Timeline Mexico to 1969

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Mexico is about 3 times the size of Texas.
(SSFC, 10/9/05, Par p.27)
Mexico has 31 states and one federal district. These include: Aguascalientes; Baha California; Baha California Sur; Campeche; Chiapas; Chihuahua; Coahuila; Colima; Durango; Guanajuato; Guerrero (Chilpancingo); Hidalgo; Jalisco; Mexico; Michoacan; Morelos (Cuernavaca); Nayarit; Nuevo Leon; Oaxaca; Puebla; Queretaro (Queretaro); Quintana Roo; San Luis Potosi; Sinaloa; Sonora (Hermosillo); Tabasco; Tamaulipas; Tlaxcala; Veracruz; Yucatan; Zacatecas; and the Federal District (Mexico City).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/States_of_Mexico)

Native Mexican Indian Groups include:
 Maya; Tzeltal; Tzotzil
  Native Indians in Baha included the Cucapa, Kaliwi, Kumiai and the Pai Pai. The Cochimi were part of the Kumiai.
 (SFC, 10/17/98, p.A16)
  An Aztec legend states that the hummingbird god told ancient Aztecs to build their city at the spot where they find an eagle eating a snake on a cactus. The site at Lake Texcoco met the requirement and there Mexico City was found.
 (SFC, 5/17/97, p.E3)
The Aztecs spoke Nahuatl. By 2006 it was the native language of just 1.5 million Mexican Indians.
    (WSJ, 2/24/06, p.A1)

80Mil BC    Caverns at the Grutas de Cacahuamilpa National Park south of Mexico City date to this time.
    (SFC,11/3/97, p.A10)

72Mil BC    A helmet-crested, duck-billed dinosaur lived about this time in northeastern Mexico. In 2008 the species was named Velafrons coahuilensis.
    (AP, 2/12/08)

66.038Mil BC    About this time a comet struck the area of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula and created a crater, known today as Chicxulub, about 150-180 miles (200 km) in diameter. The area at this time was covered by ocean. The asteroid was initially believed to have been 6-12 miles (10 km) in diameter. It left a thin layer of iridium in rock strata around the world. Evidence for this was gathered by Luis Alvarez. The asteroid wiped out the dinosaurs, about 80% of the world’s plants species and all animals bigger than a cat. In 2002 it also was estimated to have wiped out 55-60% of the plant-eating insects. A high oxygen level may have contributed to a worldwide firestorm. In 1997 Walter Alvarez published "T. Rex and the Crater of Doom," an account of this critical event. The impact was estimated at 5 billion times greater than the atomic bombs of WW II. In 2007 US and Czech researchers used computer simulations to calculate that there was a 90 percent probability that the collision of two asteroids in 160 Mil BC was the event that precipitated the Chicxulub disaster. In 2008 new research using an osmium isotope indicated that the responsible asteroid was about 2.5 miles wide. In 2013 scientists said this date was accurate to give or take 11,000 years.
    (SFC, 2/18/96, p.A3)(SFEC, 8/17/97, BR p.7)(NH, 9/97, p.85)(SFC, 2/25/02, p.A4)(WSJ, 3/2/04, p.B1)(Reuters, 9/5/07)(SFC, 4/12/08, p.A4)(SFC, 2/8/13, p.A1)

15Mil BC    The Baha Peninsula began separating from the Mexican mainland.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T8)

10Mil BC    Oceanic spreading began a process of mountain building in southern California, including formation of the San Andreas Fault, migration of the Baja California peninsula away from the mainland of Mexico, the loss of summer rainfall and the diversification of species.
    (Fremontia, 4/2009, p.20)

c38,000BC    In 2003 British scientists found 40,000-year-old human footprints in central Mexico, shattering theories that mankind arrived in the Americas tens of thousands of years later from Asia. The footprints were found in an abandoned quarry close to the Cerro Toluquilla volcano and were subsequently studied and dated by a multinational team of scientists.
    (AFP, 7/5/05)

c21000BC     The Popocatepetl volcano erupted with a force equal to the 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens in Washington.
    (SFEC, 5/16/99, Z1 p.8)

c11000BC    Scientists in 2001-2002 discovered skeletons in caves along Mexico’s Yucatan coast that dated to about this time.
    (SFC, 9/10/04, p.A2)
c11000BC    Peñon Woman, found in central Mexico in 1959, dated to this time. She shared many of the features found in the Kennewick Man (1996) of Washington State.
    (Econ, 7/16/05, p.77)

c7,975BCE    Humans lived in a cave near Oaxaca, Mexico, named Guila Naquitz (White Cliff). Scattered remains of tools, seeds and plants were found in 1966 by archeologist Kent Flannery and some of the seeds were dated to this time. The squash seeds showed signs of cultivation.
    (SFC, 5/9/97, p.A2)

c5100BCE    In 2001 evidence in Mexico was reported for corn cultivation from sediments of this time.
    (SFC, 5/18/01, p.A7)

2700BCE    Domesticated maize in Mexico goes back to this time.
    (SFEC, 4/18/99, Z1 p.2)

2500BC    In 2006 researchers reported a 4,500-year-old burial in Mexico that showed front teeth ground down so they could be mounted with animal teeth. It was the oldest example of dental work in the Americas.
    (SFC, 6/14/06, p.A2)

1600BC    The Paso de Amada site of Chiapas, Mexico, was first settled about this time in the Soconusco region, which extended down the Pacific coast into Guatemala. The town numbered about 2,000 people, who were later dubbed the Mokaya (maize people).
    (Arch, 1/06, p.48)   

1600BC-1250BC    An earthen mound on the southern Mexico-Guatemala border dated to this period and was considered part of a chiefdom center of the Mokaya people.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.43)

1500BC    A court to play ulama was built about this time in Chiapas, Mexico. Olmecs used latex balls for the game. The Olmecs processed rubber using latex from rubber trees mixed with juice from the morning glory vine. The rubber was used to make a bouncy ball for their ball games.
    (SFC, 6/19/99, p.A9)(Econ, 4/24/04, p.81)

1500BC-1100BC Evidence found in 1998 revealed terraced farming for corn back to this time in northeast Mexico on a hilltop overlooking the Rio Casa Grandes.
    (SFC, 3/13/98, p.A11)

1400BC-400BC    The Olmecs, who called themselves Xi, were the earliest known civilization of Mesoamerica. They influenced the subsequent civilizations of the Maya and Aztec. They inhabited the Gulf Coast region of what is now Mexico and Central America. Their capital was San Lorenzo, near the present day city of Veracruz. In 1968 Michael D. Coe authored “America’s First Civilization: Discovering the Olmec.”       
    (WSJ, 1/16/96, p. A-16)(SFC, 8/2/05, p.A2)(WSJ, 5/11/06, p.D6)

1250BC-1150BC    This time frame is referred to as the Initial Olmec Period of southern Mexico.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.42)

1200BC    The tradition of the Mokaya people at coastal Chiapas and Guatemala came to a sudden end about this time. This appeared to coincide with the rise of the Olmec people.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.43)

1200BC-400BC    The Olmecs built impressive cities and established trade routes throughout Mesoamerica, that included settlements at La Venta and Tres Zapotes.
    (SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)

1200BC-300BCE        The Olmec people ruled southern Mexico and northern Central America.
    (WSJ, 7/2/96, p.A12)

1150BC-1000BC    This time frame is referred to as the Early Olmec Period of southern Mexico.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.42)

1000BC    The settlement at Canton Corralito on the southern Mexico-Guatemala border covered at least 60 acres by this time and was believed to be a colony of the Gulf Olmec people. About this time the nearby Coatan River began to rise and engulfed the settlement.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.44)

900BC        In 2006 Mexican archeologists discovered a stone block in Veracruz state inscribed with 62 distinct signs that dated to about this time. The Cascajal stone was attributed to the Olmecs, who civilization lasted from about 1200BC-400BC.
    (SFC, 9/15/06, p.A3)

900BC-500BC        This time frame is referred to as the Late Olmec Period of southern Mexico, which featured pyramids for the first time in ceremonial centers. La Venta, the 2nd major Olmec capital dates to this period.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.42, 49)

800BC-500BC        Zazacatla in central Mexico covered less than one square mile between during this period. Inhabitants of Zazacatla adopted Olmec styles when they changed from a simple, egalitarian society to a more complex, hierarchical one. Much of it was later covered by housing and commercial development extending from Cuernavaca.
    (AP, 1/25/07)

600BCE    The great Olmec Ceremonial Center in Tabasco, Mexico, was abandoned about this time.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.241)

c600BCE    The Zapotec city of Monte Alban was founded in the Oaxaca valley.
    (SFEC, 10/3/99, p.A24)

c200BCE    Migrations began toward the area north of Lake Texcoco where the urban center of Teotihuacan developed.
    (SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T8)

c100BCE    The area around Palenque was 1st occupied.
    (SSFC, 5/5/02, p.C5)

c0-1500    Paintings were made on rock surfaces in the central mountain ranges of the Baha Peninsula by unknown native Indians. In 1997 Harry W. Crosby published "Cave Paintings of Baha California."
    (WSJ, 3/5/98, p.A20)

100-150    Archeologists in 1998 uncovered evidence of a pre-Columbian civilization from under the Pyramid of the Moon in Teotihuacan that was dated to this time. The skeleton of a man was found by a team led by Saburo Sugiyama. The most important and largest city of pre-Colombian central Mexico, the Nahuatl meaning of Teotihuacan was "Where Men Become Gods" or "The City of Gods." Just north of Mexico City, Teotihuacan was planned at about the beginning of the Christian era and was sacked and burned by invading Toltecs in 650.
    (SFC, 10/22/98, p.C2)(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T10)(HNQ, 4/24/99)(SFEC, 9/19/99, p.A22)

150-200AD    The Temple of Quetzalcoatl in Teotihuacan (City of the Gods) was built near what later became Mexico City. Quetzalcoatl was considered as the origin of all human activities on earth, the creator of land and time and its divisions.
    (SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T9)(SSFC, 11/9/03, p.C7)

200-300    Campeche (Mexico), from the 3rd century, was the principal town of the Maya kingdom of Ah Kin Pech (place of serpents and ticks).
    (SSFC, 1/25/09, p.E4)

200-650    Yohualichan was a ceremonial site for the Totonac Indians over this period. The town of Cuetzalan was later established a few miles away.
    (SSFC, 5/5/02, p.C10)

300        Mayans began building on Cozumel Island off Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula about this time. The town of San Gervasio was built and inhabited through 1650. Cozumel covers 189 square miles, about the size of Lake Tahoe.
    (SSFC, 9/25/05, E4)

c350        In Teotihuacan 3 men were buried amid lavish goods. Their graves were discovered in 2002 in a tomb at the top of the 5th of 7 layers of the Pyramid of the Moon near Mexico City.
    (SFC, 11/22/02, p.J2)

431        A great Mayan dynasty arose at Palenque and soon began trading with communities hundreds of miles away.
    (SSFC, 12/7/03, p.C10)

440-790    Palenque flourished.
    (AM, 5/01, p.49)

500        Teotihuacan people built a 60-foot pyramid about this time in what later became known as Iztapalapa, Mexico. It was abandoned after about 300 years, when the Teotihuacan culture collapsed. Archeologists began to unveil the site in 2004.
    (AP, 4/6/06)

562        Tikal in Guatemala was conquered possibly by the Mayans of Calakmul city in Mexico. Calakmul is one of the largest of Mayan cities with more than 6,000 structures. It was the capital of a widespread hegemony of Lowland Maya kingdoms during the Late Classic (600-900).
    (AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.G)(Arch, 9/00, p.27)

600-900    A three hundred year dynasty ruled over Palenque.  In the Pyramid of Inscriptions is the tomb of Pakal, the greatest king of the dynasty.
    (SFC, 5/19/96, T-9)

615        Pakal (12) became the Mayan ruler of Palenque. His reign ended with his death in 683.
    (SSFC, 12/7/03, p.C10)(WSJ, 9/16/04, p.D12)

620        The town of Cholula was founded in central Mexico. It was later said to be the oldest continuously occupied town in all of North America.
    (SSFC, 2/26/06, p.F10)

650-750    The Teotihuacan culture began declining and was almost abandoned by the end of this period.
    (SFC, 10/22/98, p.C2)

650-850    Tepanapa, the first pyramid of the Teotihuacan culture, was built in Cholula (Mexico). Over the next 800 years a nested series of 4 pyramids were constructed in Cholula.
    (SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T10)(HNQ, 4/24/99)(SSFC, 2/26/06, p.F10)

662        By 2004 Simon Martin, Mayan scholar, worked out an almost day-by-day account of events from this year in the plain of Tabasco, Mexico.
    (Econ, 5/22/04, p.79)

683        Pacal, Mayan ruler of Palenque, died. His sarcophagus, found in 1952, has the intricately carved lid later suggested to represent an extra-terrestrial visitor.
    (SSFC, 5/5/02, p.C5)(WSJ, 9/16/04, p.A1)

c700        The Zapotec city of Monte Alban was abandoned.
    (SFEC, 10/3/99, p.A24)

c750        Teotihuacan, the 1st major urban center of Mesoamerica, fell about this time. It was burned, deserted and its people scattered. It contained the Pyramid of the Moon and the Pyramid of the Sun.
    (SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T8)

850        The Chicanna temple in the Mayan city of Calakmul was built about this time.
    (SSFC, 4/25/10, p.M1)

1200        In 2007 Mexican archeologists discovered the ruins of an Aztec pyramid in the heart of Mexico City that dated to about this time.
    (Reuters, 12/27/07)

1325        The Aztecs founded Tenochtitlan, later known as Mexico City, about this time.
    (www.utexas.edu/utpress/excerpts/expedmus.html)

1450        In Mexico City an Aztec cornerstone ceremony took place about this time intended to dedicate a new layer of building. In 2005 archeologists found a child found at the Templo Mayor ruins who was apparently killed as part of a ceremony dedicated to the war god Huitzilopochtli.
    (AP, 7/23/05)

1466-1520    Montezuma II, Aztec emperor. He amassed great wealth through taxation in Mexico and Central America. He used his wealth to build his capital at Tenochtitlan.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

c1500s        Zapotec Indians founded the town of San Antonino after Spaniards took over Ocotlan in Oaxaca. The residents later came to be called Tonineros.
    (WSJ, 4/13/99, p.A1)

1502        Ahuizotl, ruler of the Aztecs, died and was cremated on a funeral pyre about this time at the foot of the Templo Mayor pyramid. In 2007 Mexican archeologists found underground chambers in Mexico City they believed to contain his remains.
    (AP, 8/4/07)(AP, 6/17/10)
1502        Moctezuma Xocoyotl (Montezuma II), an Aztec prince, inherited the Aztec throne becoming the 9th ruler of the Aztecs.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(ON, 10/00, p.1)(Econ, 9/26/09, p.99)

1517        Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba, Spanish explorer, sailed from Cuba and discovered the Mayan civilization in the Yucatan, southeast  Mexico.
    (TL-MB, p.11)(SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)

1518        An Indian from the Gulf coast reported to the royal court at Tenochtitlan the sighting large vessels.
    (ON, 10/00, p.1)

1519        Mar 13, The Spaniards under Cortez landed at Vera Cruz. Cortez landed in Mexico with 10 stallions, 5 mares and a foal. Smallpox was carried to America in the party of Hernando Cortes.
    (SFC, 9/2/96, p.A3)(HN, 3/13/98)(SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)(SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)

1519        Apr 24, Envoys of Montezuma II attended the first Easter mass in Central America.
    (HN, 4/24/98)

1519        Apr, Montezuma received a message that white strangers had reappeared and attacked a Mayan coastal village south of the Aztec border. Hundreds of Mayans were killed and the strangers sailed north.
    (ON, 10/00, p.2)

1519        Aug, Montezuma learned that Cortez was marching toward Tenochtitlan with an army of 300 soldiers and 2000 non-Aztec Indians. Cortez was accompanied by Malinche, his Indian mistress and interpreter.
    (ON, 10/00, p.2)

