7000BC Stone masks, dating to about this time,
were later discovered in the Judean desert and hills near Jerusalem.
In 2014 eleven stone masks were put on exhibit and offered a rare
glimpse at some of civilization's first communal rituals.
1700BC Canaanites, before the Hebrew conquest,
built a massive wall about this time when Jerusalem was a small,
fortified enclave. Archeologists first discovered the 26-foot-high
wall in 1909 and later believed it to have been part of a protected
passage built from a hilltop fortress to a nearby spring that was
the city's only water source and vulnerable to marauders.
1600BC A gate in a curved wall in Shekhem city was
built by skilled engineers around this time. The king of Shekhem,
Labaya, is mentioned in the cuneiform tablets of the Pharaonic
archive found at Tel al-Amarna in Egypt, which are dated to the 14th
century BC. The king had rebelled against Egyptian domination, and
soldiers were dispatched north to subdue him, but failed. Romans
later abandoned the original site and built a new city to the west,
calling it Flavius Neapolis. The Greek name Neapolis, or "new city,"
later became enshrined in Arabic as Nablus. A German team began
excavating at the site in 1913.
1200BC The Philistines arrived by sea from the
area of modern-day Greece about this time. They went on to rule
major ports at Ashkelon and Ashdod, now cities in Israel, and at
Gaza, now part of the Palestinian territory known as the Gaza Strip.
1020 BC - 980 BC Radiocarbon dating on burnt olive
pits found in the ancient city of Khirbet Qeiyafa, 19 miles (30km)
southwest of Jerusalem, indicate it existed between during this
period, before being violently destroyed. In 2012 archaeologists
reported the discovery of shrines from the fortified city, providing
the earliest evidence of a Biblical cult.
930BC Sheshonq I, ruler of
Egypt, campaigned in Palestine about this time laying tribute upon
the king of Judah.
830BC The Philistine city of
Gath was razed. It appears to have been the work of the Aramean king
Hazael, an incident mentioned in the Book of Kings.
710BC Hanunu of Gaza was in the
revolt against the king of Assyria which led to the battle of
Raphia, the first struggle between Egypt and Assyria. Hanunu, the
king of Gaza, fled to Sebako (Shebaka), king of Egypt; but returned
and, having made submission, was received with favor.
c700BC King Hezekiah constructed a 1,750-foot
tunnel to bring water into Jerusalem. Archeologists in 2003 dated
plant fragments in the tunnel's plaster to this time +/- 100 years.
(SFC, 9/11/03, p.A6)
604BC Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon
invaded and put the Philistines' cities to the sword. There is no
remnant of them after that.
586BCE Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, ruler of
Mesopotamia, destroyed Jerusalem and recorded his deeds at the Nahr
al Kalb (Dog River) cliff face between Beirut and Byblos. He
destroyed the first Temple, built by Solomon and took the Jewish
people into captivity.
(NG, Aug., 1974, p.157)(SFC, 12/31/96,
p.A11)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.26)
586BCE Ezekial, in exile at Babylon, described
Tyre as it was before Nebuchadnezzar's attack in the Bible: (Ezekial
27:1-25). This time is known as the "Babylonian Captivity."
(NG, Aug., 1974, p.162)(eawc, p.8)
15BCE King Herod of Judea built
the coastal settlement of Caesarea. It was razed to the ground in
(Econ, 4/24/04, p.83)
c1-30 The life of Jesus Christ.
In 1998 "The Acts of Jesus -- What Did Jesus Really Do? The Search
for the Authentic Jesus" was published with translation and
commentary by Robert W. Funk, director of the Westar Institute and
The Jesus Seminar. In 2001 Philip Jenkins authored "Hidden Gospels:
How the Search for Jesus Lost Its Way," in which he examines the
motives and methodologies of radical biblical scholars.
(SFEM, 4/19/98, p.6)(WSJ, 4/30/01, p.A16)
30 Apr 30, Jesus of Nazareth
was crucified [see 33AD]. Christ died on hill of Golgotha,
Jerusalem. His path along the Via Dolorosa was later disputed as to
whether he was tried by Pontius Pilate at the palace of Herod or at
the Roman fortress of Antonia. His death was at an abandoned quarry,
the site of today’s Church of the Holy Sepulchre. In 1998 Robert
Funk and the Jesus Seminar published "The Acts of Jesus: The Search
for the Authentic Deeds of Jesus." The group had published an
earlier work "The Five Gospels," in which the sayings of Jesus were
examined. In 1999 Thomas Cahill authored "Desire of the Everlasting
Hills," a book about Jesus and his effect on the world. In 2010 Paul
Johnson authored “Jesus: A Biography From a Believer." Also in 2010
Philip Pullman authored “The Good Man Jesus and the Scoundrel
Christ," in which he proposes that Jesus and Christ were twin
(SFC, 3/27/97, p.C2)(SFEC, 4/12/98, BR p.8)(HN,
4/30/98)(WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W12)(Econ, 4/3/10,
30 When the Roman governor of
Palestine was confronted by an angry Jewish crowd demanding the
execution of the leader of a small, radical
religious movement, like
Socrates, he cross-examined him. When he asked him if he was a king,
the man replied, "To this end I was born, and for this cause I came
into the world, to bear witness to the truth. Everyone that belongs
to the truth will hear
me." The governor, being a Roman, answered as any educated Roman
would. For Pontius Pilate had been raised on the Greek and Roman
skeptical traditions that denied that there was anything like
certain truth, only
probable knowledge. So, as
any other Roman would have done, he asked the question, "What is
truth?," but received no answer. In 2000 Ann Wroe authored the
historical novel "Pontius Pilate."
(WWW, WC, 8/15/98)(SFEC, 5/21/00, Par p.19)
30 Dismas was the repentant
thief crucified with Christ.
(WSJ, 11/2/98, p.B1)
c30 Lazarus lived in Cyprus as
a bishop after the miracle by Christ.
(NH, 4/97, p.62)
c30 Easter [in commemoration of
the resurrection of Christ] is generally observed on the Sunday
following the first full moon of spring.
(PacDis, Spring/'94, p. 40)
33 Apr 3, Christ was crucified
(according to astronomers Humphreys and Waddington). The date is
highly debated. See April 30, 30AD.
(Econ, 4/23/11, p.64)
c62-63 James, the "brother" of
Jesus, was stoned to death for teaching the divinity of Christ. He
had led the church in Jerusalem for the 3 decades following the
death of Jesus. In 2002 a stone ossuary, looted from a Jerusalem
cave, was found with an Aramaic inscription that read "James, son of
Joseph, brother of Jesus." In 1997 Robert Eisenman authored "James,
the Brother of Jesus." In 2003 Hershel Shanks and Ben Witherington
III co-authored "The Brother of Jesus: The Dramatic Story &
Meaning of the First Archeological Link to Jesus & His Family."
(SFC, 10/22/02, p.A12)(SSFC, 4/20/03, p.E2)
65CE Jun 8, Jews revolted
against Rome, capturing the fortress of Antonia in Jerusalem.
69CE Sep 1, Traditional date
for the destruction of Jerusalem. [see Aug 29 70CE]
70CE Aug 29, The Temple of
Jerusalem burned after a nine-month Roman siege. The Second Temple
of Jerusalem was destroyed by Rome’s 10th Legion and the Jews there
were exiled. In the Jewish War the Israelites tried unsuccessfully
to revolt against Roman rule. The destruction buried the shops that
lined the main street. Archeologists in 1996 found numerous
artifacts that included bronze coins called prutot. Carpenters from
Israel’s Antiquities Authority used manuscripts of the Roman master
builder Vitruvius to reconstruct contraptions used in the
construction of the temple.
(SFC, 5/23/95, p.A-10)(SFC, 8/28/96, p.A10)(WSJ,
6/22/98, p.A20)(HN, 8/29/98) (SFEC, 3/28/99, p.T11)
70CE Jun 5, Titus & his
Roman legions breached the middle wall of Jerusalem.
70CE Sep 27, The walls of upper
city of Jerusalem were battered down by Romans.
82CE Jul 27, Joseph of
Arimathea, died and was buried in tomb he once lent to Jesus.
c100CE Raban Gamliel in the first century is
credited with arranging the Amidah, considered by many to be the
most important prayer in the Jewish liturgy. Raban Gamliel was the
most influential Rabbi in the period following the destruction of
the Temple. This was a time when many different rabbis each had
their own individual domains.
129 Roman Emp. Hadrian visited
Jerusalem. In 2014 archeologists discovered a large stone with Latin
engravings bearing the name of Hadrian and the year of his visit.
(SFC, 10/22/14, p.A3)
309 Feb 16, Pamphilus Caesarea,
Palestinian scholar, martyr, was beheaded.
326-330 The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem
was built by the Roman emperor Constantine. The church was rebuilt
under Justinian (527-565).
(SFC, 12/26/96, p.B2)(WSJ, 4/5/02, p.A1)
335 Byzantine Emperor
Constantine built the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem on
the hill of Golgotha, where his mother claimed to have found the
remains of the True Cross. It was raised by the Persians in 614,
reconstructed and again destroyed by Caliph Hakim of Egypt in 1009.
It was rebuilt by the Crusaders.
(WSJ, 1/27/07, p.W13)
614 Christian Palestine was
invaded by the Persians. The 5th century monastery of St. Theodosius
east of Beit Sahour near Bethlehem was destroyed by the Persians.
(SFEC, 12/22/96, p.T3)(WSJ, 4/5/02, p.W12)
628 Apr 3, In Persia, Kavadh
sued for peace with the Byzantines. He handed back Armenia,
Byzantine Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and Egypt.
632-661 The Rashidun Caliphate, also known as the
Rightly Guided Caliphate, comprising the first four caliphs in
Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death. At its height,
the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant,
Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and
Central Asia in the east. It was the one of the largest empires in
history up until that time.
634 Sophronius (74), Christian
monk, was elected patriarch and political ruler of Jerusalem.
(ON, 7/03, p.3)
636 Summer, A Byzantine army
arrived in the region of Jerusalem and was defeated by a much
smaller Muslim army at the Yarmuk River. With Muslims at the gate
Sophronius, head of Jerusalem, requested a meeting with Caliph Omar.
(ON, 7/03, p.5)
636 Jul 23, Arabs gained
control of most of Palestine from Byzantine Empire.
638 Mar 11, Sophronius of
Jerusalem, saint, patriarch of Jerusalem, died.
691 The Dome of the Rock mosque
was built in Jerusalem. It contained inscriptions that later were
held as the 1st evidence of the Koran.
(SFC, 3/2/02, p.A15)
749 Dec 4, John of Damascus
(b.~676), a Christian Arab theologian, died at the Mar Saba
monastery near Jerusalem. He is considered "the last of the Fathers"
of the Eastern Orthodox church and is best known for his strong
defense of icons.
1009 In Jerusalem the Church of
the Holy Sepulchre was burned by Muslims under Caliph Hakim of
(WSJ, 5/7/01, p.A20)(WSJ, 1/27/07, p.W13)
1033 An enormous pilgrimage to
Jerusalem marked the 1000th anniversary of the crucifixion of Jesus
(SFC, 1/6/97, p.A3)
1065 Apr 12, Pilgrims under
bishop Gunther of Bamberg reached Jerusalem.
1095 Nov 26, Pope Urban urged
the faithful to wrest the Holy Land from the Muslims, heralding
start of Crusades.
1099 Jun 5, Knights and their
families on the First Crusade witnessed an eclipse of the moon and
interpreted it as a sign from God that they would recapture
1099 Jun 12, Crusade leaders
visited the Mount of Olives where they met a hermit who urged them
to assault Jerusalem.
1099 Jul 8, In Jerusalem 15,000
starving Christian soldiers marched around barefoot while the Muslim
defenders mocked them from the battlements.
1099 Jul 13, The Crusaders
launched their final assault on Muslims in Jerusalem.
1099 Jul 15, Jerusalem fell to
the crusaders following a 7 week siege. A massacre of the city's
Muslim and Jewish population followed with the dead numbered at
(V.D.-H.K.p.109)(HN, 7/15/98)(SSFC, 4/13/03,
1099 Jul 16, Crusaders herded
the Jews of Jerusalem into a synagogue and set it afire.
1099 Aug 12, At the Battle of
Ascalon 1,000 Crusaders, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, routed an
Egyptian relief column heading for Jerusalem. The Norman Godfrey,
elected King of Jerusalem, had assumed the title Defender of the
Holy Sepulcher. Disease starvation by this time reduced the
Crusaders to 60,000, down from an initial 300,000, and most of the
survivors left for home.
(HN, 8/12/99)(PC, 1992, p.88)
1113 Feb 13, Pope Paschal II
issued a papal bull recognizing the Knights of Malta as independent
from bishops or secular authorities. The order traces had
establishment an infirmary in Jerusalem that cared for people of all
faiths making pilgrimages to the Holy Land.
1118 Apr 2, Boudouin I of
Bologne and Edessa, 1st crusader, king of Jerusalem, died.
1118 The military order of the
Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon was founded in
Jerusalem to protect pilgrims in the Holy Land following the First
Crusade. The Knights Templar were founded to protect pilgrims in the
Holy Land during the second Crusade.
(AHD, 1971, p.724)(AP, 10/12/07)
1144 The Saracens recaptured
the crusader’s castles along the Palestine coast.
1174 Jul 11, Amalric I, king of
(ON, 6/07, p.5)
1174 Jul 15, Baldwin (13), son
of Amalric I, was crowned Baldwin IV, king of Jerusalem.
(ON, 6/07, p.5)
1177 Aug 2, Philip of Flanders
arrived in Acre. A Christian army under the joint command of Philip
of Flanders and Raymond of Tripoli marched west to campaign against
the Muslims around Tripoli.
1177 Nov 18, Saladin marched
north from Egypt with 26,000 light cavalry intent on capturing the
Kingdom of Jerusalem.
1177 Nov 25, Baldwin of
Jerusalem and his armored knights encountered the Muslim army of
Saladin below the castle of Montgisard and defeated them in a
(ON, 6/07, p.6)
1180 The Kingdom of Jerusalem
under Baldwin IV reached a truce with Egypt under Saladin.
(ON, 6/07, p.6)
1185 Mar, Baldwin IV (23), king
of Jerusalem, succombed to his leprosy.
1187 Oct 2, Sultan Saladin
captured Jerusalem from Crusaders.
1191 Jul 12, Richard Coeur de
Lion and Crusaders defeated the Saracens at Acre.
1191 Aug 20, Crusader King
Richard I (1157-1199), Coeur de Lion (the "Lionheart"), executed
some 2,700-3,000 Muslim prisoners in Acre (Akko).
1229 Mar 18, German emperor
Frederick II crowned himself king of Jerusalem.
1237 Mar 23, Jan of Brienne,
King of Jerusalem, Emperor of Constantinople, died.
1244 Oct 17, The Sixth Crusade
ended when an Egyptian-Khwarismian force almost annihilated the
Frankish army at Gaza.
1265 The coastal settlement of
Caesarea (Palestine) was razed to the ground.
(Econ, 4/24/04, p.83)
1267 Sep 1, Ramban
(Nachmanides) arrived in Jerusalem to establish a Jewish community.
1291 May 18, Acre, the last
major stronghold of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, fell to the
hands of Al-Ashraf Khalil and his forces from Egypt and Syria after
a siege of 43 days. It had been in the hands of the Franks for 100
years. Egyptian Mamelukes (Mamluks) occupied Akko (Acre). The
crusaders were driven out of Palestine. Khalil, al-Ashraf Salah
ad-Din, the Mamluk King, conquered Akko and put an end to the
Crusader’s rule in the Holy Land.
1626 Dec 1, Pasha Muhammad ibn
Farukh, tyrannical governor of Jerusalem, was driven out.
1750 Acre, a former stronghold
of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, was re-built by the Ottoman
Turks around this time, effectively preserving the earlier town,
which had been destroyed in 1291 and hidden for centuries under
1757 The Greek Orthodox clergy
wrested control of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem.
Ottoman rulers declared a status quo for the holy sties of the city
and control of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher was split primarily
among the Latin, Greek and Armenian patriarchates of Jerusalem and
secondarily among the churches of Egypt, Syria and Ethiopia. This
arrangement was formalized in 1852.
(WSJ, 1/27/07, p.W13)
1799 Mar 6, Napoleon captured
Jaffa, Palestine. [see Mar 7]
1799 Mar 7, In Palestine,
Napoleon captured Jaffa and his men massacred more than 2,000
Albanian prisoners. [see Mar 26]
1799 Mar 19, Napoleon Bonaparte
began the siege of Acre ( later Akko, Israel), which was defended by
1799 Mar 26, Napoleon Bonaparte
captures Jaffa, Palestine. [see Mar 7]
1799 Apr 14, Napoleon called
for establishing Jerusalem for Jews.
1799 May 20, Napoleon Bonaparte
ordered a withdrawal from his siege of St. Jean d'Acre in Egypt.
Plague had run through his besieging French forces, forcing a
retreat. Napoleon, in pursuance of his scheme for raising a Syrian
rebellion against Turkish domination, appeared before Acre, but
after a siege of two months (March–May) was repulsed by the Turks.
1836 Sep 1, Reconstruction
began on Synagogue of Rabbi Judah Hasid in Jerusalem.
1847 George Bush, a professor
of Hebrew at New York Univ., authored “The Valley of Vision," in
which he called on the US government to militarily wrench Palestine
from the Turks and return it to the Jews.
