Timeline Mongolia

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80Mil BC    Bones from a velociraptor in Mongolia’s Gobi desert indicated that the dinosaur had a wishbone. The wishbone, fused collarbones, later provided attachment points for muscles that allow birds to fly. Also found was a placental mammal with epipubic bones, structures that had been only associated with marsupials and monotremes. In 2007 scientists reported evidence of feathers on the velociraptor uncovered in 1998.
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, p.A20)(Reuters, 9/20/07)
80Mil BC    The Ukhaa Tolgod basin of Mongolia had fossils from the late Cretaceous. The site was first discovered by Roy Chapman Andrews during his 1923 Gobi Desert expedition. The 25-foot tall, 85-foot long Nurosaurus qaganesis was of this period.
    (THM, 4/27/97, p.L4)

80Mil BC    Bones from a velociraptor in Mongolia’s Gobi desert indicated that the dinosaur had a wishbone. The wishbone, fused collarbones, later provided attachment points for muscles that allow birds to fly. Also found was a placental mammal with epipubic bones, structures that had been only associated with marsupials and monotremes. In 2007 scientists reported evidence of feathers on the velociraptor uncovered in 1998.
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, p.A20)(Reuters, 9/20/07)
80Mil BC    The Ukhaa Tolgod basin of Mongolia had fossils from the late Cretaceous. The site was first discovered by Roy Chapman Andrews during his 1923 Gobi Desert expedition. The 25-foot tall, 85-foot long Nurosaurus qaganesis was of this period.
    (THM, 4/27/97, p.L4)

70Mil BC    A skeleton of Tyrannosaurus bataars, dating to this time, was first discovered in 1946 during a joint Soviet-Mongolian expedition in Mongolia’s Omnogovi Province.
    (SFC, 6/20/12, p.A8)
70Mil BC    In 2006 scientists in Mongolia uncovered a chunk of sandstone dating to this time, which contained the almost complete skeleton of a Tarbosaurus dinosaur, related to the giant carnivorous Tyrannosaurus.
    (AP, 7/24/08)

75-71 Mil     Fossils from Ukhaa Tolgod, Mongolia, of this period later provided the richest assemblage of vertebrates in the world.
    (NH, 7/00, p.51)

c9-8,000 BC    In Neolithic times Mongolia was the home of small groups of hunters, reindeer breeders, and nomads.
    (www.gobiexpeditions.com)

1000BC    Bronze age nomads erected mysterious megaliths throughout regions of Mongolia and southern Siberia about this time. Some scholars believed them to be the work of Iron Age peoples who appeared by 700BC.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.17)

400-300BC    The Chinese began suffering from fierce attacks of nomadic herdsmen, the Hsiung-nu, from the north and west. They began to build parts of what came to be called the Great Wall for protection.
    (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.24)

300-200BC    During the 3rd century BC Mongolia became the center of the Hsiung-nu empire.
    (www.gobiexpeditions.com)

c300-1000AD    During the 4th-10th century AD, Orhon Turks were prominent in Mongolia.
    (www.gobiexpeditions.com)

500        Ancient Turks are believed to have originated in Mongolia about this time.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.17)

550-730    Ancient Turkic people flourished in Mongolia during this period.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.19)

745-840    The Uighur of eastern Turkestan formed an empire in the north that was ended by an invasion of the Kyrgyz peoples.
    (www.gobiexpeditions.com)

1167        Genghis Khan (d.1227)  was born in the Hentiyn Nuruu mountains north of Ulan Bator in the early 1160's (it has been argued between 1162 and 1167, but recently agreement has been made for 1167), the son of the Kiyat-Borjigid chieftain Yisugei. His given name was Temujin, "the ironsmith," and he seized control over much of 5 million square miles that covered China, Iran, Iraq, Burma, Vietnam, and most of Korea and Russia. His efforts in Vietnam were not successful. "In Search of Genghis Khan" is a book by Tim Severin. He was succeeded by his son Ogedai, who was succeeded by Guyuk. Ogedai ignored numerous pleas from his brother Chaghatai to cut down on his drinking and died of alcoholism as did Guyuk.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)(www.royalalbertamuseum.ca/vexhibit/genghis/biog.htm)

1190        Mongol leader Temujin (Genghis Khan) lost a battle against Jamuka, a rival war leader, and was forced to retreat. His enemy boiled alive some 70 captives. Several clans deserted Jamuka and joined Temujin.
    (ON, 8/12, p.8)

1201        Mongol leader Temujin (Genghis Khan) defeated Jamuka and an alliance of aristocratic clans that included the Tayichuid clan, which had enslaved him years earlier.
    (ON, 8/12, p.8)

1203        Mongol leader Temujin (Genghis Khan) succeeded in assimilating the Tatars under his command. His forces defeated Toghrul, head of the Kereyid tribe, to whom he had been a vassal. Toghrul fled west to find sanctuary among the Naiman, where he was apparently slain after not being recognized.
    (ON, 8/12, p.9)

1204        Mongol leader Temujin (Genghis Khan) led his forces against the Naiman, a group of Turkic tribes dwelling on the steppe of Central Asia, and the last remaining independent steppe tribe.
    (ON, 8/12, p.9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naimans)

1206        Mongol leader Temujin (Genghis Khan) summoned the largest kuriltai in the history of his people. He handed down a codification of his laws and reforms, the Yasa, and named his people the Great Mongol Nation. He took the title of Chinggis Khan (Genghis Khan) and over the next twenty years conquered northern China and all of Asia west to the Caucasus. The Mongols numbered about 2 million and his army about 130,000.
    (ON, 8/12, p.10)(V.D.-H.K.p.169)(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.27)