1519        Sep 5, In the 2nd Battle of Tehuacingo, Mexico, Hernan Cortes faced the Tlascala Aztecs.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1519         Nov 8, The Aztec and their leader, Moctezuma, welcomed Hernando Cortez and his 650 explorers to their capital at Tenochtitlan. Spanish adventurer Hernando Cortez and his force of about 300 Spanish soldiers, 18 horses and thousands of Mexico's native inhabitants who had grown resentful of Aztec rule marched unmolested into Tenochtitlán, the capital city of the Aztec empire. The Aztec ruler Montezuma, believing that Cortez could be the white-skinned deity Quetzalcoatl, whose return had been foretold for centuries, greeted the arrival of these strange visitors with courtesy--at least until it became clear that the Spaniards were all too human and bent on conquest. Cortez and his men, dazzled by the Aztec riches and horrified by the human sacrifice central to their religion, began to systematically plunder Tenochtitlán and tear down the bloody temples. Montezuma's warriors attacked the Spaniards but with the aid of Indian allies, Spanish reinforcements, superior weapons and disease, Cortez defeated an empire of approximately 25 million people by August 13, 1521.
    (ATC, p.16)(SFC, 9/2/96, p.A3) (HNPD, 11/8/98)

1519        Nov 14, Cortez took Montezuma hostage due to the killing of Spanish soldiers along the Gulf Coast by Aztec warriors. The accused warriors were later burned to death in front of Montezuma and the Aztec people.
    (ON, 10/00, p.3)

1519        Domenico de Pineda, Spanish navigator, explored the Gulf of Mexico.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1519        Cortez discovered a plot by some Cholulans to assassinate him and ordered some 6,000 Cholulan men executed.
    (SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T10)

1519        Francisco de Montejo, a captain under Cortez, set about subjugating the Maya.
    (SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)

1519        Spanish soldiers in Mexico learned that the shipwrecked sailor Gonzalo Guerrero had drifted there in 1511. Guerrero married a Maya woman and raised the first mestizo children.
    (Econ, 11/10/07, p.102)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gonzalo_Guerrero)

1520        Apr, Cortez left Tenochtitlan to travel along the Gulf Coast.
    (ON, 10/00, p.5)

1520        May 16, In Tenochtitlan a religious festival turned bloody when Spanish soldiers attacked a frenzied crowd. Several weeks of street fighting followed.
    (ON, 10/00, p.5)

1520        May 20, Hernando Cortez defeated Spanish troops sent to punish him in Mexico.
    (HN, 5/20/98)

1520        Jun 24, Montezuma, under orders by Cortez to calm his people, was showered with "stones, darts, arrows and sticks" from a jeering crowd.
    (ON, 10/00, p.5)

1520        Jun 30, Montezuma II was murdered as Spanish conquistadors fled the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan during the night. Montezuma died from wounds inflicted by his people. Conquistadors under Cortez plundered gold from Aztecs.
    (HN, 6/30/01)(ON, 10/00, p.5)(MC, 6/30/02)

1520        Jul 10, The explorer Cortez was driven from Tenochtitlan, Mexico, by Aztec leader Cuauhtemoc, and retreated to Tlaxcala.
    (HN, 7/10/98)

1520        Jul 14, Hernando Cortes fought the Aztecs at the Battle of Otumba, Mexico.
    (MC, 7/14/02)

1521        Jan, Cortez returned to Tenochtitlan and destroyed the city. Thousands of Aztecs were killed. The surviving children of Montezuma were sent to Spain and were granted compensatory titles to the Spanish nobility.
    (ON, 10/00, p.5)

1521        Aug 13, Spanish conqueror Hernando Cortez conquered the Mexican city of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City) after an 85-day battle. Cuauhtemoc fought against Cortez in Tlatelolco when Moctezuma surrendered. Cortez had an Indian mistress named La Malinche.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.763)(AP, 8/13/97)(TL-MB, p.12)(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 4/24/98, p.A15)

1521        Aug 31, Spanish conqueror Cortez (1485-1547), having captured the city of Tenochtitlan, Mexico, set it on fire. Nearly 100,000 people died in the siege and some 100,000 more died afterwards of smallpox. In 2008 Buddy levy authored “Conquistador: Hernan Cortes, King Montezuma, and the Last Stand of the Aztecs.”
    (HN, 8/31/98)(WSJ, 7/10/08, p.A13)

1522        Oct 15, Emperor Charles named Hernan Cortes governor of Mexico.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1522        Martin Cortes (d.1569), son of Hernando Cortes, was born in Mexico to an Amerindian woman named Malinche. Cortes also named a 3rd son Martin, who was born in Spain. Both brothers were arrested in 1566 for purportedly fomenting a rebellion against the Spanish crown.
    (SSFC, 7/11/04, p.M3)

1525        City officials tried to control the street vendors in Mexico City.
    (SFC, 9/7/96, p.A19)

1528        The fortress of San Juan de Ulua was built on a coral reef in Vera Cruz. It was later estimated that half-million slaves died in the process.
    (SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)

1530        The San Francisco Church and monastery in Valladolid, Mexico, was begun.
    (SSFC, 11/17/02, p.C11)

1531        Dec 12, Legend held that a dark-skinned Virgin Mary appeared to a peasant outside Mexico City and left an imprint on his cactus-fiber poncho. The poncho became an icon for the Virgin of Guadalupe. Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin, an Indian peasant, had visions of the Virgin Mary. In 2002 Pope John Paul II planned to canonize him. The Vatican’s main source was a religious work that dated to 1666.
    (SFC, 2/1/99, p.A9)(WSJ, 2/27/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/17/02, p.A1)(AP, 7/30/02)

1531        The Spaniards founded Puebla, on the route from Vera Cruz to Mexico City, to house demobilized conquistadors.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T8)

1531        In Mexico Queretaro was designated the third city of New Spain.
    (SSFC, 1/27/08, p.E5)

1533        Spaniards arrived at Zaci, the capital of the Cupul Maya, in Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula and were pushed out.
    (SSFC, 6/29/08, p.E5)(http://tinyurl.com/4o62ox)

1535        Apr 17, Antonio Mendoza was appointed first viceroy of New Spain.
    (HN, 4/17/98)

1535        Emissaries of Cortez discovered La Paz, in Baha, Mexico.
    (SSFC, 11/2/03, p.C10)

1536        cJan, Spanish castaways Don Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca with 3 companions reached the Pacific Coast in northern Mexico under Indian escort and encountered Spanish troops engaged as slave hunters.
    (ON, 10/03, p.5)

1536        Jun 6, Mexico began it's inquisition.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1536        Jul 24, Spanish castaways Don Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca with 3 companions arrived in Mexico City under escort from Culiacan.
    (ON, 10/03, p.5)

1537        Aug, Castaway Don Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca returned from Mexico to Spain where he wrote an account of his 3,000 mile journey through North American and his experiences with the Indians. In 2006 Paul Schneider authored “Brutal Journey: The True Story of the First Crossing of North America.” Schneider used de Vaca’s original memoir as well as an official report prepared by survivors of the Narvaez expedition.
    (ON, 10/03, p.5)(SSFC, 6/11/06, p.M3)

1540        Spaniards settled Campeche, Mexico. Montejo the Younger, the founder of Merida, gained a foothold at Campeche.
    (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.D12)(SSFC, 1/25/09, p.E4)

1541        The "Codex Mendoza" was an Aztec pictorial manuscript of this time. It showed tribute received by the Aztecs from people like the Mixtec with turquoise shields and beads. It also showed 3 young people being stoned to death for drunkenness.
    (NH, 4/97, p.24)(Arch, 1/05, p.29)

1541        Morelia, the capital of the Mexican state of Michoacan, was founded by the royal edict of Antonio de Mendoza. It was originally named Valladolid after a city in Spain. The name was changed in 1928 to honor the local village priest and revolutionary hero Jose Maria Morelos.
    (Hem, Nov.'95, p.146)(SSFC, 11/17/02, p.C11)

1542        Jun 27, Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo set out from the port of Navidad, Mexico, with 2 ships, the San Salvador and the Victoria, to "discover the coast of New Spain." Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo claimed California for Spain. [see Sep 28]
    (NPS-CNM, 4/1/97)(MC, 6/27/02)

1542        Merida was founded by Francisco de Montejo at the holy Maya city of T’Ho. Montejo was the son of the captain under Cortez with the same name.
    (SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)

1543        May 24, The city of Valladolid, Mexico, was founded in the Yucatan peninsula.
    (SSFC, 6/29/08, p.E5)(www.valladolidyucatan.com/history.html)

1543        Sep, The Spanish survivors of the de Soto expedition reached Spanish settlements in Mexico.
    (ON, 4/01, p.5)

1543-1773    The Palacio de los Capitanes in Antigua, Guatemala, was the center for Spanish rule over Chiapas, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua during this period.
    (SFEM, 6/13/99, p.32)

1545        Bishop Fray Bartolome de las Casas championed the Indians in the area of Chiapas.
    (WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A1)

1546        A coalition of eastern Maya laid siege to Valladolid, in Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula. Spanish conquistadores brutally crushed a major Mayan rebellion in New Spain.
    (http://tinyurl.com/4o62ox)(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1547        The Spaniards arrived at Cuetzalan, an area inhabited by Nahua and Totonac Indians.
    (SSFC, 5/5/02, p.C10)

1547        Hernando Cortes, the conquistador who subdued Aztec king Montezuma and stole his wife, died in Spain. His remains were brought to Mexico in 1836.
    (WSJ, 12/14/00, p.A8)

1553        The National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) was founded as a royal, pontifical university.
    (WSJ, 9/1/99, p.A1)

1555        Fr. Bernardino de Sahagun wrote down "The War of Conquest: The Aztec’s Own Story."
    (ON, 10/00, p.5)

1555        In Ocotlan, Oaxaca, a church was built.
    (WSJ, 4/13/99, p.A1)

1557        The Spanish enslaved local Indians around Guanajuato, Mexico, to work a silver mine. A major vein was struck in 1768.
    (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.D7)

1561-1598    In Merida the Cathedral de San Idelfonso was constructed on the site of a Mayan temple by Spanish conquistadors. It was designed as a stronghold in their struggle to subdue the Maya.
    (SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)

1562        Aug 8, Diego Te, a Maya man in the Yucatec town of Sotuta, testified that a year earlier he had witnessed a village leader and another man cut the hearts from 2 boys and hand them to a shaman, who rubbed the hearts onto the mouths of two Maya idols. The account was preserved in the Archivo General de Indias in Seville, Spain.
    (AM, 7/05, p.43)

1562        A Spanish priest wrote that the well at Chichen Itza was a place where Mayas had made offerings to their gods.
    (ON, 5/02, p.6)

1562        In the Yucatan a campaign to root out idolatry ended with the destruction of thousands of ritual objects and most of the Maya books in existence. The campaign was led by Franciscan leader Diego de Landa, who was later tried in Spain for his excessive behavior and acquitted. He recorded the oral traditions of the Maya in “An Account of the Things of the Yucatan” before returning there in 1573 as Bishop of Yucatan.
    (AM, 7/05, p.44)

1565        The Iglesia de San Roque was built in Campeche, Mexico.
    (SSFC, 1/25/09, p.E5)

1566        Two sons of Cortes, both named Martin Cortes, were arrested in Mexico for purportedly fomenting a rebellion against the Spanish crown. In 2004 Anna Lanyon authored “The New World of Martin Cortes.”
    (SSFC, 7/11/04, p.M3)

1567         The Metropolitan Cathedral was begun in Mexico City. It took 250 years to complete.
    (Hem., 1/96, p.50)

1568        Spanish conquistadors first arrived at the valley of Tlaxcaltecas.
    (SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T8)

1570        The Mexican city of Valladolid, later Morelia, was laid out.
    (SSFC, 11/17/02, p.C11)

1574        An auto-da-fe (a public announcement of sentence imposed on persons tried by the Inquisition) took place in Mexico for the first time.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1575-1649    The construction of La Immaculada Concepcion cathedral in Puebla.
    (SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T8)

1576        In Mexico the town of Mineral de Pozos was founded as a mining town. In 1982 the Mexican government declared it a national historic treasure.
    (SSFC, 11/30/08, p.E5)

1577        Francisco Hernandez, Spanish explorer traveling through Mexico’s highlands, noted the many uses of the maguey (agave) plant. He cited it as a useful fuel, a material for cloth and ropes, with sap used to make vinegar and wine.
    (Arch, 9/02, p.32)

1585        Archbishop of Mexico, Pedro Moya de Contreras, dispatched Spanish captain Francisco Gali to proceed to Manila from Acapulco, and "to reconnoiter down the coast" on his return trip.
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.A25)

1586        Spanish Captain Francisco Gali died in Manila and Pedro de Unamuno took command of his 2 ships to return to Acapulco. He stopped in Macao where his ships were confiscated by the Portuguese. He obtained a loan from Father Martin Ignacio de Loyola, the nephew of the founder of the Jesuit order, and purchased a small ship to return to Acapulco with 2 priests, a few soldiers, and a crew of Luzon Indians.
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.A25)

1586        In Mexico the Mina El Eden (Eden Mine) opened in Zacateca. It yielded a bounty of silver, gold, iron and zinc for over 3 centuries.
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T3)

1587        Nov 22, Captain Pedro de Unamuno entered the port of Acapulco.
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.A25)

1593        In Puebla, Mexico, the Convent de La Concepcion was built. It was later turned into the Hotel Camino Real Puebla.
    (SSFC, 1/27/08, p.E5)

1593        In Mexico Capt. Don Francisco de Urdiqola started the first vineyard in the valley of Tlaxcaltecas at his El Rosario Hacienda.
    (SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T8)

1593-1817    The period of the Spanish Inquisition in Mexico.
    (SFC, 9/18/96, p.A1)

1596        Dec 8, Luis de Carabajal, 1st Jewish author in America, was executed in Mexico. The nephew of Luis Carvajal, a Jewish convert to Catholicism and governor of the province of Nuevo Leon, was accused of relapsing into Judaism. He was tried by Spanish Inquisitors and under torture gave out 116 names of other Judaizers that included his mother and 23 sisters. They were eventually strangled with iron collars and burned to death. A 1997 opera by Myron Fink was composed based on his story. Monterey, Mexico was founded by conquistador Don Luis de Carvajal. He fell in love the wrong man’s daughter and was later denounced to the Mexican Inquisition because of his Jewish heritage.
    (SFC, 8/16/96, p.A19)(SFC, 9/18/96, p.A11)(WSJ, 2/25/97, p.A20)(MC, 12/8/01)

1596        The Casa de los Azulejos or House of Tiles (a.k.a. Sanborn's) was constructed. It is an ornate mansion with hand-painted blue and white tiles.
    (Hem., 1/96, p.50)

1597        King Philip II issued a land grant to Don Lorenzo Garcia to start the first official winery for the new world at the San Lorenzo Hacienda.
    (SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T8)

c1600-1700    Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz was a lyric poet of this period. She entered the convent and assembled a 4,000 volume library and wrote poems along with secular and religious plays. The chamber opera "With Blood, With Ink" was later based on her life.
    (WSJ, 4/14/00, p.W2)

1602        May, Sebastian Vizcaino, a Basque merchant, led 4 small ships north from Acapulco, Mexico, to chart the coast of California.
    (SFC, 11/13/02, p.A8)

1616        The Fuerte de San Diego was built to protect the port of Acapulco, Mexico, from Dutch and English pirates.
    (SSFC, 11/2/03, p.C6)

1618        In Merida the Iglesia de Jesus was built by Jesuits.
    (SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)
 
1621        Agustina Ruiz of Quertaro was tried for claiming sexual intercourse with saints. She was sent to a convent by the Inquisition for 3 years of fasting and penance.
    (SFC, 9/18/96, p.A11)

1624        Jan 15, The people of Mexico rioted upon hearing that their churches were to be closed.
    (HN, 1/15/99)

1624        The town of San Antonino petitioned for and was granted independence from the town of Ocotlan.
    (WSJ, 4/13/99, p.A1)

