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Maastricht's name derives from Mosae Trajectum, which in Latin means the crossing on the Mosa (Meuse, Maas) River.
 (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.40)
Holland's official second language is Frisian. The country was once called Zeeland.
 (WSJ, 5/13/98, p.A20)(SFEC, 3/28/99, Z1 p.8)

160BCu0096220CE    The Weerdinge Couple, 2 men dating to this period, were found in a Holland bog in 1904.
    (AM, 7/97, p.66)

53BC        Caesar claimed to have wiped out the Celtic Eburones after they conspired with other groups in an attack that killed 6,000 Roman soldiers. The Eburones lived in an area that later came be known as part of Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands.
    (AP, 11/14/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eburones)

50BCE    Maastricht, Netherlands, began as a Roman settlement.
    (SSFC, 2/20/05, p.F2)

1-100AD    A Teutonic tribe known as the Frisians (or Friesians) settled in what is now the Netherlands in the first century A.D.
    (HNQ, 3/5/00)

180CE    A Roman military transport ship was built about this time, as Marcus Aurelius passed the throne to the emperor Commodus. It later sank in the Rhine. In 2003 archeologists in the Netherlands unveiled the preserved ship.
    (AP, 5/15/03)

600-700    In the seventh century the Frisians clashed with the Franks and resisted Christianity, but succumbed to Frankish rule and accepted Christianity a century later. Citizens of the Netherlandsu0092s province of Friesland are still called Frisians and the Frisian language is still spoken there.
    (HNQ, 3/5/00)

727        May 30, Hubertus (72), bishop of Tongeren-Maastricht, saint, died.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

739        Nov 7, Willibrord (81), [Clemens], 1st bishop of Utrecht (695-739) and saint , died.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

830        The Utrecht Psalter was produced in the Netherlands. Its 166 ink drawings illustrated passages in the psalms. In the eleventh century an English copy was made that became known as the Harley Psalter.
    (Econ, 6/13/09, p.86)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utrecht_Psalter)

918        Mar 1, Balderik became bishop of Utrecht.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

953        Apr 21, Otto I, the Great, granted Utrecht fishing rights.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

988        May 6, Dirk II, West Frisian count of Holland, died.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1010        May 3, Ansfried (~69), 9th bishop of Utrecht (995-1010), saint, died.
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1076        Feb 22, Godfried III, with the Hump, duke of Lower Lorraine, was murdered. [see Feb 26]
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1076        Feb 26, Godfried III with the Hump, duke of Netherlands-Lutheran, was murdered. [see Feb 24]
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1099        Apr 14, Conrad, bishop of Utrecht, was stabbed to death.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1100        Wittem Castle in Limburg dates to this time.
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, p.T13)

1121        Mar 2, Dirk VI became count of Holland.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1122        Mar 2, Floris II, the fat one, count of Holland, died.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1190        Emo of Friesland entered Oxford and was later remembered as Oxfordu0092s first recorded foreign student.
    (Econ, 8/7/10, p.13)

1219        Jan 16, Floods followed a storm in Northern Netherlands and thousands were killed.
    (MC, 1/16/02)

1235        Sep 5, Henry I, duke of Brabant, died. Brabant was a duchy later divided between Netherlands and Belgium.
    (WUD, 1994 p.177)(MC, 9/5/01)

1258        Mar 26, Floris the Guardian, count-regent of Holland, died.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1280        Muiden Castle, 10 miles east of Amsterdam, dates to this time.
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, p.T13)

1287        Dec 14, The Zuider Zee seawall collapsed with the loss of 50,000 lives.
    (MC, 12/14/01)

1294        May 3, Jan I, duke of Brabant (Belgium-Netherlands), Limburg, poet, died.
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1299        The Count of Holland gained control of the County of Zeeland, which had been under contention between Holland and Flanders.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeeland)

1300        The Oude Kerk church in Amsterdam dates to this time.
    (SSFC, 1/7/01, p.T9)

1301        Jul 4, Battle at Breukelen: Holland vs. Lichtenberg.
    (Maggio)

1345        The Frisian victory over the Dutch on the beach at Warns was their last before the Dutch took over.
    (WSJ, 5/13/98, p.A20)

1366        Records indicate that cheese was weighed in Alkmaar at this time.
    (SFEC, 6/7/98, p.T10)

1400        Roger Van Der Weyden (d.1464), Flemish painter, was born.
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1624)(Econ, 10/3/09, p.107)

1404        Netherlands experienced a severe flood.

1421        Nov 18-1421 Nov 19, In the St. Elizabeth flood the Southern sea flooded 72 villages killing  some 10,000 in Netherlands.
    (www.rijksmuseum.nl/aria/aria_assets/SK-A-3147-B?lang=en)

1432        Zeeland became part of the Low Countries possession of Phillip the Good (1396-1467) of Burgundy.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeeland)

1433        Apr 14, Liduina van Schiedam (53), Dutch mystic (Christ's Bride), saint, died.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

c1450-1516    Hieronymus Bosch, painter was born. Hieronymus van Aken was born in the small Dutch Brabant city of u0091s-Hertogenbosch in Flanders.
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.172)(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)(WSJ, 10/11/01, p.A19)

1451        Sep 21, Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa ordered the Jews of Holland to wear a badge.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1459        Mar 2, Adrian VI [Adriaan F Boeyens], Pope (1522-23), was born in the Netherlands.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1460        May 9, In the Netherlands the courtyard Episcopal palace at Atrecht had witch burnings.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1464        Jun 18, Roger Van Der Weyden (b.1400), Flemish painter, died. He had mastered the new technique of oil painting and served as the official painter to the city of Brussels.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rogier_van_der_Weyden)(Econ, 10/3/09, p.107)

1466        Oct 26, Desiderius Erasmus (d.1536), scholar and author (In Praise of Folly), was born in Rotterdam. He was of illegitimate birth, but became a priest and a monk. He excelled in philology, the study of ancient languages, namely Latin and Greek and worked on a new translation of the New Testament. The more he studied it, the more he came to doubt the accuracy of the Vulgate, St. Jerome's translation into Latin, dating from around 400. "In Praise of Folly" is his most famous work... In it Erasmus had the freedom to discourse, in the ironic style of Lucian (the Greek author whose works he translated), concerning all the foolishness and misguided pompousness of the world.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.159-160)(MC, 10/26/01)

1477        Future Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, a member of the Habsburg family of Austria, married Mary of Burgundy, heiress of all the Netherlands. Maximilian had given Mary a diamond engagement ring, a practice that soon spread. In 1996 Andrew Wheatcroft wrote a history of the Habsburgs: "The Habsburgs."
    (WSJ, 1/19/96, p.A-12)(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.6)(SFC, 5/28/08, p.G2)

1477        The Seventeen Provinces, a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 16th century, became the property of the Habsburgs. They roughly covered the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France (Artois, Nord) and a small part of Germany.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeeland)

1483        Apr 6, Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio, d.1520), Dutch painter (Sistine Madonna) , was born to an unremarkable painter in the Duchy of Urbino. He went on to paint famous works in the Vatican. After an apprenticeship in Perugia, he went to Florence, having heard of the work da Vinci and Michelangelo were doing. His last 12 years were spent on numerous commissions in Rome. He died on his 37th birthday, his funeral mass being celebrated in the Vatican. .
    (HN, 4/6/98)(HNQ, 11/17/00)

1487        Hans Memling (c.1440-1494), Flemish painter, painted the diptych u0093Virgin and Childu0094 and u0093Maarten van Nieuwenhoveu0094 (1463-1500), who was his patron.
    (SFC, 10/18/05, p.D2)(SFC, 12/23/06, p.E12)

1489-1490    The plague ravaged the Netherlands.
    (WSJ, 10/12/98, p.A17)

1492        May 15, Cheese and Bread rebellion: German mercenaries killed 232 Alkmaarse.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1496        Oct 20, Spainu0092s Juana of Castile (1479-1555) married Philip the Handsome, the Duke of Burgundy, in Lier (later a part of Belgium). Philip's parents were Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and his first wife, Duchess Mary of Burgundy. Juana had sailed from Spain with 15,000 men to the Habsburg Netherlands. Between 1498 and 1507, she gave birth to six children: two emperors and four queens.
    (Econ, 4/13/13, p.55)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joanna_of_Castile)

1500s        Holland and Saxony began to protect the rights of inventors to their creations.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1507        Margaret of Austria was appointed Regent by the States-General (parliament) of the Netherlands until the Archduke Charles came of age.
    (TL-MB, p.9)

1510        Jun 9, Nicolaas van Nieuwland, corrupt 1st bishop of Harlem, was born.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1511        Portuguese traders reached the Banda Islands, including Run, and broke the Venetian monopoly over nutmeg. Over the next century the Dutch muscled in an almost cornered the nutmeg market. The history of the nutmeg trade was documented in 1999 by Giles Milton in his: "Nathaniel's Nutmeg."
    (WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W7)

1512        Nov 16, Jemme Herjuwsma, Fries rebel, was beheaded.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1512        Nov 17, Kempo Roeper, Frisian rebel, was quartered.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1517        Jul 1, The 1st burning of Protestants at stake in Netherlands.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1517        Archduke Charles left the Netherlands for Spain and entered Valladolid in triumph.
    (TL-MB, p.11)

1519        Jul 6, Charles of Spain was elected Holy Roman emperor in Barcelona. The Catholic heir to the Hapsburg dynasty, Charles V, was elected Holy Roman Emperor, combining the crowns of Spain, Burgundy (with the Netherlands), Austria and Germany. He was the grandson of Ferdnand and Isabella of Spain.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.162)(NH, 9/96, p.18)(HN, 7/6/98)

1520        Oct 7, The 1st public burning of books took place in Louvain, Netherlands.
    (MC, 10/7/01)

1521        May 28, Willem van Croij (~62), duke of Soria, died.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1521        Oct 25, Emperor Charles V banned wooden buildings in Amsterdam.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1522        Apr 29, Emperor Charles V named Frans van Holly inquisitor-gen of Netherlands.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1523        Nov 30, Amsterdam banned the assembly of heretics.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1523        Hans Holbein completed the first of several portraits of Erasmus. He also began the design of 51 plates on the "Dance of Death," which reflected ideas of the Reformation.
    (TL-MB, p.12)

1524        Apr 19, Pope Clemens VII fired the Netherlands inquisitor-general French Van de Holly.
    (MC, 4/19/02)

1524        Dec 11, Henry Van Zutphen, Dutch Protestant martyr, was burned at stake.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1525        May 10, Church reformer John Pistorius was caught in the Hague.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1525        Sep 15, Jan de Bakker (26), Roman Catholic priest also known under the name Pistorius, was burned during the Reformation in the Netherlands.
    (http://www.bautz.de/bbkl/p/pistorius_joh.shtml)

1527        Nov 20, Wendelmoet "Weyntjen" Claesdochter, became the 1st Dutch woman to be burned as heretic.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1528        Nov 30, Great Wierd, Dutch Gelderland army commander, was beheaded.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1530        In Antwerp William Tyndale published his translation into English of the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Old Testament, and shipped copies to England.
    (WSJ, 12/22/94, A-20)(ON, 11/04, p.2)
1530        Erasmus (1469-1536), Dutch Renaissance humanist, authored u0093On Good Manners for Boysu0094 (De civilitate morum puerorum).
    (Econ, 10/8/11, p.102)

1531        May 31, "Women's Revolt" in Amsterdam: wool house in churchyard.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1531        Dec 6, John Volkertsz Trimaker, Dutch Anabaptist leader, was beheaded.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1534        Feb 26, Pope Paul III was affirmed George van Egmond as bishop of Utrecht.
    (PTA, 1980, p.440)(SC, 2/26/02)

1534        Mar 26, Lübeck, Hanseatic League port in the Baltic, accepted free Dutch ships into East Sea.
    (SS, 3/26/02)(WUD, 1994 p.851)

1535        Feb 10, 12 nude Anabaptists ran through the streets of Amsterdam. [see 1534]
    (MC, 2/10/02)

1535        May 21, Imperial authorities in Antwerp captured and imprisoned William Tyndale for heresy over his translation of the Bible into English.
    (WSJ, 12/22/94, A-20)(www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/bios/b2tyndalew.htm)

1535        Jun 24, Francis of Waldeck overcame the Anabaptists of Munster. Fanatic leader John of Leyden and others were tortured and executed in Jan 1536.
    (MC, 6/24/02)(PC, 1992, p.179)

1535        Jul 10, Jacob Van Campen, Anabaptist bishop of Amsterdam, was beheaded.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1536        Jul 12, Desiderius Erasmus (b.1469 in Rotterdam) died, humanist, priest (Novum instrumentum omne), died. His most famous works included "In Praise of Folly" and a Greek text of the New Testament. In 1999 Prof. Charles Trinkaus published "Collected Works of Erasmus: Controversies," an examination of the religious conflict between humanism and the Reformation.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.159-160)(SFC, 9/27/99, p.A26)(WSJ, 1/31/03, p.W13)(MC, 7/12/02)

1540        Feb 14, Emperor Charles V entered Ghent without resistance and executed the rebels. He brutally beat down an uprising against taxes for an expansionist war. Nine leaders were beheaded and another hanged. City burgers were forced to walk the streets barefoot with rope hanging round their necks. The "Gentse Feesten" annual festival re-enacts this event every mid-July.
    (SFEC, 11/21/99, p.T10)(MC, 2/14/02)

1550        Apr 28, Powers of Dutch inquisition were extended.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1550        Apr 29, Emperor Charles V gave inquisitors additional authority.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1555        Oct 25, Emperor Charles V put his son Philip II in charge of Netherlands, Naples, and Milan.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1556-1620    Adriaen de Vries, sculptor. He was born in The Hague and worked in Florence under the sculptor Giovanni Bologna. His work included "Juggling Man" (c1610-1615), a bust of Emp. Rudolf II (1603), and the Neptune Fountain (1615-1618).
    (WSJ, 1/6/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 12/7/99, p.A24)

1557        Pieter Breughel the Elder created his painting "The Drunkard Pushed Into the Pigsty." [see Flanders]
    (WSJ, 9/6/02, p.W14)

1558        Hendrick Goltzius (d.1617), Dutch Master painter, was born.
    (WSJ, 8/14/03, p.D8)

1564        Dec 31, Willem of Orange demanded freedom of conscience and religion.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1564-1651    Abraham Bloemaert, artist and teacher of Hendrick ter Brugghen.
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.13)

1566        Aug 25, Iconoclastic fury began in the Dutch province of Utrecht. Fanatical Calvinists instigated religious riots in the Netherlands.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1566-1638    Joachim Wytawael (Wtewael), Dutch mannerist painter.
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.13)(SFEM, 9/17/00, p.96)

1566-1640    Hendrick Cornelisz Vroom, Dutch painter.
    (SFC, 4/4/01, p.C1)

1567        Apr 11, Dutch Prince William of Orange fled from Antwerp to Breda.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1567        May 1, Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt, Dutch royal painter, was born.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1567        Oct 6, The Duke of Alba became guardian of the Netherlands. Spainu0092s Duke of Alba arrived in Brussels at the head of a 10,000 troops to quell the iconoclastic riots.
    (MC, 10/6/01)(WSJ, 7/1/04, p.D8)

1568        Jan 24, In Netherlands Duke of Alba declared (future King) William of Orange an outlaw.
    (MC, 1/24/02)

1568        Feb 16, A sentence of the Holy Office condemned all the inhabitants of the Netherlands to death as heretics. From this universal doom only a few persons, especially named, were acquitted.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War)

1568        Oct 5, Willem of Orange's army occupied Brabant.
    (MC, 10/5/01)

1568-1648    The Eighty Years' War, or Dutch Revolt was the secession war in which the proto-Netherlands first became an independent country and in which the region now known as Belgium became established. It was carried on by the Calvinist and predominantly mercantile Dutch provinces.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War)

1569        Sep 5, Pieter Breughel, South Netherlands (Flemish) painter, died at about 44.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1570        Mar 4, Spainu0092s King Philip II banned foreign Dutch students.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1570        Nov 2, A tidal wave in the North Sea destroyed the sea walls from Holland to Jutland. Over a thousand people are killed.
    (HN, 11/2/98)(www.metoffice.com/education/secondary/students/flood.html)

1572        Apr 1, The Sea Beggars under Guillaume de la Marck landed in Holland and captured the small town of Briel.
    (HN, 4/1/99)

1572        Jun 9, Willem van Orange's army occupied Gelderland.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1572        Jun 24, Adrianus van Gouda, lay brother, was hanged along with Cornelis van Diedt, Daniell van Arendonck (clergyman), Joannes van Naarden (priest) and Ludovicus Voets (priest).
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1572        Jul 9, In Gorinchem, Netherlands, 19 Catholics were executed during the Dutch war for independence. They became known as u0093The Martyrs of Gorkum.u0094
    (SFC, 3/5/11, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martyrs_of_Gorkum)

1572        Jul 18, William of Orange was recognized as viceroy of Holland, Friesland and Utrecht.
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1572        Dec, The Dutch town of Naarden surrendered to Imperial Spanish troops under the Duke of Alba (1507-1582). The town was then burned and the entire population massacred. Albau0092s attempt to impose a 10% sales tax on commodities stirred resistance that led to the Dutch independence. In 2004 Henry Kamen authored u0094The Duke of Alba.u0094
    (WSJ, 7/1/04, p.D8)

1572        Dutch warships, Beggars of the Sea, effectively harried Spanish shipping in the English Channel and fueled the Dutch War of Independence.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1572        The Dutch used carrier pigeons during the Spanish siege of Haarlem.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1573        Jul 20, Lancelot of Brederode (Netherlands), water beggar, was beheaded.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1574        Oct 1-2 A storm broke a Leiden dike and 20,000 Spanish soldiers drowned. Spanish forces in the Netherlands besieged Leyden, but William the Silent (Willem of Orange) breached the dykes to flood the land. This allowed his ships to sail up to the walls and lift the siege.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(PCh, 1992, p.198)(MC, 10/1/01)

1575        The Bols family arrived in Amsterdam to open u0091het Lootsjeu0092 where they would distill liqueurs. This was the starting point of what would become the worldu0092s oldest distillery. Bols began producing Genever, a Dutch style of gin, in 1664. In 2007 it opened a House of Bols museum in the museum quarter in the Dutch capital. It was dedicated to the history of Jenever (also known as genever or jeniever), the juniper-flavored alcoholic liquor from which gin evolved. The museum is housed on two floors of the Bols headquarters at 14 Paulus Potterstraat. Originally sold as a remedy for lumbago muscular pain, the traditional Dutch and Flemish drink was allegedly invented at the end of the 16th century by Sylvius de Bouve, a chemist, alchemist, renowned scholar and professor at the university of Leyden.
    (http://amsterdam.wantedineurope.com/news/news.php?id_n=2999)(www.lucasbols.com/index.asp)(WSJ, 5/31/08, p.A12)
   

1576        Nov 8, All 17 provinces of the Netherlands united in the Pacification of Ghent in the face of Spanish occupation. The 17 provinces of the Netherlands formed a federation to maintain peace.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(HN, 11/6/98)

1576        Mutinous Spanish forces sacked Antwerp in "the Spanish Fury."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1577        Jun 28, Pietro Paul Rubens (d.1640), Flemish painter, was born in Germany, the child of protestants exiled from Antwerp. His work included "Helene Fourment" and "The Abduction of the Daughters of Leucippus."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1250)(HN, 6/28/01) (Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)

1577        Sep 23, William of Orange made his triumphant entry into Brussels, Belgium.
    (HN, 9/23/98)

1578        Jan 28, Cornelis Haga, Dutch lawyer, ambassador to Constantinople (1611-39), was born.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1578        Don John of Austria died of fever. He was succeeded as Governor of the Netherlands by Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1579        Jan 6, The Union of Atrecht (French: Arras) was an accord signed in Atrecht (Arras), under which the southern states of the Spanish Netherlands, today in Wallonia and the Nord-Pas-de-Calais (and Picardy) regions in France, expressed their loyalty to the Spanish king Philip II and recognized the landlord, Don Juan de Austria. It is to be distinguished from the Union of Utrecht, signed later in the same month. The Peace of Arras ensured that the southern provinces of The Netherlands were reconciled to Philip II. It joined the Low Country Walloons (Catholics) with those of Hainaut and Artois.
    (http://en.allexperts.com/e/u/un/union_of_atrecht.htm)(PCh, 1992, p.200)

1579        Jan 25, The Union of Utrecht brought together seven northern, Protestant provinces of the Netherlands against the Catholics. Known as the United Provinces, they become the foundation of the Dutch Republic. The Treaty of Utrecht was signed, marking the beginning of the Dutch Republic.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(AP, 1/25/98)

1579        Mar 23, Friesland joined the Union of Utrecht.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1580        Jun 18, States of Utrecht outlawed Catholic worship.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

c1581        Franz Hals (d.1666), painter, was born.
    (WUD, 1994 p.640)(SFEC, 9/3/00, p.T7)

1581        The seven northern provinces of the Netherlands renounced their allegiance to Philip II of Spain.
    (TL-MB, p.23)

1582        Nov 1, Maurice of Nassau, the son of William of Orange, became the governor of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht.
    (HN, 11/1/98)

1583        Apr 10, Hugo Grotius (d.1645) of Holland, father of international law, was born. Huig de Groot (Latinized as Hugo Grotius), Dutch jurist and statesman, is generally regarded as the founder of international law because of his influential work "On the Law of War and Peace" published in 1625. He became a member of a diplomatic mission to France at age 15 and began practicing law at 16. A liberal Protestant, de Groot became involved in religious disputes in the Netherlands and was arrested in 1618 and sentenced to life imprisonment. He escaped in 1621 and fled to Paris. He served the Swedish government as ambassador to France from 1634-1644.
    (HN, 4/10/98)(HNQ, 3/15/00)

1584        Jan 7, This was the last day of the Julian calendar in Bohemia & Holy Roman empire. The 1582 Gregorian (or New World) calendar was adopted by this time in Belgium, most of the German Roman Catholic states and the Netherlands.
    (SFEC, 10/3/99, Par p.27)(MC, 1/7/02)

1584        Jul 10, William of Orange (1533-1584), Prince of Orange (1544-1584), Count of Nassau (1559-1584), and first stadholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, was assassinated by Burgundian Balthasar Gerard (25) with a handgun. Philip II of Spain had called for a volunteer assassin due to Williamu0092s reluctance take a public stand on religious issues. William was succeeded by his 17-year-old son, Maurice of Nassau. In 2006 Lisa Jardine authored u0093The Awful End of Prince William the Silent.u0094
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(WSJ, 4/5/06, p.D8)

1584        A Dutch trading post was established at the Russian port of Archangel.
    (TL-MB, p.23)

1585        Apr 5, Clemens Crabbeels became bishop of Hertogenbosch.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1585        Antwerp was sacked by the Duke of Parma, resulting in long-lasting loss of trade for that port.
    (TL-MB, p.24)

1585        Simon Stevin, Dutch mathematician and military and civil engineer, introduces decimals into the mathematical calculations of his physics in Die Thiende.
    (TL-MB, p.24)

1585        The Dutch used the first time-bombs in floating mines actuated by clockwork at the siege of Antwerp.
    (TL-MB, p.24)

1587        Giles Everard, a Dutch doctor, authored u0093Panacea,u0094 extolling the virtues of tobacco. The Latin version was made available in English in 1659.
    (WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W11)

1588-1629    Hendrick ter Brugghen was an artist of the Utrecht School. His paintings included: "St. Sebastian Tended by Irene." He traveled to Rome and was influenced by the work of Caravaggio.
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.8)

1590        Mar 4, Mauritius of Nassau's ship reached Breda, Netherlands.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1592-1656    Gerard van Honthorst was an artist of the Utrecht School. His paintings included "The Denial of St. Peter" (1620-1626), and "Saint Sebastian" from (c1620/1623). He traveled to Rome and was influenced by the work of Caravaggio.
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.8,12)

1595        Apr 2, Cornelis de Houtman's ships departed to Asia around Cape of Good Hope.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

c1595-1624    Dirck van Baburen was an artist of the Utrecht School. He traveled to Rome and was influenced by the work of Caravaggio.
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.8)

1596        May 18, Willem Barents left Amsterdam for Novaya Zemlya.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1597        Jun 20, Willem Barents, Dutch explorer who discovered Spitsbergen & Bereneil, died. In 1995 Rayner Unwin authored "A Winter Away from Home," an account of Barentsu0092 Arctic voyages.
    (WUD, 1994 p.120)(SSFC, 12/10/00, p.C17)(MC, 6/20/02)

1597        In Amsterdam the Spinhuis (spinning house) was opened as a workhouse for fallen women.
    (SSFC, 1/7/01, p.T9)

1597-1665    Pieter Saenredam, Haarlem painter of architectural motifs.
    (WSJ, 7/2/02, p.D7)

1597/8-1671    Jan van Bijlert, painter. He traveled to Rome and was influenced by the work of Caravaggio.
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.13)

1598        Jun, A 5-ship Dutch expedition to Japan departed Rotterdam with Will Adams, English ship pilot, as chief navigator.
    (ON, 11/02, p.8)

1599        The Dutch East India Company dates to this time. [see 1602]
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1600        Apr 19, The Dutch ship Liefde, piloted by Will Adams, reached Japan with a crew of 24 men. 6 of the crew soon died. 4 other ships in the expedition were lost.
    (ON, 11/02, p.8)

1600        Dec 31, The British East India Company (d.1874) was chartered by Queen Elizabeth I in London to carry on trade in the East Indies in competition with the Dutch, who controlled nutmeg from the Banda Islands.
    (WUD, 1994, p.449)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(www.theeastindiacompany.com/history.html)

1600-1700    Britain waged wars against the Dutch. The English fleet sailed in three segments, the 3rd of which was commanded by a Rear Admiral. [see 1780-1783]
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, Z1 p.2)

1600-1700    Cognac 1st appeared when Dutch sea merchants found that they could better preserve white wine shipped from France to northern Europe by distilling it. They then learned the wine got better as it aged in wooden barrels.
    (WSJ, 7/14/03, p.A1)

1600-1700    West Timor was seized by the Netherlands.
    (SFC, 3/3/98, p.A6)

1600-1800    A mass migration of nearly 1 million people in the 17th and 18th century led to the decline of this small nation.
    (SFC, 3/31/98, p.F4)

1601        Joachim Wtewael painted "Mars and Venus Discovered by Vulcan."
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.8)

1602        Mar 20, The Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie) was chartered to carry on trade in the East Indies. The VOC traded to 1798 whereupon its possessions were dissolved into the Dutch empire. In 2010 a student found a share in the company issued to an official named Pieter Harmenz dating to Sep 9, 1606. As a result, continuous trade in company stock emerged on the Amsterdam Exchange.
    (SFC, 9/10/10, p.A2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stock_market)(Econ, 2/25/12, SRp.4)

1602        Japanu0092s Shogun Ieyasu seized the Dutch ship Liefde and granted its crew allowances to live in Japan.
    (ON, 11/02, p.9)

1604        Sep 20, After a two-year siege, the Spanish retook Ostend [NW Belgium], the Netherlands, from the Dutch.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1019)(HN, 9/20/98)

1604-1667    Christiaen van Couwenbergh, Dutch painter.
    (SFC, 4/4/01, p.C1)

1605        Japanu0092s Shogun Ieyasu allowed some of the Dutch crew of the ship Liefde to return home, but kept Will Adams in Japan. Adams soon married Magoma Oyuki, a young noblewoman.
    (ON, 11/02, p.10)

1606        Jul 15, The painter Rembrandt (d.1669) Harmenszoom van Rizn (Rijn), was born in Leiden, Netherlands. His paintings included "Old Woman Cutting Her Nails," "Night Watch," "Self Portrait Leaning Forward" (1628), "Two Studies of Saskia Asleep" (1635-1637), "Jupiter and Antiope" (1659) and "Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer." He started making etchings in the 1620s when the medium was barely a 100 years old.
    (WSJ, 10/1/96, p.A20)(SFC, 10/12/96, p.E3)(SFC, 5/17/97, p.E1)(AP, 7/15/97)

1608        Oct 2, Jan Lippershey, spectacle maker, formally offered to the Estates of Holland his new spyglass for warfare. He was the 1st to file a patent claim for a spyglass.
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9048449)(CW, Spring u009199, p.33)

1608        The Oudemannenhuis almshouse was built in Haarlem.
    (SFEC, 9/3/00, p.T7)

1609        Mar 25, Henry Hudson embarked on an exploration for Dutch East India Co.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1609         Sep 12, English explorer Henry Hudson sailed into the river that now bears his name. Hudson sailed for the Dutch East India Company in search of the Northwest Passage, a water route linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, when he sailed up the present-day Hudson River.
    (AP, 9/12/97)(HNQ, 7/23/00)

1610        The Dutch ousted the Portuguese from Indonesia by this time, but the Portuguese retained the eastern half of Timor.
    (SFC, 9/8/99, p.A17)

1610        The first cargo of Asian tea arrived in Amsterdam
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1610-1650    Painters from Utrecht worked in the style of Caravaggio.
    (WSJ, 10/20/97, p.A19)

1611        Joachim Wtewael painted "Andromeda." He and Bloemaert helped transmit the Italian mannerist influence and a preference for figure painting over landscape
    (SFC, 9/12/97, p.C8)

1613        Apr 7, Gerard Dou, Dutch painter (Night School), was born.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1613-1675    Gerrit Dou, Dutch artist. He was a student of Rembrandt.
    (SFC, 5/25/00, p.A24)

1614        Crispijn de Passe the Younger published "Hortus Floridus" in Holland.
    (WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1615        Joachim Wtewael painted the "Judgement of Paris."
    (SFC, 9/12/97, p.C8)

1616        Dec 25, Nathaniel Courthope, a British merchant-adventurer under direct orders from James I, landed his ship Swan at the Banda Island of Run. He persuaded the islanders to enter an alliance with the British for nutmeg. He fortified the 1 by 2 mile island and with 30 men proceeded to hold off a Dutch siege for 1,540 days.
    (WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W7)

1616        The Dutch became the first to establish colonies in Guyana with Essequibo. Berbice followed in 1627, and then Demerara  in 1752.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guyana)

1616-1691/92    Emanuel de Witte, Dutch painter.
    (SFC, 4/4/01, p.C1)

1617        Feb 4, Louis Elsevier (~76), Dutch publisher, died.
    (MC, 2/4/02)

1617        The Pilgrims decided to leave the Netherlands. They formed a partnership in a joint-stock company with a group of London merchants in a company called John Pierce & Assoc. They received a grant for a plantation in the Virginia colony but ended up landing in Massachusetts. Each adult was to receive a share in the company but earnings would not be divided for 7 years.
    (WSJ, 11/26/97, p.A14)

1618        Aug, Hugo Grotius, attorney general of Holland, was arrested on the orders of Prince Maurice of Nassau, ruler of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, for conspiring to undermine the authority of the government.
    (ON, 10/04, p.1)

1618        Hendrick Goltzius (b.1558), Dutch Master painter, died. His work included "Danaë."
    (WSJ, 8/14/03, p.D8)

1619        May 13, Johan van Oldenbarnevelt (b.1547), Dutch lands advocate, was beheaded.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1619        May 18, Hugo the Great (1582-1645), Hugo de Groot or Grotius, Dutch scholar, the "Father of Intu0092l. Law" and author of the 1st treatise on the law of the sea, Mare liberum," was sentenced to life in prison.
    (SC, 5/18/02)(Internet)

1619        Jun 5, Hugo Grotius was taken to Loevestein Castle to begin his life sentence. His wife and 5 children were allowed to stay with him.
    (ON, 10/04, p.1)

1619        Amsterdam opened a stock exchange.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1620        Jul 22, The Pilgrims set out from Holland destined for the New World. The Speedwell sailed to England from the Netherlands with members of the English Separatist congregation that had been living in Leiden, Holland. Joining the larger Mayflower at Southampton, the two ships set sail together in August, but the Speedwell soon proved unseaworthy and was abandoned at Plymouth, England. The entire company then crowded aboard the Mayflower, setting sail for North America on September 16, 1620.
    (HNQ, 3/4/00)(MC, 7/22/02)

1621        Jun 3, The Dutch West India Company received a charter for New Netherlands, now known as New York. The Dutch West India Co. was formed to trade with America and West Africa.
    (AP, 6/3/97)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1621-1622    Dutch artist Dirck van Baburen painted "The Mocking of Christ."
    (SFC, 9/12/97, p.C8)

1622        Feb 27, Rembrandt Carel Fabritius (d.1654), Dutch painter, was born.
    (SFC, 4/4/01, p.C1)(MC, 2/27/02)

1622        Mar 22, Hugo Grotius escaped from Loevestein Castle.
    (ON, 10/04, p.2)

1622        Dirck van Baburen painted: "The Procuress."
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.8)

1622        In Aklmaar the cheese market officially opened. [see 1366]
    (SFEC, 6/7/98, p.T10)

1623        Apr 29, 11 Dutch ships departed for the conquest of Peru.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1623        Dirck van Baburen painted "Prometheus Chained."
    (SFC, 9/12/97, p.C1)

1624        Cafe Chris opened in Amsterdam and served the construction workers of the nearby Westerkerk.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, p.T5)

1624        The Dutch conquered Salvador, Brazil.
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T8)

1624        Dutchman Cornelius Drebbel encased a wooden frame in a greased leather sheath and pushed it underwater to create whatu0092s claimed to be the worldu0092s 1st submarine.
    (SFC, 7/15/00, p.B3)

1625        Sep 24, Dutch Genu0092l. Bowdoin Hendrik and his fleet of 17 ships sailed into San Juan, Puerto Rico, and attacked El Morro. He held the garrison under siege for 3 weeks and then set the town to flames. This infuriated the Spanish who attacked and sent the Dutch fleeing.
    (HT, 4/97, p.31-33)(MC, 9/24/01)

1625        Hendrick ter Brugghen painted "Saint Sebastian Attended by Saint Irene."
    (SFC, 9/12/97, p.C8)

1625        Rembrandt depicted himself as a bit player in his painting "The Stoning of St. Stephen."
    (WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A16)

1625        Hugo Grotius (1583-1645) of Holland published his influential work "On the Law of War and Peace." Huig de Groot (Latinized as Hugo Grotius), Dutch jurist and statesman, is generally regarded as the founder of international law. "It is lawful to kill who is preparing to kill."
    (HN, 4/10/98)(HNQ, 3/15/00)(Econ, 11/22/03, p.25)

1626        May 4,    Dutch explorer Peter Minuit landed on what is now Manhattan island. Indians sold Manhattan Island for $24 in cloth and buttons. Peter Minuit became director-general of New Netherlands
    (AP, 5/4/97)(HN, 5/4/98)(MC, 5/4/02)

1626        Nov 7, Peter Schager of Amsterdam informed the States General that the ship "The Arms of Amsterdam" had arrived with a cargo of furs and timber from New Netherlands and that the settlers there had bought the Island of Manhattan for 60 guilders.
    (WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W10)

1626        Rembrandt depicted part of himself in his painting "History Piece."
    (WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A16)

c1626-1627    Hendrick ter Brugghen painted "The Concert."
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.12)

1626-1679    Jan Steen, Dutch painter.
    (SFC, 4/4/01, p.C1)

1627        Mar 3, Piet Heyn conquered 22 ships in Bay of Salvador, Brazil.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

c1627-1628    Hendrick ter Brugghen painted "Melancholia."
    (SFC, 9/12/97, p.C1)

1628        Mar 10, Constantine Huygens Jr., Dutch poet, painter, cartoonist, was born.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1628        Abraham Bloemaert painted his "Virgin and Child."
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.13)

1628        Rembrandt Harmenszoom van Rizn (Rijn) (1606-1669), Dutch painter, painted "Self Portrait Leaning Forward."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1213)(WSJ, 10/1/96, p.A20)

1628        Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish painter, was called upon to broker a peace between Catholic Spain and Protestant England.
    (Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)

1629        Apr 14, Christian Huygens (d.1695), Dutch astronomer, discoverer of Saturn's rings, was born. He invented the pendulum and along with Newton showed that any body revolving around a center is actually accelerating constantly toward that center, even though the rate of rotation remains constant.
    (TNG, Klein, p.30)(http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bl_huygens.htm)

1629        Jun 18, Piet Heyn (51), lt.-admiral (Spanish silver fleet), died in battle.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1629        Oct 13, Dutch West Indies Co. granted religious freedom in West Indies.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1629        The Batavia, a Dutch East India ship, struck a reef off the western coast of Australia. Some 300 survivors made it to a tiny island in the Houtman Abrolhos archipelago, where Jeronimus Cornelisz, a junior officer, took power after a vicous struggle. He ran a regime of murder, rape and torture for 3 months when helped arrived from the Dutch colony on Java. 70 of the 300 initial survivors were still alive. Cornelisz was quickly tried and executed. In 2005 Simon Leys authored u0093The Wreck of the Batavia.u0094
    (WSJ, 1/10/06, p.D8)

1629-1684    Pieter de Hooch, Dutch painter of contemplative scenes of everyday life.
    (WSJ, 2/2/99, p.A20)

1632        Oct 24, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Dutch naturalist, was born.
    (HN, 10/24/00)

1632        Oct 31, [Johannes] Jan Vermeer (d.1675), tavern keeper and Dutch painter (Procuress, Astronomer), was born in Delft. Only 35 of his pictures are known to survive. These include: "Girl With a Pearl Earring" (1665-1666), "The Little Street" (1657), "Saint Praxedis" (1655), "Allegory of Faith" (1671) and "The Artist in His Studio." His wife was Catharina Bolnes.
    (WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1587)(MC, 10/31/01)

1632        Nov 24, Baruch (Benedict) de Spinoza (d.1677), Dutch rationalist philosopher, was born in Amsterdam. "Fear cannot be without hope nor hope without fear."
    (AP, 9/24/99)(MC, 11/24/01)

1632        Rembrandt painted his work "Europa" and "Portrait of a Lady Aged 62." The portrait sold for $28.7 million in 2000.
    (WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)(SFC, 12/15/00, p.C15)

1633        Dec 18, Willem van de Velde the Younger, Dutch marine painter, was baptized.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willem_van_de_Velde_the_Younger)

1633        Rembrandt van Rijn painted the "Portrait of a Bearded Man in a Red Coat." It sold for $9.1 million in 1998.
    (SFC, 2/3/98, p.E3)

1634        Rembrandt van Rijn painted "Portrait of a Woman." It hangs in the Speed Museum of Louisville, Ky.
    (WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A20)

1634-1637    The Dutch tulip craze was known as the "tulipomania." A futures market was created for tulip bulbs in Dutch taverns and prices crashed 95% in the end. In 2000 Peter M. Garber authored "Famous First Bubbles," and restored a sense of proportion to the inflated notions of the mania.
    (WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(WSJ, 1/18/00, p.C14)(WSJ, 8/2/00, p.A20)

1635        Apr 16, Frans van Mieris, the Elder, Dutch painter, was born.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1635-1637    Rembrandt Harmenszoom van Rizn (Rijn) (1606-1669), Dutch painter, painted "Two Studies of Saskia Asleep."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1213)(WSJ, 10/1/96, p.A20)

1636        Mar 26, University of Utrecht held its opening ceremony.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1636        Nov 17, Henrique Dias, Brazilian general, won a decisive battle against the Dutch in Brazil.
    (HN, 11/17/98)

1636        Rembrandt made his etching "Self-portrait with Saskia."
    (HT, 5/97, p.60)

1636        Pieter Saenredam, Haarlem painter of architectural motifs, spent 3 months in Utrecht where he drew the interiors of the gothic churches.
    (WSJ, 7/2/02, p.D7)

1637        Mar 5, John van der Heyden, Dutch painter, inventor (fire extinguisher), was born.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1637        Nov 20, Peter Minuit & 1st Dutch and Swedish immigrants to Delaware sailed from Sweden. Peter later purchased Manhattan Island for 60 guilders.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1637        The Dutch tulip bulb craze crashed as futures prices became too high for speculators to pay off and take delivery.
    (WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(WSJ, 1/18/00, p.C14)
1637        The Dutch attacked and captured Elmina (Ghana), which up to that point was the centre of Portuguese activity in West Africa.
    (www.moxon.net/ghana/cape_coast.html)

1638        Mar 23, Frederik Ruysch, Dutch anatomist, was born.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1638        Aug 9, Jonas Bronck of Holland became the 1st European settler in the Bronx.
    (MC, 8/9/02)

1638        Rembrandt painted the "Portrait of Willem Bartolsz Ruyter," a Dutch actor.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.E3)

1638        Joachim Wytawael (Wtewael, b.1566) , Dutch mannerist painter, died. His work included "The Adoration of the Shepherds."
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.13)(SFEM, 9/17/00, p.96)

1640        Rembrandt painted his "Portrait of a Man Seated in an Armchair" about this time.
    (WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

