the building. A Malian later died of injuries sustained in the attack. On Nov 29 Bachir Simoun (24) of Tunisia was sentenced to death for the attack.
    (AP, 1/6/11)(AP, 11/29/11)

2011        Feb 21, In Mali a stampede at a football stadium in Bamako killed 35 people. Thousands had gathered there for a blessing by a well-known Imam.
    (SFC, 2/23/11, p.A2)

2011        Mar 25, In Ivory Coast about 1,000 people frantically crowded around buses rented by Mali to evacuate its citizens, as the UN said up to 1 million have fled their homes amid fears of civil war.
    (AP, 3/25/11)

2011        Jun 24, In northeast Mali a raid by the Mauritanian army on an Al-Qaeda base left 17 dead, including two soldiers.
    (AFP, 6/27/11)

2011        Jun 26, Mauritanian aircraft struck an Al-Qaeda base in northeast Mali. 9 suspected Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) fighters were arrested by the Malian army.
    (AFP, 6/28/11)

2011        Jul 5, In Mauritania al-Qaida militants attacked a military base in the town of Bassiknou and then fled towards Mali. On July 7 the army said 6 militants were killed with no casualties on the Mauritanian side. The militants said that they had killed 20 soldiers in an ambush late last month in the Wagadou region of Mali. Mauritanian officials said 15 militants and two soldiers were killed.
    (AP, 7/6/11)(AP, 7/7/11)

2011        Jul 14, Malian security services said they have arrested two men identified as supporters of Al-Qaeda's north African branch in the northwestern Timbuktu region.
    (AFP, 7/14/11)

2011        Aug 26, Mali's most radical Tuareg rebel chief Ibrahim Ag Bahanga, who never agreed to disarm, died in an accident.
    (AFP, 8/27/11)

2011        Aug 28, Security sources said hundreds of armed Tuaregs from Mali and Niger who fought for toppled Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi have started to return to their home nations.
    (AFP, 8/28/11)

2011        Sep 12, A Mali government source said that 4 people were killed in the desert between Mali and Algeria in a clash between the rival gangs, who did not agree on how to share the spoils from ferrying a ton of cocaine and hashish through the desert.
    (AFP, 9/14/11)

2011        Oct 20, Mauritania's army conducted an air raid to prevent a planned attack by al-Qaida-linked insurgents in a forest just across the border in Mali, where the group has a cell.
    (AP, 10/20/11)

2011        Oct 23, In Algeria gunmen kidnapped three aid workers, two Spaniards and an Italian, from the Rabuni refugee camp near Tindouf, injuring one of the hostages and a local guard in the late night attack. Security sources in Nouakchott and Bamako later said those responsible belonged to a Sahrawi wing of the north African Al-Qaeda branch, Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Magreb (AQIM). The group later demanded 30 million euros ($39 million) to free the 3 aid workers held in northern Mali. Spaniards Enric Gonyalons and Ainhoa Fernandez del Rincon and Italian Rossella Urru were released on July 18, 2012, in exchange for three Islamists. The Islamist rebel group that freed them claimed that they also received a ransom of ~ez_euro~15 million ($18.4 million).
    (AP, 10/23/11)(AFP, 12/5/11)(AFP, 3/3/12)(AP, 7/19/12)(AP, 7/20/12)

2011        Oct 26, Abdullah al-Senoussi, Moammar Gadhafi's former intelligence chief, entered Mali late at night, after making his way across Niger where he has been hiding for several days in the country's northern desert. Gadhafi's hunted son, Seif al-Islam, was also reported on his way to Mali, traveling across the invisible line separating Algeria from Niger.
    (AP, 10/27/11)

2011        Oct, In Mali Tuareg rebels met at a remote oasis near the Algerian border with deserters from the Malian army to found the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA).
    (Econ, 3/17/12, p.60)

2011        Nov 12, Nigeria evacuated from Mali 104 of its citizens, mostly women, either made to work as "sexual slaves" or suspected of involvement in human trafficking.
    (AFP, 11/15/11)

2011        Nov 18, The European Commission said an extra 10 million euros ($13.5 million) in humanitarian funding will go on addressing "major shortfalls" in food in the Sahel region. The crisis is affecting 7 million people in Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Nigeria.
    (AFP, 11/19/11)

2011        Nov 21, In Mali army chiefs from Algeria, Mali, Mauritania and Niger, met in Bamako amid mounting concerns over the fallout from Libya's conflict on security in the troubled zone.
    (AFP, 11/21/11)

2011        Nov 24, In Mali a gang kidnapped two French geologists at gunpoint from their hotel in the eastern desert village of Hombori. The body of geologist Philippe Verdon was found and identified in July, 2013. Serge Lazarevic was freed on Dec 9, 2014.
    (AFP, 11/24/11)(Reuters, 7/14/13)(SFC, 12/10/14, p.A3)

2011        Nov 30, In Mali hundreds of people took to the streets of Bamako to demand that a referendum on proposed changes to the constitution be shelved. The changes, first announced in December 2009, include the creation of a Senate as a second house of parliament and will give the president the power to "define the nation's policy" as opposed to the prime minister.
    (AFP, 11/30/11)

2011        Dec 6, Human Rights Watch said in a report that between 20,000 and 40,000 children work in artisanal gold mines in Mali, Africa's third-largest producer of the precious metal.
    (AFP, 12/6/11)

2011        Dec 8, The UN's World Food Program said meager rains and diminished harvests have left between five and seven million people in Africa's Sahel region facing food shortages. The countries of Niger, Mauritania, Mali and Chad were worst hit.
    (AFP, 12/9/11)

2011        Dec 8, In Mali 4 people were arrested over the Nov 24 kidnapping of two French citizens. The suspects were reportedly "subcontracted" to an al-Qaida group and appear to be Malian.
    (AP, 12/12/11)(AFP, 12/12/11)

2011        Dec 20, Algerian troops were reported to have crossed into Mali to help government forces combat groups affiliated to Al-Qaeda.
    (AFP, 12/20/11)

2012        Jan 3, Mali's government announced a plan to distribute 40,000 tons of food in emergency aid to drought victims and those lacking food security.
    (AFP, 1/3/12)

2012        Jan 12, Malian President Amadou Toumani Toure ended a 2-day visit to India. At the end of the visit a joint statement announced that India extended a $100-million loan to Mali for a power project, while Bamako promised to support the Asian giant's bid for a permanent UN Security Council seat.
    (AP, 1/13/12)

2012        Jan 17, In eastern Mali a new Tuareg rebel group, the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA), launched its first attack. Rebel members under Col. Mahamed Ag Najim included former pro-Gadhafi fighters. Government forces in Menaka counter-attacked and used helicopters to bomb rebel positions.
    (AP, 1/17/12)(Econ, 3/17/12, p.60)

2012        Jan 18, In Mali a new Tuareg rebel group, the National Movement for the Liberation of the Azawad, launched a second day of attacks on two more towns in the arid north. 47 people were killed in the clashes.
    (AP, 1/18/12)(AP, 1/20/12)

2012        Jan 20, Mali~ez_rsquo~s military said its army has taken control of three northern towns which were attacked by Tuareg rebels, leading to two days of fierce clashes.
    (AFP, 1/20/12)

2012        Jan 24, In Mali some 82 soldiers and civilians were summarily executed during a Tuareg offensive in the town of Aguelhok.
    (AFP, 2/13/12)
2012        Jan 24, In Mauritania representatives from Sahel states (Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Algeria) and Nigeria vowed to help each other fight terrorism from Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb and Islamist sect Boko Haram, which are said to have ties.
    (AFP, 1/24/12)

2012        Jan 26, In Mali Tuareg rebel fighters (NMLA) attacked a town in the far east of the country, the fourth town targeted since fighting began just over a week ago.
    (AP, 1/26/12)

2012        Jan 31, In Mali Tuareg separatist rebels extended their reach, attacking a sixth town, Niafunke, in the country's remote north.
    (AP, 2/1/12)

2012        Feb 2, In Mali protestors surrounded the palace of the president, angry about the government's handling of attacks by Tuareg rebels in the country's north.
    (AP, 2/2/12)

2012        Feb 4, The Mali army said it had killed some 20 Tuareg rebels over the last 2 days in the northern city of Timbuktu and taken a dozen prisoners.
    (AFP, 2/4/12)

2012        Feb 5, Aid officials in Mali said more than 15,000 people including military personnel have fled into neighboring countries since members of the nomadic Tuareg ethnic group launched a new rebellion against the Malian government last month. The ICRC said 10,000 people have crossed into Niger and 5,000 into Mauritania.
    (AP, 2/5/12)

2012        Feb 6, A Burkina Faso security official said more than 1,500 Malians, fleeing a Tuareg rebellion in the north and reprisal attacks in Bamako, have found refuge in Burkina Faso.
    (AFP, 2/6/12)

2012        Feb 8, In Mali Tuareg rebels said they had seized control of Tinzawaten, a northeastern region, as UN chief Ban Ki-moon urged an end to the fighting amid growing global concern over the unrest.
    (AFP, 2/8/12)

2012        Feb 13, The Malian army said that soldiers and civilians had been summarily executed during a Tuareg offensive in the town of Aguelhok. France condemned the extra-judicial killings of some 82 people in the town on January 24, which the Malian army confirmed. A nomadic community of some 1.5 million people, Tuareg of various tribes are scattered between Algeria, Burkina Faso, Libya, Niger and Mali.
    (AFP, 2/13/12)