1631        Oct 14, The ship Our Lady of Juncal set sail from the Gulf coast port of Veracruz, as part of a 19-ship fleet bearing described only as "a valuable shipment of the goods obtained by the king's ministers to feed the Spanish empire." Most of the fleet never made it.
    (AP, 2/17/09)

1636        A city wall was built around Veracruz.
    (SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)

1660        The Palacio Clavijero was built as a Jesuit temple in Valladolid (later Morelia), Mexico.
    (SSFC, 5/22/05, p.E6)

1666        In Cholula the chapel Nuestra de los Remedios was built atop a Teotihuacan pyramid.
    (SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T10)

1667        The San Ignacio Loyola Church at Parras de la Fuente was built.
    (SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T8)

1668        A fortified wall was completed at Campeche, Mexico, to ward off pirate attacks.
    (SSFC, 1/25/09, p.E4)

1683        Sep 29, A small armada sailed from the Mexican mainland across the Sea of Cortez to the Baha Peninsula. Hostile natives had forced them back to the mainland on a first landing and a storm forced them back on a 2nd attempt.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)

1683        Oct 6, The small armada from the Mexican mainland landed on their 3rd attempt at crossing to the Baha peninsula and settled at the mouth of a river that they named San Bruno. The site was abandoned after 2 years. Spanish settlement on the Baha was later described by Father James Donald Francez in "The Lost Treasures of Baha California."
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)

1690        In Puebla the ornate Capilla del Rosario, Chapel of the Rosary, was consecrated.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T8)

1695        Apr 17, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz (b.~1648), Mexican nun and poet, died of plague.
    (SSFC, 9/3/06, p.M3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sor_Juana)

1697        Oct 19, Settlers from Mexico sailed across the Sea of Cortez to build a new settlement.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)

1697        Oct 25, Settlers from Mexico founded the town of Loreto in honor of the Virgin Nuestra Senoro de Loreto, on the Baha Peninsula. It served as the capital of Baha California for the next 132 years.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)

1697        Padre Juan Maria Salvatierra established Baja's first mission at Lareto.
    (SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T1)

1699        Jesuits established a 2nd Baha outpost, Mission San Francisco de San Javier, in the Sierra Gigante mountains.
    (SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T1)

1699        The King of Spain, due to its competition, banned the production of wine in the Americas, except for that made by the church. The ban lasted to 1810.
    (SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T8)

1700        Sep, In Mexico Juan Bautista and Jacinto de los Angeles informed Spanish authorities of an Indian religious ceremony and were killed by fellow Indians. Christian officials decapitated and quartered 15 men and staked their body parts by the roadside as a warning. In 2002 Bautista and Angeles were beatified by Pope John Paul II.
    (AP, 7/30/02)

1701        Padre Juan de Ugarte brought seeds and seedlings from Mexico City for the Baha outpost, Mission San Francisco de San Javier.
    (SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T1)

1712        Maria de Ortiz Espejo was convicted by the Inquisition of telling women that hummingbirds and earthquakes could help them get pregnant. She got off with a warning.
    (SFC, 9/18/96, p.A11)

1720        The last major eruption of the Popocatepetl volcano outside Mexico City.
    (SFC, 7/3/97, p.C5)

1724        Jesuit padre Jaime Bravo set up a visiting mission in the southern Baja peninsula for the nomadic Guaicura Indians.
    (SSFC, 11/4/01, p.T12)

1729-1742    The building of the Cathedral at Zacateca. It has been called the "Parthenon of the Mexican Baroque."
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T3)

1730        Jesuits founded San Jose del Cabo in Baha, Ca.
    (SSFC, 2/6/05, p.F8)

1731        Luis Berrueco, Mexican painter, painted “The Martyrs of Gorkum,” a detailed work depicting the 1572 martyrdom of 19 Catholics in Gorinchem, Netherlands, during the Dutch war for independence.
    (SFC, 3/5/11, p.E2)(http://tinyurl.com/5s8wnz2)

1734        Father Nicholas Tamaral attempted to enforce a ban polygamy among the Pericu Indians in Baha California. The Pericu beat him in return and apparently burned him alive.
    (SSFC, 2/6/05, p.F8)

1740s        Antonio de Solis, a Spanish priest, found the ruins of Palenque while planting a field.
    (SSFC, 5/5/02, p.C5)

1743        La Cathedral de Nuestra Senora de la Asuncion in Veracruz was dedicated.
    (SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)

1744        The cathedral in Morelia was completed.
    (SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T11)

1747        The Iglesia de Nuestra Senora de la Paz was built in Todos Santos on the southern Baja peninsula.
    (SSFC, 11/4/01, p.T12)

1748-1758    Santa Prisca church in Taxco was built by the wealthy miner Jose de la Borda. It has twin towers of pink stone and an adjacent tiled dome.
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T6)

1750        The border town of Guerrero was founded. It became Guerrero Viejo in 1953 after a new dam and flood covered the old town and residents moved to the new Guerrero Nuevo.
    (SFC, 6/4/98, p.C16)

1750-1860    The Hacienda Tabi developed as a sugar plantation in the Yucatan. The family of Carlos Peon Machado owned it for some 40 years and sold it in 1893.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.43)

1751        The mission of St. Gertrude the Great was initiated and called "La Piedad" by Father Fernando Consag.
    (WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)

1752        The first Mission at the town of Loreto on the Baha Peninsula was completed. Father George Retz moved north from Mission St. Ignatius, where he had studied the Cochimi language, and formally established "La Piedad" as the mission of St. Gertrude the Great.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)

1753        May 8, Miguel Hidalgo y Castilla, the father of Mexican independence, was born.
    (HN, 5/8/98)(MC, 5/8/02)

1755        The Holy Inquisition began using the dungeon at the fortress of San Juan de Ulua in Veracruz.
    (SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)

1756        In Queretaro, Mexico, a palatial home was built  and later converted into the hotel Casa de la Marquesa.
    (SSFC, 1/27/08, p.E5)

1757        The Mission of San Javier was completed in San Javier on the Baha Peninsula.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)

c1758        In Taxco the Santa Prisca Cathedral was built in thanks by Don Jose de la Borda, who made his fortune there.
    (SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T6)

1758        Jesuits rebuilt their 1699 Mission San Francisco de San Javier in the Sierra Gigante mountains.
    (SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T1)

1759-1788    Charles III ruled as King of Spain. After a plague killed thousands in Alamos, Mexico, Charles III ordered homes to be rebuilt with mutual walls to prevent ramshackle structures by squatters.
    (WUD, 1994, p.249)

1760        Juan Ruiz of Mexico painted "Christ Consoled by Angels."
    (WSJ, 3/3/98, p.A16)

1760        The Valenciana mine near Guanajuato was discovered.
    (SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T10)

1760-1777    Juan Bautista de Anza (1736-1787) served as the commanding officer at Tupac.
    (SFC, 6/7/00, p.A15)

1764        In Mexico Ignacio de Jerusalem composed "Matins for Our Lady of Guadalupe." It was first performed the Mexico City Cathedral.
    (SFC, 6/24/97, p.B3)

1767        Jun 25, Mexican Indians rioted as Jesuit priests were ordered home. Spain expelled the Jesuits from Mexico and their work was taken over by the Dominican Fathers.
    (WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)(HN, 6/25/98)(Econ, 6/1/13, p.80)

1768        In Guanajuato, Mexico, enslaved Indians struck a major silver vein in Guanajuato.
    (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.D7)

1769        Father Junipero Serra set out on his northerly journey from Loreto to found missions along the Baha Peninsula and into California.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)

1771        Father Toribio Basterrechea, vicar of Huachinango, was convicted by the Inquisition of officiating at the marriage of two dogs. He was sentenced to 4 months of fasting and penance.
    (SFC, 9/18/96, p.A11)

1774        Mexico exported 600 tons of the cochineal shell, known as carmine, to Spain. The acid color was extracted from the shell of the tiny red beetle that grew on cactus leaves.  It was used to manufacture a red dye that was used in British "redcoats" and by Betsy Ross to color the first US flag.
    (WSJ, 10/7/98, p.B1)

1775        Sep 29, Mexican Captain Juan Bautista de Anza (39) and his party of Spanish soldiers and setters departed Tubac, Arizona, on a journey to the SF Bay Area following reports of a great river flowing into the bay. Anza led 240 soldiers, priests and settlers to Monterey. Jose Manuel Valencia was one of the soldiers. His son, Candelario Valencia, later served in the military at the Presidio and owned a ranch in Lafayette and property next to Mission Dolores. One of the soldiers was Don Salvio Pacheco.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)(SFC, 12/31/99, p.A22)(SFC, 9/14/13, p.C4)

1775        Altar was founded in Mexico’s Sonora state as a military base. It’s location 60 miles south of Arizona later proved valuable as a jumping off point for immigrant smuggling to the US.
    (Econ, 8/12/06, p.31)

1775        The Monte de Piedad (Mount of Pity), or National Pawn Shop, stands on the site of Moctezuma's brother's palace in Mexico City. It was founded by the Count of Regla. As a lender of last resort the shop provided loans worth one-fifth to one-third an item’s value at interest rates of 4% a month.
    (Hem., 1/96, p.50)(SFC, 1/15/98, p.A10)

1775        Manuel Arroyo of Real del Monte confessed to 30 counts of oral sex on men. He claimed that his doctor told him it was good for his health and a way to avoid evil thoughts about women. He was sentenced to 3 years in prison by the Inquisition.
    (SFC, 9/18/96, p.A11)

1775-1776    Juan Bautista de Anza led 198 colonists and 1,000 cattle from Sonora, Mexico, to California.
    (SFC, 6/7/00, p.A15)

1776        Mar 28, Mexican Captain Juan Bautista de Anza, Lt. Jose Moraga, and Franciscan priest Pedro Font arrived at the tip of San Francisco. De Anza planted a cross at what is now Fort Point. They camped at Mountain Lake and searched inland for a more hospitable area and found a site they called Laguna de los Dolores or the Friday of Sorrows since the day was Friday before Palm Sunday. Anza became known as the “father of SF.” Mission Dolores was founded by Father Francisco Palou and Father Pedro Cambon. Rancho San Pedro, near what is now Pacifica, served as the agricultural center. Laguna de los Dolores was later believed to be a spring near the modern-day corner of Duboce and Sanchez.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juan_Bautista_de_Anza)(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)(SFC, 2/19/11, p.A10)

1777-1787    Juan Bautista de Anza served as the governor of New Mexico.
    (SFC, 6/7/00, p.A15)

1781        Sep 4, Mexican Provincial Governor, Felipe de Neve, founded Los Angeles. He founded El Pueblo de Nuestra Senora la Reina de Los Angeles (Valley of Smokes), originally named Nuestra Senora la Reina de Los Angeles de Porciuncula, by Gaspar de Portola, a Spanish army captain and Juan Crespi, a Franciscan priest, who had noticed the beautiful area as they traveled north from San Diego in 1769. 44 Spanish settlers named a tiny village near San Gabriel, Los Angeles. Los Angeles, first an Indian village Yangma, was founded by Spanish decree. 26 of the settlers were of African ancestry.
    (HFA, '96, p.38)(AP, 9/4/97)(SFEC, 4/12/98, Par p.20)(HN, 9/4/98)(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)(HN, 9/4/00)(MC, 9/4/01)

1784        The 1st Spanish military officer who explored the Mayan ruins of Palenque thought it was Atlantis risen.
    (SSFC, 12/7/03, p.C10)

1786        Andres Lopez of Mexico painted "Sacred Heart of Jesus."
    (WSJ, 3/3/98, p.A16)

1788        The Templo La Valenciana church was built next to the Valenciana mine.
    (SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T10)

1790        Dec 17, An Aztec calendar stone was discovered in Mexico City.
    (HFA, '96, p.44)(MC, 12/17/01)

1791        May 14, In Mexico a time capsule was placed atop a bell tower at Mexico City's Metropolitan Cathedral when the building's topmost stone was laid, 218 years after construction had begun. Workers restoring the church found it in October, 2007.
    (AP, 1/15/08)

1792        In Mexico Campeche’s northern fort, the Reducto de San Jose, was built. It later housed the Museo de Barcas y Armas.
    (SSFC, 1/25/09, p.E5)

1794        Feb 21, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Mexican Revolutionary, was born.
    (HN, 2/21/98)

1801        La Iglesia de Nuestra Senora del Refugio was a Franciscan-style mission church built in the border town of Guerrero Viejo.
    (SFC, 6/4/98, p.C2)

1803        Alexander Von Humboldt, German explorer and scientist, spent some time in Taxco. The house where he stayed later became the Museum of Colonial Religious Art.
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T7)

1805        Spanish soldiers under Lt. Francisco Ruiz discovered badgers in a canyon during an expedition in southern California. The area was thus named El Tejon (the badger).
    (SFC, 5/9/08, p.A1)

1806        Mar 21, Benito Juarez, President of Mexico, was born in Oaxaca. He was Mexico's first president of Indian ancestry and fought against the French and their puppet emperor Maximilian.
    (AP, 3/21/97)(HN, 3/21/99)

1807        Lieutenant Zebulon Montgomery Pike strayed beyond the limits of the territory into the Spanish-held territory of New Mexico, and was accused of spying by Spanish authorities. The Spaniards released Pike and his men after they could find no evidence against him. Pike’s explorations the previous November had taken him to the Rockies, where he reached the base of a mountain that would later be named Pikes Peak in his honor. Pike’s mission was to explore the southwestern limits of the Louisiana Territory, the vast tract of land that the United States had purchased from France in 1803 in a deal known as the Louisiana Purchase.
    (HNQ, 7/15/02)

1810        Sep 16,  In Mexico Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla delivered the cry for freedom in front of a small crowd of his parishioners (The Grito de Dolores) in Dolores Hidalgo. This action stemmed from meetings of the literary and social club of Queretaro (now a central state of Mexico), which included the priest, the mayor of the town, and a local military captain named Ignacio Allende. They believed that New Spain should be governed by the Creoles (criollos) rather than the Gachupines (peninsulares). Rev. Hidalgo was joined by Rev. Jose Maria Morelos. Both priests were later executed by firing squads. When Mexico revolted the Spanish settlements began to fall apart. Under Mexican rule the missions were secularized and the huge land holdings were broken up. At age 55, Hidalgo was a tall, gaunt man who carried his head habitually bent forward, giving him the appearance of a true contemplative. But looks were deceiving. He had a restless, willful nature, and his expressive green eyes shot fire when he argued politics. In his student days, he had won debates and honors; as a theologian he enjoyed considerable local renown. He was a visionary, resentful of authority and with a touch of the crusader about him.
    (SFC, 5/19/96,CG, p.16)(SCal, Sep, 1995)(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)(AP, 9/16/97)(HNQ, 12/17/00)

1810        Juan Jose de los Reyes Martinez, miner and revolutionary hero (El Pipila), joined some 20,000 rebels who stormed Guanajuato, Mexico, and cornered Spanish colonists inside a granary. Martinez set fire to the granary and died in the flames.
    (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.D6)

1810-1996    This period of Mexican history is covered by Enrique Krauze in his book: "Mexico: Biography of Power."
    (WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)

1811        Jul 31, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, Mexican hero priest, was executed by Spanish.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1811-1812    During the war for independence the crime rate rose to double digits for two years in a row.
    (SFEC, 1/26/97, p.A14)

1813        Nov 6, Chilpancingo congress declared Mexico independent of Spain.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1815        Dec 22, Spaniards executed Mexican revolutionary priest Jose Maria Morelos.
    (MC, 12/22/01)

1817        The Metropolitan Cathedral in Mexico City was completed.
    (Hem., 1/96, p.49)

1817        Pedro Moreno and Victor Rosales died fighting Spain in western Mexico. Their bodies were among 14 later placed in urns as hero’s of Mexico’s 1810-1821 independence movement. In 1925 urns holding the remains were sealed in crypts at the Independence monument. Others in the urns included Miguel Hidalgo and Ignacio Allende.
    (AP, 8/14/10)