1641        Sep 23, Adrian "Aart" van Wijck, theologian, was born. He fought Jansenism.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1642        Aug 13, Christian Huygens discovered the Martian south polar cap.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1642        Dec 13, Dutch navigator and explorer Abel Janszoon sighted present-day New Zealand. He fled after Maori cannibals feasted on the u0093friendship partyu0094 he sent ashore.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.196)(SFEC, 10/4/98, p.T4)(AP, 12/13/07)

1642        Rembrandt van Rijn painted "Night Watch."
     (WSJ, 3/904, p.D8)

1642        Curacao became a colony of the Netherlands.
    (Econ, 6/19/04, p.72)

1645        Aug 28, Hugo Grotius, Dutch jurist and politician, died. In 1917 Hamilton Vreeland authored u0093Hugo Grotius: The Father of Modern Science and International Law.u0094
    (RTH, 8/28/99)(ON, 10/04, p.4)

1647        May 11, Peter Stuyvesant (37) arrived in New Amsterdam to become governor of New Netherland. The one-legged professional soldier was sent from the Netherlands to head the Dutch trading colony at the southern end of Manhattan Island. Stuyvesant lost a leg in a minor skirmish in the Caribbean in 1644.
    (ON, 4/00, p.1)(AH, 10/04, p.74)(AP, 5/11/08)

1647        Nov 8, Pierre Bayle (d.1706), French-Dutch theologian, philosopher, and writer, was born. He authored the "Historical and Critical Dictionary." "If an historian were to relate truthfully all the crimes, weaknesses and disorders of mankind, his readers would take his work for satire rather than for history."
    (WUD, 1994, p.128)(AP, 11/19/97)(WSJ, 12/2/97, p.A20)(MC, 11/8/01)

1647        Nov 10, The all Dutch-held area of New York was returned to English control by the treaty of Westminster.
    (HN, 11/10/98)

1648        May 15, The independence of the Netherlands was finally recognized with the Dutch and Spanish ratification of the Treaty of Munster, initially signed on January 30.
    (www.oldandsold.com/articles36/netherlands-18.shtml)

1648        Van Ruisdael painted "Dunes at Haarlem." His work this year also included his print "Christ Preaching (The Hundred Guilder Print).
    (SFEC, 9/3/00, p.T7)(WSJ, 3/904, p.D8)

1649        Salomon van Ruysdael (1602-1670), Dutch landscape artist, created his painting u0093Ferry on a River.u0094
    (WSJ, 7/2/08, p.D7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruisdael)
1649        The Prins Willem was built in Middelburg, Netherlands, as the flagship of the Dutch East India Company. The 3-masted ship, launched on Jan 1, 1650, sank in 1662 off Madagascar.
    (AP, 7/30/09)(http://tinyurl.com/mteqbf)

1650        Nov 4, William III, Prince of Orange and King of England, was born. [see Nov 14]
    (HN, 11/4/98)

1650        Nov 14, William III, King of England (1689-1702), was born. [see Nov 4]
    (HN, 11/14/98)

c1650        Jan Baptist Weenix painted "Mother and Child in an Italian Landscape."
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.12)

1652        Apr 7, The Dutch established settlement at Cape Town, South Africa.
    (HN, 4/7/97)

1652        May 29, English Admiral Robert Blake drove out the Dutch fleet under Lieutenant-Admiral Tromp.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1652        Michael Sweerts, Flemish artist, painted "Plague in an Ancient City" in Rome. In 1998 it held by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA).
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)

1652        War broke out between the Netherlands and England.
    (ON, 4/00, p.2)

1653        May 18, Carel Reyniersz (48), Governor-General of Netherlands and East Indies, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1653        Rembrandt painted his "Aristotle With a Bust of Homer."
    (WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

1654        Oct 12, Carel Fabritius (b.1622), Dutch painter, died in a gunpowder explosion in Delft. He was one of Rembrandtu0092s most gifted pupils.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carel_Fabritius)(WSJ, 7/20/01, p.W11)(Econ, 10/26/13, p.93)

1654        Rembrandt van Rijn painted a portrait of poet-businessman Jan Six, one of the richest Amsterdammers of his time. His work this year also included "A Woman Bathing in a Stream" and "Flora." His work this year also included the etching and drypoint u0093The Descent From the Cross by Torchlight.u0094
    (WSJ, 6/19/00, p.A42)(WSJ, 3/904, p.D8)(SFC, 1/28/06, p.E4)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.96)

1654-1656    Rembrandt van Rijn painted a medallion portrait of Muhammed Adil Shah of Bijapur.
    (SFEM, 2/1/98, p.16)(SFC, 2/7/98, p.E8)

1655        Apr 26, Dutch West Indies Co. denied Peter Stuyvesant's desire to exclude Jews from New Amsterdam.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1655        Sep 26, Peter Stuyvesant recaptured Dutch Ft. Casimir from Swedish in Delaware.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1655        Rembrandt painted "Polish Rider."
    (WSJ, 12/5/96, p.A16)

1655        Jan Steen painted "A Burgher of Delft and His Daughter." In 2004 it sold for $14.6 million to the Dutch National Museum.
    (SFC, 4/4/01, p.C1)(SFC, 8/21/04, p.E12)

1655        Vermeer painted his Saint Praxedis. [see Vermeer, 1632-1675]
    (WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)

1655        Pieter de Hooch moved to Delft and painted there for 5 years.
    (WSJ, 7/20/01, p.W11)

1655        Mar 25, Christiaan Huygens, Dutch inventor and astronomer, discovered Titan, Saturn's largest satellite.
    (www.xs4all.nl/~carlkop/huyglens.html)

1655-1660    Rembrandt painted his picture called "The Auctioneer."
    (WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

1656        Jan 8, Oldest surviving commercial newspaper began in Haarlem, Netherlands.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1656        Jul 26, Rembrandt declared he is insolvent.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1656         Christian Huygens invented the first pendulum clock, as described in his 1658 article "Horologium". It was built by Solomon Coster and was later put on exhibit at the Time Museum in Rockford, Ill. The time-pieces previously in use had been balance-clocks, Chris Huygens' pendulum clock was regulated by a mechanism with a "natural" period of oscillation and had an error of less than 1 minute a day.
    (http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bl_huygens.htm)(SF E&C, 1/15/1995, T-10)

1657        Vermeer painted his "The Little Street" about this time (1658-1660).
    (WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)(SFC, 4/4/01, p.C1)

1658        Vermeer (1632-1675), Dutch artist, completed his painting u0093The Milkmaidu0094 about this time.
    (Econ, 9/19/09, p.98)

1659        Rembrandt Harmenszoom van Rizn (Rijn) (1606-1669), Dutch painter, made "Jupiter and Antiope" (1659).
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1213)(WSJ, 10/1/96, p.A20)

1659        Christian Huygens of Holland used a 2-inch telescope lens and discovered that the Martian day is nearly the same as an Earth day.
    (SFC, 11/29/96, p.A16)

1660        May 7, Isaack B. Fubine of Savoy, in The Hague, patented macaroni.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1660        Rembrandt painted "The Old Woman Cutting Her Nails" about this time.
    (WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

c1660        The Dutch crafted an early version of a boat they called a "yacht."
    (SFC, 7/18/98, p.E3)

1660        Pieter Claesz (b.ca.1597), Dutch still-life painter, died.
    (WSJ, 11/22/05, p.D8)

1661        Aug 6, Holland sold Brazil to Portugal for 8 million guilders.
    (MC, 8/6/02)

1661        Rembrandt depicted himself in the painting "Self-Portrait as St. Paul." His work this year also included "James the Apostle."
    (WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A16)(SFEC, 1/16/00, BR p.5)(WSJ, 3/904, p.D8)

1662        Feb 11, The Prins Willem, built in 1643 as flagship of the Dutch East India Company, sank off Madagascar. A replica, built in the 1980s, burned down at Den Helder in 2009.
    (AP, 7/30/09)(http://tinyurl.com/mteqbf)

1662        Apr 27, Netherlands and France signed a treaty of alliance in Paris.
    (http://nla.gov.au/nla.cat-vn1767012)

1662        Rembrandt depicted himself in a painting as the fifth-century Greek painter Zeuxis. His work this year also included u0093The Syndics of the Clothmakers' Guild.u0094
    (WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A16)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.96)
1662        Dutch fortune seekers killed over 400 members of the Nayar warrior caste in Kerala, India.
    (SFEM, 7/18/99, p.12)

1663        Rembrandt depicted himself as a bit player in his painting "The Raising of the Cross."
    (WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A16)

1663        The Amsterdam attic church, later known as the Museum Amstelkring, was built after the monarchy banned the public practice of Catholicism.
    (SFEC, 6/18/00, p.T11)

1663        Abraham Blauvelt, Dutch pirate, died about this time. In the early 1630's He explored the coasts of Honduras and Nicaragua. Afterwards, he went to England and with a proposal for a settlement at site in Nicaragua, which is near the town and river of Bluefields, Nicaragua.
    (www.thepirateking.com/bios/blauvelt_abraham.htm)

1664        Apr 4, Adam Willaerts, Dutch seascape painter, died.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1664        Aug 29, Adriaen Pieck/Gerrit de Ferry patented a wooden fire spout in Amsterdam.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1664        Sep 5, After days of negotiation, the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam surrendered to the British, who would rename it New York. The citizens of New Amsterdam petitioned Peter Stuyvesant to surrender to the English. The "Articles of Capitulation" guaranteed free trade, religious liberty and a form of local representation. In 2004 Russell Shorto authored "The Island At the Center of the World," a history of New York's Dutch period.
    (HN, 9/5/98)(ON, 4/00, p.3)(WSJ, 3/16/04, p.D6)

1664        Sep 8, The Dutch formally surrendered New Amsterdam to 300 English soldiers. The British soon renamed it New York.
    (AP, 9/8/97)(ON, 4/00, p.3)

1664-1667    The Second Anglo-Dutch War.
    (HN, 6/21/98)

1665        Mar 4, English King Charles II declared war on Netherlands.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

c1665    Gerrit Dou painted "Woman at the Clavichord" and a "Self-Portrait" in which he resembled Rembrandt.
    (WSJ, 5/24/00, p.A24)
1665        Jacob van Ochtervelt (1634-1682), Dutch artist, painted his u0093Street Musicians in the Doorway of a House.u0094
    (WSJ, 1/30/09, p.W2)(http://wwar.com/masters/o/ochtervelt-jacob.html)

1665        The British briefly recaptured the Banda Island of Run from the Dutch.
    (WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W7)

1665        Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer painted his "Girl With a Pearl Earring" about this time. [see Vermeer, 1632-1675] In 1999 Tracy Chevalier authored the novel "Girl With a Pearl Earring," a fictionalization based on one of Vermeer's models.
    (WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)(SFEC, 1/2/00, BR p.3)(SFC, 1/24/13, p.E1)

1666        Franz Hals (b.1581?), painter, died in the Oudemannenhuis almshouse in Haarlem. The almshouse later became the Frans Hals Museum.
    (SFEC, 9/3/00, p.T7)

1667        Jun 18, The Dutch fleet sailed up the Thames and threatened London. They burned 3 ships and captured the English flagship in what came to be called the Glorious Revolution, in which William of Orange replaced James Stuart.
    (HN, 6/18/98)(WSJ, 3/14/00, p.A28)

1667        Jul 21, The Peace of Breda ended the Second Anglo-Dutch War and ceded Dutch New Amsterdam to the English. The South American country of Surinam, formerly Dutch Guiana,  including the nutmeg island of Run was ceded by England to the Dutch in exchange for New York in 1667 after the second Anglo-Dutch War.
    (WUD, 1994, p.961)(HN, 7/21/98)(HNQ, 8/21/98)(WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W7)   

1668        Feb 7, The Netherlands, England and Sweden concluded an alliance directed against Louis XIV of France.
    (HN, 2/7/99)

1669        Oct 4, Rembrandt H. van Rijn (b.1606), painter and etcher (Steel Masters, Night Watch), died. In 1999 Simon Schama published the biography "Rembrandt's Eyes."
    (WSJ, 11/24/99, p.A16)(MC, 10/4/01)

1669        Vermeer painted "The Art of Painting." The 3' by 4' work was larger than most of his paintings.
    (SFC, 11/24/99, p.E8)

1670        Vermeer painted his "A Young Woman Standing at a Virginal" and "A Young Woman Seated at a Virginal." Estimates for auction in 2004 for the seated one reached $5.4 million.
    (WSJ, 6/19/00, p.a42)(SFC, 4/1/04, p.E7)

1670        Spinoza (1632-1677), Dutch philosopher, authored "Tractatus Theologico-Politicus" an enlightened assessment of the Old Testament and a plea for religious toleration.
    (WSJ, 12/15/05, p.D8)

1671        Vermeer painted his "Allegory of Faith." [see Vermeer, 1632-1675]
    (WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)

1672        Apr 29, King Louis XIV of France invaded the Netherlands.
    (HN, 4/29/99)

1672        Jun 15, The Sluices were opened in Holland to save Amsterdam from the French.
    (HT, 6/15/00)

1672        Jul 4, States of Holland declared "Eternal Edict" void.
    (Maggio)

1672        Aug 20, Jan de Witt, Dutch politician and mathematician, was assassinated by a carefully organized lynch "mob" after visiting his brother Cornelis de Witt in prison. He was killed by a shot in the neck; his naked body was hanged and mutilated and the heart was carved out to be exhibited.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johan_de_Witt)

1672        Christian Huygens of Holland discovered the southern polar caps on Mars.
    (http://chapters.marssociety.org/toronto/Education/TL1500.shtml)

1673        Mar 28, Adam Pijnacker (51), Dutch landscape painter, etcher, was buried.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1673        May 29, Cornelis van Bijnkershoek, lawyer, president of High Council, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1673        Jun 25, French commander Charles de Batz (b.1611), known as Du0092Artagnan, was slain in the service of Louis XIV. He died at the Siege of Maastricht in the Franco-Dutch War and was one of the musketeers who inspired Dumasu0092 fiction.
    (SSFC, 4/13/08, p.E4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D'Artagnan)

1673        Aug 9, Dutch recapture NY from English. It was regained by English in 1674.
    (MC, 8/9/02)

1673        Dec 28, Joan Blaeu (77), Dutch cartographer, publisher (Atlas Major), died.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1673        The most important of Christian Huygens' written works, the "Horologium Oscillatorium," was published in Paris. It discussed the mathematics surrounding pendulum motion and the law of centrifugal force for uniform circular motion.
    (http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bl_huygens.htm)

1674        Feb 9, English reconquered NY from Netherlands.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1674        Feb 19, Netherlands and England signed the Peace of Westminster. NYC became English.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1674        Nov 10, Dutch formally ceded New Netherlands (NY) to English. [see 1664]
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1675        Jan 20, Christian Huygens, Dutch scientist, transformed a theoretical insight on springs into a practical mechanism with the 1st sketch of a watch balance regulated by a coiled spring.
    (www.princeton.edu/~mike/articles/huygens/timelong/timelong.html)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.73)

1675        Mar 2, Prince William III was installed as Governor of Overijssel.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1675        Johannes Vermeer (b.1632), Dutch painter, died in poverty. In 2001 Anthony Bailey authored "Vermeer: A View of Delft."
    (WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)(SSFC, 3/25/01, BR p.5)

1676        Apr 29, Michiel A. de Ruyter (69), Dutch rear-admiral, (Newport), was killed.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1676        Jun 1, The Swedish ship Svardet, armed with 86 bronze canons and under command of Claes Uggla, went under when Sweden was defeated by a Danish-Dutch fleet in the Battle of Öland. In 2011 Deep Sea Productions said it believed it had found the ship off the island of Oland.
    (AP, 11/16/11)(www.ocean-discovery.org/thesword.htm)

1677        Feb 15, King Charles II reported an anti-French covenant with Netherlands.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1677        Feb 21, [Benedictus] Baruch Spinoza (b.1632), Dutch philosopher, died. In 2003 Antonio Damasio authored "Looking for Spinoza," a look at contemporary neurological research in contrast with the opposing philosophical views of Spinoza and Descartes. In 2005 Matthew Stewart authored u0093The Courtier and the Heretic: Leibniz, Spinoza, and the Fate of God in the Modern World.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1371)(SSFC, 2/2/03, p.M4)(WSJ, 12/15/05, p.D8)

1677        Nov 4, William and Mary were married in England. William of Orange married his cousin Mary (daughter to James, Duke of York and the same James II who fled in 1688).
    (HN, 11/4/98)(HNQ, 12/28/00)

1683        Sep 17, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek reported the existence of bacteria.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1683-1707    Adriaen Coorte (b.1665), a Dutch Golden Age painter of still lifes, signed his work during this period. His work included u0093Still Life With Sea Shellsu0094 (1698).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adriaen_Coorte)

1688        Nov 1, William of Orange set sail for England at the head of a fleet of 500 ships and 30,000 men. He intended too oust his father-in-law King James II. The Dutch parliament, the States General, funded William with 4 million guilders. Amsterdam financiers provided another 2 million. Some of this was used to print 60,000 copies of his u0093Declarationu0094 (of the reasons inducing him to appear in arms in the Kingdom of England), which were distributed in England. In 2008 Lisa Jardine authored u0093Going Dutch: How England Plundered Hollandu0092s Glory.u0094
    (WSJ, 8/28/08, p.A13)

1688        Nov 5, William of Orange landed in southern England and marched with his army nearly unopposed to London.
    (WSJ, 8/28/08, p.A13)

1688        Nov 26, Louis XIV declared war on the Netherlands.
    (HN, 11/26/98)

1688        Dec 10, King James II fled London as "Glorious Revolution" replaced him with King William (of Orange) and Queen Mary. [see Dec 11]
    (MC, 12/10/01)

1688        Dec 11, James II abdicated the throne because of William of Orange landing in England.
    (HN, 12/11/98)

1688        Dec 28, William of Orange made a triumphant march into London as James II fled in the "Glorious Revolution." William of Orangeu0097son of William II, Prince of Orange and Mary, daughter of Charles I of Englandu0097was fourth in line to the English throne.
    (HN, 12/28/98)(HNQ, 12/28/00)(WSJ, 2/6/02, p.A16)

1689        May 12, Englandu0092s King William III joined the League of Augsburg and the Netherlands. The "Grand Alliance" was formed to counter the war of aggression launched by Louis XIV against the Palatinate states in Germany. This is known as The War of the League of Augsburg (1689-97) also The Nine Years' War, and the War of the Grand Alliance.
    (www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/king_william.htm)
   
1690        Jul 1, Led by Marshall Luxembourg, the French defeated the forces of the Grand Alliance at Fleurus in the Netherlands.
    (HN, 7/1/98)

1690        Oct 23, There was a revolt in Haarlem, Holland, after a public ban on smoking.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1691        Aug 20, The 1st African slaves arrived to North America on a Dutch ship. It docked in Jamestown, Virginia, with twenty human captives among its cargo.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1691        Oct 3, English and Dutch armies occupied Limerick, Ireland.
    (MC, 10/3/01)

1692        Mar 14, Peter Musschenbroek, Dutch physician, physicist (Leyden jar), was born.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1692        Mar 26, King Maximilian was installed as land guardian of South Netherlands.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1692        May 29, Battle at La Hogue: An English & Dutch fleet beat France.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1692        Aug 3, French forces under Marshal Luxembourg defeated the English at the Battle of Steenkerke in the Netherlands.
    (HN, 8/3/98)

1693        Jul 4, Battle at Boussu-lez-Walcourt: French-English vs. Dutch army.
    (Maggio)

1693        Jul 29, The Army of the Grand Alliance was destroyed by the French at the Battle of Neerwinden in the Netherlands.
    (HN, 7/29/98)

1695        Jul 8, Christian Huygens (66), Dutch inventor, astronomer, died. He generally wrote his name as Christiaan Hugens, and it is also sometimes written as Huyghens. In his book u0093Cosmotheros,u0094 published in 1698, he speculated on life on other planets.
    (http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bl_huygens.htm)

1695        Portugal established colonial rule in the eastern half of Timor Island. The western side was incorporated into the Dutch East Indies.
    (SFC, 5/18/02, p.A15)

1696        Jan 31, An uprising of undertakers took place after funeral reforms in Amsterdam.
    (MC, 1/31/02)

1696        Mar 7, English King William III departed Netherlands.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1697        Sep 20, The Treaty of Ryswick was signed in Holland. It ended the War of the Grand Alliance (aka War of the League of Augsburg,1688-1697) between France and the Grand Alliance. Under the Treaty Franceu0092s King Louis XIV (1638-1715) recognized William III (1650-1702) as King of England. The Dutch received trade concessions, and France and the Grand Alliance members (Holland and the Austrian Hapsburgs) gave up most of the land they had conquered since 1679. The signees included France, England, Spain and Holland. By the Treaty of Ryswick, a portion of Hispaniola was formally ceded to France and became known as Saint-Domingue. The remaining Spanish section was called Santo Domingo.
    (www.caribbeanguides.net/hispaniola.htm)(www.jacobite.ca/documents/1697ryswick.htm)

1700        May 7, Gerard van Swieten, Dutch botanist, was born.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1701        Sep 7, England, Austria, and the Netherlands formed an Alliance against France.
    (HN, 9/7/98)

1702        Mar 8, William III of Orange (51), Dutch King of England (1689-1702), died after falling from his horse and catching a chill. Anne Stuart (37), his sister-in-law, succeeded to the throne of England, Scotland and Ireland and reigned until 1714.
    (PCh, 1992, p.272)(MC, 3/8/02)(AP, 3/8/98)

1703        May 18, Dutch and English troops occupied Cologne.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1704        Aug 4, In the War of Spanish Succession, an Anglo-Dutch fleet captured Gibraltar.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Gibraltar)(AP, 9/19/06)

1707        Apr 6, Willem Van de Velde (b.1633) the Younger, Dutch marine painter, died. His work included u0093fishing Boats by the Shore in a Calmu0094 (1660-1605).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willem_van_de_Velde_the_Younger)(SFC, 7/9/11, p.E1)

1708        Jul 11, The French were defeated at Oudenarde, Malplaquet, in the Netherlands by the Duke of Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy.
    (HN, 7/11/98)

1709        Oct 20, Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy took Mons in the Netherlands.
    (HN, 10/20/98)

1712        Oct 4, Utrecht banished poor Jews.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1714        Mar 6, the Treaty of Rastatt ended the war between Austria and Spain. It complemented the Treaty of Utrecht, which had, the previous year, ended hostilities with Britain and the Dutch Republic. The Spanish Netherlands became the Austrian Netherlands, and Spain gave up her possession in Italy, Luxembourg and Flanders. A third treaty, the Treaty of Baden (Sep 7, 1714), was required to end the hostilities between France and the Holy Roman Empire.
    (PCh, ed. 1992, p.279)(http://tinyurl.com/b8uxbje)

1714        Bernard de Mandeville, Dutch philosopher, achieved widespread fame with his lengthy poem "The Fable of the Bees: Private Vice, Publick Benefits."
    (NH, 7/02, p.74)

1718        Dutch planters introduced coffee to their Suriname colony.
    (ON, 10/2010, p.12)

1722        Apr 5, On Easter Sunday Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen discovered a Polynesian Island 1400 miles from the coast of South America and named it Easter Island. He noted that the island was treeless and wondered how its massive statues were erected. Much of the population was later wiped out and the island became a possession of Chile. An indigenous script called rongorongo survived but by 2002 was still not deciphered. In 2005 Steven Roger Fischer authored u0093Island at the End of the World: The Turbulent History of Easter Island.u0094
    (WSJ, 1/7/05, p.W1)(http://islandheritage.org/eihistory.html)(Econ, 7/23/05, p.77)

1723        Aug 26, Anton van Leeuwenhoek (b.1632), Dutch biologist, inventor (microscope), died in Delft, Netherlands. [some sources say Aug 30]
    (http://es.rice.edu/ES/humsoc/Galileo/Catalog/Files/leewnhok.html)

1724        May 18, Johann K. Amman (54), Swiss-Dutch doctor for deaf-mutes, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1726        Feb 26, Maximilian II, M. Emanuel, elector of Bavaria, governor of Netherlands, died.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1729        May 25, Jean de Neufville, Dutch-US merchant (started 4th English war), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1730        Jul 21, States of Holland put a death penalty on "sodomy."
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1731        Luis Berrueco, Mexican painter, painted u0093The Martyrs of Gorkum,u0094 a detailed work depicting the 1572 martyrdom of 19 Catholics in Gorinchem, Netherlands, during the Dutch war for independence.
    (SFC, 3/5/11, p.E2)(http://tinyurl.com/5s8wnz2)

1732        Jun 3, Pieter Vuyst, Dutch gov-gen. of Ceylon, was executed.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1736        Mar 23, Iman Willem Falck, Dutch Governor of Ceylon (1765-83), was born.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1736        Sep 16, Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit (b.1686), Gdansk-born German physicist, died in the Netherlands. He discovered that water boils at 212F and freezes at 32F.
    (www.britannica.com)

1741        Apr 13, Dutch people protested the bad quality of bread.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1744-1828    Eisa Eisinga, knitting-wool processor. He devoted his spare time to astronomy and mathematics and built a small planetarium in Franeker (1781).
    (NH, 6/00, p.10)

1745        Jan 8, England, Austria, Saxony and the Netherlands formed an alliance against Russia.
    (HN, 1/8/99)

1745        May 11, French forces defeated an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army at Fontenoy.
    (HN, 5/11/98)

1745        Oct 11, The Leyden jar, capable of storing static electricity, was invented by German cleric Ewald Georg von Kleist. Also about this time Dutch scientist Pieter van Musschenbroek of Leiden (Leyden) independently came up with the same idea.
    (ON, 2/12, p.11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leyden_jar)

1747        Jul 2, Marshall Saxe led the French forces to victory over an Anglo-Dutch force under the Duke of Cumberland at the Battle of Lauffeld.
    (HN, 7/2/98)

1747        Sep 16, The French captured Bergen-op-Zoom, consolidating their occupation of Austrian Flanders in the Netherlands.
    (HN, 9/16/98)

1747        Dec 9, England and Netherlands signed a military treaty.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1748        Jun 28, A riot followed a public execution in Amsterdam and over 200 were killed.
    (MC, 6/28/02)

1749        Feb 8, Jan van Huysum (66), Dutch still life painter, died.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1751        Sep 12, Amsterdam refused to establish a Jewish ghetto.
    (MC, 9/12/01)

1751        Sep 13, Henry Kobell, Dutch painter and cartoonist, was born.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1756        Nov 4, Anthony van Hoboken, Rotterdam merchant-ship owner, was born.
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1757        Feb 13, John C. Hespe, Dutch journalist, politician, was born.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1761        Mar 23, John W. de Winter, Dutch Vice-Admiral (Battle at Kamperduin), was born.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1761        May 13, Adrian Loosjes Pzn (1818, Dutch publisher, writer (Mauritius Lijnslager), was born.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1765        Mar 18, David H. Chass, Dutch baron, general (fought Napoleon at Waterloo), was born.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1772        May 11, Joseph Kerckhoff, Limburg surgeon, robber captain, was hanged.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1774        A Dutch merchant cobbled together the earliest mutual-style fund, Eendragt Maakt Magt (Unity creates Strength). The first modern mutual fund was launched in Boston in 1924.
    (Econ, 4/21/07, p.83)

1776        Apr 26, Joan M. Kemper, Dutch lawyer (designed civil code law book), was born.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1776        The Dutch built a slave house on Goree Island off the coast of Senegal.
    (SFC, 7/9/03, p.A10)

1779        May 25, Henry M. Baron de Kock, Dutch officer, politician, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1780-1783    A 4-year war with England was fought.
    (SFC, 3/31/98, p.F4)

1781        Eisa Eisinga (1744-1828), knitting-wool processor, built a small planetarium in Franeker.
    (NH, 6/00, p.10)

1782        Apr 19, Netherlands recognized the United States.
    (HN, 4/19/97)

1783        Apr 10, Hortense E. de Beauharnais, French queen of Netherlands (1806-10), was born.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1784        May 20, Peace of Versailles ended the war between France, England, and Holland.
    (HN, 5/20/98)

1784        Jun 16, Holland forbade orange clothes.
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1784        The Teyler Museum opened as the countryu0092s first public collection.
    (SFEC, 9/3/00, p.T7)

1786        Capt. Francis Light landed in Penang (Malaysia) and built Fort Cornwallis. Light, acting on behalf of the East India Company, swindled the island from the ruling sultan with a promise of protection. The British usurped the land to break the Dutch monopoly on the spice trade.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, p.T8)(SFEM, 12/19/99, p.8)(SFC, 12/8/05, p.E7)

1788        Sep 15, An alliance between Britain, Prussia and the Netherlands was ratified at the Hague.
    (HN, 9/15/99)

1791        Mar 23, Etta Palm, a Dutch champion of woman's rights, set up a group of women's clubs called the Confederation of the Friends of Truth.
    (HN, 3/23/99)

1793        Feb 1, France declared war on Britain and the Netherlands.
    (HN, 2/1/99)

1793        Mar 4, French troops conquered Geertruidenberg, Netherlands.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1795        Sep 16, The Capitulation of Rustenburg: A Dutch garrison at the Cape of Good Hope surrendered to a British fleet under Adm. George Elphinstone.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.884)

1796        Mar 1, The 1st National Meeting was held in the Hague.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1799        The Dutch East India Company liquidated and the Dutch government took control over the islands of Indonesia.
    (SFC, 9/8/99, p.A17)

1801        Oct 6, Napoleon Bonaparte imposed a new constitution on Holland.
    (HN, 10/6/98)

1803        Feb 21, The British return the Cape of Good Hope to the Dutch (Batavian Republic) under the Treaty of Amiens.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.884)

1803        Barend Cornelis Koekkoek, artist, came from a renowned family of artists. He considered the painting of nature the only true calling of an artist.
    (WSJ, 12/10/99, p.W16)

1806        Jan 10, The Capitulation of Papendorp: The Dutch in Cape Town surrendered to a British fleet.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.884)

1814        May 30, The First Treaty of Paris was declared, after Napoleon's first abdication. It returned France to its 1792 borders and secured for the British definite possession of the Cape of Good Hope. [see Aug 13]
    (HN, 5/30/98)(HN, 5/30/99)(EWH, 4th ed, p.884)

1814        Aug 13, Treaty of London-Netherland was signed to stop the transport of slaves. By agreement Britain paid the Dutch £6 million in compensation for the Cape of Good Hope. [see May 30]
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.884)(MC, 8/13/02)

1815        Mar 1, Sunday observance in Netherlands was regulated by law.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1815        Mar 16, William I (1772-1843), prince of Orange-Nassau, proclaimed the Netherlands a kingdom at the urging of the powers gathered at the Congress of Vienna. In 1813 he had proclaimed himself 'Sovereign Prince' of the "United Netherlands."
    (Econ, 4/13/13, p.55)

1815        Apr, British General Arthur Wellesley, duke of Wellington, began assembling troops at Brussels, Belgium. 73,000 British troops were joined by 33,000 German, Dutch and Belgian troops preparing to face Napoleon. Prussian Gen. Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher gathered an army of 120,000 southeast of Brussels.
    {Belgium, Britain, France, Prussia, Netherlands}
    (ON, 4/06, p.1)

1815        May 29, Cornelis de Gijselaar (64), politician, patriot, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1817        Feb 19, William III, King of the Netherlands, was born. 
    (HN, 2/19/98)

1817        The Dutch and French agreed on a final pact to divide the control of St. Martin Island. The southern Dutch half comprises the Eilandgebied Sint Maarten (Island Territory of St. Maarten) and is part of the Netherlands Antilles. The northern French half comprises the Collectivité de Saint-Martin (Collectivity of St. Martin) and is an overseas collectivity of France.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Martin)

1819        Oct 6, Willem A. Scholten, Dutch potato flour manufacturer, was born.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1820        Mar 5, Dutch city of Leeuwarden forbade Jews to go to synagogues on Sundays.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1824        Mar 29, ABN AMRO incorporated in the Hague. Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij (Netherlands Trading Society, NTS) was established by Royal Decree of King Willem I. With effect from 3 October 1964 after the merger with Twentsche Bank, NTS changed her name to Algemene Bank Nederland (ABN Bank). After the merger with Amro Bank in 1991, ABN changed its name to ABN AMRO.
    (www.abnamro.com/about/history/historyfaq.cfm)

1825        A disastrous breach of Dutch coastal defenses occurred.
    (www.metoffice.com/education/secondary/students/flood.html)

1828        Apr 4, Casparus van Wooden patented chocolate milk powder (Amsterdam).
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1830        Aug 25, Belgium rebelled against Netherlands. Among the reasons for rebelling were heavy taxes on beer.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)(Econ, 12/17/11, p.125)

1831        Jan 20, Protocols were signed in London that recognized Belgium as an independent nation. Belgium became a nation and combined French and Flemish-speaking lands. The Rothschild banking empire financed the founding of Belgium.
    (SFC, 7/12/96, p.A11)(SSFC, 2/24/02, p.C5)(http://tinyurl.com/3335jt)

1831        Aug 2, The Dutch army, headed by the Dutch princes, invaded Belgium, in the so-called "Ten Days Campaign", and defeated Belgian forces near Hasselt and Leuven. Only the appearance of a French army under Marchal Gerard caused the Dutch to stop their advance.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belgian_Revolution)

1836        A Dutch regiment entered the kingdom of the Ashanti tribe (later Ghana). Holland had taken this land as a colony to mine gold and sell slaves. Slavery was outlawed but African men were enlisted as troops in a form of indentured servitude. The Ashanti king sent his son and nephew, Kwasi and Kwame Boachi, to Holland for a European education in exchange for providing troops. In 2001 Arthur Japin authored the novel "The Two Hearts of Kwasi Boachi."
    (SSFC, 1/21/01, BR p.5)

1837        May 29, Alexander F. de Savornin Lohmann, Dutch minister, party leader (CHU), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1838        In Ghana Asante King Nana Badu Bonsu II had his head cut off by Maj. Gen. Jan Verveer in retaliation for Bonsu's killing of two Dutch emissaries, whose heads were then displayed as trophies. In 2008 Dutch author Arthur Japin discovered Bonsuu0092s head in a jar of formaldehyde at Leiden Univ. Medical Center. In 2009 the Dutch government returned the head of Bonsuu0092s descendants.
    (SFC, 3/21/09, p.A2)(SFC, 7/24/09, p.A2)

1839        In the Netherlands the locomotive named "De Arend" was the first and pulled a train from Amsterdam to Haarlem with a top speed of 23 mph.
    (SFC, 6/18/99, p.D4)

1840        Oct 8, King William I of Holland abdicated.
    (HN, 10/8/98)

1840        Niels Gade, Dutch composer, wrote the overture "Echoes of Ossian."
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.B1)

1841        Barend Cornelis Koekkoek authored "Thoughts and Recollections of a Landscape Artist."
    (WSJ, 12/10/99, p.W16)

1844        Jul 25, Louis Napoleon (b.1779), French king of the Netherlands (1806-10), died.
    (www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Louis-Napoleon-Bonaparte)

1846        Barend Cornelis Koekkoek painted his "Portrait of a Young Lady."
    (WSJ, 12/10/99, p.W16)

1849        May 25, Andreas Michiels (52), Dutch Military Governor of West Sumatra, died in battle.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1850        In the Netherlands Zwarte Piet (Black Pete), a Dutch version of St. Nicholas, made his debut as an African servant in a book. By 2012 he was being described as a racist caricature of a black person. In 2013 Amsterdam officials were asked to revoke a permit for a childrenu0092s festival that featured the caricature.
    (AP, 12/4/12)(SFC, 10/18/12, p.A2)

1851        May 18, The Amsterdam-Nieuwediep telegraph connection linked.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1853        Mar 4, Pope Pius IX recovered Catholic hierarchy in Netherlands.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1853        Mar 30, Vincent Van Gogh (d.1890), Dutch artist, was born in Zundert, Neth. His work included "The Drawbridge and Sunflowers in a Vase," and "Harvest in Prevance," which was done both in oil and as a watercolor. The watercolor sold in 1997 for $14.7 mil. He produced an estimated 900 paintings and 1200 drawings but sold virtually none of them. In 1997 it was reported that more than 100 of his paintings and drawings might be fakes. 300 of his canvasses were painted in the last 15 months of his life.
    (AAP,1964)(WUD,1994, p.606)(SFC, 6/26/97, p.A21)(SFC, 7/5/97, p.A8)(SFEC, 1/4/98, Z1p.8)(HN, 3/30/98)

1853-1890    Theo Van Gogh, the younger brother of Vincent Van Gogh. Theo's widow Johanna Van Gogh-Bonger inherited the paintings of Vincent that had been in Theo's hands.
    (SFC, 1/18/99, p.B2)

1857        May 10, Hendrik Zwaardemaker, Dutch physiologist (olefactometer), was born.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1858        Oct 9, Gerard L.F. Philips, Dutch engineer and manufacturer, was born.
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1863        Jul 1, The Dutch abolished slavery in Suriname. The Dutch were among the last Europeans to abolish slavery.
    (AP, 7/2/03)

1864        May 18, Jan P. Veth Bayern, Dutch painter, etcher, lithographer, art historian, was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1860        May 21, Willem Einthoven, Dutch physiologist, inventor of the electro-cardiogram, was born.
    (HN, 5/21/01)(MC, 5/21/02)

1864        May 18, Jan P. Veth Bayern, Dutch painter, etcher, lithographer, art historian, was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1864        May 29, A.H. Borgesius, Dutch amateur astronomer, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1864        Sep 5, British, French & Dutch fleets attacked Japan in Shimonoseki Straits.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1864        Gerard Adriaan Heineken founded a beer brewery. In 2002 it was the worldu0092s 3rd largest brewery.
    (SFC, 1/5/02, p.A22)

1865        May 25, Pieter Zeeman, Dutch physicist (Zeeman effect, Nobel 1902), was born. 
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1870        Jul 11(Jun 11), 1st-stone Amstel Brewery opened in Amsterdam.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1871        Mar 28, Willem Mengelberg, conductor (NY Philharmonic 1922-30), was born in Utrecht, Neth.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1872         Mar 7, Piet Mondrian (d.1944), Dutch abstract painter, was born. He was born in Amersfoort, near Amsterdam. His two principal styles date from before and after 1907. His Red Tree in 1908 reflects the stance of a Van Gogh.  In 1911 he went to Paris and quickly changed his style in response to Cubism. He emigrated to New York in 1940. His Broadway Boogie Woogie was done in 1942-1943. He was labeled as a degenerate by the Nazis and was sent to New York to continue working. He went through a number of styles i.e. fauvist, neoimpressionist Dutch landscapes, to total abstractions in a manner of his own that he called neoplasticism. He was a pioneer of abstract painting.
    (WSJ, 6/6/95, p.A-14)(WSJ, 10/3/95, p.A-18)(SFC, 10/4/97, p.E1)(HN, 3/7/98)

1873        From the Netherlands the Holland America cruise line began operations.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, p.T5)

1873        The Dutch began colonization efforts in Aceh province (Indonesia), which led to a decades-long war.
    (SFEC, 11/7/99, p.A30)(SFCM, 11/2/03, p.8)

1876        Aug 7, Margaretha Zelle (aka Mata Hari) was born in the Netherlands. Mata Hari, otherwise known as Margaretha G. Macleod, passed secrets to the Germans in World War I.
    (WSJ, 1/16/97, p.A16)(HN, 8/7/98)

1877        Feb 26, Carel S. Adama van Scheltema, Dutch poet, writer (socialism), was born.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1877        May 29, John Lothrop Motley (63), (History of United Netherlands), died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1880        Vincent Van Gogh ended his career as a theology student and began painting.
    (WSJ, 3/14/00, p.A28)

1880-1962    Queen Wilhelmina Of Netherlands (b.Aug 31, d.Nov 28 at 82), reigned 1890-1947.
    (DT internet 11/28/97)

1881               Apr 1,  Kingdom post office in Netherlands opened.
    (OTD)

1882        Vincent Van Gogh painted "The Wounded Veteran.'
    (WSJ, 3/14/00, p.A28)

1883        May 29, WFLC Marianne princess of Orange-Nassau, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1885        Vincent Van Gogh painted "The Potato Eaters" and "A Pair of Shoes."
    (SFC, 1/14/98, p.D3)(WSJ, 8/14/01, p.A12)

1885        The façade of the Rijksmuseum was completed.
    (WSJ, 1/8/99, p.C13)

1886-1888    Vincent Van Gogh made his Paris sojourn.
    (WSJ, 3/14/00, p.A28)

1887        Van Gogh painted "The Courtesan." It was inspired by an 1820 work by the Japanese artist Keisai Eisen who pictured an intricately coifed woman that later appeared on the cover of a French magazine
    (SFC, 11/16/98, p.E3)(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)

1887-1888    Van Gogh painted "Self-Portrait with Felt Hat" and "Self-Portrait as an Artist."
    (WSJ, 10/30/98, p.W11)(SFC, 1/18/99, p.B2)

