900000BC In 2009 scientists reported finding
advanced hand axes made about this time in southeastern Spain.
Similar Acheulean type limestone tools, flaked on both edges, were
at another site nearby dated to 760,000 BC.
(SFC, 9/5/09, p.A1)
800000BC In 1996 a team of fossil hunters reported
800,000 year-old hominids from the Gran Dolino site in the Atapuerca
Mountains in northern Spain. The date was older by 300,000 years
than any other human remains in Europe. They called the new species
Homo antecessor. Among modern characteristics were a prominent brow
line and multiple roots for premolar teeth, characteristics of early
(PacDis., Spg. 96, p.46)(SFC, 5/30/97, p.A8)
760000BC In 2009 scientists reported finding
advanced hand axes made about this time in southeastern Spain.
Similar Acheulean type limestone tools, flaked on both edges, were
at another site nearby dated to 900,000 BC.
(SFC, 9/5/09, p.A1)
470000-410000 In 2014 a UC Berkeley scientist
dated Neanderthal bones found in Spain to between 410,000 and
470,000 years of age. Excavations had begun in 1984 in a cave in
Spain’s Atapuerco mountains at a site called Sima de los Huesos (the
Pit of the Bones).
400000BC Scientists in 2013 reported mitochondrial
DNA results from a Human thighbone found in Spain estimated to be
400,000 years old. The DNA showed a closer relation to Denisovans
who lived in Siberia than to Neanderthals.
(SFC, 12/5/13, p.A9)
41000BC In 2006 archeologists reported evidence of
cannibalism about this time from Neanderthal bones at the El Sidron
cave in the Asturias region of Spain.
(SFC, 12/11/06, p.A1)
38800BC Wall decorations in the El Castillo cave
in northwestern Spain dated to at least this time.
(SFC, 6/15/12, p.A11)
28000BC Neanderthals persisted to about this time
at the site of Zafarraya in Andalucia, Spain.
(Arch, 9/00, p.53)
12500BC The Altamira Cave in Spain and its wall
paintings dated to this time. The cave was rediscovered in 1879 by
Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola, a lawyer and amateur archeologist.
(WSJ, 9/18/01, p.A20)
12500BC-10500BC Paleolithic era cave drawings were created at the
Atxurra cave in the northern Basque region during this period. Some
70 drawings in the cave were found in 2016 on ledges 1,000 feet
(SFC, 5/28/16, p.A2)
500-500BC The Greeks established settlements in NE
Spain that included Emporio.
(SFEC, 5/21/00, p.T5)
360BC Greek philosopher Plato, in his "dialogues"
from about this time, said an island he called Atlantis "in a single
day and night... disappeared into the depths of the sea." He
described Atlantis as "an island situated in front of the straits
which are by you called the Pillars of Hercules." In 2011 a US-led
research team, using a satellite photo of a suspected submerged
city, suggested a site just north of Cadiz, Spain, as the site of
300BC Spain was named by the
Carthaginians about this time as Ispania, meaning land of rabbits.
The Romans changed the name slightly to Hispania, which evolved to
(SSFC, 12/19/10, p.M2)
218BC Emporio was called by the
Romans Emporiae. It later came to be called Empuries.
(SFEC, 5/21/00, p.T5)
4BC Lucius Annaeus Seneca
(d.65) (aka Seneca the younger), Roman intellectual, was born in
39CE Nov 3, Lucan, Latin poet
(Bellum Civile), was born in Cordova, Spain.
53CE Sep 18, Marcus Trajanus
(d.117), 13th Roman emperor (Trajan's Arch) (98-117), was born at
Italica near Seville, Spain.
258 A red agate cup with gold
handles, the Santo Caliz, was sent to Spain by Pope Sixtus II and
St. Laurence as Rome went under siege by the Persians. In 1437 the
church moved it to the Cathedral of Valencia.
(SSFC, 5/27/06, p.G3)
346 Theodosius was born in
Spain. He served as emperor East Roman Republic 379-395.
(WUD, 1994 p.1471)(SSFC, 3/21/04, p.M6)
633 In Spain the 4th Synod of
Toledo took on the right to confirm elected kings. Jews were obliged
to be baptized. The vernacular language, of Latin origin, prevailed
over that of the Visigoths.