(WSJ, 6/2/07, p.P8)
1856 A Turkish imperial edict
lifted a ban on Christian bell-ringing in Jerusalem, whnich at this
time was part of the Ottoman empire. The British were given the
honor of erecting the city’s first outdoor bell since the crusades.
(Econ, 1/5/13, p.35)
1880 Palestinian nun Sister
Maria Alfonsina Danil Ghattas (1843) and Father Joseph Tannous
co-founded the Sisters of the Most Holy Rosary of Jerusalem. In 2009
she was beatified, an important step toward sainthood.
1880 Jordan, Lebanon and
Palestine were part of Syria under Ottoman rule.
(Econ, 5/27/06, p.80)
1882 In Russia the Imperial
Orthodox Palestine Society was founded to support Russian
pilgrimages to the Holy Land.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.84)
1888 In Jerusalem the Mary
Magdalene convent was consecrated. Its decoration was overseen by
Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna, consort to Russia’s Grand Duke
Sergei Alexandrovich, the brother of Tsar Alexander III.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.82)
1890 In Jerusalem a small tract
known as Sergei's Courtyard, named for Grand Duke Sergei
Alexandrovich, a son of Czar Alexander III, was built. It became
part of the larger Russian Compound, most of which Israel purchased
in 1964, when Israel paid $3.5 million in oranges because it lacked
hard currency. In 2008 Israel approved handing back Sergei's
Courtyard to Russia. The actual transfer took place in 2011.
1896 Feb 14, Theodor Herzl
published "Der Judenstaat," in which he called for a Jewish homeland
(SFC, 4/30/02, p.A8)(MC, 2/14/02)
1901 The Jewish National Fund
was founded to buy and develop land in Palestine (later Israel) for
1909 Apr 11, Tel Aviv began as
a suburb of Jaffa. While Palestine was still under Ottoman rule,
sixty-six Jewish families took possession of lots in Karm al-Jabali,
on the northern outskirts of the ancient port city of Jaffa near the
Mediterranean coast amidst dunes, vineyards, and orchards. There
they established a “garden suburb" called Ahuzat Bayit
(“Homestead"), which in 2010 was renamed Tel Aviv, or Hill of
1909 In Palestine mostly
Russian socialist idealists of the Zionist movement set up an armed
group, Hashomer, to protect their new farms and villages from Arab
(Econ, 1/10/09, p.9)
1915 Mar 2, Vladmir Jabotinsky
formed a Jewish military force to fight in Palestine.
1916 May 19, The
Sykes-Picot Agreement was a secret understanding between the
governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres
of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East. The
boundaries of this agreement still remains in much of the common
border between Syria and Iraq. Britain and France carved up the
Levant into an assortment of monarchies, mandates and emirates. The
agreement enshrined Anglo-French imperialist ambitions at the end of
WW II. Syria and Lebanon were put into the French orbit, while
Britain claimed Jordan, Iraq, the Gulf states and the Palestinian
Mandate. Sir Mark Sykes (d.1919 at age 39) and Francois Picot made
1917 Nov 2, British Foreign
Secretary Arthur Balfour, in what became known as the Balfour
Declaration, expressed support for a "national home" for the Jews of
Palestine. It encouraged Jewish immigration to Israel in the decade
after WW I.
(SFC, 10/18/96, C8)(AP, 11/2/97)
1917 Dec 9, British forces
under General Allenby captured Jerusalem. He liberated the city from
(WSJ, 4/4/96, A-12)(SFC, 10/18/96, C8)(MC,
1918 Sep 22, General Allenby
led the British army against the Turks, taking Haifa and Nazareth,
1919 This year marked the birth
of Palestinian - Arab nationalism. The events are documented in the
1996 book "Jerusalem in the 20th Century" by Martin Gilbert.
(WSJ, 10/14/96, p.A14)
1920 Apr 4, Arabs attacked Jews
1920 Apr 20, Balfour
Declaration was recognized following a conference in San Remo,
Italy. It was agreed that a mandate to Britain should be formally
given by the League of Nations over an area, which in 2010 comprised
Israel, Jordan and the Golan Heights, to be called the "Mandate of
Palestine". The Balfour Declaration was to apply to the whole of the
mandated territory. The doctrine was named after British Foreign
Secretary Arthur James Balfour, who had first articulated it as a
policy on 2 November 1917.
1920 Apr 24, British Mandate
over Palestine went into effect and lasted for 28 years. The British
organized a police force with some 3,000 British, Arab and Jewish
(MC, 4/24/02)(WSJ, 2/2/04, p.A12)
1920 Aug 14, Nehemiah Persoff,
actor (Al Capone, Yentl), was born in Jerusalem, Palestine.
1921 Mar 12, The Cairo
Conference, called by Winston Churchill, convened to establish a
unified British policy in the Middle East. Britain and France carved
up Arabia and created Jordan under Emir Abdullah; his brother Faisal
became King of Iraq. France was given influence over Syria and
Jewish immigration was allowed into Palestine. Faisal I died
one year after independence and his son, Ghazi I succeeded him.
Colonial Sec. Winston Churchill wanted to keep an air corridor to
Iraq, where the Royal Air Force was dropping poison gas on
rebellious Arab tribes.
10/14/01, p.D3)(Econ, 7/13/13, SR p.5)
1921 Jun 19, Turks and
Christians of Palestine signed a friendship treaty against Jews.
1921 The British contrived the
election of Haj Amin al-Husseini (1895-1974) as the Mufti of
Jerusalem. In 2008 David G. Dalin and John F. Rothman authored “Icon
of Evil: Hitler’s Mufti and the Rise of Radical Islam."
(WSJ, 6/26/08, p.A13)
1922 Sep 11, The British
mandate of Palestine began.
1922 Sep 21, Pres Warren G.
Harding signed a joint resolution of approval to establish a Jewish
homeland in Palestine.
1922 The West Bank became an
unallocated portion of the Palestine Mandate. The eastern area
became known as Transjordan.
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(SFC, 4/30/02, p.A8)
1922-1948 Palestine and the West Bank comprised
about 1/5th of the area under British rule at his time.
(SFC, 1/22/98, p.B12)
1928 Ariel Sharon (d.2014),
Israeli defense minister 1981-1984, was born as Ariel Scheinermann
in Kfar Mallal, a part of British-ruled Palestine.
(SFC, 10/10/98, p.A8)(Econ, 1/18/14, p.90)
1929 Aug 24, Yasser Arafat
(d.2004), leader of the Palestinian Liberation Movement (Nobel
1994), was born in Cairo according to his Cairo birth certificate.
He was the 5th child of Palestinian merchant Abdel Raouf al-Qudwa
al-Husseini. In 1998 Said K. Aburish published his biography
"Arafat: From Defender to Dictator."
1929 Aug 24, In the Hebron
massacre 65–68 Jews are killed by Arabs and the remaining Jews are
forced to leave Hebron.
1929 There were 67 Jews
massacred in Hebron and the survivors were forced to flee. Arab
riots in Hebron killed dozens of Jews with guns and axes and
destroyed the ancient Jewish quarter.
(SFC, 1/10/96, p.A14)(SFC, 1/25/02, p.AA11)
1930s Forces of Haj Amin
al-Husseini, the mufti of Jerusalem, killed hundreds of Jews and
attempted to get rid of Arabs who tolerated Jewish presence.
(WSJ, 8/14/01, p.A14)
1933 Jul 21, Haifa Harbor in
1934 Feb 10, A Jewish immigrant
ship 1st broke the English blockade in Palestine.
1935 Edward W. Said was born in
Jerusalem and grew up in Cairo. Mr. Said later became a spokesman
for the Palestinian cause and Prof. of Literature at Columbia Univ.
He authored "Orientalism," which held that the Western study of
Islam is itself a form of colonialism.
(WSJ, 8/26/99, p.A18)
1936 Apr 15, A number of cars
on the road between Tulkarm and Nablus were held up by Arab
highwaymen. After the armed robbers had removed valuables from the
occupants of the cars, three Jews were forced to sit together in a
truck where they were shot by the bandits in cold blood. One was
killed outright and another died later from his injuries.
1936 Apr 19, Anti-Jewish riots
broke out in Jaffa, Palestine.
1936 Apr 20, Serious rioting
took place on the borders between Jaffa and Tel-Aviv, in particular
in the Catton, Manshieh and Saknat Abu Kebir quarters..
1936 Oct 10, The Arab Higher
Committee issued a manifesto to end riots in Palestine.
1936 Nov 11, A British Royal
Commission arrived in Palestine to investigate the underlying cause
of the anti-Jewish riots. The Arab Higher Committee called a boycott
of the commission’s inquiry.
1936 The Arab Revolt of 1936
was a culmination of actions by Haj Amin al-Husseini (1895-1974),
the Mufti of Jerusalem, who recruited and commanded a national
movement of violence aimed at forbidding all compromise with Jews.
(WSJ, 6/26/08, p.A13)
1936 British forces destroyed
the kasbah of Jaffa in Operation Anchor, a security measure to
improve their strategic control of the settlement. Some 100
residents of Tel Aviv were killed and over 1,000 injured from
gunfire emanating from Jaffa.
(Econ., 2/21/15, p.18)
1936 British authorities banned
homosexual acts in Palestine.
1937 Sep 8, The Pan Arab
conference about Palestine opened.
1937 Oct, Amin al-Husseini, the
Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, was exiled from Palestine. He sought fled
to Iraq and in 1941 sought refuge in Iran.
1937 Dec 23, London warned Rome
to stop the anti-British propaganda in Palestine.
1939 May 23, British parliament
planned to make Palestine independent by 1949.
1941 Mahmoud Darwish,
Palestinian poet, was born in a village that later became part of
Israel. His later work included the poem "State of Siege." In 2003
"Unfortunately It Was Paradise," a translation of his work into
English, was published
(SSFC, 11/3/02, p.D6)
1942 Feb 12, In Palestine
British police killed Avraham Stern (34), founder of the
breakaway militant Zionist group named Lehi. British forces had
begun shooting members of “Fighters for the Freedom of Israel"
(Lehi) after the group had ambushed British soldiers and solicited
fascist and Nazi support for their campaign.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avraham_Stern)(Econ, 5/3/14, p.75)
1942 American rabbi Judah
Magnes (d.1948) helped found a political party in Palestine called
Ihud (Unity). He argued for a single binational state to be shared
by Arabs and Jews.
(Econ, 3/16/13, p.25)
1945 Hamas began life as a
branch of Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood, which advocated the creation
of states based ion Muslim law across the Middle East. [see
1946 Aug 13, Britain
transferred illegal immigrants bound for Palestine to Cyprus.
1945 Aug 25, Jewish
immigrants were permitted to leave Mauritius for Palestine.
1947 Jan 12, In Haifa,
Palestine, the Stern Gang drove a truckload of explosives into a
British police station. 4 people were killed and 140 injured.
(SSFC, 4/16/06, p.E4)
1947 Feb 7, Arabs and Jews
rejected a British proposal to split Palestine.
1947 Jul 18, British seized the
"Exodus 1947" ship of Jewish immigrants to Palestine. The British
Royal Navy intercepted the ship President Warfield, which had been
renamed Exodus by its passengers, forcing the 4,000 Jewish would-be
immigrants aboard back to Displaced Person camps in Germany. Britain
was still the ruling power in Palestine, which was being wracked by
conflict resulting from Jewish national aspirations. The return of
the Jewish immigrants, many of them survivors of Nazi persecution,
heightened anti-British sentiment among Jews in Palestine and
elsewhere. Yossi Harel, commander of the Exodus, died in 2008 at age
(MC, 7/18/02)(HNQ, 12/4/98)(AP, 4/26/08)
1947 Nov 29, The U.N. General
Assembly passed a resolution calling for the partitioning of
Palestine [Jerusalem] between Arabs and Jews. It was to be the heart
of an Arab Palestinian state.
(SFC, 10/18/96, C8)(AP, 11/29/97)(SFC, 1/22/98,
1947 Dec 29, Ship carrying
Jewish immigrants were forced back from Palestine.
1947 Haj Amin al-Husseini, the
mufti of Jerusalem, returned from war-time exile during which he’d
advised Hitler on a final solution for Palestine’s Jews.
(WSJ, 8/14/01, p.A14)
1948 Feb 1, The Palestine Post
building in Jerusalem was bombed.
1948 Feb 22, An Arab bomb
attack in Jerusalem killed 50 people.
1948 Mar 11, Jewish Agency of
Jerusalem was bombed.
1948 Apr 9, In Deir Yassin
about one-third of 750 Palestinians were killed by Jewish fighters
of the National Military Organization, an underground group better
known as the Irgun, and a splinter group called Lehi. The event is
called Al-Nakbah (catastrophe) by the Palestinians. 30 similar
massacres happened on other Palestinian villages. The death toll was
said to be inflated by Jewish forces to invoke fear and cause
(SFC, 3/18/98, p.A10)(SFC, 4/25/98, p.A1,11)
1948 Mar 10, Political and
military men gathered at the Tel Aviv headquarters of the Haganah
and put the final touches to Plan Dalet. In 2006 Prof. Ilan Pappe of
the Univ. of Haifa authored “The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine." He
held that Plan Dalet was a plan for the ethnic cleansing of some
800,000 Palestinians in order to allow the formation of the Jewish
(Econ, 11/4/06, p.92)
1948 Mar 24, Israel Galili,
chief of the Haganah, sent orders reminding commanders of the policy
to protect the “full rights, needs, and freedoms of the Arabs in the
Hebrew state without discrimination."
(Econ, 11/4/06, p.93)
1948 May 11, Haganah took
control of Safed and port of Haifa.
1948 May 15, A 28 year old
British Mandate over Palestine ended.
1948 May 15, Hours after
declaring its independence, the new state of Israel was attacked by
Transjordan, Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Lebanon.
1948 May 24, Ariel Sharon, then
called Arik Scheinerman, was wounded at the battle of Latrun while
securing Jerusalem for Jews in the 1st Arab-Israeli War.
(WSJ, 10/13/00, p.A15)(Econ, 12/16/06,
1948 May 27, Arabs blew up the
Jewish synagogue Hurvat Rabbi Yehudah he-Hasid.
1948 Aug 23, Count Bernadotte
asked for aid for fugitives to Palestine. [see Sep 17]
1948 Sep 17, Count Folke
Bernadotte (b.1895) of Sweden, the UN mediator for Palestine, was
assassinated in Jerusalem by members of the extreme Zionist Stern
Group. Yehoshua Zettler (d.2009 at 91), one of the founding members
of the group, masterminded the assassination.
1948 Sep 18, Ralph J. Bunche
was confirmed as acting UN mediator in Palestine.
1948 Oct 21, Beersheba was
liberated by the Israeli army.
1948 Dec 8, Jordan annexed
Arabic Palestine. The old city of East Jerusalem came under
Jordanian control until 1968. Transjordan was given to a client Arab
family, the Hashenites (led by King Hussein’s grandfather), and was
run out of Mecca by the Saudis. The country now has an ethnic
Palestinian majority. Elections chose a body evenly divided between
Jordan and the Palestinian territories.
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(WSJ, 4/9/97, p.A14)(AP,
1948 Dec 11, United Nations
General Assembly Resolution 194 was passed near the end of the 1948
Arab-Israeli War. The resolution expresses appreciation for the
efforts of UN Envoy Folke Bernadotte after his assassination by
members of the Stern Gang. It was later often quoted in support of
the Palestinian right of return.
1948 In the months preceding
the war between Israel and the Arab states some 10,000 Arab homes in
West Jerusalem were looted and seized.
(SSFC, 5/18/03, p.D6)
1948-1949 Jordan seized the West Bank and Egypt
occupied the Gaza Strip.
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(SFC, 1/22/98, p.B12)
1949 Dec 9, UN took trusteeship
1949 Dec, The UN Relief and
Works Agency (UNRWA) was established to serve Palestinian Arabs.
(SSFC, 5/19/02, p.A10)
1949 Yasser Arafat formed a
Palestinian Students’ League.
(SFC, 11/11/04, p.A18)
1949 Yizhar Smilanksy, under
the pen-name S. Yizhar, authored “Khirbet Khizeh," a novella based
on his experience in clearing a Palestinian village on the Israeli
side of the 1949 ceasefire line.
(Econ, 4/12/08, p.93)
1950 Apr 24, Jordan annexed the
West Bank and offered citizenship to all Palestinians wishing to
(SFC, 2/8/99, p.A6)
1951 Jul 20, Jordan's King
Abdullah Ibn Hussein was assassinated in Jerusalem by a
Palestinian extremist. Prince Hussein (15) witnessed the murder.
Talal became king with the assassination of his father, Abdullah
ibn-Hussein, who ruled when Jordan was a British mandate.
(AP, 7/20/97)(HN, 7/20/98)(SFC, 2/6/99,
1953 Yasser Arafat (d.2004), as
a student in Egypt, authored “Don’t Forget Palestine."
(Econ, 11/13/04, p.95)
1953 Hizb ut-Tahir was founded
in Jerusalem by Taqiuddin al-Nabhani, an Islamic scholar and appeals
court judge from the Palestinian village of Ijzim. It seeks the
return of the caliphate, based on Islamic sharia law, by political
means. By 2012 it had members and sympathizers in more than 50
1953 The Jenin refugee camp was
(SFC, 4/15/02, p.A12)
1955 Mar 1, An Israeli
retaliation in Gaza is reported as having killed 37 Egyptians and
wounded 29 others. Palestinians stone the United Nations Gaza
1956 Jul 25, Jordanians
attacked the UN Palestine truce.
