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The 16 member North Atlantic Treaty Organization headquartered near Brussels. The Supreme Head-quarters of the Allied Powers Europe was also known as SHAPE.
    (SFC, 12/11/96, p.C1)(WSJ, 10/20/97, p.A1)

1893        Apr 11, Dean G. Acheson, U.S. secretary of state (1949-53), was born. He helped create NATO.
    (HN, 4/11/99)

1948        The Western European Union (WEU) was founded as a defensive arm for postwar Europe. It led to the formation of NATO. In 1992 its tasks were re-defined to cover humanitarian and rescue missions, peacekeeping and crisis management.
    (SFC, 2/17/99, p.A8)

1949        Apr 4, The (NATO) North Atlantic Treaty Organization pact was signed by the US, Great Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Italy, Portugal, Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Canada. It provided for mutual defense against aggression and for close military cooperation.
    (www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/official_texts_17120.htm)(TOH, 1982, p.1949)

1949        Jul 21, The North Atlantic Treaty (NATO) was ratified by the US Senate.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1207)

1949        Jul 25, NATO was signed by Pres. Truman.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1207)

1949        Aug 24, The North Atlantic Treaty went into effect.
    (AP, 8/24/97)

1949        Sep 17, The North Atlantic Treaty Council (NATO) met for the 1st time.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1949        Oct 6, Pres. Truman signed the Mutual Defense Assistance Act that appropriated more than one billion dollars for military aid primarily to members of the Atlantic Pact (NATO).
    (EWH, 1968, p.1207)

1950        Dec 19, The North Atlantic Council named General Eisenhower supreme commander of Western European defense forces of NATO.
    (www.nato.int/multi/photos/1950/m501219a.htm)(AP, 12/19/00)

1952        Turkey and Greece joined NATO.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NATO)

1954        Mar 31, Moscow offered to join NATO on the condition that the West join the Soviet European security treaty.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1954        May 7, US, Great Britain and France rejected Russian membership in NATO.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1954        Oct 22, West Germany joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The country had no standing army. [see Oct 23]
    (AP, 10/22/97)(SFC, 4/22/98, p.A8)

1954        Oct 23, In Paris, an agreement was signed providing for West German sovereignty and permitting West Germany to rearm and enter NATO and the Western European Union. Britain, England, France and USSR agreed to end occupation of Germany. [see Oct 22]
    (HN, 10/23/98)(MC, 10/23/01)

1955        May 6, West Germany joined NATO.
    (WSJ, 10/8/01, p.A14)(MC, 5/6/02)

1966        France pulled out of NATO's integrated military command.
    (SFC, 12/25/99, p.B4)

1957        Mar 20, Britain accepted a NATO offer to mediate in Cyprus, but Greece rejected it.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1957        May 4, It was reported that NATO has warned the Soviet Union that it would meet any attack with all available meads including nuclear weapons.
    (SFC, 5/4/09, p.B2)

1961        Mar 4, Paul-Henri Spaak resigned as Secretary-General of NATO.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1966        Mar 7, Charles de Gaulle said he would pull France out of NATO's integrated military command. French military personnel stepped down from their positions in NATO on July 1.
    (www.charles-de-gaulle.org/article.php3?id_article=181)

1980        Dec 14, After four days of meetings, members of NATO warned the Soviets to stay out of the internal affairs of Poland, saying that intervention would effectively destroy the detente between East and West.
    (HN, 12/14/98)

1981        Dec 17, Red Brigade terrorists kidnapped Brigadier General James Dozier, the highest-ranking US NATO officer in southern Europe, from his home in Verona, Italy. Dozier was rescued 42 days later.
    (HN, 12/17/98)(AP, 12/17/04)

1982          May 30, Spain became NATO's 16th member, the first country to enter the Western alliance since West Germany in 1955.
    (AP, 5/30/97)(http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1982/index_en.htm)

1984        Nov 28, Hans Speidel (b.1897), German general and NATO-supreme commander (1957-63), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Speidel)

1984        Britain’s Lord Carrington (b.1919) began serving as Secretary-General of NATO and continued to 1988.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Carington,_6th_Baron_Carrington)

1986        Apr 14, Italy, which opposed an American strike against Libya, warned Libya a day before the strike, which was launched from a NATO base on the Sicilian island of Lampedusa.
    (AP, 10/30/08)

1987        Dec 11, NATO allies urged the U.S. Senate to ratify the intermediate-range missile treaty quickly and underscored their support by pledging to let the Soviet Union inspect missile bases in five European countries.
    (AP, 12/11/97)

1987        The NATO sec.-gen’l. negotiated a Turkish-Greek dispute.
    (WSJ, 10/8/01, p.A14)

1989        Jan 15, NATO, the Warsaw Pact and 12 other European countries adopted a human rights and security agreement in Vienna, Austria.
    (AP, 1/15/99)

1990        Nov 19, Leaders of 16 NATO members and the remaining six Warsaw Pact nations signed treaties in Paris making sweeping cuts in conventional arms throughout Europe and pledging non-aggression toward one another. The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) was signed by the United States and 21 other NATO and WTO countries at a CSCE summit in Paris.
    (AP, 11/19/00)(www.fas.org/nuke/control/cfe/chron.htm)

1991        Jun 6, NATO issued a statement saying it would not accept any “coercion or intimidation" against the emerging democracies of Eastern Europe.
    (AP, 6/6/01)

1991        Nov 9, President Bush returned from a four-day European trip that included a NATO summit.
    (AP, 11/9/01)

1992        Jul 17, A historic accord for deep cuts in tanks and other non-nuclear arms in Europe went into effect, nearly two years after it was signed by NATO and the now-defunct Warsaw Pact.
    (AP, 7/17/97)

1993        Apr 13, NATO forces began combat patrols over Bosnia to enforce a UN ban on flights.
    (SFC,10/16/97, p.A12)

1994        Jan 10, On the first day of a two-day NATO summit in Belgium, leaders signed a document inviting nations of the former Warsaw Pact to join in a "partnership for peace."
    (AP, 1/10/99)

1994        Jan 11, NATO leaders concluded a summit in Belgium by warning Bosnian Serbs of their willingness to order bombing raids in former Yugoslavia to relieve embattled Muslim enclaves. President Clinton, who attended the summit, then traveled to the Czech Republic for a short visit.
    (AP, 1/11/99)

1994        Jan, US Pres. Clinton got NATO to reach eastward with the Partnership for Peace program.
    (WSJ, 10/20/97, p.A1)

1994        Feb 9, NATO delivered an ultimatum to Bosnian Serbs to remove heavy guns encircling Sarajevo, or face air strikes. Hours before the ultimatum was issued, the Bosnian Serbs agreed to withdraw their artillery and mortars from around Sarajevo.
    (AP, 2/9/99)

1994        Nov 21, NATO retaliated for repeated Serb attacks on a U.N. safe haven by bombing an airfield in a Serb-controlled section of Croatia.
    (AP, 11/21/02)

1994        Nov 23, NATO warplanes blasted Serb missile batteries in two air raids while Bosnian Serb fighters, for the first time, broke into the U.N.-designated safe haven of Bihac.
    (AP, 11/23/99)

1994-1995    Depleted uranium shells were used by NATO forces against Bosnian Serb positions around Serayevo.
    (WSJ, 1/11/00, p.A14)

1995        May 25, NATO warplanes struck Bosnian Serb headquarters.  Serbs answered with swift defiance, storming UN weapons depots, attacking safe areas and taking peacekeepers as hostages.
    (AP, 5/25/00)

1995        May 26, Serbs bombarded Serajevo. On Jun 6 NATO launched 2 air raids against an ammunition dump in Serb-held central Bosnia.
    (SFC, 6/7/96, p.A10)(SFC,10/16/97, p.A12)

1995        Jun 6, NATO launched 2 air raids against an ammunition dump in Serb-held central Bosnia.  The air strikes touched off a crises in which [270] 350 UN peacekeepers were taken hostage by Bosnian Serbs. Serb forces seized 270 UN peacekeepers, shackled them to potential targets, and ordered them to plead on camera for the NATO air attacks to stop. Serbia improved its relations with the West by helping to arrange the release of the hostages.
    (SFC, 6/7/96, p.A10)(SFC,10/16/97, p.A12)

1995        Oct 20, NATO Secretary General Willy Claes resigned to face corruption charges in his native Belgium. He later received a three-year suspended jail sentence.
    (AP, 10/20/00)

1995        Nov 21, The Dayton Peace Accord, was initialed by the leaders of Bosnia, Croatia and Serbia. US Sec. of State, Warren Christopher and chief mediator Richard Holbrooke manage to keep the parties talking for over 3 weeks to reach this agreement to end three and a-half years of ethnic fighting in Bosnia-Herzegovina. One year deployment of 20,000 US troops as one-third of a NATO peace keeping force was estimated to cost about $1.5 bil. The US also planned to contribute $600 mil over three years to help rebuild Bosnia.
    (WSJ, 11/22/95, p.A1,3)(SFC, 10/6/00, p.A19)(AP, 11/21/00)

1995        Dec 20, In Bosnia-Herzegovina, NATO began its peacekeeping mission, taking over from the United Nations.
    (AP, 12/20/00)

1995        Libya declared jihad against NATO, but no concrete action was taken.
    (WSJ, 10/10/01, p.A10)

1996        Jun 4, NATO foreign ministers approved plans to shift focus toward intervention in small regional conflicts and away from containing Russia, its primary focus for 47 years.
    (WSJ, 6/4/96, p.A1)

1996        Sep 25, NATO generals were ordered to prepare plans for an extension of allied military force in Bosnia beyond the Dec. 20 deadline.
    (SFC, 9/26/96, p.A12)

1996        Dec 10, NATO took formal steps to expand and reassured Russia that it had no plans to move nuclear weapons into the territory of new members.
    (SFC, 12/11/96, p.C1)

1997        May 27, In Paris, Russian President Boris Yeltsin joined 16 NATO leaders, including President Clinton, to sign a historic agreement giving Moscow a voice in NATO affairs. Boris Yeltsin joined Bill Clinton and the leaders of the 15 other NATO member states in signing the "Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security between NATO and the Russian Federation."   
    (AP, 5/27/98)(www.armscontrol.org/act/1997_05/jm)

1997        Jun 11, Pres. Clinton announced that the US would only support Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic for NATO membership for now.
    (SFC, 6/12/97, p.A14)

1997        Jun 13, The leaders of France, Germany and Canada insisted that Romania and Slovenia be allowed to join NATO next month.
    (SFC, 6/14/97, p.A12)

1997        Jul 10, In Operation Tango NATO forces captured Milan Kovacevic, a physician who was the 2nd ranking officer in the Prijedor City Hall during the war. An attempt to capture Simo Drljaca, a leader of local “ethnic cleansing" led to a shootout and his death.
    (SFC, 7/11/97, p.A17)

1998        Apr 30, The US Senate approved the expansion of NATO to include Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic.
    (SFC, 5/1/98, p.A3)

1998        May 27, Nato Ministers agreed to help Albania and Macedonia strengthen their border patrols.
    (SFC, 5/29/98, p.A16)

1998        Aug 6, NATO set exercises in Albania for Aug 17-22 to show force against the Serb offensive in Kosovo.
    (WSJ, 8/7/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 17, NATO forces began a 5-day exercise in Albania as a threat to Serbia.
    (WSJ, 8/18/98, p.A1)

1998        Dec 23, In Belgium the top court convicted former NATO chief Willy Claes, French aerospace tycoon Serge Dessault and 2 ex-aides of corruption in the Agusta scandal. All got suspended sentences. Guy Spitaels (1931-2012), a Belgian socialist leader, was also convicted in the bribery scandal linked to the purchase of Italian helicopters for the air force.
    (WSJ, 12/24/98, p.A1)(AP, 8/21/12)

1999        Jan 20, NATO moved forces within striking distance of Yugoslavia and warned Belgrade to stop its repression in Kosovo.
    (WSJ, 1/21/99, p.A15)

1999        Mar 12, Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic formally joined NATO in a ceremony at Independence, Mo., where Pres. Truman announced in 1949 the formation of the Atlantic alliance for defense against the Soviet bloc.
    (SFC, 3/11/99, p.C14)

1999        Mar 23, NATO Secretary-General Javier Solana gave the formal go-ahead for airstrikes against Serbian targets following the failure of Kosovo peace talks.
    (AP, 3/23/00)

1999        Mar 24, In Serbia NATO forces sent a broad wave of air attacks against Yugoslav forces in an attempt to halt the Serbian offensive in Kosovo. Cruise missiles and planes targeted military sites near Belgrade and some 40 sites in total. Initial reports said 10 people were killed and 38 wounded in the bombing. The airstrikes marked the first time in its 50-year existence that NATO had ever attacked a sovereign country. NATO’s 78-day bombing ended on June 10.
    (SFC, 3/25/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 3/25/99, p.A1)(SFC, 3/26/99, p.A6)(AP, 3/24/00)(Econ, 5/23/09, p.51)

1999        Mar 25, NATO forces struck Serbian air defenses and other sites for a second night as Serb forces stepped up their efforts to crush resistance in Kosovo. The village of Goden was burned by Serb forces and 174 residents were forced to leave. 20 men were kept back and presumed killed.
    (SFC, 3/26/99, p.A1)(SFEC, 4/4/99, p.A1,8)(AP, 3/25/00)

1999        Mar 26, NATO forces attacked Yugoslavia for a 3rd day and 2 MiG-29 fighters were shot down as Serbian troops continued to sweep ethnic Albanian villages in Kosovo.
    (SFC, 3/27/99, p.A1)

1999        Mar 27, NATO expanded its air assault on Yugoslavia in the fourth straight day of attacks. A $42 million US F-117A stealth fighter was downed over Yugoslavia during continued NATO airstrikes. The downed American pilot was rescued by US forces. The wreckage was later believed to have been sold.
    (SFEC, 3/28/99, p.A1,16)(SFC, 9/17/99, p.A10)(AP, 3/27/00)

1999        Mar 28, UN officials reported that some 500,000 ethnic Albanians had fled Kosovo. NATO officials raised the possibility of using ground troops in Yugoslavia as low-level strikes against tanks began. It was feared that anger over the war would spill over to Bosnia.
    (SFC, 3/29/99, p.A1,10)

1999        Mar 29, Albania and Macedonia appealed for help as thousands of refugees fled Kosovo on the 6th day of bombing. NATO said Serbs were targeting ethnic Albanian leadership for executions and the US accused Milosevic of "crimes against humanity."
    (WSJ, 3/30/99, p.A1)

1999        Mar 30, In Serbia Pres. Milosevic said in a meeting with Premier Primakov of Russia that he would resume peace talks if allied bombing stops. The US called the offer "woefully inadequate." NATO moved to step up the air war and Serbian forces continued unopposed in Kosovo as refugees streamed out.
    (WSJ, 3/31/99, p.A1)

1999        Apr 4, NATO dropped more bombs on downtown Belgrade and said that it would send some 8,000 troops into Albania to help Kosovo refugees. The Freedom Bridge over the Danube at Novi Sad was destroyed. The US announced that it would send 24 Apache helicopter gunships to attack Serbian troops and tanks in Kosovo. Some 30,000 refugees crossed into Albania in the last 24-hour period. Shipping on the Danube was not fully restored until 2002.
    (SFEC, 4/4/99, p.A1,12)(SFC, 4/5/99, p.A1,10)(SSFC, 2/3/02, Par p.7)

1999        Apr 13, NATO bombs were dropped on Pristina. Yugoslav infantry troops crossed into northeastern Albania for a short time and clashed with Albanian border police. Refugees in Albania reported gang-rapes and murders by Serbian soldiers.
    (SFC, 4/14/99, p.A1,13)

1999        Apr 23, On the first day of a 50th anniversary NATO summit in Washington, Western leaders pledged to intensify military strikes against Yugoslavia and vowed "no compromise" on demands that Slobodan Milosevic withdraw his troops from Kosovo.
    (SFC, 4/24/99, p.A1)(AP, 4/23/00)
1999        Apr 23, NATO forces bombed Nis and a broad swath of Yugoslavia on the 31st day of attacks. 16 civilians were killed and 16 others injured during the attack on the headquarters and studios of Radio Television Serbia in central Belgrade. In 2009 Amnesty International demanded that NATO be held accountable for civilian casualties in the bombing.
    (SFC, 4/24/99, p.A11)(AP, 4/23/09)

1999        Apr 24, NATO approved a new strategic concept in Washington that allowed the use of military force to prevent the abuse of human rights anywhere in Europe.
    (SFEC, 4/25/99, p.A1)

1999        May 6, Russia joined NATO to back a framework for ending the conflict in Kosovo that included an international security presence to enforce peace.
    (SFC, 5/7/99, p.A1)

1999        May 7, NATO bombs hit a residential area in Nis and at least 15 people were killed and 60 wounded. NATO bombs hit the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade and 3 people were killed and [20] 21 injured. An outdated map was blamed for the embassy bombing. The British Observor later reported that NATO bombed the Embassy because it was being used to transmit Yugoslav military communications. British, NATO and US officials denied the story. In 2000 the US CIA fired one officer and reprimanded 6 others for the bombing. President Clinton called the attack a "tragic mistake."
    (SFC, 5/8/99, p.A1,10)(SFC, 5/10/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/18/99, p.A1)(SFEC, 4/9/00, p.A1,15)(AP, 5/7/00)

1999        May 8, In China protestors attacked US diplomatic mission in demonstrations against the NATO bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. Many of the demonstrations were organized by the government-controlled Beijing Students Assoc. NATO expressed regret for a mistaken attack on the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade, but pledged to pursue the bombing campaign.
    (SFEC, 5/9/99, p.A1)(SFC, 5/10/99, p.A8)(AP, 5/8/00)

1999        May 13, NATO bombs struck a group of some 500 refugees in Korisa (Kosovo) and at least 79 people were killed. Some 700 hundreds refugees had been locked up by the Serbs inside the grounds of a warehouse in Korisa.
    (SFC, 5/15/99, p.A1)(SFC, 5/31/99, p.A8)    

1999        May 25, NATO approved plans for 50,000 ground soldiers to move into Kosovo.
    (SFC, 5/26/99, p.A10)

1999        May 26, NATO military commanders won political approval to strike at the civilian telephone and computer networks of Yugoslavia. Warplanes carried out a record 650 sorties with 284 bombing attacks.
    (SFC, 5/27/99, p.C18)
1999        May 26, Serbian military fired over 30 missiles at NATO warplanes which had begun flying at lower altitudes to strike tanks, artillery and ground troops.
    (WSJ, 5/28/99, p.A15)

1999        Jun 4, NATO commanders met with Yugoslav army officers in Macedonia to arrange for the withdrawal of some 40,000 Serbian troops from Kosovo.
    (SFC, 6/5/99, p.A1)

1999        Jun 21, NATO finalized an agreement with the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) to demilitarize.
    (SFC, 6/21/99, p.A1)

1999        Jul 16, A NATO memorandum warned soldiers and workers of a “possible toxic threat" from the use depleted uranium ordnance used by the US during the air campaign across Yugoslavia.
    (SFC, 1/8/01, p.A9)

1999        Jul 23, Russia ended a 4-month boycott on contacts with NATO.
    (SFC, 7/24/99, p.C1)

1999        Jul 28, Defense Sec. William Cohen announced that NATO commander Army Gen'l. Wesley Clark would be replaced by Air Force Gen'l. Joseph Ralston.
    (SFC, 7/29/99, p.A3)

1999        Aug 4, George Robertson, British Defense Minister, was chosen as the new secretary general of NATO.
    (SFC, 8/5/99, p.A10)

2000        Feb 16, Russia and NATO announced a resumption of contacts that were broken in Mar 1999 due to NATO bombing in Yugoslavia.
    (SFC, 2/17/00, p.D3)

2000        Mar 21, NATO acknowledged that depleted uranium rounds were used during the 1999 Kosovo war whenever American A-10 ground attack aircraft engaged armored vehicles.
    (SFC, 3/22/00, p.A14)

2000        Apr 3, In Bosnia NATO troops arrested Momcilo Krajisnik, former speaker of the Bosnian Serb assembly, for war crimes and flew him to the Netherlands to stand trial. Momcilo Krajisnik was convicted by the Yugoslav war crimes tribunal in The Hague for persecuting and forcibly expelling non-Serbs during the 1992-95 war in Bosnia. He was released in 2013 after serving two-thirds of a reduced 20-year sentence.
    (SFC, 4/4/00, p.A10)(SFC, 8/31/13, p.A6)

2001        Jan 6, A Nato meeting was scheduled in Italy on the use of ammunition with depleted uranium following the deaths from cancer of 6 Italian soldiers following duty in the Balkans. 5 Balkan veterans from Belgium along with peacekeepers from Spain, Portugal and the Czech Republic had died of cancer.
    (WSJ, 1/04/01, p.A1)(SFC, 1/6/01, p.A7)

