Timeline Oman

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The area of Oman is 82,031 sq mls. (This includes a small area on the strait of Hormuz). The capital is Muscat  and two religions are practiced: Ibadhi and Sunni Muslim. The Bedouin converse in the Harsusi language.
    (NG, 5/95, p.120)(SFC, 5/9/96, p.A-14)
6,000BCE    Ash from ancient campfires of this time were found in Muscat in 1983.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.48)

5,000BCE    Shell and fishbone middens indicated a fishing village of this time at Ras al Hamra in Qurum.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.48)

4500BCE    Northern Oman has a ceramic tradition back to this time.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.52)

2500-2000    The Magan-period of Oman. Numerous slag heaps and third millennium remains from mining and smelting have been found at the oasis village of Maysar in central-eastern Oman. Magan supplied copper ingots to the seafaring merchants of southern Mesopotamia.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.49)(Arch, 9/00, p.48)

2500-1300    In the Dhofar region of Oman, a fortress was built at Shisur next to a permanent spring and used up to 1500AD.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.52)

2300BCE    Sumerian cuneiform texts mention the land of Magan (possibly Oman) as a source of copper and diorite for the states of Mesopotamia.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.49)

2291BC-2254BC    Naram-Sin ruled Akkad. He defeated a rebel coalition in Sumer and re-established Akkadian power. He re-conquered Syria, Lebanon, and the Taurus mountains, destroying Aleppo and Mari in the process.  During his reign the Gutians sacked the city of Agade and eventually destroyed all of Sumer (southern Iraq). During his reign Naram-Sin campaigned against the region of Magan (Oman).
    (http://tinyurl.com/ctv5f)

2254BC-2230BC    Shar-Kali-Sharri, son of Naram-Sin, ruled Akkad. He fought to preserve the realm but it disintegrated under rebellion and invasion.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ctv5f)

2113BCE    Ur's golden century began when King Ur-Nammu expanded the Sumerian empire and made his capital the wealthiest city in Mesopotamia. Ur-Namma was the founder of the Third Dynasty of Ur. He made sure Magan (Oman) boats could freely come and go from Ur’s harbor.
    (AP, 4/15/03)(Arch, 9/00, p.46)

2068        Shulgi, king of Ur, accepted gold from the king of Magan (Oman).
    (Arch, 9/00, p.47)

2000-1600    A transitional culture known as early Wadi Suq.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.49)

1600-1300    A transitional culture known as late Wadi Suq.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.49)

1300-300BCE    The Omani Iron Age.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.49)

1,000BCE    Evidence from Maysar indicated that the building of irrigation systems known as falaj were probably introduced by the Persians about this time or even earlier.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.49)

300BCE-500AD    The classical period in Oman.

250BCE    A finely burnished red pottery was introduced by the Parthians in northern Oman.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.53)

150BCE-200AD        In Oman triliths, small, 3-stone monuments, were set in rows in the Mahra tribal territory. Many were inscribed with an undeciphered south Arabic script. The Mahra and Shahra are Semitic, non-Arabic speaking tribes in the Dhofar Mountains that even today control much of the frankincense region.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.53)

xxxx        The Omani epic Kashf al-Gumma refers to a people of Ad in Dhofar and describes their involvement in the incense trade.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.)

632-661    The Rashidun Caliphate, also known as the Rightly Guided Caliphate, comprising the first four caliphs in Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death. At its height, the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant, Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and Central Asia in the east. It was the one of the largest empires in history up until that time.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rashidun_Caliphate)

1500-1700    Lamu Island, off the coast of Kenya, was dominated by the Portuguese after which the Sultan of Oman made it part of his kingdom.
    (SSFC, 4/15/01, p.T6)

1507-1650AD    The country’s littoral was dominated by Portuguese adventurers who constructed forts at Mirani and Jalali.
    (NG, 5/95, p.121)

1508        Alfonso d’Albuquerque, Portuguese navigator, conquered Muscat.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.53)

1515        Afonso d’Albuquerque, Viceroy of the Portuguese Indies, captured Hormuz (Ormuz) and forced all other traders to round the Cape of Good Hope. This established Portugal’s supremacy in trade with the Far East. Hormuz is the strait between Iran and Trucial Oman.
    (TL-MB, p.11)(WUD, 1994, p.684)