1956 Aug, Yasser Arafat
attended an int’l. student congress in Prague and secured membership
(WSJ, 11/12/04, p.A11)
1956 Oct 29, During the Suez
Canal crisis, Israel launched an invasion of Egypt's Sinai
Peninsula. Paratroopers under Ariel Sharon dropped into Sinai to
open the Straits of Tiran. The Sinai Campaign, also known as
Operation Kadesh, lasted eight days to November 5, 1956.
(AP, 10/29/97)(Econ, 7/29/06,
1956 Oct 29, At Kafr Kassem
village 49 Palestinians were massacred by Israeli border guards
enforcing a curfew.
1956 Nov 2, Gaza was occupied
by the Israeli army and evacuated in March 1957.
1957 In Syria the Yarmouk
Palestinian camp was created. It became the larges of 9 and evolved
into a densely populated residential district just five miles (eight
km) from the center of Damascus.
1959 A group of Palestinians
met in Kuwait and formed Fatah. Yasser Arafat became the group’s
(SFC, 11/11/04, p.A18)
1962 Mar 9, Egyptian Pres.
Nasser declared Gaza belongs to Palestinians.
1964 Jan 1, Fatah, the
guerrilla group founded by Yasser Arafat, made its 1st armed attack
against Israel. The annual celebration of this day came to be known
as Fatah Day.
(SFC, 1/2/01, p.A8)
1964 Jan 17, The PLO charter
was put together with articles that proclaimed Israel an illegal
state and pledged "the elimination of Zionism in Palestine." The PLO
was founded in Egypt. Fatah became the core group of the PLO.
(SFC, 12/11/98, p.A18)(SFC, 4/30/02, p.A8)(SFC,
1964 May 28, Palestine National
Congress formed the PLO in Jerusalem.
1964 Sep 10, Palestinian
Liberation Army (PLA) formed.
1964 Dec 31, Syrian-based
al-Fatah guerrillas of Yasser Arafat launched their 1st raid on
Israel with the aim of provoking a retaliation and sparking an Arab
war against Israel. Fatah, a Palestinian movement for independence,
made the first terror attack on Israel and initiated the armed
struggle for a state.
(WSJ, 1/22/98, p.A1)(SFEC, 1/2/00, p.A24)(WSJ,
1964-1987 The Democratic Front for the Liberation
of Palestine was an active fighting force under Nayef Hawatmeh In
Syria and Lebanon and lost some 5,000 men over this period. It then
became a social and political body in opposition to Arafat's Fatwah
(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.A22)
1965 Yasser Arafat formed his
Fatwah movement for the Liberation of Palestine.
(SFC, 9/8/03, p.A8)
1966 Nov 10, A land mine near
Hebron killed 3 Israeli policemen. Israel retaliated with a weekend
strike against West Bank villagers and ran into Jordanian troops in
Samu. Palestinians rioted and demanded the overthrow of Jordan’s
Pres. Hussein. The Arab legion was forced to fire and killed at
(WSJ, 6/5/02, p.D7)
1967 Jun 5, The Six Day War
erupted in the Middle East as Israel, convinced an Arab attack was
imminent, raided Egyptian military targets. Syria, Jordan and Iraq
entered the conflict. Jordan lost the West Bank, an area of 2,270
sq. miles. War broke out as Israel reacted to the removal of UN
peace-keeping troops, Arab troop movements and the barring of
Israeli ships in the Gulf of Aqaba.
(AP, 6/5/97)(HN, 6/5/98)(NG, 5/93, p.58)(HNQ,
1967 Jun 5-1967 Jun 10, Israel
fought the Six-Day War against Syria and captured the Golan Heights,
the Gaza Strip, the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Allegations that
Israeli soldiers killed hundreds of Egyptian prisoners with the
knowledge of national leaders were made by Israeli historians in
1995. Israel occupied Syrian territory. The Gaza Strip and the West
Bank were captured by Israel. Israel annexed the largely Arab East
Jerusalem, which included the Old City, and has since ringed it with
(WSJ, 8/17/95, p.A-1)(WSJ,11/24/95, p.A-1)(WSJ,
5/6/96, p.A-13)(SFC, 6/25/96, p.A10)(SFC, 1/22/98, p.B12)(SFC,
1967 Jun 6, Israeli troops
occupied Gaza on the 2nd day of the 6-day war.
1967 Jun 7, Israel captured the
Wailing Wall in East Jerusalem. 3rd day of the 6-day war.
1967 Jun 8, On the 4th day of
the Six-Day War Israel captured the Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula
from Egypt, as well as the West Bank and Eastern Jerusalem from
Jordan. Israel’s occupation of Gaza continued for the next 38 years.
(SSFC, 6/3/07, p.E6)(Econ, 1/10/09, p.9)
1967 Jun 10, Israel completed
its final offensive in the Golan Heights in the 6-Day Middle East
War. The next day Israel and Syria agreed to observe a United
Nations-mediated cease-fire. Israel took Gaza and the Sinai from
Egypt, Old Jerusalem and the West Bank from Jordan, and the Golan
Heights from Syria. In 2002 Michael B. Oren authored "Six Days of
War: June 1967 and the making of the Modern Middle East." Israeli
military historian Arieh Yitzhaki later said that his research
showed Israeli troops killed 300 Egyptian prisoners of war. Israel
said soldiers on both sides committed atrocities. In 2007 Tom Segev
authored “1967: Israel, the War and the Year that Transformed the
(AP, 6/10/97)(WSJ, 6/5/02, p.D7)(AP,
3/6/07)(Econ, 5/26/07, p.97)
1967 Jun 11, Israel and Syria
accepted a UN cease-fire. The UN brokered a cease-fire between
Israel and the defeated Egypt, Syria, and Jordan, ending the Six-Day
War with Israel occupying the Sinai, West Bank, East Jerusalem and
the Golan Heights. Israel annexed the largely Arab East Jerusalem,
which included the Old City, and has since ringed it with Jewish
(HN, 6/11/98)(AP, 6/11/03)(SFC, 6/25/96, p.A10)
1967 Soviet Gen. Sakharovsky
became chief intelligence adviser in Romania. He helped bring Yasser
Arafat to the Soviet Union via Romania for training and
indoctrination. The soviets maneuvered to have Arafat named chairman
of the PLO with help from Egypt’s ruler, Gamal Abdel Nasser.
(WSJ, 1/10/02, p.A12)
1968 Mar 21, Israeli forces
attacked a Palestinian base belonging to Fatah in the
village of Al-Karameh in Jordan. Israeli forces engage in a
battle with Palestinian fighters for the first time. On 24 March
1968, the Security Council adopted resolution 248 (1968), condemning
the large scale and premeditated military actions by Israel
against Jordan. The Karameh mission failed. Muki Betser, Israeli
commando, was wounded. He later became commander of the Sayeret
Matkal, Israel’s elite counter-terrorist unit.
1968 Apr, Jews moved into
Hebron following its occupation in the wake of the 1967 6-Day War.
They later settled in the new suburb of Kiryat Arba. Rabbi Moshe
Levinger (1935-2015) left Jerusalem on Passover eve along with
several dozen followers and checked into the Park Hotel posing as
Swiss tourists. The next day, Levinger declared their true identity
and announced their intention to re-establish Hebron's Jewish
(SFC, 12/4/08, p.A27)(AP, 5/17/15)
1968 Dec 26, A Palestinian
terrorist attack in Athens on an Israeli civilian airliner killed
one person. Mahmoud Mohammad (25) and Maher Suleiman (19) were later
captured by Greek officials, In 1970, a Greek court convicted
Mahmoud Mohammad for his role in the attack. In 1987 Mahmoud
Mohammed Issa Mohammed entered Canada, where he was ordered to be
deported in 1988. In 2007 he was still in Canada after some 30
appeals and reviews.
1968 The Popular Front for the
Liberation of Palestine (PFLP-GC) was founded by Dr. George Habash,
founder of the pan-Arab nationalist movement.
(SFC, 12/13/96, p.B4)
1968 Jews moved into Hebron
following its occupation in the wake of the 1967 6-Day War. They
later settled in the new suburb of Kiryat Arba.
(SFC, 12/4/08, p.A27)
1969 Feb 4, Al-Fatah-leader
Yasser Arafat officially took over as chairman of PLO.
(SFC, 11/11/04, p.A18)
1969 Feb 18, The PLO (PFLP-GC)
machine-gunned an Israeli El-Al plane in Zurich, Switzerland.
One Palestinian was killed and 4 were arrested.
1969 Apr 23, The Lebanese army
battled with rioting Palestinians.
1969 Nov 3, The Arab League
brokered a deal in Cairo that gave the PLO in Lebanon refugee camps
freedom of government interference. They reached an agreement that
effectively endorsed PLO freedom of action in Lebanon to recruit,
arm, train, and employ fighters against Israel. The Lebanese Army
protected their bases and supply lines.
1970 Feb 21, The PFLP-GC, a
Palestinian terrorist group, planted a parcel bomb on Swissair
Flight 330 that blew up on a flight from Zurich to Tel Aviv. All 47
aboard were killed.
1970 Jun 11, Palestinian
guerrillas and King Hussein's army signed a truce in Jordan after
week of heavy clashes.
1970 Aug, Israel, Jordan and
Egypt agreed to a ceasefire under the terms of the US proposed Roger
1970 Sep 6, Palestinian
guerrillas of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
(PFLP-GC) seized control of three jetliners which were later blown
up on the ground in Jordan after the passengers and crews were
evacuated. This triggered a civil war in and the expulsion of
Palestinians from Jordan.
(SFC, 12/13/96, p.B4)(AP, 9/6/97)
1970 Sep 15, The Jordanian army
attacked Palestinian positions. Within days PLO officials and
commandos were expelled from Jordan and forced to move to Lebanon.
1970 Sep 16, The Black
September conflict began when King Hussein of Jordan declared
military rule in response to a fedayeen coup d’état to seize his
kingdom. This resulted in the deaths or expulsion of thousands of
Palestinians from Jordan.
1970 Sep 27, A cease-fire
accord was signed in Cairo between the Jordanian army and
Palestinian guerrillas by King Hussein and Yasser Arafat brokered by
the Arab peace committee headed by Bahi Ladgham of Tunisia.
(SFC, 4/16/98, p.B4)(http://tinyurl.com/6e3v9s)
1970 The PFLP-GC planted a time
bomb on a Swissair jet that blew up on a flight from Zurich to Tel
Aviv. All 47 aboard were killed.
(SFC, 5/21/02, p.A16)
1971 Jul 13-1971 Jul 19,
Jordanian troops proceeded to wipe out Palestinian guerrillas; some
1,500 prisoners were brought to Amman; Iraq and Syria soon broke off
relations with Jordan.
(www.onwar.com/aced/data/bravo/blacksept1970.htm)(WUD, 1994, p.
1971 Jul 23, Walid Ahmad Nimer
al-Naser (b.1934), aka, Abu Ali Iyad, a senior Palestinian field
commander based in Syria and Jordan, was reported killed by the
Jordanian army. The PLO claimed he was captured and tortured to
death by Jordanian forces days earlier. A splinter group seeking
revenge soon developed within Fatah and came to be known as the
Black September Organization.
1971 Fatah, the armed faction
of the Palestine Liberation Organization, arrived in Lebanon
following its ouster from Jordan after losing the battles of "Black
(SFC, 9/28/98, p.A10)(Econ, 1/24/15, p.42)
1972 May 8, A Belgian Sabena
aircraft, bound for Tel Aviv, was hijacked by 4 Palestinians. At Lod
Intl. 2 hijackers were shot and killed by Israeli military
personnel, dressed as ground engineers. One passenger died 8 days
later as a result of her wounds. The two women hijackers were
subsequently sentenced to life imprisonment.
1972 Sep 5, Terror struck the
Munich Olympic games in West Germany as Arab guerrillas attacked the
Israeli delegation. Palestinian terrorists killed 2 athletes and
took 9 others and their coaches hostage. Eleven Israelis, five
guerrillas and a police officer were killed in a 20-hour siege. The
Palestinian commandos were linked to Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich
Ramirez Sanchez. In 1984 George Jonas authored “Vengeance," an
account of an Israeli hit squad ordered to track down those
responsible for the Munich attack. In 2000 the TV documentary "One
Day in September" depicted the events. In 2005 Aaron J. Klein
authored “Striking Back," and account of Israel’s response to the
Munich attack. The 2005 the Stephen Spielberg film “Munich" was
based on the book by George Jonas.
(SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)(WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W4)(WSJ,
12/21/05, p.D10)(WSJ, 1/14/06, p.A9)
1972 Sep 19, A Black September
letter bomb killed Ami Shehori (Shachori), Israeli attache at the
embassy in London.
1972 Oct 29, Hijackers of a
German Lufthansa passenger jet demanded the release of the three
surviving terrorists, who had been arrested after the
Fürstenfeldbruck gunfight and were being held for trial. They forced
West Germany to release 3 terrorists who were involved in the Munich
1972 Abu Daoud at a cafe in
Rome with fellow PLO guerrilla leader Abu Iyad and his assistant,
Mohammed al-Omari, read in a newspaper that the International
Olympics Committee had refused the PLO's request to send a
Palestinian delegation to the Munich Olympics. They decided to
“participate in their own way." Daoud was given the task of doing
the operation's groundwork. Daoud first acknowledged having a role
in the 1972 Munich operation in the 1999 book: "Palestine: From
Jerusalem to Munich."
1973 Jan 12, Yasser Arafat was
re-elected as head of the Palestinian Liberation Organization.
1973 Mar 2, Arab commandos,
"Black September" terrorists, led by Abu Jihad executed 3 hostages:
US ambassador Cleo A. Noel (54), deputy George Curtis Moore (47) and
Belgian charge d’affaires Guy Eid (38), in Khartoum, Sudan. Pres.
Nixon refused their demands. The operation was later reported to
have been organized by Yasser Arafat.
1973 Nov 25, Three Palestinians
hijacked a KLM B747 enroute to New Delhi to Abu Dhabi.
1973 Nov 28, Arab League summit
in Algiers recognized Palestine.
1973 Dec 21, Israel, Egypt,
Syria, Jordan, US and USSR leaders met in Geneva. The Geneva
Conference of 1973 was an attempt to negotiate a solution to the
Arab-Israeli conflict as called for in UN Security Council
Resolution 338 which was passed after the 1973 Arab-Israeli War.
1973 Sheikh Ahmed Yassin
(1937-2004), Palestinian co-founder of Hamas, founded Al-Mujamma
Al-Islami (the Islamic Association), an Islamic charity group.
1974 May 15, PFLP terrorists
took a school in Maalot, Israel. 26 people were killed including 21
children after an unsuccessful rescue attempt.
(www.mfa.gov.il/mfa)(WSJ, 9/14/04, p.A20)
1974 Oct 30, An Arab summit in
Rabat, Jordon, decided that King Hussein would no longer speak for
the Palestinians and named the PLO under Yasir Arafat as the sole,
1974 Nov 13, Yasser Arafat
addressed the UN General Assembly on behalf of Palestine.
(SFC, 11/11/04, p.A18)
1974 Nov 22, UN General
Assembly recognized Palestine's right to sovereignty and national
(SFC, 2/8/99, p.A6)(http://tinyurl.com/52x3eg)
1974 The Palestinian Democratic
Front took over an Israeli school in Maalot and 20 schoolchildren
(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.A22)
1974 Abu Nidal split from the
PLO and was sentenced to death in absentia.
(SFC, 8/25/98, p.A6)(SFC, 1/27/99, p.A7)
1975 Apr 13, In Lebanon the
right-wing Christian Falange (Phalange) opened fire on a bus packed
with Palestinians in a low-income neighborhood after a drive-by
attack earlier in the day on a nearby church. The attacks killed 27
Palestinians and three Lebanese Christians. The ambush sparked a
civil war that lasted to 1990. The attack was made to avenge an
attempted assassination on Bashir Gemayel.
(SFEC, 4/13/97, p.T5)(AP, 4/12/05)(Econ,
1975 Nov 10, The UN General
Assembly adopted Resolution 3237 that conferred on the PLO the
status of observer in the Assembly and in other international
conferences held under UN auspices.
1976 Jan 22, A PLO bank robbery
in Beirut netted a world record $20-50 million.
1976 Mar 30, Israel killed 6
Palestinians protesting land confiscation. This event became
remembered annually by Palestinians as Land Day.
1976 Jul 4, Jonathan Netanyahu,
brother of Benjamin, led and was killed in an Israeli raid called
Operation Thunderball that rescued the  hostages held at
Entebbe Airport in Uganda. The raid was by Sayeret Matkal, Israel’s
elite counter-terrorist unit led by Muki Betser, and it freed all
but 3 of the 104 Israeli and Jewish hostages and crew of an Air
France jetliner seized by pro-Palestinian hijackers. A total of 45
Ugandan soldiers were killed during the raid. The events are
described by Muki Betser and Robert Rosenberg in "Secret Soldier,
The True Life of Israel’s Greatest Commando." The hijacking was
linked to Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez.