1820        The Mexican government granted Luis Peralta (1759-1851) the 44,800-acre Rancho San Antonio in the East Bay of northern California, for his military services. The rancho ran from San Leandro Creek to a rise known as El Cerrito. Peralta settled in San Jose, while his four sons took over the land grant. The Peralta Hacienda in Oakland was built in 1870.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lu%C3%ADs_Mar%C3%ADa_Peralta)(SFC, 5/3/02, p.A20)(SFC, 11/26/10, p.D9)

1821        Feb 24, Mexico rebels proclaimed the "Plan de Iguala," their declaration of independence from Spain, and took over the mission lands in California.
    (HT, 3/97, p.61)(AP, 2/24/98)(HN, 2/24/98)

1821        Aug 23, After 11 years of war, Spain granted Mexican independence as a constitutional monarchy. Spanish Viceroy Juan de O'Donoju signed the Treaty of Cordoba, which approved a plan to make Mexico an independent constitutional monarchy.
    (HN, 8/23/00)(MC, 8/23/02)

1821        Aug 28, In the city of Puebla a nun served a tri-colored chili dish to the Emperor Agustin de Iturbide, who was on his way home from signing the Treaty of Cordoba, which effectively freed Mexico from Spain. Iturbide, a Creole, had led the suppression of the initial rebellion for independence. He later abdicated, went into exile, returned and was executed. After Iturbide Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna led the country over 11 presidential terms.
    (WSJ, 9/5/96, p.B1)(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)

1821        Sep 27, The Mexican Empire declared its independence. Revolutionary forces occupied Mexico City as the Spanish withdraw.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1821        Mexican rule began over the New Mexico territory.
    (SSFC, 5/22/05, p.E12)

1821-1846    Mexico ruled over California with a series of 12 governors. During part of this time Gen’l. Jose Castro commanded all of the Spanish forces in California and was an active opponent of US rule in 1846.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)

1822        Jul 25, Gen. Agustin de Iturbide was crowned Agustin I, 1st emperor of Mexico.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1822        Dec 12, Mexico was officially recognized as an independent nation by US.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1822        California became part of Mexico.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)

1822        The mission of St. Gertrude the Great on the Baha Peninsula was closed as the local population diminished.
    (WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)

1824        Oct 4, The Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1824 was enacted, after the overthrow of the Mexican Empire of Agustin de Iturbide. In the new constitution, the republic took the name of United Mexican States, and was defined as a representative federal republic, with Catholicism as the official religion. A liberal constitution, established at this time, was later replaced by Santa Anna.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1824_Constitution_of_Mexico)(AP, 9/15/10)

1824        The Mexican governor of California offered all missions for sale under a program of secularization.
    (SFEC, 3/12/00, p.T4)

1824        A Mexican General was served chiles en nogada after he threw out the last Spanish viceroy. The dish consisted of green chiles, pomegranate seeds and a white walnut sauce.
    (WSJ, 12/11/98, p.A1)

1824        Since this year budget oversight has been handled by the executive branch.
    (WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-12)

1828        The Mexican city of Valladolid was renamed Morelia after independence hero Jose Maria Morelos
    (SSFC, 11/17/02, p.C11)

1829        Aug 25, Pres. Jackson made an offer to buy Texas, but the Mexican government refused.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1829        A hurricane destroyed the town of Loreto in Baha California except for the Mission Nuestra Senora de Loreto. The center of government was moved down the coast to La Paz.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)(SSFC, 11/2/03, p.C10)

1833        Mexico took mission property from the Church and turned out the Acagchemem Indians at Mission San Juan Capistrano.
    (HT, 3/97, p.61)

1833        The people of Iztapalapa, Mexico, began re-enacting the Passion of Christ, to give thanks for divine protection during a cholera epidemic.
    (AP, 4/5/06)

1835        Mar 27, The Mexican army massacred Texan rebels at Gohad.
    (HN, 3/27/99)

1835        Sep, Texans petitioned for statehood separate from Coahuila. They wrote out their needs and their complaints in The Declaration of Causes. This document was designed to convince the Federalists that the Texans desired only to preserve the 1824 Constitution, which guaranteed the rights of everyone living on Mexican soil. But by this time, Santa Anna was in power, having seized control in 1833, and he advocated the removal of all foreigners. His answer was to send his crack troops, commanded by his brother-in-law, General Martin Perfecto de Css, to San Antonio to disarm the Texans.
    (HNQ, 3/24/01)

1835        Oct 2, The first battle of the Texas Revolution took place as American settlers fought Mexican soldiers near the Guadalupe River; the Mexicans ended up withdrawing.
    (AP, 10/2/08)

1835        Oct, Before the Alamo, Mexican General Css led troops against the small community of Gonzales, since enshrined in history as the "Lexington of Texas." San Antonio de Bixar went under military rule, with 1,200 Mexican troops under General Css` command. When Css ordered the small community of Gonzales, about 50 miles east of San Antonio, to return a cannon loaned to the town for defense against Indian attack--rightfully fearing that the citizens might use the cannon against his own troops--the Gonzales residents refused. "Come and take it!" they taunted, setting off a charge of old chains and scrap iron, shot from the mouth of the tiny cannon mounted on ox-cart wheels. Although the only casualty was one Mexican soldier, Gonzales became enshrined as the "Lexington of Texas." The Texas Revolution was on.
    (HNQ, 3/24/01)

1835        Nov 13, Texans officially proclaimed Independence from Mexico, and called itself the Lone Star Republic, after its flag, until its admission to the Union in 1845.
    (HN, 11/13/98)

1836        Feb 12, Mexican General Santa Anna crossed the Rio Grande en route to the Alamo.
    (HN, 2/12/99)

1836        Feb 23, The Alamo was besieged by Santa Anna. Thus began the siege of the Alamo, a 13-day moment in history that turned a ruined Spanish mission in San Antonio, Texas, into a shrine known and revered the world over. In 2012 James Donovan authored “The Blood of Heroes: The 13-Day Struggle for the Alamo – and the Sacrifice That Forged a Nation.
    (AP, 2/23/98)(Econ, 6/2/12, p.99)

1836        Feb 24, Some 3,000 Mexicans under Gen. Santa Ana launched an assault on the Alamo, with its 182 Texan defenders. The siege lasted 13 days.
    (HN, 2/24/98)(MC, 2/24/02)

1836        Feb 27, Mexican forces under General Jose de Urrea defeated Texan forces at the Battle of San Patricio.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goliad_Campaign)

1836        Mar 2, Texas declared its independence from Mexico on Sam Houston's 43rd birthday. The first vice-president was Lorenzo de Zavala. Mexico refused to recognize Texas but diplomatic relations were established with the US, Britain and France. Texas was an independent republic until 1845.
    (WSJ, 11/21/95, p.A-12)(WP, 6/29/96, p.A15)(SFC, 4/28/97, p.A3)(AP, 3/2/98)(HN, 3/2/99)
1836        Mar 2, Mexican forces under General Jose de Urrea defeated Texan forces at the Battle of Agua Dulce.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goliad_Campaign)

1836        Mar 6, The Alamo fell after fighting for 13 days. Angered by a new Mexican constitution that removed much of their autonomy, Texans seized the Alamo in San Antonio in December 1835. Mexican president General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna marched into Texas to put down the rebellion. By late February, 1836, 182 Texans, led by Colonel William Travis, held the former mission complex against Santa Anna’s [3,000] 6,000 troops. At 4 a.m. on March 6, after fighting for 13 days, Santa Anna’s troops charged. In the battle that followed, all the Alamo defenders were killed while the Mexicans suffered about 2,000 casualties. Santa Anna dismissed the Alamo conquest as "a small affair," but the time bought by the Alamo defenders’ lives permitted General Sam Houston to forge an army that would win the Battle of San Jacinto and, ultimately, Texas’ independence. Mexican Lt. Col. Pena later wrote a memoir: "With Santa Anna in Texas: Diary of Jose Enrique de la Pena," that described the capture and execution of Davy Crockett and 6 other Alamo defenders. In 1975 a translation of the diary by Carmen Perry (d.1999) was published. Apparently, only one Texan combatant survived Jose María Guerrero, who persuaded his captors he had been forced to fight. Women, children, and a black slave, were spared.
    (AP, 3/6/98)(HN, 3/6/98)(HNPD, 3/6/99)(SFC, 6/15/99, p.C6)

1836        Mar 12, Mexican forces under General Jose de Urrea defeated Texan forces at the Battle of Refugio.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goliad_Campaign)

1836        Mar 13, Refugees from the Alamo arrived in Gonzales, Texas, and informed Gen. Sam Houston of the March 6 fall of the Alamo. Houston immediately ordered a retreat.
    (ON, 8/10, p.1)

1836        Mar 20, At Coleto Creek, Texas, Colonel James Fannin after being surrounded by Mexican forces under General Urrea, agreed to surrender to Colonel Juan Jose Holzinger. Fannin was unaware that General Santa Anna had decreed execution for all rebels. Urrea negotiated the surrender "at the disposal of the Supreme Mexican Government," falsely stating that no prisoner taken on those terms had lost his life.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goliad_Campaign)

1836        Mar 26, Mexican Colonel Jose Nicolas de la Portilla received orders from Gen. Santa Anna in triplicate to execute his Texan prisoners at Goliad.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goliad_Campaign)

1836        Mar 27, Mexican Colonel Jose Nicolas de la Portilla executed his Texan prisoners at Goliad. Colonel Portilla had the 342 Texians marched out of Fort Defiance into three columns. The Texians were then fired on at point-blank range. The wounded and dying were then clubbed and stabbed. Those who survived the initial volley were run down by the Mexican cavalry.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goliad_Campaign)

1836        Mar, Thousands of English speaking Texans abandoned their homes as the Mexican army advanced following the fall of the Alamo. They fled toward Louisiana in what came to be called the “Runaway Scrape.”
    (ON, 8/10, p.2)

1836        Apr 21, Some 910 Texians led by Sam Houston, the former governor of Tennessee, defeated the Mexican army under Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna at San Jacinto. The victory in the 18 minute battle sealed Texan independence from Mexico. Houston counted 9 fatalities. 630 Mexicans were killed out of some 1,250 troops. Some 700 were taken prisoner.
    (AP, 4/21/97)(HN, 4/21/98)(AH, 2/03, p.22)(ON, 8/10, p.3)

1836        Sep 12, Mexican authorities crushed the revolt which broke out on August 25.
    (HN, 9/12/98)

1836        Oct, Don Juan Alvarado, president of the 7-man legislature in the Mexican territory of California, fled Monterey with his deputies to Mission San Juan Bautista under threats from Lt. Col. Nicolas Gutierrez, the military governor. There they formed plans for a coup.
    (ON, 4/04, p.9)

1836        Nov 4, Don Juan Alvarado and a group of followers forced the surrender of Lt. Col. Nicolas Gutierrez, the military governor  Monterey. The quickly drafted a constitution and proclaimed California independent of Mexico. Officials in southern California refused to recognize Alvarado's government and he agreed to make California a territory of Mexico with himself as governor.
    (ON, 4/04, p.10)

1836        Dec 28, Spain recognized the independence of Mexico.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1836        The remains of Hernando Cortes (d.1547), the Spanish conquistador who subdued Aztec king Montezuma and stole his wife, were brought to Mexico from Spain and laid to rest in Mexico City.
    (WSJ, 12/14/00, p.A8)

1838        Nov 30, Mexico declared war on France.
    (HN, 11/30/98)

1839        The Bernal Heights area of SF, Ca., began to be developed as part of a Mexican land grant belonging to Don Jose Cornelio Bernal.
    (SFC, 6/29/06, 96 Hours p.41)

1840s        A native rebellion called the Caste War broke out in southern Mexico against the ruling hacienda class. The 22,000 square-foot palacio of Hacienda Tabi in the Yucatan was sacked.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.45)

1841        John Lloyd Stephens published "Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas and Yucatan" with illustrations by Frederick Catherwood.
    (ON, 12/99, p.8)

1842        Oct 18, US Commodore Thomas ap Catesby Jones sailed into Monterey, the Mexican  capital of California, on the mistaken belief that the US and Mexico had gone to war.
    (SFC, 1/9/04, p.D2)

1842        Oct 19, US Commodore Thomas ap Catesby Jones ordered the surrender of Mexican officials in Monterey, Ca., on the mistaken belief that the US and Mexico had gone to war. He soon learned of his error and returned Monterey to Mexican authority.
    (SFC, 1/9/04, p.D2)

1842        John Lloyd Stephens and Frederick Catherwood returned to Mexico and later produced a 2nd book titled: Incidents of Travel in Yucatan," which described their discovery of 44 additional ruined cities in southeastern Mexico.
    (ON, 12/99, p.8)

1843        Mar 25, Seventeen Texans, who picked black beans from a jar otherwise filled with white beans, were executed by a Mexican firing squad. After months of raiding, captivity and escapes in Northern Mexico, Mexican president Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna ordered the execution of one tenth of the 176 Texas freebooters of the Mier Expedition. The event was later depicted by artist Theodore Gentilz.
    (HNPD, 3/27/00)

1843        William Hickling Prescott (1796-1859), American Historian, authored "History of the Conquest of Mexico."
    (ON, 10/00, p.5)(WSJ, 8/16/08, p.W6)

1843        In California a land grant established Rancho El Tejon. The area was named El Tejon (the badger) after Spanish soldiers under Lt. Francisco Ruiz discovered the species during an 1805 expedition.
    (SFC, 5/9/08, p.A1)

1845        Mar 28, Mexico dropped diplomatic relations with US.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1846        Jan 13, President James Polk dispatched General Zachary Taylor and 4,000 troops to the Texas Border as war with Mexico loomed. At the outset of the Mexican-American War, the Mexican army numbered 32,000 and the American army consisted of 7,200 men. The American army had, since 1815, only fought against a few Indian tribes. Forty-two percent of the army was made up of recent German or Irish immigrants. In the course of the war, the total U.S. force employed reached 104,000. In 2008 Martin Dugard authored “The Training Ground: Grant, Lee, Sherman, and Davis in the Mexican War, 1846-1848.” In 2012 Amy S. Greenberg authored “A Wicked War: Polk, Clay, Lincoln and the 1846 US Invasion of Mexico.”
    (HNQ, 2/28/99)(WSJ, 5/16/08, p.W8)(SSFC, 1/6/13, p.F6)

1846        May 8, News reached Washington DC that Mexican troops had attacked a US reconnaissance patrol near the Rio Grande and killed or captured some 40 men. That same afternoon Polk and his cabinet had decided to ask Congress for a declaration of war against Mexico.
    (AH, 6/07, p.44)
1846        May 8, The first major battle of the Mexican-American War was fought at Palo Alto, Texas; US forces led by General Zachary Taylor were able to beat back the invading Mexican forces.
    (AP, 5/8/07)

1846        May 9, US forced Mexico back to Rio Grande in the Battle of Resaca de la Palma.
    (MC, 5/9/02)
1846        May 9, Gen. Mariano Arista crossed the Rio Grande and killed a number of US soldiers in a surprise attack. Mexico believed that France and Britain would support it in a war against the US.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A15)

1846        May 18, US troops attacked at the Rio Grande and occupied Matamoros.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1846        May 24, General Zachary Taylor captured Monterey in the Mexican War. [see Sep 25]
    (HN, 5/24/98)

1846        Aug 22, The United States annexed New Mexico. The US pledged to honor the land grants in northern New Mexico that were awarded by the Spanish and Mexican governors of the territory.
    (AP, 8/22/97)(WSJ, 5/7/99, p.A6)

1846        Sep 25, American General Zachary Taylor's forces captured Monterey, Mexico. [see May 24]
    (HN, 9/25/98)

1846        Nov 16, General Zachary Taylor took Saltillo, Mexico. General, cried Brig. Gen. John Wool in despair, we are whipped! I know it, replied Maj. Gen. Zachary Taylor, but the volunteers don't know it. Let them alone; we'll see what they do.
    (HN, 11/16/98)

c1846        Santa Anna was recalled to serve as president and to lead the army.
    (WSJ, 5/29/98, p.W10)