1888        Vincent van Gogh painted the "Portrait of a Young Man in a Cap." The painting is up for auction and may fetch as much as $8 mil. In 1990 Robert Altman directed a film titled "Vincent and Theo" about Van Gogh and his brother. Van Gogh also painted his "Boats at Saintes-Maries," "The Bedroom" and "Self Portrait as an Artist" in this year. He cut his ear in this year with a razor during a quarrel with painter Paul Gauguin.
    (WSJ, 4/27/95, p.C-18)(WSJ, 11/10/95, p. A-10)(SFC, 4/13/96, p.E3)(SFC, 1/14/98, p.D3)(SFEC, 10/25/98, Z1 p.12)

1889        Van Gogh painted "The Gardener," while a patient in St. Remy. He also did "Wheatfield with a Reaper" and "Crab on Its Back" in this year.
    (SFC, 5/21/98, p.A14)(SFC, 1/18/99, p.B1)(WSJ, 8/14/01, p.A12)

1890        Apr 6, Anthony Herman Gerard Fokker (d.1939), aircraft pioneer, was born in Java.
    (www.britannica.com)

1890        Jul 29, Artist Vincent van Gogh died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound in Auvers, France, while painting "Wheatfield with Crows." Earlier in the year he painted his "Garden at Auvers" and "Portrait of Dr. Gachet," which sold to a Japanese tycoon in 1990 for $82.5 mil. In 1939 Irving Stone wrote a novel about Van Gogh titled "Lust for Life," which spawned a 1956 movie.
    (WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-12)(SFC, 5/26/96, Zone 1 p.2)(AP, 7/29/97)(SFEC, 6/14/98, BR p.9)

1890        Nov 23, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg separated from the Netherlands.
    (AP, 11/23/02)

1890        The Royal Dutch Petroleum Co. was founded.
    (WSJ, 11/2/04, p.A14)

1891        May 15, Gerard and Anton Philips began their Philips & Co. operations in Eindhoven, Holland, with the production of light bulbs.
    (www.vedpuriswar.org/book/PHILIPS.htm)(WSJ, 1/7/04, p.A1)

1891        May 25, Robert W.P. Peereboom, Dutch editor in chief (Haarlem Newspaper), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1894        Ferdinand Hodler (1853-1918), Swiss painter, created a painting 10 meters high for the Exposition in Antwerp. It depicted the story of the 1865 descent of Edward Whymper (1840-1911) after he became the first man to climb the Matterhorn. Four of his party died. Hodler allowed the painting to be cut up and itu0092s now in a museum in Berne.
    (Econ, 2/18/12, ILp.26)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Whymper)

1894        A disastrous breach of Dutch coastal defenses occurred.
    (www.metoffice.com/education/secondary/students/flood.html)

1896        Numico was founded by Martinus van der Hagen, a Dutch inventor, after he won the exclusive right to make infant formula out of cowu0092s milk.
    (Econ, 9/2/06, p.59)

1897        Wolves disappeared from the Netherlands. In 2011 a wolf was again spotted in the country.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.125)

1898        Jun 17, Maurits C. Escher, Dutch graphic artist, was born.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1898        A painting titled "Golden Carriage," by Nicolaas van der Waay, was given to Queen Wilhelmina from the people of Amsterdam as a gift. The painting  was intended to recreate the style of the country's 17th-century "Golden Age," in which Amsterdam became wealthy as the hub of a naval empire. The work depicts half-naked, brown-skinned women and men in servile poses bearing gifts to an enthroned white woman.
    (AP, 9/16/11)

1899        May 18, The First Hague Peace Conference opened in the Netherlands as 26 nations met on World Goodwill Day. The destruction or seizure of enemy property with no military value was banned at the convention. The czar of Russia had called for a disarmament conference that, for reasons of diplomatic niceties and international rivalries, ended up in The Hague.
    (AP, 5/18/99)(SFC, 8/11/00, p.A15)(AP, 4/17/06)

1902        Mar 3, Isaac D. France van de Putte (79), Dutch premier (1866), died.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1902        May 29, Dutch State Mine law formed.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1902        Jul 18, Charles W.J. Mengelberg, Dutch composer, conductor, was born.
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1903        Jan 21, Harry Houdini escaped from police station Halvemaansteeg in Amsterdam.
    (MC, 1/21/02)

1903        Mar 26, American Hotel opened in Amsterdam.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1904        Apr 24, Willem de Kooning (d.1997), abstract impressionist artist, was born in Rotterdam.
    (SFC, 3/20/97, p.A1,6,E1)(HN, 4/24/01)

1904        Aug 10, Dutch newspaper Volk fired gay journalist Jacob de Cock.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1904        The Weerdinge Couple, 2 men, were found in a Holland bog and dated from 160BC - 220AD.
    (AM, 7/97, p.66)

1905        May 29, Jan [Johannes] Teulings, Dutch actor, director (That Joyous Eve), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1905        Dec 7, Gerard Kuiper, Dutch-US astronomer (moons of Uranus, Neptune), was born.
    (MC, 12/7/01)

1906        Apr 28, Bartholomeus J "Bart" Bok, Dutch-US astronomer (Milky Way), was born.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1907        The Hague Convention of this year prohibited the taking of war booty and instituted what some considered the first wartime environmental protections.
    (WSJ, 5/29/96, p.A6)(SFC, 8/11/00, p.A15)

1907        Royal Dutch combines its oil operations with Shell Transport & Trading Co.
    (WSJ, 11/2/04, p.A14)

1908        Dec 13, The Dutch took two Venezuelan Coast Guard ships.
    (HN, 12/13/98)

1908        The first bus line to link the Jordaan section with the rest of Amsterdam opened.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, p.T5)
1908        Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes, Dutch physicist, was the first to liquefy helium. He cooled helium gas to below its boiling point of -269°C, just 4 degrees above absolute zero. Three years later he observed the resistance of mercury vanished when it was cooled by liquid helium, thus discovering superconductivity.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A15)(Econ, 12/3/11, TQ p.20)

1909        Apr 30, Juliana, queen of the Netherlands, was born. She fled during the Nazi occupation and abdicated in favor of her daughter Beatrix.
    (HN, 4/30/99)

1909        The Elfstedentocht, a 125-mile ice skating race, officially began.
    (SFEC, 1/5/97, p.A1,11)

1911        Jun 10, Queen Wilhelmina opened the Rembrandt house in Amsterdam.
    (MC, 6/10/02)

1912        May 18, Maurits Binger established 2 Dutch movie companies.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1912        May 29, John Hanlo, Dutch poet (Go to the Mosque), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1912        Aug 13, Jan Peeters, Dutch water colors painter, monumental artist, was born.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1912        Nov 25, Johannes D. De Jong, Frisian poet and photographer (Kar £t twa), was born.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1912        A ban on brothels was enacted. It was overturned in 1999.
    (SFC, 10/27/99, p.A13)

1913        May 14, Franz Hals museum opened in Haarlem, Netherlands.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1913        The Peace Palace was built at the Hague, Netherlands, by the Carnegie Foundation. It is often called the seat of international law because it houses the International Court of Justice (which is the principal judicial body of the United Nations), the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the Hague Academy of International Law, and the extensive Peace Palace Library.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peace_Palace)
1913        Kamerlingh Onnes of Holland won the Nobel Prize for liquefying helium. His major discovery was superconductivity, the elimination of electrical resistance at very cold temperatures. In 1999 Tom Shachtman described the event in his book "Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold."
    (WSJ, 12/10/99, p.W12)

1914        Mar 1, H. Colijn, Dutch Minister of war, was named director of British Petroleum.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1914        Aug 24, German Zeppelins bombed Antwerp.
    (AH, 1/97)

1914        Sep 2, German Zeppelins again bombed Antwerp.
    (AH, 1/97)

1915        Mar 4, Petrus de Jong, Dutch premier (KVP, 1967-71), was born.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1915        Aug 26, Gre [Gerarda D] Brouwenstijn, Dutch opera soprano, was born.
    (MC, 8/26/02)

1916        A disastrous breach of Dutch coastal defenses occurred.
    (www.metoffice.com/education/secondary/students/flood.html)

1917        Jan 6, Hendrik P.G. Quack (82), lawyer and economist (Bank of Netherlands), died.
    (MC, 1/6/02)

1917        Feb 26, Utrecht Harbor, Netherlands, held its 1st Annual fair.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1917        Mar 8, Ferdinand von Zeppelin (78), Dutch count, air pioneer, died.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1917        Oct 15, Mata Hari, a Dutch dancer who had spied for the Germans, was executed by a firing squad outside Paris.
    (WSJ, 1/16/97, p.A16)(AP, 10/15/97)

1917        Piet Mondrian and three other painters founded the movement known as De Stijl, which became synonymous with Mondrian.
    (HNQ, 7/16/01)

1918        May 18, The Netherlands Indian Volksraad was installed in Batavia (later Djakarta).
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1918        Nov 10, Retired German Kaiser Wilhelm II fled to the Netherlands.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1919        Jul 21, Anthony Fokker established an airplane factory at Hamburg and Amsterdam.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1919        Sep 6, Pier Pander (b.1864), Dutch sculptor, died.
    (http://home.wxs.nl/~bekke412/pier.html)

1919        Oct 11, KLM Royal Dutch Airlines made its debut and served a pre-packaged dinner, believed to be the 1st in-flight meal, on a flight between London and Paris.
    (SSFC, 12/14/03, p.D2)(WSJ, 5/31/08, p.A12)

1920        Jan 23, The Dutch government refused demands from the victorious Allies to hand over Kaiser Wilhelm II, the dethroned German monarch who had fled to the Netherlands.
    (AP, 1/23/00)

1920        Dec 13, League of nations established the Intu0092l. Court of Justice in The Hague.
    (MC, 12/13/01)

1920        The plane maker NV Fokker firm was founded. By 1996 it was in trouble and seeking protection from its creditors.
    (WSJ, 1/24/96, p.A-12)

1921        Apr 5, Alphons Diepenbrock (b.1862), Dutch composer, died in Amsterdam. His work included u0093Wandering Through the Woodsu0094 (1910).
    (SFC, 9/1/04, p.B7)

1922        May 18, Dutch 2nd Chamber agreed to a 48 hour work week over the previous 45 hours.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1923        Mar 3, US Senate rejected membership in International Court of Justice, The Hague.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1923        Dutch physicist Dirk Coster (1889-1950) and Hungarian chemist George Charles de Hevesy (1889-1966) found element 72, Hafnium. It was identified in zircon (a zirconium ore) from Norway, by means of X-ray spectroscopic analysis. It was named in honor of the city in which the discovery was made, from the Latin name "Hafnia" meaning "Copenhagen."   
    (www.chemistryexplained.com/elements/C-K/Hafnium.html)(http://tinyurl.com/kj24t)

1924        Apr 20, Nina Foch (d.2008), film, theater and TV actress, was born in Leyden, Netherlands.  Her films later included u0093An American in Parisu0094 (1951).
    (SFC, 12/13/08, p.A5)

1924        H. Pander & Son, a Netherlandsu0092 furniture company, bought an aircraft manufacturing firm and started making small airplanes. They continued to make furniture through the mid 1930s.
    (SFC, 11/7/07, p.G6)

1925        Mar 2, SDAP-Second-Faction (Dutch Socialists) of parliament demanded drastic disarmament.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1926        Mar 4, De Geer government in Netherlands took office.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1926        Mar 26, ACD de Graeff was appointed Governor-General of Dutch East-Indies.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1927        Apr 30, Princess Juliana got a seat in Dutch Council of State.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1927        May 29, Dick Hillenius, Dutch biologist, writer, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1928        Jul 28, The Olympics opened at Amsterdam. Track and field events opened for women for the 1st time despite objections from Pope Pius IX. Germany was allowed to participate for the 1st time since WWI.
    (SC, 7/28/02)(NG, 8/04, Geographica)(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.R2)

1928        Aug 3, Ray Barbuti saved the US team from defeat in Amsterdam Olympics track events by winning 400 m (47.8 sec).
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1928        Aug 10, The Univ. of California crew won the rowing championship at the Olympics in Holland.
    (SFC, 8/8/03, p.E6)

1928        Aug 12, The 9th Olympic Games closed in Amsterdam. During the games several women collapsed at the end of the 800-meter run. This led to a 32-year ban on women running in Olympic races over 200 meters.
    (SC, 8/12/02)(SSFC, 4/13/03, p.F1)

1929        Jun 12, Anne Frank, German-Jewish diarist and Holocaust victim, was born in Holland. She with her family hid from the Nazis in Holland during World War II. Her diary is world famous
    (HN, 6/12/98)(MC, 6/12/02)

1930         Jan 3, The second conference on war reparations began in the Hague.
    (HN, 1/3/99)

1930        British detergent maker Lever Bros. merged with Margarine Unie of the Netherlands to form Unilever. William Hulme Lever (1888-1949), 2nd Viscount Leverhulme, co-founded Unilever. Lever brothers had operated from the Belgian Congo from 1911.
    (www.ubffoodsolutions.com/company/history)(Econ, 6/3012, p.20)

1932        Apr 5, A Dutch textile strike was broken by trade unions.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1932        May 10, Government of Netherland declared "Wilhelmus" the national anthem.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1932        Netherlands passed a blasphemy law that mandated a maximum sentence of three months in prison for a convicted "scornful blasphemer."
    (AP, 5/24/11)
1932        Han van Meegeren sold his Vermeer forgery u0093Lady and Gentleman at the Spinnetu0094 for 40 thousand guilders. In 2007 this would represent about $225,000.
    (ON, 12/07, p.10)
1932        The Afsluitdijk dam was completed. It sealed the Zuider Zee from the ocean and formed the freshwater Lake IJssel.
    (SSFC, 3/25/01, p.C1)

1933        Feb 8, Elly Ameling, soprano (Ilya-Idomeneo), was born in Rotterdam, Holland.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1933        Apr 22, Dutch government forbade a left-wing radio address.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1933        Dec 3, Paul Crutzen, Dutch chemist, was born.
    (HN, 12/3/00)

1934        Jan 10, Marinus van der Lubbe (24), Dutch communist, was guillotined in Berlin.
    (MC, 1/10/02)

1934        Jul 4, Jordanians revolted in Amsterdam after reduction in employment.
    (Maggio, 98)

1935        Mar 3, Dutch Revolutionary Socialist Worker's party (RSAP) was formed.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1935        May 29, Hague local museum opened.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1936        Oct, Dutch-born Peter Debye (1884-1966), won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his studies on the structure of molecules. In 1938, as Chairman of the German Physical Society, he had a letter sent out under his name requesting that the domestic Jewish members voluntarily resign. In 1940 he moved to the US. In 2006 he emerged in a book, "Albert Einstein in the Netherlands." which contained evidence of pro-Nazi actions. In 2008 the Terlouw Committee, appointed by the Dutch Ministry of Education, reviewed the allegations and issued its report clearly stating that Debye was neither a Nazi collaborator nor a  Nazi sympathizer.
    (AP, 3/3/06)(http://piurl.com/5F)

1936        The Dutch film "The Trouble With Money" was directed by Max Ophuls.
    (SFEC, 9/5/99, DB p.50)

1938        Jan 10, Eduard van Beinum became the 1st conductor of Amsterdam Concert orchestra.
    (MC, 1/10/02)

1938        May 12, In Holland, the 4-day convention at Utrecht ended. A Provisional Constitution for the World Council of Churches was adopted.
    (SC, internet, 5/12/97)

1938        May 6, Dutch writer Maurits Dekker was sentenced to 50 days for "offending a friendly head of state" (Hitler).
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1939        Mar 28, Dutch hunter shot English bombers down.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1939        Nov 18, The Netherland KNSM passenger ship Simon Bolivar hit a German mine and 86 died.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1939        Dec 23, Anthony H.G. Fokker (49), Dutch airplane builder (Spider), died in America.
    (www.obituariestoday.com)

1940        May 8, German commandos in Dutch uniforms crossed the Dutch border to hold bridges for the advancing German army.
    (HN, 5/8/99)

1940        May 10, German forces began a blitzkrieg of the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg, skirting France's "impenetrable" Maginot Line. Belgium was invaded by Germany and maintained resistance for 18 days.
    (WSJ, 8/1/95, p.A-8)(WSJ, 4/29/96, p.C-1)(HN, 5/10/02)

1940        May 13, British bombed a factory at Breda, Netherlands.
    (MC, 5/13/02)
1940        May 13, Dutch Queen Wilhelmina fled to England.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1940        May 14, The Netherlands (Holland) surrendered to Nazi Germany after the bombing of Rotterdam that left 600-900 dead.
    (HN, 5/14/98)(MC, 5/14/02)

1940        May 15, German troops occupied Amsterdam. Gen Winkelman surrendered.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1940        May 16, Jacques Goudstikker, Dutch art dealer, fell on a staircase of the SS Bodegraven as the ship was refused entry at Dover. He died from a broken neck. His inventory in Amsterdam totaled some 1,400 works, which Reichsmarschall Herman Goring, Hitleru0092s 2nd in command, soon snapped up.
    (WSJ, 7/2/08, p.D7)

1940        May 18, German forces under Field Marshal Georg von Kuchler (1881-1968) occupied Antwerp, Netherlands.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georg_von_K%C3%BCchler)

1940        May 19, Amsterdam time became MET (Middle European Time).
    (DTnet, 5/19/97)

1940        May 29, Arthur Seyss-Inquart was installed as Reich Commissioner of Hague, Netherlands.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1940        Jun 11, Princess Juliana of the Netherlands arrived in Canada as an exile.
    (AP, 6/11/03)

1940        Jun 21, German occupiers disbanded the Dutch States-General, Council of State.
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1940            Jul, Jan Zwartendijk, a Dutch diplomat, and Chiune Sugihara, a Japanese diplomat, worked together to save some 2,000 thousand Polish Jews, who had fled to Lithuania by issuing them visas for Japan, China and the Dutch colonies in South America. Zwartendijk wrote out the so called Curacao visas, while Sugihara issued the transit visas. The Sugihara family was later captured by the Russians and placed in a concentration camp for 1 1/2 years.
    (SFC, 9/7/96, p.A13)(SFC, 9/9/96, p.A16)(www.remember.org/witness/righteous.html)

1941        Feb 9, Nazi collaborators destroyed the pro-Jewish cafe Alcazar Amsterdam. Alcazar had refused to hang "No Entry for Jews" signs in front.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1941        Feb 19, Nazi police were attacked and driven away from Koco, Amsterdam by young Jews. Nazis raided Amsterdam and rounded up 429 young Jews for deportation.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1941        Feb 26, Utrecht and Zaandam struck against raid on Jews.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1941        Mar 3, Netherlands NSB-leader Mussert visited Göring in Berlin.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1941        Mar 4, 18 Geuzen resistance fighters were sentenced to death in The Hague.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1941        Mar 8, Martial law was proclaimed in Holland in order to extinguish any anti-Nazi protests.
    (HN, 3/8/98)

1941        Mar 20, D.A. van den Bosch, anti-Nazi clergyman (Amersfoort Camp), died.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1941        Apr 24, Dutch Prince Bernhard became an RAF pilot.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1941        May 15, Nazi occupiers in Netherlands forbade Jewish music.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1941        May 19, German occupiers in Holland forbade bicycle taxis.
    (MC, 5/19/02)

1941        Jul 11(Jun 11), The 2nd great roundup of Jews of Amsterdam took place.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1941        Aug 18, The concentration camp at Amersfoort, Netherlands, opened.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1941        Nov 25, German Jews in Netherlands were declared stateless.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1942        Jan 11, Japan declared war against the Netherlands, the same day that Japanese forces invaded the Dutch East Indies (later Indonesia).
    (AP, 1/11/98)(HN, 1/11/99)

1942        Feb 16, German submarines attacked an Aruba oil refinery and sank the tanker Pedernales.
    (MC, 2/16/02)(SSFC, 11/10/02, p.C11)

1942        May 3, Nazis executed 72 in reprisal in Sachsenhausen, Netherlands. Johan H. Westerveld, lt.-Col, leader Order Service, was among the executed.
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1942        May 17, Dutch SS vowed loyalty to Hitler.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1942        Jun 9, German-Neth press reported that 3 million Dutch were sent to East-Europe.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1942        Jun 12, Anne Frank received her diary as a birthday present in Amsterdam.
    (MC, 6/12/02)

1942        Jun 14, Anne Frank began her diary.
    (MC, 6/14/02)

1942        Jun 20, Adolf Eichmann proclaimed the deportation of Dutch Jews.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1942        Jul 6, Anne Frank's family went into hiding in After House, Amsterdam.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1942        Jul 9, Anne Frank (13), her family and 4 other Jews went into hiding in the attic above her father's office in an Amsterdam warehouse.
    (HN, 7/9/01)(MC, 7/9/02)

1942        Jul 16, Jews were transported from Holland to an extermination camp.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1942        Jul 26, Roman Catholic churches protested the Dutch bishopsu0092 stand against the spread of Judaism.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1942        Aug 25,  German SS began transporting Jews of Maastricht, Neth.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1942        Oct 15, Dirk Bannink, nurse and local councilor Deventer, Netherlands, was executed.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1942        The Catholic hierarchy of Amsterdam spoke against the Nazi treatment of Jews. This led to a redoubling of roundups and deportations.
    (WSJ, 4/25/97, p.A18)

1943        Feb 17, Dutch churches protested to Artur Seyss-Inquart against persecution of Jews.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1943        Mar 1, In Amsterdam a Jewish old age home for disabled was raided.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1943        Mar 2, 1st transport of Jews from Westerbork, Netherlands, to Sobibor concentration camp.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1943        Mar 18, The ships James Oglethorpe (US) and Terkolei (Neth.), were torpedoed and sank.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1943        Mar 31, US Army Air Force bombers attacked harbor facilities in the west of Rotterdam. A combination of strong wind and overcast conditions also caused great damage to the nearby residential areas, especially in the Bospolder-Tussendijken District. The death toll rose to 401 casualties and around 16,500 people lost their homes.
    (http://tinyurl.com/6rmgrp6)

1944        Feb 1, Piet Mondrian (b.1872), Dutch artist, died in NYC of pneumonia. To create an art of harmony and order he used straight lines exclusively. "His trademark paintings of black lines forming a grid and primary colors are a calculated, mathematical blueprint for an organized life." A leading abstract artist in the early half of the 20th century, Dutch painter Piet Mondrian was also a leading proponent of De Stijl ("The Style"). Born to an educator and amateur artist in 1872, Mondrian pursued a career as a painter from an early age. He was influenced by the Post-Impressionists, but gravitated towards Cubism after seeing an exhibition of works by Picasso and others.
    (Hem, Dec. 94, p.131)(WSJ, 5/25/01, p.W10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piet_Mondrian)

1944        Apr 30, The 8th and 9th US Army Air Forces and Royal Air Force Bomber Command began to fly sorties into France and the Low Countries in preparation for the Allied Expeditionary Force landing on Jun 6.
    (SDUT, 6/6/97, p.B9)
1943        Apr 30, Dutch struck against forced labor in Nazi Germany's war industry.
    (MC, 4/30/02)
1943        Apr 30, Etty Hillesum, Dutch diarist, died in Auschwitz.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1944        May 19, 240 gypsies were transported to Auschwitz from Westerbork Neth.
    (MC, 5/19/02)

1943        May 26, Jews rioted against Germans in Amsterdam.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1943        Jun 25, Arthur Seyss-Inquart ordered a mass arrest of Dutch physicians.
    (MC, 6/25/02)

1943        Oct 20, A US B-17 bomber crashed in the Netherlands near the small town of de Bilt. Of the 10 men on board 5 died and 5 were captured. Robert Surdez, co-pilot, died in 2004.
    (SFC, 3/30/04, p.B1)(SFC, 8/11/04, p.B7)

1943        Willem Kolff invented the 1st dialysis machine in Holland.
    (WSJ, 10/2/03, p.A2)

1944        Jun 6, Gerrit John van de Peat (41), artist, resistance fighter, was executed.
    (MC, 6/6/02)
1944        Jun 6, Nazi troops executed 96 prisoners by firing squad.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1944        Jun 9, 99 inhabitants of Tulle were hanged by the SS.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1944        Jul 14, SS men Heinrich Boere and Jacobus Petrus Besteman shot and killed Dutch pharmacist Fritz Hubert Ernst Bicknese at his home in Breda for suspected activity in Nazi resistance. Boere was sentenced to death in absentia by a Dutch court in 1949. This was later commuted to life imprisonment. In 2009 Boere (88) was slated to stand trial for murder in Germany for the execution-style killings of three Dutch civilians during World War II. In 2010 a German court convicted Boere (88) of murdering the three Dutch civilians. He was given the maximum sentence of life in prison for the killings.
    (www.wsws.org/articles/2009/nov2009/germ-n02.shtml)(AP, 7/7/09)(AP, 3/23/10)

1944        Jul 15, Anne Frank (1929-1945) entered this in her diary: "In spite of everything I still believe that people are really good at heart." In 1998 5 additional pages to her diary were reported. She died of typhoid in the spring of 1945 at the Bergen-Belson concentration camp.
    (AP, 8/4/98)(SFC, 8/19/98, p.A16)

1944        Jul 19, Carl Bock, Danish Gestapo agent, was liquidated.
    (MC, 7/19/02)

1944        Aug 1, Anne Frank's last diary entry; 3 days later she was arrested.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1944         Aug 4, Nazi police raided the secret annex of a building in Amsterdam and arrested eight people, including 15-year-old Anne Frank, whose diary became a famous account of the Holocaust. She died at the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in the spring of 1945, just weeks before the camp was liberated. Miep Gies (1909-2010), secretary to Anneu0092s father Otto, collected the scattered pages of Anneu0092s diary and returned them to Otto Frank after the war.
    (AP, 8/4/02)(Econ, 1/30/10, p.95)

1944        Sep 3, The 68th & last transport of Dutch Jews, which included Anne Frank, left for Auschwitz.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1944        Sep 5, "Mad Tuesday" 65,000 Dutch Nazi collaborators fled to Germany.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1944        Sep 8, Germany's V-2 offensive against England began. The 1st V-2 rockets landed in London & Antwerp.
    (HN, 9/8/98)(MC, 9/8/01)

1944        Sep 17, Infantry glider troops of the 82nd Airborne Division entered Holland. British and American airborne troops parachuted into Holland to capture the Arnhem bridge as part of Operation Market Garden. The plan called for the airborne troops to be relieved by British troops, but they were left stranded and eventually surrendered to the Germans. The 1974 book by Cornelius Ryan, "A Bridge Too Far," was based on this operation and was made into the 1977 film.
    (HN, 9/17/98)(HC, 12/12/01)(AP, 9/17/06)

1944        Sep 21, The last British paratroopers at bridge of Arnhem surrendered.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1944        Sep 22, Aldert Klaas Dijkema, a Dutch resistance fighter, was executed by the Nazi Waffen SS shortly after he was captured. In 2012 Dutch-born Siert Bruins (91) was charged with Dijkemau0092s murder. In 2014 a German court dropped the case against Bruins ruling that there are too many gaps in the evidence to deliver a verdict.
    (www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4312068,00.html)(SFC, 11/27/12, p.A2)(SFC, 9/3/13, p.A2)(AP, 1/8/14)

1944        Sep 27, Thousands of British troops were killed as German forces rebuffed their massive effort to capture the Arnhem Bridge across the Rhine River in Holland.
    (HN, 9/27/98)

1944        Sep 28, At the Battle of Arnhem the Germans defeated the British airborne in Netherlands.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1944        Sep, SS men Heinrich Boere and an accomplice named Hendrik Kromhout shot Dutch bicycle-shop owner Teun de Groot when he answered the doorbell at his home in the town of Voorschoten. They then continued to the apartment of F.W. Kusters, and forced him into their car. They drove him to another town, stopped on the pretense of having a flat tire and shot him.
    (AP, 3/7/08)
   
1944        Nov 28, The first Allied supplies reached Antwerp by convoy.
    (HN, 11/28/98)

1944        Piet Mondrian (b.1872), Dutch artist, died of pneumonia. To create an art of harmony and order he used straight lines exclusively. "His trademark paintings of black lines forming a grid and primary colors are a calculated, mathematical blueprint for an organized life." A leading abstract artist in the early half of the 20th century, Dutch painter Piet Mondrian was also a leading proponent of De Stijl ("The Style"). Born to an educator and amateur artist in 1872, Mondrian pursued a career as a painter from an early age. He was influenced by the Post-Impressionists, but gravitated towards Cubism after seeing an exhibition of works by Picasso and others.
    (Hem, Dec. 94, p.131)(WSJ, 5/25/01, p.W10)(HNQ, 7/16/01)

1945        Mar 3, Roermond-Venlo, Netherlands, was freed.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1945        Mar 3, RAF bombing error hit The Hague and killed 511.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1945        Mar 5, Allies bombed The Hague, Netherlands.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1945        Mar 6, In Holland SS General Hans Albin Rauter, was ambushed, and his driver and orderly were killed. Rauter was seriously wounded. SS Brigadefuhrer Dr. Eberhardt Schongarth immediately ordered reprisals and a total of 263 people were shot. A Special Court of Justice in the Hague sentenced Rauter to death and he was executed March 25, 1949. Schongarth was tried by a British Military Court, found guilty on another war crime charge, sentenced to death and was hanged in 1946.
    http://members.iinet.net.au/~gduncan/massacres.html
    (WW2D, p.610)

1945        Mar 8, 53 Amsterdammers were executed by Nazi occupiers.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1945        Mar 11, Flemish Nazi collaborator Maria Huygens was sentenced to death.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1945        Mar 12, In Amsterdam 30 people were executed by Nazi occupiers.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1945        Mar 13, Queen Wilhelmina returned to Netherlands.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1945        Apr 8, Nazi occupiers were executed. Nazi general Christiansen fled the Netherlands.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1945        Apr 12, Canadian troops liberated the Nazi concentration camp at Westerbork, Neth.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1945        Apr 14, Arnhem and Zwolle were freed from Nazis.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1945        Apr 17, Canadian lead tanks roll into Apeldoorn, Netherlands, loudly cheered by relieved residents.
    (www.bouwman.com/netherlands/Liberation.html)
1945        Apr 17, Hannie Schaft (24), Dutch resistance fighter who lived in Haarlem, known as the "Girl with red hair," was executed by the Germans just one month before the war ended. She was a student who joined the resistance early in the war. On her bicycle she delivered ration coupons, newspapers, secret information and weapons. She was shot and buried in a shallow grave in the Dunes around Bloemendaal.
    (MC, 4/17/02)(Internet)

1945        May 1, Arthur Seys-Inquart, Nazi overlord of Netherlands, fled to Flensburg.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1945        May 4, German forces in the Netherlands, Denmark and northwest Germany agreed to surrender.
    (AP, 5/4/00)

1945        May 5, Netherlands and Denmark were liberated from Nazi control. The Liberation of the Netherlands was completed by the First Canadian Army.
    (HN, 5/5/98)(www.bouwman.com/netherlands/Liberation.html)

1945        May 7, SS opened fire on a crowd in Amsterdam and killed 22.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1945        May 29, Dutch police arrested and imprisoned Hans van Meegeren (1889-1947) for collaborating with the enemy. His name had been traced to a sale made during the second world war of what was then believed to be an authentic Vermeer to Nazi Field-Marshal Hermann Goering. On July 12, in order to prove his innocence, Meegeren revealed that he had forged the painting.
    (WSJ, 10/14/06, p.P10)(ON, 12/07, p.12)

1945        Jun 6, Meinoud M. Rost van Tonningen, anti Semite, NSB (1937-41), committed suicide.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1945        Aug 17, Indonesian nationalists declared independence from the Netherlands.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A13)(AP, 8/17/99)

1945        Oct 6, Gen Eisenhower was welcomed in Hague on Hitler's train.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1945        Dec 27, The Dutch formally relinquished sovereignty to Indonesia.
    (WSJ, 7/24/01, p.B4)

1946        Mar 2, Dutch troops landed on East Bali.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1946        May 29, KVP won the Provincial National elections in Netherlands.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1946        Mar 1, In the Netherlands Felix Gulje, head of a construction company, was murdered at his door front.  Rumors had circled that Gulje worked with occupation authorities during the war. After his death it emerged that Gulje had sheltered Jews and given money to hide others. In 2011 Atie Ridder-Visser (96), former resistance member, confessed to the killing.
    (SFC, 6/9/11, p.A3)

1947        Nov 12, Hans van Meegeren (1889-12947), Dutch painter and forger, was tried for forgery and convicted of u0093obtaining money by deceptionu0094 and u0093appending false names and signatures with the intent to deceive.u0094 He was given the minimum sentence of one year and then the court petitioned Queen Wilhelmina that he be pardoned, but he died 6 weeks later.
    (ON, 12/07, p.12)

1947        Dec 9, In western Java up to 430 men were rounded up and shot by Dutch troops in the village of Rawagedeh. The Dutch called the incident a "police action" to quell an uprising. The Dutch government conceded in 1995 that summary executions had taken place in Rawagedeh, now known as Balongsari, but said prosecutions were no longer possible. In September, 2011, a Dutch court ordered the government to compensate the widows of Indonesian villagers, to apologize for the killings and to give each of the 10 plaintiffs $27,000. Old friends and neighbors cajoled, bullied and intimidated the plaintiffs and their families until local officials jumped in, forcing them to part with half their cash.
    (AP, 9/14/11)(http://tinyurl.com/5sp5psn)(AP, 11/23/11)(AP, 1/16/12)

1947        Dec 29, Hans van Meegeren (b.1889), Dutch painter and forger, died. In 2006 Frank Wynne authored u0093I Was Vermeer.u0094
    (WSJ, 10/14/06, p.P10)(http://denisdutton.com/van_meegeren.htm)

1947        u0093The Diary of Anne Franku0094 was first published. In her diary Anne Frank (1929-1945) chronicled the details of her teenage life hiding from the Nazis in Amsterdam from 1942 to 1944, when the Nazi secret police discovered her and her family's hiding place. Miep Gies (1909-2010), had guarded Anne's memoirs and presented it to the girl's father, Otto, when he returned from the Auschwitz concentration camp at the end of World War II, the only one of his family to survive.
    (AFP, 1/12/10)
1947        Klaas Carel Faber (1922-2012) was convicted of murder and aiding the enemy in time of war for helping the Netherlands' Nazi occupiers during World War II. He had worked for the death squad code named "Silbertanne," or "Silver Fir," which carried out killings of resistance members, Nazi opponents, and people who hid Jews. He was given a death sentence that was later commuted to life in prison, but he escaped and fled to Germany in 1952, where he was granted citizenship. In 2010 the Dutch government issued a European arrest warrant for Faber (88). In 2011 a German court ruled that the Dutch request cannot be granted as Faberu0092s consent was mandatory due to his German citizenship. Klaas Faber died in Germany in 2012.
    (AP, 11/25/10)(AP, 5/11/11)(AP, 5/26/12)
1947        Gerard Kuiper of Holland and Texas discovered carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of Mars.
    (SFC, 11/29/96, p.A17)

1948        Mar 18, France, Great Britain and Benelux signed the Treaty of Brussels.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1948        Apr 18, International Court of Justice opened at Hague, Netherlands.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1948        May 4, The Hague Court of Justice convicted Hans Rauter (SS) of war crimes.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1948        May 12, Queen Wilhelmina resigned. [see Sep 4]
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1948        Aug 23, The World Council of Churches (WCC) was formed in Amsterdam to help reconcile differences among Christians. Delegates of 147 churches assembled to merge the Faith and Order Movement and Life and Work Movement. Church leaders had agreed in 1937 to establish a World Council of Churches, based on a merger of the Faith and Order Movement and Life and Work Movement organizations. Headquarters were later established in Geneva.
    (Econ, 2/23/08, p.79)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Council_of_Churches)

1948        Sep 4, Queen Wilhelmina abdicated the Dutch throne for health reasons.
    (AP, 9/4/97)

1948        Sep 6, Queen Juliana (1909-2004) of the Netherlands was crowned, two days after the abdication of her mother, Queen Wilhelmina. Juliana abdicated in 1980.
    (AP, 9/6/98)(SSFC, 3/21/04, p.B7)

1948        Auke Bert Pattist, a Nazi collaborator, was convicted for helping Nazis and persecuting Jews. He escaped from prison and later settled in France and Spain where he died in 2001 at age 80.
    (SFC, 3/27/01, p.A18)
1948        Dutch economist Petrus Johannes Verdoorn (1911-1982), developed what came to known as Verdoorn's law. It relates to the long-term dynamic relationship between the rate of growth in output and the growth of productivity due to increasing returns.
    (www.economyprofessor.com/economictheories/verdoorns-law.php)
1948        H.B.G. Casimir, Dutch physicist, deduced the necessity of a quantum-mechanical effect arising from the zero-point energy of the harmonic oscillators that are the normal modes of the electromagnetic field. The Casimir force was first measured in 1997 and can be seen in a gecko's ability to stick to a surface with just one toe.
    (AFP, 8/6/07)(www.du.edu/~jcalvert/phys/casimir.htm)

1949        Apr 4, The (NATO) North Atlantic Treaty Organization pact was signed by the US, Great Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Italy, Portugal, Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Canada. It provided for mutual defense against aggression and for close military cooperation.
    (www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/official_texts_17120.htm)(TOH, 1982, p.1949)

1949        Dec 27, Queen Juliana of the Netherlands granted sovereignty to the United States Indonesia after more than 300 years of Dutch rule. The Netherlands retained control of Irian Jaya, inhabited by Melanesians, until 1963.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1168)(SFC, 9/8/99, p.A17)(AP, 12/27/99)

1949        Heinrich Boere (b.1922), part of a Waffen SS death squad of mostly Dutch volunteers, was sentenced to death in the Netherlands. The squad had been tasked with killing fellow countrymen in reprisal for attacks by the anti-Nazi resistance. His sentence was later commuted to life imprisonment and Boere managed to escape to Germany. A German court has refused to extradite him because he might have German nationality as well as Dutch. In 2008 Dortmund prosecutor Ulrich Maass charged Heinrich Boere (86) with the 1944 murders of three men as a member of the Waffen SS death squad code-named Silbertanne, or Silver Pine.
    (AP, 3/8/08)(AP, 4/16/08)

1950        West Timor (Dutch Timor), part of the former Dutch East Indies, became Indonesian territory when Holland transferred sovereignty.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A13)(TOH, 1982, p.1949)(SFC, 9/8/99, p.A17)

1952        Feb 26, A Netherlands-Indonesian Unity conference took place.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1952        Apr 3, Dutch Queen Juliana spoke to the US Congress.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1952        May 6, Maria Montessori (b.1870), Italian physician, educationist, died In Holland. She opened her 1st school in San Lorenzo, Italy, in 1907.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Montessori)(SFC, 1/6/07, p.B1)

1952        May 29, A 2nd Round Conference between Dutch Antilles and Suriname ended.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1952        KLM Royal Dutch Airlines began offering first class passengers ceramic houses filled with liquor. Industry rules capped handouts at 75 cents, but there was no limit on booze. In 2008 the 89th house in the series made it debut on Oct 7, the airlineu0092s 89th birthday.
    (WSJ, 5/31/08, p.A1)

1952-1954    In the Netherlands 34 boys under 18 during this period died in a Catholic institute for the mentally disabled in the Roermond Diocese. A Dutch Catholic institute for disabled girls in the same town of Heel experienced 40 deaths during the same period. In 2011 prosecutors opened an investigation on the unusually high death rate. In 2012  Dutch prosecutors said Brother Andreas, now dead, may have been involved in the suspicious deaths of 37 patients. The deaths sharply declined after he was transferred to another institution.
    (AP, 8/16/11)(AP, 8/18/11)(AP, 6/28/12)

1953        Jan 31-1953 Feb 1, A powerful storm breached sea dikes in the south of the Netherlands, killing more than 1,800 people and cementing a deep resolve among the Dutch that their ancient enemy, water, would never kill again. 307 people died in eastern England.
    (SSFC, 3/25/01, p.C3)(www.metoffice.com/education/secondary/students/flood.html)

1954        Dec 15, With the proclamation of the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Netherlands Antilles attained equal status with the Netherlands proper and Suriname in the overarching Kingdom of the Netherlands.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cura%C3%A7ao_and_Dependencies)(SSFC, 10/9/11, p.C3)

1954        The Bilderberg Group was set up in to support military and economic co-operation between Europe and North America during the Cold War. Its first meeting was at the Bilderberg Hotel in Oosterbeek, Holland.
    (AP, 6/7/13)
1954        The Hague Convention of this year forbade the taking of war booty. The Hague cultural Property Convention recognized the protection of cultural, religious and historical monuments including national parks.
    (WSJ, 5/29/96, p.A6)(SFC, 8/11/00, p.A15)
1954        The 5 islands of the Netherlands Antilles were federated. These included Bonaire, Curacao, St. Maarten, Saba and St. Eustatius.
    (Econ, 5/26/07, p.38)