694 Nov 9, Spanish King Egica
accused Jews of aiding Moslems and sentenced them to slavery.
711 Jul 19, The Muslim troops
crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and defeated the Visigoth king
Rodrigo at the battle of Guadalete. Berbers under Tarik-ibn Ziyad
occupied Northern Spain. The Umayyads with the help of the Berbers
in North Africa moved across the Strait of Gibraltar and began the
conquest of Spain and Portugal. The word Gibraltar comes from the
term Jabal-al-Tarik, which means the hill of Tarik. Gebel-al-Tarik
means "Rock of Tarik."
(ATC, p.79)(SFEC, 9/29/96, Z1
711-1309 The Moorish occupation of Gibraltar
covered this period, and then again from 1350 to 1462, a total of
712 Muza ben-Nosair completed
the Muslim conquest of Spain. The Visigothic period ended.
756AD May 15, Abd-al-Rahman was proclaimed the
emir of Cordoba, Spain. Abd al Rahman united the Umayyad forces in
Spain and made the ancient Roman city of Cordoba his new capital.
(ATC, p.95)(HN, 5/15/98)
778 Aug 15, At the Battle at
Roncesvalles the Basques beat Charlemagne.
(PC, 1992, p.67)
784 The Emir 'Abd al-Rahman I
purchased the Christian half of a Catholic church built by the
Visigoths, which had been shared following the Muslim conquest of
Spain in 711. He then destroyed the church and built the Great
Mosque of Cordoba. In 1236 it was reverted to a Catholic church as
the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption.
c813 Pelayo to Santiago, a
Spanish hermit, was guided, according to legend, by strange lights
in the sky to discover the long-forgotten tomb of the apostle St.
James (San Tiago). This led others to make pilgrimages across
northern Spain to the city of Santiago de Compostela. [see 1130]
(SFC, 3/11/04, p.F9)
842 Mar 20, Alfonso II the
Chaste, king of Asturia (791-842), died. Asturias was a kingdom in
(MC, 3/20/02)(WUD, 1994 p.92)
938-1002 Al-Mansur (the Conqueror), Moorish
leader. He was born Abu'Amir al-Ma'asiri and rose to power by wooing
the caliph's favorite concubine. He raided Christian Spain and
hauled his booty back to Cordoba and built a palace called Madinat
al-Zahira, the Shining City.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4,6)
962 Abd-Er Rahman III
(891-961), Muslim governor of Spain, was succeeded by his son
Al-Hakim. Rahman III is famed for his quote: "I have now reigned
above fifty years in victory and peace, beloved by my subjects,
dreaded by my enemies, and respected by my allies. Riches and
honors, power and pleasure, have waited on my call, nor does any
earthly blessing appear to be wanting for my felicity. In this
situation, I have diligently numbered the days of pure and genuine
happiness which have fallen to my lot: they amount to fourteen.”
976 Oct 1, Al-Hakam II, the
caliph of Cordoba, died.
976AD The Great Mosque of
Cordoba (Spain) was completed and served as a religious, social and
educational center. The largest of the 70 libraries in Cordoba
contained 500,000 volumes. 70,000 books a year were hand-copied to
satisfy the citizen’s literary appetites.
994 Nov 7, Muhammad ibn Hazm,
historian, jurist, author of Islamic Spain, was born.
1035 In Spain 66 Jews were
killed in Castrojeriz near Burgos. Others were expelled and settled
on a nearby hill that was named Castrillo Motajudios (Jew’s Hill).
Records from 1627 show the name was changed to Castrillo Matajudios,
meaning "Kill Jews." In 2014 the 56 town residents planned a May 25
vote on changing the name back to Castrillo Mota de Judios. The name
change was celebrated on Oct 23, 2015.
1064 Jun 9, Coimbra, Portugal,
fell to Ferdinand, the King of Castile.
1072 Oct 6, Sancho II, king of
Castilia (1065-72), was murdered.
1075 The 3rd Cathedral at
Santiago de Compostela in Spain was built on the site of the tomb of
St. James. There had been a Cathedral on the site since the 9th
(SFC, 9/22/96, p.T5)
1085 May 25, Alfonso VI,
Spanish Christian ruler, took Toledo, Spain, from the Moslems.
