Timeline Mozambique

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  Mozambique has 1600 miles of coastline.
 (SFC, 10/13/97, p.A15)

~900AD    The east coast of Africa was impacted by trade and Arab, Persian and Indian traders mixed with the indigenous Bantu. Many of the coastal Bantu adopted Islam and the Arabic word Swahili, meaning “people of the shore,” to describe themselves. By this time they had reached as far south as Sofala in Mozambique.
    (ATC, p.142) (Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.169)

1498        Mar 2, Vasco da Gama's fleet visited Mozambique Island.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1506        Mozambique, Africa, was colonized by the Portuguese.
    (TL-MB, p.9)

1951        Jun 11, Mozambique became an oversea province of Portugal.
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1962-1975    A 13 year effort finally succeeded in eliminating the Portuguese colonists.
    (WSJ, 3/21/96, p.A-11)

1974        The Portuguese secret police (PIDE) ruled with an iron hand from its headquarters in the Villa Algarve in Maputo.
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.A10)

1975        Jun 25, Mozambique became an independent state (twice the size of California), ending nearly five centuries of Portuguese rule and a long civil war began that lasted to 1992. The first government embraced Marxism soon after taking power. 600,000 Portuguese farmers abandoned their farms and the agricultural industry was devastated. Frelimo (the Mozambican Liberation Front) took power in opposition to Renamo (the Mozambique National Resistance), which was supported by white-led governments in Rhodesia and South Africa. The UN Children’s Education Fund estimated that at least 850 children were kidnapped by guerillas of Renamo. Some were forced to fight but most were put to work as cooks and cleaners.
    (WSJ, 3/21/96, p.A-11)(SFC, 6/25/96, p.A8)(AP internet 6/25/97)(SFC, 10/13/97, p.A12)

1976        Mar 3, Mozambique closed its border with Rhodesia (Zimbabwe).
    (http://tinyurl.com/3c8j7u)

1977-1989    Frelimo ruled with a firm Marxist orientation.
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.A10)

1980        Apr 1, The southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) was established by 9 countries with the Lusaka declaration (Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe). The main aim was coordinating development projects in order to lessen economic dependence on apartheid South Africa.  On August 17, 1992, it was transformed into the Southern African Development Community (SADC). By 2008 it included 15 members.
    (www.sadc.int/index/browse/page/52)

1980-1992    The Renamo guerrilla movement, led by Afonso Dhlakama, waged rebellion against the Freelimo government. It was a peasant terrorist army created in the late 70s by Rhodesia’s white minority regime and later financed by South Africa’s white apartheid government.
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.A10,12)

1982        Aug 17, Ruth First, an exiled anti-apartheid activist, was killed in Mozambique from a letter bomb sent by agents of the Nationalist South African government.  In 1997 her daughter, Gillian Slovo, published "Every Secret Thing: My Family, My Country."
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, BR p.5)(SSFC, 2/10/02, p.M6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruth_First)

1984        Mar 16, Mozambique and South Africa signed a pact banning support for one another’s internal foes.
    (Historynet, 3/16/98)

1984        In Mozambique the 415-mile Sena Railway line was damaged and mined by RENAMO insurgents. After it was sabotaged, not one train used it for more than 20 years.
    (AFP, 10/17/06)

1986        Oct 19, Mozambique Pres. Samora Machel was killed in a plane crash as he returned from a conference in Zambia. He had aided Nelson Mandela’s ANC party in fighting apartheid. 34 others also died in the crash.
    (SFC, 8/20/96, p.A14)(www.cidob.org/bios/castellano/lideres/c-016.htm)(AP, 10/19/06)

1986        Nov 6, FRELIMO designated Joaquim Chissano as president of Mozambique.
    (www.cidob.org/bios/castellano/lideres/c-016.htm)

1986        Mozambique agreed to liberalize its economy in order to attract foreign companies.
    (WSJ, 2/14/00, p.B13C)

1986-1994    Mario Machungo served as the prime minister. He later became the chairman of the Int'l. Bank of Mozambique.
    (WSJ, 2/14/00, p.B13C)

1989        Frelimo dropped its socialist ideas in favor of a free-market economy.
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.A12)

1992        Oct 4, In Mozambique a peace accord ended 17 years of civil war during which some 600,000 people were killed.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rome_General_Peace_Accords)(WSJ, 2/14/00, p.B13C)

1994        In the first multi-party elections, overseen by 7,000 UN troops, voters chose Joaquim Alberto Chissano, head of Frelima, the formerly Marxist ruling party, as president over Afonso Dhlakama of Renamo. Frelimo was based in the southern port city of Maputo, while Renamo was based in the northern city of Beira.
    (WSJ, 3/21/96, p.A-11)(SFC, 10/14/97, p.A10)

1995        The Christian Council of Mozambique launched a project to bring peace and reconciliation to the country and to disarm thousands of former combatants. The program paid artists to turn retrieved weapons into sculptures.
    (SFC, 11/9/12, p.A7)
1995        Commonwealth members admitted Mozambique and Cameroon.
    (Econ, 11/24/07, p.64)

1996        Aug 24, Crops in the fertile districts of Manica were severely damaged by an invasion of red locusts.
    (SFC, 8/24/96, p.A8)

1998        South African senior foreign ministry official Robert McBride was arrested on suspicion of gun running in neighboring Mozambique and held for six months before being released.
    (AFP, 9/9/11)

1999        Mar 10, In Mozambique officials reported 12 deaths due to flooding and some 200,000 people stranded following 3 months of rain.
    (SFC, 3/11/99, p.A11)

1999        Jul 3, It was reported that the government had lifted a ban on hunting elephants as a sport due to growing numbers.
    (SFC, 7/3/99, p.A5)