1976 Aug 12, Syrian backed
Christian militias completed their siege of the Tell al-Za'tar
Palestinian camp in Lebanon leaving some 2000 people killed.
1977 Jan 11, France set off an
international uproar by releasing Abu Daoud, a Palestinian suspected
of involvement in the massacre of Israeli athletes at the 1972
Munich Olympics. In 1999 Mohammed Oudeh, aka Abu Daoud, published an
autobiography in France in which he admitted to playing a mastermind
role in the 1972 Munich hostage episode.
(AP, 1/11/98)(SFC, 6/14/99, p.A14)
1977 Jan 12, Anti-French
demonstrations took place in Israel after Paris released Abu Daoud,
responsible for the 1972 Munich massacre of Israeli athletes.
1977 Mar 16, US president
Carter pleaded for a Palestinian homeland.
1977 Oct 17, West German
commandos stormed a hijacked Lufthansa jetliner that was on the
ground in Mogadishu, Somalia, freeing all 86 hostages and killing
three of the four hijackers, Palestinians of the Popular Front for
the Liberation of Palestine. In 1996 Suhaila al-Sayeh was sentenced
to 12 years in prison by a German court.
(SFC, 11/20/96, p.A17)(AP, 10/17/97)
1978 Jan 4, Said Hammami, the
PLO representative in London, was assassinated. It was initially
believed to be the work of Abu Nidal but was later reported to have
been organized by Yasser Arafat.
1978 Mar 11, Palestinian Arab
terrorists led by Dalal Mughrabi killed 37 people in an attack along
the Tel Aviv coastal highway. The terrorists were identified as
belonging to Fatah; 9 were killed and two captured.
1978 Mar 14, An Israeli force
of 22,000 invaded south Lebanon, hitting the PLO bases.
1978 Mar 23, UNIFIL forces
arrived in Lebanon setting up headquarters in Naqoura. In response
to Israel’s invasion, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 425
and Resolution 426 calling for the withdrawal of Israeli forces from
Lebanon. The UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) was created to
enforce this mandate, and restore peace and sovereignty to Lebanon.
1978 Mar, Wadia Haddad, a
Palestinian wanted for airplane hijackings, died in Iraq showing
only symptoms of leukemia but no signs of poisoning. In 2006 Aaron
Klein authored "Striking Back," which for the first time gave
details of the killing. Klein said Mossad agents had fed Haddad
poisoned Belgian chocolate over six months.
1978 Oct 2, Syrian and
Palestinians shooting in East Beirut killed 1,300.
1978 David Grossman created his
doccumentary “The Yellow Wind." It engaged with the lives of
Palestinians living in Gaza and the West Bank under Israeli
(Econ, 9/18/10, p.103)
1979 Jan 22, Abu Hassan (Ali
Hassan Salameh), the alleged planner of the 1972 Munich raid, was
killed by a bomb in Beirut. He was the chief of operations for the
Black September militant Palestinian group.
1979 Jul 13, A 45-hour siege
began at the Egyptian Embassy in Ankara, Turkey, as four Palestinian
guerrillas killed two security men and seized 20 hostages.
1978 Israelis tranformed a
campsite named Ariel into the first Jewish city in the occupied West
(Econ, 10/23/10, p.60)
1979-1980 The Islamic Jihad was founded in Egypt
by Palestinian students from the Gaza Strip. Nafez Azzam was one of
the founders. Control was later moved to Iran with training and
funding from Iran, Syria and Hezbollah in Lebanon. Leaders included
Ramadan Shalah and Abdullah Shami.
1980 Aug 20, UN Security
Council condemned (14-0, US abstains) Israeli declaration that all
of Jerusalem is it's capital.
1980 The Iran-inspired Islamic
Jihad was formed and became the first Palestinian Islamist
organization to take up arms against Israel.
1981 In Iran Ayatollah Khomeini
declared the celebration of “Al-Quds Day," the Arabic name for
Jerusalem Day, to be held on the last day of Ramadan as an annual
denunciation of Israeli control of the holy city.
1982 Apr 11, In Israel Alan
Goodman opened fire on Palestinians praying at the Temple Mount, the
site of Islam’s third-holiest shrine. He killed 2 and was sentenced
to life in prison. He was released to the US in 1997 after agreeing
to spend the next 8 years in the US.
1982 Jun 3, Israel's ambassador
to Britain, Shlomo Argov (1929-2003), was shot and critically
wounded outside a London hotel. Israel's invasion of Lebanon
followed the assassination attempt. The attack was blamed on Abu
Nidal’s Palestinian Fatah group.
(WSJ, 8/20/02, p.A18)(NYT, 10/8/04, p.A12)(AP,
1982 Jun 4, Israel attacked
targets in south Lebanon one day after the attempted assassination
of the Israeli ambassador in London.
1982 Jun 6, Israeli Defense
Minister Ariel Sharon ordered his forces to invade southern Lebanon
to drive Palestine Liberation Organization fighters out of the
country. Israeli Gen. Rafael Eitan (d.2004) had convinced defense
minister Ariel Sharon to invade southern Lebanon to clean out the
PLO bases there. A 70-day siege by 30,000 Israeli troops left up to
14,000 Lebanese and Palestinian civilians dead. Islamic radicals,
including Naim Qassem, formed Hezbollah (Hizbullah, i.e. Party of
God) in response to Israel’s attack. The Israelis withdrew in June
1985. Hezbollah was formed with Iranian help as a radical offshoot
of Amal, a Shiite Muslim movement. In 2005 Naim Qassem authored
“Hizbullah: The Story from Within."
(WSJ, 11/17/95, p.A-10)(SFC, 4/17/96, p.A-10)(AP,
6/6/97)(SFC, 6/15/98, p.A10)(SFC, 5/24/00, p.A15)(Econ, 12/4/04,
p.88)(Econ, 4/23/05, p.79)
1982 Aug 9, In France
grenade-throwing Palestinians burst into the Jo Goldenberg deli in
Paris, and sprayed machine-gun fire. 6 people, including two
Americans, were killed, and 21 injured. In 2015 international arrest
warrants were issued for three suspects, who were believed to be
members of the Abu Nidal group.
1982 Aug 21, A group of
Palestinian guerrillas left Lebanon by ship under an evacuation plan
mediated by the United States.
1982 Aug 30, Palestinian
Liberation Organization left Beirut, Lebanon, and moved to Tunis,
(SFC, 11/11/04, p.A18)
1982 Sep 1, The evacuation of
the PLO from Lebanon ended.
1982 Sep 15, Pope John Paul II
received PLO leader Yasser Arafat.
1982 Sep 16-18, The massacre of
hundreds of Palestinian men, women and children by Lebanese
Christian militiamen began in west Beirut's Sabra and Chatilla
(Shatilla) refugee camps. Up to 2,000 Palestinian civilians were
killed. Israel’s defense minister, Ariel Sharon, was held
responsible and lost his top post. In 2001 survivors lodged a
complaint in Belgium against Sharon.
(AP, 9/16/97)(SFC, 10/10/98, p.A8)(SFC, 5/24/00,
p.A15)(SFC, 6/19/01, p.A8)
1982 Sep 18, Christian militia
began the massacre of 600 Palestinians in Lebanon. [see Sep 16-18]
1983 Apr 10, King Hussein of
Jordan, officially renounced pursuing any negotiations to implement
the Reagan Plan, and ceased negotiations with PLO.
1983 Nov 24, PLO exchanged 6
Israeli prisoners for 4,500 Palestinians and Lebanese.
1983 Dec 20, PLO chairman
Yasser Arafat and 4,000 loyalists evacuated Lebanon.
1983 Dec 22, Egyptian president
Mubarak met with PLO leader Yasser Arafat.
1984 In the "Bus 300 affair"
Ehud Yatom, Israeli member of the Shin Bet security agency,
bludgeoned to death 2 Palestinian bus hijackers.
(SFC, 6/16/01, p.A6)
1985 Feb 11, Jordan’s King
Hussein and PLO leader Arafat signed an accord.
1985 May 20, Israel exchanged
1,150 Palestinian prisoners for 3 Israeli soldiers. The exchange was
later referred to as the Jibril deal after the leader of the
PFLP-GC, Ahmad Jibril.
1985 Oct 1, Israeli forces
staged an air raid on PLO-headquarter at Tunis and 68 people were
killed. Yasser Arafat narrowly escaped death.
(WSJ, 11/12/04, p.A11)
1985 Oct 7, Four Palestinian
Liberation Organization (PLO) gunmen hijacked the Italian cruise
ship Achille Lauro in the Mediterranean and demanded the release of
50 Palestinians held by Israel. 413 people were held hostage for 2
days in the seizure that was masterminded by Mohammed Abul Abbas.
American Leon Klinghoffer was shot while sitting in his wheelchair
and thrown overboard. A case was filed against the PLO and settled
in 1997. The hijackers surrendered to Egyptian authorities and were
turned over to Italy which let Abbas slip out of the country.
(SFC, 8/12/97, p.A4)(AP, 10/7/97)(HN, 10/7/98)
1985 Oct 8, The hijackers of
the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro killed American passenger Leon
Klinghoffer, dumping his body and wheelchair overboard. A case was
filed against the PLO and settled in 1997. The hijackers surrendered
to Egyptian authorities and were turned over to Italy which let
Abbas slip out of the country.
(SFC, 8/12/97, p.A4) (AP, 10/8/97)
1985 Dec 27, Palestinian
guerrillas opened fire inside the Rome and Vienna airports; a total
of twenty people were killed, including five of the attackers, who
were slain by police and security personnel. Abu Nidal was
considered responsible. President Reagan blamed Libyan leader
(AP, 12/27/97)(SFC, 8/25/98, p.A6)(NYT, 10/8/04,
1986 Feb 22, Jordan King
Hussein delivered a televised address in which he denounced PLO
leader Yasser Arafat and accused him of reneging of previous
promises made to accept resolutions 242 and 338.
1986 Jul 7, Jordan’s government
shut down all 25 offices of al-Fatah, the mainstream group in the
divided Palestine Liberation Organization.
1986 Sep 5, The Pakistan army
stormed a hijacked US B-747 in Karachi and 22 people were killed. In
2001 Zayd Hassan Abd Al-latif Masud Al Safarini, jailed in Pakistan
for 15 years, arrived in Alaska and was expected to face a 1991
indictment for the 1986 hijacking of a Pan Am jet. In 2003 Safarini
pleaded guilty and agreed to 3 life sentences plus 25 years. On Jan
3, 2008, Pakistani authorities freed and deported four Palestinians
convicted in the hijacking.
(SFC, 10/2/01, p.A3)(SFC, 12/17/03, p.A4)(AP,
1986 Sep 6, An attack on the
Neve Shalom synagogue in Istanbul killed 22 people. The Palestinian
Abu Nidal group was blamed.
(NYT, 10/8/04, p.A12)
1986 Oct 16, Ron Arad, an
Israeli airman, was the navigator in a plane that was shot down
while bombing a Palestinian refugee camp in southern Lebanon. He was
reportedly handed over to a Lebanese Shiite group led by Mustafa
Dirani. In 2004 it was reported that Arad died in 1996 , sometime
after he was handed by Lebanese fighters to their Iranian sponsors.
(SFEC, 11/17/96, p.A14)(AP,
1986 Israel evicted the
Palestinian residents of Susiya after declaring the village to be an
archeological site. Many of its residents became homeless following
further demolitions in 2001 and 2011.
(Econ, 8/1/15, p.44)
1987 Dec 8-1987 Dec 9, The
first Palestinian intefadeh (Arabic for uprising) began as riots
broke out in Gaza and spread to the West Bank, triggering a strong
(AP 12/8/97)(SFC, 4/24/98, p.A17)(AP, 12/9/07)
1987 Dec 19, The Palestinian
uprising in Israel's occupied territories spread to Arab east
1987 Dec 27, Scores of
Palestinian prisoners appeared before Israeli military courts in the
first trials of several hundred protesters arrested in the
"intefadeh," or uprising, in the occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip.
1987 Dec, Sheik Ahmed Yassin
founded Hamas, a Palestinian social welfare and military
organization. He urged the killing of Palestinians who collaborated
with Israeli authorities. Its military wing, called the Izzeddine
al-Qassam, used armed operations against Israel. In 2006 Matthew
Levitt authored “Hamas: Politics, Charity, and Terrorism in the
Service of Jihad."
(SFC, 5/25/96, p.A12)(SFC,12/27/97, p.A12)(WSJ,
1987-1993 The Intifada, a stone-throwing revolt
against Israel, began in Gaza’s Jebaliya refugee camp. The Ansar-3
detention camp in the Negev Desert was one of a number established
to hold Palestinian men arrested in the uprising. In 1998 the
documentary film "Diogenes: Ansar 3" was produced by Hans Fels and
Eitan Wetzler of The Netherlands and Israel.
(SFC, 6/10/97, p.A12)(Cinemayyat, 2000)
1988 Jan 3, The Israeli Army
ordered nine Palestinian activists deported from West Beirut as part
of a controversial crackdown to stop the uprising in the occupied
territories. Israeli raids on Palestinian and Progressive Socialist
Party positions in the region of Saida make killed 21 persons and
1988 Jan 5, The U.N. Security
Council voted unanimously to ask Israel not to deport Palestinians
from the occupied territories in the first council vote against
Israel since 1981.
1988 Jan 23, More than 50,000
Israelis demonstrated in Tel Aviv to protest the treatment of
Palestinians in the occupied territories.
1988 Jan 30, Israeli troops
fired on hundreds of demonstrators in the West Bank while protests
also rocked the Gaza Strip, shattering three weeks of relative quiet
in the occupied territories.
1988 Jan, Women in Black began
at the start of the Palestinian uprising, when about 30 Israeli
women gathered in the center of Jerusalem in silent protest, each
with a sign saying "Stop the Occupation." By the 1990-1991 Gulf War,
there were 30 vigils all over Israel.
1988 Mar 2, The U.N. General
Assembly voted overwhelmingly to order the United States to submit
to binding arbitration its plan to close the observer mission of the
Palestine Liberation Organization. A federal court later stopped the
1988 Apr 3, Secretary of State
George P. Shultz arrived in Israel to launch a fresh U.S. peace
initiative, telling the Israelis that the Palestinians must be
included in negotiations.
1988 Apr 6, Tirza Porat (15),
was killed in a West Bank melee, becoming the first Israeli civilian
to die in the occupied territories since the start of the
Palestinian uprising. Although Arabs were initially blamed, the army
concluded that a Jewish settler accidentally shot the girl.
1988 Apr 16, Abu Jihad, [Khalil
al-Wazzir], PLO-leader, was murdered by Israeli assassins in
Tunisia. They left the chief strategist of the Palestinian uprising
with 170 bullets in his body. The Palestine Liberation Organization
accused Israel of assassinating al-Wazir, a top PLO military figure.
Palestinians reacted angrily, and at least 14 were shot and killed
by Israeli troops during clashes in the occupied Gaza Strip and West
Bank. In 2012 Israel admitted responsibility for the killing of Abu
(AP, 4/16/98)(AP, 1/22/06)(AP, 11/1/12)
1988 Jul 11, Nine people were
killed when three Abu Nidal terrorists attacked hundreds of tourists
aboard a Greek cruise ship, the City of Poros, which was steaming
toward a marina in suburban Athens.
1988 Jul 28, Jordan cancelled a
$1.3 billion development plan in West Bank.
1988 Jul 30, Jordan's King
Hussein dissolved his country's lower house of Parliament, half of
whose 60 members were from the Israeli-occupied West Bank. Hussein
renounced sovereignty over the West Bank to the PLO.
1988 Jul 31, In a televised
speech, Jordan's King Hussein called for an independent Palestinian
state in the Israeli-occupied territories as he told the
Palestinians to take affairs into their own hands. Hussein renounced
claims to the West Bank, paving the way for new elections and
(HN, 7/31/98)(AP, 1/23/13)
1988 Aug 18, Hamas published a
manifesto calling for a holy war to create an Islamic state from the
Jordan River to the Mediterranean Sea, including Israel. It
challenged the PLO's claim as the sole representative of the
Palestinian people. The Hamas charter declared that all Palestine is
Islamic trust land, can never be surrendered to non-Muslims
and is an integral part of Muslim world.
1988 Oct 13, Absa Claude
Diallo, Chairman of the Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable
Rights of the Palestinian People, addressed a letter to the UN
Sec.-Gen. concerning profound concern at the “continued grave
situation in the occupied Palestinian territories and the
intensification of the policy of repression pursued by Israel
against the Palestinian people."
1988 Nov 12, The Palestine
National Council, the legislative body of the PLO, opened a four-day
meeting in Algiers, during which delegates proclaimed an independent
1988 Nov 20, Egypt and China
announced they were recognizing the Palestinian state proclaimed by
the Palestine National Council.
1988 Nov 26, The United States
denied an entry visa to PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat, who was seeking
permission to travel to New York to address the U.N. General
1988 Nov 30, The UN General
Assembly (151-2) adopted resolution 43/28 in which it has been
informed of the decision of the Host Country, the US, to deny the
PLO's Arafat a visa.
1988 Dec 6, Arafat met
prominent American Jews in Stockholm, Sweden.
1988 Dec 13, PLO chairman
Yasser Arafat addressed the U.N. General Assembly in Geneva, where
it had reconvened after the United States refused to grant Arafat a
visa to visit New York. Arafat accepted UN Resolutions 242 and 338,
which recognized Israel's right to exist.