1955        May 18, Queen Juliana opened the E55 fair in Amsterdam.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1956        Apr 10, Philips broadcasted the 1st Dutch color TV programs.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1956        May 18, Queen Juliana opened the Rembrandt fairs in Amsterdam.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1956        Nov 6, Holland and Spain withdrew from Olympics, to protest Soviets in Hungary.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1957        May 4, The Anne Frank Foundation formed in Amsterdam.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1957        May 9, Heinrich Campendonk (b.1889), German-born Dutch artist and a member of the Der Blaue Reiter group (1911-1912), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Campendonk)

1957        Jul 4, Dutch 2nd Chamber accepted temporary tax increase.
    (Maggio)

1958        Jun 23, In the Netherlands the Praemium Erasmianum Foundation was founded by Prince Bernhard. It awarded the annual Erasmus Prize to individuals or institutions that have made notable contributions to European culture, society, or social science.
    (www.123exp-culture.com/t/03604490053/)

1958        Aug 14, KLM Flight 607-E, a Lockheed Super Constellation, crashed west of Ireland, killing 99.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KLM_Flight_607-E)

1959        Apr 13, Eduard A van Beinum (57), Dutch musician, conductor, died.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1959        Oct 13, K. Rudolf Mengelberg, Dutch composer (Amsterdam Concertgebouw), died at  67.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1959        Aldo van Eyck (d.1999 at 80) designed the State Orphanage in Amsterdam.
    (SFC, 1/16/99, p.A18)

1959        The massive Groningen gas field was discovered in the Netherlands.
    (WSJ, 6/26/08, p.B1)

1961        Dec 1, The Territory of New Guinea declared independence from the Netherlands.
    (WUD, 1994, p.962)(SFC, 6/5/00, p.A8)

1962        Mar 21, Dutch RC Bishop Willem Bekkers declared himself in favor of birth control. The church in the Netherlands tried to promote a more liberal view of birth control. But their view did not prevail.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lpxof8)

1962        Jun 3, Lee Harvey Oswald arrived by train in Oldenzaal, Netherlands.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1962        Jun 4, Lee Harvey Oswald departed Rotterdam on SS Maasdam to US.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1962        Jun 28, Thalidomide was banned in Netherlands.
    (MC, 6/28/02)

1963        The western part of the island of New Guinea, Irian Jaya, became a province of Indonesia. It was formerly a Dutch territory called West New Guinea, Dutch New Guinea or Netherlands New Guinea. A West Papua pro-independence movement began and by 2004 an estimated 100,000 civilians had died in the struggle.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1623)(SFC, 9/8/99, p.A17)

1964        Aug 25,  Singapore limited imports from Netherlands due to Indonesian aggression.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1965        May 25, Remco Prins, Dutch rock guitarist/vocalist (Burma Shave-Stash), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1965        May 25, Roef-Ragas, Dutch actor (Missing Link, Red Rain, Juju, Mykosch), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1966        Dutch courts prosecuted a blasphemy case putting a novelist on trial for a story about wanting to have sex with God, who had taken the form of a donkey. Gerard Reve was acquitted. The 1932 blasphemy law barred scorn against any religion.
    (AP, 5/24/11)

1968        Mar 3, Greece, Portugal and Spain's embassies were bombed in the Hague.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1968        Apr 27, In the Netherlands part of a group of Catholic radicals left their own party and formed the Political Party of Radicals (PPR). The party dissolved in 1991.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_Party_Radicals)

1968        Sep 1, Pirate Radio Marina in the Netherlands began transmitting.
    (www.historyorb.com/entertainment/radio/pirate-radio)

1968        The Rembrandt Research Project was formed and funded by the government to act as the gatekeepers of Rembrandtu0092s work.
    (WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W12)
1968        In the Netherlands the 56 square km of Oostvaardersplassen was reclaimed from the sea and was intended for industrial use. It lay vacant and became a nature reserve.
    (Econ, 9/14/13, SR p.8)

1969        Mar 25, John and Yoko Ono staged a bed-in for peace in Amsterdam.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1969        Mar 26, The Nuclear reactor in Dodewaard, Netherlands, went into use.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dodewaard_nuclear_power_plant)

1969        May 30, Refinery workers on Curacao set fires in Willemstad. Marines from the Netherlands restored order.
    (Econ, 5/26/07, p.38)

1969        Oct, Economists Jan Timbergen (1903-1994) of the Netherlands and Ragnar Frisch of Norway were awarded the first Nobel Prize in Economics for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes. Tinbergen was a founding trustee of Economists for Peace and Security.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Tinbergen)

1970        Jul 15, Frederik Lugt (b.1884), Dutch founder of the Fondation Custodia (1947), died in Paris. The foundation, which he founded with his wife, kept intact his collection of Old Master drawings at the Institut Neederlandais, the Dutch cultural center in Paris.
    (Econ, 2/13/10, p.86)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frits_Lugt)

1971        Oct 1, As of this day divorce in the Netherlands could only be granted on the ground of the irretrievable breakdown of the marriage (Article 1:151 of the Dutch Civil Code).
    (http://www2.law.uu.nl/priv/cefl/Reports/pdf/Netherlands02.pdf)

1971        Cornelis van Houten (1920-2002), Dutch astronomer, discovered an asteroid and named it Asteroid 1877 Marsden after British astronomer Brian Marsden.
    (Econ, 12/4/10, p.111)

1973        Jul 20, The Japanese Red Army and Lebanese guerrillas hijacked a Japan Airlines plane over the Netherlands. The passengers and crew were released in Libya where the hijackers blew up the plane.
    (SFC, 11/9/00, p.C2)(www.cdi.org/friendlyversion/printversion.cfm?documentID=1771)

1973        The Dutch government built the Van Gogh Museum.
    (Econ, 1/21/06, p.81)

1974        Apr 6, Willem Dudok (b.1884), Dutch architect (Hilversum Town Hall), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willem_Marinus_Dudok)

1974         Sep 1, In the Netherlands laws prohibiting pirate radio came into effect.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_Caroline)

1974        Sep 13, In the Netherlands the French embassy at the Hague was taken over by Haruo Wako and 2 other Japanese Red Army militants. A 4-day standoff ended with the release of comrade Yutaka Suyaka from a French jail. The attack was linked to Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez. In 2005 a Tokyo District Court sentenced Wako to life imprisonment.
    (http://my-my-miyuki.blogspot.com/)(SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)(SFC, 11/9/00, p.C2)

1975        Sep 14, Rembrandt's "Nightwatch" was slashed and damaged in Amsterdam.
    (http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1248/is_n7_v86/ai_21113228)

1975        Dec 14, Six South Moluccan extremists surrendered after holding 23 hostages for 12 days on a train near the Dutch town of Beilen.
    (AP, 12/14/00)

1975        The Dutch film "Keetje Tippel" (Cathy Tippel or Katie's Passion, or Hot Sweat) starred Jan De Bont and was directed by Paul Verhoeven.
    (WSJ, 7/23/99, p.W4)

1975        Suriname gained Independence from the Netherlands.
    (SFC, 9/6/96, p.A14)

1976        Aug 26, Prince Bernhard, husband of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands, agreed to resign his positions with the Dutch armed forces and industry following severe criticism of his behavior by a commission of enquiry into a Lockheed bribery scandal. Bernhard had allegedly received $1.1 million as a gift from Lockheed.
    (RTH, 8/26/99)(SFC, 12/24/08, p.B7)

1976        Dec 6, Dutch War criminal Pieter Menten (1899-1987) was arrested in Switzerland after fleeing there in November.
    (http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pieter_Menten)

1976        Claes Oldenburg (b.1929), Swedish-born American artist, constructed  a 41-foot "Trowel I" for the Kroller-Muller Museum in the Netherlands by. He also made "Typewriter Eraser."
    (Smith., Aug. 1995, p.82)(SFC, 10/26/96, p.B1)

1976        Amnesty International received Netherlandsu0092 Erasmus-prize.
    (www.nndb.com/honors/622/000165127/)

1977        May 8, The trial of Pieter Menten (b.1899), a former Dutch SS officer and art collector, began in Amsterdam. He was convicted and sentenced to 15 years, but the sentence was reduced to 10 years in 1980.
    (www.cnn.com/almanac/9805/08/)(http://tinyurl.com/2n79xl)

1977        May 23, Moluccan extremists held 105 schoolchildren and 50 others hostage on a hijacked train in Netherlands. The children were released May 27. The siege ended June 11.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1977        May 25, Dutch social democratic party won parliamentary election.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1977        Jun 11, A 20-day hostage drama in the Netherlands ended as Dutch marines stormed a train and a school held by South Moluccan extremists. Six gunmen and two hostages on the train were killed.
    (AP, 6/11/97)

1977        The Economist coined the term u0093Dutch diseaseu0094 to describe how the exploitation of natural resources can cause a decline in other forms of economic activity, particularly manufacturing. This briefly happened in the Netherlands when natural gas was discovered (1959).
    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.36)

1978        Jun 25, Argentina, host to the World Cup, beat Netherlands in the soccer World Cup championship in Buenos Aires. It was later alleged that the ruling military junta bribed an opposing team to ensure Argentinau0092s progress and eventual victory.
    (SFC, 2/4/97, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1978_FIFA_World_Cup)(Econ, 8/15/09, p.32)

1980        Apr 30, Juliana Z(1909-2004), Queen of the Netherlands, abdicated. Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard, was crowned queen of Netherlands.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juliana_of_the_Netherlands)

1980        Jul 9, Pieter Menten (81), Dutch war criminal and art collector, was sentenced to 10 years in prison.
    (http://tinyurl.com/369gbh)(http://tinyurl.com/3xjlqp)

1980        Sep 5, The opera u0093Satyagrahau0094 by Philip Glass, commissioned by the city of Rotterdam, was first performed by the Netherlands Opera.
    (WSJ, 4/19/08, p.W14)(www.philipglass.com/html/recordings/satyagraha.html)

1980        Oct 4, Some 520 people were forced to abandon the cruise ship u0093Prisendamu0094 in the Gulf of Alaska after the Dutch luxury liner caught fireu0097no deaths or serious injury resulted. The ship capsized and sank a week later.
    (AP, 10/4/08)

1980        Oct 25, The US ratified the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction. Countries following Islamic law did not sign. The treaty required countries to send abducted children back to the jurisdiction where they have previously lived.
    (SFC, 12/6/03, p.A14)(www.international-divorce.com/icara.htm)(Econ, 2/7/09, p.22)

1981        Apr 12, Hendrik F. Andriessen (b.1892), Dutch organist, composer (Te Deum), died.
    (http://www2.rnw.nl/mu/en/behind/biographies/hendrikandriessen)

1981        Antoine W. van Agtmael of the International Finance Corporation of the World Bank coined the term u0093emerging market.u0094 He coined the term to attract investors in a u0093Third World Equity Fund.u0094 The emerging, or developing, market economy (EME) is defined as an economy with low-to-middle per capita income. Emerging markets constitute approximately 80% of the global population, representing about 20% of the world's economies.
    (www.investopedia.com/articles/03/073003.asp)(Econ, 9/20/08, SR p.10)

1983        Jan 25, The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) space probe, sponsored by the United Kingdom, the US, and the Netherlands, was launched. It studied infrared radiation from across the cosmos and exposed stars as they were born from clouds of gas and dust.
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, p.A14)

1983        Mar, Compact Disc recordings, introduced by Phillips and Sony in Europe in 1982, were introduced to the US.
    (www.iconnect.net/home/bsnpubs/cdhist.html)

1983        Nov 1, Anthony van Hoboken (b.1887), Dutch musicologist, died in Zurich. He is best known for his Haydn Catalog (1957).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthony_van_Hoboken)

1983        Nov 9, Alfred Heineken, beer brewer from Amsterdam, was kidnapped and held for a ransom of more than $10 million. Heineken was freed Nov 30. Cor van Houton, the kidnapper, was shot to death in 2003.
    (HN, 11/9/98)(AP, 1/24/03)

1983        Nov 30, Police freed kidnapped beer magnate Alfred Heineken in Amsterdam.
    (www.cedmagic.com/museum/press/ced-timeline-1983.html#11-1983)

1983        The Dapper Foundation of Amsterdam was founded with a private gift donation of African art. It was brought to Paris in 1986 and housed in an elegant private museum at 50 Avenue Victor Hugo.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, p.T7)

1984        May 25, Piet Ketting (b.1904), Dutch pianist, conductor, composer, died.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2tpeyt)

1985        Jul 10, French security forces sank the Rainbow Warrior, a ship operated by Greenpeace near NZ. Fernando Pereira, a Dutch photographer, was killed in the sinking.
    (SFC, 5/7/99, p.A14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainbow_Warrior)

1986        Oct 4, In the Netherlands Queen Beatrix officially opened the Oosterscheldekering for use by saying the well-known words: De stormvloedkering is gesloten. De Deltawerken zijn voltooid. Zeeland is veilig. (The flood barrier is closed. The Delta Works are completed. Zealand is safe.) It was the world's largest movable flood barrier.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oosterscheldekering)

1987            Nov 14, Pieter Menten (b.1899), Dutch war criminal, died at an old people's home in Loosbroek, southern Netherlands.
    (www.jbwan.com/roblog/archives/000615.html)

1987        In  the Netherlands the first campaign to alter social norms of condom use focused on a number of Dutch celebrities who use condoms themselves.
    (http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/IES/netherlands.html)
1987        In the Netherlands art works by David Teniers, Willem van de Velde, Jan Brueghel the Younger, Eva Gonzales, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Camille Pissarro and Paul Desire Trouillebert were stolen from the Noortman gallery in Maastricht. In 2009 police recovered eight of the paintings and arrested 3 suspects.
    (AP, 3/8/09)
1987        Heavy floods inundated the town of Valkenburg as the Geul River overflowed.
    (SFC, 9/19/98, p.A5)

1988        Mar 2, Dutch Liberal Party merged with SDP.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1988        Apr 11, In Amsterdam the Royal Concert building (Concertgebouw) reopened.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Concertgebouw_Orchestra)

1988        Dec, Thieves stole three paintings by van Gogh, with an estimated value of $72 million to $90 million, from the Kroeller-Mueller Museum in a remote section of the Netherlands. Police later recover all three paintings.
    (AP, 2/11/08)

1988        The Dutch film "The Vanishing" was directed by George Sluizer. An American remake was also directed by Sluizer.
    (SFEC, 8/1/99, DB p.48)

1989        Ter Beek (d.2008 at 64) became defense minister in a centrist coalition led by PM Ruud Lubbers and served until 1994. He worked to streamline the Dutch military in the aftermath of the Cold War, including scrapping the draft.
    (AP, 9/30/08)

1990        Toy company FAO Schwartz sold out to Dutch Company Koninklijke Bijenkorf Beheer.
    (WSJ, 11/21/03, p.B1)

1991        Apr, Two masked armed men stole 20 paintings, worth at least $10 million each at the time, from Amsterdam's van Gogh Museum. The paintings are found in the getaway car less than an hour later.
    (AP, 2/11/08)

1991        Dec 9, European Community leaders meeting in the Dutch city of Maastricht tentatively agreed to begin using a single currency by 1999.
    (AP, 12/9/01)

1991        Dec 11, European Community leaders meeting in the Dutch city of Maastricht hammered out a compromise for a loose federation of their countries. The Maastricht treaty was signed on February 7, 1992, and entered into force on November 1, 1993. It set entry terms for joining a European monetary union.
    (WSJ, 11/18/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 3/3/97, p.A1)(AP, 12/11/01)

1991        Klaas Bruinsma, gangster and drug baron, was gunned down near an Amsterdam hotel.
    (SSFC, 10/11/03, p.A2)

1992        Feb 7, The Treaty on the European Union was signed in Maastricht by the Foreign and Finance Ministers of the Member States.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1992/index_en.htm)

1992        Apr 13, The opera "Life With an Idiot" by Alfred Schnittke had its world premier at the Netherlands Music Theater in Amsterdam.
    (SFC, 8/5/98, p.A17)
1992        Apr 13, An earthquake rocked Germany and the Netherlands.
    (http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/eqlists/sig_1992.html)

1992        Jul 11, In Bosnia it was later alleged on Dutch TV that Dutch troops deliberately drove an armored vehicle into a Muslim blockade on this day and killed as many as 30 people.
    (SFC, 8/21/98, p.A14)

1992        Oct 4, In the Netherlands an Israeli El Al Jumbo Jet transport, enroute from New York to Tel Aviv, crashed into an Amsterdam apartment complex and killed 43 people. Since then scores of people complained of unidentified health problems. In 1998 it was revealed that the jet carried 50 gallons of dimethyl methylphosphonate, a non-poisonous ingredient of sarin nerve gas, destined for Israel. A report on the crash was released in 1999 and said that the plane's ballast included carcinogenic depleted uranium.
    {Netherlands, Air Crash, Israel, Medical}
    (AP, 10/4/97)(WSJ, 4/22/99, A1)(www.pacificnews.org/jinn/stories/5.03/990211-cargo.html)

1992        Dec 15, The Netherlands ratifies the Treaty on the European Union.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1992/index_en.htm)

1992        Dec 21, A Dutch DC-10 burst into fire at landing on Faro, Portugal, and 56 died.
    (http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19921221-0)

1993        Dutch novelist Cees Nooteboom won the European Literary Prize for best novel for his work: "The Following Story."
    (SFC, 4/25/97, p.A3)

1993        Prosecution stopped against physicians giving lethal drugs to patients to help them commit suicide. In 2000 euthanasia was legalized.
    (SFC, 11/29/00, p.A17)

1993        A family in the Netherlands was found to have an abnormally high number of violent criminals. The criminal members were found to have a faulty gene that caused the absence of the enzyme monoamine oxidase A, an enzyme that regulates a group of neurotransmitters including serotonin and dopamine. Both of these were important for emotional responses.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, Survey p.6)

1994        May 21, John Henry Weidner (81), Dutch-US resistance fighter, died.
    (MC, 5/21/02)

1995        Apr 27, Willem Frederik Hermans (b.1921), Dutch author, died. His 1966 novel u0093Beyond Sleepu0094 was considered to be one of the founding works of modern Dutch literature. In 2007 an English translation became available.
    (WSJ, 1/7/07, p.P8)(http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willem_Frederik_Hermans)

1995        Jun 3, In Bosnia Mladic forces seized a Dutch observation post.
    (SFC, 6/4/96, p.A12)

1995        Jul 6, 3:15AM The UN safe area at Srebrenica came under attack by Bosnian Serbs, and thousands of male residents were killed. The acquisition and delivery of arms was organized by Yugoslav army officer Mirko Krajisnik, brother to Momcilo Krajisnik, president of the Bosnian Serb assembly. In 1998 Chuck Sudetic published "Blood and Vengeance: One Familyu0092s Story of the War in Bosnia." The book focused on the Srebrenica killings. 300 Dutch troops were later accused of not preventing the Serbs from overrunning the town.
    (SFC, 5/30/96, p.A8)(SFC, 6/4/96, p.A12)(SFC, 8/12/98, p.A14)

1995        Jul 8, Shelling resumed and the Dutch abandoned 3 posts under direct fire. 30 Dutch troops were taken by the Serbs to Bratunac.
    (SFC, 6/4/96, p.A12)

1995        Jul 9, The Dutch again asked for air support but it was refused.
    (SFC, 6/4/96, p.A12)

1995        Jul 16, Early reports of massacres in Bosnia emerged as the first survivors of the long march from Srebrenica began to arrive in Muslim-held territory. Following negotiations between the UN and the Bosnian Serbs, the Dutch were at last permitted to leave Srebrenica, leaving behind weapons, food and medical supplies.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/675945.stm)

1995        A river flood forced the evacuation of 200,000 people and millions of animals.
    (SSFC, 3/25/01, p.C3)

1996         Jan 26, The Dutch government provided 365 mil in short-term funds to keep Fokker going for a few weeks to allow the search for a foreign partner.
    (WSJ, 1/30/96, p.A-11)

1996        Feb, The last Dutch draft notices were sent out.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A15)

1996        May 7, The first international war crimes proceeding since Nuremberg opened at The Hague in the Netherlands, with a Serbian police officer, Dusan Tadic, facing trial on murder-torture charges. Tadic was convicted of crimes against humanity but acquitted of murder on May 7, 1997. In Jul, 1997 he was sentenced to 20 years in prison.
    (AP, 5/7/97)(SFC, 5/8/97, p.C2)(SFC, 7/15/97, p.A12)

1996        May 18, A 40 year agreement was signed between Royal Dutch/Shell and Perupetro, Peruu0092s state oil company. Royal Dutch will spend $2.7 bil to develop a natural gas field.
    (SFC, 5/18/96, p.D-6)

1996        Jun 9, The latest unemployment rate was 7%.
    (SFC, 6/9/96, Parade, p.9)

1996        Jul 7, The average cost of a Big Mac in the Netherlands was $3.21.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, Parade, p.17)

1996        Sep 25, A DC-3 aircraft went into the North Sea near Den Helder and killed all 32 people on board.
    (SFC, 9/26/96, p.A11)

1996        Dec 2, It was reported that a Dutch rubber company had produced and shipped to England a 100 water-filled rubber mats (water beds) for cows. The product seemed to enhance milk production.
    (SFC, 12/3/96, p.A12)

1996        Dec, Wim Duisenberg of the Netherlands was approved to run the European Monetary Institute in Frankfurt, Germany.
    (SFC, 5/1/98, p.D6)

1996        Wijnand van der Sanden, curator of the Drents Museum in Holland, authored "Through Nature to Eternity: The Bog Bodies of Northwest Europe."
    (AM, 7/97, p.62)

1996         Fokker went bankrupt, and the last new Fokker-50 was delivered to Ethiopian Airlines in May, 1997. Stork, another Dutch company, bought a large part of Fokker's assets, and continued to be a main provider of parts and service for Fokker planes.
    (AP, 2/10/04)

1997        Mar 19, Willem de Kooning (92), Dutch-born abstract painter, considered to be one of the 20th century's greatest painters, died in East Hampton, N.Y.
    (SFC, 3/20/97, p.A1,6,E1)(AP, 3/19/98)

1997        Mar 25, An arson attack left a Turkish woman and 5 children dead in the Hague.
    (SFC, 3/29/97, p.A9)

1997        Oct 2, The EU formally set up a common foreign and security policy in the Amsterdam Treaty. It set to adopt key asylum and immigration measures within five years of the treaty's entry into force, expected in 1999. A protocol to the 1997 Treaty of Amsterdam reclassified animals as sentient beings.
    (Econ, 8/26/06, p.42)(http://hrw.org/worldreport/Helsinki-28.htm)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.88)

1997        Oct 22, A 64-year-old woman, dubbed the "furniture terrorist," received an 8-month sentence for causing an estimated $500,000 damage to furniture over a six-year period. She wandered through showrooms and slashed sofas with a razor often in a Zorro-like "Z" style.
    (SFC,10/23/97, p.A17)

1997        The Dutch film "Character" was set in Rotterdam in the 1920s. It won an Oscar for best foreign film.
    (SFC, 3/24/98, p.A6)

1997        ING Direct, an online banking service under Dutch parent ING Groep NV, was launched in Canada. In 2000 it began operations in the US from Wilmington, Del. By the end of 2007 it had over 7 million customers and $62 billion in deposits. In 2008 Arkadi Kuhlman, INGu0092s US chief, and Bruce Philp, chairman of ING Directu0092s marketing partner, authored u0093The Orange Code: How ING direct Succeeded by Being a Rebel with a Cause.u0094
    (WSJ, 12/10/08, p.A17)

1997-2001    In the Netherlands Lucia de Berk murdered 7 people in her care by giving them lethal doses of drugs. In 2004 a court sentenced her to life in jail and compulsory psychiatric treatment for killing. A high court ordered a review, ruling that the woman could not be sentenced to both life in jail and psychiatric care. In 2006 de Berk was sentenced to life in prison.
    (Reuters, 7/13/06)

1998        May 3, European leaders meeting in Brussels, Belgium, agreed on Wim Duisenberg of the Netherlands as the chief of the new European Central Bank (ECB), but with the proviso that he step down in 2002 to make way for Frenchman Jean-Claude Trichet.
    (BS, 5/3/98, p.21A)(AP, 5/3/99)

1998        Aug 1, The 5th quadrennial Gay Games began in Amsterdam with some 15,000 competitors. The games closed Aug 8.
    (SFEC, 8/2/98, p.A2)

1998        Aug 24, The United States and Britain agreed to allow two Libyan suspects in the bombing of Pan Am flight 103 to be tried by a Scottish court sitting in the Netherlands. A former Libyan intelligence agent was later convicted of murder; the other suspect was acquitted.
    (AP, 8/24/08)

1998        Sep 10, The Rotterdam Convention was adopted at a diplomatic conference in Rotterdam. It is a multilateral agreement to promote shared responsibilities in relation to importation of hazardous chemicals, became legally binding to its parties. It officially entered into force on Feb 24, 2004. As of 2008, 73 countries were signatories and 126 were parties.
    (www.ec.gc.ca/international/multilat/rotterdam_e.htm)

1998        Sep 19, The worst storm in a century hit the Netherlands and Belgium over the past week.
    (SFC, 9/19/98, p.A5)

1998        Oct 13, It was reported that Dutch auditors chastised the prime minister and other officials for spending $40 million to acquire the Piet Mondrian painting: "Victory Boogie Woogie."
    (WSJ, 10/13/98, p.A1)

1998        Nov 13, The cabinet approved a plan to let homosexuals adopt Dutch children by Jan 1, 2000.
    (SFEC, 11/15/98, p.A20)

1998        Dec 1, Dutch and Flemish lexicographers unveiled a 40-tome dictionary with 45,000 pages that documented words back to 1500. It took 147 years to complete and compilers stopped at 1976.
    (SFC, 12/2/98, p.C2)

1998        The 245 minute film "Amsterdam Global Village" was directed by Johan van der Keuken and showed at the SF Film Fest.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, DB p.55)

1998        The Dutch film "The Dress" starred Hanri Garcin and Ariane Schluter. It was written and directed by Alex van Warmerdam.
    (SFC, 11/27/98, p.C8)

1998        The documentary film "Sex, Drugs and Democracy" was produced.
    (SSFC, 1/7/01, p.T9)

1998        Ernst Langhout, a singer-songwriter, increased his sales when he began singing in his native Frisian language.
    (WSJ, 5/13/98, p.A20)

1999        Jan 1, Netherlands along with 10 other European Union nations made the transition to the new Euro monetary system.
    (SFC, 1/1/99, p.A8)

1999        Feb 18, Transamerica was bought by Aegon NV of the Netherlands in a deal valued at $9.7 billion. The assessed value of the Transamerica Pyramid in SF was set at $190 million.
    (SFC, 2/19/99, p.A1)(SFC, 5/29/04, p.C2)

1999        Apr 5, Libya handed over to UN officials 2 men accused in the 1988 bombing of Pan Am flight 103. They were then flown to the Hague to be tried under Scottish law. UN Sec. Gen'l. Kofi Annan immediately suspended economic sanctions on Libya.
    (SFC, 3/20/99, p.A8)(SFC, 4/6/99, p.A1)

1999        May 16, The 1956 Picasso painting, "Woman Nude Before Garden," was slashed by a mental patient in Amsterdam's Stedelijk Museum.
    (WSJ, 2/16/99, p.A20)

1999        May 19, The Dutch Cabinet of Prime Minister Wim Kok resigned following a split over whether to give citizens the right to vote in referendums.
    (SFC, 5/20/99, p.A13)

1999        Oct 12, Professors Gerardus 't Hooft and Martinus J.G. Veltman of the Netherlands won the Nobel Prize in Physics for the invention of mathematical tools to calculate properties of fundamental particles. From 1981 to his retirement in 1997, Veltman was an active member of the Univ. of Michigan physics department.
    (SFC, 10/13/99, p.A2)(MT, Fall/99, p.7)

1999        Oct 26, The Parliament overturned a 1912 ban on brothels.
    (SFC, 10/27/99, p.A13)

1999        Dec 7, In Holland a student (17) in Veghel shot and wounded a teacher and 4 fellow students in the 1st school shooting in Dutch history. The student was reported to have been upset over a romance. The student's father (35) and sister (15) were arrested 2 days later as accessories.
    (SFC, 12/8/99, p.A15)(SFC, 12/10/99, p.D8)

1999        The Netherlands documentary film "I Love Money" (the title used symbols for "love" and "money") was directed by Johan van der Keuken.
    (SFEC, 4/11/99, DB p.36)

1999        A leftist coalition toppled the long-ruling Christian Democrats.
    (SFC, 8/17/01, p.A16)

2000        Mar 21, Holland announced that it would give the Jewish community $180 million for injustices suffered after returning from Nazi death camps. Another $114 million was set for Dutch victims of Japanese WW II prison camps in Indonesia and $14 million for Dutch Gypsies persecuted by the Nazis.
    (SFC, 3/22/00, p.A12)

2000        Apr 3, In Bosnia NATO troops arrested Momcilo Krajisnik, former speaker of the Bosnian Serb assembly, for war crimes and flew him to the Netherlands to stand trial. In 2006 Momcilo Krajisnik was convicted by the Yugoslav war crimes tribunal in The Hague for persecuting and forcibly expelling non-Serbs during the 1992-95 war in Bosnia. He was released in 2013 after serving two-thirds of a reduced 20-year sentence.
    (SFC, 4/4/00, p.A10)(SFC, 8/31/13, p.A6)

2000        Apr 6, Two Russian cosmonauts docked with Mir. The destruction of the space station was delayed after MirCorp. of Amsterdam agreed in Feb. to pay $10-20 million to lease commercial rights.
    (SFC, 4/7/00, p.D2)(SFEC, 6/11/00, p.T12)

2000        Apr 15, Rem Koolhaas (56), Dutch architect, won the annual $100,000 Pritzker Architecture Prize.
    (SFEC, 4/16/00, p.A4)

2000        May 4, Hendrik Casimir (b.1909), Dutch physicist, died. He was best known for his research on the two-fluid model of superconductors (together with C. J. Gorter) in 1934 and the Casimir effect (together with D. Polder) in 1946.
    (Econ, 5/24/08, p.105)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hendrik_Casimir)

2000        May 13, In the Netherlands a fireworks depot exploded in Enschede and 20 people were killed with 589 injured. An estimated 100 tons of fireworks exploded and flattened some 400 houses.
    (SFEC, 5/14/00, p.A12)(SFC, 5/15/00, p.A13)

2000        Jun 7, It was reported that Patrick Atoon of Nigmegen had spent 8 years building his web site dedicated to the meanings of words in rap music: www.rapdict.org.
    (WSJ, 6/7/00, p.A1)

2000        Jun 18, In England officials found 58 bodies in the back of a truck at Dover. The truck had arrived from Zeebrugge under 86-degree heat and 54 male and 4 female Chinese immigrants from Fujian province appeared to have suffocated. There were 2 survivors. The chief suspect was arrested in Rotterdam in 2001. In 2001 Dutch driver Perry Wacker (32) was convicted and sentenced to 14 years in prison. Ying Guo (30) was convicted of conspiracy and was sentenced to 6 years in prison.
    (SFC, 6/19/00, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/20/00, p.A1)(SFC, 6/21/00, p.A12)(SFC, 1/23/01, p.C14)(SFC, 4/6/01, p.D6)

2000        Sep 12, A bill was passed that converted same-sex partnerships into full-fledged marriages.
    (SFC, 9/13/00, p.A12)

2000        Oct, Brothels were legalized. The $1 billion sex industry was estimated as 5% of the Dutch economy.
    (SSFC, 8/12/01, p.A15)

2000        Nov 28, In the Netherlands lawmakers of the lower house voted 104 to 40 to legalize euthanasia with strict guidelines.
    (SFC, 11/29/00, p.A17)

2001        Jan 1, In the Netherlands a fire in a Volendam café killed at least 5 people and injured over 130.
    (SFC, 1/1/01, p.A12)

2001        Jan 31, In the Netherlands a Scottish court sentenced Abdel Basset Ali al-Megrahi, a Libyan intelligence officer, to life in a Scottish prison for the 1998 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103. A second Libyan was acquitted.
    (SFC, 1/31/01, p.A11)(SFC, 2/1/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 2/1/01, p.A1)(AP, 12/19/03)

2001        Mar 31, In the Netherlands legislation enacted in 2000 to legalize gay marriages went into effect at midnight. This made Netherlands the first country to legalize same-sex marriages.
    (SFC, 3/31/01, p.A10)(SSFC, 8/4/13, p.A2)

2001        Apr 5, Dutch driver Perry Wacker was convicted of manslaughter and sentenced to 14 years in prison in the deaths of 58 Chinese immigrants who suffocated in his truck in Dover, England.
    (AP, 4/5/02)

2001        Apr 10, The Dutch Senate legalized euthanasia gave doctors immunity from prosecution for assisting in the deaths of terminally ill patients.
    (SFC, 4/11/01, p.C2)

2001        Jul 5, Scientists at Delft Univ. of Tech. in the Netherlands reported the creation of nanotechnology transistors built from a single molecule.
    (SFC, 7/6/01, p.B3)

2001        Jul 12, Herman Brood (55), musician, jumped to his death from the roof of an Amsterdam hotel. He had recorded nearly 20 albums and had acted in Dutch films. In 1978 he made a hit with his single "Saturday Night."
    (SFC, 7/13/01, p.D5)

2001        Aug 16, Col. Vidoje Blagojevic, former commander of Bratunac, pleaded innocent at the Hague war crimes tribunal for 1995 war crimes in Srebrenica. On January 17, 2005, Col. Vidoje Blagojevic became the second indictee to be convicted on Srebrenica Genocide charges and other human rights violations. He was sentenced to 18 years in prison. On May 9, 2007, the Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia ruled that Col Blagojevic had not been complicit in the genocide at Srebrenica because he had not known his troops intended to commit it. Blagojevicu0092s sentence was reduced to 15 years.
    (SFC, 8/17/01, p.A14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Srebrenica_massacre)

2001        A charge of 7 guilders was planned for motorists entering major cities in order to reduce traffic congestion.
    (SFC, 12/1/97, p.B8)

2001        KaZaA, an internet file-sharing program, was founded in Amsterdam by Niklas Zennstrom of Sweden and Janus Friis of Denmark. In 2004 they launched Skype software for internet telephony.
    (Econ, 7/3/04, p.54)

2001-2005    Ruud Lubbers (b.1939), former Dutch prime minister (1982-1994), served as the head of the UNHCR.
    (Econ, 9/6/08, p.67)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruud_Lubbers)

2002        Jan 3, Alfred Henry Heineken (78), builder of a global beer brand, died in the Noordwijk. Freddie designed the green bottle and logo. In 1983 he was abducted for weeks and released unharmed.
    (WSJ, 1/4/02, p.A1)(SFC, 1/5/02, p.A22)

2004        Jan 13, The European Commission proposed an initiative aimed at creating a single market for services within the European Union (EU), similar to the single market for goods act of 1986. It came to be known as  Bolkestein Directive after the Dutch Commissioner Frits Bolkestein (b.1933), who launched it. Trade unions opposed it. On 16 February 2006, the European Parliament in plenary session in Strasbourg voted in favor of a compromise proposal that went a long way towards meeting the trade union demands.
    (www.etuc.org/a/499)

2002        Feb 9, At the Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Jochem Uytdehaage of the Netherlands won the gold medal in the men's 5,000-meter speedskating race in world record time of 6:14.66.
    (AP, 2/9/03)

2002        Mar, In the Netherlands the Liveable Rotterdam Party catapulted Pim Fortuyn, its chief figurehead, onto the national stage. Fortuyn rode a wave of dissatisfaction over immigration, Islam and the elitism of the ruling Labor Party. He was shot to death May 6.
    (Econ, 3/11/06, p.46)

2002        May 6, In the Netherlands Pim Fortuyn (54), a right-wing populist with an anti-immigrant platform, was shot to death in Hilversum. Volkert van der Graaf (32), an environmental activist, was arrested May 7 for the murder.
    (SFC, 5/7/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 5/7/02, p.A1)(SFC, 5/8/02, p.A17)

2002        May 15, Election results in the Netherlands showed the opposition Christian Democrats with a sizeable victory with 43 seats. List, the party of recently slain Pim Fortuyn, took 2nd place with 26 seats and named Mat Herben as leader. Jan Peter Balkenende, head of the Christian Democrats, was set to be PM. The ruling Labor Party won 23 of the 150 seats.
    (WSJ, 5/16/02, p.A14)(SFC, 5/16/02, p.A8)(WSJ, 5/17/02, p.A1)

2002        May, Uganda began to fear that too much Western assistance might damage its economy by pushing up the value of its shilling. The phenomenon is called Dutch Disease because decades ago massive oil revenues in the Netherlands unsettled the exchange rates and left exports less competitive.
    (WSJ, 5/29/02, p.A4)

2002        Jul 1, In the Hague the world's first permanent war crimes tribunal officially came into existence. It was vehemently opposed by the United States.
    (AP, 7/1/02)

2002        Jul 17, Joseph Luns (90), foreign minister for 19 years, died. He had also served for 13 years as NATO sec. gen.
    (SFC, 7/18/02, p.A26)

2002        Aug 30, In the Netherlands 8 men were detained for providing financial and logistical services to al Qaeda and for recruiting fighters.
    (SFC, 9/3/02, p.A6)

2002        Oct 6, Prince Claus (76), the German-born husband of Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands, died in Amsterdam.
    (AP, 10/6/03)

2002        Oct 16, The Dutch government collapsed amid infighting in the List party.
    (WSJ, 10/17/02, p.A1)

2002        Dec, Two thieves broke in through the roof of the Vincent van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam and stole two paintings by van Gogh valued at $30 million. The men were convicted a year later, but the paintings were not recovered.
    (AP, 2/11/08)

2003        Jan 13, Dutch Foreign Minister Jaap de Hoop Scheffer took over as head of the 55-nation Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe for 2003. He said the Vienna-based OSCE would sharpen its efforts to improve border security and police cooperation and cut off the flow of cash to terrorist groups.
    (AP, 1/13/03)

2003        Jan 22, In the Netherlands voters rejected an anti-immigration party and gave 44 seats to the Christian Democrats and 42 to the Labor party.
    (SFC, 1/23/03, p.A10)

2003          Mar 2, Netherlands, the worldu0092s 4th largest poultry exporter, discovered a bird flu in some its poultry for the 1st time in 30 years.
    (WSJ, 3/6/03, p.A11)

2003          Mar 11, The 18-judge world court was inaugurated at the Hague. It had been approved Jul 17, 1998, by the Rome Treaty.
    (SFC, 3/12/03, p.A1)

2003        Mar 17, In the Netherlands a law went into effect that allowed pharmacies to fill prescriptions for marijuana.
    (SFC, 3/18/03, p.A8)

2003        Apr 15, In the Netherlands, Volkert van der Graaf, the killer of politician Pim Fortuyn, was sentenced to 18 years in prison.
    (AP, 4/15/08)

2003        Apr 17, A Dutch veterinarian (57) died from avian influenza 2 days after working on a farm where animals were infected with the bird flu. He was believed to be the 1st victim of the current epidemic.
    (WSJ, 4/21/03, p.A10)

2003        May, Heineken paid $2.2 billion for BBAG, Austria's leading beer maker.
    (Econ, 6/28/03, p.63)

2003        Jun 6, The Netherlands said it will send 1,100 peacekeepers to southern Iraq to join the British-led multinational stabilization force.
    (AP, 6/7/03)

2003        Aug 29, The board of Air France approved a deal to combine with Dutch KLM under a holding company to form the world's #3 airline.
    (WSJ, 1/2/04, p.R12)

2003        Sep 1, Marijuana went on sale Monday at Dutch pharmacies to help bring relief to thousands of patients suffering from cancer, AIDS or multiple sclerosis.
    (AP, 9/1/03)

2003        Sep 22, NATO selected Dutch Foreign Minister Jaap de Hoop Scheffer as the alliance's new secretary general.
    (AP, 9/22/03)

2003        Oct 27, Prosecutors in the Netherlands said Momir Nikolic (48), a Bosnian Serb captain who admitted participating in the mass killing of more than 7,000 Muslim boys and men in Srebrenica, should serve up to 20 years in prison.  Nikolic accepted that he was on duty when 80-100 prisoners were decapitated and their corpses loaded onto trucks on July 12, 1995. In 2006 a UN appeals court reduced his 27-year sentence to 20 years.
    (AP, 10/28/03)(AP, 3/8/06)

2003        Dec 12, Three Dutch Protestant churches formally agreed to put aside their ideological differences and merge, the culmination of a process that began more than 40 years ago.
    (AP, 12/12/03)

2003        Dec 23, The Dutch National Flu Center said more than 15 of every 10,000 Dutch citizens have flu symptoms, enough to qualify the current outbreak as an epidemic.
    (AP, 12/23/03)

2003        The Groningen Academic Hospital in Amsterdam, Netherlands, carried out 4 mercy killings of terminally ill newborn children in this year. In 2004 the hospital proposed guidelines for such procedures.
    (SFC, 12/1/04, p.A17)

