Timeline Poland

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TravelDocs: http://www.traveldocs.com/pl/index.htm
USLC:
http://www.loc.gov/collections/country-studies/?q=poland
Wikipedia:
http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Polish_history

397Mil BC    Four-legged creatures were mucking around a muddy basin in what is now Poland about this time. In 2010 scientists reported the discovery of their fossilized footprints in the Holy Cross Mountains in southeastern Poland.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ybp6x78)

100000BC-80000BC    In 2010 Polish scientists announced the discovery of 3 Neanderthal teeth, dating back to about this time, in the Stajnia Cave, north of the Carpathian Mountains.
    (http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20100201/ap_on_re_eu/eu_poland_neanderthal_teeth)

5500BC    Scientists in 2012 presented evidence of cheese making in pottery sieves discovered in Poland that dated to about this time.
    (SSFC, 12/16/12, p.A22)

c4,000BC    The archeological site at Oslonki uncovered some 30 longhouses and 80 graves.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.73)

800-900    In Poland a 9th century edict forbade Jews from baking. The law was supposedly circumvented by boiling bread and then toasting it. This process is believed to have led to the creation of the bagel.
    (WSJ, 11/29/08, p.W11)

997        The Polish city of Gdansk was founded. From 1920 to 1939 it was known as the Free City of Danzig.
    (SSFC, 3/3/13, p.N4)

1000        In Cracow the Wawel Castle was built overlooking the Vistula River.
    (WSJ, 7/13/00, p.A24)

1058        Nov 28, Kazimierz I Restaurator (b.1015), grand duke of Poland (1034-58), died. He succeeded in reuniting the central Polish lands under the hegemony of the Holy Roman Empire, but he was never crowned king.
    (MC, 11/28/01)(www.infoplease.com)

1079        May 9, Stanislaus, Polish bishop of Cracow, was murdered.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1194        May 5, Kazimierz II, the Justified, grand duke of Poland (1177-94), died.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1220        Czestochowa, Poland, was first mentioned as a village in historical documents.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cz%C4%99stochowa)

1241        Apr 9, In the Battle of Liegnitz, Silesia, Mongol armies defeated the Poles and Germans. In this year the Mongols defeated the Germans and invaded Poland and Hungary. The death of their leader Ughetai (Ogedei) forced them to withdraw from Europe.
    (HN, 4/9/98)(TOH)

1241        A trumpeter in Krakow, Poland, was shot through the throat by an archer as he warned the city of a fast-approaching Mongol army.
    (SSFC, 12/28/03, p.C6)

1267        Feb 9, Synod of Breslau ordered Jews of Silesia to wear special caps.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1268        Jan 21, Pope Clement IV gave permission to Poland’s King Premislus II to take over Lithuania and establish Catholicism.
    (LHC, 1/18/03)

1271        Sep 17, Wenceslas II, king of Bohemia & Poland (1278-1305), was born.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1306        Aug 8, King Wenceslas of Poland was murdered.
    (HN, 8/8/98)

1309        Apr 30, Kazimierz III de Great, King of Poland (1333-70), was born.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1333        Mar 2, Wladyslaw IV, the Short One, Great, duke, king of Poland, died.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1335        Charles I of Hungary-Croatia, Casimir III of Poland and John of Bohemia met in Visegrad, Hungary, and agreed to create new commercial routes to bypass the staple port Vienna and obtain easier access to other European markets.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visegr%C3%A1d_Group)

1342        Sep 26, John I, ruler of Poland, died.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1349        May 28, 60 Jews were murdered in Breslau, Silesia.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1360        Jul 25, Jews were expelled from Breslau, Silesia.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1364        In Cracow the Jagiellonian University was founded. [see 1400]
    (PG-Comm)

1370        Nov 5, Kazimierz III ("The Great"), king of Poland (1333-70), died at 61.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1370        Louis I (the Great)(b.1326), King of Hungary (1342-1382), became King of Poland.
    (HN, 3/5/98)(MC, 3/5/02)

1382        Sep 10, Louis I, the Great, King of Hungary and Poland, died.
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1382        In Czestochowa, Poland, the Paulist monastery of Jasna Gora was founded by Władysław Opolczyk (Ladislav of Opole), the Polish Piast prince of Upper Silesia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cz%C4%99stochowa)

1384        Oct 16, The Polish princess Hedwig was crowned King Jadwiga (d.1399) at age 10. She was crowned as king to make it clear that she was a ruler, not a consort.
    (SFC, 6/9/97, p.A10)(SSFC, 10/2/11, p.N4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jadwiga_of_Poland)

1385        Jan 18, A Lithuanian delegation under Skirgaila arrived in Cracow to ask for the hand of Jadvyga on behalf of Jogaila.
    (LHC, 1/18/03)

1385        Aug 14, In Lithuania Jogaila and his brothers signed a treaty with Poland at Krievos Castle. Here he agreed to convert to Christianity and to seek the conversion of all of Lithuania and that then Lithuania and Poland would unite. The treaty also included an agreement to free all captive Catholics and to help Poland regain all the land it had lost to the German Knights. Vytautas urged Jogaila to go to Poland and leave Lithuania to be ruled by himself.
    (H of L, 1931, p.48)(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 68)

1386        Feb 2, Jogaila was elected King of Poland.
    (LHC, 2/2/03)

1386        Feb 15, Christianity was introduced to Lithuania when Grand Duke Jogaila and Vytautas underwent a token Baptism at the cathedral in Cracow. Jogaila had married Queen Jadvyga (12) and was crowned King in Poland. Together they began to rule from Cracow over Lithuania and Poland. Jogaila submitted to restrictions that no major decisions could be made without the authorization of the Polish nobility.
    (Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.5)(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 69)(DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)

1386          Mar 4, Jogaila was crowned King of Poland.
    (LHC, 3/4/03)

1387        Feb 17, Jogaila founded the archdiocese of Vilnius and provided land for the Bishop’s headquarters.
    (LHC, 2/17/03)

1387          Feb 22, Jogaila issued a proclamation for all Lithuanians to accept Catholicism.
    (LHC, 2/22/03)

1388          Mar 12, Pope Urban VI authorized Poznan’s Bishop Dobrogost to establish a Vilnius archdiocese.
    (LHC, 3/12/03)

c1399        In Poland Queen Hedwig died in childbirth at age 25.
    (SFC, 6/9/97, p.A10)

1400        In Cracow the Jagiellonian University was re-founded with funds and a permanent income by the royal couple. [see 1364]
    (WSJ, 7/13/00, p.A24)(PG-Comm)

1401        Jan 18, In Lithuania Vytautas and the country’s dukes submitted documents to Poland that Vytautas would rule Lithuania as a vassal to Poland and return the country to Poland upon his death.
    (LHC, 1/18/03)

1407        Jan 21, Duke Vytautas led Polish and German forces for a 2nd time against the Duchy of Moscow.
    (LHC, 1/18/03)

1407        Oct 26, Mobs attacked the Jewish community of Cracow.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1410        Jul 15, Lithuanian-Polish forces defeated the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Tannenberg, Prussia, thereby halting the Knights’ eastward expansion along the Baltic and hastening their decline. Vytautas and Jogaila with hired mercenaries from Belarus along with Tartars and Czechs defeated the Teutonic Knights between Grunvald (Zalgiriai) and Tannenberg southeast of Malburg. Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen and many of his nobles were killed. The war officially ended with the Treaty of Thorn in which the Knights gave up Zemaitija to Vytautas.
    (COE)(H of L, 1931, p.52)(DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)

1411        Feb 1, Lithuania, Poland and the Knights of the Cross signed the Torun Peace Treaty. Samogitia was returned to Lithuania. The Teutonic Knights had regrouped and gone to battle against Vytautas and Jogaila. Peace was signed at Torun and western Lithuania was returned, but not Klaipeda (Memel).
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 71)(LHC, 1/31/03)

1416        Feb 13, A Lithuanian and Polish delegation read their grievances against the Teutonic Knights at the Church Council at Constance.
    (LHC, 2/13/03)

1423        Mar 30, Lithuania and Poland reached an agreement at Kezmark with Emperor Sigismund, who agreed to recall Sigismund Kaributa from Poland.
    (LHC, 3/30/03)

1430        Apr 14, A band of Hussites raided the monastery at Czestochowa, Poland, and robbed it of its precious artifacts.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yacc288)

1453        Jul 4, 41 Jewish martyrs were burned at stake at Breslau, Poland.
    (Maggio)

1454        Mar 6,  Casimir proclaimed the attachment of Prussia to Polish rule. This began a 13-year war over Prussia (1454-1466).
    (LHC,3/6/03)

1466        Oct 19, The peace of Torun ended the 13-year War of the Cities (1454-1466), between the Teutonic knights and their own disaffected subjects in Prussia. The Peace of Thorn (Torún) ended the war between the Teutonic knights (a German military and religious order) and their subjects in Prussia, led by King Casimir IV (1427-1492) of Poland.  Poland was given Pomerelia and West Prussia, and the knights retained East Prussia, with a new capital at Königsberg (Kaliningrad). The knights, formerly strictly a German order, were forced to accept Poles as members and their grand master became a vassal of the Polish king.
    (HN, 10/19/98)(http://reference.allrefer.com/encyclopedia/T/TeutonKn.html)

1473        Feb 19, The astronomer Copernicus (1473-1543) was born in Torun, Poland. He promulgated the theory that the earth and the planets move around the sun.
    (WUB, 1994, p. 322)(HN, 2/19/98)(AP, 2/19/98)

1481        Aug 30, Two Latvian monarchs were executed for conspiracy to murder Polish king Kazimierz IV.
    (MC, 8/30/01)

1484          Mar 4, Casimir (Kazimierz), the son of Lithuania’s Grand Duke Casimir, died in Grodno at age 25. In 1602 he was declared a saint and protector of Lithuania. St. Casimir was born Oct 3,1458, in Cracow.
    (LHC, 3/4/03)

1486        Mar 4, Jogaila was crowned king of Poland.
    (LC, 1998, p.12)

1495        Feb 15, Lithuanian Grand Duke Alexander wed Duchess Elena of Moscow.
    (LHC, 2/15/03)

1496        A Polish edict, pushed by Krakow’s gentile bakers, banned Jews from selling bagels within the city limits.
    (www.nextbook.org/cultural/feature.html?id=1075)

1497        Mar 9, Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), Polish astronomer, made the 1st recorded astronomical observation.
    (WUD, 1994 p.322)(MC, 3/9/02)

1501        Jul 27, Copernicus was formally installed as canon of Frauenberg Cathedral.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1505          Feb 26, In Brest Polish Chancellor J. Laski invited the Lithuanian government to reconfirm and expand the 1501 Union of Melnik, but the offer was rejected.
    (LHC, 2/26/03)

1506        Copernicus (1473-1543), Polish-born astronomer, was appointed canon of church properties in the Prussian diocese of Ermland.
    (ON, 2/11, p.5)

1512        Copernicus, Polish-born astronomer, wrote his manuscript “The Little Commentary," in which he suggested that the earth’s apparent immobility was due to a “false appearance" and a sun-centered cosmos would resolve many astronomical inconsistencies.
    (ON, 2/11, p.5)

1514        Vasily III, ruler of Moscow, captured Smolensk from Poland.
    (TL-MB, p.10)

1515        Jul 22, Emperor Maximillian and Vladislav of Bohemia forged an alliance between the Habsburg [Austria] and Jagiello [Polish-Lithuanian] dynasties in Vienna.
    (HN, 7/22/98)

1518        Apr 18, Bona Sforza (1494-1558) was crowned Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania in Wawel Cathedral, Krakow. The Italian niece of Bianca Maria Sforza, who in 1493 married Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, became the 3rd consort of Lithuania’s Grand Duke Sigismund the Old (1467-1548).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bona_Sforza)

1538        King Sigismund I (1467-1548), King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, imposed the death penalty for bison poaching.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigismund_I_the_Old)(Econ, 9/14/13, SR p.10)


1543        May 24, Nicolaus Copernicus, astronomer, died in Poland. His book, "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs," (De Revolutionibus Orbium Caelestium), proof of a sun-centered universe, was printed just before he died. Although he did say that the earth rotated once a day and did revolve around the sun once a year, he kept 2 features of the old Aristotelian system: one involved uniform circular motion, and the other was quintessential matter, for which such motion was said to be natural. In 1916 the Catholic clergy placed the book on its “Index of Prohibited Books." In 2004 Owen Gingerich authored "The Book Nobody Read," an examination of how the ideas of Copernicus spread. In 2006 William T. Vollmann authored “Uncentering the Earth: Copernicus and The Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres." In 2008 his remains, buried in a Roman Catholic Cathedral in Frombork, Poland, were positively identified using DNA evidence. In 2011 Dava Sobel authored "A More Perfect Heaven: How Copernicus Revolutionized the cosmos."
     (WSJ, 3/5/04, p.W8)(NH, 4/1/04, p.66)(SSFC, 2/5/06, p.M1)(AP, 11/20/08)(Econ, 9/24/11, p.106)

1547        Mar 21, Matthew Stryjkovski (d.c1592), the 1st author of a printed history of Lithuania, was born in Strykov, Poland.
    (LHC, 3/21/03)

1548        Apr 1, Sigismund I, the Elder (81), King of Poland, died.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(MC, 4/1/02)

1561        Poland-Lithuania gaining control over Livonia. In response Sweden seized the territory of Estonia with the major port of Reval.  Denmark, also invested in the war, seized the Livonian Islands.
    (http://tinyurl.com/bngyy)

1563        Feb 15, Ivan IV led Russian forces in the takeover of Polocka, defended under the leadership of Stanislav Davaina.
    (LHC, 2/15/03)

1564          Mar 13, Zigmantas Augustas gave over to Poland his rights to Lithuania and supported the Warsaw parliament recess and summons for the 1st representatives on talks regarding union.
    (LHC, 3/13/03)

1566          Mar 11, The 2nd Lithuanian statutes went into effect and upheld a democracy of landowners. The Statute of Lithuania gave the Seimas legislative power. The parliament had developed since Casimir ascended to the Polish throne. It was composed of an upper chamber or Council of Lords and assemblies of noblemen. They assembled in Vilnius or Brest-Litovsk.
    (DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)(LHC, 3/11/03)

1569          Feb 28, The Lithuanian delegation pulled out of union talks with Poland and departed Lublin.
    (LHC, 2/28/03)

1569          Mar 12, Zigmantas Augustas broke away from Lithuania and attached Volinija and Palenki to Poland.
    (LHC, 3/12/03)

1569        Jul 1, The Lublin Union was signed and direct rule over Lithuania was passed to Poland. Lithuania maintained certain ministers, laws, money and an army. The territories of Volinija, Kiev and Podolija were transferred to Polish rule.
    (H of L, 1931, p.72-74)(LC, 1998, p.20)

1570        Apr 14, Polish Calvinists, Lutherans, Hernhutters unified against the Jesuits.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1573        Jan 28, In Warsaw a confederation act acknowledged freedom of religion in Lithuania and Poland.
    (LHC, 1/28/03)

1573        May 11, Henry of Anjou became the first elected king of Poland.
    (HN, 5/11/98)

1581        Jan 14, The city of Riga joined the Polish-Lithuanian union.
    (LHC, 1/14/03)

1581          Mar 1,The Warsaw government accepted the statutes of the Lithuanian high tribunal.
    (LHC, 3/1/03)

1581        Stephen Bathory, King of Poland, invaded Russia.
    (TL-MB, p.23)

1581        Sweden and Poland overran Livonia (a territory that included southern Latvia and northern Estonia).
    (TL-MB, p.23)

1582        Jan 15, Russia ceded Livonia and Estonia to Poland, and lost access to Baltic.
    (MC, 1/15/02)

1582        Aug 10, Russia ended its 25-year war with Poland. Russia and Poland concluded the Peace of Jam-Zapolski under which Russia lost access to the Baltic and surrendered Livonia and Estonia to Poland.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(HN, 8/10/98)

1586        Stephen Bathory, King of Poland, died and was succeeded by Sigismund III.
    (TL-MB, p.24)

1587        Aug 19, Sigismund III was chosen to be the king of Poland.
    (HN, 8/19/98)

1588        Jan 28, King Sigismund Vaza upheld the 3rd Lithuanian Statute that until 1795 stood as the fundamental code of law. In practice it was active until 1840.
    (LHC, 1/28/03)

1595          Feb 24, Mathias Casimir Sarbievius, poet and prof. at Vilnius Univ., was born in Sarbev, Poland. He died in Warsaw Apr 2, 1640.
    (LHC, 2/23/03)

1605        Sep 27, Jan Karol Chodkiewicz (1560-1621), Lithuanian hetman (Jonas Karolis Katkevičius-Katkus), led Lithuanian and Polish forces to victory against a Swedish army at Kircholm, Latvia. Chodkiewicz carried the day in a victory that, taking into account the disparity of power and strategic result, was huge. It is estimated that 6000 Swedes died. Sweden’s King Charles IX was wounded.
    (www.kismeta.com/diGrasse/images/kircholm_27_sept.htm)

1609        Mar 21, Jan II Kazimierz, cardinal, King of Poland (1648-68), was born.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1609        Rabbi Loew (b.1525), also known as the Maharal of Prague, died. He became well-remembered for a legend about him creating a clay figure known as Golem, which he is said to have brought to life to protect Prague's Jewish community from attacks.
    (AP, 8/5/09)

1610        Feb 14, Polish king Sigismund III forced Dimitri #2 and the Romanov family to sign covenant against Czar Vasili Shuishki (sequel to story of "Boris Godunov").
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1610        Jul 4, Battle at Klushino: King Sigismund III of Poland beat Russia & Sweden.
    (Maggio)

1610        Aug 27, Polish King Wladyslaw was crowned king of Russia.
    (MC, 8/27/01)

1610        In Cracow (Krakow), Poland, bagels were listed in the community regulations as a suitable gift for pregnant women.
    (SFC, 10/16/96, zz1 p.6)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1610        Sigismund III ruled Poland.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.29)

1612        Oct 27, A Polish army which invaded Russia capitulated to Prince Dimitri Pojarski and his Cossacks.
    (HN, 10/27/98)

1612        Nov 4, Russia drove Catholic Poles and Lithuanians out of Moscow. This marked the end of the "Time of Troubles," a period of popular uprisings and fighting between noblemen and pretenders to the throne. Russian Orthodox Church celebrated this day as the victory of the forces of Eastern Orthodoxy over the forces of Western Catholicism. In 2005 Russia chose this day for the new “People’s Unity Day" holiday.
    (http://bildt.blogspot.com/2005/11/meaning-of-1612.html)(Econ, 11/12/05, p.56)(Econ, 3/17/07, p.65)

1632        King Ladislas IV began his rule.
    (PCh, 1992, p.241)

1634        Feb 19, At the Battle at Smolensk Polish king Wladyslaw IV beat the Russians. [see Mar 1]
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1634        Mar 1, Battle at Smolensk; Polish King Wladyslaw IV beat the Russians. [see Feb 19]
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1638        In Cracow the Isaac Synagogue was founded.
    (WSJ, 7/13/00, p.A24)

1648        May 20, King Ladislas IV died at age 55. His Jesuit brother (39) took rule as John Casimir II.
    (PCh, 1992, p.241)

1648        May 6, Battle at Zolty Wody-Bohdan: Chmielricki's Cossacks beat John II Casimir.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1648        Jun 24, Cossacks slaughtered 2,000 Jews and 600 Polish Catholics in Ukraine.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1648        Sep 21, In Poland at the Battle at Pilawce Bohdan Chmielricki beat John II Casimir.
    (PCh, 1992, p.241)(MC, 9/21/01)

1648-1649    It is estimated that 100,000-200,000 Jews died in the Chmielnicki (Khmelnytskyi) revolt that lasted from 1648-1649. This wave of destruction is considered the first modern pogrom.
    (www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/Poland.html)

1654        Jan 18, The union of Ukraine and Russia was announced at the Council of Pereyaslav, but no original documents have been preserved. A treaty invoked only protection of the Cossack state by the Tsar and was intended as an act of official separation of Ukraine from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Pereyaslav)(Econ, 6/20/15, p.53)

1655        Aug 29, Swedish king Karel X Gustaaf occupied Warsaw.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1655        Oct 15, Jews of Lublin, Poland, were massacred.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1656        Jan 17, Prussian Duke Frederick Wilhelm withdrew ties with Lithuania and Poland and acknowledged vassal status with Sweden.
    (LHC, 1/17/03)

1656        Oct 24, Treaty of Vilnius (Lithuania): Russia and Poland signed an anti-Swedish covenant.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1659        Mar 22, The Warsaw parliament decided to issue metal currency, shillings, for Lithuania and Poland.
    (LHC, 3/22/03)

1667        Jan 30, Lithuania, Poland and Russia signed a 13.5 year treaty at Andrusov, near Smolensk. Russia received Smolensk and Kiev.
    (LHC, 1/30/03)

1667        May 9, Marie Louise de Gonzague-Nevers, French Queen of Poland (1645-48), died.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1668        Sep 16, King John Casimer II of Poland abdicated the throne.
    (HN, 9/16/98)(PCh, 1992, p.241)

1670        May 12, August II (d.1733), the Strong One, King of Poland (355 children) and elector of Saxony, was born.
    (MC, 5/12/02)(SSFC, 4/25/04, p.D12)

1674        May 20, John Sobieski became Poland’s first King. [see 1573]
    (HN, 5/20/98)

1674        May 21, Gen. Jan Sobieski was chosen King of Poland. [see May 20]
    (MC, 5/21/02)

1675        Jun 11, France and Poland formed an alliance.
    (AP, 6/11/03)

1675        Wojciech Bobowski (b.1610), Polish-Jewish musician and dragoman, died. He had been taken prisoner by Crimean Tartars and was sold to the Ottoman court where he converted to Islam and served as an interpreter, treasurer and musician. He translated the Bible into Turkish and composed Turkish psalms.
    (Econ, 9/15/07, p.104)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wojciech_Bobowski)

1679        Apr 3, Edmund Halley met Johannes Hevelius in Danzig.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1681        Jan 8, The treaty of Radzin ended a five year war between the Turks and the allied countries of Russia and Poland.
    (HN, 1/8/99)

1683        Feb 12, A Christian Army, led by Charles, the Duke of Lorraine and King John Sobieski of Poland, routed a huge Ottoman army surrounding Vienna.
    (HN, 2/12/99)

1683        Sep 12, A combined Austrian and Polish army defeated the Ottoman Turks at Kahlenberg and lifted the siege on Vienna, Austria. Prince Eugene of Savoy helped repel an invasion of Vienna, Austria, by Turkish forces. Marco d'Aviano, sent by Pope Innocent XI to unite the outnumbered Christian troops, spurred them to victory. The Turks left behind sacks of coffee which the Christians found too bitter, so they sweetened it with honey and milk and named the drink cappuccino after the Capuchin order of monks to which d'Aviano belonged. An Austrian baker created a crescent-shaped roll, the Kipfel, to celebrate the victory. Empress Maria Theresa later took it to France where it became the croissant. In 2006 John Stoye authored “The Siege of Vienna."
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.69)(WSJ, 3/27/96, p.A-16)(HN, 9/12/98)(SFEC, 2/6/00, p.A1)(Reuters, 4/28/03)(WSJ, 6/3/03, p.D5) (WSJ, 12/6/06, p.D12)

1696        Jun 17, Jan Sobieski (72), King of Lithuania and Poland (1674-96), died.
    (MC, 6/17/02)(LHC, 5/21/03)

1696        August III (d.1763), son of August II, was born. He was crowned King of Lithuania and Poland in 1734.
    (SSFC, 4/25/04, p.D12)(WSJ, 6/1/04, p.D8)

1700          Feb 22, Augustus II (the Strong), elector of Saxony (1694-1733) and King of Poland (1697-1706, 1709-1733), with the help of the Saxon army attacked Swedish controlled Riga. This began the Northern War (1700-1721).
    (LHC, 2/22/03)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_II_the_Strong)

1707        Aug 31, The Treaty or Convention of Altranstädt was signed between Charles XII of Sweden and Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor. It settled the rights of Protestants in Silesia and forced Augustus the Strong to yield the Polish throne to Stanisław Leszczyński (1677-1766).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Altranst%C3%A4dt_%281707%29)

1709        Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony, had ordered alchemist Johann Friedrich Bottger to re-create the formula for oriental porcelain. Bottger was imprisoned and joined physicist Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus in a search for the formula. Tschirnhaus died but Bottger discovered the formula in this year. Within 2 years a factory was established in Meissen’s Albrechtsburg and Meissenware became Europe’s first hard-paste porcelain.
    (Hem, 6/96, p.111)(SSFC, 4/25/04, p.D12)(Econ, 4/3/10, p.88)

1710        Feb 4, August II with the support of the Russian army was recognized by the parliament in Warsaw as King of Lithuania and Poland.
    (LHC, 2/4/03)

1710        In Germany Baron Johann Bottger invented the Meissen hard-paste porcelain at the Meissen factory on the river Elbe under the auspices of Augustus, King of Poland. [see 1709] Kandler was a virtuoso sculptor and brilliant artist at Meissen and was responsible for the figurine of Mazzetin and Columbine, 2 characters from the Italian comedia dell ‘arte.
    (WSJ, 8/28/98, p.W10)

1716            Nov 3, In the Pacification Treaty of Warsaw Czar Peter the Great (1672-1725) guaranteed Saxon monarch August I's (1682-1718) Polish kingdom.
    (DoW, 1999, p.373)

1717        Jan 30, Surrounded by the Russian army the Lithuanian-Polish parliament reduced its army by half and acknowledged Russian protection.
    (LHC, 1/30/03)

1723        Augustus the Strong, ruler of Saxony and King of Poland, ordered the expansion of the Royal Residence Palace treasure chamber in Dresden, long called the Green Vault because of the color of its walls.
    (http://tinyurl.com/gp7uy)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.95)

1725        August II, elector of Saxony and King of Poland, gifted a selection of Meissen porcelain from his own collection to the king of Sardinia.
    (WSJ, 11/21/07, p.D10)

1732        Jan 17, Stanislaw II August Poniatowski, last king of Poland (1764-95), was born.
    (MC, 1/17/02)

1733        Feb 1, Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony, Grand Duke of Lithuania (1697-1706) and twice King of Poland (1697-1706, 1709-1733), died in Warsaw.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustus_II_the_Strong)

1733        Oct 10, France declared war on Austria over the question of Polish succession.
    (HN, 10/10/98)

1734        Jan 24, In Cracow the 2nd last king of Lithuania and Poland, August III, was crowned.
    (LHC, 1/24/03)

1734        Mar 9, The Russians took Danzig (Gdansk) in Poland.
    (HN, 3/9/99)

1734-1823    Adam Czartoryski, a friend of Rousseau and Ben Franklin and luminary of the enlightenment in Poland, was an art collector and displayed his art at the family estate at Pulawy.
    (WSJ, 7/30/97, p.A13)

1736        Jan 27, Stanislaw Lesheinski gave up the Polish-Lithuanian throne.
    (LHC, 1/27/03)

1738        Dec 9, Jews were expelled from Breslau, Silesia.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1741        Jun 11, Austria ceded most of Silesia to Prussia by Treaty of Breslau.
    (AP, 6/11/03)

1745        Dec 25, Prussia and Austria signed the Treaty of Dresden. This gave much of Silesia to the Prussians.
    (MC, 12/25/01)

1746        Tadeusz Kosciusko (d1817), Polish patriot and general in the American Revolutionary army, was born in Lithuania. [see Feb 4, 1747]
    (WUD, 1994 p.794)

1747        Feb 4, Tadeusz Kosciusko, patriot, American Revolution hero (built West Point), was born in Poland. [see 1746]
    (MC, 2/4/02)

1747        Mar 4, Casimir Pulaski (d.1779), Count, American Revolutionary War General, was born in Poland. Pulaski led troops in some of the bloodiest fighting of the Revolutionary War.
    (HN, 3/4/98)(SC, 3/4/02)

1762        Aug 5, Russia, Prussia and Austria signed a treaty agreeing on the partition of Poland.
    (HN, 8/5/98)

1763        Oct 5, August III (b.1796), son of August II, died. He was crowned King of Lithuania and Poland in 1734.
    (SSFC, 4/25/04, p.D12)(WSJ, 6/1/04, p.D8)

1767-1780    Bernardo Belotto (Il Canaletto), Italian topographical view painter, worked as court painter in Warsaw for Stanislaus II Augustus Poniatowski, the last King of Poland.
    (WSJ, 9/13/01, p.A18)

1768          Feb 24, Lithuania-Poland signed an eternal friendship treaty with Russia along with a guarantee of protection. Lithuania and Poland agreed not to change their state system.
    (LHC, 2/23/03)

1772         Upon the partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, or simply Galicia, became the largest, most populous, and northernmost province of Austria where it remained until the dissolution of Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I. Jews accounted for 10% of the 2.6 million population of Galicia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galicia_(Central_Europe))(Econ, 11/15/14, p.87)

1774        Tadeusz Kosciusko (b.1746) came to America from Poland after an unsuccessful love affair. He became a hero fighting the British in the American war for Independence.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, T7)

1775        Jan 17, 9 old women were burned as witches for causing bad harvests in Kalisk, Poland.
    (MC, 1/17/02)

1775        Jan 22, Marshal Oscar von Lubomirski expelled Jews from Warsaw, Poland.
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1775        Feb 22, Jews were expelled from the outskirts of Warsaw, Poland.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1775        Szymon Antoni Sobiekrajski, cartographer to King Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski, calculated that the center of Europe was in Suchowola, Eastern Poland.
    (WSJ, 7/14/04, p.A7)

1779        Oct 11, Polish nobleman General Casimir Pulaski died two days after being mortally wounded while fighting for American independence during the Revolutionary War Battle of Savannah, Ga. Brig. Gen. Casimir Pulaski had come to America in 1777. In 2005 an attempt to confirm his remains using DNA was inconclusive.
    (AH, 10/04, p.15)(AP, 6/24/05)(AP, 10/11/07)

1783        Mar 5, King Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski granted rights to Jews of Kovno.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1784        May 25, Jews were expelled from Warsaw by Marshall Mniszek.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1785        Mar 31, Antanas Tyzenhauzas (B.1733), Lithuanian agricultural organizer, died in Warsaw.
    (LHC, 3/31/03)

1786        Mar 22, Joachim Lelevelis was born in Warsaw. He became a renowned historian and Prof. at Vilnius Univ. He died May 29, 1861 in Paris.
    (LHC, 3/22/03)

1788        Oct 6, The Polish Diet decided to hold a four year session.
    (HN, 10/6/98)

1790s        Tadeusz Kosciusko returned to Poland and united the country in the battle against Prussian and Russian domination.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, T7)

1791        May 3, Poland adopted a new Constitution. It was designed to redress long-standing political defects of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and its traditional system of "Golden Liberty." The constitution put Lithuania under Polish domination. It is generally regarded as Europe's first and the world's second modern codified national constitution, following the 1788 ratification of the US Constitution.
    (SFC, 4/25/09, p.B1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_May_3,_1791)(Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.13)

1792        May 18, Russian troops invaded Poland.
    (HN, 5/18/98)

1792        May 19, Russian army entered Poland.
    (DTnet 5/19/97)

1793        Jan 23, Prussia and Russia signed an accord on the 2nd partition of Lithuania and Poland. The 2nd partition of Poland. Polish patriots had attempted to devise a new constitution which was recognized by Austria and Prussia, but Russia did not recognize it and invaded. Prussia in turn invaded and the two agreed to a partition that left only the central portion of Poland independent.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1677)(LHC, 1/23/03)

1793        Jan 23, The 2nd partition of Poland. Polish patriots had attempted to devise a new constitution which was recognized by Austria and Prussia, but Russia did not recognize it and invaded. Prussia in turn invaded and the two agreed to a partition that left only the central portion of Poland independent.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1677)

1793        Apr 17, The Battle of Warsaw was fought.
    (HN, 4/17/98)

1794        Mar 23, Lieutenant-General Tadeusz Kosciusko returned to Poland.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1794        Mar 24, In Cracow a revolutionary manifesto was proclaimed. The Lithuanian and Polish nobility under the leadership of Tadas Kosciusko revolted against Russian control.
    (H of L, 1931, p. 81-82)(LHC, 3/23/03)

1794        Apr 7, At the battle of Raclawice the revolutionary forces of Tadeusz Kosciusko defeated the imperial armies.
    (DrEE, 9/21/96, p.5)

1794        Apr 19, Tadeusz Kosciusko forced Russians out of Warsaw.
    (HN, 4/19/97)

1794        Oct 10, The Russian Army under Gen’l. Alexander Suvorov took Warsaw and captured Tadeus Kosciusko at Maciejowice. T. Vavzeckis was became the new commander of the revolutionary forces.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)(HN, 10/10/98)

1794        Nov 16, Warsaw capitulated to the Russian Army and the revolution ended.
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)

1795        Jan 3, The 3rd division of the Lithuanian Polish Republic was made between Russia and Austria.
    (Voruta #27-28, Jul 1996, p.5)

1795        Mar 22, A Lithuanian delegation under L. Tiskevicius went to Jekaterina II in Petersburg and declared that Lithuania’s union with Poland was ended.
    (Voruta #27-28, Jul 1996, p.5)

1795        Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski, the last king of Poland, was forced to abdicate.
    (WSJ, 2/15/00, p.A24)

1795-1921    The state of Poland was gobbled up by Russia, the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Prussia.
    (SFC, 7/10/97, p.A7)

1797        Jan 15, In St. Petersburg Russia, Prussia and Austria signed and act that terminated the Lithuanian-Polish state.
    (LHC, 1/15/03)