(AP, 12/13/98)(SSFC, 6/3/07,
1988 Dec 14, In a dramatic
policy shift, President Reagan authorized the United States to enter
into a "substantive dialogue" with the Palestine Liberation
Organization, after chairman Yasser Arafat said he was renouncing
"all forms of terrorism."
1988 Dec 15, Yasser Arafat in
exile declared Palestinian independence. It was considered a
symbolic act and no state boundaries were delineated.
(SFC,11/15/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 11/15/00, p.A1)
1988 Dec 15, U.S. Ambassador
Robert H. Pelletreau Jr. telephoned the PLO's headquarters in
Tunisia, one day after President Reagan authorized direct talks.
1988 Dec 17, In his first
public statement since the US decided to open direct talks with the
PLO, Israeli PM Yitzhak Shamir expressed shock, calling the US
decision a "painful" blow.
1988 Dec 18, PLO chairman
Yasser Arafat met in Cairo with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak to
discuss how to continue the momentum gained by the first U.S.- PLO
1988 Dec 23, Pope John Paul II
met with Yasser Arafat at the Vatican. The pontiff told the PLO
leader he believed Palestinians and Jews had "an identical
fundamental right" to their own countries.
1988 Israeli agents killed Abu
Jihad (Khalil al-Wazir), a PLO military commander.
(SFC, 11/25/96, p.A3)
1988 In Jordan soon after the
beginning of the "intifada," King Hussein renounced rights to the
West Bank and retained a role as guardian of Jerusalem's holy
(SFC, 2/6/99, p.A13)
1988-1992 Miriam Ben-Porat, Israeli comptroller,
issued a report in 1995 that said Shin Bet security routinely
mistreated Palestinian detainees between 1988 and 1992. The report
was not made public until 2000.
(SFC, 2/10/00, p.A10)
1989 Jan 19, Israel’s Minister
of Defense Rabin proposed that Palestinians end the intifadah in
exchange for an opportunity to elect local leaders who would
negotiate with the Israeli government.
1989 May 3, PLO leader Yasser
Arafat, ending a two-day visit to France, said the PLO charter
calling for the destruction of Israel had been "superseded" by a
declaration urging peaceful coexistence of the Jewish state and a
1989 Jul 6, A Palestinian
grabbed the steering wheel of an Israeli bus, causing a crash that
claimed 15 lives.
1989 Jul 22, Nearly 200,000
Palestinian children returned to classrooms in the West Bank after
the Israeli army lifted an order that had kept their schools closed
during the Palestinian uprising.
1989 Sep, Israel outlawed Hamas
as a terrorist organization following dozens of shooting attacks
that killed Israelis.
1989 Dec 31, Israeli Prime
Minister Yitzhak Shamir fired Science Minister Ezer Weizman,
accusing him of meeting with officials of the Palestine Liberation
1989 Hamas founder Sheik Ahmed
Yassin was imprisoned by Israeli authorities for his politics.
(SFC, 5/25/96, p.A12)
1990 May 20, An Israeli opened
fire on a group of Palestinian laborers south of Tel Aviv, killing
seven; the gunman was sentenced to life in prison.
1990 May 21, Israeli soldiers
shot and killed three Palestinians in violence sparked by the
slayings of seven Palestinians by an Israeli civilian a day earlier.
1990 Aug 2, Yasser Arafat
supported Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait. This resulted in the PLO’s
(SFC, 11/11/04, p.A18)
1990 Oct 8, Israeli police
opened fire on rioting Palestinians on the Temple Mount in
Jerusalem, killing 17.
1990 Oct 21, A Palestinian
stabbed three Israelis to death during a rampage in a Jerusalem
neighborhood in retaliation for the police killings of 17 Arabs on
the Temple Mount.
1991 Oct 30, The Middle East
peace conference in Madrid, Spain, opened with addresses to the
delegates by President George Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S.
Gorbachev. The Madrid Two conference was organized by the US.
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 9/19/01, p.A14)(AP,
1991 Oct 31, On the second day
of the Middle East peace conference in Madrid, Spain, Israeli Prime
Minister Yitzhak Shamir and Arab delegates clashed bitterly over
1991 Nov 1, The 3-day session
of the Middle East peace conference recessed in Madrid, Spain. The
conference led to Israeli deals with Jordan and the Palestinians and
established the principle of land for peace.
11/1/01)(Econ, 5/24/08, p.68)
1991 Nov 3, Israeli and
Palestinian representatives held their first-ever face-to-face talks
in Madrid, Spain.
1991 Hamas formed its military
wing, "Izzedine al-Qassam Brigades," for attacks against Israel.
(SFC, 3/23/04, p.A11)
1991 Palestinian terrorist Abu
Nidal recruited orchestrated the murder of Fatah leader Abu-Iyad, a
leader of the Sep 5, 1972, Munich terrorists. Nidal was outraged by
Iyad’s softening on the status of Israel.
(WSJ, 12/21/05, p.D10)
1992 Jan 13, Israeli,
Palestinian and Jordanian negotiators began talks in Washington on
1992 Mar 4, Another round of
Middle East peace negotiations concluded in Washington, D.C., with
Israel rejecting a plan for Palestinian elections.
1992 Apr 7, PLO chairman Yasser
Arafat survived the crash landing of his plane in the Libyan desert;
three crew members were killed.
1992 Sep 1, In Israel Ahmed
Qatamesh was jailed on suspicion of being a leader of the Popular
Front for the Liberation of Palestine. He was held without trial for
5 1/2 years and released in 1998.
(SFC, 4/16/98, p.A12)
1992 Dec 13, An Israeli border
guard was kidnapped near Tel Aviv and later killed by the Hamas
fundamentalist organization. The slaying prompted Israel to expel
hundreds of Palestinians, sending them into Lebanese territory.
Abdel Aziz Rantisi was among the 400 deported members of Hamas.
(AP, 12/13/97)(SSFC, 4/18/04, p.A18)
1992 Dec 18, The U.N. Security
Council unanimously denounced Israel's deportation of more than 400
Palestinians to Lebanon and demanded their immediate return.
1992 In Norway the 1993 Oslo I
peace accord was begun in 1992 following a research project on
Palestinian living conditions by Terje Roed Larsen. Larsen arranged
discussions between Uri Savir of Israel and Ahmed Qureia (Abu Ala)
(SFEC, 10/31/99, p.A21)
1993 Jan 9, Two Red Cross
officials visited a camp of Palestinians who had been deported by
Israel to a no man's land in southern Lebanon.
1993 Jan 19, Israel recognized
the PLO as no longer criminal.
1993 Feb 1, Israeli Prime
Minister Yitzhak Rabin announced that his country would repatriate
about 100 Palestinians deported to Lebanon, an offer rejected by the
1993 Mar 30, Israeli
authorities barred West Bank Palestinians from entering Israel after
two traffic police officers were shot to death.
1993 Apr 16, In Israel 20
soldiers and civilians were injured in Hamas's first suicide attack
against Israelis. Shahar al-Nabulsi, detonated a car, rigged by
bombmaker Yahya Ayyash, between two buses at Mehola Junction. The
blast killed al-Nabulsi and a Palestinian who worked in the rest
1993 Aug 29, Negotiations
continued between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization,
with Israel reported on the verge of recognizing the PLO.
1993 Sep 9, PLO leaders and
Israel agreed to recognize each other, clearing the way for a peace
1993 Aug, Norwegian academic
Terje Roed-Larsen and other Norwegian mediators helped broker a
secret peace accord in which the Palestinians formally recognized
Israel's right to exist and Israel agreed to establish self-rule in
the West Bank and Gaza. The accord allowed thousands of PLO
guerrillas to return to Palestine without Israeli interference.
(SFC, 6/19/96, p.A8)(SFC, 6/4/98, p.C3)(AP,
1993 Sep 13, In a historic
scene at the White House, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and
PLO chairman Yasser Arafat shook hands after signing an accord
granting limited Palestinian autonomy. It gave Arafat control of
most of the Gaza Strip and 27% of the West Bank. In 2002 Neal
Kozodoy edited ""The Mideast Peace Process: An Autopsy."
(AP, 9/13/97)(WSJ, 2/11/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/12/04,
1993 Sep 23, The Israeli
parliament ratified the Israel-PLO accord.
1993 Sep 24, The 1st Israeli
was killed by Islamics after PLO signed the peace accord.
1993 Oct 6, Israeli Prime
Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO chief Yasser Arafat held their first
official meeting in Cairo, Egypt, to begin work on realizing terms
of the Israeli-PLO accord.
1993 Oct 11, Yasser Arafat won
endorsement for his peace accord with Israel from the Palestine
1993 Nov 25, Violence broke out
in the Gaza Strip, a day after Israeli undercover soldiers killed
Imad Akel, the head of the military wing of Hamas.
1993 Dec 5, A Palestinian
boarded a bus and opened fire with an assault rifle in the first
major attack in Israel since the signing of a peace pact with the
PLO; the gunman killed a reservist before being gunned down.
1993 Dec 19, Israeli Foreign
Minister Shimon Peres and senior PLO officials ended two days of
closed-door talks in Oslo, Norway, in which they sought to break a
deadlock over Palestinian self-rule in the occupied territories.
1993 Dec 25, Full-fledged
Christmas celebrations returned to Bethlehem for the first time
since the Palestinian uprising began six years earlier.
1994 Jan 10, Talks between
Israeli and Palestinian negotiators resumed in Taba, Egypt.
1994 Feb 9, PLO leader Yasser
Arafat and Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres initialed an
agreement on security measures that had been blocking a peace
1994 Feb 25, In the Hebron
massacre, Jewish settler Dr. Baruch Goldstein opened fire on
Palestinians praying in the Tomb of the Patriarchs in Hebron and
killed 29 people. Some 100 others were wounded. Surviving
Palestinians killed him before he could reload.
(SFC, 6/18/96, p.A12)(SFC, 6/20/96, p.A8)(MT,
1994 Mar 31, The PLO and Israel
agreed to resume talks on Palestinian autonomy, more than a month
after the Hebron mosque massacre.
1994 Apr 6, A car rigged with
explosives detonated next to a bus in Afula, Israel. 8 Israelis were
killed and 45 wounded in Hamas's 1st car bombing.
(WSJ, 3/6/96, p. A-15)(G&M, 7/31/97,
p.A8)(AP, 4/6/99)(SFC, 3/23/04, p.A11)
1994 April 13, A Palestinian
blew himself up on a bus in Hadera in central Israel. Six Israelis
were killed and 25 wounded. It was Hamas's 1st suicide bombing.
(WSJ, 3/6/96, p. A-15)(G&M, 7/31/97,
p.A8)(SFC, 3/23/04, p.A11)
1994 Apr 20, Israeli and PLO
negotiators wrapped up an agreement transferring civilian government
powers to Palestinians in the Gaza Strip and Jericho.
1994 Apr 29, Israel and the PLO
signed an agreement in Paris granting Palestinians broad authority
to set taxes, control trade and regulate banks under self-rule in
the Gaza Strip and Jericho.
1994 May 1, Israeli and PLO
delegates opened a final round of talks in Cairo, Egypt, on
Palestinian autonomy prior to the signing of an agreement on
1994 May 4, Israeli Prime
Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO leader Yasser Arafat signed a
historic accord on Palestinian autonomy that granted self-rule in
the Gaza Strip and Jericho.
1994 May 14, The West Bank town
of Jericho saw its first full day of Palestinian self-rule following
the withdrawal of Israeli troops, an event celebrated by
1994 May 27, Palestine
Liberation Organization officials announced that Yasser Arafat had
named himself interior minister of the autonomous zones as part of
an interim government; 14 other prominent Palestinians, mostly
Arafat allies, were appointed to other positions.
1994 Jul 1, PLO chairman Yasser
Arafat drove from Egypt into Gaza, returning to Palestinian land
after 27 years in exile.
1994 Aug 24, Israeli and PLO
negotiators agreed on an accord to give the Palestinians control of
health care, taxation, education and other services in West Bank
areas still controlled by Israel.
1994 Oct 14, The Nobel Peace
Prize was awarded to PLO leader Yasser Arafat, Israeli Prime
Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres.
(SFC, 10/12/96, p.A13)(AP, 10/14/99)
1994 Oct 19, A Palestinian
suicide bomber killed 22 Israelis and wounded 48 in a bus explosion
in Tel Aviv. Hamas took responsibility.
(WSJ, 3/6/96, p. A-15)(G&M, 7/31/97, p.A8)
1994 Nov 11, A suicide bomber
killed three soldiers at an Israeli military checkpoint in Gaza. The
Islamic Jihad took responsibility.
1994 Nov 18, Fifteen people
were killed and more than 150 wounded when Palestinian police opened
fire on rioting worshippers outside a mosque in the Gaza Strip.
1994 Dec 7, PLO chairman Yasser
Arafat, meeting with U.S. Secretary of State Warren Christopher in
Gaza City, pledged to protect Israelis from militant extremists.
1994 Dec 10, Yasser Arafat,
Shimon Peres and Yitzhak Rabin received the Nobel Peace Prize,
pledging to pursue their mission of healing the anguished Middle
1994 Dec 25, A Palestinian
suicide bomber blew himself up on a bus in Jerusalem and wounded 12
Israelis. Hamas took responsibility.
(WSJ, 3/6/96, p. A-15)(G&M, 7/31/97,
1994 The Oslo agreement gave
Palestinians a measure of self-rule.
(WSJ, 6/17/96, p.A15)
1994 Arafat promised to turn
the Gaza Strip and West Bank into a new Singapore.
(SFC, 6/10/97, p.A12)
1994 Abu-Hassan, a postal
inspector, was jailed by the Palestinian authority. He had been
jailed earlier for 13 years by the Israelis for being a member of
George Habash's Palestinian Front for the Liberation of Palestine.
(SFC, 12/22/99, p.A19)
1994 Yasser Arafat appointed
Sheik Ikrima Sabri as the mufti or chief Islamic cleric of
(SFEC, 3/26/00, p.A19)
1994 Mohammed Rashid became
Arafat's top financial adviser when the Palestinian Authority was
established, following interim peace deals with Israel.
1994-1998 At least 18 Palestinians died while
under detention by the Palestinian Authority.
(SFC, 1/9/98, p.A8)
1995 Feb 2, The leaders of
Egypt, Israel, Jordan and the Palestinians held an unprecedented
summit in Cairo to try to revive the Mideast peace process.
1995 Mar 19, Palestinian gunmen
opened fire on a bus carrying Jewish settlers, killing two people.
1995 Aug 3, A Palestinian, Eyad
Ismoil, was flown to the United States from Jordan to face charges
he’d driven a bomb-laden van into New York’s World Trade Center. The
1993 explosion killed six people and injured more than one-thousand;
Ismoil is serving a life sentence.
1995 Sep 24, Israel’s Rabin and
the PLO under Arafat, signed a pact, Oslo II, in Taba, Egypt, ending
nearly three decades of Israeli occupation of West Bank cities. They
scheduled a 9/7/97 date for Israel’s departure from the West Bank,
except for Jewish settlements and certain military locations. A
final accord was scheduled for 5/7/99.
(SFC, 1/9/96, p.A10)(AP, 9/24/00)(SFC, 4/30/02,
1995 Sep 27, Azzam Rahim, a
naturalized US citizen, was arrested during a visit to the West Bank
by intelligence officers of the Palestinian Authority. He was
imprisoned in Jericho and was reportedly tortured and killed there
on Sep 29.
(SFC, 4/19/12, p.A5)(http://tinyurl.com/7udfqt2)
1995 Sep 28, Israeli Prime
Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO chairman Yasser Arafat signed an
accord to transfer much of the West Bank to the control of its Arab
1995 Oct 10, Israel began a
West Bank pullback and freed hundreds of Palestinian prisoners.
1995 Oct 26, Islamic Jihad
leader Fathi Shakaki was shot to death on the Mediterranean island
of Malta in a killing his supporters blamed on Israel.
(LVRJ, 11/1/97, p.17A)(AP, 10/26/05)
1995 Oct 29, Palestinians
burned American and Israeli flags and swore revenge for the
assassination of Dr. Fathi Shakaki, the leader of the radical
Islamic Jihad and a top architect of terror attacks against Israel.
Shakaki was gunned down three days earlier in Malta, reportedly by
1995 Nov 9, Yasser Arafat made
a secret trip to Israel to offer condolences to the widow of
assassinated PM Rabin.
(SFC, 11/11/04, p.A18)
1995 Dec 21, The city of
Bethlehem passed from Israeli to Palestinian control.
1995 Dec. 26, Most Arab
residents of the West Bank and Gaza are being placed under Arafat's
(WSJ, 12/27/95, p. A-1)
1995 The Palestinian
Legislative Council passed a law that elevated Ahmed Qurei,
parliament speaker, to the presidency for 40 days to allow for new
elections in the event of Arafat’s death.
(SFC, 12/12/01, p.A3)
1995 Fathi Shakaki, leader of
the Islamic Jihad, was killed in Malta. Israel was blamed for the
(LVRJ, 11/1/97, p.17A)
1996 Jan 20, Yasser Arafat was
elected president in the first Palestinian elections. Hundreds of
thousands of Palestinians turned out to vote in the festive first
election, solidly endorsing Arafat and his peace policies.