(ATC, p.100)(HN, 5/25/99)
1094 Jun 15, Rodrigo Diaz de
Vivar [El Cid] occupied Valencia on the Moren.
c1100 The town of Santo Domingo
de la Calzada was founded by a man known as St. Dominic of the
(SFEC, 6/15/97, p.T5)
c1100-1200 San Isidro, a farmer, later became the
patron saint of Madrid.
(WSJ, 11/18/97, p.A20)
1118 Dec 18, Afonso the
Battler, the Christian King of Aragon captured Saragossa, Spain, a
major blow to Muslim Spain.
1130 The first travel book was
written by a French priest about travel on the Camino de Santiago
(the road of St. James) in northern Spain.
(SFEC, 6/15/97, p.T5)
1135-1204 Maimonides, Jewish scholar, philosopher
and rabbi. He was born in Spain and analyzed linkages between wealth
(WUD, 1994, p.864)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1158 Aug 31, Sancho III, King
of Castilia, died.
c1171 Benjamin ben Jonah, a
Spanish Jew, returned to his home in Tudela and published an account
of his 6-year journey to Constantinople, Cyprus, Palestine,
Damascus, Persia and Egypt: "The Travels of Benjamin of Tudela."
(WSJ, 8/8/02, p.D10)
1195-1270 Rabbi Moshe ben Nahman (Nahmanides) was
a Catalan Kabbalist.
(SFEC, 10/25/98, BR p.6)
1198 The Giralda bell tower in
Seville, Spain, was built as a Muslim minaret.
(SSFC, 8/15/10, p.M5)
1200-1300 Moses de Leon, a Spanish Jewish mystic,
wrote the "Zohar," in Aramaic. It was a mystical interpretation of
the Torah disguised as a novel. The Zohar consists of mystical
interpretations and commentaries of the Pentateuch, the first 5
books of the Old Testament. It became the major text of Jewish
mysticism that came to be called the Kabala, as developed a few
centuries later by Isaac Luria in Palestine.
(WUD, 1994, p.1662)(WSJ, 5/22/98, p.W11)
1212 Jul 16, Battle of Las
Navas de Tolosa marked the end of Muslim power in Spain.
1212 Jul 17, Moslems were
crushed in the Spanish crusade.
1218 The university at
Salamanca, Spain, was founded by King Alfonso IX.
(SSFC, 6/8/03, p.C8)
1219 The Augustine abbey at
Roncesvalles began offering shelter to travelers.
(SFEC, 5/2/99, p.T5)
1221 Nov 23, Alfonso X (the
Wise, d.1284), king of Castile & Leon (1252-84), was born. Also
known as Alfonso the Wise, he served as king of Castile from
1252-1284. His manuscript "Cantigas de Santa Maria" is one of the
most important of the period.
(WUD, 1994, p.36)(WSJ, 5/14/97, p.A20)(MC,
1227 Construction of the Gothic
Cathedral in Toledo was begun.
(SFEC, 3/22/98, p.T11)
1235-1315 Raimon Lull, a Mallorcan Catholic
Franciscan poet. He declared that his ecstatic Christian
spirituality drew from the example of Sufis like Rumi.
(SFEC, 10/25/98, BR p.6)
1236 Jun 29, In Spain Christian
forces under Ferdinand III of Castile and Leon took Cordoba. The
last Islamic kingdom left in Spain is that of the Berbers in
(ATC, p.100)(HN, 6/29/98)
1236 In Spain the Great Mosque
of Cordoba was transformed into a cathedral after King Ferdinand III
captured the city from the Moors.
1238 Sep 28, James of Aragon
retook Valencia, Spain, from the Arabs.
1250 Apr 15, Pope Innocent III
refused Jews of Cordova, Spain, permission to build a synagogue.
1263 In a Spanish court Rabbi
Moses ben Nachman defended the legitimacy of Judaism against Pablo
Christiani, a converted Jew, who argued for Christianity. The trial
was set up by King James I of Aragon to please the pope. In 1982
Hyam Maccoby wrote "Judaism on Trial" and turned in into a play,
"The Disputation" in 1999.
(WSJ, 3/23/99, p.A20)
1285 May 10, Philip IV (Fair)
succeeded Philip III as King of Spain.