1806        Nov 28, French forces led by Joachim Murat entered Warsaw.
    (AP, 11/28/06)

1807        Feb 8, At Eylau, Poland, Napoleon’s Marshal Pierre Agureau attacked Russian forces in a heavy snowstorm. Like Napoleon, to whom he is most often compared, Alexsandr Suvorov believed that opportunities in battle are created by fortune but exploited by intelligence, experience and an intuitive eye. To him, mastery of the art and science of war was not, therefore, purely instinctive. Napoleon’s forces ran low on supplies at Eylau and ate their horses.
    (HN, 2/7/97)(WSJ, 9/21/05, p.A8)

1807        Napoleon gave Danzig (later Gdansk) 6 years of formal independence.
    (WSJ, 8/31/98, p.A4)

1808        Oct 17, The political rights of Jews was suspended in Duchy of Warsaw.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1810        Mar 1, Frederic Chopin (d.1849), Polish composer and pianist, was born. He studied in Poland but spent most of his adult life in Paris. He met George Sand in Paris in 1838 and they were together until 1847.  His works include the Waltz #2 in C# Minor (1835).
    (BAAC PN, Chambers, 1/8/96)(HN, 3/1/98)

1812        Jun 24, Napoleon crossed the Nieman River [in Lithuania] and invaded Russia. The French army under Napoleon crossed the Nemunas River near Kaunas. Prior to his march into Russia, Napoleon had taken land from Russia and returned it to Polish control in Warsaw. This assured him safe passage through Poland and Lithuania on his way to Russia. In 1824 the book “History of the Expedition to Russia, Undertaken by the Emperor Napoleon in the Year 1812" by Count de Segur, a general in Napoleon’s army, was first published. An English translation edited by Gerard Shelley was published in 1928.
    (HN, 6/24/98)(WSJ, 8/25/07, p.P9)(H of L, 1931, p.83-84)

1812        The Testament of Peter the Great was first published in Napoleonic France to demonstrate that the Russian Empire had grand plans to conquer and subjugate Europe. It was demonstrated to be a fraud in 1879. It was written by a Polish general in the late 1700s and has continued to find mainstream adherants in the modern era, particularly amongst scholars, journalists and politicians.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Russavia/Testament)

1813        Feb 18, Czar Alexander entered Warsaw at the head of his Army.
    (HN, 2/18/99)

1813        Prussia took over Danzig.
    (WSJ, 8/31/98, p.A4)

1815        Nov 27, Cracow, Poland, declared itself a free republic.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1817        Oct 15, Tadeusz AB Kosciusko (b.1746), Polish Lt-Gen. and American Revolution freedom fighter, died.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1820        In southern Poland Jan Kutschera opened the Sczcawnica Zdroj health resort. He sold it in 1929 to the Hungarian Szalay family, which turned it into a fashionable place. Josef Szalay bequeathed it to Krakow’s Academy of Arts and Sciences, which sold it to Count Stadnicki in 1909. Stadnicki (d.1982 at 99) was ousted by the communists in 1948. By 2008 his heirs had regained control of the spa and invested $4.5 million in restoration.
    (SSFC, 8/17/08, p.F7)

1829        May, In Poland Niccolo Paganini (1782-1840), Italian violinist, performed in concert in Warsaw. Frederic Chopin (19) was so impressed that he proceeded to compose a series of piano studies a la Paganini. Chopin’s 27 Etudes later became a cornerstone of every gifted pianist’s repertoire.
    (WSJ, 11/15/08, p.W11)

1830        Nicholas I ruthlessly repressed the insurrection in Poland.
    (WSJ, 4/13/99, p.A16)

1831        Feb 20, Polish revolutionaries defeated the Russians in the Battle of Growchow.
    (HN, 2/19/98)

1831        Feb 25, The Polish army halted the Russian advance into their country at the Battle of Grochow.
    (HN, 2/25/99)

1831        Mar 26, An interim government was set up in Raseiniai as a Lithuanian revolt against Russian rule began. There was a major uprising led by the Polish nobility in Warsaw against Russian rule. Russian forces began to march through Lithuania and this led many people of Lithuania to join in the rebellion against Russian rule. Serf uprisings also followed. The rebellion was eventually quelled by Russian force.
    (H of L, 1931, p.85-86)(LHC, 3/26/03)

1831        May 26, Russians defeated the Poles at battle of Ostrolenska.
    (HN, 5/26/98)

1831        Jul 24, Maria Agata Szymanowska (41), composer, died.
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1832        Feb 26, The Polish constitution was abolished by Czar Nicholas I.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1840        Polish explorer Paul Strzelecki named Australia’s highest peak in honor of the Polish national hero Tadeusz Kosciuszko. Early surveyors messed up the transcription and the peak was named Mt. Kosciusko. Decades later it was discovered that the mountain was a few feet lower than a neighboring peak. The New South Wales Lands Dept. swapped their names to resolve the issue. In 1996 there was a move to restore the missing z to the name.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, T7)(SSFC, 12/25/11, p.N6)

1846        Feb 23, Polish revolutionaries marched on Cracow, but were defeated.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1846        May 5, Henryk Sienkiewicz (d.1916), author (Quo Vadis, Nobel 1905), was born  in Poland: "The greater the philosopher, the harder it is for him to answer the questions of common people."
    (AP, 2/5/97)(MC, 5/5/02)

1849        Oct 17, Frederic Chopin (b.1810), Polish-born composer and pianist, died in Paris of tuberculosis at the age of 39. The 1945 film "A Song to Remember" was about Chopin." In 2010 Adam Zamoyski authored “Chopin: Prince of the Romantics."
    (HN, 10/17/00)(SFC, 11/25/02, p.A15)(Econ, 2/6/10, p.91)

1850        May 16, Johannes von Mikulica-Radecki, Polish surgical pioneer, was born.
    (HN, 5/16/01)

1850s        Polish immigrants began arriving in Chicago as job opportunities abounded.
    (WSJ, 6/2/03, p.A1)

1852        Ignacy Lukasiewicz, a druggist, found oil seeping from the ground and in an attempt to make vodka distilled it to produce the first kerosene.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, Z1 p.2)

1855        Nov 26, Adam Bernard Mickiewicz (b.1798) died in Constantinople. He was a poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, and political activist. Mickiewicz is regarded as national poet in Poland, Lithuania (Adomas Mickevičius) and Belarus.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adam_Mickiewicz)

1857        Nov 2, Joseph F.F. Babinski, Polish-French neurologist (Babinski reflex), was born.
    (MC, 11/2/01)

1857        Dec 3, Joseph Conrad (d.1924), novelist, was born in Berdychiv, Poland, as Teodor Jozef Konrad Korzeniowski. He is best known for “Heart of Darkness." His work “The Secret Agent" had a profound effect on Unabomber Theodore J. Kaszynski in the late 20th cent. Conrad also wrote the short story “The Informer."
    (SFC, 7/9/96, p.A3)(HN, 12/3/98)(AP, 12/3/07)

1858        August Czartoryski (d.1893) was born as a Polish prince. He became a Salesian priest and was beatified in 2004.
    (AP, 4/25/04)

1860        Nov 18, Ignacy Jan Paderewski (d.1941), composer and 3rd prime minister of Poland (1919), was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ignacy_Jan_Paderewski)

1861        Feb 27, In the Warsaw massacre Russian troops fired on a crowd protesting Russian rule over Poland. Five marchers were killed.
    (AP, 2/27/98)

1863        Jan 22, The interim Lithuanian government in Warsaw announced an uprising against Russian rule. The uprising aspired to restore the Polish-Lithuanian state and was supported by large numbers of peasants.
    (DrEE, 9/14/96, p.4)(LHC, 1/22/03)

1864          Mar 2, Russian Czar Alexander II upheld reforms in Poland that gave landholders ownership of their lands.
    (LHC,3/1/03)

1867        Nov 7, Marie Curie (d.1934), Polish-born French scientist, was born in Warsaw as Marya Salomee Sklodowska. Her discoveries included polonium, radium, which she isolated from pitchblende, and the radioactivity of thorium. She was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1903 with her husband, and in chemistry in 1911. "You cannot hope to build a better world without improving the individuals. To that end each of us must work for his own improvement, and at the same time share a general responsibility for all humanity."
    (AHD, 1971, p.323)(AP, 10/26/98)(HN, 11/7/98)

1876        Helena Modrzejewska, celebrated actress, left for America with her husband Count Karol Chapowski, their son, Rudolf (15), the young journalist Henryk Sienkiewicz and a few friends. Helena proceeded to establish herself on the American stage as Helena Modjeska. In 2000 Susan Sontag planned to publish an historical novel based on Helena: "In America."
    (SFC, 1/6/00, p.E1)

1877        Jul 5, Wanda A. Landowska, Warsaw Poland, harpsichordist (Musique Ancienne), was born.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1880        Mar 31, Henryk Wieniawski (44), Polish violist, composer, died.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1880        Nov 1, Sholem Asch, Polish-born American novelist, was born. He wrote "The Nazarene" and "The Apostle, Mary."
    (HN, 11/1/99)

1881        Aug 20, Nikolay Yakovlevich Myaskovsky, composer, was born in Poland of Russian military parentage.
    (MC, 8/20/02)(Internet)

1882        Aug 17, Samuel Goldwyn, American movie mogul who helped start MGM (Metro Goldwyn Mayer), was born as Schmuel Gelbfisz in Warsaw, Poland.
    (HN, 8/17/00)

1882        Elie Nadelman (d.1946), Polish-born sculptor, was born. He moved to Paris in 1904 and to the US in 1914 with the support of Helena Rubenstein. His work included "The Dancer" (1920-1924).
    (WSJ, 5/15/03, p.D8)

1883        Jan 13, Fire in circus Ferroni in Berditschoft, Poland, killed 430.
    (MC, 1/13/02)

1884        Aug 3, Louis Gruenberg, composer (Daniel Jazz), was born near Brest Litovsk, Poland.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1885        Sep 15, Juliusz Zarebski, Polish composer, died at 31.
    (http://www.dolmetsch.com/cdefsz.htm)

1885        Dr. Lazarus Ludwig Zamenhof (1859-1917), Polish ophthalmologist, invented the artificial language known as Esperanto. [see 1887]
    (SFCM, 6/8/03, p.18)

1886        Jan 28, Artur Rubinstein, pianist, was born in Lodz, Poland.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1886        Oct 16, David Ben-Gurion (d.1973), Israeli statesman, was born in Plonsk, Poland. He was the 1st PM of Israel and served from 1948-53 and in 1955.
    (HN, 10/16/00)(MC, 10/16/01)

1887        The artificial international language called Esperanto was introduced in a pamphlet published by Polish ophthalmologist Dr. Lazarus Ludwig Zamenhof. Zamenhof (1859-1917), invented the artificial language known as Esperanto in 1885.  Zamenhof used the pen name "Esperanto," which means "the hoper" in the new language. Esperanto vocabulary is comprised primarily of words with Latin roots and words common to several languages. Esperanto is less complicated than an earlier attempt at artificial language called Volapuk. While Esperanto associations formed around the world, it never became widely accepted.
    (Wired, 8/96, p.84)(HNQ, 6/15/98)

1891        Aug 22, Jacque Lipchitz (d.1973), sculptor, was born in Poland.
    (HN, 8/22/00)

1891        Oct 12, Edith Stein was born to a Jewish family at Breslau. Through her passionate study of philosophy she searched after truth and found it in reading the autobiography of St. Teresa of Jesus. In 1922 she was baptized a Catholic and in 1933 she entered the Carmel of Cologne where she took the name Teresa Benedicta of the Cross. She was gassed and cremated at Auschwitz on August 9, 1942, during the Nazi persecution and died a martyr for the Christian faith after having offered her holocaust for the people of Israel.
    (WWW, Teresa Benedicta, 10/6/98)

1900        Mar 21, Paul Kletzki, Polish violinist, composer, conductor, was born.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

c1900        The 1999 novel "The River Midnight" by Lilian Nattel was about life in the Polish shtetl of Blaszka at the turn of the century.
    (USAT, 3/24/99, p.7E)

1901        Ignacy Jan Paderewski (1860-1941), Polish composer, built Warsaw’s Hotel Bristol.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ignacy_Jan_Paderewski)

1904        Jul 14, Isaac Singer (1991), Polish-born American author (Enemies-Nobel 1978), was born. "God is the sum of all possibilities." "When you betray somebody else, you also betray yourself."
    (AP, 3/30/97)(AP, 6/4/99)(HN, 7/14/01)(MC, 7/14/02)

1905        Oct 20, A Great General Strike in Russia began and lasted 11 days.
    (MC, 10/20/01)
1905        Oct 20, Russian tsar allowed Polish people to speak Polish.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1905        Henryk Sienkiewicz, Polish author, won the Nobel Prize and wrote the third work of his trilogy "With Fire and Sword." It was preceded by "Pan Michael" and "The Deluge." The first 2 books were made into films during the 1960s and 1970s. Filming of the 3rd work began in 1997.
    (SFC,11/18/97, p.E2)(SFC, 7/8/99, p.E3)

1906        Aug 26, Albert Bruce Sabin, U.S. virologist, born in Poland. In 1955, he developed an oral vaccine against polio.
    (RTH, 8/26/99)

1905        Henryk Sienkiewicz wrote the third work of his trilogy "With Fire and Sword." It was preceded by "Pan Michael" and "The Deluge." The first 2 books were made into films during the 1960s and 1970s. Filming of the 3rd work began in 1997.
    (SFC,11/18/97, p.E2)

1908        Sep 9, Russia grabbed part of Poland.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1908-1996    General Witold Urbanowicz, Polish fighter ace. He destroyed 28 German and Japanese fighter planes and fought in combat over Poland, in the Battle of Britain and in China.
    (SFC, 8/21/96, p.A20)

1909-1966     Stanislaw J. Lec, Polish poet, author and satirist: "THINK before you think!"
    (AP, 8/28/98)

1909-1984    Anna Swir, Polish poet. "A poet should be as sensitive as an aching tooth."
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, DB p.8)

1911         Jun 30, Czeslaw Milosz (d.2004), Polish poet and critic and Nobel winner, was born in Lithuania. In 2001 his Polish "Milosz’s ABC’s" was published in English.
    (SFC, 3/21/01, p.C1)(HN, 6/30/01)

1912        The People’s Hall was built in Wroclaw, capital of Lower Silesia. The city is at the foot of the Sudety Mountains on the banks of the Odra River.
    (DrEE, 9/21/96, p.1)

1913        Nov 26, Russian kingdom forbade Polish congregation of speakers.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1914        Aug 11, Jews were expelled from Mitchenick, Poland.
    (MC, 8/11/02)

1914        Oct 21, Battle of Warsaw ended with a German defeat.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1914        Nov 25, German Field Marshal Fredrich von Hindenburg called off Lodz offensive 40 miles from Warsaw, Poland. The Russians lost 90,000 to the Germans’ 35,000 in two weeks of fighting.
    (HN, 11/25/98)

1914        Dec 6, German troops over ran Lodz.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1915        Apr 6, Tadeusz Kantor (d.1990), Polish director and theorist, was born in Galicia, a part of Austria-Hungary.
    (SFC, 1/14/15, p.E5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadeusz_Kantor)

1915        Aug 5, The Austro-German Army took Warsaw, in present-day Poland, on the Eastern Front.
    (HN, 8/5/98)

1915        Sep 2, Austro-German armies took Grodno, Poland.
    (HN, 9/2/98)

1916        Aug 11, The Russia army took Stanislau, Poland, from the Germans.
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1917        Jan 14, The Provisional Parliament was established in Poland.
    (HN, 1/14/99)

1918        Feb 14, Warsaw demonstrators protested the transfer of Polish territory to the Ukraine.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1918          Mar 3, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which ended Russian participation in World War I. Germany and Austria forced Soviet Russia to sign the Peace of Brest, which called for the establishment of 5 independent countries: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Ukraine. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which ended Russian participation in World War I, was annulled by the November 1918 armistice. The treaty deprived the Soviets of White Russia.
    (HN, 3/3/99)(LHC, 3/1/03)(AP, 3/3/08)

1918        Sep 22, Henryk Szeryng, violinist (Brahms Concerto), was born in Zelazowa Wola, Poland.
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1918        Nov 11, The Second Polish Republic declared its independence.
    (SFC, 11/13/96, p.C2)(AP, 11/11/08)

1918        Nov 21, Polish soldiers organized a pogrom against Jews of Galicia, Poland.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1918        Nov 22, Polish forces attacked the Jewish community of Lemberg (Lvov).
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1919        Jan 17, Pianist and statesman Ignace Jan Paderewski became the first premier of the newly created republic of Poland.
    (AP, 1/17/07)

1919        Feb 17, Germany signed an armistice giving up territory in Poland.
    (HN, 2/17/98)

1919        Feb, The Polish–Soviet War began and continued to March 1921. It was an armed conflict between Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine against the Second Polish Republic and the Ukrainian People's Republic, four states in post-World War I Europe.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish-Soviet_War)

1919        Apr 5, Polish Army executed 35 young Jews.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1919        Apr 20, Polish Army captured Vilno (Vilnius), Lithuania from Soviet Army.
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1919        Jimmy Winkfield (1882-1974), former US Kentucky Derby winner, helped lead 262 horses from the Odessa (Ukraine) race track to Warsaw, Poland, in a 3-month journey in front of the advancing Red Army.
    (SSFC, 5/7/06, p.P8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jimmy_Winkfield)

1920        Jan 10, The League of Nations was established as the Treaty of Versailles went into effect. The Free City of Danzig (Gdansk) was constituted by the treaty.
    (WUD, 1994, p.367)(AHD, 1971, p.744)(AP, 1/10/98)

1920        Jan 15, The United States approved a $150 million loan to Poland, Austria and Armenia to aid in their war with the Russian communists.
    (HN, 1/15/99)

1920        Mar 7, The Bolsheviks opened a major offensive on the Polish front.
    (HN, 3/7/98)

1920        May 18, Pope John Paul II (d.2005) was born as Karol Jozef Wojtyla, in Wadowice, Poland. In 1978 he became the 264th Roman Catholic pope. He was the first non-Italian Roman Catholic pope since the Renaissance and wrote the international bestseller "Crossing the Threshold."
    (SFC, 5/19/97, p.A13)(HN, 5/18/99)(SSFC, 4/3/05, p.A12)

1920        Jul 4, Poland gave de facto recognition to Lithuania.
    (LC, 1998, p.20)

1920        Jul 8, The Galician Soviet Socialist Republic (Galician SSR) was formed and lasted to September 21, 1920, during the Polish-Soviet War within the area of the South-Western front of the Red Army.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galician_Soviet_Socialist_Republic)

1920        Aug 10, Allies recognized Poland, Czechoslovakia and Romania.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1920        During Polish-Soviet war thousands of captured Red Army men were placed in the camp of Тuchola, Poland. These POWs lived in trenches, while famine, cold, and infectious diseases killed tens of prisoners daily. In the winter 1920/1921 POWs had a death rate of about 25%, which was attributed to malnutrition, poor sanitary conditions, lack of fuel and medicines, and physical maltreatment by the Polish supervisors.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuchola)

1921        Apr 9, Russo-Polish conflict ended with the signing of the Riga Treaty.
    (HN, 4/9/98)

1921        The Solec Hospital in central Warsaw was built.
    (WSJ, 1/15/97, p.A1)

1922        Feb 1, Lieutenant Colonel I. Matuszewski, the head of the II department of the Polish Joint Staff, informed the military minister of Poland in the letter, that 22,000 prisoners of war were lost in the camp of Tuchola during its existence.
    (www.search.com/reference/Prisoner-of-war_camp)

1922        Feb 20, Vilnius, Lithuania, agreed to separate from Poland.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1922        Mar 24, The Polish parliament endorsed the transfer of the Vilnius area to Lithuania.
    (LHC, 3/23/03)

1922        Dec 16, Gabriel Narutowicz (b.1865), a Lithuanian-born, Swiss banking engineer and Poland’s first post WWI president was assassinated while attending an art exhibition, in the National Gallery of Art.
    (Econ, 6/18/11, p.89)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabriel_Narutowicz)

1922        Dec 16, Gabriel Narutowicz (b.1865), a Lithuanian-born, Swiss banking engineer and Poland’s first post WWI president was assassinated while attending an art exhibition, in the National Gallery of Art “Zachęta."
    (Econ, 6/18/11, p.89)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabriel_Narutowicz)

1923        Feb 3, The National Union committee divided a neutral zone between Lithuania and Poland and drew a final line of demarcation.
    (LHC, 2/3/03)

1923          Mar 15, An ambassador's conference set the demarcation line between Lithuania and Poland as a national border, which Lithuania did not recognize.
    (LHC, 3/15/03)

1923        Apr 18, Poland annexed Central Lithuania.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1923        Jul 6, Wojciech Jaruzelski, Polish general, pres. (1989-90), was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wojciech_Jaruzelski)

1925        Feb 10, Poland made an accord with the Vatican and the archdiocese of Vilnius was revived as one of 5 Polish dioceses.
    (LHC, 2/10/03)

1926        Feb 25, Poland demanded a permanent seat on the League Council.
    (HN, 2/25/98)

1926        May 29, Charles Denner, actor (And Now My Love), was born in Tarnow, Poland.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1926         Jun 1, Ignacy Mocicki was elected president of Poland.
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)

1926        Jun 19, The opera “King Roger," composed by Polish composer Karol Szymanowski (1882-1937), premiered in Warsaw.
    (Econ, 8/23/08, p.73)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Roger)

1927        Aug 7, Maia Wojciechowska (d.2002) was born in Warsaw. She moved to the US in 1942 and became an acclaimed author of children’s books. Her work included the memoir "Till the Break of Day: Memories, 1939-1942."
    (SFC, 7/1/02, p.B5)

1928        Mar 28, Zbigniew Brzezinski, US national security advisor (Carter), was born in Warsaw.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1928        Janusz Korczak (d.1942), pediatrician and writer, authored “King Matt the First," the story of an orphan boy who becomes king and enacts laws favorable to children.
    (SSFC, 10/10/04, Par p.17)

1931        Jan 24, The League of Nations rebuked Poland  for the mistreatment of a German minority in Upper Silesia.
    (HN, 1/24/99)

1933        Mar 6, Poland occupied free city Danzig (Gdansk).
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1933        Jun 14, Jerzy Kosinski, Polish-American novelist (The Painted Bird, Being There), was born.
    (HN, 6/14/01)

1933        Aug 18, Roman Polanski, Polish film director best known for Rosemary's Baby and Chinatown, was born.
    (HN, 8/18/98)

1933        Krzysztof Penderecki, Polish composer, was born.
    (AP, 11/23/02)

1934        Jan 26, Germany signed a 10-year non-aggression pact with Poland, breaking the French alliance system.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1682)(HN, 1/26/99)

1934        Jul 4, "Madame" Marie Curie-Sklodovska, Polish-born French chemist and Nobel Prize winner, died in Paris of leukemia caused by her long exposure to radiation. In 1937 Eve Curie authored "Madame Curie, a Biography." In 2004 Barbara Goldsmith authored “Obsessive Genius: The Inner World of Marie Curie."
    (ON, 3/00, p.2)(http://myhero.com/myhero/hero.asp?hero=madameCurie)(SSFC, 12/5/04, p.E2)

1935        Aug 7,  In Danzig (Gdansk) 60% of voters agreed to Nazism (NSDAP).
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1938          Mar 17, The Polish government presented an ultimatum to Lithuania to establish diplomatic ties. (LHC, 3/17/03)

1938          Mar 19, Lithuania accepted a Polish peace ultimatum and established diplomatic ties.
    (HN, 3/19/98)(LHC, 3/19/03)

1938        Apr 5, Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Dabrowa, Poland.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1938        Sep 29, British, French, German and Italian leaders signed the Munich Agreement, which was aimed at appeasing Adolf Hitler by allowing Nazi annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland, inhabited by a German-speaking minority. The treaty ceded three areas of Czechoslovakia to other powers: the Sudetenland was annexed into Germany, the Teschen district was given to Poland, and parts of Slovakia went to Hungary. British PM Neville Chamberlain gained a brief peace agreement from Hitler at Munich and without consulting the Czechs agreed that Nazi forces could occupy Sudetenland. Some mark this "appeasement policy" as the decisive event of the century. Chamberlain predicted "peace in our time." French PM Edouard Daladier was very depressed from the meeting. In 1980 Telford Taylor published "Munich: The Price of Peace." It is a detailed political & diplomatic history of the 1930's in Europe, culminating in the Munich conference. Taylor later helped write the rules for Nuremberg Trials. In 2008 David Vaughan authored “Battle for the Airwaves: Radio and the 1938 Munich Crises."
    (http://www.humboldt.edu/~rescuers/book/Chlup/chluplinks/munich.html)(SFC, 6/9/96, Z1 p.5)(SFC, 6/16/96, Z1 p.6)(WSJ, 6/8/98, p.A21)(AP, 9/29/06)(SFC, 5/26/98, p.B2)(Econ, 10/11/08, p.115)

1938        Nov 26, Poland renewed a non-aggression pact with the USSR to protect against a German invasion.
    (HN, 11/26/98)

1939        Mar 21, Nazi Germany demanded Gdansk (Danzig) from Poland.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1939        Mar 31, Britain and France agreed to support Poland if Germany threatened to invade. Seven French islands were annexed by Japan.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1939        Apr 6, Great Britain and Poland signed a military pact.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1939        Apr 28, Hitler claimed the German-Polish non-attack treaty to be still in effect.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1939        May 23, Hitler proclaimed he wants to move into Poland.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1939        Aug 23, German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop and Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs Vyacheslav M. Molotov signed a Treaty of Non-Aggression, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact freeing Hitler to invade Poland and Stalin to invade Finland. Secret protocols, made public years later, were added that assigned Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Bessarabia to be within the Soviet sphere of influence. Poland was partitioned along the rivers Narev, Vistula and San. Germany retained Lithuania enlarged by the inclusion of Vilnius. Just days after the signing, Germany invaded Poland, and by the end of September, both powers had claimed sections of Poland.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A16)(AP, 8/23/97) (HNPD, 8/22/98)(HN, 8/23/98)

1939        Aug 25, Britain and France signed a treaty with Poland promising military assistance should the Germans invade.
    (ON, 11/05, p.3)

1939        Aug 27, Nazi Germany demanded Danzig and Polish corridor.
    (MC, 8/27/01)

1939        Aug 31, There was a staged "Polish" assault on radio station in Gleiwitz by Nazis dressed as Poles to "provoke" war, an excuse for Germany to invade Poland the next day to start World War II.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1939        Sep, 1, At 4:40 a.m., World War II began. The Germans attacked Poland with their strategy of Blitzkrieg, or lightning war. The war started at dawn with salvos from the cruiser Schleswig-Holstein at the Polish garrison in Gdansk. In 1989 Donald Cameron Watt authored “How War Came."
    (WSJ, 4/26/95, p.A-16)(AP, 9/1/97)(WSJ, 1/14/07, p.P8)
1939        Sep 1, A transport train carrying 250 children from Czechoslovakia disappeared as Germany invaded Poland. It was the last transport organized by English stockbroker Nicholas Winton (1909-2015).
    (Econ, 7/11/15, p.82)
1939        Sep 1, US Sen. William Borah of Idaho said 'Lord, if only I could have talked to Hitler, all of this might have been avoided.' We have an obligation to call this what it is — the false comfort of appeasement, which has been repeatedly discredited by history." In 2008 Pres. Bush quoted these words in a speech to the Israeli Knesset.
    (AP, 5/17/08)

1939        Sep 4, The Nazis marched into Czestochowa, Poland, two days after they invaded Poland.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cz%C4%99stochowa)
1939        Sep 4, German troops stormed into Danzig (Gdansk).
    (MC, 9/4/01)
1939        Sep 4, The Polish ghetto of Mir was exterminated.
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1939        Sep 5, In Czestochowa, Poland, approximately 150 Jews were shot dead by the Germans. The day was remembered as “Bloody Monday."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cz%C4%99stochowa)

1939        Sep 8, Gen. Von Reichenau's panzer division reached the suburbs of Warsaw.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1939        Sep 9, Nazi army reached Warsaw.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1939        Sep 15, The Polish submarine Orzel arrived in Tallinn, Estonia, after escaping the German invasion of Poland.
    (HN, 9/15/99)

1939        Sep 17, The Soviet Union attacked Poland, more than two weeks after Nazi Germany launched its assault. They took 217,000 Poles prisoner and occupied eastern Poland within a week with losses of 737 dead and 2,000 wounded. The Polish submarine Orzel escaped from internment and went on to fight the Germans against long odds.
    (AP, 9/17/97)(DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)(HN, 9/17/98)(MC, 9/17/01)

1939        Sep 19, Wehrmacht (German regular army) murdered 100 Jews in Lukov, Poland.
    (MC, 9/19/01)

1939        Sep 27, Germany occupied Warsaw. Poland surrendered after 19 days of resistance to invading forces from Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. Poland had endured a brutal 3 day bombing campaign by the German Luftwaffe.
    (AP, 9/27/97)(HN, 9/27/98)

1939        Sep 28, The Boundary and Friendship Treaty between the USSR and Germany was supplemented by secret protocols to amend the secret protocols of Aug 23. Among other things Lithuania was reassigned to the Soviet sphere of influence. Poland’s partition line was moved eastwards from the Vistula line to the line of the Bug. Germany kept a small part of south-west Lithuania, the Uznemune region. A separate Soviet mutual defense pact was signed with Estonia that allowed 25,000 Soviet troops to be stationed there.
    (DrEE, 9/28/96, p.3)(DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)(DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)(AP, 9/28/97)

1939        Sep 29, Germany and the Soviet Union reached an agreement on the division of Poland. [see Sep 28]
    (HN, 9/29/98)

1939        Sep 30, Germany and Russia agreed to partition Poland. [see Sep 28,29]
    (MC, 9/30/01)

1939        Oct 4, Last Polish troops surrendered to German Wehrmacht.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1939        Oct 8, Germany annexed Western Poland.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1939        Oct 26, Polish Jews were forced into obligatory work service.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1939        Oct 30, USSR and Germany agreed on partitioning Poland. Hitler deported Jews.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1939        Nov 12, Jews in Lodz Poland were ordered to wear yellow star of David.
    (MC, 11/12/01)

1939        Nov 15, Nazis began their mass murder of Warsaw Jews.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1939        Nov 23, Hans Frank, the Nazi Gov. of Poland, required Jews to wear a blue star.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1939        Nov 28, Nazi Gov-Gen of Poland, Hans Frank organized Judenrat.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1939        Dec 1, Reichsfuhrer-SS Heinrich Himmler ordered the deportation of Polish Jews.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1939        Dec 11, New anti Jewish measurements in Poland were proclaimed.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1940        Jan 23, Pianist Jan Ignaz Paderewski became premier of Polish government in  exile.
    (MC, 1/23/02)

1940        Jan 25, Nazis established a Jewish ghetto in Lodz, Poland.
    (MC, 1/25/02)

1940        Apr 28, Rudolf Hoess became commandant of concentration camp Auschwitz.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1940        Mar 5, Stalin among others signed an Order for the massacre at Katyn, Poland. Soviet agents shot 21,768 Polish military officers, intellectuals and priests who had been taken prisoner during the invasion. Between April and May some 25,700 (15,000) Polish citizens were massacred by the Soviets in the Katyn and Miednoje (Mednoye) forests on the outskirts of Moscow and at Kharkov in western Russia (later Ukraine). Some 14,700 Polish officers were identified by their uniforms. Documents were made public in 1992 by Boris Yeltsin, Russia's first post-Soviet leader. They included a letter by Lavrenty Beria, head of the secret police, recommending the execution of the Polish prisoners of war. The letter bears the signatures of Soviet dictator Josef Stalin and three other members of the Politburo. Excavations of the sites began in 1994. 6,313 Polish officers were all shot in the back of the head near Mednoye. 9,000 Russians were also massacred at the site. In 2008 Andrzej Wajda directed the film “Katyn." In 2004 Russia's top military prosecutor closed the investigation after concluding that the massacre did not constitute genocide. In 2009 Russia's Supreme Court rejected appeals to re-open the investigation. On April 7, 2010, Russian PM Vladimir Putin attended a memorial ceremony. Hours later he said Stalin had ordered the atrocity as revenge for the death of Red Army soldiers in Polish prisoner of war camps in 1920.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.16)(SFEC, 9/3/00, p.A18)(AP, 3/6/05)(Econ, 6/21/08, p.65)(AP, 1/29/09)(SFC, 4/8/10, p.A2)(AP, 4/28/10)

1940        Apr, The Germans sealed the Jewish ghetto in Lodz, Poland, with barbed wire. Lodz at this time had some 231,000 Jews, about one-third of the city’s population. Some 45,000 Jews from other parts of Nazi-occupied Europe were forced into the ghetto as well as some 5,000 Gypsies. Many died under forced labor and horrific conditions. Those remaining were killed in August, 1944.
    (SSFC, 8/30/09, p.A17)

1940        May 23, The Polish submarine ORP Orzel left Rosyth, Scotland, and disappeared in the North Sea during a mission with the Allies.
    (AP, 1/2/15)

1940        June 14. The Nazis opened their concentration camp at Auschwitz. In German-occupied Poland the first inmates arrived at the Auschwitz concentration camp. They were all Polish political prisoners.
    (SF E&C, 1/15/1995, A-10)(AP, 6/14/97)(AP, 6/14/98)

