Timeline Somalia

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Ever wonder where all guns in Mogadishu come from? Well, not from my gun safe .
If you want to make sure they do not come from your collection then you might consider keeping your firearms in a gun safe.

1527        Muslim Somali Chief, Ahmed Gran, uses firearms against the Ethiopians for the first time.
    (TL-MB, p.13)

c1800        Many Bantu people from Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania were taken from their homes and sold as slaves in Somalia.
    (NW, 9/2/02, p.35)

1934        Dec 5, Italian and Ethiopian troops clashed at the Ualual on disputed Somali-Ethiopian border.
    (HN, 12/5/98)

1935        Feb 18, Rome reported sending troops to Italian Somalia.
    (HN, 2/18/98)

1940        Dec 16, British carried out an air raid on Italian Somalia.
    (HN, 12/16/98)

1941        Feb 26, British took the Somali capital in East Africa.
    (HN, 2/26/98)

1960        Jun 26, British Somaliland became independent and five days later was united with Italian Somaliland as the Somali Republic.
    (SFC, 4/10/96, A-5)

1960        Jul 1, French and Italian Somaliland gained independence and united with the Somali Republic.
    (PC, 1992, p.973)(Econ, 7/4/09, p.44)

1961        Somalia adopted its first constitution. A new one was adopted in 1979.
    (www.pogar.org/countries/country.asp?cid=17)

1969        Oct 21, In Somalia Marxist dictator Maj. Gen. Mohamed Siad Barre (1919-1995) staged a coup and threw PM Mohamed Ibrahim Egal in jail, where he spent 12 years.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siad_Barre)(SFC, 8/16/96, p.A18)(SFEC, 8/31/97, Par p.16)

1972        The Somali language first became a written language.
    (SFEC, 10/10/99, Z1 p.6)

1977        Feb 24, Pres. Carter announced the US was cutting off all military aid to Ethiopia because of its human rights violations. The unstated reason was the US desire to cooperate with Saudi Arabia to lure Somalia from the Soviet camp, an effort which was ultimately successful.
    (www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Politics/africa.html)

1977        Oct 18, West German commandos stormed a hijacked Lufthansa jetliner that was on the ground in Mogadishu, Somalia, freeing all 86 hostages and killing three of the four hijackers, Palestinians of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. In 1996 Suhaila al-Sayeh was sentenced to 12 years in prison by a German court.
    (SFC, 11/20/96, p.A17)(AP, 10/17/07)

1977        Somalia and Ethiopia engaged in battle. The Soviet Union provided tanks to both sides. Somalia tried and failed to push into the Ogaden area of Ethiopia. The Somalis managed to reach the walled city of Harer, a center for Islam in Ethiopia. An Ethiopian counter-offensive backed by Cuban troops wrecked Somalia’s army and led to the 1991 of the Somali regime.
    (Econ, 8/12/06, p.19)(Econ, 10/14/06, p.49)(Econ, 1/7/12, p.42)
1977        The last case of smallpox, spread by variola virus, was reported in Somalia.
    (WSJ, 10/19/01, p.A9)

1978        Feb 7, Ethiopia mounted a counter attack against Somalia.
    (HN, 2/7/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ogaden_War)

1979        Aug 25,  Somalia adopted a 2nd constitution. The first was adopted in 1961 following independence.
    (www.pogar.org/countries/country.asp?cid=17)

1981        Apr, A group of Isaaq emigres living in London formed the Somali National Movement (SNM), which subsequently became the strongest of Somalia's various insurgent movements. According to its spokesmen, the rebels wanted to overthrow Siad Barre's dictatorship.
    (www.onwar.com/aced/data/sierra/somalia1982b.htm)

1981        Oct, The Somali National Movement (SNM) rebels elected Ahmad Mahammad Culaid and Ahmad Ismaaiil Abdi as chairman and secretary general, respectively, of the movement.
    (www.onwar.com/aced/data/sierra/somalia1982b.htm)
1981        Oct, The Somali Salvation Front (SSF) merged with the radical-left Somali Workers Party (SWP) and the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Somalia (DFLS) to form the Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF).
    (http://tinyurl.com/3d4gg2)

1981        Northern Somalia rebelled against dictator Mohammed Siad Barre. A national civil war followed. During the civil was an estimated 40,000 people were killed and about 400,000 refugees fled to Ethiopia.
    (SFC, 4/10/96, A-5)
1981        China emerged as a major arms supplier to the Siad Barre regime in Somalia.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3d4gg2)

1982        Jan 2, The Somali National Movement (SNM) launched its first military operation against the Somali government. Operating from Ethiopian bases.
    (www.onwar.com/aced/data/sierra/somalia1982b.htm)

1983        Feb, Siad Barre visited northern Somalia in a campaign to discredit the SNM. Among other things, he ordered the release of numerous civil servants and businessmen who had been arrested for antigovernment activities, lifted the state of emergency, and announced an amnesty for Somali exiles who wanted to return home.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3d4gg2)

1984        Feb, During a truth commission in Kenya in 2011 human rights groups and residents said up to 3,000 people died in February 1984 in a government-sanctioned operation meant to crack down on ethnic Somalis who were holding illegal weapons. The killings occurred at Wagalla airstrip, a town some 310 miles (500 km) northeast of Nairobi.
    (AP, 4/12/11)

1991        Jan 27, Muhammad Siad Barre, the dictator of the Somali Democratic Republic since 1969, fled Mogadishu as rebels overran his palace and captured the Somali capital. Dictator Siad Barre was ousted and power fractured into some 27 warring sides and Ali Mahdi Mohamed declared himself president.
    (SFC,11/18/97, p.B2)(www.empereur.com/somalia1991.html)

1991        The northeast corner of the country declared itself the independent Republic of Somaliland.
    (SFC, 4/10/96, A-5)(SFEC,11/23/97, p.A25)

1991        Thousands of Bantus fled Somalia for Kenya. In 1999 the US designated this group of people as persecuted and eligible for resettlement in the US.
    (NW, 9/2/02, p.35)

1991-1992    Some 350,000 Somalis died from disease, starvation and civil war.
    (SFEC,11/23/97, p.A25)

1992        Aug 14, Pres. Bush ordered the Pentagon to begin emergency airlifts of food to Somalia which was suffering from severe famine and factional warfare.
    (AP, 8/14/97)(HNQ, 1/1/00)

1992        Aug 28, US cargo planes landed in Somalia with tons of food for African famine victims.
    (AP, 8/28/97)

1992        Oct 9, To protect the US food airlift, the first American forces arrived.
    (HNQ, 1/1/00)

1992        Nov 26, An aid agency predicted disaster if the United States sends a large military force to Somalia.
    (AP, 11/26/02)

1992        Dec 3, The U.N. Security Council unanimously approved a U.S.-led military mission to help starving Somalia.
    (AP, 12/3/97)

1992        Dec 4, President Bush ordered American troops to lead a mercy mission to Somalia, threatening military action against warlords and gangs who were blocking food for starving millions.
    (AP, 12/4/97)

1992        Dec 8, Americans got to see live television coverage of U.S. troops landing on the beaches of Somalia as Operation Restore Hope began (because of the time difference, it was early December ninth in Somalia).
    (AP, 12/8/97)

1992        Dec 9, U.S. Marines landed in Somalia to ensure that food and medicine reach the deprived areas of that country. The US Operations Restore Hope, Continue Hope and others began in Somalia and ended Mar 3, 1995. They cost $1.7 billion and left 43 US casualties with 153 wounded.
    (WSJ, 9/22/99, p.A8)(HN, 12/999)

1992        Dec 20, U.S. Marines and Belgian paratroopers in Somalia took control of Kismayu's port and airport; the first truck convoy in more than a month reached the starving inland town of Baidoa.
    (AP, 12/20/97)

1992        Dec 23, An American mission to save lives in Somalia lost the first of its own when a U.S. vehicle hit a land mine near Bardera, killing civilian Army employee Lawrence N. Freedman of Fayetteville, N.C. In all over 100 peacekeepers died in Somalia including 42 Americans.
    (AP, 12/23/97)

1992        Dec 25, U.S. Marines delivered wheat to a refugee camp in Bardera, Somalia, setting off a small riot among the Somalis; American and French troops also took control of Hoddur.
    (AP, 12/25/97)

1992        Dec 28, Somalia's two main warlords, Mohamed Farrah Aidid and Ali Mahdi Mohamed, promised an end to their hostilities.
    (AP, 12/28/97)

1992        Dec 31, President Bush visited Somalia, where he saw firsthand the famine racking the east African nation. He praised U.S. troops that provided relief to the starving population.
    (AP, 12/31/97)

1992        Dec, Italy sent 2,500 combat troops to Somalia as part of the US-sponsored multinational force.
    (SFC, 1/26/98, p.A8)

1992        At least 350,000 people died in the famine that was compounded by clan warfare.
    (SFC, 12/26/96, p.B10)

1992        A UN arms embargo was imposed in Somalia.
    (AP, 8/1/06)

1992-1994    Italian Warrant Officer Francesco Aloi kept a diary while in Somalia and documented instances of rape, torture and other brutality against the Somalis.
    (SFC, 1/26/98, p.A10)

1993        Jan 1, President Bush continued to tour Somalia, greeting hundreds of cheering youngsters and foreign relief workers at an orphanage in Baidoa.
    (AP, 1/1/98)

1993        Jan 3, Three days after he was jeered in Sarajevo, U.N. Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali took refuge from angry Somalis in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 1/3/98)

1993        Jan 7, US forces in Somalia unleashed tank, helicopter and rocket fire on two clan camps in Mogadishu where snipers had been taking potshots at the troops. Cpl. James Perciavalle of Leetsdale, Pa., became the 1st US Marine wounded by friendly fire in Somalia.
    (AP, 1/7/98)(Sewickley Herald (Pa), 3/3/93, p.11)

1993        Jan 13, Marine Pvt. 1st Class Domingo Arroyo became the first U.S. serviceman to be killed in Somalia.
    (AP, 1/13/98)

1993        Jan 25, Lance Cpl. Anthony D. Botello (21) of Wilburton, Oklahoma, was killed by a sniper in Mogadishu, Somalia.
    (LCNT, 2/4/93)

1993        Mar 16, Canadian soldiers in Somalia beat to death a local teenager, Shidane Arone, during their participation in the UN humanitarian efforts. An inquiry led to the disbanding of Canada's elite Canadian Airborne Regiment, greatly damaged the morale of the Canadian Forces, and damaged both the domestic and international reputation of Canadian soldiers.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somalia_Affair)(www.dnd.ca/somalia/vol0/vol0e.txt)

1993        Jun 5, Militiamen loyal to Mohamed Farrah Aidid killed 24 Pakistani soldiers.
    (AP, 6/5/98)

1993        Jun 11, United Nations forces launched a nighttime attack against the forces of Somali warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid.
    (AP, 6/11/98)

1993        Jun 17, U.N. forces in Somalia searched in vain for warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid.
    (AP, 6/17/98)

1993        Jul 12, In Somalia a mob avenging a deadly United Nations attack on the compound of Mohamed Farrah Aidid killed Dan Eldon (22), a US photo-journalist working for Reuters, and three colleagues. They were stoned and beaten to death at the scene of a bombing by UN forces of a house believed to be the headquarters of Gen’l. Aidid.
    (SFEM,11/16/97, p.30)(AP, 7/12/98)

1993        Aug 8, Four U.S. soldiers were killed when a land mine was detonated underneath their vehicle. This prompted President Clinton to order Army Rangers to try to capture Somali warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid.
    (AP, 8/8/98)

1993        Sep 5, Seven Nigerian soldiers were killed in a militia ambush in Somalia as they went to the aid of other UN peacekeepers surrounded by a stone-throwing mob.
    (AP, 9/5/98)

1993        Sep 9, About a hundred Somali gunmen and civilians were killed when U.S. and Pakistani peacekeepers fired on Somalis attacking other peacekeepers.
    (AP, 9/9/98)

1993        Sep 25, Three U.S. soldiers in Somalia were killed when their helicopter was downed by a rocket-propelled grenade.
    (AP, 9/25/98)

1993        Oct 3, Eighteen US Rangers and Delta Force specialists died in a botched raid in Somalia and over 70 were wounded. In 1999 Mark Bowden published "Black Hawk Dawn," an account of the failed attempt to capture Mohammed Farrah Aidid. At least 500 Somalis were killed and 1,000 injured.
    (WSJ, 10/23/95, p.A-18)(WSJ, 3/11/99, p.A20)(SFEC, 3/28/99, BR p.3)(SSFC, 12/16/01, p.A1)

1993        Oct 4, US troops blasted their way out of Bakara Market in Mogadishu and left an estimated 500 Somalis dead. Dozens of cheering, dancing Somalis dragged the body of an American soldier through the streets of Mogadishu.
    (SFC, 5/6/99, p.E4)(AP, 10/4/98)

1993        Oct 7, President Clinton ordered more troops, heavy armor and naval firepower to Somalia, but also announced he would pull out all Americans by the end of March 1994.
    (AP, 10/7/98)
   
1993        Oct 9, Special U.S. envoy Robert Oakley traveled to Somalia in an attempt to revive a tentative peace agreement reached by Somali clan leaders.
    (AP, 10/9/98)

1993        Oct 10, Thousands of Somalis demonstrated in the capital of Mogadishu to support warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid, an event that coincided with the arrival of special U.S. envoy Robert Oakley.
    (AP, 10/10/98)

1993        Oct 14, U.S. helicopter pilot Michael Durant and a Nigerian peacekeeper were freed by Somali fighters loyal to Mohamed Farrah Aidid.
    (AP, 10/14/98)

1993        Osama Bin Laden was suspected of supplying weapons to shoot down American helicopters.
    (SFC, 8/17/98, p.A12)

1993        Muhammad Atef, a top Osama bin Laden lieutenant, and 6 other al Qaeda operatives, set up training camps in Somalia to help Somali tribes oppose a UN peacekeeping operation.
    (SSFC, 9/30/01, p.A13)

1994        Jan 31, A convoy of U.S. soldiers opened fire on hundreds of Somali civilians outside a food distribution center, killing at least eight.
    (AP, 1/31/99)

1994        Mar 20, Ilaria Alpi (32), Italian journalist, was shot and killed in Somalia along with her cameraman, Miran Hrovatin, on the same day that Italian troops left the country. She had collected evidence of brutality by Italian officers against Somalis along with evidence of illegal gun-running.
    (SFC, 1/26/98, p.A8)

1994        Mar 25, American troops completed their withdrawal from Somalia following a largely unsuccessful fifteen-month mission. 20,000 U.N. troops were left behind to keep the peace and facilitate "nation building."
    (AP, 3/25/99)

1994        The laying of mines rose to new heights of terror as civilian areas were deliberately targeted. Truck loads of mines were scattered in houses, wells, river-crossings, markets, and even cemeteries.
    (UNICEFF Mailer,11/94)

1995        Feb 20, An American Marine, Sgt. Justin A. Harris, died in a helicopter crash during the evacuation of United Nations forces from Somalia.
    (AP, 2/20/00)

1995        Mar 1, Somalia militiamen loyal to warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid seized control of the Mogadishu airport after peacekeepers withdrew.
    (AP, 3/1/00)

1995        Mar 2, The last U.N. peacekeepers in Somalia were evacuated.
    (AP, 3/2/00)

1995        Mohamed Farak Aidid declared himself to be president.
    (SFEC, 8/31/97, Par p.16)

1996        Apr 5, Heavy fighting in Mogadishu, Somalia, left 75 people dead after peace talks broke down between clan leaders Mohamed Farak Aidid and his former backer, Osman Hassan Ali Atto.
    (SFC, 4/6/96, p.D-2)

1996        Aug 12, It was reported that 2 Ethiopian businessmen were killed in retaliation for an incursion into Somalia by Ethiopia’s army.
    (WSJ, 8/12/96, p.A1)

1996        Aug 1, In Somalia Mohamed Farrah Aidid died from wounds in a gun battle with a faction headed by his brother. General Muhammad Aideed (Mohamed Aidid) had employed a printing press to reproduce the country’s 1,000 shillings note. The value of the note fell from $.13 to $.03, or about the cost of producing an additional note. Forging stopped as the profit margin disappeared.
    (www.cnn.com/WORLD/9608/02/aideed/)(Econ, 4/21/12, p.22)

1996        Aug 2, Mohamed Farrah Aidid was buried after dying from wounds received during fighting in Mogadishu. Followers named his son, Hussein, as their new leader.
    (WSJ, 8/5/96, p.A1)

1996        Sep 23, Ethiopian forces exchanged fire with Somali militiamen.
    (SFC, 9/25/96, p.A10)

1996        Oct 16, An agreement was reached by faction leaders Hussein Aidid, Ali Mahdi  Mohamed and Ali Hassan Osman Atto, to implement a peace accord.
    (SFC, 10/17/96, A11)

1996        Dec 17, Militia fighters of Ali Mahdi Mohamed attacked the headquarters of Hussein Aidid in the 5th consecutive day of fighting that brought the number of dead up to 135.
    (SFC, 12/18/96, p.C1)

1997        Jul 3, A Canadian commission established to review the actions of peace-keeping troops in Somalia between 1992-93 concluded that the troops were unprepared and victimized by commanders who ignored problems that escalated to torture and the killing of a Somali teenager.
    (SFC, 7/3/97, p.C2)

1997        Nov 10, A month of rains blamed on El Nino caused flooding in the Juba River Valley and left some 800,000 people homeless and at least 23 dead. The death toll increased to 564.
    (WSJ, 11/10/97, p.A1)(SFC,11/14/97, p.D3)

1997        Nov 15, In East Africa it was reported that storms over the past three weeks have killed at least 1000 people in Ethiopia and in Somalia and left some 100,000 families displaced and in competition with crocodiles and hippos for dry land.
    (SFC,11/15/97, p.A3)

1997        Nov 21, Five UN and European aid workers were kidnapped by fighters of the Wasangeli subclan in apparent retaliation for the seizure of a Palestinian businessman by a rival subclan, the Marjeteen, earlier in the day.
    (SFC,11/24/97, p.A12)

1997        Nov 22, The Marjeteen attacked the Wasangeli and 2 fighters on each side were killed.
    (SFC,11/24/97, p.A11)

1997        Nov 23, Somali villagers isolated for weeks by flooding finally received aid from boats traveling down the Juba river.
    (AP, 11/23/02)

1997        Nov 24, All hostages were released by the rival Marjeteen and Wasangeli militiamen.
    (SFC,11/24/97, p.A11)

1997        Dec 8, Doctors reported that 31 children had died of cholera in recent days and that medicine was needed to prevent an epidemic.
    (SFC,12/9/97, p.B10)

1997        Dec 22, Leaders of the rival factions approved a plan to restore national government. An interim government was planned with power shared among the factions.
    (SFC,12/23/97, p.D2)

1998        Jan 4, Some 60,000 Somalis gathered in Mogadishu to celebrate the peace accord. The top 3 warlords promised to open the seaport and airport.
    (WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A1)

1998        Mar 26, A boatload of Somali refugees sank off the coast of Yemen and killed 180 of 188 people.
    (SFC, 4/1/98, p.A10)

1998        Mar 29, Factional fighting killed 13 people in Hobyo, 2 days before a national reconciliation conference.
    (WSJ, 3/30/98, p.A1)

1998        Mar 30, Ali Mohamed Mahdi and Hussein Mohamed Aidid agreed to a joint administration for Mogadishu after 7 years of fighting. 30 people were killed as rival clans clashed in Kismayu.
    (SFC, 3/31/98, p.B3)

1998        Apr 15, Ten aid workers were kidnapped in Mogadishu.
    (WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A1)

1998        Apr 24, The kidnapped aid workers were released.
    (SFC, 4/25/98, p.A9)

1998        May 8, Fighting in Kismayo between rival militias left 23 dead and 30 wounded.
    (SFC, 5/9/98, p.A12)

1998        Nov 21, It was reported the in Somalia African honey bees killed 7 people near the village of Tikhsile as they searched for food for their livestock.
    (SFC, 11/21/98, p.A6)

1998        Dec 8, At least 18 people were killed and 30 wounded in clashes between 2 rival clans in Baidoa.
    (SFC, 12/9/98, p.B8)

1998        Waris Dirie and Cathleen Miller authored “Desert Flower: The Extraordinary Journey of a Desert Nomad.” It was the story of Dirie and her flight from an arranged marriage to become a supermodel.
    (SFEC, 12/12/98, BR p.6)

1998        Nurrudin Farah published his novel “Secrets” set amid the strife of the current civil war. It was part of a trilogy that included "Maps" and "Gifts." Mr. Farah won the Neustadt Int'l. Prize for Literature this same year. He was exiled some 20 years earlier from Somalia following the publication of his novel "Sweet and Sour Milk."
    (SFEC, 7/5/98, BR p.4)(WSJ, 9/10/99, p.W6)

1998        Abdulahhi Yusuf (Yussuf) was elected by elders in Puntland. Yusuf was later challenged by Jama Ali Jama.
    (SSFC, 1/6/02, p.A7)

1999        Feb 15, It was reported that cholera in Bandera, Somalia, has killed at least 60 people and infected over 250.
    (WSJ, 2/16/99, p.A1)

1999        Feb 23, Militiamen loyal to Hussein Aidid reported that they had killed 60 civilians in the Baidoa town and the village of Daynunay.
    (SFC, 2/24/99, p.C3)

1999        Jun 28, Ethiopian forces captured the regional capital of Garba Harre, 250 miles northwest of Mogadishu.
    (SFC, 6/29/99, p.A9)

1999        Aug 12, Ethiopia claimed to have almost eliminated 3 rebel groups based in Somalia which it said were supported by Eritrea. Most of the 1,103 killed or captured rebels were of the Oromo Liberation Front.
    (SFC, 8/13/99, p.D2)

1999        Aug 31, Clan gunmen killed 14 people and wounded 20 in a bus attack outside Mogadishu.
    (SFC, 9/1/99, p.A16)

1999        In Somalia Hassan Sheikh Mohamud helped found the Somali Institute of Management and Administration Development to train administrators and technicians to help rebuild Somalia.
    (AP, 9/10/12)

2000        Jan 2 Shuab Mohamed Hussein, a CARE engineer, was killed during an ambush north of Mogadishu.
    (SFC, 1/4/00, p.A12)

2000        Apr 19, Over 110 people died over the last 2 days from an outbreak of cholera. 70 dead were in the Ufatest commune and 40 in the village of Bulo Addey.
    (SFC, 4/20/00, p.C4)

2000        Apr 25, In southwestern Somalia nearly 400 people in famine-ridden villages were reported dead from cholera over the last 2 weeks.
    (SFC, 4/25/00, p.A14)

2000        May 2, Djibouti Pres. Ismael Omar Guelleh set up talks in Arta to establish a government for Somalia.
    (SFC, 8/14/00, p.A1)

2000        May 20, It was reported that three weeks of excessive rainfall had submerged central Somalia.
    (SFC, 5/20/00, p.D8)

2000        Jul, Thousands of Somalis took to the streets of Mogadishu in support of a peace conference in Djibouti.
    (SFC, 8/2/00, p.A12)

2000        Aug 13, Over 2,000 Somali leaders gathered in Djibouti to form a central government with a new 225-member parliament. Somalia swore in legislators for its first central government after almost a decade of internecine warfare.
    (SFC, 8/14/00, p.A1)(AP, 8/13/01)

2000        Aug 26, Abdiqasim Salad Hassan, a former interior minister, won the presidential elections.
    (SFEC, 8/27/00, p.C12)

2000        Sep 6, Clan fighting left at least 25 people dead and 18 injured in villages north of Mogadishu.
    (WSJ, 9/7/00, p.A1)

2000        Sep 18, Somali gunmen freed 2 European aid workers.
    (SFC, 9/19/00, p.A10)

2000        Oct 14, Pres. Abdiqasim Salad Hassan returned from Djibouti.
    (SFC, 10/16/00, p.F8)

2000        Nov 17, Gunmen killed 7 people in an attack of a convoy escorting Ahmed Dualeh Ghellel, a prominent businessman and new legislator. This was the 2nd attack in a week against a new member of parliament.
    (SFC, 11/18/00, p.C16)

2000        In Somalia Islamists formed the Union of Islamic Courts, a national federation of sharia jurists. It was overthrown in 2006 with foreign help.
    (Econ, 10/15/11, p.18)

2001        Jan 6, In Somalia Rahanwein Resistance Army gunmen attacked government forces escorting officials and at least 9 people were killed near Teiglow village.
    (SSFC, 1/7/01, p.D2)

2001        Mar 27, Militiamen attacked a relief convoy and 14 Somalis were killed. 5 kidnapped aid workers were freed the next day, but 4 remained hostage. 2 Britons were released April 4.
    (SFC, 3/28/01, p.A10)(WSJ, 3/29/01, p.A1)(SFC, 4/5/01, p.A11)

2001        May 12, Aidid forces gained control of the seaport at Mogadishu in fighting with the Suleiman clan militia. 40 people were left dead including 21 civilians.
    (SSFC, 5/13/01, p.A13)

2001        cMay 18, The captain and crew of a cargo ship from Bosaso forced overboard some 150 passengers after the vessel developed engine trouble. At least 86 people drowned. Police arrested the captain on June 21.
    (SFC, 6/22/01, p.A16)

2001        May 19, In Somalia luggage in a bus exploded near Halgan and 26 passengers were killed. Gunpowder in a suitcase was placed near the engine.
    (SSFC, 5/20/01, p.A16)

2001        cJul 1, The fledgling government staged a show of force in Mogadishu with some 10,000 police and troops.
    (WSJ, 7/2/01, p.A1)

2001        Jul 12, Fighting broke out between rival subgroups of the Abgal clan in the Suq-Fad’ad market of Mogadishu and at least 14 people were killed.
    (SFC, 7/14/01, p.A11)

2001        Oct 28, In Somalia PM Ali Khalif Galaydh lost a no-confidence vote after a tenure of 13 months. Pres. Abdiqasim Salad Hassan prepared to nominate a new PM.
    (SFC, 10/29/01, p.A9)

2001        Nov 25, Ethiopia sent troops into the northeastern Somali region of Puntland to help Col. Abdullahi Yussuf (Yusuf) regain power. Yussuf was overthrown Aug 26 after his 3-year term ended. On Nov 21 Yussuf launched an attack on Garoweh, the capital of Puntland and said it was to crush Islamic terrorists.
    (SFC, 11/26/01, p.A11)(WSJ, 11/28/01, p.A10)

2001        Warlord Hussein Mohammed Aidid advised Pres. Bush that Al Barakaat, a money transfer and telecom company, had ties to terrorists and that there were terrorists in Somalia sympathetic to Osama bin Laden.
    (SSFC, 1/6/02, p.A7)

2002        Jan 3, The US announced increased military operations in Somalia and prepared to send Marines there. It was suspected that Al Qaeda fighters might attempt fleeing to Somalia.
    (SFC, 1/4/02, p.A19)(WSJ, 1/4/02, p.A14)

2002        Apr 30, A fire destroyed half of the Bakara market in Mogadishu. At least 7 people were killed in attempts to stop looters.
    (SFC, 5/1/02, p.A13)

2002        May 24, In Mogadishu hundreds of gunmen, loyal to Mohamed Dhereh and opposed to the transitional government, attacked the home of Interior Minister Dahir Dayah and killed at least 8 people.
    (SFC, 5/25/02, p.A13)

2002        Jun 27, In central Somalia rival militias fought a fierce battle over the deaths of fellow clansmen, leaving 23 people dead and 40 wounded just one day after a peace deal was reached.
    (AP, 6/27/02)

2002        Jun 29, Somalia's transitional government formally called for the U.N. Security Council to send an armed force to the Horn of Africa nation.
    (AP, 6/29/02)

2002        Jul 5, In Somalia a mutiny against a prominent faction leader entered a second day, with street fighting in the city of Baidoa leaving eight militiamen dead and injuring 25 others, including civilians.
    (AP, 7/5/02)

2002        Sep 5, In Somalia militiamen tied white flags to their weapons as an informal cease-fire halted two days of fierce fighting in a capital area that has left more than 25 people dead and 50 wounded.
    (AP, 9/5/02)

2002        Oct 4, In central Somalia heavy fighting between the Sa'ad subclan and the Majerten clan killed at least 10 people and injured 25 others.
    (AP, 10/5/02)

2002        Oct 13, In Somalia a boat that had carried 120 Somalis and Ethiopians from the village of Marear more than two weeks ago, landed with 50 survivors. The engine failed, leaving them drifting in the Gulf of Aden. At least 70 people who were headed to Persian Gulf states in search of jobs died.
    (AP, 10/14/02)

2002        Oct 24, In Kenya would-be carjackers shot and killed Esterlin Abdi Arush (45), a Somali human rights activist, at the gate of the house where she was staying in Nairobi.
    (AP, 10/25/02)

2002        Oct 29, In southwestern Somalia hundreds of rival militiamen armed with heavy weapons fought for control of a strategic border town, leaving 25 dead and 37 wounded.
    (AP, 10/29/02)

2002        Dec 24, In Somalia 3 unidentified gunmen opened fire on a school minibus in Mogadishu, killing four students and wounding 10 others.
    (AP, 12/24/02)

2003        Jan 4, A boat from Somalia to Yemen developed engine trouble and capsized and at least 80 people were feared dead.
    (AP, 1/16/03)

2003        May 20, The first of more than 12,000 Somali Bantus awaiting resettlement set out for the US, leaving at long last the refugee camps where most have lived for a decade.
    (AP, 5/20/03)

2003        Jul 5, Delegates at a Somali peace conference agreed to create a federal government.
    (AP, 7/6/03)

2003        Jul 9, In northwestern Somalia 3 days of fighting among hundreds of gunmen from rival clan-based factions killed more than 40 people and wounded 90.
    (AP, 7/10/03)

2003        Sep 15, Over 360 Somali delegates in Kenya adopted a transitional charter that outlines a future government for the troubled African nation.
    (AP, 9/16/03)

2003        Oct 5, In Somalia  Annalena Tonelli (60), an Italian aid worker who dedicated 33 years of her life to helping Somalis, was shot and killed outside the hospital she founded to treat tuberculosis patients.
    (AP, 10/6/03)

2003        Dec 16, In central Somalia rival militias battled over barren desert lands in fighting that killed at least 31 people and wounded 50 others.
    (AP, 12/17/03)

2004        Jan 29, Somalia's feuding leaders signed an agreement to form a new government based along clan lines, the first deal of its kind to include all armed groups that have torn the country apart for the last 13 years.
    (AP, 1/29/04)

2004        Mar 30, A boat carrying 107 people sank during the crossing from Somalia to Yemen and only four other people, including two crew members, were rescued.
    (AP, 3/30/04)

2004        Mar, Somalia’s 1st Coca-Cola bottling plant opened in Mogadishu.
    (Econ, 4/3/04, p.50)

2004        Apr, Pres. Kibaki’s government announced that Kenya would no longer recognize Somali passports.
    (Econ, 6/12/04, p.46)

2004        Oct 10, Members of Somalia’s transitional parliament elected Col. Abdullahi Yusuf (70) as interim president.
    (SFC, 10/11/04, p.A3)

2004        Dec 11, Somalia's parliament passed a motion of no-confidence against the country's new prime minister and his Cabinet, effectively sacking the government. Some 153 members of the 275-member transitional parliament voted against Prime Minister Ali Mohammed Gedi, accusing him of failing to respect power-sharing arrangements agreed to by warlords and the country's main clans.
    (AP, 12/11/04)

2004        Dec 26, The world's most powerful earthquake in 40 years triggered massive tidal waves that slammed into villages and seaside resorts across southern and southeast Asia. The initial estimated death toll of 9,000 soon rose to some 230,000 people in 14 countries. The magnitude 9.0 earthquake was the world's fifth-largest since 1900 and the largest since a 9.2 temblor hit Prince William Sound Alaska in 1964. The epicenter was located 155 miles south-southeast of Banda Aceh, the capital of Aceh province on Sumatra, and six miles under the seabed of the Indian Ocean. In Indonesia at least 166,320 people were killed.
Bangladesh reported 2 killed; India: at least 9,691 deaths: thousands were missing and possibly dead in India's remote Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Indonesia: At least 101,318 people were killed on Sumatra island and small islands off its coast. Kenya reported 1 killed. Malaysia: At least 68 people, including an unknown number of foreign tourists, were dead. Myanmar: At least 90 people were killed. Sri Lanka: At least 30,680 were killed in government and rebel controlled areas. The Maldives, an archipelago of 1,190 low-lying coral islands and a tiny population of 280,000, at least 82 people were killed and missing. At least 42 islands were flattened in the low-lying atoll nation. Somalia: At least 298 were killed. Tanzania: At least 10 killed. Thailand: The confirmed death toll for Thailand reached 5,322, but many suspected Myanmar migrants were not counted.
    (SFC, 12/28/04, p.A1)(AP, 12/30/04)(SSFC, 1/2/05, p.A12)(AP, 1/7/05)(Econ, 1/22/05, p.41)(AP, 12/25/09)

2005        Jan 22, Somalia's government vowed to bring to justice militiamen who exhumed hundreds of skeletons from an Italian colonial-era cemetery and dumped them near Mogadishu's airport.
    (Reuters, 1/22/05)

2005        Feb 9, In Somalia BBC journalist Kate Peyton was shot to death outside a Mogadishu hotel where she had interviewed some members of the interim parliament.
    (SFC, 2/19/05, p.A14)

2005        May 3, An explosion erupted as Somalia's provisional prime minister was starting a speech, killing at least seven people and causing an undetermined number of injuries at a government rally in Mogadishu's soccer stadium.
    (AP, 5/3/05)

2005        May 14, Warlords began withdrawing thousands of militia fighters from the Somali capital in a bid to restore order after more than 15 years of anarchy and civil war.
    (AP, 5/15/05)

2005        June 27, In Somalia gunman hijacked the MV Semlow, a ship carrying food aid, and held the vessel for 100 days before it was released Oct. 4.
    (AP, 10/12/05)

2005        Jul 4, The UN’s World Food Program (WFP) said it has suspended aid shipments to lawless Somalia after gunmen hijacked a vessel it chartered and demanded a $500,000 ransom.
    (AP, 7/4/05)

2005        Aug 13, Rival militias in arid southwestern Somalia battled for control over a village with pastures and wells. Twelve combatants died, and hundreds of residents fled.
    (AP, 8/13/05)

2005        Aug 31, Some 200 Somalis and Ethiopians left Somalia's semiautonomous Puntland region in two boats. Smugglers making the illegal crossing from Somalia to Yemen forced passengers into the Red Sea at gunpoint 10 miles from the Yemeni coastline, leaving at least 57 dead and about 100 missing.
    (AP, 9/5/05)

2005        Sep 23, Police in the breakaway republic of Somaliland raided houses in the capital, Hargeisa, where al-Qaida militants were believed holed up and captured four suspects after a shootout. A fifth suspect was arrested 20 miles away. Pres. Dahir Riyale Kahnin said the men were mostly locals trained at a camp outside Mogadishu, Somalia.
    (AP, 9/23/05)(Econ, 10/1/05, p.43)

2005        Oct 12, In Somalia 6 armed men hijacked the MV Miltzow, a ship carrying food aid, as it was unloading at the port of Merka, marking the second such incident in recent months.
    (AP, 10/12/05)

2005        Oct 14, Somalia's PM Ali Mohamed Gedi called on neighboring countries to send warships to patrol his nation's waters after pirates seized a 3rd cargo vessel delivering food aid.
    (AP, 10/14/05)

2005        Oct 17, Abdi Hassan Awale, who once served as Somalia's interior minister, was arrested on suspicion of war crimes while attending a conference in Sweden. He is suspected of being a militia leader during the Oct 3, 1993, "Black Hawk Down" battle that left 18 Americans dead.
    (AP, 10/17/05)

2005        Nov 5, The cruise ship MV Seaborn Spirit, carrying at least 600 tourists from Europe, narrowly escaped seizure by gunmen off the pirate-infested Somali coast when it sped off to the high seas amid a trail of gunfire. At least 23 hijackings and attempted seizures have been recorded off the Somalia coastline since mid-March, according to the International Maritime Bureau (IMB), which has warned ships to stay as far away from the coast as possible and keep radio communication to the minimal.
    (AFP, 11/5/05)

2005        Nov 6, Gunmen in Mogadishu threw grenades and a land mine exploded near the convoy carrying Somalia's PM Ali Mohamed Gedi, but the leader escaped unharmed. At least two people were killed and 12 wounded in the attack.
    (AP, 11/6/05)

2005        Nov 27, Pirates freed a Ukrainian cargo ship seized nearly 40 days ago off the coast of Somalia. The Panahia and its 22 crew members were seized Oct 18. It was not immediately clear if the $700,000 ransom demanded by the pirates had been paid.
    (AP, 11/27/05)

2005        Dec 25, In Somalia warlords and civilians installed a council to govern Mogadishu, an action that further fragments the nation but could bring the capital under the control of a single group after 14 years of anarchy.
    (AP, 12/25/05)

2005        Dec 29, Drought was reported to have triggered extreme food shortages in the East African countries of Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia, putting millions of people at risk of famine as the lean dry season approaches.
    (AP, 12/30/05)

2005        In Somalia some three dozen Somalis formed a club of Islamists, soon dubbing themselves Shabab (Arabic for youth).
    (Econ, 6/8/13, p.87)
2005        According to the International Maritime Bureau the number of overall reported at-sea hijackings by pirates off the Somali coast was 35, compared with two in 2004.
    (AP, 4/7/07)

2006        Jan 1, East African leaders said that millions of people in the region faced hunger because poor rains had affected vital crops and pasture. Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia and Tanzania faced acute food shortages.
    (AP, 1/1/06)

2006        Jan 21, US Navy vessels sent warning shots and captured the crew of a suspected pirate ship in the Indian Ocean off Somalia's coast. The US Navy boarded the pirate ship and detained 26 men for questioning. Sailors aboard the dhow told Navy investigators that pirates hijacked the vessel six days ago near Mogadishu and thereafter used it to stage pirate attacks on merchant ships.
    (AP, 1/23/06)

2006        Feb, In Somalia a warlord alliance, the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism (ARPCT), was created with US support in a bid to curb the growing influence of the Islamic courts, hunt down the extremists they are accused of sheltering and disrupt feared plans for new terrorist attacks.
    (AP, 6/15/06)

2006        Mar 18, Two US Navy warships exchanged gunfire with suspected pirates off the coast of Somalia, and one suspect was killed and five others were wounded.
    (AP, 3/18/06)

2006        Mar 21, The UN appealed for nearly $327 million in aid to help starving people in southern Somalia, which is suffering its worst drought in a decade.
    (AP, 3/21/06)

2006        Mar 24, In Mogadishu, Somalia, 13 people were killed as fighting continued between Islamic militia fighters and forces opposed to fundamentalist clerics. 3 days of clashes left at least 73 people dead.
    (SFC, 3/25/06, p.A3)

2006        Mar 25, In Somalia hundreds of heavily armed Islamic militiamen launched an offensive to try to capture a key port and airstrip on the northeastern outskirts of Mogadishu.
    (AP, 3/25/06)

2006        Mar 29, Some 20 Filipino seamen were seized after their oil tanker, the United Arab Emirates-registered MT LIN1, offloaded its cargo at a southern Somali port. The men were released in July 15 following negotiations.
    (AP, 7/16/06)

2006        Apr 4, The South Korean ship 628 Dongwon was seized by eight armed assailants, who approached in two speed boats firing guns off the coast of Somalia. 25 crew members were reported safe and officials sought their release. The sailors were released July 30 after more than $800,000 in ransom was paid.
    (AP, 4/5/06)(AP, 7/30/06)

2006        Apr 5, Militants who captured the South Korean fishing vessel off the coast of Somalia denied they were pirates and said they were defending their waters from illegal fishing.
    (AP, 4/5/06)

2006        Apr 17, Somalia granted the US Navy permission to patrol coastal waters to combat piracy.
    (WSJ, 4/18/06, p.A1)

2006        Apr, Somalia’s transitional government named Mohamud Hassan Ali (52), a resident of Minnesota since 2000, as mayor of Mogadishu. His uncle had served as mayor of Mogadishu from 1959-1963.
    (SSFC, 6/11/06, p.A22)

2006        May 7, Officials said pirates who hijacked a cargo ship off the coast of Somalia and killed one of its crew members have released the vessel after holding it for a week.
    (AP, 5/7/06)

2006        May 9, Somalian factions said they have agreed to a truce following clashes between Islamic fighters and a warlord alliance that have killed about 60 people.
    (WSJ, 5/10/06, p.A1)

2006        May 10, In Somalia a brief truce collapsed in Mogadishu and renewed fighting pushed the death toll to almost 100 people over 4 days of fighting.
     (WSJ, 5/11/06, p.A1)

2006        May 11, In Somalia fighters loyal to secular warlords and Islamic extremists fired artillery and mortars at each other Mogadishu as hundreds of families fled violence that has killed at least 122 people over five days.
    (AP, 5/11/06)

2006        May 13, In Somalia Islamic militia and secular fighters pounded each other with heavy artillery and mortar fire as the death toll rose to 142 in seven days of fighting for control of a neighborhood north of the Mogadishu.
    (AP, 5/13/06)

2006        May 16, In Somalia fighting between Islamic militias and rival secular fighters killed two people on the outskirts of Mogadishu, despite a weekend cease-fire ending days of bloodshed in the capital.
    (AP, 5/16/06)
2006        May 16, Ayaan Hirsi Ali, a Somali-born member of Parliament, said she will resign and leave Holland after the government said she was improperly granted citizenship. She became an internationally known opponent of some violent types of Islam.
    (AP, 5/16/06)