1999        Dec 22, Pres. Joaquim Chissano was declared the winner of elections that were held earlier in the month. He won 52% as opposed to 48% for Afonso Dhlakama of the Mozambique Resistance Movement, known as Renamo. In parliament Frelimo won 133 seats vs. 117 for Renamo.
    (SFC, 12/23/99, p.C7)

1999        Creditors began canceling over $4 billion worth of debt. Debt service of over $100 million per year had flowed to creditors in wealthy countries.
    (WSJ, 3/15/00, p.A1)

2000        Feb 22, Cyclone Eline hit Mozambique and 3 people were electrocuted in Beira from fallen power cables. Earlier torrential rains killed 67 people and displaced some 211,000.
    (SFC, 2/22/00, p.A10)(SFC, 2/23/00, p.A11)

2000        Feb 26, Heavy rains continued to ravage South Africa, Botswana, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. 33 people were reported dead in the northern province of South Africa and 29 dead in Zimbabwe.
    (SFEC, 2/27/00, p.A22)

2000        Feb 28, In Mozambique officials feared that thousands may have died in the last 3 weeks of flooding.
    (WSJ, 2/29/00, p.A1)

2000        Mar 5, In Mozambique some 600 US troops arrived to help deliver food and medical supplies where flooding left an estimated 1 million people homeless.
    (SFC, 3/6/00, p.A10)

2000        Mar 8, In Mozambique recent flooding began to wash old civil war land mines to the surface. An estimated 400,000 to 5 million mines were still present.
    (SFC, 3/9/00, p.A10)

2000        Mar 12, In Mozambique the death toll from flooding reached 492 and urgent shipments of seeds were being organized.
    (SFC, 3/13/00, p.A11)

2000        Mar 25, It was reported that the Messalo river burst its banks after a week of rain. The Limpopo was expected to flood again and the city of Chokwe was again threatened.
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.A8)

2000          Nov 9, Mozambique police killed 10 opposition demonstrators in Maputo. In Montepuez Renamo opposition supporters stormed a prison and freed 93 inmates. 7 police officers and 18 civilians died in election protests.
    (SFC, 11/10/00, p.D2)(SFC, 11/24/00, p.D4)

2000        Nov 20, In Mozambique Carlos Cardoso, founder and editor of the Metical newspaper, was murdered while driving in Maputo. He had been investigating a 1996 theft of $14 million from the Commercial Bank of Mozambique. In 2003 six men were convicted of the murder. Businessman Vicente Ramaya was later convicted of ordering the murder and sentenced to 23 years in prison. In 2013 a judge signed papers granting Ramaya's release because of good behavior.
    (AP, 1/31/03)(AP, 1/22/13)

2000        Nov 23, Some 75-83 inmates at the prison in Montepuez, arrested for the Nov 9 protests, were reported dead from either poisoning or suffocation.
    (SFC, 11/24/00, p.D4)

2001        Jan, Flooding left at least 4 people dead and thousands homeless.
    (WSJ, 1/29/00, p.A1)

2001        Feb 28, Flooding continued in central Mozambique as the death toll rose to 52. 81,000 were made homeless since the beginning of the year.
    (SFC, 3/1/01, p.A10)(SFC, 3/2/01, p.A16)

2001        Mar 15, It was reported that 70% of the nation’s 17 million people lived on less than 40 cents per day.
    (WSJ, 3/15/00, p.A1)

2002        May 25, In Tenga, Mozambique, a passenger and freight train collided and 195 people were killed.
    (SSFC, 5/26/2, p.A14)(SFC, 5/27/02, p.A7)(AP, 5/25/07)

2002        Jul 1, In Mozambique health officials reported that at least 62 people have died of cholera in the northern province of Cabo Delgado since the latest outbreak of the disease in February.
    (AP, 7/1/02)

2002        Nov 19, In Mozambique Manuel dos Santos Fernandes told Judge Augusto Paulino that he and two of his fellow accused had killed top investigative journalist Carlos Cardoso in return for a promise of $20,000 from President Joaquim Chissano's son Nhimpine.
    (AP, 11/20/02)

2003        Jan 17, Massive flooding caused by Cyclone Delfina ravaged parts of Malawi and Mozambique, washing away homes and crops, submerging roads and bridges, and cutting off electricity in the impoverished nations.
    (AP, 1/17/03)

2003        Jan 19, In western Mozambique it was reported that 9 people had died of hunger in a village and some 175,000 people in the area are at risk of starvation.
    (AP, 1/19/03)

2003        Feb 5, Heavy rains in northern Mozambique caused flooding that left about 100,000 families homeless, swept away thousands of acres of crops and severely damaged roads and bridges.
    (AP, 2/6/03)

2004        Jul 15, The Gates Foundation announced a $44.7 million award at the AIDS Conference in Bangkok to a consortium of TB and AIDS researchers. The 2 diseases were often linked. A UN report cited 7 countries as the hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic: Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Lesotho, Zambia, Malawi, the Central African Republic and Mozambique.
    (WSJ, 7/15/04, p.B1)(SFC, 7/16/04, p.A6)

2004        Dec 1, Mozambique held elections. Armando Guebuza, Pres. Chissano’s hand-picked successor, won.
    (SFC, 12/4/04, p.A3)(Econ, 2/5/05, p.48)

2005        Jan 15, Visiting Chancellor of the Exchequer Gordon Brown revealed that Britain has decided to cancel Mozambique's total debt to it of 150 million dollars (114 million euros) to help the southern African country combat poverty. He said: "We've also agreed to pay 10 percent of Mozambique's multilateral debt."
    (AP, 1/15/05)

2005        Feb 2, Armando Guebuza was sworn in as president of Mozambique.
    (Econ, 2/5/05, p.48)(www.voanews.com/english/2005-02-02-voa28.cfm)

2005        Aug 23, UN officials called on African ministers meeting in Mozambique to declare TB and emergency in the area.
    (WSJ, 8/24/05, p.A1)