2004        Jan 5, Dutchman Jaap de Hoop Scheffer took over as NATO's top official.
    (AP, 1/5/04)

2004        Jan 13, A Dutch high school student walked into his school's crowded cafeteria and shot Hans van Wieren (49), an economics teacher, point-blank in the head, fatally wounding him.
    (AP, 1/13/04)

2004        Feb 17, The Dutch parliament approved a measure to expel 26,000 people seeking political asylum, despite objections from left-leaning political parties and human rights groups.
    (AP, 2/17/04)

2004        Mar 20, Former Netherlands Queen Juliana (94), who presided over the dismantling of the centuries-old Dutch empire and witnessed the birth of a social revolution during her 32-year reign (1948-1980, died.
    (AP, 3/20/04)(SSFC, 3/21/04, p.B7)

2004        Apr 11, Arjan Erkel, A Dutch aid worker who headed the North Caucasus mission of Medecins Sans Frontieres and was kidnapped in Russia nearly two years ago, was freed in a police operation in Dagestan.
    (AP, 4/11/04)

2004        Jul 2, The Dutch government backed plans for "seals of quality" for well-run brothels and standard contracts for prostitutes, as well as more support for those who want to leave the world's oldest profession.
    (Reuters, 7/2/04)

2004        Aug 29, Hans Vonk (63), Dutch conductor, died in Amsterdam.
    (SFC, 9/1/04, p.B7)

2004        Oct, Some 200,000 people demonstrated in Amsterdam against government reforms planned by the Christian-Democrat coalition under PM Jan Peter Balkenende.
    (Econ, 10/9/04, p.47)

2004        Nov 2, Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh (47), the great-grandnephew of the painter Vincent, was shot and stabbed to death on an Amsterdam street after receiving death threats over u0093Submission,u0094 a movie he made criticizing the treatment of women under Islam. A death threat to a Dutch politician was found pinned with a knife to Goghu0092s body by his Islamic attacker. Somali-born Ayaan Hirsi Ali collaborated with Van Gogh on the film. In January prosecutors said Mohammed Bouyeri (26), the alleged killer of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh, ignored his victim's pleas for mercy and calmly shot him at close range before slitting his throat. In his trial in July, 2005, Bouyeri said he killed van Gogh for insulting God. In 2006 Ian Buruma authored u0093Murder in Amsterdam: The Death of Theo van Gogh and the Limits of Tolerance,u0094 an account of the van Gogh murder.
    (AP, 1/26/05)(SFC, 7/13/05, p.A10)(WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P8)(Econ, 9/2/06, p.74)

2004        Nov 10, Dutch police mounted a major anti-terror raid against suspects holed up in an apartment in The Hague. 2 men were arrested following a daylong siege. Jason Walters (b.1985) was arrested along with Ismail Akhnikh after a massive 14 hour siege in The Hague. In 2010 Walters, while serving a 15-year sentence said he has renounced Islamic radicalism.
    (AP, 11/10/04)(SFC, 11/11/04, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jason_Walters)

2004        Nov 12, Dutch police raided a suspected Kurdish separatist training camp in a small village in the southern Netherlands, arresting 29 people. 38 members of the group were arrested nationwide. Jason Walters threw a hand grenade and injured several police officers in a standoff at a barricaded house in The Hague. Walters was one of 7 men later convicted for belonging to a terrorist group associated with Mohammed Bouyeri, who killed filmmaker Theo van Gogh on Nov 2. In 2008 Their conviction was overturned, but a 15-year sentence against Walters was upheld. The court also reduced the sentence for Ismail Aknikh, who was with Walters during the standoff, from 13 years to 15 months.
    (AFP, 11/12/04)(SFC, 11/13/04, p.A18)(AP, 1/23/08)

2004        Dec 1, Prince Bernhard (93), father of Queen Beatrix, died in Utrecht. It was soon reported that he had acknowledged in a series of secret interviews 2 illegitimate children and the acceptance of bribes in 1976 from Lockheed to persuade the Dutch government to purchase its planes. The money was reportedly passed to charities.
    (SFC, 12/15/04, p.A12)

2004        Frits Hoekstra, a former Dutch security official authored u0093In the Service of the BVDu0094 (In Dienst van de BVD), a book on Dutch secret service operations. It included an account of u0093Project Mongol,u0094 the use of a mock Maoist movement to gather intelligence during the cold war, which the CIA called u0093Operation Red herring.u0094
    (WSJ, 12/3/04, p.A1)

2004        Geert Mak (b.1946), Dutch journalist, authored u0093In Europe: Travels through the Twentieth Century.u0094 An updated version in English was published in 2007.
    (Econ, 2/24/07, p.96)

2005        Jan 1, Netherlands was forecast for 2% annual GDP growth with a population at 16.4 million and GDP per head at $38,950.
    (Econ, 1/1/05, p.89)

2006        Jan, In the Hague Col. Vidoje Blagojevic (56), Bosnian Serb wartime commander of the Bratunac brigade, was convicted of war crimes and complicity in genocide by the Yugoslav War Crimes Tribunal. In 2007 an appeals panel overturned the charge of complicity in genocide.
    (AP, 5/9/07)

2005        Mar 30, Dutch bank ABN Amro announced a 6.3 billion euros ($8.1 billion) bid for the 87 percent of Italian bank Antonveneta it does not already own, the second foreign offer for an Italian bank in as many days.
    (AP, 3/30/05)

2005        Apr 19, Dutch authorities arrested a Chechen citizen in the Netherlands in connection with the November 2 slaying of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh. A 2nd suspect was arrested May 18 in Tours, France. Both were believed to have ties to a group of Islamic fundamentalists which prosecutors dubbed the Hofstad network.
    (AP, 5/27/05)

2005        May 8, President Bush paid homage in the Netherlands to the "terrible price" paid by World War II soldiers who never came home from their fight against tyranny.
    (AP, 5/8/05)

2005        Jun 1, Dutch voters worried about social benefits and immigration overwhelmingly rejected the European Union constitution in what could be a knockout blow for a charter meant to create a power rivaling the United States. Slow economic growth in the Netherlands was seen as a key reason for the massive rejection of the EU constitution
    (AP, 6/1/05)

2005        Jun 6, The International Criminal Court at the Hague formally announced the opening of a war crimes investigation in Sudan's Darfur region after receiving a list of 51 potential suspects from UN.
    (AP, 6/6/05)

2005        Jun 9, In the Netherlands thousands of civil servants went on strike to protest declining social benefits and low wages.
    (WSJ, 6/10/05, p.A6)

2005        Jun, In the Netherlands Nouriddin el Fahtni, an Islamic radical, was arrested with a loaded machine. His group was linked with the so-called "Hofstad." In 2011 a court found that Fahtni's 8-year sentence was longer than allowed by law and reduced it to 7 years and four months. His ex-wife, Soumaya Sahla, tried to get her sister, who worked at a pharmacy, to give her the home addresses of Dutch politicians. Allegedly she intended to supply the addresses to other group members who planned attacks.
    (AP, 11/15/11)

2005        Jul 11, The Dutch market research firm, VNU, announced its acquisition of IMS Health, the leading supplier of research to pharmaceutical firms, for $7 billion.
    (Econ, 7/16/05, p.60)

2005        Jul 12, Mohammed Bouyeri, a Muslim extremist on trial in the slaying of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh, unexpectedly confessed in court, saying he was driven by religious conviction. Bouyeri was convicted and sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 7/12/06)

2005        Jul 26, A Dutch court sentenced Mohammed Bouyeri (27), the killer of filmmaker Theo Van Gogh, to life in prison. He was linked to the u0093Hofstad Group,u0094 some of whom were accused of wild plans to blow up Schiphol airport, the Dutch parliament and a nuclear reactor.
    (AP, 7/26/05)(Econ, 7/16/05, p.13)

2005        Jul 27, The US charged Iraqi-born Wasem al Delaema (32), a Dutch citizen, with conspiring to kill Americans in Iraq and asked the Dutch government to extradite him for prosecution. Authorities alleged al Delaema was one of several men calling themselves the Fighters of Fallujah who plotted attacks near that Iraqi city in October 2003. In 2010 a Dutch court reduced his sentenced to 8 years and released him.
    (AP, 7/30/05)(AP, 10/13/10)

2005        Jul 30, Wim Duisenberg (b.1935), Dutch-born first chief of the European Central Bank who helped create the euro currency, was found dead at a home in southeastern France.
    (AP, 7/31/05)

2005        Aug 3, Dutch authorities seized 5 tons of cocaine, valued at $275 million, hidden in reels of steel cable in the Port of Rotterdam in what was described as one of the country's biggest drug busts. 13 suspects (aged 15-50) from the Netherlands, Colombia, Venezuela, Mexico, Greece and the US, were arrested later.
    (AP, 9/5/05)

2005        Sep 12, Armed men broke into an upscale Amsterdam home and kidnapped Claudia Melchers (37), the daughter of a millionaire whose fortune came from selling chemicals, including to Iraq in the 1980s. Her children were left unharmed. The kidnappers demanded 660 pounds of cocaine. Melchers was released 2 days later. It was not clear whether any ransom was paid.
    (AP, 9/13/05)(AP, 9/15/05)

2005        Sep 13, The Dutch government said it plans to open an electronic file, effective Jan 1, 2007, on every child at birth as a tool to spot and protect the troubled kids of the future.
    (AP, 9/13/05)

2005        Sep 26, Dutch bank ABN Amro said it had signed a contract with Banca Popolare Italiana and its allies to buy their 39.37 percent stake in Banca Antonveneta for a total outlay of 3.2 billion euros (3.85 billion dollars).
    (AP, 9/26/05)

2005        Sep 27, Andre Rieu introduced violinist, Akim Camara (b.10/27/2001), during his 'Flying Dutchman Concert' at Parkstad Stadium in the Netherlands. Akim played Concerto G Major op.11 with the Johan Strauss Orchestra.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akim_Camara)

2005        Sep 28, In Australia a team from Holland, known more for its windmills than its sunshine, won a four-day, 1,860 mile, international solar-powered car race across deserts, notching up their third straight victory. The "Challenge," to design and build a car capable of crossing Australia on the power of daylight, was launched in 1987 and teams and individuals from corporations and universities throughout the world take part.
    (AP, 9/29/05)

2005        Sep, Philips Corp. unveiled new LED technology for consumer lighting in Paris.
    (Econ, 10/1/05, p.58)

2005        Oct 6, A UN official said the International Criminal Court in The Hague has issued arrest warrants for Joseph Kony and 5 henchmen of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), a Ugandan cult notorious for raping, maiming and killing children.
    (Reuters, 10/6/05)(Econ, 10/22/05, p.48)

2005        Oct 12, A Dutch court blocked the extradition of a Dutch terror suspect to the United States, saying his legal rights in U.S. custody could not be guaranteed.
    (AP, 10/12/05)

2005        Oct 14, Dutch police detained seven suspects in an anti-terrorism operation in three cities, including the capital, aimed at thwarting a suspected plot to attack politicians and a government building.
    (AP, 10/14/05)

2005        Oct 17, Dutch police arrested 45 members of the Hell's Angels motorcycle gang and seized an assortment of weapons during nationwide raids on the group's clubhouses. Prosecutors said those arrested face charges of murder, extortion, intimidation and weapons and drug trafficking.
    (AP, 10/17/05)

2005        Oct 27, In the Netherlands a fire roared through a prison complex at Amsterdam's Schiphol Airport, killing 11 illegal immigrants awaiting deportation and injuring 15 other people.
    (AP, 10/27/05)

2005        Nov 1, A trade union said a strike at the Dutch operations of Royal Dutch Shell PLC over pensions will be broadened to include the company's natural-gas production in the north of the Netherlands.
    (AP, 11/1/05)

2005        Nov 14, It was reported that India's top oil exploration firm Oil & Natural Gas Corp. and the world's largest steel maker, the Netherlands-based Mittal Group, plan to build an oil refinery in Nigeria. They offered to invest another $6 billion in building a power plant and railroads there.
    (AP, 11/14/05)

2005        Nov 18, A Dutch television show claimed to have knocked down a chain of 4,155,476 dominoes in a new world record, but organizers conceded the event was overshadowed by the earlier shooting of an errant sparrow. The bird caused some 23,000 dominoes to fall on Nov 14. The record was later adjusted to 4,002,146 after a legal expert ruled that a person had illegally caused 153,340 dominoes to fall.
    (AP, 11/18/05)(SFC, 11/23/05, p.A2)(www.dodemus.nl/)

2005        Dec 2, In the Netherlands a broad coalition of political parties unveiled a pilot program to regulate marijuana farming on the model of tobacco, which opponents say would be tantamount to legalizing growing the drug.
    (AP, 12/02/05)

2005        Dec 5, Frits Philips (100), Dutch businessman, grandson of the founder of Philips, died. He turned a family business into Philips Electronics in 40 years of leadership.
    (WSJ, 12/7/05, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/dfnu4)

2005        Dec 7, The Hague war crimes tribunal sentenced Miroslav Bralo (aka Cicko), a former Bosnian Croat soldier, to 20 years in jail on eight counts of war crimes and human rights abuses committed during the 1993 Muslim-Croat war in central Bosnia.
    (Reuters, 12/07/05)

2005        Dec 16, A Dutch court sentenced Henk Slebos, a Dutch businessman who oversaw the sale of dual-use nuclear technology to Pakistan (1999-2002), to a year prison.
    (AP, 12/16/05)

2005        Dec 19, US federal authorities fined Dutch bank ABN Amro Holding NV $80 million for violating US money-laundering laws and sanctions against Iran and Libya. Nearly a decade of violations involved billions in transactions passing through bank offices in NY and Dubai, UAR.
    (WSJ, 12/20/05, p.A3)

2005        Dec 22, The Dutch government said it planned to send up to 1,400 additional troops to Afghanistan for expanded NATO peacekeeping.
    (AP, 12/22/05)

2005        Dec 23, In the Netherlands a court jailed Frans van Anraat (63), a Dutch businessman, for 15 years after finding him guilty of complicity in war crimes for selling chemicals to Iraq used to carry out gas attacks, but acquitted him of genocide charges.
    (Reuters, 12/23/05)

2005        In the Netherlands the fiercely anti-immigrant Freedom Party (PVV) was founded.
    (Econ, 8/11/12, p.45)

2006        Jan 19, Lifeline Systems Inc. announced that it has signed a definitive merger agreement with Royal Philips Electronics under which Philips will acquire Lifeline, a leader in personal emergency response services. Royal Philips Electronics NV paid $750 million for Massachusetts based Lifeline.
    (WSJ, 1/11/07, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/334w4c)

2006        Feb 1, In Amsterdam an experimental ban on smoking marijuana went into effect intended to reduce loitering and petty crime. u0093No tokingu0094 signs appeared as part of the ban on the street in "De Baarsjes," one of the city's poorer neighborhoods. Amsterdam soon began selling the "no toking" signs to prevent the official ones from being stolen as collector's items.
    (AP, 2/4/06)

2006        Feb 3, Foreign Minister Ben Bot said Netherlands will send 1,200 additional troops to Afghanistan, the day after parliament gave the green light to the deployment.
    (AP, 2/3/06)

2006        Feb 9, Some 58 containers were swept from the P&O Nedlloyd ship Mondriaan, which got caught in a storm about 9 miles off the coast of the island of Terschelling, in the North Sea. The next day thousands of tennis shoes, aluminum briefcases and children's toys washed onto the beach of a Dutch island, drawing crowds of treasure-hunting residents.
    (AP, 2/10/06)

2006        Feb 14, Bilal Lamrani (21), a Dutch Muslim, was sentenced to three years in prison for plotting murder and attempting to recruit prison inmates to carry out terrorist attacks.
    (AP, 2/14/06)

2006        Feb 24, Japan suspended all French poultry imports and threatened a similar ban on the Netherlands following reported cases of H5N1 bird flu.
    (Reuters, 2/25/06)

2006        Feb 27, In the Netherlands the International Court of Justice heard arguments by Bosnia accusing Serbia of genocide, the first time a state has faced trial for humanity's worst crime.
    (AP, 2/27/06)

2006        Mar 5, Milan Babic (50), the Serb leader of a rebel republic in Croatia and one of the key figures in the Balkan wars of the 1990s, committed suicide in prison in the Netherlands.
    (AP, 3/6/06)

2006        Mar 10, A Netherlands court convicted 9 Muslims of belonging to a terrorist group because they incited hatred for non-Muslims. Among the defendants was Mohammed Bouyeri, the convicted killer of filmmaker Theo van Gogh.
    (AP, 3/10/06)

2006        Mar 11, In the Netherlands former Yugoslav leader Slobodan Milosevic (b.1941), the so-called "butcher of the Balkans" being tried for war crimes after orchestrating a decade of bloodshed during his country's breakup, was found dead in his prison cell. Milosevic spent nearly five years at a UN detention facility in Scheveningen, a suburb of The Hague. An autopsy showed that he died of a heart attack. A Dutch toxicologist said he took unprescribed pills that neutralized heart medication.
    (SFC, 3/13/06, p.A3)(WSJ, 3/14/06, p.A1)(Econ, 3/18/06, p.83)

2006        Mar 15, In the Netherlands 2 Bosnian Muslim army commanders were convicted of war crimes for failing to rein in foreign Muslim volunteers who murdered and tortured Bosnian Croats and Serbs in a 1990s "holy war."
    (AP, 3/16/06)

2006        Mar 17, Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, a Congolese militia leader accused of conscripting and enlisting children aged under 15 for warfare (1998-2002), became the first suspect sent for trial at the International Criminal Court (ICC) in the Netherlands.
    (Reuters, 3/17/06)(WSJ, 3/18/06, p.A1)

2006        Mar 21, Royal Dutch Shell said it paid $465 million Canadian dollars for the rights to explore 219,000 acres in Albertau0092s oil sands.
    (WSJ, 3/22/06, p.A14)

2006        Mar 22, In the Netherlands an appeals chamber of the UN war crimes court dropped the life sentence of Bosnian Serb Milomir Stakic and instead sentenced him to 40 years for overseeing detention camps in Bosnia.
    (AFP, 3/22/06)

2006        Mar 27, The Dutch Equal Treatment Commission ruled that a Muslim woman who refuses to shake men's hands for religious reasons cannot be barred from a Dutch teacher-training program.
    (AP, 3/28/06)

2006        Apr 19, US Immigration agents arrested 7 executives and 1,187 illegal immigrants employed by IFCO Systems, a Netherlands-based manufacturer of crates and pallets, as part of a crackdown on employers of illegal workers.
    (AP, 4/19/06)(SFC, 4/21/06, p.A3)

2006        Apr 27, A Dutch agency said the number of reported cases of legal euthanasia and doctor-assisted suicide in the Netherlands increased in 2005 for the third year in a row. Doctors reported 1,933 cases in 2005, up from 1,886 in 2004 and 1,815 in 2003.
    (AP, 4/27/06)

2006        May 8, In the Hague the UN war crimes court sentenced Ivica Rajic, a Bosnian Croat former militia leader, to 12 years in prison. Rajic admitted that forces under his command operating in the Muslim village of Stupni Do in central Bosnia in October 1993 "forced Bosnian Muslim civilians out of their homes and hiding places, robbed them of their valuables, willfully killed Muslim men, women and children and sexually assaulted Muslim women".
    (AFP, 5/8/06)

2006        May 16, Ayaan Hirsi Ali, a Somali-born member of Parliament, said she will resign and leave Holland after the government said she was improperly granted citizenship. She became an internationally known opponent of some violent types of Islam.
    (AP, 5/16/06)

2006        May 17, Under withering criticism, the Dutch immigration minister Rita Verdonk agreed to rethink her threat to revoke the citizenship of a Somali-born former lawmaker known for her opposition to fundamentalist Islam.
    (AP, 5/17/06)

2006        May 22, A court found the former chief executive and chief financial officer of Dutch retailer Royal Ahold NV guilty of fraud, but ruled the pair will not have to serve prison time.
    (AP, 5/22/06)

2006        May 23, The Dutch parliament approved new anti-terrorism measures that make it easier to arrest suspects without strong evidence and hold them longer without charge.
    (AP, 5/23/06)

2006        May 31, Dutch pedophiles registered a political party to push for a cut in the legal age for sexual relations to 12 from 16 and the legalization of child pornography and sex with animals, sparking widespread outrage.
    (Reuters, 5/31/06)

2006        Jun 6, The Spanish interior ministry said that 67 suspects had been arrested for accessing child porn on the Internet over the past five days. The international police operation arrested 38 in France, 10 in Spain, 9 in Slovakia, 7 in Belgium and 3 in the Netherlands.
    (AP, 6/6/06)

2006        Jun 7, A Dutch court convicted Guus Kouwenhoven (64) of violating a UN arms embargo imposed on the regime of former Liberian President Charles Taylor and sentenced him to eight years in prison. The court found that he had traded guns for timber rights and used his lumber company to smuggle weapons that were later used by militias to commit atrocities against civilians in West Africa.
    (AP, 6/7/06)

2006        Jun 16, A Russian state vodka company won Stolichnaya brand rights back from a Dutch firm.
    (WSJ, 6/17/06, p.A1)

2006        Jun 27, Netherlandsu0092 Immigration Minister Rita Verdonk reversed a politically divisive decision of six weeks earlier, when she announced Hirsi Ali's 1997 naturalization was invalid because she lied on her asylum application.
    (AP, 6/28/06)

2006        Jun 30, The Dutch PM Jan Peter Balkenende and his Cabinet resigned after a split in its ranks over the citizenship case of Ayaan Hirsi Ali, a prominent Somali-born critic of Islam.
    (AP, 6/30/07)

2006        Jul 21, The Netherlandsu0092 military chief said Dutch commandos had killed 18 enemy fighters who set up positions in rugged hills overlooking a Dutch camp in southern Afghanistan.
    (AP, 7/21/06)

2006        Jul 28, Dutch retail giant Ahold has announced that its 1.1 billion-dollar (941,000-euro) settlement with US and Dutch investors over the company's accounting scandal that broke in 2003 and sent share prices plummeting, is now final.
    (AFP, 7/29/06)

2006        Aug 1, Dutch Cardinal Johannes Willebrands (96), a key figure in the Roman Catholic Church's efforts to improve relations with other Christians and Jews, died.
    (AP, 8/2/06)

2006        Aug 7, Dutch police arrested a Rwandan immigrant, identified as Joseph M. (38), and charged him with war crimes and torture for his alleged role in the 1994 genocide that tore apart his home country.
    (AP, 8/10/06)

2006        Aug 17, An outbreak of strain of bluetongue, a disease transmitted to sheep by insects but which is not contagious nor known to affect humans, was detected in the southern Netherlands. Belgium and Germany soon reported cases.
    (AFP, 8/28/06)

2006        Aug 19, In Ivory Coast waste, which contained hydrogen sulphide, was unloaded from a Panamanian-registered ship, the Probo Koala, at Abidjan port and then dumped in at least eight open air sites, including the city's main rubbish dump. By mid-September 6 people had died and 16,000 had sought treatment. Dutch-based Trafigura Beheer BV, one of the world's leading commodities traders, said it had chartered the ship and said the material was a "mixture of gasoline, water and caustic washings" following the unloading of a cargo of gasoline in Nigeria. The sludge was later blamed for killing 15 people and sickening 100,000 more. In 2009 Greenpeace said it had obtained internal e-mails and other documents that show Trafigura Beheer BV executives were aware the sludge was hazardous.
    (Reuters, 9/7/06)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.58)(AP, 9/17/09)

2006        Aug 28, In the Netherlands prosecutors at the International Criminal Court filed their first indictment, charging Thomas Lubanga, a former Congolese warlord, for allegedly abducting and recruiting children as young as 10 to fight in Congo's brutal civil war.
    (AP, 8/29/06)

2006        Sep 27, At the Hague, Netherlands, a UN tribunal sentenced Momcilio Krajisnik (61), the former speaker of the Bosnian Serb parliament, to 27 years in prison for war crimes, but acquitted him of the harsher charge of genocide.
    (AP, 9/27/06)

2006        Oct 20, Corus, an Anglo-Dutch steel-maker, accepted an $8.1 billion buyout bid from Tata Steel, a smaller Indian firm.
    (Econ, 10/28/06, p.74)

2006        Nov 4, Swathes of Austria, Belgium, Croatia, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands and went dark for up to an hour in the late evening as cold Germans rushing to switch on heaters sucked up electricity from Europe's interconnected networks.
    (AP, 11/5/06)

2006        Nov 6, In the Netherlands 6 people were arrested on suspicion of recruiting volunteers for jihad, or Islamic holy war, prosecutors said after a year-long investigation.
    (AFP, 11/7/06)

2006        Nov 22, Dutch voters picked a new parliament in an election that could determine whether the country's tight immigration rules get even tougher or follow what the opposition calls a more humane path. Dutch PM Jan Peter Balkenendeu0092s center-right Christian Democrats won the most seats in elections, but nearly complete returns showed a sharply splintered parliament with no alliance winning a clear mandate to govern.
    (AP, 11/22/06)(AP, 11/23/06)(Econ, 11/25/06, p.50)

2006        Nov 30, Amsterdam city officials said they are shutting down nearly a third of the 350 prostitution "windows" in the famed Red Light District as part of a crackdown on crime.
    (AP, 11/30/06)

2006        Dec 1, In the Netherlands a court convicted four Dutch Muslims of plotting terrorist attacks against political leaders and government buildings and sentenced them to up to eight years in prison. A man in a hooded coat killed an 8-year-old boy in the corridor of a Dutch grade school. Police said they arrested a 22-year-old suspect.
    (AP, 12/1/06)

2006        Dec 4, Against a backdrop of protests, the defense minister gave citations to Dutch troops who served in the UN peacekeeping force that failed to prevent the slaughter of Muslims in the Srebrenica enclave during the Bosnian war.
    (AP, 12/4/06)

2006        Dec 11, The Netherlands ended transmission of "free to air" analog television, becoming the first nation to switch completely to digital signals.
    (AP, 12/11/06)

2006        Daniel Estulin, Lithuanian-born writer, authored "The Secrets of the Bilderberg Club," in which he argues that the international Bilderberg group largely runs the world. It has held a secretive annual forum of prominent politicians, thinkers and businessmen since it was founded in 1954 at the Bilderberg Hotel in Holland. Estulin published a second book, Los secretos del club Bilderberg, released in September 2006. The English version, The Secrets of the Bilderberg Club, was released in the US on September 22, 2007.
    (AP, 8/19/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Estulin)

2006        Some 2,000 Netherlandsu0092 forces took control of Afghanistanu0092s Uruzgan province.
    (Econ, 3/14/09, p.48)

2000        Rembrandtu0092s u0093Portrait of a Ladyu0094 (1632) was sold in London to Dutch art dealer Robert Noortman (1946-2007) for $28.6 million.
    (WSJ, 1/27/06, p.A6)

2006        The $100-million Betuwe Line, a high-speed freight line from Rotterdam to Germany, was expected to be completed at a cost of some $5.87 billion.
    (WSJ, 11/3/04, p.A12)

2007        Jan 27, The Netherlands' government extradited Iraqi-born Wesam al Delaema (32), a naturalized Dutch citizen, to the US. He was charged with involvement in terror attacks on US troops in Iraq. In 2009 Delaema was sentenced in Washington DC to 25 years in prison. His actual term was up to the Netherlands. In 2010 a court in Rotterdam slashed the sentence to eight years and released him for time served.
    (AP, 1/28/07)(SFC, 4/17/09, p.A6)(AP, 10/13/10)

2007        Feb 6, Dutch media reported that the parties of the incoming centre-left Dutch government agreed to grant amnesty for some 30,000 failed asylum seekers who came to the Netherlands before April 2001.
    (AP, 2/6/07)

2007        Feb 13, Officials in the Ivory Coast said that Trafigura, a Dutch-based oil trading company, agreed to pay $197 million to secure the release of three executives from an Ivory Coast prison and settle claims that it dumped toxic waste that killed at least 10 people in the West African nation.
    (AP, 2/14/07)

2007        Feb 27, The International Criminal Court's prosecutor in Netherlands named Ahmed Muhammed Harun, a former Sudanese junior minister, and Ali Mohammed Ali Abd-al-Rahmann (aka Ali Kushayb), a janjaweed leader, as suspects in war crimes and crimes against humanity in the Darfur region. Sudan rejected the legitimacy of the ICC, insisting it would try Darfur war criminals.
    (Reuters, 2/27/07)(AFP, 2/27/07)(Econ, 7/19/08, p.55)

2007        Mar 5, Kosovo's former PM Ramush Haradinaj went on trial in the Netherlands at the UN tribunal on war crimes charges related to his time as a guerrilla leader in the war against Serb forces between 1998-99. Haradinaj, a former regional commander of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), resigned as prime minister in 2005 after being indicted for murder, rape and torture allegedly committed by forces under his command.
    (Reuters, 3/5/07)

2007        Mar 6, Dutch judges ruled that a chapter of the Hells Angels motorcycle gang is not a criminal organization, rejecting prosecutors' attempts to have the group outlawed.
    (AP, 3/6/07)

2007        Mar 8, The Netherlands said it has ratified an accord to open to a long-secret archive of Nazi death camp records in Germany, another step toward giving scholars access to a vast collection of historically invaluable Holocaust documents.
    (AP, 3/8/07)

2007        Mar 12, New Jersey based Schering-Plough Corp. said it will buy the pharmaceuticals division of Akzo Nobel NV for 11 billion euros ($14.5 billion) in cash, acquiring the Organon brand of birth control and strengthening its drug pipeline with an anti-schizophrenia medication.
    (AP, 3/12/07)

2007        Mar 21, In Afghanistan Dutch ministers urged the Afghan government to step up its presence and development in the troubled south, where Taliban insurgents are most entrenched, saying NATO cannot do it alone.
    (AFP, 3/21/07)

2007        Apr 13, In Tanzania the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) ordered that Michel Bagaragaza, the former head of Rwanda's national tea industry who is accused of involvement in the mass slaughter, be tried by a court in the Netherlands.
    (AFP, 4/13/07)

2007        Apr 18, Scientists in the Netherlands said they have discovered a fungus in elephant dung that will help them break down fibers and wood into biofuel.
    (Reuters, 4/18/07)

2007        Apr 20, In southern Afghanistan separate explosions killed two NATO soldiers. A Dutch soldier was killed in one explosion, the first fatality from hostile action among Dutch troops serving with NATO forces in the country.
    (AP, 4/20/07)

2007        Apr 23, British bank Barclays Plc has agreed to buy Dutch rival ABN AMRO for about 67 billion euros ($91 billion) in shares as it attempts to fight off rivals to clinch the world's biggest bank takeover.
    (Reuters, 4/23/07)

2007        Apr 25, Royal Bank of Scotland, Fortis, a Belgian-Dutch lender and Santander of Spain launched a blockbuster 72-billion-euro takeover battle for Dutch group ABN Amro, outgunning by far an agreed offer by Barclays.
    (AFP, 4/25/07)(Econ, 4/28/07, p.85)(Econ, 7/19/08, p.84)

2007        May 1, Thirty people were arrested in raids across Belgium, England, and the Netherlands targeting suspected animal rights extremists.
    (AP, 5/1/07)

2007        May 2, The International Criminal Court in the Hague said it  has issued arrest warrants for the Sudanese government's humanitarian affairs minister and a janjaweed militia leader suspected of committing war crimes in Darfur.
    (AP, 5/2/07)

2007        May 18, In the Netherlands a 400-pound gorilla escaped from his enclosure and ran amok in a Rotterdam zoo, biting one woman, dragging her around, and causing panic among dozens of visitors before he was finally subdued.
    (AP, 5/18/07)

2007        May 26, The newly installed Dutch government said some 25,000 asylum-seekers whose applications for refuge were rejected will be allowed to stay, reversing the previous administration's hardline immigration policy. The amnesty will apply to asylum-seekers who arrived before April 1, 2001 and were found not to qualify but who remained in the country anyway.
    (AP, 5/26/07)

2007        May 30, It was reported that  coffee shops licensed to sell marijuana in the southern Dutch city of Maastricht will begin fingerprinting customers and scanning their IDs this summer to help prove they're following rules governing such sales.
    (AP, 5/30/07)

2007        May 31, The Dutch news agency ANP reported that almost half of Rotterdam's coffee shops will be forced to stop selling cannabis because they are too close to secondary schools.
    (AP, 5/31/07)

2007        Jun 3, Some 2,000 men and women participated in a series of four nude group photos in Amsterdam in the early hours of the morning as part of the latest project of US photographer Spencer Tunick.
    (AP, 6/3/07)
2007        Jun 3, Pope Benedict XVI named four new saints from France, Malta, the Netherlands and Poland at a ceremony in St. Peter's Square. Among those honored was Sister Marie Eugenie de Jesus Milleret, a French nun who in 1839 founded the Religious of the Assumption to educate young girls; the Rev. George Preca of Malta, who founded the Society of Christian Doctrine in 1932 as a group of lay people who teach the faith to others; the Rev. Szymon z Lipnicy of Poland, a Franciscan monk who comforted Poles afflicted by the plague that broke out in Krakow from 1482-83 and died of it himself; and the Rev. Charles of St. Andrew (Dublin), who was born Karel Van Sint Andries Houben in the Netherlands in 1821.
    (AP, 6/3/07)

2007        Jun 4, Thousands of survivors of Europe's worst massacre since World War II filed a lawsuit against the UN and the Dutch government for their failure to protect civilians in the Srebrenica safe haven when Bosnian Serb forces overran it in 1995 and slaughtered some 8,000 men.
    (AP, 6/4/07)

2007        Jun 6, It was reported that Dutch students have developed powdered alcohol which they say can be sold legally to minors. The latest innovation in inebriation, called Booz2Go, is available in 20-gramme packets that cost 1-1.5 euros ($1.35-$2). Alcohol powder, classified as a flavoring, was sold in the United States three years ago.
    (Reuters, 6/6/07)

2007        Jun 11, In the Netherlands an international conference on endangered species banned almost all trade in sawfish, large shark-like rays, whose long snouts bristling with teeth are in high demand among collectors.
    (AP, 6/11/07)

2007        Jun 12, In the Netherlands the Yugoslav war crimes tribunal convicted Milan Martic (52), a wartime leader of Croatia's rebel Serbs, of murder, torture and persecution and sentenced him to 35 years in prison for the 1991-1995 brutal ethnic cleansing campaign of non-Serbs in Croatia.
    (AP, 6/12/07)(WSJ, 6/13/07, p.A1)

2007        Jun 14, In the Netherlands four African states (South Africa, Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe), after an 18-year ban, were allowed to put their ivory stocks on the market in a one-time sale as part of a hard-fought compromise reached with other Africans who tried to block the sale. The 171-member Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, or CITES, approved the deal by consensus.
    (AP, 6/14/07)

2007        Jun 20, A Dutch government-funded agency said China has overtaken the United States as the top emitter of carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas, because of surging energy use amid an economic boom. However consumption and emission levels per head remained a mere fraction of Americau0092s.
    (AP, 6/20/07)(Econ, 6/13/09, p.45)

2007        Jun 25, In the Netherlands former Liberian president Charles Taylor boycotted the resumption of his war crimes trial.
    (AP, 6/25/07)

2007        Jul 12, Authorities announced a major crackdown on organized crime in Amsterdam's Red Light District, for the first time bringing national police investigators and tax authorities to bear on what had long been seen as a local problem.
    (AP, 7/13/07)

2007        Aug 2, In the Netherlands Unilever, the Anglo-Dutch maker of consumer goods and food products, announced that it would cut 20,000 jobs worldwide, 11 percent of its total workforce, over the next four years.
    (AP, 8/2/07)

2007        Aug 10, A Dutch cruise ship rescued 14 African migrants after their boat capsized in rough Mediterranean waters as they tried to reach Europe, while authorities searched for 11 other passengers who were feared drowned.
    (AP, 8/11/07)

2007        Aug 13, AkzoNobel, a Dutch chemicals group under Hans Wijers, made a cash offer for the British firm ICI (Imperial Chemical Industries) under John McAdam for $16 billion. The deal turned Akzo into the worldu0092s biggest maker of paints.
    (Econ, 10/04/08, p.72)(www.ici.com/main/cms/cmRender.asp?i=2162)

2007        Aug 17, The UN announced that the Netherlands has agreed to host the tribunal that will prosecute suspects in the assassination of former Lebanese PM Rafik Hariri.
    (AP, 8/17/07)

2007        Aug 27, An official said the Dutch government will spend $38 million over the next four years to prevent both the growth of Islamic fundamentalism and right-wing nationalism.
    (AP, 8/27/07)

2007        Aug 28, Jose Maria Sison (68), a Philippine communist leader, accused of commanding a rebel uprising from exile for more than 20 years was arrested by Dutch police in Utrecht on suspicion of ordering the murder of two former allies in his home country. He was accused of ordering the killings in 2003 and 2004 of Romulo Kintanar and Arturo Tabara, who were gunned down in the Philippines.
    (AP, 8/29/07)

2007        Aug, Dutch schools were forced to offer afternoon child-care following a government effort to get house-bound Dutch mothers to work.
    (Econ, 9/8/07, p.55)

2007        Sep 8, In the Netherlands Carlos Hartmann (41), of Tecumseh, Mich., killed Thijs Geers (22), a Dutch student, on a train platform in the southern city of Roosendaal. Hartmann hoped to punish the Netherlands for its government's support of the war in Iraq and confessed to axing the student to death after failing to find a soldier to kill.
    (AP, 9/11/07)

2007        Sep 26, Erik Hazelhoff Roelfzema (b.1917), the Dutch World War II resistance hero better known as the "Soldier of Orange," died at his home in Hawaii. His fame in the Netherlands leaped after he published his book, "Soldaat van Oranje" (Soldier of Orange) in 1971. He became known outside the country after the book was made into a film of the same name by director Paul Verhoeven in 1977, starring Rutger Hauer in the title role.
    (AP, 9/29/07)(SFC, 10/9/07, p.B4)

2007        Oct 3, A Dutch court rejected a prosecution appeal against the release of Philippine communist leader Jose Maria Sison, accused of being involved in murders in the Philippines.
    (AFP, 10/3/07)

2007        Oct 4, Dutch authorities said their customs officers had found 100 dead beetles stuffed with cocaine whilst examining a parcel from Peru.
    (Reuters, 10/4/07)

2007        Oct 12, The Netherlands said it will ban the sale of hallucinogenic mushrooms, rolling back one element of the country's permissive drug policy after a teenager on a school visit jumped to her death after taking the narcotic.
    (AP, 10/12/07)

2007        Oct 13, Dutch police arrested 11 Greenpeace activists who boarded a cargo ship to stop it unloading newsprint paper they suspected was made from ancient trees felled in Canadian forests.
    (AP, 10/13/07)

2007        Oct 8, A consortium of Belgian, Scotch and Spanish banks announced that shareholders of ABN AMRO, a Dutch bank, had accepted a $101 billion offer in the worldu0092s biggest banking transaction ever.
    (Econ, 10/13/07, p.17)

2007        Oct 30, Nordin Benallal (27), a Belgian gangster dubbed "The Eel" for his skill at slipping away from Belgian prison authorities, was caught in the Netherlands two days after his latest jailbreak.
    (AP, 10/31/07)

2007        Nov 26, High school students clashed with riot police in Amsterdam and demonstrated in cities across the Netherlands to protest a national increase in classroom hours.
    (AP, 11/26/07)
2007        Nov 26, Amsterdam based Royal Philips Electronics announced the purchase of Genlyte Group, based in Louisville, Kentucky, for $2.7 billion. The deal made Philips the biggest lighting firm in the American market.
    (www.newscenter.philips.com/about/news/press/20071126.page)

2007        Nov, Geert Wilders, Dutch member of Parliament, revealed plans to air on television an expose of the wickedness of the Koran.
    (Econ, 2/9/08, p.57)

2007        Dec 12, The UN Yugoslav war crimes tribunal at The Hague sentenced former Bosnian Serb general Dragomir Milosevic (b.1942) to 33 years imprisonment for the shelling of Sarajevo during the Bosnian war, one of the court's toughest sentences. In 2009 UN judges trimmed the sentence from 33 to 29 years but upheld his convictions for leading troops who terrorized Sarajevo with a deadly rain of shells and sniper bullets.
    (AP, 12/12/07)(AP, 11/12/09)

2007        Ayaan Hirsi Ali (b.1969), Somalia born writer and resident at the American Enterprise Institute in Washington DC, authored her autobiography u0093Infidel.u0094 In the Netherlands it was published under the title u0093My Freedom.u0094
    (WSJ, 2/3/07, p.P12)(Econ, 2/10/07, p.87)
2007        The Netherlands launched its u00802.3 billion u0093Room for the Riveru0094 project in an effort to make the country more resilient to flooding.
    (Econ, 1/14/12, p.62)

2008        Jan 12, In southern Afghanistan Dutch troops killed two of their own men during a nighttime battle in Uruzgan province, and separately two allied Afghan soldiers they mistook for enemies. About 1,650 Dutch troops were deployed in Uruzgan as part of the NATO mission there. 14 Dutch troops have died since their mission began last year.
    (AP, 1/13/08)