1846-1848    US troops invaded and captured Mexico City.
    (SFC, 12/10/96, p.A12)

1847        Jan 24, 1,500 New Mexican Indians and Mexicans were defeated by US Col. Price.
    (MC, 1/24/02)

1847        Feb 22, In the Battle of Buena Vista US troops beat Mexican army during the Mexican-American War. Mexican General Santa Anna (of Alamo infamy) surrounded the outnumbered forces of U.S. General Zachary Taylor ('Old Rough and Ready') at the Angostura Pass in Mexico and demanded an immediate surrender. Taylor refused, reported to reply, "Tell him to go to hell," and early the next morning Santa Anna dispatched some 15,000 troops to move against the 5,000 Americans. The superior US artillery was able to halt one of the two advancing Mexican divisions. By the afternoon Taylor had lived up to his word as the Mexicans began to withdraw.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1847        Feb 23, U.S. troops under Gen. Zachary Taylor defeated Mexican Gen. Santa Anna at the Battle of Buena Vista in Mexico. The United States and Mexico had been at war over territorial disputes since May 1846.
    (AP, 2/23/98)(HN, 2/23/98)

1847        Feb 28, Colonel Alexander Doniphan and his ragtag Missouri Mounted Volunteers rode to victory at the Battle of Sacramento, during the Mexican War.
    (HN, 2/28/99)

1847        Mar 7, U.S. General Scott occupied Veracruz, Mexico. Pres. Polk decided to attack the heart of Mexico. He sent Gen. Winfield Scott, who landed at Veracruz and with his troops hacked their way to Mexico City. [see Mar 9]
    (HFA, '96, p.48)(HN, 3/7/98)

1847        Mar 9, US forces under General Winfield Scott invaded Mexico (Mexican-American War) 3 miles south of Vera Cruz. Encountering almost no resistance from the Mexicans massed in the fortified city of Vera Cruz, by nightfall the last of Scott's 10,000 men came ashore without the loss of a single life. It was the largest amphibious landing in U.S. history until WW II. [see Mar 7]
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1847        Mar 29, Some 12,000 US forces led by General Winfield Scott occupied the city of Vera Cruz after Mexican defenders capitulated.
    (HFA, '96, p.26)(AP, 3/29/97)(MC, 3/29/02)

1847        Apr 18, U.S. forces defeated the Mexicans at Cerro Gordo in one of the bloodiest battle of the war.
    (HN, 4/18/99)

1847        Aug 20, General Winfield Scott won the battle of Churubusco on his drive to Mexico City. The Mexican War gave future civil war generals their first taste of combat.
    (HN, 8/20/98)

1847        Sep 8, The US under Gen. Scott defeated Mexicans at Battle of Molino del Rey.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1847        Sep 13, US General Winfield Scott took Chapultepec, removing the last obstacle to his troops moving on Mexico City. Six teenage military cadets later became known as “Los Ninos Heroes” for their defense of Chapultepec Castle.
    (HN, 9/13/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ni%C3%B1os_H%C3%A9roes)

1847        Sep 14, US forces under Gen. Winfield Scott took control of Mexico City (the "Halls of Montezuma"). The Mexican forces fled with their leader, Santa Anna.
    (HFA, '96, p.48)(AP, 9/14/97)

1847-1901    The Caste War of Yucatan extended over this period. it began with the revolt of the native Maya people against the population of European descent (called Yucatecos) in political and economic control.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caste_War_of_Yucat%C3%A1n)

1848        Feb 2, US and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Mexico ceded one-third of its territory to the US including California, agreed to the Rio Grande as the boundary between Texas and Mexico and was awarded $15 million. 25,000 Mexicans and 12,000 Americans lost their lives in the 17-month old conflict.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.48)(SFC, 6/13/96, p.A17)(HN, 2/2/99)

1848        Mar 10, The US Senate ratified the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, ending the war with Mexico.
    (AP, 3/10/98)(HN, 3/10/98)

1848        May 30, Mexico ratified the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo giving US: New Mexico, California and parts of Nevada, Utah, Arizona & Colorado in return for $15 million.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1848        Mexico was forced to sell most of the territory that is now Arizona to the United States following its defeat in the Mexican-American war.
    (AP, 5/20/10)

1852        Capt. Charles Melville Scammon, a whaler, discovered the spawning area of the Pacific gray whales in the lagoons of Magdalena Bay off the Baha coast.
    (SFEM, 5/7/00, p.9)

1853        Benito Juarez, patriot and reformer, was locked up for 11 days in the dungeon of the fortress of San Juan de Ulua in Veracruz.
    (SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)

1854        Julia Pastrana (20) became known as the "ape woman" after she left the Mexico’s Pacific coast state of Sinaloa. A rare genetic condition covered her face in thick hair. She was taken around the United States by showman Theodore Lent. She and Lent married and had a son, but she developed a fever related to complications from childbirth, and died along with her baby in 1860 in Moscow. In 2013  the University of Oslo, Norway, shipped her remains back to Sinaloa, where they were laid to rest.
    (AP, 2/13/13)

1855-1926    An estimated 3,350 gray whales were harpooned in Magdalena Bay.
    (SFEM, 5/7/00, p.9)

1858        Jan 21, Felix Marma Zuloaga became president of Mexico upon the ouster of Ignacio Comonfort.
    (AP, 1/21/08)

1858        Apr 15, At the Battle of Azimghur, Mexicans defeated the Spanish loyalists.
    (HN, 4/15/98)

1858        May 4, In the Mexican War of Reform liberals established their capital at Vera Cruz.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1858-1862    Benito Juarez served his 1st term as president. He succeeded in resisting the French and offered a moment of democracy before bending the constitution to stand for re-election.
    (WUD, 1994, p.772)(SFC, 4/5/01, p.A12)

1859        Melchor Ocampo, a Mexican lawyer, scientist and liberal politician, penned a 537-word ode to marriage, which was incorporated as the vows in a new civil marriage law. They were meant to replace religious vows as Mexican liberals stripped away the Roman Catholic Church’s control over much of the country’s political, social and economic life. Conservative foes summarily executed Ocampo by firing squad for promoting the separation of church and state, but kept the amended vows in the new civil marriage law.
    (AP, 7/30/06)

1860        In Mexico City the Hosteria de Santo Domingo restaurant began serving Chile en Nogada, a chili dish that displays the national colors (green, white & red).
    (WSJ, 9/5/96, p.B1)

1861        Dec, French, British and Spanish troops landed at Veracruz, Mexico, seeking to force Benito Juarez to resume his financial obligations.
    (PCh, 1992, p.485)

1862        May 5, At the Battle of Pueblo, a [2,000] 5,000 man Mexican force (cavalry), loyal to Benito Juarez and under the leadership of Gen’l. Ignacio Zaragoza, defeated 6,000 [10,000] French troops sent by Napoleon III. The French were attempting to capture Puebla de Los Angeles, a small town in east-central Mexico. The Battle of Puebla represented a great moral victory for the Mexican government, symbolizing the country's ability to defend its sovereignty against threat by a powerful foreign nation. The event became memorialized in the Cinco de Mayo annual festival. Napoleon had intended to march through to the US and help the Confederacy in the Civil War.
    (SFEM, 4/27/97, p.6)(AP, 5/5/97)(SFEC,11/9/97, p.T6)(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T8)(SFC, 5/1/99, p.A13)(WSJ, 5/5/00, p.W17)(MC, 5/5/02)

1863        Jun 7, Mexico City was captured by French troops.
    (HN, 6/7/98)

1863        French forces captured Puebla.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, p.T6)

1864        Apr 10, The French crowned Archduke Maximilian, the younger brother of Austria’s Franz Josef, as ruler of Mexico.
    (CLTIH, 4/10/96)(WSJ, 5/5/00, p.W17)

1864        May 29, Mexican Emperor Maximilian arrived at Vera Cruz.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1867        May 5, At the Battle of Puebla, the Mexican Juarez forces under Mariano Escobedo defeated Maximilian's forces at Gueratero.
    (HN, 5/5/98)(PCh, 1992, p.505)

1867        Jun 19, Mexican Emperor Maximillian (35) was executed on the orders of Benito Juarez by a firing squad in Queretaro. The event was immortalized in a painting by Manet.
    (HN, 6/19/98)(SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T10)(PCh, 1992, p.505)(WSJ, 5/5/00, p.17)

1867-1871    Benito Juarez served his 2ndt term as president.
    (WUD, 1994, p.772)(SFC, 4/5/01, p.A12)

1869        The Santo Madero Church was built in Parras de la Fuente.
    (SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T8)

1870        Tequila Herradura began producing tequila at the Hacienda San Jose del Refugio in the highlands of Jalisco state. Their tequila was made from 100% blue-agave juice.
    (WSJ, 5/3/99, p.A1)

1872        Jul 18, Benito Juarez (66), general (battle of Acapulco) and Pres. of Mexico (1858-1872), died of a heart attack in the National Palace.
    (MC, 7/18/02)(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)

1875        Oct 12, Mayan Indians attacked the Xuxub sugar plantation in the Yucatan and dozens of workers were killed or taken captive. Bernadino Cen, the Mayan leader, was killed when the Mexican National Guard arrived the next day. In 2004 Paul Sullivan authored “Xuxub Must Die.”
    (WSJ, 5/13/04, p.D10)

1875        In the early autumn Brigham Young sent Daniel W. Jones and five elders on horseback to Mexico. During the 3,000-mile trip, the missionaries stopped frequently in New Mexico and Arizona, preaching the gospel and converting Indians. Jones and his team arrived in Franklin, Texas, (El Paso) in 1876, crossing through present-day Juarez. They were warmly welcomed by Mexican officials.
    (www.epcc.edu/nwlibrary/borderlands/19_mormons.htm)

1876        Jun 20, Antonio L de Santa Ana, president of Mexico and victor at Alamo, died.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1876        Porfirio Diaz rose to the presidency following a coup. He was an economically progressive leader, imposed brutal order on the countryside and liberated Mexico City from its perennial floods. He escaped to France in 1910.
    (WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 12/14/00, p.A1)

1877         Jun 1, U.S. troops were authorized to pursue bandits into Mexico.
    (DT internet 6/1/97)

1877        Oct 4, Pancho Villa (d.1923), [Doroteo Arango], Mexican revolutionary rebel, was born. [see Jun 5, 1878]
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1877-1910    Porfirio Diaz, a full-blooded Indian, served as president.
    (SFC, 4/5/01, p.A12)

1878        Jun 5, Francisco "Pancho" Villa (d.1923), Mexican revolutionary and guerrilla leader, was born. He defied American General John J. Pershing’s expedition for him. [see Oct 4, 1877]
    (HN, 6/5/99)

1878        Maria Guadalupe Garcia Zavala (d.1963) was born in Mexico. She co-founded the Congregation of the Servants of Saint Margaret Mary and the Poor and was beatified in 2004.
    (AP, 4/25/04)

1879        Aug 8, Emiliano Zapata, Mexican revolutionary who occupied Mexico City three times, was born in Anenecuilco, Morelos state, Mexico.
    (HN, 8/8/98)(WUD, 1994 p.1659)(Internet)

1880        Oct 14, Apache leader Victorio was slain in Mexico. [see Oct 15]
    (HN, 10/14/98)

1880        Oct 15, Victorio, feared leader of the Minbreno Apache, was killed by Mexican troops in northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico. [see Oct 14]
    (HN, 10/15/98)

1880s        The Palace of Justice in Vallodolid, Mexico, was built by Belgian engineer Guillermo Wodon de Sorinne.
    (SSFC, 11/17/02, p.C11)

1883        Aug 8, Emiliano Zapata, Mexican revolutionary who occupied Mexico City three times, was born. [see 1877].
    (HN, 8/8/98)(WUD, 1994 p.1659)

1885        May 15, Mormons began an exodus from the United States into Mexico. Chihuahua Governor Ochoa had agreed to sell land to the Mormons to colonize. Church President John Taylor had explored the area and church officials selected Casas Grandes, a valley in the state of Chihuahua, as the place to begin settlement.
    (www.epcc.edu/nwlibrary/borderlands/19_mormons.htm)

1886        Dec 8, Diego Rivera (d.1957), Mexican painter, was born in Guanajuato.
    (SSFC, 8/19/12, p.P2)

1886        The Tequila San Matias company in Guadalajara began tequila production.
    (SFEC,10/19/97, Z1 p.4)

1888        In Mexico the Santo Tomas Winery was founded near Ensenada.
    (SFC, 9/27/96, p.E3)

1889        After the Paris World Fair a church designed by Alexandre Gustave Eiffel was dismantled and shipped to Santa Rosalia in Baja, Mexico.
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T11)

1891        In Mexico the El Palacio de Hierro (The Iron Palace) chain of stores was founded to bring Parisian fashion to posh ladies of the new world.
    (Econ, 12/8/12, p.67)

1892        In Merida the Palacio de Gobierno was built on the site of the governors’ palace.
    (SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)

1893        Don Evaristo Madero, grandfather of Francisco Madero, bought the San Lorenzo Hacienda and winery.
    (SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T8)

1894        Edward Herbert Thompson, American consul, purchased land in the Yucatan that contained the ruins of the Mayan city of Chichen Itza.
    (ON, 5/02, p.6)

1895        Feb 14, Nigel Bruce, actor (Dr Watson in Sherlock Holmes movies), was born in Baja, Mexico.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1895        Sep 22, Paul Muni, actor (Academy Award 1936-Angel on My Shoulder), was born in Juarez.
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1896        Moises Saba Amigo arrived in Mexico from Aleppo, Syria. He was part of a large migration of Jews known as "Turcos" from Syria and Palestine whose passports were issued by Ottoman Turkey. He started peddling dry goods and moved up to a chain of stores, then textiles. The family savings were put into real estate. The Saba family were billionaires by 1997.
    (WSJ, 8/22/97, p.A10)

1898        May 31, German List (d.1998) was born in Puebla. He became a poet and chronicled the Mexican Revolution from 1910-1920.
    (SFC, 10/20/98, p.A22)

1899        Dec 31, Silvestre Revueltas, composer (Sensemaya), was born in Santiago, Papasquiaro, Mexico.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1900        Jose Eca de Queiroz, Portuguese novelist, died. His novels included an 1875 satire about a priest struggling with his vows of celibacy. It was made into a Mexican film  "El Crimen del Padre Amaro" (The Crime of Father Amaro) in 2002.
    (AP, 8/9/02)

1900-1908    In Merida the Teatro Peon Contreras was built during the boom years of henequen trade. A thorny agave plant provided a natural rope fiber, sisal, that made the Yucatan plantation owners rich until synthetic ropes were developed.
    (SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)   

1900-1910    Simon Bley, banker and politician, served as the mayor of Hermosillo.
    (SFC, 11/2/99, p.A26)

1901        Feb 2, Mexican government troops were badly beaten by Yaqui Indians.
    (HN, 2/2/99)

1901        A silver refinery was established in Torreon in Coahuila state. Land for housing was sold next to the area in the 1970’s and in 1998 a pediatrician began noticing high levels of lead among the children. The Met Mex Penoles plant had created a mountain of slag over the years and poisonous lead seeped into the blood of thousands of children in the area. In 1999 a plan was announced to evacuate a 20-block area. 393 homes were to be bulldozed for a 15-acre buffer zone in a $36 million cleanup program, the largest ever by a Mexican company.
    (SFC, 5/6/99, p.C2)(Econ, 9/3/11, p.37)

1901        Colorado River water first flowed to California's arid southeast on the Alamo Canal, which dipped into Mexico. California farmers soon decided they needed a canal completely within the United States, leading to completion of the All-American Canal in 1942.
    (AP, 3/18/06)(Econ, 8/1/09, p.71)