1940        Sep, Witold Pilecki (1901-1948), a Catholic cavalry officer and founder of the Secret Polish Army (1939), infiltrated Auschwitz to spy on what was happening there. He escaped Auschwitz in April 1943, but was executed by the Soviets in 1948.
    (Econ, 1/30/10, p.61)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Witold_Pilecki)(AP, 8/30/12)

1940        Oct 16, The Warsaw Ghetto was formed by Nazi SS troops.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1940        Nov 26, The half-million Jews of Warsaw, Poland, were forced by the Nazis to live within a walled ghetto.
    (AP, 11/26/97)

1940        Oct 31, This was the deadline for Warsaw Jews to move into the Warsaw Ghetto.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1940        The documentary film "Lights Out in Europe" was made by Herbert Kline. It documented Hitler's invasion of Poland.
    (SFC, 2/12/99, p.A24)
1940        "The Nazis packed 450,000 human beings into 75 square blocks of the Warsaw ghetto, then walled it off and left them to starve."
    (SFC, 7/10/97, p.A7)
1940        A mass murder of Polish Jews took place at Lublin. A report of the killings to the Red Cross was discounted.
    (SFC, 10/8/97, p.A8)
1940         The term "genetic engineering" was coined in Poland, by Danish microbiologist A. Jost while giving a lecture on the sex life of yeast at the Technical Institute in Lwow, Poland.
    (Internet)

1941        Feb 20, The 1st transport of Jews to concentration camps left Plotsk, Poland.
    (MC, 2/20/02)
1941        Feb 20, Nazis ordered Polish Jews barred from using public transportation.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1941        Feb 22, IG Farben started building Buna-Werke in the Auschwitz extermination camp.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1941        Mar 1, Himmler inspected the Auschwitz concentration camp.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1941        Apr 9, In Czestochowa, Poland, a ghetto for Jews was created. By the end of WW II some 45,000 of Czestochowa's Jews were murdered by the Germans, almost the entire Jewish community living there.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cz%C4%99stochowa)

1941        May 19, The new 823.5-foot Nazi battleship Bismarck left Gdynia, Poland, under the command of Commander Gunther Lutjens.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_battleship_Bismarck)(ON, 10/09, p.1)

1941        Jun 25, Germans invaded Dubno, Poland, and encouraged the Ukrainians to do whatever they want to 12,000 Jews living there.
    (MC, 6/25/02)

1941        Jun 28, German troops occupied Galicia, Poland.
    (MC, 6/28/02)

1941        Jul 3, German soldiers arrive in Kolomiya, (later part of Ukraine) which belonged to Poland at this time, and tacked up posters the declared in three languages "Death to All Jews." Blanca Rosenberg (d.1998) wrote a memoir in 1993, "To Tell at Last," that described how she survived the Holocaust.
    (SFC, 9/29/98, p.C2)

1941        Jul 10, In Jedwabne, Poland, some 300-400 Jews were herded into a barn by the local villagers and burned to death. In 1949 a communist-era court convicted 12 Poles in the massacre, saying they assisted German forces in the killings. In 2001 Jan Tomasz authored "Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne." According to Gross, some 1,600 Jews were killed in Jedwabne.
    (SFC, 3/16/01, p.A16)(SFC, 3/31/01, p.A12)(AP, 7/10/11)

1941        Jul 21, Himmler ordered the building of the Majdanek concentration camp. The camp was built in eastern Poland as a principal site to exterminate Jews. It contained 7 gas chambers.
    (SFC, 3/5/98, p.A14)(MC, 7/21/02)

1941        Sep 3, Nazis made the 1st use of Zyclon-B gas in Auschwitz on Russian prisoners of war.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1941        Sep 6, Jews of Vilna, Poland (Lithuania), were confined to their ghetto.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1941        Oct 8, Construction began on the 430-acre Birkenau extermination camp, 1.5 miles away from Auschwitz.
    (MC, 10/8/01)(WSJ, 8/14/02, p.A8)

1941        Oct 14, The 1st mass deportations took place at Kovno, Lodz, Minsk & Riga.
    (MC, 10/14/01)

1941        Dec 4, Nazi ordinances placed the Jews of Poland outside protection of courts.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1941        Dec 8, The Nazi Chelmno extermination camp opened in Poland.
    (WUD, 1994 p.252)(MC, 12/8/01)

1941        At Auschwitz 152 Polish Catholics were killed by the Nazis.
    (SFC, 5/29/99, p.A14)
1941        Polish Franciscan friar Maximilian Kolbe was sent to Auschwitz after Nazi officials discovered he had been hiding Jews. He was canonized by Polish-born Pope John Paul II in 1982. He was hailed as a martyr for volunteering to die in the place of another man.
    (AP, 8/14/11)

1941-1943    The three Jewish Bielski brothers, escaped Nazi-occupied Poland and established a refuge in the forests of Belarus. By the end of WWII they succeeded in saving some 1,200 men, women and children. In 2003 Peter Duffy authored "The Bielski Brothers: The True Story of Three Men Who Defied the Nazis, Saved 1,200 Jews and Built a Village in the Forest." Their story was depicted in the 2009 film “Defiance," directed by Edward Zwick.
    (SSFC, 7/13/03, p.M4)(WSJ, 1/2/08, p.W1)

1942        Jan, In occupied Poland Samuel Kunz (20) started working as a guard at Belzec prison camp and continued working there to July, 1943. In 2010 he was charged with allegedly participating in the murder of more than 430,000 Jews at the death camp, and was involved in the entire killing process: From taking victims from trains to pushing them into gas chambers to throwing their corpses into mass graves, according to court documents.
    (AP, 7/29/10)

1942        Mar 17, Belzec Concentration Camp opened. 30,000 Lublin Polish Jews were transported.
    (MC, 3/17/02)

1942        Mar 23, Some 2,500 Jews of Lublin were massacred or deported.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1942        Mar 25, 700 Jews of Polish Lvov-district reached the Belzec Concentration camp.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1942        Mar 26, The Germans began sending Jews to Auschwitz in Poland.
    (HN, 3/25/98)
1942        Mar 26, The 1st 700 Jews from Polish Lvov-district reached concentration camp Belzec. The Germans began sending Jews to Auschwitz in Poland.
    (HN, 3/25/98)(SS, 3/26/02)

1942        May 12, 1,500 Jews were gassed in Auschwitz.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1942        Jun, By this month 100,000 people of the Warsaw ghetto had died due to disease or starvation.
    (SFC, 7/10/97, p.A7)

1942        Jul 11, In the longest bombing raid of World War II, 1,750 British Lancaster bombers attacked the Polish port of Danzig. The Polish submarine Orzel escaped from internment and went on to fight the Germans against long odds.
    (HN, 7/11/98)

1942        Jul 13, 5,000 Jews of Rovno, Polish Ukraine, were executed by Nazis.
    (MC, 7/13/02)
1942        Jul 13, SS shot 1,500 Jews in Josefov, Poland.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1942            Jul 22, Nazi’s began their transport of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto to the death at Treblinka.
    (www.jewishgen.org/ForgottenCamps/Camps/TreblinkaEng.html)

1942        Jul 23, A 2nd Treblinka Camp opened for the extermination of European Jews, as the evacuation of the Warsaw ghetto began. Nearly 750,000 people died in the gas chambers of Treblinka.
    (www.jewishgen.org/ForgottenCamps/Camps/TreblinkaEng.html)

1942        Aug 5, Janusz Korczak and the children he cared for were taken away by the Nazis from an orphanage in the Warsaw Ghetto. He chose to stay with the children in his care as they went together into the gas chambers at Treblinka. In 2002 a memorial in Warsaw was dedicated to Korczak and the children.
    (AP, 8/6/02)

1942        Aug 9, Carmelite nun Teresa Benedicta of the Cross, whose given name was Edith Stein, was executed by the Nazis at Auschwitz for her Jewish heritage. A Roman Catholic convert from Judaism, Stein was an educator, nun, philosopher and spiritual writer and is generally regarded as a modern saint and martyr. Born in Germany on October 12, 1891, she joined the Carmelites in 1934 and wrote a number of important philosophical and spiritual works, including "Finite and Eternal Being." With Hitler's 1942 order for the arrest of all non-Aryan Catholics, Stein was seized and shipped to the concentration camp at Auschwitz where she died in the gas chamber with her sister Rosa. A woman of singular intelligence and learning, she left behind a body of writing notable for its doctrinal richness and profound spirituality. She was beatified by Pope John Paul II at Cologne on May 1, 1987.
    (HNQ, 10/6/98)

1942        Aug 11-Sep 30, The SS began exterminating 3,500 Jews in Zelov Lodz, Poland.
    (MC, 8/11/02)

1942        Aug, Irene Nemirovsky (39), French-Jewish author, died at Auschwitz. She had recently authored "Suite Francaise" while waiting in rural France for what she knew was her imminent arrest and deportation. It is a powerful account of the effect on ordinary people of the military collapse of June 1940, the panicked flight from Paris and the arrival of the German army. It was finally published in France in 2004 and Nemirovsky was awarded a top French literary award. In 2006 Jonathan Weiss authored “Irene Nemirovsky: Her Life and Works."
    (AFP, 11/8/04)(SSFC, 9/24/06, p.M1)(SSFC, 5/16/10, p.F5)

1942        Sep 12, Free-Poland & Belgium asked Pope to condemn Nazi-war crimes. He did not.
    (MC, 9/12/01)

1942        Sep 23, At Auschwitz Nazis began experimental gassing executions.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1942        Oct 27, In Starachowice, Poland, Nazi soldiers separated out weak Jews from the strong. The strong were sent to work and the weak were sent to the extermination camp at Treblinka.
    (WSJ, 11/25/03, p.A1)

1942        Oct, By this month some 300,000 occupants of the Warsaw ghetto had been shipped off to the gas chambers at Treblinka.
    (SFC, 7/10/97, p.A7)

1942        Nov 11, 745 French Jews were deported to Auschwitz.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1942        Nov 19, Bruno Schulz (b.1892), Polish writer and graphic artist, was shot dead by a German officer, a rival of Schulz’s German protector. In 1992 Theatre de Complicite created their play “The Street of Crocodiles" based on the life and work of Schulz.
    (Econ, 9/1/07, p.76)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruno_Schulz)

1942        Nov, In Bronsk, Poland, 2500 Jews living in a shtetl (small village), were rounded up by the Nazis and gassed at Treblinka. In 1996 a 3-hr Frontline documentary film was aired that revisits the sight of the vanished Jewish life.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, EM, p.6)(SFC, 4/17/96, p.E-3)

1942        Jan Karski (d.2000 at 86), former Polish diplomat, disguised as a Nazi guard and snuck into the Izbica death camp and twice entered the Warsaw Ghetto. He witnessed the mass killings and torture of Jews and reported his story to political and religious leaders in the West. His book "Story of a Secret State" appeared in the US in 1944.
    (SFC, 7/15/00, p.A23)

1942-1943     Irena Sendler (29), posing as a nurse, visited the Warsaw Ghetto and persuaded parents that their children had better chances of survival outside its walls. She and 20 helpers smuggled some 2,500 children out of the ghetto and placed them with Polish families. In 2003 Sendler was awarded Poland's highest order. In 2007 Sendler (97) was honored by parliament at a ceremony during which Poland's president said she deserves the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (AP, 11/11/03)(AP, 3/14/07)

1943        Jan 18, Jews in Warsaw Ghetto began an uprising against the Nazis. [see Apr 19, 1943]
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1943        Jan, Rutka Laskier (14) began a diary in Bedzin, Poland, shortly before she was deported to Auschwitz. The 60-page memoir ended in April and within a few months Rutka was dead. Her diary was made public in 2007.
    (AP, 6/4/07)

1943        Mar 2, 1st transport of Jews from Westerbork, Netherlands, to Sobibor concentration camp.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1943        Mar 4, Transport Number 50 departed with French Jews to Majdanek and Sobibor.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1943        Mar 13, Germans closed the Krakow ghetto in Poland.
    (HN, 3/13/98)

1943        Apr 13, Nazi's discovered a mass grave of Polish officers near Katyn. [see Apr 13, 1990]
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1943        Apr 17, SS lt. General Jurgen Stoop arrived in Warsaw.
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1943        Apr 19, In Warsaw, Poland, some 750 young Jews under Mordechai Anielewicz began their 1st urban uprising against the Nazis. During World War II, tens of thousands of Jews living in the Warsaw Ghetto began a valiant but futile battle against Nazi forces. SS-Gen Jurgen Stroop led the destruction of the ghetto of Warsaw: "The Warsaw Ghetto is no more!" he wrote proudly to Heinrich Himmler and Adolf Hitler. Stroop was hanged on the site of the Warsaw ghetto after the war. Jacek Zlatka (Jack Eisner, 1925-2003) smuggled arms for the revolt. Eisner made a fortune in the import-export business after the war and in 1980 authored the autobiography "The Survivor."
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, p.T11)(AP, 4/19/97)(HN, 4/19/97)(SSFC, 8/31/03, p.A29)

1943        Apr 30, Etty Hillesum, Dutch diarist, died in Auschwitz.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1943        Apr, Irena Sendler (1910-2008), Polish social worker, and her team of some 20 people saved nearly 2,500 children from the Warsaw Ghetto between October 1940 and April 1943, when the Nazis burned the ghetto, shooting the residents or sending them to death camps.
    (AP, 5/12/08)

1943        May 15, Warsaw ghetto uprising ended in it's destruction by Nazi-SS troops.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1943        May 16, German troops destroyed the synagogue of Warsaw. Jewish resistance in the Warsaw ghetto ended after 30 days of fighting.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1943        May 30, Dr. Josef Mengele arrived at Auschwitz as research assistant to Dr. Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer.
    (SSFC, 11/9/03, p.D6)

1943        May, German captors took American POWs Capt. Donald B. Stewart and Lt. Col. John H. Van Vliet Jr. to view mummified corpses of Polish officers massacred in the Katyn forest. They used coded messages to report on the Soviet guilt, but it was suppressed by the Roosevelt administration until a report in 1952. Documents of their coded messages were made public in 2012.
    (AP, 9/10/12)

1943        Jun 25, Crematory III at Birkenau, Poland, was finished.
    (MC, 6/25/02)

1943        Jul 4, A Liberator II aircraft carrying Gen. Wladyslaw Sikorski, Poland’s prime minister and chief army commander, crashed into the sea just 16 seconds after taking off from Gibraltar. In 2008 Poland began an investigation into the crash.
    (AP, 9/3/08)

1943        Jul 11, In Poland the killing of Poles by Ukrainian nationalists peaked.  From 1943-1944 Ukrainian nationalists killed up to 100,000 Poles in Volyn and eastern Galica, areas then in Poland but now in Ukraine. The peak of the killings involved Poles being butchered with axes and saws.
    (AP, 7/11/16)

1943        Jul 23, Meijer de Hond, [Emanuel Querido], rabbi of Sobibor, died.
    (MC, 7/23/02)
1943        Jul 23, Emanuel Querido, publisher (Sobibor), died.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1943        Aug 2, In Poland at the Nazi Treblinka concentration camp some 600 prisoners staged an uprising and fled into the woods. Only 40 survived. In 1999 Ian MacMillan authored "Village of a Million Spirits: A Novel of the Treblinka Uprising."
    (SFEC, 8/22/99, BR p.5)

1943        Aug 18, Final convoy of Jews from Salonika, Greece, arrived at Auschwitz.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1943        Sep 29, Lech Walesa, Polish labor leader who founded the Solidarity party and later became the president of Poland, was born.
    (HN, 9/29/98)

1943        Oct 14, Some 300 of 600 prisoners escaped from the Nazi’s Sobibor death camp in Poland. Alexander Pechersky, a Russian officer of Jewish origin, roused his fellow prisoners to rebellion. The event was later documented in the book "Escape from Sobibor" by Richard Rashke (1982) and the film of the same name with Alan Arkin. Josef Vallaster, an Austrian guard, was among 11 SS officers and 11 Ukrainians killed in the escape. Most of the escaped prisoners were killed as they fled. Only 50 prisoners survived the war. Vallaster had operated the motor that funneled gas into Sobibor’s shower rooms. After the uprising at Sobibor, the Nazis shut it down and leveled it to the ground, replanting over it to cover their tracks.
    (SFC, 7/11/03, p.A19)(SSFC, 2/17/08, p.A8)(AP, 8/21/12)(AFP, 10/14/13)

1943        Oct 23, The 1st Jewish transport out of Rome reached Birkenau extermination camp.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1943        Nov 3, SS and police units shot at least 6,000 Jewish inmates of the Trawniki and Dorohucza Labor Camps.
    (www.ushmm.org/wlc_ie/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10007397)
1943        Nov 3-1943 Nov 4, In Poland the 2-day "Operation Harvest" at the Majdanek concentration camp executed men, women and children. Nazi officer Alfons Goetzfried later admitted to having personally shot 500 people. Over 42,000 people, mostly Jews, were killed in the operation. In 1999 Alfons Goetzfrid (79) was convicted for assisting in the murders of 17,000 Jews at the camp. He was sentenced to 10 years in prison. During the so-called "Mission Harvest Festival" massacres tens of thousands of Jews in the district of Lublin were shot by Nazi officers. Among them were members of Erich Steidtmann’s Hamburg Polizeibataillon 101 company. In 2010 prosecutors reopened an investigation on Steidtmann’s role in the massacre.
    (SFC, 3/5/98, p.A14)(SFC, 5/21/99, p.D2)(AP, 4/22/10)

1943            Dec 2, The 1st RSHA (Reichsicherheitshauptamt, the central SS-department) transport out of Vienna reached Birkenau camp (Poland). One of the powers of the RSHA was the imposition of "Protective Custody," which meant the deportation to a concentration camp without trial or the possibility of appeal for the victims.
    (www.wsg-hist.uni-linz.ac.at/Auschwitz/HTML/RSHA.html)

1943        Some 35,000 Poles in Lviv, Ukraine, were massacred by extreme Ukrainian nationalists. Poland opened investigations around 2001.
    (SFC, 6/27/01, p.A12)

1943        Polish lawyer Raphael Lemkin (1900-1959) coined the word genocide about this time. He first used the word in print in “Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation - Analysis of Government - Proposals for Redress" (1944), and defined it as "the destruction of a nation or an ethnic group."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raphael_Lemkin)(Econ., 4/18/15, p.10)

1944        Jan 4, Soviet troops crossed the former Polish border.
    (HN, 1/4/99)

1944        Jan 11, Crakow-Plaszow Concentration Camp was established.
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1944        Jan 17, Russia rejected a Polish proposal to negotiate a boundary dispute.
    (HN, 1/17/99)

1944        Mar 7, Emanuel Ringelblum (b.1900), Jewish historian, died in the Warsaw ghetto. He is known for his “Notes from the Warsaw Ghetto," “Notes on the Refugees in Zbąszyn" chronicling the deportation of Jews from the town of Zbąszyń, and the so-called Ringelblum's Archives of the Warsaw Ghetto. In 2009 Samuel D. Kassow authored “Who Will Write our History? Rediscovering a Hidden Archive from the Warsaw Ghetto.
    (Econ, 3/14/09, p.84)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emanuel_Ringelblum)

1944        Apr 14, 1st Jews transported from Athens arrived at Auschwitz.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1944        Apr-Jul, Hungarian authorities facilitated the deportation of some 437,000 Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz.
    (SFC, 6/7/99, p.A9)(Econ, 4/24/04, p.48)

1944        May 16, The 1st of over 180,000 Hungarian Jews reached Auschwitz.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1944        May 17, Polish poet Felix Konarski (1907-1991) wrote the song “Red Poppies on Monte Cassino" on the night before the Allied attack that crushed the German defense at Monte Cassino. Alfred Schutz (d.1999) composed the music.
    (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=trv_4epO6vw)(SFC, 9/23/15, p.A2)

1944        May 18, The Allies in Italy finally captured Monte Cassino, Europe's oldest Monastic house, after a four-month struggle that claimed some 20,000 lives. The Polish 2nd Army corps, at a staggering loss of life, captured the convent of Monte Cassino.
    (HN, 5/18/99)(AP, 5/18/02)(SC, 5/18/02)

1944        May 19, 240 gypsies were transported to Auschwitz from Westerbork, Neth.
    (MC, 5/19/02)

1944        May-1944 Jun, Some 425,000 Jews from Hungary were brought to the Nazi-run Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland. At least 300,000 were almost immediately gassed to death. In 2014 German prosecutors charged Oskar Groening (93) with 300,000 counts of accessory to murder for serving as as SS guard at the Auschwitz death camp during this period.
    (SFC, 9/16/14, p.A2)
1944        May-1944 Oct, About 158 trainloads of victims were brought to the Nazi-run Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland. In 2013 a German arest warrant accused Johann Breyer (d.2014 at 89), a resident of Pennsylvania, of 158 counts of accessory to murder, one for each trainload of victims brought to Auschwitz while he served as a guard there. 
    (SFC, 7/24/14, p.A8)

1944        Jun 20, Nazis began mass extermination of Jews at Auschwitz.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1944        Jul 21, Jerzy Bielecki (23), a German-speaking Catholic Pole arrested as a resistance fighter, walked in broad daylight down a pathway at Auschwitz, wearing a stolen SS uniform with his Jewish sweetheart Cyla Cybulska (1922-2002) by his side. Both managed to escape. They became separated in 1945 and did not meet again until 1983.
    (AP, 7/20/10)

1944        Jul 22, German SS officer Siegfried Assmuss, commander of a unit of the Ukrainian Self-Defense Legion, was killed by partisans near Chlaniow, Poland.
    (AP, 6/14/13)(http://tinyurl.com/kk5e6s3)

1944        Jul 23, A Ukrainian Self-Defense unit, directed to "liquidate all the residents" of Chlaniow, Poland, in a reprisal attack for the killing of German SS officer Siegfried Assmuss, killed 44 people including women and children. In 2013 Michael Karkoc (94), a retired Minnesota carpenter, was named as commander of the Nazi SS-led unit in the Chlaniov attack.
    (AP, 6/14/13)(http://tinyurl.com/kk5e6s3)(AP, 11/18/13)
1944        Jul 23, Soviet troops took Lublin, Poland, as the German army retreated.
    (HN, 7/23/02)

1944        Jul 24, Soviet forces liberated the Majdanek concentration camp.
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1944        Aug 1-1944 Oct 2, The Warsaw Uprising was fought. The Polish underground began an uprising against the occupying German army, as the Red Army approaches Warsaw. The revolt lasted two months before collapsing. US Air Force Groups dropped medicine and food to the Polish freedom fighters under heavy fire from German fighter planes. The supply planes were also shot at by Soviet gunners. American dead were buried in the military cemetery at Poltava, Ukraine. The uprising ended with the Nazis killing 250,000 people. During the 63-day uprising the insurgents, largely ill-armed teenagers, organized a postal service to help city residents get information to relatives. Marek Edelman (1909-2009) was among the commanders of the uprising and managed to survive the war.
    (Civilization, July-Aug, 1995, p. 23)(AP, 8/1/97)(HN, 8/1/98)(AP, 3/6/08)(Econ, 10/10/09, p.91)

1944        Aug 4, A Halifax JP-276A took off on its final flight from the Italian city of Brindisi around 8 p.m., to drop weapons, ammunition and medical supplies for resistance fighters involved in the Warsaw Uprising against the Nazis. The plane was shot down by Poland's Nazis occupiers and crashed near the town of Dabrowa Tarnowska, in southern Poland. Remnants were recovered in 2006 and the remains of the crew, 5 Canadians and 2 Britons, were formally buried in 2007.
    (AP, 10/4/07)

1944        Aug 6, The deportation of 70,000 Jews from Lodz. Poland, to Auschwitz began.
    (MC, 8/6/02)

1944        Oct 2, Nazi troops crushed the 2-month-old (63 days) Warsaw Uprising, during which a quarter-million people were killed.
    (AP, 10/2/97)

1944        Oct 15, Philip Mechanicus, journalist, was executed in Auschwitz-Birkenau.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1944        Oct 17 Hans Krasa, Czech-Jewish composer, died at Auschwitz. The opera Brundibar by Krasa was 1st performed at a Prague orphanage. It had been intended for a 1938 government competition. It was later performed at the Terezin concentration camp.
    (WSJ, 2/7/03, p.D8)

1944        Oct 30, Anne Frank (of Diary fame) was deported from Auschwitz to Belsen.
    (MC, 10/30/01)
1944        Oct 30, Last transport for Auschwitz arrived in Birkenau.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1944        Wilhelm "Wilm" Hosenfeld  (1895-1952), a German officer in the Wehrmacht stationed in Warsaw for most of the war, encountered Wladyslaw Szpilman (1911-2000), when the musician was looking for somewhere to hide after the city was razed in the brutal Nazi suppression of the Warsaw Uprising. Szpilman's experiences became the basis his autobiography and for Roman Polanski's 2002 film "The Pianist," for which Polanski won the best director Oscar and Adrien Brody took the best actor prize for his portrayal of Szpilman. Hosenfeld saved two Jews from the Nazi Holocaust but he died in obscurity in a Soviet prison after World War II.
    (AP, 6/19/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilm_Hosenfeld)
1944        By this year 360,000 of the 500,000 inmates of the Nazi Majdanek concentration camp in eastern Poland had perished in the gas chambers or from brutal treatment by the guards.
    (SFC, 3/5/98, p.A14)
1944        Rudolf Vrba (1925-2006), a Jew from Czechoslovakia, and Alfred Wetzler, a Hungarian Jewish leader, escaped from the Nazi death camp of Auschwitz. They made their way to a Czech safe house and dictated a report that became known as the Auschwitz Protocols, a seminal Holocaust document containing eyewitness accounts of the atrocities. In 1963 Vrba published a memoir entitled, "I Cannot Forget," which was eventually released in six languages.
    (AP, 4/14/06)

1945        Jan 13, The Red Army opened an offensive in South Poland, crashing 25 miles through the German lines.
    (HN, 1/13/99)

1945        Jan 17, Soviet and Polish forces liberated Warsaw during World War II.
    (AP, 1/17/98)(HN, 1/17/99)

1945        Jan 18, The Red Army freed Krakow from Nazi occupation. [see Jan 19]
    (SSFC, 4/3/05, p.A12)

1945        Jan 19, The Red Army captured Lodz, Krakow, and Tarnow.
    (HN, 1/19/99)

1945        Jan 27, The Soviet army arrived at Auschwitz and Birkenau in Poland, and found the Nazi concentration camp and crematorium. It is now believed that 1 million Jews were murdered here, up to 75,000 Polish Christians, 21,000 Gypsies, and 15,000 Soviet POWs.
    (www.krakow-info.com/auschwit.htm)(http://tinyurl.com/aqhbc)

1945        Jan 30, Nazi SS guards shot down an estimated 4,000 Jewish prisoners on the Baltic coast at Palmnicken, Kaliningrad. The town was later renamed by the Russians to Yantarny. Some 7,000 prisoners had been marched 25 miles from Koenigsberg to a vacant lock factory at Palmnicken where they were mowed down with machine guns. The prisoners had been vacated from a network of 30 camps that made up Poland's Stutthoff concentration camp. 90% of the Jews were women from Lithuania and Hungary.
    (SFC, 1/31/00, p.C1)

1945        Jan, In Poland a Soviet fighter bomber crashed into the frozen Bzura River. On August 23, 2015, parts of Soviet uniforms, a parachute, a sheepskin coat collar, parts of boots, a pilot's TT pistol and radio equipment were found, along with a lot of heavy ammunition, as river levels dropped to record lows.
    (AP, 8/25/15)
1945        Jan, The Red Army drove the Wehrmacht out of Poland and demolished Danzig (Gdansk) by bomb and gunfire.
    (SFEC, 5/24/98, p.T4)

1945        Mar 31, The U.S. and Britain barred a Soviet supported provisional regime in Warsaw from entering the U.N. meeting in San Francisco.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1945        Aug 13, 35 Jews sacrificed their lives to blow up a Nazi rubber plant in Silesia.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1945        Aug 16, The communist dominated Polish government signed a treaty with the USSR to formally cede eastern territories, including Galicia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish_areas_annexed_by_the_Soviet_Union)(Econ, 7/7/07, p.51)

1945        Adam Zagajewski, poet, was born in Poland. In 1988 he began teaching at the Univ. of Houston as well as in Krakow. His books included “A Defense of Ardor," a collection of essays translated to English in 2004.
    (SSFC, 11/28/04, p.E2)
1945        Summer’s end: The Ukrainian Trophy Brigade occupied the castle of Count von Althmann in Silesia, Poland. It was packed with Nazi archival records.
    (WSJ, 3/5/97, p.A18)
1945        Wladyslaw Szpilman published his Warsaw ghetto memoir "The Pianist," right after the war. An English edition was released in 1999.
    (WSJ, 9/2/99, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wladyslaw_Szpilman)
1945        The allies settled on the Oder-Neisse line as the new Western border of Poland. It cut through the German city of Guben, called Gubin on the Polish side.
    (Econ, 4/24/04, p.50)
1945        In Poland a monument, designed by Red Army artists, was put up by Warsaw authorities to commemorate the joint struggle of Soviet and Polish troops against Nazi Germany. It also honored some 600,000 Soviet troops who fell in the struggle in Poland. It was put into storage in 2011 to make room for a subway. In 2015 Warsaw city councilors voted to keep it in storage.
    (AP, 2/27/15)

1945        The German city of Breslau on the Oder River was turned over to Poland and renamed Wroclaw.
    (SFC, 7/14/97, p.A10)

1946        Jun-Sept. 100,000 Jews left Poland and traveled through Czechoslovakia to displaced persons camps in Germany. Their story is told in some detail by Bernard Wasserstein in his: Vanishing Diaspora: The Jews in Europe Since 1945.
    (WSJ, 3/20/96, p.A-14)

1946        July 4, A postwar pogrom in Kielce, Poland, left 42 people, mostly Jews, dead and 50 wounded. Army and security officers took part in the attack that was sparked by the false story of Walenty Blaszcyk that his son had been kidnapped by Jews. The event is considered as Europe’s last pogrom. In 2001 Jan Tomascz Gross authored “Neighbors," the story of the Kielce Jews, who were herded into a barn that was set alight.
    (WSJ, 3/20/96, p.A-14)(SFC,10/17/97, p.D3)(Econ, 2/2/08, p.59)

1946        Kazimierz Brandys authored "The Rebellious City," a novel about Warsaw's struggle against the Nazis.
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.D6)

c1946        After 1945 the Communist seized nearly $50 billion worth of property left by Polish Jews and Polish citizens, who had left the country. A 2000 panel voted to excluded non-citizens from property compensation.
    (SFC, 1/800, p.C1)

1947        Jan, The Polish Peasant’s Party, led by a former member of Gen. Wladyslaw Sikorsky’s government-in-exile, won the parliamentary elections, despite violent intimidation. The results were brazenly falsified by the ruling Communists.
    (Econ, 10/20/12, p.75)

1947        Jerzy Giedroyc (d.2000 at 94), Polish émigré, founded the Kultura literary magazine outside of Paris. Co-founder Zofia Hertz (d.2003 at 92) continued the magazine.
    (SFC, 9/19/00, p.B2)(SSFC, 6/22/03, p.A27)

1947        Poland decreed that Auschwitz be preserved as a museum and testimony to Nazi atrocities.
    (WSJ, 8/14/02, p.A8)

1948        May 25, Witold Pilecki (b.1901), founder of the Secret Polish Army (1939), was executed in Warsaw by Communist secret police. In 1940 he had  infiltrated Auschwitz to spy on what was happening there.
    (Econ, 1/30/10, p.61)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Witold_Pilecki)

1948        Jun, In Rome Father Karol Jozef Wojtyla, later Pope John Paul II, completed his thesis “The Problems of Faith in the Works of St. John of the Cross" and earned a doctorate in philosophy. In July he returned to Poland as an assistant pastor at Niegowic.
    (SSFC, 4/3/05, p.A12)

1949        Jan 25, Poland joined the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1200)

1949        Jun 8, Emmanuel Ax, pianist (Artur Rubinstein Comp-1974), was born in Lvov, Poland.
    (MC, 6/8/02)

1949        Sep 30, Poland denounced its treaty of friendship with Yugoslavia and confirmed its adherence to Soviet and Cominform policy.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1200)

1949        Oct 22, In Dwor, Poland, the Danzig-Warsaw express derailed and more than 200 people were killed.
    (SFC, 6/4/98, p.A15)(AP, 2/18/04)

1949        Nov 7, Soviet Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky was appointed minister of defense and commander-in-chief of he Polish army.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1200)

1950        Mar 20, The government of Poland decided to confiscate the property of Polish church.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1950)

1950        The Polish Catholic church and government signed an accord over relations. The Catholic Church was dispossessed of its principal charitable organization, Caritas, including numerous residential facilities and community resources such as soup kitchens and missions in rail stations.
    (http://tinyurl.com/fw8yd)(http://tinyurl.com/fpsdk)

1951        Sep 8, Jurgen Stroop, Nazi exterminator of Warsaw Ghetto, was hanged on site of the ghetto.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1951        "A World Apart" by Polish author Gustaw Herling-Grudzinski was first published in English. It told of his years in a soviet gulag. He later founded the literary magazine "Kultura" that was banned in Poland until 1989 and in 1990 wrote "Journal Written at Night."
    (WSJ, 6/17/96, p.A12)

1952        Poland adopted a new constitution.
    (SFC, 5/26/97, p.A10)
1952        Stefan Norblin, Polish-born artist, committed suicide in the US after going blind. His wife, former actress Lena Zelichowska, died in 1958. The had left  Poland following the Nazi invasion in 1939 and moved to Iraq and then to India before arriving to the US in 1946.
    (SFC, 10/11/12, p.A8)