1650        Portuguese rule ended in Oman.
    (SSFC, 3/30/08, p.E4)

1670-1680    The Nizwa Fort was built 100 miles southwest of Muscat.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.46)

1700        The Portuguese built the Old Fort in Stone Town, Zanzibar, to defend against the sultan of Oman.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.T6)

1786        Muscat became the capital of Oman with the ascendance of the Al Busaid dynasty.
    (www.marktoursoman.com/tours/showDestination.php)(SSFC, 6/9/13, Par p.16)

1810        Lamu Fort was built on Lamu Island.
    (SSFC, 4/15/01, p.T7)

1815        Britain took action against pirate sheikhs protected by the Wahabis, later rulers of Saudi Arabia, because ships of the East India Company were attacked in int’l. waters. Britain allied with the ruler of Muscat and Oman and Mohamed Ali of Egypt.
    (WSJ, 10/9/01, p.A22)

1834        Pres. Jackson had special 1804 silver dollars minted for the sultan of Muscat (later Oman) and the King of Siam (later Thailand) for trade treaties negotiated by Edmund Roberts.
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.A6)

1840        Zanzibar became the capital of Oman and the sultan ruled from Stone Town.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.T6)

1870-1888    The Omani Sultan Barghash ruled in Zanzibar.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.T7)

1907        The British forced the abolition of slavery on the new Sultan of Zanzibar.
    (SSFC, 4/15/01, p.T7)

1957        The book “The Sultan in Oman” by Jan Morris (b.1926), British travel writer, was published. It was set in 1955 and described the Sultan’s traveling party after a brief war.
    (www.hku.hk/english/courses2000/2045/morris.htm)

1967        This year marks the beginning of oil production in Oman.
    (NG, 5/95, p.120)

1970        Jul 23, Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said deposed his father, Sultan Said bin Taimur, and took over rule in Oman. Sultan Qaboos sent his father to exile in London’s Dorchester hotel.
    (NG, 5/95, p.120)(AP internet 7/23/97)(WSJ, 12/14/01, p.A1)

1981        May 25, Sheik Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan (1918-2004), United Arab Emirates President, urged in 5 other Arab monarchies (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia) to form the Gulf Cooperation Council. The unified economic agreement between the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council was signed on 11 November 1981 in Riyadh.
    (Econ, 11/20/04, p.90)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_Cooperation_Council)

1981        Oman established an elected State Consultative Council with an advisory role to the ruler. The elected Consultation / Shura Council (Majlis A'Shura) was established in 1991 and evolved from the State Consultative Council.
    (www.omanet.om/english/government/shura.asp)

1982        In Oman efforts to breed captive oryx and release them back into the Arabian Peninsula, the only place this species is found, began, a decade after the last one was apparently shot in the wild. By 2011 about 1,000 of the wild Arabian or White Oryx thrived owing to nearly three decades of successful breeding.
    (AP, 6/16/11)

1984        Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) members (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia, UAR) agreed on the creation of a two-brigade (10,000 troops) Peninsula Shield Force, based in Saudi Arabia near the Kuwaiti and Iraqi borders.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peninsula_Shield)

1984        The space shuttle Challenger turned up images of what was thought to be the “lost city of Ubar.”
    (SFEC, 7/5/98, p.A10)

1986        Oman’s first university, the Sultan Qaboos University, opened.
    (SFC, 5/9/96, p.A-14)(SSFC, 3/30/08, p.E4)

1986        Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said began to develop his own home-grown classical orchestra.
    (WSJ, 12/14/01, p.A6)

1996        Jun3, The German electronics group, Siemans AG, was given a contract to install a mobile telephone network for $21.5 mil. to be completed by 1997.
    (WSJ, 8/8/95, p. B6D)

1996        The basic law of Oman was adopted stipulating that the ruling family meets in the case of a vacuum in power to choose a successor to the sultan within three days.
    (AFP, 1/30/11)
1996        The population of Oman was about 2 million.
    (NG, 5/95, p.120)

1997        Sep 15, In Oman a US Navy F/A-18 crashed and the pilot was killed.
    (WSJ, 9/16/97, p.A1)

2000        Sep, Millions of dead fish washed ashore from the Gulf of Oman 50 miles northwest of Muscat. It was the 2nd kill within a week and authorities suspected oxygen depletion by phytoplankton as the cause.
    (SFC, 9/9/00, p.A22)

2000        Dec 31, Six Persian Gulf nations (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) signed a regional defense pact.
    (SFC, 1/1/01, p.A10)