2012        Feb 15, United Nations and EU aid chiefs called for "urgent" assistance for West Africa's drought-hit Sahel region (Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger), saying it needed $725 million (552 million euros) this year.
    (AFP, 2/15/12)

2012        Feb 16, Mali said its army is going on the offensive against Tuareg rebels after a number of strategic retreats during the first weeks of fighting. A government-backed plan was presented, drawn up by political parties, that involves them trying to bring rebels to the negotiating table.
    (AP, 2/16/12)
2012        Feb 16, The mediation and security council of the West African regional group ECOWAS approved humanitarian aid of three million dollars for victims of the food crisis and rebel attacks in the Sahel region (Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger).
    (AFP, 2/16/12)

2012        Feb 22, In Mali a girl was killed and several others wounded when the government~ez_rsquo~s army bombed a refugee camp in the country's north, an area gripped by a Tuareg rebellion.
    (AFP, 2/23/12)

2012        Feb 24, The UN said clashes between the army and Tuareg rebels in northern Mali have forced 126,400 people to flee their homes since mid-January and called for $35.6 million (26.5 million euros) to cover the needs of those displaced by the escalating conflict.
    (AFP, 2/24/12)

2012        Feb 29, Malian soldiers battled Tuareg rebels in violent clashes in the country's north-west around the town of Tessalit.
    (AFP, 2/29/12)

2012        Mar 11, In Mali Tuareg rebels seized control of the Tessalit military base while the army said they had only made a strategic retreat.
    (AFP, 3/12/12)

2012        Mar 20, In northern Mali an Islamist group led by a Tuareg rebel fighting for autonomy claimed control of the country's vast northeast, while also vowing to free dozens of prisoners.
    (AFP, 3/20/12)
2012        Mar 20, ECOWAS, a 15-member West African bloc, said it has called on rebels in northern Mali to lay down their arms and said it would "take all necessary measures" to support the country's government.
    (AFP, 3/20/12)

2012        Mar 22, In Mali rebel soldiers calling themselves the National Committee for the Establishment of Democracy seized control of the capital overnight because of the government's "inability" to tackle terrorism and put down a Tuareg-led insurrection in the north. The coup sparked wide international condemnation and calls for reinstatement of the elected government of President Amadou Tomani Toure. Captain Amadou Sanogo declared a national curfew as the rebels announced all borders had been closed until further notice. The World Bank and the African Development Bank said they were suspending development aid to Mali.
    (AFP, 3/22/12)(AFP, 3/23/12)

2012        Mar 23, Mali's Tuareg rebels vowed to press on with an campaign to seize the north as coup leaders faced a global backlash with Europe suspending aid and African security chiefs calling an emergency meeting. The AU suspended Mali until the return of a constitutional order and sent a joint delegation with the West African regional bloc ECOWAS.
    (AFP, 3/23/12)

2012        Mar 25, Malian soldiers repelled a fresh attack by Tuareg rebels in the north following a coup as the junta struggled to restore order after ousting the west African nation's president. Mali's foreign minister and 13 others being detained by the junta that took over Mali started a hunger strike.
    (AFP, 3/25/12)(AP, 3/25/12)

2012        Mar 26, Malians marched in Bamako to protest against the junta while Tuareg rebels threatened to capture a key northern city, piling political and military pressure on the coup leaders.
    (AFP, 3/26/12)

2012        Mar 27, In Mali the military junta lifted a curfew imposed after its coup 5 days earlier. Coup leaders presented a new constitution consisting of 69 articles. The first part appeared to be lifted from the country's current constitution, including the guarantees of free speech, liberty of movement and freedom of thought. The middle and final sections set out the role of the military committee now controlling the country, which calls itself the National Committee for the Reestablishment of Democracy and the Restoration of the State. ECOWAS in an emergency meeting again demanded the immediate restoration of constitutional order in Bamako.
    (AFP, 3/27/12)(AFP, 3/28/12)

2012        Mar 28, In Mali thousands marched in support of the coup leaders, who sought to quell fears they plan to cling to power by promising democracy and ruling out taking part in elections.
    (AFP, 3/28/12)

2012        Mar 29, A bid by ECOWAS to seek a return to democratic rule in Mali fell apart when the team turned back mid-air after a pro-coup demonstration in Bamako airport.
    (AFP, 3/29/12)

2012        Mar 30, In Mali Tuareg separatist rebels and an allied armed Islamist group entered the strategic town of Kidal, 1,000 km (620 miles) from the capital. Embattled coup leader Captain Amadou Sanogo asked for help to halt advancing Tuareg rebels and Islamist fighters. Panic spread following the threat of financial sanctions by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).
    (AFP, 3/30/12)(AP, 3/30/12)

2012        Mar 31, In Mali Tuareg rebels attacked the strategic northern city of Gao, a day after they took the provincial capital of Kidal. Junta head Captain Amadou Sanogo ordered the army "not to prolong the fighting" in Gao, a move that left the main northern town open to the rampant rebels.
    (AP, 3/31/12)(AFP, 3/31/12)

2012        Apr 1, In Mali Tuaregs attacked Timbuktu in their fight to create a homeland for the Sahara's blue-turbaned nomads. Capt. Sanogo, who overthrew the democratically elected leader earlier this month and dissolved the nation's constitution, made a public U-turn, declaring amid enormous international pressure that he was reinstating the 1992 constitution and planning to hold elections.
    (AP, 4/1/12)

2012        Apr 2, In Mali the junta was slapped with crippling sanctions from its neighbors demanding a return to constitutional rule. (ECOWAS) slapped Mali with a total emargo and cut off the putschists from the regional central bank, affecting their ability to pay public wages.
    (AFP, 4/3/12)

2012        Apr 3, In northern Mali radical Islamists tightened their grip, ordering women to wear veils in Timbuktu, as the nation's junta began to feel the bite of sanctions following its coup. Three of the four leaders of Al-Qaeda's north Africa branch, known as Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), were in Timbuktu. Tuareg rebels were seen near the central town of Mopti.
    (AFP, 4/3/12)

2012        Apr 5, In Mali the National Movement for the Liberation of the Azawad, a rebel group that recently seized control of the remote north, announced a cease-fire saying they had reached their military goal. Ansar Dine kidnapped seven Algerian diplomats in Gao. The Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa (MUJAO) later demanded 15 million euros for the diplomats and 30 million for 3 aid workers kidnapped last Oct 23. On Sep 2 MUJAO said Tahar Touati, one of the diplomats, has been executed.
    (AP, 4/5/12)(AFP, 4/5/12)(AFP, 5/2/12)(AFP, 9/2/12)

2012        Apr 6, Mali's Tuareg rebels declared independence in the north, a move shot down by Islamist insurgents and the international community. The Islamist group, Ansar Dine under Iyad ag Ghali, moved in alongside the MNLA but has given short shrift to their independence plans. The military junta agreed to give up power under a deal with West African bloc ECOWAS in return for amnesty and a lifting of sanctions. The new interim president would be Dioncounda Traore, the parliament speaker.
    (AFP, 4/6/12)(AFP, 4/7/12)(Econ, 11/10/12, p.52)

2012        Apr 8, Mali~ez_rsquo~s Pres. Amadou Toumani Toure resigned. Under a deal mediated by ECOWAS the junta is now supposed to hand power to a civilian government led by speaker of parliament Dioncounda Traore.
    (AFP, 4/9/12)

2012        Apr 10, UN children's aid organization UNICEF led a cross-agency appeal for funds for the Sahel region (parts of Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger) where 15 million are suffering from malnutrition.
    (AFP, 4/10/12)

2012        Apr 12, Mali's new interim leader, Dioncounda Traore (70), threatened to wage total war on Tuareg rebels and Islamists controlling the north of the country as he took the oath of office, ending a brief period of military rule.
    (AFP, 4/12/12)

2012        Apr 14, Burkina Faso Pres. Blaise Compaore opened talks as mediator with the military junta that briefly seized power in Mali last month and Malian politicians trying to navigate a way out of the crisis.
    (AFP, 4/14/12)

2012        Apr 15, In northern Mali armed men abducted a Swiss woman working as a missionary in Timbuktu.
    (SFC, 4/16/12, p.A2)

2012        Apr 17, In Mali astrophysicist-turned-politician Cheick Modibo Diarra was named interim prime minister. Armed men rounded up top Malian officials including two presidential hopefuls in a show of force by a junta that seized power last month. Police chief Mahamadou Diagouraga, former defense minister Sadio Gassama and Hamidou Sissoko, a top aide to ousted president Amadou Toumani Toure, were among the others arrested.
    (AFP, 4/17/12)(AFP, 4/18/12)

2012        Apr 19, Mali's police announced a wave of arrests overnight after officers seized container loads of weapons, as the country's new prime minister considered who should form his transitional government. The junta announced late today that it had released 22 people whose arrests earlier this week had prompted international criticism.
    (AFP, 4/19/12)(AP, 4/20/12)

2012        Apr 20, Senegalese state media reported that Mali's Pres. Amadou Toumani Toure and family has sought refuge in neighboring Senegal nearly one month after the democratically elected leader was overthrown in a coup that has sparked political and humanitarian crises.
    (AP, 4/20/12)