2001        Mar 12, Yugoslavia and Nato agreed to use their forces to squeeze Albanian rebels from separate flanks as the rebels signed a cease-fire.
    (SFC, 3/13/01, p.A15)

2001        Mar 19, Nato asked for additional troops in Kosovo to help stop Albanian guerrillas from crossing into Macedonia.
    (SFC, 3/20/01, p.A10)

2001        Apr 19, In Kosovo Nato troops broke up Serb roadblocks set up to protest UN tax collections on goods from elsewhere in Yugoslavia.
    (WSJ, 4/20/01, p.A1)

2001        Jun 13, Pres. Bush held his 1st meeting with Nato leaders and pitched his missile shield plan with mixed response.
    (SFC, 6/14/01, p.A1)

2001        Sep 25, Nato agreed to keep troops in Macedonia beyond the Sep 26 expiration of its mission.
    (WSJ, 9/26/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct 2, The US gave Nato “clear and compelling" evidence that Osama bin Laden orchestrated the Sep 11 terrorist attacks.
    (SFC, 10/3/01, p.A4)

2001        Oct 3, Pres. Putin said Russia is ready to reconsider its opposition to Nato expansion if the alliance assumes a broader political identity in which Moscow can be involved.
    (SFC, 10/4/01, p.A10)

2001        Oct 24, A NATO spokesman said peacekeepers in Bosnia had disrupted a Bosnian terrorist network.
    (SFC, 10/25/01, p.A14)

2001        Nov 22, Talks on Russia-Nato relations began in Moscow. A plan was proposed that would give Russia equal status with the 19 permanent members.
    (SFC, 11/23/01, p.A1)

2001        Dec 7, Russia and Nato proclaimed a commitment “to forge a new relationship" following a meeting in Brussels.
    (SFC, 12/8/01, p.A5)

2002        Feb 25, NATO offered Russia a modified membership, with no veto power over political or military policies.
    (SFC, 2/26/02, p.A7)

2002        May 14, Nato agreed with Russia on a new framework that would include Russia on a handful of agreed-on issues.
    (SFC, 5/15/02, p.A1)

2002        May 28, Russia signed an agreement with NATO leaders in Rome for participation in NATO discussions on a fixed variety of subjects, but no veto power.
    (SFC, 5/29/02, p.A8)(WSJ, 5/29/02, p.A1)

2002        Jul 9, NATO troops arrested Radovan Stankovic (33), a former member of an elite Serb paramilitary unit, for allegedly running a house where women and girls were raped during Bosnia's 1992-1995 war.
    (AP, 7/9/02)(SFC, 7/10/02, p.A8)

2002        Sep 26, NATO planned to issued invitations in November to Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. Expansion would commit the current 19 members to defend the borders of the new members.
    (SFC, 9/26/02, p.A1)

2002        Oct 3, NATO and European Union called on Croatia to cooperate with the U.N. War Crimes Tribunal, urging the government to hand over indicted war crimes suspect Gen. Janko Bobetko.
    (AP, 10/3/02)

2002        Nov 20, On the eve of a NATO summit in the Czech Republic, President Bush, recalling Europe's grim history of "excusing aggression," challenged skeptical allies to stand firm against Saddam Hussein.
    (WSJ, 11/20/02, p.A1)(AP, 11/20/03)

2002        Nov 21, The 19 NATO leaders demanded that Iraq "fully and immediately" comply with a UN resolution to disarm. It was at the NATO Summit in Prague that  the NATO Response Force initiative was announced together with the other major military transformation initiatives, the Prague Capabilities Commitment and the fundamental revision of the NATO military command structure. The NRF concept was approved by Ministers of Defense in June 2003 in Brussels.
    (AP, 11/21/02)(http://www.nato.int/issues/nrf/index.html)
2002        Nov 21, The Baltic nations of Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania joined former communist states Bulgaria, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia as the next wave of NATO states.
    (AP, 11/21/02)

2002        Nov 22, At the NATO summit in Prague, Russian President Vladimir Putin told President Bush the United States should not wage war alone against Iraq, and questioned whether Pakistan and Saudi Arabia were doing enough to fight terrorism.
    (AP, 11/22/03)
2002       
    (Econ, 3/28/09, p.70)

2003        Jan 21, Nato blocked a US request to begin preparations for a military backup in the event of war with Iraq.
    (WSJ, 1/23/03, p.A1)

2003        Feb 10, France, Germany and Belgium blocked NATO efforts to begin planning for possible Iraqi attacks against Turkey.
    (AP, 2/10/03)

2003          Feb 16, The 19-member NATO alliance turned to its Defense Planning Committee, which Paris withdrew from in 1966, to negotiate an end to the month-long NATO deadlock over Iraq. NATO agreed to supply Turkey with defense equipment in the event of war with Iraq.
    (AP, 2/16/03)(SFC, 2/17/03, A1)

2003          Feb 19, NATO approved the deployment of defense equipment to Turkey in the event of a war in Iraq. Turkey and the US failed again to agree on the size of an economic aid package.
    (AP, 2/19/03)

2003        Mar 26, NATO officially signed up 7 eastern European nations to become members: Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia.
    (AP, 3/27/03)

2003        Apr 11, NATO-led peacekeepers in Bosnia arrested Naser Oric (35), a Bosnian Muslim wanted by the Yugoslav war crimes tribunal and flew him to The Hague. He was the wartime army commander in the eastern Bosnian town of Srebrenica.
    (AP, 4/11/03)

2003        Apr 16, NATO agreed to take command of the UN peacekeeping mission in Afghanistan. The NATO stabilization force soon started in Kabul and then spread across the country.
    (AP, 4/16/03)(Econ, 3/28/09, p.69)

2003        May 21, NATO's 19 nations agreed unanimously to start planning to help Poland lead a multinational peacekeeping force in Iraq.
    (AP, 5/21/03)

2003        Sep 22, NATO selected Dutch Foreign Minister Jaap de Hoop Scheffer as the alliance's new secretary general.
    (AP, 9/22/03)

2003        Oct 13, The UN Security Council approved a resolution expanding the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Afghanistan.
    (AP, 10/13/04)

2003        Oct 15, NATO launched its elite rapid-reaction force, a prototype unit that will eventually become a 20,000-member force able to deploy in short notice anywhere in the world.
    (AP, 10/15/03)

2003        Dec 17, NATO's Secretary General Lord Robertson ended a tumultuous four-year term.
    (AP, 12/17/03)

2004        Jan 5, Dutchman Jaap de Hoop Scheffer took over as NATO's top official.
    (AP, 1/5/04)

2004        Mar 29, Pres. Bush hosted a White House ceremony to welcome Bulgaria, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia into the NATO alliance.
    (WSJ, 3/30/04, p.A1)

2004        Apr 2, In Brussel an official ceremony welcomed Bulgaria, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia into the NATO alliance.
    (SFC, 4/3/04, p.A11)

2004        Jun 27, Over 40 thousand Turks chanting anti-Bush slogans demonstrated against the president's visit to their country and a NATO summit. NATO leaders closed ranks on a pledge to take a bigger military role in Iraq; Pres. Bush declared that the alliance was poised to "meet the threats of the 21st century." Pres. Bush called on the EU to admit Turkey as a member.
    (AP, 6/27/04)(Econ, 9/11/04, p.50)(AP, 6/27/05)

2004        Jun 28, NATO leaders agreed to help train Iraq's armed forces just hours after the new government in Baghdad took over sovereignty from the U.S.-led administration.
    (AP, 6/28/04)

2004        In Hungary Ramil Safarov of Azerbaijan killed fellow-student Gurgen Margarjan of Armenia while both men studied at a NATO English language course for military officers of non-member countries. Safarov was sentenced to life in prison, but was released to Azerbaijan on Aug 31, 2012.
    (Economist, 9/8/12, p.51)

2005        Feb 22, In Belgium a Nato summit announced a 12-year program to destroy Soviet-era weapons in Ukraine. Ukraine’s Pres. Viktor Yushchenko attended.
    (WSJ, 2/22/05, p.A1)

2005        Apr 1, Australia and NATO signed an agreement to cooperate in the fight against international terrorism, weapons proliferation and other global military threats.
    (AP, 4/1/05)

2005        May 24, NATO Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer said NATO will offer airlift, training and other logistics support to African Union (AU) forces struggling to end the civil war in Sudan's Darfur region.
    (AP, 5/24/05)

2005        May 31, NATO troops took command of security and reconstruction efforts in western Afghanistan from US forces under a plan that will likely soon put NATO forces into insurgent hot spots.
    (AP, 5/31/05)

2005        Sep 4, European Union and NATO said the US has asked for emergency assistance, requesting blankets, first aid kits, water trucks and food for the victims of Hurricane Katrina.
    (AP, 9/4/05)

2005        Oct 24, NATO pledged to help Ukraine push through military reforms seen as essential to prepare the country for membership in the Western alliance, a prospect viewed with concern in Russia.
    (AP, 10/24/05)

2005        Nov 23, A NATO official said Uzbekistan has told NATO allies they can no longer use its territory or airspace to support peacekeeping missions in neighboring Afghanistan.
    (AP, 11/23/05)

2005        Dec 8, NATO foreign ministers approved plans to send up to 6,000 troops into southern Afghanistan, a major expansion of the alliance's peacekeeping mission into some of the most dangerous parts of the country.
    (AP, 12/08/05)

2005        Dec 22, The Dutch government said it planned to send up to 1,400 additional troops to Afghanistan for expanded NATO peacekeeping.
    (AP, 12/22/05)

2006        Jan 31, NATO ended its earthquake relief operation in Pakistan, the first big disaster mission involving ground troops outside an alliance country.
    (AP, 1/31/06)

2006        Feb 10, In Sicily NATO defense ministers sought to calm Islamic anger over cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad at a counterterrorism meeting with Arab countries including Israel, Egypt, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Jordan and Mauritania.
    (AP, 2/10/06)

2006        Apr 28, Afghan President Hamid Karzai urged Taliban militants to end the violence raging across the country and join forces with the new government to help Afghanistan's reconstruction. NATO foreign ministers reaffirmed the alliance's readiness to nearly double its peacekeeping operations in Afghanistan, where violence is increasing.
    (AP, 4/28/06)

2006        Aug 20, In Afghanistan militants ambushed a police patrol in western Farah province, sparking a gunbattle that left one officer and 2 attackers dead. In Helmand province a clash with insurgents left one British soldier dead and three others wounded. A NATO airstrike killed nine militants including a local insurgent leader in Helmand province. A roadside bomb killed three Afghan policemen traveling on the main highway linking Murja and Lashkar Gah districts. Two roadside bombs targeting border police in southeastern Khost province killed two officers and wounded five others. Tens of thousands of health workers fanned out across Afghanistan in a polio vaccination campaign to immunize more than 7 million children under age 5.
    (AP, 8/20/06)(AP, 8/21/06)(AP, 8/22/06)

2006        Sep 3, NATO and Afghan forces hit the Taliban with air strikes and artillery in Operation Medusa in southern Afghanistan. Four NATO soldiers, including 3 Canadians, and more than 200 insurgents were killed in the first two days of a major anti-Taliban operation under way in the Panjwayi district, about 10 miles from the city of Kandahar.
    (AFP, 9/3/06)

2006        Oct 31, In eastern Afghanistan a roadside bomb killed 3 NATO soldiers. A suicide bombing in southern Ghazni province's Taliban-dominated Ander district killed one policeman.
    (AFP, 10/31/06)

2006        Nov 28, President Bush, in Latvia to attend a NATO summit, said he will not be persuaded by any calls to withdraw American troops from Iraq before the country is stabilized. Bush also enlisted renewed commitments from the NATO allies that have deployed 32,000 troops to Afghanistan.
    (AP, 11/28/06)

2006        Nov 29, NATO leaders finished a two-day summit without agreement on some members' refusal to send troops into combat in Afghanistan's most dangerous regions. NATO vowed to give its troubled mission in Afghanistan the "forces, resources and flexibility needed" to tackle increasingly ferocious Taliban fighters. Leaders invited Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia-Herzegovina to join a program considered a first step toward eventual membership, but urged Serbia and Bosnia to fully cooperate with the UN war crimes tribunal.
    (AP, 11/29/06)(AFP, 11/29/06)

2006        Dec 13, NATO said there were some Taliban casualties in southern Afghanistan when NATO troops launched a "precision air strike against a known Taliban command post" in an isolated area of the Panjwayi district of Kandahar province.
    (AP, 12/14/06)

2007        Feb 4, Gen. Dan McNeill, the highest-ranking US general to lead troops in Afghanistan, took command of 35,500 strong NATO-led force, putting an American face on the international mission after nine months of British command under Gen. David Richards. A NATO airstrike killed a senior Taliban leader riding in a car near Musa Qala.
    (AP, 2/4/07)

2007        Apr 20, In southern Afghanistan separate explosions killed two NATO soldiers. A Dutch soldier was killed in one explosion, the first fatality from hostile action among Dutch troops serving with NATO forces in the country.
    (AP, 4/20/07)

2007        Apr 30, The presidents of Afghanistan and Pakistan, a meeting arranged by Turkish leaders, agreed to share intelligence on extremist groups to bolster efforts to deny sanctuary, training and financing to terrorists in both countries. NATO-led troops killed 75 suspected insurgents on the first day of an operation against Taliban militants in a valley in southern Helmand province. Hundreds of people demonstrated in the Shindand district of the western province of Herat, after coalition and Afghan operations there on April 27 and 29, insisting that civilians were among the victims. Police the next day said at least 30 civilians, including women and children, were among those killed in Shindand's fighting.
    (AP, 4/30/07)(AP, 5/1/07)(AFP, 5/1/07)

2007        May 3, Russia lashed out at the EU and NATO for supporting Estonia in its row with Moscow over the relocation of a Soviet war monument.
    (AP, 5/3/07)

2007        May 8, In southern Afghanistan suspected Taliban militants ambushed a NATO convoy, and a gunshot victim said soldiers fleeing the scene shot him and killed a man in a bakery.
    (AP, 5/8/07)
2007        May 8, NATO Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer and President Pervez Musharraf agreed to strengthen security along the Pakistan-Afghanistan border to contain the Taliban insurgency.
    (AP, 5/8/07)

2007        May 10, Talks in Brussels between NATO's top generals and their Russian counterpart failed to narrow the gap between Moscow and the West over missile defense and arms control in Europe.
    (AP, 5/10/07)

2007        May 20, President Bush welcomed NATO Secretary-General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer to his Crawford, Texas, ranch, to review strategy on a flurry of issues.
    (AP, 5/20/08)

2007        Jul 14, Russia suspended its participation in a key European arms control treaty that governs deployment of troops on the continent. Under the moratorium, Russia will halt inspections and verifications of its military sites by NATO countries and will no longer limit the number of its conventional weapons. The treaty, between Russian and NATO members, was signed in 1990 and amended in 1999 to reflect changes since the breakup of the Soviet Union, adding the requirement that Moscow withdraw troops from the former Soviet republics of Moldova and Georgia. Russia has ratified the amended version, but the United States and other NATO members have refused to do so until Russia completely withdraws.
    (AP, 7/14/07)

2007        Jul 27, Afghan and NATO troops over the last 24 hours clashed with Taliban insurgents and called in airstrikes, killing at least 50 suspected militants and dozens of civilians.
    (AP, 7/27/07)

2007        Aug 16, In Afghanistan 6 civilians, including 3 children, were killed by the mortar and machine-gun attack on the village of Nangarkhel, Paktika province. Two other civilians died of their wounds in a hospital. 7 Polish soldiers were later charged with war crimes. On Jun 1, 2011, a military court in Poland acquitted the soldiers saying there was not enough evidence to support war crime charges. On March 19, 2015, four Polish soldiers were cleared of war crimes over the killing of the six civilians, but were convicted of lesser charges for which three of them were given suspended sentences.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nangar_Khel_incident)(AP, 6/1/11)(Reuters, 3/19/15)

2007        Aug 17, In southern Afghanistan a suicide bomber killed a district chief and 3 of his children. 5 civilians were reported killed in fighting between NATO soldiers and Taliban in the east. Insurgents holed up in buildings and trenches attacked Afghan police and coalition forces near Fire Base Robinson. Nearly a dozen suspected militants were killed in the ensuing battle.
    (AP, 8/17/07)(AP, 8/18/07)

2007        Sep 6, Afghan and US-led coalition forces killed "more than 20" insurgents in an eight-hour battle that saw coalition aircraft bombing and strafing enemy positions in Kandahar province.  Two NATO soldiers were killed in two separate bomb blasts in southern Afghanistan.
    (AP, 9/7/07)

2007        Nov 14, NATO defense chiefs chose Italian Adm. Giampaolo Di Paola as head of the alliance's military committee.
    (AP, 11/14/07)

2007        Nov 16, In western Afghanistan a suicide attacker blew up a car bomb near an Italian military convoy killing only himself. 4 police officers were killed when their vehicle was hit by a remotely detonated bomb as they traveled to work in the southern province of Kandahar. The UN said profits from opium fuel the Taliban insurgency, in a new call on NATO to tackle Afghanistan's burgeoning drugs trade.
    (AP, 11/16/07)(Reuters, 11/16/07)

2007        Dec 7, NATO ministers pledged to keep their KFOR peace force in Kosovo at current strength as the Serbian province heads towards independence and to make more troops available as necessary to deal with any violence.
    (AP, 12/7/07)

2007        Dec 9, In southern Afghanistan Afghan, British and US troops closed in on Musa Qala, a Taliban-held town. A second NATO soldier was killed in the operation. This was the first mission in which British forces have participated with the Afghan army as the main fighting force. Afghan and NATO forces killed 30 Taliban fighters in Kandahar's Panjwayi district.
    (AP, 12/9/07)(AFP, 12/9/07)

2008        Jan 10, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin named a prominent nationalist politician as ambassador to NATO at a time of severely strained ties between the two.
    (AP, 1/10/08)

2008        Jan 25, A World Trade Organization (WTO) accession committee approved Ukraine's membership bid, clearing the way for the former Soviet republic to join the body.
    (AP, 1/25/08)
2008        Jan 25, Russia's lower house of parliament annulled an agreement with Ukraine on using Soviet-built military radars, citing Kiev's bid to join NATO.
    (AP, 1/25/08)

2008        Feb 7, NATO defense ministers held talks on Afghanistan in Lithuania. France agreed to help Canada in fighting the Taliban in southern Afghanistan.
    (AP, 2/8/08)

2008        Mar 5, A NATO official said that Uzbekistan has allowed some members of the alliance, including the US, to use an air base on its territory in a signal of thawing relations with the West.
    (AP, 3/5/08)

2008        Mar 31, A clash in southern Afghanistan killed a Danish soldier and wounded two others. A separate attack on a NATO patrol killed two British troops. an airstrike killed three men irrigating land close to a road in Kandahar province. The men may have been mistaken for militants planting roadside bombs. In Helmand province police arrested Mullah Naqibullah, a senior Taliban commander who has escaped twice from Afghan prisons. Naqibullah was nabbed during a clash that left three insurgents dead.
    (AP, 3/31/08)(AP, 4/1/08)

2008        Apr 4, Russian President Vladimir Putin strongly criticized NATO's eastward expansion plans but ruled out chances of a new Cold War, insisting that Moscow wants to be friends with the Western military alliance.
    (AP, 4/4/08)

2008        Apr 5, Afghan and NATO forces killed 15 Taliban insurgents in separate raids in southern Afghanistan, where police also captured Abdul Jabar, a senior Taliban commander.
    (AFP, 4/6/08)
2008        Apr 5, In Croatia President Bush celebrated NATO's expansion into former communist territory and urged further enlargement, highlighting differences with Moscow hours before final talks with outgoing Russian President Vladimir Putin.
    (AP, 4/5/08)

2008        Apr 11, Foreign Minister Bernard Kouchner said France will boost its contribution to NATO forces fighting al Qaeda and the Taliban in Afghanistan to some 3,000 troops, around double the present level.
    (AP, 4/11/08)

2008        Apr 16, In southern Afghanistan 2 NATO soldiers were killed and two others were wounded in an explosion.
    (AP, 4/16/08)

2008        May 22, In western Afghanistan gunfire broke out in Ghor province at a protest against a US sniper in Iraq who used a Quran for target practice. Two civilians were slain and seven others were wounded. Officials said a NATO soldier was killed.
    (AP, 5/22/08)

2008        Jun 6, Russia's new Pres. Medvedev met with leaders of a fractious alliance of ex-Soviet republics, warning Ukraine and Georgia not to lead their countries into NATO.
    (AP, 6/6/08)

2008        Jun 13, In southern Afghanistan a suicide bomber hit a NATO military convoy, causing casualties. A Romanian soldier was killed and three others injured in Qalat, the capital of southern Zabul province. In south-central Uruzgan province, Afghan and NATO-led forces killed 17 Taliban. In eastern Paktia province, an operation by US-led coalition forces resulted in the deaths of a woman and a number of militants. In Ghazni province a coalition air strike killed seven Taliban militants.
    (AFP, 6/13/08)