(WSJ, 12/27/95, p. A-1)(SFC, 2/8/99, p.A6)(AP,
1996 Jan 6, In Gaza Yehiyeh
Ayyash, a Hamas bomb-maker known as "the engineer" was assassinated
by an explosives-rigged cellular phone. The operation was attributed
(SFC, 4/2/98, p.A12)(SFC, 3/23/04, p.A11)
1996 Feb 25, In separate
attacks 2 Palestinian suicide bombers blew up a bus in Jerusalem and
a soldiers hitchhiking post in the coastal city of Ashkelon. 23
Israelis were killed, as well as 2 Americans and a Palestinian. More
than 80 people were wounded. Hamas took responsibility.
(WSJ, 3/6/96, p. A-15)(G&M, 7/31/97, p.A8)
1996 Feb 26, An Arab American
drove a rental car into a Jerusalem bus stop and killed one Israeli
while wounded 23. The driver appeared to be acting on his own but
Hamas took responsibility.
(G&M, 7/31/97, p.A8)
1996 Feb, The Gaza Strip,
sealed off by Israel for 333 days due to Palestinian attacks, was
re-opened. The closure drove up adult unemployment and forced many
children to seek work.
1996 Mar 3, Israel declared
all-out war on the militant group Hamas after a bus bomb in
Jerusalem killed 19 people, including the bomber, the third such
suicide attack in eight days.
(WSJ, 3/4/96, p. A-1)(AP, 3/3/01)
1996 Mar 4, A suicide bomber
blew himself up outside a Tel Aviv shopping center, killing 13
people in the fourth deadly attack in nine days.
(WSJ, 3/5/96, p. A-1)(AP, 3/4/01)
1996 Mar, Israel was to have
pulled out of Hebron, but postponed the move after a series of
Palestinian suicide bombings.
(SFC, 12/25/96, p.A10)
1996 Apr 24, The Palestine
National Council voted to revoke articles that contradicted the 1993
accords between Israel and PLO, specifically the parts that called
for Israel’s destruction.
(WSJ, 4/25/96, p.A-1)
1996 May 5, Israel and the
Palestinians began the final stage of their peace talks in Taba,
1996 May 13, David Boim (17),
an American, was standing at a bus stop in the West Bank with fellow
yeshiva students when two Palestinian terrorists drove by in a car,
shot him in the head, and killed him. In 2004 a US court awarded his
parents $156 million against US-based Muslim activists. In 2007 a
federal appeals court overturned the judgement.
1996 May 20, Dr. Eyyad Sarraj,
a Palestinian human rights advocate, was arrested after accusing the
Palestinian Authority of dictatorial rule and torturing prisoners in
the Gaza Strip.
(SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-9)
1996 May 24, Sheik Hamed Bitawi
said that Hamas leader Sheik Ahmed Yassin might issue a call to end
terrorist attacks against Israel. The leadership of Hamas would like
to move to a position as a democratic alternative to Arafat’s PLO.
(SFC, 5/25/96, p.A12)
1996 Jun 10, Arafat’s
government detained Eyad Sarraj, head of the Independent Commission
for Citizen’s Rights. Sarraj says the Palestinian Authority is
(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A16)
1996 Jun 12, Eyad Sarraj
smuggled out a message that said he was being beaten and framed on
(SFC, 6/13/96, p.C3)
1996 Jul 31, Mahmoud Jumayal
died under interrogation by the Palestinian security forces. He was
the 8th in 2 years.
(SFC, 8/21/96, p.A8,10)
1996 Aug 27, Israeli police
tore down a youth center in Jerusalem’s Old City saying that it was
illegally built with money from Arafat’s Palestinian Authority.
(SFC, 8/28/96, p.A8)
1996 Aug 29, Yasser Arafat
called for a 4-hour general strike in Palestine in opposition to
Israeli political actions.
(SFC, 8/29/96, p.A1)
1996 Sep 2, Stories of
corruption were rife and Arafat was accused of pouring money into
his 9 security forces rather than infrastructure.
(SFC, 9/2/96, p.A14)
1996 Sep 4, Israeli Prime
Minister Netanyahu met with Palestinian leader Arafat and agreed to
pursue a peace settlement.
(WSJ, 9/5/96, p.1)
1996 Sep 6, The Palestinian Al
Quds Univ. in Abu Dis was reopened after a 6-month closure.
(SFC, 9/7/96, p.A9)
1996 Sep 25, Violence began in
Jerusalem when Israelis opened a tunnel along the west wall of the
old city in opposition to Palestinian sentiments. Seven Arabs were
killed. Resulting riots left 69 Palestinians dead along with 16
(SFC, 9/26/96, p.A10)(AP, 9/25/97)(Econ, 2/17/07,
1996 Oct 1, Israeli Prime
Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat met
at the White House.
1996 Nov 1, Nahum Kurman, the
security chief of a Jewish settlement, was charged for killing
11-year-old Palestinian, Hilmi Shousha. Kurman claimed the boy fell
and banged his head. He was sentenced in 2001 to 6 months of
community service and a $17,000 fine.
(SFC, 11/2/96, p.C1)(SFC, 1/24/01, p.A13)
1996 Nov 19, Two Israeli border
policemen were arrested after a videotape showed them beating and
kicking Palestinian laborers.
(SFC, 11/20/96, p.C2)
1996 Dec 18, Palestinian police
arrested 3 members of a militant group that killed 2 Jewish settlers
on Dec 11.
(WSJ, 12/19/96, p.A1)
1996 The Palestinians summoned
Moroccan and Egyptian engineers and began constructing a 3-km. long
runway for an Int’l. Airport at the village of Raffiach, whose
residents were ordered to leave by the Palestinian Authority.
(SFC, 6/12/97, p.A14)
1997 Jan 1, An off-duty Israeli
soldier, Noam Friedman, with a history of mental problems opened
fire on a crowded vegetable market in Hebron, wounding 5  people
and touching off a stone-throwing demonstration by angry
(SFC, 1/1/97, p.A1)(AP, 1/1/98)
1997 Jan 7, The Hebron Protocol
or Hebron Agreement began and was concluded from January 15 to
January 17, 1997 between Israel, represented by PM Benjamin
Netanyahu, and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO),
represented by PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat, under the supervision of
US Secretary of State Warren Christopher, for redeployment of
Israeli military forces in Hebron. Palestinian authorities gained
control of 80% of Hebron.
(SFC, 12/4/08, p.A27)
1997 Jan 14, The US mediated an
agreement was reached on Hebron. Palestinian police would be allowed
to carry limited-range weapons in buffer zones between them and
Jewish settlers. Israel committed to reopening a central road and
(USAT, 1/15/97, p.9A)(SFEC, 10/25/98, p.A17)
1997 Jan 15, The Israeli
cabinet approved the Hebron accord 11-7. The Palestinian cabinet
approved the accord by a wide margin.
(WSJ, 1/16/97, p.A1)
1997 Jan 19, Yasser Arafat
returned to Hebron for the first time in more than 30 years, joining
60,000 Palestinians in celebrating the handover of the last West
Bank city in Israeli control.
1997 Jan 19, Hanan Ashrawi was
described as one of the most influential women in the Arab world.
She founded the Palestinian Independent Commission for Citizen’s
(SFEC, 1/19/96, Parade p.5)
1997 Feb 23, Ali Hassan Abu
Kamal (69), a Palestinian teacher, opened fire on the 86th-floor
observation deck of New York City's Empire State Building, killing
one person and wounding six others before shooting himself to death.
He was said to have acted on personal motives not associated to any
(SFC, 2/24/97, p.A1)(AP, 2/23/98)
1997 Mar 6, Israel approved
turning over 9% of the West Bank outside major towns to Palestinian
(WSJ, 3/7/97, p.A1)
1997 Mar 18, Construction began
on the disputed Jerusalem housing project.
(WSJ, 3/19/97, p.A1)
1997 Mar 21, In Tel Aviv,
Israel, a Palestinian suicide bomber blew himself up on a terrace of
an outdoor restaurant and killed 3 Israeli women and injured 46.
(SFC, 3/22/97, p.A1)(AP, 3/21/02)
1997 Mar 22, Israeli troops
fired live ammunition at Arab protestors in Hebron and injured about
(SFEC, 3/23/97, p.A13)
1997 May 5, Arafat’s justice
minister said he would impose the death penalty on Palestinians who
sell land to Israelis to prevent Israel’s expansion.
(WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A1)
1997 May 25, The Palestinian
Center for the Protection of Human Rights and the Environment issued
a report that claimed the government lost $326 million to corruption
and mismanagement last year.
(SFEC, 5/26/97, p.A8)
1997 Jun 16, Israeli soldiers
wounded 38 Palestinians in the 3rd day of protests at Hebron.
(WSJ, 6/17/97, p.A1)
1997 Jun 21, Riots spread to
Nablus on the West Bank protesting Jewish settlements.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, p.D3)
1997 Jul 20, Palestinian
security forces arrested 4 Palestinian police officers who were
accused of planning to attack Jewish settlers. Israel had arrested 4
Palestinian policemen a week earlier for planned attacks at the
settlement of Har Bracha.
(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A8)
1997 Jul 30, Two men bombed
Jerusalem's most crowded outdoor market, killing themselves and 16
others. Following the suicide bombing in Israel that killed 15
people, 79 Palestinians were arrested.
(SFC, 8/2/97, p.A8)(AP, 7/30/98)
1997 Aug 1, Sixteen of
Arafat’s 18 Cabinet members offered their resignations in
response to allegations of widespread corruption.
(SFC, 8/2/97, p.A12)
1997 Aug 1, Israel withheld $25
million in tax revenues from the Palestinian Authority, which made
the Authority unable to meet its payroll.
(SFC, 8/4/97, p.A8)
1997 Aug 16, Nusrat Fateh Ali
Khan, the most popular singer in Pakistan, died in a London
hospital. He was considered one of the world’s greatest singers of
Sufi devotional music in a style called qawwali, where long
performances built up emotion and complexity to the backdrop of
stringed instruments and the harmonium.
(SFEC, 8/17/97, p.D8)
1997 Aug 20, Palestinian Pres.
Arafat met with Islamic militant groups including Hamas and called
for Palestinian unity against Israeli demands.
(WSJ, 8/21/97, p.A1)
1997 Aug 21, Palestinians began
an embargo of Israeli goods.
(SFC, 8/22/97, p.A14)
1997 Sep 7, This was the
scheduled date for Israel’s departure from the West Bank,
except for Jewish settlements and certain military locations
according to a peace accord negotiated between Arafat and Rabin on
Sep 24, 1995.
(SFC, 1/9/96, p.A10)
1997 Sep 25, In Jordan Khaled
Mashaal, the political leader of Hamas, was chemically attacked by
two men with forged Canadian passports in Amman. Hamas accused the
men of being Israeli Mossad agents. Jordan's King Hussein
intervened, forcing Israel to send the antidote that saved the Hamas
leader's life and release the group's jailed founder in exchange for
the freedom of its captured agents.
(SFC, 10/2/97, p.A10)(SFC, 10/3/97, p.B4)(SFC,
10/12/97, p.A17)(AP, 9/25/04)
1997 Oct 1, Israel under PM
Netanyahu freed Sheik Ahmed Yassin (61), the founder and spiritual
leader of Hamas. The ill Yassin was taken to Jordan and
hospitalized. As part of the deal an antidote for the chemical used
on last week’s Meshaal attack was demanded by Jordan and Israel
requested the release of the Meshaal attackers. This secured the
release of two Mossad agents arrested in Jordan following a botched
assassination attempt against Hamas political leader Khalid Mashaal.
(SFC, 10/2/97, p.A10)(AP, 10/1/98)(Econ,
1997 Oct 6, In Palestine Sheik
Ahmed Yassin (61), the quadriplegic spiritual leader of Hamas,
returned to the Gaza Strip.
(SFC, 10/7/97, p.A14)
1997 Oct 19, Sheik Ahmed
Yassin, founder of Hamas, announced a halt in attacks against
1997 Oct 25, Israeli soldiers
fired tear gas and rubber bullets at stone-throwing Palestinians who
were marching for the release of Palestinian prisoners. Some 3,000
Palestinian political prisoners were being held by Israel and a
third have never been tried.
1997 Nov 15, 8-year-old Ali
Jawarish died 4 days after he was shot in the head by an Israeli
soldier in Bethlehem during a stone-throwing demonstration at the
Jewish shrine of Rachel’s Tomb.
1997 Nov 29, Dozens were
injured after a Palestinian march in Bethlehem erupted into a clash
with Israeli troops.
1997 Dec 9, Israeli officials
scrambled to stop a Yasser Arafat’s government from conducting a
census of Palestinians in East Jerusalem.
1997 Uri Savir, Israeli
negotiator, authored "The Process: The Story of Oslo from A to Z."
(SFC, 9/8/03, p.A8)
1997 Hamas founder Sheik Ahmed
Yassin offered Israel a 30-year truce.
1998 Jan 13, In Israel the
Cabinet adopted a 12-page list of conditions for the Palestinians to
meet before the transfer of any more West Bank land.
(SFC, 1/14/98, p.C2)
1998 Feb 4, It was reported
that the 300,000 Palestinians living in Lebanon in refugee camps
were barred from work outside the camps except for common labor or
agriculture. The refugees, mostly Sunni Muslims from a minority
tribe, were not wanted by the Lebanese.
(SFC, 2/4/98, p.C2)
1998 Feb 26, Three Israeli
soldiers were killed in a Hezbollah attack in southern Lebanon.
(WSJ, 2/27/98, p.A1)
1998 Mar 9, In Israel soldiers
at a checkpoint killed 3 Palestinian laborers in a van near Hebron.
Two soldiers involved were arrested.
(SFC, 3/11/98, p.A8)
1998 Mar 13, Israeli and
Palestinian troops made a joint effort to end four days of protests
over the killing of West Bank workers.
(SFC, 3/14/98, p.A9)
1998 Mar 29, Elias Freij, the
former mayor of Bethlehem (1972-1997), died in Jordan at age 80.
(SFC, 3/30/98, p.A17)
1998 Mar 29, In Palestine the
body of Mohiyedine Sharif, a master bomb-maker for Hamas, was found
at the scene of an exploded car in Ramallah. His body had bullet
holes. Israel denied involvement in the killing. Sharif was a member
of the Izzedine Qassam, a military wing of Hamas. Palestinian
security officials later assigned the murder to Adel Awadallah, a
rival for leadership in Hamas.
(SFC, 4/2/98, p.A12)(SFC, 4/798, p.A12)
1998 Apr 2, Shaking their fists
in rage, thousands of mourners marched in a funeral procession in
the West Bank for a top Hamas bombmaker, Mohiyedine Sharif, hailed
by Palestinians as a martyr and condemned by Israel as a terrorist.
1998 May 5, An exasperated
Secretary of State Madeleine Albright called on Israel to hand over
an additional 13 percent of the West Bank to the Palestinians, on
top of the 27 percent already relinquished. Israel, however,
continued to balk at the proposal.
1998 May 13, Israeli jets
raided Lebanon and killed 3 men and wounded 21 in an attack on the
radical Palestinian group, Fatah the Uprising. As many as 10 men
were killed in a Bekaa Valley training camp for Palestinian
(SFC, 5/13/98, p.A13)(SFC, 5/14/98, p.C2)
1998 May 14, Palestinians
marked the 50th anniversary of the creation of Israel with 2 minutes
of silence and several hours of violence that left 9 dead. They
refer to the creation of Israel as the "Nakba" or "Catastrophe."
(SFC, 5/15/98, p.A14)(SFC, 5/16/98, p.A10)
1998 May 16, Israeli soldiers
in Hebron wounded 10 Palestinians in the 3rd straight day of
(SFEC, 5/17/98, p.A23)
1998 Jul 7, The UN voted to
grant the Palestinian delegation nearly the same rights as given to
(SFC, 7/8/98, p.A10)
1998 Jul 19, Seeking to break a
16-month deadlock, Israel and the Palestinians held their first
high-level talks in months. Jalal Rumaneh (30), a member of Hamas,
attempted to explode a car bomb made of 160 gallons of flammable
liquid and nails in Jerusalem. The Fiat van ignited but failed to
(SFEC, 7/20/98, p.A9)(AP, 7/19/08)
1998 Jul, Walid Qwafmeh (51),
the father of 8, was arrested by Palestinian security guards and
died on the way to a Nablus hospital in Aug. with a caved in skull.
3 agents including Abdel Latif Abdel Fattah were later found guilty
of torturing Qwafmeh. Fattah was sentenced to 7 years in prison. In
1999 Arafat appointed Fattah to a prosecutor's post in the West
(SFC, 11/16/99, p.E1)
1998 Aug 24, Israel agreed to
turn over an additional 13% of the West Bank to the Palestinians.
(SFC, 8/25/98, p.A7)
1998 Aug 24, In Egypt Abu Nidal
was captured after crossing the border from Libya. He was
responsible for terrorist bombings in 1985 at the Rome and Vienna
airports and a 1986 hijacking of Pan Am Flight 73 as well as a
number of assassinations of PLO figures.
(SFC, 8/25/98, p.A6)
1998 Aug 30, A firing squad
killed two former Palestinian policemen at Gaza prison. They had
been convicted of killing 2 other policemen brothers.