2012        Apr 23, Aid agencies said they are facing a multi-million dollar funding shortage to deal with a food crisis in the Sahel where people are resorting to increasingly desperate measures to survive. The crisis has so far affected Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger.
    (AFP, 4/23/12)

2012        Apr 24, In northern Mali special forces from Burkina Faso swept into rebel-held territory aboard a helicopter and whisked Swiss hostage Beatrice Stockly to safety in a pre-arranged handover by Islamist Ansar Dine rebels.
    (AFP, 4/25/12)

2012        Apr 25, Mali's interim PM Cheick Modibo Diarra (60) formed a 24-member government, including three military representatives seen as close to the outgoing military junta.
    (AFP, 4/25/12)

2012        Apr 26, Mali's fabled desert city of Timbuktu fell under the control of a new armed group made up of Arabs who claim to be neither rebels nor Islamists. Entries in the north and west remained under the control of the Islamist group Ansar Dine and Tuareg group the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad.
    (AFP, 4/26/12)
2012        Apr 26, In Ivory Coast the 15-member Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) decided to send troops to coup-hit Mali and Guinea-Bissau to support their return to civilian rule and demanded coup leaders "return to barracks" in both countries. They also said Guinea-Bissau and Mali must prepare for legislative and presidential elections within a year.
    (AFP, 4/27/12)

2012        Apr 27, The UN food agency appealed to oil- and mineral-rich nations to set up a fund to combat the food crisis gripping the Sahel desert region (Chad, Mali, Burkina Faso, Mauritania and Niger) and other parts of Africa. The group said it needed $110 million (83 million euros) to combat the crisis in the short term.
    (AFP, 4/27/12)

2012        Apr 30, In Mali anti-junta forces tried to take over the country's state broadcaster and attacked the airport and the junta's main military base. Coup leader Capt. Amadou Sanogo told a private radio station that the countercoup had failed and that his soldiers have captured foreign fighters. Human Rights Watch said Tuareg rebels, militias and Islamist groups are committing war crimes in Mali's lawless north, including summary executions and rapes. HRW also said that government troops in the north were also flouting rights.
    (AFP, 4/30/12)(AP, 5/1/12)

2012        May 1, In Mali troops loyal to the junta overran the main camp of the soldiers who tried to oust them in a counter-coup. At least 12 people were killed.
    (SFC, 5/2/12, p.A2)

2012        May 4, In Timbuktu, Mali, the tomb of Sidi Mahmoud Ben Amar (d.1458), classified as a World Heritage site, was attacked by an Islamist group.
    (SFC, 5/7/12, p.A2)(www.exploretimbuktu.com/culture/culture/saints.html)

2012        May 12, Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso envoys of ECOWAS quit Mali after failing to reach agreement with coup leaders on naming the head of a transitional government. The ex-junta now hoped that coup leader Amadou Haya Sanago take over as interim leader.
    (AFP, 5/12/12)

2012        May 14, In northern Mali hundreds of residents of Gao took to the streets to protest against the Tuareg rebels, Islamists and an Al-Qaeda group that took control of the city after a March coup.
    (AFP, 5/14/12)

2012        May 18, The parliament in Mali passed a law granting amnesty to the leaders of the March coup.
    (AFP, 5/18/12)

2012        May 19, In Mali coup leaders said they respect a decision by the West African bloc ECOWAS that interim president Dioncounda Traore must head the transition until general elections.
    (AFP, 5/19/12)

2012        May 20, Malian authorities and ECOWAS mediators agreed that coup leader Captain Amadou Sanogo has the status of former head of state. He will have all the benefits coming with his rank. They also agreed on a transition period to full democratic rule of one year.
    (AFP, 5/20/12)

2012        May 21, Mali~ez_rsquo~s interim President Dioncounda Traore suffered a head wound after an attack by protesters and was taken to a hospital. Traore was released from the hospital a few hours later.
    (AP, 5/22/12)

2012        May 22, The pro-coup Committee of Malian Patriotic Organisations (COPAM) said it had decided at a meeting "to institute Captain Amadou Sanogo as president of the transition" in the west African nation.
    (AFP, 5/23/12)
2012        May 22, On the border between Burkina Faso and Mali clashes broke out between the Peul herders and Dogon farmers. At least 30 people were killed in the clashes over land rights.
    (SFC, 5/25/12, p.A2)

2012        May 26, Mali's Tuareg and Islamist rebels moved to merge and declare a new state (Azawad) in the north leaving the country closer to breakup, two months after a fateful coup in the south.
    (AFP, 5/27/12)

2012        May 27, Mali security sources said AQIM, an Al-Qaeda offshoot, earlier this week seized a key arms depot in Gao, deepening the crisis facing the country after rebels declared an independent Islamic state in the north.
    (AFP, 5/28/12)

2012        May 28, Mali~ez_rsquo~s government said some 50 people have been arrested in the investigation into the attack on interim president Dioncounda Traore by protesters angry over the transition deal. ECOWAS rejected the northern Mali rebel declaration of independence and repeated an earlier threat to take "all necessary measures" to keep Mali intact.
    (AFP, 5/28/12)(AFP, 5/29/12)

2012        May 29, Northern Mali Tuareg rebels and hardline Islamist group Ansar Dine said plans to join forces and proclaim an Islamic state have collapsed due to fundamental differences.
    (AFP, 5/29/12)

2012        May 31, The Geneva-based office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees says it now needs $153.7 million for its operations this year, quadrupling its aid appeal for Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania and Niger.
    (AP, 5/31/12)

2012        Jun 4, A north Malian Arab militia broke away from a meeting of fellow Arabs in Mauritania, declaring they would fight for the independence of Mali's troubled north. Arabs were meeting in Nouakchott to discuss ways to solve a crisis in Mali's north.
    (AFP, 6/5/12)

2012        Jun 7, In Mali residents of Timbuktu said they have launched an armed group to kick out the Islamists currently controlling the ancient city. The UN, AU and ECOWAS officials called for the immediate dissolution of the former junta which came to power following the coup by low-ranking officers.
    (AFP, 6/8/12)

2012        Jun 8, Mali's Tuareg rebels clashed overnight with their former Islamist allies, after the two groups fell out over forming a breakaway state in the northern desert region they control.
    (AFP, 6/8/12)

2012        Jun 18, Mali's Ansar Dine Islamist group, which took over the country's north with Tuareg rebels, agreed to enter a negotiation process brokered by Burkina Faso.
    (AFP, 6/18/12)

2012        Jun 20, In Mali Islamists occupying the north gave a couple in Timbuktu 100 lashes of a whip for having a child out of wedlock as they continue enforcing sharia law.
    (AFP, 6/20/12)

2012        Jun 26, In Mali violent protests took place by residents of Gao angry over the death of municipal councilor Idrissa Oumarou, who was shot a day earlier. He belonged to the party of Mali's transitional president Dioncounda Traore. Armed men fired on the crowd, leaving at least one dead and a dozen injured.
    (AFP, 6/26/12)

2012        Jun 27, In Mali Islamists claimed control of the key town of Gao in the occupied north after fierce clashes with Tuareg rebels left at least 21 people dead.
    (AFP, 6/27/12)

2012        Jun 28, In Mali Islamists of the Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa (MUJAO) patrolled the streets of Gao and arrested civilians after dislodging Tuareg rebels from their positions in a day of bloody combat between the armed groups.
    (AFP, 6/28/12)

2012        Jun 29, In Algeria a dawn attack against the regional headquarters of the paramilitary police in the center of the town of Ouargla killed one person and left three wounded. A Mali-based Islamist group, the Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa (MUJAO), claimed responsibility for the attack.
    (AFP, 6/29/12)

2012        Jun 30, Hardline Islamists occupying northern Mali went on the rampage in Timbuktu, destroying ancient tombs of Muslim saints and threatening to wipe out every religious shrine in the fabled city. The onslaught by the fundamentalist Ansar Dine group was launched just two days after UNESCO named the city an endangered world heritage site.
    (AFP, 6/30/12)

2012        Jul 1, Mali appealed to the UN to take action after extremists ravaged shrines in Timbuktu. Islamist rebels took hoes and chisels to the tombs of ancient Muslim saints in Timbuktu for a second day, ignoring international pleas to halt their campaign of destruction.
    (AFP, 7/1/12)

2012        Jul 2, Mali's Islamist rebels smashed the entrance of a 15th century Timbuktu mosque, escalating a campaign of destruction of the city's cultural treasures despite threats of prosecution for war crimes.
    (AFP, 7/2/12)

2012        Jul 4, A body representing nations in western Africa sent notice that it does not recognize Mali~ez_rsquo~s Capt. Amadou Haya Sanogo~ez_rsquo~s status as a former head of state, and threatened sanctions against him if he continues to obstruct the return to constitutional rule.
    (AP, 7/7/12)
2012        Jul 4, The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda said Theoneste Bagosora, the most high-profile detainee at the UN court for Rwanda, has been sent to Mali to serve his sentence along with three other prisoners. Seven other genocide suspects convicted by the court have been sent to Benin.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)

2012        Jul 5, The UN Security Council passed a resolution calling for sanctions against Al-Qaeda fighters in Mali but again held back giving a UN mandate to a proposed African force in the conflict-stricken country.
    (AFP, 7/5/12)