2005        Aug 25, In Mozambique regional health ministers unanimously agreed to declare tuberculosis an African emergency.
    (AP, 8/26/05)

2005        Nov 15, Data was published indicating that Mosquitrix, an experimental vaccine against malaria given to children in Mozambique in 2003, had cut clinical cases by 35%. The vaccine was developed GlaxoSmithKline of Belgium.
    (Econ, 11/19/05, p.85)

2005        Nov 24, The UN food agency said the United States has thrown a lifeline to six southern African countries, donating food aid valued at $45 million. The food will be distributed across Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
    (AP, 11/24/05)

2005        Dec, In Mozambique Jose Pacheco under President Armando Guebuza, told reporters that an audit of the ministry had revealed an 8.8 million US dollar deficit that could not be accounted for. Pacheco had just succeeded Almerino Manhenje as the interior minister.
    (AFP, 9/23/08)

2006        Feb 23, A powerful earthquake sent thousands of panicking people fleeing from swaying buildings in Mozambique and Zimbabwe, and killed at least two people.
    (AP, 2/23/06)

2006        Apr 10, In Maputo, Mozambique, African leaders launched a campaign to get every child in school by 2015, and Britain responded by pledging $15 billion in education aid to developing countries over the next decade.
    (AP, 4/10/06)

2006        Aug 16, The presidents of South Africa, Mozambique and Zimbabwe gathered for the official opening the new Giriyondo border post linking South Africa and Mozambique. This was another step in the creation of the 14,000 square mile Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Park, which would span the 3 countries.
    (SFC, 8/17/06, p.A2)

2006        Oct 17, The US State Department said that the last landmines and unexploded ordnance blocking Mozambique's vital Sena Railway line have been removed, thanks largely to some $13 million (€10 million) in US aid. The mine action assistance was launched in 2002. Under the US Humanitarian Mine Action Program approximately 46 million dollars have been given in aid to Mozambique since 1993.
    (AFP, 10/17/06)

2006        Nov 9, In Mozambique a regional governor said more than 4,500 foreigners, mostly from Tanzania, have been expelled for clandestinely mining gold close to its northern border with Tanzania.
    (AP, 11/9/06)

2006        Nov 10, A report launched by the UN Human Development Program (UNDP) highlighted how more than 2.6 billion people do not have access to proper sanitation and how dirty water claims more lives than AIDS or conflicts. According to the UN 78% of Mozambique's 17 million people earn less than two dollars a day and more than 20,000 children die every year from water-borne diseases.
    (AP, 11/10/06)

2006        Dec 20, The parliament in Mozambique approved a new law to pave the way for elections at local and national level despite a boycott of the vote by the main opposition party.
    (AFP, 12/20/06)

2007        Jan 19, Mozambique officials said 4 people have died, hundreds of homes destroyed and more than 6,000 affected by torrential rains over the last two days.
    (AP, 1/19/07)

2007        Jan 23, Mozambique’s National Institute for Disaster Management said torrential rains in central Mozambique had claimed five lives and rendered more than 3,500 homeless since the weekend.
    (AFP, 1/23/07)

2007        Feb 7, The Mozambique government said floods have killed 29 people and wrecked thousands of homes after torrential rain and hurricanes swept through the country in the past two weeks.
    (AP, 2/7/07)

2007        Feb 8, China’s President Hu Jintao arrived in Mozambique on the penultimate stop in his 8-nation African tour.
    (AFP, 2/8/07)

2007        Feb 9, An official said flooding in central Mozambique threatened some 285,000 people.
    (AFP, 2/9/07)

2007        Feb 12, Mozambique officials said soldiers and relief workers using helicopters and canoes have evacuated some 60,000 people from the flooded Zambezi River Valley in central Mozambique, where more than 100,000 others are at risk.
    (AP, 2/12/07)

2007        Feb 22, In Mozambique roofs were blown off, trees uprooted and power lines cut by the force of a tropical cyclone which slammed into coastal regions. The storm killed four people and injured at least 70 in the resort town of Vilanculos, where thousands of homes were destroyed along with the hospital and power grid.
    (AFP, 2/22/07)(Reuters, 2/23/07)

2007        Feb 25, Heavy rains from a cyclone sparked more flooding in Mozambique, worsening a humanitarian crisis that has already killed 45 people and forced 140,000 from their homes.
    (Reuters, 2/25/07)

2007        Mar 3, Officials said Mozambican marines rescued more than 1,700 people, including 900 children, from flooding in central Mozambique.
    (AP, 3/3/07)

2007        Mar 22, In Mozambique an explosion at a weapons depot in a densely populated neighborhood of Maputo killed at least 96 people and left more than 400 injured, many of them children.
    (AP, 3/23/07)

2007        Jun 26, A Mozambican army vehicle carrying recruits overturned, killing 12 people and injuring 24.
    (AP, 6/27/07)

2007        Jun 27, In Maputo US first lady Laura Bush announced $507 million in assistance would be approved for Mozambique to build roads and boost its battle with malaria, which kills about 150 Mozambicans each day.
    (AP, 6/27/07)

2007        Jul 4, Mozambique's President Armando Guebuza sought to expand trade ties with Tanzania to boost development in the two impoverished African nations.
    (AFP, 7/4/07)

2007        Jul 13, The main US development fund signed a $506.9 million aid agreement with Mozambique to promote economic growth and reduce poverty.
    (Reuters, 7/13/07)

2007        Jul 31, In Mozambique 5 soldiers were killed when an army truck carrying munitions that were about to be destroyed exploded near the country's main airport.
    (AP, 7/31/07)

2007        Aug 5, Mozambique state radio said authorities had seized thousands of boxes of counterfeit toothpaste that they fear may contain a potentially deadly chemical.
    (AP, 8/6/07)