(SFC, 8/31/98, p.A10)
1998 Sep 10, In Israel troops
killed Imad and Adel Awadallah, senior figures in Hamas west of
(SFC, 9/12/98, p.A3)
1998 Sep 11, In the West Bank
violent protests erupted over the Israeli killing of 2 Hamas
(SFC, 9/12/98, p.A3)
1998 Sep 17, In Israel a
Palestinian youth, Iyad Hashem (17), was killed in a drive-by
shooting on the West Bank.
(WSJ, 9/18/98, p.A1)(SFC, 9/18/98, p.A13)
1998 Sep 18, In Israel Hamas
supporters clashed with Israeli police during a rally for the
Awadallah brothers. 32 Palestinians were injured and the borders
with the West Bank and Gaza were again sealed.
(SFC, 9/19/98, p.A12)
1998 Sep 28, Yasser Arafat met
with Benjamin Netanyahu and Pres. Clinton at the White House and
agreed to hold a full-scale summit next month.
(SFC, 9/29/98, p.A1)
1998 Sep 29, In the West Bank
one Palestinian was killed and 2 were injured when a bomb blew up
their car. They were suspected to be members of Hamas.
(SFC, 9/30/98, p.A11)
1998 Sep 30, In Israel the army
sent reinforcements to Hebron after an assailant threw grenades at
troops guarding a central square. 13 soldiers and 11 Palestinians
(WSJ, 10/1/98, p.A1)(SFC, 10/1/98, p.A14)
1998 Sep, In Jericho the $50
million Oasis Casino opened as part of a multi million economic
development package by Yasser Arafat and the Palestinian Authority.
It was operated by Casinos Austria.
(SFEC, 2/20/99, p.T8)
1998 Oct 7, In Israel at the
Gaza border Arafat and Netanyahu met with US Sec. Albright and
agreed to an Oct 15 summit meeting with Pres. Clinton.
(WSJ, 10/8/98, p.A1)
1998 Oct 8, In Israel one man
was killed during a clash in Hebron where Palestinians observed a
general strike against Israel’s 8-day blockade of the town.
(USAT, 10/9/98, p.13A)
1998 Oct 15, Pres. Clinton
opened the Mideast summit talks in Maryland between Arafat and
Netanyahu in Washington that resulted in the Wye River
(WSJ, 10/16/98, p.A1)(AP, 10/15/99)
1998 Oct 19, In Israel an
assailant threw 2 hand grenades into the central bus station of
Beersheba and injured at least 30 people. 67 people were wounded and
the incident cast a pall over the peace negotiations in Washington.
A Palestinian from the West Bank, Salem Rajab al-Sarsour (29), was
caught and confessed.
(SFC, 10/19/98, p.A14)(SFC, 10/20/98, p.A8)
1998 Oct 23, An American
brokered peace deal was reached at the Wye Plantation in Maryland
between Yasser Arafat and Benjamin Netanyahu. Israeli and
Palestinian extremists denounced the deal. Land for the Palestinians
was exchanged for security guarantees to the Israelis backed by the
American CIA. Pres. Clinton agreed to release Jonathan Pollard, who
was jailed 11 years ago on charges of spying for Israel.
(SFC, 10/24/98, p.A1,10,13)(SFEC, 10/25/98,
1998 Oct 25, In Israel West
Bank settlers formally broke ties with Prime Minister Netanyahu over
the new peace accord. In Ramallah Wasim Tarifi (17) was killed
during a Fatah youth protest.
(SFC, 10/26/98, p.A1)
1998 Oct 26, In Israel 2
Palestinian gunmen killed Danny Vargas (28) in Hebron. In
retaliation a 69-year-old Palestinian man was killed outside the
Jewish settlement of Itamar.
(SFC, 10/27/98, p.B1)
1998 Oct 27, Palestinian
security forces arrested 2 gunmen in the West Bank who reportedly
confessed to the killing of Danny Vargas as well as the murder of
another Israeli on Oct 13.
(SFC, 10/28/98, p.A11)
1998 Oct 28, In Israel a bomb
aimed at a busload of school children exploded in the Gaza Strip and
2 people were killed.
(SFC, 10/29/98, p.A15)
1998 Oct 29, Palestinian
authorities arrested the leader of Hamas, Sheik Yassin, following a
suicide bombing aimed at a busload of Jewish settler children.
(SFC, 10/30/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A1)
1998 Nov 2, Israel and
Palestine agreed to delay their interim peace agreement to allow
approval by the Israeli cabinet and parliament.
(SFC, 11/3/98, p.A8)
1998 Nov 11, Israel’s
government narrowly ratified a land-for-peace agreement with
conditions that included alteration of the PLO charter to strike
calls for Israel’s destruction.
(WSJ, 11/12/98, p.A1)(AP, 11/11/08)
1998 Nov 12, Israel gave the
go-ahead to a housing project on a Jerusalem hilltop called Har
Homa. The area is known as Jabal Abu Ghneim to the Palestinians and
was an area under dispute.
(SFC, 11/13/98, p.A16)
1998 Nov 17, Israel's
parliament overwhelmingly approved the Wye River land-for-peace
accord with the Palestinians with a 75 to 19 vote.
(SFC, 11/18/98, p.A12)(AP, 11/17/99)
1998 Nov 19, In Israel the
Cabinet voted 7 to 5 to go ahead with a troop withdrawal from
Palestinian land in the West Bank, and to free 250 Palestinian
(SFC, 11/20/98, p.A16)(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.A1)
1998 Nov 20, Israel ceded
control of a 200-sq. mile patchwork area to the Palestinian
Authority in the 1st of 3 withdrawals.
(SFC, 11/21/98, p.A10)
1998 Nov 23, In Palestine the
$70 million Gaza Int’l. Airport opened and an Egypt Air plane was
the first to land.
(SFC, 11/24/98, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/24/98, p.A1)
1998 Nov 24, The first
Palestine Airlines flight touched down at Gaza International
1998 Nov 30, Pres. Clinton
pledged an extra $400 million to aid the Palestinians over the next
5 years. This was in addition to the current $100 million per year
for the next 5 years. A total of $3 billion in aid was pledged.
(SFC, 12/1/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A1)
1998 Dec 2, In the West Bank an
Israeli soldier was beaten and an Arab man was stabbed to death in
Jerusalem. Israel announced the suspension of further troops
(SFC, 12/3/98, p.A16)
1998 Dec 6, Hundreds of
Palestinian prisoners in Israel started a hunger strike and
demanded to be freed.
(SFC, 12/7/98, p.A14)
1998 Dec 9, A Palestinian
teenager was killed as Israeli forces and Palestinian protestors
(SFC, 12/10/98, p.A12)
1998 Dec 10, Leaders of the PLO
voted to annul passages of their 1964 charter that called for
(SFC, 12/11/98, p.A18)
1998 Dec 11, Israeli troops
fired on hundreds of protesting Palestinians killing 2 and wounding
(SFC, 12/12/98, p.A14)
1998 Dec 14, In Gaza City Pres.
Clinton watched as hundreds of Palestinian leaders raised their
hands to renounce a call for the destruction of Israel. The vote
affirmed a January letter from Arafat which specified the paragraphs
of the PLO founding charter to be excised.
(SFC, 12/15/98, p.A1)
1998 Dec 15, Pres. Clinton met
with Yasser Arafat and Benjamin Netanyahu without achieving any
tangible results to move the Peace Talks forward.
(SFC, 12/16/98, p.A1)
1998 Dec 22, In Lebanon an
Israeli rocket killed woman and her 6 children.
(SFC, 12/23/98, p.C2)
1998 Dec 23, In Lebanon
Hezbollah guerrillas retaliated against Israel with Katyusha rockets
at Kiryat Shemona.
(SFC, 12/24/98, p.A10)
1998 Dec 23, Yasser Arafat
freed Hamas spiritual leader Sheik Ahmed Yassin from house arrest.
(SFC, 12/24/98, p.A10)
1998 The West Bank was
populated by about 1.5 million Palestinians and about 150,000
(SFC, 1/22/98, p.B12)
1999 Jan 4, Israeli troops
sealed off Hebron when 2 Jewish settlers were injured by shots fired
at their van.
(WSJ, 1/7/98, p.A1)
1999 Jan 18, The end of Ramadan
was marked by prisoner releases in Egypt, Palestine and Afghanistan.
(WSJ, 1/18/98, p.A1)
1999 Jan 26, A Palestinian man
was killed by an Israeli rubber bullet when he threw stones to
protest the demolition of an Arab-owned home in East Jerusalem.
(SFC, 1/27/99, p.C10)
1999 Feb 1, In Gaza a
Palestinian security agent was killed in a shootout with 3 members
of Hamas, who then sped away and ran over an 8-year-old girl. The
girl died. Raed Attar, Osama Abu Taha, and Mohammed Abu Shamala were
later arrested in Shati refugee camp.
(SFC, 2/2/99, p.A10)
1999 Feb 12, In Hebron, Yasser
Arafat again proposed that a confederation be made between Jordan
and a future Palestinian state.
(SFC, 2/13/99, p.A3)
1999 Feb 27, Hezbollah
guerrillas in Lebanon detonated 2 roadside bombs and killed Israeli
Brig. Gen'l. Erez Gerstein, 2 soldiers and a reporter.
(SFC, 3/1/99, p.A1)
1999 Feb 28, Israel sent
warplanes against guerrilla targets in Lebanon in retaliation for
the death of Brig. Gen'l. Erez Gerstein and 3 others.
(SFC, 3/1/99, p.A1)
1999 Mar 10, In Palestine
security forces shot and killed 2 teenagers during protests in Gaza
after Raed al-Attar was sentenced to die for killing police captain
Rifat Joudah in Feb. Two others were sentenced to jail.
(SFC, 3/11/99, p.A12)
1999 Mar 11, In Palestine at
least 85 people were injured in a 2nd day of clashes in the Gaza
(SFC, 3/12/99, p.A15)
1999 Mar 26, The EU declared
that the creation of a Palestine state was the best way to resolve
the Middle East conflict, and the action could not be vetoed by
(SFC, 3/27/99, p.A10)
1999 Apr 26, The Clinton
administration urged a one-year extension of the Oslo peace process
and pressured Pres. Arafat not to declare an independent state on
(SFC, 4/27/99, p.A8)
1999 Apr 28, The 124-member
Palestine Central Council decided not to declare a Palestinian state
on May 4, and that deliberations would continue till after Israel's
May 17 elections. In exchange Arafat won EU backing for a state
within a year and the support of Pres. Clinton for
(SFC, 4/28/99, p.C2)(WSJ, 4/30/99, p.A1)
1999 May 4, Yasser Arafat
promised in 1997 to declare statehood, unilaterally if necessary.
The five year interim period of Palestinian autonomy was to end. The
declaration was deferred on April 28.
(WSJ, 11/14/97, p.A1)(SFC, 5/20/98, p.A12)(SFC,
1999 May 7, A final peace
accord was to be settled with Palestinians by this time as
negotiated by Yasser Arafat and Rabin in [Oct] 1995.
(SFC, 1/9/96, p.A10)
1999 Jun 2, Palestinian leaders
said they would not resume peace talks unless settlement expansion
in the West Bank and Gaza is frozen.
(SFC, 6/3/99, p.A13)
1999 Jun, Enron Corp. announced
a 20-year power purchase agreement with the Palestinian Energy
Authority. A $140 million, 136-megawatt power plant in the Gaza
Strip was part of the plan. Work halted in 2000.
(SFC, 3/2/02, p.A9)
1999 Jul 8, It was reported
that Palestinian water shortages were due Israeli diversions of 80%
of West Bank aquifer water.
(SFC, 7/8/99, p.A10)
1999 Jul 11, In Gaza Israeli
Prime Minister Ehud Barak met with Yasser Arafat and both promised
to work for peace.
(SFC, 7/12/99, p.A1)
1999 Aug 8, In Jerusalem Yasser
Arafat accepted Ehud Barak's proposal to delay land transfers and
troop withdrawals until October.
(SFC, 8/9/99, p.A8)
1999 Aug 30 In Israel the
bodies of an Israeli couple were found on the West Bank border near
the Megiddo forest. Palestinian extremists were suspected as
(SFC, 8/31/99, p.A12)
1999 Sep 1, In Jerusalem
disagreement over the release of 30 Palestinians, jailed for killing
Israelis, was the only issue holding up the signing of a
(SFC, 9/2/99, p.A14)
1999 Sep 3, Israel and the
Palestinians, prodded by Madeleine Albright, agreed to a peace deal
that called for finalizing borders in one year, the completion of
Wye River land-for-security, and the release of 350 Palestinian
(SFC, 9/4/99, p.A1)
1999 Sep 4, At Sharm El-Sheikh
(Sharm Al Sheik), Egypt, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and
Palestinian Authority Pres. Yasser Arafat signed a new deal that
ceded West Bank land to the Palestinians and set up a timetable for
(SFEC, 9/5/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 9/21/99, p.A21)
1999 Sep 8, In Israel the
parliament approved the amended Wye River accord.
(WSJ, 9/9/99, p.A1)
1999 Sep 9, Israel released 199
Palestinians from prison and detailed the 7% of West Bank land
scheduled for transfer.
(SFC, 9/10/99, p.D3)(WSJ, 9/10/99, p.A1)
1999 Sep 10, Israel transferred
7% of the West Bank to Palestinian control.
(SFC, 9/11/99, p.A8)
1999 Sep 13, In Gaza Israelis
and Palestinians opened talks on a final peace accord.
(SFC, 9/14/99, p.A12)
1999 Oct 4, Israeli PM Ehud
Barak and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat agreed on terms for the
first safe route between the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
(SFC, 10/5/99, p.A11)
1999 Oct 14, Israel released
151 Palestinian prisoners as part of the interim peace accord signed
(SFC, 10/15/99, p.D3)
1999 Oct 21, In Palestine a
West Bank fire killed 16 women making cigarette lighters in an
unlicensed Hebron facility.
(WSJ, 10/22/99, p.A1)
1999 Oct 23, Palestine planned
to issue a national currency and the IMF estimated that 2 years of
preparations would be needed.
(SFEC, 10/27/99, p.A28)
1999 Oct 25, Israel opened a
34-mile safe-passage corridor from the Gaza Strip to the West Bank.
(SFC, 10/26/99, p.A10)
1999 Oct 25, An Israeli soldier
shot and killed a Palestinian souvenir vendor, Mousa Abu Hilail,
near Rachel's tomb. Two days of rioting followed.
(SFC, 10/27/99, p.A13)
1999 Nov 2, Pres. Clinton met
with Ehud Barak and Yasser Arafat in Oslo to revitalize the peace
(SFC, 11/3/99, p.A12)
1999 Nov 19, In Ramallah, West
Bank (Reuters), Israeli security forces fired tear gas and
rubber-coated metal bullets at stone-throwing Palestinians demanding
the release of Palestinian prisoners from Israel's jails.
1999 Nov 28, In Palestine
security forces arrested a group of professionals and intellectuals
who signed a petition that accused Yasser Arafat of tyranny,
corruption and injustice. 6 dissidents signed statements in jail
that saying they did not intend to harm Arafat. 9 others who signed
the petition were legislators and immune from arrest.
(SFC, 11/29/99, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/29/99, p.A1)
1999 Dec 13, Israeli troops
killed 2 men in Beit Awa in the West Bank and captured 3 others
during a search for Hamas activists.
(SFC, 12/14/99, p.B2)
1999 Dec 29, Israel released 26
Palestinian security prisoners as part of the interim peace accord.
It was the first time Israel had released Palestinians who had
killed Israelis or tourists.
(SFC, 12/30/99, p.C2)
1999 Abu Daoud first
acknowledged having a role in the 1972 Munich operation in the book:
"Palestine: From Jerusalem to Munich." Abu Daoud recalled sitting at
a cafe in Rome with fellow PLO guerrilla leader Abu Iyad and his
assistant, Mohammed al-Omari, when they read in a newspaper that the
International Olympics Committee had refused the PLO's request to
send a Palestinian delegation to the Munich Olympics. Daoud was
given the task of doing the operation's groundwork.
2000 Jan 4, Israel and
Palestine agreed on the transfer of an additional 5% of West Bank
(SFC, 1/5/00, p.A6)
2000 Jan 14, In Israel Lafi
al-Rajabi (20), a Palestinian, died while under Israeli detention
near Ariel. His body bore wounds, cuts and bruises. He had been
arrested 7 months earlier for ties to criminal defendants and not
carrying an ID card. An Israeli official said Lafi hanged himself
and dismissed claims that he was abused.
(SFC, 1/20/00, p.C16)(SFC, 1/21/00, p.D3)
2000 Mar 2, In Israel commandos
killed as many as 4 Palestinian extremist suspects at Taibeh. They
said that 4 simultaneous bombings were scheduled in crowded areas of
(SFC, 3/3/00, p.A14)
2000 Mar 22, In Bethlehem Pope
John Paul II affirmed support for a Palestinian homeland.
(SFC, 3/23/00, p.A1)
2000 May 14, Thousands of
Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza demonstrated and violence
erupted with at least one person killed.
(SFC, 5/15/00, p.A1)
2000 May 15, Palestinian police
and Israeli soldiers fought gun battles across the West Bank and
Gaza Strip. 4 people were killed and hundreds were wounded.
(SFC, 5/16/00, p.A1)
2000 May 16, Palestinian
demonstrators continued to fight Israeli forces for a 5th day but
Palestinian authorities appeared to contain most of the violence.