2001        Jan, Geologist Marc Hauser found a meteorite from Mars in the Oman desert. It was named Sayh al Uhaymir 094 for the region where it was found.
    (SFC, 6/16/01, p.A2)

2001        Sep 23, The 6-member Persian “Gulf Cooperation Council” (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAR) met in Jidda and pledged support for an int’l. coalition against terrorism.
    (SFC, 9/24/01, p.A7)

2004        Jul 17, A court in Oman convicted an American woman of murdering her husband and sentenced her to death. Rebecca Thompson, along with her 14-year-old son, Derrick, and two Omani men, were convicted for the Jan 1 killing of Mark Thompson.
    (AP, 7/17/04)

2004        Nov 15, The Bush administration announced that it intended to negotiate trade agreements with Oman and the UAR.
    (Econ, 11/20/04, p.78)

2005        May 2, An Oman state security court convicted 30 people of plotting to overthrow the sultan and install an Islamic government, but spared them the death penalty. Another defendant was convicted of a lesser crime.
    (AP, 5/2/05)

2005        Oct 5, Iran's foreign minister met with Omani officials, part of a tour of Gulf countries to win support for his government's standoff with the West over its nuclear program.
    (AP, 10/5/05)

2006        Jul, Oman and the UAE completed the delineation of their 1,000-km (625-mile) shared borders, in line with a June 2002 accord.
    (AFP, 1/30/11)

2006        Dec 10, The oil-rich Arab states on the Persian Gulf said that they will consider starting a joint nuclear program for peaceful purposes. The six-nation Gulf Cooperation Council included Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain and Oman.
    (AP, 12/10/06)

2007        Jun 4, Oman evacuated an island as Cyclone Gonu drew near the Persian Gulf.
    (WSJ, 6/5/07, p.A1)

2007        Jun 6, Cyclone Gonu battered Oman's coast on its path toward the world's most important crude oil tanker route. It waned after killing 49 in Oman and 9 people in Iran, where severe flooding encircled over 100 villages.
    (AP, 6/7/07)(WSJ, 6/9/07, p.A1)(AP, 6/10/07)

2008        Apr 14, The Olympic torch arrived in Oman amid tight security and expectations of a smooth relay on the Middle Eastern leg of the flame's round-the-world tour.
    (AP, 4/14/08)

2009        Jun 16, The US added six African countries to a blacklist of countries trafficking in people, and put US trading partner Malaysia back on the list. Chad, Eritrea, Niger, Mauritania, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe were added to the list in the annual report. Removed from the list were Qatar, Oman, Algeria, and Moldova.
    (AFP, 6/16/09)

2009        Jul, Oman’s population was estimated at 3.4 million.
    (NYT 2011 Almanac, p.653)

2009        Dec 15, In Kuwait Gulf Arab nations put into force a monetary pact, moving a step closer toward the elusive goal of a single regional currency and greater integration between the mainly oil-rich states. The announcement was made by Kuwait's finance minister came as leaders from the six-member Gulf Cooperation Council nations were wrapping up a two-day summit in which they launched a regional electricity project. The GCC groups Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman and Bahrain.
    (AP, 12/15/09)

2010        Apr 6, Somali pirates aboard the Faize Osamani tried to attack the MV Rising Sun. A hostage onboard the hijacked Indian cargo dhow drowned after the ship was used to attack another vessel and navies intervened. A warship from Oman arrived and 9 hostages jumped overboard to try to swim away from the pirates. One drowned and the other 8 were rescued. The US destroyer USS McFaul arrived on the scene after the Omani forces and helped persuade the ten pirates to surrender, which they did after throwing their weapons overboard.
    (AP, 4/7/10)

2010        Jun 6, In Pakistan heavy rains and winds lashed the port city of Karachi as Cyclone Phet swirled along the coastline after claiming the lives of 15 people in Oman.
    (AFP, 6/6/10)