2007        Aug 9, A disaster management agency said more than 520,000 people need urgent food aid in Mozambique while 600,000 face famine between now and April next year.
    (AP, 8/9/07)

2007        Aug 15, Maputo's interior ministry said South Africa has intensified the repatriation of Mozambican illegal immigrants, going from 400 to a weekly average of more than 600.
    (AFP, 8/15/07)

2007        Aug 24, Mozambique’s health minister said large amounts of drugs, which have been imported into Mozambique with the aid of the international community, end up being sold on the black market at home and abroad.
    (AFP, 8/24/07)

2007        Sep 13, In Mozambique a non-governmental organization working with the disabled said at least 440 sites are still heavily infested by landmines near residential districts in 3 provinces.
    (AP, 9/13/07)

2007        Sep 17, The Mozambican government authorized soldiers to gun down wild animals who are seen as a threat to human beings after a new report highlighted an increase in the number of deadly attacks.
    (AFP, 9/17/07)

2007        Oct 22,     Mozambique's former President Joaquim Chissano, who brought peace and democracy to his country, won the first Mo Ibrahim Prize for achievement in African leadership.
    (AP, 10/22/07)

2007        Oct 26, The Mozambican government set itself a new five-year target to remove all the landmines that still litter the country, 15 years after its long-running civil war.
    (AFP, 10/26/07)

2007        Nov 27, Mozambique formally took over from Portugal the control of Cahora Bassa hydroelectric dam, Africa's second most important after that of Aswan in Egypt.
    (AFP, 11/27/07)

2007        Nov 30, India's Tata Steel signed a joint venture with Australia's Riversdale Mining to develop a hard coking and thermal coal project in Mozambique.
    (AP, 11/30/07)

2008        Jan 7, The National Institute of Disaster Management (INGC) said 6 people have died and more than 20,000 others have been displaced by Mozambique's rising waters, the worst since the deadly flooding of 2000 to 2001.
    (AFP, 1/7/08)

2008        Jan 13, A UN humanitarian agency said floods in Mozambique have killed about 50 people and displaced tens of thousands.
    (AP, 1/13/08)

2008        Jan 27, Mozambique said it would forcibly evacuate 10,000 people who have defied government calls to leave areas at risk of flooding along the Zambezi valley in the country's central regions.
    (Reuters, 1/27/08)

2008        Jan 30, Mozambique’s interior ministry said police intercepted a lorry carrying 39 youngsters as they were about to be smuggled across the border into Zimbabwe by suspected child traffickers. Rights groups warned late last year that trafficking of Mozambican children across to neighboring countries, mostly South Africa, has risen tenfold in the last two years.
    (AFP, 1/30/08)

2008        Feb 5, In Mozambique one person was killed and 63 were wounded in Maputo when police opened fire in a bid to break up violent protests against increases in bus fares. The local council of Tete said an outbreak of diarrhea in the flood-hit city has claimed the lives of 64 people since early January.
    (AP, 2/5/08)(AFP, 2/5/08)

2008        Feb 6, The Mozambican government announced that it was scrapping a planned increase in bus fares as the death toll from riots sparked by the price hikes rose to three.
    (AFP, 2/6/08)

2008        Mar 10, Tropical cyclone Jokwe battered parts of Mozambique for a third day. At least 16 people were killed with thousands of homes destroyed in northern Nampula province.
    (Reuters, 3/10/08)(AFP, 3/11/08)

2008        Mar 11, State media said Mozambique's President Armando Guebuza has sacked three senior members of his government, including his foreign minister.
    (AP, 3/11/08)

2008        Mar 17, The Mozambican government made an urgent appeal to the UN World Food Program to help more than 60,000 people left destitute when cyclone Jokwe hit northern and central parts of the country.
    (AFP, 3/17/08)

2008        Mar 20, Mozambican President Armando Guebuza dismissed the head of the armed forces and his deputy, barely a week after firing three senior ministers.
    (AFP, 3/21/08)

2008        Apr 13, The winners of this year’s Goldman Awards were reported to be: Feliciano dos Santos (43) of Mozambique, the director of Estamos, an environmental group promoting sanitation, sustainable development and reforestation; Marina Rikhvanova (46), founder of Baikal Environmental Wave, which forced the rerouting of an oil pipeline in the Baikal basin; Pablo Fajardo (35) and Luis Yanza (48) of Ecuador, co-founders of the Amazon Defense Front, which accused Texaco (now Chevron) of dumping oil and wastewater into local streams; Rosa Hilda Ramos (63) of Puerto Rico, head of a movement to protect the Las Cicharillas Marsh; Ignace Schops (43) of Belgium, head of a movement to establish Belgium’s 1st and only national park; Jesus Leon (42) of Mexico, co-founder of the Center for Integral Small Farmer Development of the Mixtec (CEDICAM).
    (SSFC, 4/13/08, p.A4)

2008        Apr 18,     South Africa's main transport union thwarted the delivery of a controversial shipment of Chinese arms destined for Zimbabwe, saying its workers would not offload the cargo. The Chinese ship left the South African harbor and headed for neighboring Mozambique. Angola and Mozambique said the ship is not welcome. China defended the cargo against international criticism.
    (AFP, 4/18/08)(AP, 4/19/08)(AFP, 4/22/08)(SFC, 4/23/08, p.A2)

2008        Apr 29, Human rights watchdog Amnesty International accused Mozambique police of killing and torturing people with impunity as the country struggles to deal with growing crime.
    (AP, 4/29/08)

2008        May 14, The annual meeting of the African Development Bank (AfDB) opened in Mozambique with the organization’s head warning that rising growth rates are having little impact on poverty levels.
    (AFP, 5/14/08)

2008        May 22, The South African army mobilized in support of embattled police trying to quell a wave of violence against immigrants that has claimed 42 lives and displaced 16,000. More than 10,000 Mozambicans have fled home from South Africa to escape the xenophobic attacks.
    (AP, 5/22/08)