2008        Jun 19, Afghan officials said a swift offensive by Afghan and NATO forces drove Taliban militants from a strategic group of villages outside Kandahar and killed 56 insurgents. The militants had planted hundreds of land mines in the area before fleeing.
    (AP, 6/19/08)

2008        Jul 8, In eastern Afghanistan a roadside bomb blast killed one NATO soldier and wounded four others. a provincial police chief said five insurgents and two policemen died during a clash in central Ghazni province.
    (AP, 7/8/08)

2008        Jul 12, In central Afghanistan Taliban militants executed two women just outside Ghazni city after accusing them of working as prostitutes on a US base. A soldier serving with ISAF died of wounds caused by an explosion in northern Afghanistan. NATO troops killed Bismullah Akhund, an insurgent leader in Helmand's Naw Zad district.
    (AP, 7/13/08)(AP, 7/17/08)
2008        Jul 12, NATO said a recent border clash that wounded several Pakistani and Afghan security personnel was sparked by insurgents in Afghanistan who fired at targets in both countries, apparently to stoke cross-border tensions.
    (AP, 7/12/08)

2008        Jul 26, In southern Afghanistan NATO-led soldiers killed four civilians after opening fire on a car that did not stop at a checkpoint.
    (AP, 7/26/08)

2008        Jul 28, NATO said its troops killed two children in southern Afghanistan by opening fire on a car that they feared was about to attack their convoy.
    (AP, 7/28/08)

2008        Aug 11, An Afghan police officer was killed and two others were injured in a roadside bomb explosion on the southeastern outskirts of Kabul. 3 civilians were killed and 15 people were wounded, including three NATO troops, when a suicide car bomber rammed his vehicle into a NATO military convoy in Kabul. In the northern province of Maimana meanwhile a Latvian ISAF soldier was killed and three others wounded when their vehicle hit a roadside bomb.
    (AFP, 8/11/08)

2008        Aug 19, In Afghanistan a team of suicide bombers tried unsuccessfully to storm a US base near the Afghanistan-Pakistan border. NATO said 3 suicide bombers detonated their vests and 3 more were shot dead and that 7 attackers in total were killed.
    (AP, 8/19/08)

2008        Aug 20, A top Russian general said 64 of the country's soldiers were killed and 323 wounded in this month's fighting with Georgia. Russia informed Norway that it plans to suspend all military ties with NATO, a day after the military alliance urged Moscow to withdraw its forces from Georgia.
    (AP, 8/20/08)(AP, 8/21/08)

2008        Aug 24, Taliban militants attacked a patrol of US-led coalition troops in northern Afghanistan, while insurgents came under fire by NATO aircraft after attacking an Afghan army outpost in the south. At least 10 militants were killed in the fighting. In eastern Kunar province, a civilian Mi-8 supply helicopter contracted by NATO-led troops crashed shortly after takeoff, killing one person on board and wounding three others.
    (AP, 8/24/08)

2008        Sep 3, Pakistan's government says a cross-border raid involving US-led or NATO forces killed several civilians. Women and children were among at least 20 people reportedly killed in the attack in Musa Nika village in South Waziristan near the border with Afghanistan.
    (AP, 9/3/08)(SFC, 9/4/08, p.A8)

2008        Sep 9, A NATO bomb missed its target by more than 1 1/2 miles and hit a house, killing two Afghan civilians and wounding 10 at a time of rising tension between the Afghan government and international troops over the use of airstrikes.
    (AP, 9/9/08)

2008        Sep 21, The UN said guns fell silent across much of Afghanistan for the 26th anniversary of the International Day of Peace that saw pledges by the US, NATO, the Afghan government and the Taliban to halt attacks. Taliban militants attacked a security company guarding a road construction crew in the southern province of Ghazni, killing two guards. In southwestern Afghanistan suspected Taliban militants kidnapped about 156 civilian laborers who were traveling in three buses in the Bala Buluk area.
    (AP, 9/21/08)(AFP, 9/22/08)

2008        Oct 3, NATO launched an airstrike near the Afghan border with Pakistan. A jet fighter bombed two houses in different parts of Datta Khel. Intelligence officials in the region said 2 women and one child were killed and 5 men wounded. A militant attack on a US patrol in eastern Kunar province killed an Afghan civilian and wounded four others.
    (Reuters, 10/3/08)(AP, 10/3/08)

2008        Oct 9, NATO joined a growing international force to protect vessels off Somalia's perilous coast, sending military ships to the treacherous waters where pirates are negotiating the release of an arms-laden tanker.
    (AP, 10/10/08)

2008        Oct 10, NATO defense ministers authorized their troops in Afghanistan to attack drug barons blamed for pumping up to US$100 million (euro74 million) a year into the coffers of resurgent Taliban fighters.
    (AP, 10/10/08)

2008        Oct 14, In eastern Afghanistan a roadside bomb blast killed three NATO soldiers. In the south, a bomb attack apparently intended for NATO troops exploded against an Afghan minivan in Uruzgan province, killing nine civilians. Dost Mohammad Arighistani, head of the government's labor and social affairs department for the southern province of Kandahar, was killed in his car with his bodyguard as he traveled to work.
    (AP, 10/14/08)(AFP, 10/14/08)

2008        Nov 5, Russia will deploy missiles near NATO member Poland in response to US missile defense plans, President Dmitry Medvedev said Wednesday in his first state of the nation speech.
    (AP, 11/5/08)

2008        Nov 9, A Taliban suicide attacker rammed a bomb-filled minivan into a NATO military convoy in Afghanistan, killing two Spanish soldiers and critically wounding another. Officials said US coalition forces killed 14 militants who fired on them in Khost province. The province's governor, Arsallah Jamal, said the 14 men were civilian construction workers and were not militants.
    (AFP, 11/9/08)

2008        Nov 29, In Afghanistan a soldier with the NATO-led force shot and killed an Afghan policeman in a car in Lashkar Gah that was driving toward a NATO patrol at high speed.
    (AP, 11/30/08)

2008        Dec 1, Militants in northwestern Pakistan attacked trucks ferrying supplies to NATO and US forces in Afghanistan, killing two people and destroying a dozen vehicles. A suicide attack on a security checkpoint  in the Swat Valley killed 8 people and wounded 40.
    (AP, 12/1/08)

2008        Dec 3, NATO foreign ministers affirmed their support for US plans to install anti-missile defenses in Europe despite Russia's strong opposition. NATO foreign ministers said they expected Albania and Croatia to become the alliance's newest members by April.
    (AP, 12/3/08)

2008        Dec 7, Gunmen blasted their way into two transport terminals in Pakistan and torched more than 160 vehicles, including 790 Humvees, destined for US-led troops in Afghanistan, in the biggest assault yet on a vital military supply line. The losses possibly exceeded $10 million.
    (AP, 12/7/08)

2008        Dec 8, In Pakistan armed militants launched a second raid in as many days on NATO depots, torching nearly 100 more vehicles destined for the alliance's forces in Afghanistan.
    (AFP, 12/8/08)

2008        Dec 12, In central Afghanistan NATO troops fired on a civilian bus that refused warnings to stop, killing four passengers in Wardak province.
    (AP, 12/12/08)

2008        Dec 15, In Afghanistan a 5-day joint Afghan-NATO operation in Helmand province left 40 militants dead, including the Taliban's leader in that region.
    (AP, 12/15/08)

2008        Dec 24, In Afghanistan a soldier with the NATO-led force was killed in an insurgent attack in the east of the country.
    (AFP, 12/24/08)

2008        NATO set up a research center in cyberdefence in Tallinn, Estonia. It was scheduled to be formally inaugurated in 2009.
    (Econ, 12/6/08, TQ p.21)

2009        Jan 1, A suicide car bomb exploded near an Afghan and NATO military convoy in the western province of Herat and killed an Afghan policeman. 2 UN staff of the World Food Program and 4 others were kidnapped in Nimroz province by alleged Taliban militants. The 2 UN workers were freed on Jan 27.
    (AP, 1/1/09)(AFP, 1/28/09)

2009        Jan 12, In Pakistan the bodies of two men killed by Taliban militants for allegedly spying for the US were found in the North Waziristan tribal region to the south of Mohmand. The two were abducted a week ago as they attempted to flee with their families. Trucks and other vehicles blocked the main Quetta-Chaman highway, forcing about 100 trucks carrying NATO supplies to park.
    (AP, 1/12/09)

2009        Jan 14, Pakistan reopened a supply route for NATO and US forces in Afghanistan after tribesmen ended a three-day blockade. Thousands of people protested in Quetta after four police officers were shot dead in what an official said was a sectarian attack against Shiites.
    (AP, 1/14/09)

2009        Jan 22, NATO's Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer said President Barack Obama's plan to nearly double American troop numbers in Afghanistan needs to be matched by a similar surge in development workers and aid funding.
    (AP, 1/22/09)

2009        Jan 31, An Afghan tribal leader from southeastern Paktika province was fatally shot by a NATO patrol after the vehicle he was in failed to stop in response to signals from soldiers. A second Afghan was wounded.
    (AP, 2/1/09)

2009        Feb 10, In Afghanistan a bomb struck a NATO convoy, killing two soldiers and wounding one. Police spokesman Wazir Pacha said the attack in Khost province was carried out by a suicide bomber in a vehicle. But a NATO spokesman blamed the attack on a roadside bomb.
    (AP, 2/10/09)

2009        Feb 17, NATO warned that Pakistan risked creating a safe haven for Islamist extremists after it struck a deal to impose Islamic law and suspend a military offensive in the former tourist haven of Swat.
    (AP, 2/17/09)

2009        Feb 19, US Defense Sec. Robert Gates, in Europe for NATO talks, signed a new military cooperation agreement with Poland.
    (WSJ, 2/20/09, p.A12)

2009        Feb 23, In Afghanistan a NATO air strike killed up to 16 militants overnight in Badghis province. In Nimrod province a twin suicide attack killed a policeman outside the counter-narcotics office of the provincial capital of Zaranj. Lt. General Jim Dutton, the deputy NATO force commander, said around 17,000 extra US troops earmarked for Afghanistan will deploy as fast as possible and thousands more are requested for August elections.
    (AFP, 2/23/09)

2009        Mar 5, NATO foreign ministers agreed to resume high-level formal ties with Russia, suspended last year after Moscow's military thrust into Georgia.
    (AP, 3/5/09)

2009        Mar 11, French Pres. Sarkozy announced that France will return as full-fledged member of the 26-naqtion NATO alliance.
    (SFC, 3/12/09, p.A2)

2009        Mar 16, In Pakistan the Zardari government relented in a major confrontation with the opposition, agreeing to reinstate Iftikhar Mohammed Chaudhry, the fired Supreme Court chief justice, whose fate had sparked street fights and raised fears of political instability. The government said Chaudhry would be sworn back in on March 21. Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani's announcement also promised the restoration of a handful of other judges who had remained off the bench since former President Pervez Musharraf sacked them in 2007. Up to 50 militants attacked a terminal for trucks carrying supplies to US and NATO troops in Afghanistan, in the second such assault in northwest Pakistan in two days.
    (AP, 3/16/09)

2009        Mar 17, Russia's defense minister charged that the US and NATO were beefing up their military presence near Russia's borders in a bid for natural resources that could ignite new conflicts.
    (AP, 3/17/09)

2009        Mar 20, Afghanistan's top Muslim clerics urged President Hamid Karzai to push ahead with a proposal for talks with the Taliban that would be mediated by Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah. In northern Afghanistan 9 policemen and a district chief were killed in heavy fighting with Taliban insurgents. 4 Canadian troops and a local interpreter were killed in two separate explosions. Another NATO soldier was killed in a "hostile incident" in the south.
    (AP, 3/20/09)(AFP, 3/20/09)(Reuters, 3/21/09)

2009        Mar 23, US envoy Richard Holbrooke outlined to NATO new plans to beat insurgents in Afghanistan. Taliban fighters ambushed a police patrol in southern Kandahar province's Spin Boldak district, killing eight officers and wounding another. Afghan police and intelligence agents detained five Taliban militants in Oruzgan, including the group's senior commander for the province, Mullah Azizullah.
    (AFP, 3/23/09)(AP, 3/23/09)

2009        Mar 24, NATO troops on a foot patrol shot and killed an Afghan civilian south of Kabul after he ignored their signals to stop as he sped toward them in a car.
    (AP, 3/24/09)

2009        Apr 3, NATO began its 2-day 60th anniversary summit in France and Germany.
    (AP, 4/3/09)

2009        Apr 4, France and Germany fully endorsed President Barack Obama's new Afghan war strategy but firmly resisted sending more combat troops in a rift that overshadowed symbols of unity at NATO 60th-anniversary summit. NATO's European leaders pledged a significant increase in troops for the US-led war in Afghanistan at their summit, but the alliance seemed sure to arouse hostility in the Muslim world by choosing the controversial Danish PM Anders Fogh Rasmussen as the alliance's new secretary general. All 28 NATO leaders unanimously approved Rasmussen as the new civilian leader of the alliance. Black-clad protesters attacked police and set a hotel and a customs station ablaze near a bridge linking France and Germany that served hours earlier as the backdrop for a show of unity by NATO leaders.
    (AP, 4/4/09)

2009        Apr 13, Afghan officials said an overnight NATO-led airstrike on a remote village killed six civilians, including two children. Western forces said they had targeted armed militants.
    (Reuters, 4/13/09)

2009        Apr 18, In central Afghanistan NATO-led forces and Afghan troops killed 3 suspected militants during a raid in Logar province, where insurgent attacks have spiked this year. At least two other suspected militants died in an airstrike in southern Kandahar province. A roadside bomb targeting a police vehicle in Kandahar city killed a woman and wounded five other people including three civilians.
    (AP, 4/18/09)
2009        Apr 18, Somali pirates attacked two ships off the Horn of Africa, seizing the Belgian-flagged Pompei carrying 10 crew. NATO forces intervened in the other assault, chasing the pirates down. Dutch commandos then freed 20 fishermen on a Yemeni dhow hijacked earlier. Seven pirates attempted to attack the Norwegian-flagged MV Front Ardenne but fled after crew took evasive maneuvers and alerted warships in the area. NATO warships and helicopters pursued the Somali pirates for seven hours after they attacked the tanker, and the high-speed chase only ended when warning shots were fired at the pirates' skiff. NATO forces boarded the skiff, where they found a rocket-propelled grenade, and interrogated, disarmed and released the pirates. The Pompei and its crew were released on June 28.
    (AP, 4/18/09)(AP, 4/19/09)(AP, 6/28/09)

2009        Apr 29, NATO and Russia resumed formal contacts eight months after they were suspended because of last year's war with Georgia.
    (AP, 4/29/09)

2009        Apr 30, Belgium stripped the credentials of 2 high-ranking members of Russia’s permanent mission to NATO and  expelled them on accusations of espionage.
    (SFC, 5/1/09, p.A2)

2009        May 6, NATO launched military exercises in former Soviet Georgia after heavy criticism from neighboring Russia and a brief mutiny in the Georgian military.
    (AP, 5/6/09)
2009        May 6, Russia said it is expelling two Moscow-based NATO employees who are Canadian diplomats in retaliation for NATO's recent expulsion of two Russian envoys from its headquarters in Belgium.
    (AP, 5/6/09)

2009        May 13, In Pakistan troops secured footholds in Swat valley overrun by the Taliban, killing 11 militants and discovering 5 headless corpses near Mingora, the region's main town. Dozens of assailants stormed a transport depot handling supplies for NATO troops in neighboring Afghanistan and torched eight trucks before escaping.
    (AP, 5/13/09)

2009        May 14, Russia said it was proposing a new version of a key European arms-control treaty it suspended more than a year ago, and could once again honor the agreement if the US and its NATO allies accept the changes.
    (AP, 5/14/09)

2009        May 15, In eastern Afghanistan 2 NATO were killed in fighting with insurgents. In southern Helmand province 22 Taliban militants, including three regional commanders, were killed in overnight fighting.
    (AP, 5/15/09)

2009        May 19, In Afghanistan an airstrike by NATO-led forces killed eight Afghan civilians following a battle with militants in southern Helmand province, where Afghan troops also killed 25 militants.
    (AP, 5/20/09)

2009        May 31, Afghan and NATO troops killed 18 Taliban militants after insurgents attacked a joint patrol in Farah province.
    (AP, 5/31/09)

2009        Jun 11, In eastern Afghanistan NATO mortar rounds killed two Afghan civilians during a clash with insurgents. Two died later of their injuries while undergoing treatment. A bomb blast killed a British soldier near Kandahar. Four other Afghan civilians died in Kunar when a truck collided with a NATO vehicle.
    (AP, 6/12/09)

2009        Jun 22, Pirates off Somalia were chased down and captured by NATO’s Portuguese warship, the Corte-real, after an attempted hijacking of a Singaporean freighter.
    (SFC, 6/23/09, p.A2)

2009        Jun 27, NATO and Russia agreed to resume military ties and agree to cooperate on Afghanistan, counterterrorism and anti-piracy patrols at their first high-level meeting since last year's war between Russia and Georgia.
    (AP, 6/27/09)

2009        Jun 30, Navy Adm. James Stavridis replaced Army Gen. Bantz J. Craddock at a change of command ceremony at the US military's Patch Barracks near Stuttgart attended by US Defense Secretary Robert Gates and Adm. Mike Mullen, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Stavridis, as the new head of the US European Command and NATO's top military leader, said quelling the Afghan insurgency would take more than bullets, calling for efforts to rebuild roads, schools and farms to win local support against the Taliban.
    (AP, 6/30/09)

2009        Jul 14, In Afghanistan a NATO-contracted helicopter was shot down killing six Ukrainian crew members on board and an Afghan child on the ground in Helmand province. A roadside bomb killed one Italian soldier and wounded three others in western Afghanistan. Another roadside blast hit a civilian vehicle in Uruzgan province, killing three people and wounded six others. US coalition and Afghan forces searched compounds in Kandahar and found bomb-making materials, mortar rounds, AK-47 rifles, rocket-propelled grenades and 100 pounds (45 kilograms) of opium.
    (AP, 7/14/09)(SFC, 7/15/09, p.A2)(AP, 7/26/09)

2009        Aug 2, In eastern Afghanistan 3 American soldiers died in a complex militant ambush, raising NATO's two-day August death toll to nine and continuing the bloodiest period of the eight-year war for US and allied troops.
    (AP, 8/2/09)

2009        Aug 3, Anders Fogh Rasmussen, a former Danish prime minister, took office as NATO's new secretary-general. He said his top priorities would be guiding the war in Afghanistan to a successful conclusion, repairing ties with Russia, and expanding NATO's partnership with moderate nations in North Africa and the Middle East.
    (AP, 8/3/09)

2009        Aug 4, NATO's governing body approved a plan to reorganize the alliance's command structure in Afghanistan by setting up a new headquarters to handle the day-to-day running of the war.
    (AP, 8/4/09)

2009        Aug 8, NATO helicopters wounded five Afghan police by mistake during a battle with insurgents in Ghazni province. A British soldier, serving with NATO's International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), was killed by an improvised explosive device (IED). A US soldier was killed in the south in a hostile fire incident.
    (Reuters, 8/8/09)(AFP, 8/9/09)(AP, 8/11/09)

2009        Aug 23, NATO military commanders told US President Barack Obama's envoy on that they needed more troops and other resources to beat back a resurgent Taliban, particularly in eastern Afghanistan near the Pakistan border.
    (Reuters, 8/23/09)

2009        Aug 28, NATO’s Sec. Gen. Fogh Rasmussen ended a 2-day visit to Turkey where he got a commitment for more Turkish troops to work on reconstruction projects in Afghanistan.
    (Econ, 9/12/09, p.57)(www.novinite.com/view_news.php?id=107181)

2009        Sep 4, In northern Afghanistan a US jet blasted two fuel tankers hijacked by the Taliban in Kunduz province, setting off a huge fireball that killed dozens of civilians who had rushed to the scene to collect fuel. As many as 142 civilians died in the German-ordered NATO airstrike. A French soldier was killed and nine others injured when their vehicles were hit by a bomb near Bagram Air Base north of Kabul. A Polish soldier was killed in the east. A French marine was killed in an IED attack.
    (AP, 9/4/09)(AFP, 9/5/09)(AP, 9/17/09)(AP, 10/8/09)(Econ, 1/2/10, p.37)

2009        Sep 18, NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen called for the US, Russia and NATO to link their missile defense systems against potential new nuclear threats from Asia and the Middle East, saying that the old foes must forget their lingering Cold War animosity.
    (AP, 9/18/09)

2009        Sep 30, In southern Afghanistan 9 civilians including six children were killed in a NATO air strike targeting a Taliban position. Four armed Taliban were also killed in the air attack in Khoshal village in Helmand province.
    (AFP, 10/1/09)

2009        Oct 2, President Barack Obama, while in Copenhagen, met with General Stanley McChrystal, the top commander of US and NATO troops in Afghanistan, for the first time since McChrystal presented a grim assessment of the war effort and requesting more troops.
    (Reuters, 10/2/09)