2008        Feb 5, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, a guru to the Beatles who introduced the West to transcendental meditation, died at his home in the Dutch town of Vlodrop.
    (AP, 2/6/08)(Econ, 2/16/08, p.95)

2008        Mar 11, Three generals regarded as national heroes in Croatia went on trial at the Hague, accused of orchestrating the killing of at least 150 Serbs in a 1995 military campaign that unleashed widespread murder and pillage.
    (AP, 3/11/08)

2008        Mar 13, The Dutch parliament voted unanimously to outlaw bestiality and pornography involving animals.
    (AP, 3/14/08)

2008        Mar 15, Alitalia, Italyu0092s state-owned national airline, accepted a takeover offer worth $217 made by air France-KLM, a French-Dutch airline group. The Italian government accepted the offer on March 17.
    (Econ, 3/22/08, p.73)

2008        Mar 20, In the Netherlands a new attraction officially opened in Oegstgeest called Corpus. The $31 million project organized led by businessman Henri Remmers featured a 115-foot seated human shape on the outside and large-scale exhibits of the human anatomy inside.
    (SSFC, 4/6/08, p.E7)

2008        Mar 23, Network Solutions, an American network provider, said it had suspended a website that Dutch MP Geert Wilders had reserved to post his anti-Islamic film, which has sparked wide condemnation and fears of a backlash.
    (AP, 3/23/08)

2008        Mar 27, Geert Wilders, a Dutch lawmaker, released his 15-minute film u0093Fitna,u0094 which linked verses of the Koran to violent images from terrorist attacks.
    (SFC, 3/28/08, p.A4)

2008        Mar 31, Malaysia's Islamic opposition party delivered a protest note to the Netherlands' embassy over the release of an anti-Islam movie by a maverick Dutch lawmaker, while hard-line Muslims in neighboring Indonesia demanded the death of the filmmaker.
    (AP, 3/31/08)

2008        Apr 3, Alitalia edged closer to bankruptcy protection after Air France-KLM abruptly broke off talks to buy the struggling national airline and Alitalia's chairman of seven months resigned in frustration.
    (AP, 4/3/08)
2008        Apr 3, The UN tribunal in The Hague, Netherlands, ruled that there was not enough evidence to convict former Kosovo PM Ramush Haradinaj of murder, torture and rape of Serbs and non-Albanians during the Kosovo war.
    (AP, 4/4/08)

2008        Apr 18, In Afghanistan the son of the Netherlands' top military officer was killed by a roadside bomb, the day after his father assumed command of the Dutch armed forces.
    (AP, 4/18/08)

2008        Apr 29, The International Criminal Court in The Hague published an arrest warrant for Bosco Ntaganda (35), known as "the Terminator," a Congo militia leader wanted for allegedly using child soldiers.
    (Reuters, 4/29/08)

2008        May 23, The International Court of Justice awarded Singapore sovereignty over a disputed island at the eastern entrance of the Singapore Straits. The ICJ ruled in favor of Singapore in the 28-year dispute with Malaysia over a tiny but strategic uninhabited island the size of half a football field. The court, however, gave Malaysia ownership of a smaller uninhabited outcropping. Sovereignty over a third disputed cluster of rocks was left to be determined later between the countries when they sort our their territorial waters.
    (AP, 5/23/08)

2008        May 25, The Amiya Scan, a Dutch freighter, was hijacked by pirates off the coast of Somalia. The ship and its crew of 4 Russians and 5 Filipinos were freed on June 25.
    (AP, 6/26/08)

2008        May 26, Dutch scientists claimed they have completed the first sequencing of an individual woman's DNA.
    (AP, 5/26/08)

2008        Jun 5, Dutch police arrested Aqueel Ur Rehman Abbasi, a 26-year-old Pakistani man, sought in Spain on terrorism charges. He was arrested in his prison cell in Vught where he was being held by the immigration and naturalization services.
    (AFP, 6/6/08)

2008        Jul 1, A smoking ban went into effect in cafes, restaurants and bars across the Netherlands, as the country joins a growing list of European countries to tighten rules on tobacco use in public places. Smoking marijuana in the Netherlands' infamous "coffee shops" is still permitted under the new law, as long the drug is not mixed with tobacco.
    (AFP, 7/1/08)

2008        Jul 2, Deutsche Bank acquired the Dutch corporate banking arm of ABN AMRO from Fortis, a Benelux bank, for $1.1 billion in cash.
    (Econ, 7/12/08, p.83)

2008        Jul 3, Former Congolese rebel leader Jean-Pierre Bemba arrived in the Netherlands to face war crimes charges before the International Criminal Court.
    (AP, 7/3/08)

2008        Jul 11, In the Netherlands health authorities announced a Dutch woman, infected during a holiday to Uganda by the contagious Marburg virus, had died overnight. The Marburg virus is similar to Ebola and causes heavy bleeding. About 100 people who may have had contact with the woman were under surveillance.
    (AFP, 7/11/08)

2008        Jul 30, Former Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic sat in a UN jail cell after being flown to the Netherlands in the dead of night to face charges of genocide against Muslims and Croats during the Balkan wars of the 1990s.
    (AP, 7/30/08)

2008        Aug 12, Georgia's Pres. Mikhail Saakashvili said his government will declare that its breakaway regions are occupied territories and will designate Russian peacekeepers as occupying forces. Russia ordered a halt to military action in Georgia, after five days of air and land attacks sent Georgia's army into headlong retreat and left towns and military bases destroyed. More than 2,000 people were reported killed. A Dutch television journalist was killed overnight when Russian warplanes bombed the central Georgian city of Gori. Russia later counted 133 civilian deaths in South Ossetia. Rights activists later said fewer than 100 civilians were killed in South Ossetia.
    (AP, 8/12/08)(Econ, 8/23/08, p.43)(WSJ, 9/12/08, p.A1)

2008        Aug 19, The Dutch Navy and a squad of US Coast Guard raiders seized 4.6 tons (4,200 kilograms) of cocaine from a Panamanian-flagged freighter that had set sail from Venezuela. The freighter was boarded on Aug 17 and it took 36 hours of searching to find the drugs.
    (AP, 8/23/08)

2008        Aug 23, Italian police said a gang of men badly beat a Dutch couple and raped the woman while they camped in an isolated field outside Rome during a cycling tour of Europe. The attackers also stole some US$2,200.
    (AP, 8/23/08)

2008        Sep 9, The Iraqi oil ministry said Anglo-Dutch energy giant Royal Dutch Shell has agreed to a gas joint venture with Iraq worth up to four billion dollars, becoming the first Western oil major to gain access to the violence-wracked country's vast energy reserves.
    (AP, 9/9/08)

2008        Sep 10, A Dutch court dismissed a bid by Bosnian Muslim survivors of the 1995 Srebrenica massacre to hold the Netherlands liable for its troops' failure to protect the so-called safe haven.
    (AP, 9/10/08)

2008        Mar 26, TimeRime BV was founded by Marijn Bom, Jaap Joziasse, Gerard Pastwa and Pico Wilbrenninck, as a spin-off of the Dutch webdevelopment company Hoppinger.com.
    (www.timerime.com/)

2008        Sep 28, The governments of Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg took partial control of struggling bank Fortis NV.
    (AP, 9/29/08)

2008        Oct 15, The Shell Anglo-Dutch group said a Nigerian court has ordered it to hand over land around its giant Bonny oil terminal to the local population, a key demand of armed rebels in the volatile region. Shell said ruling was given some months ago but we have appealed.
    (AFP, 10/15/08)

2008        Nov 1, In southern Afghanistan Dutch Major General Mart de Kruif replaced Canadian Major General Marc Lessard as head of 19,000 mostly British, Canadian, Dutch and US NATO-led soldiers of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF).
    (AP, 11/1/08)

2008        Nov 7, An environmentalist group and four Nigerians filed suit against Royal Dutch Shell PLC in the Netherlands, claiming the company was negligent in cleaning up oil spills in Nigeria.
    (AP, 11/7/08)

2008        Nov 21, Amsterdam said it will order the closure of dozens of coffee shops that sell cannabis near schools in accordance with new legislation.
    (AP, 11/21/08)

2008        Nov 22, Dutch electronics giant Philips said it will cut "about five percent" of its 32,000 strong workforce in the medical division worldwide, affecting 1,600 workers.
    (AP, 11/22/08)

2008        Dec 6, Amsterdam unveiled plans to close brothels, sex shops and marijuana cafes in its ancient city center as part of a major effort to drive organized crime out of the tourist haven.
    (AP, 12/6/08)

2008        Dec 19, Three Danish soldiers and one from the Netherlands were killed in separate incidents in Afghanistan, losing their lives just as the commitment of some countries to the fight in Afghanistan begins to wane.
    (AP, 12/19/08)

2008        In the Netherlands Saban Baran (38) was convicted of leading a gang notorious for forcing more than 100 women into prostitution, tattooing some of them to mark them as the gang's property. Prosecutors also say some women who came from Germany and eastern Europe were forced to have breast implants and illegal abortions while working in brothels in Amsterdam and other Dutch cities. In 2009 he fled while on a temporarily release from prison, where he was serving a 7½ year term, to visit his wife and newborn baby.
    (AP, 9/17/09)

2009        Jan 5, Ahmed Aboutaleb (47), a Moroccan immigrant, was installed as mayor of Rotterdam, the Netherlands' second largest city, in a move hailed as a significant step for the integration of minorities in the European Union nation.
    (AP, 1/5/09)

2009        Jan 19, The International Court of Justice at The Hague ruled that the United States defied its order when authorities in Texas on Aug 5, 2008, executed a Mexican convicted of rape and murder.
    (AP, 1/19/09)

2009        Jan 21, Germany banned the production, sale or possession of a synthetic marijuana-like drug known as "Spice," effective as of Jan 22, becoming the 4th nation to ban the substance, marketed as an herbal room-freshener, after Austria, the Netherlands and Switzerland.
    (AP, 1/21/09)

2009        Jan 26, In the Netherlands the first-ever trial of the International Criminal Court began at The Hague with Thomas Lubanga, a Congolese militia commander, denying he committed war crimes by recruiting hundreds of child soldiers to kill and rape.
    (AP, 1/26/09)

2009        Feb 10, The British government banned Dutch right-wing lawmaker Geert Wilders from visiting the country to show his anti-Islam film "Fitna" at the Houses of Parliament. In a telephone interview Wilders called the government's decision "cowardly" and vowed to defy it.
    (AP, 2/10/09)

2009        Feb 11, Judges at the Yugoslav war crimes tribunal voted to suspend the trial of ultranationalist Serb leader Vojislav Seselj after the prosecution said its case was being undermined by witness intimidation. The decision came after 71 prosecution witnesses had already been heard and with only a handful still to testify.
    (AP, 2/11/09)

2009        Feb 23, Swedish power company Vattenfall said it had made a friendly 8.5-billion-euro (10.9-billion-dollar) offer for Nuon of the Netherlands in a takeover aimed at creating one of Europe's biggest energy groups.
    (AP, 2/23/09)

2009        Feb 25, A Turkish Airlines plane with 135 people aboard slammed into a muddy field while attempting to land at Amsterdam's main airport. Nine people were killed and more than 50 were injured, many in serious condition.
    (AP, 2/25/09)

2009        Feb 26,  At The Hague UN judges in the Yugoslav war crimes tribunal acquitted former Serb President Milan Milutinovic of ordering a deadly campaign of terror by Serb forces against Kosovo Albanians in 1999. The court convicted five other senior Serbs and gave them prison sentences of between 15 and 22 years. The marathon trial started July 10, 2006.
    (AP, 2/26/09)

2009        Mar 4, The International Criminal Court at The Hague issued an arrest warrant for Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur. He is the first sitting head of state the court has ordered arrested. The French medical aid organization Doctors Without Borders (MSF) said it was pulling staff out of Darfur after the Sudanese government ordered them to leave. Sudan ordered at least 10 humanitarian groups expelled from Darfur.
    (AP, 3/4/09)(AFP, 3/4/09)

2009        Mar 12, Dutch police arrested Giovanni Strangio (30), an Italian man wanted for the August 15, 2007, mob killings of six people in the western German city of Duisburg.
    (AP, 3/13/09)

2009        Mar 17, In the Netherlands the UN criminal tribunal for the former Yugoslavia reduced the jail sentence of Bosnian Serb leader Momcilo Krajisnik from 27 to 20 years, quashing some convictions from a 2006 judgment.
    (AP, 3/17/09)

2009        Mar 23, In the Netherlands Joseph Mpambara (40), a Hutu man, was convicted and sentenced to 20 years in prison for the slaying of two Tutsi mothers and at least four of their children during Rwanda's 1994 genocide. The Hague District Court acquitted Mpambara of involvement in the massacre of hundreds of other Tutsis who had sought shelter in a church. He was also acquitted of raping four women and killing one of them in a separate incident.
    (AP, 3/23/09)

2009        Mar 30, Malaysia's national car maker Proton and Detroit Electric, a Dutch-based company, signed a $555 million deal to make zero emission electric cars that they said would be more powerful that any existing model.
    (AP, 3/30/09)

2009        Mar 31, At the Hague Afghan President Hamid Karzai and US Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton offered an olive branch to Taliban fighters who reject al-Qaida and pressed an international conference for help in strengthening Afghanistan's security forces.
    (AP, 3/31/09)
2009        Mar 31, In Yemen Jan and Heleen Janszen, a Dutch couple, were kidnapped in a suburb of Sanaa and taken to a mountainous area near the capital. They were released on April 14 after Yemen's government paid more than a quarter million dollars in ransom.
    (AFP, 3/31/09)(SFC, 4/1/09, p.A2)(AP, 4/14/09)

2009        Apr 6, German Chancellor Angela Merkel made an unannounced visit to northern Afghanistan to meet with her country's troops and view rebuilding efforts. She pressed President Karzai to review carefully a new law that critics say legalizes marital rape. In southern Afghanistan an insurgent rocket attack hit the Netherlands' main military base, killing one Dutch soldier and wounding 5 of his colleagues and 2 Afghan soldiers.
    (AP, 4/6/09)

2009        Apr 10, In the Netherlands a man (44) pulled a gun in Rotterdamu0092s Laurenshof cafe after an argument and shot a patron inside, then rushed outside where he shot three more people. Several people chased the gunman when he ran outside, overpowered and disarmed him, and wrestled him to the ground until police arrived.
    (AP, 4/11/09)

2009        Apr 18, Somali pirates attacked two ships off the Horn of Africa, seizing the Belgian-flagged Pompei carrying 10 crew. NATO forces intervened in the other assault, chasing the pirates down. Dutch commandos then freed 20 fishermen on a Yemeni dhow hijacked earlier. Seven pirates attempted to attack the Norwegian-flagged MV Front Ardenne but fled after crew took evasive maneuvers and alerted warships in the area. NATO warships and helicopters pursued the Somali pirates for seven hours after they attacked the tanker, and the high-speed chase only ended when warning shots were fired at the pirates' skiff. NATO forces boarded the skiff, where they found a rocket-propelled grenade, and interrogated, disarmed and released the pirates. The Pompei and its crew were released on June 28.
    (AP, 4/18/09)(AP, 4/19/09)(AP, 6/28/09)

2009        Apr 29, Lebanon released four generals held for nearly four years in the 2005 truck-bomb assassination of former PM Rafik Hariri after a UN-backed tribunal in the Netherlands ordered them freed, setting off celebrations with fireworks and dancing.
    (AP, 4/29/09)

2009        Apr 30, In the Netherlands 5 people died when a car slammed into a crowd at the Queen's Day festival attended by members of the royal family in the western city of Apeldoorn. A policeman as well as the assailant died the next day from their injuries. The suspect was identified by Dutch media as Karst Tates (38). Neighbors said Tates recently was fired from his job as a security guard and was to be evicted from his home in the small eastern town of Huissen because he could no longer afford the rent. An injured woman died a week later bringing the total to 7 victims.
    (AFP, 4/30/09)(AP, 5/1/09)(AP, 5/9/09)

2009        May 1, In the Netherlands robbers at the Scheringa Museum for Realism in Spanbroek stole "Adolescence," a 1941 gouache by Salvadore Dali and "La Musicienne," an oil painting from 1929 by Polish-born art deco painter Tamara de Lempicka. The museum houses the art collection of wealthy Dutch banker Dirk Scheringa and his wife.
    (AP, 5/2/09)

2009        May 7, Somali pirates captured the Netherlands Antilles-flagged MV Marathon in the Gulf of Aden. The ship listed 19 Ukrainian crew members. One of the crew members died from a gun shot wound. On June 23 the Dutch Defense Ministry reported that the ship was released.
    (AP, 5/7/09)(AP, 6/23/09)

2009        May 11, In the Netherlands thieves pried open the emergency door of the IJsselstein City Museum near Utrecht. They made off with six 17th- and 19th-century landscape paintings, the second major art heist in 10 days in the Netherlands.
    (AP, 5/12/09)

2009        May 15, Hugh Van Es (67), a Dutch photojournalist, died in Hong Kong. He covered the Vietnam War and recorded the most famous image of the fall of Saigon in 1975, a group of people scaling a ladder to a CIA helicopter on a rooftop.
    (AP, 5/15/09)

2009        May 17, The International Criminal Court said Bahr Idriss Abu Garda, a Sudanese rebel leader, has turned himself in to face war crimes charges for an attack that killed 12 African Union peacekeepers in Darfur in September 2007.
    (AP, 5/17/09)

2009        Jun 4, About 375 million voters across the 27-nation European Union began 4 days of voting, to appoint candidates to 736 seats on the assembly in the second-largest election in the world after India's. Voting began in Britain and the Netherlands.
    (AP, 6/4/09)

2009        Jun 7, Zimbabwe PM Morgan Tsvangirai launched a three-week trip to the West. He spoke at The Hague saying he is seeking re-engagement, not touring with a "begging bowl" asking for aid. Pres. Robert Mugabe launched a new pact aimed at tearing down trade barriers across 19 African nations with appeals for external investors and an end to domestic conflicts.
    (AP, 6/7/09)(AFP, 6/7/09)

2009        Jun 15, The Hague-based International Criminal Court ordered former Congolese rebel warlord Jean-Pierre Bemba to stand trial on charges of crimes against humanity and war crimes, including murder, rape and pillaging.
    (Reuters, 6/16/09)

2009        Jun 30, The Dutch Supreme Court upheld the war crimes conviction of businessman Frans van Anraat for selling chemicals to Iraq, which were turned into poison gas and unleashed in 1988 by the regime of Saddam Hussein on Kurds and Iranians. The court shaved six months off Anraatu0092s 17-year sentence because his case took so long.
    (AP, 6/30/09)

2009        Jul 20, A UN war crimes court in the Hague convicted Milan Lukic and Sredoje Lukic, two Bosnian Serb cousins, for a "callous" 1992 killing spree that included locking scores of Muslims in two houses and burning them alive in Visegrad. He sentenced Milan to life in prison and Sredoje to 30 years.
    (AP, 7/20/09)

2009        Aug 28, Iceland's parliament approved a controversial deal to pay back billions of euros (dollars) lost by British and Dutch savers in the collapse of the online Icesave bank. The deal provided for the payment of 3.8 billion euros by 2023 to the British and Dutch governments for the compensation they forked out to disgruntled savers.
    (AFP, 8/28/09)

2009        Sep 2, Dutch prosecutors said they will charge an Arab cultural group under hate speech laws for publishing a cartoon that suggests the death of 6 million Jews during World War II is a fabrication.
    (AP, 9/2/09)

2009        Sep 15, In the Netherlands the Yugoslav war crimes tribunal announced it has approved the early release from prison of former Bosnian Serb President Biljana Plavsic (79) after she served two-thirds of her 11-year sentence for persecution.
    (AP, 9/15/09)

2009        Sep 20, Trafigura, a Netherlands-based oil trading company, said it has agreed to a settlement with people who claim they fell ill after a tanker dumped hundreds of tons of waste around the Ivory Coast's main city of Abidjan in 2006. Trafigura paid Ivory Coast's government euro152 million (US$197 million) in 2007 to assist in cleaning up the waste without admitting responsibility.
    (AP, 9/20/09)

2009        Oct 14, A hot air balloon crashed in a southern Chinese resort town with dramatic limestone formations, killing four Dutch tourists.
    (AP, 10/14/09)

2009        Oct 27, At The Hague Radovan Karadzic boycotted his UN trial for a second day while prosecutors began outlining their genocide case against the former Bosnian Serb leader.
    (AP, 10/27/09)

2009        Oct 30, ING, the biggest bank in the Netherlands, said that it would dismember itself by splitting its banking and insurance business and selling its American online banking arm.
    (Econ, 10/31/09, p.85)

2009        Nov 1, Mohamud Said Omar (43) was arrested at the request of US authorities in an asylum seeker's center in Dronten, Netherlands. US authorities suspected Omar of bankrolling the purchase of weapons for Islamic extremists and helping other Somalis travel to Somalia in 2007 and 2008. He had a US green card and was also suspected of recruiting youth in Minneapolis for Islamic terrorism in Somalia.
    (AP, 11/13/09)

2009        Nov 5, In the Netherlands the UN war crimes tribunal decided that former Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic will be appointed a lawyer to represent him whenever he fails to appear in court.
    (AP, 11/5/09)
2009        Nov 5, A consortium grouping US and European oil giants Exxon Mobil Corp. and Royal Dutch Shell PLC signed a $50 billion deal to develop one of Iraq's most prized oil fields, as the OPEC nation looks to revamp its battered energy sector. The deal to develop the 8.6 billion West Qurna Stage 1 field is the third such agreement in less than a week between a foreign oil consortium and Iraq, which sorely needs foreign company expertise and funding to revive an oil sector hammered by years of neglect, sanctions and, most recently sabotage.
    (AP, 11/5/09)

2009        Nov 13, The Dutch government announced to bring the polluter-pays principle into the home garage. As of 2012 rather than an annual road tax for their cars, drivers will pay a few cents for every kilometer on the road, in a plan aimed at breaking chronic traffic jams and cutting carbon emissions.
    (AP, 11/14/09)

2009        Nov 18, The United States attended a meeting of the International Criminal Court's management board at The Hague for the first time in a sign it has stopped shunning the world's only permanent war crimes tribunal.
    (AP, 11/18/09)

2009        Nov 23, UOP LLC, a Honeywell company, announced today that its renewable jet fuel process technology was used to convert second-generation, renewable feedstocks to green jet fuel for a biofuel demonstration flight by KLM Royal Dutch Airlines.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yb877n3)(SFC, 11/24/09, p.A2)

2009        Dec 2, Turkish diplomat Ahmet Uzumcu was elected to be director of the 188-nation Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, based in The Hague. He takes over next July. He said that he will pursue the last seven holdouts (Angola, Egypt, Israel, North Korean, Myanmar, Somalia and Syria) to get them to sign a disarmament treaty and submit weapons stockpiles for inspection.
    (AP, 12/3/09)
2009        Dec 2, Somali pirates on speedboats tried to board the Antigua and Barbuda-flagged BBC Togo, but were repelled after firing on the vessel. 13 pirates then fled to a larger fishing boat 150 nautical miles (280km) south of Salalah where a Dutch frigate captured them.
    (AP, 12/3/09)

2009        Dec 4, Amsterdam City councilwoman Marijke Vos planted a sapling, in the Amsterdamse Bos park. It was derived from a 150-year-old chestnut tree that once cheered Anne Frank as her family hid from the Nazis. 149 Others will be planted around the world.
    (AP, 12/4/09)

2009        Dec 20, Dutch sports carmaker Spyker said it has made a new bid for Sweden's Saab Automobile, two days after General Motors said it would close the loss-making unit.
    (AFP, 12/20/09)

2009        Dec 30, The Netherlands announced it will immediately begin using full body scanners for flights heading to the United States, issuing a report that called the failed Christmas Day airline bombing a "professional" terror attack.
    (AP, 12/30/09)

2009        Luuk van Middelaar, Dutch political philosopher, authored u0093The Passage to Europe: How a Continent Became a Union.u0094 In 2012 it won the European Book Prize. In 2013 it came out in English.
    (Econ, 5/25/13, p.86)
2009        In the Netherlands actor and comedian Herman Koch authored his novel u0093The Dinner.u0094 It went on to sell over 1 million copies in 24 countries and in 2012 became available in English.
    (Econ, 8/11/12, p.72)
2009        In the Netherlands 6 people died this year from Q-fever. Some 2,300 had become infected by Coxiella burnetti, the infectious bug responsible for the disease. The bug is released into the air during birthing or miscarriages by infected goats. 40,000 pregnant goats were slated to be destroyed in early 2010.
    (Econ, 1/9/10, p.52)

2010        Jan 11, Dutch brewer Heineken said it will buy the beer-making operations of Mexicou0092s Femsa, the maker of Dos Equis and Sol beers, in an all-share deal valued at $5.5 billion, excluding debt.
    (SFC, 1/12/10, p.D3)

2010        Jan 13, Edgar Vos (78), "the emperor of Dutch fashion," died of a heart attack while on vacation in Florida. Vos built a chain of 15 stores across the Netherlands, where he sold designer clothes cut to bring out the best from all figures and tailored to most budgets.
    (AP, 1/14/10)

2010        Jan 21, A Dutch airlift brought 106 children from quake-ravaged Haiti to new lives in the Netherlands and Luxembourg, as anxious families waited to hug children they had been in the process of adopting for months.
    (AP, 1/21/10)

2010        Jan 26, General Motors agreed to sell Saab, its Swedish subsidiary, to Spyker Cars, a Dutch maker of sports cars, for $74 million in cash and preference shares worth $326 million.
    (Econ, 1/30/10, p.76)

2010        Feb 3, At The Hague appeals judges said the International Criminal Court was wrong when it decided that Sudan's Pres. Omar al-Bashir can't be charged with genocide in Darfur. The unprecedented ruling could lead al-Bashir's indictment with humanity's worst crime.
    (AP, 2/3/10)

2010        Feb 16, Royal Dutch Shell PLC said it was freezing executive pay and revamping bonus policy in the wake of a shareholder rebellion at its annual meeting last year.
    (AP, 2/16/10)

2010        Feb 20, The Dutch coalition government collapsed over whether to extend the country's military mission in Afghanistan, leaving the future of its 1,600 soldiers fighting there uncertain. An early election is now expected.
    (AP, 2/20/10)

2010        Mar 1, Daniel Houghton (25), a former MI6 spy, was arrested after British intelligence posed as the potential buyer of top secret files on intelligence gathering techniques. Prosecutor Piers Arnold later said Houghton, who is a dual Dutch and British national, is accused of copying top secret files from the domestic agency MI5 to CD and DVDs while working for the MI6 overseas intelligence service between September 2007 and May 2009. On Sep 3, 2010, Houghton was sentenced to one year in prison. He was expected to walk free as he has already spent 184 days in custody.
    (AP, 3/3/10)(AFP, 9/3/10)

2010        Mar 5, Dutch anti-Islam maverick Geert Wilders (46) took his cinematic assault on the Quran to Britain's House of Lords, sparking heated debate inside the building and angry protests outside. Wilders screened his 15-minute film "Fitna" to about 60 people, including a half-dozen peers, in a wood-paneled committee room in Parliament. The film associates the Quran with terrorism, homophobia and repression of women.
    (AP, 3/5/10)

2010        Mar 8, In Australia Royal Dutch Shell and PetroChina joined forces for a 2.96 billion US dollar bid for Australia's Arrow Energy, hoping for a bigger slice of the country's booming liquefied natural gas (LNG) sector.
    (AP, 3/8/10)

2010        Mar 12, A union representing Dutch nurses launched a national campaign against demands for sexual services by patients who claim it should be part of their standard care.
    (Reuters, 3/11/10)

2010        Mar 25, A Netherlands court fined the owner of what was the biggest marijuana-selling "coffee shop" in the country almost euro10 million ($13.34 million) for violating liberal Dutch drug laws, in what is seen as a test for authorities seeking to rein in the growth of such cafes.
    (AP, 3/25/10)

2010        Apr 4, Somali pirates in the Indian Ocean seized the Taipan, a Germany-flagged freighter. The Dutch navy captured 10 Somalis hours after the seizure. In 2012 the Somalis were convicted on piracy charges and sentenced to prison terms of 2-7 years.
    (SFC, 10/20/12, p.A2)

2010        Apr 9, In the Netherlands the Political Reformed Party, known by its Dutch acronym SGP, a fundamentalist Christian political party led entirely by men, was told by the Netherlands' Supreme Court that it must accept women in leadership roles.
    (AP, 4/9/10)

2010        Apr 20, The Dutch Supreme Court overturned the acquittal of Guus Kouwenhoven, a businessman accused of supplying arms to former Liberian strongman Charles Taylor, and ordered a new appeals hearing in the case. He had been convicted in 2006 of breaching a UN arms embargo by trading weapons for timber in Liberia and sentenced to eight years imprisonment, but the conviction was overturned in 2008.
    (AP, 4/20/10)

2010        May 4, Royal Dutch Shell said it spilled nearly 14,000 tons of oil into the creeks of the Niger Delta in 2009 and blamed thieves and militants for the environmental damage.
    (SFC, 5/5/10, p.A2)

2010        May 6, Julio Alberto Poch (57), a pilot who allegedly flew death flights for Argentina's military dictatorship, was extradited from Spain. Spain acted on Argentina's request, arresting him in front of his passengers and family during a stop in Valencia on what was supposed to be his final flight back to the Netherlands before retiring from Transavia.
    (AP, 5/6/10)

2010        May 12, A Libyan Afriqiyah Airways Airbus A330-200 carrying 104 people crashed on approach to Tripoli's airport. Ruben van Assouw, a Dutch boy (9), was the only known survivor. The Royal Dutch Tourism Board said 61 of the dead came from the Netherlands.
    (AP, 5/12/10)(AFP, 5/14/10)

2010        May 19, Royal Dutch Shell PLC announced it will spend more than $2 billion to sharply reduce the burning off of natural gas at its oil wells in Nigeria, gases that when burned contribute to global warming and sicken people living nearby.
    (AP, 5/19/10)

2010        Jun 4, A Dutch court ordered 10 suspected Somali pirates to be extradited to Germany, where Hamburg prosecutors want to charge them with hijacking a German container ship.
    (AP, 6/4/10)

2010        Jun 9, The Netherlands held parliamentary elections. Voters appeared likely to shift the Netherlands to the right in national elections dominated by concerns over the rising national debt and discontent over immigration. Dutch politicians scrambled the next day to sort out who will form the country's next government, after polarized voters backed parties on both the right and the left with very different ideas on budget cuts and Muslim immigration. With 99.5 percent of votes counted, the pro-business VVD led Labor 31 seats to 30 in the 150-seat parliament.
    (AP, 6/9/10)(AP, 6/10/10)

2010        Jun 17, A Dutch court sentenced five Somali pirates, the first to stand trial in Europe, to five years in prison for attacking a Dutch Antilles-flagged ship in 2009.
    (AP, 6/17/10)
2010        Jun 17, Royal Dutch Shell PLC warned Nigeria that $40 billion of planned investments in the oil-rich nation could be in jeopardy if lawmakers pass a proposed bill to overhaul the petroleum industry. Government officials say the bill would allow more oil money  to return to Nigeria's people. The bill also would require the government-run Nigerian National Petroleum Corp., which partners with all foreign oil firms, to seek profits like a private business and not rely on government subsidies.
    (AP, 6/17/10)

2010        Jul 6, Britain's Queen Elizabeth (84) addressed the UN for the first time since1957. The queen's 10-minute speech to a special session of the General Assembly was finished before Netherlands and Uruguay returned to their soccer match in Cape Town. Netherlands moved to the finals after beating Uruguay 3-2.
    (Reuters, 7/6/10)

2010        Jul 9, Prosecutors at the Yugoslav war crimes tribunal in The Hague cited Ratko Mladic's diaries, seized in a raid on his wife's Belgrade home in February, in a motion to reopen the trial of former Bosnian Croat political leader Jadranko Prlic and five other political and military Croat officials that ended two months ago.
    (AP, 7/9/10)

2010        Jul 11, In South Africa Spain beat Holland for socceru0092s World Cup.
    (AP, 7/12/10)

2010        Jul 23, A Dutch court slapped a one million euro fine on Trafigura, a Swiss-based company whose chartered ship dumped hazardous waste the Ivory Coast says killed 17 people on its soil. It was also found guilty of concealing what the charge sheet referred to as the "harmful nature" of the waste on board the Probo Koala ship that arrived at the port of Amsterdam on July 2, 2006, but was redirected to the Ivory Coast.
    (AFP, 7/23/10)

2010        Jul 27, Dutch judges gave the green light for a teenage girl's bid to become the youngest person to sail around the world solo, thwarting a bid to have Laura Dekker (14) kept in child care.
    (AFP, 7/27/10)

2010        Aug 1, Dutch troops ended their mission in Afghanistan after four "proud" years, in a departure experts say signals the beginning of a drawdown of foreign forces that will leave a worrying void. Troops held a "change of command" ceremony at the main military base in central Uruzgan province where most of the country's 1,950 soldiers have been deployed. About 150 Dutch fighting forces were left in country, and they are set to leave next week.
    (AFP, 8/1/10)(AP, 8/1/10)
2010        Aug 1, UNESCO added five cultural sites to its World Heritage List, including the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long-Hanoi in Vietnam. The other new sites include the historic monuments of Dengfeng in China, the archaeological site Sarazm in Tajikistan, the Episcopal city of Albi in France and a 17th-century canal ring in Amsterdam.
    (AP, 8/1/10)

2010        Aug 5, In the Netherlands Naomi Campbell testified before a war crimes tribunal that she had received some "dirty-looking stones" after a 1997 dinner party with former Liberian ruler Charles Taylor. Still, the supermodel said she didn't know if the stones were actually diamonds or if the gift came from Taylor himself. Campbell said that she gave the stones to a friend, Jeremy Ratcliffe, who was the director of the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund, intending he use them for charity.
    (AP, 8/5/10)

2010        Aug 17, Amsterdam police found 7,000 kg of marijuana and hashish in a warehouse near Schiphol Airport in the Netherlands, after arresting a 35-year-old man on suspicion of selling narcotics. The estimated street value was 40 million euros (32.8 million pounds).
    (Reuters, 8/24/10)

2010        Aug 20, Conny Mus (59), a veteran Dutch correspondent in the Middle East who covered conflicts from Romania's revolution to the wars in Iraq, died while on vacation in his home country.
    (AP, 8/20/10)

2010        Aug 21, Laura Dekker, a 14-year-old Dutch sailor, departed in secrecy from Gibraltar on her quest to become the youngest person to sail solo around the world, avoiding the media because her manager said she didn't want the attention.
    (AP, 8/21/10)

2010        Aug 23, In the Netherlands the monumental chestnut tree that cheered Anne Frank while she was in hiding from the Nazis in Amsterdam was toppled by wind and heavy rain.
    (AP, 8/23/10)

2010        Aug 25, Cosan, Brazilu0092s biggest sugar and ethanol producer, signed a $12 billion joint venture with Royal Dutch Shell.
    (Econ, 9/4/10, p.41)

2010        Sep, The FBI and its counterparts in Ukraine, the Netherlands and Britain took down a cyber-theft ring they first got wind of in May 2009 when a financial services firm tipped the bureau's Omaha, Neb., office to suspicious transactions. Since then, the FBI's Operation Trident Breach has uncovered losses of $14 million and counting.
    (AP, 11/22/10)

2010        Oct 1, In the Netherlands more than 100 people protesting the outlawing of squatting at unused buildings clashed with police in Amsterdam's historic center, throwing stones, setting fires and erecting barricades.
    (AP, 10/2/10)

2010        Oct 10, Curacao, St Maarten, Bonaire, Saba and St Eustatius were scheduled to go their own ways. The former Dutch Caribbean colonies of Curacao and St. Maarten became autonomous countries within the Kingdom of the Netherlands in a change of constitutional status dissolving the Netherlands Antilles.
    (Econ, 5/1/10, p.38)(Reuters, 10/10/10)

2010        Oct 14, Dutch Queen Beatrix swore in her country's new right-wing minority Cabinet, ushering in a new era of budgetary austerity and tighter immigration rules.
    (AP, 10/14/10)

2010        Oct 22, In the central Netherlands a collision between the German cargo ship Duisburg Ruhror and a small Dutch passenger ferry on a canal took the life of ferry skipper Hendrik Plomp (56). Divers soon recovered his body.
    (AP, 10/23/10)

2010        Nov 23, Police in Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands arrested at least 10 people on suspicion of planning an Islamist militant attack in Belgium.
    (Reuters, 11/23/10)

2010        Nov 26, The Dutch navy said it has captured 20 suspected pirates off the Somali coast in two operations in the last week and is holding them on a warship on suspicion of involvement in hijacking a South African yacht.
    (AP, 11/26/10)

2010        Nov 28, More than 250,000 classified US State Department documents were released by online whistleblower WikiLeaks. Among the leaked memos was information that Iranian Red Crescent ambulances were used to smuggle weapons to Lebanon's militant Hezbollah group during its 2006 war with Israel. Memos said the "IRC shipments of medical supplies served also to facilitate weapons shipments." Documents also detailed concerns by US officials in Baghdad about Iranu0092s influence on Iraq. Memos also said King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia had repeatedly urged the United States to attack Iran to destroy its nuclear program to stop Tehran from developing a nuclear weapon. One cable revealed that the US kept nuclear weapons in Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany and Turkey.
    (AP, 11/28/10)(Econ, 12/4/10, p.35)

2010        Nov 29, A Sierra Leone-flagged cargo ship, Karam 1, sank after colliding with the Dutch tanker Alessandro DP, 10 miles (16 km) off Cape Emine in the Black Sea. 5 sailors were rescued and 5 were missing.
    (AP, 11/30/10)

2010        Dec 3, The Netherlands' justice minister and five southern Dutch cities said they will implement new restrictions on marijuana cafes after a wave of drug-related gangland violence.
    (AP, 12/3/10)

2010        Dec 7, In the Netherlands a teacher (27) was arrested on suspicion of molesting dozens of very young children. The man's computers containing child pornography were seized and he later confessed to dozens of sex crimes allegedly committed over the past year and a half.
    (AP, 12/13/10)

2010        Dec 9, Netherlands arrested a young hacker who confessed to participating in attacks by WikiLeaks sympathizers on websites, including MasterCard, PayPal and Visa.
    (AP, 12/10/10)

2010        Dec 21, Netherlands-based Royal DSM NV, the worldu0092s largest maker of vitamins, agreed to buy Martek Biosciences, a US maker of nutritional ingredients for baby food, for $1.09 billion.
    (SFC, 12/22/10, p.D3)

2010        Dec 24, Dutch police arrested 12 Somali men in the key port city of Rotterdam on suspicion of preparing a terrorist attack. Dutch authorities on Dec 26 cleared five of the 12 Somali men who were detained Christmas Eve on suspicion of preparing a terrorist attack. By Dec 30 the remaining Somalis were released but 3 were still considered suspect.
    (AP, 12/25/10)(AP, 12/27/10)(AP, 12/30/10)

2011        Jan 2, In Iran Sahra Bahrami, a Dutch-Iranian woman, was sentenced to death for drug smuggling. Bahrami reportedly was arrested in Dec 2009 after taking part in anti-government demonstrations. She also faced trial and the possibility of another death sentence, likely within two months, for allegedly belonging to an armed opposition group.
    (AP, 1/5/11)

2011        Jan 6, In the Netherlands the daily Het Parool reported that prostitutes in Amsterdam will be required to pay taxes this year. Over 3,000 sex workers were affected by the move.
    (SFC, 1/7/11, p.A2)

2011        Jan 26, Environmental groups accused Anglo-Dutch oil giant Shell of destroying lives and the environment in the Niger Delta, and urged Dutch MPs to intervene as the company defended its record.
    (AFP, 1/26/11)

2011        Jan 29, In Iran Zahram Bahrami, an Iranian-Dutch woman detained after participating in protests against Iran's disputed presidential election in 2009, was hanged. She was allegedly hanged for possessing and selling drugs. The Dutch government froze official contacts with Iran to protest the hanging.
    (AP, 1/29/11)(SSFC, 1/30/11, p.A4)

2011        Feb 27, In Libya hundreds of armed anti-government forces backed by rebel troops who control the city closest to the capital Tripoli prepared to repel an expected offensive by forces loyal to Moammar Gadhafi surrounding Zawiya, a city of 200,000. Armed forces loyal to Moammar Gadhafi captured 3 Dutch marines and their helicopter during a botched evacuation mission after landing near Sirte in a Lynx helicopter from the navy ship HMS Tromp.
    (AP, 2/27/11)(AP, 3/3/11)

2011        Mar 2, In the Netherlands prosecutors at the International Criminal Court said they will open a formal investigation into possible crimes against humanity in Libya.
    (AP, 3/2/11)

2011        Mar 11, In the Netherlands the war crimes trial of former Liberian President Charles Taylor, once among West Africa's most powerful figures, ended with judges expected to take months to reach a verdict on whether he can be linked to murders and amputations during Sierra Leone's civil war.
    (AP, 3/11/11)

