Timeline Orkney Islands

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The Orkney Islands consists of a group of over 70 islands, but only 17 are inhabited. They start 6 miles off the Scottish mainland and extend 50 miles north and northeast.
    (SFEM, 10/10/99, p.22)
Kirkwall is the capital and biggest town on Mainland Orkney.
    (SSFC, 11/13/05, p.F10)

4,000BC    The Orkneys were inhabited at least since this time.
    (SFEM, 10/10/99, p.23)

4000-3000BC     The Tomb of the Eagles, an oval chambered cairn, on West Mainland dated to this time.
    (SFEM, 10/10/99, p.26)

3200BC-2200BC    The Orkney Island village of Skara Brae was inhabited during this period. A huge storm in 1850 revealed its ruins. Inhabitants were settled farmers who ate sheep, cattle, grain and fish.
    (www.orkneyjar.com/history/skarabrae/)(SFEC, 3/23/97,  p.T3)

c3000BC    On the Orkney mainland the 12 Stones of Stennes were built about this time.
    (SFEC, 3/23/97, p.T3)

c2750BC    In the Orkney Islands a chambered tomb, Maes Howe, near the Stones of Stennes was constructed. It also exhibits a collection of stone carved Viking runes. The tomb was vandalized and rebuilt in 9th century Norse times.
    (SFEC, 3/23/97,  p.T3)(SFEM, 10/10/99, p.24)

2500BC-2000BC    Scotland’s Ring of Brogar in Orkney’s West Mainland dates to about this time. In 2005 36 of the original 60 stones remained standing. The original stones stood in a perfect circle 340 feet in diameter.
    (SFEC, 3/23/97,  p.T3)(SSFC, 11/13/05, p.F10)

700-800    Vikings began arriving to the Orkney Islands.
    (SFEC, 3/23/97,  p.T3)

1472        The Orkney Islands were part of Norway until this year.
    (SFEC, 3/23/97,  p.T3)

1850        Skara Brae was rediscovered by William Watt, the laird of Skaill, after a fierce storm stripped the grass from a high sand dune.
    (SFEC, 3/23/97,  p.T3)

1919        At the end of WW I the German High Seas Fleet was interred at Scapa Flow in the Orkneys. During armistice discussions the German commander gave orders to scuttle the ships.
    (SFEM, 10/10/99, p.49)

1939        The HMS Oak was sunk by a German submarine in the Scapa Flow and 833 lives were lost. This prompted Winston Churchill to order the creation of concrete barriers at the eastern entrance of Scapa Flow.
    (SFEM, 10/10/99, p.49)

1945        May 12, The Churchill Barriers were formally opened by the first Lord of the Admiralty. They were built to protect Scapa Flow from enemy submarines. The 5 causeways linked Orkney’s Mainland to South Ronaldsay and marked a dividing line between the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Thousands of Italian prisoners of war carried out the project and left behind their decorated Italian Chapel.
    (SSFC, 11/13/05, p.F10)(www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/eastmainland/churchill/)

1999         Some 23,000 people lived on the Orkney Islands.
    (SFEM, 10/10/99, p.22)

2005        The population of mainland Orkney was about 7,500.
    (SSFC, 11/13/05, p.F10)

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Subject = Orkneys
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