1953        Sep 26, Polish government fired and imprisoned Cardinal Wyszynski.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1953        Gustaw Herling-Grudzinski (d.2000 at age 81) authored "A World Apart," an account of his experiences in a Soviet labor camp from 1940-1942.
    (SFC, 7/6/00, p.C3)
1953        Czeslaw Milosz, émigré Polish poet, published “The Captive Mind," in which he unpicked the mangling effects of communist thought.
    (Econ, 8/1/09, p.76)
1953        In Poland Brig. Gen. August Emil Fieldorf, a top clandestine Home Army commander who once served as emissary to the country's government-in-exile, was accused of ordering killings of Soviet soldiers and hanged. Poland's communist authorities later admitted the charges were fabricated.
    (AP, 8/30/12)

1954        Nov 15, Aleksander Kwasniewski was born.

1954        Kazimierz Brandys authored "The Citizens," a novel about Polish intelligentsia embracing the new Communist system.
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.D6)

1954        The Polish film "The Loop" was directed by Wojciech Has.
    (SFC, 10/4/00, p.B2)

1955        May 14, Representatives from eight Communist bloc countries: Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland & Romania, signed the Warsaw Pact in Poland. Andras Hegedues signed for Hungary.
    (AP, 5/14/97)(SFC, 10/26/99, p.B4)(MC, 5/14/02)

1955        Jun 29, The Soviet Union sent tanks to Pozan, Poland, to put down anti-Communist demonstrations.
    (HN, 6/29/98)

1956        Apr 6, Polish communist Gomulka was freed from prison.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1957        Kazimierz Brandys authored "Mother of Kings," a novel about the dishonesty and dangers of communism.
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.D6)

1957        The film "Kanal" was made by Andrzej Wajda.
    (SFEC, 3/19/00, DB p.52)

1958        Nov 27, Artur Rodzinski (66), Polish conductor and composer, died.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1958        The film "Ashes and Diamonds" was made by Andrzej Wajda.
    (SFEC, 3/19/00, DB p.52)

1958        Roman Polanski shot his student film "Two men and a Wardrobe."
    (WSJ, 10/29/03, p.D10)

1959        Aug 28, Raphael Lemkin (b.1900), a Polish lawyer of Jewish descent, died in NYC. In 1943 he coined the word genocide and first used the word in print in “Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation - Analysis of Government - Proposals for Redress" (1944).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raphael_Lemkin)

1959        The Polish film "Shared Room" was directed by Wojciech Has.
    (SFC, 10/4/00, p.B2)

1960        Naftali Herts Kon (b.1910) was imprisoned in Warsaw on fabricated charges of spying for Israel. He had just completed a report from Romania on the persecution of political opponents and Jews. Kon had spent the years between 1949 and 1956 at Soviet labor camps among other persecuted intellectuals. He died in Israel in 1971, never having recovered from the loss of his writings.
    (AP, 9/21/11)

1961        The Polish film "Knife in the Water" was the debut work by Roman Polanski.
    (SFC, 7/8/99, p.E3)

1962        Jun, Supersam, Poland’s first large self-service food store, opened in Warsaw. The structure was designed by a team led by Jerzy Hryniewiecki. The hanging roof was designed by Waclaw Zalewski. In 1991 a management team won control over the store. In 2006 wrecking crews were halted as enthusiasts called for its preservation as a historical site.
    (WSJ, 10/4/06, p.D13)

1964        The Polish film "The Saragosso Manuscript" starred Zbigniev Cybulski (d.1967 at 39) and was directed by Wojciech Has (d.2000 at 75). It was based on the novel "The Manuscript," found in Saragosso and written by Jan Potocki, a Polish expatriate.
    (SFEM, 8/1/99, p.2)(SFC, 8/5/99, p.B1,5)(SFC, 10/4/00, p.B2)

1965        Aug 19, Auschwitz trials ended with only 6 life sentences.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1967        May 29, Pope Paul VI named 27 new cardinals, including Karol Wojtyla, archbishop of Krakow, who later became Pope John Paul II.
    (SSFC, 4/3/05, p.A13)

1968        Mar 8, Some 1500 students demonstrated in Warsaw following a government ban on the performance of a play by Adam Mickiewicz, (Dziady), written in 1824). Within four days, protests spread to Krakow, Lublin, Gliwice, Wroclaw, Gdansk, Poznan, and Lodz.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1968_Polish_political_crisis)

1968        Mar, In Poland some 4,000 students marched through Warsaw yelling: "Down with the dictatorship."
    (SFC, 5/22/98, p.C12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1968_Polish_political_crisis)

1968        Aug 3, The Bratislava statement conceded Czechoslovakia’s right to pursue its own path. The conference was held in Bratislava, Slovakia, for representatives of the communist and workers' parties of the People's Republic of Bulgaria, the Hungarian People's Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Polish People's Republic, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(http://library.thinkquest.org/C001155/documents/doc41.htm)

1968        Aug 20, Some 650,000 Soviet Union and other Warsaw Pact troops began invading Czechoslovakia to crush the "Prague Spring" liberalization drive of Alexander Dubcek's regime.
    (AP, 8/20/97)(MC, 8/20/02)

1968        Sep 8, In Poland Ryszard Siwiec (b.1909), accountant, teacher and anti-communist protester, self immolated in front of some 10,000 spectators during the national harvest festival at the Dziesieciolecia football stadium. He died 4 days later at a hospital.
    (Econ, 10/10/09, p.55)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ryszard_Siwiec)

1968        The Polish film "Everything for Sale" was directed by Andrzej Wajda.
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, DB p.44)
1968        The Polish film "The Doll" was directed by Wojciech Has.
    (SFC, 10/4/00, p.B2)
1968        In Poland Gen. Jaruzelski was appointed defense minister, benefiting from a purge of Jewish comrades.
    (Econ, 6/14/14, p.86)

1970        Dec 7, Poland and West Germany signed a pact renouncing use of force to settle disputes, recognizing the Oder-Neisse River as Poland's western frontier, and acknowledging transfer to Poland of 40,000 square miles of former German territory.
    (HN, 12/7/98)

1970        Dec 13, Gen. Jaruzelski imposed martial law.
    (SFC, 5/16/01, p.D3)

1970        Dec 17, Riot police under orders from defense minister Gen'l. Wojciech Jaruzelski opened fire on workers protesting food price increases and 44 people were killed in Gdansk, Gdynia, Szczecin, and Elblag. A case against Jaruzelski was opened in 1996 and in 1999 a court ruled that medical reasons would not exempt him from trial. The Jaruzelski trial began in 2001.
    (SFC, 8/28/99, p.A14)(SFC, 5/16/01, p.D3)

1970        Dec 18, In Poland rioting continued. Troops and tanks patrolled Polish streets. 20 people were killed in the riots as they protested increased. food prices.
    (http://openweb.tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/1970-12/1970-12-18-NBC-2.html)

1970        Jerzy Grotowsky (d.1999 at 65), theater director, published "Towards a Poor Theater."
    (SFC, 1/16/99, p.A18)

1970-1976    In Poland a government informant known as Bolek operated during this period. In 2008 two historians alleged that Lech Walesa was Bolek. Walesa denied the allegations. In 2016 the head of Poland's history institute said Lech Walesa, founder of the Solidarity freedom movement, was a paid informant for the communist-era secret security service during this period.
    (Econ, 6/28/08, p.58)(AP, 2/18/16)   

1973        Mar 5, Paul Kletzki (b.1900), Polish violinist, composer, conductor, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Kletzki)

1973        Aug 7, Hermine Braunsteiner Ryan (1919-1999) became the first Nazi war criminal extradited from the United States to Germany. A US judge had certified her extradition to the Secretary of State on May 1, 1973. She became the first Nazi  war criminal to be extradited from the US. The NY Times had exposed the local housewife in 1964 as a former guard at the Nazi Majdanek death camp in Poland.
    (SSFC, 4/4/10, Par. p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermine_Braunsteiner)

1973        The Polish film "The Hourglass Sanatorium" was directed by Wojciech Has and won top prize at Cannes.
    (SFC, 10/4/00, p.B2)

1973        In Poland scientists gathered to celebrate the 500th anniversary of Copernicus. Cambridge physicist Brandon Carter gave a lecture and coined the phrase "anthropomorphic principle" to describe to describe the idea of an intelligent guide at work in the evolution of humans. This is one item used by Patrick Glynn in his 1997 book: "God: The Evidence" to support the idea of god with scientific evidence.
    (WSJ, 12/23/97, p.A12)

1974        May 18, World's tallest structure, a 646-m Polish radio mast, was completed. It fell down Aug 8,1991.
    (WSJ, 2/3/97, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw_radio_mast)

1974        In Poland an explosion killed 34 miners at the Czechowice-Dziedzice in Silesia. This was the country’s worst mining accident to date.
    (AP, 11/22/06)

1974        The Polish film "Land of Promise" was directed by Andrzej Wajda.
    (SFC, 7/8/99, p.E3)

1975        Jul 29, President Ford became the first U.S. president to visit the site of the Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz in Poland as he paid tribute to the camp's victims.
    (AP, 7/29/97)

1976        Jul 4,    Antoni Slonimski, Polish poet, translator, and newspaper columnist best known for his devotion to pacifism and social justice, died in Warsaw.
    (www.britannica.com)

1976        In Poland Jacek Kuron (1934-2004) led a mobilization of the Committee to Assist Workers (KOR) to support striking workers. In 1977 it was reorganized into the Committee for Social Self-defense (KOR).
    (http://tinyurl.com/z9u3yhd)(SFC, 6/19/04, p.B6)

1977        Polish poet Stanislaw Baranczak (1946-2014) co-founded the Workers' Defense Committee (KOR), following a brutal communist crackdown on protesting workers. For his activity he was fired from his job at the Adam Mickiewicz University in his native Poznan and his writings were barred from print in Poland. In 1981 he got a three-year contract as lecturer at Harvard but stayed on.
    (AP, 12/27/14)   

1978        Jul 5, A Soviet Soyuz spacecraft touched down safely in Soviet Kazakhstan with its two-member crew, including the first Polish space traveler -- Major Miroslaw Hermaszewski.
    (AP, 7/5/98)

1978        Oct 16, The College of Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church chose Cardinal Wojtyla (58), Archbishop of Cracow, to become Pope. He took the name John Paul II. The first non-Italian since Adrian VI of Utrecht died in 1523.
    (AP, 10/16/97)(HN, 10/16/98)

1978        Poland’s Wieliczka Salt Mine, founded in the 12th century, was placed on the original list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Commercial mining operations ended in 1996, but the mine continued to operate as a tourist attraction due to the underground cathedral left behind by generations of miners.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wieliczka_Salt_Mine)

1979        Jun 2, Pope John Paul II, formerly Cardinal Karol Wojtyla of Warsaw, arrived in his native Poland on the first visit by a pope to a Communist country. The Pope celebrated a Mass at the Birkenau death camp during his visit.
    (SFC, 11/20/96, p.C1)(SFEC, 6/1/97, p.D1)(AP, 6/2/97)(SFC, 5/29/99, p.A14)

1979        Oct 10, In Poland an explosion killed 34 miners at the Dymitrow mine in Bytom. This matched Poland’s worst mining accident in 1974.
    (AP, 11/22/06)(http://tinyurl.com/2qgsmf)

1979        Ivor Norman Richard Davies (b.1939), a British-Polish Historian, authored “God’s Playground: A History of Poland, Vol 1. The Origins to 1795."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/God%27s_Playground)

1980        Aug 14, Some 17,000 Polish workers, led by Lech Walesa, began a 17-day strike at the Lenin Shipyards in Gdansk. This resulted in the creation of the Solidarity labor movement.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1980)(WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A12)(AP, 8/14/00)

1980        Aug 19, In Poland 65 people were killed when a freight train collided with a passenger train near Otloczyn. An additional two died later.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ot%C5%82oczyn_railway_accident)

1980        Aug 31, Poland's Solidarity labor movement was born with an agreement signed in Gdansk that ended a 17-day strike. The Communist government signed an agreement with the Strike Coordination Committee in Gdansk, Poland, to allow legal organization, but not actual free trade unions.   
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inter-Enterprise_Strike_Committee)(AP, 8/31/97)

1980        Sep 22, Solidarity formally was founded, when delegates of 36 regional trade unions met in Gdansk, Poland, and united under the name Solidarnosc.
    (www.britannica.com/nobelprize/article-9068595)

1980        Nov 22, Eighteen Communist Party secretaries in 49 provinces were ousted in Poland. Edward Gierek (d.2001 at 88), Communist boss, was among the ousted.
    (HN, 11/22/98)(WSJ, 7/30/01, p.A1)

1980        Dec 14, After four days of meetings, members of NATO warned the Soviets to stay out of the internal affairs of Poland, saying that intervention would effectively destroy the detente between East and West.
    (HN, 12/14/98)
1980        Dec 14, A separate agricultural union composed of private farmers, named Rural Solidarity (Wiejska Solidarnosc), was founded in Warsaw.
    (www.historyguide.org/europe/walesa.html)

1980        Zbigniev Rybczynski created his experimental film "Tango," about a series of people in a crowded apartment oblivious to each other's presence. It won an Academy Award in 1983.
    (WSJ, 10/29/03, p.D10)

1981        Jan 31, Lech Walesa announced an accord in Poland, giving labor Saturdays off.
    (HN, 1/31/99)

1981        Oct 18, In Poland General Jaruzelski (b.1923) was elected party leader. He led the country to 1989.
    (www.historyguide.org/europe/jaruzelski.html)(SFC, 10/24/96, p.C3)

1981        Nov, Col. Ryszard Kuklinski fled Poland to the US. He had served as a US CIA spy and reported on activities from 1972-1981. He passed some 35,000 pages of classified Warsaw pack documents. In 2004 Benjamin Weiser authored "A Secret Life," an account of Kuklinski's life as a spy.
    (SFC, 4/28/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 2/3/04, p.A8)

1981        Dec 12-1982 Dec 31, In Poland Gen’l. Jaruzelski imposed martial law, effective at midnight, restricting civil rights and suspending operation of the independent trade union Solidarity in a crackdown on the Solidarity labor movement. Polish labor leader Lech Walesa was arrested. Martial law formally ended in 1983. Women kept the organization going as most male leaders were arrested. In 2005 Shana Penn authored “Solidarity’s Secret: The Women Who Defeated Communism in Poland.
    (Econ, 7/30/05, p.76)(www.videofact.com/english/martial_law.htm)

1981        Dec 16, In Poland riot police opened fire on protesting miners in Katowice. Nine were killed 25 wounded. A 4 year trial acquitted 22 riot police in 1997. In 2008 a court upheld the conviction of 14 policemen involved in the killings.
    (SFC,11/22/97, p.C2)(Econ, 6/28/08, p.58)

1981        Dec 22, Zdzislaw Rurarz (1930-2007), Polish ambassador to Japan, defected to the US to protest the imposition of martial law. Romuald Spasowski, the ambassador to the United States, also defected.
    (AP, 1/28/07)

1981        Dec 29, President Reagan curtailed Soviet trade in reprisal for its harsh policy in Poland.
    (HN, 12/29/00)

1981        The film “Image Before My Eyes" was directed by Joshua Waletzky. It was based on the book by Dr. Lucjan Dobroszycki. The documentary takes a broad look at the vibrant Jewish community in Poland between the two World Wars.
    (www.nga.gov/programs/filmart.shtm#film_list)
1981        The film "Man of Iron" was made by Andrzej Wajda and won the Golden Palm award at Cannes. It was a sequel to "Man of Marble" and was about the disillusionment of a father and son under the Communist system.
    (SFEC, 3/19/00, DB p.53)
1981        Kazimierz Brandys, author, went into self-imposed exile in Paris following the crackdown on Solidarity.
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.D6)
1981        Jozef Glemp, a lawyer by education, was appointed primate of Poland's Roman Catholic church.
    (AP, 1/24/13)

1982        Jan 22, President Reagan formally linked progress in arms control to Soviet repression in Poland.
    (HN, 1/22/99)

1982        Oct 8, All labor organizations in Poland, including Solidarity, were banned.
    (AP, 10/8/97)

1982        Oct 10, Pope John Paul II canonized Rev. M. Kolbe (1894-1941), a Polish Franciscan friar. The controversial racist priest had volunteered to die in place of another inmate at Auschwitz concentration camp.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maximilian_Kolbe)
1982        Oct 10, US imposed sanctions against Poland for banning Solidarity trade union.
    (www.cnn.com/almanac/9810/10/)

1982        Nov 11, Solidarity leader Lech Walesa (b.1943) was let out of jail in Poland.
    (www.answers.com/topic/lech-walesa)

1982        Dec 31, In Poland Martial Law was suspended. It was terminated on July 22, 1983.
    (www.videofact.com/english/martial_law.htm)

1982        Andrzej Wajda co-produced the Polish film "Interrogation." It was written by Krzysztof Kieslowski and Janusz Dymek and directed by Ryszard Bugajski. The film was officially released in 1989.
    (Econ, 11/12/16, p.18)

1983        Apr 17, In Warsaw, police routed 1,000 Solidarity supporters.
    (HN, 4/17/98)

1983        May 14, In Warsaw, Poland, Grzegorz Przemyk (19), student and son of Solidarity Grzegorz activist Barbara Sadowska,  died from internal injurious while in police custody.
    (http://files.osa.ceu.hu/holdings/300/8/3/text/47-5-143.shtml)

1983        Jun 16, Pope John Paul II visited Poland.
    (www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/travels/sub_index1983/trav_polonia_en.htm)

1983        Jul 22, Polish government ended 19 months of martial law. Some 100 government opponents lost their lives in the 1½ year crackdown.
    (SFC,11/22/97, p.C2)(www.videofact.com/english/martial_law.htm)

1983        Oct 5, Lech Walesa, Polish Solidarity founder, was named winner of the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A13)(AP, 10/5/08)

1983        James Michener wrote his novel "Poland."
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.A17)

1984        Oct 19, Jerzy Popieluszko, Polish priest and dissident, was kidnapped by three secret police officers after celebrating his last mass in Bydgoszcz, central Poland. The priest was tortured to death before his body was thrown into the Vistula river, 120 km. north of Warsaw [see Oct 30, Dec 27]. Popieluszko was beatified in 2010.
    (www.wordiq.com/definition/Jerzy_Popieluszko)(AFP, 6/6/10)

1984        Oct 30, Police in Poland found the body of kidnapped pro-Solidarity priest Father Jerzy Popieluszko, whose death was blamed on four security officers.
    (AP, 10/30/04)

1984        Dec 27, Four Polish officers were tried for the slaying of Reverend Jerzy Popieluszko. [see Oct 19]
    (HN, 12/27/98)

1985        Feb 13, Polish police arrested 7 Solidarity leaders.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Solidarity)

1987        Feb 19, US Pres. Reagan lifted remaining economic sanctions against Poland.
    (www.eco.utexas.edu/~hmcleave/rieprop.html)

1987        May 9, All 183 people aboard a Polish jetliner were killed when the plane, bound for New York, crashed and burned in Warsaw after the pilot attempted an emergency return.
    (AP, 5/9/97)

1988        Aug 23, Some striking workers in Poland ended a walkout that had begun a week earlier, but 125 miners barricaded themselves in an underground shaft, vowing to stay until they'd won their demands.
    (AP, 8/23/98)

1988        The 10-part, 10-hour TV series Decalogue by Krzystof Kieslowski described everyday events in and around a Warsaw apartment complex.
    (SFC, 4/23/99, p.C13)
1988        In Poland Mariusz T. raped and killed four boys in Piotrkow Trybunalski. His death sentence was commuted to 25 years under an amnesty announced when Poland shed communism in 1989. His release in 2014 caused a national uproar.
    (AP, 2/12/14)

1989        Feb 6, Lech Walesa began negotiating with Polish government.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish_Round_Table_Agreement)

1989        Apr 5, The government of Poland signed an agreement restoring the independent labor movement Solidarity after a seven-year ban.
    (AP, 4/5/99)

1989         Apr 17, Solidarity in Poland was legalized.
    (HFA, '96, p.28)

1989        Apr, The newspaper Gazeta Wyborcza was created as part of a deal between the Solidarity movement and Communists for free parliamentary elections. In 1999 Gazeta began an IPO that valued its parent company, Agora SA, at $521 million.
    (WSJ, 3/3/99, p.A16)

1989        Jun 4, Poland held Eastern Europe's 1st somewhat free election in 40 years. The 2-part election (June 4 and 19) resulted in a land-slide victory of the opposition organized in the Citizens' Committee, which won all 161 seats available to it in the Sejm, and 99 out of 100 seats in the senate.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solidarity_Citizens'_Committee)

1989        Jun 30, General Wojciech Jaruzelski announced he would not run for Poland's new presidency, saying the people viewed him as the man who imposed martial law.
    (AP, 6/29/99)

1989        Jul 9, President Bush began a visit to Poland.
    (AP, 7/9/99)

1989        Jul 29, Poland's newly elected president, Wojciech Jaruzelski, resigned as Communist Party general secretary and was succeeded by Mieczyslaw Rakowski (1927-2008). Rakowski, a historian and journalist, remained chairman of the communist Polish United Workers' Party until the party was dissolved at its January 1990 congress during the country's bloodless transition to democracy.
    (AP, 7/29/99)(AP, 11/8/08)

1989        Aug 10, Poland's Roman Catholic church suspended an agreement to move nuns from a convent on the edge of Auschwitz, blaming Jewish groups for creating what it called an "atmosphere of aggressive demands."
    (AP, 8/10/99)

1989        Aug 11, Poland's Solidarity-dominated Senate adopted a resolution expressing sorrow for the nation's participation in the 1968 Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia.
    (AP, 8/11/99)

1989        Aug 19, Polish President Wojciech Jaruzelski formally nominated Tadeusz Mazowiecki to become Poland's first non-Communist prime minister in four decades.
    (AP, 8/19/99)

1989        Aug 24, Poland appointed Tadeusz Mazowiecki prime minister, becoming the first country in the Soviet bloc to name a non-communist prime minister since the late 1940s. Krzysztof Skubiszewski (d.2010 at 83) became foreign minister under PM Mazowiecki. Skubiszewski served under three more prime ministers before leaving the job in 1993.
    (Reuters, 8/24/01)(AP, 2/8/10)

1989        Sep 19, The trade and commercial and economic cooperation agreement between the Community and Poland signed in Warsaw, Poland.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1989/index_en.htm)

1989        Nov 13, Polish labor leader Lech Walesa received the Medal of Freedom from President Bush during a White House ceremony.
    (AP, 11/13/99)

1990        Apr 13, The Soviet Union accepted responsibility for the World War II murders of thousands of imprisoned Polish officers in the Katyn Forest, a massacre the Soviets had previously blamed on the Nazis.
    (AP, 4/13/97)

1990        Jul 17, The seven nations negotiating German unification reached agreement in Paris on Poland’s permanent border, clearing the way for the merger of East and West Germany.
    (AP, 7/17/00)

1990        Aug 20, In Poland 16 people were killed in a collision involving two trains in the Warsaw suburb of Ursus.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Poland_disasters_by_death_toll)

1990        Nov 4, Douglas Wakiihuri of Kenya and Wanda Panfil of Poland won the New York City Marathon.
    (AP, 11/4/00)

1990        Nov 25, Poland held its first popular presidential election. Solidarity founder Lech Walesa, who received a plurality of votes, won a runoff the following month.
    (AP, 11/25/00)

1990        Dec 9, Lech Walesa, founder of Solidarity, was elected president of Poland in a runoff by a landslide.
    (WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A12)(HN, 12/999)(AP, 12/9/00)

1990        Dec 22, Lech Walesa took the oath of office as Poland's first popularly elected president. Ryszard Kaczorowski (1919-2010), the last president of  Poland’s government in exile in London, ended his 2-year term. He passed the presidential insignia to Lech Walesa, thus ending the 45-years long episode of the Polish government in exile. 
    (AP, 12/22/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ryszard_Kaczorowski)

1991        Feb 15, In Visegrad, Hungary, a declaration of co-operation was signed by Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The 4 became known as the Visegrad countries.
    (Econ, 11/22/03, p.10S)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visegr%C3%A1d_Group)

1991        Mar 20, Pres. Bush announced the US would reduce Poland’s indebtedness by a full 70%. The Paris Club, an informal grouping of the world's 17 leading industrial countries, announced a week earlier that it would halve Poland's enormous debt and reduce accumulated interest by 80 percent. The US portion of the forgiven debt was approximately $2.4 billion.
    (http://dosfan.lib.uic.edu/erc/briefing/dispatch/1991/html/Dispatchv2no12.html)

1991        Apr 1, The Warsaw Pact was officially dissolved.
    (OTD)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw_Pact)

1991        Aug 8, The 2,120-foot 8-inch Radio One tower in Poland fell down.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw_radio_mast)

1991        Dec 16, "Europe Agreements" are signed with Poland, Hungary and Czechoslovakia.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1991/index_en.htm)

1991        Tough environmental laws were laid down and set to take effect in 1997.
    (WSJ, 4/5/96, p.B-3A)

1991        Agnieszka Kotlarska became Miss Poland. She was murdered in 1996.
    (SFC, 8/29/96, p.A14)

1992        Mar 5, In Copenhagen the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia and Sweden, in the presence of the representative from the European Commission, opened a 2-day meeting and decided to establish a Council of the Baltic Sea States to serve as a forum for guidance and overall coordination among the participating states. Iceland joined the CBSS in 1995
    (Econ, 6/7/08, p.63)(www.bmwi.de/English/Navigation/European-policy/baltic-market.html)

1992        Jun 29, The remains of Polish statesman Ignace Jan Paderewski, interred for five decades in the United States, were returned to his homeland in keeping with his wish to be buried only in a free Poland.
    (AP, 6/28/02)

1992        Jul 5, Leaders of the world's seven richest nations gathered in Munich, Germany, for their 18th annual economic summit. President Bush, en route to the summit, told cheering Poles in Warsaw that "America shares Poland's dream."
    (AP, 7/5/97)

1992        The Polish left-wing populist party Samoobrona (Self-defense) was founded as a small farmer’s movement.
    (Econ, 5/8/04, p.47)

1993        Jul 19, Szymon Goldberg (84), Polish-born violinist, conductor, died in Japan. He became a US citizen in 1953 and two years later founded the Netherlands Chamber Orchestra.
    (http://memory.loc.gov/diglib/ihas/loc.natlib.ihas.200152693/default.html)

1993        Sep 19, Polish voters turned left in parliamentary elections, giving the most number of seats to the Democratic Left Alliance.
    (AP, 9/19/98)

1994          Mar 18, Lithuania and Poland signed an agreement in Warsaw on friendship and neighborly cooperation.
    (LHC, 3/18/03)

1994        Jul 7, President Clinton, visiting Poland, assured the parliament that the U.S. would "not let the Iron Curtain be replaced by a veil of indifference."
    (AP, 7/7/99)

1994        The film "Red" by Polish director Krzysztof Kieslowski was inspired by the poem Love At First Sight by Wislawa Szymborska. It was the 3rd in his trilogy that included "Blue" and "White."
    (SFC, 10/4/96, p.A17)(SFEC, 1/9/00, BR p.2)

1995        Mar 1, Jozef Oleksy succeeded Waldemar Pawlak as premier of Poland.
    (http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Waldemar+Pawlak)

1995        Nov 19, Former Communist Alexander Kwasniewski won the presidency by a narrow margin over Pres. Walesa with 51.7% of the vote.
    (WSJ, 11/7/95, p.A-1)(WSJ, 11/21/95, p.A-1)

1995        Dec, The European Investment Bank signed a loan for $127.4 to provide financing for     small and midsize Polish firms.
    (WSJ, 12/11/95, p.B3B)

1995        Ryszard Kapyscinski (b.1932), Polish journalist, authored “Imperium," a book about the crumbling Soviet empire.
    (Econ, 6/26/10, p.60)

1995        The Violin Concerto No. 2 by Polish composer Krzysztof Penderecki was written for the German violinist Anne-Sophie Mutter and premiered in Leipzig with the Central German Radio orchestra.
    (SFC, 11/9/96, p.E1)

1996         Jan. Prime Minister Jozef Oleksy was charged with providing state secrets to a foreign power and consorting with Soviet and Russian spies.
    (WSJ, 1/22/96, p.A-12)

1996         Jan 25, The Prime Minister resigned.
    (WSJ, 1/25/96, A-1)

1996        Jan 31, Wlodzimierz Cimoszewicz was named as candidate for prime minister.
    (WSJ, 2/1/96, p.A-1)

1996        Apr 12, Poland’s government agreed to grant pensions to former presidents Lech Walesa, Wojciech Jaruzelski, and the last pre-Communist pres. Ryszard Kaszorowski. The net pension will be about $1600 a month. Legislators later approved $800 per month.
    (SFC, 4/13/96, p.A-9)(WSJ, 5/31/96, p.A1)

1996        Jul 7, The average cost of a Big Mac in Poland was $1.44.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, Parade, p.17)

1996        Jul 20, At the Atlanta Olympics, Renata Mauer of Poland won the Games' first gold, in the 10-meter air rifle.
    (AP, 7/20/97)

1996        Aug 28, Agnieszka Kotlarska, fashion model, was knifed and killed by a thief outside her home.
    (SFC, 8/29/96, p.A14)

1996        Sep, Michael Jackson, pop singer, played the Warsaw leg of his "HIStory" tour.
    (SFEC, 3/22/98, p.A18)

1996        Oct 6, At the Tokyo Int’l. film festival a special jury prize went to the Polish film "In Full Gallop" by Krzysztof Zanussi.
    (SFEC, 10/7/96, D3)

1996        Oct 24, Polish lawmakers relaxed the controversial abortion law and allowed women to terminate pregnancies until the 12th week for financial or emotional reasons. The law was signed on Nov 20.
    (SFC, 10/25/96, p.A15)(SFC, 11/21/96, p.C6)

1996        Nov 11, Poland’s return to independence after WW I was celebrated and hundreds of skinheads and right-wing activists staged demonstrations against Jews and foreigners.
    (SFC, 11/13/96, p.C2)

1997        Jan 1, Tough environmental laws that were set in 1991 were scheduled to take effect.
    (WSJ, 4/5/96, p.B-3A)

1997        May 5, In Poland 12 people were killed in a train crash in Reptowo.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Poland_disasters_by_death_toll)

1997        May 13, The pension crises in Poland was described. One-fifth of the GDP was being used for pensions and the state social security office, ZUS, was feared to be facing bankruptcy without quick reforms.
    (SFC, 5/13/97, p.A13)

1997        May 25, Poland adopted a new constitution to replace the 1952 communist-era charter. It was committed a market economy, private ownership, personal freedoms and civilian control of the military.
    (SFC, 5/26/97, p.A10)

1997        May 28, A Constitutional Tribunal struck down the new abortion law. Parliament was given 6 months consider the ruling.
    (SFC, 5/29/97, p.A12)

1997        May, Michael Jackson, pop star, returned to Poland and signed a letter of intent to build a $500 million World of Childhood amusement park under the direction of US entrepreneur Jacques Tourel.
    (SFEC, 3/22/98, p.A18)

1997        Jun 10, Pope John Paul II bade farewell to his native Poland as he ended an 11-day pilgrimage.
    (AP, 6/10/98)

1997        Jul 8, NATO issued formal invitations to Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary.
    (SFC, 7/9/97, p.A1)

1997        Jul 10, Torrential rains in Poland and the Czech Republic killed at least 39 people and forced thousands from their homes.
    (SFC, 7/11/97, p.A11)

1997        Jul 13, In Poland floods threatened the isle of Ostrow Tumski on the Oder River in the heart of Wroclaw, whose buildings date back to the 13th century. A 100-year flood swept through the Sudety Mountains.
    (SFC, 7/14/97, p.A15)(SFEC, 8/2/98,  p.T8)

1997        Sep 21, Election results indicated that Solidarity won 189 of the 460 seats of the parliament with about 34% of the vote.
    (WSJ, 9/23/97, p.A1)

1997        Sep, Col. Ryszard Kuklinski was cleared of spy charges after a military court ruled that he acted in Poland’s best interests. He had served as a US CIA spy and reported on activities from 1972-1981. He passed some 35,000 pages of classified Warsaw pack documents.
    (SFC, 4/28/98, p.A10)

1997        Oct 31, Jerzy Buzek (57), a chemical engineering professor, became PM of Poland and served until Oct 19, 2001.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerzy_Buzek)

1997        Dec 3, Cardinal Jozef Glemp chastised Rev. Tadeusz Rydzyk for his daily broadcasts of hate and rage mingled with prayer sessions. Rydzyk began broadcasting over Radio Maryja in 1991 and has become the 4th most popular station in Poland with 5 million listeners, mostly among older, religious observant women.
    (SFEC,12/14/97, p.A22)

1997        Krzystof Kieslowski, film director, died. In 2000 Annette Insdorf authored "Double Lives Second Chances: The Cinema of Krzystof Kieslowski."
    (SFEC, 1/9/00, BR p.2)

1998        Mar 21, Maciej Slomczynski, translator, died at age 77. He made Polish translation of Shakespeare’s complete works, Joyce’s "Ulysses" and works by Faulkner, Swift and Milton.
    (SFC, 3/24/98, p.B2)

1998        Apr 3, Some 15,000 leftist trade unionists protested for reforms in Warsaw. Prime Minister Jerzy Buzek recently proposed to merge Poland’s 49 provinces into 12 regions.
    (SFC, 4/4/98, p.A16)