2011        Apr 3, Dutch marines killed 2 pirates and captured 16 others during an operation to free a hijacked Iranian fishing boat of Somalia.
    (www.dailybulletin.com/ci_17767176)

2011        Apr 8, Netherlandsu0092 officials said the government will cut 12,000 military jobs as part of spending cuts to balance the budget by 2015.
    (SFC, 4/9/11, p.A2)

2011        Apr 9, In the Netherlands Tristan van der Vlis (24), opened fire at the Ridderhof mall in Alphen aan den Rijn with an automatic rifle killing 6 people and wounded least 17 others. He fired more than 100 rounds in a few minutes and ended the rampage by shooting himself fatally in the head.
    (AP, 4/10/11)(AP, 4/11/11)

2011        Apr 15, In the Netherlands Gen. Ante Gotovina (55), a commander hailed by Croats as a hero of the Balkan conflict, was convicted of war crimes by a UN court and sentenced to 24 years in prison for a campaign of shelling, shootings and expulsions aimed at driving Serbs out of a Croatian border region in 1995.
    (AP, 4/15/11)

2011        Apr 23, Max van der Stoel (86), former Dutch human rights watchdog for Iraq and the first High Commissioner on National Minorities at the 54-nation Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), died.
    (AP, 4/24/11)

2011        May 21, In the Netherlands the Salesian order's top official, Delegate Herman Spronck, confirmed in a statement that a priest, identified by RTL Nieuws as 73-year-old "Father Van B.," had served on the board of "Martijn," a group that campaigns to end the Dutch ban on adult-child sex.
    (AP, 5/21/11)

2011        May 27, The Dutch government said it would start banning tourists from buying cannabis from "coffee shops" and impose restrictions on Dutch buyers by the end of the year.
    (Reuters, 5/27/11)

2011        Jun 16, Capital One Financial agreed to pay $9 billion in cash and stock for ING Direct USA, the US subsidiary of ING Group, a Dutch banking and insurance giant.
    (SFC, 12/29/11, p.D6)(http://tinyurl.com/3v6mthz)

2011        Jun 23, A Dutch court acquitted right-wing politician Geert Wilders of hate speech charges finding that his inflammatory comments about Muslims were protected by rules governing discourse in a free society.
    (SFC, 6/24/11, p.A5)

2011        Jun 27, The International Criminal Court in the Netherlands issued arrest warrants for Moammar Gadhafi, his son Seif, and his intelligence chief for crimes against humanity in the Libyan leader's four-month battle to cling to power.
    (AP, 6/27/11)

2011        Jun 28, The Dutch parliament agreed with the Dutch Party for the Animals (pvdD) and passed a bill banning the slaughter of livestock without stunning it first, removing an exemption that has allowed Jews and Muslims to butcher animals according to centuries old dietary rules.
    (SFC, 6/28/11, p.A2)(Econ, 12/21/13, p.80)

2011        Jul 5, An appeals judges ruled that the Netherlands was responsible for the deaths of three Bosnian Muslim men slain by Serbs during the 1995 Srebrenica massacre, ordering the Dutch government to compensate the men's relatives.
    (AP, 7/5/11)

2011        Jul 7, In the Netherlands a large section of the roof of a soccer stadium collapsed during off-season construction work in Enschede, killing one person and leaving 10 hospitalized.
    (AP, 7/7/11)

2011        Jul 9, Interpol, at the request of the Netherlands-based Special Tribunal for Lebanon, issued its highest-level international alerts against four Hezbollah men indicted in the 2005 slaying of Lebanon's former prime minister.
    (AP, 7/9/11)

2011        Jul 20, The Dutch government announced plans to equip 125 police officers with mobile devices that can scan detainees' fingerprints to check whether they are illegal immigrants.
    (AP, 7/20/11)
2011        Jul 20, Dutch prosecutors released some details about four Dutch citizens arrested on suspicion of involvement in cyber attacks as part of the loosely-knit hackers group known as "Anonymous." They said the suspects are thought to have belonged to a splinter group called AntiSec NL, which hacked the sites of dating service Pepper.nl and communications software maker Nimbuzz, among others.
    (AP, 7/20/11)

2011        Aug 3, British officials said they have seized about 300 million pounds ($492 million) worth of cocaine in a record-setting drug bust on a pleasure boat. 1.2 tons of cocaine were found hidden in a specially-designed compartment on a boat docked in southern England in June and it took six days of searching the Louise to find the drugs. Six men arrested were all Dutch nationals.
    (AP, 8/3/11)

2011        Aug 12, A Dutch court sent two Somalis to jail for up to seven years for hijacking a South African yacht last year and seizing a South African couple who are still missing. Three others also were convicted of piracy. The five men were caught by the Dutch navy in the Gulf of Aden in November, heavily armed with machine guns and bazookas.
    (AP, 8/12/11)

2011        Aug 22, Royal Dutch shell said sabotage in Nigeria has led to six oil spills from one Shell pipeline since the start of the month, while damage to another line has caused a temporary production halt.
    (AFP, 8/22/11)

2011        Sep 6, At the Hague, Netherlands, the Yugoslav war crimes tribunal sentenced Gen. Momcilo Perisic, the former chief of the Yugoslav army, to 27 years imprisonment for providing crucial military aid to Bosnian Serb forces responsible for the 1995 Srebrenica massacre and for a deadly four-year campaign of shelling and sniping in Sarajevo.
    (AP, 9/6/11)

2011        Sep 29, In the Netherlands author Hella Haasse (93), an award-winning author best known for chronicling colonial life in the Dutch East Indies, died. Haasse's first novel, "Oeroeg" (1948), was an instant hit and has been read at school by generations of Dutch children.
    (AP, 9/30/11)

2011        Oct 7, The Dutch government said it would move to reclassify high-potency marijuana alongside hard drugs such as cocaine and ecstasy.
    (SFC, 10/8/11, p.A2)

2011        Dec 2, Royal Bank of Scotland said it has sold its 918 tenanted pubs in Britain to Dutch brewer Heineken for 422 million pounds, another step in its exit from non-core businesses following a government bailout.
    (Reuters, 12/2/11)

2011        Dec 20, American authorities said they had asked the worldu0092s leading scientific journals to withhold research on bird flu after researcher teams in Madison and Rotterdam engineered the virus so that it could be transmitted through the air from ferret to ferret. In January scientists agreed to suspend their research for 60 days. On April 20, 2012, the US reversed its stance. On April 27 the Dutch government gave Ron Fouchier permission to publish his paper. A 2nd paper by Yoshihiro Kawaoka of the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison was published in May.
    (www.economist.com/node/21542156)(SFC, 1/21/12, p.A4)(Econ, 5/5/12, p.78)(Econ, 6/23/12, p.81)

2011        Dec 23, The International Criminal Court (ICC) at The Hague freed Rwandan rebel Callixte Mbarushimana and returned him to France after dismissing murder and rape charges against him. He spent 11 months in detention and was the first war crimes suspect to be arrested and freed without trial since the court began work in 2002.
    (AP, 12/23/11)

2012        Jan 6, In Peru Dutch citizen Joran Van der Sloot said he would "sincerely confess" to killing a Peruvian woman in 2010 in a plea strategy that aimed to reduce his eventual prison sentence, prompting judges to suspend the trial until Jan 11.
    (Reuters, 1/6/12)

2012        Jan 11, In Peru Joran van der Sloot (24) pleaded guilty to the 2010 murder of a Peruvian woman he met at a Lima casino who was killed five years to the day after the unsolved disappearance in Aruba of an American teen in which he remains the main suspect. On Jan 13 he was sentenced to 28 years in prison. Due to time already served, his sentence would end in June 2038.
    (AP, 1/11/12)(AP, 1/13/12)

2012        Jan 16, Gustav Leonhardt (b.1928), Dutch keyboard player and father of the early-music movement, died in Amsterdam.
    (Econ, 1/28/12, p.90)

2012        Jan 21, Dutch sailor Laura Dekker (16) set foot aboard a dock in St. Maarten, ending a yearlong voyage aboard a sailboat named "Guppy" that apparently made her the youngest person ever to sail alone around the globe. She had set out from St. Maarten on Jan. 20, 2011.
    (AP, 1/21/12)

2012        Feb 8, In the Netherlands organizers of the legendary Eleven Cities Tour skating marathon ruled the ice is to thin for it to go ahead.
    (AP, 2/9/12)

2012        Mar 19, UPS under Scott Davis announced that it would buy TNT Express, a Dutch company, for $6.8 billion.
    (Econ, 3/24/12, p.67)

2012        Apr 5, Dutch PM Mark Rutte denounced Suriname's decision to grant amnesty to President Desi Bouterse for crimes committed under his earlier military dictatorship as "totally unacceptable" and recalled the country's ambassador from its former colony in protest.
    (AP, 4/5/12)

2012        Apr 21, In the Netherlands two trains in Amsterdam were involved in a head-on collision that seriously wounded 42 people. One passenger died the next day.
    (AFP, 4/22/12)

2012        Apr 22, A prize-winning, super-energy-saving 10-watt LED bulb from Dutch electronics giant Philips, went on sale to coincide with Earth Day. The bulb, said to last over 20 years, has won the US Department of Energy's "Bright Tomorrow Lighting Prize" and was now available from retailers for $50, down from an initial $60 price tag.
    (AFP, 4/22/12)

2012        Apr 23, Dutch PM Mark Rutte and his Cabinet resigned after failing to reach agreement on reducing the country's budget to meet European guidelines.
    (AP, 4/23/12)

2012        Apr 26, In the Netherlands an international court convicted former Liberian President Charles Taylor (64) of aiding and abetting war crimes and crimes against humanity for supporting notoriously brutal rebels in neighboring Sierra Leone in return for "blood diamonds." Taylor became the first head of state convicted by an international court since the post-World War II Nuremberg military tribunal.
    (AP, 4/26/12)

2012        Apr 27, A Dutch judge upheld the government's plan to introduce a "weed pass" to prevent foreigners from buying marijuana in coffee shops in the Netherlands.
    (AP, 4/27/12)

2012        May 30, In the Netherlands international judges sentenced former Liberian President Charles Taylor to 50 years in prison for atrocities in Sierra Leone during the 1990s.
    (AP, 5/30/12)(SFC, 5/31/12, p.A2)

2012        Jul 1, A Russian Soyuz space capsule landed in Kazakhstan bringing an end to a 193-day mission for American astronaut Donald Petit, Dutchman Andre Kuipers and Russian Oleg Kononenko.
    (SFC, 7/2/12, p.A2)

2012        Jul 10, In the Netherlands the International Criminal Court sentenced Congolese warlord Thomas Lubanga to 14 years in prison, a potential landmark in the struggle to protect children during wartime. Lubanga was found guilty in March of recruiting and using children in his Union of Congolese Patriots militia.
    (AP, 7/10/12)

2012        Jul 15, Sewing needles were found in 5 sandwiches on flights originating in Amsterdam. One passenger on a flight to Minneapolis was injured. The other needles were on two flights to Atlanta and one to Seattle. The sandwiches were made in the Amsterdam kitchen of catering company Gate Gourmet.
    (AP, 7/17/12)

2012        Jul 27, The Netherlands said it has suspended part of its development aid to Rwanda because of Kigali's alleged support for rebels in neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 7/27/12)

2012        Aug 13, Dutch sailors taking part in NATO's pirate-busting operation Ocean Shield helped rescue the crew of a Somali dhow hijacked by pirates in the Gulf of Aden.
    (AFP, 8/14/12)

2012        Sep 11, Netherlands-based Royal Philips Electronics NV, the largest maker of lights, said it plans to cut another 2,200 jobs by 2014 to save u0080300 million ($383 million) a year.
    (AP, 9/11/12)

2012        Sep 12, The Netherlands held national elections. Dutch caretaker PM Mark Rutte led his conservative VVD party to victory. The VVD was forecast to take 41 seats in the 150-member Dutch parliament, compared to Labor's 39 seats.
    (AP, 9/12/12)(AP, 9/13/12)

2012        Sep 28, Shareholders of Singapore-based conglomerate Fraser & Neave agreed to sell their 39.7 percent stake in Asian Pacific Breweries, the owner of Tiger and other popular Asian brands, to Heineken. Heineken NV is spending another u00803.2 billion ($4.0 billion) to gain control over the Tiger beer brand as part of a strategy to significantly expand its operations in Asia.
    (AP, 9/28/12)

2012        Oct 2, The US National Institute for Public Health and the Environment said a salmonella outbreak traced to smoked salmon has sickened hundreds of people in the Netherlands and the United States. It has been traced to Dutch company Foppen, which sells fish to many major Dutch supermarkets and to stores around the world.
    (AP, 10/2/12)( http://tinyurl.com/m3wv4tr)

2012        Oct 11, Nigerian farmers asked a Dutch court to rule that oil company Shell is liable for poisoning their fish ponds and farmland with leaking pipelines. Royal Dutch Shell PLC long argued that the case, which was launched in 2008, should be heard in Nigeria.
    (AP, 10/11/12)

2012        Oct 16, In Rotterdam, Netherlands, thieves grabbed seven paintings from the Kunsthal gallery of works by celebrated artists including Pablo Picasso, Claude Monet and Henri Matisse and vanished into the night. The paintings were estimated to be worth roughly $100 million if sold at auction.
    (AP, 10/17/12)(AP, 10/18/12)

2012        Oct 18, Sylvia Kristal (b.1952), Dutch film star, died in Amsterdam. She was best known for her role in 4 of 7 u0093Emmannuelleu0094 films.
    (Econ, 11/3/12, p.94)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sylvia_Kristel)

2012        Nov 5, In the Netherlands Queen Beatrix swore in the new center-left coaltion of PM Mark Rutte. The new government brought togethere the liberal VVD party and the center-left Labor Party.
    (SFC, 11/6/12, p.A2)

2012        Nov 28, A majority of Dutch parties said the Netherlands no longer needs a law making it a crime to insult God, which hasn't been invoked in the past half-century.
    (AP, 11/28/12)

2012        Dec 3, In the Netherlands volunteer soccer linesman Richard Nieuwenhuizen (42) died a day after he was beaten by players from Osdorp following a match against his club Buitenboys in the city of Almere. The offenders, aged 14-17, were all ethnic Moroccans.
    (Econ, 1/12/13, p.46)(http://tinyurl.com/cdpsf42)

2012        Dec 5, The 148m (485-foot) Baltic Ace sank after colliding with the 134m (440-foot) container ship Corvus J in darkness near busy shipping lanes some 65 kilometers (40 miles) off the coast of the southern Netherlands. 5 bodies were recovered and 6 others remained missing.
    (AP, 12/6/12)(SFC, 12/7/12, p.A2)

2012        Dec 7, The Dutch government approved a NATO request to send two batteries of Patriot missile defense systems to Turkey, following in Germany's footsteps.
    (AP, 12/7/12)

2012        Dec 12, Amsterdam Mayor Eberhard van der Laan said he would formally ban students from smoking marijuana at school, making the Dutch capital the first city in the Netherlands to do so.
    (AP, 12/12/12)

2013        Jan 7, The Dutch military shipped Patriot missiles to Turkey, a fellow NATO member, after the alliance agreed in December to deploy the anti-missile systems along Turkey's southern border with Syria. Fighting in Syria continued unabated.
    (AP, 1/7/13)

2013        Jan 16, In the Netherlands Alexander Dolmatov (36), a rocket engineer who feared arrest in Russia after an opposition protest turned violent in May, was taken to the prison-like deportation center in Rotterdam. The next morning he was found dead in his cell. Dutch authorities had denied his asylum request on Dec 14.
    (AP, 2/7/13)

2013        Jan 28, The Netherlands' Queen Beatrix announced that she is ending her reign after 33 years and passing the crown to her eldest son, Willem-Alexander (45), who has long been groomed to be king.
    (AP, 1/28/13)

2013        Feb 1, The Netherlands nationalized SNS Reaal bank and expropriated its bonds in a $14 billion rescue. Investors in the subordinated bonds were wiped out.
    (Econ, 3/16/13, p.72)(http://tinyurl.com/bllbeqf)

2013        Feb 26, The Hague Appeals Court ruled that a 2005 law, which makes it mandatory for all people older than 14 to carry ID cards and show them to police upon request, does not have a religious exemption.
    (AP, 2/26/13)

2013        Mar 1, A Dutch court convicted Yvonne Basebya (66), a Rwandan-born Dutch woman, of inciting genocide in Rwanda's 1994 mass murders of ethnic Tutsis by members of the Hutu tribe u0097 the first conviction of a Dutch citizen for the crime. She was sentenced to six years and eight months in prison for her role.
    (AP, 3/1/13)

2013        Mar 11, The Clinton Foundation announced that grants for over $700,000 will go toward efforts in Haiti to plant trees, build a coffee farm and train farmers. Heineken NV announced that it would invest $40 million to expand a brewery and help farmers who supply it with sorghum.
    (AP, 3/12/13)

2013        Mar 25, TNT Express NV, a Dutch-based package delivery company, said it will restructure operations, taking u0080150 million ($195 million) in charges and cutting 4,000 jobs, or 6 percent of its work force, by the end of 2015. A takeover by UPS was blocked by European regulators in January.
    (AP, 3/25/13)

2013        Apr 8, In Amsterdam President Vladimir Putin defended Russia's treatment of homosexuals, as 1,000 gay rights activists waved pink and orange balloons and blasted out dance music to press home their protest.
    (Reuters, 4/8/13)
2013        Apr 8, In Egypt Dutch journalist Rena Netjes was arrested by Egyptian citizens while reporting in Cairo, accused of being a spy and handed to authorities who detained her overnight.
    (AP, 4/9/13)

2013        Apr 11, Netherlands-based  Royal Philips NV said it has developed a working prototype of an LED lamp that will confine the fluorescent bulb to the recycling bin of history.
    (AP, 4/11/13)

2013        Apr 11, The Dutch Cabinet brokered a deal with unions that scraps planned salary freezes for government and healthcare workers.
    (AP, 4/12/13)

2013        Apr 13, Netherlands' Queen Beatrix officially reopened the Rijksmuseum, the country's national museum, after a 10-year, 375 million euro ($480 million) renovation.
    (AP, 4/13/13)

2013        Apr 23, A Dutch court sentenced diplomat Raymond Poeteray (61) to 12 years in prison for delivering confidential NATO and European Union documents to Russian agents. He was arrested in March 2012 in connection with a German investigation.
    (AP, 4/23/13)

2013        Apr 24, A Dutch court ordered Hans van Anraat, convicted of selling Saddam Hussein raw materials for mustard gas, to pay compensation to victims of chemical weapon attacks by the late Iraqi dictator's regime. The landmark ruling was largely symbolic for the 16 survivors as the businessman is serving a prison sentence for selling the chemicals and is believed to be destitute.
    (AP, 4/24/13)

2013        Apr 25, Spanish agents arrested a Dutch citizen, identified as S.K. (35), for using a vehicle to hack into networks. He was accused of attacking the Swiss-British antispam watchdog group Spanhaus.
    (SFC, 4/29/13, p.A3)

2013        Apr 30, In the Netherlands Beatrix ended her 33-year reign as queen. Willem-Alexander became the first Dutch king in more than a century and pledged to use his ceremonial position as head of state to help steer his country through uncertain economic times.
    (AP, 4/30/13)
2013        Apr 30, UAE state news agency WAM said that Abu Dhabi National Oil Co. (ADNOC) would own 60% of the Bab joint venture's equity and Royal Dutch Shell would hold the rest.
    (AP, 4/30/13)

2013        May 15, Dutch sociologist Saskia Sassen was awarded Spain's Prince of Asturias social sciences prize for her work in the field of globalization and urban sociology. The jury said that one of her greatest scientific contributions was "her concept of the 'global city', now accepted and used worldwide."
    (AP, 5/15/13)

2013        May 29, The EU granted France, Spain, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and Slovenia more time to bring their budget deficits under control to support the bloc's shrinking economy. The European Commission approved Franceu0092s request to postpone by 2 years the target of cutting its budget deficit to 3% of GDP.
    (AP, 5/29/13)(Econ, 6/1/13, p.55)
2013        May 29, A UN court in the Netherlands convicted six Bosnian Croat political and military leaders of persecuting, expelling and murdering Muslims during Bosnia's war and said leaders in neighboring Croatia helped hatch and execute their plan to carve out a Croat state in Bosnia.
    (AP, 5/29/13)

2013        Jun 8, In Yemen Judith Spiegel, a Dutch journalist, was kidnapped along with her partner Boudewijn Berendsen. Both were reported released on Dec 10.
    (AFP, 12/10/13)

2013        Jun 15, Yemeni police confirmed the kidnapping of Judith Spiegel, a Dutch journalist, along with her partner Boudewijn Berendsen, earlier this month. In July the couple appealed for help, saying their captors have threatened to kill them in days unless the Dutch government meets unspecified demands.
    (Reuters, 7/16/13)(http://tinyurl.com/n4zl2pj)

2013        Jul 17, A Romanian museum official said that ash from the oven of a woman whose son is charged with stealing 7 multi-million-dollar paintings from Rotterdamu0092s Kunsthal Musum (Nov 16, 2012) contains paint, canvas and nails. Olga Dogaru has claimed to have burned the stolen paintings last February after police began searching the village of Caracliu, where she lived. On July 22 Olga Dogaru told a Bucharest court that she did not burn the paintings in her stove.
    (SFC, 7/18/13, p.A2)(AP, 7/22/13)

2013        Jul 23, Dutch judges blocked the extradition of a terror suspect, identified as Sabir K., to the United States, saying he was tortured in Pakistan after his 2010 arrest and it is unclear whether American authorities had any involvement. US authorities have accused him of working with al-Qaida from 2004 to 2010, and of plotting a suicide attack on an American military base in Afghanistan.
    (AP, 7/23/13)

2013        Aug 5, In Britain Dutch scientists served hamburgers made from cow stem cells at a public tasting in London. Sergey Brin, co-founder of Google, underwrote the 250,000-euro ($330,000) project, which began in 2006.
    (AP, 8/5/13)

2013        Aug 13, In Romania a trial opened on artwork stolen last october in the Netherlands. Lawyers for the defendents said the paintings have not been burned and that the gang responsible would like to cut a deal so the artwork can be returned.
    (SFC, 8/14/13, p.A2)

2013        Aug 23, The Belgian prosecutor's office said a three-nation investigation (Belgium, Netherlands, Poland) has led to one of the biggest seizures of synthetic drugs in Europe, a haul of core products to create Ecstasy pills with a street value of 1.3 billion euros ($1.75 billion).
    (AP, 8/23/13)

2013        Sep 6, The Netherlands supreme court ruled that the Dutch state is liable for the deaths of three Bosnian Muslims who were expelled from a UN compound at Srebrenica in 1995.
    (AFP, 9/6/13)

2013        Sep 12, The Netherlands sought to "close a difficult chapter" with its former colony Indonesia by publicly apologising for mass killings carried out by the Dutch army in the 1940s war of independence.
    (AFP, 9/12/13)

2013        Sep 16, Representatives from 15 Caribbean nations gathered in St. Vincent to seek slavery reparations from Britain, France and the Netherlands.
    (SFC, 9/17/13, p.A2)

2013        Sep 21, The Italian government announced that police in The Netherlands have arrested Francesco Nirta, a senior mafia boss and one of Italy's 10 most wanted men.
    (AP, 9/21/13)

2013        Sep 24, In the Netherlands the commission that vets cases of euthanasia said cases rose by 13% in 2012 from 2011, the sixth consecutive year of increases. 4,188 cases were recorded in 2012.
    (AP, 9/24/13)

2013        Sep 26, A Russian court ordered two Greenpeace activists to be detained for two months over a protest on an Arctic oil platform, as the Netherlands called for the activists' immediate release and threatened legal action against Moscow.
    (AFP, 9/26/13)

2013        Oct 4, The Netherlands launched legal proceedings against Russia, saying it had unlawfully detained activists and others on the Dutch-registered ship last month as it protested against drilling in the Arctic.
    (Reuters, 10/5/13)

2013        Oct 5, Russia shrugged off Dutch legal action over its detention and prosecution of Greenpeace activists for piracy, saying the group's protest at an Arctic oil platform had been "pure provocation."
    (Reuters, 10/5/13)

2013        Oct 7, Dutch coastguards scrambled helicopters and divers to search for three sailors missing in the North Sea after their ship sank following a collision with a fishing trawler.
    (AFP, 10/7/13)

2013        Oct 9, The Dutch foreign minister apologized to Moscow for the detention of a Russian diplomat in The Hague, saying his right to diplomatic immunity had been violated. Dutch child protection services said earlier they were investigating a complaint from neighbors of diplomat Dmitry Borodin about his treatment of his children.
    (Reuters, 10/9/13)

2013        Oct 15, Dutch police said a total of 15 people have been arrested since July, related to cocaine packages stashed aboard planes arriving from Latin America. Seven of them employed by the same company at Schiphol.
    (AFP, 10/15/13)
2013        Oct 15, In Russia unknown attackers posing as electricians broke into the apartment of a Dutch diplomat, forced him to the ground, hit him and drew a heart containing the letters LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) on a mirror in pink lipstick.
    (Reuters, 10/16/13)

2013        Oct 18, The Netherlands Supreme Court said municipalities are entitled to to tax dog ownership because they have to pick up the bill for keeping public parks and streets clean.
    (SFC, 10/18/13, p.A2)

2013        Oct 23, Russia said it will boycott maritime court hearings sought by the Netherlands in a bid to free 30 crew members of a Greenpeace ship who were detained during a protest against Arctic oil drilling. Russia dropped piracy charges against 30 people involved in a Greenpeace protest against Arctic oil drilling, replacing them with lesser offences and cutting the maximum jail sentence they face to seven years from 15.
    (AFP, 10/23/13)(Reuters, 10/23/13)

2013        Oct 28, A major storm, dubbed the St Jude storm, lashed southern Britain, the Netherlands and parts of France, knocking down trees, flooding low areas and causing travel chaos. 5 deaths were reported.
    (AP, 10/28/13)

2013        Nov 1, Dutch PM Mark Rutte said the Netherlands will send 380 soldiers and four Apache attack helicopters to war-torn Mali following an appeal for more UN peacekeepers.
    (AFP, 11/1/13)

2013        Nov 5, Lyon-based Interpol said it was waiting for information from Dutch authorities after a rights group said it had identified 1,000 paedophiles by offering online sex with a computer-generated girl (10).
    (AFP, 11/5/13)

2013        Nov 20, The International Criminal Court's vexed relationship with Africa took center stage on the opening day of the annual summit of its 122 member states at The Hague.
    (AP, 11/20/13)

2013        Nov 29, Standard & Poor's stripped the Netherlands of its triple-A credit rating, saying that the country's growth prospects have deteriorated and it is not performing as well as peers.
    (AP, 11/29/13)

2013        Dec 1, In Germany Heinrich Boere (92), who murdered Dutch civilians as part of a Nazi Waffen SS hit squad during World War II but avoided justice for six decades, died in a prison hospital while serving a life sentence.
    (AP, 12/2/13)

2013        Dec 3, Netherlands-based Royal Dutch Shell PLC said it has completed building the hull of the world's largest floating facility, which has been constructed to process natural gas off the coast of western Australia.
    (AP, 12/3/13)

2013        Dec 6, Romania's Interior Ministry said Adrian Procop (21), a Romanian man accused of stealing seven masterpieces from a Dutch museum, was arrested in Britain after months on the run. Procop entered the Kunsthal museum at night in Oct 2012 with a friend, Radu Dogaru, and stole artworks worth 18 million euros ($24 million).
    (AFP, 12/6/13)

2013        Russell Shorto authored u0093Amsterdam: A History of the Worldu0092s Most Liberal City.u0094
    (Econ, 10/26/13, p.95)

2014        Jan 8, Dutch pension asset manager PGGM, one of the largest in the country, said it was divesting from five Israeli banks because they finance Jewish settlements in the occupied Palestinian territories.
    (AFP, 1/8/14)

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1938        May 12, In Holland, the 4-day convention at Utrecht ended. A Provisional Constitution for the World Council of Churches was adopted.
    (SC, internet, 5/12/97)

1938        May 6, Dutch writer Maurits Dekker was sentenced to 50 days for "offending a friendly head of state" (Hitler).
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1939        Mar 28, Dutch hunter shot English bombers down.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1939        Nov 18, The Netherland KNSM passenger ship Simon Bolivar hit a German mine and 86 died.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1939        Dec 23, Anthony H.G. Fokker (49), Dutch airplane builder (Spider), died in America.
    (www.obituariestoday.com)

1940        May 8, German commandos in Dutch uniforms crossed the Dutch border to hold bridges for the advancing German army.
    (HN, 5/8/99)

1940        May 10, German forces began a blitzkrieg of the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg, skirting France's "impenetrable" Maginot Line. Belgium was invaded by Germany and maintained resistance for 18 days.
    (WSJ, 8/1/95, p.A-8)(WSJ, 4/29/96, p.C-1)(HN, 5/10/02)

1940        May 13, British bombed a factory at Breda, Netherlands.
    (MC, 5/13/02)
1940        May 13, Dutch Queen Wilhelmina fled to England.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1940        May 14, The Netherlands (Holland) surrendered to Nazi Germany after the bombing of Rotterdam that left 600-900 dead.
    (HN, 5/14/98)(MC, 5/14/02)

1940        May 15, German troops occupied Amsterdam. Gen Winkelman surrendered.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1940        May 16, Jacques Goudstikker, Dutch art dealer, fell on a staircase of the SS Bodegraven as the ship was refused entry at Dover. He died from a broken neck. His inventory in Amsterdam totaled some 1,400 works, which Reichsmarschall Herman Goring, Hitler’s 2nd in command, soon snapped up.
    (WSJ, 7/2/08, p.D7)

1940        May 18, German forces under Field Marshal Georg von Kuchler (1881-1968) occupied Antwerp, Netherlands.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georg_von_K%C3%BCchler)

1940        May 19, Amsterdam time became MET (Middle European Time).
    (DTnet, 5/19/97)

1940        May 29, Arthur Seyss-Inquart was installed as Reich Commissioner of Hague, Netherlands.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1940        Jun 11, Princess Juliana of the Netherlands arrived in Canada as an exile.
    (AP, 6/11/03)

1940        Jun 21, German occupiers disbanded the Dutch States-General, Council of State.
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1940            Jul, Jan Zwartendijk, a Dutch diplomat, and Chiune Sugihara, a Japanese diplomat, worked together to save some 2,000 thousand Polish Jews, who had fled to Lithuania by issuing them visas for Japan, China and the Dutch colonies in South America. Zwartendijk wrote out the so called Curacao visas, while Sugihara issued the transit visas. The Sugihara family was later captured by the Russians and placed in a concentration camp for 1 1/2 years.
    (SFC, 9/7/96, p.A13)(SFC, 9/9/96, p.A16)(www.remember.org/witness/righteous.html)

1941        Feb 9, Nazi collaborators destroyed the pro-Jewish cafe Alcazar Amsterdam. Alcazar had refused to hang "No Entry for Jews" signs in front.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1941        Feb 19, Nazi police were attacked and driven away from Koco, Amsterdam by young Jews. Nazis raided Amsterdam and rounded up 429 young Jews for deportation.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1941        Feb 26, Utrecht and Zaandam struck against raid on Jews.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1941        Mar 3, Netherlands NSB-leader Mussert visited Göring in Berlin.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1941        Mar 4, 18 Geuzen resistance fighters were sentenced to death in The Hague.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1941        Mar 8, Martial law was proclaimed in Holland in order to extinguish any anti-Nazi protests.
    (HN, 3/8/98)

1941        Mar 20, D.A. van den Bosch, anti-Nazi clergyman (Amersfoort Camp), died.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1941        Apr 24, Dutch Prince Bernhard became an RAF pilot.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1941        May 15, Nazi occupiers in Netherlands forbade Jewish music.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1941        May 19, German occupiers in Holland forbade bicycle taxis.
    (MC, 5/19/02)

1941        Jul 11(Jun 11), The 2nd great roundup of Jews of Amsterdam took place.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1941        Aug 18, The concentration camp at Amersfoort, Netherlands, opened.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1941        Nov 25, German Jews in Netherlands were declared stateless.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1942        Jan 11, Japan declared war against the Netherlands, the same day that Japanese forces invaded the Dutch East Indies (later Indonesia).
    (AP, 1/11/98)(HN, 1/11/99)

1942        Feb 16, German submarines attacked an Aruba oil refinery and sank the tanker Pedernales.
    (MC, 2/16/02)(SSFC, 11/10/02, p.C11)

1942        May 3, Nazis executed 72 in reprisal in Sachsenhausen, Netherlands. Johan H. Westerveld, lt.-Col, leader Order Service, was among the executed.
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1942        May 17, Dutch SS vowed loyalty to Hitler.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1942        Jun 9, German-Neth press reported that 3 million Dutch were sent to East-Europe.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1942        Jun 12, Anne Frank received her diary as a birthday present in Amsterdam.
    (MC, 6/12/02)

1942        Jun 14, Anne Frank began her diary.
    (MC, 6/14/02)

1942        Jun 20, Adolf Eichmann proclaimed the deportation of Dutch Jews.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1942        Jul 6, Anne Frank's family went into hiding in After House, Amsterdam.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1942        Jul 9, Anne Frank (13), her family and 4 other Jews went into hiding in the attic above her father's office in an Amsterdam warehouse.
    (HN, 7/9/01)(MC, 7/9/02)

1942        Jul 16, Jews were transported from Holland to an extermination camp.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1942        Jul 26, Roman Catholic churches protested the Dutch bishops’ stand against the spread of Judaism.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1942        Aug 25,  German SS began transporting Jews of Maastricht, Neth.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1942        Oct 15, Dirk Bannink, nurse and local councilor Deventer, Netherlands, was executed.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1942        The Catholic hierarchy of Amsterdam spoke against the Nazi treatment of Jews. This led to a redoubling of roundups and deportations.
    (WSJ, 4/25/97, p.A18)

1943        Feb 17, Dutch churches protested to Artur Seyss-Inquart against persecution of Jews.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1943        Mar 1, In Amsterdam a Jewish old age home for disabled was raided.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1943        Mar 2, 1st transport of Jews from Westerbork, Netherlands, to Sobibor concentration camp.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1943        Mar 18, The ships James Oglethorpe (US) and Terkolei (Neth.), were torpedoed and sank.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1943        Mar 31, US Army Air Force bombers attacked harbor facilities in the west of Rotterdam. A combination of strong wind and overcast conditions also caused great damage to the nearby residential areas, especially in the Bospolder-Tussendijken District. The death toll rose to 401 casualties and around 16,500 people lost their homes.
    (http://tinyurl.com/6rmgrp6)

1944        Feb 1, Piet Mondrian (b.1872), Dutch artist, died in NYC of pneumonia. To create an art of harmony and order he used straight lines exclusively. "His trademark paintings of black lines forming a grid and primary colors are a calculated, mathematical blueprint for an organized life." A leading abstract artist in the early half of the 20th century, Dutch painter Piet Mondrian was also a leading proponent of De Stijl ("The Style"). Born to an educator and amateur artist in 1872, Mondrian pursued a career as a painter from an early age. He was influenced by the Post-Impressionists, but gravitated towards Cubism after seeing an exhibition of works by Picasso and others.
    (Hem, Dec. 94, p.131)(WSJ, 5/25/01, p.W10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piet_Mondrian)

1944        Apr 30, The 8th and 9th US Army Air Forces and Royal Air Force Bomber Command began to fly sorties into France and the Low Countries in preparation for the Allied Expeditionary Force landing on Jun 6.
    (SDUT, 6/6/97, p.B9)
1943        Apr 30, Dutch struck against forced labor in Nazi Germany's war industry.
    (MC, 4/30/02)
1943        Apr 30, Etty Hillesum, Dutch diarist, died in Auschwitz.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1944        May 19, 240 gypsies were transported to Auschwitz from Westerbork Neth.
    (MC, 5/19/02)

1943        May 26, Jews rioted against Germans in Amsterdam.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1943        Jun 25, Arthur Seyss-Inquart ordered a mass arrest of Dutch physicians.
    (MC, 6/25/02)

1943        Oct 20, A US B-17 bomber crashed in the Netherlands near the small town of de Bilt. Of the 10 men on board 5 died and 5 were captured. Robert Surdez, co-pilot, died in 2004.
    (SFC, 3/30/04, p.B1)(SFC, 8/11/04, p.B7)

1943        Willem Kolff invented the 1st dialysis machine in Holland.
    (WSJ, 10/2/03, p.A2)

1944        Jun 6, Gerrit John van de Peat (41), artist, resistance fighter, was executed.
    (MC, 6/6/02)
1944        Jun 6, Nazi troops executed 96 prisoners by firing squad.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1944        Jun 9, 99 inhabitants of Tulle were hanged by the SS.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1944        Jul 14, SS men Heinrich Boere and Jacobus Petrus Besteman shot and killed Dutch pharmacist Fritz Hubert Ernst Bicknese at his home in Breda for suspected activity in Nazi resistance. Boere was sentenced to death in absentia by a Dutch court in 1949. This was later commuted to life imprisonment. In 2009 Boere (88) was slated to stand trial for murder in Germany for the execution-style killings of three Dutch civilians during World War II. In 2010 a German court convicted Boere (88) of murdering the three Dutch civilians. He was given the maximum sentence of life in prison for the killings.
    (www.wsws.org/articles/2009/nov2009/germ-n02.shtml)(AP, 7/7/09)(AP, 3/23/10)

1944        Jul 15, Anne Frank (1929-1945) entered this in her diary: "In spite of everything I still believe that people are really good at heart." In 1998 5 additional pages to her diary were reported. She died of typhoid in the spring of 1945 at the Bergen-Belson concentration camp.
    (AP, 8/4/98)(SFC, 8/19/98, p.A16)

1944        Jul 19, Carl Bock, Danish Gestapo agent, was liquidated.
    (MC, 7/19/02)

1944        Aug 1, Anne Frank's last diary entry; 3 days later she was arrested.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1944         Aug 4, Nazi police raided the secret annex of a building in Amsterdam and arrested eight people, including 15-year-old Anne Frank, whose diary became a famous account of the Holocaust. She died at the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in the spring of 1945, just weeks before the camp was liberated. Miep Gies (1909-2010), secretary to Anne’s father Otto, collected the scattered pages of Anne’s diary and returned them to Otto Frank after the war.
    (AP, 8/4/02)(Econ, 1/30/10, p.95)

1944        Sep 3, The 68th & last transport of Dutch Jews, which included Anne Frank, left for Auschwitz.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1944        Sep 5, "Mad Tuesday" 65,000 Dutch Nazi collaborators fled to Germany.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1944        Sep 8, Germany's V-2 offensive against England began. The 1st V-2 rockets landed in London & Antwerp.
    (HN, 9/8/98)(MC, 9/8/01)

1944        Sep 17, Infantry glider troops of the 82nd Airborne Division entered Holland. British and American airborne troops parachuted into Holland to capture the Arnhem bridge as part of Operation Market Garden. The plan called for the airborne troops to be relieved by British troops, but they were left stranded and eventually surrendered to the Germans. The 1974 book by Cornelius Ryan, "A Bridge Too Far," was based on this operation and was made into the 1977 film.
    (HN, 9/17/98)(HC, 12/12/01)(AP, 9/17/06)

1944        Sep 21, The last British paratroopers at bridge of Arnhem surrendered.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1944        Sep 22, Aldert Klaas Dijkema, a Dutch resistance fighter, was executed by the Nazi Waffen SS shortly after he was captured. In 2012 Dutch-born Siert Bruins (91) was charged with Dijkema’s murder. In 2014 a German court dropped the case against Bruins ruling that there are too many gaps in the evidence to deliver a verdict.
    (www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4312068,00.html)(SFC, 11/27/12, p.A2)(SFC, 9/3/13, p.A2)(AP, 1/8/14)

1944        Sep 27, Thousands of British troops were killed as German forces rebuffed their massive effort to capture the Arnhem Bridge across the Rhine River in Holland.
    (HN, 9/27/98)

1944        Sep 28, At the Battle of Arnhem the Germans defeated the British airborne in Netherlands.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1944        Sep, SS men Heinrich Boere and an accomplice named Hendrik Kromhout shot Dutch bicycle-shop owner Teun de Groot when he answered the doorbell at his home in the town of Voorschoten. They then continued to the apartment of F.W. Kusters, and forced him into their car. They drove him to another town, stopped on the pretense of having a flat tire and shot him.
    (AP, 3/7/08)

1944        Nov 28, The first Allied supplies reached Antwerp by convoy.
    (HN, 11/28/98)

1944        Piet Mondrian (b.1872), Dutch artist, died of pneumonia. To create an art of harmony and order he used straight lines exclusively. "His trademark paintings of black lines forming a grid and primary colors are a calculated, mathematical blueprint for an organized life." A leading abstract artist in the early half of the 20th century, Dutch painter Piet Mondrian was also a leading proponent of De Stijl ("The Style"). Born to an educator and amateur artist in 1872, Mondrian pursued a career as a painter from an early age. He was influenced by the Post-Impressionists, but gravitated towards Cubism after seeing an exhibition of works by Picasso and others.
    (Hem, Dec. 94, p.131)(WSJ, 5/25/01, p.W10)(HNQ, 7/16/01)