2012        Jul 6, The United Nations Children~ez_rsquo~s Fund said that armed groups occupying northern Mali were recruiting children, while others had been raped and killed by explosive devices.
    (AFP, 7/6/12)

2012        Jul 7, In Burkina Faso West African presidents (ECOWAS) met with civil leaders from Mali in a bid to secure a national unity government to tackle a crisis in the north where Islamists have enforced Sharia law.
    (AFP, 7/7/12)

2012        Jul 10, The Islamists controlling northern Mali destroyed two tombs at the ancient Djingareyber mud mosque in Timbuktu, an endangered World Heritage site.
    (AFP, 7/10/12)

2012        Jul 11, Mali~ez_rsquo~s government said the military has arrested Col. Abidine Guindo, who directed a parachutist regime, also known as the Red Berets, that attempted to stage a countercoup in April. Members of Timbuktu's Arab community said they have set up an armed brigade to prevent further destruction of the tombs of ancient Muslim saints by Islamists occupying northern Mali.
    (AP, 7/12/12)(AFP, 7/11/12)

2012        Jul 12, An Islamist rebel group in northern Mali said it had freed three of seven Algerian diplomats kidnapped in Gao on April 5.
    (AFP, 7/12/12)

2012        Jul 12, In Mali gunmen abducted Saouti Haidara, the director of a private newspaper, from his office in Bamako and beat him "to a pulp" before releasing him.
    (AFP, 7/13/12)

2012        Jul 13, In northern Mali a protest erupted after a young Islamist militant whipped a woman carrying a baby for not wearing what he considered to be an adequate veil. The baby fell and was injured. Angry citizens then marched toward the radicals' base in Goundam town and vandalized the premises.
    (AP, 7/14/12)

2012        Jul 14, In northern Mali  members of the radical Islamic sect Ansar Dine were going from door to door in Goundam town in a bid to arrest the leaders of a protest against them.
    (AP, 7/14/12)

2012        Jul 15, In northern Mali some 400 combatants of the government-backed Gandakoy militia were reported to have broken ranks and joined the Islamists, bolstering the radicals' edge over ethnic Tuareg rebels in the area.
    (AP, 7/15/12)

2012        Jul 16, In Mali a Timbuktu man accused of drinking alcohol was given 40 lashes by members of the Ansar Dine Islamist group.
    (AFP, 7/16/12)

2012        Jul 17, Mali's interim PM Cheick Modibo Diarra presented a roadmap for rescuing his country from a post-coup crisis to the region's lead mediator. It laid out a one-year plan for a return to constitutional rule, and the formation of a unity government to oversee the transition.
    (AFP, 7/17/12)
2012        Jul 17, Malian journalists went on strike for a day of "dead press," and marched in Bamako to protest recent attacks against journalists by armed men believed to be linked to the former junta.
    (AFP, 7/17/12)
2012        Jul 17, The UN food agency warned the unrest in northern Mali means that efforts to contain the threat of desert locusts are being hampered and appealed for $10 million (8.1 million euros) in aid. It said control operations cannot be carried out because of political conflict and that 30 trucks and other equipment had been looted.
    (AFP, 7/17/12)

2012        Jul 21, Six Malian self-defense groups said they have joined forces to oust Islamist militants who have seized control of the country's northern half for almost four months.
    (AFP, 7/21/12)

2012        Jul 23, The European Union said it was ready to back the deployment of an African stabilization force under UN mandate in Mali, and threatened sanctions against those posing a threat to democratic change.
    (AFP, 7/23/12)

2012        Jul 24, A grouping of Mali's main political parties (FDR) formed after a March coup, demanded the resignation of the interim PM Cheick Modibo Diarra, whom they accused of "incompetence and amateurishness." The grouping unites some 40 political parties and about 100 civil society organizations.
    (AFP, 7/24/12)

2012        Jul 29, Mali's interim president Dioncounda Traore sidelined his controversial PM Cheick Modibo Diarra by announcing the creation of new bodies tasked with ending the crisis. A couple who had an adulterous relationship was stoned to death in the town of Aguelhok.
    (AFP, 7/29/12)(AP, 7/29/12)

2012        Aug 1, West African bloc ECOWAS pledged support for Mali's interim Pres. Dioncounda Traore, after mediators extended a deadline for the country to form a unity government.
    (AFP, 8/1/12)

2012        Aug 5, In Mali radio presenter Abdoul Malick Maiga was badly beaten by Islamists occupying the northern town of Gao after he reported on a protest in which they were stopped from cutting off a thief's hand.
    (AFP, 8/6/12)

2012        Aug 8, In northern Mali a man's hand was chopped off as punishment for the theft of a motorbike in the village of Ansongo.
    (AP, 8/9/12)

2012        Aug 12, In Mali up to 60,000 people gathered for a giant peace rally in Bamako. The country was split in two after Islamists wrested control of the vast desert north following a March coup in the capital Bamako.
    (AFP, 8/12/12)

2012        Aug 20, Mali's interim leaders announced a new government late today, months after a military coup unleashed political chaos.
    (AP, 8/20/12)

2012        Aug 25, In Mali Mahamadou Diouara, the leader of a Malian youth militia against the Islamic occupation of the country's north, was "kidnapped" in Bamako.
    (AFP, 8/29/12)

2012        Aug 31, In northern Mali a man accused of rape in received 100 lashes, as the Islamists controlling the city continue to mete out punishments under Shariah law. He was identified as a Burkina Faso citizen named Boubacar El-Bourkinabiyoune.
    (AP, 8/31/12)

2012        Sep 1, In Mali Islamist extremist rebels seized control of Douentza, 190 km (120 miles) north of Mopti, a central town held by the Mali army.
    (AP, 9/1/12)

2012        Sep 4, Guinea~ez_rsquo~s minister in charge of national defense said that an arms shipment was intercepted around a month ago at the port of Conakry. Abdoul Kabele Camara said the arms appear to have been ordered by Mali's ex-President Amadou Toumani Toure, known by his initials "ATT," who was ousted in a coup in March. Representatives from the West African regional bloc ECOWAS were meeting with the government of Guinea in order to decide what to do with a container of arms.
    (AP, 9/4/12)

2012        Sep 7, It was reported that Mali~ez_rsquo~s interim president Dioncounda Traore has requested five battalions and air support from neighboring countries to try to take back the country's north from Islamist rebels linked to al-Qaida. The request was made without the consent of the soldiers who led Mali's recent coup.
    (AP, 9/7/12)

2012        Sep 9, In Mali 16 preachers from a moderate Muslim sect were killed at a checkpoint in the central town of Diabaly after reportedly being mistaken for Islamic extremists. The preachers, many of whom were Mauritanian, were traveling by road to Bamako to attend a religious conference.
    (AP, 9/10/12)
2012        Sep 9, In Mali Nabil Makhloufi, leader of al-Qaida's North African branch (AQIM) known by his alias Nabil Alqama, was killed in the accident near the city of Gao.
    (AP, 9/10/12)

2012        Sep 10, In northern Mali 5 young men had an hand and foot amputated by Islamists imposing Sharia law against highway robbery.
    (AP, 9/13/12)

2012        Oct 12, The UN Security Council unanimously approved a plan to back an African-led military force to help the Malian army oust Islamic militants who have seized the northern half of the country.
    (SFC, 10/13/12, p.A2)

2012        Oct 15, In Mali a teenaged girl, about 15 years old, received 60 lashes in Timbuktu after Islamist extremists convicted her of speaking to men on the street.
    (AP, 10/15/12)

2012        Oct 21, Mali's government troops killed about 10 men near the town of Diabaly and soldiers reportedly recovered two shotguns along with ammunition. A relative later said the men were Tuareg animal herders ~ez_mdash~ not criminals. He believed the deaths stemmed from a decade-long rivalry between two families in the area, one of which had ties to a soldier in the Malian army.
    (AP, 10/31/12)

2012        Oct 22, A French defense official said that France plans to move two surveillance drones to western Africa from Afghanistan by year-end, though he did not provide details. France is also reported to have special forces in the region around Mali, and to have contracted out surveillance of Mali to a private company.
    (AP, 10/22/12)

2012        Oct 24, The African Union pledged to mobilize an African military force to battle al-Qaida-affiliated groups controlling northern Mali. Ministers meeting at the AU headquarters in Ethiopia agreed to write a final operational plan for the African-led force by the end of the month.
    (AP, 10/24/12)

2012        Nov 3, In Burkina Faso representatives of an al-Qaida-linked group that controls northern Mali arrived for talks with President Blaise Compaore, who is trying to mediate a solution to the conflict in the west African nation. A second delegation traveled to Algeria for talks with regional leaders there.
    (AP, 11/3/12)   

 2012        Nov 11, West African nations (ECOWAS) agreed to send some 3,000 troops to help Mali wrest back control of its northern half, which was seized by al-Qaida-linked fighters more than six months ago.
    (AP, 11/12/12)

2012        Nov 19, In northern Mali fighting resumed between Islamist extremists and Tuareg secular rebels.
    (AP, 11/19/12)

2012        Nov 20, In northern Mali Islamist extremist rebels pushed secular Tuareg fighters from their last base in Menaka. More than 100 fighters were reported killed.
    (AP, 11/20/12)