2006        May 17, A secular alliance that is battling fundamentalist Islamic militias in Somalia charged that its rivals are bolstered by fighters from the Middle East, Pakistan and elsewhere, and said it has the bodies to prove it. The interim government said the US was supporting secular warlords fighting Islamic groups for control of Mogadishu.
    (AP, 5/17/06)(SFC, 5/18/06, p.A11)

2006        May 25, In Somalia renewed fighting between Islamic militias and secular warlords killed at least 38 people in Mogadishu and sent thousands of frightened civilians running from their homes.
    (AP, 5/25/06)

2006        May 27, In Mogadishu, Somalia, Islamic militiamen and rival secular fighters traded machine-gun, rocket and mortar fire, killing at least eight and wounding a dozen as residents fled on foot or in hired minivans.
    (AP, 5/27/06)

2006        May 31, In Somalia Islamic militias and secular warlords resumed fighting for control of Mogadishu, killing at least 13 people and wounding 11 after a five-day lull.
    (AP, 5/31/06)

2006        Jun 3, In Somalia 5 people were killed in fighting between Islamic militiamen and their secular rivals on the outskirts of Mogadishu.
    (AP, 6/3/06)

2006        Jun 5, An Islamic militia said it has seized Somalia's capital after weeks of bloody fighting and 15 years of anarchy in this Horn of Africa nation, raising fears that the nation could fall under the sway of al-Qaida. Some 350 fighters and civilians had been killed over the past month with at least 2,000 wounded.
    (AP, 6/5/06)(Econ, 6/10/06, p.44)

2006        Jun 7, In Somalia Islamist leaders in control of Mogadishu agreed to talks with the country’s transitional government. A counter-offensive by rival warlords, supported by the US, still posed a threat.
    (SFC, 6/8/06, p.A18)

2006        Jun 13, Seven east African nations imposed travel bans on Somali warlords, who lost bloody battles with Islamist fighters over Mogadishu, and froze their assets in effort to push them into peace talks.
    (AP, 6/13/06)

2006        Jun 14, Somali lawmakers in Baidoa approved a peacekeeping mission for Somalia.  Fighters determined to install Islamic rule across Somalia won a strategic town, entering Jowhar after their secular rivals fled their last stronghold in the south.
    (AP, 6/14/06)

2006        Jun 16, In Somalia some 10,000 opponents of an international peacekeeping mission demonstrated in Mogadishu, which is controlled by an Islamic militia accused by the US of harboring wanted al-Qaida members.
    (AP, 6/16/06)

2006        Jun 17, The leader of Somalia's increasingly powerful Islamic militia accused Ethiopian troops of crossing into the country, a charge Ethiopia denied.
    (AP, 6/17/06)

2006        Jun 22, Somalia's largely powerless government and the Islamic fighters who control the country's capital agreed to stop military action and recognize each other.
    (AP, 6/22/06)

2006        Jun 23, In Somalia Martin Adler, a Swedish television cameraman, was fatally shot by an unidentified gunman during a demonstration in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 6/23/06)(www.nppa.org/news_and_events/news/2006/06/adler.html)

2006        Jun 24, In Somalia Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys, a fundamentalist Muslim, who the US suspects of collaborating with al-Qaida terrorists, was named as the new leader of an Islamic militia that has seized control of Mogadishu. Aweys was aided by fighters loosely linked to the Shabab, the armed wing of Islamic Courts Union.
    (AP, 6/24/06)(Econ, 7/1/06, p.44)(Econ, 7/5/08, p.58)

2006        Jun 27, In Mogadishu, Somalia, members of an Islamic militia that controls most of southern Somalia battled for a clan-held checkpoint, killing five people before declaring victory.
    (AP, 6/27/06)

2006        Jun 29, The hard-line Muslim leaders who have seized control of much of southern Somalia claimed authority throughout the country in yet another blow to the largely powerless but internationally recognized interim government.
    (AP, 6/29/06)

2006        Jun 30, Three Darfur rebel groups, that have refused to sign up to an African Union-mediated peace deal for the troubled western Sudanese region, formed a new alliance to fight Khartoum. Officials from the groups created the National Redemption Front (NRF) after talks in the Eritrean capital and reaffirmed their opposition to the Abuja peace agreement.
    (AFP, 6/30/06)

2006        Jul 1, About 100 Ethiopian troops entered the Somali border town of Beled-Hawo in eight military vehicles, the latest sign that Ethiopia might try to bolster this country's weak interim government as an Islamic militia gains increasing power.
    (AP, 7/1/06)

2006        Jul 2, Africa's leaders meeting in Gambia agreed to send troops to Somalia to support regional efforts at calming the chaotic east African state.
    (Reuters, 7/2/06)

2006        Jul 4, Radical Islamic militia fighters in Somalia shot and killed two people who were watching a World Cup soccer broadcast. The Islamic group that controls Somalia's capital soon arrested two of its own militiamen for killing two people who were watching the soccer match.
    (AP, 7/5/06)(AP, 7/6/06)

2006        Jul 6, Members of the radical Islamic group that controls Somalia's capital met African, Arab and European officials and repeated their opposition to the deployment of peacekeepers to stabilize the lawless country.
    (AP, 7/6/06)

2006        Jul 8, The Islamic militiamen controlling the Somali capital broke up a wedding celebration because a band, the Mogadishu Stars, was playing and women and men were socializing together. Band members were flogged with electric cables.
    (AP, 7/8/06)(Econ, 7/15/06, p.47)

2006        Jul 9, In Somalia 20 people were killed in bloody fighting as Islamic fighters fought supporters of Abdi Awale Qaybdiid, who refused to disarm.
    (AP, 7/10/06)

2006        Jul 10, Somalia's Islamic militia battled a pocket of resistance, pounding Mogadishu with machine-gun fire and rocket-propelled grenades and at least 7 people were killed.
    (AP, 7/10/06)

2006        Jul 11, Hundreds of fighters who were battling Somalia's Islamic militia in Mogadishu surrendered after a surge of violence that killed more than 70 people and wounded 150.
    (AP, 7/11/06)

2006        Jul 14, Somalia's nearly powerless interim government said it would boycott weekend peace talks with the Islamic militia that has seized control of nearly all the nation's south, accusing the group of civilian massacres and ties to foreign terrorists.
    (AP, 7/14/06)

2006        Jul 18, In Somalia Islamic militiamen who rule Mogadishu arrested about 60 people for watching videos in several overnight raids.
    (AP, 7/19/06)

2006        Jul 20, Residents of central Somalia said that hundreds of Ethiopian troops were patrolling the town of Baidoa in armored vehicles, less than a day after Islamic militants moved near the base of the weak, UN-backed government.
    (AP, 7/20/06)

2006        Jul 21, An Islamic militia leader called for a holy war against Ethiopian troops protecting Somalia's weak UN-backed government.
    (AP, 7/21/06)

2006        Jul 22, Ethiopian troops sent to bolster Somalia's weak government against a powerful Islamic militia moved into a second Somali town and seized a strategic airport.
    (AP, 7/22/06)

2006        Jul 23, In Somalia a local rights group said gunmen have killed 682 civilians, including a foreign journalist, in executions over the past year.
    (AP, 7/23/06)

2006        Jul 26, Somalia's virtually powerless government said a cargo plane landed at the capital's airport and was carrying weapons for Islamic militants who have seized control of much of southern Somalia. A spokesman for the country's official government, based 150 miles northwest of Mogadishu, said the plane was carrying land mines, bombs and long-range guns from Eritrea for a militia loyal to the Supreme Islamic Courts Council.
    (AP, 7/26/06)

2006        Jul 27, At least 20 members of Somalia's parliament resigned, accusing the country's virtually powerless government of failing to bring peace. The parliament is supposed to have 275 member but 16 members have defected to the Islamic militia and other seats remain unfilled after members' deaths.
    (AP, 7/27/06)

2006        Jul 28, Hundreds of people rioted near the headquarters of Somalia's virtually powerless government after a Cabinet minister was fatally shot outside a mosque.
    (AP, 7/28/06)

2006        Jul 29, Somalia's PM Mohammed Ali Gedi accused Egypt, Libya and Iran of providing weapons for Islamic militants who have seized control of much of this country's south.
    (AP, 7/29/06)

2006        Jul 30, The first commercial flight in a decade departed Mogadishu’s newly reopened international airport, demonstrating how Islamic militants have pacified the once-anarchic capital and much of southern Somalia.
    (AP, 7/30/06)

2006        Jul 31, In Somalia 275 militiamen with 50 pickup trucks mounted with anti-aircraft guns were sent to central Somalia to break up the bases of Somali pirates who have been kidnapping sailors.
    (AP, 8/1/06)

2006        Aug 2, Somali leaders struggled to regroup after a week in which 29 ministers quit the government, with the defectors urging the virtually powerless administration to reconcile with Islamic militants who have seized the capital.
    (AP, 8/2/06)

2006        Aug 6, A government spokesman said Somalia's top interim leaders have agreed to end a rift threatening the fragile administration after crisis talks led by Seyoum Mesfin, Ethiopia's foreign affairs minister.
    (Reuters, 8/6/06)

2006        Aug 16, In Mogadishu, Somalia, Islamic leaders gave seven men 40 lashes each for using or selling marijuana, meting out the punishment in public in a dramatic example of the region's new fundamentalist rule.
    (AP, 8/16/06)

2006        Aug 21, Somalia’s embattled PM Ali Mohamed Gedi named a new Cabinet, two weeks after the old one was dissolved amid a rift within the UN-backed transitional government over how to respond to the growing influence of Islamic militants.
    (AP, 8/21/06)

2006        Aug 22, Ethiopian troops reportedly arrived in the central Somali town of Galkayo. The move may stoke tensions with the Islamic militiamen who control most of southern Somalia. They were seen inside the town in 13 vehicles.
    (AP, 8/22/06)

2006        Aug 23, Somalia’s seaport in Mogadishu reopened for the first time in 11 years, the latest sign that the city's Islamic fundamentalist rulers are trying to restore confidence after more than a decade of anarchy.
    (AP, 8/23/06)

2006        Sep 4, Somalia's weak government and an Islamic militia that controls much of the south signed an agreement to eventually form a unified national army.
    (AP, 9/4/06)

2006        Sep 5, In Somalia thousands of people massed in Mogadishu vowing to fight any foreign peacekeepers sent to the embattled nation, while a coalition of East African nations approved an ambitious plan to deploy troops in Somalia by early next month.
    (AP, 9/5/06)

2006        Sep 10, Islamic militants controlling much of southern Somalia shut down a radio station for playing love songs and other music, the latest step to impose strict religious rule which has sparked fears of an emerging, Taliban-style regime. Islamic militants, who closed down a Somali radio station, allowed it back on the air so long as it does not play music or love songs.
    (AP, 9/10/06)(AP, 9/11/06)

2006        Sep 17, Sister Leonella Sgorbati, an Italian nun, was shot dead at a hospital in Mogadishu by Somali gunmen, hours after a leading Muslim cleric condemned Pope Benedict XVI for his remarks on Islam and violence. The nun's bodyguard and a hospital worker were also killed.
    (AP, 9/17/06)(AP, 9/21/06)

2006        Sep 18, In Somalia a massive car bomb exploded outside the makeshift parliament building in Baidoa, killing 11 people, including the president's brother, in an apparent assassination attempt. As Pres. Yusuf fled, a gunbattle broke out between his bodyguards and eight suspected accomplices of an apparent suicide bomber. Six were killed and two were captured.
    (AP, 9/18/06)(AP, 9/19/06)

2006        Sep 24, In Somalia hundreds of Islamic militiamen in heavily armed trucks took over the southern town of Kismayo, one of the last seaports that had been outside their control.
    (AP, 9/24/06)

2006        Sep 25, Somalia's interim prime minister called on the UN to partially lift an arms embargo on his country to allow for the deployment of African peacekeepers, which he said are necessary to stop the advance of Islamic radicals. A government order banned human smuggling. Ethiopian troops arrived in Somalia to support the internationally recognized government in its faceoff with radicals. The Islamic militia in the seaport of Kismayo opened fire on thousands protesting the fundamentalists' takeover of the southern town. Witnesses said a teenager was killed.
    (AP, 9/25/06)(SFC, 9/26/06, p.A3)(AP, 10/8/06)

2006        Sep 28, Somali police investigating a car bomb assassination attempt on the president arrested three suspected members of a fundamentalist Islamic group and recovered explosives.
    (AP, 9/28/06)

2006        Sep 29, Somalia's Islamic fighters seized control of Jawill, a strategic village near the Ethiopian border, widening their grip over much of the southern part of the country. 3 pro-government militiamen and one Islamic courts fighter were killed during the gunbattle for the village.
    (AP, 9/30/06)

2006        Oct 6, The UN refugee agency said the number of Somalis fleeing fighting to seek refuge in Kenya has risen dramatically and could stretch the capacity of aid organizations to critical levels.
    (AP, 10/6/06)

2006        Oct 7, In Somalia dozens of people protested against an Islamic militia that has seized much of southern Somalia, a day after the group appointed a new administration in Kismayo, the country's third largest city.
    (AP, 10/7/06)

2006        Oct 8, Authorities in northeastern Somalia repatriated more than 1,000 Ethiopians whom smugglers were preparing to take across the Gulf of Aden to the promise of jobs and a better life in the Middle East.
    (AP, 10/8/06)

2006        Oct 9, Somali government troops with Ethiopian help recaptured Burhakaba. The Islamic militia that has seized much southern Somalia declared a holy war against Ethiopia accusing its neighbor of deploying thousands of troops to prop up the weak UN-backed government.
    (SFC, 10/10/06, p.A3)(Econ, 10/14/06, p.49)

2006        Oct 12, The UN said it has temporarily pulled international staff out of parts of Somalia controlled by Islamic radicals after receiving written threats.
    (AP, 10/12/06)

2006        Oct 13, Somalia's Islamic radicals repulsed an attack by pro-government forces to recapture Kismayo, a vital seaport. Islamic radicals carried out their second public execution in less than a month amid fears of increasing extremist violence. Mahad Osman Ugas (23) was executed by a six-man firing squad as several thousand people watched. A jury convicted him of killing a businessman while trying to steal the man's cell phone.
    (AP, 10/13/06)(AP, 10/14/06)

2006        Oct 17, Kenya reported its first case of polio in 22 years at a refugee camp near the Somali border as the United Nations appealed for urgent help to cope with a surge in refugees from Somalia.
    (AFP, 10/17/06)

2006        Oct 19, Ethiopia's PM Meles Zenawi told parliament that he had sent military trainers to help Somalia's struggling government, but had not deployed a fighting force.
    (AP, 10/19/06)

2006        Oct 24, Ethiopia’s PM Meles Zenawi said Ethiopia was "technically" at war with Somalia's Islamists because they had declared jihad on his nation.
    (AP, 10/24/06)

2006        Oct 29, Somalia's Islamic group broke off peace talks with the transitional government, demanding that Ethiopian troops withdraw from the country.
    (AP, 10/29/06)

2006        Oct 30, Somali Islamic leaders banned youthful Somalis from marrying without the consent of their parents, saying such unions violate Islam.
    (AP, 10/31/06)

2006        Nov 5, A delegation of Somali lawmakers broke ranks with the government and traveled to the capital to hold peace talks with the country's Islamic militia, the latest sign of cracks in the fragile administration.
    (AP, 11/5/06)

2006        Nov 6, In northern Somalia Islamic fighters clashed with government militia backed by Ethiopian forces.
    (SFC, 11/7/06, p.A18)

2006        Nov 12, Heavy fighting erupted in central Somalia, a day after the transitional government rejected a peace initiative with the country's Islamic movement.
    (AP, 11/12/06)

2006        Nov 15, A UN report identified 10 African and Arab countries, as well as Lebanon’s Hezbollah, as arms suppliers to the Islamic militia in Somalia.
    (WSJ, 11/16/06, p.A1)

2006        Nov 17, UN aid bodies said torrential rains and floods have hit up to 1.8 million people in the Horn of Africa, driving tens of thousands from their homes and threatening to trigger epidemics. Torrential rains have pounded the Horn of Africa this month, bringing misery to large parts of Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan and Eritrea.
    (AP, 11/17/06)

2006        Nov 19, In Somalia Islamic fighters used land mines and ambushed an 80-vehicle Ethiopian military convoy headed to Baidoa killing 6 soldiers and injuring 20.
    (SFC, 11/20/06, p.A3)

2006        Nov 20, Gen. Addeh Museh, the president of the semiautonomous region of Puntland, said he will rule according to Islamic law, a surprising move in a relatively stable area that has resisted the spread of Islamic militants who control most of southern Somalia.
    (AP, 11/20/06)

2006        Nov 23, Somalia's Islamic militia invited US government leaders to visit the capital, Mogadishu, the city where 18 U.S. troops on a peacekeeping mission to the East African nation were killed in 1993.
    (AP, 11/24/06)

2006        Nov 29, The UN Security Council condemned a "significant increase" in the flow of weapons to and through Somalia in violation of a 1992 arms embargo and voted unanimously to keep monitoring weapons trafficking in the poor and lawless Horn of Africa nation.
    (AP, 11/30/06)

2006        Nov 30, In Somalia a car blast killed 9 people near the Somali government seat of Baidoa in an attack the administration blamed on Islamists backed by al Qaeda. An attack on Ethiopian troops left 20 dead.
    (AFP, 12/1/06)(WSJ, 12/1/06, p.A1)

2006        Dec 1, The US circulated a UN Security Council draft resolution that would authorize a regional force to protect Somalia's weak government and threaten Security Council action against those who block peace efforts and attempt to overthrow it.
    (AP, 12/2/06)

2006        Dec 5, Somalia's government ruled out peace talks with the country's Islamic movement, citing truce violations, heightening fears of an all-out war.
    (AFP, 12/5/06)

2006        Dec 6, In Somalia Sheik Hussein Barre Rage, an Islamic courts official in Bulo Burto, said residents who do not pray five times a day will be beheaded, adding the edict will be implemented in three days. Hoping to head off a regional proxy war, the UN Security Council came to the aid of Somalia's virtually powerless government, authorizing hundreds of East African troops to train and protect the interim administration in its conflict with an Islamic militia.
    (AP, 12/6/06)(AP, 12/7/06)

2006        Dec 7, Islamic militants in control of most of southern Somalia warned that war will erupt over a UN decision authorizing an African force to protect the country's virtually powerless government.
    (AP, 12/7/06)

2006        Dec 8, Sheik Sharif Sheik Ahmed, a top Islamic official, said that militiamen are fighting Ethiopian troops in Dinsor, a southern Somalia town. He called on Somalis to defeat "the enemies who have invaded our land."
    (AP, 12/8/06)

2006        Dec 12, Somalia’s PM Ali Mohamed Gedi said thousands of Islamic militants have surrounded Baidoa, the only town the internationally recognized government controls, as a top Islamic official promised to attack within a week unless Ethiopian troops leave.
    (AP, 12/12/06)

2006        Dec 15, Somalia's president said that peace talks with the country's Islamic movement are no longer an option because the group's leaders have declared war on his government.
    (AP, 12/15/06)
2006        Dec 15, In Kenya 11 African heads of state attending the 2nd International Conference on the Great Lakes Region signed a landmark $2 billion (1.5-billion-euro) security and development pact to forestall fresh violence in the area.
    (AFP, 12/15/06)

2006        Dec 16, A Somali lawmaker bypassed the government and signed an agreement to end hostilities with the country's powerful Islamic militia, a symbolic gesture that is unlikely to have any real effect. Nearly 200 troops serving Somalia's weak Western-backed government defected to the Islamic courts movement, as both sides braced for impending war.
    (AP, 12/16/06)(AP, 12/17/06)

2006        Dec 20, Heavy fighting broke out between Somalia's government troops and rival Islamic militia.
    (AP, 12/20/06)

2006        Dec 21, Fighting erupted for a 3rd straight day between Somali fighters, one day after an EU envoy got both the government and a rival Islamic movement to agree to resume peace talks.
    (AP, 12/21/06)

2006        Dec 22, In Somalia Ethiopian attack helicopters and tanks headed for battle as fighting raged for a fourth day between Somalia's Islamic militia and the country's secular government.
    (AP, 12/22/06)

2006        Dec 23, Somalia's Islamic militants called on foreign Muslim fighters to join their holy war against Ethiopian troops after days of fighting killed hundreds of people and threatened to engulf the region.
    (AP, 12/23/06)

2006        Dec 24, Ethiopia launched an attack on Somalia's powerful Islamic movement, sending fighter jets across the border and bombarding several towns in a major escalation of the violence that threatens to engulf the Horn of Africa.
    (AP, 12/24/06)

2006        Dec 25, Ethiopian fighter jets bombed Somalia's main airport, the first direct attack on the city that serves as the headquarters of an Islamic movement attempting to wrest power from the internationally recognized government.
    (AP, 12/25/06)

2006        Dec 26, Islamic fighters retreated as Somali government and Ethiopian troops advanced on three fronts in a decisive turn in the battle for control of this Horn of Africa nation. Ethiopia’s PM Meles Zenawi said up to 1,000 of the religious movement's fighters had been killed.
    (AP, 12/26/06)(WSJ, 12/27/06, p.A1)

2006        Dec 27, Ethiopian and Somali government troops drove Islamic fighters out of the last major town on the road to Mogadishu, the Islamist-held capital.
    (AP, 12/27/06)
2006        Dec 27, Yemeni authorities opened fire on boats filled with refugees fleeing the fighting in Somalia and at least 17 people drowned when one of the vessels capsized.
    (AP, 12/28/06)

2006        Dec 28, Somali government troops rolled into Mogadishu unopposed, the prime minister said, hours after an Islamic movement that tried to establish a government based on the Quran abandoned the capital.
    (AP, 12/28/06)

2006        Dec 29, Somalia's prime minister entered the capital, a day after an Islamic movement's fighters retreated ahead of his Ethiopian-backed troops, and was welcomed by thousands of cheering residents of the battle-scarred city.
    (AP, 12/29/06)

2006        Dec 30, Thousands of Somali and Ethiopian troops set off for a showdown with Islamic forces who have regrouped at a southern seaport since abandoning the Somali capital.
    (AP, 12/30/06)

2006        Dec 31, Fighting erupted on the outskirts of the last remaining stronghold of Somalia's militant Islamic movement, as thousands of residents streamed from the area ahead of the feared battle with Ethiopian-backed government troops.
    (AP, 12/31/06)

2006        Hirsi Ali (36), a refugee from Somalia and member of the Dutch Parliament, authored  "The Caged Virgin," a look at immigration, integration, women's rights and the place of Islam in Western countries. Hirsi Ali, who was raised a strict Muslim, now calls herself an atheist. She would like to see a Muslim Reformation of the kind that remade European Christianity in the 16th century.
    (AP, 4/28/06)
2006        In the waters off East Africa unmarked fishing ships carried 23mm anti-aircraft guns and fished illegally impacting the local fishermen of Kenya, Somalia and Tanzania. Fish stocks fell as coral reefs were ripped, and numberless dolphins and turtles were getting snagged.
    (Econ, 8/5/06, p.43)
2006        In the borderlands of Somalia a good quality AK-47 could be had for 3 cows, while an American M-16 fetched 5 cows.
    (Econ, 8/12/06, p.20)

2007        Jan 1, Somali government troops backed by Ethiopian tanks and fighter jets captured the last major stronghold of a militant Islamic movement, while hundreds of Islamic fighters, many of them Arabs and South Asians, fled the town. PM Ali Mohamed Gedi set a 3-day deadline for gun collection.
    (AP, 1/1/07)(SFC, 1/3/07, p.A3)

2007        Jan 2, Ethiopian helicopters pursuing Somali Islamists missed their target and bombed a Kenyan border post, prompting Kenyan fighter planes to rush to the area. The gun collection program in Mogadishu began with little response. 2 Ethiopian soldiers were shot dead.
    (AFP, 1/2/07)(SFC, 1/3/07, p.A3)(Econ, 1/6/07, p.41)

2007        Jan 3, Kenya sent extra troops to its border with Somalia to keep Islamic militants from entering the country after Ethiopian helicopters attacked a Kenyan border post by mistake while pursuing suspected fighters.
    (AP, 1/3/07)

2007        Jan 4, A Somali government spokesman said government troops, backed by Ethiopian soldiers, were fighting about 600 Islamic militiamen in the south.
    (AP, 1/4/07)
2007        Jan 4, Kenya said it has closed its border with Somalia in an apparent effort to keep Islamic militants and refugees from entering the country.
    (AP, 1/4/07)

2007        Jan 6, Somalia's interim government indefinitely postponed plans to forcibly disarm Mogadishu as hundreds of people burned tires, looted vehicles and said they wouldn't give up their guns. Two people were reported killed and at 17 people wounded.
    (AP, 1/6/07)

2007        Jan 7, An American AC-130 gunship began attacking suspected al-Qaida positions in southern Somalia. The US airstrikes were the first offensive in the African country since 18 US troops were killed there in 1993. The main target was Fazul Abdullah Mohammed, who allegedly planned the 1998 attacks on the US embassies in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, that killed 225 people.
    (SFC, 1/11/07, p.A4)(AP, 1/9/07)

2007        Jan 9, In Somalia US AC-130 strikes were reported to have killed 10 al-Qaida suspects. Local officials said the toll was much higher and included civilians.
    (AP, 1/9/07)(WSJ, 1/10/07, p.A1)

2007        Jan 10, US forces launched a third day of airstrikes in southern Somalia. At least four separate strikes were reported around Ras Kamboni, on the Somali coast near the Kenyan border. Unknown insurgents attacked a transitional government barracks and soldiers responded by sealing portions of Mogadishu and searching house to house for guns.
    (AP, 1/10/07)(SFC, 1/11/07, p.A4)

2007        Jan 11, The UN Security Council said it backs the speedy deployment of African troops to Somalia and strongly urges a dialogue among all political players, in addition to the delivery of humanitarian aid to the country.
    (AP, 1/11/07)

2007        Jan 12, A government official said Somalia's warlords have agreed to disarm and join a new national army. Violence in the capital brought home the challenge of restoring order in this fractious and heavily armed country.
    (AP, 1/12/07)

2007        Jan 13, Somali lawmakers authorized the government to declare martial law as the country's internationally recognized leaders struggled to assert their authority after battling an Islamic movement that had controlled much of southern Somalia.
    (AP, 1/13/07)

2007        Jan 14, An African Union delegation was in Somalia's capital to discuss the deployment of peacekeepers, as the government struggled to disarm Mogadishu residents reluctant to give up their guns after years of fending for themselves amid chaos.
    (AP, 1/14/07)

2007        Jan 15, Somali troops and allied Ethiopian soldiers conducted house-to-house searches, pursuing gunmen who carried out an attack in the northeastern part of the capital.
    (AP, 1/15/07)

2007        Jan 17, A top Somali lawmaker closely associated with the recently ousted Islamic movement was voted out as speaker by parliament, a move that could undermine reconciliation efforts in the restive country.
    (AP, 1/17/07)

2007        Jan 19, The African Union agreed to deploy a long-discussed peacekeeping force in Somalia.
    (AP, 1/20/07)

2007        Jan 20, The last major warlord in Somalia surrendered his weapons and 200 militiamen to the army, while an Islamic leader claimed responsibility for a string of guerrilla attacks and promised there would be more until the government agreed to talks. An Ethiopian military convoy was ambushed in a new round of deadly violence in the Somali capital Mogadishu, hours after the African Union agreed to send peacekeepers to the war-torn country. Kenya handed over 34 Islamic militiamen to Somalia's transitional government. A Somali government spokesman said that some of them may be senior leaders of the country's Islamic movement.
    (AP, 1/20/07)(AFP, 1/20/07)(AP, 1/21/07)

2007        Jan 21, Sheik Sharif Sheik Ahmed, a top leader of Somalia's ousted Islamic movement seen by the US as a potential key to preventing a widespread insurgency, surrendered to authorities and went under police protection in Nairobi.
    (AP, 1/22/07)

2007        Jan 23, Ethiopian troops who helped Somalia's government drive out a radical Islamic militia began withdrawing in military trucks and tanks.
    (AP, 1/23/07)

2007        Jan 24, In Somalia gunmen launched several mortars at Mogadishu International Airport, killing at least two people and wounding several others.
    (AP, 1/24/07)

2007        Jan 25, In southern Somalia gunmen attacked Ethiopian soldiers stationed there, killing one and wounding another.
    (AP, 1/25/07)

2007        Jan 26, In Somalia a spate of gunfire and mortar attacks in Mogadishu killed five people overnight and injured at least four others.
    (AP, 1/26/07)

2007        Jan 28, In Somalia gunmen attacked a police station in Mogadishu, sparking an hour-long battle that killed two people just hours after two other stations were hit with machine-guns and rocket-propelled grenades.
    (AP, 1/28/07)

2007        Jan 30, Somalia's president agreed to a national reconciliation conference to try to end 16 years of anarchy in the war-ravaged country.
    (AP, 1/30/07)

2007        Jan 31, A senior AU official said 3 battalions of peacekeepers from Uganda and Nigeria are ready to be deployed in Somalia and will be airlifted in as soon as possible.
    (AP, 1/31/07)

2007        Feb 2, In Somalia an explosion at an Islamic school for women and girls in Mogadishu wounded at least seven people. At least three mortar attacks were launched overnight in the city by unknown attackers.   
    (AP, 2/2/07)

2007        Feb 7, In Somalia doctors said a cholera outbreak has killed more than 115 people and hospitalized 724 in towns where people were forced to use contaminated water from a flooded river.
    (AP, 2/7/07)

2007        Feb 10, In Somalia mortar attacks in a residential area and on a hotel in Mogadishu killed five people and injured 10.
    (AP, 2/10/07)

2007        Feb 12, In Somalia a mortar slammed into a home in Mogadishu, killing a father and his 6-year-old son as they slept and wounding four people.
    (AP, 2/12/07)
2007        Feb 12, A vessel smuggling 120 people across the Gulf of Aden from Somalia to Yemen capsized as it approached the coast. At least 30 Somali and Ethiopian migrants trying to reach the Arabian peninsula drowned.
    (AP, 2/13/07)

2007        Feb 16, A Yemeni official said a boat loaded with Somali and Ethiopian migrants capsized in the Gulf of Aden during a night crossing in which at least 112 people died.
    (AP, 2/16/07)

2007        Feb 18, Fierce inter-clan fighting killed at least 43 people in Ethiopia's southeastern Ogaden region, inhabited mainly by ethnic Somalis.
    (AFP, 2/19/07)

2007        Feb 20, In Somalia mortar rounds and rockets hit Mogadishu in a series of attacks that killed 15 people, including a 4-year-old boy, and wounded more than 40 others. The UN Security Council voted unanimously to authorize an African Union force to help stabilize Somalia.
    (AP, 2/20/07)(AFP, 2/20/07)

2007        Feb 21, In Somalia gunmen fatally shot two local government officials in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 2/22/07)

2007        Feb 22, Extremists in Somalia threatened to carry out suicide attacks against African Union peacekeepers who are to begin deploying in the coming days.
    (AP, 2/22/07)

2007        Feb 23, A Somali official said Uganda's top military officials promised to help train a national army for Somalia and help provide security for its government.
    (AP, 2/23/07)

2007        Feb 25, Pirates hijacked a cargo ship delivering UN food aid to northeastern Somalia, at least the third time since 2005 that a vessel contracted to the United Nations has been hijacked off the country's dangerous coast.
    (AP, 2/25/07)

2007        Feb 27, The UN said Somali authorities have arrested four suspects in the hijacking of a UN-chartered cargo ship delivering food aid. The MV Rozen, however, was still under the control of four pirates who remained aboard with 12 crew members as hostage. Attackers in Mogadishu killed Yusuf Mohamed Dhisow, the brother-in-law of Somalia's prime minister.
    (AP, 2/27/07)(AFP, 2/27/07)

2007        Feb 28, Burundi said that it will send 1,700 peacekeepers to Somalia as part of an 8,000-strong African Union force, while the first Ugandan contingent prepared to leave for the war-torn nation.
    (AP, 2/28/07)

2007        Mar 1, An advance team of an African peacekeeping force to Somalia arrived unannounced into the country.
    (AP, 3/1/07)

2007        Mar 2, In Somalia 4 mortar explosions rocked Mogadishu, wounding six people, including two children.
    (AP, 3/2/07)

2007        Mar 5, In Somalia gunmen shot dead five people in two separate attacks in the lawless capital of Mogadishu in an escalation of killings ahead of the planned deployment of African Union peacekeepers.
    (AFP, 3/5/07)

2007        Mar 6, In Somalia mortar rounds slammed into Mogadishu's airport during a ceremony welcoming the arrival of peacekeepers. At least 3 people were killed when a firefight erupted between unidentified insurgents and Ethiopian troops near a military base in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 3/6/07)(AFP, 3/6/07)

2007        Mar 7, In Somalia a gunman shot dead two policemen south of Mogadishu, close to the airport where hundreds of African Union peacekeepers have begun deploying.
    (AP, 3/7/07)

2007        Mar 8, In Somalia insurgents ambushed a convoy of African Union peacekeepers sent to help stabilize Mogadishu, setting off a gunfight that killed at least 12 civilians.
    (AFP, 3/8/07)

2007        Mar 11, In Somalia a 13-year-old boy and a woman were killed by stray bullets and five others were injured as Ethiopian troops protecting government installations battled with insurgents in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 3/12/07)

2007        Mar 13, Somalia's president came under mortar attack in his palace, hours after arriving for a rare visit to the increasingly violent capital, witnesses said. A 12-year-old boy was killed and three of his siblings were wounded in the shelling.
    (AP, 3/13/07)

2007        Mar 15, In Somalia a bomb blast destroyed two houses near Mogadishu, killing seven people, including four children.
    (AP, 3/16/07)

2007        Mar 18, In Somalia insurgents struck the Mogadishu's seaport and former intelligence quarters, killing two people and injuring at least 16 who were caught in fighting that drew in Ethiopian and government troops.
    (AP, 3/18/07)

2007        Mar 20, The commander of African Union forces in Somalia pleaded for reinforcements as the AU's security chief paid a flying visit to volatile Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 3/20/07)

2007        Mar 21, In Somalia masked men believed to be Islamic militants dragged the corpses of two soldiers through the streets of Mogadishu and set their bodies on fire during fierce battles with government forces trying to consolidate their control. Medical officials at Mogadishu's three hospitals said they had recorded at least seven dead and 36 wounded by early afternoon. One fire-fight left 15 people killed. Un estimates said 40,000 of Mogadishu’s 2 million residents had fled the city.
    (AP, 3/21/07)(Econ, 3/24/07, p.54)

2007        Mar 22, Somali and Ethiopian troops battled insurgents for a second day in Mogadishu with 4 people killed and 6 wounded. The Somali government said Al-Qaeda has named Aden Hashi Ayro, a ruthless Islamist commander, as its leader in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 3/22/07)(AFP, 3/22/07)(SFC, 3/23/07, p.A9)
2007        Mar 22, Smugglers taking illegal migrants from Somalia to Yemen forced hundreds of Africans overboard in stormy seas in an effort to make a fast getaway from security forces. 31 bodies were found and nearly 90 people remained missing.
    (AP, 3/27/07)

2007        Mar 23, In Somalia a cargo plane was shot down by a missile during takeoff died. Ten of the crew died in the crash. Rescuers found a wounded crew member and took him to a Mogadishu hospital where he died while being treated. All crew members were either Ukrainian or Belarussian. Egi Azarian, acting head of Belarus-based Transaviaexport, confirmed that the company's plane was shot down.
    (AP, 3/24/07)
2007        Mar 23, A human rights group said Kenya has deported more than 100 people from 19 countries to Somalia after they crossed the border between the two countries illegally during fighting earlier this year, and the deportees were subsequently arrested by Ethiopian troops.
    (AP, 3/23/07)

2007        Mar 25, In Somalia one of the elders involved in negotiations said talks between Ethiopian military officials and elders of the dominant Hawiye clan in Mogadishu have reached an impasse, threatening a two-day truce.
    (AP, 3/25/07)

2007        Mar 29, Somali troops and their Ethiopian allies pounded insurgent positions in Mogadishu with bombs and tank shells, sending residents fleeing a surge in fighting that killed over 30 people including 7 Ethiopian soldiers.
    (AP, 3/29/07)(SFC, 3/30/07, p.A20)

2007        Mar 30, In Somalia insurgents shot down a helicopter gunship in Mogadishu and mortar shells slammed into a hospital in the worst fighting seen here in more than 15 years.
    (AP, 3/30/07)

2007        Mar 31, In Somalia artillery fire and mortar shells rained down on Mogadishu as government troops and their Ethiopian allies continued a major offensive to quash a growing insurgency by Islamic militants. A Ugandan soldier was killed by artillery fire in Mogadishu, marking the first death among African Union peacekeepers deployed here.
    (AP, 3/31/07)(AFP, 4/1/07)

2007        Mar-2000 Apr, Ethiopia later said that during this period it killed at least a thousand Shabab fighters, the armed wing of Islamic courts in Somalia. Human-rights groups said most of the 1,670 recorded dead were civilians.
    (Econ, 6/2/07, p.47)

2007        Apr 1, Mogadishu's dominant clan said it has brokered a truce with Ethiopian military officials who are supporting Somalia's government, even as mortar shells continued slamming into the capital for a fourth day.
    (AP, 4/1/07)

2007        Apr 2, In Somalia a human rights organization said fierce fighting between Ethiopian-backed government forces and Islamic insurgents has killed 381 people over four days.
    (AP, 4/2/07)

2007        Apr 6, Somali pirates freed two hijacked merchant ships, including one that had just delivered UN food aid when it was seized more than a month ago with 12 crew on board.
    (AP, 4/7/07)

2007        Apr 11, In Somalia Ethiopian-backed government troops and Islamic insurgents exchanged gunfire in northern Mogadishu, killing three people and ending more than a week of relative calm.
    (AP, 4/11/07)

2007        Apr 18, In Somalia overnight street battles in Mogadishu left at least 11 people dead and dozens others injured.
    (AP, 4/18/07)

2007        Apr 19, In Somalia fighting between Ethiopian troops and insurgents left at least 12 people dead in Mogadishu, while a suicide car bomb exploded at an Ethiopian army base.
    (AP, 4/20/07)

2007        Apr 20, In Somalia a local human rights group said 3 days of fighting between Islamic insurgents and Ethiopian troops backing the government has killed at least 113 civilians.
    (AP, 4/20/07)

2007        Apr 21, In Somalia heavy fighting between Islamic insurgents and Ethiopian troops backing the government left at least 52 civilians dead in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 4/21/07)

2007        Apr 22, In Mogadishu, Somalia, the two main hospitals said they admitted 26 civilians wounded as fighting eased.
    (AP, 4/22/07)

2007        Apr 23, In Somalia masked Islamic insurgents and Ethiopian-backed government forces pounded each other with machine-gun fire, mortars and heavy artillery in Mogadishu, bringing the death toll from six days of fighting to at least 250.
    (AP, 4/23/07)

2007        Apr 24, In Somalia artillery shells and mortars rained down on Mogadishu in a seventh straight day of raging battles that have left nearly 250 dead.
    (AP, 4/24/07)

2007        Apr 25, In Somalia civilians were caught in the crossfire as the government's Ethiopian backers used tanks and heavy artillery to pound insurgent strongholds. Human rights groups said more than 350 people have been killed in the last eight days, the majority civilians.
    (AP, 4/25/07)

2007        Apr 26, Somalia's prime minister claimed victory over Islamic insurgents in Mogadishu, where nine days of battles using tanks and artillery left hundreds dead.
    (AP, 4/26/07)

2007        May 4, In Somalia Mohamed Dheere, a former warlord, was sworn in as mayor of Mogadishu and immediately ordered residents to get rid of their weapons. Aid groups said 1,670 people were killed between March 12 and April 26 and more than 340,000 of the city's 2 million residents fled for safety as the government, backed by Ethiopian troops, pressed to wipe out an Islamic insurgency.
    (AP, 5/4/07)

2007        May 7, The African Union announced it would send an extra 8,000 peacekeepers to Somalia but said dialogue remained the only solution to the bloody conflict in that country.
    (AP, 5/7/07)

2007        May 9, Authorities said Somali security forces are seizing and even burning Muslim women's veils in Mogadishu to stop Islamist insurgents disguising themselves for attacks.
    (AP, 5/9/07)

2007        May 10, A land mine attack on a convoy of Somali government officials ended in the deaths of two civilians in Mogadishu. Elsewhere, two aid workers were reportedly kidnapped.
    (AP, 5/10/07)

2007        May 12, The UN top humanitarian official made a landmark visit to Mogadishu, but the trip was disrupted by an explosion that killed four people near the UN compound. John Holmes said he had come to push the government to allow humanitarian aid to reach its people.
    (AP, 5/12/07)

2007        May 16, In Somalia a roadside bomb struck a convoy carrying African Union peacekeepers, killing four Ugandan peacekeepers in one of the deadliest attacks on the troops since they arrived in March.
    (AP, 5/16/07)

2007        May 20, A bomb detonated in Mogadishu near the mayor's vehicle convoy, leaving at least two civilians dead. His bodyguards shot and killed a suspected insurgent who had been in a tree near the explosion.
    (AP, 5/20/07)

2007        May 21, Ethiopian troops backing Somalia's fragile government killed one person and wounded another after their convoy was targeted by a land mine in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 5/21/07)

2007        May 24, Somali police shot and killed two civilians after attackers hurled a hand grenade at a police station.
    (AP, 5/24/07)

2007        May 30, In Somalia Ethiopian troops shot and killed five bystanders after a land mine exploded as their convoy passed through the center of a western Somali town.
    (AP, 5/30/07)