2010        Jul 28, In the waters off Oman an explosion damaged an oil tanker carrying 270,000 tons of oil, near the mouth of the Persian Gulf. Mitsui O.S.K. Lines said the blast on its tanker M. Star caused one minor injury but did not cause an oil leak. Officials said the damage was caused by a freak wave. Japan's ministry said "A crew member saw light on the horizon just before the explosion, so (Mitsui O.S.K.) believes there is a possibility it was caused by an outside attack.” On Aug 4 an obscure al-Qaida-linked group said one of its suicide bombers  attacked the Japanese oil tanker, a claim that, if true, would be the first time the terror network has attacked the Japanese. On Aug 6 the Emirates' WAM news agency quoted an unnamed government official as saying the investigation revealed traces of homemade explosives on the hull of the tanker.
    (AP, 7/28/10)(Reuters, 7/28/10)(AP, 8/4/10)(AP, 8/6/10)

2010        Dec 7, Leaders of six US-allied Gulf Arab nations, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), said they were monitoring with "utmost concern" developments in Iran's disputed nuclear program and issued a thinly veiled warning to their Persian neighbor not to meddle in their internal affairs. The 2-day gathering of leaders from the Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain and Oman followed the publication of leaked US diplomatic memos that revealed deeper concern among Gulf Arab leaders over Tehran's nuclear program than had previously been known.
    (AP, 12/7/10)

2011        Jan 30, Oman said it has dismantled an Emirati spy ring that was targeting the government and the military in the Gulf sultanate. An official the cell was uncovered five months ago, before it was watched and dismantled by Omani security services.
    (AFP, 1/30/11)

2011        Feb 26, Oman's ruler, Sultan Qaboos bin Said, replaced six Cabinet members in a bid to defuse tensions in the country.
    (AP, 2/27/11)

2011        Feb 27, Omani security forces fired tear gas and rubber bullets at protesters demanding better salaries and measures to curb corruption. At least one person was killed in Sohar. Sultan Qaboos bin Said ordered 50,000 new state positions and a monthly stipend of 150 rials ($390) for job seekers.
    (AFP, 2/27/11)(AP, 2/28/11)

2011        Feb 28, In Oman protesters set a supermarket ablaze and rallied at two places in the seaside town of Sohar in a third consecutive day of unrest that has included deadly clashes in the strategic Gulf nation. Police did not respond to today's protest.
    (AP, 2/28/11)

2011        Mar 1, Oman deployed troops north of the capital Muscat and near the border with the United Arab Emirates, following three straight days of anti-government protests.
    (AP, 3/1/11)

2011        Mar 4, Oman said it has reconciled with the United Arab Emirates after Kuwaiti mediation succeeded in resolving tensions over an alleged spy ring.
    (AP, 3/4/11)

2011        Mar 5, Oman's ruler replaced three top government officials, a second major shakeup that was celebrated by some protesters but failed to quell more than a week of widening demonstrations. Workers staged a sit-in at a main oil field in Haima, about 300 miles (500 km) southwest of the capital Muscat, demanding more state investments in the area.
    (AP, 3/5/11)

2011        Mar 8, In Oman more than 150 protesters rallied peacefully outside the state television headquarters in the capital Muscat to call for greater press freedoms.
    (AP, 3/8/11)

2011        Mar 13, Oman's ruler granted lawmaking powers to officials outside the royal family in the boldest reforms yet aimed at quelling protests for jobs and a greater public role in politics.
    (AP, 3/13/11)

2011        Mar 15, In Oman Sheik Ahmed bin Hamad al-Khalili, highest religious authority in the Persian Gulf kingdom, called for a nationwide alcohol ban and strict monitoring of health clubs in this Muslim country. Al-Khalili told state television that "drunk people are unproductive people who sink into vice."
    (AP, 3/17/11)

2011        Mar 16, In Oman about 300 security guards demonstrated in the capital Muscat, calling for better wages and weekends off. They blocked traffic on a downtown street before the inspector general for police and customs addressed them, saying he would study their demands.
    (AP, 3/16/11)

2011        Mar 29, Oman said it has detained several anti-government activists who took part in protests that started last month in the northern industrial city of Sohar.
    (AP, 3/29/11)

2011        Apr 2, In Oman dozens of protesters staged a sit-in in Muscat to demand probes into alleged state abuses after clashes with security forces in Sohar left at least one person dead and sharply boosted tensions in the strategic Gulf nation.
    (AP, 4/2/11)

2011        Apr 3, Omani authorities said they have released 57 people arrested in crackdowns against pro-reform protesters.
    (AP, 4/3/11)

2011        May 10, The Gulf Co-operation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, Saudi Arabia, UAE) said it welcomed Jordan’s request to join the 6-member group. Jordan had first applied for membership in the mid-1980s. The GCC said it would encourage Morocco to also join.
    (Econ, 5/21/11, p.54)(http://abcnews.go.com/Business/wireStory?id=13586238)