2009        Oct 3, In Afghanistan a Taliban attack on a NATO supply convoy killed a civilian contractor escorting the trucks. Militant fighters streaming from an Afghan village and a mosque attacked a pair of remote outposts near the Pakistani border in the Kamdesh district of Nuristan province, killing 8 US soldiers and 3 Afghan soldiers. 13 Afghan police and 2 journalists were captured by the Taliban, including the local police chief and his deputy. The bodies of five enemy fighters were found after the battle. NATO later said enemy forces suffered more than 100 dead during the well-coordinated defense. A roadside bomb southwest of Kabul killed a US service member.
    (AP, 10/3/09)(AP, 10/4/09)(AFP, 10/6/09)(AP, 2/5/10)

2009        Oct 15, Italy and NATO denied a newspaper report that the Italian intelligence secretly paid the Taliban thousands of dollars to maintain peace in an area in Afghanistan that was under Italian control. The Times of London had just reported that Italy had paid "tens of thousands of dollars" to Taliban commanders and warlords in the Surobi district. It accused Rome of failing to inform its allies about the payments and of misleading the French, who took over the Surobi district in mid-2008, into thinking the area was quiet and safe. An ambush of the French in a mountain pass on Aug. 18, 2008, was the biggest single combat loss for international forces in Afghanistan in more than three years.
    (AP, 10/15/09)

2009        Oct 23, The Czech Republic and NATO said that they backed a reworked US missile defense plan meant to defend against threats from Iran and other nations.
    (AP, 10/23/09)

2009        Nov 9, NATO said that 700 members of the Afghan security forces and 50 international troops were involved in a clearing operation in northern Afghanistan. NATO said Afghan and foreign troops have killed more than 130 insurgents, including 8 Taliban commanders, in six days of fierce fighting during a major offensive in the Charhar Dara district in Kunduz.
    (AP, 11/9/09)

2009        Nov 15, In eastern Afghanistan hundreds of French and Afghan troops pushed into a hostile valley where militants launch quick attacks, then disappear into hillside villages. Separately in eastern province of Paktika, a joint NATO and Afghan force killed a group of militants while pursuing a commander tied to the militant network run by Jalaluddin Haqqani. A  British soldier was shot and killed while on foot patrol in Helmand province.
    (AFP, 11/15/09)

2009        Nov 25, British PM Gordon Brown says 10 NATO nations are ready to offer about 5,000 more troops for the war in Afghanistan.
    (AP, 11/25/09)

2009        Nov 27, A NATO official said alliance nations may increase their fighting force in Afghanistan by up to 6,000 soldiers in response to President Barack Obama's expected call for 30,000 additional US and allied service members.
    (AP, 11/27/09)

2009        Dec 2, NATO's chief Fogh Rasmussen said European and other US allies will contribute more than 5,000 more troops to the international force in Afghanistan, declaring that "this is not just America's war."
    (AP, 12/2/09)

2009        Dec 4, NATO said 25 countries had pledged a total of around 7,000 more troops to support the US-led war in Afghanistan, following President Barack Obama's commitment of 30,000 extra US troops.
    (Reuters, 12/4/09)

2009        Dec 8, The Afghan government said NATO forces killed six civilians during a pre-dawn operation in eastern Afghanistan. NATO disputed the allegation, saying only militants died.
    (AP, 12/8/09)

2010        Jan 9, Afghan President Hamid Karzai presented a second slate of nominees to fill his Cabinet after parliament rejected 70 percent of his first picks. Afghan and NATO officials signed an agreement for NATO to hand over control of the prison at Bagram airbase near Kabul to Afghan authorities.
    (AP, 1/9/10)(AFP, 1/9/10)

2010        Jan 11, In Afghanistan 6 NATO service members, including 3 Americans, were killed, making it the deadliest day for the international force in more than two months. The Americans died in a firefight with militants during an "operational patrol" in southern Afghanistan. A French officer was killed during a joint patrol with Afghan troops in Alasay, some 50 miles (80 km) northeast of Kabul. A French service member was killed in the clash. A 6th NATO service member was killed by a roadside bomb in the south. A new poll was released that said nearly 7 in 10 Afghans support the presence of US forces in their country, and 61% favor the military buildup of 37,000 US and NATO reinforcements now deploying. A missile fired from an unmanned aircraft killed three insurgents farther south in the Nad Ali district of Helmand. A member of the Afghan National Police was killed and two others were wounded in a suicide at a police station in Uruzgan province. 13 insurgents were killed in the early hours when the Marines called in a Hellfire missile strike from an unmanned Predator drone into Bar Now Zad.
    (AP, 1/11/10)(AP, 1/12/10)(Reuters, 1/12/10)

2010        Jan 26, NATO and Russia formally resumed military ties in the latest sign of improving relations between the Cold War rivals as they move to boost cooperation in the fight against insurgents in Afghanistan.
    (AP, 1/26/10)

2010        Jan 27, In northern Afghanistan a joint NATO-Afghan air and ground assault killed 11 suspected Taliban militants, including two senior commanders.
    (AP, 1/27/10)
2010        Jan 27, NATO's top officer said that Russia had agreed to boost cooperation with the alliance in Afghanistan, including opening more transit routes for supplies to international troops and helping service Soviet-built helicopters used by the security forces. NATO said it had finalized an agreement with Kazakhstan to open the last leg on an overland route to Afghanistan from Europe via Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, offering an alternative to the one through Pakistan.
    (AP, 1/27/10)(AP, 1/28/10)

2010        Jan 29, Afghan troops backed by NATO attack helicopters battled Taliban fighters wearing suicide vests who launched an assault in the heart of a Lashkar Gah in southern Helmand province. 6 militants were killed in the assault. In Ghazni province 2 Afghans were killed after failing to stop their vehicle when ordered. An Afghan interpreter working for the US military shot dead two American soldiers in Wardak province. Iranian guards opened fire and killed 5 laborers as they crossed into Iran from the southwestern province of Nimroz.
    (AP, 1/29/10)(AFP, 1/30/10)(SFC, 1/30/10, p.A3)(AP, 2/2/10)

2010        Feb 3, Afghan and NATO forces killed 32 suspected militants in southern Helmand province, the focus an imminent anti-Taliban offensive. Three Afghan soldiers were killed and four others wounded.
    (AP, 2/4/10)

2010        Feb 4, Russia hailed a new agreement with the United States intended to boost joint anti-drug efforts, but urged the US and NATO to do more to stem a flow of drugs from Afghanistan that has sickened millions of Russians.
    (AP, 2/4/10)

2010        Feb 12, Afghan and US troops fought back small-scale attacks by Taliban fighters on the northern outskirts of Marjah, as tribal elders pleaded for NATO to finish its planned attack on the Taliban stronghold quickly and carefully to protect civilians. Cars and trucks jammed the main road out Marjah as hundreds of civilians defied militant orders and fled the area ahead of the anticipated US-Afghan assault. A joint international-Afghan patrol fired on two men mistakenly believed to be insurgents in Gardez, south of Kabul. 3 women were "accidentally killed as a result of the joint force firing at the men." NATO confirmed its responsibility for the 5 deaths on April 5.
    (AP, 2/12/10)(AP, 4/5/10)

2010        Feb 18, The Afghan Interior Ministry said a NATO airstrike aimed at insurgents missed its target, killing 7 policemen in northern Kunduz province. Another Afghan official said Pakistan has captured two "shadow governors" belonging to Afghanistan's Taliban movement. The Afghan governor for Kunduz said Mullah Abdul Salam and Mullah Mir Mohammad, respectively the shadow governors of the northern Afghan provinces of Kunduz and Baghlan happened in Pakistan's Baluchistan province and were captured about a week ago. 9 militants linked to al-Qaida were nabbed overnight near Karachi. Six coalition troops were killed in the assault on Marjah, making it the deadliest day since the offensive began. The death toll so far is 11 NATO troops and one Afghan soldier.
    (AP, 2/18/10)(AP, 2/19/10)

2010        Feb 21, Afghan and US Marine units converged on a dangerous western quarter of the Taliban stronghold of Marjah, with NATO forces facing "determined resistance" as their assault on the southern town entered its second week. One service member involved in the Marjah offensive was killed in a roadside bombing. A NATO airstrike killed at least 27 Afghan civilians in central Uruzgan province, in the third coalition strike this month to kill noncombatants. A military report released on May 29 said inexperienced operators of a US drone aircraft ignored or downplayed signs that Afghan civilians were in the convoy in Uruzgan in which at least 23 civilians were killed.
    (AP, 2/21/10)(AP, 2/22/10)(AP, 5/29/10)

2010        Mar 1, Afghanistan announced a ban on news coverage of Taliban strikes, saying such coverage only emboldened the Islamist militants. The move was denounced by Afghan journalism and rights groups. Two blasts hours apart killed at least six people in Kandahar. Four NATO service members died in separate attacks, including a suicide car bomb that targeted an international military convey as it crossed a bridge in the Taliban-dominated south.
    (AP, 3/1/10)(AFP, 3/1/10)
2010        Mar 1, Somali pirates hijacked a Saudi tanker in the Gulf of Aden. The Al Nisr Al Saudi usually carried fuel oil but was empty when it was taken with 14 crew onboard. NATO said one of its destroyers sank a pirate mothership off the Somali coast. Pirate crew members were transferred to a smaller boat and allowed to return to the mainland.
    (AP, 3/3/10)(SFC, 3/2/10, p.A2)(SFC, 3/4/10, p.A2)

2010        Mar 7, NATO said it is suspending the training of Kosovo's security troops after a military-style parade that broke the force's agreement to focus only on civil emergencies. An armed honor guard had appeared at a parade on March 5 marking the 12th anniversary of the killing of the leader of the Kosovo Liberation Army.
    (AP, 3/7/10)

2010        Mar 9, In southern Afghanistan a roadside bomb killed two Afghan border police and a civilian riding in their vehicle. A Taliban operative wearing an Afghan police uniform infiltrated NATO’s Chergotah base in Khost province and detonated his explosive vest next to a group of soldiers who were warming their hands beside a fire. 2 NATO service members were killed.
    (AP, 3/9/10)(AP, 3/10/10)

2010        Mar 29, In Afghanistan a NATO helicopter crashed, injuring 14 people in Zabul province. Elsewhere in the south a service member was killed in a bomb strike.
    (AP, 3/29/10)

2010        Apr 5, In Afghanistan NATO forces killed 10 militants in a raid on a compound in Nangarhar province's Khogyani district. Gunmen seriously wounded an Afghan provincial councilwoman in a drive-by shooting in Pul-e Khumri, capital of northern Baghlan province. In Helmand province 4 insurgents and 4 civilians died in a NATO airstrike.
    (AP, 4/5/10)(AP, 4/6/10)

2010        Apr 19, The chief of British Airways said test flights have proven that the blanket restrictions EU governments have imposed on flights because of volcanic ash are unnecessary. The airline industry said it has lost at least $1 billion due to five days of closed airports. A senior Western diplomat says several NATO F-16 fighters suffered engine damage after flying through the volcanic ash cloud covering large parts of Europe.
    (AP, 4/19/10)

2010        Apr 22, Afghan and NATO forces came under heavy fire while searching a compound in eastern Logar province, sparking a gunbattle that killed two US soldiers and five insurgents.
    (AP, 4/23/10)

2010        Apr 23, NATO ministers meeting in Tallinn, Estonia, agreed to begin handing over control of Afghanistan to the Afghan government this year, a process that if successful would enable President Barack Obama to meet his target date of July 2011 for starting to bring US troops home.
    (AP, 4/23/10)

2010        Apr 29, NATO troops in Nangarhar province raided the home of a prominent Afghan lawmaker overnight, killing one of her relatives. In Laghman province a suicide bomber blew up a car packed with explosives near an Afghan army training facility, killing a soldier.
    (AP, 4/29/10)

2010        May 10, Afghan President Hamid Karzai arrived in Washington, seeking to show a united front with the United States during a pivotal time in the nine-year war. In northeast Afghanistan heavy rain sent floodwaters tearing through villages, killing at least 10 people and destroying hundreds of homes. A roadside bomb struck a car in southeastern Zabul province, killing two civilians. Afghan and NATO forces killed 18 militants and arrested six in the Sangin district of southern Helmand province. The NATO alliance killed "several insurgents" in Khost.
    (AP, 5/10/10)(AP, 5/11/10)

2010        May 14, In eastern Afghanistan hundreds of protesters brandished sticks, threw stones and burned an American flag as they accused NATO forces of killing civilians in an overnight raid, but the alliance said eight insurgents were killed in the attack. NATO said at least nine insurgents were killed the previous night during a pursuit of suspected militants in the Tarnak Wa Jaldak district of eastern Zabul province. An American service member died in an insurgent attack in the east. A suicide bomber in Gardez jumped in front of a vehicle in a convoy of the governor of eastern Paktiya province, who narrowly escaped the attack. A civilian was killed and four other people injured. Afghan and coalition forces conducted sweeps across Afghanistan that left at least 30 militants dead, while insurgents in the east killed five security guards in an ambush on a convoy. 8 militants were killed and two others wounded in a joint raid by Afghan and coalition forces in Nangahar province.
    (AP, 5/14/10)(AP, 5/15/10)

2010        May 18, A Taliban suicide car bomber struck a NATO convoy in Kabul, killing six troops 5 American and one Canadian. Twelve Afghan civilians also died, many of them on a public bus in rush-hour traffic.
    (AP, 5/18/10)

2010        May 19, In Afghanistan insurgents launched a brazen pre-dawn assault against the giant US-run Bagram Air Field, killing an American contractor and wounding nine troops in the second Taliban strike at NATO forces in and around the capital in as many days.
    (AP, 5/19/10)
2010        May 19, NATO and Russia said they will boost efforts to develop a joint system to protect their troops from attack by short-range missiles.
    (AP, 5/19/10)

2010        May 22, In southern Afghanistan 3 foreign soldiers and one civilian working with NATO's International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) were killed in two separate incidents. At least a dozen people were killed south of Kabul after US troops spotted two insurgents trying to plant bombs. The Taliban staged a nighttime assault on Kandahar Air Base that wounded a number of coalition soldiers and civilian employees.
    (AFP, 5/22/10)(AP, 5/22/10)(AP, 5/23/10)

2010        May 31, Afghan authorities suspended two Christian foreign aid groups on suspicion of proselytizing in the strictly Islamic nation and said a follow-up investigation would include whether other groups were trying to convert Muslims. US-based Church World Service and Norwegian Church Aid will not be allowed to operate while the allegations are investigated. About 180 Taliban attacked a police post in the Purchaman district in southwestern Farah province, triggering hours of fighting that killed 15 insurgents. A NATO service member was killed by a makeshift bomb in southern Afghanistan. In Khost province on Pakistan's border, NATO and Afghan forces captured several commanders of the Haqqani group.
    (AP, 5/31/10)(AP, 6/1/10)

2010        Jun 4, An Afghan national peace conference urged the government to take formal steps toward negotiating with insurgents, boosting President Hamid Karzai's plans to open talks with the Taliban. NATO forces said NATO and Afghan troops have killed Mullah Zergay, a top Taliban commander for Kandahar city, along with several of his guards last week.
    (AP, 6/4/10)

2010        Jun 6, Russia urged NATO forces in Afghanistan to crack down harder on drug production and smuggling, and offered to help put a security ring around the country.
    (AP, 6/6/10)

2010        Jun 9, In southern Afghanistan Insurgents shot down a NATO helicopter and killed four American troops in Helmand province. A local official said the Taliban hanged a 7-year-old boy in public in Helmand province for alleged spying. A suicide bomb ripped through a wedding party for a family with ties to police in the Taliban's heartland, killing at least 39 people and wounding dozens more in Nadahan village in the Arghandab district of Kandahar province. Insurgents dragged a Kandahar provincial council member, Amir Mohammad Noorzai, from his house and fatally shot him.
    (AP, 6/9/10)(AP, 6/10/10)(SFC, 6/10/10, p.A2)

2010        Jun 11, NATO leaders declared that the alliance had regained the initiative in the Afghan war, promising that the gains could result in a handover of security responsibilities in some parts of the country to local authorities by year's end. Two US troops and at least 11 civilians died in violence across southern Afghanistan, including one attack in which a suicide bomber wearing a burqa blew himself up in a bazaar.
    (AP, 6/11/10)

2010        Jul 23, In eastern Afghanistan a bomb exploded inside a mosque, seriously wounding a candidate in upcoming parliamentary elections and at least 16 other people. Two American service members left their compound in Kabul and failed to return. They were believed to have been captured by insurgents somewhere in Logar province. Taliban spokesman Zabiullah Mujahid later said the pair drove into an area of Logar province that is under insurgent control. He says that during a brief gunfight, one American was killed and the other was captured. The body of Navy Petty Officer 2nd Class Justin McNeley (30) was found on July 25. On July 28 the body of the 2nd sailor, Petty Officer 3rd Class Jarod Newlove (25) was recovered. In southern Helmand province at least 45 civilians, many women and children, were killed in a rocket attack  by the NATO-led foreign force. Alliance and Afghan troops came under attack about 6 miles (10 km) south of the village and responded with helicopter-borne strikes. Coalition forces reported six insurgents killed, including a Taliban commander.
    (AP, 7/23/10)(Reuters, 7/24/10)(AP, 7/25/10)(Reuters, 7/26/10)(AP, 7/28/10)(SFC, 7/28/10, p.A3)(AP, 7/29/10)

2010        Jul 26, WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange promised that the release of some 91,000 secret US military documents on the Afghanistan war is just the beginning, adding that he still has thousands more Afghan files to post online. The files were  mostly field reports and intelligence assessments from 2004-2009. Pakistan's most powerful spy agency on lashed out against a trove of leaked US intelligence reports that alleged close connections between it and Taliban militants fighting NATO troops in Afghanistan, calling the accusations malicious and unsubstantiated.
    (AP, 7/26/10)(Econ, 7/31/10, p.28)

2010        Aug 3, In Afghanistan insurgents wearing suicide vests tried to storm NATO's largest base in the south, but did not breach its defenses. All of the attackers were killed in the fighting including "approximately four" people in suicide vests. New Zealand suffered its first combat fatality in Afghanistan when a soldier died in an ambush that left another two New Zealand soldiers and an Afghan interpreter wounded in central Bamiyan province. An Afghan operation began in a rugged region east of Kabul in Laghman province to flush out the Taliban. Commanders called for backup from foreign forces after at least 10 Afghan soldiers were killed and up to 20 captured.
    (AP, 8/3/10)(AFP, 8/13/10)

2010        Aug 5, In northern Afghanistan a suicide car bomber struck a convoy of NATO troops and Afghan police, killing seven police officers and wounding at least 11 people.
    (AP, 8/5/10)

2010        Aug 12, In eastern Afghanistan a crowd of about 300 villagers yelled "Death to the United States" and blocked a main road as they swore that US forces had killed three innocent villagers. NATO forces rejected the claim, saying they had killed several suspected insurgents and detained a local Taliban commander in the overnight raid. Elders from Zarin Khil village said American troops stormed into a family's house and shot three brothers, all young men, and then took their father into custody. In nearby Paktiya province NATO and Afghan troops killed more than 20 armed insurgents in an ongoing operation to disrupt insurgents in the area around Dazadran district. US and Afghan forces stepped up operations against a Taliban faction linked to al-Qaida, arresting several key figures in the network in raids in two eastern provinces. A British serviceman, who was injured Aug 10 in an incident involving a helicopter at a patrol base in the Nahri Sarraj district of Helmand, died at a hospital in Britain.
    (AP, 8/12/10)(AP, 8/13/10)

2010        Aug 20, In Afghanistan 2 NATO soldiers died in a roadside bombing.  A woman and two children died in an operation against Al-Qaeda-linked insurgents in western Farah province. 6 insurgents were killed and several suspected insurgents were detained. 6 police officers were killed by men who approached their post posing as guests and then opened fire in Nahri Sarraj district of Helmand province. 3 Afghan police were apparently killed as a result of a NATO airstrike in Jowzjan province.
    (AP, 8/20/10)(AP, 8/21/10)(SSFC, 8/22/10, p.A6)

2010        Sep 2, In Afghanistan 2 American troops died in fighting, while NATO and local officials said coalition and Afghan forces killed dozens of insurgents in a series of ground and air engagements. President Hamid Karzai said 10 Afghan civilians were killed in a NATO air strike on three vehicles carrying election campaign workers in the north.
    (AP, 9/2/10)(AFP, 9/2/10)

2010        Sep 21, In southern Afghanistan a NATO helicopter crashed killing 9 international troops in a region where forces are ramping up pressure on Taliban insurgents. It was the deadliest chopper crash for the coalition in four years. 5 Afghan road construction workers were killed and 4 wounded when their vehicle hit a roadside bomb in Shinwari district of Parwan province. In Khost province insurgents attacked a NATO and Afghan army outpost near the Pakistan border and at least 25 of the militants were killed in the resulting skirmish.
    (AP, 9/21/10)(AP, 9/22/10)