2008        Sep 2, In Mozambique 2 days of fires killed at least 32 people and injured hundreds more in blazes which devoured large swathes of arable land. The fires also displaced thousands and ravaged around 16,000 hectares (40,000 acres) in the three central provinces of Manica, Sofala and Zambezia.
    (AP, 9/5/08)

2008        Sep 10, Officials said at least 89 people have died in wildfires sweeping through Mozambique, South Africa and Swaziland.
    (AP, 9/10/08)

2008        Sep 22, Mozambique's former interior minister Almerino Manhenje was arrested in connection with the disappearance of millions of dollars during his time in office. He served as home affairs minister in the Joaquim Chissano administration between 1996 and 2005.
    (AFP, 9/23/08)

2008        Oct 16, Brazil's President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva arrived in Mozambique to launch a project to make anti-AIDS drugs in the southern African country.
    (AP, 10/17/08)

2008        Nov 5, In Mozambique a medical officer said at least 50 people have died of cholera and more than 100 have been taken to hospital since the disease broke out last week in northern Manica province.
    (AFP, 11/5/08)

2008        China became Mozambique's second-largest investor after neighboring South Africa, pouring 76.8 million dollars (58.6 million euros) into the country.
    (AFP, 12/26/10)

2009        Jan 12, Mozambique authorities said torrential rains have killed 19 people in the past few days and that worse flooding may lie ahead.
    (AP, 1/12/09)

2009        Mar 15, In northern Mozambique a mob angered by false rumors that health workers were spreading cholera killed a Red Cross volunteer, two health workers and a policeman.
    (AP, 3/17/09)

2009        Mar 18, Mozambique’s interior ministry said 12 prisoners arrested during a riot over a cholera epidemic have died in their cell in unclear circumstances. They were among 29 people arrested when riots broke out last month when Red Cross volunteers were blamed for causing a cholera epidemic plaguing the country.
    (AFP, 3/18/09)

2009        Mar 27, Southern African countries (Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia) have been hit by the worst floods in years, killing more than 100 people and displacing thousands, as a tropical storm threatened to bring more pain.
    (AFP, 3/28/09)

2009        Apr 6, In Zambia western nations and lending agencies meeting in Lusaka agreed a financing package of more than $1 billion to improve infrastructure in southern and central Africa at an investment conference meant to expand transport links and trade. Britain said it would separately provide 100 million pounds ($149.2 million) to transform the region's infrastructure to increase trade and mitigate the effects of the global financial crisis. New projects will link businesses in 8 African countries: Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, Malawi, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and South Africa.
    (AP, 4/6/09)

2009        Jun 12, Mozambican state media reported that a court has sentenced Alexandre Balate to 22 years in jail for killing a suspect. Balate, the former head of the search and seizure unit, was found guilty of the 2007 murder of Abranches Penicelo, who was allegedly abducted by a group of police officers, burnt alive and shot. Amnesty International had drawn global attention to Penicelo's murder. Last year the group released a report accusing the national police of "killing and torturing people with near total impunity."
    (AFP, 6/12/09)

2009        Aug 1, Mozambique’s Pres. Armando Guebuza inaugurated an 80-million-euro (113-million-dollar) bridge over the Zambezi River, a major link for a country long divided between north and south. Work on the bridge had begun in 1977.
    (AFP, 8/2/09)

2009        Aug 18, In Mozambique an overcrowded ferry with 50 people went down off the coast in a northern province. 17 people were feared drowned.
    (AP, 8/19/09)

2009        Aug 19, Brazilian prosecutors said Father Clodoveo Piazza, an Italian priest who ran an award-winning shelter for homeless children in Brazil, has been charged with sexually abusing boys for years and allowing visiting foreigners to exploit the children. Piazza, now working as a missionary in Mozambique, was charged along with another former director of the nonprofit group Fraternal Help Organization, a private group based in Salvador.
    (AP, 8/20/09)

2009        Aug 28, In Mozambique talks aimed at determining who should lead Madagascar in a new interim government ended in failure with the ousted president and the man who replaced him in a military coup both claiming the right to do so. The parties set a deadline of Sept. 4 to arrive at a compromise.
    (AP, 8/28/09)

2009        Oct 28, Mozambique held elections. President Armando Guebuza was expected to retain power and move to attract more foreign investors. On Nov 2 President Armando Guebuza was declared the "landslide" winner by two election monitoring groups. Frelimo, the ruling party since independence in 1975, had received 71% of the vote with 89% of polling stations reporting. On Nov 11 election officials said President Armando Guebuza won the landslide re-election with 75% of the vote. On Nov 17 the main opposition Renamo party said the ruling party stuffed ballot boxes and expelled opposition monitors from polling stations to help it win the presidential election.
    (Reuters, 10/28/09)(AFP, 11/2/09)(AFP, 11/11/09)(AP, 11/17/09)

2009        Nov 3, Mozambique's main opposition party claimed that polls that gave a landslide victory to the southern African country's ruling party were rigged.
    (AFP, 11/3/09)

2009        Nov 5, Zimbabwe's rival leaders met with Mozambican leader Armando Guebuza, the head of a regional security body, ahead of an emergency summit aimed at hauling a fragile power-sharing deal out of a three-week impasse. The summit was set to open with leaders from the Democratic Republic of Congo, South Africa, Swaziland and Zambia.
    (AP, 11/5/09)

2009        Nov 15, Amnesty Int’l. issued the report, "I Can't Believe in Justice Anymore." It said at least 46 people had been unlawfully killed by police in Mozambique since 2006. The report offered five detailed case studies, including that of dancer and choreographer Augusto Cuvilas, who had called police to his home because he feared he was being robbed, only to end up being killed by the officers from whom he had sought help.
    (AP, 11/16/09)