2007        Jun 1, At least one US warship bombarded a remote, mountainous village in Somalia where Islamic militants had set up a base. One target was said to be Fazul Abdullah Muhammad (35), a citizen of the Comoro Islands. The next day Puntland VP Hassan Dahir Mohamoud told The Associated Press that his government's troops killed eight foreign Islamic militants and five of them came from Britain, Eritrea, Sweden, the US and Yemen.
    (AP, 6/2/07)(AP, 6/3/07)(Econ, 7/14/07, p.52)

2007        Jun 2, In Mogadishu, Somalia, unknown gunmen killed a government official, Hassan Ali Sa'id, as he was about to enter his house.
    (AP, 6/2/07)

2007        Jun 3, A suicide car bomber drove through a roadblock guarding the home of the Somali prime minister and rammed the vehicle into a wall. PM Ali Mohamed Gedi was whisked to safety, but at least five people were killed in the explosion.
    (AP, 6/3/07)

2007        Jun 4, In Somalia Ethiopian troops fired at a would-be suicide bomber speeding toward their base, blowing up the car and killing the bomber and a civilian standing nearby.
    (AP, 6/4/07)

2007        Jun 13, Global shipping officials warned that pirate attacks off Somalia's coast have spiraled to terrifying levels, with US and international navies failing to protect seafarers from being kidnapped.
    (AP, 6/13/07)

2007        Jun 18, In Mogadishu, Somalia, a roadside bomb hidden in a pile of garbage exploded, killing two children and wounding 3 other people just minutes after security officials drove by.
    (AP, 6/18/07)

2007        Jun 26, In Somalia a roadside bomb explosion in Mogadishu killed five women and a man and wounded nine other people.
    (AP, 6/26/07)

2007        Jun 28, In Somalia a roadside bomb killed two Somali soldiers in Mogadishu in the latest of a string of attacks highlighting worsening security.
    (AFP, 6/28/07)

2007        Jul 2, Somali gunmen shot dead a senior government official in Mogadishu. A teenager died when munitions left behind by African Union peacekeepers exploded.
    (Reuters, 7/3/07)

2007        Jul 6, In Somalia 5 children who stopped to play with a land mine on the way to prayers died when one of them threw the device against a wall, causing a blast that sent their bodies flying through the air.
    (AP, 7/6/07)

2007        Jul 12, In Somalia insurgents fired more than two dozen mortar shells at government targets in Mogadishu overnight, including the president's home, in an apparent attempt to disrupt this weekend's reconciliation talks. At least 3 men were killed.
    (AP, 7/12/07)

2007        Jul 19, A 30-minute gunbattle rocked Mogadishu in the hours before a long-awaited Somali peace conference was set to begin. At least two people were killed.
    (AP, 7/19/07)

2007        Jul 26, In Somalia 2 separate explosions killed at least five civilians in Mogadishu, where the government is struggling to contain a lethal insurgency.
    (AP, 7/27/07)
2007        Jul 26, UN arms experts reported that Eritrea has secretly supplied "huge quantities of arms" to a Somali insurgent group with alleged ties to al-Qaida in violation of an international arms embargo and despite the deployment of African peacekeepers.
    (AP, 7/26/07)

2007        Jul 29, In Somalia gun battles and grenade attacks killed two soldiers and two civilians in Mogadishu, where the government is struggling to contain a violent insurgency.
    (AP, 7/29/07)

2007        Jul 30, In Somalia insurgents attacked government buildings in Mogadishu, starting a gunbattle with troops that killed at least 4 people, including a four-year-old child. In the central town of Belet Weyne, two children and their father were killed when Ethiopian troops fired artillery shells into a residential area after a land mine exploded near their convoy. A land mine exploded near a bus in southern Mogadishu, killing 5 on board and wounding 3 others.
    (AP, 7/31/07)(AP, 8/1/07)

2007        Aug 2, In Somalia mortars slammed into homes in Mogadishu after fighting between insurgents and Ethiopian troops, killing 8 people, including a mother and her two daughters.
    (AP, 8/2/07)

2007        Aug 11, In Somalia 2 prominent radio journalists were assassinated in Mogadishu within hours of each other, one just outside his office and the other as he returned from his colleague's burial.
    (AP, 8/11/07)

2007        Aug 12, In Somalia 2 suspects were arrested in the deaths of two prominent Somali journalists who were killed within hours of each other.
    (AP, 8/12/07)

2007        Aug 14, In Somalia a local human rights group said fighting in Mogadishu has killed 31 civilians and wounded 60 in the past 24 hours.
    (AP, 8/14/07)

2007        Aug 16, Uganda announced plans to send 250 extra soldiers to a peacekeeping mission in Mogadishu, but Somalia's government warned they were not enough and urged other African nations to commit troops.
    (Reuters, 8/16/07)

2007        Aug 18, Rival clan militias fought over scarce pasture land and wells in central Somalia, leaving 18 people dead and 15 wounded.
    (AP, 8/18/07)

2007        Aug 20, The UN Security Council authorized an African Union force in chaotic Somalia for another six months and asked the secretary-general to develop plans for a possible UN troop replacement.
    (Reuters, 8/20/07)

2007        Aug 22, Denmark's government said Somali pirates released the crew of a hijacked Danish cargo ship after receiving a ransom payment.
    (AP, 8/22/07)

2007        Aug 24, In Somalia gunmen shot and killed Abdulkadir Moallim Kaskey, a Somali radio journalist, in southwestern Gedo province.
    (AP, 8/24/07)

2007        Aug 26, In Somalia bombings and grenade attacks killed two schoolboys and three other people in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 8/26/07)

2007        Sep 16, Saudi King Abdullah oversaw the signing in Jiddah of a reconciliation agreement negotiated by several Somali factions in an attempt to stabilize their country and battle the Islamic opposition.
    (AP, 9/16/07)

2007        Sep 21, The Red Cross warned that a massive aid effort is needed to cope with floods in 18 countries across Africa that have already affected at least 1.5 million people and killed at least 270 in Ghana, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Togo, Uganda and other countries.
    (AFP, 9/21/07)

2007        Sep 26, Transparency International's 2007 index ranked Myanmar and Somalia as the most corrupt nations. Both received the lowest score of 1.4 out of 10. Denmark, Finland and New Zealand were ranked the least corrupt, each scoring 9.4.
    (AP, 9/26/07)

2007        Sep 27, Somali and Ethiopian troops ordered thousands to vacate their homes in Mogadishu to allow the forces to search for arms and insurgents.
    (AP, 9/29/07)

2007        Oct 4, The government of Somalia announced a crackdown on Islamic militants.
    (WSJ, 10/6/07, p.A1)

2007        Oct 5, Insurgents in Somalia killed at least 5 people in a grenade attack at the main market in Mogadishu.
    (WSJ, 10/6/07, p.A1)

2007        Oct 8, Mogadishu Mayor Mohamed Dheere ordered Somalia's Elman Human Rights, an independent rights group, to close its offices. The group was accused of spreading "exaggerated and false information" about the country's fragile government.
    (AP, 12/2/07)

2007        Oct 11, A suicide bomber in Somalia drove a pickup filled with explosives into an army base killing himself and 2 other people.
    (WSJ, 10/12/07, p.A1)

2007        Oct 17,     Irdris Osman, the head of UN food agency operations in the violence-wracked Somali capital, was taken away by 50 to 60 heavily armed government security officers who had stormed the UN compound in Mogadishu. Osman was freed on Oct 23. Overnight, at least 8 civilians and one policeman died during a battle between Islamic insurgents and policemen.
    (AP, 10/17/07)(AP, 10/23/07)

2007        Oct 24, In Somalia a roadside bomb killed five civilians and wounded 16 when it exploded near a minibus full of passengers in the war-ravaged Mogadishu.
    (AP, 10/24/07)

2007        Oct 27, In Somalia insurgents and government-allied forces battled with machine guns, mortars and rocket-propelled grenades in the heaviest fighting to hit Mogadishu for months, leaving at least seven people dead and dozens others wounded.
    (AP, 10/27/07)

2007        Oct 28, The USS Porter, a guided missile destroyer, fired on and destroyed two pirate boats tied to the Golden Nori, a hijacked Japanese-flagged chemical tanker. The ship was carrying a load of benzene off the coast of Somalia.
    (AP, 11/1/07)

2007        Oct 29, A long-brewing power struggle between the Somali PM Ali Mohamed Gedi and Pres. Abdullahi Yusuf ended with the premier's resignation, throwing the government of the war-battered Horn of Africa nation into disarray. In Mogadishu, hundreds of demonstrators marched through the streets in a second day of protests against the presence of the Ethiopian troops in the country.
    (AP, 10/29/07)

2007        Oct 30, Somalia's president named Salim Aliyow Ibrow, a former deputy prime minister,  as a caretaker prime minister, a day after the outgoing premier lost a power struggle in the government and resigned.
    (AP, 10/30/07)
2007        Oct 30, The US Navy boarded a North Korean flagged ship at its invitation with a small team of medics, security personnel and an interpreter. The 22-person North Korean crew already had regained control of the ship and detained all the Somali pirates.
    (AP, 11/1/07)

2007        Nov 1, The UN said nearly 90,000 people have fled Mogadishu in recent days following the heaviest fighting to shake the war-battered city in months. About 40 people, mostly Somalis, drowned while crossing the Gulf of Aden on their way to Yemen in a desperate attempt to escape gunbattles back home. About 90 others survived and managed to reach the Yemeni southern shores of Shokara after their rickety vessels capsized.
    (AP, 11/1/07)(AP, 11/3/07)

2007        Nov 4, Somali pirates left the Tanzanian-flagged boats Mavuno 1 and 2, which they had hijacked in the waters off Somalia on May 15. The newly liberated vessels, and their crew of 24, were under US Navy escort. Among the crew on the South Korean-owned vessels were four South Koreans, 10 Chinese, three Vietnamese, three Indians and four Indonesians.
    (AP, 11/4/07)

2007        Nov 5, Somali pirates released a Taiwanese fishing vessel 5 1/2 months after seizing it. The US Navy helped free the fifth ship in a week hijacked by Somalia pirates, attempting to bring security to crucial shipping routes between the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. The Navy was in contact with two remaining ships held by pirates in Somali waters.
    (AP, 11/5/07)

2007        Nov 7, In Somalia Doctors Without Borders said the fighting had grown so bad in Mogadishu that civilians who were shot or hit by shrapnel during the night frequently bled to death because the violence cut them off from the hospitals.
    (AP, 11/9/07)

2007        Nov 9, In Somalia witnesses and doctors said heavy fighting between insurgents and Ethiopian troops backing Somalia's shaky government has killed 50 people and wounded 100 others in the past 24 hours.
    (AP, 11/9/07)

2007        Nov 12, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said deploying a UN peacekeeping operation to Somalia is not realistic or viable given the war-wracked African country’s security situation, the intensifying insurgency and the lack of progress towards any political reconciliation.
    (www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=24625&Cr=somalia&Cr1)

2007        Nov 13, Journalists said the Somali government has shut down three independent radio stations in two days, as troops backed by Ethiopian soldiers continued to battle Islamic insurgents in the shrapnel-strewn streets of the capital.
    (AP, 11/13/07)

2007        Nov 17, Somali rebels launched an overnight attack on a camp of Ugandan troops in Mogadishu, triggering fighting that left at least one insurgent dead.
    (AP, 11/17/07)

2007        Nov 21, More than 60 migrants drowned when their boat capsized off Yemen during an attempt to flee their war torn homeland of Somalia.
    (AP, 11/22/07)

2007        Dec 2, A Somali human rights group said violence in Mogadishu has killed 5,960 civilians this year.
    (AP, 12/2/07)

2007        Dec 12, Pirates freed a Japanese chemical tanker loaded with highly explosive benzene off the coast of Somalia, six weeks after seizing the vessel and its crew.
    (AP, 12/12/07)

2007        Dec 13, In Somalia mortar rounds slammed into the biggest market in Mogadishu and gunbattles erupted across the city, killing 17 people hours after a government official said radical Muslims had regrouped and were poised to launch a massive attack.
    (AP, 12/13/07)

2007        Dec 14, Mortar shells rained down on Mogadishu for a second day, killing at least five people. The African Union's new representative for Somalia said he expected more peacekeepers to arrive starting this month.
    (AP, 12/14/07)

2007        Dec 17, In Somalia mortar shells slammed into Mogadishu, killing at least 12 people, including a mother and her three children, and wounding dozens in an increasingly ferocious Islamic insurgency.
    (AP, 12/17/07)

2007        Dec 23, In Somalia a first contingent of 100 Burundian peacekeepers deployed in the capital, joining 1,800 Ugandan troops in an African Union force, AMISOM, that is still well short of the personnel strength needed to help restore order. Insurgents armed with rocket-propelled grenades and assault rifles attacked an Ethiopian army base in northern Mogadishu, triggering a deadly nighttime clash that sent stray mortar rounds crashing into homes. At least five Somalis were killed and eight wounded in the crossfire.
    (AP, 12/23/07)(AFP, 10/22/11)

2007        Dec 24, In southwestern Somalia gunmen threw grenades at the home of the regional police chief, killing two of his grandchildren and a bodyguard but not their target. Burundi deployed a 2nd contingent of 92 peacekeepers to Mogadishu, to bolster an African Union force.
    (AP, 12/24/07)(AP, 12/25/07)

2007        Dec 30, In Somalia a mother and her five children were killed by a mortar round fired during fighting in Mogadishu between insurgents and Ethiopian troops.
    (AP, 12/31/07)

2007        Ayaan Hirsi Ali (b.1969), Somalia born writer and resident at the American Enterprise Institute in Washington DC, authored her autobiography “Infidel.” In the Netherlands it was published under the title “My Freedom.”
    (WSJ, 2/3/07, p.P12)(Econ, 2/10/07, p.87)

2008        Jan 17, In Somalia Islamic militants fired mortar shells and guns in Mogadishu sparking crossfire with Ethiopian troops that left at least 20 people dead.
    (SFC, 1/18/08, p.A4)

2008        Jan 20, The final 210 members of the first battalion of Burundian soldiers to be deployed in Somalia as part of an African Union peace-keeping force left Bujumbura for Mogadishu. Burundi is expected to deploy a total of 1,700 soldiers in Somalia, alongside around 1,600 troops from Uganda who have been in the capital Mogadishu since March.
    (AFP, 1/20/08)

2008        Jan 28, In Somalia 3 staff members of Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF-Holland) were killed and one wounded when their vehicle hit a land mine on a road between the international staff members' home and the hospital where they worked in the southern Somali town of Kismayo. In response Doctors Without Borders evacuated its 87 employees from Somalia.
    (AP, 2/1/08)

2008        Feb 1, Pirates seized a Danish-owned tug boat and its six crew members off Somalia's northeastern coast and demanded ransom. The 115-foot Svitzer Korsakov was built in St. Petersburg, Russia, and was on its way to Sakhalin Island in the Far East.
    (AP, 2/4/08)

2008        Feb 3, In Somalia a roadside bomb killed eight civilians and wounded nine others when it exploded near a minibus full of passengers in war-ravaged Mogadishu.
    (AP, 2/3/08)

2008        Feb 5, In northeastern Somalia grenade attack killed 21 people and wounded 100 in Bossaso, Puntland.
    (AP, 2/6/08)

2008        Feb 12, In northern Somalia gunmen kidnapped a German aid worker after exchanging fire with his bodyguards. The next day Somaliland forces freed him from gunmen.
    (AP, 2/12/08)(AP, 2/13/08)

2008        Mar 3, The US launched an airstrike on a Somali town held by Islamic extremists to go after a group of terrorist suspects. Three missiles hit Dobley, a town four miles from the Kenyan border, destroying a home and seriously injured eight people.
    (AP, 3/3/08)

2008        Mar 5, In Somalia a firefight between Islamic insurgents and Somali police at a checkpoint outside the capital has left five people dead.
    (AP, 3/6/08)

2008        Mar 18, The US listed Shabab, the armed wing of the Islamic Courts Union in Somalia, as a terrorist organization.
    (www.globalsecurity.org/security/library/news/2008/03/sec-080318-voa01.htm)(Econ, 7/5/08, p.58)

2008        Mar 24, The WHO said polio transmission has been stopped in Somalia.
    (WSJ, 3/25/08, p.A1)

2008        Mar 29, In Somalia at least 10 people were killed in Mogadishu after government troops shelled a market area known to be an insurgent hideout.
    (SSFC, 3/30/08, p.A2)

2008        Apr 4, Pirate attackers off Somalia’s coast stormed the 288-foot Le Ponant as it returned without passengers from the Seychelles, in the Indian Ocean. French officials hoped to avoid using force to free the 30 crew members.
    (AP, 4/5/08)

2008        Apr 6, In Somalia 4 people were killed in Mogadishu in separate attacks overnight, as violence raged in the shattered east African nation.
    (AFP, 4/6/08)

2008        Apr 11, French officials said pirates have freed the 30 crew from Le Ponant, a French luxury sailing ship, which was seized off Somalia on April 4, and had been tailed by the French Navy. Helicopter-borne French troops seized 6 of the dozen hostage takers, after the hostages were freed, and recovered sacks of money, apparently ransom paid by the ship’s owners.
    (AFP, 4/11/08)(SFC, 4/12/08, p.A9)

2008        Apr 13, In Somalia suspected Islamist insurgents dragged two British nationals and two Kenyans out of their home in Beledweyn and killed them.
    (AFP, 4/14/08)

2008        Apr 20, Pirates off the Somali coast, armed with grenade launchers, stormed a Spanish tuna fishing boat, the Playa de Bakio, with 26 crew members.
    (AFP, 4/21/08)

2008        Apr 22,    Security forces in northern Somalia stormed a hijacked ship carrying food, rescuing hostages and arresting seven pirates. The seizure was the latest in a spate of pirate attacks off the increasingly lawless Somali coast.
    (AP, 4/22/08)

2008        Apr 23, In Somalia residents said four more corpses were found Mogadishu, bringing the death toll from last weekend's shelling and seizure of small towns by the Islamists' to at least 103. Amnesty Int’l. Ethiopian soldiers, stationed in Somalia to bolster the interim government, had killed 21 people and captured dozens of children in a raid on the Al Hidaaya mosque earlier this week during operations against Islamist insurgents.
    (Reuters, 4/24/08)

2008        Apr 26, The Spanish government said the 26 crew members onboard the Playa de Bakio fishing boat, hijacked by pirates off the coast of Somalia nearly a week ago, have been freed. A maritime official said it was freed after a 1.2 million-dollar ransom was paid.
    (AP, 4/26/08)(AP, 4/27/08)

2008        Apr 29, An explosion in southwestern Somalia killed four Ethiopian troops and the subsequent gunfire killed two civilians.
    (AP, 4/29/08)

2008        Apr 30, Ethiopian troops allied to Somalia's shaky government opened fire on civilians in a street in southwestern Somalia, killing 13 after an explosion there killed two soldiers.
    (AP, 4/30/08)

2008        May 1, An Islamic insurgent group said the US military killed Aden Hashi Ayro, a man believed to be the head of al-Qaida in Somalia, and 10 others in an airstrike overnight.
    (AP, 5/1/08)

2008        May 4, In Somalia Islamic insurgents killed at least three Ethiopian soldiers during a gunfight in Mogadishu. Inter-clan fighting in western Somalia, which broke out the previous evening, left at least 12 people dead and at least 15 others wounded in a land dispute.
    (AP, 5/4/08)

2008        May 5, In Somalia troops opened fire and killed at least two people as tens of thousands of people rioted over high food prices in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 5/5/08)

2008        May 6, In Somalia hundreds of youths in Mogadishu lobbed stones at shops and cars and set tires ablaze in a second day of violence over soaring food prices. Amnesty Int’l. accused Ethiopian troops in Somalia of killing civilians and committing atrocities, including slitting people's throats, gouging out eyes and gang-raping women.
    (AP, 5/6/08)

2008        May 8, In Somalia two police officers and five insurgents died in the attack when Islamist fighters fired rocket-propelled grenades and heavy submachine guns at the heavily guarded K4 district of Mogadishu. Three other insurgents were captured. Islamist spokesman Abdirahim Issa Adow said fighters killed eight police and one Islamist fighter died and two were wounded.
    (AP, 5/9/08)

2008        May 17, Somali pirates hijacked a Jordanian-flagged ship, called the Victoria, in the latest in a string of attacks off the lawless coast of Somalia. Islamic insurgents in Somalia seized a major agricultural center overnight in Jilib. 2 militia fighters were killed. The UAE-owned ship was released on May 23.
    (AP, 5/17/08)(AP, 5/18/08)(AP, 5/23/08)

2008        May 21, In southern Somalia dozens of heavily armed gunmen kidnapped two Italian aid workers and their Somali colleague.
    (AP, 5/21/08)

2008        May 23, In Somalia a roadside bomb exploded near a compound housing African Union (AU) peacekeepers in Mogadishu, causing some casualties.
    (AFP, 5/23/08)

2008        May 25, The Amiya Scan, a Dutch freighter, was hijacked by pirates off the coast of Somalia. The ship and its crew of 4 Russians and 5 Filipinos were freed on June 25.
    (AP, 6/26/08)

2008        May 26, In Somalia Islamist insurgents attacked African Union peacekeepers in Mogadishu, sparking fierce clashes that killed at least 13 Somalis, most of them civilians.
    (AFP, 5/26/08)

2008        Jun 2, Somalia's opposition alliance ruled out direct peace talks with the country's transitional government unless it sets a timetable for the withdrawal of Ethiopian troops.
    (AP, 6/2/08)
2008        Jun 2, Foreign ships gained UN authorization to enter Somali waters when fighting piracy and armed robbery. The unanimous UN Security Council resolution made it legal for foreign navies to chase pirates into Somali waters and if need be sink them.
    (AP, 6/2/08)(www.usatoday.com/news/world/2008-07-20-pirates_N.htm)

2008        Jun 8, In Somalia 12 civilians were killed in Mogadishu in a cross fire between troops and suspected Islamic insurgents.
    (SFC, 6/9/08, p.A11)

2008        Jun 9, Somalia’s government signed an agreement with an opposition alliance calling for an end to violence and the withdrawal of Ethiopian troops. A leader of the ousted Islamic movement rejected the UN-brokered deal.
    (SFC, 6/10/08, p.A3)(SFC, 6/11/08, p.A15)

2008        Jun 20, The UN reported that over 40 civilians had been killed this week in Mogadishu, Somalia.
    (SFC, 6/21/08, p.A3)

2008        Jun 21, In Somalia Hassan Mohamed Ali, head of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees organization in Mogadishu, was abducted from his home on the outskirts of Mogadishu. He was released in late August. He had suffered bullet wounds in the neck and knee from the kidnapping, but said that he was generally treated well during his captivity.
    (AP, 8/28/08)

2008        Jun 22, In Somalia gunmen killed Mohamed Hassan Kulmiye, a senior official with the Mogadishu-based Centre For Research and Dialogue (CRD), one day after kidnapping a UN official, the latest in a string of attacks against aid and rights workers.
    (AFP, 6/22/08)

2008        Jun 23, Somali gunmen reportedly seized 4 Europeans from a yacht off the Gulf of Aden and took to Puntland, a semiautonomous region of northern Somalia. They demanded $1 million for the release of a German couple, their young son and a French boat captain. German officials subsequently said no child was kidnapped. The German couple was released on August 8 following a $1 million ransom.
    (AP, 6/26/08)(AP, 8/9/08)

2008        Jul 1, The African Union, meeting in Egypt, announced that it was extending the mandate of its force in Somalia for another six months but urged the UN to take over the peacekeeping mission. The African leaders also called for dialogue between Zimbabwe's political foes and a national unity government following President Robert Mugabe's widely discredited reelection.
    (AFP, 7/1/08)(AP, 7/2/08)

2008        Jul 6, In Somalia gunmen opened fire on people leaving a mosque in Mogadishu, killing one of the country’s senior UN officials.
    (SFC, 7/7/08, p.A3)

2008        Jul 8, A German cargo ship held captive for 41 days off the coast of Somalia was released and all aboard were safe and unharmed. A Somali official said the pirates received a ransom of $750,000. The Lehmann Timber was one of two ships hijacked on May 30 off the Horn of Africa.
    (AP, 7/9/08)

2008        Jul 10, Somali insurgents killed at least two people in an overnight attack on an army base 15 miles (24 kilometers) northeast of the government headquarters in Baidoa.
    (AP, 7/10/08)

2008        Jul 11, Somali troops shot and killed 7 civilians in southern Mogadishu after accusing them of being part of an Islamic insurgency.
    (SFC, 7/11/08, p.A3)

2008        Jul 13, A World Food Program contractor was gunned down in Somalia, the 5th agency worker to be killed this year.
    (SFC, 7/16/08, p.A15)(www.usatoday.com/news/world/2008-07-15-somalia_N.htm)

2008        Jul 22, Sheik Hassan Dahir Aweys took over the Islamist opposition Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia (ARS), which operates in exile in Eritrea.
    (AP, 7/25/08)

2008        Jul 23, The African Union said it was incapable of stabilizing the situation in Somalia and urged the UN take over peacekeeping operations in the lawless Horn of Africa country.
    (Reuters, 7/23/08)

2008        Jul 25, Sheik Hassan Dahir Aweys, Somalia's new hard-line opposition leader, promised to pacify his shattered country through Islamic law, warning UN peacekeepers they will face attack if they deploy and support the government.
    (AP, 7/25/08)
2008        Jul 25, Ahmedou Ould Abdallah, the UN special envoy for Somalia, sounded the alarm about rampant illegal fishing and the dumping of toxic waste off the coast of the lawless nation.
    (AFP, 7/25/08)
2008        Jul 25, Estonia urged the EU to take stronger action against Somali pirates attacking cargo ships bound for Europe, after an Estonian sailor was held hostage for 41 days.
    (AFP, 7/26/08)

2008        Aug 1, An African Union (AU) peacekeeper from Uganda was killed when a roadside bomb struck his convoy in the capital Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 8/1/08)

2008        Aug 3, In Somalia a bomb hidden under a pile of garbage killed at least 20 people, half of them women who were sweeping the street in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 8/3/08)

2008        Aug 12, Somali pirates hijacked the Thor Star, a Thai cargo ship with 28 crew members onboard.
    (AP, 8/15/08)

2008        Aug 19, Armed pirates seized the MT Bunga Melati Dua, a Malaysian palm oil tanker with 39 crew, off the coast of Somalia, the fourth hijacking in a month.
    (AP, 8/20/08)

2008        Aug 21, Armed pirates hijacked a Japanese chemical tanker with 19 crew, an Iranian bulk carrier with 29 crew, and a German cargo ship with a crew of 9 off Somalia's coast.
    (AP, 8/21/08)(AP, 8/22/08)

2008        Aug 22, In Somalia fighting between the Islamic militia and a clan militia killed 10 people in the southern port of Kismayo. Witnesses said a radical Islamic militia controlled most of Somalia's third-largest city after three days of fighting in which some 70 people died.
    (AP, 8/22/08)(WSJ, 8/23/08, p.A1)

2008        Aug 23, Pirates fired on a Japanese-operated cargo ship off Somalia and attempted to board the vessel but failed to seize it.
    (AP, 8/23/08)
2008        Aug 23, In Somalia 2 Western reporters were kidnapped near Mogadishu. The next day the National Union of Somali Journalists (NUSOJ) named them as Amanda Lindhout, a Canadian reporter based in Baghdad but freelancing for French television and Canada's Global National News, and Nigel Brennan, a freelance Australian photojournalist. Both were released after 15 months and arrived in Kenya on Nov 25, 2009. Brennan’s family mortgaged their house to raise his ransom.
    (Reuters, 8/24/08)(AP, 11/26/09)(Econ, 3/16/13, p.61)

2008        Aug 24, In Somalia the Shabab, the former military wing of the Islamic courts, and local clan factions took control of the southern port of Kismayo. Muktar Robow, a Shabab commander, wanted to merge with al-Qaeda.
    (Econ, 9/6/08, p.56)

2008        Aug 26, A Maltese fishing trawler rescued the migrants. Authorities said the survivors first told the fishermen that 10 people were missing, but later said as many as 70 people from Somalia, Eritrea and Sudan made the sea voyage with them.
    (AP, 8/28/08)

2008        Aug 29, Pirates, believed to be Somali, hijacked the Malaysian MT Bunga Melati 5 tanker and its 41 crew members off Yemen's coast in the Gulf of Aden. It was the second tanker owned by MISC Berhard to be hijacked in the gulf in the last 10 days.
    (AP, 8/30/08)

2008        Sep 2, Somali pirates captured the yacht Carre d'As IV with its two French crew, Jean-Yves and Bernadette Delanne, who were taken and held for ransom.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carr%C3%A9_d%27As_IV_incident)

2008        Sep 3, In Somalia mortar shells slammed into Mogadishu as insurgents vowed to intensify attacks during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. At least 4 people were killed.
    (AP, 9/3/08)
2008        Sep 3, An Egyptian cargo ship with 25 crew was hijacked by pirates in the Gulf of Aden near Somalia, making it the 10th vessel to be hijacked in the area since July 20.
    (AP, 9/5/08)

2008        Sep 5, Malaysia said it is dispatching three navy vessels to the Gulf of Aden to protect its merchant ships following a sharp surge in pirate attacks off the coast of Somalia.
    (AP, 9/5/08)

2008        Sep 9, A gunman killed an outspoken Somali lawmaker in the provincial town of Baidoa, the latest in a series of attacks in the lawless African nation.
    (AP, 9/10/08)

2008        Sep 10, Pirates hijacked a South Korean bulk carrier with 22 crew off Somalia's coast but were thwarted in a separate attempt to seize a Greek ship. The crew and vessel were released on Oct 16 with no comment on ransom.
    (AP, 9/10/08)(AP, 10/16/08)

2008        Sep 14, In Somalia at least six people, including an African Union (AU) peacekeeper, were killed Sunday in two separate incidents in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 9/14/08)

2008        Sep 15, In Somalia an African Union peacekeeper was killed in a roadside bomb explosion in Mogadishu, the 2nd AU member to be killed in there in as many days.
    (AP, 9/15/08)
2008        Sep 16, French troops stormed a yacht hijacked by Somali pirates, killing one, capturing six others and freeing their two French hostages, who had been held since Sep 2.
    (AP, 9/16/08)

2008        Sep 18, Armed pirates hijacked a Greek ship with 25 crew members off Somalia, bringing to 55 the number of reported attacks in the lawless sea lane of the African region.
    (AP, 9/18/08)

2008        Sep 21, Pirates in speedboats hijacked a Greek bulk carrier with 19 crew members off eastern Somalia. On Dec 8 Somali pirates freed the 19-man crew and MV Captain Stephanos, the Greek-owned and Bahamas-flagged bulk carrier.
    (AP, 9/22/08)(AP, 12/10/08)
2008        Sep 21, Somali refugees abandoned by smugglers in the dangerous waters of the Gulf of Aden were rescued. They had drifted for 18 days, and at least 52 died before the group was rescued off the Yemeni coast. Seventy-one people survived the journey.
    (AP, 9/28/08)

2008        Sep 22, In Somalia mortar rounds slammed into a market in Mogadishu, killing up to 30 people including children and overwhelming hospitals with dozens of wounded in the worst fighting in months.
    (AP, 9/22/08)

2008        Sep 23, Heavy fighting between Somali insurgents and African Union forces erupted in southern Mogadishu, leaving at least seven civilians dead.
    (AFP, 9/23/08)

2008        Sep 25, Pirates seized the 530-foot, Ukrainian cargo vessel, MV Faina, with 21 people aboard off eastern Somalia. Russia's navy soon sent a warship to Somalia's coast a day after pirates seized the Ukrainian vessel loaded with 33 tanks, ammunition and 3 Russian crew members. The ITAR-Tass news agency said the military equipment had been sold to Kenya. It was later reported that the arms were destined for southern Sudan and that Kenya’s cooperation would be rewarded in the future with cheap oil. The shipped was released on Feb 5, 2009, following a ransom of $3.2 million.
    (AP, 9/26/08)(SFC, 9/27/08, p.A5)(Econ, 10/4/08, p.49)(AP, 2/5/09)

2008        Sep 26, Somali pirates hijacked the Liberian-flagged oil tanker MV Genius, a Greek-owned ship with 19 crew. The MV Genius was ransomed and released on Nov 21.
    (AP, 11/22/08)

2008        Sep 29, Somali Islamist insurgents attacked government forces and African Union peacekeepers overnight in Mogadishu. At least four people were killed in the clashes. Somalia pirates released Malaysia’s palm oil tanker, MT Bunga Melati 2, two days after its first vessel was released.
    (AP, 9/30/08)(AFP, 9/29/08)

2008        Oct 1, In Somalia at least seven civilians were killed in a mortar fire exchange that erupted when an African Union (AU) plane landed at Mogadishu airport in defiance of a "ban" by an Islamist militia. 28 Somali migrants died after their boat capsized off the town of Shabwa because of strong wind and high waves. A Yemen coast guard patrol reached the boat and rescued 23 other migrants.
    (AP, 10/2/08)

2008        Oct 3, The United Nations said fighting has killed at least 80 civilians in Somalia's capital over the last two weeks. More than 100 people have been injured. UN humanitarian office spokeswoman Elisabeth Byrs said nearly half of Somalia's 8.3 million people were in need of food and other assistance.
    (AP, 10/3/08)

2008        Oct 8, Pirates in Somalia released 15 Filipino seamen and four other crewmen of a chemical tanker hijacked nearly two months ago, but were still holding 67 other Filipino sailors.
    (AP, 10/9/08)

2008        Oct 9, NATO joined a growing international force to protect vessels off Somalia's perilous coast, sending military ships to the treacherous waters where pirates are negotiating the release of an arms-laden tanker.
    (AP, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 9, Somali pirates freed 20 Filipino seamen from a hijacked ship they held for more than 80 days, as the Philippine government doubled the pay of sailors passing through pirate-infested international waters. 47 Filipinos on three other ships were still in the hands of Somali pirates. Pirates also released 29 Iranian crew members and their cargo ship hijacked off Somalia's coast in late July.
    (AP, 10/10/08)

2008        Oct 10, Yemeni officials and the UN refugee agency said about 100 migrants from Somalia were missing and feared drowned in the treacherous waters off the coast of Yemen after smugglers forced them overboard 3 miles off Yemen’s coast. 47 were believed to have survived.
    (AP, 10/10/08)(SFC, 10/11/08, p.A10)
2008        Oct 10, Armed pirates off Somalia hijacked a Greek chemical tanker with a crew of 20 flying a Panamanian flag.
    (AP, 10/11/08)

2008        Oct 12, Somali forces from semiautonomous Puntland unsuccessfully raided a hijacked ships. 2 pirates were killed.
    (WSJ, 10/13/08, p.A15)

2008        Oct 13, In Somalia Islamist insurgents attacked African Union peacekeepers in Mogadishu, triggering fierce clashes that killed a civilian and wounded five others.
    (AFP, 10/13/08)

2008        Oct 14, Off the Somali coast a Panamanian-flagged vessel and its 11 crew members, nine Syrians and two Somalis, were freed after a gunbattle in which one Puntland soldier was killed and three wounded. The 10 pirates, who had held the ship since Oct 9, surrendered when they ran out of ammunition.
    (AP, 10/14/08)
2008        Oct 14, Burundi said it has completed its deployment of another 850 soldiers to Somalia, bringing to about 3,400 the total number of African Union peacekeepers stationed there. Burundi had already deployed some 850 soldiers to Somalia as part of AMISOM (African mission in Somalia).
    (AP, 10/14/08)

2008        Oct 15, Armed pirates hijacked a Japanese-operated bulk carrier with 21 Filipino crew members in the Gulf of Aden near Somalia. The ship African Sanderling was released on January 12, 2009.
    (AP, 10/15/08)(AP, 1/13/09)

2008        Oct 16, In Somalia at least 23 people were killed in Mogadishu when insurgents attacked camps housing African Union and Ethiopian troops, triggering heavy clashes.
    (AFP, 10/16/08)
2008        Oct 16, Somali pirates released 22 sailors they kidnapped on Sep 10, after the South Korean ship owner paid a ransom. Koo Ja-Woo, an executive director of J and J Trust, which owns the ship, said his company paid an unspecified sum to the pirates through a foreign middleman with experience in dealing with the seizure of ships.
    (AFP, 10/17/08)
2008        Oct 16, The European Commission announced 15 million euros (20 million dollars) of emergency food aid for victims of drought and soaring food prices in five east African countries. The biggest share will go to Ethiopia and Somalia and smaller amounts to Kenya, Uganda and Djibouti.
    (AFP, 10/16/08)

2008        Oct 18, Somali pirates released a Thai ship after receiving a ransom.
    (AP, 10/19/08)

2008        Oct 19, In Somalia 3 gunmen shot the employee of the UN Children's Fund, UNICEF, as he walked home in the southern town of Hudur.
    (AP, 10/20/08)

2008        Oct 21, A Somali official said Somali gunmen acting as freelance coast guards freed a hijacked Indian dhow and its 13 crew members after a battle with pirates off the country's northern coast. The cargo-laden vessel was en route to Somalia from Asia when it was seized over the weekend.
    (AP, 10/21/08)

2008        Oct 23, The French Navy captured nine pirates near the Gulf of Aden finding anti-tank missiles, other weapons and ship boarding gear on the boats. A Somali pirate warned that if a hijacked Ukrainian arms ship was attacked the ship's 20-man crew would be killed.
    (AP, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 23, Russia, which sent a warship to Somalia's coast to combat pirates, asked the African nation for carte blanche to use force in its territorial waters.
    (Reuters, 10/23/08)

2008        Oct 25, A gunman shot dead a Somali woman employee in the latest of a string of attacks on the humanitarian community. Duniya Sheik Daud was the 15th aid worker killed so far this year in Somalia.
    (AP, 10/25/08)

2008        Oct 27, In Somalia Aisha Ibrahim Duhulow, a 13-year-old girl who said she had been raped, was stoned to death in Kismayo after being accused of adultery by Islamic militants.
    (AP, 11/1/08)

2008        Oct 28-2009 Oct 29, In northern Somalia 5 suicide car bombs attacks killed 28 people in Hargeisa, the capital of Somaliland, and in Bosasso, Puntland. Somali authorities arrested Cleric Sheik Mohamed Ismail in connection with the attacks. Shirwa Ahmed, one of the suicide bombers, was an American citizen and former resident of Minnesota.
    (AP, 10/30/08)(SFC, 10/30/08, p.A4)(Econ, 2/28/09, p.49)

2008        Oct 29, Pirates hijacked the Turkish freighter MV Yasa Neslihan with a crew of 20 off the coast of Somalia. Pirates freed the Yasa Neslihan freighter on Dec 6 after paying a ransom.
    (SFC, 10/31/08, p.A8)(AP, 1/7/09)

2008        Nov 2, The bodies of 60 Somali and Ethiopian migrants washed up on the shores of southern Yemen over the last three days.
    (AP, 11/3/08)

2008        Nov 5, In Somalia 6 employees of the French aid group Action Against Hunger were kidnapped in the town of Dhusamareb. They included four non-Somali workers and two chauffeurs.
    (AP, 11/5/08)

2008        Nov 7, Pirates near Somalia hijacked a Danish cargo ship with 13 crew members, which consisted of Russians and Ukrainians. The CEC Future  was released on January 16 following a ransom payment by Clipper Projects.
    (AP, 11/8/08)(AP, 1/16/09)

2008        Nov 10, Gunmen in northern Kenya seized two Italian Catholic nuns from a church before dawn and took them across the border into a Somali region largely controlled by Islamist insurgents. The nuns were free on February 19, 2009.
    (AP, 11/10/08)(AP, 2/19/09)
2008        Nov 10, Pirates near Somalia hijacked the MT Stolt Strength. a Philippines chemical tanker with 23 crew, bringing the total number of attacks in waters off the African nation this year to 83. The ship was freed on April 21.
    (AP, 11/11/08)(AFP, 4/21/09)

2008        Nov 12, In Somalia the Islamist al-Shabab militia, that the US calls a terror organization, seized Merka, a key port town, giving it control of most of southern Somalia and sidelining the weak government. That night more than 100 heavily armed fighters entered Elasha, 11 miles (18 kilometers) southwest of Mogadishu, after the pro-government militia fled.
    (AP, 11/12/08)(AP, 11/13/08)
2008        Nov 12, Pirates commandeered the Karagol, a Turkish chemical tanker, off the coast of Yemen. 14 Turkish personnel were aboard the tanker. The Russian frigate Neustrashimy and the British frigate Cumberland foiled pirates who fired automatic weapons toward a Danish ship and twice tried to seize it in the Gulf of Aden.
    (AP, 11/12/08)

2008        Nov 15, In Somalia fighters of al-Shabab took control of the port town of Barawe without a fight after the government's allies left as soon as they heard the fighters were on their way.
    (AP, 11/15/08)
2008        Nov 15, Gunmen hijacked a freighter with 23 crew off the coast of Somalia. The crew of the Japanese-owned Chemstar Venus consisted of five South Koreans and 18 Filipinos. Somali pirates hijacked the Sirius Star, a newly commissioned supertanker, more than 450 nautical miles southeast of Mombasa, Kenya, along with its 25-member crew. The ship, owned by Saudi oil company Aramco, was capable of carrying about 2 million barrels of oil.
    (AP, 11/16/08)(AP, 11/17/08)

2008        Nov 16,  Somali pirates freed another vessel after securing a ransom and a Russian frigate repelled an attack on a Saudi ship.
    (AP, 11/16/08)

2008        Nov 17, In Somalia witnesses said African Union (AU) peacekeepers from Burundi have started moving into positions usually manned by Ethiopian troops in the capital Mogadishu, as part of the ongoing Djibouti peace process.
    (AFP, 11/17/08)