2010        Sep 23, Afghan Pres. Karzai called for the quick release of 3 Afghan journalists. All 3 were picked up over the past week, two by a joint NATO and Afghan force and one by Afghan intelligence officials. Analysts said the arrests were reminiscent of a strategy the US military used in Iraq to detain local journalists as a way to disrupt insurgents' propaganda networks.
    (AP, 9/23/10)

2010        Sep 30, Pakistani troops fired warning shots at the two NATO helicopters, which responded with a pair of missiles that destroyed the post, killed 2 of the soldiers and wounded the 4 others. Pakistan then blocked a vital supply route for US and NATO troops in Afghanistan in apparent retaliation for the alleged cross-border helicopter strike. On Oct 6 the US apologized for the deaths and wounding of the Pakistani paramilitary troops
    (AP, 9/30/10)(SFC, 10/7/10, p.A4)

2010        Oct 2, In Afghanistan at least three civilians were killed along with 17 insurgents in a NATO air strike targeting senior Taliban commanders in southern Helmand province. ISAF accidentally killed two civilians when insurgents attacked a military base in Baraki Barak district of Logar province south of Kabul.
    (Reuters, 10/3/10)

2010        Oct 4, In Afghanistan 3 NATO service members were killed by bombings in the south and an insurgent attack killed another in the east, raising the coalition's death toll to 11 in the first four days of October. NATO announced that a joint Afghan-coalition unit launched a night mission that killed a senior Taliban leader named Farman and two other militants in eastern Paktia province. A police convoy was ambushed in Khash Rod district. 5 militants were killed, 3 others wounded and two captured during a gunbattle. Habibullah Aghonzada, a former district chief, was gunned down by assailants as he prayed at a packed mosque in Kandahar city. 3 night time explosion in Kandahar City killed up to 4 Afghan police officers. Noor Ahman, deputy mayor in Kandahar, was killed in an insurgent attack. In the southwest 2 civilians riding a motorcycle died when a roadside bomb exploded as they passed. 2 others were killed by rockets in the country's east.
    (AP, 10/4/10)(AP, 10/5/10)(SFC, 10/5/10, p.A5)(AP, 10/6/10)

2010        Oct 6, It was reported that Afghan Pres. Karzai has begun secret talks over a negotiated end to the war. Sources said that for the first time Taliban representatives are fully authorized to speak for the Quetta Shura, the Afghan Taliban organization based in Pakistan, and its leader Muhammad Omar. Taliban commander Maulawi Jawadullah, accused of organizing deadly ambushes, roadside bombings, and abductions of Afghan police and soldiers in northern Afghanistan, was killed in an airstrike in Yangi Qala district. A NATO service member died in a roadside bombing in the south. An Afghan-NATO force killed six insurgents and destroyed a compound used for making improvised explosive devices in Arghandab district of Kandahar province. 3 militants were killed in Zabul province during a firefight with a joint force. 16 militants were killed in air raids and ground fighting overnight in the Darqad, Yangi Qala and Khwaja Bahawuddin districts of Takhar province.
    (SFC, 10/6/10, p.A2)(AP, 10/7/10)(AP, 10/8/10)

2010        Oct 8, In northern Afghanistan Kunduz provincial governor Mohammad Omar and at least 19 other people were killed by a massive bomb blast inside a packed mosque during Friday prayers in Takhar province. NATO helicopters killed six Afghan militiamen in eastern Khost province. An insurgent attack killed a NATO service member and two others died in separate roadside bombings in the south. Armed men burst into a mosque and shot dead religious scholar Molvi Mohammad during Friday prayers in Kandahar city. Linda Norgrove (36) a British aid worker was killed by her captors during a botched US rescue raid two weeks after being abducted at gunpoint. A rescue team was closing in on the house where Norgrove was being held when her captors threw a grenade into the room where she was kept, killing her. Troops opened fire and killed all the captors.
    (AP, 10/8/10)(AFP, 10/9/10)

2010        Oct 9, Pakistan announced it would reopen a key border crossing and allow convoys to resume delivering supplies to NATO troops in Afghanistan, ending a 10-day blockade during which trucks were stranded on their way to the border and almost 150 were destroyed by attackers. Just hours before the announcement of the reopening, gunmen armed with a rocket attacked 29 tankers carrying NATO fuel supplies which had been stopped outside a roadside restaurant in the southwest, setting them ablaze. The border is normally closed on Sundays, so Oct 11 appeared to be the soonest the flow of supplies over the crossing would resume.
    (AP, 10/9/10)

2010        Oct 10, Pakistan reopened a key border crossing to NATO supply convoys heading into Afghanistan, ending an 11-day blockade imposed after a US helicopter strike killed two Pakistani soldiers.
    (AP, 10/10/10)

2010        Oct 12, In Afghanistan a cargo plane, carrying NATO supplies went down east of Kabul shortly after taking off from Bagram Air Field. The bodies of 5 of 8 people on board were recovered the next day. The plane, owned by United Arab Emirates-based TransAfrik, was under contract by the US-based company National Air Cargo.
    (AP, 10/13/10)

2010        Oct 14, Afghan officials requested NATO's support in smoothing new peace efforts with the Taliban, including by halting military operations in areas where reconciliation talks could take place. 7 NATO soldiers were killed in separate bomb attacks, bringing to 586 the total number of personnel killed so far this year. ISAF said 13 civilians had been killed in militant attacks over the past week, including nine who died in a single IED blast.
    (AFP, 10/14/10)(Reuters, 10/14/10)

2010        Oct 15, Pakistan said it was willing to assist talks between the Afghan government and the Taliban, and NATO confirmed its forces had helped ensure a senior Taliban commander reached Kabul. A suspected US unmanned aircraft launched two missiles at a vehicle in North Waziristan, killing three people.
    (Reuters, 10/15/10)(AP, 10/15/10)

2010        Oct 28, In southern Afghanistan a roadside bomb targeting the car of a district police chief killed three police officers in Zabul province. A NATO airstrike killed a Taliban leader and another militant in southern Zabul province as he was showing his fighters a new anti-aircraft heavy machine gun mounted on the back of his vehicle. Militants shot and killed a government official in charge of the water supply in Dand district of Kandahar province as he was walking near his home. A NATO service member died following a bomb attack in southern Afghanistan. In Khost province a NATO airstrike killed one insurgent believed to be a senior leader of the Haqqani network. In neighboring Mando Zayi district of Khost, one civilian was killed and two others were wounded in fighting. US and Russian special forces and Afghan police ended an operation raiding 4 drug labs in an unprecedented collaborative military operation, destroying some $56 million worth of heroin in Nangarhar province. Months earlier Russia had provided US officials in Kabul with the coordinates of 175 laboratories where heroin is processed but the US failed to act. A NATO helicopter killed more than 20 insurgents after it was fired on during an operation in Kandahar province.
    (AP, 10/28/10)(AP, 10/29/10)(AP, 10/31/10)

2010        Oct 30, Afghan President Hamid Karzai demanded that NATO forces explain why they had carried out a joint counter-narcotics operation with Russian forces inside Afghanistan, calling it a violation of sovereignty. An Afghan official said that 80 Taliban insurgents were killed during a failed attack on a NATO combat outpost in Barmal district near the North Waziristan border. A NATO soldier died in an attack in the volatile south. Afghan and NATO troops killed 17 insurgents in an hours-long gunbattle in southern Helmand province.
    (Reuters, 10/30/10)(AFP, 10/30/10)(AP, 10/31/10)

2010        Oct 31, Afghan militants attacked a convoy carrying supplies for the police, Education Ministry, and the UN's World Food Program in western Nimroz province. Six militants were killed and one policeman was wounded in the gunbattle. A two-day battle over a bomb-making factory in Reg-i-Khan Nishin district ended with NATO and Afghan troops killing 15 insurgents.
    (AP, 10/31/10)(AP, 11/1/10)

2010        Nov 4, In the Czech Rep. a two-day informal gathering of NATO experts opened in Prague. They planned to consider the impacts of defense budget cuts by member countries.
    (AP, 11/4/10)

2010        Nov 5, In Afghanistan a teenage suicide bomber blew himself up in a crowded bazaar in the northwest, killing at least nine people and wounding 30 others. The attack targeted the head of the Faryab provincial council, Mullah Rahmatullah Turkistani. NATO said three of its service members were killed. An Afghan and NATO force captured the Haqqani network's shadow governor for Spera district in Khost province during an overnight operation. An Afghan soldier reportedly shot and killed 2 NATO service members on their base in the Sangin district of Helmand province and then defected to the insurgency.
    (AP, 11/5/10)(AP, 11/6/10)

2010        Nov 7, In eastern Afghanistan two NATO service members died in two different insurgents attacks. A vehicle hit a mine in Helmand province, killing five civilians. In Kandahar a government employee working at a prison in the city was shot and killed by insurgents. Afghan and NATO forces targeted suspected insurgent strongholds in a joint operation in southern Kandahar province, killing 15 and capturing 13. A rocket exploded in Lashkar Gah, capital of Helmand province, killing one civilian and wounding four. Gunmen set fire to the girls' middle school in Laghman province, burning the structure and its contents.
    (AP, 11/7/10)(AP, 11/8/10)

2010        Nov 13, In eastern Afghanistan a group of would-be suicide bombers tried to storm a major NATO base on the edge of Jalalabad city, but were repelled before they could enter. Six insurgents were killed, including two who were wearing bomb-laden suicide vests. Insurgents in the same area set fire to a NATO fuel convoy. The truck drivers quickly fled and the insurgents set 12 tankers ablaze A bomb hidden in a motorbike also exploded on a busy street in the Imam Sahib district of the northern province of Kunduz, killing 10 people. Insurgents killed 3 coalition service members in an attack in the south.
    (AP, 11/13/10)(AP, 11/14/10)

2010        Nov 14, In Afghanistan a series of bomb blasts and insurgents attacks killed 11 people across the country, including five NATO service members and three Afghan police taking part in Operation Bulldog Bite in Kunar province. A total of 7 ISAF troops were killed today.
    (AP, 11/14/10)(Reuters, 11/18/10)

2010        Nov 19, NATO leaders began a 2-day meeting in Portugal. A top official said it will start drawing down its troops in Afghanistan next July and its combat role in the war-torn nation will end by 2014 or earlier so security can be turned over to the Afghans. NATO leaders planned to approve a new 10-year vision for NATO.
    (AP, 11/19/10)(Reuters, 11/19/10)
2010        Nov 19, In southern Afghanistan a NATO soldier was killed in a bomb attack as leaders met in Portugal to determine the future of the alliance's mission.  ISAF reported the capture of a leader from the hardline, Pakistan-based Haqqani network in eastern Khost province. In Baghlan a joint force targeted a series of compounds and captured another key Haqqani figure, who served as a liaison between the network and Taliban operatives in northern Afghanistan. Six of his associates were taken into custody as well.
    (AP, 11/19/10)

2010        Nov 20, NATO nations meeting in Portugal formally agreed to start turning over Afghanistan's security to its military next year and give them full control by 2014. The US and its allies appeared to take conflicting views on when NATO combat operations would end. NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said he did not expect NATO troops to stay in the fight against the Taliban after 2014. Russia was receptive but stopped short of accepting a historic NATO invitation to join a missile shield protecting Europe against Iranian attack.
    (AP, 11/20/10)(Reuters, 11/20/10)

2010        Nov 29, Afghanistan said its relations with the United States would not be affected by leaked cables portraying President Hamid Karzai as weak and paranoid, and his brother as a corrupt drugs baron. 6 NATO troops were shot dead by a man wearing an Afghan border police uniform during a training exercise in Nangarhar province. The shooter was killed.
    (AFP, 11/29/10)(Reuters, 11/29/10)

2010        Dec 5, In Afghanistan a Taliban suicide bomber blew himself up next to a string of shop stalls inside the eastern Gardez army base, killing two NATO service members and at least two civilians. In the south another NATO service member was killed in an insurgent attack while an Afghan employee of an American contractor was shot dead in the city of Lashkar Gah.
    (AP, 12/5/10)

2010        Dec 16, President Barack Obama said the United States will start withdrawing US troops from Afghanistan in July as promised. He still warned of sobering days, saying the war will remain a "very difficult endeavor." In Afghanistan a bomb killed 14 members of the same family north of Herat city. 4 Afghan soldiers died overnight in a NATO air strike in Helmand province.
    (AP, 12/16/10)(AFP, 12/16/10)
2010        Dec 16, In Belgium NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen, speaking at a groundbreaking ceremony for a new NATO building, said the new structure is essential to meet the demands of a rapidly changing security environment. Completion is due in 2015.
    (AP, 12/16/10)

2010        Dec 23, In Afghanistan a suicide bomber killed an Afghan policeman and wounded five civilians in Kunduz. A blast in Ghazni killed a man suspected of being either a suicide bomber or of trying to plant a bomb under a truck. A NATO helicopter opened fire on a convoy of cars heading to an event hosted by the head of a local council in Faryab province, killing a police officer and the brother of a lawmaker. It was reported that US-donated medicines and pharmaceutical supplies meant to keep the new Afghan army and police healthy have been disappearing before reaching Afghan military hospitals and clinics.
    (AFP, 12/23/10)(AP, 12/23/10)

2010        Dec 26, The Afghanistan Defense Ministry said it will investigate missing US-donated medicines and pharmaceutical supplies meant for its army and police. "Numerous insurgents were killed" in two separate incidents in Helmand and Kandahar during a NATO operation targeting suspect vehicles. Several suspected insurgents were detained.
    (AP, 12/26/10)(AP, 12/27/10)

2011        Feb 5, In southern Afghanistan two NATO service members were killed in separate bomb attacks. NATO troops captured 48 Iranian-made warheads, 49 fuses, and 49 rocket mortars. They were being transported in a three-truck convoy, in southern Nimruz, near the Iranian and Pakistani borders.
    (AP, 2/5/11)(AP, 3/9/11)

2011        Feb 20, Afghan provincial Governor Fazlullah Wahidi said 64 civilians, including women and children, were killed in 4 days of operations by NATO and Afghan forces in eastern Kunar province. NATO said 36 armed insurgents were killed. Coalition forces fired at three insurgents planting a roadside mine near a NATO base in Nangarhar province. One weapon missed the target, hit a house and killed a couple and their four children.
    (Reuters, 2/20/11)(AP, 2/21/11)

2011        Feb 27, Afghanistan's government said that its investigations have found NATO killed 65 civilians, many of them children, during recent operations in a remote northeastern militant stronghold. The parliament elected Abdul Rahoof Ibrahimi, a former Uzbek warlord, as speaker, ending a month of squabbling over the position that has further undermined the credibility of an assembly tainted by electoral fraud.
    (AFP, 2/27/11)(Reuters, 2/27/11)

2011        Mar 11, NATO defense ministers in Brussels endorsed a list of the first cities and provinces where Afghan police and soldiers will take control of security, a key element in the West's exit strategy from the decade-old war.
    (AP, 3/11/11)

2011        Mar 20, Britain said its air and sea strikes on Libya had been "very successful" and stressed it was doing everything it could to avoid civilian casualties as it enforces a UN-sanctioned no-fly zone. at least seven demolished tanks smoldered in a field 12 miles (20 km) south of Benghazi, many of them with their turrets and treads blown off. Turkey was blocking NATO action, which requires agreement by all 28 members of the alliance.
    (AFP, 3/20/11)(AP, 3/21/11)

2011        Mar 22, France's foreign ministry said that NATO would provide support to military intervention by the Western-led coalition in Libya when the US scales back its participation.
    (Reuters, 3/22/11)

2011        Mar 23, In Afghanistan a NATO helicopter gunship inadvertently killed two civilians while attacking suspected insurgents in the eastern province of Khost. 2 British soldiers were killed by a roadside bomb in Helmand province.
    (AP, 3/24/11)
2011        Mar 23, NATO nations offered an armada of ships and submarines to enforce an arms embargo against Libya, as Western allies sought to settle a row over the organization's role in a no-fly zone.
    (AFP, 3/23/11)

2011        Mar 24, French airstrikes hit an air base deep inside Libya and NATO ships patrolled the coast to block arms and mercenaries from flowing in to help Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi. Other coalition bombers struck artillery, tanks and parked helicopters. NATO envoys decided to maintain the no-fly patrols as authorized by a UN Security Council resolution last week.
    (AP, 3/24/11)(AP, 3/25/11)

2011        Mar 25, In Afghanistan two men, two women and three children died when the car they were travelling in was hit by NATO fire in Helmand province.
    (AFP, 3/26/11)
2011        Mar 25, Canadian Defense Minister Peter MacKay said that Lt. Gen. Charles Bouchard has been designated to lead the NATO alliance's military campaign in Libya. Bouchard will be in charge of both the air campaign and the naval task force implementing the arms embargo.
    (AP, 3/25/11)(AP, 3/26/11)

2011        Mar 27, In southern Afghanistan a NATO service member was killed in a roadside bombing. A team of suicide bombers shot their way into the compound of a road construction company in eastern Afghanistan and detonated a truck loaded with explosives, killing at least 24 people and wounding 56 others in Paktika province.
    (AP, 3/27/11)(AP, 3/28/11)(SFC, 3/29/11, p.A2)

2011        Mar 29, In northeast Afghanistan about 300 Taliban fighters overran the tiny capital of a remote mountainous district, forcing police to retreat from their small outpost in the Waygal district of Nuristan province. The Taliban said 12 police officers and their weaponry were captured. Police chief Shamsul Rahman denied that any of his men were captured. 6 NATO troops were killed in three separate incidents during an operation in Kunar province.
    (AP, 3/29/11)(AP, 3/30/11)

2011        Mar 31, In Afghanistan NATO soldiers killed two civilians after opening fire on a car which the force said had tried to attack a patrol in Kandahar city. A local official said an ISAF soldier opened fire after a civilian car hit one of their vehicles in a traffic accident.
    (AFP, 3/31/11)

2011        Apr 4, A NATO official said the US military will pull its warplanes from front-line missions today and shift to a support role in the Libyan conflict.
    (AP, 4/4/11)

2011        Apr 7, A NATO air strike killed at least five rebels near the Libyan port of Brega. Insurgents reported that Muammar Gaddafi's forces killed five more in a bombardment of besieged Misrata. NATO blamed forces loyal to Gaddafi for a fire in the Sarir oilfield, and denied the Western military alliance had launched air strikes in the area.
    (Reuters, 4/7/11)

2011        Apr 10, In Libya NATO airstrikes battered Moammar Gadhafi's tanks, helping rebels push back government troops advancing quickly toward the opposition's eastern stronghold. After destroying 14 tanks around Misrata early in the day, warplanes struck more tanks and anti-aircraft guns in the late afternoon. The African Union said Muammar Gaddafi has accepted a roadmap for ending the conflict in Libya including an immediate ceasefire, but an opposition representative said it would only work if Gaddafi left power.
    (AP, 4/10/11)(AP, 4/10/11)

2011        Apr 14, Libyan rebels begged for more NATO air strikes, saying they faced a massacre from government artillery barrages on the besieged city of Misrata. Western allies squabbled over the air campaign as forces loyal to Gadhafi shelled Misrata, killing at least 23 people. NATO warplanes launched air strikes on Tripoli. State-run Al-Libya TV channel reported that there were casualties. NATO allies rebuffed French and British calls to contribute more actively to the air war in Libya despite fears of a military stalemate.
    (Reuters, 4/14/11)(AFP, 4/14/11)
2011        Apr 14, NATO allies met in Berlin seeking to bridge differences over their campaign in Libya, as rebels fighting to topple Moamer Kadhafi reported an intensive bombing blitz by alliance warplanes.
    (AFP, 4/14/11)

2011        Apr 19, In Libya heavy fighting raged in Misrata. A NATO commander complained the alliance was having trouble destroying Gadhafi's mortars and rockets attacking rebels there. 8 people were reported killed in Misrata. The UN appealed for a ceasefire in Misrata, saying at least 20 children had been killed in attacks by besieging government forces on rebel-held parts of the city. Rebels put the death toll from two months of fighting at 10,000. NATO's commander in chief for the operation in Libya announced military strikes against Kadhafi's command centers, including Tripoli and a brigade accused of leading attacks on civilians.
    (AP, 4/19/11)(Reuters, 4/19/11)(AFP, 4/19/11)(Reuters, 4/20/11)

2011        Apr 25, In Libya Norwegian F-16s flattened a building inside Muammar Gaddafi's Bab al-Aziziyah compound, in what a press official from Gaddafi's government said was a NATO attempt on the Libyan leader's life. Refugees fleeing the Western Mountains told of heavy bombardment by Muammar Gaddafi's forces as they try to dislodge rebels in remote Berber towns.
    (AP, 4/25/11)(Reuters, 4/25/11)(Econ, 4/30/11, p.52)