2012        Nov 29, In northern Mali Islamist extremists controlling the city of Timbuktu publicly whipped 6 young people, males and females aged between 16 to 22 years, who each received 100 lashes for having talked with each other on the city streets.
    (AP, 11/29/12)

2012        Dec 4, Tuareg rebels of northern Mali agreed to stop pursuing a separate state during talks with Mali~ez_rsquo~s government in Burkina Faso.
    (SFC, 12/5/12, p.A2)

2012        Dec 10, In Mali soldiers arrested PM Cheikh Modibo Diarra and ordered him to resign, showing that the military is still the real power. Longtime civil servant Django Cissoko was chosen as the new prime minister in the transitional government, first set up after the military coup in March.
    (AP, 12/11/12)(AP, 12/12/12)(Econ, 12/15/12, p.49)
2012        Dec 10, EU foreign ministers approved the concept of an EU training mission for an attempt by Malian and other African troops to deprive the Islamists of a haven and training sites in north Mali.
    (AP, 12/11/12)

2012        Dec 20, The UN Security Council authorized military action to wrest northern Mali from the control of al-Qaida extremists, but demanded progress first on political reconciliation, elections and training African troops and police.
    (SFC, 12/21/12, p.A8)

2012        Dec 21, The al-Qaida-linked group that controls much of northern Mali and other rebels agreed to cease hostilities in the areas they control, a day after the United Nations backed a regional plan to oust the Islamists from power in a military intervention next year.
    (AP, 12/21/12)

2012        Dec 23, In Mali Islamist extremists destroyed four mausoleums in Timbuktu. Residents said the destruction of the graves is the rebels' reaction to the recent UN resolution calling for an international military intervention.
    (AP, 12/23/12)

2013        Jan 9, The Mali army attacked Islamist rebels with heavy weapons in the center of the country which divides the insurgent-held north and the government-controlled south.
    (AP, 1/10/13)

2013        Jan 10, Islamists, who rule northern Mali, clashed with government forces for the first time in nearly a year, seizing the strategic city of Konna as the al-Qaida-linked militants pushed toward the government line of control in the center of the troubled country.
    (AP, 1/10/13)

2013        Jan 11, In Mali radical Islamists held on to the central city of Konna after sending the Malian military reeling in retreat. French President Francois Hollande ordered air strikes to stop the Islamist extremists. This was the start of Operation Serval. French airstrikes began over Konna leaving civilian casualties.
    (AP, 1/11/13)(AP, 1/26/13)(Econ, 1/19/13, p.53)

2013        Jan 12, In Mali French airstrikes overnight drove back Islamist rebels from Konna and destroyed a militant command center, as West African nations authorized the immediate deployment of troops to the country. At least 11 civilians were killed in Konna. A French pilot was killed after the Islamists downed his combat helicopter.
    (AP, 1/12/13)(AP, 1/13/13)

2013        Jan 14, In Mali despite intensive aerial bombardments by French warplanes, Islamist insurgents grabbed more territory and got much closer to the capital.
    (AP, 1/14/13)

2013        Jan 15, French forces led an all-night aerial bombing campaign to wrest control of Diabaly, a small Malian town, from armed Islamist extremists, as more French troops arrived in preparation for a possible land assault. France announced it tripling the number of troops deployed to Mali from 800 to 2,500.
    (AP, 1/15/13)(AP, 1/16/13)

2013        Jan 16, French troops pressed northward in Mali toward territory occupied by radical Islamists. The start of the land assault put soldiers in direct combat.
    (AP, 1/16/13)

2013        Jan 17, In Mali fighting raged in Konna, airstrikes hit Diably and army troops raced to protect Banamba, on the seventh day of the French-led military intervention to wrest back Mali's north from al Qaida-linked groups.
    (AP, 1/17/13)
2013        Jan 17, EU foreign ministers approved sending a military training mission to Mali, to shore up the Malian army and enable the country's government to regain control of all its territory.
    (AP, 1/17/13)

2013        Jan 19, The Malian military announced that the government was now controlling Diabaly.
    (AP, 1/20/13)

2013        Jan 20, In Mali French forces extended their deployment northward up from the central town of Markala, reinforcing their presence in the towns of Niono and Mopti. Some 400 troops from Nigeria, Togo and Benin arrived in Bamako to help train an African force for Mali.
    (AP, 1/20/13)(AP, 1/21/13)

2013        Jan 21, Malian and French troops took control of the town of Diabaly, patrolling the streets in armored personnel carriers. American planes began transporting French troops and equipment to Mali. French and Malian troops arrived in Douentza to find that the Islamists already had retreated from the town.
    (AP, 1/21/13)(AP, 1/22/13)

2013        Jan 23, A France-based human rights group charged that Malian forces had committed about 33 killings since new fighting erupted Jan 10.
    (AP, 1/23/13)

2013        Jan 24, Mali's rebel movement showed new signs of discord in the wake of punishing French air strikes, with one wing of the Ansar Dine group now pledging to negotiate an end to the country's crisis and possibly even fight against its former comrades-in-arms. Islamic extremists based in the town of Ansongo destroyed a bridge near the Niger border, marking the first use of explosives by the insurgents since the start of the French-led military intervention exactly two weeks ago.
    (AP, 1/24/13)(AP, 1/25/13)

2013        Jan 25, Mali's military and French forces pushed toward the Islamic extremist stronghold in the city of Gao, in their farthest push east since launching an operation two weeks ago to retake land controlled by the rebels.
    (AP, 1/25/13)

2013        Jan 26, In Mali French forces took control of the airport and a key bridge in the radical Islamist stronghold of Gao under the cover of darkness early today, marking a significant inroad into the heart of territory held by the al-Qaida-linked extremists.
    (AP, 1/26/13)

2013        Jan 27, African Union leaders met in the Ethiopian capital for talks dominated by the conflict in Mali as well as lingering territorial issues between the two Sudans. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon attended the two-day summit in Addis Ababa, where Ethiopian PM Hailemariam Desalegn took over from President Yayi Boni of Benin as chairperson of the African Union.
    (AP, 1/27/13)

2013        Jan 28, Malian ground forces backed by French paratroopers and helicopters took control of Timbuktu's airport and the roads leading to the town in an overnight operation. Timbuktu~ez_rsquo~s mayor said Islamist extremists torched a library containing historic manuscripts as they fled late last week. The jihadists left a manual behind on how to use the SA-7 surface-to-air missile as well as other instructional material, including a spiral-bound pamphlet showing how to use the KPV-14.5 anti-aircraft machine gun and another on how to make a bomb out of ammonium nitrate.
    (AP, 1/28/13)(AP, 6/11/13)

2013        Jan 29, The website of the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad, the Tuaregs' name for northern Mali, claimed control of the strategic city of Kidal and seven other northern towns from Islamist extremists.
    (AP, 1/29/13)
2013        Jan 29, African and Western nations pledged more than $450 million to fund an African-led military force to fight Islamist extremists in Mali.
    (AP, 1/29/13)

2013        Jan 30, In Mali French forces took control the airport in Kidal, seizing a key position in the last remaining urban stronghold of Islamist extremists, whose fighters escaped with their weapons into a desert region the size of Texas. 4 Malian soldiers died and 5 others were wounded when their vehicle hit a land mine in the town of Gossi.
    (AP, 1/30/13)(AP, 1/31/13)

2013        Feb 1, In Mali 3 suspected jihadists, arrested in the days since the liberation of the town of Timbuktu. said that Malian soldiers were torturing them with a method similar to waterboarding.
    (AP, 2/1/13)

2013        Feb 2, In Mali  French President Francois Hollande, bathed in the cheers and accolades of the thousands of people of Timbuktu, made a triumphant stop six days after French forces parachuted into the city.
    (AP, 2/2/13)
2013        Feb 2, In Mali secular rebels from Mali's Tuareg group (NMLA) arrested Mohamed Moussa Ag Mohamed of Ansar Dine and Oumeini Ould Baba Akhmed of the Movement for Unity and Oneness of the Jihad, or MUJAO, near Mali's border with Algeria.
    (AP, 2/5/13)

2013        Feb 3, In Mali French troops launched overnight airstrikes on Islamic militant sites around Kidal and Tessalit in Mali's far north.
    (AP, 2/3/13)

2013        Feb 4, In northern Mali French airstrikes targeted the fuel depots and desert hideouts of Islamic extremists. French forces planned to hand control of Timbuktu to the Malian army this week.
    (AP, 2/4/13)

2013        Feb 5, In Mali troops from France and Chad moved into Kidal in an effort to secure the strategic northern city.
    (AP, 2/5/13)

2013        Feb 6, France's defense minister said French forces clashed with extremists firing rocket launchers near the northern Malian city of Gao.
    (AP, 2/6/13)

2013        Feb 7, In Mali French troops began to withdraw from Timbuktu after securing the fabled city as they ramped up their mission in Gao, searching for Islamic extremists who may be mixing among the local population.
    (AP, 2/7/13)

2013        Feb 8, In northern Mali French forces wrested Tessalit from control of Islamic insurgents. In Gao the conflict's first suicide bombing increased fears of terror attacks.
    (AP, 2/8/13)