1208-1231    Tree ring data later showed that Mongolia enjoyed a string of wetter-than-usual years during this period.
    (Econ, 12/8/12, p.82)

c1220        Genghis Khan made Karakorum his capital.
    (SSFC, 3/27/05, p.F4)

1227        Aug 18, Genghis Khan (Chinggis), Mongol conqueror, died in his sleep at his camp, during his siege of Ningxia, the capital of the rebellious Chinese kingdom of Xi Xia. Subotai was one of Genghis Khan's ablest lieutenants, and went on to distinguish himself after the khan's death. In Khan's lifetime he and his warriors had conquered the majority of the civilized world, ruling an empire that stretched from Poland down to Iran in the west, and from Russia's Arctic shores down to Vietnam in the east.  Russian archaeologist Peter Kozloff uncovered the tomb of Genghis Khan in the Gobi Desert in 1927. In 2006 Zhu Yaoting, a Beijing academic, authored a biography of Genghis Khan.
    (AP, 8/18/97)(HN, 10/29/98)(Econ, 12/23/06, p.61)

1229-1241    Ugoodei (Ogedei), Genghis' successor, reigned over this period.
    (www.gobiexpeditions.com)

1234        Ugoodei (Ogedei) attacked and overcame the Chin (Juchen) dynasty of China.
    (www.gobiexpeditions.com)

1236        Queen Rusudani (41), the daughter of Queen Tamara, fled Georgia as the unstoppable Mongol hordes ravished the area. She had been proclaimed "King" at the death of her brother.
    (www.undelete.org/woa/woa01-18.html)

1237-1238    Batu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan, invaded Russia.
    (AM, Jul/Aug '97 p.28)

1237-1240    Mongols conquered Russian lands.
    (DVD, Criterion, 1998)

1238        Feb 3, The Mongols took over Vladimir, Russia.
    (HN, 2/3/99)

1240        Dec 6, Mongols under Batu Khan occupied and destroyed Kiev.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1240        A chronicle of the life of Genghis Khan and his successors: “The Secret Life of the Mongols," was written about this time. A Chinese version was discovered by a Russian diplomat in the early 1800s. In 1982 Francis Woodman Cleaves produced a modern version.
    (www.ezlink.com/~culturev/secret.html)(SSFC, 5/22/05, p.C3)

1241        Apr 9, In the Battle of Liegnitz, Silesia, Mongol armies defeated the Poles and Germans. In this year the Mongols defeated the Germans and invaded Poland and Hungary. The death of their leader Ughetai (Ogedei) forced them to withdraw from Europe.
    (HN, 4/9/98)(TOH)

1241        A trumpeter in Krakow, Poland, was shot through the throat by an archer as he warned the city of a fast-approaching Mongol army.
    (SSFC, 12/28/03, p.C6)

1241        The Great Khan Ogedei (Ugoodei) died after completing the Mongol conquest of China and Korea. In April the Mongols routed the armies of Poles, Germans, and Hungarians, at Liegnitz and Mohi, within easy distance of Vienna. Only the death of Ogedei stopped their advance into Europe.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.169)

1242        Batu, the grandson of Genghis Khan, established his "Golden Horde" at Sarai on the Lower Volga.
    (TOH)

1243        Jun 26, The Seljuk Turkish army in Asia Minor was wiped out by the Mongols.
    (HN, 6/26/98)

1245        John of Plano Carpini was a Franciscan monk who set out on the instructions of Pope Innocent IV to gather intelligence. He was met by Mongol horseman and was brought to witness the enthronement of Guyuk Khan. He experienced a sudden hailstorm followed by a flash flood that killed 160 people.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, T-10)(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.22)

1246        Khan Guyuk sent a letter to the Vatican from Karakorum, the capital of the Mongol empire. The document was retained in the Vatican archive and made available to the public in 2010.
    (Econ, 5/1/10, p.87)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karakorum)

1253-1260     Ata-Malik Juvaini (b.1226) authored “The History of the World Conqueror," an account of the life of Genghis Khan and his successors. Juvaini, in service to the Mongol governors, drew on the recollections of his father and grandfather. In 1997 J.A. Boyle published an English translation.
    (www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2082/is_3_61/ai_55426809)

1256        Kublai-khan began his reign as the sixth grand khan, ruler of the Tartars. [see 1259]
    (TMPV, p.108)

1258        Feb 10, Huegu, a Mongol leader, seized Baghdad, bringing and end to the Abbasid caliphate. Mongol invaders from Central Asia took over Baghdad and ended the Abbasid-Seljuk Empire.
    (ATC, p.91)(AP, 2/10/99)

1259        Aug 11, Mongke, Mongol great-khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, died.
    (MC, 8/11/02)

1259-1294    The great Kublai Khan, a grandson of Genghis, reigned.
    (www.gobiexpeditions.com)

1260        Mar 1, Hulagu Khan, grandson of Genghis, conquered Damascus.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1260        Sep 3, Mamelukes under Sultan Qutuz defeated Mongols and Crusaders at Ain Jalut.
    (HN, 9/3/98)

1264        Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, moved his capital from Karakorum to what later became Beijing. Karakorum was all but abandoned and eventually destroyed by Manchurian invaders over the next century.
    (SSFC, 3/27/05, p.F4)