1945        Mar 3, Roermond-Venlo, Netherlands, was freed.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1945        Mar 3, RAF bombing error hit The Hague and killed 511.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1945        Mar 5, Allies bombed The Hague, Netherlands.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1945        Mar 6, In Holland SS General Hans Albin Rauter, was ambushed, and his driver and orderly were killed. Rauter was seriously wounded. SS Brigadefuhrer Dr. Eberhardt Schongarth immediately ordered reprisals and a total of 263 people were shot. A Special Court of Justice in the Hague sentenced Rauter to death and he was executed March 25, 1949. Schongarth was tried by a British Military Court, found guilty on another war crime charge, sentenced to death and was hanged in 1946.
    http://members.iinet.net.au/~gduncan/massacres.html
    (WW2D, p.610)

1945        Mar 8, 53 Amsterdammers were executed by Nazi occupiers.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1945        Mar 11, Flemish Nazi collaborator Maria Huygens was sentenced to death.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1945        Mar 12, In Amsterdam 30 people were executed by Nazi occupiers.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1945        Mar 13, Queen Wilhelmina returned to Netherlands.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1945        Apr 8, Nazi occupiers were executed. Nazi general Christiansen fled the Netherlands.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1945        Apr 12, Canadian troops liberated the Nazi concentration camp at Westerbork, Neth.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1945        Apr 14, Arnhem and Zwolle were freed from Nazis.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1945        Apr 17, Canadian lead tanks roll into Apeldoorn, Netherlands, loudly cheered by relieved residents.
    (www.bouwman.com/netherlands/Liberation.html)
1945        Apr 17, Hannie Schaft (24), Dutch resistance fighter who lived in Haarlem, known as the "Girl with red hair," was executed by the Germans just one month before the war ended. She was a student who joined the resistance early in the war. On her bicycle she delivered ration coupons, newspapers, secret information and weapons. She was shot and buried in a shallow grave in the Dunes around Bloemendaal.
    (MC, 4/17/02)(Internet)

1945        May 1, Arthur Seys-Inquart, Nazi overlord of Netherlands, fled to Flensburg.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1945        May 4, German forces in the Netherlands, Denmark and northwest Germany agreed to surrender.
    (AP, 5/4/00)

1945        May 5, Netherlands and Denmark were liberated from Nazi control. The Liberation of the Netherlands was completed by the First Canadian Army.
    (HN, 5/5/98)(www.bouwman.com/netherlands/Liberation.html)

1945        May 7, SS opened fire on a crowd in Amsterdam and killed 22.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1945        May 29, Dutch police arrested and imprisoned Hans van Meegeren (1889-1947) for collaborating with the enemy. His name had been traced to a sale made during the second world war of what was then believed to be an authentic Vermeer to Nazi Field-Marshal Hermann Goering. On July 12, in order to prove his innocence, Meegeren revealed that he had forged the painting.
    (WSJ, 10/14/06, p.P10)(ON, 12/07, p.12)

1945        Jun 6, Meinoud M. Rost van Tonningen, anti Semite, NSB (1937-41), committed suicide.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1945        Aug 17, Indonesian nationalists declared independence from the Netherlands.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A13)(AP, 8/17/99)

1945        Oct 6, Gen Eisenhower was welcomed in Hague on Hitler's train.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1945        Dec 27, The Dutch formally relinquished sovereignty to Indonesia.
    (WSJ, 7/24/01, p.B4)

1946        Mar 2, Dutch troops landed on East Bali.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1946        May 29, KVP won the Provincial National elections in Netherlands.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1946        Mar 1, In the Netherlands Felix Gulje, head of a construction company, was murdered at his door front.  Rumors had circled that Gulje worked with occupation authorities during the war. After his death it emerged that Gulje had sheltered Jews and given money to hide others. In 2011 Atie Ridder-Visser (96), former resistance member, confessed to the killing.
    (SFC, 6/9/11, p.A3)

1947        Nov 12, Hans van Meegeren (1889-12947), Dutch painter and forger, was tried for forgery and convicted of “obtaining money by deception” and “appending false names and signatures with the intent to deceive.” He was given the minimum sentence of one year and then the court petitioned Queen Wilhelmina that he be pardoned, but he died 6 weeks later.
    (ON, 12/07, p.12)

1968        Sep 1, Pirate Radio Marina in the Netherlands began transmitting.
    (www.historyorb.com/entertainment/radio/pirate-radio)

1968        The Rembrandt Research Project was formed and funded by the government to act as the gatekeepers of Rembrandt’s work.
    (WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W12)
1968        In the Netherlands the 56 square km of Oostvaardersplassen was reclaimed from the sea and was intended for industrial use. It lay vacant and became a nature reserve.
    (Econ, 9/14/13, SR p.8)

1969        Mar 25, John and Yoko Ono staged a bed-in for peace in Amsterdam.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1969        Mar 26, The Nuclear reactor in Dodewaard, Netherlands, went into use.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dodewaard_nuclear_power_plant)

1969        May 30, Refinery workers on Curacao set fires in Willemstad. Marines from the Netherlands restored order.
    (Econ, 5/26/07, p.38)

1969        Oct, Economists Jan Timbergen (1903-1994) of the Netherlands and Ragnar Frisch of Norway were awarded the first Nobel Prize in Economics for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes. Tinbergen was a founding trustee of Economists for Peace and Security.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Tinbergen)

1970        Jul 15, Frederik Lugt (b.1884), Dutch founder of the Fondation Custodia (1947), died in Paris. The foundation, which he founded with his wife, kept intact his collection of Old Master drawings at the Institut Neederlandais, the Dutch cultural center in Paris.
    (Econ, 2/13/10, p.86)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frits_Lugt)

1971        Oct 1, As of this day divorce in the Netherlands could only be granted on the ground of the irretrievable breakdown of the marriage (Article 1:151 of the Dutch Civil Code).
    (http://www2.law.uu.nl/priv/cefl/Reports/pdf/Netherlands02.pdf)

1971        Cornelis van Houten (1920-2002), Dutch astronomer, discovered an asteroid and named it Asteroid 1877 Marsden after British astronomer Brian Marsden.
    (Econ, 12/4/10, p.111)

1973        Jul 20, The Japanese Red Army and Lebanese guerrillas hijacked a Japan Airlines plane over the Netherlands. The passengers and crew were released in Libya where the hijackers blew up the plane.
    (SFC, 11/9/00, p.C2)(www.cdi.org/friendlyversion/printversion.cfm?documentID=1771)

1973        The Dutch government built the Van Gogh Museum.
    (Econ, 1/21/06, p.81)

1974        Apr 6, Willem Dudok (b.1884), Dutch architect (Hilversum Town Hall), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willem_Marinus_Dudok)

1974         Sep 1, In the Netherlands laws prohibiting pirate radio came into effect.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_Caroline)

1974        Sep 13, In the Netherlands the French embassy at the Hague was taken over by Haruo Wako and 2 other Japanese Red Army militants. A 4-day standoff ended with the release of comrade Yutaka Suyaka from a French jail. The attack was linked to Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez. In 2005 a Tokyo District Court sentenced Wako to life imprisonment.
    (http://my-my-miyuki.blogspot.com/)(SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)(SFC, 11/9/00, p.C2)

1975        Sep 14, Rembrandt's "Nightwatch" was slashed and damaged in Amsterdam.
    (http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1248/is_n7_v86/ai_21113228)

1975        Dec 14, Six South Moluccan extremists surrendered after holding 23 hostages for 12 days on a train near the Dutch town of Beilen.
    (AP, 12/14/00)

1975        The Dutch film "Keetje Tippel" (Cathy Tippel or Katie's Passion, or Hot Sweat) starred Jan De Bont and was directed by Paul Verhoeven.
    (WSJ, 7/23/99, p.W4)

1975        Suriname gained Independence from the Netherlands.
    (SFC, 9/6/96, p.A14)

1976        Aug 26, Prince Bernhard, husband of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands, agreed to resign his positions with the Dutch armed forces and industry following severe criticism of his behavior by a commission of enquiry into a Lockheed bribery scandal. Bernhard had allegedly received $1.1 million as a gift from Lockheed.
    (RTH, 8/26/99)(SFC, 12/24/08, p.B7)

1976        Dec 6, Dutch War criminal Pieter Menten (1899-1987) was arrested in Switzerland after fleeing there in November.
    (http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pieter_Menten)

1976        Claes Oldenburg (b.1929), Swedish-born American artist, constructed  a 41-foot "Trowel I" for the Kroller-Muller Museum in the Netherlands by. He also made "Typewriter Eraser."
    (Smith., Aug. 1995, p.82)(SFC, 10/26/96, p.B1)

1976        Amnesty International received Netherlands’ Erasmus-prize.
    (www.nndb.com/honors/622/000165127/)

1977        May 8, The trial of Pieter Menten (b.1899), a former Dutch SS officer and art collector, began in Amsterdam. He was convicted and sentenced to 15 years, but the sentence was reduced to 10 years in 1980.
    (www.cnn.com/almanac/9805/08/)(http://tinyurl.com/2n79xl)

1977        May 23, Moluccan extremists held 105 schoolchildren and 50 others hostage on a hijacked train in Netherlands. The children were released May 27. The siege ended June 11.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1977        May 25, Dutch social democratic party won parliamentary election.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1977        Jun 11, A 20-day hostage drama in the Netherlands ended as Dutch marines stormed a train and a school held by South Moluccan extremists. Six gunmen and two hostages on the train were killed.
    (AP, 6/11/97)

1977        The Economist coined the term “Dutch disease” to describe how the exploitation of natural resources can cause a decline in other forms of economic activity, particularly manufacturing. This briefly happened in the Netherlands when natural gas was discovered (1959).
    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.36)

1978        Jun 25, Argentina, host to the World Cup, beat Netherlands in the soccer World Cup championship in Buenos Aires. It was later alleged that the ruling military junta bribed an opposing team to ensure Argentina’s progress and eventual victory.
    (SFC, 2/4/97, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1978_FIFA_World_Cup)(Econ, 8/15/09, p.32)

1980        Apr 30, Juliana Z(1909-2004), Queen of the Netherlands, abdicated. Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard, was crowned queen of Netherlands.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juliana_of_the_Netherlands)

1980        Jul 9, Pieter Menten (81), Dutch war criminal and art collector, was sentenced to 10 years in prison.
    (http://tinyurl.com/369gbh)(http://tinyurl.com/3xjlqp)

1980        Sep 5, The opera “Satyagraha” by Philip Glass, commissioned by the city of Rotterdam, was first performed by the Netherlands Opera.
    (WSJ, 4/19/08, p.W14)(www.philipglass.com/html/recordings/satyagraha.html)

1980        Oct 4, Some 520 people were forced to abandon the cruise ship “Prisendam” in the Gulf of Alaska after the Dutch luxury liner caught fire—no deaths or serious injury resulted. The ship capsized and sank a week later.
    (AP, 10/4/08)

1980        Oct 25, The US ratified the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction. Countries following Islamic law did not sign. The treaty required countries to send abducted children back to the jurisdiction where they have previously lived.
    (SFC, 12/6/03, p.A14)(www.international-divorce.com/icara.htm)(Econ, 2/7/09, p.22)

1981        Apr 12, Hendrik F. Andriessen (b.1892), Dutch organist, composer (Te Deum), died.
    (http://www2.rnw.nl/mu/en/behind/biographies/hendrikandriessen)

1981        Antoine W. van Agtmael of the International Finance Corporation of the World Bank coined the term “emerging market.” He coined the term to attract investors in a “Third World Equity Fund.” The emerging, or developing, market economy (EME) is defined as an economy with low-to-middle per capita income. Emerging markets constitute approximately 80% of the global population, representing about 20% of the world's economies.
    (www.investopedia.com/articles/03/073003.asp)(Econ, 9/20/08, SR p.10)

1983        Jan 25, The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) space probe, sponsored by the United Kingdom, the US, and the Netherlands, was launched. It studied infrared radiation from across the cosmos and exposed stars as they were born from clouds of gas and dust.
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, p.A14)

1983        Mar, Compact Disc recordings, introduced by Phillips and Sony in Europe in 1982, were introduced to the US.
    (www.iconnect.net/home/bsnpubs/cdhist.html)

1983        Nov 1, Anthony van Hoboken (b.1887), Dutch musicologist, died in Zurich. He is best known for his Haydn Catalog (1957).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthony_van_Hoboken)

1983        Nov 9, Alfred Heineken, beer brewer from Amsterdam, was kidnapped and held for a ransom of more than $10 million. Heineken was freed Nov 30. Cor van Houton, the kidnapper, was shot to death in 2003.
    (HN, 11/9/98)(AP, 1/24/03)

1983        Nov 30, Police freed kidnapped beer magnate Alfred Heineken in Amsterdam.
    (www.cedmagic.com/museum/press/ced-timeline-1983.html#11-1983)

1983        The Dapper Foundation of Amsterdam was founded with a private gift donation of African art. It was brought to Paris in 1986 and housed in an elegant private museum at 50 Avenue Victor Hugo.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, p.T7)

1984        May 25, Piet Ketting (b.1904), Dutch pianist, conductor, composer, died.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2tpeyt)

1985        Jul 10, French security forces sank the Rainbow Warrior, a ship operated by Greenpeace near NZ. Fernando Pereira, a Dutch photographer, was killed in the sinking.
    (SFC, 5/7/99, p.A14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainbow_Warrior)

1986        Oct 4, In the Netherlands Queen Beatrix officially opened the Oosterscheldekering for use by saying the well-known words: De stormvloedkering is gesloten. De Deltawerken zijn voltooid. Zeeland is veilig. (The flood barrier is closed. The Delta Works are completed. Zealand is safe.) It was the world's largest movable flood barrier.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oosterscheldekering)

1987            Nov 14, Pieter Menten (b.1899), Dutch war criminal, died at an old people's home in Loosbroek, southern Netherlands.
    (www.jbwan.com/roblog/archives/000615.html)

1987        In  the Netherlands the first campaign to alter social norms of condom use focused on a number of Dutch celebrities who use condoms themselves.
    (http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/IES/netherlands.html)
1987        In the Netherlands art works by David Teniers, Willem van de Velde, Jan Brueghel the Younger, Eva Gonzales, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Camille Pissarro and Paul Desire Trouillebert were stolen from the Noortman gallery in Maastricht. In 2009 police recovered eight of the paintings and arrested 3 suspects.
    (AP, 3/8/09)
1987        Heavy floods inundated the town of Valkenburg as the Geul River overflowed.
    (SFC, 9/19/98, p.A5)

1988        Mar 2, Dutch Liberal Party merged with SDP.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1988        Apr 11, In Amsterdam the Royal Concert building (Concertgebouw) reopened.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Concertgebouw_Orchestra)

1988        Dec, Thieves stole three paintings by van Gogh, with an estimated value of $72 million to $90 million, from the Kroeller-Mueller Museum in a remote section of the Netherlands. Police later recover all three paintings.
    (AP, 2/11/08)

1988        The Dutch film "The Vanishing" was directed by George Sluizer. An American remake was also directed by Sluizer.
    (SFEC, 8/1/99, DB p.48)

1989        Ter Beek (d.2008 at 64) became defense minister in a centrist coalition led by PM Ruud Lubbers and served until 1994. He worked to streamline the Dutch military in the aftermath of the Cold War, including scrapping the draft.
    (AP, 9/30/08)

1990        Toy company FAO Schwartz sold out to Dutch Company Koninklijke Bijenkorf Beheer.
    (WSJ, 11/21/03, p.B1)

1991        Apr, Two masked armed men stole 20 paintings, worth at least $10 million each at the time, from Amsterdam's van Gogh Museum. The paintings are found in the getaway car less than an hour later.
    (AP, 2/11/08)

1991        Dec 9, European Community leaders meeting in the Dutch city of Maastricht tentatively agreed to begin using a single currency by 1999.
    (AP, 12/9/01)

1991        Dec 11, European Community leaders meeting in the Dutch city of Maastricht hammered out a compromise for a loose federation of their countries. The Maastricht treaty was signed on February 7, 1992, and entered into force on November 1, 1993. It set entry terms for joining a European monetary union.
    (WSJ, 11/18/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 3/3/97, p.A1)(AP, 12/11/01)

1991        Klaas Bruinsma, gangster and drug baron, was gunned down near an Amsterdam hotel.
    (SSFC, 10/11/03, p.A2)

1992        Feb 7, The Treaty on the European Union was signed in Maastricht by the Foreign and Finance Ministers of the Member States.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1992/index_en.htm)

1992        Apr 13, The opera "Life With an Idiot" by Alfred Schnittke had its world premier at the Netherlands Music Theater in Amsterdam.
    (SFC, 8/5/98, p.A17)
1992        Apr 13, An earthquake rocked Germany and the Netherlands.
    (http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/eqlists/sig_1992.html)

1992        Jul 11, In Bosnia it was later alleged on Dutch TV that Dutch troops deliberately drove an armored vehicle into a Muslim blockade on this day and killed as many as 30 people.
    (SFC, 8/21/98, p.A14)

1992        Oct 4, In the Netherlands an Israeli El Al Jumbo Jet transport, enroute from New York to Tel Aviv, crashed into an Amsterdam apartment complex and killed 43 people. Since then scores of people complained of unidentified health problems. In 1998 it was revealed that the jet carried 50 gallons of dimethyl methylphosphonate, a non-poisonous ingredient of sarin nerve gas, destined for Israel. A report on the crash was released in 1999 and said that the plane's ballast included carcinogenic depleted uranium.
    {Netherlands, Air Crash, Israel, Medical}
    (AP, 10/4/97)(WSJ, 4/22/99, A1)(www.pacificnews.org/jinn/stories/5.03/990211-cargo.html)

1992        Dec 15, The Netherlands ratifies the Treaty on the European Union.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1992/index_en.htm)

1992        Dec 21, A Dutch DC-10 burst into fire at landing on Faro, Portugal, and 56 died.
    (http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19921221-0)

1993        Dutch novelist Cees Nooteboom won the European Literary Prize for best novel for his work: "The Following Story."
    (SFC, 4/25/97, p.A3)

1993        Prosecution stopped against physicians giving lethal drugs to patients to help them commit suicide. In 2000 euthanasia was legalized.
    (SFC, 11/29/00, p.A17)

1993        A family in the Netherlands was found to have an abnormally high number of violent criminals. The criminal members were found to have a faulty gene that caused the absence of the enzyme monoamine oxidase A, an enzyme that regulates a group of neurotransmitters including serotonin and dopamine. Both of these were important for emotional responses.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, Survey p.6)

1994        May 21, John Henry Weidner (81), Dutch-US resistance fighter, died.
    (MC, 5/21/02)

1995        Apr 27, Willem Frederik Hermans (b.1921), Dutch author, died. His 1966 novel “Beyond Sleep” was considered to be one of the founding works of modern Dutch literature. In 2007 an English translation became available.
    (WSJ, 1/7/07, p.P8)(http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willem_Frederik_Hermans)

1995        Jun 3, In Bosnia Mladic forces seized a Dutch observation post.
    (SFC, 6/4/96, p.A12)

1995        Jul 6, 3:15AM The UN safe area at Srebrenica came under attack by Bosnian Serbs, and thousands of male residents were killed. The acquisition and delivery of arms was organized by Yugoslav army officer Mirko Krajisnik, brother to Momcilo Krajisnik, president of the Bosnian Serb assembly. In 1998 Chuck Sudetic published "Blood and Vengeance: One Family’s Story of the War in Bosnia." The book focused on the Srebrenica killings. 300 Dutch troops were later accused of not preventing the Serbs from overrunning the town.
    (SFC, 5/30/96, p.A8)(SFC, 6/4/96, p.A12)(SFC, 8/12/98, p.A14)

1995        Jul 8, Shelling resumed and the Dutch abandoned 3 posts under direct fire. 30 Dutch troops were taken by the Serbs to Bratunac.
    (SFC, 6/4/96, p.A12)

1995        Jul 9, The Dutch again asked for air support but it was refused.
    (SFC, 6/4/96, p.A12)

1995        Jul 16, Early reports of massacres in Bosnia emerged as the first survivors of the long march from Srebrenica began to arrive in Muslim-held territory. Following negotiations between the UN and the Bosnian Serbs, the Dutch were at last permitted to leave Srebrenica, leaving behind weapons, food and medical supplies.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/675945.stm)

1995        A river flood forced the evacuation of 200,000 people and millions of animals.
    (SSFC, 3/25/01, p.C3)

1996         Jan 26, The Dutch government provided 365 mil in short-term funds to keep Fokker going for a few weeks to allow the search for a foreign partner.
    (WSJ, 1/30/96, p.A-11)

1996        Feb, The last Dutch draft notices were sent out.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A15)

1996        May 7, The first international war crimes proceeding since Nuremberg opened at The Hague in the Netherlands, with a Serbian police officer, Dusan Tadic, facing trial on murder-torture charges. Tadic was convicted of crimes against humanity but acquitted of murder on May 7, 1997. In Jul, 1997 he was sentenced to 20 years in prison.
    (AP, 5/7/97)(SFC, 5/8/97, p.C2)(SFC, 7/15/97, p.A12)

1996        May 18, A 40 year agreement was signed between Royal Dutch/Shell and Perupetro, Peru’s state oil company. Royal Dutch will spend $2.7 bil to develop a natural gas field.
    (SFC, 5/18/96, p.D-6)

1996        Jun 9, The latest unemployment rate was 7%.
    (SFC, 6/9/96, Parade, p.9)

1996        Jul 7, The average cost of a Big Mac in the Netherlands was $3.21.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, Parade, p.17)

1996        Sep 25, A DC-3 aircraft went into the North Sea near Den Helder and killed all 32 people on board.
    (SFC, 9/26/96, p.A11)

1996        Dec 2, It was reported that a Dutch rubber company had produced and shipped to England a 100 water-filled rubber mats (water beds) for cows. The product seemed to enhance milk production.
    (SFC, 12/3/96, p.A12)

1996        Dec, Wim Duisenberg of the Netherlands was approved to run the European Monetary Institute in Frankfurt, Germany.
    (SFC, 5/1/98, p.D6)

1996        Wijnand van der Sanden, curator of the Drents Museum in Holland, authored "Through Nature to Eternity: The Bog Bodies of Northwest Europe."
    (AM, 7/97, p.62)

1996         Fokker went bankrupt, and the last new Fokker-50 was delivered to Ethiopian Airlines in May, 1997. Stork, another Dutch company, bought a large part of Fokker's assets, and continued to be a main provider of parts and service for Fokker planes.
    (AP, 2/10/04)

1997        Mar 19, Willem de Kooning (92), Dutch-born abstract painter, considered to be one of the 20th century's greatest painters, died in East Hampton, N.Y.
    (SFC, 3/20/97, p.A1,6,E1)(AP, 3/19/98)

1997        Mar 25, An arson attack left a Turkish woman and 5 children dead in the Hague.
    (SFC, 3/29/97, p.A9)

1997        Oct 2, The EU formally set up a common foreign and security policy in the Amsterdam Treaty. It set to adopt key asylum and immigration measures within five years of the treaty's entry into force, expected in 1999. A protocol to the 1997 Treaty of Amsterdam reclassified animals as sentient beings.
    (Econ, 8/26/06, p.42)(http://hrw.org/worldreport/Helsinki-28.htm)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.88)

1997        Oct 22, A 64-year-old woman, dubbed the "furniture terrorist," received an 8-month sentence for causing an estimated $500,000 damage to furniture over a six-year period. She wandered through showrooms and slashed sofas with a razor often in a Zorro-like "Z" style.
    (SFC,10/23/97, p.A17)

1997        The Dutch film "Character" was set in Rotterdam in the 1920s. It won an Oscar for best foreign film.
    (SFC, 3/24/98, p.A6)

1997        ING Direct, an online banking service under Dutch parent ING Groep NV, was launched in Canada. In 2000 it began operations in the US from Wilmington, Del. By the end of 2007 it had over 7 million customers and $62 billion in deposits. In 2008 Arkadi Kuhlman, ING’s US chief, and Bruce Philp, chairman of ING Direct’s marketing partner, authored “The Orange Code: How ING direct Succeeded by Being a Rebel with a Cause.”
    (WSJ, 12/10/08, p.A17)

1997-2001 In the Netherlands Lucia de Berk murdered 7 people in her care by giving them lethal doses of drugs. In 2004 a court sentenced her to life in jail and compulsory psychiatric treatment for killing. A high court ordered a review, ruling that the woman could not be sentenced to both life in jail and psychiatric care. In 2006 de Berk was sentenced to life in prison.
(Reuters, 7/13/06)

1998        May 3, European leaders meeting in Brussels, Belgium, agreed on Wim Duisenberg of the Netherlands as the chief of the new European Central Bank (ECB), but with the proviso that he step down in 2002 to make way for Frenchman Jean-Claude Trichet.
    (BS, 5/3/98, p.21A)(AP, 5/3/99)

1998        Aug 1, The 5th quadrennial Gay Games began in Amsterdam with some 15,000 competitors. The games closed Aug 8.
    (SFEC, 8/2/98, p.A2)

1998        Aug 24, The United States and Britain agreed to allow two Libyan suspects in the bombing of Pan Am flight 103 to be tried by a Scottish court sitting in the Netherlands. A former Libyan intelligence agent was later convicted of murder; the other suspect was acquitted.
    (AP, 8/24/08)

1998        Sep 10, The Rotterdam Convention was adopted at a diplomatic conference in Rotterdam. It is a multilateral agreement to promote shared responsibilities in relation to importation of hazardous chemicals, became legally binding to its parties. It officially entered into force on Feb 24, 2004. As of 2008, 73 countries were signatories and 126 were parties.
    (www.ec.gc.ca/international/multilat/rotterdam_e.htm)

1998        Sep 19, The worst storm in a century hit the Netherlands and Belgium over the past week.
    (SFC, 9/19/98, p.A5)

1998        Oct 13, It was reported that Dutch auditors chastised the prime minister and other officials for spending $40 million to acquire the Piet Mondrian painting: "Victory Boogie Woogie."
    (WSJ, 10/13/98, p.A1)

1998        Nov 13, The cabinet approved a plan to let homosexuals adopt Dutch children by Jan 1, 2000.
    (SFEC, 11/15/98, p.A20)

1998        Dec 1, Dutch and Flemish lexicographers unveiled a 40-tome dictionary with 45,000 pages that documented words back to 1500. It took 147 years to complete and compilers stopped at 1976.
    (SFC, 12/2/98, p.C2)

1998        The 245 minute film "Amsterdam Global Village" was directed by Johan van der Keuken and showed at the SF Film Fest.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, DB p.55)

1998        The Dutch film "The Dress" starred Hanri Garcin and Ariane Schluter. It was written and directed by Alex van Warmerdam.
    (SFC, 11/27/98, p.C8)

1998        The documentary film "Sex, Drugs and Democracy" was produced.
    (SSFC, 1/7/01, p.T9)

1998        Ernst Langhout, a singer-songwriter, increased his sales when he began singing in his native Frisian language.
    (WSJ, 5/13/98, p.A20)

1999        Jan 1, Netherlands along with 10 other European Union nations made the transition to the new Euro monetary system.
    (SFC, 1/1/99, p.A8)

1999        Feb 18, Transamerica was bought by Aegon NV of the Netherlands in a deal valued at $9.7 billion. The assessed value of the Transamerica Pyramid in SF was set at $190 million.
    (SFC, 2/19/99, p.A1)(SFC, 5/29/04, p.C2)

1999        Apr 5, Libya handed over to UN officials 2 men accused in the 1988 bombing of Pan Am flight 103. They were then flown to the Hague to be tried under Scottish law. UN Sec. Gen'l. Kofi Annan immediately suspended economic sanctions on Libya.
    (SFC, 3/20/99, p.A8)(SFC, 4/6/99, p.A1)

1999        May 16, The 1956 Picasso painting, "Woman Nude Before Garden," was slashed by a mental patient in Amsterdam's Stedelijk Museum.
    (WSJ, 2/16/99, p.A20)

1999        May 19, The Dutch Cabinet of Prime Minister Wim Kok resigned following a split over whether to give citizens the right to vote in referendums.
    (SFC, 5/20/99, p.A13)

1999        Oct 12, Professors Gerardus 't Hooft and Martinus J.G. Veltman of the Netherlands won the Nobel Prize in Physics for the invention of mathematical tools to calculate properties of fundamental particles. From 1981 to his retirement in 1997, Veltman was an active member of the Univ. of Michigan physics department.
    (SFC, 10/13/99, p.A2)(MT, Fall/99, p.7)

1999        Oct 26, The Parliament overturned a 1912 ban on brothels.
    (SFC, 10/27/99, p.A13)

2006        Feb 1, In Amsterdam an experimental ban on smoking marijuana went into effect intended to reduce loitering and petty crime. “No toking” signs appeared as part of the ban on the street in "De Baarsjes," one of the city's poorer neighborhoods. Amsterdam soon began selling the "no toking" signs to prevent the official ones from being stolen as collector's items.
    (AP, 2/4/06)

2006        Feb 3, Foreign Minister Ben Bot said Netherlands will send 1,200 additional troops to Afghanistan, the day after parliament gave the green light to the deployment.
    (AP, 2/3/06)

2006        Feb 9, Some 58 containers were swept from the P&O Nedlloyd ship Mondriaan, which got caught in a storm about 9 miles off the coast of the island of Terschelling, in the North Sea. The next day thousands of tennis shoes, aluminum briefcases and children's toys washed onto the beach of a Dutch island, drawing crowds of treasure-hunting residents.
    (AP, 2/10/06)

2006        Feb 14, Bilal Lamrani (21), a Dutch Muslim, was sentenced to three years in prison for plotting murder and attempting to recruit prison inmates to carry out terrorist attacks.
    (AP, 2/14/06)

2006        Feb 24, Japan suspended all French poultry imports and threatened a similar ban on the Netherlands following reported cases of H5N1 bird flu.
    (Reuters, 2/25/06)

2006        Feb 27, In the Netherlands the International Court of Justice heard arguments by Bosnia accusing Serbia of genocide, the first time a state has faced trial for humanity's worst crime.
    (AP, 2/27/06)

2006        Mar 5, Milan Babic (50), the Serb leader of a rebel republic in Croatia and one of the key figures in the Balkan wars of the 1990s, committed suicide in prison in the Netherlands.
    (AP, 3/6/06)

2006        Mar 10, A Netherlands court convicted 9 Muslims of belonging to a terrorist group because they incited hatred for non-Muslims. Among the defendants was Mohammed Bouyeri, the convicted killer of filmmaker Theo van Gogh.
    (AP, 3/10/06)

2006        Mar 11, In the Netherlands former Yugoslav leader Slobodan Milosevic (b.1941), the so-called "butcher of the Balkans" being tried for war crimes after orchestrating a decade of bloodshed during his country's breakup, was found dead in his prison cell. Milosevic spent nearly five years at a UN detention facility in Scheveningen, a suburb of The Hague. An autopsy showed that he died of a heart attack. A Dutch toxicologist said he took unprescribed pills that neutralized heart medication.
    (SFC, 3/13/06, p.A3)(WSJ, 3/14/06, p.A1)(Econ, 3/18/06, p.83)

2006        Mar 15, In the Netherlands 2 Bosnian Muslim army commanders were convicted of war crimes for failing to rein in foreign Muslim volunteers who murdered and tortured Bosnian Croats and Serbs in a 1990s "holy war."
    (AP, 3/16/06)

2006        Mar 17, Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, a Congolese militia leader accused of conscripting and enlisting children aged under 15 for warfare (1998-2002), became the first suspect sent for trial at the International Criminal Court (ICC) in the Netherlands.
    (Reuters, 3/17/06)(WSJ, 3/18/06, p.A1)

2006        Mar 21, Royal Dutch Shell said it paid $465 million Canadian dollars for the rights to explore 219,000 acres in Alberta’s oil sands.
    (WSJ, 3/22/06, p.A14)

2006        Mar 22, In the Netherlands an appeals chamber of the UN war crimes court dropped the life sentence of Bosnian Serb Milomir Stakic and instead sentenced him to 40 years for overseeing detention camps in Bosnia.
    (AFP, 3/22/06)

2006        Mar 27, The Dutch Equal Treatment Commission ruled that a Muslim woman who refuses to shake men's hands for religious reasons cannot be barred from a Dutch teacher-training program.
    (AP, 3/28/06)

2006        Apr 19, US Immigration agents arrested 7 executives and 1,187 illegal immigrants employed by IFCO Systems, a Netherlands-based manufacturer of crates and pallets, as part of a crackdown on employers of illegal workers.
    (AP, 4/19/06)(SFC, 4/21/06, p.A3)

2006        Apr 27, A Dutch agency said the number of reported cases of legal euthanasia and doctor-assisted suicide in the Netherlands increased in 2005 for the third year in a row. Doctors reported 1,933 cases in 2005, up from 1,886 in 2004 and 1,815 in 2003.
    (AP, 4/27/06)

2006        May 8, In the Hague the UN war crimes court sentenced Ivica Rajic, a Bosnian Croat former militia leader, to 12 years in prison. Rajic admitted that forces under his command operating in the Muslim village of Stupni Do in central Bosnia in October 1993 "forced Bosnian Muslim civilians out of their homes and hiding places, robbed them of their valuables, willfully killed Muslim men, women and children and sexually assaulted Muslim women".
    (AFP, 5/8/06)

2006        May 16, Ayaan Hirsi Ali, a Somali-born member of Parliament, said she will resign and leave Holland after the government said she was improperly granted citizenship. She became an internationally known opponent of some violent types of Islam.
    (AP, 5/16/06)

2006        May 17, Under withering criticism, the Dutch immigration minister Rita Verdonk agreed to rethink her threat to revoke the citizenship of a Somali-born former lawmaker known for her opposition to fundamentalist Islam.
    (AP, 5/17/06)

2006        May 22, A court found the former chief executive and chief financial officer of Dutch retailer Royal Ahold NV guilty of fraud, but ruled the pair will not have to serve prison time.
    (AP, 5/22/06)

2006        May 23, The Dutch parliament approved new anti-terrorism measures that make it easier to arrest suspects without strong evidence and hold them longer without charge.
    (AP, 5/23/06)

2006        May 31, Dutch pedophiles registered a political party to push for a cut in the legal age for sexual relations to 12 from 16 and the legalization of child pornography and sex with animals, sparking widespread outrage.
    (Reuters, 5/31/06)

2006        Jun 6, The Spanish interior ministry said that 67 suspects had been arrested for accessing child porn on the Internet over the past five days. The international police operation arrested 38 in France, 10 in Spain, 9 in Slovakia, 7 in Belgium and 3 in the Netherlands.
    (AP, 6/6/06)

2006        Jun 7, A Dutch court convicted Guus Kouwenhoven (64) of violating a UN arms embargo imposed on the regime of former Liberian President Charles Taylor and sentenced him to eight years in prison. The court found that he had traded guns for timber rights and used his lumber company to smuggle weapons that were later used by militias to commit atrocities against civilians in West Africa.
    (AP, 6/7/06)

2006        Jun 16, A Russian state vodka company won Stolichnaya brand rights back from a Dutch firm.
    (WSJ, 6/17/06, p.A1)

2006        Jun 27, Netherlands’ Immigration Minister Rita Verdonk reversed a politically divisive decision of six weeks earlier, when she announced Hirsi Ali's 1997 naturalization was invalid because she lied on her asylum application.
    (AP, 6/28/06)

2006        Jun 30, The Dutch PM Jan Peter Balkenende and his Cabinet resigned after a split in its ranks over the citizenship case of Ayaan Hirsi Ali, a prominent Somali-born critic of Islam.
    (AP, 6/30/07)

2006        Jul 21, The Netherlands’ military chief said Dutch commandos had killed 18 enemy fighters who set up positions in rugged hills overlooking a Dutch camp in southern Afghanistan.
    (AP, 7/21/06)

2006        Jul 28, Dutch retail giant Ahold has announced that its 1.1 billion-dollar (941,000-euro) settlement with US and Dutch investors over the company's accounting scandal that broke in 2003 and sent share prices plummeting, is now final.
    (AFP, 7/29/06)

2006        Aug 1, Dutch Cardinal Johannes Willebrands (96), a key figure in the Roman Catholic Church's efforts to improve relations with other Christians and Jews, died.
    (AP, 8/2/06)

2006        Aug 7, Dutch police arrested a Rwandan immigrant, identified as Joseph M. (38), and charged him with war crimes and torture for his alleged role in the 1994 genocide that tore apart his home country.
    (AP, 8/10/06)

2006        Aug 17, An outbreak of strain of bluetongue, a disease transmitted to sheep by insects but which is not contagious nor known to affect humans, was detected in the southern Netherlands. Belgium and Germany soon reported cases.
    (AFP, 8/28/06)

2006        Aug 19, In Ivory Coast waste, which contained hydrogen sulphide, was unloaded from a Panamanian-registered ship, the Probo Koala, at Abidjan port and then dumped in at least eight open air sites, including the city's main rubbish dump. By mid-September 6 people had died and 16,000 had sought treatment. Dutch-based Trafigura Beheer BV, one of the world's leading commodities traders, said it had chartered the ship and said the material was a "mixture of gasoline, water and caustic washings" following the unloading of a cargo of gasoline in Nigeria. The sludge was later blamed for killing 15 people and sickening 100,000 more. In 2009 Greenpeace said it had obtained internal e-mails and other documents that show Trafigura Beheer BV executives were aware the sludge was hazardous.
    (Reuters, 9/7/06)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.58)(AP, 9/17/09)

2006        Aug 28, In the Netherlands prosecutors at the International Criminal Court filed their first indictment, charging Thomas Lubanga, a former Congolese warlord, for allegedly abducting and recruiting children as young as 10 to fight in Congo's brutal civil war.
    (AP, 8/29/06)

2006        Sep 27, At the Hague, Netherlands, a UN tribunal sentenced Momcilio Krajisnik (61), the former speaker of the Bosnian Serb parliament, to 27 years in prison for war crimes, but acquitted him of the harsher charge of genocide.
    (AP, 9/27/06)

2006        Oct 20, Corus, an Anglo-Dutch steel-maker, accepted an $8.1 billion buyout bid from Tata Steel, a smaller Indian firm.
    (Econ, 10/28/06, p.74)

2006        Nov 4, Swathes of Austria, Belgium, Croatia, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands and went dark for up to an hour in the late evening as cold Germans rushing to switch on heaters sucked up electricity from Europe's interconnected networks.
    (AP, 11/5/06)

2006        Nov 6, In the Netherlands 6 people were arrested on suspicion of recruiting volunteers for jihad, or Islamic holy war, prosecutors said after a year-long investigation.
    (AFP, 11/7/06)

2006        Nov 22, Dutch voters picked a new parliament in an election that could determine whether the country's tight immigration rules get even tougher or follow what the opposition calls a more humane path. Dutch PM Jan Peter Balkenende’s center-right Christian Democrats won the most seats in elections, but nearly complete returns showed a sharply splintered parliament with no alliance winning a clear mandate to govern.
    (AP, 11/22/06)(AP, 11/23/06)(Econ, 11/25/06, p.50)

2006        Nov 30, Amsterdam city officials said they are shutting down nearly a third of the 350 prostitution "windows" in the famed Red Light District as part of a crackdown on crime.
    (AP, 11/30/06)

2006        Dec 1, In the Netherlands a court convicted four Dutch Muslims of plotting terrorist attacks against political leaders and government buildings and sentenced them to up to eight years in prison. A man in a hooded coat killed an 8-year-old boy in the corridor of a Dutch grade school. Police said they arrested a 22-year-old suspect.
    (AP, 12/1/06)

2006        Dec 4, Against a backdrop of protests, the defense minister gave citations to Dutch troops who served in the UN peacekeeping force that failed to prevent the slaughter of Muslims in the Srebrenica enclave during the Bosnian war.
    (AP, 12/4/06)

2006        Dec 11, The Netherlands ended transmission of "free to air" analog television, becoming the first nation to switch completely to digital signals.
    (AP, 12/11/06)

2006        Daniel Estulin, Lithuanian-born writer, authored "The Secrets of the Bilderberg Club," in which he argues that the international Bilderberg group largely runs the world. It has held a secretive annual forum of prominent politicians, thinkers and businessmen since it was founded in 1954 at the Bilderberg Hotel in Holland. Estulin published a second book, Los secretos del club Bilderberg, released in September 2006. The English version, The Secrets of the Bilderberg Club, was released in the US on September 22, 2007.
    (AP, 8/19/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Estulin)

2006        Some 2,000 Netherlands’ forces took control of Afghanistan’s Uruzgan province.
    (Econ, 3/14/09, p.48)

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