1998        Apr 27, Col. Ryszard Kuklinski returned to Poland from the US. He had served as a US CIA spy and reported on activities from 1972-1981. He was cleared of charges in 1997.
    (SFC, 4/28/98, p.A10)

1998        Jun 25, Marek Papala (38), former national police chief, was killed in Warsaw as he stepped out of his car outside his home. He was scheduled to be liaison officer to the EU with efforts directed at organized crime. Some 300-400 organized gangs were operating in Poland. Polish officials accused Edward Mazur, who holds Polish and US citizenship, of enticing another man to shoot Papala for $40,000. Mazur faced murder charges in Poland in the shooting death of Papala. In 2006 Mazur remained in the US federal government's Metropolitan Correctional Center in Chicago pending an extradition hearing.
    (SFC, 6/27/98, p.A14)(AP, 11/28/06)

1998        Jul 22, Flash floods caused heavy damage along the Duszniki River.
    (SFEC, 8/2/98,  p.T8)

1998        Jul 28, Zbigniev Herbert (b.1924), poet and essayist, died at age 73 in Warsaw. He insisted that civilization depended on artists’ staking out clear moral positions  resistant to the winds of history and ideology. In 1999 John and Bogdana Carpenter translated "Elegy for the Departure and Other Poems," and "The King of the Ants: Mythological Essays."
    (SFC, 7/30/98, p.B2)(SFEC, 3/28/99, BR p.8)

1998        Summer, Authorities closed a bridge for repair at Gora Kalwaria and created a traffic jam that spread across the country. There were only 160 miles of highway in all of Poland.
    (SFC, 12/19/98, p.B3)

1998        Nov 23, An Arctic cold wave was reported to have killed 71 people across Europe over the last 3 days. 36 deaths were in Poland and 24 in Romania and Bulgaria.
    (SFC, 11/24/98, p.A14)

1998        Nov 25, In Poland the cold weather left another 8 people dead, mostly middle-aged drinkers who died outside.
    (SFC, 11/26/98, p.B5)

1998        Dec 18, In Poland Pres. Kwasniewski signed a bill that would allow victims of communist-era repression to see their secret police files.
    (SFC, 12/19/98, p.B3)

1998        A "vetting law’ was passed that required politicians to file declarations of whether they ever cooperated with the secret police.
    (SFC, 8/12/00, p.A10)

1999        Mar 12, Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic formally joined NATO in a ceremony at Independence, Mo., where Pres. Truman announced in 1949 the formation of the Atlantic alliance for defense against the Soviet bloc.
    (SFC, 3/11/99, p.C14)

1999        Apr 10, Poland welcomed the first of several thousand ethnic Albanian refugees from Kosovo.
    (SFEC, 4/11/99, p.A30)

1999        May 10, Pres. Kwasniewski signed a bill authorizing the removal of crosses erected by Catholics near the site of Auschwitz.
    (WSJ, 5/11/99, p.A1)

1999        Jun 4, Pope John Paul II traveled to Poland, the first stop on a 13-day visit to 20 cities. This was his 8th visit to Poland.
    (WSJ, 6/4/99, p.A1)

1999        Aug 6, The 5th free Station Woodstock rock festival was held in Zary with an estimated 200,000 people in attendance.
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.A22)

1999        The Polish film "Battu's Bioscope" was by Andrzej Fidyk. It was a documentary about a Bengali showman bringing films to rural villagers, while longing for his kidnapped wife.
    (SFEC, 4/11/99, DB p.36)
1999        The Polish film "Mr. Tadeusz" was directed by Andrzej Wajda. It was based on the Romantic verse novel by Adam Mickiewicz.
    (SFC, 7/8/99, p.E3)
1999        The Polish film "With Fire and Sword" was directed by Jerzy Hoffman. It was based on a novel set during the 17th century war between Poland and the Ukraine.
    (SFC, 7/8/99, p.E3)
1999        Poland set up a two-tier pension system. Workers made mandatory contributions into a state system (ZUS) and into funds run by private fund managers (OFES).
    (Econ, 9/21/13, p.80)
1999        Agora SA, the parent company of Gazeta Wyborcza, went public. Its 1600 employees received shares at one zloty each (23 cents). The Gazeta IPO valued its parent company, Agora SA, at $521 million.
    (WSJ, 3/3/99, p.A16)(WSJ, 7/13/00, p.A1)

2000        Jan 20, Poland expelled 9 Russian diplomats under allegations of spying.
    (WSJ, 1/21/00, p.A1)

2000        Mar 11, Kazimierz Brandys, émigré Polish author, died in Paris at age 83.
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.D6)

2000        Apr 12, the Polish Central Bank allowed the zloty to float.
    (WSJ, 4/12/00, p.A18)

2000        May 28, In Poland the Freedom Union Party voted to resign from the coalition government of Prime Minister Jerzy Buzek.
    (SFC, 5/29/00, p.A10)

2000        Jun 25, In Warsaw a 3-day world Forum on Democracy was sponsored by the NY-based Freedom House and the Warsaw-based Stefan Batory Foundation.
    (SFEC, 6/25/00, p.A9)

2000        Jun 26, In Warsaw a 2-day ministerial-level conference, "Toward a Community of Democracies," was the 1st of a planned biannual series.
    (SFEC, 6/25/00, p.A9)

2000        Jun 27, In Poland 107 participants joined to endorse a declaration of the "community of democracies." France alone excluded itself.
    (SFC, 6/28/00, p.B10)

2000        Sep 15, Truckers across Europe blocked highways to protest high fuel costs. Protests hit Spain, Germany, Ireland, Poland and the Czech Republic.
    (SFC, 9/16/00, p.A10)

2000        Oct 8, In Poland Pres. Aleksander Kwasniewski won a second five-year term in national elections with 55% of the vote.
    (SFC, 10/9/00, p.A10)(AP, 10/8/01)

2000        Dec 10, Fishermen dragged the corpse of Dariusz Janiszewski, stripped to a shirt and underwear, from the muddy banks of the Oder River in southwestern Poland. His body showed signs of starvation and torture. In 2007 a court ruled that author Krystian Bala planned and directed the grisly killing, but said there was insufficient evidence to convict him of carrying out the murder himself. He was sentenced to 25 years in prison. Bala's 2003 novel, "Amok," an alcohol- and sex-fueled tale was narrated by a man named Chris, who stabs a woman after binding her hands behind her back and then running the rope to a noose around her neck.
    (AP, 9/5/07)

2000        A new Motorola plant for chip production and software development was to be built. The investment was valued at $110 mil by 2001. The software center was to be established with Krakow’s Jagiellonian Univ. and was expected to employ 500 engineers and scientists within a few years.
    (WSJ, 3/30/98, p.A12)

2001        May 17, The 2 defense attorneys in the trial of Gen. Jaruzelski quit.
    (SFC, 5/18/01, p.D4)

2001        Jul 10, In Jedwabne Pres. Kwasniewski apologized for a wartime massacre of Jews.
    (SFC, 7/11/01, p.A7)

2001        Jul 29, Edward Gierek, the Polish communist ruler who pushed for reform during the 1970s but was forced from power in 1980 over mounting debt and strikes, died at 88.
    (AP, 7/29/02)

2001        Sep 23, Elections were held in Poland and the Democratic Left Alliance, composed of former Communists, won with 41% of the popular vote. Leszek Miller became the new PM.
    (SFC, 9/24/01, p.B1)(Econ, 2/19/05, p.49)
2001        Sep 23, Henryk Tomaszewski (81), theater artist, died. His dreamlike, wordless presentations influenced some American avant-garde artists.
    (SFC, 10/24/01, p.C6)

2001        Nov 4, It was reported that both Poland and the Czech Republic would send military forces to assist the US in Afghanistan.
    (WSJ, 11/5/01, p.A17)

2001        Nov 6, Pres. Bush met with France’s Pres. Chirac and addressed an anti-terrorism meeting in Poland via satellite.
    (SFC, 11/7/01, p.A1)

2001        Parliament approved a law to compensate Polish citizens whose property was seized under Communist rule from 1944-1962, but only for those who retained Polish citizenship on Dec 31, 1999.
    (SFC, 1/12/01, p.A18)(WSJ, 1/12/00, p.A1)

2001        In Poland twin brothers Jaroslaw and Lech Kaczynski (1949-2010) founded the Law and Justice Party.
    (Econ, 4/17/10, p.96)

2001        Pernod Ricard SA acquired the Polish vodka Wyborova, Czech bitters Jan Becher and Seagram’s Martell cognac and Chivas scotch.
    (WSJ, 9/7/05, p.B2)

2002        Mar 28, Pope John Paul II accepted the resignation of Julius Paetz, archbishop of Poznan, Poland, due to a sex scandal and accusations of molesting young seminarians.
    (SFC, 3/29/02, p.A7)

2002        Jul 14, A bus with 52 passengers, mostly Polish students, crashed in western Romania, killing five people and injuring 26.
    (AP, 7/14/02)

2002        Aug 16, Pope John Paul II returned to Poland for a 3-day visit.
    (SFC, 8/17/02, p.A10)

2002        Aug 19, An ailing and aging John Paul II bid a tearful farewell to his homeland as he concluded a four-day visit to the Krakow region of Poland.
    (AP, 8/19/03)

2002        Oct 9, The European Union's executive Commission declared Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, and Slovakia nearly ready for EU membership and recommended they be invited to join in 2004. Romania and Bulgaria likely will be delayed until 2007 because of weak economies, the Commission said, adding Turkey was the weakest link among candidates.
    (AP, 10/9/02)

2002        Oct 27, Polish voters chose mayors directly for the first time since the end of communism in local elections seen as a tests of popularity for the year-old national government.
    (AP, 10/27/02)

2002        Nov 27, Daniel Baraniuk (27) from Gdansk, Poland, set a new pole-sitting world record, coming down from his perch in a German fun park after 196 days and nights.
    (AP, 11/27/02)

2002        Dec 13, The EU reached agreement to accept 10 new countries in 2004. These included Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia.
    (SFC, 12/14/02, p.A3)

2002        Dec 27,  Poland announced it will buy 48 U.S.-made F-16 jet fighters from Lockheed Martin for $3.5 billion to upgrade its air force to NATO standards
    (AP, 12/27/02)

2003        Jan 17, Poland Prime Minister Leszek Miller fired his health minister and 2 deputy finance ministers resigned in the 2nd Cabinet reshuffle this month.
    (AP, 1/17/03)

2003          Mar 1, In Poland the year-old left-leaning government under PM Leszek Miller collapsed after an emergency meeting between coalition partners broke down in a bitter dispute sparked by a new tax plan.
    (AP, 3/1/03)(SSFC, 3/2/03, A7)

2003        Apr 2, Polish troops fighting with the US-led coalition in Iraq reported encountering many Iraqi combatants in civilian clothes.
    (AP, 4/2/03)

2003        Apr 18, Poland signed a deal to buy 48 US-made F-16 jet fighters for $3.5 billion, the biggest defense contract by a former Soviet bloc country since the end of the Cold War.
    (AP, 4/18/03)

2003        May 21, NATO's 19 nations agreed unanimously to start planning to help Poland lead a multinational peacekeeping force in Iraq.
    (AP, 5/21/03)

2003        May 30, President Bush began a 6-nation tour in Krakow, Poland, and brought personal thanks to the country for standing up as a wartime ally in Iraq.
    (AP, 5/30/03)(SFC, 5/31/03, p.A14)

2003        Jun 8, Poland ended a two-day referendum to join the EU. 76% of the 59.6% turnout voted in favor.
    (AP, 6/9/03)(SFC, 6/9/03, p.A7)

2003        Jun 11, Poland's finance minister quit in a power struggle over economic reforms. Grzegorz Kolodko was the 11th minister, and the second finance minister, to quit Miller's 20-month-old left-leaning administration.
    (AP, 6/11/03)

2003        Nov 6, Two American soldiers were killed near Baghdad and along the Syrian border. Polish forces suffered their first combat death when a Polish major was fatally wounded in an ambush south of the capital.
    (AP, 11/6/03)

2003        Dec 22, Poland's Pres. Aleksander Kwasniewski made an unannounced visit to the headquarters of Polish-led peacekeepers in Iraq.
    (AP, 12/22/03)

2003        Dec 29, Poland and Israel signed a deal worth some $350 million over the next 10 years to provide the Polish army with some 2,700 state-of-the-art Israeli anti-tank missiles.
    (AP, 12/29/03)

2003        In NYC the Grammercy Theater featured "A Short History of Polish Animation" and "A Short History of Polish Avant-Garde and Experimental Film."
    (WSJ, 10/29/03, p.D10)
2003        The US CIA paid $15 million to Polish intelligence or use of a secret prison site, handing over the cash in two cardboard boxes. This only became public in 2014 when the Washington Post cited former CIA officers regarding the ‘black site."
    (AP, 1/24/14)

2004        Jan, Sergiusz Kozubek (26), creator of a website for the town of Koniakow, Poland, (www.koniakow.com), began offering locally produced lace thongs, named stringi, on the site. Women of this Silesian highlands town had produced lace articles for the last 2 centuries.
    (WSJ, 6/2/04, p.B2B)

2004        Mar 26, Polish PM Leszek Miller announced he will step down the day after Poland joins the European Union on May 1, taking the blame for his government's collapse in popularity and raising the prospect of early elections. 22 members of Miller’s SLD party had left to form the new left-wing Polish social Democracy as Miller’s popularity plummeted.
    (AP, 3/26/04)(Econ, 4/3/04, p.56)

2004        Apr 27, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov and EU officials signed an accord extending the EU-Russia partnership accord to Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Cyprus and Malta, which join May 1.
    (AP, 4/27/04)

2004        May 1, Revelers across ex-communist eastern Europe celebrated their historic entry to the European Union. 10 new members (Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia) joined. Malta joined with 70 exemptions to EU rules. Poland had 43 exemptions. Latvia had 32. The Turkish occupied area of Cyprus was suspended from entry.
    (AP, 5/1/04)(Econ, 2/28/04, p.50)(Econ, 4/16/05, p.16)

2004        May 2, Poland's PM Leszek Miller stepped down after helping lead Poland into the European Union. New PM Marek Belka promised to push ahead with tough reforms and keep supporting the United States in Iraq as he took the helm, a day after Poland joined the European Union.
    (AP, 5/2/04)

2004        May 7, In Iraq gunmen ambushed a Polish TV crew south of Baghdad, killing a producer and a correspondent who was Poland's best-known war reporter.
    (AP, 5/7/04)

2004        May 9, Polish police in Lodz mistakenly opened fire with live ammunition to stop a street fight, killing a 19-year-old man and wounding three others.
    (AP, 5/9/04)

2004        May 14, Poland's new PM Marek Belka, who had urged patience for free-market reforms and his country's mission in Iraq, lost a parliamentary confidence vote.
    (AP, 5/14/04)

2004        Jun 11, Poland's president nominated economist Marek Belka as prime minister for the 2nd time, opening the way for lawmakers to confirm a new government or trigger early elections by rejecting it.
    (AP, 6/11/04)

2004        Jul 31, In Poland some 200,000 people gathered for the 10th annual weekend concert called Woodstock in Kostrzyn.
    (AP, 7/31/04)

2004        Aug 14, Czeslaw Milosz (93), Polish poet and Nobel laureate (1980), died in Krakow. He was known for his intellectual and emotional works about some of the worst cruelties of the 20th century. Milosz was born on June 30, 1911, in Szetejnie, now Lithuania, and studied law at the University in Vilnius. There, he published his first book of poems, "Three Winters," in 1936. In 2006 Cynthia L. Haven edited the book “Czeslaw Milosz: Conversations."
    (AP, 8/14/04)(Econ, 8/21/04, p.72)(SSFC, 9/24/06, p.M5)

2004        Aug, The supervisory board of PKN Orlen, Poland’s largest oil company, dumped pres. Jacek Walszykowski. The government, which owned 27.5% of PKN, wanted him out because of his ties with Jan Kulczyk, the country’s richest businessman and owner of 4.8% of PKN.
    (Econ, 11/6/04, p.64)

2004        Sep 12, Three Polish soldiers were killed in Iraq when they were attacked with grenades and machine-gun fire as they returned to their base from a demining operation.
    (AP, 9/12/04)

2004        Oct 7, In Poland organizers of the 5th annual erotic fair in Warsaw said they would defy an order from the mayor's office and go ahead and stage a "test" for the woman who can carry out a sex act with as many men as possible.
    (AP, 10/8/04)

2004        Nov 13, Australian police arrested two men and seized three million ecstasy tablets that the pair is accused of importing from Poland hidden inside a bakery oven.
    (AP, 11/13/04)

2004        Nov 20, A Polish woman abducted from her apartment in Baghdad reappeared in Poland after being suddenly released.
    (AP, 11/20/04)

2004        Dec 22, Poland's PM Marek Belka and Defense Minister Jerzy Szmajdzinski arrived in Iraq for a Christmas visit to Polish troops.
    (AP, 12/22/04)

2004        Frontex, a Warsaw-based agency, was created to manage the EU’s external borders. The agency started to be operational on October 3, 2005 and was the first EU agency to be based in one of the new EU states.
    (Econ, 8/21/10, p.43)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frontex)
2004        French retailer Carrefour SA agreed to buy 13 supermarkets in Poland.
    (WSJ, 4/15/08, p.B2)

2005        Jan 1, Poland was forecast for 4.5% annual GDP growth with a population at 38.1 million and GDP per head at $7,300.
    (Econ, 1/8/05, p.89)

2005        Jan 4, Polish PM Marek Belka arrived in Tripoli for a two-day visit that will include talks on cooperation in the oil sector and a meeting with Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi.
    (AFP, 1/5/05)

2005        Jan 13, In Poland an anti-terrorism law that allows authorities to shoot down hijacked planes as a last resort took effect, part of efforts to protect the country from attacks similar to those of Sept. 11.
    (AP, 1/13/05)

2005        Jan 19, The Polish government signed a deal with US defense contractor Lockheed Martin Corp. paving the way for the transfer of technology and investment to a Polish weapons producer.
    (AP, 1/19/05)

2005        Feb 22, Zdzislaw Beksinski, a surrealist painter who was one of Poland's leading contemporary artists, was found stabbed to death at his Warsaw home.
    (AP, 2/22/05)\

2005        May 23, Ryszard Kalisz, Poland's interior minister, offered his resignation amid reports of growing corruption in police forces around the country.
    (AP, 5/23/05)

2005        Jun 1, In Poland investigators published a report offering new details of allegations that a priest was an informer for Poland's communist government while he was close to Pope John Paul II's entourage in the 1980s. The report says against Rev. Konrad Stanislaw Hejmo met secretly with communist agents from 1975 to 1988 in upscale restaurants and hotel rooms, giving them details about the church in return for money and gifts of liquor.
    (AP, 6/1/05)

2005        Jun 11, More than 2,000 people defied a ban on a gay-rights rally in Poland's capital, taking to the streets of Warsaw against the orders of the city's conservative mayor.
    (AP, 6/11/05)

2005        Jun 15, Poland said it will cut its 1,700-troop deployment to Iraq this summer by as many as 300 troops.
    (AP, 6/15/05)

2005        Jun 29, Poles lined up to buy collectors' coins with the image of the late Pope John Paul II, issued by the central bank to honor Poland's most famous son.
    (AP, 6/29/05)

2005        Aug 2, Belarusian police arrested two leaders of an ethnic Polish cultural group after seizing the group's headquarters, raising already heightened tensions between the neighboring countries.
    (AP, 8/2/05)

2005        Aug 10, An assailant beat a Polish envoy near Poland's Moscow embassy, drawing diplomatic protests over the second such attack in four days.
    (AP, 8/11/05)

2005        Aug 17, Norwegian officials said 3 unarmed Polish researchers stranded on a remote Arctic island were rescued by helicopter as polar bears were closing in on them. The escape took place on an island in Norway's Svalbard archipelago, about 650 miles from the North Pole.
    (AP, 8/17/05)

2005        Aug 27, Stanislaw Dziwisz (66), Pope John Paul II's longtime aide, was installed as archbishop of Krakow.
    (AP, 8/27/05)

2005        Sep 25, Polish voters cast their ballots in a parliamentary election expected to deal a crushing defeat to an ex-communist government plagued by scandal and high unemployment and lead to a coalition government between two conservative parties. Voters embraced two center-right parties that have promised tax cuts and clean government.
    (AP, 9/25/05)(AP, 9/26/05)

2005        Sep 27, The leader of Poland's Law and Justice party (PiS) said he would begin talks to form a new center-right coalition government after the final count confirmed its election victory. PiS won by promising to uproot the uklad, a network of ex-spies, corrupt businessmen and political insiders, who have dominated Poland since 1989.
    (AP, 9/27/05)(Econ, 9/29/07, p.54)

2005        Sep 30, A bus carrying high school students on a pilgrimage to Czestochowa, a 14th century monastery and Poland's most sacred Roman Catholic shrine, collided with a truck and burst into flames, killing 12 people.
    (AP, 9/30/05)

2005        Oct 9, In Poland voters chose between two former Solidarity movement activists in presidential elections, underlining the decline of the former communists in a country that was part of the Soviet bloc only 16 years ago.
    (AP, 10/9/05)

2005        Oct 10, The final count in Poland's presidential election confirmed that the pro-market lawmaker Donald Tusk won more votes than conservative Warsaw Mayor Lech Kaczynski, but fell short of a majority needed for an outright victory in a first round of balloting.
    (AP, 10/10/05)

2005        Oct 11-2005 Oct 12, Polish customs officials seized at least 8 million cigarettes apparently destined for the British market in a coordinated sweep in two cities. The cigarettes, mostly low-quality Ukrainian-made, were to be incinerated.
    (AP, 10/12/05)

2005        Oct 16, Polish television broadcast a recorded interview with Pope Benedict XVI, who said that he planned to visit Poland, the homeland of his predecessor, John Paul II (it's believed to be the first TV interview by a pope).
    (AP, 10/16/06)

2005        Oct 19, Polish President Aleksander Kwasniewski nominated conservative Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz as PM following the first meeting of the newly elected parliament.
    (AP, 10/19/05)

2005        Oct 23, Poles voted for a new president in an election that opinion polls showed to be a close-fought battle between Donald Tusk and his vision of a liberal, free-market Poland, and Lech Kaczynski who favors state intervention and Catholic conservatism. Warsaw's conservative Mayor Lech Kaczynski won Poland's presidential runoff vote 54%-46%.
    (AP, 10/23/05)(Econ, 10/29/05, p.52)

2005        Oct 31, Polish President Aleksander Kwasniewski has officially named a minority conservative government headed by Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz.
    (AP, 10/31/05)

2005        Nov 3, European Union officials said they would investigate a report that the CIA set up secret jails in Eastern Europe to interrogate top al-Qaida suspects. The international Red Cross also said it asked the US to let a representative visit detainees if such a facility exists. At least 10 nations denied that the prisons were in their territory. Human Rights Watch in New York said it has evidence indicating the CIA transported suspected terrorists captured in Afghanistan to Poland and Romania.
    (AP, 11/3/05)

2005        Nov 17, Greenpeace activists in small inflatable boats stopped a ship carrying genetically engineered soybean meal from unloading in a Polish port. Greenpeace says genetically engineered soy is causing massive environmental problems in Argentina, including deforestation, a dramatic increase in the use of toxic herbicides and soil infertility.
    (AP, 11/17/05)

2005        Nov 23, Poland's two leading newspapers blacked out large sections of their front pages in an eye-catching protest against media repression in neighboring Belarus.
    (AP, 11/23/05)

2005        Nov 25, Poland's defense minister signed an order that will give researchers access to most of the Warsaw Pact's top-secret archives, including decisions related to the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia.
    (AP, 11/25/05)

2005        Dec 9, Marc Garlasco, a Human Rights Watch investigator, said Poland served as the CIA's main center to detain terrorist suspects in Europe at clandestine prisons.
    (AP, 12/09/05)

2005        Dec 10, Poland's PM Marcinkiewicz said that he has ordered a probe of allegations that the CIA ran secret prisons for terror suspects on Polish territory.
    (AP, 12/10/05)

2005        Dec 23, Lech Kaczynski was sworn in as Poland's new president, completing the rise to power of conservative leaders who pledged to fight corruption, boost the economy and distance the country from its communist past.
    (AP, 12/23/05)

2005        Dec 27, Ukraine and Bulgaria said all their troops had left Iraq. Poland said it would remain but reduce its number of troops by 600 next year.
    (AP, 12/27/05)

2006        Jan 1, Russia's natural gas monopoly halted sales to Ukraine in a price dispute and began reducing pressure in transmission lines that also carry substantial supplies to western Europe. Supplies of natural gas to Poland have been hit by cuts imposed by Russia on the amount of gas entering the pipeline system in neighbouring Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 1/1/06)(AFP, 1/1/06)

2006        Jan 28, In southern Poland an exhibition hall collapsed during a racing pigeon show in Katowice, killing at least 65 people and injuring 160. On June 26 three men, who helped design the exhibition hall, were arrested on suspicion of endangering lives by failing to meet building codes. In 2016 a court convicted five men and one woman over the roof collapse.
    (AP, 1/31/06)(SFC, 2/1/06, p.A3)(AP, 6/26/06)(AP, 6/17/16)

2006        Feb 16, A human rights group said that homophobic rhetoric has escalated in Poland since a socially conservative party came to power, threatening the rights of gays and lesbians.
    (AP, 2/16/06)

2006        Feb 24, Polish TV reported that police had arrested about 30 people in several countries across Europe in a sting operation against a suspected child-porn ring.
    (Reuters, 2/24/06)

2006        Mar 7, A four-year-old Indonesian boy became the latest suspected human casualty of bird flu as the virus spread in Nigeria and Poland. A Russian virus expert warned that a human pandemic was highly likely and told the government to get ready.
    (AFP, 3/7/06)

2006        Mar 12, The Cameroon government announced its first case of bird flu, becoming the fourth African country to be struck by the virus. New cases were also reported in Poland and Greece.
    (AP, 3/13/06)

2006        Mar 27, Stanislaw Lem (b.1921), Polish science fiction writer, died in Poland. His work included “His Master’s Voice" (1968). His best-known work, "Solaris," was adapted into films by director Andrei Tarkovsky (1972) and by Steven Soderbergh (2002). That version starred George Clooney and Natascha McElhone.
    (AP, 3/27/06)(WSJ, 4/8/06, p.P14)

2006        Mar 31, Prosecutors in Warsaw filed charges against Poland's last communist leader, Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski, in connection with his imposition of martial law in 1981 as the Soviet-backed regime tried to crush the Solidarity pro-democracy movement.
    (AP, 3/31/06)

2006        May 5, In Warsaw 2 parties that opposed Poland's entry into the EU joined the government, raising hopes for an end to six months of political wrangling.
    (AP, 5/5/06)

2006        May 13, Poland’s general unemployment was running at 18% with youth unemployment at 40%.
    (Econ, 5/13/06, Survey p.3)

2006        May 25, Poland welcomed Pope Benedict XVI with cheers and fluttering yellow and white Vatican flags as the German-born pontiff started a four-day visit aimed at honoring predecessor John Paul II and healing wounds from World War II.
    (AP, 5/25/06)

2006        May 26, Yukos sold its 53.7% stake in Mazeikiai to the Polish PKN Orlen oil refining company for US$1.49 billion. Orlen signed the agreement in Amsterdam with the Yukos company’s Netherlands-registered subsidiary, Yukos International, which had all along held the legal title to that stake. The Lithuanian government had exercised its right to authorize this sale-and-purchase three days earlier.
    (http://cms2000.isn.ch/news/sw/details.cfm?ID=16079)

2006        May 28, Pope Benedict XVI urged some 900,000 Poles at a giant mass to fight growing secularism by spreading their Christian faith across Europe and the world. He visited Auschwitz.
    (AFP, 5/28/06)(WSJ, 5/30/06, p.A1)

2006        Jun 10, In Poland several thousand people staged an international rally in Warsaw in support of gays, who complained of prejudice, hostility and violence.
    (AFP, 6/10/06)

2006        Jun 23, Poland's finance minister resigned after a prosecutor asked a court to investigate whether she collaborated with the country's communist-era secret police.
    (AP, 6/24/06)

2006        Jul 8, Poland's governing party accepted the resignation of PM Marcinkiewicz and recommended party chairman Jaroslaw Kaczynski, the president's twin brother, to replace him. A group with roots in Poland's anti-communist Solidarity trade union movement signed an unprecedented accord to join forces with the country's two main post-communist parties.
    (AP, 7/8/06)

2006        Jul 14, Poland's Pres. Lech Kaczynski (57) swore in his identical twin brother, Jaroslaw, as prime minister, along with a socially conservative Cabinet made up largely of the same ministers who resigned in a shake-up days earlier.
    (AP, 7/14/06)

2006        Jul 18, Authorities freed about 100 Poles forced into virtual slavery as Italian and Polish police arrested 25 people involved in a human trafficking ring that brought farm workers to Italy.
    (AP, 7/19/06)

2006        Jul 28, Poland's conservative President Lech Kaczynski vowed to campaign for a return of the death penalty in the European Union.
    (AP, 7/28/06)

2006        Aug 9, In Poland the US specialists secretly removed 90 pounds of weapons-grade uranium from a research reactor and transferred it to Russia for re-processing.
    (SFC, 8/10/06, p.A8)(WSJ, 8/10/06, p.A1)

2006        Sep 14, Poland will send at least 900 troops early next year to bolster the NATO mission in Afghanistan. NATO said the offer did not ease the immediate need for 2,500 additional soldiers in the violence-wracked south.
    (AP, 9/14/06)

2006        Sep 29, In Scotland police found the body of Angelika Kluk (23), a missing Polish student, at Saint Patrick's Roman Catholic Church in the Anderston area of Glasgow.
    (AFP, 9/30/06)

2006        Oct 7, In Poland thousands marched through the streets of Warsaw, calling for new elections and the ouster of the government after weeks of political turmoil.
    (AP, 10/7/06)

2006        Oct, Poland’s government passed a law to give politicians greater power to appoint top civil servants, and scrapped the independent civil-service office.
    (Econ, 12/2/06, p.55)

2006        Nov 21, In southern Poland 23 coal miners were killed in an explosion at the Halemba mine.
    (AP, 11/23/06)

2006        Dec 6, Cardinal Jozef Glemp (76) stepped down after more than 25 years as archbishop of Warsaw. He headed Poland's powerful Roman Catholic Church through the dark days of martial law and the country's later jump to free-market democracy.
    (AP, 12/6/06)

2006        Poland’s government under PM Jaroslaw Kaczynski created an anti-corruption office.
    (AP, 10/6/09)

2007        Jan 4, Polish newspapers reported that Stanislaw Wielgus (67), who is poised to be sworn in as archbishop of Warsaw, was a "secret and conscious" collaborator with Poland's hated communist-era security forces from 1973-1978.
    (AFP, 1/4/07)

2007        Jan 5, Stanislaw Wielgus, Warsaw's incoming archbishop, admitted he had cooperated with the Communist-era secret police and said he was leaving his fate in the hands of Pope Benedict XVI.
    (AP, 1/6/07)

2007        Jan 7, Stanislaw Wielgus, Warsaw's new archbishop, resigned over his involvement with the communist-era secret police. The Vatican said his past actions had "gravely compromised his authority."
    (AP, 1/7/07)

2007        Jan 8, Rev. Janusz Bielanski, head priest of Krakow's prestigious Wawel Cathedral,  left his post amid allegations he collaborated with secret services of the communist era, a day after Warsaw's newly-appointed archbishop resigned in a scandal that shocked the nation.
    (AP, 1/8/07)

2007        Jan 19, A Polish court convicted two doctors and two ambulance workers of participating in a scheme in which 14 patients were allowed to die, or in some cases killed with muscle relaxants, in return for kickbacks from funeral homes. All received prison sentences, ranging from five years to life.
    (AP, 1/19/07)

2007        Jan 20, Czech PM Mirek Topolanek said the US wants to build a radar base in the Czech Republic as part of its global missile defense system. Poland was also mentioned as a potential site. Russia in response warned of an arms race.
    (AP, 1/20/07)(WSJ, 1/22/07, p.A1)

2007        Jan 21, Zdzislaw Rurarz, a former Polish ambassador to Japan, died of cancer in Virginia. He humiliated Poland's communist regime by defecting to the US in 1981 to protest its imposition of martial law.
    (AP, 1/28/07)

2007        Jan 23, Ryszard Kapuscinski (b.1932), Belarus-born Polish writer and journalist, died following heart surgery. He gained international acclaim for his books chronicling wars, coups and revolutions in Africa, the Middle East and other parts of the world. His books included "The Emperor" (1978), a chronicle of the decline of Haile Selassie's regime in Ethiopia. In 1981 he published "Shah of Shahs," a book about the 1979 Islamic revolution that toppled Iran's Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. His last book “Travels With Herodotus" was published shortly after his death. In 2012 Artur Domoslawski’s “Ryszard Kapuscinski: A Life" (2010), was translated to English by Antonia Lloyd Jones.
    (AP, 1/24/07)(WSJ, 6/9/07, p.P8)(SSFC, 7/22/07, p.M1)(Econ, 6/23/12, p.83)

2007        Feb 16, In Poland Antoni Macierewicz (b.1948), vice-minister of national defense, authored a report on the recently disbanded WSI (military intelligence service) that named dozens of current and former agents.
    (Econ, 2/24/07, p.63)(www.warsawvoice.pl/view/13967)

2007        Feb 19, Gen. Nikolai Solovtsov, a top Russian general, warned that Poland and the Czech Republic risk being targeted by Russian missiles if they agree to host a proposed US missile defense system.
    (AP, 2/19/07)