2009        Nov 16, In Mozambique a trail opened for former Transport Minister Antonio Munguambe and four former officials of a company that runs the country's airports. They were accused of stealing nearly $2 million from the company. It was the biggest corruption case to go to court in Mozambique since independence in 1975.
    (AP, 11/17/09)

2009        Nov 18, In Mozambique testimony in the highest-level corruption trial in the country’s history implicated ruling party Frelimo as a beneficiary of embezzled funds. Former Mozambican airports company finance director Antenor Pereira, a defendant in the trial, testified that Frelimo had received some of the $1.7 million allegedly stolen from the company.
    (AFP, 11/19/09)

2010        Jan 11, Riversdale, an Australian mining firm, said the Mozambican government has given it the green light to build a 800-million-dollar coal mine in the country's northwest. Riversdale has predicted that the Benga project will produce some of the lowest-cost coking coal in the world.
    (AFP, 1/11/10)

2010        Jan 14, Key southern African leaders gathered in the Mozambican capital Maputo for a special summit on the political crises in Zimbabwe and Madagascar. Leaders called for a return to dialogue in the ongoing political crisis in Madagascar. A medical aid group said Zimbabweans crossing illegally into neighboring South Africa after holidays at home are being raped and robbed by gangs on both sides of the border.
    (AFP, 1/14/10)(AP, 1/14/10)

2010        Feb 16, Mozambique state media reported that a mob attacked health workers in a town in the northern town of Macoroja, killing one and injuring three others, after accusing them of spreading cholera.
    (AFP, 2/17/10)

2010        Feb 18, In Mozambique 7 people died in a riot in the district of Gurue sparked by false rumors that health workers were spreading cholera.
    (AP, 2/19/10)

2010        Feb 25, Mozambique's health minister, Leonardo Chavane, said 36 people have died this year from a cholera outbreak in the northern and central parts of the southern African country. he said the situation is worrying because new cases are being reported daily and are complicated by rumors that health staff are spreading cholera rather than fighting it.
    (AP, 2/25/10)

2010        Feb 26, Mozambique state media said 2 young men accused of having sex with a goat in central Mozambique are facing criminal charges, and the goat's owner is demanding they make traditional wedding arrangements.
    (AFP, 2/26/10)

2010        Feb 27, Mozambique's former transport minister was sentenced to 20 years in prison for stealing state funds, the highest-level corruption conviction ever in the southern African country. Antonio Munguambe, transport and communications minister from 2005 to 2008, was found guilty of acting as an accomplice in the embezzlement of 1.7 million dollars (1.25 million euros) from national airport company Airports of Mozambique.
    (AFP, 2/27/10)

2010        Mar 13, Mozambique's health ministry spokesman said the country's cholera outbreak has now killed 42 people in the northern and central parts of the southern African country.
    (AP, 3/13/10)

2010        Mar 24, Mozambican and donor officials say they have resolved questions over corruption and democracy that led to an aid freeze.
    (AP, 3/24/10)

2010        Mar 26, Mozambican police said they have arrested 7 people suspected of trafficking women to neighboring South Africa to work as prostitutes. The men were arrested last week through a police sting operation. The women were on sale for about $670 each.
    (AP, 3/26/10)

2010        May 24, Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva launched TV Brasil, a new Portuguese-language network based in Mozambique's capital Maputo and tasked with "saying good things" about Brazil. From Maputo, the new channel will be broadcast to more than 40 countries, mostly in Africa and Latin America.
    (AFP, 5/24/10)

2010        May 31, At least nine people died and 40 were missing and feared dead after a boat sank off the coast of northern Mozambique. All of those aboard the ship were Somali.
    (AP, 6/9/10)

2010        Jun 28, South African media said Mozambicans and Thais children (9-16) were discovered a week earlier by South African border police during an inspection at the Komatipoort crossing between South Africa and Mozambique.
    (AFP, 6/29/10)

2010        Jun, The US Treasury Department sanctioned three Mozambican businesses allegedly connected to Mohamed Bachir Suleman, a Mozambique man, whose name was added by the Obama administration to a list of international drug kingpins. In Dec, 2010, newly released WikiLeaks documents refered to Suleman often, saying he "uses his FRELIMO party connections, as well as his shopping mall, supermarkets, and hotels to import narcotics and launder money without official scrutiny."
    (AP, 12/10/10)

2010        Jul 8, Mozambique’s transport minister said in a report that his country will overcome a shipping bottleneck to export its vast coal deposits by finding ways for barges to navigate the Zambezi River.
    (AFP, 7/8/10)

2010        Aug 17, American oil company Anadarko said it has discovered offshore oil deposits in northern Mozambique, but it is unclear if the find will prove commercially viable.
    (AFP, 8/17/10)

2010        Sep 1, Mozambique's state utility company implemented a 13.4 percent rate increase, while the state water supplier has also raised prices in and around the capital. Police opened fire on stone-throwing mobs who were protesting rising prices. 6 people were killed and 288 wounded. Another person died the next day. The UN noted that international food prices have risen to their highest in two years, a level that could see unrest spread.
    (AP, 9/1/10)(AFP, 9/2/10)

2010        Sep 3, Police in Mozambique fired rubber bullets and live ammunition to quell more demonstrations against rising food prices. The death toll from the unrest soon climbed to 13 with more than 440 injured. The government said the economy has lost more than $3 million because of the deadly riots, as state media reported new protests in two other towns.
    (AFP, 9/3/10)(AFP, 9/6/10)
2010        Sep 3, In Accra, Ghana, Standard Bank Africa announced at an agricultural forum a 100 million dollar scheme to reach some 750,000 small scale farmers in Ghana, Mozambique, Tanzania and Uganda in a bid to boost output.
    (AFP, 9/4/10)

2010        Sep 5, Mozambican authorities said five fishing boats have capsized in a storm off the country's central coast, killing at least 15 fishermen.
    (AP, 9/5/10)