2013        Feb 9, In northern Mali a suicide bomber wearing military fatigues blew himself up near a checkpoint at the entrance to Gao, wounding one soldier in the second attack to hit the same location in 36 hours.
    (AP, 2/10/13)

2013        Feb 10, Malian soldiers with rocket propelled grenades traded fire in Gao with combatants believed to be from the Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa, or MUJAO. Islamic fighters invaded through Gao~ez_rsquo~s Niger River harbor and fought a protracted downtown battle for hours.
    (AP, 2/10/13)(AP, 2/11/13)

2013        Feb 11, French and Malian government forces regained control of Gao.
    (AP, 2/11/13)

2013        Feb 13, In Mali French soldiers recovered some 800 kg of explosives that authorities believe radical Islamic fighters were using to make bombs for attacks on Gao.
    (AP, 2/13/13)

2013        Feb 14, Mali's military detained eight Arab men in Timbuktu, throwing them into a pickup truck and covering it with a tarp in a sweep that has raised fears of further reprisals against the region's Arab minority. Hundreds of others have fled to the neighboring nations of Algeria and Mauritania, where they are living in refugee camps. In December the Associated press found the body of Kabbad, a 70-year-old grandfather known as Vieux Ali, and five others buried in the desert.
    (AP, 2/17/13)(AP, 12/9/13)

2013        Feb 17, Hundreds of French and Malian soldiers retook the jihadist stronghold of Bourem, a town where many radical Islamic fighters were believed to have fled.
    (AP, 2/17/13)

2013        Feb 18, The European Union officially launched a training mission with the goal of making the disparaged Malian army good enough to patrol the whole country.
    (AP, 2/18/13)

2013        Feb 19, In Mali a French soldier was shot to death in a clash with jihadists in a mountainous region of the far north. 20 extremists were reported killed on this second day of the ongoing operation, code named Panthere, aimed at locating jihadists and dismantling their sanctuaries.
    (AP, 2/19/13)

2013        Feb 20, In Mali Islamic extremists clashed with military in the northern city of Gao. A French Tigre attack helicopter fired on a pickup truck containing jihadist fighters during clashes in northern Mali, killing about 10 insurgents. The military pushed fighters out of Gao. 16 jihadists were reported killed in the fighting in Gao.
    (AP, 2/21/13)(AP, 2/22/13)

2013        Feb 21, In Kidal, Mali, a town further north where control by French and Chad forces has been tentative, a car explosion in a mechanics garage killed two, including the driver and a security guard. Jihadist fighters fired two rockets at military points in the city of Gao as a suicide bomber attacked secular rebels near Algeria's border.
    (AP, 2/21/13)(AP, 2/22/13)

2013        Feb 22, In northern Mali Chadian army troops killed 65 Islamic extremist rebels and destroyed five vehicles in fierce fighting. 13 Chadian soldiers were killed in the fighting.
    (AP, 2/23/13)

2013        Feb 26, In Mali a suicide car bombing killed six government allies in the northern city of Kidal. The French confirmed that they are engaged in heavy fighting in northern Mali.
    (AP, 2/27/13)

2013        Mar 1, Chadian President Idriss Deby announced that government troops fighting to dislodge an al-Qaida affiliate in northern Mali killed one of the group's leading commanders, Abdelhamid Abou Zeid. On March 23 France confirmed Zeid~ez_rsquo~s death and said he was killed in operations in the Adrar des Ifoghas mountains in northern Mali in late February.
    (AP, 3/1/13)(AP, 3/23/13)

2013        Mar 2, In Mali a French soldier died in an assault on jihadists in the Adrar des Ifoghas mountains along the Algerian border. About 15 jihadists were reported killed in the fighting in the Ametettai Valley.
    (AP, 3/3/13)

2013        Mar 6, In eastern Mali French and Malian forces clashed with jihadists leaving a French soldier and some 10 insurgents dead. Boukary Daou, the editor-in-chief of Mali~ez_rsquo~s The Republican newspaper was arrested. His arrest came soon after his newspaper published a letter from an army officer denouncing coup leader Capt. Amadou Haya Sanogo's recently-decreed salary of $8,000 per month, a very high salary in the impoverished country.
    (SFC, 3/7/13, p.A2)(AP, 3/14/13)

2013        Mar 20, In Mali a suicide car bomber killed a Malian soldier near Timbuktu's airport. A vehicle containing two jihadists exploded as it attempted to infiltrate the airport.
    (AP, 3/21/13)

2013        Mar 23, In Mali Islamic extremists infiltrated and attacked the northern city of Gao. Malian forces engaged the fighters and they retreated.
    (AP, 3/23/13)

2013        Mar 24, In Mali Islamic 9 people were left dead after extremists belonging to the Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa infiltrated Gao a day earlier. The dead include 4 extremists, a soldier and 4 civilians.
    (AP, 3/25/13)

2013        Mar 27, In northern Mali the National Movement for the Liberation of the Azawad, or NMLA, announced that Mohamed Aly Ag Al Bessati would serve as the civil administrator for Kidal.
    (AP, 3/28/13)

2013        Apr 10, Mali authorities arrested Baba Ould Cheick, the Mayor of Tarkint, on drug trafficking charges three years after a plane full of cocaine landed near his northeastern town.
    (AP, 4/11/13)

2013        Apr 12, In northern Mali a suicide bombing by members of an al-Qaida branch in North Africa killed at least three soldiers from Chad. Two suicide bombers were killed in the operation, and many civilians were injured in the attack.
    (AP, 4/12/13)

2013        Apr 15, Chadian President Idriss Deby said his country's troops are pulling out of Mali three months after the French-led mission to oust al-Qaida-linked militants began.
    (AP, 4/15/13)

2013        Apr 25, The Malian military says it has expelled French journalist Dorothee Thienot from Gao in northern Mali. She had documented civilian deaths blamed on Malian soldiers.
    (AP, 4/25/13)
2013        Apr 25, The UN Security Council authorized the deployment of a 12,600 member peacekeeping force to Mali.
    (AP, 4/26/13)(Econ, 6/15/13, p.44)

2013        Apr 26, France's Defense Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian reaffirmed that his country will keep 1,000 of its troops in Mali to fight radical Islamic militants even after the arrival later this year of more than 12,000 UN peacekeepers.
    (AP, 4/26/13)

2013        Apr 28, French troops in Mali arrested overnight Gilles Le Guen, a French citizen who converted to Islam. Le Guen had taken on the jihadist cause and threatened his native country in a video last fall.
    (AP, 4/30/13)

2013        Apr 30, Mali officials confirmed that police in Bamako have dismantled a terrorist cell belonging to the Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa, or MUJAO. The 7-member cell was first discovered more than a month ago.
    (AP, 4/30/13)

2013        May 7, Soldiers from Mali and Burkina Faso pushed into the village of Ber, 50 km (30 miles) northeast of Timbuktu. It had previously been occupied by fighters from a Tuareg rebel group, the National Movement for the Liberation of the Azawad (NMLA).
    (AP, 5/7/13)

2013        May 10, In northern Mali 5 suicide bombers carried out two simultaneous attacks on soldiers in Gossi and Menaka. All 5 attackers were killed.
    (AP, 5/10/13)(SFC, 5/11/13, p.A2)

2013        May 11, In Mali a suspected jihadist opened fire on a crowd at an aid distribution point in the northern village of  Ikadiwane, killing three civilians. The suspect was shot and wounded and taken to Kidal.
    (AP, 5/13/13)

2013        May 15, In Brussels a plan to turn Mali into a stable democracy rather than a terrorist haven drew massive support as various nations and international organizations pledged 3.25 billion euros ($4.22 billion) to help reconstruct the conflict-ridden West African nation.
    (AP, 5/16/13)

2013        May 20, In Mauritania Sanda Ould Boumana, the Timbuktu-based spokesman for Ansar Dine, was transferred Nouakchott after he turned himself in over the weekend.
    (AP, 5/20/13)

2013        Jun 4, In Mali a man suspected of being an extremist ran for cover inside an abandoned house in the northern city of Kidal, and detonated an explosive vest inside the structure, killing only himself.
    (AP, 6/4/13)

2013        Jun 5, The Malian military attacked Tuareg rebels and succeeded in taking the village of Anefis, marking the army's first victory and territorial gain without the help of French forces ever since they were routed from the country's north last year by the separatist fighters. At least two people were killed in the clashes.
    (AP, 6/5/13)

2013        Jun 12, A UN report added 3 Malian militias and Syria~ez_rsquo~s main rebel force to an annual ~ez_ldquo~list of shame.~ez_rdquo~ 55 armed groups from 14 countries were included. Syrian government forces were added to a list of groups that sexually abuse children.
    (SFC, 6/13/13, p.A2)

2013        Jun 18, Mali, which lost half its territory last year to rebels, signed an accord with Tuareg separatists who still control the country's northernmost province. The agreement was signed in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso, where the two sides have been holding talks.
    (AP, 6/18/13)

2013        Jun 25, The UN Security Council approved the July 1 deployment of a new Mali peacekeeping force to help the government regain control of rebel-held areas and organize elections.
    (SFC, 6/26/13, p.A2)

2013        Jul 6, Mali said it has lifted a state of emergency ahead of the start of political campaigning for a presidential election on July 28.
    (Reuters, 7/6/13)