2008        Nov 18, Separate bands of pirates seized a Thai fishing trawler with 16 crew members and an Iranian cargo vessel with a crew of 25 in the Gulf of Aden. Pirates on the trawler then apparently fired on the Indian naval frigate Tabar. The Indians, believing the trawler to be a pirate "mother ship," returned fire turning the Ekawat Nava 5 into a massive fireball and killing 14 of the 15 crew as well as the pirates. The Tabar then chased two attack boats into the night. A surviving sailor spent six days adrift in the shark-infested ocean before another ship picked him up. The Iranian vessel was released on Jan 9, 2009.
    (AP, 11/19/08)(AP, 11/26/08)(SFC, 11/26/08, p.A3)(AP, 1/10/09)(AP, 6/5/09)

2008        Nov 20, Egypt held emergency talks with nations bordering the Red Sea on how to stop Somali gunmen from hijacking ships. Somali pirates had already seized at least 80 ships off the Horn of Africa this year.
    (SFC, 11/21/08, p.A13)
2008        Nov 20, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to impose sanctions on pirates, arms smugglers, and perpetrators of instability in Somalia in a fresh attempt to help end years of lawlessness in the Horn of Africa nation.
    (AP, 11/20/08)

2008        Nov 21, Somali security forces and Islamic insurgents engaged in one of the fiercest gunbattles in recent weeks in Mogadishu, killing at least 17 people and wounding six.
    (AP, 11/21/08)
2008        Nov 21, Somali pirates released a hijacked Greek-owned tanker with all 19 crew safe and the oil cargo intact. The Liberian-flagged tanker MV Genius had been seized on Sept. 26. The ship's management company said a ransom was paid but did not say how much.
    (AP, 11/22/08)

2008        Nov 24, Shipping officials from around the world called for a military blockade along the coast of Somalia to intercept pirate vessels heading out to sea.
    (AP, 11/24/08)

2008        Nov 26, In northern Somalia 2 foreign journalists were kidnapped while doing a story on the rampant piracy in the region. The Britain and journalist and his Spanish counterpart were released on Jan 4, after almost six weeks in captivity in Somalia's breakaway Puntland state.
    (AP, 11/26/08)(AFP, 1/4/09)

2008        Nov 28, Somali pirates hijacked the chemical tanker chemical tanker M/V BISCAGLIA with 25 Indian and 3 Bangladeshi crew members. A helicopter rescued three British security guards who had jumped into the sea. The Liberian flagged ship operated out of Singapore. The ship was freed on Jan 23 following a $1 million ransom.
    (AP, 11/28/08)(AP, 1/24/09)(WSJ, 1/31/08, p.A1)

2008        Nov 30, Pirates chased and shot at the M/S Nautica, a US cruise liner with more than 1,000 people on board, but failed to hijack the vessel as it sailed along a corridor patrolled by international warships.
    (AP, 12/2/08)

2008        Dec 2, A Burundi soldier serving with African Union forces in Somalia was killed in fighting with Islamist insurgents in the war-torn capital Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 12/3/08)

2008        Dec 3, In Yemen the bodies of 24 Somalis washed ashore following an accident involving a boat trying to smuggle migrants. Strong winds pushed the bodies on to beaches over the last 2 days near the town of al-Qasha'a. 184 more Somalis involved in the accident managed to swim ashore.
    (AP, 12/4/08)

2008        Dec 4, In Somalia 20 men and women graduated from medical school in Mogadishu, something that nobody in Somalia has done in nearly two decades.
    (AP, 12/4/08)
2008        Dec 4, The Danish navy intercepted and sunk a suspected pirate vessel drifting off Somalia. 7 men were handed over to authorities in Yemen but were not immediately suspected of any crime.
    (AP, 12/5/08)

2008        Dec 5, In Somalia 12 people were killed as mortar shells rained down on homes and a small market  in Mogadishu.
    (SFC, 12/6/08, p.A5)

2008        Dec 8, The EU formally launches its anti-piracy task mission off the Somali coast, preparing to take over from the NATO flotilla guarding one of the world's most important shipping lanes.
    (AP, 12/8/08)

2008        Dec 9, Ethiopian troops were reported to be pouring into neighboring Somalia to fight radical Islamists who have taken over much of the country, raising fears of more violence in a country fighting a deadly insurgency and piracy.
    (AP, 12/9/08)

2008        Dec 10, The US proposed to track down Somali pirates not only at sea, but on land and in Somalian air space with cooperation from the African country's weak UN-backed government.
    (AP, 12/11/08)

2008        Dec 13, The Indian navy captured 23 pirates who threatened a merchant vessel in the lawless waters of the Gulf of Aden, where dozens of ships have come under attack by gunmen in recent months. The pirates were from Somalia and Yemen. A German helicopter thwarted another attack on a freighter being chased by speed boats off Yemen.
    (AP, 12/13/08)(SSFC, 12/14/08, p.A20)

2008        Dec 16, Somalia's UN-backed government crumbled further as the president defied parliament and Kenya announced sanctions against him in a strong public rebuke.
    (AP, 12/16/08)
2008        Dec 16, Somali pirates hijacked a tugboat belonging to total SA off the Yemeni coast. On August 3 pirates freed the tugboat TB Masindra 7, its attached Indonesian barge ADM1 and its 11 Indonesian sailors after a ransom was paid to end the second-longest hostage saga off the coast of Somalia.
    (AP, 12/16/08)(AFP, 8/3/09)
2008        Dec 16, The UN Security Council approved land and air attacks on pirate bases in Somalia.
    (SFC, 12/17/08, p.A14)

2008        Dec 17, An international anti-piracy force thwarted the attempted takeover of a Chinese cargo ship off the Somali coast, sending in attack helicopters that fired on the bandits and forced them to abandon the ship they had boarded. The Indian navy handed over 23 pirates, caught at sea on Dec 13, to authorities in Yemen.
    (AP, 12/17/08)

2008        Dec 20, China said it will send two destroyers and a supply vessel to the seas off Somalia to back international efforts to fight piracy.
    (AP, 12/20/08)
2008        Dec 20, Iranian state radio said Iran has sent a warship to the coast of Somalia to protect its cargo ships against piracy.
    (AP, 12/20/08)

2008        Dec 22, A Sudanese official said at least 18,000 Eritrean and Somali refugees have arrived in Sudan since the start of the year, and the government is struggling to provide them with aid.
    (Reuters, 12/22/08)

2008        Dec 24, A spokesman said  Somali President Abdullahi Yusuf has decided to resign, in a move the African Union said would be positive for the peace process in the Horn of Africa nation. Mohamed Mohamud Guled, named prime minister last week, resigned, saying his controversial appointment was preventing the feuding government from fighting a strengthening Islamic insurgency.
    (Reuters, 12/24/08)(AP, 12/24/08)

2008        Dec 25, A German military helicopter chased away pirates who were trying to board an Egyptian ship off the coast of Somalia. One of the ship's crew was shot in the attack.
    (AP, 12/25/08)

2008        Dec 26, Chinese warships, armed with special forces, guided missiles and helicopters, set sail for anti-piracy duty off Somalia, the first time the communist nation has sent ships on a mission that could involve fighting so far beyond its territorial waters.
    (AP, 12/26/08)

2008        Dec 29, Abdullahi Yusuf, the president of Somalia's UN-backed government, resigned amid deepening international pressure, a move that could usher in more chaos as a strengthening Islamic insurgency scrambles for power.
    (AP, 12/29/08)

2008        Dec 30, In Somalia mortars slammed into a busy market in Mogadishu, as the country's weak government crumbled and the impending pullout of allied Ethiopian troops raised fears that Islamic insurgents might seize the opportunity to take over.
    (AP, 12/30/08)

2009        Jan 1, Somali pirates seized the Blue Star, an Egyptian cargo ship, and its 28 crewmembers. A Malaysian military helicopter saved an Indian tanker from being hijacked in the new year's first attacks by pirates in the dangerous Gulf of Aden. A crew of the French warship "PM L'Her" dispatch boat intercepted two speedboats carrying 8 Somali pirates as they were preparing to board a Panamanian cargo ship. The Blue Star and its crew of 28 were freed on March 5 after a ransom was dropped from a plane.
    (AP, 1/1/09)(AP, 1/2/09)(AP, 3/5/09)

2009        Jan 2, Crewmen fired high pressure water jets to fight off heavily armed Somali pirates trying to board a Greek oil tanker in the Gulf of Aden in the fourth such attack since the start of the year. A Chinese cargo ship evaded two pirate boats chasing it in the Gulf of Aden.
    (AP, 1/2/09)(AFP, 1/2/09)

2009        Jan 3, In Somalia Islamic insurgents appeared to be scrambling for power, taking over several police stations in the capital as Ethiopian troops who have been propping up the government began to pull out.
    (AP, 1/3/09)

2009        Jan 4, A French warship foiled attempts by Somali pirates in the Gulf of Aden to seize two cargo vessels and intercepted 19 people.
    (AFP, 1/5/09)

2009        Jan 6, In Somalia 3 masked gunmen fatally shot a Somali aid worker. The UN envoy to Somalia said the UN should create a Baghdad-style Green Zone in the African country so he can base all his aid workers there. Aid workers Keiko Akahane (32), a Japanese doctor, and Dutchman nurse Willem Sools (27), were released after being held by Somali gunmen for 108 days.
    (AP, 1/6/09)(AP, 1/10/09)

2009        Jan 8, In Somalia  gunmen fatally shot a UN World Food program worker during a food distribution, the second staff member killed this week.
    (AP, 1/8/09)
2009        Jan 8, The US Navy said a new international force to battle pirates off the Somali coast is being formed under American command in a bid to focus more military resources to protect one of the world's key shipping lanes.
    (AP, 1/8/09)

2009        Jan 9, Somali pirates released the MV Sirius Star, an oil-laden Saudi supertanker seized on Nov 15, after receiving a $3 million ransom. Five of the Somali pirates drowned with their share of the $3 million ransom after their small boat capsized.
    (AP, 1/9/09)(AP, 1/10/09)
2009        Jan 9, Somali pirates released a captured Iranian-chartered cargo ship. The ship Delight was carrying 36 tons of wheat when it was attacked in the Gulf of Aden Nov. 18 and seized by pirates. All 25 crew were in good health and the vessel sailed toward Iran.
    (AP, 1/10/09)

2009        Jan 11, In central Somalia clashes between Islamist militias killed at least 29 people and wounded more than 50 others. It was the latest sign of divisions within an Islamist insurgency the US government says has links to al-Qaida.
    (AP, 1/11/09)

2009        Jan 12, In Somalia Islamist insurgents fired mortar rounds at the presidential palace in Mogadishu. At least 13 people were killed in 2 attacks. The United States circulated a draft resolution calling for a UN peacekeeping force to be deployed in Somalia to replace a small African Union force, but leaving the Security Council to make a final decision by June 1.
    (AP, 1/13/09)(SFC, 1/12/09, p.A3)

2009        Jan 13, Ethiopia handed over security duties in neighboring Somalia to a joint force of Somali government security forces and Islamic militiamen, a shift some fear will leave a power vacuum in the lawless African nation.
    (AP, 1/13/09)
2009        Jan 13, A Russian warship helped foil an attack on a Dutch container ship by suspected Somali pirates in the dangerous Gulf of Aden.
    (AP, 1/14/09)

2009        Jan 14, In Somalia Islamic insurgents fired mortar rounds at the presidential palace and clashed with government forces, leaving at least five civilians dead a day after Ethiopian troops handed over security duties.
    (AP, 1/14/09)

2009        Jan 15, The last Ethiopian troops backing Somalia's fragile government left Mogadishu, as Islamist forces took control of bases that the Ethiopians had vacated. An Islamist court under Shabab publicly executed politician Abdirahman Ahmed (55) to death by firing squad for showing sympathy for Christianity.
    (AP, 1/15/09)(Econ, 2/28/09, p.48)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdirahman_Ahmed)

2009        Jan 16, The UN Security Council unanimously adopted a resolution expressing its intention to establish a UN peacekeeping force in Somalia, but putting off a decision for several months in order to assess the volatile situation in the Horn of Africa nation.
    (AP, 1/17/09)

2009        Jan 17, Near Yemen hundreds of people were missing and feared dead after three boats carrying about 400 migrants from Somalia capsized.
    (AP, 1/18/09)

2009        Jan 20, Abdullahi Yusuf (75), Somalia's former president and an ex-warlord who was forced from government, arrived in Yemen in a private jet from his impoverished homeland, seeking political asylum. Islamic insurgents and Somali forces clashed in Mogadishu, killing at least 14 people in the latest sign the Islamists are making inroads into the few areas the UN-backed government still controls.
    (AP, 1/21/09)(AP, 1/21/09)

2009        Jan 24, In Somalia 17 people were killed in Mogadishu by a suicide car bomb targeting African Union peacekeepers. The dead included a police officer, who tried to stop the suicide bomber’s car. A gunfight between peacekeepers and insurgents followed left 5 more dead.
    (AFP, 1/24/09)(AFP, 1/26/09)

2009        Jan 28, Japan's defense minister ordered the dispatch of ships to fight pirates off the shores of Somalia, joining other countries in the battle against the outlaws.
    (AP, 1/28/09)

2009        Jan 29, Somali pirates hijacked a German gas tanker, the MV Longchamp, and its 13-man crew in the Gulf of Aden, the third ship captured off the Horn of Africa this month. The ship was released along with its 13 crew members on March 28.
    (AP, 1/29/09)(SFC, 1/30/09, p.A16)(AP, 3/28/09)

2009        Jan 31, In Somalia moderate Islamist leader Sheikh Sharif Sheik Ahmed was sworn in. The next day in a published interview he called for a united front against violent extremists and signaled his intent to try to bring together the country's feuding Islamic factions.
    (AP, 2/1/09)

2009        Feb 2, In Somalia AU peacekeepers opened fire on civilian vehicles and fatally shot 18 people after an AU vehicle was hit by a land mine in Mogadishu.
    (SFC, 2/3/09, p.A3)

2009        Feb 3, The hardline Somali Islamist group Shebab called on its fighters to intensify their holy war against African Union (AU) peacekeepers.
    (AP, 2/3/09)

2009        Feb 4, In Somalia gunmen killed Said Tahlil Ahmed, the director of the country’s largest media company, HornAfrik, at a market in Mogadishu. Three Somali Canadians had established HornAfrik in 1999.
    (AP, 2/4/09)

2009        Feb 5, Somali pirates said that they were freeing, a Ukrainian ship carrying tanks and other heavy weapons after receiving a $3.2 million ransom. The MV Faina was seized last September 25. The Kenyan government claimed to the cargo, which included 33 Soviet-designed battle tanks.
    (AP, 2/5/09)

2009        Feb 8, In Somalia at least three civilians were killed when insurgents attacked African Union forces and government troops in the strife-torn capital Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 2/8/09)

2009        Feb 11, Off Somalia the USS Vella Gulf detained seven suspected pirates, the Navy's first arrests since it established an anti-piracy task force this year.
    (AP, 2/13/09)

2009        Feb 12, Off Somalia an American helicopter from the USS Vella Gulf fired warning shots at gunmen in two skiffs that had opened fire and tried to board the Indian-flagged vessel Premdivya. US forces searched the skiff and found weapons including rocket-propelled grenades, then took nine suspected pirates aboard the American ship. A Russian nuclear-powered heavy missile cruiser, Peter The Great, detained 10 Somali pirates closing in on an Iranian-flagged fishing trawler. The men, were caught with rifles, grenade-launchers, illegal narcotics and a large sum of money.
    (AP, 2/13/09)

2009        Feb 14, In Somalia legislators approved a former leader's son as the country’s new prime minister. Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke faced the task of uniting a fractious government besieged by Islamic insurgents that control most of the country.
    (AP, 2/14/09)

2009        Feb 20, In Somalia hardline Islamist militia attacked African Union forces in Mogadishu, killing one civilian and wounding two others.
    (AP, 2/20/09)

2009        Feb 22, Gunmen in northern Somalia kidnapped a Pakistani. Al-Shabab insurgents claimed to have carried out a suicide attack on an African Union peacekeeping base in Mogadishu. 11 Burundi peacekeepers in Somalia were killed and another 20 injured in a suicide attack by a Somali contractor who delivered supplies and had easy access to the base.
    (AP, 2/22/09)(AP, 2/23/09)

2009        Feb 25, In Somalia an artillery shell killed two schoolchildren in Mogadishu during the second day of fighting between AU peacekeepers and Islamist insurgents. The death toll in the worst fighting for weeks reached 81.
    (AP, 2/25/09)(Reuters, 2/25/09)
2009        Feb 25, Danish and Chinese warships stopped pirates attacking two different vessels off Somalia's coast.
    (AP, 2/26/09)

2009        Feb 28, Somalia's new Pres. Sheik Sharif Sheik Ahmed said the government and an Islamic insurgent group have reached a cease-fire deal, days after dozens of civilians were killed in fighting in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 2/28/09)
2009        Feb 28, The yacht Serenity, with two crew from the Seychelles on board, left the islands en route to Madagascar and disappeared. One of the crew called his family on March 24, saying he was being held by Somali pirates and begging for help.
    (AP, 3/25/09)

2009        Feb, The UN estimated that 10 million people still lived in Somalia.
    (Econ, 2/28/09, p.49)

2009        Mar 10, Germany's navy handed over nine suspected Somali pirates to Kenyan authorities and they will be taken to a court to face charges. The nine were arrested March 3 after they attacked the Hamburg-based MV Courier cargo ship.
    (AP, 3/10/09)

2009        Mar 11, The African Union extended by three months the mandate of its peacekeeping mission in Somalia, and called on the UN to lift its arms embargo there.
    (AFP, 3/12/09)

2009        Mar 15, In central Somalia clashes between rival Islamist militias killed at least 14 people over the last 2 days. Most of those killed were fighters for the al-Shabab group or its rival Ahlu-sunah Wal-jamea.
    (AP, 3/15/09)

2009        Mar 16, In southern Somalia gunmen seized four UN workers, the latest in a series of attacks on aid workers in the war-ravaged Horn of Africa nation.
    (AP, 3/16/09)

2009        Mar 19, Al-Qaida's chief Osama bin Laden urged Somali militants to overthrow the country's new president in a new Web audiotape, trying to torpedo a new push for peace in a lawless African nation where many fear al-Qaida is gaining a foothold.
    (AP, 3/19/09)

2009        Mar 19, Pirates off the coast of Somalia seized the St. Vincent-flagged Titan, with 24 crew members on board, including a Greek captain and 3 Greek crew members. A Turkish warship foiled a pirate attack on a Turkish commercial ship in the Gulf of Aden.
    (AP, 3/20/09)

2009        Mar 20, The UN Security Council gave a stamp of approval to Somalia's new unity government and urged increased international aid to African Union (AU) peacekeepers trying to contain the violence in the lawless country.
    (AP, 3/20/09)

2009        Mar 22, Off the coast of Somalia pirates fired rocket-propelled grenades and automatic weapons at Japanese, Greek and Hong Kong cargo ships but fled after the ships took evasive maneuvers.
    (AP, 3/23/09)

2009        Mar 25, Hundreds of Somalis demonstrated in Baidoa against Islamist fighters after they imposed a ban on leaf qat, a popular narcotic.
    (SFC, 3/26/09, p.A2)

2009        Mar 25, The MT Nipayia, a Greek-owned and Panama registered ship with a crew of 19, was hijacked 450 miles east of Somalia’s south coast.
    (AP, 3/27/09)(WSJ, 3/27/09, p.A8)

2009        Mar 26, Somalia's new interior minister was wounded by a roadside bomb in an attack that killed his bodyguard and wounded two others. The moderate Islamist pledged to seek reconciliation with his attackers, widely believed to be hardline fighters.
    (AP, 3/26/09)
2009        Mar 26, The MT Bow Asir, a Norwegian tanker with a crew of 27, was hijacked 250 miles east of the south coast of Somalia.
    (AP, 3/27/09)(WSJ, 3/27/09, p.A8)

2009        Mar 29, The int’l. anti-piracy task force captured 7 pirates in the Gulf of Aden after they opened fire on a German naval supply ship.
    (SFC, 3/31/09, p.A2)

2009        Apr 1, A tourist yacht and its crew of seven was hijacked by Somali pirates near the Seychelles islands off Africa's east coast.
    (AP, 4/2/09)

2009        Apr 4, Somali pirates seized a 20,000-ton German container vessel, the Hansa Stavanger and its 24-member crew, in their latest attack on the Indian Ocean's busy commercial shipping lanes. The ship and crew were released on August 3 as pirates boasted $2.75 million in ransom.
    (AP, 4/5/09)(AP, 4/6/09)(AP, 7/18/09)(Econ, 8/22/09, p.53)

2009        Apr 5, In Somalia an overnight mortar attack aimed at troops and peacekeepers in Mogadishu killed a child and wounded six other people, including 4 of the dead child's siblings. Somali pirates hijacked a small Yemeni boat in the Indian Ocean.
    (AP, 4/5/09)(AP, 4/6/09)

2009        Apr 6, Somali pirates seized the Taiwanese ship Win Far 161 with 29 crew onboard near an island in the Seychelles in the Indian Ocean. A 32,000-ton British-owned bulk carrier, the Malaspina Castle, was also hijacked in the Gulf of Aden. Pirates soon began using the Win Far as a base for attacking other commercial ships. Win Far 161 was released on Feb 11, 2010, following the payment of a ransom. Three of its crew died of malnutrition and disease during their 10 month captivity.
    (AP, 4/6/09)(AP, 8/27/09)(AP, 2/11/10)(Econ, 2/5/11, p.70)

2009        Apr 8, Somali pirates hijacked a US-flagged cargo ship with 20 American crew members onboard. The 17,000-ton Maersk Alabama was carrying emergency relief to Mombasa, Kenya. The pirates took Capt. Richard Phillips hostage after they hijacked the Maersk Alabama, then fled the cargo ship as the vessel's crew overpowered them.
    (AP, 4/8/09)(AP, 4/9/09)

2009        Apr 9, FBI hostage negotiators joined US Navy efforts to free an American ship captain held captive on a lifeboat by Somali pirates. A US destroyer and a spy plane kept close watch in the high-seas standoff near the Horn of Africa. Capt. Richard Phillips made a desperate escape attempt but was recaptured.
    (AP, 4/9/09)(AP, 4/10/09)

2009        Apr 10, In Somalia Islamist militants attacked African Union peacekeepers in Mogadishu overnight, sparking heavy exchanges that killed two civilians.
    (AFP, 4/10/09)
2009        Apr 10, France's navy freed a sailboat seized off Somalia last week by pirates, but one of the hostages was killed. Pirates had seized the sailboat carrying Florent Lemacon, his wife, 3-year-old son and two friends off the Somali coast a week ago. Two pirates were killed, and Lemacon died in an exchange of fire as he tried to duck down the hatch.
    (AP, 4/11/09)

2009        Apr 11, Somali pirates hijacked the Italian-flagged tugboat Buccaneer, an American-owned tugboat, with 16 crew in the Gulf of Aden. The pirates abandoned the ship on August 9 and all crew members were freed. No random was paid.
    (AP, 4/11/09)(AP, 4/26/09)(AP, 8/10/09)

2009        Apr 12, US Navy SEAL snipers on a destroyer shot and killed three Somali pirates and plucked an unharmed Capt. Richard Phillips to safety. A fourth pirate surrendered. His rescue sparked concern for other hostages and fears that the stakes have been raised for future hijackings in the Indian Ocean shipping lane.
    (AP, 4/13/09)

2009        Apr 14, Somali pirates captured two more nautical trophies to match the two ships they seized a day or two earlier. The MV Sea Horse, a Lebanese-owned cargo ship, was attacked and captured by pirates in three or four speedboats. That hijacking came only hours after the Greek-managed MV Irene E.M. was seized in a rare overnight attack by pirates. Somali pirates also hijacked two Egyptian fishing boats in the Gulf of Aden off Somalia's northern coast, which maritime officials said had a total of 36 crew. It was not exactly clear if those ships were hijacked April 12 or 13. The Liberty Sun, a US flagged cargo ship, repelled a pirate attack off the Somali coast. The MV Irene and 22 Filipino sailors were released on Sep 14.
    (AP, 4/14/09)(WSJ, 4/15/09, p.A8)(AFP, 9/15/09)

2009        Apr 15, French forces detained 11 pirates during an assault on a pirate "mother ship" and thwarted a pirate attack on a Liberian-registered vessel.
    (AP, 4/15/09)

2009        Apr 18, Somali parliamentarians unanimously endorsed a proposal to implement Islamic law in the Horn of Africa nation.
    (AP, 4/18/09)
2009        Apr 18, Somali pirates attacked two ships off the Horn of Africa, seizing the Belgian-flagged Pompei carrying 10 crew. NATO forces intervened in the other assault, chasing the pirates down. Dutch commandos then freed 20 fishermen on a Yemeni dhow hijacked earlier. Seven pirates attempted to attack the Norwegian-flagged MV Front Ardenne but fled after crew took evasive maneuvers and alerted warships in the area. NATO warships and helicopters pursued the Somali pirates for seven hours after they attacked the tanker, and the high-speed chase only ended when warning shots were fired at the pirates' skiff. NATO forces boarded the skiff, where they found a rocket-propelled grenade, and interrogated, disarmed and released the pirates. The Pompei and its crew were released on June 28.
    (AP, 4/18/09)(AP, 4/19/09)(AP, 6/28/09)

2009        Apr 19, In central Somalia two Medecins Sans Frontieres (Doctors Without Borders) workers were seized by around 25 gunmen traveling in two trucks. Dutch national Kees Keus (49) and Belgian Jorgen Stassijns (40) were released on April 28.
    (AP, 4/19/09)(AP, 4/28/09)

2009        Apr 20, Somali pirates in two boats with about six pirates each attacked the Maltese-flagged MV Atlantica, before the ship took evasive maneuvers and escaped in the Gulf of Aden without damages or injury. Other pirates released a Togo-flagged, Lebanese-owned ship after they found out it was supposed to pick up food destined for Somalia. The MV Sea Horse was hijacked April 14 with 19 crew as it headed to India to pick up more than 7,300 tons of food destined for Somalia. The pirates also were paid "a reward" of $100,000 by two Somali businessmen for freeing the aid ship.
    (AP, 4/20/09)

2009        Apr 21, Somali pirates freed a chemical tanker and its 23 Filipino crew members after holding them hostage in the Gulf of Aden for more than five months. The MT Stolt Strength was seized Nov. 10, 2008.
    (AP, 4/21/09)
2009        Apr 21, In a New York court Somali pirate Abduwali Abdukhadir Muse (18) was charged with piracy and other crimes relating to the Apr 8-Apr 12 siege of the Maersk Alabama.
    (WSJ, 4/22/09, p.A3)

2009        Apr 22, Somalia's foreign minister urged the international community to help its fledgling government set up a coast guard to fight the rampant piracy that has disrupted shipping in one of the world's busiest waterways.
    (AP, 4/22/09)

2009        Apr 23, The EU development commissioner said an international conference has already pledged over 250 million dollars to help Somalia improve its security.
    (AP, 4/23/09)

2009        Apr 24, Somalia's hardline Islamist leader Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys ruled out talks on with the government until African Union peacekeepers withdraw from the war-torn country.
    (AFP, 4/24/09)

2009        Apr 25, In Somalia mortars fired toward the parliament missed the building but hit a police unit inside the compound as well as a residential neighborhood, killing at least 7 people. Armed fighters attacked two African Union peacekeeping bases in Mogadishu, and a witness said he saw the bodies of three civilians killed.
    (AP, 4/25/09)(AP, 4/26/09)
2009        Apr 25, Hijackers seized the Maltese-flagged MV Patriot, a German-owned ship with a crew of 17, in the pirate-infested waters between Somalia and Yemen. An Italian cruise ship with 1,500 people on board fended off a pirate attack far off the coast of Somalia when its Israeli private security forces exchanged fire with the bandits.
    (AP, 4/25/09)(AP, 4/26/09)

2009        Apr 26, Pirates attacked 4 Yemeni tankers escorted by a Yemeni coast guard boat on their way to Aden. 3 of the ships escaped and coast guards captured five pirates and wounded two others. The Turkish cruiser Ariva 3, with two British and four Japanese crew aboard, survived a pirate attack near the Yemeni island of Jabal Zuqar. Somali pirates demanded a $5 million ransom for the release of two Egyptian fishing boats hijacked earlier this month. Later in the day Yemeni coast guard forces freed the hijacked Yemeni oil tanker (Qana) and arrested 11 Somali pirates, the first time the country has successfully retaken a seized vessel.
    (AP, 4/26/09)(AP, 4/27/09)

2009        Apr 28, The Seychelles Coast Guard said it had arrested nine suspected pirates believed to be behind the weekend attempt to hijack the melody, a luxury cruise liner carrying an estimated 1,000 tourists in the Indian Ocean. The Spanish navy had tracked the skiff and apprehended the suspects. They were then turned over to the Seychelles Coast Guard.
    (AP, 4/28/09)
2009        Apr 28, The Russian destroyer Admiral Panteleyev seized a vessel with 29 suspected pirates off the coast of Somalia. A Russian tanker fended off an attack by the same group earlier in the day. On May 4 the Russian warship freed 8 Iranians who were seized along with the suspected Somali pirates.
    (AP, 4/29/09)(AP, 5/4/09)

2009        May 1, Special forces on a Portuguese warship seized explosives from suspected Somali pirates after thwarting an attack on an oil tanker, but later freed the 19 men. Hours later and hundreds of miles away, another band of pirates hijacked a cargo ship. The captain and 23 crew were all Ukrainians and the Greek-owned, Maltese-flagged Ariana was carrying a cargo of soya from Brazil to Iran when pirates attacked it southwest of the Seychelles islands. The Ariana was freed on Dec 10 following a ransom payment of $2.8 million by Athens-based Alloceans Shipping.
    (AP, 5/2/09)(AP, 12/10/09)

2009        May 3, A French naval vessel intercepted 11 suspected pirates traveling off the Somali coast in two assault vessels and a so-called "mothership" loaded with Kalashnikovs and rocket launchers.
    (AP, 5/3/09)

2009        May 4, South Korean snipers hovering in a helicopter chased away pirates pursuing a North Korean freighter, while the Russian destroyer Admiral Panteleyev freed eight Iranian citizens held hostage for more than three months.
    (AP, 5/4/09)

2009        May 5, Somali pirates hijacked the MV Victoria, a German cargo ship carrying 11 crew members in the Gulf of Aden. Pirates released the ship and its 11 Romanian crew members on July 18 following a ransom of $1.8 million.
    (AP, 5/6/09)(AP, 7/18/09)

2009        May 7, Somali pirates captured the Netherlands Antilles-flagged MV Marathon in the Gulf of Aden. The ship listed 19 Ukrainian crew members. One of the crew members died from a gun shot wound. On June 23 the Dutch Defense Ministry reported that the ship was released.
    (AP, 5/7/09)(AP, 6/23/09)

2009        May 10, In Somalia mortars slammed into Mogadishu hitting a mosque and several homes. Weekend fighting killed at least 35 people as pro-government Islamist fighters clashed with gunmen who want to topple the Western-backed government.
    (AP, 5/10/09)

2009        May 12, In Somalia a human rights activist said 113 civilians have been killed in fierce fighting in Mogadishu in the past three days. Some 10,000 civilians fled their homes, raising the number displaced by the fighting to more than 27,000.
    (AP, 5/12/09)

2009        May 13, South Korean Destroyer ROKS Munmu the Great and the US guided missile cruiser Gettysburg dispatched helicopters to aid Egypt’s MV Amira after it came under attack. 17 suspected pirates were apprehended following the attack in the Gulf of Aden. In 2010 a Kenya court freed all 17 pirates for lack of evidence. A magistrate blamed the loss of the case on the US Navy for not providing video and photographic proof that they claimed to have.
    (AP, 5/14/09)(AP, 11/5/10)

2009        May 17, In Somalia Islamic insurgents sustained their offensive on the nation's fragile government and captured a strategic southeastern town, hours after a key Islamic militia leader defected to the government. Several local and foreign jihadists were killed in Mogadishu when a bomb-making workshop blew up.
    (AP, 5/17/09)(Econ, 5/23/09, p.49)

2009        May 18, Somalia's war-torn government appealed for international help to set up a coast guard, saying it would guarantee that sea piracy near its shores is wiped out once it has such an agency. In Malaysia representatives of the government, attending an international conference on piracy, ruled out allowing foreign forces on Somali soil to destroy pirate bases.
    (AP, 5/18/09)
2009        May 18, Hard-line Somali Islamist fighters captured Mahaday, 70 miles (113 km) north of Mogadishu, after a pro-government militia abandoned it.
    (AP, 5/18/09)

2009        May 19, In Somalia witnesses said that Ethiopian troops have crossed the border and appear to be stationing themselves at a strategic crossroads. Ethiopia denied the reports. Witnesses said they saw Ethiopian troops in the Somali town of Kalabeyr, 14 miles (22 km) from the Ethiopian border and 11 miles (18 km) north of Belet Weyne, the provincial capital of the Hiran region.
    (AP, 5/19/09)

2009        May 20, In Somalia an attack by Islamic insurgents on Somali troops near an African Union peacekeeping base in Mogadishu killed at least three civilians, including one child, as regional leaders met to discuss ways of aiding the beleaguered government.
    (AP, 5/20/09)

2009        May 22, Hundreds of Somali government troops attacked insurgent-held positions north and south of Mogadishu and the heart of the city was heavily shelled. One witness said a busload of fleeing civilians was hit. Fighting between Somali government troops and Islamic insurgents killed 53 people in Mogadishu. Residents reported that the operation had failed to dislodge the insurgents.
    (AP, 5/22/09)(AP, 5/23/09)
2009        May 22, The African Union called on the UN Security Council to take "immediate measures" to impose sanctions on Eritrea over its support for Islamist insurgents in Somalia.
    (AFP, 5/22/09)
2009        May 22, An Italian warship arrested nine pirates after helping a US-flagged container vessel and another ship evade brigands off the coast of Somalia.
    (AP, 5/22/09)

2009        May 24, In Somalia a foreign suicide bomber killed six guards and a civilian at a military base in Mogadishu, an attack that came after two weeks of intense fighting.
    (AP, 5/24/09)

2009        May 26, Somali insurgents fired mortars at the presidential palace in Mogadishu, killing seven civilians and two government soldiers. The UN Security Council voted unanimously to condemn the recent surge in fighting in Somalia and called for an end to actions that undermine the country's Western-backed government.
    (AP, 5/27/09)
2009        May 26, A Swedish Navy ship detained seven suspected pirates after stopping them from capturing a cargo ship in the Gulf of Aden.
    (AP, 5/26/09)

2009        May 28, The Indian navy thwarted a pirate attack on a merchant ship in the Gulf of Aden off the coast of Somalia.
    (AP, 5/29/09)

2009        May 29, The nonbinding New York Declaration, an agreement between the signatory flag states which condemns acts of piracy and armed robbery against vessels and seafarers, was originally tabled by The Bahamas, the Republic of Liberia, the Republic of Marshall Islands and the Republic of Panama, four nations that account for more than half of global shipping.
    (www.unmultimedia.org/tv/unifeed/d/13476.html)

2009        Jun 1, In Somalia a roadside bomb in Mogadishu killed at least 4 police officers in several civilians.
    (SFC, 6/2/09, p.A2)

2009        Jun 4, Ethiopia charged 46 people, most of them ex-military, of plotting to assassinate government officials. Ethiopia also said it has undertaken military reconnaissance operations in Somalia, but is not planning to re-deploy.
    (AFP, 6/4/09)

2009        Jun 6, Somali pirates released the Yenegoa Ocean, a Nigerian tugboat they hijacked 10 months ago on Aug 4, 2008. A Dutch navy ship escorted it to a safe harbor.
    (AP, 6/7/09)

2009        Jun 7, In Somalia two masked gunmen killed the director of one of the country’s largest broadcasters, raising to five the number of journalists killed there this year.
    (AP, 6/7/09)

2009        Jun 10, The US Navy handed over 17 suspected Somali pirates to Kenya, taking the total number held in the east African nation to 101.
    (AFP, 6/10/09)

2009        Jun 17, Somali government forces attacked rebel strongholds in Mogadishu, triggering battles that killed at least 17 people, including Col. Ali Said , the capital's police chief.
    (AP, 6/17/09)

2009        Jun 18, In western Somalia a suicide bombing killed at least 25 people including National Security Minister Omar Hashi Aden at the Medina Hotel in Belet Weyne. Al-Shabab, an extremist group with alleged links to the al-Qaida  terror network, claimed responsibility.
    (AP, 6/18/09)(AP, 7/26/09)

2009        Jun 20, Somali lawmakers pleaded for international military intervention within 24 hours to help fight Islamic insurgents, where fierce fighting has resumed in Mogadishu. The government called for troops from Kenya and Ethiopia to come to its aid.
    (AP, 6/20/09)(Econ, 6/27/09, p.56)

2009        Jun 22, An Islamic court in Somalia sentenced four men to have a hand and a leg cut off for stealing mobile phones and guns. The court postponed the punishment the next day saying the hot weather could cause them to bleed to death.
    (AP, 6/23/09)(SFC, 6/23/09, p.A2)
2009        Jun 22, Pirates off Somalia were chased down and captured by NATO’s Portuguese warship, the Corte-real, after an attempted hijacking of a Singaporean freighter.
    (SFC, 6/23/09, p.A2)

2009        Jun 25, In Somalia in a brazen show of power in Mogadishu, Islamist rebels punished four convicted thieves (ages 18-25) by cutting off a hand and a foot each before hundreds of onlookers who gathered for the bloody spectacle.
    (AP, 6/25/09)
2009        Jun 25, US officials acknowledged that the US organized an arms shipment to the Somali government earlier this month.
    (SFC, 6/26/09, p.A3)

2009        Jun 26, The UN refugee agency said that the bloody conflict in Somalia has created the world's largest refugee camp, with 500 hungry and exhausted refugees pouring into a wind-swept camp in neighboring Kenya every day.
    (AP, 6/26/09)

2009        Jun 28, Somali pirates released the entire crew of the Belgian the Pompei dredger, a ship seized on April 18, after a ransom was paid.
    (AP, 6/28/09)

2009        Jul 5, In Somalia heavy shelling between rebels and government forces near the presidential palace killed at least 12 people. PM Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke looked for help from more African Union peacekeepers.
    (AP, 7/5/09)

2009        Jul 6, Ethnic Somali rebels (ONLF) in Ethiopia's Ogaden region claimed they killed 90 government troops in recent clashes, but the government denied any losses, claiming victory instead.
    (AFP, 7/6/09)

2009        Jul 8, Somali pirates seized a Turkish ship with 23 crew and were being shadowed by a Turkish warship in the Gulf of Aden. The pirates first surrounded the Horizon-1 in speed boats and then boarded the ship, which was carrying sulfate from Saudi Arabia to Jordan.
    (AP, 7/8/09)

2009        Jul 10, Somali residents said Islamist insurgent fighters in Baidoa have beheaded seven people accused of abandoning their religion and of espionage, in the largest mass execution since the Islamists were chased from power two and a half years ago.
    (AP, 7/10/09)

2009        Jul 11, In Somalia a foreign fighter and Nor Daqli, head of security for the capital, were among 16 people killed in fighting between UN-backed government forces and Islamist insurgents in the north of Mogadishu.
    (AP, 7/11/09)

2009        Jul 11, In Somalia a foreign fighter and Nor Daqli, head of security for the capital, were among 16 people killed in fighting between UN-backed government forces and Islamist insurgents in the north of Mogadishu.
    (AP, 7/11/09)

2009        Jul 12, Somali government forces with the help of African Union tanks fought Islamic militants in the capital, with clashes killing at least seven people. Witnesses said dozens of people were killed and some 150 wounded.
    (AFP, 7/12/09)(AP, 7/13/09)

2009        Jul 14, In Somalia two French officials working as security advisers to the Somali government were kidnapped in Mogadishu. Agent Marc Aubriere managed to escape on August 26. Secret-agent Alexx Denis remained captive.
    (Reuters, 7/14/09)(AP, 8/26/09)(SFC, 8/27/09, p.A2)(Econ, 8/13/11, p.45)

2009        Jul 20, In Somalia Islamic insurgents with alleged links with al-Qaida looted two United Nations compounds in southern Somalia, and announced they will ban three UN agencies from operating in areas the militants control.
    (AP, 7/20/09)

2009        Jul 22, Somali Islamist insurgents clashed with government forces and African Union peacekeepers, killing 3 government, 3 insurgent fighters. The renewed fighting between the radical Shebab militia and AU-backed government forces killed at least 15 civilians in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 7/23/09)(AFP, 7/24/09)

2009        Jul 24, Burundi army officials said 3 of its soldiers serving with African Union peacekeepers in Somalia have died of a mysterious illness in a Kenyan hospital where more than 10 others are being treated.
    (AFP, 7/24/09)
2009        Jul 24, Turkish commandos captured five pirates in the Gulf of Aden as part of an international mission to curb piracy off the coast of Somalia.
    (AP, 7/24/09)

2009        Jul 26, Somali government troops took full control of Belet Weyne, the strategic western town where the national security minister was killed last month.
    (AFP, 7/26/09)

2009        Jul 27, In Somalia mortar attacks by rebels disrupted a parliamentary session as heavy fighting between the militia and African Union-backed government forces killed 7 civilians.
    (AP, 7/27/09)

2009        Jul 28, The UN refugee agency said thousands of Somalis are preparing to cross the Gulf of Aden to Yemen after fleeing fighting around the capital of Mogadishu.
    (AP, 7/28/09)