2011        Jun 28, Judicial authorities in Oman said 15 protesters have been sentenced to jail terms for taking part in violent demonstrations calling for more jobs and other reforms.
    (AP, 6/28/11)

2011        Sep 21, A court in Oman ordered the one-month long closure of the prominent Azzaman newspaper and sentenced two of its editors to jail after the country's justice minister accused them of slander. Editor Ibrahim al-Maamary and managing editor Yussuf al-Haj were each sentenced to five months in prison for "insulting" Justice Minister Mohamed al-Hanai in the May articles, which cited claims of embezzlement, graft and other abuses within the ministry.
    (AP, 9/21/11)(AFP, 1/1/12)
2011        Sep 21, Americans Shane Bauer and Josh Fattal, jailed in Iran as spies, were released from Tehran's Evin prison after more than two years in custody. A $1 million bail, $500,000 for each one, was posted by Oman.
    (AP, 9/21/11)

2011        Oct 12, Oman’s Sultan Qaboos, himself a music enthusiast, officially opened the Royal Opera House of Oman, the first of its kind in the Arabian Peninsula.
    (AFP, 10/13/11)

2011        Oct 15, In Oman more than 1,300 candidates, including 77 women, sought seats on the 84-member Shura Council, a decade-old body that has no direct authority but advises the ruling sultan. Only a single woman was elected to the nation's top advisory council despite a push by female candidates that followed pro-reform unrest in the Arabian peninsula nation.
    (AP, 10/15/11)(AP, 10/16/11)

2011        Oct 19, Oman published royal decrees that widen the powers of an 84-seat council that previously had only an advisory role. The members of the Shura Council can now take part in proposing laws to Oman's ruler and can also suggest changes in government regulations.
    (AP, 10/20/11)

2011        Nov 6, Oman state media reported that 4 crewmen died and five are still missing after an Indian ship sank in bad weather off its coast.
    (AFP, 11/6/11)

2012        Jan 1, Omani newspaper Azzaman said it would appeal in the high court the five-month jail sentences handed to two of its staff for insulting the justice minister.
    (AFP, 1/1/12)

2012        Jun 11, In Oman 22 people were detained for protesting outside the central police station in Muscat. They were calling for the release of 3 pro-democracy campaigners detained some days earlier.
    (Econ, 6/16/12, p.52) 

2012        Apr 27, In Oman say eight members of a family burned to death after their car struck a truck parked on the roadside.
    (AP, 4/28/12)

2012        Jul 19, In Oman a US Navy helicopter crash killing 2 crewmembers. 3 others aboard the downed MH-53E Sea Dragon survived.
    (AP, 7/22/12)

2012        Dec 22, In Oman more than 1,400 candidates competed in the Gulf nation's first municipal elections, a concession following Arab Spring-linked unrest.
    (AP, 12/22/12)

2013        Mar 22, Oman sate news said Sultan Qaboos bin Said has pardoned all activists jailed for offending the nation's ruler or joining protests.
    (Reuters, 3/22/13)

2013        Mar 25, Libya's foreign minister said the widow of the late ruler Moammar Gadhafi and other family members have been granted asylum in Oman.
    (AP, 3/25/13)

2013        Jul 11, Oman police said they have seized 30,393 pistols aboard a tanker. Dubai-based newspaper Gulf News said the ship came from Turkey and was bound for Yemen. 9 Omanis were arrested in connection with the alleged shipment of pistols discovered in Sohar.
    (AP, 7/11/13)

2013        Jul 23, Oman's Sultan Qaboos pardoned activists jailed for taking part in anti-government protests two years ago, his latest gesture to citizens worried about unemployment and inadequate pay.
    (Reuters, 7/23/13)

2013        Oct 30, Oman said it has discovered the first case of the MERS coronavirus in the Gulf sultanate, a 68-year-old Omani man.
    (AFP, 10/30/13)

2013        Nov 10, Saudi Arabia announced another fatality from the MERS virus, taking its toll to 53, as neighbouring Oman recorded its first death from the respiratory disease.
    (AFP, 11/10/13)

2013        Dec 16, British Petroleum said it has won official approval to develop a key shale gas project in Oman at a cost of $16 billion (11.6 billion euros).
    (AP, 12/16/13)

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