2010        Sep 6, Mozambique state radio reported that nine people have been arrested over the last 24 hours, accused of incitement for sending cell phone messages calling for protests. The radio report said 3 of the 9 were arrested in Nampula for trying to spread the protests to that northern province.
    (AP, 9/6/10)

2010        Sep 7, Mozambique Planning Minister Aiuba Cuereneia said that the 20 percent increase in the government-set price of bread — which had followed a year of steady increases on the staple in this impoverished country — that went into effect a day earlier would be reversed. He said an increase in the price of water also would be reversed, but that higher electricity tariffs were being maintained.
    (AP, 9/7/10)

2010        Sep 28, An Australian mining company said it has discovered deposits in Mozambique of rare minerals with a variety of industrial uses. The minerals found included dysprosium, used to make laser materials and in components of nuclear reactors.
    (AP, 9/29/10)

2010        Oct 8, In Mozambique a settling pond breached its wall at the Irish mining firm Kenmare Resources’ Moma titanium and zircon mine in the northern province of Nampula, flooding the area with a mixture of water, sand and clay. A four-year-old girl was missing after the dam burst, flooding an area housing 3,000 families.
    (AFP, 10/11/10)

2010        Oct 12, In Mozambique 17 prisoners cut the bars at Nampula Industrial Penitentiary before escaping. They were among 99 inmates recently transferred to Nampula from neighboring provinces. One fugitive was soon re-captured.
    (AP, 10/13/10)

2010        Oct 14, Mozambique state radio said a court in has sentenced two men to 20 years in prison each for mutilating a 12-year-old boy and trying to sell his body parts to a witchdoctor. The report said the two men, the boy's uncle and another, held the boy down, cut out his eyes and removed his genitals, intending to sell them to a Malawian witchdoctor. The boy survived.
    (AP, 10/14/10)

2010        Oct 25, South African soldiers strayed into neighboring Mozambique and exchanged fire with civilians, leaving 2 people dead and one injured.
    (AP, 10/26/10)(AP, 10/27/10)

2010        Nov 9, Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva began a 2-day visit to Mozambique, focusing on education and health care in his last trip to Africa before leaving office.
    (AFP, 11/9/10)

2010        Dec 6, Saudi Arabia's Rani Investment Group said it would break ground on a 100-million-dollar (75-million-euro) resort on a Mozambique island next year, aiming to cash in on foreign tourists.
    (AFP, 12/6/10)

2010        Dec 8, A Mozambican judge sentenced two former government officials to 12 years in prison for stealing 3.6 million meticais ($103,000) from the government. The court ordered the government data center's former director Orlando Come and former head of administration and finance Manuel Vilanculos to repay the stolen money.
    (AP, 12/8/10)

2010        Dec 10, It was reported that the United States is concerned that Mozambique could become a narco-state because of close ties between drug smugglers and the nation's government, according to US Embassy cables released by WikiLeaks.
    (AP, 12/10/10)

2010        The population of Mozambique was about 20 million.
    (Econ, 7/10/10, p.50)

2011        Jan 10, In Mozambique a heavy storm killed 10 people and seriously injured seven others in the central province of Manica.
    (Reuters, 1/12/11)

2011        Jan 17, Mozambique officially received its new $70-million (€53-million) national sports stadium from the Chinese government after a series of false starts delayed its completion.
    (AFP, 1/17/11)
2011        Jan 17, South Africa's Cooperative Governance Ministry said at least 40 people have been killed or gone missing following heavy rains from late December through most of January and that thousands of homes in neighboring Mozambique have been destroyed.
    (Reuters, 1/17/11)

2011        Feb 13, Fifty illegal Somali migrants and a Tanzanian captain died after a ship sank off the coast of northern Mozambique. Mozambican marines sent 89 Somali and Ethiopian survivors to a refugee camp which holds about 3,000 illegal migrants.
    (AP, 2/16/11)

2011        Mar 13, In Maputo, Mozambique, 2 people suffocated to death in a crowd of 10,000 at the weekend opening of the new Universal Church of the Reign of God, a Brazilian-based evangelical church.
    (AFP, 3/14/11)

2011        Apr 14, Mozambique announced that it is building a $102 million (€70 million) airport in the northern city Nacala in an effort to expand infrastructure to attract tourists and investment.
    (AFP, 4/14/11)

2011        May 1, In central Mozambique a US Peace Corps volunteer was raped at knife-point. On May 11 the US Congress opened hearings into the safety of the agency's volunteers worldwide. The program said more than 1,000 volunteers had been raped or sexually abused in the past decade and reported on allegations that the agency had mishandled sexual assault complaints.
    (AP, 5/11/11)

2011        May 8, In Mozambique Vale, the Brazilian mining giant, opened a new $1.7 billion coal mine, tapping the southern African country's thermal and coking coal reserves of around 23 billion tons.
    (AFP, 5/8/11)

2011        May 23, Mozambique’s Supreme Court slashed jail time for Antonio Munguambe, transport and communications minister from 2005 to 2008, to four and a half years as opposed to 20, saying embezzlement from a public company earned a lesser penalty than stealing money from the government.
    (AFP, 5/24/11)

2011        Jun 24, Mozambique said will begin housing minors in separate prisons from adults, as the justice minister opened the country's first juvenile detention facility.
    (AFP, 6/24/11)

2011        Jul 27, Mozambique’s state daily Noticias said the country’s highest decision-making body, the Council of Ministers, has endorsed measures to criminalize embezzlement, influence peddling, and graft.
    (AFP, 7/27/11)

2011        Jul 28, Mozambique’s official opposition party, the former rebel group Renamo, said it will build barracks for its demobilized soldiers to "defend democracy." The first barracks will be built in the northern provinces of Cabo Delgado and Niassa, and in the central provinces of Sofala and Zambezia, one-time Renamo strongholds.
    (AFP, 7/28/11)