1264        According to Marco Polo, Kublai Khan in this year sent a large body of troops to attack Japan, then known as the island of Zipangu. The two officers in charge, named Abbacatan and Vonsancin, failed to cooperate and the adventure failed. [see 1274]
    (TMPV, P.255)

1265        Mongols sacked the monastic complex of David Gareja in Georgia.
    (Econ, 8/28/10, p.50)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Gareja_monastery_complex)

1274        The first Mongol invasion of Japan. [see 1264]
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

1279-1368    The Yuan, or Mongol, dynasty in China (1279-1368) was established by the great Kublai Khan (reigned 1259-94), a grandson of Genghis.
    (www.gobiexpeditions.com)

1281        Aug 14, During the second Mongol attempt to conquer Japan, Kublai Khan's invading fleet disappeared in typhoon off of Japan. A Mongol army of 45,000 from Korea had joined an armada with 120,000 men from southern China landing at Hakozaki Bay. The typhoon destroyed their fleet leaving them to death or slavery.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(EWH, 4th ed., p.369)(MC, 8/14/02)

1294        Feb 12, Kublai Khan, the conqueror of Asia, died at the age of 80.
    (HN, 2/12/99)

1294        When Arghun died by probable poisoning after six years of rule, he was succeeded by his uncle, Ki-akato, who was able to seize power because the son of Arghun, Kasan, was far away. After two years Ki-akato was poisoned and his uncle, Baidu, a Christian, seized power. Kasan then assembled an army and marched against Baidu. Kasan was victorious and gained control over the Eastern Tartars.
    (TMPV, pp. 334-336)

1336-1405    Timur (aka Timur Lang or Timur Lenk or Tamerlane because of a lame leg) was a Tartar conqueror of a vast empire from southern Russia to Mongolia and southward to India, Persia, and Mesopotamia. After his death the empire fell apart. Prince Timur is a national hero of Uzbekistan.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.169)(WUD, 1994, p.1451)(WSJ, 7/3/97, p.A4)

1347        Plague broke out among the troops of the Kipchak Khan, who was besieging the Black Sea port of Kaffa. He catapulted dead bodies over the city walls. When Italian trading vessels in the harbor returned to Genoa, the carried the plague to Europe.
    (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.31)

1347-1350    The Black Death: A Genoese trading post in the Crimea was besieged by an army of Kipchaks from Hungary and Mongols from the East. The latter brought with them a new form of plague, Yersinia pestis. Infected dead bodies were catapulted into the Genoese town. One Genoese ship managed to escape and brought the disease to Messina, Sicily. The disease quickly became an epidemic. It moved over the next few years to northern Italy, North Africa, France, Spain, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, Germany, the Low countries, England, Scandinavia and the Baltic. There were lesser outbreaks in many cities for the next twenty years. An estimated 25 million died in Europe and economic depression followed. In 2005 John Kelly authored “The Great Mortality: An Intimate History of the Black Death, the Most Devastating Plague of All Time."
    (NG, 5/88, p.678)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B1)(SFC, 10/13/11, p.A6)

1368        Tamerlane lost control of China as the Mings took over local power. [see 1369-1405]
    (V.D.-H.K.p.172)

c1368-1600     For several centuries after 1368 the Mongols were confined to their original homeland in the steppes, their energies mostly absorbed by internal rivalries.
    (www.gobiexpeditions.com)

1369-1405    Timur (aka Timur Lang or Timur Lenk or Tamerlane because of a lame leg) ruled from Samarkand.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1451)

1380        Sep 8, Prince Dmitrii of Moscow defeated the Mongols at Kulikovo Field. This marked the beginning of the decline of Mongol control over Russian lands.
    (DVD, Criterion, 1998)(http://fanaticus.org/dba/battles/Kulikovo/index.html)

1395        Tamerlane burnt Astrakhan to the ground. Astrakhan is situated in the Volga Delta, a fertile area that formerly contained the capitals of Khazaria and the Golden Horde. Astrakhan itself was first mentioned by travelers in the early 13th century as Xacitarxan.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astrakhan)
1395        The ikon of Our Lady of Vladimir was brought to Moscow and placed in the Kremlin's Assumption Cathedral for protection against the Mongol invaders under Tamerlane. A monastery, know as Stretenskii, was built on the spot where the Muscovites met the delegation from Vladimir.
    (AM, Jul/Aug '97 p.38)

1399        Dec 17, Tamerlane's Mongols destroyed the army of Mahmud Tughluk, Sultan of Delhi, at Panipat.
    (HN, 12/17/98)

1401        Jul 9, Timur Lenk, Mongol monarch, destroyed Baghdad.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1402        Jul 20, Tamerlane's Mongols defeated Ottoman Turks at Angora.
    (HN, 7/20/98)

1405        Feb 14, Timur, aka Tamerlane (68), crippled Mongol monarch, died at 68.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.172)(MC, 2/14/02)

1500-1600    The stones of Karakorum were used to build the Buddhist monastery of Erdene Zu.
    (SSFC, 3/27/05, p.F4)
1500-1600    The Kalmyk people, descendants from the Golden Horde of Genghis Khan, settled in the lowlands between the Volga and Don rivers (Khazaria) with their livestock.
    (SFC, 9/24/97, p.A12)

1540        May 17, Afghan chief Sher Khan defeated Mongol Emperor Humayun at Kanauj.
    (HN, 5/17/98)

1604-1634    Ligdan Khan (reigned 1604-34), the last great Mongol leader, ruled. He united many Mongol tribes to defend their homeland against the rising power of the Manchu.
    (www.gobiexpeditions.com)

c1634    After Ligdan's death, the Mongols were subdued by the Manchu and became part of the Ch'ing (Manchu) dynasty of China.
    (www.gobiexpeditions.com)