1902        A massacre by Mexican federal troops, "the Battle of the Sierra Mazatan," killed about 150 Yaqui men, women and children. US anthropologist Ales Hrdlicka came upon some of the bodies while they were still decaying, hacked off the heads with a machete and boiled them to remove the flesh for his study of Mexico's "races." He sent the resulting collection to the New York museum. In 2009 Yaqui Indians buried their lost warriors after a two-year effort to rescue the remains from New York's American Museum of Natural History.
    (AP, 11/17/09)

1903        El Teatro Juarez was completed in Guanajuato after 20 years of construction.
    (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.D6)

1904-1909    Edward Herbert Thompson led dredging operations at the sacred well of Chichen Itza.
    (ON, 5/02, p.7)

1905        Aug 3, Dolores Del Rio, actress (What Price Glory?), was born in Mexico.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1905        Mexico’s Islas Marias penal colony was founded. It was about 112 kms (70 miles) from the mainland Pacific coast resort of Puerto Vallarta.
    (AP, 11/24/11)
1905        In Mexico Pres. Diaz and his finance minister, Jose Limantour, set a silver-gold parity of 32:1, that proved to be a deflationary mistake on the eve of revolution.
    (WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)

1906        The Cemex company was founded in Mexico with the opening of Cementos Hidalgo. In 1920 Cementos Portland Monterrey began operations and in 1931 the 2 companies merged to become Cementos Mexicanos.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cemex)

1907        Jul 6, Artist Frida Kahlo (d.1954) was born in Coyoacan, Mexico.
    (SFC, 4/18/96, E-1)(SFC, 7/14/96, p.C11)(AP, 7/6/07)

1907        Jul 8, George W. Romney, later governor of Michigan, was born in Chihuahua, Mexico.  He later was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination until he admitted that he had been "brainwashed" by the military on the Vietnam War.
    (HN, 7/8/98)(SSFC, 2/25/07, p.A4)

1908        Jul 18, Lupe Velez (d.1944), film star, was born in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Her over 40 films included “The Gaucho” (1927).
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0892473/)(www.youtube.com/watch?v=mArs7CMZYtg)

1909        The legendary Jesus Malverde, a Mexican Robin Hood who rode the hills around Culiacan in Sinaloa State, was supposedly hanged by the government and left to rot. The legendary crime figure became revered as a saint by many of the country's drug traffickers. In 2007 housewife Maria Alicia Pulido Sanchez built him a shrine in Mexico City after her son Marcos Abel recovered from injuries he suffered in a December 2005 car crash in just three days when she prayed to a Malverde statue a friend had given her.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, p.A14)(AP, 1/23/07)

1910        Jun 20, Mexican President Porfirio Diaz proclaimed martial law and arrested hundreds.
    (HN, 6/20/98)

1910        Nov 18, The first shots of the revolution were fired in Puebla when federal police attacked the home of Aquiles Serdan, a shoe store owner agitating against Diaz.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, p.T6)

1910        Nov 20, Revolution broke out in Mexico. Francisco I. Madero called for a rise to national arms on this day when dictator Porfirio Diaz reneged on his pledge to stay out of the presidential election.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, p.T6) (AP, 11/20/97)

1910        The Revolution became a consuming civil war.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, p.D8)

1910        The National Autonomous University of Mexico was re-founded after being closed for 39 years due to civil wars.
    (WSJ, 9/1/99, p.A8)

1910-1920    Over 1 million people died during the revolution.
    (SFC, 10/20/98, p.A22)

1911        Jan 24, U.S. Cavalry was sent to preserve the neutrality of the Rio Grande during the Mexican Civil War.
    (HN, 1/24/99)

1911        Jan, A pair of U.S. Army aviators dropped the first live bomb. The Mexican Revolution gave the opportunity to use the airplane in actual combat. Airplanes had already begun to replace balloons for battlefield observation.
    (HNQ, 7/16/00)

1911        Mar 7, The United States sent 20,000 troops to the Mexican border in the wake of the Mexican Revolution.
    (AP, 3/7/98)

1911        Mar 12, Gustavo Diaz Ordaz, president of Mexico, was born.
    (HN, 3/12/98)

1911        May 25, Porfirio Diaz, President of Mexico, resigned his office under pressure from the revolution.
    (HN, 5/25/98)(SC, 5/25/02)

1911        May 26, Porfirio Diaz caught a train from Mexico City’s San Lazaro station to Veracruz.
    (WSJ, 1/11/00, p.A23)

1911        Jun 21, Porfirio Diaz, the ex-president of Mexico, exiled himself to Paris.
    (HN, 6/21/98)

1911        Aug 12, Cantinflas (d.1993), comedian and film star, was born in Mexico City as Mario Moreno.
    (HFA, '96, p.36)(HN, 8/12/98)(MC, 8/12/02)

1911        Nov 28, Zapata proclaimed Plan of Ayala, Mexico.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1911-1912    During the Revolution the crime rate rose in double digits for two years in a row
    (SFEC, 1/26/97, p.A14)

1911-1913    Francisco Indalecio Madero, revolutionary and political leader, served as president.
    (WUD, 1994, p.861)

1912        Mar 29, The U.S. sent rifles to the Mexican ambassador in Mexico City and readied U.S. ships to transport troops to fight the rebels.
    (HN, 3/29/98)

1912        Pancho Villa, a former bandit, returned to Mexico from the US with a tiny band of men that he built into the "Division del Norte."
    (SFC, 5/5/99, p.A2)

1913        Jan 20, Jose Guadalupe Posada, Mexican cartoonist, died. He had  created Catrina, the Skeleton Lady in her elegant broad-brimmed hat in a satirical engraving sometime between 1910 and his death. Her image grew over the years to symbolize Mexico’s Day of the Dead.
    (AP, 10/31/13)

1913        Feb 9-1913 Feb 18, The 10 Day Tragedy of Mexico City when 3,000 died.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1913        Apr 9, Pancho Villa and his men stole 122 silver bars from a train in Northern Mexico. The silver was then valued at about $160,000 and in 1999 would be $2.6 million. Wells Fargo and its Mexican subsidiary arranged to buy back the silver for cash and gave Villa either $50,000 or 50,000 pesos ($25,000) in exchange for 93 of the 122 bars.
    (SFC, 5/5/99, p.A2)

1913        Jun 17, U.S. Marines set sail from San Diego to protect American interests in Mexico.
    (HN, 6/17/98)

1913        A coup led by Victoriano Huerta and encouraged by US Ambassador Lane Wilson overthrew and murdered Pres. Madero.
    (WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)
1913        The Banco Mercantil in Monterrey, Mexico faced demands by rebel troops to pay tribute to the Revolution or close. The bank spirited millions of dollars in gold bullion to Laredo, Texas. It survived the hostilities by operating "offshore" and returned home in 1916.
    (WSJ, 4/1/96, p.A-10)
1913        Mexico’s active Volcan de Fuego, part of the Colima volcano complex, experienced a major eruption. As of 2012 it has erupted more than 40 times since 1576. Only a fraction of the volcano's surface area is in the state of Colima; the majority of its surface area lies over the border in the neighboring state of Jalisco.
    (SSFC, 8/19/12, p.P3)(www.gomanzanillo.com/old_articles/volcano/)

1914        Mar 9, US Sen Albert Fall (Teapot Dome) demanded the "Cubanisation of Mexico."
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1914        Mar 31, Octavio Paz, Mexican diplomat and Nobel Prize-winning writer, was born.
    (HN, 3/31/01)

1914        Apr 9, In the Tampico incident a US ship crew was arrested in Mexico.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1914        Apr 21, U.S. marines occupied Veracruz, Mexico. They stayed for six months.
    (HN, 4/21/98)

1914        Jul 15, Mexican president Huerta fled with 2 million pesos to Europe.
    (MC, 7/15/02)

1914        Aug 16, Zapata and Pancho Villa over ran Mexico.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1914        Sep 15, President Woodrow Wilson ordered the Punitive Expedition out of Mexico. The Expedition, headed by General John Pershing, had been searching for Pancho Villa, a Mexican revolutionary.
    (HN, 9/15/99)

1914        Elmer Jones, a Wells Fargo vice-president, was summoned by Pancho Villa and ordered to continue doing business on the northern railroads seized by Villa. Jones and another official refused and were imprisoned and ordered to be executed. The execution order was not completed and the Wells Fargo officials were rescued. The incident is contained in the book: "Wells Fargo: Advancing the American Frontier."
    (SFC, 5/5/99, p.A2)

1914        The Sindicato Mexicano Electricistas (SME) was founded.
    (WSJ, 12/3/99, p.A1)

1915        Jan 9,  Pancho Villa signed a treaty with U.S. General Scott, halting border conflicts.
    (HN, 1/9/98)

1915        Jan 18, A train derailed on a steep incline at Colima-Guadalajara, Mexico, and some 600 people were killed.
    (MC, 1/18/02)(http://www.emergency-management.net/pass_train.htm)

1915        Apr 21, Anthony Quinn (d.2001), film star, was born in Chihuahua to Frank Quinn and Manuella Oaxaca.
    (HN, 4/21/98)(SFC, 6/4/01, p.A17)

1915        Jul 2, Porfirio Diaz, former president of Mexico, died in Paris, France. In 1994 his grandson, Carlos Tello Diaz, authored a study of his grandfather.
    (SFC, 12/14/00, p.A8)(WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A14)

1915        Oct 19, US recognized General Venustiano Carranza (opposing Pancho Villa) as the president of Mexico, and imposed an embargo on the shipment of arms to all Mexican territories except those controlled by Carranza.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1915        In Mexico the government freed all prisoners at the fortress of San Juan de Ulua after they defended the fortress during a brief US occupation of Veracruz. The government declared the dungeon closed to prisoners for at least one hundred years.
    (SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)

1915-1916    A number of skirmishes took place between the Texas Rangers and Mexican Americans rebelling under the "Plan de San Diego" and numerous people were killed. Participants included the anarchist Magon brothers, and rebel leader Aniceto Pizana. In 2003 Benjamin Heber Johnson authored "Revolution in Texas: How a Forgotten Revolution and Its Bloody suppression Turned Mexicans into Americans."
    (SSFC, 1/4/04, p.M3)

1915-1920    Venustiano Carranza (1859-1920), revolutionary and political leader, served as president. The army was led by Alvaro Obregon (1880-1928).
    (WUD, 1994, p.226,994)

1916        Mar 9, Pancho Villa led 1,500 horsemen in a night raid on Columbus, New Mexico. 18 US soldiers and citizens were killed as the town was looted and burned. President Woodrow Wilson responded by ordering General John J. "Black Jack" Pershing to "pursue and disperse" the bandits. Wilson called out 158,664 National Guard members to deal with the situation.
    (HN, 3/9/99)(SFC, 5/17/06, p.A11)(AP, 3/9/07)

1916        Mar 10, US President Woodrow Wilson ordered General John J. "Black Jack" Pershing to pursue and capture Pancho Villa, following Villa’s raid in New Mexico.
    (SFC, 3/11/09, p.B2)

1916        Mar 15, General Pershing and his 15,000 troops chased Pancho Villa into Mexico. US troops pursued the guerillas, killing 50 on US soil and 70 more in Mexico. General Pershing failed to capture the Villa dead or alive. Villa was assassinated at Parral in 1923.
    (HN, 3/15/98)(MC, 3/15/02)

1916        Mar 19, The First Aerosquadron took off from Columbus, NM, to join Gen. John J. Pershing and his Punitive Expedition for Pancho Villa in Mexico.
    (HN, 3/19/99)

1916        Mar 30, Pancho Villa killed 172 at the Guerrero garrison in Mexico.
    (HN, 3/30/98)

1916        Mar 31, General Pershing and his army routed Pancho Villa's army in Mexico.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1916        Apr 12, American cavalrymen and Mexican bandit troops clashed at Parrel, Mexico.
    (HN, 4/12/99)

1916        Jun 17, American troops under the command of Gen. Jack Pershing marched into Mexico. US Gen’l. Pershing led an unsuccessful punitive expedition against Francisco "Pancho" Villa. [see Mar 31]
    (SFC, 1/26/98, p.A17)(MC, 6/17/02)

1916        Jun 21, Mexican troops beat a US expeditionary force under Gen Pershing.
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1916        The newspaper El Universal was founded.
    (SFC, 9/14/96, p.A10)

1917         Jan 19, The Zimmermann Note-a coded message sent to Germany's minister in Mexico by German Foreign secretary Arthur Zimmermann, proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico in the event war broke out between the U.S. and Germany. Intercepted by British naval intelligence, the note proposed, among other things, "We shall give generous financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona." The message was forwarded by the British to the U.S. State Department, which subsequently released it to the press on March 1.
    (HNQ, 7/15/98)

1917        Jan 28, US forces were recalled from Mexico after nearly eleven months of fruitless searching for Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa, accused of leading a bloody raid against Columbus, New Mexico.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1917        Feb 5, Mexico's constitution was adopted.
    (HFA, '96, p.22)(AP, 2/5/97)

1917        Feb 19, American troops were recalled from the Mexican border.
    (HN, 2/19/98)

1917        Feb 28, AP reported that Mexico and Japan would ally with Germany if US enters WW I.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1917        Diego Rivera painted his Cubist "Still Life with Bread and Fruit" while studying in Paris.
    (WSJ, 3/17/00, p.W12)

1919        Apr 10, Emiliano Zapata (b.c1877), a leader of Mexico's indigenous people during the Mexican Revolution, was assassinated by a government emissary who had come to his southern stronghold in the state of Morelos for peace negotiations. His native language was Nahuatl of the Aztecs.
    (SFC, 4/13/96, p.A-10)(MC, 4/10/02)

1919        May 1, In Mexico Pancho Villa married Soledad Seanez Holguin. This was recognized by the state in 1946 after proof showed the pair had both a civil and a church wedding.
    (SFC, 7/13/96, p. A19)

c1919        Jose Clemente Orozco, David Alfaro Siqueiros (d.1974) and Diego Rivera, Mexican painters in Paris, decided that the revolution must be expressed in a public art that all could understand.
    (SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T5)

1920        Jul 28, Revolutionary and bandit Pancho Villa surrendered to the Mexican government.
    (HN, 7/28/98)

1920-1924    Alvaro Obregon (1880-1928), general and statesman, served his first term as president. Obregon was killed by an assassin, who pretended to do his portrait.
    (WUD, 1994, p.994)

1920s        In the "Cristero Wars" several thousand Catholic lay people and priests were killed for opposing landowning and political restrictions placed against the church.
    (WSJ, 11/22/96, p.A12)

1921        Fidel Velasquez Sanchez (1900-1997) formed the Union of Milk Workers.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, p.D8)

1922        Jan 17, Luis Echeverria Alvarez, president Mexico, was born.
    (MC, 1/17/02)

1922        Mennonites from Canada and Pennsylvania fled persecution and settled near Chihuahua, Mexico.
    (SFEC, 6/1/97, p.T3)(SFEC, 11/5/00, p.T4)

1923        Jul 20, In Mexico Francisco Villa (aka Pancho Villa, b.1877) [Doroteo Arango], general and revolutionist, died in an ambush. In c1999 Friedrich Katz of the Univ. of Chicago published "The Life and Times of Pancho Villa." In 2001 Frank McLynn authored "Villa and Zapata."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1593)(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)(SFC, 5/5/99, p.A2)(WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A14)(MC, 7/20/02)

1923        Photographers Edward Weston (1886-1958) and Tina Modotti (1896-1942) set up shop in Mexico.
    (WSJ, 3/12/97, p.A16)

1924        Jan 16, Katy Jurado (d.2002), Mexican-US film actress, was born as Maria Cristina Jurado Garcia in Guadalajara.
    (SFC, 7/6/02, p.A19)

1924        Jan 24, The wedding of Alma Reed, a New York Times reporter, and Felipe Carrillo, governor of the Yucatan, was to have taken place. Carrillo was executed in Merida, a few days before the wedding, by hacienda owners angry over his planned reforms.
    (SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)

1924        The government gave local peasants title to more than 45 sq. miles of land in Mulege on the Baha Peninsula. It was part of a huge nationwide redistribution of land after the Revolution.
    (SFC, 1/31/97, p.A4)