2007        Feb 26, In Poland a new book, "Priests In The Face Of The Security Services" by Rev. Tadeusz Isakowicz-Zaleski, dredged up more painful allegations from Poland's Communist era, naming some 30 Roman Catholic priests, including several bishops, as registered informants with the secret police.
    (AP, 2/26/07)

2007        Mar 3, Pope Benedict named Kazimierz Nycz, a bishop with a spotless record, as archbishop of Warsaw to replace a prelate who resigned in disgrace after admitting he spied for the communist police.
    (Reuters, 3/3/07)

2007        Apr 12, Polish officials said Google plans to open an operations center in Wroclaw later this year, creating 200 new jobs and boosting the city's efforts to become a technology hub.
    (AP, 4/12/07)

2007        Apr 25, Barbara Blida (57), a former Polish government minister, committed suicide in her bathroom as police searched her house in connection with corruption allegations. Blida, a lawmaker for the post-communist Democratic Left Alliance from 1989-2005 and construction minister from 1993-1996, was suspected of taking and receiving material gains. The raid was part of an investigation into corruption allegations against 14 people.
    (AP, 4/25/07)

2007        May 11, Poland's highest court struck down the key provisions of a new law requiring that up to 700,000 Poles with public service jobs be screened for past collaboration with the communist-era secret police.
    (AP, 5/11/07)

2007        May 21, Polish doctors launched a nationwide open-ended strike, demanding a pay raise amid complaints that the health system is underfunded and medical professionals are overworked.
    (AP, 5/22/07)

2007        Jun 3, Pope Benedict XVI named four new saints from France, Malta, the Netherlands and Poland at a ceremony in St. Peter's Square. Among those honored was Sister Marie Eugenie de Jesus Milleret, a French nun who in 1839 founded the Religious of the Assumption to educate young girls; the Rev. George Preca of Malta, who founded the Society of Christian Doctrine in 1932 as a group of lay people who teach the faith to others; the Rev. Szymon z Lipnicy of Poland, a Franciscan monk who comforted Poles afflicted by the plague that broke out in Krakow from 1482-83 and died of it himself; and the Rev. Charles of St. Andrew (Dublin), who was born Karel Van Sint Andries Houben in the Netherlands in 1821.
    (AP, 6/3/07)

2007        Jun 8, A European investigator issued a report saying the CIA ran secret prisons in Poland and Romania from 2003 to 2005 to interrogate detainees in the war on terror.
    (AP, 6/8/07)

2007        Jun 10, Former Polish president and Nobel laureate Lech Walesa said he has published on the Internet about 500 pages of files kept on him by the communist-era secret police in order to disprove allegations he collaborated with them in the 1980s.
    (AP, 6/10/07)

2007        Jun 27, A special commission of Poland's Roman Catholic Church said that documents in secret police files showed "about a dozen" living bishops had ties to the communist-era secret services.
    (AP, 6/27/07)

2007        Jul 9, Poland’s PM Jaroslaw Kaczynski fired his deputy, Andrzej Lepper, over corruption allegations, throwing the future of Poland's conservative governing coalition into doubt and raising the possibility of early elections. Kaczynski also fired Sports Minister Tomasz Lipiec, of his own Law and Justice party.
    (AP, 7/9/07)

2007        Jul 22, A bus carrying Polish pilgrims from a holy site in the French Alps plunged off a steep mountain road, crashed into a river bed and burst into flames, killing 26 people.
    (AFP, 7/22/07)

2007        Jul 30, The European Commission said it was seeking a court injunction against Polish plans to build a key continental highway to prevent permanent damage to the Rospuda Valley, a "unique environmental site."
    (AFP, 7/30/07)

2007        Aug 4, Zbigniew Krakowski (56), a Polish sea captain in charge of the 2,000-ton Jork, crashed his ship into an unmanned gas platform in the North Sea while drunk. The platform, owned by US firm ConocoPhillips, went out of action with losses at 615,000 pounds a month in revenue. In November Krakowski was jailed for 12 months.
    (AFP, 11/2/07)

2007        Aug 5, A junior partner in Poland's ruling coalition said it was pulling out of the partnership and withdrawing its two ministers from government in a move that could set the scene for early legislative elections.
    (AFP, 8/5/07)

2007        Aug 13, Poland's fractious governing coalition came to an end when the country's president dismissed four Cabinet ministers from two junior partners, clearing the way for an early election expected this fall.
    (AP, 8/13/07)

2007        Aug 16, In Afghanistan 6 civilians, including 3 children, were killed by the mortar and machine-gun attack on the village of Nangarkhel, Paktika province. Two other civilians died of their wounds in a hospital. 7 Polish soldiers were later charged with war crimes. On Jun 1, 2011, a military court in Poland acquitted the soldiers saying there was not enough evidence to support war crime charges. On March 19, 2015, four Polish soldiers were cleared of war crimes over the killing of the six civilians, but were convicted of lesser charges for which three of them were given suspended sentences.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nangar_Khel_incident)(AP, 6/1/11)(Reuters, 3/18/15)

2007        Sep 1, In Poland 2 small planes collided during an acrobatic display at the Radom Air Show killing both pilots.
    (AP, 9/1/07)

2007        Sep 7, Poland's parliament voted to dissolve itself, forcing an election that the government had sought to end persistent political turbulence. President Lech Kaczynski set the vote for Oct. 21, two years ahead of schedule.
    (AP, 9/7/07)

2007        Sep 25, Poland began publishing a list of public figures who either collaborated with or were spied on by its old secret police before 1989.
    (AP, 9/25/07)

2007        Oct 2, Magda Pniewska (26), a Polish woman, was shot in the head and died after being caught in the cross-fire between two gunmen in a residential street in London. On April 22, 2008, Armel Gnango (17) was convicted of murder for being involved in the gunfight.
    (AFP, 10/3/07)(AFP, 5/22/08)

2007        Oct 3, The Polish ambassador to Iraq was slightly wounded and two civilians, including a bodyguard, were killed in a roadside bomb attack in downtown Baghdad. About 900 Polish troops are stationed training Iraqi personnel and 21 have died during the conflict. The US military said it had discovered a list of some 500 al Qaeda militants recruited to fight in Iraq from a range of European, Middle East and north African countries.
    (AP, 10/3/07)(Reuters, 10/3/07)

2007        Oct 10, Police in the eastern Polish town of Kazimierz Dolny pushed their way into a convent and evicted about 65 rebellious ex-nuns, arresting the mother superior and a monk who had occupied the complex with them illegally for two years. The women had taken over the building in a rebellion against the Vatican, which had ordered the replacement of their mother superior, Jadwiga Ligocka.
    (AP, 10/10/07)
2007        Oct 10, Ministers from Azerbaijan, Georgia, Lithuania, Poland and Ukraine signed a deal to build an oil pipeline linking the Black and Baltic seas.
    (WSJ, 10/11/07, p.A18)

2007        Oct 21,    A pro-business opposition party that wants to bring Poland's troops home from Iraq was headed to an overwhelming victory in parliamentary elections, exit polls showed, setting it up to oust the prime minister's staunchly pro-U.S. government. The opposition Civic Platform party ousted PM Jaroslaw Kaczynski's government in the parliamentary elections.
    (AP, 10/21/07)(AP, 10/21/08)

2007        Oct 22,     In Poland election results showed pro-business Civic Platform, led by Donald Tusk, beating PM Jaroslaw Kaczynski's nationalist conservatives by nearly 10 percentage points, enough to allow them to form a coalition government with an allied party. The incoming government promised to negotiate a tougher deal with the US when it comes to hosting a missile defense base. Civic Platform won 209 seats in the 460-member lower house.
    (AP, 10/22/07)(Econ, 10/27/07, p.59)

2007        Nov 5, Poland's prime minister-designate Donald Tusk said in a published interview that  the new government plans to end the country's role in the US-led coalition in Iraq in its "current form" next year. Poland's conservative PM Jaroslaw Kaczynski handed in his resignation to his twin, President Lech Kaczynski.
    (AP, 11/5/07)(AFP, 11/5/07)

2007        Nov 14, In Poland members of the 460-member lower house, or Sejm, agreed to make April 13 an annual "Day of Remembrance of Victims of the Katyn Crime," for more than 14,000 Polish officers who were captured at the start of World War II and killed by Soviet secret police in the Katyn forest.
    (AP, 11/14/07)

2007        Nov 16, Poland's new PM Donald Tusk formally took office along with a team of former anti-communist dissidents.
    (AP, 11/16/08)

2007        Nov 17, The new Polish Defense Minister Bogdan Klich said Poland will end next year its mission in Iraq, where it currently deploys 900 soldiers.
    (AP, 11/17/07)

2007        Nov 27, PM Donald Tusk announced that Poland will drop its opposition to Moscow's bid to join the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in a drive to improve ties with Russia.
    (AP, 11/27/07)

2007        Nov 30, Poland's new PM Donald Tusk paid a low-key visit to Lithuania on his first foreign trip. Lithuania and Poland were locked in a dispute about their relative share of the future output of a nuclear power plant that the two countries, plus Latvia and Estonia, planned to build in Lithuania by 2015.
    (www.eubusiness.com/news-eu/1196435824.82)

2007        Nov, In Poland the Gdansk Shipyard, in order to avoid bankruptcy, was sold Ukrainian firm Donbass for $400 million. The transaction, notified to the OCCP in October 2007, consisted in ISD Polska, a company belonging to the Donbass Group, taking control over the shipyard.
    (Econ, 5/30/09, p.52)(www.uokik.gov.pl/en/press_office/press_releases/art98.html)

2007        Dec 20, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovenia, Slovakia and the Czech Republic halted land and sea border controls at midnight in a wave of new members of Europe's passport-free Schengen zone. They all joined the EU on May 1, 2004.
    (AFP, 12/20/07)(WSJ, 12/21/07, p.A1)

2007        Andrzej Wajda (81), Poland’s leading film maker, completed “Katyn," based on the letters and diaries of victims murdered by Soviet secret police in 1943.
    (Econ, 1/26/08, p.81)

2008        Jan 11, Belgium, France and Poland pledged to provide the resources needed to launch a European Union peacekeeping force for Chad and the Central African Republic.
    (AP, 1/11/08)

2008        Jan 23, A Polish military plane carrying 20 passengers and crew crashed in flames in northwestern Poland, killing all aboard including an air force general.
    (AP, 1/23/08)

2008        Mar 1, A violent storm plagued parts of Europe and deaths rose to 10 after two people in Poland were killed by falling objects because of hurricane-strength winds. Germany reported 2 deaths, the Czech Rep. 2 deaths and 4 more in Austria.
    (AP, 3/2/08)

2008        May 5, Polish authorities arrested the Kuwaiti ambassador's son (23) for briefly abducting three Jewish teenagers at a hotel and claiming he had a bomb. Police said a heavily intoxicated Mohammad A. had pulled three 16-year-old Brazilians into their sixth-floor room of Warsaw's Holiday Inn.
    (AP, 5/6/08)

2008        May 12, Irena Sendler (b.1910), Polish savior of WWII Jewish children in the Warsaw ghetto, died in Warsaw. She saved some 2,500 Jewish children by smuggling them out of the Warsaw Ghetto, providing them with false documents, and sheltering them in individual and group children's homes outside the Ghetto.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irena_Sendler)(Econ, 5/24/08, p.110)(www.irenasendler.org/)

2008        Jun 18, Witold Waszczykowski, the chief Polish negotiator on missile defense with the United States, said Washington has been talking with Lithuania about basing part of a missile defense system in that country in case negotiations with Poland break down.
    (AP, 6/18/08)

2008        Jul 4, Poland rejected a US offer to boost its air defenses in return for basing a "missile shield" on Polish soil but PM Donald Tusk said Poland remains open for further talks with Washington.
    (Reuters, 7/4/08)

2008        Jul 11, In Serbia a bus carrying Polish tourists overturned north of Belgrade, killing six people and injuring nearly 40.
    (AP, 7/11/08)

2008        Jul 13, In Poland Bronislaw Geremek (76), former foreign minister (1997-2000), died in a car accident near Lubien. He was an icon in the struggle against communist rule and a founding member of the Solidarity trade union.
    (AFP, 7/13/08)(Econ, 7/26/08, p.98)

2008        Jul 25, Energy companies in the three Baltic states and Poland agreed to set up a joint venture to develop a nuclear power plant in Lithuania.
    (Reuters 7/25/08)

2008        Aug 14, The US and Poland struck a deal to install a missile defense facility in the ex-communist state.
    (AP, 8/15/08)

2008        Aug 20, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and her Polish counterpart signed a deal to build a US missile defense base in Poland, an agreement that prompted an infuriated Russia to warn of a possible attack against the former Soviet satellite. The deal included an American Patriot anti-aircraft and anti-missile battery in Poland.
    (AP, 8/20/08)(Econ, 8/23/08, p.44)

2008        Sep 5, In Poland police detained Krzysztof B. (45), in the eastern city of Siedlce, after his wife and daughter came forward with the allegations that he had imprisoned and raped his daughter (21) for 6 years fathering 2 children, who were put up for adoption.
    (AP, 9/9/08)

2008        Sep 12, Poland's last communist leader, General Wojciech Jaruzelski, and seven other Soviet-era officials went on trial over the declaration of martial law more than a quarter of a century ago. The 1981 decision led to the deaths of dozens of people and the jailing of hundreds more.
    (Reuters, 9/12/08)

2008        Oct 4, A ceremony in Diwaniyah marked the departure of Polish troops from Iraq. Poland sent combat troops into Iraq as part of the US-led coalition and had 2,500 troops deployed there at its peak. The last 900 were being pulled out this month. Two US helicopters collided while landing at a base in Baghdad. One Iraqi soldier was killed.
    (AP, 10/4/08)(AP, 10/5/08)

2008        Nov 5, Russia will deploy missiles near NATO member Poland in response to US missile defense plans, President Dmitry Medvedev said Wednesday in his first state of the nation speech.
    (AP, 11/5/08)

2008        Nov 7, Mieczyslaw Rakowski (81), Poland's last communist-era party chairman and prime minister, died. Rakowski, a historian and journalist, was chairman of the communist Polish United Workers' Party from July 1989 until the party was dissolved at its January 1990 congress during the country's bloodless transition to democracy.
    (AP, 11/8/08)

2008        Nov 8, Mieczyslaw Rakowski (81), politician and former editor of Polityka magazine, died.
    (Econ, 11/22/08, p.99)

2008        Nov 23, In Georgia gunfire that broke out as Pres. Saakashvili and Polish Pres. Lech Kaczynski were traveling near a roadblock at the edge of Georgia-controlled territory. Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov said there was no gunfire from Russian or South Ossetian positions and suggested Georgia engineered the incident to discredit Russia and South Ossetia. In Tbilisi Nino Burjanadze, a former ally of Pres. Saakashvili, founded a new party: the Democratic Movement-United Georgia.
    (AP, 11/24/08)(WSJ, 11/24/08, p.A8)

2008        Nov 30, Poland adopted an economic package for 2009-2010 valued at 24 billion euros (30 billion dollars) to help weather the impact of the global financial crisis.
    (AP, 11/30/08)

2008        Dec 1, A 12-day UN climate conference opened in Poznan, Poland. During the conference Chief Bill Erasmus of the Dene nation in northern Canada brought a stark warning about the climate crisis: The once abundant herds of caribou are dwindling, rivers are running lower and the ice is too thin to hunt on.
    (www.environmentalleader.com/2008/12/01/un-climate-talks-kicks-off-in-poznan/)

2008        Dec 12, In Poland negotiators at a UN climate conference broke through red tape and freed up millions of dollars to help poor countries adapt to increasingly severe droughts, floods and other effects of global warming.
    (AP, 12/12/08)

2008        Dec 23, The World Bank finalized a loan of 975 million euros (1.34 billion dollars) for Poland to support economic reform plans, in a measure not directly related to the global economic crisis.
    (AP, 12/23/08)

2009        Jan 3, Russian gas flows to four European Union countries fell normal levels after Moscow cut off supplies to Ukraine in a pricing row with no talks in sight to resolve the dispute. Bulgaria's Bulgargaz joined energy firms in Poland, Romania and Hungary in saying they had noted falls in supply.
    (Reuters, 1/3/09)

2009        Jan 8, Dell Inc. announced that it is moving its Irish manufacturing operations to Poland by 2010, as part of a cost cutting measure that will result in the loss of some 1,900 Irish jobs.
    (WSJ, 1/9/09, p.B4)

2009        Jan 13, In Austria Umar Israilov (27), a Chechen refugee, was shot dead on a Vienna street. Officials said they had no proof the killing was political, but human rights activists said his death was linked to his opposition to Chechnya's pro-Moscow president. On Jan 28 Austrian authorities arrested seven suspects, all Chechens, in the killing. On February 19 Polish police arrested Turpal Ali J. (31), a man suspected of killing Israilov. In 2010 Austrian investigators concluded that Chechnya Pres. Ramzan Kadyrov ordered the kidnapping of one of his critics and former bodyguards and that Israilov was shot to death when the abduction went awry.
    (AP, 1/28/09)(AP, 2/22/09)(AP, 4/27/10)

2009        Feb 4, Poland’s defense minister stated plans to end military missions in Lebanon, the Golan Heights and Chad in an effort to cut spending due to the global economic crisis.
    (AP, 2/4/09)

2009        Feb 18, Polish police said they have detained 78 people, including a priest and a doctor, suspected of possessing child pornography and spreading it on the Internet.
    (AP, 2/18/09)

2009        Feb 19, US Defense Sec. Robert Gates, in Europe for NATO talks, signed a new military cooperation agreement with Poland.
    (WSJ, 2/20/09, p.A12)

2009        Feb 27, Leading international financial institutions said Eastern Europe's struggling banks will receive euro24.5 billion ($31.1 billion) worth of emergency help to shore up their battered finances. Regional leaders were scheduled to meet this weekend. The Hungarian, Polish and Czech currencies strengthened on the news of the aid package.
    (AP, 2/27/09)

2009        Apr 8, Over 100 Afghan ministers, lawmakers and officials signed a petition opposing a controversial law that critics say legalizes marital rape. The petition said the law is unconstitutional and leads toward the "Talibanization" of Afghanistan's legal system. The petition came as Poland's President Lech Kaczynski held talks in Kabul with Karzai and reiterated his country's plans to increase its troop contribution in the country by 400 over the current 1,600 in Ghazni province. A roadside blast hit a civilian vehicle south of Kandahar city, wounding six civilians. Gen. David McKiernan, top US general in Afghanistan, met with villagers in Helmand and Kandahar. He apologized for past mistakes and said he is now studying the Quran, the Muslim holy book.
    (AP, 4/8/09)(AP, 4/10/09)(SFC, 4/10/09, p.A2)

2009        Apr 13, Poland's deadliest fire in nearly 3 decades tore through a homeless shelter in the northwest, killing 21 and forcing parents to toss children from windows to rescuers.
    (AFP, 4/13/09)

2009        May 15, Polish gas firm PGNiG announced that it had signed a deal with the Qatari firm Qatargas for the supply of one million tons of liquefied natural gas (LNG) per year.
    (AP, 5/30/09)

2009        Apr 25, San Francisco celebrated a new sister city relationship with Krakow, Poland. The official signing was scheduled to take place in Krakow on July 3.
    (SFC, 4/25/09, p.B1)

2009        May 30, Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk indicated that Gulf capital was behind the consortium which bought two of Poland's three historic shipyards this week.
    (AFP, 5/30/09)

2009        Jun 30, In Poland officials began building a new museum of Jewish history in Warsaw that they hope will become a major cultural landmark. Museum officials say construction will cost around 150 million zlotys ($47 million) and should be completed in 2012. An earlier groundbreaking ceremony for the Museum of the History of Polish Jews took place in 2007 in the presence of the Polish president, but bureaucratic obstacles then held up construction.
    (AP, 6/30/09)

2009        Jul 14, The European Parliament elected ex-Polish Prime Minister Jerzy Buzek as its president, making him the first leader from a former Soviet bloc country to hold one of the top European Union posts.
    (Reuters, 7/14/09)

2009        Jul 23, In Poland say seven people died in violent storms.
    (AP, 7/24/09)

2009        Sep 17, Pres. Obama said he is abandoning Bush-era plans for a long-range missile defense system based in Poland and the Czech Rep. Czechs and Poles expressed rancor and relief that Obama was scrapping plans for the US missile defense shield on their territories, reflecting deep divisions over a proposal that had angered Russia.
    (AP, 9/17/09)(SFC, 9/18/09, p.A7)

2009        Sep 18, In Poland a methane leak in a coal mine set off an explosion that killed 12 miners in the southwestern city of Ruda Slaska.
    (AP, 9/18/09)

2009        Sep 25, Poland approved a law making chemical castration mandatory for pedophiles in some cases, sparking criticism from human rights groups.
    (Reuters, 9/25/09)

2009        Oct 6, In Poland Mariusz Kaminski, the head of the anti-corruption office, was charged with abuse of power after a sting operation in which he encouraged his agents to fabricate documents and offer bribes.
    (AP, 10/6/09)

2009        Oct 10, Polish President Lech Kaczynski signed the EU’s reform treaty, the Lisbon Treaty, into law, leaving the Czech Republic as the only country still to ratify the document.
    (Reuters, 10/10/09)

2009        Oct 11, Pope Benedict XVI canonized five new saints, including Father Damien, a 19th-century priest who worked with leprosy patients on a Hawaiian island; Zygmunt Szcezesny Felinski, a 19th-century Polish bishop who defended the Catholic faith during the years of the Russian annexation; Spaniards Francisco Coll y Guitart, who founded an order of Dominicans in the 19th century, and Rafael Arniaz Baron, who renounced an affluent lifestyle at age 22 to live a humble life in a strict monastery and dedicate himself to prayer; and Jeanne Jugan (d.1879), a French nun, who helped found the Little Sisters of the Poor.
    (AP, 10/11/09)

2009        Nov 26, Polish defense ministry spokesman Robert Rochowicz said the US and Poland have agreed terms for stationing US troops in Poland so that the deployment of US Patriot missiles can start next year.
    (AFP, 11/26/09)

2009        Nov 27, Poland's Pres. Kaczynski's Web site said he has approved legislation that allows for people to be fined or even imprisoned for possessing or buying communist symbols.
    (AP, 11/27/09)

2009        Dec 2, Poland said it plans to send 600 more troops to Afghanistan next year.
    (AP, 12/2/09)

2009        Dec 16, Germany said it is donating euro60 million ($87 million) to a new endowment for Auschwitz-Birkenau to preserve barracks, gas chambers and other evidence of Nazi crimes at the former death camp in Poland. The donation is half the amount experts believe is needed to preserve the camp.
    (AP, 12/17/09)

2009        Dec 18, In Poland the Nazis' infamous iron sign declaring "Arbeit Macht Frei," German for "Work Sets You Free," was stolen from the entrance of the former Auschwitz death camp. On Feb 2, 2010, a Polish court issued a European arrest warrant for former neo-Nazi leader Anders Hogstrom (34) of Sweden, on suspicion of incitement to commit theft of a cultural treasure. Hogstrom was arrested in Stockholm on Feb 11.
    (AP, 12/18/09)(SFC, 2/3/10, p.A2)(AP, 2/11/10)

2009        Dec 20, Polish police found the "Arbeit macht frei" metal sign that had hung over the former  Auschwitz Nazi death camp. It was cut in 3 pieces and hidden under snow. 5 men were detained for stealing it and police said the suspects were common thieves, not neo-Nazis.
    (Reuters, 12/21/09)(AP, 12/22/09)

2009         Poland ended conscription in favor of an all-volunteer army.
    (Econ, 8/17/13, p.44)
2009        Polish singer Dorota Rabczewska expressed doubt about the Bible during an interview. She said “it’s hard to believe in something that was written by someone drunk on wine and smoking some herbs." In 2012 a Warsaw court slapped her with a $1,450 fine for bad mouthing the Bible.
    (SFC, 1/17/12, p.A2)

2010        Jan 10, Heavy snowfall caused havoc in parts of Europe, causing hundreds of traffic accidents, downing power lines in Poland, halting flights out of southern France and trapping more than 160 people overnight on a frozen highway in northeastern coastal Germany.
    (AP, 1/10/10)

2010        Jan 12, A web site linked to leading Polish daily Gazeta Wyborcza reported that Poland's tax office has levied a fine of 2.3 million zlotys ($820,000) on an unemployed woman for failing to pay tax on income worth at least 13.7 million zlotys she said she had earned as a prostitute.
    (Reuters, 1/13/10)

2010        Feb 1, Polish scientists said they have discovered 3 Neanderthal teeth, dating  back some 100,000 to 80,000 years, in the Stajnia Cave, north of the Carpathian Mountains.
    (http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20100201/ap_on_re_eu/eu_poland_neanderthal_teeth)

2010        Feb 19, Pope Benedict XVI approved sainthood for Mother Mary MacKillop (1842-1909), making the woman known for her work among the needy Australia's first saint. Sainthood was also approved for Stanislaw Soltys, a 15th-century Polish priest; Italian nuns Giulia Salzano and Battista Varano; Spanish nun Candida Maria de Jesus Cipitria y Barriola and a Canadian brother, Andre Bessette (d.1937). The formal canonization will take place Oct. 17 in Rome.
    (AP, 2/19/10)

2010        Feb 23, A Polish court said a government move to slash the pensions of communist leaders who imposed martial law in 1981 was illegal. The Constitutional Tribunal ruled the move violated the constitution. It said the portion of the pensions earned during the crackdown itself could be cut but the rest could not. The cut, which took effect Jan 1, was part of a wider law intended to punish former officials and security agents for supporting the communist regime.
    (AP, 2/25/10)

2010        Mar 18, A Polish court convicted three men of the theft of the notorious "Arbeit Macht Frei" (Work Sets You Free) sign from the Auschwitz memorial site in December. The men, two of whom are brothers, were given prison sentences ranging from 18 months to 2 1/2 years.
    (AP, 3/18/10)

2010        Mar 19, A Krakow court ruled that allegations in the 2009 biography "Lech Walesa: The Idea and History" by Pawel Zyzak that Walesa served as a communist informant were slanderous. A 2000 special court already cleared Walesa of collaboration allegations.
    (AP, 3/19/10)
2010        Mar 19, Polish authorities said a herd of some 300 bison in southeastern Poland is at risk from tuberculosis after one recently died of the disease.
    (AP, 3/19/10)

2010        Apr 10, Polish President Lech Kaczynski (60) and some of the country's highest military and civilian leaders died when the presidential plane crashed as it came in for a landing in thick fog in western Russia, killing 96. The 26-year-old Tupolev was taking the president, his wife and staff to events marking the 70th anniversary of the massacre in Katyn forest of thousands of Polish officers by Soviet secret police. On board were the army chief of staff, the navy chief commander, and heads of the air and land forces. Also killed were the national bank president, deputy foreign minister, army chaplain, head of the National Security Office, deputy parliament speaker, Olympic Committee head, civil rights commissioner and at least two presidential aides and three lawmakers.
    (AP, 4/10/10)(AP, 4/11/10)

2010        Apr 19, Winners of the 2010 Goldman Environmental Prizes, known as the "green Nobels," were honored in San Francisco. Sereivathana Tuy of Cambodia won for his efforts in stopping farmers from killing elephants. Randall Arauz of Costa Rica won for his campaign to halt the maiming and killing of sharks for their fins. Humberto Rios Labrada (47) of Cuba won for his campaign to shift farming practices toward increasing diversity and reducing chemical use. Malgorzata Gorska of Poland won for her fight to stop a highway through the Rospuda Valley, one of Poland’s last vestiges of untouched wilderness. Thuli Makama of Swaziland won for her efforts in getting citizen participation on the Swaziland board in charge of the environment. She helped prompt investigations into allegations of private park rangers killing suspected poachers in sub-Saharan Africa's last absolute monarchy. Lynn Henning of the USA won for exposing polluting practices of livestock ranches in Michigan.
    (AP, 4/19/10)(SFC, 4/19/10, p.A1)

2010        May 8, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev turned over scores of volumes from an investigation into the Katyn massacre to his Polish counterpart, a move underlining Moscow's new willingness to repair long-troubled relations with Warsaw.
    (AP, 5/8/10)

2010        May 18, In southern Poland 2 days of flooding killed at least 9 people. Officials closed the Auschwitz-Birkenau memorial site to protect its Holocaust archives and artifacts. Heavy rains that began in central Europe last weekend also caused flooding in areas of Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, with rivers bursting their banks and inundating low-lying homes and roads, and cutting off villages.
    (AP, 5/18/10)(AP, 5/21/10)

2010        May 22, In Poland Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), the 16th-century astronomer whose findings were condemned by the Roman Catholic Church as heretical, was reburied by Polish priests as a hero, nearly 500 years after he was laid to rest in an unmarked grave.
    (AP, 5/22/10)

2010        May 23, Dozens of American soldiers and a battery of Patriot missiles arrived in Poland, where they will spend the next two years teaching the Polish military to operate the advanced guided missile system at a base just a few miles from the Russian border.
    (AP, 5/24/10)

2010        Jun 2, The US Embassy said that Polish police arrested Alexsander Efrosman, a businessman from Staten Island, New York, in Krakow last weekend. The US Commodity Futures Trading Commission said in a complaint filed in 2005 that Efrosman, who also goes by Alex Besser, stole about $5 million from customers of two fraudulent hedge funds that he claimed to manage, Century Maxim Fund, Inc. and AJR Capital Inc.
    (AP, 6/2/10)

2010        Jun 12, Germany’s federal prosecutor's office said that Polish authorities have arrested an alleged Mossad spy from Israel wanted in connection with the slaying of a Hamas agent in Dubai. A man using the name of Uri Brodsky was arrested in early June upon his arrival in Poland because of a European arrest warrant issued by Germany and Germany is now seeking his extradition.
    (AP, 6/12/10)

2010        Jun 20, Poles voted for a new head of state after president Lech Kaczynski perished in an air disaster. Poland's centrist presidential candidate Bronislaw Komorowski faced a tight run-off vote against his right-wing rival Jaroslaw Kaczynski on July 4 after beating him by only a few percentage points in today’s vote.
    (AFP, 6/20/10)(Reuters, 6/21/10)

2010        Jul 4, Poland’s moderate conservative Bronislaw Komorowski narrowly won the presidential election. Komorowski won 52.6% of the vote, according to results based on 95% of the ballots. Right-wing rival Jaroslaw Kaczynski performed much better than expected.
    (Reuters, 7/4/10)

2010        Jul 7, In Poland Warsaw district court Judge Tomasz Calkiewicz ordered that Uri Brodsky, a Mossad agent, be extradited to Germany on charges of forgery. Brodsky was suspected of helping fake a German passport that was used by a member of a hit squad  believed to be behind the killing of Mahmoud al-Mabhouh in Dubai in January.
    (AP, 7/7/10)

2010        Jul 9, Italy's Fiat, which controls Chrysler Group LCC, said it will proceed with a euro700 million ($886 million) investment to move production of its new Panda compact from Poland to a plant near Naples despite an unresolved dispute with an Italian union.
    (AP, 7/9/10)

2010        Jul 12, Polish priest Henryk Jankowski (73), who gained prominence in the 1980s by supporting Lech Walesa's Solidarity movement but who later saw his reputation marred by anti-Semitism and suspicions of pedophilia, died in Gdansk.
    (AP, 7/12/10)

2010        Jul 17, In Poland thousands of gays and lesbians from around Europe marched through Warsaw to demand equal rights and more tolerance toward homosexuals.
    (AP, 7/17/10)

2010        Aug 6, Poland's new Pres. Bronislaw Komorowski was sworn in and pledged to serve as a unifying force and work closely with European allies.
    (AP, 8/6/10)

2010        Aug 9, In central Europe swollen rivers surged north after carving a swath of destruction across Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic. At least 11 people were reported killed.
    (AP, 8/9/10)(SFC, 8/9/10, p.A2)

2010        Aug 10, In Poland several thousand protestors rallied before Warsaw's presidential palace to seek the removal of a cross erected there after the April air crash death of president Lech Kaczynski.
    (AP, 8/10/10)

2010        Sep 8, Belgian police say 10 people have been arrested in raids across Europe against hackers who put illegal copies of movies and television series on the Internet. Police said 5 arrests were in Belgium and the other arrests were made in Poland, Norway and Sweden, where the alleged leaders of four computer piracy networks were being held.
    (AP, 9/8/10)

2010        Sep 16, In Poland Akhmed Zakayev (51), a senior Chechen separatist wanted in Russia for alleged murder, kidnapping and terrorism, was arrested in Warsaw where he was to attend a conference organized by the World Chechen Congress. Zakayev, who lives in Britain, was apprehended "without any trouble" on an international warrant issued by Russia. Zakayev was released the next day.
    (AP, 9/17/10)(AP, 9/18/10)

2010        Sep 22, A Polish prosecutor said his office has opened an investigation into whether Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri, a Saudi man accused in the 2000 bombing of the USS Cole, was mistreated in a prison that the CIA allegedly ran in Poland.
    (AP, 9/22/10)

2010        Sep 23, Russia turned over to Poland 20 new files from a probe into the 1940 Katyn massacre that could be key in proving that Soviet secret police carefully planned the killing of thousands of Poles.
    (AP, 9/23/10)

2010        Sep 26, In Germany a Polish tour bus crashed on its way home from a Spanish holiday, killing 13 people. 32 remained hospitalized the next day.
    (AP, 9/27/10)