1697        Two relatives of Galdan Boshugtu Khan surrendered to China’s Qing Kangxi Emperor. Their people were then organized into two Oolod banners and resettled in modern Bayankhongor Province, Mongolia. The Dzungar (or Zunghar), Oirat Mongols who lived in an area that stretched from the west end of the Great Wall of China to present-day eastern Kazakhstan and from present-day northern Kyrgyzstan to southern Siberia (most of which is located in present-day Xinjiang), were the last nomadic empire to threaten China.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dzungar_people)

1717        Dzungar tribes of Mongolia invaded Tibet, and a period of internal strife and civil war followed. The Kangxi emperor sent armies into the area for 20 years, and local leaders were forced to pledge their allegiance to the Qing Empire. In 1724, the regions of Amdo and Kham were made into the province of Kokonor, with parts of Eastern Kham incorporated into neighboring Chinese provinces.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kham)

1723        Zanabazar (b.1635), Mongolia’s greatest sculptor, died.
    (SSFC, 3/27/05, p.F4)

c1850        A Mongolian national consciousness emerged in the mid-19th century.
    (www.gobiexpeditions.com)

1870's        The Russian explorer, Colonel Nicholas Prjevalski, traveled through Mongolia. The wild horses of the Mongolian steppes are named after him.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, T-1)

1906        Feb 20, Russian troops seized large portions of Mongolia.
    (HN, 2/19/98)

1912        After the fall of the Manchu dynasty, Mongol princes, supported by tsarist Russia, declared the independence of Mongolia from China.
    (www.gobiexpeditions.com)

1917        Just after the Russian Revolution, defeated anti-Communist forces under "Mad Baron" Ungern-Sternberg took Ulan Bator, then called Urga. The mad Baron undertook city-wide arson and mass executions.
    (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.28)

1917        When the tsarist regime fell, Mongolia reverted to Chinese control.
    (www.gobiexpeditions.com)

1920        During the Russian Civil War, Mongolia was invaded by a White Russian force of 5,000 men. Freiherr Roman Nikolai Maximilian von Ungern-Sternberg hoped to use Mongolia as a base to restore the Romanov regime. During his 130-day rule he ordered that Commissars, Communists, and Jews, together with their families, be exterminated. In 2009 James Palmer authored “The Bloody White Baron: The Extraordinary Story of the Russian Nobleman Who Became the Last Khan of Mongolia."
    (www.gobiexpeditions.com)(Econ, 2/14/09, p.96)

1921        Mar 13, Mongolia (formerly Outer Mongolia) declared independence from China.
    (HN, 3/13/98)(MC, 3/13/02)

1921        Jul 11, Mongolia gained independence from China (National Day). The holiday of Naadam, which originated in the time of Ghenghis Khan, was later fixed to July 11-13 to the anniversary of the Revolution.
    (SSFC, 3/27/05, p.F5)

1921        Urga was renamed Ulan Bator (Red Hero) after Mongolian freedom fighters and D. Sukhbaatar sided with Russian communists and defeated the Chinese warlords. The Mad Baron, Ungern-Sternberg, was executed.
    (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.28)

1921        Damdiny Sukhbaatar, supported by the Bolshevik administration in Moscow, organized a force that, with the help of Red Army troops, defeated the White Russians and drove off the Chinese.
    (www.gobiexpeditions.com)

1922        Roy Chapman Andrews of the American Museum of Natural History led an expedition to the Gobi desert and discovered dinosaur bones. Later expeditions there turned up bones and nests of Protoceratops, a small horned dinosaur. He led 6 expeditions to the Gobi between 1921 and 1930.
    (T.E.-J.B. p.25)(AM, 7/97, p.80)

1923        Roy Chapman Andrews made his Gobi Desert expedition and discovered  the Ukhaa Tolgod basin of Mongolia with fossils from the late Cretaceous, i.e. 80 Million ago.
    (THM, 4/27/97, p.L4)

1924        Nov 26, The Mongolian People's Republic was officially proclaimed. Close political, economic, cultural, and ideological ties with the Soviet Union continued thereafter.
    (www.gobiexpeditions.com)

1925        Mar 7, The Soviet Red Army occupied Outer Mongolia.
    (HN, 3/7/98)

1925        The People's Revolutionary Party abolished clan names in an attempt to bury the feudal past.
    (SFC, 5/10/00, p.A14)

1929-1932    The Communists forced collectivization on the herders. The nomads slaughtered millions of head of livestock rather than turn them over.
    (NG, 5/93, p.136)

1929-1979    Tsevegmidyn Gaitav was a Mongolian poet.
    (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.28)

1930s        Joseph Stalin destroyed the Buddhist monastery of Erdene Zu as well as other Mongolian monasteries. The monks were exiled or executed.
    (SSFC, 3/27/05, p.F4)

1936        Mar 19, The USSR signed a pact of assistance with Mongolia against Japan.
    (HN, 3/19/98)

1936        Nov 22, 1,200 were killed in a battle between Japanese and Mongolians in China.
    (HN, 11/22/98)

1939        May, In Manchuria a Japanese punitive attack failed and combined Soviet and Mongolian forces wiped out a 200-man Japanese unit. This marked the beginning of the conflict called the Nomonhan Incident by Japanese, the Battle of Khalkhin Gol by Russians.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ml2j3oh)