2011        Apr 26, In Libya late night NATO warplanes broke up an attack by pro-Gadhafi forces in Misrata.
    (AP, 4/27/11)

2011        Apr 27, Libya's tribes urged Moamer Kadhafi to cede power, as rebels backed by NATO air strikes said they forced the strongman's missiles out of range of the lifeline port of Misrata. Gaddafi forces fired Russian-made Grad missiles into the rebel-held town of Zintan. A NATO airstrike in Misrata reportedly killed 12 rebels.
    (AFP, 4/27/11)(Reuters, 4/27/11)(AP, 4/28/11)

2011        May 5, In Libya NATO air strikes reportedly destroyed at least two helicopters near the town of Zintan as government forces transported them on trucks. Small helicopters flew over Misrata dropping mines into the harbor of Misrata. Rebels said the helicopters were marked with the Red Cross sign.
    (Reuters, 5/5/11)(AFP, 5/7/11)

2011        May 9, In Libya NATO planes pounded government weapons depots southeast of the town of Zintan, in a sign of widening conflict in the Western Mountains region as rebels battled to unseat Muammar Gaddafi. Rebels were reported to have found a way to access badly needed cash, selling oil worth $100 million paid for through a Qatari bank in US dollars.
    (Reuters, 5/9/11)

2011        May 10, In Afghanistan hundreds of insurgents launched a large-scale attack against Afghan police in remote Nuristan province, a part of the country that is largely under Taliban control. A NATO service member was killed by a roadside bomb. In southern Zabul province NATO and Afghan forces killed 10 militants. In eastern Paktika, the provincial governor's office said six insurgents were killed and another eight captured in Afghan police operation.
    (AP, 5/10/11)(AP, 5/11/11)
2011        May 10, In Libya NATO warplanes struck a command center in Tripoli in the heaviest bombing of the Libyan capital in weeks. Rebels, capitalizing on other NATO air strikes, reported battlefront gains that could ease the siege of the port city of Misrata.
    (AP, 5/10/11)

2011        May 12, NATO airstrikes struck Moammar Gadhafi's sprawling compound in Tripoli and three other sites reportedly killing 3 people, hours after the Libyan leader was shown on state TV in his first appearance since his son was killed nearly two weeks ago.
    (AP, 5/12/11)(AFP, 5/12/11)

2011        May 13, In Afghanistan two NATO service members were killed in Helmand province by an Afghan policeman, who was wounded and hospitalized. Another NATO service member was killed by a roadside bomb in southern Afghanistan.
    (AP, 5/13/11)(SFC, 5/14/11, p.A2)

2011        May 14, NATO conducted 147 air sorties, 48 of them strike sorties that aim to identify and hit targets but do not always deploy munitions. Targets included surface-to-air missile launchers, ammunition stores and artillery pieces.
    (AP, 5/16/11)

2011        May 17, In eastern Afghanistan NATO and Afghan overnight joint operations killed at least 12 insurgents in Paktika province. Another four insurgents were killed today in a raid in Mata Khan district. A NATO raid late in the day killed two men and two women who were inside a home in an area known as Gawmal, Takhar province.
    (AP, 5/17/11)(AP, 5/18/11)
2011        May 17, Pakistani troops and a NATO helicopter that crossed into Pakistani territory exchanged fire, wounding two soldiers. The Pakistani army said it lodged a strong protest and demanded a meeting with NATO officials to discuss the incident. The army said a "senior al-Qaida operative" had been arrested in the port city of Karachi. A statement said Yemeni national Muhammad Ali Qasim Yaqub, alias Abu Sohaib Al Makki, had been working directly under al Qaida leaders along the border between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
    (AP, 5/17/11)

2011        May 18, In Afghanistan hundreds of protesters, angered by an overnight NATO raid that they believed killed four civilians, clashed with security forces on the streets of Taloqan, Takhar province. At least 12 people died in the fighting. A suicide bomber crashed a car into a police bus, killing 14 people and wounding 16 in Nangarhar province. In the south a NATO service member died in an insurgent attack.
    (AP, 5/18/11)(AP, 5/19/11)(SFC, 5/19/11, p.A4)

2011        May 19, In Afghanistan insurgents firing heavy machine guns, rocket-propelled grenades and assault rifles killed 35 workers and guards in an attack on a NATO-funded road construction site in a remote area of Paktia province.
    (AP, 5/20/11)

2011        May 20, In Libya NATO fighter jets struck three ports in bombing runs overnight, targeting Gadhafi's navy with a goal of protecting the nearby rebel-held port of Misrata. A NATO strike this morning hit a police academy in the Tripoli neighborhood of Tajoura. An international aid group said that 3,800 Chadians who fled fighting in Libya are stranded in a remote desert town in northern Chad. NATO warplanes bombed command centers near Tripoli and in the southwest as part of a continuing effort to cut communications links between Gadhafi and his units on the battlefields.
    (AP, 5/20/11)(AP, 5/21/11)

2011        May 21, In the Khyber region of Pakistan a bomb attack on a NATO fuel tanker headed to Afghanistan sparked a huge fire that killed 15 people who had been scrambling to collect petrol leaking out from the bombed-out vehicle. 11 other NATO supply vehicles, "most of them oil tankers," were destroyed at a terminal in nearby Torkham town.
    (AFP, 5/21/11)

2011        May 22, In Libya NATO warplanes carried out raids against the port of Tripoli and the residence of Moamer Kadhafi near the center of the capital.
    (AFP, 5/22/11)

2011        May 23, A French diplomatic source said France and other members of a NATO-led coalition plan to deploy attack helicopters in Libya, a move aimed at ramping up pressure against Muammar Gaddafi's forces.
    (Reuters, 5/23/11)

2011        May 24, In southern Afghanistan a roadside bomb killed 10 workers, and NATO again promised that the coalition would not abandon the country even if some members plan to withdraw their forces. The Taliban shot dead the principal of a boys' only high school in Logar province. A NATO service member died in a bomb attack in southern Afghanistan.
    (AP, 5/24/11)(AP, 5/25/11)
2011        May 24, Libyan forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi cut electricity supplies to much of the Western Mountains, threatening water supplies and stepping up a war of attrition with rebels who hold the plateau. NATO launched its most intense bombardment yet against Gadhafi's Tripoli stronghold. Government spokesman Moussa Ibrahim said at least 3 people were killed.
    (Reuters, 5/29/11)(AP, 5/24/11)

2011        May 26, African leaders demanded an outright end to NATO air strikes on Libya. Spain says it and other European governments have received a message from Libyan PM Baghdadi al-Mahmoudi proposing an immediate cease-fire in his country's war. Global Witness said Goldman Sachs and HSBC together held $335 million of the Libyan oil fund's assets, while Societe Generale held $1 billion in structured products for the fund.
    (AFP, 5/26/11)(AP, 5/26/11)(Reuters, 5/26/11)

2011        May 27, NATO reported that Moamer Kadhafi's forces had laid landmines in Misrata. Russia joined the call of Western powers for Kadhafi to step down as G8 leaders met in France.
    (AFP, 5/27/11)

2011        May 28, NATO aircraft destroyed the guard towers at Muammar Gaddafi's compound in Tripoli, then staged a rare daytime air strike, heightening pressure on him to quit.
    (Reuters, 5/28/11)

2011        May 30, In western Afghanistan Taliban insurgents led by suicide bombers attacked an Italian military base and set off another explosion that left dozens wounded. 4 insurgents died. An Afghan policeman and four civilians were killed in the explosions in Heart. 4 NATO soldiers were killed in other parts of the country. NATO officials apologized for an airstrike on May 28 that inadvertently killed women and children, saying that they thought that only insurgents were inside the targeted compound when they ordered the strike.
    (Reuters, 5/30/11)(AP, 5/30/11)
2011        May 30, South Africa President Jacob Zuma arrived in Tripoli for talks on ending the Libyan conflict as NATO chief Anders Fogh Rasmussen said Moamer Kadhafi's "reign of terror" was near its end. 5 generals, 2 colonels and a major announced they had defected from Kadhafi's forces, and said the regime's army was now at 20-percent capacity.
    (AFP, 5/30/11)(AFP, 5/31/11)

2011        May 31, NATO pounded Tripoli, only hours after South African President Jacob Zuma left Libya's capital having failed to close the gap between Kadhafi and rebels fighting to oust him since February. Zuma said Kadhafi was "ready to implement the roadmap of the AU" and that he had insisted "all Libyans be given a chance to talk among themselves" to determine the country's future.
    (AFP, 5/31/11)
2011        May 31, Afghan President Hamid Karzai said he will no longer allow NATO airstrikes on houses, issuing his strongest statement yet against strikes that the military alliance says are key to its war on Taliban insurgents. A NATO spokeswoman said attacks on houses in Afghanistan are necessary and will continue in cooperation with Afghan security forces. A NATO service member was killed in an insurgent attack in eastern Afghanistan.
    (AP, 5/31/11)(AP, 6/1/11)

2011        Jun 1, NATO agreed to extend its Libyan air war by three months and dismissed charges by Moamer Kadhafi's regime that the bombing campaign has already killed 718 civilians. Libyan oil minister Shukri Ghanem said in Rome that he now supports the rebel insurgency who have set up a de-facto capital in Benghazi. A UN panel said government forces have committed crimes against humanity and war crimes in a conflict that has left an estimated 10-15 thousand people dead.
    (AP, 6/1/11)(AP, 6/2/11)(SFC, 6/2/11, p.A4)

2011        Jun 3, In Libya a series of at least 10 NATO strikes hit in and around Tripoli, targeting military barracks close to Gadhafi's sprawling compound, a police station and a military base. A rebel military leader said his troops had broken the siege of two towns in the western Nafusa mountain range, Yefren and Shakshuk. The Chinese Foreign Ministry said that China's ambassador to Qatar had recently met with the head of Libya's rebel council.
    (AP, 6/3/11)

2011        Jun 4, In eastern Afghanistan a roadside bomb killed four NATO service members. In the east a female suicide bomber detonated her explosives near a coalition convoy, wounding three Afghan guards in Kunar province. In Nangahar province at least two Taliban gunmen shot to death a local counterterrorism official in the Khogyani district.
    (AP, 6/4/11)(AP, 6/5/11)
2011        Jun 4, In Libya British Apache and French attack helicopters struck targets for the first time in NATO's campaign, hitting Moammar Gadhafi's troops near a key coastal oil city.
    (AP, 6/4/11)

2011        Jun 7, The EU imposed sanctions on 6 ports still held by Colonel Qaddafi. Russian President Dmitri Medvedev sent an envoy to Libya for the first time to meet with rebel leaders in the city of Benghazi and promise support. At least 40 NATO strikes hit Tripoli as Khadafy spoke in an audio address and vowed never to surrender.
    (Econ, 6/18/11, p.53)(AFP, 6/7/11)(SFC, 6/8/11, p.A4)

2011        Jun 16, In Libya NATO airstrikes pounded the area near Moammar Gadhafi's compound again before dawn. Moamer Kadhafi's regime told visiting Russian envoy Mikhail Margelov that the embattled Libyan leader is "not ready" to go, despite growing calls for him to quit and a months-long uprising. Muammar Gaddafi’s son said his father is willing to hold elections and step aside if he lost, an offer unlikely to placate his opponents but which could test the unity of the Western alliance trying to force him out.
    (AP, 6/16/11)(AFP, 6/16/11)(Reuters, 6/16/11)

2011        Jun 19, The Libyan government accused NATO of bombing a residential neighborhood in the capital and killing civilians, adding to its charges that the alliance is striking nonmilitary targets. 9 people, including two children, were reported killed. NATO admitted it carried out an air strike that killed civilians in Tripoli.
    (AP, 6/19/11)(Reuters, 6/20/11)

2011        Jun 20, Libya's government said a NATO airstrike on a large family compound belonging to Khoweildi al-Hamidi, a close associate of Moammar Gadhafi, killed 13 people, including three children, west of Tripoli. Hamadi escaped unharmed, but his wife and 2 grandchildren were among the dead. NATO acknowledged obliterating the compound. On July 28 attorneys for Hamadi filed a civil lawsuit in Belgium accusing NATO of killing the 13 civilians.
    (AP, 6/20/11)(SFC, 6/21/11, p.A2)(AP, 7/28/11)

2011        Jun 25, Libyan authorities accused NATO of killing 15 people in an airstrike that hit a restaurant and bakery in the east, while the alliance said there were no indications that civilians had died. Two loud explosions were heard in Tripoli as jets flew over the city. The rebel authority said 4 members of Libya's national soccer team and 13 other football figures have defected.
    (AP, 6/25/11)(Reuters, 6/25/11)

2011        Jun 27, In Libya NATO operations entered a 100th day with airstrikes having eased the siege of key rebel cities but with Moamer Kadhafi still in power and fears of an open war lingering. Rebels south of Tripoli advanced to within about 80 km (50 miles) of the capital and fought government troops for control of the town of Bir al-Ghanam.
    (AFP, 6/27/11)(Reuters, 6/27/11)

2011        Jun 28, In Afghanistan a roadside bomb killed two women and injured a child who were walking in Panjwai district of Kandahar province. A NATO service member was killed in an insurgent attack. Heavily armed Taliban militants stormed a top Kabul hotel, sparking a ferocious battle involving Afghan commandos and a NATO helicopter gunship that left at least 21 dead including the nine attackers. The hotel was hosting delegates attending an Afghan security conference and a large wedding party when the insurgents struck late in the day.
    (AP, 6/28/11)(AFP, 6/29/11)

2011        Jul 2, NATO said it has begun ramping up its airstrikes on military targets in the western part of Libya, where rebel forces claim a string of advances through territory still largely under Moammar Gadhafi's control.
    (AP, 7/2/11)

2011        Jul 7, In Afghanistan a roadside bomb killed 8 Afghan policemen on a patrol in the northern district of Fayz Abad. A NATO service member died as a result of a non-battle related injury in the south. In the east a NATO helicopter crashed in Parnwan province, but the crew was recovered. Up to 13 civilians, mostly women and children, were killed in a NATO air strike in the eastern province of Khost.
    (AP, 7/7/11)(AFP, 7/7/11)

2011        Jul 14, Afghan President Hamid Karzai ordered an investigation into provincial government claims that a NATO raid killed six civilians in Khost province. NATO said its troops killed insurgents linked to the Haqqani network during gunfights in the area and that only one civilian was wounded. A demonstration broke out after bodies of the dead were carried through Khost and the provincial council announced it was going on strike in protest over the deaths. A suicide bomber hiding explosives in his turban blew himself up inside a mosque during a memorial service for the slain half brother of President Karzai, killing at least 5 people. A French soldier was killed in a skirmish with insurgents in Kapisa province.
    (AFP, 7/14/11)(AP, 7/14/11)

2011        Jul 17, Afghanistan began handing responsibility for security from NATO soldiers to its own troops, igniting a process designed to leave the country free of foreign combat forces by 2014. Afghan and NATO troops killed at least 13 Taliban fighters in Nangarhar province after an overnight gunbattle ended with an airstrike on a building occupied by the insurgents.
    (AFP, 7/17/11)(AP, 7/17/11)

2011        Jul 18, US General David Petraeus, Washington's new intelligence chief, handed over command of US and NATO-led troops in Afghanistan to US Marine Corps General John Allen. A British soldier was killed in an explosion in Helmand province. 7 Afghan policemen manning a checkpoint in Helmand province were fed poisonous food and shot dead. In a separate incident two civilians were kidnapped and killed by insurgents.
    (AP, 7/18/11)(AFP, 7/19/11)(AFP, 7/19/11)

2011        Jul 19, Mortar shells from Afghanistan killed four Pakistani soldiers, the latest cross-border escalation as Afghan Pres. Karzai and his Pakistani counterpart called for peace. NATO handed over responsibility for the security of Mehterlam, the capital of eastern Laghman province, to Afghan forces.
    (AFP, 7/19/11)(AP, 7/19/11)

2011        Jul 24, In Afghanistan NATO forces battling insurgents along a highway in Wardak province accidentally killed three civilians who were caught in the crossfire.
    (AP, 7/24/11)
2011        Jul 24, In Libya NATO warplanes blitzed a string of military targets in Tripoli, as Moamer Kadhafi blamed a "colonial plot" for the conflict engulfing his country. The latest NATO strikes came after rebel forces said they had lost 16 fighters in two days of fighting for Zliten and had infiltrated the capital and attacked a regime command post where a son of the strongman was among officials targeted.
    (AFP, 7/24/11)

2011        Jul 25, The Libyan government showed foreign journalists a destroyed flu clinic in Zlitan and food warehouses it said had been hit earlier in the day by NATO airstrikes, killing eight people. NATO denied that it had targeted civilians and said it had only hit a number of military objectives in the area.
    (AP, 7/25/11)

2011        Jul 26, Kosovo's special police forces, that moved into the country's disputed north overnight to extend the government's writ at borders with Serbia, will withdraw as part of a deal between Kosovo and Serbia and mediated by NATO.
    (AP, 7/26/11)

2011        Jul 28, In Kosovo American and French peacekeepers under NATO took control of two customs posts on the northern border with Serbia after they were attacked by Serbs armed with firebombs.
    (AP, 7/28/11)

2011        Jul 29, NATO forces in Kosovo withdrew from a barricade put up by hundreds of Serbs on Friday to avoid confrontation with Serb extremists blocking the peacekeepers from reaching a base in the Serb-run north.
    (AP, 7/29/11)

2011        Aug 1, NATO removed roadblocks put up by Serbs in Kosovo's north, but barricades still remain following a week of violence that left one Kosovo policeman dead.
    (AP, 8/1/11)

2011        Aug 3, Libya’s Seif al-Islam Kadhafi, the high-profile son of leader Moammar Gadhafi, said his family had forged an alliance with Islamist rebels among the insurgents to drive out the secular opposition to his father's 40-year rule. He claimed to have negotiated the pact with Ali Sallabi, a leading Islamist in the rebel-held east. Sallabi acknowledged their conversations but denied the Islamists had switched sides. Rebels reportedly seized the Cartagena, which NATO had prevented from delivering oil to Tripoli.
    (AFP, 8/4/11)(Econ, 8/6/11, p.38)

2011        Aug 5, In southern Afghanistan insurgents opened fire on police at an anti-NATO rally in Qalat, Zabul province, sparking a gunbattle that killed three civilians and a police officer. The townspeople were protesting an overnight NATO operation that killed 3 suspected insurgents, including a local Taliban commander. NATO said insurgents killed 2 alliance service members. In the east a CH-47 military helicopter crashed killing 30 US special operation troops, an interpreter and 7 Afghan commandos. The Taliban claimed they downed the helicopter with rocket fire while it was taking part in a raid on a house where insurgents were gathered in Wardak province. In southern Helmand province NATO troops attacked a house and inadvertently killed eight members of a family, including women and children. A British coalition service member was killed in the south.
    (AP, 8/5/11)(AFP, 8/5/11)(AP, 8/6/11)
2011        Aug 5, Libya's rebels said they have reports that Moammar Gadhafi's youngest son, was killed in a NATO airstrike in the western town of Zlitan. Khamis Gadhafi (27) commanded one of the regime's strongest military brigades. He was reportedly among 32 troops killed when NATO hit a government operations center. Deputy Foreign Minister Khaled Kaim said Khamis is alive. NATO reportedly struck and destroyed a caravan of camels carrying heavy caliber machine guns, mortars and ammunition from neighboring Chad. State television later said 33 children and 32 women were among 85 people killed in the NATO attack.
    (AP, 8/5/11)(AP, 8/6/11)(AP, 8/11/11)

2011        Aug 7, In Afghanistan two French Foreign Legion soldiers and five others were injured in a clash with insurgents in the northeastern Tagab valley. They were among four NATO troops killed in two separate insurgent attacks.
    (AFP, 8/7/11)(AP, 8/7/11)

2011        Aug 9, Around 200 Afghans burned tires and blocked key roads near the presidential palace in angry protests after at least three people were killed over a land dispute. Members of the Kuchi nomadic tribe had clashed with guards working for a housing project linked to the family of lawmaker Qais Hasan. NATO troops reportedly killed four Afghan policemen by accident in Kandahar province.
    (AFP, 8/9/11)(AP, 8/10/11)

2011        Aug 11, In southern Afghanistan 5 NATO soldiers were killed by a bomb. Another NATO service member died in an insurgent attack in the south. The Taliban rejected a US claim to have killed the fighters who shot down an American helicopter killing 38 troops. 5 Afghan police were killed in an overnight clash with the Taliban in Helmand province. 2 Afghan soldiers, abducted a day earlier, were found dead in Logar province. A French soldier was killed when a roadside bomb exploded on a convoy in Kapisa province.
    (AFP, 8/11/11)(AP, 8/12/11)

2011        Aug 17, In Libya rebels battled Moammar Gadhafi loyalists for control over the only functioning oil refinery in the western city of Zawiya, as the opposition tried to cut off fuel supplies to the regime's stronghold of Tripoli. NATO warplanes sunk a tugboat carrying troops loyal to Gadhafi away from Zawiya as rebels advanced closer to Tripoli.
    (AP, 8/17/11)(AP, 8/19/11)