2011        Sep 12, In Mozambique a group of 15 Ethiopian athletes, after competing at the 10th All Africa Games, went missing and left some of their possessions in the athletes' village outside the capital Maputo.
    (AFP, 9/15/11)

2011        Oct 20, Italian energy giant ENI announced a giant natural gas discovery off the coast of Mozambique, which could be the largest in company's history.
    (AFP, 10/20/11)

2011        Oct 26, More than 700 Mozambican civil war veterans and their families gathered in Maputo during a 2nd day of protests to demand pensions from the government. None of the 70,000 fighters from the 16-year civil war between the Frelimo government forces and Renamo rebel group currently receive pensions, while veterans from the country's liberation war against colonial power Portugal do get money from the state.
    (AFP, 10/26/11)

2011        Nov 2, Mozambique state media said lynch mobs killed two people over the weekend accused of being witches. Police reportedly arrested six people for the killings.
    (AFP, 11/2/11)

2011        Nov 22, A survey of some 6,000 people over the last 12 months in Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia and  Zimbabwe said police are the most corrupt institution in the six countries.
    (AFP, 11/22/11)

2011        SABMiller launched the world’s first commercially produced cassava beer. It was brewed in Mozambique.
    (Econ, 3/24/12, p.67)

2012        Jan 15, Tropical Storm Dando hit Mozambique. 3 days of rain left 5 people dead.
    (AFP, 1/19/12)

2012        Jan 22, In Mozambique storms left 12 people dead in the central province of Zambezia. Ten deaths in southern areas had been reported earlier in the aftermath of a tropical depression that brought fierce rains and wind last week.
    (AP, 1/23/12)

2012        Jan 31, WFP officials said the World Food Program (WFP) will give emergency food to more than 80,000 people in Mozambique after twin cyclones left 32 dead.
    (AP, 1/31/12)

2012        Feb 1, South Africa’s national parks agency said 3 young Mozambican poachers will spend 25 years behind bars after they were found with two fresh rhino horns in Kruger Park.
    (AFP, 2/2/12)

2012        Feb 9, It was reported that a woman (35) recently walked through a field in northern Mozambique, near where a group of teenage boys were undergoing their ritual circumcision into adulthood. Accusing her of trespassing on sacred ground forbidden to women, the traditional leader meted out his punishment: He ordered 17 of his young initiates to gang rape her. Four of the youths were arrested.
    (AFP, 2/9/12)

2012        Mar 2, Mozambique's government said it has refused to let mining giant Rio Tinto use the Zambezi River to transport coal to the Indian Ocean for export. For now the Sena railway line to Beira in the center of the country and the Nacala line in the north were the preferred export routes for coal.
    (AFP, 3/2/12)

2012        Mar 8, Mozambique police stormed a camp of about 300 armed opposition supporters in the north, arresting 20 and wounding two in Nampula.
    (AP, 3/8/12)

2012        Mar 15, Mozambique's Cahora Bassa dam denied cutting power to Zimbabwe, which had claimed the state-owned company had pulled the plug over unpaid bills totaling around $75 million.
    (AFP, 3/15/12)

2012        Apr 18, Mozambique state-run newspaper Noticias reported that rampaging elephants are terrorizing villages near the Zimbabwe border, attacking people, trampling crops and scaring children.
    (AFP, 4/18/12)

2012        May 12, The presidents of Mozambique and Malawi signed an electricity agreement in Maputo in a first step to restore troubled relations between the two southern African neighbors.
    (AFP, 5/12/12)

2012        May 30, Mozambican police arrested a Vietnamese man at the main airport in Maputo as he tried to smuggle rhino horns out of the country. Doan Minh (41) had already made it past airport security screening when he was caught.
    (AFP, 5/31/12)

2012        Jun, In Mozambique Danish biotech giant Novozymes led a scheme under the Cleanstar name whereby Mozambican farmers sell surplus cassava that is converted to ethanol at a new facility near the central port city of Beira. The fuel is then shipped to Maputo, where Cleanstar sells new gas operated stoves. Some 200 stoves were sold in the first month and another 3,000 were on order.
    (AFP, 6/9/12)

2012        Jul 21, Mozambique launched a Brazilian funded pharmaceutical plant that will make anti-retroviral drugs to battle the HIV/AIDS scourge in the southern African country. The plant will initially package drugs from Brazil but start producing the pills by the end of the year.
    (AFP, 7/21/12)

2012        Jul 31, Malawi vowed to press on with oil and gas exploration on Lake Malawi, dismissing a demand by Tanzania, which claims half of the lake, to halt prospecting. Mozambique also owns part of the lake.
    (AFP, 7/31/12)

2012        Aug 18, In Mozambique Southern African leaders slammed Rwanda for supporting rebels in the Democratic Republic of Congo as a threat to regional stability and urged Kigali to immediately stop its "interference." The Southern African Development Community (SADC) mandated a mission to Rwanda to urge them to stop support for the M23.
    (AFP, 8/18/12)

2012        Aug 31, Mozambican police killed Orquilio Nhassengo, the suspected kingpin of a kidnapping ring that has targeted wealthy Muslims in Maputo, during a raid in which six were also arrested.
    (AFP, 9/4/12)

2012        Nov 15, In Mozambique youths in Maputo burned tires and attacked motorists over hikes in bus fees.
    (AP, 11/15/12)

2012        Nov 18, In Mozambique pilots and crew members at the national airline went on strike, grounding the carrier.
    (AP, 11/18/12)

2012        Dec 21, In Mozambique 14 people died when a tire burst on a speeding minibus, causing the driver to lose control and collide with an oncoming vehicle.
    (AP, 12/22/12)

2012        Mozambique ranked 184 out of 187 on the UN’s Human Development Index.
    (Economist, 9/29/12, p.54)

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