(SFC, 5/17/00, p.A14)
2000 May 20, Israeli warplanes
attacked Palestinian targets in Lebanon and destroyed 10 tanks.
Israeli soldiers clashed with Palestinian demonstrators for the 9th
day in Palestinian territories within Israel.
(SFEC, 5/21/00, p.A10)
2000 May 25, Khalid Mohhamed
Younis al-Bahar (35) was arrested without charges. He died at
Dhaheria Prison June 6 and no autopsy report was released.
(SFC, 6/14/00, p.A12)
2000 Jul 3, The Palestinian
leadership said that a Palestinian state would be declared by
(SFC, 7/5/00, p.A8)(WSJ, 7/5/00, p.A1)
2000 Jul 11, A Middle East
summit hosted by President Clinton opened at Camp David between
Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian leader Yasser
(AP, 7/11/01)(SFC, 7/12/00, p.A1)
2000 Jul 25, The
Israeli-Palestinian peace talks ended at Camp David with no success
due to the difficulty over the issue of Jerusalem.
(SFC, 7/26/00, p.A1)
2000 Jul 28, Pres. Clinton
warned Yasser Arafat that relations with the US would be harmed if
statehood was declared without a peace deal with Israel.
(SFC, 7/29/00, p.A10)
2000 Aug, British gas
discovered a vast natural gas field 22 miles off the Gaza
(SFC, 9/28/00, p.A14)
2000 Sep 3, In Egypt a 2-day
meeting of Arab League foreign ministers opened. Yasser Arafat said
he would not accept a peace deal without control of Jerusalem.
(SFC, 9/4/00, p.B10)
2000 Sep 10, The Palestine
Central Council in Gaza postponing the Sep 13 deadline for statehood
and planned to pursue another round of peace talks.
(SFC, 9/11/00, p.A1)
2000 Sep 28, Ariel Sharon led
an armed contingent of supporters to the top of Temple Mount in
Jerusalem, the site of 2 mosques, and incited Arab demonstrations.
This marked the beginning of the 2nd Palestinian uprising.
(SFC, 4/30/02, p.A8)(SFC, 3/23/04, p.A11)
2000 Sep 29, Five people were
killed in clashes between Palestinian protesters and Israeli police
at the Temple Mount. It was the 2nd day of clashes following a visit
to the site by Ariel Sharon.
(SFC, 9/30/00, p.A1)
2000 Sep 30, Palestinians
clashed with Israeli forces across the West Bank and Gaza for a 3rd
day and 12 Palestinians were killed with over 500 injured. Mohammed
Jamal Aldura (12) was among the dead and French TV showed him
clinging to his father as they were caught in gunfire. The Israeli
Army later said that Palestinian gunfire may have killed the boy.
(SFEC, 10/1/00, p.A1)(SFC, 10/2/00, p.A12)(SFC,
2000 Sep, The Waqf clerical
trust imposed a ban on non-Muslims to visit the Temple Mount.
(SFC, 1/22/02, p.A7)
2000 Sep, The Al Aqsa Martyrs
Brigade was founded in response to Israeli killings.
(SFC, 4/12/02, p.A16)
2000 Oct 1, Israeli forces
fought Palestinian rioters for a 3rd day and at least 12
Palestinians were killed. The fighting spread from the West Bank and
Gaza to towns and cities inside Israel.
(SFC, 10/2/00, p.A1)
2000 Oct 2, Israeli troops
fired on protesting Arabs. 19 people were killed in the West Bank
and Gaza and another 7 in Arab towns of northern Galilee. The 4 day
toll rose to 48 dead and over 1,300 wounded. In 2003 the Or
Commission blamed the government of PM Barak for not paying
attention to rising discontent among Israel’s Arabs. In 2005 Israeli
authorities, citing lack of evidence, said they would not file
charges against any police officers for the killings of 13 Arabs
during the October, 2000, riots.
(SFC, 10/3/00, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/3/00, p.A1)(SFC,
2000 Oct 3, A cease-fire
between Israel and the Palestinians quickly crumbled and the death
toll climbed to at least 54. Ehud Barak and Yasser Arafat planned to
meet in Paris to seek an end to the conflict.
(SFC, 10/4/00, p.A10)
2000 Oct 4, In Israel Barak
agreed to withdraw heavy arms from the West Bank and Gaza in a bid
to halt violence.
(WSJ, 10/5/00, p.A1)
2000 Oct 5, Israeli tanks
pulled back from forward positions and Palestinian security forces
cleared stone throwers from the streets in the 1st steps of a
(SFC, 10/6/00, p.A17)
2000 Oct 6, Israel pulled
troops from Joseph’s Tomb in Nablus in an effort to ease tensions.
(SFC, 10/7/00, p.A1)
2000 Oct 7, Palestinians tore
up Joseph’s Tomb in Nablus and Hezbollah guerrillas captured 3
Israeli soldiers. Prime Minister Ehud Barak threatened to use force
and to halt the peace process unless the violence stopped.
(SFEC, 10/8/00, p.A1)
2000 Oct 9, Israel backed from
a deadline against the Palestinians to stop violence in the West
Bank and Gaza.
(SFC, 10/10/00, p.A1)
2000 Oct 11, Palestinians
continued to riot in Gaza and the West Bank and the death toll
(SFC, 10/12/00, p.A1)
2000 Oct 12, The Palestinian
Authority released hundreds of prisoners including senior Islamic
(SFC, 10/13/00, p.A5)
2000 Oct 12, A mob of
Palestinians beat at least 2 Israeli reserve soldiers to death.
Israeli helicopters fired missiles at targets in Gaza in
retaliation. Two reservist soldiers, Cpl. Vadim Norjitz (33) and
Yossi Avrahami (38) were on their way to their army base in the West
Bank in October 2000 but took a wrong turn and ended up in Ramallah.
Israel later arrested at least four suspects in the killing. In 2007
a 5th suspect, Ayman Zaban, was caught in an upscale neighborhood of
the northern West Bank city of Nablus.
(SFC, 10/13/00, p.A1)(AP, 9/26/07)
2000 Oct 16, A Middle East
summit was planned to begin at Sharm el-Sheikh in Egypt. Violent
demonstrations continued in the West Bank and Gaza and 2
Palestinians were killed.
(SFEC, 10/15/00, p.A1)(SFC, 10/17/00, p.A13)
2000 Oct 17, Israelis and
Palestinians agreed to a Middle East pact to halt the violence.
(SFC, 10/18/00, p.A1)
2000 Oct 18, In Israel
undercover agents captured as many as 8 Palestinians believed to
have taken part in the lynching death of 2 Israeli soldiers.
(SFC, 10/19/00, p.A1)
2000 Oct 19, Israeli soldiers
fought with Palestinian militiamen in the West Bank and 2 people
were killed with 18 wounded.
(SFC, 10/20/00, p.A16)
2000 Oct 20, Israeli troops
killed at least 9 Palestinians and wounded dozens in numerous West
(SFC, 10/21/00, p.A1)
2000 Oct 21, Tens of thousands
of Palestinians took to the streets in marches and funerals in Gaza
and the West Bank. 4 Palestinians were killed and over 100 injured.
(SFEC, 10/22/00, p.A1)
2000 Oct 21, Arab leaders met
in Cairo for a 2-day summit where they condemned Israel for violence
and made proposals to deal with Israel.
(SFEC, 10/22/00, p.A1,21)
2000 Oct 22, Arab nations
demanded a UN war crimes tribunal for Israelis responsible for
Palestinian deaths and formally ended economic cooperation with
Israel. Ehud Barak suspended Israeli participation in the peace
process. He called for a "timeout" to decide whether negotiations
can be salvaged.
(SFC, 10/23/00, p.A1)
2000 Oct 23, In Israel Prime
Minister Barak opened negotiations with Ariel Sharon and the Likud
Party for a broad-based emergency government.
(SFC, 10/24/00, p.A14)
2000 Oct 23, Two more
Palestinians died from injuries received during rioting in Nablus.
(SFC, 10/24/00, p.A14)
2000 Oct 26, In Israel a
Palestinian suicide bomber blew himself up at an Israeli army
outpost. 129 people, mostly Palestinians, were reported killed in
over four weeks of fighting.
(SFC, 10/27/00, p.A20)
2000 Oct 27, Palestinians
clashed with Israelis in a "Day of Rage" and 4 were killed with 150
(SFC, 10/28/00, p.A12)
2000 Oct 28, Palestinians
clashed with Israeli troops and at least 29 were wounded.
(SFEC, 10/29/00, p.A18)
2000 Oct 29, Israeli tanks
rolled through Gaza to secure free movement for Jewish settlers. 5
Palestinians were killed in Gaza, Nablus and Jenin.
(SFC, 10/30/00, p.A10)
2000 Oct 30, Israel fired
rockets from helicopter gunships in the West Bank and Gaza as a
warning against the use of guerrilla tactics. The death rose to 133
Palestinians and 10 Israelis.
(SFC, 10/31/00, p.A12)
2000 Nov 1, 3 Israelis and 6
Palestinians were killed in West Bank clashes.
(SFC, 11/2/00, p.A12)
2000 Nov 4, In Israel the
clashes eased as Pres. Barak and Yasser Arafat announced
separate visits to Washington for talks with Pres. Clinton.
(SFEC, 11/5/00, p.A11)
2000 Nov 5, Clashes in the West
Bank and Gaza left 2 Palestinians killed and 17 injured.
(SFC, 11/6/00, p.A12)
2000 Nov 6, Israel rejected a
plan for international observers in its conflict with the
(SFC, 11/7/00, p.B2)
2000 Nov 7, Pres. Clinton named
George Mitchell to head a fact-finding team in the
(SFC, 11/7/00, p.B2)
2000 Nov 8, Israeli troops
killed 4 Palestinian teenagers and Palestinian gunmen ambushed and
killed an Israeli woman (24).
(SFC, 11/9/00, p.C2)
2000 Nov 9, Pres. Clinton met
with Yasser Arafat in Washington in an effort to end the bloodshed
between Israel and Palestine.
(SFC, 11/10/00, p.A16)
2000 Nov 9, Israeli helicopter
gunships fired missiles at a Palestinian vehicle and killed Fatah
militia leader Hussein Abayat along with 2 nearby women.
(SFC, 11/10/00, p.A1)
2000 Nov 10, Israel sealed
Bethlehem and Ramallah. Israeli troops killed 5 Palestinians in
clashes in the West Bank and Gaza. One Israeli soldier was killed in
shooting following a funeral for militia commander Hussein Abayat.
(SFC, 11/11/00, p.A1)
2000 Nov 11, Fighting in the
West Bank left 8 Palestinians dead along with 1 Israeli soldier.
(SFEC, 11/12/00, p.A19)
2000 Nov 12, Pres. Clinton met
with Ehud Barak in an effort to end Arab-Israeli fighting. Meanwhile
one Palestinian youth was killed in Gaza.
(SFC, 11/13/00, p.A1)
2000 Nov 13, Palestinian gunmen
attacked inside Israeli controlled areas of the West Bank and Gaza
and killed 4 Israelis. Elsewhere 4 Palestinians were also killed
over the day. Fatah called for the expulsion of Israelis from Gaza
and the West Bank.
(SFC, 11/14/00, p.A16)(WSJ, 11/14/00, p.A1)
2000 Nov 14, Israeli troops
shot dead 3 Palestinian teenagers (13-19) and a man was killed after
settlers threw rocks at his car.
(SFC, 11/15/00, p.A12)
2000 Nov 15, On Palestinian
Independence Day many processions turned into clashes with Israeli
forces and 8 Palestinians were killed. Israeli troops entered 3
Palestinian villages and captured 15 men suspected in recent
(SFC, 11/16/00, p.A14)
2000 Nov 16, Israeli forces
attacked 4 targets associated with Fatah. 2 Palestinians were killed
in clashes. Israel also reported a freeze on tax transfers to the
(SFC, 11/16/00, p.A14)(SFC, 11/17/00, p.A21)(WSJ,
2000 Nov 17, In Jerusalem
Yasser Arafat announced that he had given orders for Palestinian
gunmen to halt their shooting. Barak noted the possibility for
int’l. supervisors in a peace agreement.
(SFC, 11/18/00, p.A12)
2000 Nov 18, A Palestinian
police officer sneaked into a Jewish settlement in Gaza and shot
dead an Israeli soldier. He wounded 2 others before he was killed.
(SFEC, 11/19/00, p.A14)
2000 Nov 19, Israeli troops
killed a 14-year-old stone thrower in Gaza. One other Palestinian
was killed and 9 wounded.
(SFC, 11/20/00, p.A8)
2000 Nov 20, Israel fired a
barrage of missiles on the Gaza Strip in retaliation for an attack
on a school bus that killed 2 Jewish settlers and wounded 9 others
including 3 siblings who lost limbs. At least 35 people were
reported wounded in the missile attack.
(SFC, 11/21/00, p.A1)
2000 Nov 21, An Israeli
motorist was wounded and a Palestinian was killed in the Gaza Strip.
(WSJ, 11/22/00, p.A1)
2000 Nov 22, In Hadera, Israel,
a car bomb killed at least 2 Israelis and wounded dozens. A
Palestinian militia leader and 3 others were killed by Israeli fire
in the Gaza Strip.
(SFC, 11/23/00, p.A20)
2000 Nov 23, The Israeli army
ordered Palestinian police to leave liaison offices after 2 soldiers
were killed in the Gaza Strip. A Hamas member was killed in a car
explosion in Nablus. A Palestinian court later sentenced to death a
man convicted of helping Israeli security agents assassinate the
(SFC, 11/24/00, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/24/00, p.A1)(WSJ,
2000 Nov 25, Israeli soldiers
killed 4 Palestinians and wounded over 30 in a series of clashes
that undermined field level cooperation. 2 students and 2 bakers
were killed by Israeli soldiers, who claimed Jamal Abdel Razek was a
leader of the Tanzim militia traveling with 3 bodyguards.
(SSFC, 11/26/00, p.A18)(SFC, 12/6/00, p.A16)
2000 Nov 26, Israel attacked
targets in southern Lebanon after a roadside bomb killed one Israeli
soldier and wounded 2 others near the border. 4 armed Palestinians
were killed as they left Qalqilya into an area on Israeli control.
(SFC, 11/27/00, p.A8)
2000 Nov 30, Palestinians
rejected a scaled-back peace plan proposed by Ehud Barak.
(SFC, 12/1/00, p.A1)
2000 Dec 1, Mohammed Deif (35),
leader of the Izzedine al Qassam Brigades –the armed wing of Hamas,
escaped from jail in the Gaza Strip.
(SFC, 12/8/00, p.D6)
2000 Dec 1, Israelis killed 2
Palestinians and injured over 20 in clashes in the West Bank and
(SFC, 12/2/00, p.A13)
2000 Dec 4, Israeli soldiers
wounded 25 people in the West Bank village of Husan.
(SFC, 12/5/00, p.A14)
2000 Dec 5, The Israeli and
Palestinian violence was reported to have cost the Palestinians over
$500 million in lost wages and sales since late September.
(SFC, 12/6/00, p.A16)
2000 Dec 6, The Israeli
Betselem human-rights group condemned the Israeli army for excessive
force in combating the Palestinian intifada.
(SFC, 12/7/00, p.A12)
2000 Dec 6, The World Bank
approved a $12 million grant to help Palestinians.
(SFC, 12/7/00, p.A12)
2000 Dec 8, In Jerusalem and
the West Bank 7 Palestinians and 3 Israelis were killed in the
(SFC, 12/9/00, p.A16)
2000 Dec 12, Israeli soldiers
killed Yousef Abu Swayeh (27), a West Bank Palestinian leader.
(SFC, 12/13/00, p.B4)
2000 Dec 13, Fighting in Gaza
left 4 Palestinian policemen dead. A Fatah activist was killed in
the West Bank.
(WSJ, 12/14/00, p.A1)
2000 Dec 15, In Israel Ehud
Barak made a bid to restart peace talks as 6 more Palestinians were
shot dead by Israeli troops.
(SFC, 12/16/00, p.A20)
2000 Dec 17, Israeli and
Palestinian officials agreed to hold talks in Washington prior to
the departure of Pres. Clinton.
(SFC, 12/18/00, p.E2)
2000 Dec 21, Israeli officials
acknowledged a "liquidation" policy for hunting down and killing
(SFC, 12/22/00, p.A20)
2000 Dec 23, Negotiators from
Israel and Palestine left Washington without an agreement on
(SSFC, 12/24/00, p.A12)
2000 Dec 25, Pres. Clinton laid
down a new set of proposals for peace between Israelis and
Palestinians. The proposals included a Palestinian concession for
some 3.7 million refugees to give up the right of return and for
Israelis to cede sovereignty over the Temple Mount.
(SFC, 12/26/00, p.A1)(SFC, 12/27/00, p.A14)
2000 Dec 28, Bombs exploded in
Tel Aviv and Gaza shortly after a peace summit was cancelled. 2
Israeli soldiers were killed.
(SFC, 12/29/00, p.A1)
2000 Dec 29, In Gaza a
Palestinian police officer was killed in a shootout as Israeli
soldiers bulldozed a grove of trees.
(SFC, 12/30/00, p.A8)
2000 The documentary film
"Yasmin," directed by Nizar Hassan, premiered in the US. It is about
an incident of honor killing.
(SFEC, 9/3/00, DB p.52)