2011        Aug 18, In Libya 5 loud explosions shook the center of Tripoli, as rebels in the western mountains claimed control of the Zawiya oil refinery. Gadhafi troops were still in control of Gamal Abdel-Nasser Street and were hiding in the hospital there. PM al-Baghdadi Ali al-Mahmoudi said the government was in negotiations with rebels. NATO planes took out five tanks in Zawiya. NATO hit four military facilities in Tripoli.
    (AP, 8/18/11)(AP, 8/19/11)

2011        Aug 22, Libyan rebels claimed to be in control of most of Tripoli after their lightning advance heralded the fall of Moammar Gadhafi's nearly 42-year regime. Scattered battles erupted, and the mercurial leader's whereabouts remained unknown. NATO said it will continue its combat air patrols over Libya until all pro-Gadhafi forces surrender or return to barracks.
    (AP, 8/22/11)

2011        Aug 26, In northwest Afghanistan a bomb exploded at an outdoor mosque, killing four worshippers in Faryab province. In western Herat a bomb placed on a small cart exploded, killing an Afghan woman and wounding seven other civilians. A NATO airstrike reportedly killed six civilians, including four women, in Logar province.
    (AP, 8/26/11)(AP, 8/27/11)
2011        Aug 26, In Libya British warplanes struck a large bunker in Moammar Gadhafi's hometown of Sirte, his largest remaining stronghold, as NATO turned its attention to loyalist forces battling advancing Libyan rebels in the area. The two main tribes in Sirte, the Gadhadhfa and the Urfali, remained loyal to the Libyan leader. About 80 decomposing bodies were found in an abandoned hospital in Tripoli.
    (AP, 8/26/11)(AFP, 8/26/11)

2011        Aug 30, Libyan rebels pledged to launch an assault within days on Sirte, Moammar Gadhafi's hometown. Rebels told Khadafy backers to give up by Sep 3 or face assault. Gadhafi's daughter gave birth to a baby girl in Algeria. NATO planes bombed Gaddafi forces near Sirte, targeting tanks and other armored vehicles as well as military facilities. They also hit targets in the area of Bani Walid, another Gaddafi stronghold 150 km southeast of Tripoli.
    (AP, 8/30/11)(Reuters, 8/31/11)(SFC, 8/31/11, p.A3)
2011        Aug 30, A Lithuanian military plane collided midair with a French fighter jet during a NATO training flight and crashed into a swamp in northern Lithuania after its two pilots safely ejected. The French Mirage fighter was only "lightly damaged" and landed safely.
    (AP, 8/30/11)

2011        Sep 2, Afghan and NATO forces killed Saber Lal Melma, a former Guantanamo detainee. He had returned to Afghanistan after being released in 2007 to become a key al-Qaida ally.
    (AP, 9/3/11)
2011        Sep 2, Turkey said it has agreed to host an early warning radar as part of NATO's missile defense system aimed at countering ballistic missile threats from neighboring Iran.
    (AP, 9/2/11)

2011        Sep 3, In Afghanistan officials said NATO forces killed a child and a shopkeeper who were caught up in a firefight between a military patrol and a gunman in Kandahar. NATO said that one of its service members was killed in an insurgent attack in the south but did not say if it was the same incident.
    (AP, 9/3/11)

2011        Sep 6, In Libya tribal elders from one of Moammar Gadhafi's last strongholds tried to persuade regime loyalists holed up there to lay down their arms. Mansour Dao, Gadhafi's security chief, was at the head of the first convoy to roll into Niamey, the capital of Niger. NATO made a number of airstrikes around Sirte, hitting six tanks, six armored fighting vehicles and an ammunition storage facility, among other targets. They also targeted the Gadhafi loyalist strongholds of Hun, Sabha and Waddan.
    (AP, 9/6/11)(AP, 9/7/11)

2011        Sep 7, The Afghan government charged that a NATO decision to stop transferring detainees to some Afghan-run detention centers is unjustified and damages the handover of security to local forces. A French paratrooper was killed by insurgent fire during an operation in the eastern province of Kapisa. A roadside bomb in eastern Khost province killed five Afghan soldiers. A Turkish engineer was killed by a roadside bomb in Herat province.
    (AP, 9/7/11)(AP, 9/8/11)

2011        Sep 11, In Libya NATO warplanes struck several targets in areas still loyal to fugitive leader Moammar Gadhafi as revolutionary forces said they had to retreat from Bani Walid, a key loyalist stronghold, after coming under heavy fire. At least 12 people were killed and 16 wounded when a brigade from Gharyan and Kikla came under fire at the western town of Asabah. Many people in Asabah were Kadhafi supporters and 20 of his fighters were reported captured during the fighting.
    (AP, 9/11/11)(AFP, 9/11/11)

2011        Sep 13, Romania signed a deal to host a crucial part of a US missile defense system. Romania's President Traian Basescu announced the deal after meeting with President Obama in Washington. Under NATO plans, a limited system of US anti-missile interceptors and radars planned for Europe include interceptors in Romania and Poland as well as radar in Turkey.
    (AP, 9/14/11)

2011        Sep 14, Turkey’s foreign ministry announced that an early warning radar will be stationed in Kurecik in the southeast as part of NATO's missile defense system.
    (AP, 9/14/11)

2011        Sep 21, In Libya NATO airstrikes pounded an area in Moammar Gadhafi's hometown of Sirte as revolutionary forces surrounding the city came under rocket fire. NATO allies agreed to extend their air campaign in Libya by another 90 days. Rebel forces captured the base between Waddan and Hun at dawn and took Hun during the day. Rebels began a 3-day attack on the region of the al-Meshashya tribe, which had earlier pledged support for Gadhafi. Public property was destroyed, private cars and farm animals were stolen, and homes were burned.
    (AP, 9/21/11)(AFP, 9/21/11)(AFP, 9/22/11)(AP, 9/28/11)

2011        Sep 27, NATO troops shot at Serb protesters after the military alliance's troops were attacked near Kosovo's border with Serbia.
    (AP, 9/27/11)

2011        Sep 28, In southern Afghanistan gunmen killed 8 policemen at checkpoint in Helmand province. In Uruzgan province a district police chief was killed and three of his bodyguards were injured when their vehicle struck a roadside bomb. The UN said the average number of armed clashes, roadside bombings and other violence in the country each month is running 39% higher in 2011 compared to last year. NATO said Afghan and US-led coalition troops destroyed drugs worth more than $350 million and 3 drug laboratories in what is believed to be Afghanistan's largest drug seizure this past decade. A New Zealand special forces soldier was shot in the head and killed during a gunbattle with suspected insurgents in Kabul. 3 foreign soldiers were killed by an improvised explosive device (IED) in the east, and another 3 died in another IED attack in the south, along with two others in separate incidents.
    (AP, 9/28/11)(AFP, 9/28/11)(AFP, 9/29/11)

2011        Sep 29, In southern Afghanistan a roadside bomb killed three NATO service members, while a bomb targeting Afghan policewomen killed three people in Herat.
    (AFP, 9/29/11)

2011        Oct 7, Afghan Pres. Hamid Karzai admitted his government and NATO had failed to provide security to Afghans, as Afghanistan marked the 10th anniversary of a war that has cost thousands of lives and hundreds of billions of dollars. Karzai claimed the Taliban are being propped up by Pakistan, saying the militants can't lift a finger without the Pakistanis. A suicide bomber and rocket fire struck 3 US-run outposts near the Pakistani border.
    (AFP, 10/7/11)(AP, 10/7/11)(SFC, 10/8/11, p.A4)

2011        Oct 14, In southern Afghanistan a suicide attacker blew up an explosives-packed car while it was being inspected at a border police checkpoint that had been set up because of a warning of an imminent attack. 3 officers and one civilian were killed. NATO and Afghan forces killed 13 insurgents in an overnight operation targeting local Taliban leaders. One police officer was killed in the operation. 3 NATO service members were killed in separate attacks. Violence left at least 30 dead across Afghanistan.
    (AP, 10/14/11)(AP, 10/15/11)

2011        Oct 19, Kosovo Serb leaders, defying a NATO warning, refused to unconditionally lift their roadblocks in the north of the country. A day earlier the 5,500-strong NATO-led force in Kosovo, known as KFOR, said it will take unspecified "resolute" action if the Serbs fail to lift the blockade.
    (AP, 10/19/11)
2011        Oct 19, Turkish soldiers, air force bombers and helicopter gunships launched an incursion into northern Iraq, hours after Kurdish rebels killed 24 soldiers and wounded 18 in attacks along the border. The United States and NATO both issued statements supporting the offensive, the largest in more than three years.
    (AP, 10/19/11)(AFP, 10/21/11)

2011        Oct 20, Kosovo's NATO-led peacekeepers confronted crowds of angry Serbs as they tried to remove Serb roadblocks in the volatile north of the country.
    (AP, 10/20/11)
2011        Oct 20, Libya’s National Transition Council said that its fighters found and shot dictator Moammar Gadhafi (69). Sirte finally fell to the rebels today after weeks of tough fighting. NATO  war planes struck 11 armed vehicles in the vicinity of Sirte. The strikes marked the culmination of a NATO-led air war mandated by the UN to protect civilians from Gadhafi's forces Gadhafi was shot in the head after being captured at a sewage culvert on the outskirts of Sirte.
    (AP, 10/20/11)(AFP, 10/21/11)

2011        Oct 21, NATO announced plans to end its 7-month mission in Libya on October 31 but will issue a formal decision next week after consulting the UN and Libya's interim authorities.
    (AFP, 10/22/11)

2011        Oct 22, NATO-led peacekeepers tried to remove roadblocks in northern Kosovo, but were prevented by Serbs guarding the blockade that has paralyzed travel in the tense region.
    (AP, 10/22/11)

2011        Oct 24, Hundreds of Afghans took to the streets in Kabul, shouting "death to America" in an angry protest urging the government not to sign a strategic partnership with the US. The US coalition said tens of thousands of Afghan and NATO troops killed or captured 200 insurgents in eastern Afghanistan during two operations targeting the Haqqani network.
    (AFP, 10/24/11)

2011        Oct 26, Libya's interim leader Mustafa Abdel Jalil urged NATO to continue its Libya campaign until year's end, saying loyalists of slain despot Moamer Kadhafi still pose a threat to the country. NATO unexpectedly postponed a definite decision to end its bombing campaign.
    (AFP, 10/26/11)(SFC, 10/27/11, p.A4)
2011        Oct 26, Marcel Ceccaldi, a French lawyer representing the family of Moamer Kadhafi said he plans to file a war crimes complaint against NATO with the International Criminal Court (ICC) for the alliance's alleged role in his death.
    (AFP, 10/26/11)

2011        Oct 28, NATO allies formally agreed to end the seven-month mission in Libya Oct 31.
    (AFP, 10/28/11)

2011        Oct 29, In Afghanistan a Taliban car bomber struck a NATO military convoy in the Kabul, killing at least 13 people, including 5 troops and 8 civilians. 3 Australian army trainers were killed when an Afghan soldier in Uruzgan province turned his gun on them. In the eastern city of Asadabad in Kunar province, a female suicide bomber blew herself up outside a local branch of Afghanistan's spy agency, wounding two guards.
    (AFP, 10/29/11)(AFP, 10/30/11)
2011        Oct 29, In Libya volunteers reportedly buried more than 500 bodies across Sirte since October 23, most of them believed to be fighters. This included more than 50 bodies of civilians were found under the rubble of a several-storey building flattened in a NATO air strike.
    (AFP, 10/29/11)

2011        Oct 31, NATO’s Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen arrived in Tripoli for talks with Libya's interim leaders before NATO operations end at midnight today.
    (AP, 10/31/11)

2011        Nov 2, NATO said it is pouring extra resources to set up an Afghan force to take over from private security firms after a report showed the Afghans are unlikely to be ready for the planned disbanding of private security companies in March.
    (AP, 11/2/11)

2011        Nov 4, NATO said US Major General Peter Fuller, deputy commander of NATO's mission to train and equip Afghan forces, has been dismissed after making "inappropriate public comments." He had accused leaders including President Hamid Karzai of being out of touch and ungrateful for American support.
    (AFP, 11/4/11)

2011        Nov 23, President Dmitry Medvedev said Russia will deploy new missiles aimed at US missile defense sites in Europe if Washington goes ahead with the planned shield despite Russia's concerns. The stern warning to the US and NATO seemed to be directed at rallying nationalist votes in the polls.
    (AP, 11/23/11)

2011        Nov 26, Pakistan accused NATO helicopters and fighter jets of firing on two army checkpoints in the country's northwest and killing 24 soldiers. Afghan troops, who came under fire while operating near the Pakistan border, called in the NATO airstrikes. Islamabad retaliated by closing the border crossings used by the international coalition to supply its troops in neighboring Afghanistan. The Pakistani government demanded the US vacate an air base within 15 days that the CIA is suspected of using for unmanned drones.
    (AP, 11/26/11)(AP, 11/27/11)

2011        Nov 28, A German NATO officer and a soldier were shot and wounded in a clash with Serb protesters in northern Kosovo after the military alliance's troops used heavy machinery to remove trucks and buses blocking a main road in the tense region.
    (AP, 11/28/11)

2011        Dec 5, The US said it is vacating the Shamsi air base in Pakistan used by American drones that target Taliban and al-Qaida militants, complying with a key demand made by Islamabad in retaliation for the NATO airstrikes that killed 24 Pakistani soldiers.
    (AP, 12/5/11)

2011        Dec 8, NATO informed Iraq that it will withdraw its training mission at year-end after Baghdad refused to grant it legal immunity, mirroring the nearly-complete pullout of US forces.
    (AFP, 12/11/11)

2012        Jan 17, In Afghanistan assailants gunned down Mohammad Nahim Agha Mama, a prominent anti-Taliban tribal leader as he was praying in a mosque in Kandahar. A suicide car bomber slammed into the entrance of a military base jointly run by NATO and Afghan troops in Nangarhar province, wounding three Afghan private security guards. NATO forces reportedly killed 5 civilians, including a woman and 2 children, during an overnight raid in Kunar province.
    (AP, 1/17/12)(AP, 1/18/12)

2012        Jan 27, France announced it would withdraw its troops from Afghanistan a year earlier than the 2014 date agreed by NATO. Pres. Sarkozy, alongside Afghan President Hamid Karzai who was in Paris for a previously planned visit, said France had told the US of its plan, and will present it at a Feb. 2-3 meeting of NATO defense ministers in Brussels.
    (AP, 1/28/12)

2012        Feb 1, NATO confirmed a secret report saying that the Taliban, backed by Pakistan, are set to retake control of Afghanistan after NATO-led forces withdraw, raising the prospect of a major failure of Western policy after a costly war.
    (AP, 2/1/12)

2012        Feb 2, NATO's top official joined the US and France in calling for Afghan forces to take the lead in all combat operations by mid-2013, a year earlier than the original timeline.
    (AP, 2/2/12)

2012        Feb 8, NATO said it has decided to extend until 2018 an operation to protect the airspace of Baltic members Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania with fighter jets.
    (AP, 2/8/12)
2012        Feb 8, In Afghanistan a NATO airstrike reportedly killed 8 children in Kapisa province.
    (AFP, 2/9/12)

2012        Feb 14, Pakistan announced that it has temporarily allowed NATO to ship perishable food to its troops in Afghanistan, a sign of thawing tensions following American airstrikes last year on Nov 26 that accidentally killed 24 Pakistani soldiers.
    (AP, 2/14/12)

2012        Feb 27, In eastern Afghanistan a Taliban suicide car bomber targeting NATO troops at Jalalabad airport killed 6 civilians, an Afghan soldier and 2 local guards, the 7th day of violence over the burning of the Koran at a US airbase.
    (AFP, 2/27/12)

2012        Mar 15, Afghan President Hamid Karzai demanded NATO troops immediately pull out of rural areas in the wake of the killing of 16 civilians. The Taliban broke off talks with the US. Karzai also said he now wants Afghan forces take the lead for countrywide security in 2013, a year ahead of schedule.
    (AP, 3/15/12)

2012        Mar 28, In Afghanistan a NATO supply convoy came under attack in Farah province. 37 people were reported killed, including 28 Taliban attackers.
    (SFC, 3/30/12, p.A3)

2012        Apr 14, Afghan forces with air support from NATO combed through the country's mountainous northeast in their third day of a major offensive against militants in a province that serves as an insurgent supply route from Pakistan. A spokesman for Nuristan province said nearly 30 insurgents have been killed and at least 30 have been wounded in the operation that began in Kamdesh district.
    (AP, 4/14/12)

2012        Apr 25, In southern Afghanistan another NATO service member was killed by an improvised explosive device. Another NATO service member died of non-battle injuries. A man wearing an Afghan National Army uniform shot and killed a coalition service member in the south. The shooter was killed when coalition forces returned fire.
    (AP, 4/25/12)(AP, 4/26/12)

2012        Apr 26, In eastern Afghanistan a mortar fired during heavy fighting between NATO forces and the Taliban hit a house killing three women. In the northeast another group of Taliban fighters launched an overnight attack on a police post, killing four officers and abducting 16. Afghan border police killed eight insurgents who they found placing a bomb near a road in Spin Boldak district.
    (AP, 4/26/12)

2012        May 14, Human Rights Watch said NATO's bombing campaign in Libya left 72 civilians dead last year and accused the military alliance of failing to acknowledge the deaths.
    (AFP, 5/14/12)

2012        May 15, NATO invited Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari to the alliance's May 20-21 summit in Chicago, after signs that the country could be moving to reopen its Afghan border to NATO military supplies.
    (AP, 5/15/12)

2012        May 20, Pres. Obama hosted a summit with NATO allies in Chicago. They charted an outwardly confident path to a postwar Afghanistan. Nearly 50 US military veterans at an anti-NATO rally in Chicago threw their service medals into the street, an action they said symbolized their rejection of the US-led wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 5/21/12, p.A4)(Reuters, 5/21/12)

2012        May 26, Afghanistan's parliament approved a strategic partnership agreement with the United States. A NATO night airstrike reportedly killed 8 members of a family in Paktia province. A NATO official the next day said that so far, there was no evidence of any civilian casualties. 4 NATO coalition service members were killed in separate bomb attacks in the south. Captain Stephen James Healey became the 415th British serviceperson to die since the military mission in Afghanistan started in 2001.
    (AP, 5/26/12)(AP, 5/27/12)(AFP, 5/27/12)(AFP, 5/28/12)

2012        May 27, In eastern Afghanistan a NATO coalition service member died in a roadside bomb. Two civilians were killed when their vehicle struck a roadside bomb in Marjah district of Helmand province. Al-Qaeda's 2nd in command in Afghanistan was killed in an air strike in Kunar province. Saudi-born Sakhr al-Taifi (aka Mushtaq and Nasim) had commanded foreign fighters and directed attacks on NATO and Afghan troops.
    (AP, 5/27/12)(AFP, 5/29/12)

2012        Jun 1, In Kosovo NATO peacekeepers exchanged fire with angry Serb protesters seeking to prevent int’l. troops from removing roadblocks in the tense north.
    (SFC, 6/2/12, p.A2)

2012        Jun 4, NATO concluded agreements with Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan to allow it to evacuate military equipment from Afghanistan and completely bypass Pakistan.
    (SFC, 6/5/12, p.A2)

2012        Jun 6, In Afghanistan 3 suicide attackers blew themselves up in Kandahar city, killing 22 people and wounding at least 50 others in a dusty marketplace. Afghan officials and residents said a pre-dawn NATO airstrike targeting militants killed 18 people celebrating a wedding, including women and children. A NATO forces spokesman said they had no reports of civilians being killed in the overnight raid to capture a local Taliban leader in Logar province. Provincial Police Chief Gen. Ghulam Sakhi Roogh Lawanay said there was no wedding party. He said the gathering was a meeting of Taliban commanders in the province. 2 NATO service members were killed in a helicopter crash in Ghazni province.
    (AP, 6/6/12)

2012        Jun 8, In Afghanistan NATO commander General John Allen flew to Logar province "to see local leaders and the population to apologize and offer condolences to the families," of those killed in a June 6 airstrike.
    (AFP, 6/8/12)

2012        Jun 11, In northern Afghanistan an ambulance struck a roadside bomb while rushing a pregnant woman and her family to a hospital, killing the woman and four of her family members. Earlier today two women and two children were killed in the east when a mortar fired by insurgents hit their home in Ghazni province. NATO said it is limiting airstrikes against houses to self-defense for troops, following a strike last week that killed women and children alongside insurgents.
    (AP, 6/11/12)

2012        Jul 2, In Afghanistan a suicide car bomber killed 7 people and wounded 23 near Kandahar University. Logar province spokesman Din Mohammad Darwesh said NATO forces were on a foot patrol in Charkh district when they came under fire from insurgents. He said they called in an airstrike and the bombardment killed three shopkeepers.
    (AP, 7/2/12)(AP, 7/2/12)