1939        Aug 20, Russian offensive under Gen. Zhukov against Jap invasion in Mongolia.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1939        Aug, The Soviet Union and Japan fought a massive tank battle at Khalkhin-Gol on the Mongolian border. It was the largest armored battle in the world until that point. By the end of the month the Soviets claimed victory over the Japanese army at the Khalkhyn Gol river. This helped fend off a possible Japanese invasion of Russia with Nazi Germany in 1941.
    (http://tinyurl.com/mx9xowj)

1939        Sep 15, The Soviet Union and Japan agreed to a cease-fire in Manchuria (later Mongolia), which took effect the following day.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battles_of_Khalkhin_Gol)

1940's        Choibalsan was the Stalinist dictator of Mongolia.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, T-11)

1946        Tyrannosaurus bataars, dating to 70Mil BC, were first discovered during a joint Soviet-Mongolian expedition in Mongolia’s Omnogovi Province.
    (SFC, 6/20/12, p.A8)

1952        Khorlooglin Choibalsan (b.1895), head of Mongolia, died. His body was displayed in Ulan Bator until 2005, when it was cremated.
    (SFC, 9/10/08, p.A5)

1960s-1970s     Mongolia's relations with China worsened as Sino-Soviet relations deteriorated.
    (www.gobiexpeditions.com)

1961        Oct 27, Outer Mongolia and Mauritania become the 102nd and 103rd members of UN.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1980s        Tensions between Mongolia and China eased.
    (www.gobiexpeditions.com)

1986        Diplomatic relations were established between Mongolia and China.
    (www.gobiexpeditions.com)

1987        The book "Modern Mongolian Poetry" was published.
    (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.28)

1990        Jul 22, Voters in Mongolia began casting ballots in their Communist-ruled nation's first multiparty election ever.
    (AP, 7/22/00)

1990        Demonstrations against Russian rule began. The Mongolian Communist soon voted to dissolve itself.
    (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.29)
1990        Elbegdorj Tsahkiagiin, leader of a democratic revolution, became the first democratic PM of Mongolia.
    (www.intellectualconservative.com/article3341.html)(Econ, 10/11/14, p.46)

1990-1991    Mongolia joined in the democratic revolutions that swept eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. The country subsequently underwent major political and economic reforms.
    (www.gobiexpeditions.com)

1991        Jul 26, US Secretary of State James A. Baker the Third addressed Mongolia’s first legislature chosen in multiparty elections, applauding the rise of democracy and promising millions of dollars in aid.
    (AP, 7/26/01)

1991        The government began to eliminate price controls and the cost of living zoomed.
    (NG, 5/93, p.138)

1991        A group of young foreign exchange traders gambled away half the national treasury, $82 mil.
    (SFC, 6/28/96, p.A12)

1992        A new constitution was adopted.
    (SFC, 7/2/96, p.A12)

1992        Radical market reforms were launched and the national herd of 24 million livestock was distributed to herding households.
    (WSJ, 5/3/00, p.A1,17)

1993        Punsalmaagiyn Ochirbat was dumped by the governing party during presidential elections. He ran as an independent and won 57% of the vote.
    (SFC, 6/30/96, B7)

1996        Jul 2, Results showed that opposition democrats won 48 of the 76 parliamentary seats. Democrats won 56 of the 76 seats in the Assembly. The Democratic Coalition consisted of 4 parties: the Mongolian National Democratic Party, the Mongolian Social Democratic Party, The Religious Democratic Party, and the Greens.
    (WSJ, 7/2/96, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/28/00, p.A14)

1996        Aug 14, In Mongolia officials sealed off parts of Ulan Bator to halt an outbreak of cholera.
    (WSJ, 8/15/96, p.A1)

1996        Internet service first arrived in Mongolia.
    (SFEC, 7/23/00, p.B12)

1996        Mongolia’s population numbered about 2.4 million people. The country also numbered some 5 million horses.
(SFC, 4/14/96, T-1,10) (WSJ, 8/1/96 p.A11)

1997        Jan 29, Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization (WTO).
    (www.wto.org/English/thewto_e/countries_e/mongolia_e.htm)

1997        May 18, Natsagiin Bagabandi of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP), the former Communist Party, won elections with 60% support.
    (SFC, 5/19/97, p.A14)

1997        The film "A Mongolian Tale" by Xie Fei won best director and best artistic contribution for music at the Montreal Film Festival.
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, DB p.10)

1997        The Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program was initiated. The 8-member group included Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
    (www.adb.org/CAREC/default.asp)

1998        Jan 1, Mongolia switched from a 46 hour to 40 hour work week.
    (MC, 1/1/02)

1998        May 27, In Mongolia a Yu-12 plane crash killed all 28 on board.
    (WSJ, 5/28/98, p.A1)

1998        Jul, Mongolia’s government fell and the prime minister and his Cabinet continued as caretakers.
    (SFC, 10/6/98, p.A14)

1998        Oct 2, In Mongolia Sanjaasurangiin Zorig (36), who helped oust the Communist regime in 1990, was assassinated. He was stabbed and hacked with a knife and an ax. It was seen as a move to silence pro-democracy officials.
    (WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A1)(SFC, 10/6/98, p.A14)(WSJ, 10/22/98, p.A17)

1998        In Mongolia a right-wing movement began when young people grew angry at the appearance of foreign languages on signs and made threats against business owners.
    (Reuters, 7/2/13)

1999        Jan 1, New legislation liberated the news media.
    (SFC, 1/2/99, p.C12)

1999        Jan 22, The parliament repealed its law authorizing casinos.
    (WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A18)