2013        Jul 19, Malian troops deployed in the northern town of Kidal after attacks by light-skinned Tuareg separatists on black residents killed at least one, a week before elections meant to unify the fractured nation.
    (Reuters, 7/19/13)

2013        Jul 20, Gunmen In Mali kidnapped four election workers and a deputy mayor in the remote northern town of Tessalit. All were free the next day.
    (Reuters, 7/21/13)

2013        Jul 28, Malians turned out in large numbers to vote in a presidential election.
    (Reuters, 7/28/13)

2013        Aug 2, Mali~ez_rsquo~s government said former PM Ibrahim Boubacar Keita came first in the July 28 presidential election but will face ex-finance minister Soumaila Cisse in a run-off after he failed to secure an outright majority.
    (Reuters, 8/2/13)

2013        Aug 3, Dramane Dembele, the candidate of Mali's largest political party, broke ranks with his own party and said he will back former prime minister Ibrahim Boubacar Keita in a run-off. He had came third in the first round of the country's presidential election.
    (Reuters, 8/3/13)

2013        Aug 11, Malians voted in a presidential runoff. Former PM Ibrahim Boubacar Keita (68) won the election. Abdoulaye Ag Mohamed Ali, a Tuareg man, was killed in the northern town of Lere where he had gone to vote.
    (Reuters, 8/11/13)(AP, 8/13/13)

2013        Aug 12, In Mali Soumalia Cisse, the opponent of former PM Ibrahim Boubacar Keita, conceded defeat in an election aimed at restoring stability to a country wracked by a rebellion, a coup and an Islamic insurgency.
    (AP, 8/12/13)

2013        Aug 29, Mali's interim government said it has removed General Amadou Sanogo, who led a coup last year, as head of a military committee tasked with reforming the West African country's armed forces.
    (Reuters, 8/29/13)
2013        Aug 29, Mali officials said at least 23 people have been killed in flash floods caused by torrential rain in Bamako. The next day the death toll was raised to 34.
    (AFP, 8/29/13)(AFP, 8/30/13)

2013        Sep 5, Mali's new president Ibrahim Boubacar Keita made leading economist Oumar Tatam Ly his prime minister.
    (AFP, 9/5/13)

2013        Sep 11, In Mali at least two soldiers were wounded as the army exchanged fire with "bandits", killing 3 during security operations near the Mauritanian border.
    (AFP, 9/12/13)

2013        Sep 18, In northern Mali a company of about 150 Chadian soldiers of the UN peacekeeping force abandoned their posts in protest at the length of time they have served.
    (Reuters, 9/18/13)

2013        Sep 28, In northern Mali 4 suicide bombers let off explosives in a car in front of a military camp in Timbuktu, killing 2 civilians.
    (AFP, 9/28/13)

2013        Sep 30, Malian soldiers and ethnic Tuareg separatist rebels clashed again in the northern desert town of Kidal, a day after trading gunfire downtown in a battle that has raised fears about whether an unraveling peace accord could lead to protracted fighting in the region.
    (AP, 9/30/13)

2013        Oct 2, Mali freed 23 prisoners arrested in clashes in the north, as part of a deal signed between the government and rebels in June.
    (AFP, 10/2/13)

2013        Oct 5, In Mali Tuareg separatists said they were rejoining the peace process in northern Mali, just over a week after they pulled out and accused Bamako of not respecting the terms of a truce signed in June.
    (Reuters, 10/5/13)

2013        Oct 7, In northern Mali suspected radical Islamic militants fired a series of mortar shells on Gao, marking the first such attack in months after the French-led military operation drove the jihadists from power. Suspected Islamic militants set off explosions at two bridges near Ansongo.
    (AP, 10/7/13)(AP, 10/8/13)

2013        Oct 11, In central Mali a boat carrying hundreds of passengers along the Niger River capsized. Only 210 survivors, of an estimated 400 people aboard, were counted. By Oct 19 the body count reached 72.
    (AP, 10/12/13)(AP, 10/19/13)

2013        Oct 23, In Mali a suicide bomber killed two Chadian troops from the UN peacekeeping mission and injured six others in an attack on a checkpoint at the entry to the northern town of Tessalit.
    (Reuters, 10/23/13)

2013        Oct 24, In Mali the French military said it has engaged with UN and Malian forces in a major operation aimed at preventing a resurgence of Islamist rebels in Mali.
    (AFP, 10/24/13)

2013        Nov 1, Dutch PM Mark Rutte said the Netherlands will send 380 soldiers and four Apache attack helicopters to war-torn Mali following an appeal for more UN peacekeepers.
    (AFP, 11/1/13)

2013        Nov 2, In Mali two French journalists were snatched by gunmen in the northern town of Kidal. Ghislaine Dupont and Claude Verlon of Radio France Internationale were grabbed by armed men in a 4x4 just after finishing an interview with the acting head of the rebel National Movement for the Liberation of the Azawad (NMLA). Their bodies were dumped a dozen km outside the town.
    (Reuters, 11/2/13)(AP, 11/3/13)

2013        Nov 4, In Mali French forces, who found the bodies of two radio journalists kidnapped and shot to death, followed the abductor's tracks in the sand and arrested about a half-dozen suspects. 4 people were killed when their truck hit a landmine in the Gao region.
    (AP, 11/4/13)(AFP, 11/4/13)

2013        Nov 8, In northern Mali 3 people were killed during clashes between the MNLA Tuareg separatist group and the Malian army.
    (Reuters, 11/8/13)

2013        Nov 21, Security sources said French special forces have killed Hacene Ould Khalill the second-in-command of the veteran Islamist commander Mokhtar Belmokhtar in an operation in Mali's northern region of Tessalit. The Mauritanian, known by his nickname Jouleibib, was deputy commander of Belmokhtar's "Those Who Sign in Blood" Brigade, formed when the Algerian jihadist split with al Qaeda's North African wing.
    (Reuters, 11/21/13)

2013        Nov 24, Mali held legislative elections. In the north ballot boxes were reportedly stolen in the Timbuktu region, including one by armed men and several by a politician, in the first sign of disruption in parliamentary polls. In preliminary results announced on Dec 18, Pres. Keita's RPM party finished first after the second of two legs, securing 61 of a total of 147 seats in parliament.
    (AFP, 11/24/13)(Reuters, 12/18/13)

2013        Nov 28, In Mali Tuareg demonstrators occupied an airport runway to prevent PM Oumar Tatam Ly visiting the rebel-controlled northeastern town of Kidal. Protesters said Malian soldiers shot and wounded three of the demonstrators, but the Malian army denied that.
    (AFP, 11/28/13)

2013        Nov 29, In northern Mali separatist Tuareg rebels said they were ending a five-month-old ceasefire with the government and taking up arms following violence in the northern city of Kidal.
    (Reuters, 11/29/13)

2013        Dec 3, In Mali excavation began on a mass grave containing 21 skulls near the Kati military barracks, formerly the fief of Gen. Amadou Haya Sanogo. The spot where the remains were found matches the place where witnesses said around 20 soldiers were shot and killed by troops loyal to Sanogo in May 2012.
    (AP, 12/4/13)

2013        Dec 14, In Mali a car bomb killed two UN Senegalese peacekeepers and destroyed the only operating bank in the northern town of Kidal, one day before a second round of parliamentary elections.
    (Reuters, 12/14/13)

2013        Dec 15, French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius confirmed that 19 armed Islamists had been killed in a French-led military operation this week targeting Al Qaeda-linked rebels in restive northern Mali.
    (AFP, 12/15/13)

2013        Dec 16, In Mali four more bodies of soldiers were discovered, bringing to 25 the number of troops believed to have been killed by the country's coup leader.
    (AP, 12/17/13)

2013        Dec 24, The Malian Ministry of Defense said that Aliou Mahamar Toure, the former head of the Islamic Police in Gao, has been captured. Toure had presided over a 10-month reign of terror.
    (AP, 12/24/13)

2013        The population of Mali, 90% Muslim, numbered about 15.8 million.
    (AP, 1/14/13)

2014        Jan 12, The leaders of Mali and Mauritania signed an accord to boost military cooperation and information sharing in the battle against "armed groups or terrorists" plaguing the west African neighbors.
    (AFP, 1/12/14)

2014        Jan 17, Mali's army arrested Houka Houka Ag Alfousseyni, a hardline Islamist judge. He had ordered floggings, amputations and the stoning of women for adultery during a 10-month occupation by rebels linked to al Qaeda.
    (Reuters, 1/18/14)

2014        Jan 21, France said it will create new outposts and broaden its military presence in Africa's turbulent Sahel region to better fight the terror threat from extremist groups like al-Qaida. Defense Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian said France is moving toward a regional counterterrorism approach in former colonies like Chad, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Niger and Mali.
    (AP, 1/21/14)

2014        Jan 22, In Mali Issaka Sidibe, a high-ranking ruling party lawmaker and relative of the president, became the country~ez_rsquo~s second most powerful politician as he was elected to lead the nation's new parliament.
    (AFP, 1/22/14)

2014        Jan 24, In northern Mali a French counter-terrorism offensive ended with 11 Islamist militants killed and a French soldier wounded.
    (AFP, 1/24/14)

2014        Jan 31, Humanitarian groups warned that more than 800,000 Malians are desperate for food while another three million risk going without meals as the country struggles to emerge from months of armed conflict.
    (AP, 1/31/14)