2009        Aug 1, Burundi said it has deployed a third battalion of 850 soldiers to Mogadishu to reinforce the African Union peacekeeping mission there. With the new troops, more than 5,000 soldiers from Burundi and Uganda are now taking part in the AU Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), which began in March 2007 and has cost the lives of 17 Burundian soldiers.
    (AFP, 8/2/09)

2009        Aug 6, US Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton, speaking in Kenya, pledged to "expand and extend" American support for Somalia's weak interim government as it struggles against Islamist extremists believed linked to al-Qaida.
    (AP, 8/6/09)

2009        Aug 8, In Somalia’s pirate stronghold of Harardhere, fighting over the last 24 hours killed at least 12 people. A dispute over a car escalated as clan militias got involved. Mortar shells slammed into a busy market in the capital, Mogadishu, killing six people and wounding 18.
    (AP, 8/8/09)

2009        Aug 11, In Somalia 4 European aid workers and two Kenyan pilots were released after being held hostage for nine months.
    (AP, 8/11/09)

2009        Aug 12, In Somalia masked gunmen killed five Pakistani preachers outside the Tawfiq Mosque in Galkayo following morning prayers.
    (AP, 8/12/09)

2009        Aug 13, The crew of two Egyptian fishing vessels overpowered Somali pirates after being held hostage for four months and, with machetes and tools, killed at least two pirates before sailing to freedom. The fight took place near the coastal town of Las Qorey off the Gulf of Aden. The pirates had demanded a ransom of $1.5 million.
    (AP, 8/14/09)

2009        Aug 15, Somali pirates found seven dead colleagues floating in the ocean and vowed to take revenge against Egyptian fishermen they say killed them during an August 13 escape.
    (Reuters, 8/15/09)

2009        Aug 17, In Somalia gunmen stormed a UN aid compound in Wajid overnight, sparking a gunbattle that killed three of the attackers and wounded one. Hundreds of pro-government militiamen rolled into Bula Hawa town near the Kenyan border after al-Shabab fighters abandoned it.
    (AP, 8/17/09)

2009        Aug 20, In central Somalia fighting between government soldiers and Islamic insurgents killed at least 40 people as the warring sides tried to gain ground in strategic towns.
    (AP, 8/20/09)(SFC, 8/21/09, p.A2)

2009        Aug 21, In Somalia an insurgent attack on a peacekeeping base sparked gunbattles that killed at least 22 people, as the undermanned African peacekeeping force tried to maintain the government's tenuous hold on Somalia's battered capital.
    (Reuters, 8/21/09)

2009        Aug 22, In Somalia Islamic insurgents attacked a government checkpoint in Mogadishu, sparking a gunbattle that killed at least five people on the first day of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan.
    (AP, 8/22/09)

2009        Aug 25, The UN said Somalia is facing its worst humanitarian crisis in 18 years, with more than half of the population needing humanitarian aid amid an escalating crisis.
    (AP, 8/25/09)

2009        Aug 26, Somali pirates in the Gulf of Aden fired at a US Navy helicopter as it made a surveillance flight over the Win Far, a Taiwanese-flagged fishing vessel seized in April, the first such attack by pirates on an American military aircraft.
    (AP, 8/27/09)

2009        Aug 29, Somali witnesses said hundreds of Ethiopian troops have crossed the border and seized control of the Somali town of Belet Weyne from Islamist insurgents.
    (AP, 8/29/09)

2009        Sep 5, In Somalia at least six civilians were killed and 18 others wounded in clashes that erupted when insurgents attacked government and African Union forces in Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 9/6/09)

2009        Sep 6, Somali authorities, who say they were not informed of a hostage exchange plan, stopped a deal to swap three hostages held by Somali pirates with 23 suspected pirates, who had been held in the Seychelles.
    (AP, 9/7/09)

2009        Sep 8, Somalia graduated its first 500 naval recruits hoping they would form the backbone of the country’s first naval force in nearly two decades. 8 civilians were killed and 31 wounded overnight during clashes pitting insurgents against government and African Union forces in Mogadishu.
    (SFC, 9/9/09, p.A2)(AFP, 9/8/09)

2009        Sep 9, A Somali Islamic court cut off the hands of two men accused of theft and lashed another accused of rape.
    (AP, 9/9/09)
2009        Sep 9, The US, Britain, Cyprus, Japan and Singapore signed on to an international plan, the “New York Declaration,” to fight piracy off the coast of Somalia. The New York Declaration is an agreement between the signatory flag states which condemns acts of piracy and armed robbery against vessels and seafarers and recognizes that self protection measures taken by vessels can be highly effective in avoiding, delaying and deterring acts of piracy. The nonbinding political document was originally tabled on May 29, 2009.
    (SFC, 9/10/09, p.A2)(www.unmultimedia.org/tv/unifeed/d/13476.html)

2009        Sep 11, In Somalia mortars slammed into Mogadishu, killing three civilians and at least 12 men at a home for disabled veterans. Nearly a dozen other former soldiers were wounded in the attack.
    (AP, 9/12/09)

2009        Sep 14, In southern Somalia foreign troops firing from 6 helicopters killed two people in a car and then took two others captive in an insurgent-held village near Barawe. Saleh Ali Saleh Nabhan (30), a Kenyan citizen and one of Africa's most wanted al-Qaida suspects, was one of the dead. He was wanted for questioning in connection with the car bombing of a beach resort in Kenya and the near simultaneous attempt to shoot down an Israeli airliner in 2002. Forces from the US Joint Special Operations Command were involved in the raid.
    (AP, 9/14/09)(AP, 9/15/09)

2009        Sep 17, In Somalia Islamist insurgents drove two stolen UN cars loaded with explosives onto the main base of African Union peacekeepers and triggered massive blasts that a witness said killed 21 people, including 4 suicide bombers, 16 officials from the government and AMISOM, the AU peacekeeping force, and the Burundian deputy commander of the force. Islamist insurgents said the attack was in revenge for a US commando raid that killed an al-Qaida operative. An hour later missiles were fired from the AU base strike rebel-controlled areas of Mogadishu, killing seven people and wounded 16. It was later suspected that one of the suicide bombers was a Somali-American teenager, Omar Mohamud (18), of Seattle, Wa. Al-Shabab said the bombing was in retaliation for a U.S. raid days earlier that killed an al-Qaida operative in southern Somalia.
    (AP, 9/17/09)(AP, 9/18/09)(AP, 9/25/09)(AP, 10/6/11)

2009        Sep 20, Somali al-Shabab insurgents attacked a town near the border with Ethiopia, killing at least 10 people.
    (AP, 9/21/09)

2009        Sep 21, Coca Cola chose the hip-hop song “Wavin’ Flag” by Somali-born singer K’naan (31) as the anthem for the coming World Cup in South Africa. Born Keynaan Warsame in Somalia’s seaside capital, Mogadishu, he is now a citizen of Canada.
    (www.thecoca-colacompany.com/presscenter/nr_20090921_fifa_world_cup.html)

2009        Sep 22, In Somalia Islamic insurgents attacked an African Union peacekeeping base, sparking a battle that killed at least 8 people and wounded more than a dozen.
    (AP, 9/22/09)

2009        Sep 24, Swiss lawmakers decided not to join the European Union's anti-piracy efforts, amid concern that participating in the mission off Somalia could violate the Alpine nation's long-standing neutrality.
    (AP, 9/24/09)

2009        Sep 26, Turkey's navy commandos aboard a frigate captured seven pirates in the Gulf of Aden off Somalia's coast.
    (AP, 9/26/09)

2009        Sep 28, In Somalia the al-Shabab extremist Islamic group executed two Somali men in Mogadishu, accusing them of being spies for foreign organizations. Mortars and missiles pounded parts of Mogadishu, killing at least 13 civilians in two separate battles between Islamic militiamen and the African Union peacekeeping force.
    (AP, 9/28/09)

2009        Oct 1, In Somalia fighting between rival Islamist factions over control of Kismayo, a key port city, killed at least 12 people, in the first concrete sign of a major split in the Islamist alliance threatening the fragile UN-backed government.
    (AP, 10/1/09)

2009        Oct 2, Somali pirates hijacked the Alakrana, a Spanish tuna trawler, with a 36-member crew in the Indian Ocean 415 miles (670km) from the Seychelles islands. Two days later Spanish naval forces, taking part in the EU anti-piracy mission, captured two suspected pirates as they tried to travel ashore to Somalia from the Alakrana in a skiff. All of the crew were released safe and sound 47 days later after a ransom of four million dollars was paid.
    (AP, 10/2/09)(AP, 11/5/09)(AFP, 9/24/11)

2009        Oct 3, In Minnesota Somali Pres. Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed visited Minneapolis and St. Paul and urged expatriates to help find solutions to the violence in their homeland. The area is home to the largest Somali population in the US.
    (SSFC, 10/4/09, p.A10)

2009        Oct 7, Somali pirates in two skiffs fired on a French navy vessel after apparently mistaking it for a commercial boat. The French ship gave chase and captured five suspected pirates.
    (AP, 10/7/09)

2009        Oct 9, In Somalia an Islamist spokesman says gunmen have killed Ahmed Abdurahamn Odawa, aka "Taliban," a senior member of Somalia's insurgency in Mogadishu. Odawa's bodyguard and a nearby civilian were also killed. Three people were killed and six injured in a separate incident in the central Somali village of Bacda. 6 masked men used machetes to carry out amputations on three young men accused of robbery by a Somali Islamist court in Kismayo.
    (AP, 10/9/09)(AP, 10/10/09)

2009        Oct 10, The French military fired on pirates in the Indian Ocean to protect two tuna fishing vessels.
    (Reuters, 10/10/09)

2009        Oct 13, French soldiers in the Indian Ocean opened fire on pirates, warding off an attack on two French tuna fishing vessels off the Seychelles Islands.
    (AP, 10/13/09)

2009        Oct 15, Somali pirates seized the Kota Wajar, a Singapore-flagged container ship, in the Indian Ocean about 300 miles (480km) north of the Seychelles islands.
    (AP, 10/17/09)

2009        Oct 19, Somali pirates seized a Chinese cargo ship with 25 people onboard. On Dec 27 a band of Somali pirates split a $4 million ransom to release the bulk carrier De Xin Hai, a Chinese cargo ship, and 25 sailors after two months in captivity.
    (AP, 10/19/09)(AP, 12/28/09)

2009        Oct 21, In Somalia a powerful Islamist group linked to al-Qaida ordered two radio stations in southwestern Somalia to stop broadcasts indefinitely.
    (AP, 10/21/09)

2009        Oct 22, In Somalia mortar bombs killed at least 30 people in Mogadishu after rebels launched shells at the president's plane and African Union (AU) peacekeepers responded with heavy artillery fire.
    (Reuters, 10/22/09)
2009        Oct 22, Somali pirates with automatic weapons seized the India-managed, Panamanian-flagged MV Al Khaliq cargo ship off Africa's east coast and held its 26 crew members hostage. Pirates also unsuccessfully attempted to hijack the Italian-flagged MV Jolly Rosso off the Kenyan coast. The Al Khaliq cargo ship was freed on Feb 9, 2010, after 3.1 million US dollars were paid to the pirates.
    (AP, 10/22/09)(AFP, 2/9/10)

2009        Oct 23, Somali Islamist rebels threatened to attack the capitals of Burundi and Uganda, the two central African countries that have deployed peacekeeping troops to prop up Somali's transitional government.
    (AFP, 10/23/09)
2009        Oct 23, British couple Paul and Rachel Chandler were heading from the Seychelles to Tanzania in their yacht, the Lynn Rival, when the distress signal was sent. Reports followed that the couple were seized by pirates. The couple were taken to the Somali pirate lair of Harardhere and $7 million was later demanded for their release. The Chandlers were released on Nov 14, 2010, after a ransom of at least 750,000 dollars was paid.
    (AP, 10/27/09)(AFP, 10/29/09)(AP, 10/31/09)(AFP, 11/14/10)

2009        Oct 25, In Somalia Islamist militants in the port town of Merca shot to death two men accused by fighters of spying for the weak government.
    (AP, 10/25/09)

2009        Oct 28, Somalia’s PM Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke said that many countries are fishing illegally in Somali waters and have pushed formerly profitable Somali fishermen into the pirate trade. "We estimate that the value of the fish being taken from our waters is perhaps hundreds of millions of dollars." 5 people were killed in fighting after insurgents sent mortars toward the airport as the president was arriving.
    (AP, 10/28/09)(AP, 10/31/09)
2009        Oct 28, Somali pirates exchanged fire with a French fishing vessel. They sped away, but were soon stopped by a Spanish naval helicopter. 7 pirates were detained on the German naval vessel, FGS Karlsruhe.
    (AP, 10/28/09)

2009        Oct 29, Somali pirates continued their rampage around the Seychelles and seized a Thailand-flagged trawler, believed to be Russian-owned with a crew of 25. Somali pirates currently held a total of nine ships and around 200 crew. Pirates received a ransom and released the Thai Union 3 on March 7.
    (AP, 10/29/09)(AP, 3/7/10)

2009        Oct 31, Ahmed Gadaf, a self-described spokesman for Somali pirates, said that boats from other countries are plundering Somalia's fish-rich waters.
    (AP, 10/31/09)

2009        Nov 1, Somali pirates hijacked a Panamanian-flagged cargo ship with 18 crew off the east coast of Africa, the latest in an increasing number of attacks. The hijacking of the al-Mizan was not reported until Nov 10 when the bandits demanded a $3 million ransom. The ship was reported released on Nov 23. The pirates asked for and received $15,000 for "expenses." A self-proclaimed pirate named Abdi Nor said that pirates did not demand a ransom since the ship was bound for Mogadishu and carried goods owned by Somalis.
    (AP, 11/10/09)(AP, 11/23/09)
2009        Nov 1, Somaliland defense minister Saleban Warsame Guled said a roadside bomb in the country's semiautonomous northern region has killed two people, including Osman Yusuf, an infantry division commander.
    (AP, 11/1/09)

2009        Nov 5, Somali pirates captured a Greek-owned bulk carrier with 21 crew on board. The carrier, which is flagged in the Marshall Islands, had been heading to Zanzibar but was last seen 300 miles east of Mombasa, Kenya. The ship and crew were released on Dec 17.
    (AP, 11/5/09)(AP, 12/18/09)

2009        Nov 9, The EU Naval Force said pirates in two skiffs fired automatic weapons and rocket-propelled grenades at the Hong Kong-flagged BW Lion about 1,000 miles (1,600 km) east of the Somali coast. The ship avoided the attack and no casualties were reported. Some 14 Somali pirates seized a Yemeni fishing boat, the Al Hilal or Al Halil.
    (AP, 11/9/09)(AP, 11/11/09)

2009        Nov 10, Somali pirates seized a Greek cargo ship, the 150 m (492 ft) Marshall Islands-flagged MV Filitsa, after a 5-hour chase across the Indian Ocean. 3 Greek officers and 19 Filipino sailors were aboard the ship, which was carrying bulk urea from Kuwait to South Africa.
    (AP, 11/11/09)

2009        Nov 11, In Somalia gunmen in Bossaso killed High Court Judge Mohamed Abdi Aware, a top judge who had sentenced many pirates and human traffickers to long jail terms. 3 men were arrested the next day over the killing. Puntland legislator Ibrahim Ilmi Warsame was also shot dead as he sat in a restaurant with friends.
    (AP, 11/12/09)

2009        Nov 13, The French government said its navy has seized 3 boats of Somalia’s coast and detained 12 suspected pirates, while seizing an arsenal including assault rifles and rocket launchers.
    (SFC, 11/14/09, p.A2)

2009        Nov 16, It was reported that thousands of people, including children, are being secretly recruited and trained inside Kenya to battle Islamic insurgents in neighboring Somalia. Recruiters, about 2 months ago, started openly operating in Kenyan towns and in nearby huts and tents of the refugee camps.
    (AP, 11/16/09)
2009        Nov 16, A North Korean-crewed, Kiribati-flag, UK-British Virgin Islands owned, single-hulled chemical tanker named the MV Theresa VIII was hijacked with 28 crew members in the south Somali Basin, 180 nautical miles North West of the Seychelles. The ship was released on March 16, 2010, following a ransom payment.
    (AP, 3/16/10)(http://tinyurl.com/yeaum3r)

2009        Nov 17, Somali pirates freed 36 crew members from the Spanish trawler Alakrana after holding them since Oct 2. A self-proclaimed pirate said the hostage-takers were paid $3.3 million in ransom, while Spain's PM Zapatero said the country did what it had to do.
    (AP, 11/17/09)

2009        Nov 18, Somali pirates attacked the Maersk Alabama for the second time in seven months, though private guards on board the US-flagged ship repelled the attack with gunfire and a high-decibel noise device.
    (AP, 11/18/09)

2009        Nov 20, Somali pirates hijacked a Panamanian cargo ship in the Gulf of Aden between the Arabian peninsula and the Horn of Africa.
    (AP, 11/21/09)

2009        Nov 29, Somali pirates seized the Greece-flagged Maran Centaurus, a tanker carrying more about $150 million of crude oil from Saudi Arabia to the US, in the waters off East Africa. The tanker was released on Jan 18 following a $5.5 million ransom. A shootout between rival Somali pirate gangs over their biggest ransom ever threatened to turn the supertanker and the 28 hostages aboard into a massive fireball until bandits begged the anti-piracy force for help. Ransom after 50 days was said to be between $5.5 and $7 million.
    (AP, 11/30/09)(AP, 12/4/09)(AP, 1/18/10)(Econ, 2/5/11, p.70)
2009        Nov 29, Pirates attacked a Spanish fishing vessel in the Indian Ocean, firing small arms and a rocket-propelled grenade, but private security guards aboard the ship shot back and repelled them.
    (AP, 11/29/09)

2009        Dec 1, Pirates off Oman attacked the oil tanker, Sikinos. Using flares and hoses, the crew of the Greek oil tanker fought off the pirate attack in the Arabian Sea.
    (AP, 12/1/09)

2009        Dec 2, Somali pirates on speedboats tried to board the Antigua and Barbuda-flagged BBC Togo, but were repelled after firing on the vessel. 13 pirates then fled to a larger fishing boat 150 nautical miles (280km) south of Salalah where a Dutch frigate captured them.
    (AP, 12/3/09)

2009        Dec 3, In Somalia a male suicide bomber dressed as a woman attacked a university graduation ceremony in a small part of Mogadishu still under government control, killing 24 people, including 3 Cabinet ministers, 3 journalists and a number of graduating doctors. The president of Benadir University said 43 students were taking part in the graduation ceremony at the Shamo Hotel. The bomber was later reported to be a Danish citizen of Somali descent.
    (AP, 12/3/09)(AP, 12/4/09)(AP, 12/10/09)(Econ, 12/12/09, p.54)

2009        Dec 7, In Somalia hundreds of students marched in Mogadishu's streets in the first known protest against Islamic militants, as Somalia's government warned that militants are planning suicide attacks against key installations in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 12/7/09)

2009        Dec 8, Somali pirates hijacked the MV Shahbaig, a Pakistan-flagged fishing vessel with 28 crew members aboard.
    (AP, 12/9/09)

2009        Dec 14, In Somalia a community leader said an explosion of an old land mine has killed six children from the same family near the border with Ethiopia.
    (AP, 12/14/09)

2009        Dec 17, Oxfam said some areas of East Africa had received less than 5% of the normal November rains and that many people are malnourished in Uganda, Tanzania, Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia. It was the sixth failed rainy season for war-ravaged Somalia and the worst drought there for 20 years. The European Commission announced that it would immediately release an extra $75 million to fund emergency relief for drought-stricken areas of East Africa. It estimated that 16 million people will need aid in the coming months.
    (AP, 12/17/09)

2009        Dec 18, The UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) said an estimated 74,000 Africans, mainly from Ethiopia and Somalia, have fled to Yemen as refugees or economic migrants. That's a 50 percent higher than in 2008.
    (AP, 12/18/09)

2009        Dec 20, In Somalia Islamic militants fired mortars into Mogadishu's police compound as the force was celebrating its 66th anniversary, sparking a battle that killed at least 12 civilians and a police officer.
    (AP, 12/20/09)

2009        Dec 21, In Somalia a bomb blast and a separate mortar attack on a radio station in Mogadishu killed eight people.
    (AP, 12/21/09)

2009        Dec 24, Witnesses in Somalia said fighting spurred by a land dispute in Galkayo has killed eight people.
    (AP, 12/24/09)

2009        Dec 28, Somali pirates seized the UK-flagged chemical tanker St James Park, the first merchant vessel to be hijacked there in nearly six months. 3 hours later the Navios Apollon, a Panamanian-flagged carrier with 19 crew members, was seized by pirates 370km east of the Seychelles, over 1,300km from Somalia. A ransom for the Navios Apollon was dropped to the ship on Feb 27, 2010.
    (AP, 12/29/09)(Econ, 1/9/10, p.47)(AP, 2/27/10)

2009        Dec 30, Somali pirates attacked the 105,000-ton MV Album, a Kuwaiti-flagged oil tanker, but failed to seize it.
    (AP, 12/30/09)

2009        Peter T. Leeson authored “The Invisible Hook: The Hidden Economics of Pirates.”
    (SSFC, 6/28/09, p.F1)

2009        Hijackings of ships this year by Somali pirates rose to 42 from 32 in 2008. The average ransom also rose from $1 million to $2 million.
    (Econ, 1/9/10, p.47)
2009        The US helped fund a training camp for nearly 1,000 Somali soldiers in neighboring Djibouti. The French-trained troops were supposed to earn $100 per month, but about half of them deserted because they were not paid. Some returned to ordinary life and others joined the al-Shabab rebels.
    (SFC, 4/28/10, p.A3)

2010        Jan 1, Somali pirates hijacked a British-flagged cargo ship, the Asian Glory, with 25 crew including eight Bulgarians, 620 miles (1,000 km) east of Somalia. It was transporting cars from Singapore to Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. The Singaporean-flagged Pramoni, a chemical tanker with a crew of 24, was seized by pirates in the heavily defended Gulf of Aden. The ship was carrying fertilizer from the US to India. The Pramoni was released on Feb 26 after a ransom was delivered by parachute.
    (AFP, 1/2/10)(AP, 1/2/10)(AP, 2/26/10)
2010        Jan 1, In Denmark Muhudiin Mohamed Geele (29), a Somali man armed with an axe and suspected of links with al Qaeda, broke into the home of Kurt Westergaard (74), a Danish cartoonist, whose drawings of the Prophet Mohammad caused global Muslim outrage. The attacker, who was shot and wounded by police, was charged the next day with two counts of attempted murder. On Feb 3, 2011, Geele was convicted of terrorism. The next day he was sentenced to 9 years in prison to be followed by permanent expulsion.
    (Reuters, 1/2/10)(AP, 2/3/11)(Reuters, 2/4/11)

2010        Jan 2, In Somalia Al-Shabab attacked Dusamareb, 500km north of the capital Mogadishu, and captured it from Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a, a traditional Sufi group, for a short while before being forced out again. At least 50 people died in the fighting.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ycmkkye)(SFC, 1/5/10, p.A2)

2010        Jan 5, The UN food agency said it is stopping aid distribution to about 1 million people in southern Somalia because of attacks against staff and demands by armed groups that aid organizations remove women from their teams.
    (AP, 1/5/10)

2010        Jan 10, In Somalia clashes began between rival Islamic militias battling for control of in Belet Weyne, a strategic western town. At least 14 people were killed as the clashes continued into the next day.
    (AP, 1/11/10)

2010        Jan 13, In Somalia 7 children were among ten people killed in shelling by Somali government forces in Mogadishu as troops backed by African Union peacekeepers fired mortars into districts held by Islamist insurgents.
    (AFP, 1/13/10)

2010        Jan 25, In Somalia a mortar shell smashed into an African Union peacekeeping mission base in Mogadishu, killing several people, including a soldier.
    (AFP, 1/26/10)

2010        Jan 27, Ahmed Mohamed Mohamoud (8), a Somali boy, died just days after undergoing reconstructive surgery in Kenya. He had been horribly disfigured months ago by a stray bullet in Mogadishu. Ahmed personified the civilian toll in the brutal conflict in Somalia and drew offers of aid from around the world.
    (AP, 1/28/10)

2010        Jan 29, Somali insurgents sparked the heaviest day of fighting in the capital in months, launching simultaneous attacks on government forces and peacekeepers that killed at least 15 people.
    (AP, 1/29/10)

2010        Jan 31, In Somalia heavy mortar fire between African Union peacekeepers and Islamist insurgents killed at least 12 civilians and left scores wounded in Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 2/1/10)
2010        Jan 31, In Ethiopia UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon attended the AU's annual summit in Addis Ababa and again failed to pledge peacekeepers for Somalia. Ban Ki-Moon criticized power-grabs in Africa in a speech to the continent's leaders as Libya's Moamer Kadhafi reluctantly handed over the presidency of the African Union to Malawian President Bingu wa Mutharika. The AU agreed to consider a Senegalese proposal to resettle Haiti's earthquake homeless and possibly create a state for them in Africa.
    (Reuters, 1/31/10)(AFP, 1/31/10)(Reuters, 1/31/10)

2010        Feb 2, Somali pirates hijacked a North Korean cargo ship with an unknown number of crew on board. The MV Rim, owned by White Sea Shipping of Libya, was seized in the Gulf of Aden, outside the internationally recommended transit corridor patrolled by the anti-piracy naval coalition. The crew of one Romanian and 9 Syrians fought their way free on June 2 with the help of Ahmed, a pirate cook, who had smuggled food to the crew and then guns.
    (AP, 2/3/10)(SFC, 6/19/10, p.A3)

2010        Feb 5, Danish special forces disrupted the takeover by Somali pirates of the cargo ship Ariella in the Gulf of Aden. A frogmen unit scaled the sides of the ship using grappling hooks, secured the bridge, released the crew and then launched an hours-long search for a pirate the crew had seen.
    (AP, 2/5/10)

2010        Feb 10, In Somalia at least 11 civilians were killed when African Union forces in Mogadishu responded to an insurgent mortar attack on their base. At least four security personnel and a civilian were killed when two groups of security officers fought over where to collect their salaries.
    (AFP, 2/10/10)(AP, 2/10/10)

2010        Feb 12, In Somalia at least eight people, including a six-year-old, were killed as mortars pounded Mogadishu during an attack on government soldiers by al-Shabab fighters. Hundreds of residents fled Mogadishu.
    (AP, 2/12/10)

2010        Feb 26, Somali pirates hijacked the Sakoba, a Kenyan-flagged fishing vessel. It was reported freed on July 20, 2010.
    (AP, 7/20/10)

2010        Mar 1, A World Food Program spokesman militants in Somalia are preventing food from reaching more than 366,000 people who need it, following a statement by Islamists that aid agencies were helping "apostates" in the war-ravaged Horn of Africa nation.
    (AP, 3/1/10)
2010        Mar 1, Somali pirates hijacked a Saudi tanker in the Gulf of Aden. The Al Nisr Al Saudi usually carried fuel oil but was empty when it was taken with 14 crew onboard. NATO said one of its destroyers sank a pirate mothership off the Somali coast. Pirate crew members were transferred to a smaller boat and allowed to return to the mainland.
    (AP, 3/3/10)(SFC, 3/2/10, p.A2)(SFC, 3/4/10, p.A2)

2010        Mar 3, Somali pirates seized the Sakoba, a Kenyan-flagged fishing vessel.
    (AP, 3/9/10)

2010        Mar 4, Somali pirates hit a Spanish fishing boat off the coast of Kenya with a rocket-propelled grenade as private security on board returned fire and fended off the would-be hijackers.
    (AP, 3/4/10)

2010        Mar 5, Swarms of Somali pirates moved into the waters off East Africa, triggering four shootouts with French and Spanish fishing vessels including a skirmish with French military personnel that sunk a pirate skiff. Somali pirates near Madagascar hijacked the Norwegian-owned ship with 21 crew members. The UBT Ocean chemical tanker was carrying fuel oil.
    (AP, 3/5/10)(AP, 3/6/10)

2010        Mar 9, In Somalia fighting between Islamist insurgents and Somali government forces killed five people in Mogadishu. 4 masked gunmen also shot dead an Islamist commander in the capital's Bakara market.
    (AP, 3/9/10)

2010        Mar 10, A UN Security Council report said up to half the food aid in Somalia is being diverted to corrupt contractors, radical Islamic militants and local UN workers.
    (SFC, 3/11/10, p.A2)

2010        Mar 11, In Somalia heavy fighting between insurgents and pro-government troops has killed at least 43 people over two days, as African Union peacekeepers used tanks to help the beleaguered government beat back an insurgent attack.
    (AP, 3/11/10)

2010        Mar 12, Frightened Somalis stacked household goods on carts pulled by donkeys and fled the heaviest fighting the capital has seen in almost a year, after hundreds of heavily armed insurgents moved into an area this week previously controlled by government soldiers. Over 50 people had died in fighting over the last 3 days.
    (AP, 3/12/10)(SFC, 3/13/10, p.A2)

2010        Mar 13, In Somalia a fight over land rights between two rival clans in northern Amara village killed at least 15 people.
    (AP, 3/14/10)

2010        Mar 15, Somalia's transitional government (TFG) and a faction of the country's moderate Ahlu Sunna Sufi sect signed a deal in Addis Ababa to jointly fight extremist elements in Somalia.
    (AFP, 3/15/10)

2010        Mar 19, In Somalia at least three masked men armed with pistols shot Sheikh Daud Ali Hasan, a senior commander of the insurgent group al-Shabab, several times in the head and chest as he was coming out of a mosque in Kismayo.
    (AP, 3/20/10)

2010        Mar 23, Somali pirates hijacked the Malta-flagged MV Frigia, a Turkish ship with 21 crew on board. A 2nd hijacking, of the refrigerated MV Talca, took place off the coast of Oman. Private security guards shot and killed a Somali pirate during an attack on a merchant ship off the coast of East Africa in what is believed to be the first such killing by armed contractors. The guards were onboard the MV Almezaan when a pirate group approached it twice. During the 2nd approach on the Panamanian-flagged cargo ship, which is United Arab Emirates owned, there was an exchange of fire between the guards and the pirates. The Spanish warship Navarra intercepted two skiffs and a larger vessel believed to be a pirate mothership. Spanish forces arrested the six remaining pirates, took custody of the pirate's body and sunk the larger boat. The 6 pirates were soon released after the captain of the MV Almezaan said he could not identify the men detained by the Spanish navy as the group of pirates who attacked him. The Talca was freed on May 11 along with its 25 crew members 3 days after a ransom was paid. The Frigia was freed on July 29, 2010.
    (AP, 3/23/10)(AP, 3/24/10)(SFC, 3/24/10, p.A2)(AP, 3/25/10)(AP, 5/11/10)(AP, 7/29/10)

2010        Mar 27, In Somalia 3 people were killed and four injured in clashes between government soldiers and armed protesters opposing the demolition of their houses near Mogadishu's main airport.
    (AP, 3/27/10)

2010        Mar 29, In Somalia hundreds of women and children marched through the rubble-strewn streets of Mogadishu to protest against al-Qaida-linked militants.
    (AP, 3/29/10)
2010        Mar 29, Somali pirates hijacked a cargo vessel, the Panama-flagged Iceberg I, off the coast of Yemen. The 24-member crew came from Yemen, India, Ghana, Sudan, Pakistan and the Philippines. On Dec 23, 2012, Puntland said its forces had freed the ship and 22 hostages.
    (AP, 3/29/10)(SFC, 12/24/12, p.A2)

2010        Mar 30, An Indian naval spokesman said Somali pirates may be holding several dhows carrying an estimated 100 Indian sailors they have seized over the past five days.
    (AP, 3/30/10)

2010        Mar 31, Taiwan officials lost contact with the 79-ton Jih-chun Tsai 68 fishing trawler and the government feared the boat may have been hijacked by pirates off the Somali coast. On May 10, 2011, Wu Lai-yu, captain of the Jih-Chun Tsai 68, was killed by ammunition fired from a US ship. He was buried at sea from his vessel, which was "unseaworthy after the exchange of fire and was sunk.
    (AP, 4/1/10)(AFP, 7/25/11)

2010        Apr 1, Suspected Somali pirates fired on a US Navy warship off East Africa in what appeared to be a ransom-seeking attack on an American guided missile frigate. The USS Nicholas returned fire on the pirate skiff, sinking it and confiscating a nearby mothership. The Navy took five pirates into custody.
    (AP, 4/1/10)

2010        Apr 3, In Somalia at least 13 people were killed in overnight fighting in Mogadishu. Hizbul Islam's Moalim Hashi Mohamed Farah ordered radio stations to stop broadcasting music and said he has invited foreign fighters to the Horn of Africa nation.
    (AP, 4/3/10)(AP, 4/4/10)

2010        Apr 4, Somali pirates in the Indian Ocean seized the Taipan, a Germany-flagged freighter. The Dutch navy captured 10 Somalis hours after the seizure. In 2012 the Somalis were convicted on piracy charges and sentenced to prison terms of 2-7 years.
    (SFC, 10/20/12, p.A2)
2010        Apr 4, The South Korean Samho Dream oil supertanker was bound for the US with 24 crew members when it was hijacked off the coast of Somalia by Somali pirates. On Nov 6 South a Korean news agency said the ship was freed following a ransom payment of $9.5 million.
    (AFP, 4/4/10)(AP, 4/5/10)(AP, 11/6/10)(Econ, 2/5/11, p.70)

2010        Apr 6, Somali pirates aboard the Faize Osamani tried to attack the MV Rising Sun. A hostage onboard the hijacked Indian cargo dhow drowned after the ship was used to attack another vessel and navies intervened. A warship from Oman arrived and 9 hostages jumped overboard to try to swim away from the pirates. One drowned and the other 8 were rescued. The US destroyer USS McFaul arrived on the scene after the Omani forces and helped persuade the ten pirates to surrender, which they did after throwing their weapons overboard.
    (AP, 4/7/10)
2010        Apr 6, An African Union conference on maritime security opened in Ethiopia. Somali Deputy PM Abdulrahman Adan Ibrahim Ibbi called for outside help to clear toxic waste dumped illegally on his country's vast coastline, arguing that the fight against dumping goes hand in hand with the fight against piracy.
    (AFP, 4/8/10)

2010        Apr 7, Somali pirates off the coast of Kenya hijacked the MV Yasin C, a Turkish vessel with 25 crew onboard, the day after a hostage drowned during a separate encounter between naval forces and a pirated vessel. The crew locked themselves in the engine room and realized that the pirates had left the ship on April 9.
    (AP, 4/7/10)(AP, 4/10/10)

2010        Apr 9, In Somalia witnesses said Islamists were seizing radio transmitters that let the local population hear news programs from the British Broadcasting Corporation. Al-Shabab said the BBC broadcasts anti-Islamic propaganda.
    (AP, 4/9/10)

2010        Apr 10, A US warship captured six suspected pirates after a battle off the Horn of Africa, the Navy's third direct encounter with seafaring bandits in less than two weeks. On Aug 17 a federal judge in Richmond, Va., threw out piracy charges against the 6 Somali men, saying the government had not shown that the men violated US piracy law. On Nov 29 Jama Idle Ibrahim, a Somali citizen, was sentenced to 30 years in prison for his role in the attack.
    (AP, 4/10/10)(SFC, 8/18/10, p.A4)(SFC, 11/30/10, p.A9)

2010        Apr 11, Somali pirates hijacked the St. Vincent and Grenadines-flagged Rak Afrikana cargo ship west of the island nation of the Seychelles. The ship and 25 crew members were released on March 9, 2011.
    (AP, 4/11/10)(AP, 3/10/11)

2010        Apr 13, Somali radio stations stopped playing music after hardline militants called it un-Islamic and ordered stations to take songs off the air. Somalis in Mogadishu could still listen to music on two stations: one that the government controls and another funded by the UN.
    (AP, 4/13/10)

2010        Apr 14, Pres. Obama signed an executive order freezing the assets of Somali militias. The order could make it illegal for US ship owners to pay ransoms to Somali pirates.
    (SFC, 4/15/10, p.A2)

2010        Apr 18, In Somalia at least 10 people died, including five government soldiers, when a land mine exploded near a police station in south Mogadishu overnight.
    (AP, 4/18/10)
2010        Apr 18, Somali pirates hijacked three Thai fishing vessels, the MV Prantalay 11, 12, and 14, with 77 crew aboard more than 1,200 miles (1,930 km) off the Somali coast, the farthest-off-shore attack to date.
    (AP, 4/20/10)
2010        Apr 18, Turkey's navy commandos aboard the TCG Gelibolu frigate captured 13 Somali-based pirates in the Indian Ocean. They destroyed two skiffs and confiscated other pirate material.
    (AP, 4/18/10)

2010        Apr 20, Two Somali radio stations said the government has ordered them to close for obeying a week-old order by an Islamic militant group to stop playing music. Officials at Somaliweyn and Tusmo radio stations said they won't obey the government order to resume playing music and shut down. The government order was rescinded minutes after it was issued.
    (AP, 4/20/10)(SFC, 4/21/10, p.A2)

2010        Apr 21, In Somalia residents said 5 headless bodies have been found in a rebel-held area of Mogadishu. They suspected the Islamist militant group al-Shabab killed the men because they had helped construct the parliament building. The men had been missing for the last five days. Residents said clashes in central Somalia killed 12 people, mostly combatants.
    (AP, 4/21/10)
2010        Apr 21, Four suspected Somali pirates carrying AK-47s and a rocket-propelled grenade seized the Panamanian-flagged, Liberian-owned Voc Daisy, a bulk carrier with 21 crew on board, the fourth ship pirates have seized in less than a week.
    (AP, 4/21/10)

2010        Apr 27, In Somalia a truck full of explosives pulled up to a new AU base in Mogadishu. Two soldiers opened fire on the truck and were wounded along with 2 civilians when the explosion went off. The suicide attacker was the only one to die in the attack. Later at least 14 civilians were killed during a prolonged battle between government soldiers and Islamic insurgents.
    (AP, 4/27/10)(SFC, 4/28/10, p.A2)

2010        May 1, In Somalia two bombs exploded inside a small mosque in the Bakara market district of Mogadishu killing at least 32 people.
    (AP, 5/1/10)(AFP, 5/2/10)

2010        May 2, In Somalia dozens of fighters from one of Somalia's most powerful rebel groups moved into Haradhere, a northern town where pirates operate, sending the pirates fleeing in a development that could upend the piracy trade.
    (AP, 5/2/10)(SFC, 5/3/10, p.A2)

2010        May 5, Somali pirates hijacked the China-bound oil tanker MV Moscow University 350 miles off the coast of Yemen with 23 Russian crew and crude oil worth $52 million on board.
    (Reuters, 5/5/10)

2010        May 6, Russian forces freed a hijacked Russian oil tanker and rescued its crew in a helicopter-backed operation that killed a Somali pirate. Investigators said the 10 captured pirates, who seized the China-bound MV Moscow University in the Gulf of Aden, will be brought to Moscow for prosecution.
    (Reuters, 5/6/10)
2010        May 6, A Taiwanese fishing boat, the Tai Yuan 227, was hijacked by pirates off the Somali coast who demanded a ransom for the crew.
    (AP, 5/8/10)

2010        May 7, Russia’s Defense Ministry said the pirates seized by a Russian warship off the coast of Somalia have been released because of "imperfections" in international law, a claim that sparked skepticism, and even suspicion the pirates might have been killed.
    (AP, 5/7/10)

2010        May 8, Somali pirates off East Africa, armed with rocket-propelled grenades and automatic guns, hijacked the Marida Marguerite, a chemical tanker, with 22 crew members on board. The ship was reported released on Dec 28.
    (AP, 5/8/10)(AP, 12/28/10)

2010        May 14, In central Somalia 3 gunmen killed a World Food Program contracted driver in what is believed to be clan-related violence.
    (AP, 5/15/10)

2010        May 16, In Somalia Islamist rebels shelled the newly rebuilt parliament in Mogadishu, sparking clashes with government forces and African Union peacekeepers that left 11 civilians dead.
    (AFP, 5/16/10)

2010        May 17, Somalia’s Pres. Sheik Sharif Sheik Ahmed dissolved the Cabinet to overcome divisions that have paralyzed his administration in the face of an al-Qaida linked Islamist insurgency. The UN-backed government currently only controls a few city blocks in the capital of Mogadishu and has failed to deliver either security or services to its people.
    (AP, 5/18/10)

2010        May 18, In northern Somalia security forces in the semiautonomous region of Puntland arrested 12 pirates, including a prominent gang member  whose assets were frozen by the US Treasury Department last month. Abshir Abdillahi, who is also known as Abshir Boyah, was captured as he tried to flee the town of Garowe.
    (AP, 5/20/10)
2010        May 18, A Yemeni security court convicted six Somalis for piracy and sentenced them to death for seizing an oil tanker. Six other convicted pirates received 10 year prison sentences and the pirates must together pay $2 million compensation to an Aden refinery company, which owned a tanker that was seized in April, 2009.
    (AP, 5/18/10)

2010        May 19, The Bahrain-based USS McFaul discovered the Panamanian-flagged M/V Iceberg I with as many as 50 pirates and more than 20 crew members on board. It says the location of the hijacked ship was previously unknown. The McFaul followed the ship for more than a day and a half before the pirates turned back toward the Somali coast.
    (AP, 5/24/10)

2010        May 22, Dozens of nations, meeting in Istanbul at a UN-sponsored conference for Somalia, pledged to help Somalia build a strong police and military, achieve peace and stability and eradicate piracy that has plagued international maritime trade.
    (AP, 5/23/10)

2010        May 23, In Somalia Islamist militants attacked the presidential compound and other government positions in Mogadishu. At least 15 people were killed and 30 others wounded.
    (AP, 5/23/10)