2010        Sep 27, In Afghanistan a Polish soldier died of injuries sustained when a land mine exploded under his patrol vehicle in the eastern province of Ghazni.
    (AP, 9/27/10)

2010        Oct 12, In central Poland a van crammed with farm workers crashed head-on into a truck after apparently trying to overtake another vehicle in dense fog, killing all 18 people on board.
    (AP, 10/12/10)

2010        Nov 6, In Poland a gigantic statue of Jesus that Poles claim is the world's largest rose majestically above the small town of Swiebodzin, as the grandiose dream of a local priest finally came to pass. Residents believed it will put their town of 22,000 on the map for tourists.
    (AP, 11/6/10)

2010        Nov 12, Henryk Mikolaj Gorecki (76), Polish classical composer, died following a serious illness in Katowice. Gorecki was best known for his Symphony 3 "Sorrowful Songs," which was published in the US in 1994 and became a best-seller, with more than one million copies sold.
    (AP, 11/12/10)

2010        Nov 21, Poles voted in local elections expected to reward the government's reluctance to trim the welfare state in the EU's largest new member, the only one in Europe to avoid a recession.
    (AP, 11/21/10)

2010        Dec 2, Heavy snow caused travel chaos across much of northern Europe, keeping London's Gatwick airport closed for a second day and disrupting road and rail travel in France, Germany and Switzerland. Freezing temperatures and often blinding snowfall killed 12 people, 10 in Poland and 2 in Germany. Poland had already reported 8 dead due to the cold. Some of the worst floods in a century devastated parts of the Balkans. Authorities declared a state of emergency in Bosnia, Serbia and Montenegro.
    (Reuters, 12/2/10)(AP, 12/2/10)

2010        Dec 3, In Poland the death toll from a deep freeze increased to 30 with a dozen more deaths overnight. The death toll across Europe reached at least 40.
    (AP, 12/3/10)

2010        Dec 6, Poland's parliament got notice of its first ever African lawmaker, a teacher and Christian pastor from Nigeria who has lived in Poland for 17 years and proven himself a popular local leader. John Abraham Godson (40), a councilman in the central city of Lodz, will fill a seat in the national parliament vacated by a fellow lawmaker from the Civic Platform party.
    (AP, 12/7/10)

2010        Dec 13, In Argentina a yacht returning from Antarctica smashed ashore in a storm near the city of Ushuaia, killing two Polish brothers, Marek and Pawel Radwanski, and injuring five other people.
    (AP, 12/16/10)

2010        Dec 30, In Poland Anders Hogstrom, a Swedish man, was sentenced to two years and eight months in prison for instigating the December 2009 theft of the notorious "Arbeit Macht Frei" ("Work Sets You Free") sign from the former Auschwitz death camp.
    (AP, 12/30/10)
2010        Dec 30, In southwestern Poland 3 miners were killed by falling rocks after a minor earthquake at a copper mine.
    (AP, 12/30/10)

2011        Jan 25, It was reported that Poland's state-run National Remembrance Institute has created a new game called "Kolejka," or "Queue," to help young Poles understand the hardships of life under communism. It goes on sale Feb. 5.
    (AP, 1/25/11)

2011        Feb 5, The body of Monika Markiewicz (32), a Polish national and musician on the cruise ship Allure of the Sea, was recovered from the sea off Cozumel, Mexico. An autopsy determined she drowned but also had suffered a blow to the head. Nelson Perez Torres (24) later confessed to hitting Markiewicz in the head with a rock and then throwing her into the ocean in Quintana Roo state, where Cozumel is located.
    (AP, 2/9/11)(AP, 2/10/11)

2011        Feb 11, A top US diplomat for arms control said Poland and other Eastern European countries are expressing concern to the United States about an arsenal of tactical nuclear weapons believed to be at their doorsteps in Russia's Kaliningrad exclave.
    (AP, 2/11/11)

2011        Mar 28, An association of Israelis of Polish descent slammed Warsaw's decision to suspend plans to offer compensation for property seized during the Nazi and communist eras. Citing economic conditions Polish PM Donald Tusk last week suspended work on a law that would have given some compensation to former owners of lost property.
    (AP, 3/28/11)

2011        Apr 5, In Poland the restored synagogue at Zamosc, Renaissance gem looted by the Nazis, was presented to the public in a ceremony attended by Jewish leaders, US and Israeli diplomats and city officials. It will serve occasionally as a house of worship for Jewish tourists who visit death camps in the area.
    (AP, 4/3/11)

2011        May 6, In Poland one miner and one rescuer were already confirmed dead after methane ignited some 2,700 feet (820 meters) underground at the Krupinski mine near Katowice. The body of a missing rescuer was found on May 12, bringing the death toll to 3.
    (AP, 5/12/11)

2011        May 16, In Poland representatives of millions of Poles, whose property was seized during and after World War II, met for a national congress that lashed out at the Cabinet of PM Donald Tusk for recently abandoning a plan to partly compensate families, many of them Jewish, whose property was confiscated by the Nazis and the subsequent Communist regime.
    (AP, 5/16/11)

2011        May 26, In Peru Polish couple Jaroslaw Frackiewicz (70) and his wife, Celina Mroz (58), were last seen while kayaking on the Ucayali River. On July 8 police arrested Fidel Garcia (27). an ethnic Ashaninka. Garcia implicated his brother-in-law Freddy Ruiz and uncle Roger Ruiz in the couple’s killing.
    (AP, 7/11/11)

2011        May 27, President Barack Obama's last stop on his European tour brought him to Poland for the first time, giving him the chance to inject new vigor in a relationship with an ally that has sometimes felt slighted by Washington.
    (AP, 5/27/11)

2011        May 28, In Poland US President Barack Obama pledged close cooperation with Poland on missile defense, the upgrading of its air defenses and in developing shale gas and nuclear power to boost its energy security.
    (Reuters, 5/28/11)

2011        Jul 1, Poland took over the rotating presidency of the EU.
    (Econ, 6/25/11, p.66)

2011        Aug 5, In Poland Andrzej Lepper (57), a pig farmer-turned-firebrand populist who was briefly deputy prime minister (2006-2007) in a shaky government and who was later disgraced by bribery and sex scandals, was found dead in what police suspected to be a suicide.
    (AP, 8/6/11)

2011        Aug 12, Poland's PM Donald Tusk lambasted prosecutors for giving Belarusian police confidential financial information on Ales Belyatsky, a prominent human rights activist. The information contributed to his arrest and allowed Belarusian authorities to file criminal charges against him.
    (AP, 8/12/11)

2011        Aug 16, Poland's prosecutor general announced the dismissal of two officials who played a role in giving Belarus financial data about Ales Belyatsky, a leading human rights activist, information that resulted in his arrest.
    (AP, 8/16/11)

2011        Aug 21, In Poland two small planes have crashed within half an hour of each other in separate accidents in the southern part of the country, killing six people.
    (AP, 8/21/11)

2011        Sep 1, Poland’s government, Jewish community and Holocaust survivors all strongly condemned the desecrated Jedwabne monument marking the spot where hundreds of Jews were burned alive during World War II. Police discovered the desecration a day earlier during a patrol and sought the culprits.
    (AP, 9/1/11)

2011        Oct 8, Polish authorities said 2 Polish men have been arrested and charged with carrying out a string of bomb attacks at IKEA stores across Europe and trying to extort millions from the Swedish furniture giant. They were identified as Mikolaj G. and Adam K., both 39-year-olds from the northern city of Gdynia.
    (AP, 10/8/11)

2011        Oct 9, Poles voted in parliamentary elections that will determine whether the country continues on its conciliatory course with Russia and Germany, or whether it returns to a more combative stance with its historic foes. Results showed that PM Tusk’s pro-European party could maintain a narrow majority in parliament with its small coalition partner, a sign of deepening stability in this nation of 38 million. The Palikot's Movement, a new left-wing party that opposes the church's influence in political life in this conservative and mainly Catholic country, entered parliament as the third largest force.
    (AP, 10/9/11)(AP, 10/10/11)

2011        Nov 8, In Poland a transsexual woman and an openly gay man took seats in the newly elected parliament, historic firsts that reflect profound social change in this traditionally Roman Catholic country. Both belong to Palikot's Movement, a new progressive party that became the third-largest party in parliament in the Oct. 9 election.
    (AP, 11/8/11)

2011        Nov 11, Polish police arrested 210 people during Independence Day marches that turned violent, and that nearly half of them were Germans. 40 police officers were injured and 14 police cars destroyed. Far-right protesters, football hooligans and anarchists from Germany were blamed.
    (AP, 11/12/11)

2012        Jan 9, In western Poland military prosecutor Col. Mikolaj Przybyl, the head of a local department investigating organized crime in the army, shot himself in the head after defending the work of his office and rejecting planned reforms. Przybyl survived the shooting in Poznan and said he tried to commit suicide because his own work has been used as a reason supporting plans to close military prosecution offices in Poland.
    (AP, 1/9/12)(AP, 1/10/12)

2012        Jan 12, In Poland the Warsaw Provincial Court found retired Gen. Czeslaw Kiszczak guilty on charges of membership in an armed criminal group that illegally declared a clampdown and violated the freedom of many Poles in 1981. The former interior minister was given a two-year suspended prison term for his role in implementing martial law in Poland on Dec 13 1981.
    (AP, 1/12/12)

2012        Feb 1, In Poland Wislawa Szymborska (b.1923), Nobel-winning poet (1996), died. She published fewer than 400 poems.
    (AP, 2/9/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wis%C5%82awa_Szymborska)

2012        Feb 3, The death toll from a severe cold spell in Eastern Europe rose to 222, including 101 in the Ukraine, 37 in Poland, 24 in Romania and 16 in Bulgaria.
    (AFP, 2/1/12)

2012        Feb 15, Authorities said more than 600 people in Eastern Europe have died during a record-breaking cold snap. Officials in the Czech Republic blamed two massive car pile-ups on blinding snow. Authorities in Russia said 205 people have died, while in Ukraine there have been 112 fatalities; in Poland, 107. Authorities said 7 people have died in Romania in the past 24 hours, bringing the total there to 86 deaths.
    (AP, 2/15/12)

2012        Feb 17, Polish politician Janusz Palikot and several activists smoked marijuana in front of parliament in Warsaw as part of a campaign to liberalize the country’s drug laws.
    (SFC, 2/18/12, p.A2)

2012        Mar 3, In southern Poland 2 trains running on the same track collided head-on in a shower of sparks, killing 16 people and injuring 58 in the country's worst train disaster in more than 20 years.
    (AP, 3/4/12)

2012        Mar 28, In Poland former intelligence chief Zbigniew Siemiatkowski was charged with exceeding his powers related to a secret CIA prison in Poland during his tenure (2002-2004). Former CIA officials have told the AP that a prison in Poland operated from December 2002 until the fall of 2003, and that prisoners were subjected to harsh questioning and waterboarding in the village of Stare Kiejkuty. Intelligence officials, aviation reports and human rights groups have said "black sites" were based in Afghanistan and Thailand as well as Poland, Lithuania and Romania.
    (SFC, 3/29/12, p.A2)(AP, 3/31/12)

2012        Apr 25, European ministers began returning to Belarus. Poland, Lithuania and Sweden sent their representatives back to Minsk today. Other ambassadors will return over the next hours and days.
    (Reuters, 4/25/12)

2012        Jul 31, In Poland US Republican presidential contender Mitt Romney said Poland's economy is a model of small government and free enterprise that other nations should emulate as they struggle with recession. This was his final stop on a three-nation tour designed to boost his foreign policy resume with voters back home.
    (AP, 7/31/12)

2012        Aug 10, In Poland a prosecutor said a charred body found at a cemetery is believed to be that of a priest, identified as Boguslaw P., who was charged this week with sexually abusing two teenage boys 10 years ago.
    (SFC, 8/11/12, p.A2)

2012        Aug 17, Polish prosecutors charged the owner of Amber Gold Fund, a suspended investment fund, with illegal activity in a case that has increased government scrutiny of the country's private financial firms. More than 400 of its clients have written to the prosecutors to seek reimbursement of their money. They were lured to the fund by promises of a 10 percent interest. Prosecutors later said investors lost about 163 million zlotys ($50 million; €40 million), a number that has been mounting as more and more victims come forward.
    (AP, 8/17/12)(AP, 8/28/12)

2012        Sep 29, In Poland thousands blew horns, prayed and waved flags in downtown Warsaw to show their anger over a new law that raises the retirement age and a host of other issues. A new law put through by the pro-market government of Prime Minister Donald Tusk will gradually raise the retirement age to 67 for all Poles from 60 for women and 65 for men.
    (AP, 9/29/12)

2012        Nov 2, In  Poland a prosecutor said a woman, identified only as Beata Z. (41), has been arrested on suspicion of killing at least five of her newborn babies.
    (AP, 11/2/12)

2012        Nov 9, A Polish university researcher driven by nationalistic and anti-Semitic hatred was arrested for planning to detonate a four-ton bomb in front of the Parliament building in Warsaw with the president, prime minister, government ministers and lawmakers inside.
    (AP, 11/20/12)

2012        Dec 21, Poland’s Interior Ministry said the death toll from sub-freezing temperatures that set in in December was 49 people so far, compared to 19 in the whole of December last year. Another 15 people died of cold in October and five in November. Another 41 have been killed by carbon monoxide inhalation from coal or other ways of heating their homes since temperatures started falling.
    (AP, 12/21/12)

2012        Halik Kochanski authored “The Eagle Unbowed: Poland and the Poles in the Second World War."
    (Economist, 9/29/12, p.88)

2013        Jan 23, Cardinal Jozef Glemp (83), the longtime head of Poland's influential Roman Catholic church, died. He helped lead the nation peacefully through martial law and the fight against communism.
    (AP, 1/24/13)(Econ, 2/2/13, p.86)

2013        Mar 1, In  Poland Lech Walesa said in a television interview that he believes gays have no right to sit on the front benches in Parliament and, if represented at all, should sit in the back, "and even behind a wall."
    (AP, 3/3/13)

2013        Mar 18, US officials visiting Warsaw tried to reassure Poland that the cancellation of the final stage of a European missile defense system will not sideline the country and was not made to appease Russia.
    (AP, 3/18/13)

2013        Mar 19, Romania's defense minister said US plans to deploy anti-missile interceptors in his country are going ahead and that Romania has an "exceptional" partnership with the United States. US officials have stressed they will deploy shorter-range missiles to Poland and Romania.
    (AP, 3/19/13)

2013        Mar 25, Abu Zubaydah, a Guantanamo detainee who allegedly revealed valuable information about 9-11 mastermind Khalid Sheikh Mohamed, sued  Poland. Lawyers said he was held in a CIA black site in Poland (2002-2003), which they say has withheld critical information needed to investigate his case.
    (AP, 3/27/13)

2013        Apr 1, Barbara Piasecka Johnson (b.1937), the Polish widow of J. Seward Johnson Sr. (d.1983), heir to millions made from bandages, baby oil and pharmaceutical products, died. She had inherited much of the Johnson & Johnson fortune after a sensational court battle with her six stepchildren.
    (AP, 4/4/13)

2013        Apr 13, Poland unveiled a giant statue of the late Pope John Paul II in the southern city of Czestochowa and billed it as the world's tallest.
    (AP, 4/13/13)

2013        Apr 19, Poland inaugurated its new $100 million Museum of the History of Polish Jews in the heart of the former Warsaw ghetto.
    (SFC, 4/19/13, p.A3)

2013        May 29, The EU granted France, Spain, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and Slovenia more time to bring their budget deficits under control to support the bloc's shrinking economy. The European Commission approved France’s request to postpone by 2 years the target of cutting its budget deficit to 3% of GDP.
    (AP, 5/29/13)(Econ, 6/1/13, p.55)

2013        Jun 12, Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu kicked off a two-day visit to Poland. He met Polish PM Donald Tusk in Warsaw and then headed south to inaugurate a new Auschwitz pavilion meant to educate visitors about the Holocaust and the WWII Nazi quest to exterminate the Jewish people.
    (AP, 6/12/13)

2013        Aug 23, The Belgian prosecutor's office said a three-nation investigation (Belgium, Netherlands, Poland) has led to one of the biggest seizures of synthetic drugs in Europe, a haul of core products to create Ecstasy pills with a street value of 1.3 billion euros ($1.75 billion).
    (AP, 8/23/13)

2013        Sep 9, Poland's conservative opposition Law and Justice Party won a parliamentary by-election with an increased margin, delivering a fresh blow to PM Donald Tusk's government.
    (Reuters, 9/9/13)

2013        Sep 14, In  Poland some 100,000 union members marched through Warsaw to protest the government’s labor and wage policies.
    (SSFC, 9/15/13, p.A4)

2013        Sep 29, In  Poland Pavel Khodorkovsky, a son of Russian tycoon Mikhail Khodorkovsky, received a $100,000 human rights award on behalf of his imprisoned father during a ceremony conducted by Solidarity founder Lech Walesa.
    (AP, 9/29/13)

2013        Oct 2, Polish police said they have located Rev. Wojciech Gil, a priest sought by Interpol on suspicion he sexually abused children in the Dominican Republic, where he led a parish in the mountain town of Juncalito for eight years.
    (AP, 10/2/13)

2013        Oct 4, Poland's Catholic Church said it will not pay compensation to victims of priests who sexually abused children. Rev. Jozef Kloch said in comments aired by Polish Radio 1 that the responsibility for compensation lies with the perpetrator.
    (AP, 10/4/13)

2013        Oct 28, In Poland Tadeusz Mazowiecki (b.1927), Eastern Europe's first democratic prime minister after communism, died. He was a key adviser to Poland's Solidarity freedom movement and UN human rights envoy to Bosnia in the 1990s.
    (AP, 10/28/13)

2013        Nov 11, Violence marred Polish independence day as ultra-nationalist rioters went on the rampage outside the Russian embassy in Warsaw, igniting a diplomatic row with Moscow.
    (AFP, 11/12/13)

2013        Nov 13, In Russia protesters threw firecrackers at the Polish embassy in Moscow in response to a similar attack on the Russian mission in Warsaw, further straining ties between countries with a history of troubled relations.
    (Reuters, 11/13/13)

2013        Nov 19, In Poland 18 people were detained on suspicion of large scale corruption. They included current and former state officials.
    (SFC, 11/20/13, p.A2)

2013        Nov 20, Poland’s PM Donald Tusk reshuffled his Cabinet. Jacek Rostowski, the man who has led the country’s economy since 2007, was among those sacked.
    (Econ, 11/23/13, p.56)
2013        Nov 20, At UN talks in Poland the governments of Norway, Britain and the United States said they will allocate $280 million of their multi-billion dollar climate change finances to a new initiative aimed at halting deforestation.
    (Reuters, 11/20/13)

2013        Nov 21, In Poland around 800 people from environmental groups, including Greenpeace and WWF, walked out of UN climate talks in Warsaw in protest at what they see as a lack of progress towards a global deal to curb greenhouse gas emissions.
    (Reuters, 11/21/13)

2013        Nov 22, In Poland UN negotiators agreed rules on financing forest projects in developing nations, paving the way for multi-billion dollar investments from governments, funding agencies and private firms in schemes to halt deforestation.
    (Reuters, 11/22/13)

2013        Nov 23, In Poland UN negotiators reached consensus on some of the foundations for an ambitious, global climate pact, modifying wording in a document that had threatened to derail talks in Warsaw. The Conference of the parties (COP) agreed that countries would make contributions to climate change reduction.
    (AFP, 11/23/13)(Econ, 11/30/13, p.59)

2013        Dec 2, In central Poland a priest (49) was sentenced to more than eight years after being convicted of sexually abusing five boys.
    (AP, 12/2/13)

2013        Dec 6, The death toll from hurricane-force Storm Xaver sweeping across northern Europe rose to 6 when high winds hurled a tree limb against a car, killing 3 people in Poland. Britain and Denmark had already reported 3 deaths. Thousands of people in Britain faced a second day of flooding as the country confronted its worst tidal surge in 60 years after Xaver roared across northern Europe.
    (Reuters, 12/6/13)(AP, 12/6/13)

2013        Dec 7, Polish authorities said icy winter storms with hurricane-force winds battering northern Europe have claimed four more lives in Poland, where some 350,000 homes remained without power. This brought the reported death toll from the storms across north Europe to 14.
    (AFP, 12/7/13)

2013        Dec 29, In Poland Wojciech Kilar (b.1932), pianist and composer of classical music and scores for many films, including Roman Polanski's Oscar-winning "The Pianist" (2002) and Francis Ford Coppola's "Bram Stoker's Dracula" (1992), died in his hometown of Katowice.
    (AP, 12/29/13)

2014        Jan 28, A Polish court convicted seven Poles for attacking Mexican cadets last year in a massive beach fight on the Baltic coast, and sent them to jail. Some 300 Poles had attacked 57 Mexican naval cadets who were on a training voyage aboard a sailing vessel docked in Gdynia.
    (AP, 1/28/14)

2014        Feb 18, Polish prosecutors said they have charged a Catholic priest (Wojciech G.) with four counts of sex abuse against children in Poland and in the Dominican Republic, where he was working in a rural parish.
    (Reuters, 2/18/14)

2014        Feb 19, Poland's deputy foreign minister said consensus has been reached among EU states about imposing sanctions on Ukrainian officials over the violence in Kiev that has killed dozens of people.
    (Reuters, 2/19/14)

2014        Mar 6, Poland's defense minister said a mission of observers from the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) has been stopped from entering Ukraine's Crimean Peninsula by unidentified men in military fatigues.
    (Reuters, 3/6/14)

2014        May 7, Poland awarded a prize for championing democracy and human rights to Mustafa Dzhemilev, a leader of the Tatar community in Ukraine's Crimea peninsula who says he was barred from the region after Russia annexed it.
    (Reuters, 5/7/14)

2014        May 15, Prime ministers from central European countries backed Polish plans for close energy cooperation and agreed to draft joint crisis management plans for the possibility of a cut in natural gas from Russia in the coming months.
    (Reuters, 5/15/14)

2014        May 25, In Poland General Wojciech Jaruzelski (90) died. The Communist leader for years had helped the Kremlin suppress dissent behind the Iron Curtain before finally allowing democratic rule.
    (Reuters, 5/26/14)(Econ, 6/14/14, p.86)

2014        Jun 3, Pres. Obama said the United States is preparing to boost its military presence in Europe and at a cost of up to $1 billion. The announcement in Poland came at the start of a three-country swing through Europe steeped in both historical significance and regional anxiety over the crisis in Ukraine.
    (AP, 6/3/14)

2014        Jun 4, US President Barack Obama endorsed Ukraine's president-elect Petro Poroshenko, offering Kiev financial and security help and saying he was the right choice to lead the country through its stand-off with Moscow. Obama spoke in Warsaw ahead of a G7 meeting in Brussels.
    (Reuters, 6/4/14)(AP, 6/4/14)

2014        Jun 14, Polish magazine Wprost published a recording in which central bank head Marek Belka told Interior Minister Bartlomiej Sienkiewicz last July that he would help the government get out of financial trouble if it fired the finance minister.
    (AP, 6/16/14)

2014        Jul 16, In Poland a malfunction at a power plant near Kozienice caused a leakage of fuel, prompting emergency officials to work to make sure it doesn't contaminate the nearby Vistula River.
    (AP, 7/16/14)

2014        Jul 17, Polish rescue services said 7 people have been killed after falling into a septic tank where they were overcome by toxic gas in the western village of Karczowka.
    (Reuters, 7/17/14)

2014        Jul 23, Polish state airline LOT suspended its flights to Israel from Warsaw until July 28 because of concern for passengers' safety.
    (Reuters, 7/23/14)

2014        Jul 24, The European Court of Human Rights ruled that Poland violated the rights of two terror suspects by allowing the CIA to secretly imprison them on Polish soil in 2002 and 2003 and facilitating conditions for torture. Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri, a Palestinian terror suspect, and Abu Zubaida, a Saudi national charged with orchestrating the 2000 attack on the USS Cole, were currently imprisoned at Guantanamo.
    (SFC, 7/25/14, p.A5)

2014        Aug 14, Ukrainian hackers hostile to the government claimed to have launched a cyber-attack against the websites of Poland's presidency and the Warsaw Stock Exchange.
    (AFP, 8/14/14)

2014        Aug 15, Poland put on its biggest military parade in years to mark its annual armed forces holiday.
    (AP, 8/15/14)

2014        Aug 19, Poland said it has asked the European Commission to lodge a formal complaint to the World Trade Organization (WTO) over a Russian ban on EU food products that has hit Poland particularly hard.
    (Reuters, 8/19/14)

2014        Aug 23, Several thousand people formed a human chain across the German-Polish border to protest the expansion of mining for brown coal, aka lignite, in the region.
    (SSFC, 8/24/14, p.A6)

2014        Aug 30, EU leaders chose Polish PM Donald Tusk as the new president of their Council and Italian Foreign Minister Federica Mogherini as the bloc's new foreign policy chief.
    (Reuters, 8/31/14)

2014        Sep 10, Poland's PGNiG gas utility said its gas deliveries from Russia's Gazprom had been cut by 24 percent, amid heightened tensions over the Ukraine crisis.
    (AFP, 9/10/14)

2014        Sep 18, Poland said it will create a joint military unit with Lithuania and Ukraine, with its command headquarters in the eastern Polish city of Lublin.
    (Reuters, 9/18/14)

2014        Sep 24, In Poland some 200 coal miners blocked railway tracks on the border with Russia to protest imports of cheap Russian coal, saying it threatens their jobs.
    (AP, 9/24/14)

2014        Oct 6, In Poland a methane blast occurred 660 meters (1,265 feet) below the surface at the Myslowice-Wesola mine near the city of Katowice. The body of one missing miner was later recovered. 30 miners were hospitalized with burns and 2 died later from their burns.
    (AP, 10/18/14)

2014        Oct 22, Polish prosecutors said a parish priest, identified as Wojciech Gil, has been formally charged in Poland with sexually molesting minors in both in Poland (2000-2001) and the Dominican Republic (2009-2013).
    (AP, 10/22/14)

2014        Oct 28, Polish President Bronislaw Komorowski and Israeli President Reuven Rivli joined Holocaust survivors for a ceremony to open a multimedia museum that tells the 1,000-year history of Jewish life in Poland. The POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews opened in 2013 and is located at the site that once was the center of the Warsaw Ghetto.
    (AP, 10/28/14)(Econ, 4/9/15, p.55)

2014        Nov 11, In Poland police in Warsaw used water cannon to push back several hundred masked men who broke away from a far-right march and threw stones and flares at lines of riot police. Nationalist groups march through Warsaw each year to mark the anniversary of independence, but for the fourth year in a row the procession turned violent.
    (Reuters, 11/11/14)

2014        Nov 16, Poland held regional elections. On Nov 22 official results said the ruling center-right Civic Platform (PO) won 179 seats in provincial assemblies. The conservative bloc led by PiS came 2nd, with 169 seats.
    (Reuters, 11/23/14)

2014        Nov 17, Russia expelled several Polish diplomats for spying, deepening the worst East-West crisis since the Cold War as the EU eyed fresh sanctions against Moscow over the violence in Ukraine.
    (AFP, 11/17/14)

2014        Dec 1, In Poland Robert Biedron (38) became mayor of Slupsk and the country's first openly gay mayor.
    (AP, 12/1/14)

2014        Dec 8, Poland said it has decided to refuse a toxic waste shipment from a pesticide plant in El Salvador that was to be destroyed at an incineration plant in a southern town, after the local community in Dabrowa Gornicza raised concerns.
    (AP, 12/8/14)

2014        Dec 10, Poland's constitutional court overturned a ban on the ritual slaughter of animals which had affected the Jewish and Muslim communities.
    (AP, 12/10/14)

2014        Dec 13, In Poland thousands of supporters of a conservative opposition party marched to protest the results of recent local elections, which party leader Jaroslaw Kaczynski says were falsified. Kaczynski's critics accuse him of making false claims about the election outcome to motivate his base ahead of national elections next year.
    (AP, 12/13/14)

2014        Dec 26, Former Harvard lecturer Stanislaw Baranczak (68), Poland's outstanding poet, translator and dissident, died at his home near Boston, Mass.
    (AP, 12/27/14)

2014        Poland ranked 45th in the World Bank’s ease-of-doing-business index.
    (Econ, 3/15/14, p.52)
2014        Canada-based historian Jan Grabowski was awarded the 2014 Yad Vashem International Book Prize for Holocaust Research for his book "Hunt for the Jews: Betrayal and Murder in German-Occupied Poland," which documents the involvement of Poles in finding and killing Jews during the German occupation of Poland during World War II.
    (AP, 6/20/17)

2015        Jan 1, In Poland a so-called "oncology package" was introduced requiring family doctors to diagnose and fast-track cancer patients. Doctors said this will leave less time and attention for all other patients, threatening their health. Hundreds of doctors refused to sign the new plan and kept their surgeries closed.
    (AP, 1/5/15)

2015        Jan 7, Tadeusz Konwicki (b.1926), a prominent Polish writer and filmmaker. died in Warsaw. His works during the communist era lampooned the authoritarian Soviet-imposed system.  He was best known for his novels "A Minor Apocalypse," a satire of life in a totalitarian state, and "The Polish Complex," a polemic on a national historical condition tragically defined by military defeats and foreign occupation.
    (AP, 1/8/15)

2015        Jan 26, Poland led EU criticism of bilateral farm deals with Moscow following a French accord with Russia to lift its ban on live pig and pork imports.
    (Reuters, 1/26/15)

2015        Jan 30, France pledged tanks and armored vehicles to bolster NATO forces in Poland, where leaders are increasingly uneasy about Russia.
    (AP, 1/30/15)
2015        Jan 30, NATO said it will deploy small units in six Eastern European nations to help coordinate a spearhead force set up in response to Russia's actions in Ukraine. The units in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria and Romania will be the first of their kind there.
    (AP, 1/30/15)

2015        Feb 6, Poland’s lawmakers voted 254-175 with eight abstentions to empower Pres. Komorowski to sign into law the 2011 Council of Europe's convention on combating violence against women and domestic violence.
    (AP, 2/6/15)

2015        Feb 11, In Poland hundreds of angry farmers drove their tractors toward Warsaw, where their leaders were seeking government compensation for crops destroyed by wild boar, profits undercut by Russia's import ban and new market regulations.
    (AP, 2/11/15)

2015        Feb 22, In the 87th Academy Awards Poland won its first ever foreign language movie Oscar for "Ida."
    (SFC, 2/23/15, p.E1)

2015        Feb 23, The Russian consumer watchdog Rospotrebnadzor said it has suspended since Feb 20 all imports of cheese from Poland due to irregularities in "normative requirements".
    (Reuters, 2/23/15)

2015        Mar 4, Poland's central bank cut its key interest rate by half a percentage point to a historic low of 1.5 percent amid concerns over deflation, a sustained drop in consumer prices that can hurt the economy.
    (AP, 3/4/15)

2015        Mar 17, In Poland rioting by some 300 young people in Sosnowiec follows two nights of disturbances near Warsaw over the death of another young man apprehended by the police. Two officers were hurt as police detained 14 people. They blamed the police for the death last week of a 23-year-old man, apprehended in the street and taken to a sobering center, where he lost consciousness.
    (AP, 3/18/15)

2015        Mar 18, Poland's foreign minister says his government will reciprocate if Russia continues to bill for Poland's diplomatic buildings after the Arbitration Court in St. Petersburg allowed bailiffs to evict Poland's consulate there, saying Poland owes some $1 million in rent.
    (AP, 3/18/15)

2015        Mar 25, A Polish court sentenced former priest Wojciech Gill to seven years in prison for abusing six minors in the Dominican Republic between 2009 and 2013, as well as two in Poland in 2001-2002.
    (SFC, 3/26/15, p.A2)

2015        Apr 15, Poland's PM Ewa Kopacz criticized a fiercely nationalistic Russian biker gang's plans to ride through Europe to celebrate the Soviet Union's victory over Nazi Germany in World War II.
    (AFP, 4/15/15)

2015        Apr 24, Poland’s Foreign Ministry says it will not allow the Night Wolves, a Russian nationalistic motorcycle group loyal to President Vladimir Putin, to enter Poland to commemorate next week the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II.
    (AP, 4/24/15)
2015        Apr 24, Polish statesman Wladyslaw Bartoszewski (93), died. The Polish Red Cross got him out of Auschwitz in 1941 and he wrote down the first account of the place.
    (Econ, 5/9/15, p.86)

2015        Apr 27, Polish border guards blocked 10 nationalistic Russian bikers loyal to President Vladimir Putin from entering Poland as part of a ride to commemorate the Red Army's victory over Nazi Germany 70 years ago.
    (AP, 4/27/15)

2015        Apr 29, Polish authorities accused Russian journalist Leonid Sviridov of posing a threat to Poland's security, saying that he should lose his right to reside in Poland and the European Union.
    (AP, 4/29/15)

2015        May 2, In Poland one man died after being hit by a rubber bullet and 14 police officers were injured in clashes that erupted during a league football match in Knurow.
    (AP, 5/3/15)

2015        May 3, In Poland thirty people were arrested and five police vans damaged during a second night of violence in Knurow. This followed the death of a soccer fan hit by a rubber bullet fired by police a day earlier.
    (AP, 5/4/15)

2015        May 4, Polish President Bronislaw Komorowski approved a resolution that gave his formal consent to the establishment of a joint Polish-Lithuanian-Ukrainian military unit. The joint brigade will serve separately from the three countries’ military commands, but will participate in NATO, United Nations and European Union operations.
    (Reuters, 5/4/15)
2015        May 4, In southern Poland nine people were arrested following the third night of violence in Knurow, in southern Poland, triggered by the death of a football fan hit by a rubber bullet fired by police.
    (AP, 5/5/15)