1924        US labor leader Samuel Gompers visited Mexico.
    (SFC, 1/22/98, p.E3)

1924-1928    Plutarco Elias Calles served as president.
    (WUD, 1994, p.211)

1925        There was eruption of Popocatepetl volcano outside Mexico City.
    (SFC, 7/2/97, p.A9)

1926        Feb 11, The Mexican government nationalized all church property. Pres. Plutarco Elias Calles, founder of the modern Mexican political system, tried to suppress the Church. This fomented the Cristiada, 3 years of rebellion and outright war.
    (WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)(Econ, 1/11/14, p.30)

1926        The evangelical church "Light of the World" was founded by the father of Samuel Joaquin Flores.
    (SFC, 2/19/98, p.A8,10)

1927        Jan 12, U.S. Secretary of State Kellogg claimed that Mexican rebel Plutarco Calles was aiding the communist plot in Nicaragua.
    (HN, 1/12/99)

1927        Dec 25, Mexican congress opened land to foreign investors, reversing the 1917 ban enacted to preserve the domestic economy.
    (HN, 12/25/98)

1928        Mar 27, The U.S. accepted the new oil-land laws enacted by Mexico, ending a long-standing dispute between Mexico and the United States.
    (HN, 3/27/98)

1928        Jul 28, Mexico's Pres.-elect Alvaro Obregon was murdered. His assassin Juan Excapulario was captured.
    (SFC, 7/18/03, p.E5)

1928        Nov 11, Carlos Fuentes, Mexican novelist, was born.
    (HN, 11/11/00)

1928        The city of Taxco, famous for its silver shops, was declared a national monument. The highway from Mexico City reached Taxco.
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T6)(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T7)

1928        Rufino Tamayo painted his "Still Life With Corn."
    (WSJ, 3/17/00, p.W12)

1929        The Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) began ruling. It was initially called the Partido Nacional Revolucionario (PNR) and was cemented by Plutarco Elias Calles. The party was decreed into existence by the incumbent president to reconcile the violent, post-revolutionary factions.
    (SFC, 12/14/96, p.A12)(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)(SFC, 10/13/97, p.A1)

1929        William Spratling, an architecture professor from Tulane Univ. recruited goldsmiths to teach local men in Taxco and inspired a silver arts renaissance.
    (SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T7)

1929-1935    In the US a massive involuntary migration of Mexicans took place as hundreds of thousands of Mexicans were deported south on cattle cars.
    (SFEC, 1/2/00, BR p.12)

1930        Pres. Pascual Ortiz Rubio was wounded in an assassination attempt the day he took office. From this point till 2000 the sale and public display of alcoholic beverages were banned during patriotic events.
    (SFC, 9/16/00, p.A14)

1930        Photographer Tina Modotti was deported from Mexico for her political activities. She bequeathed her photography position at Mexican Folkways Magazine to Alvarez Bravo.
    (WSJ, 3/12/97, p.A16)

1930s        Sergei Eisenstein made his film "Que Viva Mexico."
    (SFC, 4/14/98, p.E3)

1930s        Fidel Velasquez Sanchez (1900-1997), a Mexico City baker [dairy worker], rose to power in the union movement. He was a strong anti-communist and rewarded his friends with money and power. He led the Confederation of Mexican Workers (CTM) for 56 years.
    (SFC, 6/21/97, p.A10,12)(SFEC, 6/22/97, p.D8)

1931        Cementos Mexicanos, later called Cemex, was formed when two companies in Monterey joined forces, including one founded by Lorenzo Zambrano Gutierrez.
    (WSJ, 12/11/08, p.A14)

1932        David Alfaro Sigueiros, Mexican artist, arrived in Los Angeles to teach at the LA Art School and spent seven months there. He experimented with new industrial tools and created large outdoor murals. His 80x18 foot mural, “La America Tropical,” on City Hall on Olvera Street, commissioned by Christine Sterling, was painted over following completion. Soon thereafter his request for a visa renewal was denied. In 2006 LA and the Getty Foundation began a $7.7 million project to restore the work.
    (SFC, 8/4/06, p.E7)(Econ, 9/25/10, p.103)

1932        Mexico abolished the death penalty.
    (SFC, 1/16/02, p.A3)

1932        The Los Flamingos Hotel was built in Acapulco, Mexico. John Wayne and a number of Hollywood pals bought it in 1954 and closed it to the public.
    (SSFC, 11/2/03, p.C6)

1932        At Monte Alban in the Oaxaca valley the spectacular Tomb 7 was verified as a Zapotec burial chamber.
    (SFEC, 10/3/99, p.A24)

1933        Petromex was formed during the presidency of Abelardo L. Rodriguez.
    (www.trinity.edu/jgonzal1/341f96g1.html)

1934        Nov 30, Lazaro Cardenas, following July elections, began serving as PRI president (1934-1940) of Mexico.
    (SFEC, 5/2/99, p.A26)

1935        Apr 10, Jorge Mester, conductor (Louisville Orch 1967-79), was born in Mexico City.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1935        Casino gambling was outlawed in Mexico.
    (SFC, 6/8/96, p.A7)

1936        Diego Rivera painted "Portrait of the Poet Lalane."
    (WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W8)

1936        The Mexican film "Alla en el Rancho" starred cowboy singer Tito Guizar (d.1999 at 91)
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.C5)

1937        Jan 30, Mexico's Pres. Lazaro Cardenas created the AGPN, "Administracion General del Petroleo Nacional." The AGPN became a public organism that would guide the Mexican oil industry. The creation of the AGPN constituted the transformation of Petromex into a publicly driven firm.
    (www.trinity.edu/jgonzal1/341f96g1.html)

1937        Enriquez Alferez (d.1999 at 98), Mexican artist, created his "Fountain of the Four Winds" for the New Orleans Lakefront Airport. One of the 4 figures of the sculpture was a well-endowed nude male.  
    (SFC, 9/14/99, p.A23)

1938        Mar 18, Mexican President Lazaro Cardenas nationalized his country's petroleum reserves and took control of foreign-owned oil facilities.
    (WSJ, 3/20/96, p.A-1)(WSJ, 6/14/96, p.A15)(AP, 3/18/08)

1938        Mar 27, The U.S. stopped buying Mexican silver in reprisal for the Mexican seizure of American oil companies.
    (HN, 3/27/98)

1938        Jun 6, Bishop Rafael Guizar Valencia (b.1878) died in Mexico City. He had risked his life to tend the wounded during Mexico’s revolution. In 2006 Pope Benedict XVI named him a saint.
    (SFC, 10/16/06, p.A2)

1938        Nov 12, Mexico agreed to compensate the U.S. for land seizures.
    (HN, 11/12/98)

1938        Nov 24, Mexico seized oil land adjacent to Texas.
    (HN, 11/24/98)

1939        The National Action Party (PAN) was founded in the state of Chihuahua.
    (WSJ, 7/1/98, p.A1)

1940        Jul, Avila Camacho was elected president of Mexico. He agreed to compensate the multi-nationals for their oil losses and a new market for Mexican oil opened, i.e. the US.
    (www.mexconnect.com)

1940        Aug 20, Ramon Mercador (Mercader) del Rio, a Spanish Communist, posed as a Canadian businessman (aka Frank Jackson) and fatally wounded Leon Trotsky with an alpine ax to the back of the head in Mexico City. Trotsky died the next day.
    (WSJ, 3/29/96, p.A-14)(TMC, 1994, p.1940)(SFC, 7/19/96, p.B1)(HN, 8/20/01)

1940        Aug 21, Leon Trotsky, exiled Communist revolutionary, died in Mexico City from wounds inflicted by an assassin the day before. Earlier this year Josef Grigulevich (27), a Lithuania-born KGB agent, established a safe house at Zook's Pharmacy in Santa Fe, NM, for the assassins of Leon Trotsky. The pharmacy, visible in archive photos, was replaced in 1990 by a Haagen-Dazs ice cream shop. Grigulevich was recruited by Soviet strongman Josef Stalin's secret police as a university student in Paris and learned the assassin's trade during the Spanish civil war. He later published 58 books on Latin American history. In 2011 intelligence expert E.B. Held authored "A Spy's Guide to Albuquerque and Santa Fe."
    (AP, 8/21/08)(AFP, 2/4/11)

1940        Oct 5, Silvestre Revueltas, Mexican composer: Cuauhnahuac/Planos, died at 40.
    (MC, 10/5/01)

1940        Andre Breton held the Int’l. Surrealist Exhibition in Mexico City. Included was the photograph "The Good Reputation Sleeping" by Alvarez Bravo.
    (WSJ, 3/12/97, p.A16)

1940        The Spanish song "Bésame Mucho" was written Mexican Consuelo Velázquez before her sixteenth birthday. The phrase "besame mucho" can be translated into English as "kiss me a lot". She wrote this song even though she had never been kissed yet at the time. She was inspired by the aria "Quejas, o la Maja y el Ruiseñor" from the Spanish 1916 opera Goyescas by Enrique Granados. The lyrics were translated into English by Sunny Skylar.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B%C3%A9same_Mucho)

1940        The Los Angeles city council blocked games of professional women’s football. The LA team went to Mexico and played before a filled stadium.
    (SFC, 2/7/03, p.D13)

1940        In Tecate at the foot of Mt. Kuchumaa Rancho La Puerta was opened as a fitness spa, the first in North America.
    (SFEM, 11/24/96, p.24)

1940        John Steinbeck and marine biologist Doc Ricketts (d.1948) traveled by boat from Monterey to the Sea of Cortez. In 1951 Steinbeck authored "The Log from the Sea of Cortez" based on the trip.
    (SFC, 2/22/02, p.A21)

1940s        Agustin Andrade and Ignacio Alcazar, cousins, started ice cream shops in Mexico City. Their enterprises expanded and came to be known the La Michoacana ice cream shops. Popsicle shops, known as paleterias, later established the economic base for the village of Tocumbo. Martin Gonzalez later authored a history of Mexico's ice cream industry.
    (SFEC, 3/26/00, p.A19)

1940-1955    Mexican cinema turned out some 100 films a year during this period, later dubbed as the golden age of Mexican cinema.
    (Econ, 11/20/10, p.45)

1941        In Mexico Rev. Marcial Maciel founded the Legion of Christ, a conservative Roman Catholic order to minister to the wealthy and multiply its beneficial impact on society. In 1946 Pope Pius XII ordered Father Maciel to recruit Latin American leaders. In 1997 8 men went public with allegations of sexual abuse by Father Maciel dating to the 1940s and 1950s.
    (WSJ, 1/21/06, p.A13)

1941        Fidel Velasquez Sanchez (1900-1997) was first elected head of the Confederation of Mexican Workers.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, p.D8)

1941        The film "The Forgotten Village" was made by Herbert Kline. He was assisted by John Steinbeck in the story about peasant life in Mexico.
    (SFC, 2/13/99, p.A24)

1942        Jan 5, Tina Modotti (b.1896), Italian born actress, model, photographer and secret agent, died in Mexico City. She had been expelled from Mexico in 1930 but returned incognito in 1939. In 1999 her biography by Pino Cacucci was translated into English.
    (SFEC, 7/25/99, BR p.1)(SFC, 9/2/06, p.E3)(http://tinyurl.com/lklsy)

1942        Jul 2, Vincente Fox Quesada, elected president in 2000, was born.
    (SFC, 7/3/00, p.A1)(WSJ, 7/3/00, p.A8)

1942        Sep 5, Eduardo Mata, Mexico City Mexico, conductor (Improvisaciones), was born.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1942-1964    The "Bracero Program," run under the auspices of the US Dept. of Labor, sent Mexican workers to the US to help the labor shortage created by World War II. From 1942-1949 10% of their wages was deposited with the National Bank of Rural Credit, Banrural (Banco Nacional de Credito Agricola, a predecessor of Banrural). Workers in 1999 demanded to know the status of the fund. Mexican banking officials in 1999 reported no evidence of the funds. In 2001 a suit for $500 million was filed for deposits and interest from 1942-1949.
    (SFC, 8/6/99, p.A16)(SFC, 10/6/99, p.A16)(SSFC, 7/15/01, p.A4)(SFC, 1/16/04, p.A19)

1943        The evangelical church "Light of the World" began a relationship with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). The cult provided crowds at political rallies in exchange political leverage.
    (SFC, 2/19/98, p.A8,10)

1943        Parcutin Volcano in central Mexico began a 9-year eruption.
    (AM, 3/04, p.50)

1944        Jun 1, The government of Mexico abolished the traditional afternoon siesta. [see Apr 1, 1999]
    (Web Tech news, 6/1/99)

1944        Dr. Norman Borlaug (b.1914), a microbiologist on the staff of the du Pont de Nemours Foundation, arrived in Mexico to deal with the failure of the wheat crop caused by stem rust. In 1970 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for developing new strains of wheat as well as systems for fertilizing and nurturing growth.
    (WSJ, 1/17/07, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Borlaug)

1945        The film "Campeon Sin Corona" (Champion Without a Crown) starred David Silva and was directed by Hector Alejandro Galindo.
    (SFC, 2/11/99, p.A25)

1946        The Int’l. Whaling Commission prohibited the hunting of gray whales worldwide when their numbers were down to the thousands.
    (SFEM, 5/7/00, p.9)

1946-1952    Miguel Aleman Valdez was president of Mexico. He was known as the "Enterprise President." He gave the PRI a pro-business cast and an odor of corruption. He built a showcase campus for UNAM.
    (WSJ, 11/19/96, p.A18)(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 9/1/99, p.A8)

1947        Jul 20, Carlos Santana, legendary guitar player, was born in Autlan, Mexico.
    (SSFC, 10/14/07, Par p.18)

1948        Jan 28, A plane chartered by US Immigration Services left Oakland, Ca., carrying 32 people, including 28 Mexicans. Many were part of the bracero program and had finished their government-sponsored work contracts. 20 miles West of Coalinga an engine exploded, a wing broke off and more than 100 witnesses watched bodies and luggage thrown from the fireball. There were no survivors.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ky6debf)

1948        The Mexican film "Nosotros Los Pobres" (We the Poor) starred Katy Jurado (d.2002) and Pedro Infante.
    (SFC, 7/6/02, p.A19)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nosotros_los_pobres)
1948        The film "Una Familia de Tantas" (One Family of Many) was directed by Hector Alejandro Galindo.
    (SFC, 2/11/99, p.A25)
1948        In London, England, Joaquin Capilla (19) of Mexico won a bronze medal for platform diving.
    (AP, 5/9/10)

1950        Octavio Paz (36), poet and essayist, published "The Labyrinth of Solitude," his classical study of the Mexican character.
    (SFC, 4/20/98, p.A17)(Econ, 11/18/06, Survey p.4)

1950        The Mexican film "Los Olvidados" was directed by Luis Bunuel. It was released in the US as "The Young and the Damned." It was a study of social pathology among the urban poor in Mexico City.
    (WSJ, 3/30/01, p.W6)(SFC, 8/9/07, p.B5)

1950        The Mina El Eden in Zacateca was closed.
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T3)

1951        Sep 6, William Burroughs (1914-1997), writer, shot and killed his wife Joan Vollmer (27) in Mexico City. He claimed to be trying to shoot a glass off her head, a la William Tell, during a day of drinking and drugs but shot her in the head.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, p.B6)(Internet)

1951        Oct 15, Dr. Carl Djerassi (27), Prof. of chemistry at Stanford Univ., developed the birth control pill in Mexico City while working for Palo Alto based Syntex Corp. He synthesized norethindrone, a steroid oral contraceptive. In 2001 Carl Djerassi authored "This Man’s Pill: Reflections on the 50th Birthday of the Pill." Djerassi synthesized a key hormone in the pill in Mexico City in 1951. Serle won FDA ok to market the pill May 11, 1960.
    (SJSVB, 4/8/96, p.8)(SSFC, 10/14/01, Par p.13)(SSFC, 10/21/01, p.R6)