2010        May 25, In Germany a private security firm's plan to deploy more than 100 ex-soldiers to Somalia to work for a warlord triggered intense media coverage and was harshly criticized by lawmakers, some of them calling it a possible violation of UN sanctions against the war-ridden East African country. Thomas Kaeltegaertner, the head of Asgaard German Security Group, said the company would be in charge of providing security and protection for persons, buildings and convoys in Somalia as well as educating Somali security personnel.
    (AP, 5/25/10)

2010        May 31, At least nine people died and 40 were missing and feared dead after a boat sank off the coast of northern Mozambique. All of those aboard the ship were Somali.
    (AP, 6/9/10)

2010        Jun 2, The crew of a Libyan-owned cargo ship pounced on their sleeping Somali captors, disarmed the pirates and killed five of them, regaining control of their vessel, the MV Rim, that had been hijacked on Feb 2.
    (AP, 6/2/10)(SFC, 6/19/10, p.A3)
2010        Jun 2, Somali pirates hijacked a cargo ship, the QSM Dubai in the Gulf of Aden. The ship flying a Panamanian flag, sailed from Brazil and included a crew of 24. The next day an official in the semiautonomous Somali region of Puntland said security forces in his northern region stormed the QSM Dubai and freed it after pirates refused pleas to surrender and instead killed the Pakistani captain of the ship.
    (AP, 6/2/10)(AP, 6/3/10)

2010        Jun 3, In Somalia at least 17 civilians were killed during heavy shelling and fierce gunbattles between government forces and Islamist insurgents in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 6/3/10)

2010        Jun 4, A Dutch court ordered 10 suspected Somali pirates to be extradited to Germany, where Hamburg prosecutors want to charge them with hijacking a German container ship.
    (AP, 6/4/10)

2010        Jun 17, Human Rights Watch (HRW) released a report released saying Somalis seeking safety must first get past abusive Kenyan police trying to take what little they have left. Kenya's police rejected the report.
    (Reuters, 6/17/10)
2010        Jun 17, A Dutch court sentenced five Somali pirates, the first to stand trial in Europe, to five years in prison for attacking a Dutch Antilles-flagged ship in 2009.
    (AP, 6/17/10)

2010        Jun 18, In Somalia witnesses said five government soldiers, four fighters from an al-Qaida-linked group and three civilians died during the one-hour battle in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 6/18/10)

2010        Jun 23, British-based risk consultancy Maplecroft said African nations led by Mauritania, Somalia and Sudan have the most precarious water supplies in the world.
    (Reuters, 6/23/10)

2010        Jun 28, Somali pirates hijacked the Singaporean-flagged Golden Blessing carrying a poisonous chemical used in antifreeze off the northern tip of Somalia and took the 19 Chinese sailors onboard hostage. A ransom was paid and the hostages were freed on Nov 6.
    (AP, 6/28/10)(http://allafrica.com/stories/201011081306.html)

2010        Jul 1, Somali and African Union troops launched a battle against an Al-Qaida-backed group in Mogadishu. A total of 17 people were killed including 16 killed and 45 wounded in the Karan neighborhood.
    (WSJ, 7/2/10, p.A2, A8)

2010        Jul 11, In Uganda twin bombings in Kampala hit crowds watching the World Cup final killing 76 people. One of the targets was an Ethiopian restaurant, a nation despised by Somali al-Shabab militants. On July 30 three were charged with terrorism and murder. By Aug 17 had officials charged 32 people in connection with the bombings. One suspect, Haruna Luyima, was supposed to set off a bomb at the dance club but changed his mind at the last minute. Luyima told a news conference in August that he did so because he didn't want to kill innocent people. Police later found his discarded mobile phone, a huge lead that helped unravel the plot.
    (AP, 7/12/10)(AP, 7/30/10)(SFC, 8/18/10, p.A2)(AP, 10/8/10)

2010        Jul 19, In Somalia at least 12 people, including two government soldiers, were killed in two days of battle between Islamist militants and government forces backed by African Union peacekeepers. Government forces launched a counterattack to recapture a government office they lost to al-Shabab a day earlier.
    (AP, 7/19/10)

2010        Jul 20, A Somali human rights group said at least 53 civilians were killed over the past week in clashes between government forces and Islamic militants.
    (SFC, 7/21/10, p.A2)

2010        Jul 21, In Somalia 2 Ugandan soldiers were killed during clashes in Mogadishu's Bondhere district. Al-Shabab introduced 3 former members of the presidential guard, who said they had quit working for the government because it was protected by AU forces who were killing Somali civilians with indiscriminate shelling.
    (AP, 7/23/10)(SFC, 7/23/10, p.A4)
2010        Jul 21, It was reported that security forces from Somalia's semiautonomous northern region of Puntland were rounding up hundreds of southerners. Officials said they posed a security threat. Activist Khadija Dahir said about 500 people were deported. She called the move unacceptable and clear violation against innocent refugees.
    (AP, 7/21/10)

2010        Jul 23, The African Union said its forces battling Al-Qaeda-linked rebels in Mogadishu will be boosted by a battalion from Guinea and could further swell to reach 10,000 troops.
    (AFP, 7/23/10)

2010        Jul 26, In Somalia African Union forces propping up government troops launched an offensive against Islamist rebels in Mogadishu, killing at least 11 people, mainly fighters.
    (AFP, 7/26/10)
2010        Jul 26, The island nation of Seychelles said it has prosecuted and convicted Somali pirates for the first time. A Seychelles court sentenced 11 Somali pirates to 10 years in prison each for their attempt to hijack the Seychelles coast guard patrol boat Topaz last December.
    (AP, 7/26/10)

2010        Jul 27, In Somalia clashes in Mogadishu, pitting Islamist insurgents against government troops backed by African Union forces, killed at least 17 civilians.
    (AFP, 7/28/10)
2010        Jul 27, In Uganda African Union leaders wrapping up a three-day summit in Kampala agreed to send thousands of extra troops to reinforce its military contingent battling Al Qaeda-linked insurgents in Somalia.
    (AFP, 7/27/10)

2010        Aug 2, In southern Somalia Islamist rebels ordered business people to donate cash and jewelry for a holy war against African Union peacekeeping troops and the Somali government.
    (Reuters, 8/3/10)
2010        Aug 2, Somali pirates hijacked the MV Suez, a Panamanian-flagged cargo ship with 23 crew onboard, during an early morning raid.
    (AP, 8/2/10)

2010        Aug 5, Somali pirates seized the Syria Star, a freighter with 24 Syrian and Egyptian crew members in the lawless waters of the Gulf of Aden, in the second pirate capture this week. Somali pirates left the cargo ship a day after they hijacked it.
    (AFP, 8/6/10)(AP, 8/7/10)

2010        Aug 9, A Somali militant group with links to al-Qaida announced it had banned three Christian aid agencies from its territory, and one aid group said militants had occupied their offices in southern Somalia.
    (AP, 8/9/10)

2010        Aug 24, In Somalia a suicide bomber and gunmen wearing military uniforms attacked a hotel near the presidential palace in Mogadishu, sparking a one-hour gun battle with security forces. At least 32 people were killed, including six Somali parliamentarians. Al-Shabab claimed responsibility.
    (AP, 8/24/10)(AP, 10/6/11)

2010        Aug 25, In Somalia fighting in Mogadishu flared for a third straight day, killing eight people and pushing the week's death toll past 80 as insurgents tried to force government troops back toward the presidential palace.
    (AP, 8/25/10)

2010        Aug 30, In Somalia 4 Ugandan peacekeepers were killed in Mogadishu when al Shabaab Islamist rebels fired mortars at the presidential palace. Clashes pitting Islamist radicals against government troops backed by African Union forces killed at least six civilians and wounded 16.
    (Reuters, 8/30/10)(AFP, 8/30/10)

2010        Sep 3, An AU official said African Union peacekeepers have established nine new bases in Somalia's capital in recent months and will help develop Somali government forces to defeat al-Qaida-linked Islamist insurgents.
    (AP, 9/3/10)

2010        Sep 6, A Kenyan court convicted and sentenced seven Somali pirates to five years in jail. A court in the Kenyan port town of Mombasa found the Somalis guilty of attacking a German naval supply ship in the Gulf of Aden on March 29 last year.
    (AP, 9/7/10)

2010        Sep 7, UN officials said fighting in Mogadishu has killed over 230 people in the past 2 weeks after al-Shabab threatened a massive war against the government.
    (SFC, 9/8/10, p.A2)

2010        Sep 8, Somali pirates hijacked the Malta flagged cargo ship MV Olib G and its crew of 15 Georgian and 3 Turkish sailors. The ship was just carrying ballast.
    (AP, 9/8/10)
2010        Sep 8, Somali pirates hijacked the German-owned Magellan Star, flagged under Antigua and Barbuda. The next day US Marine commandos stormed the cargo vessel off the Somalia coast, and reclaimed control of the ship, taking nine prisoners without firing a shot.
    (AP, 9/9/10)

2010        Sep 9, In Somalia at least 2 African Union troops, 3 civilians and 5 attackers were killed in a suicide raid on Mogadishu airport. Al-Shabab claimed responsibility and said the attack was aimed at a high-level meeting of UN, African Union and Somali officials at the airport.
    (AFP, 9/9/10)(AP, 10/6/11)

2010        Sep 16, In Somalia mortar rounds fired by suspected Islamist insurgents hit the government complex in Mogadishu killing 3 soldiers triggering a counterattack that killed a dozen more people.
    (SFC, 9/17/10, p.A2)

2010        Sep 21, Somali PM Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke resigned as fighting rattled across Mogadishu. His resignation ended a dispute with Pres. Ahmed over a draft constitution.
    (SFC, 9/22/10, p.A2)

2010        Sep 23, In Somalia heavy fighting between Islamist militants and pro-government troops raged in several parts of Mogadishu, killing at least 22 people and wounding nearly 78.
    (AP, 9/23/10)(SFC, 9/24/10, p.A4)

2010        Sep 25, The MV Lugela, a cargo ship carrying steel bars and wires, sent a distress call to its Greek operator when pirates attacked it about 900 nautical miles east of the Somali pirate den of Eyl.
    (AP, 9/25/10)

2010        Sep 27, A boat with 85 African migrants capsized off Yemen drowning at least 13 people. It was being towed by the US Navy back to Somalia a day after being discovered.
    (SFC, 9/28/10, p.A2)(http://tinyurl.com/2wxgqmv)
2010        Sep 27, Representatives of 45 nations and international bodies met in Madrid to consider plans to strengthen an African Union peacekeeping force in war-torn Somalia.
    (AFP, 9/27/10)

2010        Sep 28, Somali pirates hijacked the Asphalt Venture, a cargo ship with 15 Indian crew on board, off East Africa.
    (AP, 9/29/10)

2010        Oct 2, At least seven Somali civilians were killed in a fire fight between African Union forces and hardline Islamist rebels.
    (AFP, 10/2/10)

2010        Oct 3, In Somalia fighting in Mogadishu left at least eight people dead.
    (AP, 10/3/10)

2010        Oct 4, In Somalia two women, a boy and two men were killed in Mogadishu by stray bullets from fighting taking place between pro-government forces and Islamist militants.
    (AP, 10/4/10)

2010        Oct 5, In Somalia fighting in Mogadishu left seven people dead.
    (AP, 10/6/10)

2010        Oct 6, In Somalia sporadic clashes between Islamic fighters and government soldiers killed four men in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 10/6/10)
2010        Oct 6, Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni called for financial support to increase his country's troop levels in the African Union force in Somalia.
    (AFP, 10/6/10)

2010        Oct 9, Somali pirates attacked the 241-ton Kenya-registered trawler. 2 South Koreans, 2 Chinese and 39 Kenyans were aboard the trawler when it was attacked in the waters off Kenya's Lamu Island.
    (AP, 10/17/10)

2010        Oct 10, Somali pirates seized the Panama-flagged Izumi, a Japanese-owned cargo ship with 20 Filipino crew members onboard. The Izumi was released on Feb 25, 2011.
    (AP, 10/11/10)(AP, 2/28/11)

2010        Oct 11, Somali pirates kidnapped Said Mohamed Rage, fisheries minister of the regional Puntland government. A soldier guarding the minister was killed and a civilian wounded. Pirates ambushed Rage's convoy because they thought he wanted to expel them from their bases. Rage was freed 2 days later.
    (AP, 10/12/10)(AP, 10/13/10)

2010        Oct 14, Somalia’s Pres. Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed named Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed, a Somali American, as the new prime minister. In western Somalia masked gunmen abducted a Briton, Frans Barnard, and a Somali working for aid agency Save the Children from a compound in town of Adado. The Somali worker was soon released. Barnard was released on Oct 20.
    (SFC, 10/15/10, p.A2)(AP, 10/15/10)(AP, 10/20/10)

2010        Oct 18, Somali officials said an offensive launched a day earlier by government troops has killed at least 15 people. The weak, UN-backed government was attempting to win back control of areas held by militants. Al-Shabab announced that residents in areas under its control can no longer use mobile money transfer services.
    (AP, 10/18/10)

2010        Oct 21, In Somalia a failed offensive by al-Shabab left at least 20 people dead as the Islamist group attempted to recapture a district in the southwest from government forces.
    (AP, 10/22/10)

2010        Oct 23, Somali pirates seized the MV York, a Singapore-registered liquefied gas tanker, 105 miles (165 km) off the coast of Kenya in the Somali Basin.
    (AP, 10/24/10)

2010        Oct 24, Somali pirates seized the Beluga Fortune, a German freight ship, off the coast of Kenya, the second foreign vessel to be captured in the region in as many days. Rescue forces the next day freed the ship, but the hijackers got away.
    (AP, 10/24/10)(SFC, 10/26/10, p.A2)

2010        Oct 26, Somali pirates failed to get control of the French flagged Maido, a liquefied petroleum gas carrier, because the crew had locked itself in a safe room.
    (AP, 10/27/10)
2010        Oct 26, The UN refugee agency said some 60,000 civilians in Somalia have fled their homes over the past week as fresh fighting between Islamist insurgents and a government-allied militia claimed the lives of at least 10 people.
    (AP, 10/26/10)
2010        Oct 26, An annual report by Transparency Int’l. marked Somalia as the most corrupt county in the world, followed by Afghanistan, Myanmar and Iraq. Denmark, New Zealand and Singapore tied as the world’s least corrupt nations. The US declined to 22nd from 19th last year.
    (SFC, 10/27/10, p.A2)
2010        Oct 26, Deborah Calitz and Bruno Pelizzari of South Africa were captured by Somali pirates from a yacht, the SY Choizil, off the coast of Tanzania. Skipper Peter Eldridge (61) escaped. A ransom of $10 million was later demanded.
    (http://tinyurl.com/4nen4cw)(AP, 1/31/11)

2010        Oct 27, In Somalia al-Shabab executed two girls by firing squad for spying for government soldiers. Ayan Mohamed Jama (18) and Huriyo Ibrahim (15) were brought before hundreds of residents. Ten masked men opened fire on the girls, who were blindfolded, soon after the sentencing.
    (AP, 10/28/10)

2010        Oct 30, Somali pirates overnight took control of the MV Polar, a cargo vessel with 24 crew members aboard. Pirates seized the Liberian-owned ship some 684 miles (1,100 km) east of the Indian Ocean island of Socotra. One of them, Prudente Cabral, died of a stroke in captivity in November. Pirates released the vessel on Aug 26, 2011.
    (AP, 10/30/10)(AFP, 8/26/11)

2010        Oct 31, Somalia's parliament approved Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed, a Somali-American as the country's prime minister. An attack by Islamic militants against government soldiers in Mogadishu left at least 15 people dead.
    (AP, 10/31/10)(AP, 11/1/10)

2010        Nov 3, Somali pirates seized the Aly Zoulfecar, a Comoros-flagged ship, en route to the Tanzanian port city of Dar es Salaam with 29 people on board. Pirates surrendered the Aly Zoulfecar upon arrival in Madagascar on Feb 27, 2011. 12 pirates were arrested.
    (AP, 11/4/10)(AP, 2/28/11)

2010        Nov 6, Pirates near Somalia fired on French naval forces from a private yacht they had captured. The yacht ran aground the next day and the South African skipper escaped captivity, but the pirates took two crew members hostage onto land.
    (AP, 11/8/10)

2010        Nov 8, Three gunmen from Somalia crossed the Kenyan border and killed a community organizer working with Somali refugees.
    (AP, 11/8/10)

2010        Nov 9, A judge in Kenya's second-highest court said that the country does not have jurisdiction to try pirates if attacks have taken place outside Kenya's waters, a decision that could harm US and international efforts to have pirates tried in East Africa.
    (AP, 11/9/10)

2010        Nov 11, Somali pirates overran the Panamanian-flagged MV Hannibal II, a chemical tanker, capturing the vessel and 31 crew members. The hijacking took place nearly 900 nautical miles east of the Horn of Africa, which is closer to India than Somalia. In December one crew member was evacuated for possible appendicitis. The Hannibal II and 30 crew members were released in March 2011.
    (AP, 11/11/10)(AP, 3/17/11)

2010        Nov 15, A California woman, Nima Ali Yusuf (24), was charged with conspiring to provide money and people to a Somali terrorist group to help carry out killings in the African nation, according to a federal indictment unsealed today. She was the fourth person charged in the past month in San Diego with helping al-Shabab.
    (AP, 11/15/10)

2010        Nov 17, In Somalia artillery shelling and gunfire between African Union troops and Islamist insurgents killed at least 21 civilians in Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 11/17/10)

2010        Nov 21, In central Somalia at least 13 people were killed in heavy clashes that began a day earlier between armed groups fighting for control of villages.
    (AP, 11/21/10)

2010        Nov 22, Somalia’s Parliament Speaker Sharif Hassan Sheik Aden indefinitely postponed a session scheduled to endorse or reject the proposed Cabinet of PM Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed. Parliamentarians complained that he has reduced the number of ministers, tapped technocrats from outside Somalia and reduced some clans' influence.
    (AP, 11/23/10)

2010        Nov 23, East African leaders met in the Ethiopian capital to discuss beefing up the African Union force in Somalia and tensions in Sudan ahead of January's referendum on autonomy for the south.
    (AFP, 11/23/10)
2010        Nov 23, The EU’s anti-piracy naval force said that have caught 16 suspected Somali pirates over the past 5 days in the Indian Ocean with the help of the Seychelles coast guard.
    (SFC, 11/24/10, p.A2)

2010        Nov 24, In Somalia Bashir Ahmed Abdi (51), a Minneapolis-based Somali lawyer, was shot dead in Mogadishu. Relative Abdirahman Moalin said he was driving Abdi to a meeting in Mogadishu when a single shot fired from what looked like a government pickup truck hit Abdi beneath his shoulder, killing him instantly.
    (AP, 11/25/10)

2010        Nov 24, In Virginia 5 Somali men, accused of attacking the USS Nicholas on April 1, were convicted on federal piracy charges. On March 14, 2011, the 5 men were sentenced to life in prison.
    (SFC, 11/25/10, p.A19)(SFC, 3/15/11, p.A4)

2010        Nov 26, The Dutch navy said it has captured 20 suspected pirates off the Somali coast in two operations in the last week and is holding them on a warship on suspicion of involvement in hijacking a South African yacht.
    (AP, 11/26/10)
2010        Nov 26, US federal agents in a sting operation arrested Mohamed Osman Mohamud (19), a Somali-born teenager, just as he tried blowing up a van he believed was loaded with explosives at a crowded Christmas tree lighting ceremony in Portland.
    (AP, 11/27/10)

2010        Nov 27, Somalia's parliament passed the proposed Cabinet of new PM Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed.
    (AP, 11/27/10)

2010        Nov 29, In Virginia Jama Idle Ibrahim, a Somali citizen, was sentenced to 30 years in prison for his role in an attack on a US Navy ship on April 10.
    (SFC, 11/30/10, p.A9)

2010        Dec 1, The UN said it is seeking $530 million for aid projects in Somalia next year, and it called the country's 20 years of strife a catastrophe that is "as urgent as ever."
    (AP, 12/1/10)

2010        Dec 2, In Somalia clashes between Islamic fighters and government soldiers killed at least five people in Mogadishu. Fighting between two Islamist groups in the southern town of Burhakaba entered a second day and left 9 dead and 15 wounded.
    (AP, 12/2/10)

2010        Dec 5, Suspected Somali pirates hijacked the M.V. Jahan Moni, a Bangladeshi ship carrying nickel ore in the Arabian Sea and appeared to headed to the lawless East African nation. The 25 Bangladeshis on the cargo ship included the wife of one crewman. The Moni was released on March 14, 2011, followed an ransom said to be $4.2 million.
    (AP, 12/6/10)(AP, 3/14/11)

2010        Dec 6, In Somalia 18 people were reported killed in weekend fighting. Mogadishu ambulance service chief Ali Muse said that 66 civilians were also wounded in the fighting. In central Somalia clashes between rival Majerteen and the Sa'ad clans killed at least 20 people.
    (AP, 12/6/10)(AP, 12/7/10)

2010        Dec 10, Somali pirates hijacked the MV Panama just east of the Tanzania-Mozambique border, making it one of the most southerly attacks Somali pirates have pulled off. All 23 crew members were from Myanmar.
    (AP, 12/10/10)

2010        Dec 11, Somali pirates captured the MV Renuar, a Panama-flagged, Liberian-owned cargo vessel, about 1,000 miles (1,610 km) east of Somalia.
    (AP, 12/12/10)

2010        Dec 13, The Oriental Rose, Japanese-operated chemical tanker, was strafed by gunfire from an unidentified vessel off the Somali coast slightly wounding two crew members.
    (AP, 12/14/10)

2010        Dec 19, In Somalia a merger was announced between al-Shabab and Hizbul Islam. Analysts and fighters said the weak, UN-backed government could face an increase in attacks from Islamist insurgents after the two largest groups dropped their running feud and merged.
    (AP, 12/20/10)

2010        Dec 20, Somali pirates hijacked the MV Orna cargo vessel after firing rocket propelled grenades and small arms at the ship, a Panama-flagged, bulk cargo vessel owned by a company in the United Arab Emirates. In June, 2011, pirate a said an undisclosed number of pirates and hostages were forced to abandon the bulk cargo carrier MV Orna. Abdi said it is believed the fire was caused by an electrical problem in the ship's kitchen.
    (AP, 12/20/10)(AP, 6/15/11)

2010        Dec 22, The UN Security Council voted to increase by half the number of African Union peacekeepers supporting Somalia's transitional government against Al-Qaeda-inspired rebels.
    (AP, 12/22/10)

2010        Dec 24, Dutch police arrested 12 Somali men in the key port city of Rotterdam on suspicion of preparing a terrorist attack. Dutch authorities on Dec 26 cleared five of the 12 Somali men who were detained Christmas Eve on suspicion of preparing a terrorist attack. By Dec 30 the remaining Somalis were released but 3 were still considered suspect.
    (AP, 12/25/10)(AP, 12/27/10)(AP, 12/30/10)

2010        Dec 25, Somali pirates in the Arabian Sea hijacked the MV Thor Nexus, a Thai-owned cargo ship with 27 crew members. Suspected Somali pirates attacked the Taiwanese ship FV Shiuh Fu No. 1, some 120 nautical miles off the northeastern tip of Madagascar. All communication was lost and there were strong indications that it may have been seized with its 26 crew members.
    (AP, 12/25/10)(AP, 12/30/10)

2010        Dec 27, Somali pirates seized a ship with eight crew onboard. The MV EMS River was seized approximately 175 miles (280 km) northeast of the port of Salalah, Oman.
    (AP, 12/28/10)

2010        Dec 29, The spokesman for the EU's anti-piracy force said Somali pirates over the Christmas weekend unsuccessfully targeted two ships, going farther south than ever before to attack vessels.
    (AP, 12/29/10)

2010        Dec 31, The FV Vega 5, hijacked by Somali pirates, was spotted near the Mozambique coast, approximately 200 nautical miles southwest of the Comoros islands. It was seen towing what looked to be a pirate attack skiff and did not respond to any calls.
    (AP, 1/1/10)

2010        Somali pirates stages 219 attacks in 2010. Ransoms climbed to $238 million, an average of $5.4 million per ship.
    (Econ, 2/5/11, p.16)
2010        Eritrea supplied arms and supplies to Al Shabab militants in Somalia.
    (SSFC, 4/29/12, p.E9)

2011        Jan 1, Somali pirates hijacked the MV Blida, a Greek-operated, Algerian-flagged bulk carrier. The crew included 17 Algerians, six Ukrainians including the captain, two Filipinos, an Indonesian and a Jordanian. On Oct 12 Algeria announced that pirates have released 2 of the ship’s 27 crewmen on humanitarian grounds. The MV Blida was released on Nov 3 after a bag full of money was parachuted down to the pirates from a plane.
    (Econ, 2/5/11, p.69)(AFP, 10/12/11)(AP, 11/3/11)(AFP, 11/20/11)

2011        Jan 12, A Danish cargo ship, the M/V Leopard, came under fire from pirates approaching in two skiffs. Since then, there's been no contact with the crew, four Filipinos and two Danes.
    (AP, 1/14/11)

2011        Jan 15, Somali pirates seized a South Korean freighter with 21 crew members in the Arabian Sea.
    (AP, 1/15/11)

2011        Jan 17, In Somalia mortars fired at the Somali parliament missed the building but killed four civilians in Mogadishu. A village elder said eight people died of hunger-related illnesses in the southern village of Torotorow and the surrounding areas.
    (AP, 1/17/11)

2011        Jan 18, The South Korean commandos aboard a speedboat and a Lynx helicopter were dispatched to rescue a Mongolian ship from Somali pirates. The firefight left several pirates missing and believed killed.
    (AP, 1/21/11)

2011        Jan 20, The EU Naval Force said that Somali pirates have seized a Vietnamese-owned bulk carrier, the MV Hoang Son Sun, with 24 crew onboard. All crew members returned to Vietnam on Sep 23 after shipping firm Hoang Son Ltd Co. paid more than $2 million in ransom.
    (AP, 1/20/11)(AFP, 9/26/11)

2011        Jan 21, The Royal Malaysian Navy commandos wounded three pirates in a gunbattle and rescued the 23 crew members on the Malaysian-flagged chemical tanker MT Bunga Laurel, shortly after the pirates stormed the vessel in the Gulf of Aden with assault rifles and pistols. On Jan 31 Malaysian police took custody of the 7 captured Somali pirates.
    (AP, 1/22/11)(AP, 1/31/11)
2011        Jan 21, South Korean navy commandos stormed the Samho Jewelry, a ship hijacked by Somali pirates in the Indian Ocean, rescuing all the 21 crew and killing eight pirates. The pirates had seized the 11,500-ton chemical freighter Samho Jewelry on January 15. Five pirates were captured.
    (AFP, 1/21/11)(AP, 1/31/11)(Econ, 2/5/11, p.69)
2011        Jan 21, It was reported that Erik Prince, head of Xe Services (formerly known as Blackwater Worldwide) private security company, was currently involved in an Arab-financed program to mobilize 2000 Somali recruits to fight pirates.
    (SFC, 1/20/11, p.A2)

2011        Jan 28, A Danish warship rescued two men who escaped from pirates off the coast of East Africa. The men were among several crew members who attempted to shake their captors two days after their ship, the MV Beluga Nomination, was hijacked.
    (AP, 1/28/11)

2011        Jan 31, In Somalia fighting between government troops and police killed 16 people in Mogadishu, underscoring the weak UN-backed government's inability to control its armed forces. The fighting began when police executed a plainclothes soldier they suspected of being an Islamist insurgent.
    (AP, 1/31/11)

2011        Feb 1, Maj. Gen. Buster Howes, commander of the EU Naval Force, said Somali pirates have begun systematically torturing hostages and using them as human shields.
    (AP, 2/1/11)

2011        Feb 4, The US and the UN sharply criticized a vote by Somali parliamentarians to extend their term by 3 years. The 500-member body voted on the extension despite failing to pass any laws in the past 6 years.
    (SFC, 2/5/11, p.A2)

2011        Feb 6, The Indian navy and coastguard captured 28 suspected Somali pirates after a firefight with a "mothership" off southwestern India. At least some of 24 other men on board were believed to be hostages rescued as a result of the firefight on the Thai fishing vessel that had been hijacked up to six months ago off the coast of Somalia.
    (AFP, 2/6/11)

2011        Feb 8, Somali pirates firing guns and rocket propelled grenades hijacked the Savina Caylyn, an Italian oil tanker, and diverted the medium-sized vessel towards Somalia. The tanker was reported freed on Dec 21 along with 22 crew members.
    (AP, 2/8/11)(AP, 12/21/11)

2011        Feb 9, Pirates seized the Irene SL, a Greek-flagged supertanker, off the coast of Oman bound for the US carrying a crew of 25 and a load of more than 1.9 million barrels of oil.
    (AFP, 2/9/11)

2011        Feb 11, Malaysian prosecutors filed charges carrying the death penalty against seven suspected Somali pirates accused of attacking a Malaysian-operated ship in the Gulf of Aden, in the first such charges in Asia against the African sea bandits.
    (AP, 2/11/11)

2011        Feb 13, Fifty illegal Somali migrants and a Tanzanian captain died after a ship sank off the coast of northern Mozambique. Mozambican marines sent 89 Somali and Ethiopian survivors to a refugee camp which holds about 3,000 illegal migrants.
    (AP, 2/16/11)

2011        Feb 15, In Norway Stolt-Nielsen, founder of the Stolt-Nielsen shipping group, wrote the following in the financial newspaper Dagens Naeringsliv: "When (piracy) implies a great risk of being caught and hanged, and the cost of losing ships and weapons becomes too big, it will decrease and eventually disappear."
    (AP, 2/16/11)

2011        Feb 18, Somali pirates hijacked the yacht Quest with four Americans on board in the Arabian sea off the coast of Somalia. The Americans were identified as Jean and Scott Adams, a retired couple from southern California, and Phyllis Macay and Robert Riggle of Seattle.
    (AP, 2/19/11)(SSFC, 2/20/11, p.A5)

2011        Feb 19, In Somalia 4 civilians were killed after clashes broke out between Somali soldiers backed by African Union forces and Al Qaeda-inspired insurgents in Mogadishu. The fighting was triggered by its discovery of a mile-long trench system used by the Al Qaeda-inspired Shebab insurgents in the capital.
    (AP, 2/19/11)(AFP, 2/20/11)

2011        Feb 20, In Somalia at least 15 civilians, two African Union soldiers and six foreign fighters were killed in weekend fighting in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 2/20/11)

2011        Feb 21, In Somalia a suicide bomber detonated an explosives laden car at a police station in Mogadishu killing at least 8 people. Al-Shabab claimed responsibility.
    (SFC, 2/22/11, p.A2)
2011        Feb 21, Four Americans (Jean and Scott Adams, Phyllis Macay and Robert Riggle) taken hostage by Somali pirates were shot and killed by their captors, marking the first time US citizens have been killed in a wave of pirate attacks plaguing the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean. US naval forces, who were trailing the Americans' captured yacht with four warships, quickly boarded the Quest after hearing gunfire. Two pirates died during the confrontation and 13 were captured and detained. On March 10 the pirates were indicted in Norfolk, Va., on various charges including piracy and kidnapping. On August 22 two Somali men were sentenced to life in prison. 9 others remained including 3 charged with murder. In 2012 Mohammad Saaili Shibin was convicted for his role as a hostage negotiator.
    (AP, 2/22/11)(SFC, 3/11/11, p.A7)(SFC, 3/11/11, p.A7)(SFC, 8/23/11, p.A5)(SFC, 4/28/12, p.A4)

2011        Feb 23, Somali government forces backed by African Union troops launched a fresh offensive against Al Qaeda-inspired rebels, claiming forays into parts of Mogadishu long held by the insurgents. Militants paraded the bodies of five African Union peacekeepers. They also claimed they captured an AU soldier from Burundi.
    (AFP, 2/23/11)(AP, 2/24/11)

2011        Feb 24, In Somalia Al-Shabab displayed the bodies of eight men they said were the attackers in Belet Hawo, a Somalia-Kenya border town. In Mogadishu at least 39 civilians have been killed and more than 120 wounded in four days of fighting.
    (AP, 2/24/11)
2011        Feb 24, Somali pirates captured a sailboat carrying Danish couple Jan Quist Johansen his wife Birgit Marie and three children (12-16), along with two adult crew members, also Danes. All seven were released on September 6.
    (AP, 3/1/11)(AP, 9/7/11)

2011        Feb 25, Somalia's president said that government forces are gaining ground after a week of fighting against al-Qaida-linked militants who had for years confined his administration to a few blocks of the capital.
    (AP, 2/25/11)

2011        Feb 27, Somali officials said at least 115 people have been killed in an operation against Al-Qaida-linked militants that began Feb 23. At least 60 militants and 6 peacekeepers were among the dead.
    (SFC, 2/28/11, p.A2)
2011        Feb 27, Officials in Madagascar arrested 12 suspected pirates after they surrendered the Aly Zoulfecar upon arriving in the Indian Ocean island nation. The ship, controlled by pirates since Nov. 3, carried 20 passengers and 9 crew members and had been badly ravaged by a tropical storm before arriving in Madagascar.
    (AP, 2/28/11)

2011        Feb 28, Somali pirates northeast of the Omani port of Salalah hijacked the MV Dover, a Greek-owned cargo vessel with 23 crew on board.
    (AP, 2/28/11)

2011        Feb, The UN estimated that about 700 suspected and convicted pirates were being held in 12 countries.
    (Econ, 2/5/11, p.70)

2011        Mar 4, Two Nairobi-based diplomats said at least 43 Burundian and 10 Ugandan troops have been killed in Somalia since Feb. 18. A major offensive against Islamist militants began on Feb 19.
    (AP, 3/4/11)

2011        Mar 5, In Somalia militiamen allied with the weak transitional government took control of Belet Hawo, a town bordering Kenya, from Islamist militants after several hours of fighting. 5 militiamen were killed along with 42 al-Shabab militants.
    (AP, 3/5/11)(SSFC, 3/6/11, p.A4)
2011        Mar 5, Pirates attacked the MV Guanabara, a Japanese-owned oil tanker, and 24 crew members took refuge in a protected part of the vessel after reporting they were under attack. A special unit from the destroyer USS Bulkeley boarded the tanker the next day and detained the suspected pirates off the coast of Oman.
    (AP, 3/6/11)

2011        Mar 7, Somali President Sheik Sharif Sheik Ahmed claimed victory over the insurgents, and he called for the "final elimination" of al-Shabab, though it was far from clear that the militants have been defeated.
    (AP, 3/8/11)

2011        Mar 9, Somali pirates released the MV Rak Afrikana cargo ship with 25 crew onboard. The sailors were forced to abandon the ship shortly after they were freed because the it had a hole in the hull and was taking on water. The Rak Afrikana was seized by pirates in April 2010.
    (AP, 3/10/11)

2011        Mar 10, Forces from Somalia’s northern region of Puntland failed in a rescue attempt of a Danish family and 2 crew members. 5 soldiers were killed.
    (SFC, 3/12/11, p.A2)

2011        Mar 13, The Indian navy captured 61 pirates who jumped into the Arabian Sea to flee a gunfight and fire on the hijacked ship from which they had staged several attacks. Two Indian navy ships also rescued 13 crew members from the Mozambique-flagged Vega 5, a fishing boat seized in December.
    (AP, 3/14/11)

2011        Mar 14, Burundi said it has deployed an additional 1,000 soldiers for the African Union force protecting the Somali government.
    (AFP, 3/14/11)

2011        Mar 15, In Somalia 13 people died in mortar attacks in Mogadishu.
    (SFC, 3/16/11, p.A2)

2011        Mar 16, Somali pirates captured the Indonesian-flagged MV Sinar Kudus in the Arabian Sea, then used it to attack a Liberian-flagged cargo ship nearby. On May 1 pirates released the bulk carrier Sinar Kudus and its 20 sailors after a ransom was paid.
    (AP, 3/17/11)(AFP, 5/1/11)

2011        Mar 22, Somalia said that pro-government troops have made "remarkable" gains during an offensive in Mogadishu over the last 2 days, where the latest fighting killed at least 7 people.
    (AP, 3/22/11)

2011        Mar 27, The Somali government voted to extend its term for another year, despite int’l. calls for it to leave office when its mandate expires in August.
    (SFC, 3/28/11, p.A2)
2011        Mar 27, India's navy and coast guard captured 16 Somali pirates after a three-hour-long battle in the Arabian Sea. The pirates were trying to seize a merchant ship, MV Maersk Kensington, using a hijacked trawler. 16 crew members who had been taken hostage by the pirates were rescued from the hijacked Iranian trawler off India's western Lakshadweep islands.
    (AP, 3/28/11)

2011        Apr 1, The Emirates-owned MV Arrilah-1 came under attack in the Arabian Sea off the coast of Oman while sailing from Australia to Dubai. Emirati special forces, with support from the US Navy's 5th Fleet, launched a mission to rescue the vessel while 21 crew members kept safe by locking themselves in a secure room during the hijacking. 10 pirates were captured and handed over to Abu Dhabi.
    (AFP, 4/2/11)(AP, 4/6/11)

2011        Apr 2, A Danish assault team backed by helicopters freed 16 Pakistanis and 2 Iranians held by suspected Somali pirates.
    (SFC, 4/12/11, p.A2)

2011        Apr 3, In Somalia pro-government forces reportedly captured Dobley town near Kenya from al-Qaida-linked militants after hours of fighting.
    (AP, 4/3/11)
2011        Apr 3, Dutch marines killed 2 pirates and captured 16 others during an operation to free a hijacked Iranian fishing boat of Somalia.
    (www.dailybulletin.com/ci_17767176)

2011        Apr 14, Somalia's government rejected the outcome of a UN-backed meeting on the Horn of Africa nation that called for the ouster of the current leadership to prepare the country for new elections.
    (AP, 4/14/11)

2011        Apr 15, Somali pirates took a multi-million ransom and released the Asphalt Venture, hijacked last Sep 28, and some crew members. 7 Indian crew members were kept hostage in retaliation for the holding of over 100 Somali pirates by the Indian Navy.
    (AP, 4/16/11)(SFC, 4/16/11, p.A2)

2011        Apr 19, Somali citizen Ahmed Abdulkadir Warsame was captured by the US military. He was interrogated aboard a US warship for two months before facing terrorism charges in NYC.
    (SFC, 7/6/11, p.A6)

2011        Apr 21, Somali pirates captured an Italian cargo ship headed for Iran with 21 crew members on board, including 6 Italians and 15 Filipinos, in the Arabian Sea near Oman. The Rosalia D'Amato was released on Nov 25 after a ransom was dropped onto the ship.
    (AFP, 7/24/11)(AFP, 11/26/11)

2011        May 1, Singapore shipper Glory Ship Management Pte. Ltd. said Somali pirates have likely hijacked the palm oil tanker MT Gemini and its 25-member crew off the coast of Kenya.
    (AP, 5/1/11)

2011        May 5, China’s Xinhua News Agency said in a brief report that a Panama-registered cargo ship with 24 Chinese sailors was hijacked by seven pirates in the Arabian Sea.
    (AP, 5/5/11)

2011        May 12, In Somalia AU forces killed several militants in a battle in Mogadishu. Three AU soldiers were also wounded. AU mission spokesman Paddy Ankunda said al-Shabab militants, who are trying to overthrow the government, lost ground in the battle. The body of a fighter who appeared to be a member of the AU's peacekeeping mission was pulled through the streets by a rope.
    (AP, 5/12/11)(AP, 5/13/11)

2011        May 16, In Somalia a bomb explosion in Mogadishu killed five pro-government troops at a base militants fled last week. An AU spokesman said his forces began an operation May 12 that has gained 500 yards (meters) of territory from insurgents.
    (AP, 5/16/11)

2011        May 18, In Somalia shells fired in battles between insurgent militant Islamists and African Union forces at a Mogadishu market left at least 14 civilian dead.
    (AFP, 5/18/11)

2011        May 22, Somali government troops backed by African Union forces advanced towards Mogadishu's main market, a stronghold of the Islamist Shebab rebels, amid a heavy firefight that claimed two lives.
    (AFP, 5/22/11)

2011        May 30, In Somalia a suicide bomber in Mogadishu was shot at by AU forces and immediately blew up.
    (AP, 5/30/11)

2011        Jun 2, In Somalia clashes pitting government forces and their African Union allies against Islamist rebels for control of Mogadishu's main market left at least 17 civilians dead.
    (AFP, 6/2/11)

2011        Jun 7, In Somalia Fazul Abdullah Mohammed (37), one of the most wanted Al-Qaeda terrorists, was killed by security forces at a government-run checkpoint in Mogadishu. He died when the security forces discovered that he and another man with whom he was traveling were armed. Mohammed was believed to be the mastermind behind the 1998 bombings of embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, in which 224 people died.
            (AP, 6/11/11)(Econ, 6/18/11, p.55)

2011        Jun 10, In Somalia Interior Minister Abdishakur Sheikh Hassan and a suicide bomber, said to be his niece, were killed in an explosion  in his home.
    (SFC, 6/11/11, p.A3)

2011        Jun 18, A Somali court sentenced 3 British nationals, an American and 2 Kenyans to at least 10 years in prison each for bringing millions of dollars intended for pirate ransom into the country. Discussions were underway to overturn the sentences.
    (SSFC, 6/19/11, p.A4)

2011        Jun 19, Somalia's PM Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed said that he would resign, reversing a pledge he made last week that he would not step down after Somalis took to the streets in support of the Somali-American politician. President Sheik Sharif Sheik Ahmed named Abdiwali Mohamed Ali as a caretaker of the prime minister's position until a new prime minister is appointed.
    (AP, 6/19/11)