2015        May 10, Poland held presidential elections. Incumbent Bronislaw Komorowski was expected to be re-elected, but not in the first round of balloting. Exit polls showed that Komorowski took just 33 percent of the votes compared to more than 34 percent for Andrzej Duda (42), backed by the right-wing Law and Justice party.
    (AP, 5/10/15)(AP, 5/11/15)

2015        May 15, The Polish Foreign Ministry said that it was processing payments, ordered last July by the European Court of Human Rights, of a quarter of a million dollars to two terror suspects allegedly tortured by the CIA in a secret facility in this country in 2002-2003.
    (AP, 5/15/15)

2015        May 24, Poland held the final round of a cliffhanger presidential election race between the conservative incumbent Bronislaw Komorowski and an even more conservative challenger. Conservative newcomer Andrzej Duda (43) from the Law and Justice (PiS) opposition party won the presidential run-off with 51.55% of the vote.
    (AP, 5/24/15)(AFP, 5/25/15)

2015        Jun 1, US-led NATO drills began in the Baltic states and Poland, a move intended to reassure Russia's nervous neighbors amid tensions over Ukraine.
    (AFP, 6/1/15)

2015        Jun 2, Polish authorities said they will cull about 5,800 pigs to prevent the spread of African swine fever.
    (AP, 6/2/15)

2015        Jun 8, In Poland Emirati PM Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, who is also the emir of Dubai, met with Polish President Bronislaw Komorowski as the two countries sought greater cooperation in the areas of tourism, agriculture, higher education and scientific research.
    (AP, 6/8/15)

2015        Jun 23, US Defense Secretary Ash Carter announced that the United States will pre-position tanks, artillery and other military equipment in eastern and central Europe, moving to reassure NATO allies unnerved by Russian involvement in Ukraine. Carter, during a trip to Tallinn, said the Baltic states - Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia -- as well as Bulgaria, Romania and Poland agreed to host elements of this heavy equipment.
    (Reuters, 6/23/15)

2015        Jun 25, Poland's lawmakers approved a government bill that provides coherent regulations for in vitro fertilization and guarantees the procedure also to unwed couples.
    (AP, 6/25/15)

2015        Jul 1, US House of Representatives Speaker John Boehner led a Congressional delegation to Poland, part of a broader US attempt to strengthen economic ties and reassure an ally nervous about Russian aggression in the region.
    (AP, 7/1/15)

2015        Jul 9, Poland offered to accept 2,000 refugees from Africa and the Middle East as part of a European Union plan. This thrown into doubt the next day when the junior partner in its coalition government complained of not being consulted.
    (AP, 7/10/15)

2015        Jul 23, In Poland hundreds of police, firefighters and other uniformed workers picketed the main government building to demand higher pay and modernization of their sectors. The Interior Ministry said pay rises are planned for January.
    (AP, 7/23/15)
2015        Jul 23, In Poland a bus traveling from Ukraine to Warsaw crashed, killing 5 people and injuring more than two dozen others.
    (AP, 7/23/15)

2015        Jul 29, In Poland Jan Kulczyk (65), the country’s richest man and the founder and president of investment empire Kulczyk Holding, died from complications following surgery. He made his fortune during Poland's economic transformations.
    (AP, 7/29/15)

2015        Aug 6, Conservative Andrzej Duda was sworn in as Poland's new president, bringing political change to the nation's top office.
    (AP, 8/6/15)

2015        Aug 28, Poland's defense ministry signed a preliminary agreement with Bulgaria to modernize the Balkan country's Soviet-era fleet of MiG-29 fighter jets.
    (AP, 8/28/15)

2015        Sep 4, In a joint statement the prime ministers of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia rejected any quota system for accepting migrants in the European Union's 28 members.
    (AP, 9/4/15)

2015        Sep 28, Poland's army said it has begun inspecting the southwestern area where two men claim to have discovered an armored Nazi gold train buried at the end of World War II.
    (AFP, 9/28/15)

2015        Oct 1, The Polish government was reported to have organized the nation's first shopping receipt lottery aimed at boosting budget income from sales taxes. Deputy Finance Minister Izabela Leszczyna said the lottery is intended to encourage shoppers to ask for receipts from sellers, leading to less evasion on sales tax.
    (AP, 10/1/15)

2015        Oct 3, The Vatican dismissed a gay priest from his Holy See job on the eve of a major Church meeting for a highly public coming out that challenged the Roman Catholic teaching that homosexual acts are a sin. Monsignor Krzysztof Charamsa, a Polish theologian, had worked at the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith, the Vatican's doctrinal arm, since 2003.
    (Reuters, 10/3/15)

2015        Oct 5, Poland's PM Ewa Kopacz said she does not consider nuclear energy a priority and is instead focused on strengthening the coal mining industry.
    (AP, 10/5/15)   

2015        Oct 7, A Chinese Navy destroyer, a Chinese frigate and a Chinese supply vessel sailed into Poland's navy port of Gdynia on the first such visit ever.
    (AP, 10/7/15)   

2015        Oct 15, Poland signed a landmark $636 million deal to build the first EU gas pipeline to Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, reducing their uneasy reliance on Russian supplies. Construction is set to begin next year on the GIPL (Gas Interconnection Poland-Lithuania) pipeline.
    (AFP, 10/15/15)

2015        Oct 25, Poland held parliamentary elections. The conservative Law and Justice (PiS) party under party leader Jaroslaw Kaczynski won 235 seats in the 460-seat lower house and a majority in the Senate, sweeping the economically liberal pro-EU center-right Civic Platform from office. No party left of center won a seat. Beata Szydlo will serve as prime minister.
    (Reuters, 10/2615)(AP, 10/27/15)(SFC, 10/29/15, p.A2)(Econ, 10/31/15, p.51)

2015        Nov 11, In Poland thousands of flag-waving nationalists marched through Warsaw with an anti-migrant message as they mark Independence Day, a holiday marred by violence in recent years.
    (AP, 11/11/15)

2015        Nov 13, Poland’s Pres. Andrzej Duda officially designated Beata Szydlo from the right-wing Law and Justice Party as the new prime minister.
    (SFC, 11/14/15, p.A2)

2015        Nov 27, Bulgaria's parliament ratified an agreement with NATO ally Poland for the repair of its ageing Soviet-era MiG-29 fighter jets, part of a push by the Balkan country to reduce its reliance on Russia.
    (Reuters, 11/27/15)
2015        Nov 27, Pirates attacked the Cyprus-registered Szafir, a Polish-owned cargo vessel, off the Nigerian coast and kidnapped its captain and four crew. The five Polish seamen were reported freed on Dec 8.
    (Reuters, 11/27/15)(AP, 12/8/15)

2015        Dec 10, The European Commission said it has decided to take Poland to court over its failure to address its poor air quality.
    (Reuters, 12/10/15)

2015        Dec 12, In Poland tens of thousands, angered by an ongoing constitutional conflict, marched in Warsaw. They argued that President Andrzej Duda is breaking the constitution with the steps he is taking concerning the appointment of new judges to the Constitutional Tribunal, the top law arbiter.
    (AP, 12/12/15)

2015        Dec 13, In Poland tens of thousands of people marched through Warsaw to express support for the ruling conservatives, as the country remained locked in a constitutional crisis over the appointment of judges who could help the government pass its legislative program.
    (Reuters, 12/13/15)

2015        Dec 15, Polish geology experts said they have found no traces of a train at a site allegedly hiding a World War II Nazi train.
    (AP, 12/15/15)

2015        Dec 19, In Poland thousands of people took part in demonstrations across the country to protest moves by the new right-wing government to neutralize the Constitutional Tribunal as a check on its power.
    (AP, 12/19/15)
2015        Dec 19, Polish police seized a record amount of cocaine worth around $27 million that arrived via Belgium in a shipment of bananas from Colombia.
    (AP, 12/21/15)

2015        Dec 21, In Poland a chemist was convicted of a bomb plot against parliament and other government buildings, and he was sentenced to 13 years in prison. Brunon Kwiecien, an agricultural university teacher in Krakow, was arrested in 2012 in a much publicized case in which prosecutors said a "terrorist" attack was foiled.
    (AP, 12/21/15)

2015        Dec 28, Poland's President Andrzej Duda approved controversial legislation that regulates the Constitutional Tribunal. This required the tribunal to approve all verdicts by a two-thirds margin.
    (AP, 12/28/15)(Econ, 1/2/16, p.41)

2016        Jan 3, The European Commission said it would debate the rule of law in Poland this month in the first stage of a potentially-punitive procedure after Warsaw seized control of public broadcasters.
    (AFP, 1/3/16)

2016        Jan 4, Poland’s government said 21 people died over the weekend because of freezing weather amid one of the country's deadliest cold spells.
    (AFP, 1/4/16)

2016        Jan 7, Poland's President Andrzej Duda signed a temporary new law that's a step toward giving the government full control of state radio and television. It will expire June 30. By then, a sweeping new law intended to overhaul the state-run broadcasters and the PAP news agency was expected to be in place.
    (AP, 1/7/16)

2016        Jan 9, In Poland thousands of opponents of the new right-wing government held protests in Warsaw and other cities against policies which they say threaten democracy and media freedom.
    (AP, 1/9/16)(SSFC, 1/10/16, p.A5)

2016        Jan 13, The European Union escalated its standoff with Poland over the rule of law under the new government, deciding to open a case over legislation on the constitutional court and media that has been criticized as running counter to the bloc's fundamental principles.
    (AP, 1/13/16)

2016        Jan 15, Poland's Parliament adopted disputed new regulations for police surveillance that widen its scope but also put it under stricter court control.
    (AP, 1/15/16)

2016        Jan 23, In Poland thousands of people took to the streets in more than 30 cities across the country to "defend freedom" and protest against the conservative government.
    (AFP, 1/24/16)

2016        Feb 22, A Polish state archive has released documents which allegedly show that democracy leader and former president Lech Walesa collaborated with the communist secret police in the 1970s, before he took leadership of a movement that eventually helped topple communism.
    (AP, 2/22/16)

2016        Mar 4, Poland reported that five generals have submitted their resignations over the last few days. The resignations rocked the new conservative government, which is facing a barrage of criticism at home and abroad over a host of controversial reforms.
    (AFP, 3/4/16)

2016        Mar 6, In Poland hundreds of women marched in Warsaw for a 17th year to demand greater accessibility to abortion, better working conditions and more state support in raising children.
    (AP, 3/6/16)

2016        Mar 9, Poland's Constitutional Tribunal ruled that new rules introduced by the new government to regulate how the court functions are unconstitutional.
    (AP, 3/9/16)

2016        Mar 12, In Poland tens of thousands held street protests in Warsaw and other cities in opposition to government moves that have paralyzed the constitutional court.
    (AP, 3/12/16)

2016        Mar 14, It was reported that Poland’s Bialowieza forest is at the heart of a heated debate between foresters who advocate cutting tens of thousands of cubic meters (yards) of worm-affected trees, and environmentalists, who say that nature alone should be allowed to deal with the plague.
    (AP, 3/14/16)

2016        Mar 17, Polish President Andrzej Duda led the formal opening of the Ulma Family Museum of Poles Saving Jews, in the village of Markowa.
    (AP, 3/17/16)

2016        Mar 23, Polish PM Beata Szydlo said Warsaw would not take in its share of migrants under an EU plan because of the jihadist attacks that killed 31 people in Brussels.
    (AFP, 3/23/16)

2016        Mar 25, Poland's environment minister said he has approved a much-protested plan to allow extensive logging in Bialowieza Forest, Europe's last pristine forest, arguing it's the way to save it from woodworms.
    (AP, 3/25/16)

2016        Apr 1, In Poland the PiS government began its “Family 500+" program. Together with families with two children or more, parents with a combined monthly income below 800 PLN (€184) will also be eligible to get 500 extra PLN per month starting from their first child. The first payments would be made in July.
    (http://tinyurl.com/jqldesu)(Econ, 10/15/16, p.47)

2016        Apr 3, Thousands of Poles protested a possible tightening of the country's abortion law, already one of the most restrictive in Europe.
    (AP, 4/3/16)

2016        May 7, In Poland tens of thousands of people marched in central Warsaw to show their opposition to the policies of the conservative government, which they view as anti-democratic and harmful to Poland's position in the European Union.
    (AP, 5/7/16)

2016        May 25, Polish authorities said they have started chopping down beetle-infested trees in parts of the Bialowieza Forest, the country’s oldest forest, saying the move aims to eliminate dying trees and to ensure safety for tourists.
    (AP, 5/25/16)

2016        Jun 1, The European Union said Poland's government is not following the rule of law as required by the bloc's membership and has taken a step toward sanctions.
    (AP, 6/1/16)

2016        Jun 3, Poland's PM Beata Szydlo announced a new program to provide cheap housing for families on low income — the second project the conservative government has launched to support large families.
    (AP, 6/3/16)

2016        Jun 4, In Poland two former presidents were at the front of tens of thousands of marchers in Warsaw to protest the right-wing government’s policies and mark 27 years since the ouster of communism. The march was led by Mateusz Kijowski (47), founder of the Committee for the Defense of Democracy (KOD).
    (SSFC, 6/5/16, p.A4)(Econ, 6/11/16, p.55)

2016        Jun 5, Pope Francis proclaimed two new saints: Swedish-born Elizabeth Hesselblad (1870-1957), a Lutheran convert, who hid Jews during World War II and Stanislaus Papczynski (1631-1701), the Polish founder of the first men's religious order dedicated to the immaculate conception.
    (AP, 6/5/16)

2016        Jun 11, Thousands of people marched in colorful gay pride events in Croatia, Italy, and Poland urging support for minority rights in the mostly Catholic nations.
    (AP, 6/11/16)

2016        Jun 21, A Polish court convicted and handed a suspended prison term to Gen. Pawel Bielawny, a former deputy head of government security, over the 2010 plane crash that killed President Lech Kaczynski and 95 others.
    (AP, 6/21/16)

2016        Jul 7, Poland's parliament rushed through legislation governing the Constitutional Tribunal, an attempt to address international concerns about the rule of law a day before Pres. Obama and other Western leaders arrive in Warsaw for a NATO summit.
    (AP, 7/7/16)

2016        Jul 8, Leaders of the NATO military alliance met in Warsaw and began a landmark summit that will order ambitious actions against a daunting array of dangers to the security of their nations and citizenry, including a rearmed and increasingly unfriendly Russia to Europe's east and violent Islamic extremism to the south. Finland and Sweden joined NATO leaders at the top table for the first time as Russia's military build-up pushed the two countries closer to the western military alliance.
    (AP, 7/8/16)(Reuters, 7/8/16)
2016        Jul 8, US President Barack Obama expressed concern about the state of democracy in Poland, publicly rebuking a right-wing government that has paralyzed the constitutional court and taken steps to control state run media. Obama shared his worries with Polish President Andrzej Duda in a one-on-one meeting before the opening of a NATO summit in Warsaw.
    (AP, 7/8/16)

2016        Jul 22, Poland's parliament eased some restrictions on the constitutional court in a move the government said addressed concerns that the ruling party had undermined the rule of law but the opposition said the changes did not go far enough.
    (Reuters, 7/22/16)

2016        Jul 27, The European Commission gave Poland three months to boost the powers of its Constitutional Tribunal, stepping up pressure on Warsaw's eurosceptic government to respect the EU's democratic standards.
    (Reuters, 7/27/16)
2016        Jul 27, Pope Francis landed in Poland at the start of 5-day visit to join young Catholics for World Youth Day.
    (AP, 7/27/16)

2016        Jul 31, In Poland Pope Francis encouraged hundreds of thousands of young people  at the end of World Youth Day to "believe in a new humanity" that is stronger than evil and refuses to see borders as barriers.
    (AP, 7/31/16)

2016        Aug 9, Polish media reported that authorities have arrested an 80-year-old woman, identified only as Janina M., who allegedly drugged and then robbed a string of senior citizen suitors she met through newspaper lonely hearts adverts.
    (AFP, 8/9/16)

2016        Aug 11, Poland's Constitutional Tribunal ruled that parts of a new law governing its own operation are unconstitutional.
    (AP, 8/11/16)

2016        Oct 9, Polish filmmaker Andrzej Wajda (90) died in a Warsaw hospital, just months after finishing "Afterimage," Poland's entry for a foreign language Academy Award. In 2000 he received an honorary lifetime achievement Oscar. The film focused on the life of art theorist Wladyslaw Strzeminski and the years 1949-1952.
    (AP, 10/19/16)(Econ, 9/17/16, p.81)(Econ, 10/29/16, p.82)

2016        Nov 14, The Int’l. Criminal Court's chief prosecutor said in a report that US forces in Afghanistan may have committed the war crime of torture when interrogating detainees, opening the possibility of Americans being prosecuted even though their country is not a member of the court. The report added that CIA operatives may have subjected at least 27 detainees in Afghanistan, Poland, Romania and Lithuania to "torture, cruel treatment, outrages upon personal dignity and/or rape" between December 2002 and March 2008.
    (AP, 11/15/16)

2016        Nov 16, Poland's lawmakers voted to lower the retirement age in a reversal of a 2012 reform, despite questions about financing of the new system. The lower house voted 262-149 with 19 abstentions to allow women to retire at the age of 60 and men at 65, as of October 2017. The lower chamber also voted 269-170 for a bill establishing the Territorial Defense Forces that are starting to recruit men and women.
    (AP, 11/16/16)

2016        Nov 19, In Poland tens of thousands of teachers from all over the country protested in Warsaw against education reforms proposed by the right-wing government that critics say could see thousands of jobs slashed.
    (AFP, 11/19/16)
2016        Nov 19, Poland's defense minister officially launched self-defense courses for women, saying that training by military instructors will increase individual and national security.
    (AP, 11/19/16)

2016        Nov 29, In southwestern Poland an earth tremor at the Rudna copper mine left at least 5 people dead. Three miners remained missing.
    (Reuters, 11/30/16)

2016        Dec 1, Poland and the US Patriot missile maker Raytheon signed a letter of intent to cooperate in production that could pave the way for the purchase of missiles.
    (AP, 12/1/16)

2016        Dec 2, In Poland technicians worked across the country to restore power to some 180,000 households as the freezing weather that has gripped the country for a month claimed two more lives.
    (AP, 12/2/16)

2016        Dec 5, Polish authorities said Lufthansa and General Electric will jointly invest some 250 million euros ($270 million) in Poland to build a plant that will service aircraft engines starting in 2018.
    (AP, 12/5/16)

2016        Dec 6, Poland's Supreme Court confirmed that the country would refuse to detain and extradite filmmaker Roman Polanski to the US.
    (AP, 12/6/16)

2016        Dec 14, US and Polish defense officials said the United States has decided to accelerate the deployment of troops to Poland, the Baltic states and Romania as part of raising the security of the region.
    (AP, 12/14/16)

2016        Dec 16, In Poland opposition lawmakers, upset that the conservative ruling party plans to limit reporters' access to lawmakers, protested in the lower house of parliament, singing the national anthem and chanting "Free media!" and "Democracy!"
    (AP, 12/16/16)

2016        Dec 17, In Poland several thousand people protested outside the presidential palace in Warsaw over alleged vote fraud and the rightwing government's plans to impose new restrictions on media coverage of parliament.
    (AFP, 12/17/16)

2016        Dec 18, Poland's President Andrzej Duda met separately with opposition party leaders to help solve a political crisis, as anti-government protests were held for the third straight day.
    (AP, 12/18/16)

2016        Dec 19, Polish President Andrzej Duda scrambled to defuse a political crisis as opposition lawmakers occupied parliament for a fourth day of anti-government protest.
    (AFP, 12/19/16)

2016        Dec 29, A Polish court handed prison sentences to a businessman and two waiters convicted in the illegal wiretapping of top Polish politicians in expensive Warsaw restaurants.
    (AP, 12/29/16)

2016        Dec 31, In Poland Daniel R. and another Pole took two bottles of a beverage from the Prince Kebab restaurant in Elk, without paying. In the ensuing brawl, a 26-year-old Tunisian cook stabbed Daniel R. twice with his knife.
    (AP, 1/2/17)



2017        Jan 6, Blizzards swept parts of Europe, causing at least nine deaths, closing roads and resulting in traffic accidents, travel delays and medical evacuations. In Poland, the cold was blamed for five deaths in 24 hours. Ukraine officials reported that four people had died from effects of the cold in the Lviv region near the Polish border.
    (AP, 1/6/17)

2017        Jan 7, Heavy snowfall and below-freezing temperatures continued to sweep across the European continent causing more than a dozen deaths. In Poland two men died of cold, bringing the nation's death toll from winter weather to 55 since Nov 1.
    (AP, 1/7/17)(AP, 1/8/17)

2017        Jan 10, In Poland six people died over a 24-hour period as temperatures plunged across Europe, bringing the toll of hypothermia deaths in the country to 71 since November.
    (AFP, 1/10/17)

2017        Jan 11, Poland's parliament was paralyzed as liberal opposition MPs refused to end an unprecedented protest against what they say are anti-democratic actions by the government.
    (AFP, 1/11/17)

2017        Jan 12, Poland's main opposition party ended its weekslong blockade of parliament, stepping back in what had been a bitter standoff with the populist ruling party.
    (AP, 1/12/17)
2017        Jan 12, US troops and tanks began streaming into Poland as part of one of the largest deployments of US forces in Europe since the Cold War. The Atlantic Resolve mission will see more than 3,000 American soldiers and heavy equipment deployed in Poland and nearby NATO partners Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary on a rotational basis.
    (AFP, 1/12/17)

2017        Jan 19, Poland's interior minister defended a decision to post photos of some anti-government protesters to illustrate the country's "zero tolerance for breaches of the law," but opposition lawmakers called it an act of "political revenge" intended to intimidate government critics.
    (AP, 1/19/17)

2017        Jan 23, Lawmakers in the Krakow region of Poland, considered the area with the dirtiest air in the country, approved an anti-smog plan that calls for replacing the most polluting heating stoves by 2023.
    (AFP, 1/24/17)

2017        Jan 25, In Poland hundreds of students are gathering in downtown Warsaw and other cities to protest the country's populist government, with a range of demands that includes better ties with the European Union and protecting the environment.
    (AP, 1/25/17)
2017        Jan 25, Poland's state-run defense firm PGZ said it has signed a memorandum of understanding with French military shipbuilder DCNS that could allow them to work together on building submarines in Poland.
    (Reuters, 1/25/17)

2017        Jan 26, Lithuania and Poland said they would not allow the United States to locate new secret prisons on their soil if President Donald Trump chooses to reinstate an old CIA program that detained and interrogated terrorism suspects abroad.
    (Reuters, 1/26/17)

2017        Jan 31, Poland's government-affiliated history institute said it had new evidence that Lech Walesa, who led protests and strikes that shook communist rule in the 1980s, had been a paid informant for the secret police in the 1970s.
    (Reuters, 1/31/17)

2017        Feb 2, Warsaw's mayor harshly denounced a government plan to enlarge the Polish capital to incorporate 32 neighboring municipalities, describing it as the type of power grab one expects in an authoritarian state like Belarus or Russia.
    (AP, 2/2/17)

2017        Feb 3, Polish police raided the Monitoring Center on Racist and Xenophobic Behavior and the private homes of some of its board members, seizing computers. the group has exposed ties between local officials, prosecutors and right-wing groups in Bialystok.
    (AP, 2/3/17)

2017        Feb 11, In Poland hundreds of protesters with flags and banners marched in downtown Warsaw against the ruling party's plan to enlarge the capital by incorporating 32 neighboring municipalities.
    (AP, 2/11/17)

2017        Feb 17, Polish environmental groups filed a complaint with the European Union against national and local authorities for failing to fight lethal levels of smog. Antiquated coal-fired power plants generate nearly all of Poland's electricity, giving it some of the most toxic air in the 28-member EU. Energy Minister Krzysztof Tchorzewski said pollution does not shorten people's lives.
    (AFP, 2/17/17)(Reuters, 2/17/17)

2017        Mar 1, Polish European Parliament lawmaker Janusz Korwin-Mikke told the European parliament that "women must earn less than men because they are weaker, they are smaller, they are less intelligent." Two days later in Warsaw he said it is a "20th-century stereotype that women have the same intellectual potential as men," and that the stereotype "must be destroyed because it is not true."
    (AP, 3/3/17)
2017        Mar 1, Human Rights Watch said that Poland is endangering asylum-seekers fleeing persecution in the Russian province of Chechnya and elsewhere by returning them summarily to Belarus.
    (AP, 3/1/17)

2017        Mar 2, The Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia urged the European Union to boost the role of national parliaments under a planned overhaul of the bloc's decision-making process.
    (Reuters, 3/2/17)

2017        Mar 8, Poland cautioned other European Union countries that extending Donald Tusk's mandate as chairman of EU leaders against Warsaw's will would undermine the bloc's traditions.
    (Reuters, 3/8/17)

2017        Mar 9, European Union leaders confirmed Donald Tusk for a second term as council president, overcoming weeks of strong opposition from his native Poland.
    (AP, 3/9/17)

2017        Mar 13, A prosecutor said Poland will seek the arrest and extradition of Michael Karkoc (98) from Minneapolis, Minnesota, after confirming he was a Nazi unit commander suspected of ordering the killing of 44 Poles during World War II.
    (AP, 3/13/17)

2017        Mar 14, The European Parliament suspended Polish lawmaker Janusz Korwin-Mikke for 10 days after he said during a March 1 debate that women should earn less than men because they are weaker, smaller and less intelligent.
    (AP, 3/14/17)

2017        Mar 18, In Poland hundreds of people, braving the winter cold and rain, protested in Warsaw against plans by the conservative government to curb the power of local governments and to subject the judiciary to the ruling party's control.
    (AP, 3/18/17)

2017        Mar 20, A Polish court has convicted a lawyer, identified only as Stanislaw Sz., of spying for Russia and handed him a four-year prison term.
    (AP, 3/20/17)

2017        Mar 24, In southern Poland 14 men and women in their twenties slaughtered a sheep and took their clothes off at the former Nazi German death camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. The individuals used a drone to film the incident. Police detained all those involved.
    (AP, 3/24/17)

2017        Mar 27, The foreign minister of Nigeria visited Poland an effort to develop economic, military and security ties with the fast-growing economy in central Europe.
    (AP, 3/27/17)

2017        Mar 28, The central European Visegrad Group (Czech Rep., Hungary, Poland and Slovakia) rejected a European Union policy that calls for all member states to receive migrants, protesting suggestions that the level of their compliance could be linked to the availability of EU funds to them.
    (AP, 3/28/17)

2017        Mar 31, Teachers across Poland staged a strike to protest a sweeping overhaul of the education system by the populist government that will see middle schools eliminated this fall.
    (AP, 3/31/17)

2017        Apr 3, Polish prosecutors said they would press charges against two Russian air traffic controllers of deliberately contributing to a 2010 plane crash that killed Poland's president and 95 other people.
    (Reuters, 4/3/17)

2017        Apr 5, In Poland opposition lawmakers called for the dismissal of Defence Minister Antoni Macierewicz, saying he is undermining the nation's armed forces with dismissals and demotions of high-ranking officers who aren't his allies.
    (AP, 4/5/17)

2017        Apr 8, In southwestern Poland an apartment house collapsed in Swiebodzice, leaving six people dead and four injured. A gas explosion was suspected.
    (AP, 4/8/17)(AP, 4/11/17)

2017        Apr 21, Magdalena Abakanowicz (86), Poland's leading visual artist, renowned sculptor and fiber artist, died.
    (AP, 4/21/17)

2017        Apr 27, Officials said Poland has signed its first deal to purchase liquefied natural gas from a US supplier, a step that will help the country's efforts to cut its dependence on deliveries from Russia.
    (AP, 4/27/17)
2017        Apr 27, The European Commission stepped up its legal action against Poland over the logging of the protected primeval Bialowieza forest in the north east of the country, warning that the next step would be a lawsuit in the EU's top court.
    (Reuters, 4/27/17)

2017        May 6, Thousands of Poles marched through Warsaw to protest the policies of the populist ruling party under Jaroslaw Kaczynski, describing them as attacks on the country's democracy.
    (AP, 5/6/17)

2017        May 29, Poland extradited Benjamin F. to Austria. He was suspected of war crimes after he allegedly killed civilians and enemy troops last year who had already surrendered while he was fighting on the side of Ukrainian forces.
    (AP, 5/30/17)   

2017        Jun 1, Thousands of troops from NATO and its partner nations began training on land and sea in Poland and Romania, in two major exercises that aim to demonstrate their cooperation and rapid response capabilities at a time when the region feels threatened by Russia.
    (AP, 6/1/17)

2017        Jun 3, In Poland some 5,000 thousand people marched and danced down the streets of central Warsaw to show their support for gay rights in the 17th annual "Equality Parade", calling for stronger defiance of discrimination and greater acceptance for same-sex unions and marriages.
    (AP, 6/3/17)

2017        Jun 5, Hundreds of taxi drivers in Poland's four largest cities drove at a crawl blocking rush-hour traffic in a protest to draw the government's attention to the rising number of unlicensed drivers who offer transport services.
    (AP, 6/5/17)

2017        Jun 13, The European Commission said that Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic have breached their legal obligations to take some refugees as part of the 2015 plan, which is aimed at sharing the burden of 160,000 migrants at camps in Italy and Greece.
    (AP, 6/13/17)

2017        Jun 14, The European Commission launched legal action against the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland for failing their commitment to take in refugees.
    (AP, 6/14/17)

2017        Jun 23, French President Emmanuel Macron and four eastern European Union leaders (Visegrad-4) sought to turn the page after publicly trading barbs over their differences on issues ranging from jobs to the bloc’s fundamental values. Poland, Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic say they should be allowed to compete on lower prices - just as more developed western EU nations compete on quality products and know-how - to catch up after decades of communist stagnation.
    (Reuters, 6/23/17)

2017        Jul 1, Jaroslaw Kaczynski, head of Poland’s ruling party Law and Justice (PiS), said Poland has a moral right to say 'no' to refugees.
    (Reuters, 7/1/17)

2017        Jul 6, US President Donald Trump arrived in Warsaw and pledged his backing for NATO at the start of a high-stakes visit to Europe. Around 10,000 people turned out to see him, many arriving on free buses laid on by Poland's conservative ruling party.
    (AFP, 7/6/17)

2017        Jul 9, The United Nations' cultural agency added to its list of World Heritage sites six caves in west Germany with art dating back to the Ice Age and old silver ore mines in southern Poland.
    (AP, 7/9/17)

2017        Jul 21, Poland's upper house of parliament passed a bill allowing parliament to appoint Supreme Court judges, defying massed opposition protesters and the European Union, which has threatened sanctions.
    (Reuters, 7/21/17)

2017        Jul 22, Poland's Senate approved a contentious law that gives politicians substantial influence over the Supreme Court, in defiance of EU criticism. The bill proposed by the populist ruling party only needs the signature of President Andrzej Duda to become binding. Outrage over plans by the governing party to put the judicial system under its political control sparked another day of nationwide protests, with some people gathering outside the home of ruling party leader Jaroslaw Kaczynski and accusing him of being a dictator.
    (AP, 7/22/17)

2017        Jul 24, Poland's Pres. Andrzej Duda announced that he will veto two contentious bills which were widely seen as assaults on the independence of the judicial system by the ruling party and that sparked days of nationwide protests. This marked the first time Duda has broken openly with Jaroslaw Kaczynski, the powerful leader of the ruling Law and Justice party. Duda said he would sign a third bill that reorganizes the functioning of the lower courts.
    (AP, 7/24/17)

2017        Jul 26, The European Commission said it would start legal action against Poland over an overhaul of the judiciary that it says undermines the independence of judges and so breaks EU rules.
    (Reuters, 7/26/17)

2017        Jul 28, The European Union's top court ordered Poland to immediately halt large-scale logging in an ancient protected forest, one of many cases that has pitted Brussels against the right-wing eurosceptic government in Warsaw.
    (Reuters, 7/28/17)

2017        Jul 29,  The European Commission launched legal action against what it sees as Polish government attempts to undermine the independence of judges.
    (Reuters, 7/29/17)

2017        Jul 31, Poland said it would press on with logging the country's primeval Bialowieza forest in defiance of a ruling by the European Union's top court, saying it needed to cut down trees to defeat insect pests.
    (Reuters, 7/31/17)

2017        Aug 12, In Poland five people, including two teenage girl scouts, died and more than 30 were injured as a result of falling trees in a series of severe overnight storms.
    (Reuters, 8/12/17)

2017        Aug 21, Poland's Defense Ministry started a new program to boost the nation's defenses by offering military training to university student volunteers.
    (AP, 8/22/17)

2017        Aug 23, Poland’s defense ministry said an additional 200 billion zlotys ($55 billion) will be allocated on defense over the next 15 years to modernize the army amid signs of growing aggression from Russia.
    (Reuters, 8/23/17)

2017        Aug 25, French President Emmanuel Macron triggered a furious reaction from Poland after he attacked Warsaw for rejecting tough proposals to overhaul a controversial EU rule on cheap labor.
    (AFP, 8/25/17)

2017        Aug 29, In Poland activists climbed trees and blocked felling machines in the primeval Bialowieza Forest n a bid to stop what they say is an illegal logging operation authorized by the government.
    (Reuters, 8/29/17)

2017        Sep 8, Germany dismissed Poland's threat to demand new talks over World War II reparations from Berlin, saying the issue had already been settled in 1953.
    (AFP, 9/8/17)

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