1999        The Democratic Coalition fell apart after one of its members was murdered.
    (WSJ, 6/28/00, p.A14)

2000        Mar 13, In Mongolia the Red Cross reported that winter blizzards had killed over 1 million head of livestock and that some 300,000 people were short of food. The dead animal number was soon raised to 1.8 million, or 1 in every 15 in the nation.
    (SFC, 3/14/00, p.A10)(SFC, 3/27/00, p.A12)

2000        Jun, It was expected that the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party, led by Chairman Enkhbayar, would win the elections. The former Communists embraced market economics and democracy.
    (WSJ, 6/28/00, p.A14)

2000        Jul 2, The People's Revolutionary Party won 72 seats of the 76-member legislature.
    (SFC, 7/3/00, p.A14)

2000        Jul 26, Nambaryn Enkhhbayar was approved as prime minister by the Great Hural, Mongolia's parliament.
    (SFC, 7/27/00, p.C16)

2001        Jan 14, In Mongolia 9 people were killed when a Russian-made MI-8 helicopter crashed. The dead included 4 members of a UN disaster assessment team.
    (SFC, 1/15/01, p.A15)

2001        Feb 5, It was reported that severe cold and snowstorms threatened to wipe out a 5th of the nation's livestock and threatened tens of thousands of herders with starvation.
    (SFC, 2/5/01, p.A10)

2001        May 20, The 3rd presidential elections were scheduled. Pres. Bagabandi was re-elected with 58% of the vote.
    (SFC, 5/17/01, p.C4)(SFC, 5/22/01, p.A11)

2001        Jul 13, It was reported that record droughts persisted in Afghanistan northern China, North Korea, Mongolia and Tajikistan.
    (SFC, 7/13/01, p.D4)

2003        Jan, Heavy snowfall and low temperatures killed at least 24,000 head of livestock. It was the 4th consecutive "dzud," in which a winter disaster followed a summer drought.
    (SFC, 1/25/03, p.A20)

2003        Sep 2, In Inner Mongolia a locust plague, Oedaleus decorus asiaticus, was reported to have affected some 47 million acres of grasslands.
    (WSJ, 9/2/03, p.A1)

2004        May 28, Andre Tolme of New Hampshire began a trip golfing across Mongolia.
    (SSFC, 7/4/04, p.A14)

2004        Jun 27, In Mongolia elections the renamed Communists lost their majority to an opposition block. The left-leaning MPRP won 36 seats while the MDC took 34.
    (WSJ, 6/29/04, p.A1)(Econ, 8/7/04, p.35)

2004        In Mongolia scientists and American sport fishermen teamed with local Buddhist monks to help stamp out habitat destruction and poaching of the Siberian salmon called taimen.
    (WSJ, 10/8/04, p.A1)

2005        May 22, In Mongolia Nambariin Enkhbayar, a candidate from the former Communist Party, won the presidency with 53% of the vote.
    (AP, 5/23/05)

2005        Aug 10, A UN agency reported the 1st avian flu appearance in Mongolia and said 80 migratory birds have died near the Siberian border.
    (WSJ, 8/11/05, p.A1)

2005        Oct 22, Donald Rumsfeld, US Defense Sec., wrapped up a 3-nation Asian tour with a stop in Mongolia. Pres. Bush was scheduled to stop in Ulan Bator in November.
    (WSJ, 10/24/05, p.A13)

2005        Nov 21, President Bush, the first US chief executive to visit Mongolia, saluted Mongolia's "fearless warriors" for helping his embattled effort to establish democracy in the heart of the Middle East.
    (AP, 11/21/05)

2006        Jan 11, The Mongolian People’s Revolution Party (MPRP) pulled out of the government, accusing the current leadership of failing to fight corruption and worsening poverty in the former communist country. The move would leave the government without the minimum number of seats required to stay in power.
    (AP, 1/12/06)

2006        Jan 12, Hundreds of protesters stormed the headquarters of Mongolia's biggest political party (MPRP), one day after it pulled out of the country's 15-month-old ruling coalition.
    (AP, 1/12/06)

2006        Jan 13, Mongolia’s Parliament voted to dissolve the government of PM Tsakhilganiin Elbegdorj.
    (AP, 1/14/06)

2006        Jan 16, In Mongolia some 2,000 people gathered in the main square of Ulan Bator, demanding their president resign.
    (AP, 1/16/06)

2006        Jan 24, In Mongolia some 1,000 protesters gathered in Ulan Bator, calling for the resignation of the president and an end to corruption.
    (AP, 1/24/06)

2006        Jan 25, Mongolia's president and parliament approved Mieagombo Enkhbold (41), the chairman of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party, as the new prime minister, a major step toward rebuilding the former communist country's collapsed government.
    (AP, 1/25/06)

2006        Apr 18, In Mongolia thousands of demonstrators marched outside government headquarters, burning effigies of the nation's leaders and demanding their resignations because of alleged corruption and the mishandling of mineral wealth.
    (AP, 4/18/06)

2006        Apr 23, In Mongolia some 200 demonstrators have ended their protests over alleged government corruption and the mishandling of mineral wealth after the country's leaders agreed to investigate their complaints.
    (AP, 4/24/06)

2006        May, Mongolia imposed a windfall tax on profits from gold and copper extraction when prices reach specified levels.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.62)

2006        Jul 11, With the release of hundreds of prisoners, wrestling matches and hordes of warriors on horseback, Mongolia began a once-in-800-year party in honor of its famed emperor Genghis Khan.
    (AFP, 7/11/06)