2011        Jun 23, Somalia’s Pres. named Abdiweli Mohamed Ali, a Somali American economist, as the country’s new prime minister. He was elevated from his position as minister of planning and int’l. cooperation.
    (SFC, 6/24/11, p.A2)
2011        Jun 23, In southern Somalia an airstrike from military aircraft hit a convoy carrying al-Qaida-linked militants. Foreign fighters were among those killed in the attack carried out by a "partner country." A US drone fired on two senior commanders of Somalia's Shebab Islamist insurgency after they were found to have ties to Al-Qaeda. US military forces landed to retrieve the bodies of dead or wounded militants following the drone strike.
    (AP, 6/24/11)(AFP, 6/29/11)(AP, 7/1/11)

2011        Jun 26, Somalia said it has freed six foreigners sentenced to at least 10 years in prison each for bringing millions of dollars intended for pirate ransom into the country.
    (AP, 6/26/11)

2011        Jun 28, Somali lawmakers overwhelmingly approved the appointment of a new, Harvard-educated prime minister. Abdiweli Mohamed Ali said that he would focus on combating the country's al-Qaida-linked militants who are trying to topple his fragile government.
    (AP, 6/28/11)
2011        Jun 28, In Kenya the aid group Save the Children said more than 800 Somali children arrive each day at overcrowded refugee camps in the northeast to escape a devastating drought in their war-ravaged country. They were among nearly 1,300 people who arrive each day at the Dadaab refugee camps.
    (AP, 6/28/11)

2011        Jun 30, In Kenya two people were killed and dozens injured after a riot broke out in part of the Dadaab camp, Africa's biggest refugee camp, where thousands of Somali refugees have been arriving weekly in search of food and shelter. The population at Dadaab camp surpassed 370,000 last week and showed no sign of stabilizing.
    (AP, 7/1/11)

2011        Jun, UN Statistics Division said 70 territories would be holding censuses in 2011. Only Iraq, Lebanon, Myanmar, Somalia, Uzbekistan and Western Sahara would fail to hold a count in this ten-year round.
    (Econ, 6/4/11, p.71)

2011        Jul 5, The UN High Commission for Refugees said persistent violence compounded by a serious drought have forced 54,000 Somalis to flee in June, bringing the total number of displaced Somalis to a quarter of the country's population.
    (AFP, 7/5/11)

2011        Jul 6, Somalia’s Shebab rebels appealed for help for thousands of people devastated by a severe drought that has hit the Horn of Africa region, saying they would allow aid through to their fiefdoms.
    (AFP, 7/17/11)

2011        Jul 10, The head of the UN refugee agency said that drought-ridden Somalia is the "worst humanitarian disaster" in the world. The World Food Program estimated that 10 million people already need humanitarian aid. More than 380,000 refugees had moved into Kenya’s Dabaab refugee camp.
    (AP, 7/10/11)

2011        Jul 13, The United Nations made its first aid delivery to a rebel-held Somalia region after the insurgents lifted a ban on the operations of foreign aid agencies. The worst drought in 60 years affected over 10 million people in northern Kenya, south-eastern Ethiopia, southern Somalia and Djibouti.
    (AFP, 7/17/11)(Econ, 7/9/11, p.44)

2011        Jul 15, Somali pirates holding South Korean hostages demanded that the South Korean government release pirate prisoners and pay compensation for a commando raid that killed several pirates earlier this year.
    (AP, 7/15/11)
2011        Jul 15, UNICEF said at least 17,584 measles cases, including 114 deaths, have been reported by Ethiopian health officials in the first half of the year. The WHO said says at least 462 cases of measles, including 11 deaths, have been confirmed in recent months among Somali refugee children in the Kenyan refugee complex known as Dadaab.
    (AP, 7/15/11)

2011        Jul 20, The United Nations said it faces a $4.3 billion shortfall in helping the 50 million people worldwide in need of emergency food, shelter and other humanitarian aid. The UN declared famine in 2 regions of southern Somalia.
    (AP, 7/20/11)(SFC, 7/21/11, p.A2)

2011        Jul 21, In Somalia Shebab spokesman Sheik Ali Mohamud Rage said Shebab won't allow banned aid workers into the areas it controls. He called the UN's declaration of famine in parts of Somalia politically motivated and pure propaganda. Shebab rebels in Balad abducted and detained Asha Osman Aqiil, a newly appointed woman minister, while she was on her way to take up office in Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 7/21/11)(AP, 7/22/11)

2011        Jul 26, The UN refugees agency said some 40,000 famine-hit people have fled to the Somali capital Mogadishu over the past month in search of food and water. An estimated 3.7 million people in Somalia, around a third of the population, are on the brink of starvation and millions more in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda have been affected by the worst drought in the region in 60 years.
    (AFP, 7/26/11)

2011        Jul 28, In Somalia heavy fighting erupted in Mogadishu as African Union peacekeepers launched an offensive aimed at protecting famine relief efforts from attacks by al-Qaida-linked militants. At least six people were killed. The WFP said that it has a funding shortfall of $252 million for the famine relief efforts in the Horn of Africa.
    (AP, 7/28/11)

2011        Jul 29, In Somalia 3 African Union troops were killed and dragged through the streets in Mogadishu as fighting erupted between pro-government forces and Islamist rebels.
    (AFP, 7/29/11)

2011        Jul 31, In Somalia tens of thousands of famine-stricken refugees were cold and drenched after torrential rains pounded their makeshift structures overnight, leading to appeals for aid. The World Food Program said it cannot reach 2.2 million Somalis who live in al-Shabab controlled territory in south-central Somalia. Armed men in Mogadishu shot and killed Somali lawmaker Kalif Jire Warfa.
    (AP, 7/31/11)(AFP, 8/1/11)

2011        Aug 1, In Somalia 2 African Union soldiers and two would-be suicide bombers, dressed as government soldiers, were killed during a shootout in Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 8/1/11)

2011        Aug 3, The drought and famine in Somalia have killed more than 29,000 children under the age of 5, according to US estimates, the first time such a precise death toll has been released related to the Horn of Africa crisis.
    (AP, 8/4/11)

2011        Aug 5, Somali government troops opened fire on hungry civilians, killing at least seven people, as both groups made a grab for food at a UN distribution site in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 8/5/11)

2011        Aug 6, Somali Islamist fighters withdrew overnight from almost all their bases in the famine-struck capital of Mogadishu, the most significant gain for the embattled UN-backed government in four years. Al-Shabab still held most of southern Somalia, where tens of thousands are estimated to have starved.
    (AP, 8/6/11)

2011        Aug 8, Residents of Somalia's war-torn capital fled fighting after remnants of extremist Shebab rebel forces, who pulled out of Mogadishu at the weekend, battled with government troops overnight.
    (AFP, 8/8/11)

2011        Aug 9, The World Food Program said it is sending 800 metric tons of high energy biscuits to East Africa to help fight the famine in Somalia. The UN food agency said that the series of nine airlifts will be enough to feed 1.6 million people for a day.
    (AP, 8/9/11)

2011        Aug 10, Tanzania pledged 300 tons of maize for Somalia's drought-hit people during a visit by Somali President Sharif Sheikh Ahmed.
    (AFP, 8/10/11)

2011        Aug 12, A Dutch court sent two Somalis to jail for up to seven years for hijacking a South African yacht last year and seizing a South African couple who are still missing. Three others also were convicted of piracy. The five men were caught by the Dutch navy in the Gulf of Aden in November, heavily armed with machine guns and bazookas.
    (AP, 8/12/11)

2011        Aug 15, The UN's World Food Program for the first time acknowledged it has been investigating food theft in Somalia for two months. Vast piles of food sacks with stamps on them from the World Food Program, the US government aid arm USAID and the Japanese government were found for sale in Mogadishu markets.
    (AP, 8/15/11)

2011        Aug 17, The United Nations appealed for $1.2 billion for famine victims in Somalia and its Horn of Africa neighbors and Muslim nations pledged to contribute $350 million.
    (AP, 8/17/11)

2011        Aug 19, The UN said tens of thousands of people have already died in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia. It warned that the famine has not peaked and that 12 million people in the area need food aid.
    (AP, 8/20/11)

2011        Aug 23, Thousands of Somalis attended a rally to celebrate the withdrawal of Islamist rebels from bases in Mogadishu, Al-Shabab militants executed two men and a 16-year-old boy by firing squad after accusing them of spying in a de facto court.
    (AP, 8/23/11)(AP, 8/26/11)

2011        Aug 26, It was reported that Somali Islamist rebels have beheaded at least 11 civilians in the capital in the past two weeks.
    (AP, 8/26/11)

2011        Sep 2, Puntland soldiers raided neighborhoods searching for gunmen linked to Al Qaeda-inspired Shebab militants. At least 21 people were killed and 31 others wounded in two days of heavy fighting on the border of Somalia proper and the breakaway state of Puntland.
    (AFP, 9/2/11)
2011        Sep 2, In Somalia Malaysian cameraman Noramfaizul Mohd Nor was killed in Mogadishu by 4 Burundi peacekeepers. The 4 were later discharged from the force and faced trial in Burundi.
    (AP, 9/26/11)

2011        Sep 4, Somali leaders began gathering for a 3-day national reconciliation conference under UN auspices amid high security in war-shattered Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 9/4/11)

2011        Sep 5, The UN said famine has spread into Somalia’s southern Bay region, where nearly 60% of people are acutely malnourished, four times the rate at which an emergency is declared. Hundreds were reported dying every day, with at least half of them children.
    (AP, 9/5/11)

2011        Sep 7, In Somalia the al-Shabab Islamist militia said they have captured two Kenyan soldiers near the country's shared border.
    (AP, 9/7/11)

2011        Sep 14, Somalia's PM Abdiweli Mohamed Ali pleaded with the UN Security Council to send more peacekeepers to help his beleaguered government fight Islamist militants.
    (AFP, 9/14/11)

2011        Sep 15, Somalia officials and residents said Kenyan helicopter gunships fired missiles around Elwak region near the Kenyan border. Explosions were also heard around the Islamist controlled Kismayo region in the south of the conflict-torn country.
    (AFP, 9/16/11)

2011        Sep 20, Gunmen shot and killed a Somali lawmaker in the northern breakaway state of Puntland, where fighting between political and clan groups is on the rise recently.
    (AFP, 9/21/11)
2011        Sep 20, Matt Bryden, head of the UN arms monitoring group, said that corrupt Somali politicians could face travel bans and have their foreign bank accounts and property frozen under tough new UN sanctions.
    (AP, 9/20/11)

2011        Sep 21, Twenty aid agencies warned that drought and famine-blighted Somalia is at a "turning point" as conditions decline with hundreds of thousands more people likely to die in coming months.
    (AFP, 9/21/11)

2011        Sep 24, In Somalia at least one person was killed by a powerful explosion at the offices of the UN Mine Action Service in Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 9/24/11)

2011        Sep 30, In Somalia heavy fighting broke out close to the border with Kenya. Extremist Shehab fighters launched a dawn attack on the town of Dhobley, but were later repelled.
    (AFP, 9/30/11)

2011        Oct 1, In Kenya 10 gunmen snatched Marie Dedieu (66), a disabled Frenchwoman, from her home near a luxury resort on Manda island and then fled towards Somalia. Kenyan coastguards attempted to intercept them at sea. Several of the abductors were injured but they managed to enter Somalia.
    (AP, 10/1/11)(AFP, 10/2/11)

2011        Oct 3, A US court sentenced two more Somali pirates to life in prison over the hijacking of a yacht off the coast of Africa in February that left four Americans on board dead. Muhidin Salad Omar (30) and Mahdi Jama Mohamed, (23-24), became the third and fourth Somali pirates to be sentenced to life in prison after pleading guilty over the fatal hijacking in May. Seven more have pleaded guilty to charges of piracy and awaited mandatory life sentences. Three others faced the death penalty.
    (AFP, 10/4/11)

2011        Oct 4, In Somalia a truck bomb exploded in front of the education ministry in Mogadishu as students and parents crowded around to learn about scholarships, killing 82 people and wounding dozens. Bashar Abdullahi Nur, identified as the al-Shabab suicide bomber, gave an interview before the attack that was later aired on a militant-run radio station.
    (AP, 10/4/11)(AP, 10/5/11)(AP, 10/6/11)(AFP, 10/30/11)

2011        Oct 10, In Somalia heavy fighting broke out in Mogadishu after pro-government forces attacked militant positions. At least 8 civilians and one AU soldier were killed in the fighting. This followed what the African Union force said were the deaths a day earlier of at least 12 Somali civilians because of militants' mortars.
    (AP, 10/10/11)
2011        Oct 10, Pirates of Somalia attacked the Italian cargo ship Montecristo carrying a crew of 23. US and British Navy ships freed the ship and 11 pirates were apprehended.
    (AP, 10/11/11)

2011        Oct 13, Somali Islamist Shebab rebels kidnapped two female Spanish aid workers from Kenya's Dadaab refugee camp, the third kidnapping of foreigners in just over a month.
    (AFP, 10/13/11)

2011        Oct 14, Somali lawmaker Mohamed Ananug lost his legs in a bomb blast whilst driving a car in southern Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 10/14/11)

2011        Oct 15, Somali government troops and allied militia wrested control of an Islamist Shebab stronghold in the south of the country after reported bombing by military aircraft.
    (AFP, 10/16/11)

2011        Oct 16, Kenyan military forces moved into southern Somalia, a day after top Kenyan defense officials said the country has the right to defend itself after a rash of militant kidnappings of Europeans inside Kenya.
    (AP, 10/16/11)

2011        Oct 17, Somalia's al-Shabab militant group threatened Kenya with suicide attacks, saying Nairobi's skyscrapers would be destroyed and its tourism industry ruined in an ominous warning one day after Kenyan troops poured into Somalia.
    (AP, 10/17/11)

2011        Oct 18, In Somalia a suicide car bomb exploded near the Foreign Ministry, killing at least four people even as Somali and Kenyan leaders met and agreed to cooperate on military action against Islamist insurgents. Kenyan operations were limited to the Lower Juba region.
    (AP, 10/18/11)(AP, 10/19/11)

2011        Oct 19, Kenyan jets struck in Somalia in a bid to rid the border area of Islamist rebels blamed for a spate of abductions, including that of a French woman who died in captivity. The foreign ministry in Paris announced the death of Marie Dedieu (66), a wheelchair-bound woman who was snatched from her beach house in the Kenyan resort of Lamu earlier this month and taken to Somalia by her kidnappers. The first attack reportedly saw the death of 73 Shebab. Kenyan deaths included five killed in a helicopter crash. 
    (AFP, 10/19/11)

2011        Oct 20, In Somalia pro-government forces supported by foreign troops chased al-Shabab out of Mogadishu’s northernmost neighborhood, Deynile, in a dawn offensive. Al-Qaida-linked militants claimed to have killed 70 foreign African Union peacekeepers but an eyewitness said many of the bodies put on display were likely Somali government soldiers. An AU spokesman the next day said that the insurgents had stolen uniforms and dressed up scores of their own dead. The AU said 10 soldiers were killed, including 6 from Burundi, with two missing after intense fighting with insurgents. A week later it was reported that 51 Burundian soldiers were killed in the clash.
    (AP, 10/20/11)(AP, 10/21/11)(AFP, 10/22/11)(AP, 10/28/11)
2011        Oct 20, France said that the Somali kidnappers of Marie Dedieu (66), a disabled Frenchwoman who died after being snatched from her home in Kenya, are demanding a ransom for the return of her body.
    (AFP, 10/20/11)
2011        Oct 20, Kenya said it intends to push its troops to Somalia's insurgent stronghold of Kismayo and will stay until there are no Islamist insurgents left.
    (AP, 10/20/11)

2011        Oct 23, Kenya warplanes targeted the Shebab-held Somali port city of Kismayo as troops advanced on the insurgents. The US warned of an imminent threat of attack on foreigners in Kenya.
    (AFP, 10/23/11)

2011        Oct 24, A French military spokesman said France would soon help supply Kenyan troops fighting al-Qaida-linked militants. A grenade attack wounded a dozen people at a downscale Nairobi pub early in the day.
    (AP, 10/24/11)
2011        Oct 24, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton pledged another $100 million in food aid to drought-hit East Africa amid warnings that millions of people face starvation for drought-affected areas in Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia.
    (AFP, 10/24/11)

2011        Oct 25, In northern Somalia gunmen kidnapped a female American aid worker (32) and a Danish man (60), working for the Danish Demining Group. Their Somali colleague was placed under police custody.
    (AP, 10/25/11)(AP, 10/26/11)

2011        Oct 27, Kenyan troops clashed heavily with Shebab fighters in southern Somalia, the latest battle since an unprecedented military incursion 12 days ago, while four people were killed in a rocket attack in northern Kenya.
    (AFP, 10/27/11)

2011        Oct 29, In Somalia at least 10 people died during an insurgent attack on an African Union base in Mogadishu. Kenya said its troops will stay in southern Somalia until Kenyans feel safe again, raising questions about whether Kenya risks becoming bogged down in an open-ended occupation of its war-ravaged neighbor. The Shebab claimed to have killed 80 Ugandan soldiers in the battle. A Shebab spokesman said American citizen of Somali origin was said to have been one of the two suicide bombers behind the twin attack.
    (AP, 10/29/11)(AP, 10/30/11)

2011        Oct 30, A Kenyan raid on a southern Somali town killed at least five civilians, including three children. Kenya insists it hit a Shebab target but witnesses and aid sources said one bomb ploughed into a camp of displaced civilians. The air raid struck a camp hosting 9,000 internally-displaced Somalis in Jilib.
    (AFP, 10/31/11)

2011        Oct 31, Somali pirates captured a Greek chemical tanker and were commandeering it to a hideout in the north of the war-torn country. The MT Liquid Velvet had 21 Filipinos and one Greek sailor on board.
    (AFP, 11/2/11)
2011        Oct 31, Kenya and Somalia called for other nations to help in their fight against Islamist insurgents.
    (SFC, 11/1/11, p.A3)

2011        Nov 1, Somali government spokesman Abdirahman Omar Osman said the district commissioner of Mogadishu's Hamar Jajab neighborhood has been fired over missing aid. The district commissioner in Karan was suspended following looting incidents and assaults on women collecting food.
    (AP, 11/1/11)
2011        Nov 1, Kenya's military said it had reliable information that two aircraft landed in the Somali town of Baidoa with weapons on board intended for al-Shabab militants.
    (AP, 11/2/11)

2011        Nov 2, Kenyan military spokesman Maj. Emmanuel Chirchir said that military planes would target and attack weapons flown into the Somali town of Baidoa so they cannot be used. A July UN report said illicit flights with weapons or fighters for Somali militants could be originating from Eritrea, Yemen or the United Arab Emirates. The report also said Eritrea gives about $80,000 a month to al-Shabab-linked individuals in Nairobi.
    (AP, 11/2/11)

2011        Nov 3, Somali pirates freed the MV Blida an Algerian-owned ship with 25 crew members onboard after 10 months of captivity. The Blida was seized on Jan 1.
    (AP, 11/3/11)

2011        Nov 6, Fishermen on a Taiwanese boat fought back against Somali pirates and freed themselves after a hijacking in the Indian Ocean. 5 Vietnamese war vets on the Chin Yi Wen overcame the hijackers and then the boat met up with British anti-piracy vessels nearby. The war fighters had been recruited by Taiwan to be part of a 28-man crew on the 290-ton vessel, along with 9 Chinese, 8 Filipinos and 6 Indonesians. The crew forced the six armed Somali pirates to jump overboard, and successfully took back control of the ship.
    (AP, 11/6/11)(AFP, 11/7/11)

2011        Nov 9, In Somalia several armed and masked men shot to death a Somali deputy in front of his house in the capital Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 11/9/11)

2011        Nov 11, Kenyan military and Somali government forces killed 4 al-Shabab members.
    (AP, 11/12/11)

2011        Nov 12, In Somalia 3 refugees queuing for food were killed in crossfire when corrupt Somali government security forces tried to loot aid supplies in famine-hit Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 11/12/11)
2011        Nov 12, A Kenyan official said more than 30 Kenya-based members of Somalia's top militant group have accepted a police amnesty and are providing information to help Kenyan police secure the country against threatened suicide attacks by the group. Kenyan and Somali government troops killed nine members of an al-Qaida-linked militant group they were pursuing in Somalia.
    (AP, 11/12/11)(AP, 11/13/11)

2011        Nov 13, In Somalia explosions in Afgoye, a heavily populated corridor along a main road leading out of the Somali capital, came during a meeting of Islamist insurgent leaders as the al-Qaida-linked al-Shabab militia fought to defend itself on two fronts. None of the militant leaders were believed to have been killed and no one claimed responsibility for the attacks.
    (AP, 11/16/11)

2011        Nov 14, A Kenya government statement said PM Raila Odinga asked Israeli President Shimon Peres for assistance in building the capacity of the Kenyan police to deal with attacks by al-Shabab militants.
    (AP, 11/14/11)

2011        Nov 16, The presidents of Kenya, Uganda and Somalia said the dual-fronted fight against Islamist al-Shabab militants presents a "historic opportunity" to restore stability in Somalia.
    (AP, 11/16/11)

2011        Nov 17, Somalia's Islamist rebels attacked government and African Union troops positions in Mogadishu, killing four civilians and wounding 12 others.
    (AFP, 11/17/11)
2011        Nov 17, The UN refugee agency said Yemen has seen a surge of refugees from Somalia and Ethiopia, with a record 12,545 arriving by sea last month as they fled unrest, famine and persecution.
    (AFP, 11/17/11)

2011        Nov 18, The UN downgraded famine declarations in three Somali regions, but warned the crisis remains the worst in the world with nearly 250,000 people facing imminent starvation.
    (AFP, 11/18/11)

2011        Nov 19, Several hundred Ethiopian troops crossed into southern and central Somalia, local elders said, but Addis Ababa dismissed the reports as "absolutely not true."
    (AFP, 11/19/11)

2011        Nov 20, A convoy of Ethiopian troops entered the central Somali town of Guriel in a possible attempt to open a third front against Al-Qaida-linked al-Shabab insurgents.
    (SFC, 11/21/11, p.A2)

2011        Nov 22, Somali civilians bore the brunt of violence in the war-torn nation, with a roadside bomb killing 10 in the capital and fighter jet strikes in the south claiming three lives.
    (AFP, 11/22/11)

2011        Nov 24, Kenya said its warplanes destroyed two Islamist insurgent bases in neighboring Somalia. Two grenade attacks in the eastern town of Garissa close to the border with Somalia killed three people and injured 27.
    (AFP, 11/24/11)
2011        Nov 24, The UN warned that Ethiopia's reported deployment of troops into Somalia could worsen what is already the world's most severe humanitarian crisis.   
    (AFP, 11/24/11)

2011        Nov 25, Three Somali soldiers and a civilian were killed when a roadside bomb the officers picked up to detonate elsewhere exploded inside their vehicle in Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 11/25/11)
2011        Nov 25, Ethiopia said it may contribute troops to the African Union force in Somalia fighting al-Qaida-affiliated insurgents.
    (AP, 11/25/11)

2011        Nov 28, Somalia's Islamist Shebab rebels ordered 16 international aid agencies shut in areas they control after armed raids on several offices, and warned more would follow if they did not toe the line.
    (AFP, 11/28/11)

2011        Nov 29, The World Health Organization (WHO) said its offices in southern Somalia were looted during rebel raids while children's relief agency UNICEF said its base in the area remained occupied. By Feb, 2012, al-Shabaab militants seized 480,000 pounds ($744,400) of UK-funded humanitarian aid supplies. They raided warehouses and offices of organizations partnered with the UK's Department for International Development, which spent 102.9 million pounds in Somalia that year.
    (AFP, 11/29/11)(AP, 8/11/13)

2011        Nov 30, In Somalia a suicide bomber dressed in a military uniform triggered his explosives at army headquarters in Mogadishu, killing four soldiers.
    (AP, 11/30/11)
2011        Nov 30, A French court jailed five Somali men for between four and eight years and acquitted a sixth in the Sep 2, 2008, hostage taking of a French couple on their yacht in the Gulf of Aden.
    (AFP, 11/30/11)

2011        Dec 1, Britain’s navy arrested 7 suspected pirates after a helicopter chase off the coast of Somalia. A Spanish fishing vessel had come under attack by a group of pirate vessels.
    (SFC, 12/2/11, p.A2)

2011        Dec 3, The Kenyan army said it had lost four troops killed in action against Somalia's Shebab Islamist rebels while 10 had been hospitalized with wounds since it launched its incursion in mid-October.
    (AFP, 12/3/11)

2011        Dec 5, Kenya military jets bombed two al-Shabab camps in Somalia, killing an unknown number of militants. 5 al-Shabab fighters on a boat attacked a Kenyan naval vessel. The navy sunk the attacking boat. A roadside bomb exploded in Kenya’s largest refugee camp near the border with Somalia, killing one police officer and wounding three.
    (AP, 12/5/11)(AP, 12/6/11)

2011        Dec 6, Somali police appeared to make a deadly error by returning a suspected suicide car bomber they had arrested to his bomb-laden vehicle, where the suspect then detonated a blast that killed four people.
    (AP, 12/6/11)
2011        Dec 6, Kenya’s military reported a large battle over the weekend (Dec 3-4) in which it said 11 Somali government soldiers and more than 40 al-Shabab fighters were killed.
    (AP, 12/6/11)

2011        Dec 9, UN chief Ban Ki-moon urged Somalia's Al Qaeda-linked insurgents to end violence during a surprise visit to war-torn Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 12/9/11)

2011        Dec 14, In Somalia a rowdy parliament session degenerated into fistfights and kicks after disagreements over the sacking of speaker Sharif Hassan Sheikh Adan. Supporters of Sheikh Adan argued that his impeachment a day earlier did not follow procedure. 
    (AFP, 12/14/11)

2011        Dec 18, Somali journalist Abdisalan Sheik Hassan was shot dead in Mogadishu by a man in a Somali government uniform.
    (AP, 12/18/11)

2011        Dec 20, In Somalia 200 troops from Djibouti arrived in Mogadishu to join the African Union force that helps protect the government and fight Islamist insurgents.
    (AP, 12/20/11)
2011        Dec 20, Kenyan military jets targeted several locations in Hosingow in the Lower Juba region of Somalia, close to the Kenyan border. 11 people, most of them civilians, were reported killed in the raid.
    (AFP, 12/21/11)

2011        Dec 23, In central Somalia a resident of a refugee camp at Mataban shot and killed three aid workers, including two workers with the UN's World Food Program.
    (AP, 12/23/11)

2011        Dec 27, Somali pirates hijacked the Enrica Ievoli, an Italian ship carrying 15,000 tons of caustic soda from Iran to Turkey. A ransom was paid on April 22, 2012, and the 18 crew members and ship were freed.
    (AP, 5/1/12)   

2011        Dec 29, In Somalia a disgruntled former employee shot at least two international workers from the aid group Doctors Without Borders at the group's office in Mogadishu. Philippe Havet (53) from Belgium and Andrias Karel Keiluhu (44) from Indonesia were killed.
    (AP, 12/29/11)(AP, 12/30/11)
2011        Dec 29, Kenyan troops clashed with Somalia's Al-Qaeda linked Shebab militants leaving several dead, the latest casualties in weeks of dragging conflict in southern Somalia.
    (AFP, 12/30/11)
2011        Dec 29, Minnesota based Sunrise Community Banks apologized for shutting the accounts of money transfer shops handling Somalia-related business. It called for unspecified government remedies to allow them to continue the business. The association of three banks, announced in early December that it would close the accounts of a dozen or so money transfer shops serving an estimated 30,000 Somalis in the region.
    (AFP, 12/30/11)

2011        Dec 31, Ethiopian troops captured Beledweyne, a rebel-held town in central Somalia, leaving at least 18 people dead.
    (Reuters, 12/31/11)(AFP, 12/31/12)

2011        Dec, Ahmed Abdirahman, a religious leader, was killed by gunmen in Puntland, a semiautonomous region of Somalia. Six prisoners, convicted for the murder, were executed in 2013.
    (AP, 4/30/13)

2011        Jay Bahadur (27), a Canadian writer, authored "The Pirates of Somalia: Inside Their Hidden World."
    (AP, 7/19/11)
2011        Somali exile author Nuruddin Farah published “Crossbones,” the 3rd volume of his “Past Imperfect” trilogy. The opening novel was “Links” (2004) followed by “Knots” (2007).
    (Econ, 9/17/11, p.90)
2011        Ahmed Godane, the emir of Somalia’s al-Shabab, merged his group fully with al-Qaida.
    (Econ, 9/28/13, p.21)
2011        In Somalia at least 80,000 people died this year of famine. A large amount of food sent by the UN to Mogadishu during the famine never reached the starving people it was intended for. Some of the World Food Program supplies went to the black market, some to feed livestock. One warehouse full of rations was looted in its entirety by a government official. Across the city, feeding sites handed out far less food than records indicate they should have. A report in 2013 raised the number of Somali deaths due to famine in 2011 to 260,000, half of them under age 5.
    (Econ, 2/25/12, p.58)(AP, 3/17/12)(AP, 5/6/13)

2012        Jan 4, Kenya's military said its forces killed three militant fighters from al-Shabab in a battle in Somalia. A Kenyan soldier was also killed in the battle.
    (AP, 1/4/12)

2012        Jan 5, The African Union asked the UN to authorize an increase of its peacekeeping force in war-torn Somalia by 5,700 to 17,700 amid mounting attacks by Islamist rebels.
    (AFP, 1/5/12)
2012        Jan 5, A US Navy destroyer rescued 13 Iranian fishermen, more than 40 days after their boat was commandeered by suspected Somali pirates in the northern Arabian Sea. The event was made public a day later and Iran's government on Jan 7 welcomed the rescue, calling it a positive humanitarian gesture. Iran's hard-line Fars news agency called the rescue operation a Hollywood dramatization of a routine event.
    (AP, 1/7/12)

2012        Jan 6, In Somalia at least 60 al-Shabab militants were killed in Kenyan airstrikes on Garbaharey town, a base of the al-Qaida-linked group.
    (AP, 1/7/12)

2012        Jan 7, In Somalia the Alhidaya mosque in Mogadishu was hit during an attack by the Islamist Shebab insurgents on African Union Mission (AMISOM) soldiers. At least one Muslim cleric was killed and several other people wounded.
    (AFP, 1/9/12)
2012        Jan 7, The Danish navy captured a suspect pirate mothership off the Horn of Africa. They arrested 25 suspected pirates and freed 14 people from Iran and Pakistan.
    (AP, 1/8/12)

2012        Jan 11, In Kenya alleged Somali Islamist gunmen killed six Kenyans including four policemen and abducted three others, in the northeastern region bordering Somalia.
    (AFP, 1/12/12)

2012        Jan 12,  Human Rights Watch (HRW) warned that Kenyan security forces were abusing civilians and Somali refugees in northeastern regions. The ICRC said it has suspended food aid to 1.1 million people in southern and central Somalia because of obstruction by local militia. Gunmen killed a local aid worker and his driver in central Somalia.
    (AFP, 1/12/12)

2012        Jan 13, The International Committee of the Red Cross called on local authorities in war-torn Somalia's south and center to release 140 trucks carrying aid for 240,000 needy.
    (AFP, 1/13/12)

2012        Jan 13, Kenyan police arrested 29 Ugandans suspected of seeking to join Islamist rebels in Somalia.
    (AFP, 1/15/12)

2012        Jan 15, Two Kenyan fighter jets, apparently targeting a southern Somali militant camp, instead killed five children in Jilib according to an insurgent spokesman and residents. A resident said she saw 2 dead al-Shabab fighters being transported after the attack.
    (AP, 1/16/12)

2012        Jan 16, In southern Somalia at least nine people were reportedly killed after jets bombed an al-Shabab militant camp in the town of Afmadow.
    (AP, 1/17/12)

2012        Jan 19, In Somalia a bomb exploded in a crowded refugee camp in Mogadishu, only minutes after a group of UN officials and international journalists left a nearby feeding site. The blast killed two Somalis.
    (AP, 1/19/12)

2012        Jan 20, In Somalia African Union-backed government forces raided Islamist rebel hideouts in Mogadishu with tanks and artillery, sparking a retaliation that killed 3 government soldiers and one official.
    (AFP, 1/20/12)
2012        Jan 20, The UN refugee agency raised concern over the record numbers of Ethiopians and Somalis flocking to Yemen, despite the deteriorating security situation there. Last year 103,000 refugees, asylum seekers and migrants crossed the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea, almost double the 2010 figure of 53,000.
    (AFP, 1/20/12)

2012        Jan 21, In Somalia gunmen kidnapped an American man in the northern town of Galkayo. Bilal-Berjawi, a British-Lebanese commander of the al-Shabab militant group, was killed along with two others when a US drone missile struck the car they were traveling in outside Mogadishu. Another airstrike killed six people near the insurgent stronghold of Kismayo.
    (AP, 1/21/12)(AP, 1/22/12)

2012        Jan 22, In Somalia 2 Kenyan and one Somali soldiers were killed during an attack on hardline Shehab positions at Delbio and Hosingo.
    (AFP, 1/23/12)

2012        Jan 24, In Somalia a truck bomb targeted an Ethiopian military base. Islamist militants claimed responsibility for the attack. Al-Shabab on its Twitter feed claimed that 33 Ethiopian troops were killed in the attack.
    (AP, 1/24/12)

2012        Jan 25, US Navy SEAL Team 6, the same unit that killed Osama bin Laden, parachuted into Somalia under cover of darkness and crept up to an outdoor camp where an American woman and Danish man were being held hostage. 9 kidnappers were killed and American Jessica Buchanan and Poul Hagen Thisted were freed.
    (AP, 1/25/12)
2012        Jan 25, At least 15 Somali migrants were killed and 40 left missing after their boat capsized off the coast of Libya. The boat had been carrying 55 Somalis and the other passengers were still missing.
    (AFP, 1/28/12)

2012        Jan 27, Ethiopian PM Meles Zenawi said he would pull troops out of Somalia "as soon as feasible," admitting for the first time that forces had crossed into the war-torn neighboring country.
    (AFP, 1/27/12)

2012        Jan 28, In Somalia unidentified gunmen shot dead Hassan Osman Abdi (29), a station director at a Mogadishu radio station.
    (AFP, 1/28/12)

2012        Jan 30, Somalia's Islamist Shebab rebels banned the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), ordering it to close its emergency relief operations in the war-torn regions it controls.
    (AFP, 1/30/12)

2012        Jan 31, In Somalia two guards and a suicide bomber were killed in an attack on the home of Abdi Hasan Qeybdid, a senior militia commander in the central town of Galkayo.
    (AFP, 1/31/12)

2012        Feb 2, Britain sent Foreign Secretary William Hague to Mogadishu and appointed an ambassador (Matt Baugh), for the first time in two decades. The last British ambassador left Somalia 21 years ago, as the Horn of Africa spiraled into chaos during the 1991 ouster of president Siad Barre.
    (AFP, 2/2/12)

2012        Feb 3, In Somalia refugees and soldiers in Mogadishu's Badbado camp say they watched a surveillance drone crash into a hut made of sticks, corrugated cans and plastic bags. Kenya's military said some 100 Somali militants were killed after helicopter gunships targeted a gathering of more than 200 al-Shabab fighters near Badhade.
    (AP, 2/3/12)

2012        Feb 7, Somali pirates seized the MV Free Goddess, a Liberian-flagged Greek-owned ship and its crew of 21 Filipinos. They were held hostage by pirates for eight months until a payment of $2.3 million was made in ransom.
    (AP, 10/12/12)

2012        Feb 8, In Somalia a suicide car bomber slammed his vehicle into a cafe outside the Muna Hotel, where lawmakers gather in Mogadishu, killing at least 15 people.
    (http://tinyurl.com/89an85t)(AFP, 2/17/12)
2012        Feb 8, Eleven Somalis drowned and another 34 were missing after a smugglers' boat headed for Yemen capsized in the Gulf of Aden. Survivors told how the three smugglers crewmen forced 22 people overboard when the boat's engine failed soon after departure.
    (AFP, 2/10/12)

2012        Feb 9, In a video posted on an Islamic Internet forum Al-Qaida's leader, Ayman al-Zawahri, said that the Somali militant group al-Shabab has formally joined al-Qaida.
    (AP, 2/9/12)

2012        Feb 13, Across Somalia gun-toting Shebab insurgents staged rallies to celebrate their group's recognition by Ayman al-Zawahiri as a member of the Islamist Al-Qaeda network.
    (AP, 2/13/12)

2012        Feb 14, Somali government forces backed by the African Union attacked Islamist Shebab rebel posts on the outskirts of the war-torn capital Mogadishu with tanks and artillery.
    (AFP, 2/14/12)

2012        Feb 15, Somalia's president asked the United Nations to lift the arms embargo against his country, saying the recent merger between al-Qaida and al-Shabab has made the dropping of the arms ban necessary.
    (AP, 2/15/12)

2012        Feb 17, In Somalia a car bomb exploded inside the compound of a major police building in Mogadishu, wounding at least one police officer.
    (AP, 2/17/12)

2012        Feb 18, Somalia's disparate leaders agreed on the basic structure of a new parliament and government to replace the fragile transitional body that has failed to bring peace to the war-torn country. The accord proposed a parliamentary system for anarchic Somalia, with both Puntland and Galmudug recognized as states within a federal system.
    (AFP, 2/19/12)

2012        Feb 21, Ethiopian troops in battle tanks thrust into rebel-held Somalia regions, sparking heavy fighting as they advanced towards the major Shebab stronghold of Baidoa.
    (AFP, 2/21/12)

2012        Feb 22, In Somalia truckloads of Ethiopian and Somali troops captured the strategic city of Baidoa from Al-Qaeda allied Shebab insurgents, who vowed to avenge their loss. The blow to the insurgency coincided with the UN Security Council boosting the strength of an African force in Mogadishu by more than 5,000 troops and came on the eve of conference in London aimed at reviving peace efforts.
    (AFP, 2/22/12)

2012        Feb 23, Somali and int’l. participants at a conference in London agreed to develop a federal system in Somalia based on 5-6 zones of influence.
    (Econ, 2/25/12, p.58)

2012        Feb 24, In southern Somalia a US military drone missile strike killed four Al-Qaeda allied Shebab rebels, as the extremists were squeezed on three fronts by regional forces.
    (AFP, 2/24/12)(SFC, 2/25/12, p.A2)

2012        Feb 27, In Somalia an explosion killed three people at a football match in Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 2/27/12)
2012        Feb 27, Off Somalia's coast, 2 hostages were killed as the Danish warship HDMS Absalon intercepted a cargo vessel that had been hijacked by pirates. 17 suspected pirates were found along with 18 hostages. In July Danish military prosecutors say a Danish soldier "very likely" caused the death of the two hostages, but that the soldier would not be prosecuted since anti-pirate operations are inherently fraught with deadly risks.
    (AP, 2/28/12)(AP, 7/3/12)

2012        Feb 28, In Somalia gunmen shot down Abukar Hassan Kadaf, the head of the Somaliweyn radio station in Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 2/28/12)

2012        Mar 2, It was reported that the UN-backed Somali government spent only $1 million on social services despite having $58 million in revenue, according to an unpublished report by Abdirazak Fartaag, a former Somali government official.
    (AP, 3/3/12)

2012        Mar 3, In Somalia a car bomb exploded near a military base housing Burundian soldiers from an African Union peacekeeping force in Mogadishu, killing the driver.
    (AFP, 3/3/12)

2012        Mar 5, In Somalia a Burundi soldier with the African Union troops was killed and another injured in Mogadishu, when a bomb they were defusing was detonated by Shebab rebels.
    (AFP, 3/5/12)

2012        Mar 6, Turkish Airlines started flying into Somalia's war-torn capital, becoming the first international company to fly passenger planes into Mogadishu in more than 20 years. Flights were scheduled for twice a week.
    (AP, 3/6/12)

2012        Mar 10, In Somalia an offensive by Islamist Shebab fighters on Ethiopian troops left at least 23 people dead including 17 al-Shabab fighters and 6 Ethiopian troops.
    (AFP, 3/10/12)(SSFC, 3/11/12, p.A4)

2012        Mar 12, Kenya said it will avail 4,660 soldiers to the African Union force in Somalia, where it already has troops fighting the Al Qaeda-linked Shebab insurgents.
    (AFP, 3/12/12)

2012        Mar 13, Somalia's Shebab rebels banned the aid group Save the Children from operating in regions under their control. It accused Save the Children of distributing expired porridge to children, as well as corruption and failing to comply with the rules laid down by the Al Qaeda-linked group.
    (AFP, 3/13/12)

2012        Mar 14, In Somalia a suicide bomber blew himself up at the compound of President Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, killing at least 5 people, in an attack claimed by Al-Qaeda affiliated Shebab rebels.
    (AFP, 3/14/12)

2012        Mar 19, In Somalia several mortars hit houses as families slept in Mogadishu. A father, mother and two children were killed in one house. Another round killed two other civilians. An additional 12 people were wounded.
    (AFP, 3/19/12)
2012        Mar 19, Somalia's national theatre reopened in the war-ravaged capital Mogadishu for the first time in 20 years with the president voicing hope it would mark a watershed in the long quest for peace.
    (AFP, 3/19/12)

2012        Mar 20, In Somalia Al-Qaeda-allied Islamist gunmen seized Dhusamareb, a key central, driving out the pro-government militia Ahlu Sunna Wal Jamaa, an Ethiopia-backed force who follow Somalia's traditional Sufi branch of Islam. Shebab fighters also fired mortar bombs at the presidency in Mogadishu as their commanders called for more attacks on the government. The pro-government militia later in the day wrested back Dhusamareb in fierce clashes both sides claimed killed several of their rivals.
    (AFP, 3/20/12)