2012        Jul 3, Pakistan agreed to reopen its NATO supply line after the US said it was sorry for American airstrikes that killed 24 Pakistani soldiers in November. On July 4 Pakistan's Cabinet endorsed the decision to reopen the route.
    (AP, 7/4/12)

2012        Jul 5, The first trucks supplying NATO troops in Afghanistan crossed the border from Pakistan after Islamabad ended a seven-month blockade.
    (AFP, 7/5/12)

2012        Jul 8, In Pakistan thousands of hardline Islamists streamed toward Islamabad in a massive convoy of vehicles to protest the government's decision to allow the US and other NATO countries to resume shipping troop supplies through the country to Afghanistan.
    (AP, 7/8/12)

2012        Jul 18, In northern Afghanistan a Taliban bomb attack in Samangan province destroyed 22 fuel tankers carrying supplies for NATO forces. 2 NATO soldiers were killed in an improvised bomb attack in eastern Afghanistan.
    (AFP, 7/18/12)

2012        Jul 22, In Afghanistan roadside bombs killed 2 NATO service members in the east and 2 more in the south. NATO said that it killed a number of insurgents with an airstrike in the Mohammad Agha district of eastern Logar province. The bodies of 5 kidnapped Afghan men, working a base joint operated by Afghan and NATO forces, were discovered in Wardak province. An Afghan policeman killed 3 civilian contractors, 2 Americans and a British citizen, working for NATO in Herat province.
    (AP, 7/22/12)(AFP, 7/23/12)(SFC, 7/23/12, p.A2)(SFC, 7/24/12, p.A2)

2012        Jul 31, Pakistan signed a deal with the United States allowing NATO convoys to travel into Afghanistan until the end of 2015, seeking to draw a line under a 7-month border blockade.
    (AFP, 7/31/12)

2012        Aug 7, In Afghanistan an American soldier was killed when two individuals wearing Afghan National Army uniforms turned their weapons against ISAF service members in Paktia province. 9 civilians were killed in a roadside bomb explosion on the outskirts of Kabul. A suicide truck bomb attack was launched against a NATO base south of the capital. A French soldier and around 10 Taliban fighters were killed in an early morning ambush and subsequent firefight during a joint operation with the Afghan army in Kapisa province near Kabul.
    (AFP, 8/7/12)(AFP, 8/10/12)

2012        Aug 8, In eastern Afghanistan two suicide attackers hit a NATO patrol, killing 3 American coalition service members and USAID foreign service officer Ragaei Abdelfattah. Afghan officials added that a civilian was also killed in the bombing in Kunar province.
    (AP, 8/8/12)(AP, 8/10/12)

2012        Aug 16, In Afghanistan Taliban fighters reportedly shot down a NATO helicopter in the country's south. The international coalition says 11 people were killed in the crash, including seven international service members, but did not identify the cause. An Afghan army vehicle hit a roadside bomb in Baghlan province, killing 3 Afghan soldiers and wounding 3 others.
    (AP, 8/16/12)

2012        Aug 19, In Afghanistan attackers killed two pairs of brothers in Helmand and Farah provinces with links to the government. NATO reported 3 service members killed in the east. An airstrike by coalition forces in the northeast killed as many as 50 Taliban fighters and a local insurgent leader in Kunar province. 2 Afghan policemen turned their weapons on US troops in Kandahar province, killing an American service member. One of the attackers was killed when the troops returned fire and the other escaped.
    (AP, 8/19/12)(AP, 8/20/12)

2012        Aug 24, A NATO strike in Afghanistan's eastern Kunar province killed Mullah Dadullah, the self-proclaimed Taliban leader in Pakistan's Bajur tribal area. Pakistani intelligence officials said Dadullah and 19 others were killed in the attack.
    (AP, 8/25/12)

2012        Sep 8, In Afghanistan a teenage suicide bomber blew himself up outside NATO headquarters in Kabul, killing at least six civilians in a strike that targeted the heart of the US-led military operation in the country. The Taliban claimed responsibility.
    (AP, 9/8/12)

2012        Sep 11, Afghan insurgents bombarded the US Bagram Air Field and destroyed a NATO helicopter, killing three Afghan intelligence employees. There were also NATO personnel aboard and wounded, the coalition said without providing further details. A teenage suicide bomber walked into a shop in Herat province and blew himself up, killing five people.
    (AP, 9/11/12)

2012        Sep 16, An Afghan police officer turned his gun on NATO troops at a remote checkpoint in the south of the country before dawn, killing four American troops. Airstrikes by NATO planes reportedly killed 8 women and girls in Laghman province. NATO forces said that the strike killed a large number of insurgents, as many as 45, but may have also killed civilians. Gen. John Allen ordered a temporary scaling back of joint operations with Afghan police and soldiers.
    (AP, 9/16/12)(Economist, 9/22/12, p.50)

2012        Sep 22, NATO said a service member with the international military force in Afghanistan has been killed in an insurgent attack in the eastern part of the country.
    (AP, 9/22/12)

2012        Oct 5, The Spanish government agreed to participate in NATO's anti-missile shield that will see specialized United States warships based at a Spanish base already used by the US Navy.
    (AP, 10/5/12)

2012        Oct 9, NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said NATO is ready to defend alliance member Turkey amid artillery exchanges along its tense southeastern border with Syria.
    (AP, 10/9/12)

2012        Oct 21, In Afghanistan a NATO raid in Logar province reportedly killed four children.
    (AP, 10/23/12)

2012        Nov 7, Western efforts to oust Syrian President Bashar Assad shifted dramatically, with Britain announcing it will deal directly with rebel military leaders and Turkey saying NATO members have discussed using Patriot missiles to protect a safe zone inside Syria.
    (AP, 11/7/12)

2012        Nov 21, Turkey's government requested the deployment of NATO's Patriot surface-to-air missiles to bolster its defenses along its border with Syria.
    (AP, 11/21/12)

2012        Dec 6, NATO moved forward with its plan to place Patriot missiles and troops along Syria's border with Turkey to protect against potential attacks.
    (AP, 12/6/12)

2012        Dec 7, The Dutch government approved a NATO request to send two batteries of Patriot missile defense systems to Turkey, following in Germany's footsteps.
    (AP, 12/7/12)

2012        Dec 12, French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said more than 100 countries have recognized a new Syrian opposition coalition. Fabius called the "Friends of the Syrian People" conference meeting in Marrakech, Morocco, "extraordinary progress." US and NATO said President Bashar Assad's forces had fired Scud missiles at rebel areas.
    (AP, 12/12/12)(AP, 12/13/12)

2012        Dec 13, NATO's Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said he thinks Syria President Bashar Assad's regime is on the brink of collapse.
    (AP, 12/13/12)

2012        Dec 14, The Pentagon said the US will send two batteries of Patriot missiles and 400 troops to Turkey as part of a NATO force meant to protect Turkish territory from potential Syrian missile attack.
    (AP, 12/14/12)

2012        Dec 18, In Afghanistan a coalition soldier went missing. Afghan police found the body and turned it over to NATO forces on Dec 29. He was one of 1,560 troops serving from the former Soviet republic of Georgia. 18 Georgian soldiers have been killed since the country joined the international military operations in Afghanistan in August 2009.
    (AP, 12/21/12)(AP, 12/30/12)

2012        Dec 21, NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmusen said the Syrian military has continued to fire Scud-type missiles against anti-government forces, describing the move as an act of desperation of a regime nearing its end.
    (AP, 12/21/12)

2013        Jan 7, An Afghan soldier turned his weapon against foreign and Afghan troops in a southern province, killing one British soldier. 6 British soldiers were also reported wounded.
    (AP, 1/8/13)
2013        Jan 7, The Dutch military shipped Patriot missiles to Turkey, a fellow NATO member, after the alliance agreed in December to deploy the anti-missile systems along Turkey's southern border with Syria. Fighting in Syria continued unabated.
    (AP, 1/7/13)

2013        Jan 9, In northwest Pakistan truckers who carry supplies to NATO troops in Afghanistan went on strike to protest lower pay, inadequate security and corrupt officials who demand bribes from the truckers.
    (AP, 1/9/13)

2013        Jan 27, Afghan authorities accused NATO of killing three civilian men in a nighttime ambush in the eastern Logar province. The coalition disputed the account, saying it had no operations in Logar's Baraki Barak district the previous evening. NATO said there were three dead, but they were insurgents killed by Afghan forces.
    (AP, 1/27/13)

2013        Feb 13, In Afghanistan a NATO airstrike struck two houses, killing 10 Afghan civilians and four insurgents in Kunar province near the Pakistani border. President Hamid Karzai condemned the attack. Mahmood, an Afghan soldier-turned-insurgent, who was feted by the Taliban for killing an American soldier during an insider attack on May 11, 2012, was killed along with an accomplice in a raid in Ghaziabad district. Kunar province.
    (AP, 2/13/13)(AP, 2/18/13)

2013        Feb 19, NATO and Afghan forces killed at least 25 insurgents and three of their commanders in separate operations around the country.
    (AP, 2/20/13)

2013        Mar 26, Afghan and NATO forces killed more than 20 insurgents in a 2-day joint operation in Logar province.
    (AP, 3/27/13)

2013        Apr 6, In southern Afghanistan 3 US service members, 2 US civilians and a doctor were killed in a suicide attack in Zabul province. Another American civilian was killed in a 2-day Afghan-led military operation in Kunar province that left as many as 11 suspected Taliban militants dead. A NATO airstrike killed 11 Afghan civilians, including 10 children in Kunar province. Gen. Martin Dempsey, the US military's top officer, began a weekend visit.
    (AP, 4/6/13)(AP, 4/7/13)

2013        Apr 23, A Dutch court sentenced diplomat Raymond Poeteray (61) to 12 years in prison for delivering confidential NATO and European Union documents to Russian agents. He was arrested in March 2012 in connection with a German investigation.
    (AP, 4/23/13)

2013        May 14, In Afghanistan a powerful explosion ripped through a NATO convoy in southern Kandahar province. 4 US personnel were killed. A bomb hidden in a parked motorcycle ripped through a crowded market in Helmand province, killing at least 3 people.
    (AP, 5/14/13)

2013        Jun 18, Afghan President Hamid Karzai announced at a ceremony that his country's armed forces are taking over the lead for security nationwide from the US-led NATO coalition. A botched bomb attack against an Afghan politician in another part of Kabul killed 3 civilians.
    (AP, 6/18/13)

2013        Jul 2, In Afghanistan Taliban suicide attackers blew up a truck bomb at the gates of a NATO supplier's compound in Kabul and sprayed gunfire at security personnel. The ensuing gunbattle left a dozen people dead.
    (AP, 7/2/13)(SFC, 7/3/13, p.A2)

2013        Jul 31, In Afghanistan NATO helicopter personnel mistakenly killed 5 Afghan police officers in Nangarhar province. A Taliban ambush left an official and 3 other people dead in the country's south. Taliban fighters shot and killed a tribal elder for allegedly cooperating with the Afghan government, sparking retaliation from the family and other villagers in the Sherzad district of Nangarhar province.
    (AP, 8/1/13)(SFC, 8/2/13, p.A5)(AP, 8/3/13)

2013        Sep 7, In Afghanistan a NATO airstrike targeting insurgents in Kunar province hit a pickup truck carrying up to ten militants, amid reports that at least 8 civilians, including 7 women and children, were among the dead.
    (Reuters, 9/8/13)

2013        Sep 30, The commandant of the US Marine Corps sacked two generals in the wake of a deadly attack last year by the Taliban on a major NATO base in Afghanistan.
    (AFP, 10/1/13)

2013        Oct 4, In Afghanistan a NATO strike in the country's east reportedly killed five civilians. The US-led coalition said the next day that it had targeted insurgents and that its initial reports indicate no civilian casualties.
    (AP, 10/5/13)

2013        Oct 10, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to extend the mandate of the NATO-led force in Afghanistan for the last time before it hands over total responsibility for security to Afghan forces at the end of 2014.
    (AP, 10/11/13)

2013        Nov 10, NATO’s anti-piracy force arrested 9 suspected pirates on suspicion of trying to hijack a Danish refined oil and chemical carrier in the Indian Ocean. The TORM KANSAS, owned by the Danish shipping company Torm A/S, was en route from Sikka in India to Mossel Bay in South Africa when the pirates opened fire as it passed east of Tanzania.
    (AP, 11/11/13)

2013        Nov 23, In Pakistan thousands of right-wing activists led by cricketer-turned-politician Imran Khan staged a protest against US drone strikes, threatening to block NATO supply routes if strikes continue.
    (AFP, 11/23/13)

2013        Nov 28, In Afghanistan two roadside bombs killed six civilians in the country's eastern Nangarhar province. A coalition airstrike killed a child and injured two women, leading to a condemnation of the attack by the country's president. The ISAF strike also killed an insurgent in Helmand province.
    (AP, 11/28/13)(AP, 11/29/13)

2013        Nov 29, The top US commander in Afghanistan apologized to President Hamid Karzai for a drone strike the previous day that killed a child and NATO promised an investigation.
    (AP, 11/29/13)

2013        Dec 27, In Afghanistan 3 NATO personnel were killed in a Taliban suicide car bomb attack on a military convoy in Kabul.
    (AFP, 12/27/13)

2014        Mar 6, In Afghanistan 5 Afghan soldiers were killed in an accidental air strike by the NATO-led force in the eastern province of Logar.
    (Reuters, 3/6/14)
2014        Mar 6, Lithuania says six US fighter jets and two tanker planes have arrived following a US decision to increase NATO's air policing mission of the three Baltic states.
    (AP, 3/6/14)

2014        Mar 16, NATO said hackers have brought down several public NATO websites, in what appeared to be the latest escalation in cyberspace over growing tensions over Crimea.
    (Reuters, 3/16/14)

2014        Apr 1, NATO foreign ministers agreed to suspend all practical cooperation with Russia, draft measures to strengthen defenses and reassure nervous eastern European countries in the worst East-West crisis since the Cold War ended in 1991.
    (Reuters, 4/2/14)

2014        Apr 15, In Afghanistan a NATO air strike killed a woman and two children in Khost province.
    (SFC, 4/16/14, p.A2)

2014        Apr 26, In southern Afghanistan 5 NATO troops died in a British helicopter crash in Kandahar province.
    (AP, 4/26/14)

2014        May 28, In Afghanistan a NATO soldier died in a helicopter crash in Kandahar province.
    (AP, 5/29/14)

2014        Jun 4, Slovakia joined neighbor the Czech Republic in effectively ruling out hosting NATO units, when PM Robert Fico said he could not imagine there would be foreign soldiers on its territory.
    (Reuters, 6/4/14)

2014        Jun 15, NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said NATO is preparing measures to help Ukraine defend itself in its stand-off with Russia, and must adapt to the fact that Moscow now views it as an adversary.
    (Reuters, 6/15/14)

2014        Jun 19, In eastern Afghanistan four Taliban militants struck a NATO post in Nangarhar province, destroying dozens of trucks and sparking a gun battle with police.
    (Reuters, 6/19/14)

2014        Jun 20, Estonian PM Taavi Roivas urged NATO to establish a permanent presence in the Baltic state in response to Russia's actions in Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 6/20/14)

2014        Jun 22, In Kosovo special EU police backed by NATO fired tear gas and rubber bullets at ethnic Albanian rioters burning police cars and lobbing rocks in the ethnically-divided town of Mitrovica, in protest over the blockage of the main bridge by ethnic Serbs.
    (Reuters, 6/22/14)

2014        Jul 8, In eastern Afghanistan 4 NATO soldiers from the Czech Rep. were killed in an explosion. At least 10 civilians, and 2 police officers were also killed when a suicide bomber attacked Afghan and foreign forces near Charakar, the provincial capital of Parvan province. A 5th Czech soldier died of his wounds on July 14.
    (Reuters, 7/8/14)(AP, 7/8/14)(AP, 7/10/14)(AP, 7/14/14)

2014        Jul 14, Russia’s foreign ministry said it has invited monitors from the OSCE European security and rights body to two of its border crossings with Ukraine as a sign of goodwill. A NATO military officer said Russia has been building up its forces again along the Ukrainian border and now has an estimated 10,000-12,000 troops in the area.
    (Reuters, 7/14/14)

2014        Aug 28, Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko said that Russian forces had entered his country and the military conflict was worsening after Russian-backed separatists swept into a key town in the east. NATO said well over 1,000 Russian troops are now operating inside Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 8/28/14)

2014        Aug 29, Ukraine said it would seek the protection of NATO membership after what Kiev and its Western allies say is the open participation of the Russian military in the war in the eastern provinces. Pro-Moscow rebels said they would comply with a request from the Kremlin and open up a 'humanitarian corridor' to allow the withdrawal of Ukrainian troops they have encircled.
    (Reuters, 8/29/14)

2014        Sep 2, Moscow declared NATO a "threat" to its security after the Western military alliance announced plans to reinforce defenses in eastern Europe because of Russia's alleged stoking of war in Ukraine.
    (AFP, 9/2/14)

2014        Sep 3, President Barack Obama arrived in Estonia in a show of solidarity with NATO allies. He vigorously vowed to come to the defense of NATO allies that fear they could be Vladimir Putin's next target.
    (AP, 9/3/14)

2014        Sep 4, NATO leaders converged in Wales for a high-stakes summit also focused on the crisis in Ukraine and next steps in Afghanistan.
    (AP, 9/4/14)

2014        Sep 5, NATO leaders meeting in Wales approved plans to create a rapid response force headquartered in Eastern Europe that could quickly mobilize if an alliance country in the region were to come under attack.
    (AP, 9/5/14)

2014        Sep 14, Ukraine's defense minister said that NATO countries were delivering weapons to his country to equip it to fight pro-Russian separatists and "stop" Russian President Vladimir Putin.
    (Reuters, 9/14/14)

2014        Oct 24, US Air Force General Philip Breedlove, NATO's military commander, said Russia still has troops in eastern Ukraine and retains a very capable force on the border despite a partial withdrawal.
    (Reuters, 10/24/14)

2014        Nov 13, Eight northern European nations (Britain, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Sweden) agreed to step up cooperation to counter an increase in Moscow's military activity that has included a tripling of NATO intercepts of Russian jets this year.
    (Reuters, 11/13/14)

2014        Dec 2, NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg said the alliance member countries have approved a new interim quick-reaction military force to protect themselves from Russia or other threats. Foreign ministers from the 28 NATO countries and Ukraine condemned a Russian military build-up in Crimea and what they called Russia's "deliberate destabilization" of eastern Ukraine.
    (AP, 12/2/14)(4, 12/2/14)

2014        Dec 8, In Afghanistan the US and NATO closed their combat command, more than 13 years after invading the country in the wake of the Sept. 11 terror attacks to target al-Qaida and Osama bin Laden.
    (AP, 12/8/14)

2014        Dec 24, Russia said it would respond adequately by severing ties with NATO if Ukraine becomes a member of the Atlantic bloc.
    (Reuters, 12/24/14)

2014        Dec 26, The Kremlin said President Vladimir Putin has signed a new military doctrine, naming NATO expansion among key external risks.
    (Reuters, 12/26/14)

2015        Jan 30, NATO said it will deploy small units in six Eastern European nations to help coordinate a spearhead force set up in response to Russia's actions in Ukraine. The units in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria and Romania will be the first of their kind there.
    (AP, 1/30/15)
2015        Jan 30, France pledged tanks and armored vehicles to bolster NATO forces in Poland, where leaders are increasingly uneasy about Russia.
    (AP, 1/30/15)

2015        Feb 4, The US ambassador to NATO said that Russian soldiers were present in eastern Ukraine in a command role and to operate advanced military equipment.
    (Reuters, 2/4/15)

2015        Feb 7, NATO and Russia failed to narrow their differences over the Ukraine crisis in talks but agreed they would keep talking to each other.
    (Reuters, 2/7/15)

2015        Mar 9, The United States delivered more than 100 pieces of military equipment to vulnerable NATO-allied Baltic states in a move designed to provide them with the ability to deter potential Russian threats.
    (AFP, 3/9/15)

2015        May 4, NATO launched one of its biggest-ever anti-submarine exercises in the North Sea.
    (Reuters, 5/4/15)
2015        May 4, Polish President Bronislaw Komorowski approved a resolution that gave his formal consent to the establishment of a joint Polish-Lithuanian-Ukrainian military unit. The joint brigade will serve separately from the three countries’ military commands, but will participate in NATO, United Nations and European Union operations.
    (Reuters, 5/4/15)

2015        Jun 1, US-led NATO drills began in the Baltic states and Poland, a move intended to reassure Russia's nervous neighbors amid tensions over Ukraine.
    (AFP, 6/1/15)

2015        Jun 4, NATO said Russia was delivering sophisticated weaponry to rebels in eastern Ukraine, renewing long-standing accusations amid the worst upsurge in fighting in months between the Kiev government's forces and pro-Russian rebels.
    (Reuters, 6/4/15)

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