2006        Aug 25, In Mongolia the Dalai Lama elevated a group of monks into the Buddhist priesthood's higher ranks, bolstering the country's traditional faith as it struggles to re-establish itself following decades of communist persecution.
    (AP, 8/25/06)

2006        Oct 19, In Malaysia Altantuya Shaariibuu (28), a Mongolian model, was kidnapped outside the house of Abdul Razak Baginda (46), who heads the Malaysian Strategic Research Center think-tank. Shaariibuu was allegedly extorting Baginda following an affair that had begun in 2004. She was killed and her remains blown up with military-grade C-4 explosives and later found in an isolated area south of the capital Kuala Lumpur. In Nov. Malaysian PM Abdullah Ahmad Badawi vowed there would be no cover-up over her murder. Abdul Razak allegedly abetted two policemen, Azilah Hadri (30) and Sirul Azhar Umar (35), to commit the murder. In 2008 a court acquitted Razak of charges of abetting the murder of Shaariibuu. In 2009 a Malaysian court sentenced two policemen to death on charges of murdering Shaariibuu. An Appeals Court acquitted the men in 2013. On Jan 13, 2015, a Federal Court unanimously ruled that the Appeals Court was wrong in reversing the findings of the trial court.
    (AFP, 11/9/06)(AFP, 11/16/06)(WSJ, 3/29/07, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/1/08, p.A8)(AP, 4/9/09)(AP, 1/13/15)

2006        Mongolia began a tree planting program, a “Green Wall," to block the increasing dust storms from the Gobi Desert. The 2,000 mile project was expected to take 30 years and cost some $150 million. A 30 million livestock population was considered to be part of the problem.
    (WSJ, 10/24/06, p.A1)
2006        Mongolia’s gross domestic income per capita stood at $2,200.
    (WSJ, 4/8/06, p.A10)

2007        Apr 22, The annual Goldman Environmental Prizes were announced on Earth Day. The winners included Julio Cusurichi of Peru for his work to fight illegal logging; Willie Corduff of Ireland for his work to halt an energy project that disregarded local and environmental concerns; Sophia Rabliauskas of Canada for her work to help protect the boreal forest in Manitoba; Orri Vigfussen of Iceland for his work on the North Atlantic Salmon Fund; Ts. Munkhbayar for his work against unregulated mining in Mongolia; and Hammerskjoeld Simwinga for his work in organizing microloan programs in Zambia.
    (SSFC, 4/22/07, p.E1)

2007        Jun 13, In Mongolia a helicopter carrying firefighters and equipment crashed into a mountain killing 14 of 22 aboard. The crash site was not discovered until June 16.
    (AP, 6/18/07)

2008        Jan 1, In Mongolia a government official said at least 11 people died and another 21 were hospitalized for drinking tainted vodka during New Year's Eve celebrations in Ulan Bator.
    (AP, 1/1/08)

2008        Apr 18,     In Mongolia more than 20,000 people flooded the center of the capital, Ulan Bator, to demand that the government do something about rising food prices that have nearly tripled in some cases.
    (AP, 4/18/08)

2008        Jun 29, In Mongolia high voter turnout capped a campaign between the two major parties for 76 seats in the Great Khural (Hural). The Democrats and the MPRP, Mongolia's ruling party, won as many as 45 seats in the parliamentary election contested over how to share more of the country's natural wealth.
    (AP, 6/30/08)(SFC, 6/30/08, p.A3)(Econ, 7/5/08, p.56)

2008        Jul 1, In Mongolia thousands of people staged a violent protest in the capital as they voiced outrage over what they claimed were rigged elections, forcing police to fire gunshots.
    (AP, 7/1/08)

2008        Jul 2, In Mongolia at least 5 people were killed and over 300 injured as police fought demonstrators protesting the results of the June 29 parliamentary elections.
    (Econ, 7/5/08, p.56)

2008        Jul 23, Opposition lawmakers walked out of a Mongolian parliamentary session before they were to be sworn in, saying they refused to participate because last month's election was fraudulent.
    (AP, 7/23/08)

2009        May 24, Voters in Mongolia went to the polls to choose a new president less than a year after allegations of vote-rigging in parliamentary elections triggered deadly riots. The Democratic Party candidate Elbegdorj Tsakhia won 51.24% of the votes, while incumbent Enkbayar Nambar of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party, the former communists, won 47.44%.
    (AFP, 5/24/09)(AP, 5/25/09)

2009        Oct 6, Mongolia signed a long-awaited deal with partners Rio Tinto and Canada’s Ivanhoe Mines to develop a $4 billion Oyu Tolgoi gold and copper mine after a heated national debate over how to exploit the country's mineral wealth. In September 2011 members of parliament signed a petition asking the government to reopen negotiations on the investment agreement that set the $10 billion project in motion.
    (AP, 10/29/09)(www.ivanhoemines.com/s/Home.asp)(Econ, 10/8/11, p.79)

2009        Oct 26, Mongolian PM Bayar Sanjaa said he wanted to resign for health reasons, bringing new political uncertainty to his impoverished but resource-rich nation.
    (AP, 10/26/09)

2009        Oct 29, Mongolia's parliament confirmed Batbold Sukhbaatar, one of the country's wealthiest men as the new prime minister. The former foreign minister pledged to continue the pro-business policies of his predecessor Bayar Sanjaa, who stepped down as prime minister this week after seeking treatment for liver problems. Batbold made his fortune between 1992 and 2000 as head of the trading company Altai Trading Co. Ltd., which formed a gold mining joint venture with Canadian Centerra Gold Inc.
    (AP, 10/29/09)