2012        Mar 21, British hostage Judith Tebbutt (57), captured in Kenya on Sep 11, 2011, ago by gunmen who killed her husband, was released in central Somalia and flown out to Nairobi.
    (AP, 3/21/12)

2012        Mar 23, Abdullahi Yusuf (78), former president of the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia (2004-2008), died in a hospital in Dubai. He rose from a guerrilla warrior to president of Somalia only to watch his administration crumble under a ferocious Islamic insurgency.
    (AP, 3/23/12)

2012        Mar 24, In central Somalia hundreds of heavily armed Ethiopian troops advanced into Dhusamareb with the aim of attacking the main stronghold of the Al Qaeda-linked Shebab militia in the region.
    (AFP, 3/24/12)

2012        Mar 26, In central Somalia Ethiopian forces seized El Bur, the main regional base of the Al Qaeda-linked Shebab insurgents. Shebab rebels in Mogadishu killed two civilians at a camp for the displaced near the presidential compound, which they targeted with mortar bombs.
    (AFP, 3/26/12)
2012        Mar 26, Somali pirates seized an Iranian-owned cargo ship and its 23-strong crew in the first hijacking within Maldivian territory. The MV. Eglantine was seized off the north-western Hoarafush island in the Indian Ocean atoll nation. The Bolivian-flagged vessel was freed on April 2, and continued on to Iran with its sugar shipment.
    (AFP, 3/27/12)(AFP, 4/3/12)

2012        Mar 29, Human rights Watch said pro-government Somali militia are torturing and executing civilians in two southern towns of the war-torn nation where Ethiopian troops recently ousted Islamist rebels.
    (AFP, 3/29/12)

2012        Mar 30, Somali government troops backed by African forces said they took control of one of the Islamist rebellion's last strongholds, sparking intense clashes on the outskirts of Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 3/30/12)

2012        Apr 2, A Bolivian-flagged vessel seized by Somali pirates since last week was freed, and is continuing on to Iran with its sugar shipment.
    (AFP, 4/3/12)

2012        Apr 4, In Somalia an explosion at the national theater in Mogadishu killed at least 4 people including two top sports officials in an attack by an Islamist group. Officials said a female suicide bomber was responsible, but al-Shabab said it was a planted device. The explosion at the newly reopened theater happened as PM Abdiweli Mohamed Ali was standing at the podium to deliver a speech.
    (AP, 4/4/12)(SFC, 4/5/12, p.A3)

2012        Apr 5, In Somalia African Union troops deployed in the city of Baidoa, the first time the force has dispatched troops outside Mogadishu since it was set up five years ago. Baidoa, located 250 km (155 miles) northwest of Mogadishu, was the seat of Somalia's transitional parliament until the hardline Shebab captured it three years ago.
    (AFP, 4/5/12)

2012        Apr 6, A Chinese cargo ship was hijacked by pirates in the Gulf of Oman, not far off the south of Iran. The Xianghuamen, owned by Yuanyang shipping company, was sailing with a crew of 28. Iran’s navy rescued the 28 crew members and detained 9 Somali pirates.
    (AFP, 4/6/12)(AP, 4/6/12)

2012        Apr 9, In Somalia a blast rocked a vegetable market in Baidoa, the country’s third-largest city, killing at least twelve people and wounding at least 30.
    (AFP, 4/9/12)

2012        Apr 11, Somalia’s PM Abdiweli Mohamed Ali said that al-Shabab is in "tatters" and that its high-ranking leaders are now moving to the Galgala Mountains.
    (AP, 4/11/12)
2012        Apr 11, The Danish navy stopped a pirate ship off the Somali coast, rescuing 12 Iranian and Pakistani hostages and arresting their 16 captors.
    (AFP, 4/12/12)

2012        Apr 17, In Somalia unknown military jets fired several missiles at a suspected pirate base in the north of the war-torn country, wounding two civilians. Last month the EU authorized its navies to strike Somali pirate equipment on land, with a mandate for warships or helicopters to fire at fuel barrels, boats, trucks or other equipment stowed away on beaches. A suicide bomber killed a soldier in the southern town of Baidoa, when he detonated an explosive vest as he tried to enter a government security building.
    (AFP, 4/17/12)

2012        Apr 18, The German government approved an extension of the EU's anti-piracy operation off the Horn of Africa to include targeting equipment stored on Somali beaches.
    (AFP, 4/18/12)

2012        Apr 19, In Somalia Burundian troops with the AU force seized areas of Mogadishu’s Banadir district late today, including securing the Deynile airstrip, part of long-running efforts to drive the militants from the city.
    (AFP, 4/20/12)

2012        May 1, Bomb attacks in Somalia claimed by Islamist rebels killed at least eight people including two lawmakers, as the international community warned that "spoilers" threaten the fragile progress in the war-torn nation.
    (AFP, 5/1/12)

2012        May 2, In Somalia 2 armed men shadowed radio journalist Farhan Abdulle after he left his station, then shot him dead. He became the fifth Somali journalist killed this year.
    (AP, 5/4/12)

2012        May 7, In Somalia a mortar shell fired into a crowded Mogadishu neighborhood and killed seven civilians, including two children.
    (AFP, 5/8/12)

2012        May 10, Somali pirates hijacked the MT Smyrni, a Greek tanker carrying 135,000 tons of fuel oil. The ship and 26 crew members were released 10 months later.
    (http://gcaptain.com/smyrni-hijacking-update/)(Econ, 5/18/13, p.67)

2012        May 15, The EU naval force patrolling the Indian Ocean carried out its first air strikes against pirate targets on shore, with a pirate reporting that the raid destroyed speed boats, fuel depots and an arms store.
    (AP, 5/15/12)

2012        May 19, In Somalia at least 7 people, mostly Somali soldiers, were killed in bomb explosions in Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 5/19/12)

2012        May 22, In the UAR a federal court convicted 10 Somali pirates captured during a raid to retake MV Arrilah-1 on April 1, 2011, and sentenced them to life behind bars.
    (AP, 5/22/12)

2012        May 24, In Somalia thousands of people fled a region north of Mogadishu amid the sounds of gunfire and explosions as government troops and their allies tried to take more ground from Islamist insurgents in the Afgoye corridor. An estimated 400,000 refugees had been in the agricultural town.
    (AP, 5/24/12)

2012        May 25, Somali and African Union troops said they have captured the strategic town of Afgoye from Al-Qaeda-linked Shebab insurgents without major resistance. Somali troops were reported to be pushing northwards towards the Shebab-held town of Balad, some 35 km (21 miles) north of Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 5/25/12)

2012        May 29, Somalia's president Sharif Shekh Ahmed escaped an ambush unharmed as Al-Qaeda linked Shebab fighters attacked his armored convoy in the Afgoye corridor. Shebab insurgents said they had fired on two foreign warships that came in close to the key rebel port of Kismayo, the first such reported incident as they face growing military pressure.
    (AFP, 5/29/12)

2012        May 30, The Somali militant group al-Shabab threatened to bring down skyscrapers in Kenya within two weeks, a warning that followed a bomb attack in Nairobi's city center. Kenya naval forces bombarded the Somali town of Kismayo, a key stronghold of the Al-Qaida-linked al-Shabab. Ground troops attacked Afmadhow.
    (AP, 5/31/12)(SFC, 5/31/12, p.A2)

2012        May 31, In Turkey representatives from 54 countries gathered in Istanbul for a 2-day conference to find a path towards a better future for Somalia for which the term "failed state" was coined two decades ago.
    (AFP, 5/31/12)

2012        Jun 2, Kenyan troops were officially integrated into the African Union's peacekeeping mission in Somalia (AMISOM), with Kenya's defense minister signing an agreement at AU headquarters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    (AFP, 6/2/12)

2012        Jun 7, The US announced $33 million in rewards for information leading to the location of top terrorist suspects in Somalia.
    (SFC, 6/8/12, p.A2)

2012        Jun 14, Somali government spokesman Abdirahman Omar Osman said that some 500 al-Shabab fighters have defected to the government side.
    (AP, 6/15/12)

2012        Jun 16, In Somalia a suicide bomber attacked a military base housing African Union soldiers and Somali troops about 30 km (20 miles) from the capital Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 6/16/12)

2012        Jun 21, Somali security forces rescued a South African couple kidnapped by pirates in the Indian Ocean and held for 18 months. Debbie Calitz and Bruno Pelizzari were sailing in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Kenya on Oct 26, 2010, when their yacht was hijacked by 12 pirates who set course for Somalia and took the couple ashore at Baraawe.
    (AFP, 6/21/12)

2012        Jun 22, Somali leaders approved the draft constitution. The president, prime minister and four other leaders signed the document at a meeting in Nairobi, Kenya. Somali PM Abdiweli Mohamed Ali said the constitutional is only provisional until Somali citizens can vote on it.
    (AP, 6/22/12)

2012        Jun 26, In Somalia hundreds of pro-government troops swept into Balad town 30 km north of Mogadishu, forcing al-Shabab fighters to flee.
    (AP, 6/26/12)
2012        Jun 26, In Tanzania a truck driver abandoned Ethiopian and Somali migrants after letting a number of them suffocate to death inside his vehicle. He dumped 43 bodies and abandoned survivors.
    (AP, 6/27/12)

2012        Jun 28, In Dubai Somali President Sharif Sheikh Ahmed and his counterpart Ahmed Mohamed Silanyo of Somaliland agreed to boost cooperation between their different factions. The two men signed the "Dubai Charter" in the presence of the leaders of Puntland and Galmudug, two self-proclaimed autonomous regions in Somalia.
    (AFP, 6/28/12)

2012        Jun 29, In Kenya gunmen killed at least one person and kidnapped 4 aid workers in the Dadaab refugee camp complex near the border with war-torn Somalia. The 4 aid workers were released safely in southern Somalia after a short overnight gunfight on July 2.
    (AFP, 6/29/12)(AFP, 7/2/12)

2012        Jul 5, The United States placed sanctions on six alleged backers of Al-Qaeda-linked Shebab rebels in Somalia, naming them as two Eritrean government officials, a Sudanese national and three Kenyans.
    (AFP, 7/5/12)

2012        Jul 7, Somali security forces said they had detained over 500 people in a two-day operation in the Mogadishu area who were either Islamist rebel fighters or had have links to them.
    (AFP, 7/8/12)

2012        Jul 11, In northern Somalia 2 Kenyan aid workers and a Somali doctor were kidnapped. Police suspected pirates.
    (AFP, 7/11/12)

2012        Jul 16, In Somalia a car bomb went off in Mogadishu killing Mohamed Abdinur Garweyne, a former trade minister, and wounding six people nearby.
    (AFP, 7/16/12)
2012        Jul 16, A UN Security Council report said that for every $10 received, $7 never made its way into Somalia state coffers. The report cited systematic misappropriation, embezzlement and outright theft. Somali PM Abdiweli Mohamed Ali condemned the allegations.
    (SFC, 7/17/12, p.A2)

2012        Jul 20, Puntland security forces of the semi-autonomous region in northern Somalia seized a boat carrying weapons that were being smuggled from al-Qaida militants in Yemen to fighters in Somalia.
    (AP, 7/21/12)

2012        Jul 22, Somalia's most powerful militant group publicly executed three of its members because they had spied on the militants for the US and British intelligence agencies.
    (AP, 7/22/12)

2012        Jul 31, In Somalia gunmen in Mogadishu shot dead Abdi Jeylani Malaq Marshale, a well-known comedian known for poking fun at Al-Qaeda linked Shebab insurgents.
    (AFP, 8/2/12)

2012        Aug 1, Somali leaders voted overwhelmingly to adopt a new constitution that contains new individual rights and sets the country on a course for a more powerful and representative government. The vote came after two thunderous blasts at the gates of the meeting site from a failed suicide attack. Security forces shot dead two bombers at the gate to the meeting area.
    (AP, 8/1/12)

2012        Aug 13, Dutch sailors taking part in NATO's pirate-busting operation Ocean Shield helped rescue the crew of a Somali dhow hijacked by pirates in the Gulf of Aden.
    (AFP, 8/14/12)

2012        Aug 20, Somalia's parliament held its inaugural session as the chief justice swore in 211 new members of parliament. Leaders were to have chosen 275 members of parliament and vote for a new president by today, the end of the UN-backed Transitional Federal Government. The process has been slowed by corruption and intimidation. Some seats were said to be sold for up to $25,000.
    (AP, 8/20/12)(Econ, 8/25/12, p.37)

2012        Aug 27, In Somalia African Union forces seized the port city of Merca from rebels linked to al-Qaida. At least 5 children were killed and more than 10 others wounded in a blast in a school in Balad, after they played with explosives left over from fighting in the area.
    (AP, 8/27/12)(AFP, 8/27/12)

2012        Aug 29, Somali pirates killed a Syrian hostage crew member and wounded another to protest a delayed ransom payment for the MV Orna, hijacked on Dec 20, 2010.
    (SSFC, 9/2/12, p.A9)

2012        Sep 1, Somalia's Al-Qaeda-linked Shebab militants put on show the bodies of four "enemy" soldiers (2 Somalis and 2 Kenyans) killed in combat in Kismayo, southern Somalia.
    (AFP, 9/1/12)

2012        Sep 4, The Kenyan Navy said it has shelled Somalia's port town of Kismayo, the remaining significant stronghold of al-Qaida-linked militants, in preparation for the ground forces to capture the town. 7 people believed to be members of the al-Shabab militia group were killed in the shelling that occurred on Sep 1 and Sep 3.
    (AP, 9/4/12)

2012        Sep 10, Somalia's Parliament elected a new president of the country's fledgling government. Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, a political newcomer, won the election against outgoing President Sheik Sharif Sheikh Ahmed by the legislative vote of 190 to 79.
    (AP, 9/10/12)

2012        Sep 12, In Somalia a day after the election of the new president, two explosions at the gate of his temporary residence killed at least five people and wounded three others.
    (AP, 9/12/12)

2012        Sep 18, Somali officials said Islamist extremist fighters have started to leave their coastal stronghold of Kismayo in the face of advancing allied African troops.
    (SFC, 9/19/12, p.A2)

2012        Sep 20, In Somalia a suicide bombing killed 14 people at a Mogadishu cafe frequented by politicians and journalists.
    (AP, 9/21/12)

2012        Sep 23, In Somalia a Kenyan soldier allegedly shot dead six Somalis believed to be civilians caught up in the ongoing battle between allied African troops and extremist insurgents.
    (AP, 9/24/12)

2012        Sep 25, Kenya's military said that its bombing of the Somali port city of Kismayo destroyed a warehouse and armory belonging to the Islamist militant group al-Shabab, which controls the city.
    (AP, 9/25/12)

2012        Sep 28, One Somali journalist was shot dead by gunmen. A second journalist, a day earlier, was beheaded and his body dumped in the street. The two attacks brought the number of Somali journalists killed this year to 15. Kenyan troops invaded Kismayo, al-Shabab's last stronghold in Somalia, coming ashore in a predawn assault.
    (AP, 9/28/12)

2012        Sep 29, In southern Somalia Al-Shabab rebels pulled out of Kismayo, a day after Kenyan troops invaded and marched toward the city center and seaside port that long served as the militants' key source of funding.
    (AP, 9/29/12)

2012        Oct 1, Somali troops entered Kismayo for the first time since Kenyan troops carried out an amphibious assault on the coastal port city last week, causing al-Shabab militants to flee.
    (AP, 10/1/12)

2012        Oct 8, Somalia’s Al-Shabab said on Twitter that it had banned the British-registered aid group Islamic Relief. The extremists accused the group of working with the United Nations' World Food Program, which the militants will not allow in its territory.
    (AP, 10/8/12)

2012        Oct 11, Somali pirates released the MV Free Goddess, a Liberian-flagged Greek-owned ship and its crew of 21 Filipinos, following a payment of a $2.3 million ransom. They were held hostage for eight months. Pirates still held six ships and 156 crew members.
    (AP, 10/12/12)

2012        Oct 19, In Somalia a cargo ship was freed after being held captive for nearly two years. A $600,000 ransom was paid for the MV Orna, hijacked on Dec 20, 2010. Six hostages were still being held by the pirates on land. Pirates shot and killed one of the ship's crew members in August over delayed ransom payments.
    (AP, 10/20/12)

2012        Oct 23, Somali journalist Ahmed Farah Sakin, a reporter for the Somali television station Universal, was shot to death in the town of Lasanod in the breakaway region of Somaliland. This brought the number of journalists killed in Somalia this year to 16.
    (AP, 10/24/12)

2012        Oct 28, Somali journalist Mohamed Mohamud Turyare, a reporter at Shabelle radio, died of wounds  following an attacked by gunmen last week. This brought the number of journalists killed in targeted attacks in Somalia this year to 17.
    (AP, 10/29/12)

2012        Oct 29, In Somalia Warsame Shire Awale, who worked at a Mogadishu radio station, was shot dead by two men near his home. This brought the number of Somali journalists killed this year to 18.
    (AP, 10/30/12)

2012        Oct 31, A top a top Kenyan official said more than 2,700 African Union troops from Uganda have died in Somalia. About three dozen Kenyan forces have died there over the last year.
    (AP, 10/31/12)

2012        Nov 3, In Somalia a security guard died while fending off suicide bombers who were trying to storm into a popular Mogadishu restaurant.
    (AP, 11/3/12)

2012        Nov 23, Somali journalists urged their new government and the international community to help end the impunity they say is contributing to making Somalia one of the world's most dangerous countries to practice journalism. Journalist Mohamed Bashir Hashi said they are being targeted to silence them from speaking against corruption, violence and violations of human rights by radical Islamist groups.
    (AP, 11/23/12)

2012        Dec 4, In northeastern Somalia militants attacked an army post, killing 12 soldiers in one of the deadliest attacks in recent months by the al-Qaida-linked group.
    (AP, 12/5/12)

2012        Dec 9, In Somalia African Union and Somali troops took Jowhar, a rebel al-Shabab stronghold north of Mogadishu.
    (AP, 12/9/12)

2012        Dec 13, A Kenyan official said an intelligence message intercepted from an al-Qaida-linked Somali militant group shows that the rebels are being offered up to $8,000 as a reward for killing Kenyan security officers.
    (AP, 12/13/12)

2012        Dec 14, In Somalia a suicide car bomb explosion in Mogadishu killed only the bomber. 3 bystanders were wounded.
    (AP, 12/14/12)

2012        Dec 18, In the Gulf of Aden 55 people drowned or were missing after an overcrowded boat capsized off the Somali coast.
    (AP, 12/21/12)

2012        Dec 23, Puntland forces, after a two-week seige, captured back the Panamanian-flagged MV Iceburg 1 and rescued 22 hostages who had been held by pirates since May 29, 2010. The hijackers had killed a Yemeni sailor who tried to escape. The pirates near the coastal village of Gara’ad escaped.
    (SFC, 12/24/12, p.A2)(AP, 12/29/12)

2013        Jan 4, Omar Hammami, an Alabama native who moved to Somalia to wage jihad alongside al-Shabab militants, was given 15 days to surrender to militants or be killed. The FBI has named Hammami as one of its most-wanted terrorists.
    (AP, 1/18/13)

2013        Jan 6, Somalia’s Universal TV reported that armed men in police uniform had raped a young woman. The same day Al Jazeera published an article describing rape by security forces in camps for internally displaced people in Mogadishu. Journalist Abdiaziz Abdinur Ibrahim then interviewed the woman but never published a story. He was arrested for conducting the interview.
    (AP, 1/23/13)

2013        Jan 10, Somali journalist Abdiaziz Abdinur Ibrahim, a freelance journalist, was arrested by police after interviewing a woman who said she was raped by government security forces. She was also briefly arrested and questioned by police before being released.
    (AP, 1/15/13)

2013        Jan 12, In Somalia a French commando raid to free a captive intelligence agent, code-name Denis Allex, ended in the deaths of 17 Islamists and a French soldier. France said the hostage also died in the failed rescue, but the man's captors denied he had been killed and claimed to have seized a 2nd soldier. Allex was captured in Somalia on July 14, 2009.
    (AP, 1/12/13)
2013        Jan 12, In Somalia three Syrian hostages held by pirates were released after more than two years in captivity. They were the last to be freed of the 21 surviving crew of the ship MV Orna, hijacked in Dec, 2010.
    (AP, 1/12/13)

2013        Jan 15, In Somalia African Union troops mistakenly opened fire on a religious school while pursuing militants at Leggo village, killing five children and two adults.
    (AP, 1/17/13)

2013        Jan 16, Somalia's most dangerous militant group reportedly killed French hostage Denis Allex, whom French military forces tried to rescue last weekend during a botched raid. French officials have said they believe Allex was killed the night of the raid and that claims by al-Shabab of an execution were simply propaganda.
    (AP, 1/17/13)

2013        Jan 18, In Somalia unknown gunmen shot dead Shabelle radio producer Abdihared Osman Aden, the first journalist to be killed this year. 18 journalists were killed in Somalia last year.
    (AP, 1/18/13)

2013        Jan 23, Rights groups called for the Somali government to release a journalist arrested by police for interviewing a woman who said she was raped by government security forces. Freelance journalist Abdiaziz Abdinur Ibrahim and three others accused in the case have been held for more than a week without charge. Journalist Abdiaziz Abdinur was later charged with insulting a government body and inducing the woman to give false evidence. On March 17 Somalia's Supreme Court overturned Ibrahim’s widely criticized conviction.
    (AP, 1/23/13)(AP, 1/31/13)(AP, 3/18/13)

2013        Jan 25, Twitter suspended the account used by Somalia's al-Qaida-linked militant group two days after al-Shabab used the platform to announce a death threat against Kenyan hostages unless Kenya's government meets its demands.
    (AP, 1/25/13)

2013        Jan 26, Somalia's education minister said 3 officials have been arrested for mismanaging a scholarship scheme that sends Somali students to Turkey. Somalia is ranked as the world's most corrupt country by Transparency International.
    (AP, 1/26/13)

2013        Jan 26, Somalia's education minister said 3 officials have been arrested for mismanaging a scholarship scheme that sends Somali students to Turkey. Somalia is ranked as the world's most corrupt country by Transparency International.
    (AP, 1/26/13)

2013        Jan 29, In Somalia a suicide bomber in Mogadishu detonated explosives in the presidential palace compound outside the home of PM Abdi Farah Shirdon, killing himself and two people.
    (AP, 1/29/13)
2013        Jan 29, The Somali government charged a woman who has said she was raped by security forces. Human Rights Watch later said three other people including the woman's husband were also charged with assisting the alleged rape victim to evade investigators.
    (AP, 1/31/13)

2013        Feb 4, In Somalia a roadside bomb killed an African Union soldier from Burundi.
    (AP, 2/4/13)

2013        Feb 5, In Somalia a Mogadishu court handed down one-year prison sentences to a woman who said she was raped by security forces and a reporter who interviewed her. The judges decided the woman falsely claimed she was raped and had insulted the government. On March 3 an appeals court dropped charges against the woman. A journalist who interviewed the rape victim and was tried alongside her had his sentence reduced from one year to six months.
    (AP, 2/5/13)(AP, 3/3/13)

2013        Feb 11, Somali police said a suicide car bomb attack targeting a senior Puntland police commander in Galkayo killed only the bomber.
    (AP, 2/11/13)

2013        Feb 15, In Somalia Al-Qaeda-linked militants claimed that they have executed a Kenyan soldier after the Nairobi government failed to meet their demands. A car bomb detonated by remote control killed one person and wounded two others in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 2/15/13)(AP, 2/16/13)

2013        Mar 1, In Somalia a suicide bomber detonated explosives inside a seaside restaurant in Mogadishu, killing himself and one diner. A car bomb was also remotely detonated at the restaurant's gates.
    (AP, 3/1/13)

2013        Mar 16, In Somalia al-Shabab fighters stoned to death a man for allegedly forcing a 13-year-old boy to have sex with him.
    (AP, 3/21/13)

2013        Mar 18, In Somalia an explosives-laden car, apparently targeting a truck full of government officials, hit a civilian car and exploded, setting a nearby mini-bus on fire and killing at least 7 people in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 3/18/13)

2013        Mar 20, The US announced a $5 million reward for information leading to the arrest of American jihadi Omar Hammami and another $5 million reward for a 2nd American fighting in Somalia, Jehad Mostafa.
    (AP, 3/21/13)

2013        Mar 24, In Somalia 2 gunmen in Mogadishu shot and killed Rahmo Abdulqadir Farah, a female Somali journalist.
    (AP, 3/25/13)

2013        Apr 8, Somalia's government, after months of denial, acknowledged for the first time that its security forces were involved in rape cases that drew an international outcry by human rights groups.
    (AP, 4/9/13)

2013        Apr 14, In Somalia 9 al-Shabab Islamic extremists, most wearing suicide vests, stormed the main court complex in Mogadishu while the Supreme Court was in session, firing a barrage of bullets during a running gun battle with security forces that lasted two hours. A car bomb later exploded near the airport. At least 35 people were killed in the attacks, including all 9 militants.
    (AP, 4/14/13)(AP, 4/15/13)

2013        Apr 25, In Somalia Omar Hammami, a most-wanted American jihadi fropm Alabama, was wounded in an assassination attempt.
    (AP, 4/26/13)

2013        Apr 30, In the Puntland region of Somalia 13 prisoners were executed by firing squad on the outskirts of Bossaso. One soldier who helped carry out the execution died after being struck by an errant bullet fired by a colleague.
    (AP, 4/30/13)

2013        May 5, In Somalia 7 people were killed when a suicide bomber attempted to ram a car laden with explosives into a military convoy escorting a four-member Qatari delegation on the KM4 roadway. 4 Somali soldiers were wounded when a roadside bomb struck a government vehicle in Deynile district, in Mogadishu's northwest.
    (AP, 5/5/13)

2013        May 7, Somali President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud urged donors at an international conference in London to provide "considerable investment and support" for his beleaguered government, arguing that the fate of his country and the region hangs in the balance.
    (AP, 5/7/13)

2013        May 26, Kenya’s anti-terrorism police killed Khalid Ahmed, a wanted terrorist, and recovered a cache of weapons in the port city of Mombasa. The Somali national had sneaked into Kenya from Somalia where he had undergone paramilitary training.
    (AP, 5/26/13)

2013        Jun 6, In southern Somalia al-Qaida-linked militants killed two men by firing squad in Bararwe for allegedly spying for the Somali government and the African Union military force.
    (AP, 6/7/13)

2013        Jun 19, In Somalia 7 al-Shabab gunmen detonated a pick-up truck rigged with explosives at the gate of the UN compound in Mogadishu, launching a bombs-and-gunfire assault that saw militants pour into the complex, killing at least 13 people, including 3 foreigners. The gunmen all died in the assault.
    (AP, 6/19/13)

2013        Jun 29, In Somalia dozens were feared dead as militia clashes over leadership continued for a 2nd day in the strategic port city of Kismayu.
    (AP, 6/29/13)(Reuters, 6/29/13)

2013        Jun 30, Somalia's government called for a neutral force in the disputed port city of Kismayo, accusing Kenyan troops there of backing one militia against others in ongoing fighting for control of the strategic southern city.
    (AP, 7/1/13)

2013        Jul 1, A UN report said: Some 80 percent of withdrawals from the Central Bank of Somalia are made for private purposes and not for the running of government, representing a patronage system and a set of social relations that defy institutionalization of the state. "Key to these irregularities has been the current governor of the Central Bank, Abdusalam Omer."
    (Reuters, 7/1/13)

2013        Jul 4, The World Health Organization said at least 71 people have been killed and more than 300 wounded in ongoing fighting between rival militias in the Somali city of Kismayo.
    (AP, 7/4/13)

2013        Jul 7, In Somalia journalist Liban Abdullahi Farah was gunned down in Galkayo, Puntland province. He was the 6th journalist to die violently in Somalia this year.
    (Econ, 8/3/13, p.44)(http://tinyurl.com/oafs6e7)

2013        Jul 8, The European Union Naval Force said the MV Albedo, a hijacked Malaysian-flagged ship that pirates have held off the coast of Somalia since November 2010, has sunk in rough seas. 2 of 15 crew members were reportedly rescued. A pirate commander said at least six pirates and two crew members had been killed.
    (AP, 7/8/13)
2013        Jul 8, In Virginia three Somalis were convicted of piracy, kidnapping and murder in the 2011 shooting deaths of four Americans sailing in the Indian Ocean off of Oman and could face the death penalty.
    (Reuters, 7/9/13)

2013        Jul 9, In Somalia a bomb exploded inside Bakara market in Mogadishu, wounding at least 5 government soldiers aboard a military vehicle.
    (AP, 7/9/13)

2013        Jul 12, In Somalia a suicide bomber detonated his explosives near a moving convoy of African Union troops in Mogadishu, killing himself and at least 3 people walking by.
    (AP, 7/12/13)

2013        Jul 25, A United Nations reports said that Somali pirates have turned to a new business model: Transporting weapons and providing "security" for ships illegally plundering Somalia's fish stock.
    (AP, 7/25/13)

2013        Jul 27, In Somalia a Turkish security official and a Somali student were killed in a terrorist attack on the Turkish consulate and relief mission. Three suicide bombers also died in the attack in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 7/28/13)

2013        Jul 30, A Kenyan court in Mombasa sentenced nine Somalis to five years in prison each for attempting to hijack the German merchant vessel MV Courier in the Gulf of Aden in March 2009.
    (Reuters, 7/30/13)

2013        Aug 4, African leaders meeting in Uganda said the Somali city of Kismayo "should be handed over" to the central government, a decision that puts pressure on Kenyan troops who face charges of backing a powerful militia in the disputed port city.
    (AP, 8/4/13)

2013        Aug 6, It was reported that Somalia's government has signed an oil and gas exploration deal with Soma Oil and Gas, a newly formed British company, the first such agreement by a central government in Somalia following decades of conflict.
    (AP, 8/6/13)

2013        Aug 9, In Somalia an Ethiopian military aircraft carrying ammunition crash-landed at Mogadishu's international airport, bursting into flames and killing 4 of the six crew members.
    (Reuters, 8/9/13)

2013        Aug 14, In Somalia the international medical charity Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) began closing all its local humanitarian operations because of attacks on its staff.
    (Reuters, 8/14/13)

2013        Aug 16, A WHO official said Somalia is suffering an "explosive" outbreak of polio and now has more cases — 105 — than all other countries in the world combined. The outbreak is complicated by the fact health workers have limited access to south-central Somalia, controlled by al-Qaida-linked militants.
    (AP, 8/16/13)
2013        Aug 16, In Kenya some 40 armed extremist, believed to be from Somalia's Islamic extremist group al-Shabab, killed at least 4 police in an attack on a police post near the Somalia border.
    (AP, 8/17/13)

2013        Aug 17, Somalia's government executed a man who was convicted of murdering a journalist, the first such execution in a country where those who kill media workers often evade justice.
    (AP, 8/17/13)

2013        Aug 21, In Mogadishu, Somalia, gunmen killed 2 men and wounded two women, including a Swede, as they ambushed a car in what police believe may have been an attempted kidnap.
    (Reuters, 8/21/13)

2013        Aug 28, Somalia's central government agreed to recognize a former Islamist commander as the interim leader of the southern Juba region, in a deal that could help end months of clan fighting that has killed dozens of civilians.
    (Reuters, 8/28/13)

2013        Aug 31, Somalia’s capital, Mogadishu, hosted TEDx talks. Academics, activists artists and entrepreneurs gathered to challenge the negative images of the infamously dangerous and war-ravaged city.
    (AFP, 8/31/13)

2013        Sep 6, Somalia said that international investigators commissioned by its government had cleared it of corruption accusations leveled by United Nations monitors.
    (Reuters, 9/6/13)

2013        Sep 7, Somali militants attacked a restaurant near Mogadishu's seat of government for the second time in less than a year, detonating two large blasts that killed at least 15 people and wounded nearly two dozen.
    (AP, 9/7/13)

2013        Sep 8, The Somali authorities launched a campaign aimed at getting one million children in the war-torn nation into school.
    (AFP, 9/8/13)

2013        Sep 12, Somali militants said a rapping jihadi from Alabama was killed in an ambush ordered by al-Shabab. Omar Hammami had ascended the ranks of Somalia's al-Qaida-linked militant group and was on the FBI's Most Wanted list with a $5 million reward for his capture.
    (AP, 9/12/13)

2013        Sep 16, International donors promised Somalia 1.8 billion euros ($2.4 billion) in reconstruction aid to back a three-year plan aimed at strengthening the country's economy and building up its fragile security.
    (Reuters, 9/16/13)

2013        Sep 18, Uganda said it has recalled the commander of its peacekeeping force in Somalia and almost two dozen other officers suspected of involvement in a scam to steal food and fuel and sell it on the black market.
    (Reuters, 9/18/13)

2013        Sep 19, In Somalia Abdusalam Omer said he has been replaced as Somalia's central bank governor after seven months in the job, and again strongly denied graft allegations made by United Nations monitors.
    (Reuters, 9/19/13)
2013        Sep 19, In Somalia  16 people died and others were missing after a quarry where they were mining construction stone collapsed.
    (AP, 9/19/13)

2013        Oct 3, A smuggler's boat, carrying migrants from Eritrea, Ghana and Somalia, capsized off Italy’s southern island of Lampedusa. 160 bodies were soon recovered and 155 people rescued. 366 lives were lost. On Nov 8 police said dozens of the asylum-seekers had been raped and tortured in Libya before starting their journey. Three traffickers were under arrest.
    (AP, 10/3/13)(AP, 10/4/13)(AP, 10/6/13)

2013        Oct 5, In Somalia a commando unit from the US Navy’s Seal Team Six carried out a pre-dawn strike against foreign fighters in Barawe. The US troops were faced with heavier-than-expected return fire, and pulled out to avoid civilian casualties. The raid’s target was Abdulkadir Mohamed Abdulkadir, a Kenyan of Somali origin who is a foreign fighter commander for the Islamist Shebab group.
    (AP, 10/5/13)(AP, 10/6/13)(AFP, 10/7/13)

2013        Oct 12, In Belgium Somali pirate Mohamed Abdi Hassan, better known as "Afweyne" or "Big Mouth", was detained at Brussels airport when he stepped off a flight from Nairobi. He was lured to Brussels on promises of shooting a documentary movie about his life on the high seas.
    (AFP, 10/14/13)

2013        Oct 13, In Ethiopia an explosion killed two people and impacted a home used by US Embassy personnel in Addis Ababa. Two Somali suicide bombers, who had planned to kill soccer fans during Ethiopia's World Cup qualifying match against Nigeria, blew themselves up accidentally.
    (AP, 10/13/13)(Reuters, 10/14/13)

2013        Oct 18, A French court sentenced three Somali pirates to nine years in prison each for the 2009 hijacking off the Somali coast of a French yacht that led to the death of its skipper.
    (AFP, 10/18/13)
2013        Oct 18, Kenya officials identified Hassan Abdi Dhuhulow (b.1990), a Norwegian-Somali, as one of the four attackers of the Westgate Mall on Sep 21. Charred body parts taken from a collapsed portion of the shopping center still awaited forensics analysis to determine if they were the remains of the assailants.
    (AP, 10/18/13)(SFC, 10/18/13, p.A2)

2013        Oct 19, In Somalia a suicide bomber killed at least 16 people, including 4 Ethiopian soldiers, in an attack on a cafe in Beledweyne, a town close to the Ethiopian border frequented by local and foreign soldiers fighting al Qaeda-linked rebels.
    (AFP, 10/19/13)(SSFC, 10/20/13, p.A7)

2013        Oct 23, A Kenya court sentenced 4 Somali pirates sentenced to seven years each in prison after they were found guilty of hijacking a fishing dhow in the Indian Ocean in 2010.
    (Reuters, 10/23/13)

2013        Oct 26, Somali security forces shut down one of the country’s most respected independent radio stations in Mogadishu, accusing it of illegally occupying a government building. Journalist Mohamed Mohamud (26) died in hospital after being attacked by gunmen, bringing to 7 the number of journalists killed in Somalia this year. Unidentified gunmen in a car shot at Mohamud as he drove to work on Oct 22 in the Wadajir district of Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 10/26/13)(AP, 10/27/13)

2013        Oct 28, In Somalia  Ibrahim Ali Abdi (aka Anta-Anta), a top suicide bomb-maker for Shebab rebels, was among 3 people killed in a drone strike on a vehicle.
    (AFP, 10/29/13)

2013        Oct 31, Kenyan warplanes destroyed a Shebab rebel camp in southern Somalia used to train gunmen who attacked Nairobi's Westgate shopping mall in September.
    (AFP, 11/1/13)

2013        Nov 4, Interpol and the Stolen Asset Recovery Project released a report on how Somali pircay is financed. “Pirate Trails: Tracking the Illicit Financial Flows from Pirate Activities off the Horn of Africa” was backed by the UN and World Bank.
    (Econ, 11/2/13, p.53)

2013        Nov 5, Somali money transfer company Dahabshiil welcomed a temporary injunction by a British court allowing its lifeline services to continue, transferring funds dwarfing levels of foreign aid to the war-torn nation.
    (AFP, 11/5/13)

2013        Nov 8, In Somalia a huge blast outside a top hotel in Mogadishu killed at least 4 people. Al Shabaab rebels soon claimed responsibility.
    (AP, 11/9/13)(Reuters, 11/9/13)

2013        Nov 9, A tropical cyclone hit Somalia's semi-autonomous Puntland region. As many as 300 people were feared dead. Hundreds remained unaccounted for as the government and declared a natural disaster emergency.
    (Reuters, 11/11/13)(AFP, 11/13/13)

2013        Nov 10, The governments of Kenya and Somalia signed a deal with the UN’s High Commission for Refugees to facilitate voluntary returns.
    (Econ, 11/30/13, p.48)

2013        Nov 19, In Somalia al-Qaida-linked Shebab militants detonated a car bomb at the entrance to a police station in Beledweyne near the Somalia-Ethiopia border, then opened fire with assault rifles and rocket-propelled grenades, an attack that left at least 28 people dead.
    (Reuters, 11/19/13)

2013        Nov 21, The UN in Somalia called for a "proper investigation" after police arrested an alleged rape victim and the journalists who reported her story for defamation.
    (AFP, 11/21/13)

2013        Dec 2, Somalia's parliament voted to sack PM Abdi Farah Shirdon and his Cabinet in a no-confidence vote, after a row with the president that has paralyzed the state and threatened a shaky recovery from war.
    (Reuters, 12/2/13)(SFC, 12/3/13, p.A2)

2013        Dec 5, In Somalia at least 8 people were killed when a suicide car bomber rammed a convoy in the northern port of Bossasso, a Puntland region harboring Al-Qaeda-linked Shebab insurgents where tensions are high ahead of elections in January.
    (AFP, 12/5/13)

2013        Dec 6, Somali lawmaker Feisal Warsame Mohamed was killed when a car bomb blew up his vehicle outside the prime minister's office in Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 12/6/13)

2013        Dec 9, A Somali court sentenced to jail a woman (19) who said she was raped and two journalists who broadcast her story, saying they were guilty of defamation and insulting state institutions. The woman, who is also a journalist, was handed a suspended six-month jail sentence for defamation and lying, during which time she will be confined to her home.
    (AFP, 12/9/13)

2013        Dec 18, In Somalia fighters shot dead 3 Syrian doctors and their 3 Somali colleagues as they travelled to a hospital outside Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 12/18/13)

2013        Dec 21, Somalia's parliament approved as the new prime minister Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed, a political newcomer and economist who faces tough challenges in the war-torn nation.
    (AFP, 12/21/13)

2013        Dec 27, In Somalia at least 10 people were killed in an explosion in a restaurant in Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 12/27/13)(SFC, 12/28/13, p.A2)

2013        James Fergusson authored “The World’s Most Dangerous Place: Inside the Outlaw State of Somalia.”
    (Econ, 6/8/13, p.87)
2013        Jarle Hansen authored “Al-Shabab in Somalia: The History and Ideology of a Militant Islamist Group.”
    (Econ, 6/8/13, p.87)

2014        Jan 1, In Somalia  two car bombs exploded outside  the Jazira Hotel in Mogadishu that often is used by foreigners and government officials. A third car bomb exploded as it was searched by security forces. At least 11 people were killed. Al-Shebab rebels claimed responsibility.
    (AP, 1/1/14)(Reuters, 1/1/14)(AFP, 1/2/14)

2014        Jan 8, Officials in the semi-autonomous Somalia region of Puntland confirmed Abdiweli Mohammed Ali Gaas, a former Somali prime minister, as the region's new leader.
    (AP, 1/8/14)(AFP, 1/8/14)

2014        Jan 9, The Kenyan military killed at least 30 Islamic militants in an airstrike on a militant camp in Somalia.
    (AP, 1/10/14)

2014        Jan 10, It was reported that al-Shabab, Somalia's al-Qaida-linked group, has ordered telecom companies to shut down mobile internet services over fears the US can use the data to target militants.
    (AP, 1/10/14)

2014        Jan 13, The US Supreme Court rejected an appeal from Mohamed Ali Samantar, a former top official in Somalia, who has been ordered to pay Somali torture victims $21 million. Samantar, now living in Virginia, was a top official in dictator Siad Barre's regime in the 1980s and early 1990s.
    (AP, 1/13/14)

2014        Jan 23, A Kenyan court sentenced 24 Somalis to seven years each in prison for attempting to hijack an Iranian merchant vessel, FV Ariya, in the Gulf of Oman in October 2010.
    (Reuters, 1/23/14)

2014        Jan 25, Somalia's Shebab insurgents called for renewed attacks against foreign forces, after arch-enemy Ethiopia joined the African Union force battling the extremists.
    (AFP, 1/25/14)
2014        Jan 25, Residents in parts of Somalia under militant control said at least one cellular telephone company has shut down data services in response to a threat from al-Qaida-linked extremists.
    (AP, 1/25/14)

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