2014        Feb 5, Germany's government approved increasing the number of soldiers sent to Mali from 180 to 250 as part of an EU-led mission to train the national army for its fight against Islamic extremists.
    (AFP, 2/5/14)

2014        Feb 7, Mali~ez_rsquo~s Ministry of Defense said around 30 ethnic Tuaregs have been killed in the northern Gao region in local fighting with ethnic Peuls.
    (Reuters, 2/7/14)

2014        Feb 23, In northern Mali a miner said that 8 armed men closed the large Taoudenie salt mine by forcing more than 800 workers to leave.
    (AP, 2/23/14)
2014        Feb 23, In  Mali 5 bodies were discovered in two graves near the Kati military barracks outside Bamako. The victims were wearing military clothing but their identities had not been confirmed.
    (AP, 2/24/14)

2014        Mar 14, A Mali military source said French air strikes in the mountains of northern Mali have killed Islamist militant Oumar Ould Hamaha, a jihadist with a $3 million US government bounty on his head. Paris said last week its forces had killed 10 suspected Islamist fighters in the northern Adrar des Ifoghas mountains, after the group was spotted by a US-made Reaper surveillance drone.
    (Reuters, 3/14/14)

2014        Mar 21, In Mali an overnight blaze at the main market in Bamako destroyed around 2,000 shops, causing millions of dollars in damage as fire crews struggled to access the site and hydrants malfunctioned.
    (Reuters, 3/21/14)

2014        Mar, In Mali the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad, the original instigator of the rebellion of 2012, broke in two.
    (Econ, 3/22/14, p.51)

2014        Apr 4, Mali, Liberia and Sierra Leone geared up to tackle killer haemorrhagic fevers including Ebola, which has claimed 86 lives in Guinea. Mali claimed 3 suspect cases; Liberia claimed 14; Sierra Leone claimed several more.
    (AFP, 4/4/14)

2014        Apr 5, In Mali former planning minister Moussa Mara (39) was promoted to the premiership after Mali's first post-war PM Oumar Tatam Ly (50) quit just six months into office. Ly had reportedly become frustrated over being unable to enact reforms in the administration.
    (AFP, 4/6/14)

2014        Apr 17, In Mali French Special Forces backed by helicopters freed five humanitarian aid workers who had gone missing on Feb 8.
    (SFC, 4/18/14, p.A2)

2014        May 2, In northern Mali Sidati Ag Baye was shot by two suspected al-Qaida-linked Islamic extremists on a motorcycle in Kidal. Baye had foiled an attack by Islamic extremists several months ago by alerting security forces to a bomb left on a runway at Kidal~ez_rsquo~s airport.
    (AP, 5/4/14)

2014        May 8, France said it will deploy 3,000 soldiers to combat Islamist violence in the vast and largely lawless Sahel region to pursue counter-terrorism in north Mali, the north of Niger and in Chad.
    (AFP, 5/8/14)

2014        May 17, In Mali gunfire erupted between the army and Tuareg separatists (MNLA) in the northern city of Kidal as PM Moussa Mara embarked on a trip there. Rebels attacked the governor's office in Kidal, abducting 32 civil servants. 8 soldiers and 28 insurgents were killed. PM Moussa Mara responded by saying Mali is now at war with the armed Tuareg separatists.
    (Reuters, 5/17/14)(Reuters, 5/18/14)(SFC, 5/19/14, p.A2)(AP, 5/22/14)

2014        May 21, Mali launched a military offensive to retake control of a northern Tuareg separatist stronghold. Witnesses reported intense fighting with machine gun and heavy weapons fire in Kidal. At least 50 Malian soldiers were killed and 30 wounded in a failed attempt to retake the Tuareg separatist stronghold. Another 50 were taken prisoner and some 900 surrendered their weapons and sought refuge at a UN post.
    (Reuters, 5/21/14)(Reuters, 5/23/14)(Econ, 5/31/14, p.39)

2014        May 22, In Mali Tuareg separatists said they have seized control of several towns in the north after routing government forces but they would respect calls for a ceasefire.
    (Reuters, 5/22/14)

2014        May 23, The African Union said ethnic Tuareg separatist rebels have signed a cease-fire deal after having pushed the Malian army out of Kidal.
    (AP, 5/23/14)

2014        Jun 4, In Mali authorities arrested army officer Lieutenant Mohamed Ouattara and a number of associates suspected of plotting against President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita.
    (Reuters, 6/6/14)

2014        Jun 11, In northern Mali a car bomb at a checkpoint killed 4 people including Chadian peacekeepers and Malian soldiers at a UN camp in Aguelhoc.
    (SFC, 6/12/14, p.A2)

2014        Jun 16, In Mali a jail break in Bamako left at least two people dead as 22 prisoners escaped.
    (Reuters, 6/25/14)

2014        Jun 24, Mali security forces arrested Mahamed Aly Ag Wadoussene, a fugitive at the heart of a jail break in Bamako on June 16 in which at least two people were killed and 22 prisoners escaped.
    (Reuters, 6/25/14)

2014        Jul 13, France said its military offensive that freed northern Mali from the grip of Islamists would be replaced by an operation spanning the wider, largely lawless Sahel region to combat extremist violence.
    (AFP, 7/13/14)

2014        Jul 14, In northern Mali a French soldier died from wounds in a suicide bombing.
    (Reuters, 7/15/14)

2014        Jul 24, Air Algerie Flight 5017 carrying 116 people from Burkina Faso to Algeria's capital disappeared from radar early today over northern Mali after heavy rains were reported. Air navigation services lost track of the MD-83 about 50 minutes after takeoff from Ouagadougou.
    (AP, 7/24/14)

2014        Aug 16, In northern Mali 2 UN peacekeepers were killed and nine others injured in a suicide attack on a patrol base in the village of Ber.
    (Reuters, 8/17/14)

2014        Sep 14, In northern Mali a UN military vehicle struck a land mine in the volatile Kidal region, killing a Chadian soldier and wounding four other peacekeepers.
    (AP, 9/14/14)

2014        Sep 18, In Mali 5 Chadian peacekeepers died and three others were injured when their truck was hit by an explosive device.
    (AFP, 9/19/14)

2014        Sep 23, In northern Mali residents of the town of Zouera found  the decapitated head and body of a Tuareg hostage seized last week for purportedly acting as an informer for French forces in the region. 
    (Reuters, 9/24/14)

2014        Oct 3, In Mali  9 United Nations peacekeepers from Niger were killed in an ambush on their convoy.
    (Reuters, 10/3/14)

2014        Oct 16, In northern Mali clashes between armed groups and pro-government militias killed at least 6 people near Gao.
    (Reuters, 10/17/14)

2014        Oct 24, In Mali a two-year-old girl died of Ebola, the country~ez_rsquo~s first case. The girl and her grandmother had visited Kissidougou, a town in the southern part of Guinea. The child had tested positive two days earlier.
    (AFP, 10/24/14)(SFC, 11/12/14, p.A2)

2014        Nov 2, Two Malian soldiers were killed and four wounded by an improvised bomb in the nation's restive northern desert.
    (AFP, 11/3/14)

2014        Nov 8, The French military said 24 jihadists were killed in a recent operation carried out in northern Mali that left one French soldier dead. A news release from Operation Barkhane said that two other extremists had been captured during the late October offensive in the region of Kidal.
    (AP, 11/8/14)

2014        Nov 12, Malian authorities reported two new deaths from Ebola that are not believed to be linked to the nation's only other known case. A day earlier Mali had reported no new cases since Oct 24.
    (AP, 11/12/14)(SFC, 11/12/14, p.A2)

2014        Nov 20, In northern Mali the bodies of two Tuareg separatist militants were found near the village of Takabort, around 40 km outside Kidal.
    (Reuters, 11/23/14)

2014        Nov 21, In Mali a suicide bomber blew himself up outside a phosphate mine in Bourem without causing any other casualties.
    (Reuters, 11/23/14)

2014        Nov 22, Mali confirmed a new case of Ebola and said two more suspected patients were being tested.
    (AP, 11/22/14)
2014        Nov 22, In northern Mali suspected Islamist fighters kidnapped 10 children and killed two others who tried to escape outside the towns of Aguelhoc and Kidal.
    (Reuters, 11/22/14)

2014        Nov 25, In northern Mali the convoy of a visiting cabinet minister struck a roadside bomb, killing 2 soldiers and wounding four others.
    (AP, 11/25/14)

2014        Dec 1, The IMF's executive board completed its official review of Mali's situation and agreed to continue disbursing the loans. The fund had suspended its loans to Mali in June over concerns that it overpaid for a military supply contract that wasn't open to bids.
    (AP, 12/2/14)

2014        Dec 9, President Francois Hollande said that Serge Lazarevic (50), the last French citizen held hostage since 2011 by Al Qaeda's north African arm, has now been freed. Five prisoners in Mali were reported exchanged for the Frenchman.
    (Reuters, 12/9/14)

2014        Dec 10, In northeastern Mali Ahmed el Tilemsi, a leader of the Mourabitoune militant group, was killed in an evening operation conducted by French and Malian forces near the town of Gao. About 10 militants in total were "neutralized" during the sweep.
    (AP, 12/11/14)

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