2009        Mongolia’s popluation numbered about 2.6 million people.
    (WSJ, 4/20/09, p.A12)

2010        Jan 14, Mongolia's Pres. Elbegdorj Tsakhia announced a moratorium on the death penalty, a move that rights groups welcomed as a step toward changing Mongolian law to ban executions permanently.
    (AP, 1/14/10)

2010        Jan 25, The UN said that extreme winter weather in 19 of 21 provinces in Mongolia has killed over 1 million in livestock impacting the country’s food supply and worsening poverty.
    (SFC, 1/26/10, p.A2)

2010        Apr 3, It was reported that some 4.5 million animals in Mongolia had perished over the last 3 months. A dry summer in 2009 followed by low temperatures and a heavy snow cover, a phenomenon called the zud, afflicted 19 of the countries 21 provinces.
    (Econ, 4/3/10, p.44)

2010        Apr 5, In Mongolia over 5,000 protesters surged through the center of Ulan Bator demanding that the government of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party and the Mongolian Democratic Party fulfill promises from the 2008 elections to crack down on graft and better distribute the country's mining wealth.
    (AP, 4/5/10)

2010        Sep 17, Bat Khurts, a key figure in Mongolia's National Security Council, was detained as he flew into London's Heathrow airport, for allegedly abducting a Mongolian murder suspect in 2003. On Feb 18, 2011, a British judge ruled that Khurts can be extradited to Germany.
    (AFP, 2/18/11)

2010        Mongolia planned to provide telephone connectivity across the country.
    (SFEC, 7/23/00, p.B12)

2011        May 28, Chinese police sealed off parts of two county seats in Inner Mongolia for a second day in what residents described as a kind of martial law after protests triggered by the death of a Mongolian herder run over by a Chinese truck driver.
    (AP, 5/28/11)

2011        Jun 14, Mongolia opened its first official US consulate in San Francisco.
    (SFC, 6/15/11, p.D1)

2011        Mongolia’s population was about 2.8 million people. Another 5.8 million Mongols lived in China with some 4 million in Inner Mongolia.
    (Econ, 10/8/11, p.58)

2012        Apr 13, Mongolia’s police detained former Pres. Nambariin Enkhbayar on charges of alleged corruption. A day earlier Enkhbayar released internal government documents finding Pres. Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj responsible for inciting deadly violence following the last parliamentary elections in 2008.
    (Econ, 4/28/12, p.45)

2012        May 20, A 70 million-year-old skeleton of Tyrannosaurus bataars sold by Heritage Auctions for over $1 million. On June 19 a federal judge ordered the dinosaur skeleton to be seized in NYC saying it was brought into the country from Britain with erroneous claims that it had originated in Britain and was worth only $15,000. Experts agreed that the skeleton was from Mongolia. On June 22 the US government seized the skeleton. In December Eric Prokopi of Gainesville, Fla., pleaded guilty to smuggling charges. In 2013 NY authorities returned the skeleton  to Mongolia.
    (SFC, 6/20/12, p.A8)(SFC, 6/23/12, p.A4)(SFC, 5/7/13, p.A5)

2013        Jun 26, Mongolia held its 6th free presidential election. Incumbant Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj of the Democratic Party (DP) won 50.9% of the vote, just enough to avoid a run-off.
    (Econ, 6/29/13, p.37)

2013        Jun 27, Mongolia’s election commission said Pres. Elbegdorj Tsakhia has won a 2nd 4-year term with 50.2% of the vote.
     (SFC, 6/28/13, p.A2)

2012        Jun 28, Mongolians headed to the polls to elect a new parliament. The ruling Mongolian People's Party (MPP) and the main opposition Democratic Party have campaigned on platforms of ensuring a fairer distribution of wealth across the vast nation.
    (AFP, 6/28/12)

2014        Apr 10, US Defense Sec. Chuck Hagel signed an agreement with his counterpart in Mongolia to expand US military training and exercises.
    (SFC, 4/11/14, p.A2)

2014        Jul 10, US officials returned the fossilized remains of over 18 dinosaurs to the Mongolian government. They had been illegaly poached and smuggled out between 2005 and 2012. The fossilized bones of at least 31 more remained to be returned.
    (SFC, 7/11/14, p.A7)

2014        Aug 21, China's Xi Jinping began a two-day trip to neighboring Mongolia, the first Chinese president to visit in more than a decade. China and Mongolia pledged to almost double their annual two-way trade to $10 billion by 2020.
    (AFP, 8/21/14)(AP, 8/21/14)

2014        Aug 22, Chinese President Xi Jinping told Mongolia that Beijing respected its independence and integrity as he concluded a visit looking to forge closer ties with China's resource-rich but often suspicious neighbor.
    (AFP, 8/22/14)

2014        Sep 2, Russian President Vladimir Putin cited a 1939 Soviet victory over the Japanese army as a foundation of relations with Mongolia during a visit to Ulan Bator.
    (AP, 9/3/14)

2014        Nov 5, Mongolia's parliament voted to dismiss PM Altankhuyag Norov, who faced criticism for drastically slower economic growth and alleged corruption within his administration.
    (AP, 11/5/14)

2014        Nov 21, Mongolia's parliament appointed Chimed Saikhanbileg as prime minister, more than two weeks after it ousted his predecessor for failing to get to grips with a slumping economy and foreign investment.
    (Reuters, 11/21/14)

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