1951        Dec. 17, Raul and Carlos Salinas, aged 5 and 3, played with their friend Gustavo Zapata at their home in Mexico City. While playing they snatched a rifle from a closet and shot a servant just below the eye, killed her and continued playing. Newspaper reports of the time indicated that Carlos pulled the trigger.
    (WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-6)

1951        Dec 27, Ernesto Zedillo was born.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)

1952        The film "El Bruto" starred Katy Jurado (1924-2002) and was directed by Luis Bunuel. Jurado won an Ariel, Mexico’s highest acting award, for her performance.
    (SFC, 7/6/02, p.A19)
1952        In Mexico City Rev. Marcial Maciel, founder of the Legion of Christ, built the order’s 1st school, Instituto Cumbres (The Heights), with funds donated by Flora Baragan de Garza, the Monterey widow of one of the wealthiest men in Mexico.
    (WSJ, 1/21/06, p.A1)
1952        In Mexico Amalia Hernandez (d.2000 at 83) founded the Ballet Folklorico de Mexico.
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, DB p.47)(SFC, 11/8/00, p.B7)
1952        In the 15th Olympic Games in Helsinki, Finland, Joaquin Capilla (23) of Mexico won an Olympic silver medal, for platform diving.
    (AP, 5/9/10)
1952        The sarcophagus of Lord Pakal was found in the ruins at Palenque by Alberto Ruz L’Huiller.
    (SSFC, 5/5/02, p.C5)
1952        Petroleum engineers drilled in the Yucatan and found unexpected igneous rock. It was later thought to have come from a comet that hit about 65 million years ago. Sinkholes scattered around the edge of the resulting 112 mile diameter crater were later believed to result from rocks sinking in the center and causing fractures along the perimeter.
    (SFC, 2/4/97, p.A9)

1953        Aug, The border town of Guerrero was founded became Guerrero Viejo after a new dam and flood covered the old town and the 2,500 residents moved to the new Guerrero Nuevo.
    (SFC, 6/4/98, p.C16)

1953        Sybille Bedford (b.1911), German-born English novelist, published her 1st book, “A Visit to Don Otavio,” a travelogue of Mexico.
    (WSJ, 5/12/05, p.D8)

1953        The Mexican film “Abismos de Pasion” was directed by Luis Bunuel. It was loose adaptation of Emily Bronte’s “Wuthering Heights” and featured Ernesto Alonso (d.2007).
    (SFC, 8/9/07, p.B5)
1953        The Mexican film "Espaldas Mojadas" (Wetbacks) was directed by Hector Alejandro Galindo.
    (SFC, 2/11/99, p.A25)

1953        Mexico allowed women the right to vote.
    (SFC, 12/4/97, p.C6)

1953        Speedy Gonzalez, a cartoon mouse with a Mexican accent, debuted in the US.
    (AP, 6/30/05)

1954        Jan 16, Mexico closed its borders to all farm laborers heading for the US following a breakdown in negotiations with the US over renewal of an annual agreement on labor flow.
    (SFC, 1/16/04, p.E5)

1954        Jul 13, Frida Kahlo (b.1907), artist, died in Mexico City. Her final painting was an incomplete portrait of Joseph Stalin. Hayden Herrera authored her biography in 1983. Raquel Tibol later authored "Frido Kahlo: An Open Life."
    (SFC, 4/22/01, p.D3)(WSJ, 7/6/01, p.W11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frida_Kahlo)

1954        The Mexican film "And Tomorrow They Will Be Women" featured Sonia Furio (1937-1996).
    (SFC, 12/4/96, p.A17)

1954        On the US-Mexican border the 100,000 acre Falcon Lake, near Zapata, Texas, was created on the Rio Grande's old river bed. It was managed by the bi-national International Water Boundary Commission.
    (http://news.yahoo.com/s/csm/20101001/ts_csm/329598)

1954        The French abandoned their copper mines in Santa Rosalia, Baha.
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T11)

1955        Apr 3, In Guadalajara, Mexico, a night train plunged into a canyon and some 300 people were killed.
    (SFC, 6/4/98, p.A15)(AP, 2/18/04)

1955        June, Gordon Wasson, a vice-president of J.P. Morgan, traveled to Mexico and became one of the first outsiders to eat the hallucinogenic psilocybin mushroom.
    (Econ, 7/15/06, p.78)

1955        The Mexican film “Ensayo de un Crimen” (The Criminal Life of Archibaldo de la Cruz) was directed by Luis Bunuel and featured Ernesto Alonso.
    (SFC, 8/9/07, p.B5)

1955-1969    Enrique Alonso “Cachirulo” (1928- 2004) actor, writer and producer, directed the “Teatro Fantastico” TV show.
    (SFC, 8/30/04, p.B4)

1956        Winston Scott (1909-1971) was appointed as the American CIA station chief in Mexico.
    (www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKscottW.htm)
1956         In Australia Joaquin Capilla (27) of Mexico won a bronze medal for springboard diving and a gold for platform diving.
    (AP, 5/9/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joaqu%C3%ADn_Capilla)

1957        Sep 17, Two male attorneys "stood in" as actress Sophia Loren and producer Carlo Ponti were married by proxy in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Legal issues later forced an annulment; the couple wed in Sevres, France, in 1966.
    (AP, 9/17/07)

1957        Life magazine printed R. Gordon Wasson’s “Seeking the Magic Mushroom” detailing his experiences at a religious ritual in Mexico. Wasson, a vice-president of J.P. Morgan, experienced the hallucinogenic psilocybin mushroom during a trip to Mexico in 1955.
    (WSJ, 7/11/06, p.B10)(Econ, 7/15/06, p.78)

1957        Ernesto P. Uruchurtu, aka the Iron Mayor of Mexico City, opened a new building for street vendors but left out fruit seller Rico Guillermina (1933-1996) and hundreds of others. She began a crusade and formed the Civic Association of Street Vendors which supported the PRI, who in return disregarded the laws controlling street sales.
    (SFC, 9/7/96, p.A19)

1957        Iusacell obtained a mobile radio telephone concession.
    (WSJ, 8/7/96, p.A10)

1957        Miguel Covarrubias, Mexican muralist, died. His work included murals for the 1939-1940 World’s Fair in San Francisco.
    (SFC, 4/20/01, p.A19)

1957        Diego Rivera, artist, died in Mexico City.
    (Hem., 1/96, p.50)

1958        Carlos Fuentes (b.1928), Mexican author, published his first novel “Where the Air Is Clear.” It was set in Mexico City in 1956-1957 when he was a student there on the G.I. Bill.
    (WSJ, 6/14/08, p.W10)

1958        Wrestler Rodolfo Guzman (d.1984) began  appearing in films as El Santo (The Saint) and went on to star in dozens of films battling criminals, demons, witches and zombies.
    (SFEC, 9/19/99, p.A19)

1959        Peñon Woman was found in central Mexico dating back 13,000 years. She shared many of the features found in the Kennewick Man (1996) of Washington State.
    (Econ, 7/16/05, p.77)

1960        May 6, Jacques Mornard (Ram¢n Mercader), Trotsky's murderer, was freed in Mexico.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1960        Oct 19, The United States and Mexico agreed to the co-construction of a dam on the Rio Grande.
    (HN, 10/19/98)

1961        Oscar Lewis, American anthropologist, authored "The Children of Sanchez." He had interviewed a poor, problem-plagued Mexican family for the book, which became a social science landmark, defining what came to be known as "the anthropology of poverty."
    (AP, 1/26/04)

1961        The Flying Samaritans had their beginning when Aileen Saunders was forced to land near El Rosario in Baja, California.
    (SFEC, 6/25/00, p.T10)

1961        M.S. Swaminathan, adviser to India’s minister of agriculture, invited Norman Borlaug, a plant geneticist who had improved the yield on Mexican wheat, to visit India.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.29)

1961-1968    Octavio Paz, poet and Nobel laureate, served as the Mexican ambassador to India. In 1997 he published "In Light of India."
    (SFEC, 8/31/97, BR p.9)

1962        May 23, Ruben Jaramillo, Mexican agrarian reformer, was assassinated along with his family by state forces.
    (SFC, 12/31/96, p.C9)(AP, 5/23/04)

1962        The film "El Santo Against the Vampire Woman" starred Rodolfo Guzman.
    (SFEC, 9/19/99, p.A19)

1963        Sep 26, Lee Harvey Oswald traveled on a Continental Trailways bus to Mexico.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1963        Sep 27, Lee Harvey Oswald visited the Cuban consulate in Mexico.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1963        Oct 8, Remedios Varo (b.1908), Spanish-born surrealist painter, died in Mexico. Walter Gruen, her 11-year lover and promoter, collected her work and in 1987 attempted to get copyright protection. A Mexican judge denied his request due to Varo’s failure to get a formal divorce from French poet Benjamin Peret. In 1999 the Mexican government tried to seize the paintings on behalf of Mexico but faced a claim by next of kin niece Beatriz Varo. By 2005 Mr. Gruen agreed to give his entire collection to the Mexican government if it gets named after his deceased daughter.
    (http://tinyurl.com/b87uu)(WSJ, 9/20/05, p.A1)

1963        In Mexico during the administration of Lopez Mateos soldiers took part in the mutilation killing of a leader of coffee farmers in the community of El Ticui. The event was documented in a 2006 government report on Mexico’s “dirty war.”
    (AP, 2/27/06)

1963        Winston Scott served as American CIA station chief in Mexico during the time that Lee Harvey Oswald visited the Cuban Embassy there. In 2008 Jefferson Morley authored “Our Man in Mexico: Winston Scott and the Hidden History of the CIA.” Morley proposed that Scott later covered up CIA operations that involved Oswald.
    (www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKscottW.htm)(WSJ, 3/20/08, p.D7)

1963        In Guadalajara, Mexico, Maria Guadalupe Garcia Zavala (b.1878), co-founder of the Congregation of the Servants of St. Margaret Maria and of the Poor, died in the Santa Margarita Hospital she helped found. Zavala, aka Madre Lupita, had decided at 22 to dedicate herself to helping the sick. Her religious mission played out during a period of tension between church and state, when tens of thousands of people were killed during a 1926-1929 uprising by Roman Catholic rebels against anti-clerical laws. She was beatified in 2004 by Pope John Paul II. In 2013 she was canonized as a saint by Pope Francis.
    (AP, 4/24/04)(AP, 5/12/13)

1964        Dec 13, In El Paso, Texas, President Johnson and Mexican President Gustavo Diaz Ordaz set off an explosion that diverted the Rio Grande, reshaping the U.S.-Mexican border and ending a century-old dispute.
    (AP, 12/13/04)

1964        Luis Bunuel made his film "Simon del Desierto" (Simon of the Desert). It was his last film before returning to Europe. It features an ascetic who gets transported to a go-go bar in Greenwich Village.
    (SFC, 4/14/98, p.E3)

1964        The John Huston film "Night of the Iguana" starred Richard Burton, Ava Gardner, Deborah Kerr, Sue Lyon and Elizabeth Taylor. It was filmed in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico and featured the work of cinematographer Gabriel Figueroa (1908-1997).
    (SFC, 4/29/97, p.A20)(USAT, 1/16/04, p.1D)

1964        The Moctezuma River in Sonora state was dammed.
    (SFC, 5/15/99, p.A11)

1964        Mexico began producing its own version of the Volkswagen Beetle, known as the el vocho.
    (SSFC, 9/14/08, p.A10)

1965        Mexico’s Border Industrialization Program (BIP) was first introduced. It led to the construction of foreign-owned maquiladoras (assembly plants) to produce goods for export.
    (MT, summer 2003, p.22)

1967            Feb 14, The first nuclear weapons free zone was established in Latin America and the Caribbean. The Treaty of Tiatelolco was signed in Mexico City. It banned the manufacture, storage or testing of nuclear weapons and the devices for launching them.
    (http://cyberschoolbus.un.org/dnp/sub2.asp?ipage=timeline)

1967        May 18, Schoolteacher Lucio Cabanas began a guerrilla campaign in Atoyac de Alvarez, west of Acapulco in the state of Guerrero. The government responded with widespread repression and hundreds of civilians were killed or disappeared.
    (SFEC, 9/30/96, p.A12)

1967        May 29, Geronimo Baqueiro Foster (b.1898), Mexican musicologist and composer, died.
    (www.dolmetsch.com/cdefsb.htm)

1968        Feb 4, Neal Cassidy (b.1926), friend of Jack Kerouac and one of the Merry Pranksters, died on a Mexican highway.
    (SFC, 7/2/97, p.E5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neal_Cassady)

1968        Oct 2, In Mexico soldiers under Pres. Gustavo Diaz Ordaz used automatic weapons and killed some 300 students in the Mexico City Tlatelolco massacre prior to the start of the summer Olympics. The government said only 50 students were killed during gunfire that lasted 5 hours. Luis Echeverria, later president, was the interior minister and the man in charge of public security. He was called before a congressional committee in 1998. Evidence in 1999 confirmed that pre-positioned soldiers fired on the students. In 2002 a special prosecutor said he has found no evidence to support historians' claims that some 300 people died when army troops opened fire on demonstrators in 1968. He put the number killed at 38. A judge dismissed other genocide charges against Echeverria in July 2005, ruling that while he may have been responsible for a separate 1971 student massacre, he could not be tried because the statute of limitations had expired in 1985.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(SFC, 9/1/96, p.A16)(SFEC, 4/6/97, p.C12)(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)(SFC, 2/4/98, p.C2,14)(WSJ, 9/10/98, p.A1)(SFC, 6/28/99, p.A10)(AP, 8/5/02)(AP, 3/27/09)

1968        Oct 12, The summer Games of the 19th Olympiad were officially opened in Mexico City by Mexican President Gustavo Diaz Ordaz.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(HN, 10/12/98)

1968        Oct 16, American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos (23) sparked controversy at the Mexico City Olympics by giving "black power" salutes during a victory ceremony after they'd won gold and bronze medals in the 200-meter race. In 2011 John Carlos with Dave Zirin authored “The John Carlos Story: The Sports Moment That Changed the World.”
    (AP, 10/16/08)(SSFC, 10/9/11, p.G4)

1968        Oct 18, The US Olympic Committee suspended two black athletes, Tommie Smith and John Carlos, for giving a black power salute as a protest during a victory ceremony in Mexico City. Bob Beamon soared 29 feet, 2 inches, to set a world record in the long jump. In 1976 Dick Schaap authored “The Perfect Jump.”
    (AP, 10/18/98)(WSJ, 8/9/08, p.W8)

1968        Oct 27, The 19th Olympic games closed at Mexico City, Mexico.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1968_Summer_Olympics)

1968        There was a rain of hundreds of thousands of maggots on Acapulco.
    (SFC, 5/30/98, p.E4)

1969        Feb 8, A meteor shower hit Mexico creating a luminance in the night sky as bright as day. A meteorite weighing over 1 ton fell in Chihuahua, Mexico.
    (http://wapi.isu.edu/geo_pgt/Mod05_Meteorites_Ast/mod5.htm)(TMP, KCTS-Video, 1987)

1969        Mar 26, B. Traven (b.1890), novelist and short-story writer, died. He lived most of his life incognito in Mexico. His work included "The Treasure of the Sierra Madre" (1934), "The Death Ship," The Rebellion of the Hanged" and "The General from the Jungle." In 1976 Michael L. Baumann authored "B. Traven, An Introduction." In 2000 Michael L. Baumann authored "Mr. Traven, I Presume."
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, BR p.8)(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/traven.htm)

1969        Pres. Gustavo Diaz Ordaz decided to name Interior Minister Luis Echeverria Alvarez as the next PRI presidential candidate. He then attributed the selection to labor union chiefs, peasant leaders and party rank-and-file.
    (SFEC, 5/23/99, p.A21)

1969-1971    Heberto Castillo (1928-1997), founder of the Party of their Democratic Revolution (1989), was imprisoned for his support of the student movement. He was elected to the senate in 1994. He had studied engineering and as a specialist in structural mathematics invented a 3-dimensional construction form.
    (SFEC, 4/6/97, p.C12)

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