1321 In the Battle of Beotibar
the Guipuzcoans defeated the Navarrese in the Basque region of
Spain. Part of the lore connected with the battle is the valour
shown by the Loyola brothers, ancestors of Ignatius of Loyola,
founder of the Society of Jesus, known as the Jesuits.
1334 Aug 30, Pedro, the Cruel,
King of Castilia & Leon, was born.
1340 Nov 28, In the Battle of
Salado, Spain, the last Moor invasion was driven back.
1347-1350 The Black Death: A Genoese trading post
in the Crimea was besieged by an army of Kipchaks from Hungary and
Mongols from the East. The latter brought with them a new form of
plague, Yersinia pestis. Infected dead bodies were catapulted into
the Genoese town. One Genoese ship managed to escape and brought the
disease to Messina, Sicily. The disease quickly became an epidemic.
It moved over the next few years to northern Italy, North Africa,
France, Spain, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, Germany, the Low
countries, England, Scandinavia and the Baltic. There were lesser
outbreaks in many cities for the next twenty years. An estimated 25
million died in Europe and economic depression followed. In 2005
John Kelly authored “The Great Mortality: An Intimate History of the
Black Death, the Most Devastating Plague of All Time.”
(NG, 5/88, p.678)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(SSFC,
3/6/05, p.B1)(SFC, 10/13/11, p.A6)
1350 Mar 27, Alfonso XI of
Castile (38) died of the black death while besieging Gibraltar.
(HN, 3/27/99)(PCh, 1992, p.130)
1354-1720 Catalan conquerors ruled over Sardinia.
(SFEC, 1/30/00, p.T5)
1355 May 7, 1,200 Jews of
Toledo, Spain, were killed by Count Henry of Trastamara.
1263 Aug 19, King James I of
Aragon censored Hebrew writing.
1297 Sep 12, The town of
Olivenza (Olivença) came under Portuguese sovereignty with the
Treaty of Alcanices. In 1801 it was ceded to Spain under the Treaty
of Badajoz. In the 1815 Vienna convention Spain agreed to return it
to Portugal, but this never happened.
1360 In Spain Francesc Castello
was beheaded in front of his own bank following bankruptcy.
1367 Apr 3, John of Gaunt and
Edward the Black Prince won the Battle of Najara, in Spain.
1369 Mar 23, Pedro the Cruel,
King and tyrant of Castile and Leon, was murdered. Enrique, the
illegitimate son of Alfonso XI of Castile, killed his half brother
Pedro I in the Castilian civil war and became King Enrique I "the
Bastard" of Castile.
(SS, 3/23/02)(Reuters, 12/23/06)
1370 Spain’s Prince Sancho de
Castile (7) died. Spaniards for a long time believed Prince his
uncle poisoned him to become king. In 2006 studies of the boy's
mummified body showed the boy died of natural causes.
1385 Aug 14, Portuguese forces
defeated Castilians at Aljubarrota and gained independence. Nuno
Alvares Pereira helped secure Portugal's independence from the
Spanish kingdom of Castile. After leaving the military, Pereira
entered religious life as a Carmelite and changed his name to Nuno
de Santa Maria. He dedicated himself to the poor, never taking the
privileges that would have been afforded to him as a former
commander. In 2009 the Vatican declared him a saint.
(PCh, 1992, p.136)(HN, 8/15/98)(AP, 4/26/09)
1391 Mar 15, Jew-hating monk in
Seville, Spain, stirred up a mob to attack Jews.
1391 Jun 4, Mob led by Ferrand
Martinez surrounded and set fire to the Jewish quarter of Seville,
Spain. The surviving Jews were sold into slavery.
1391 Aug 5, Castilian sailors
in Barcelona, Spain set fire to a Jewish ghetto, killing 100 people
and setting off four days of violence against the Jews.
1391 Aug 24, Jews of Palma
Majorca, Spain, were massacred.
1391 There were anti-Jewish
attacks in Girona, Spain, and many Hebrew documents were destroyed.
(SFC, 1/20/02, p.A15)
1391 Ottoman Caliph Bayezid I
sent boats to rescue Jews as they were being expelled from Spain.
(Econ, 12/19/15, p.67)
1401 A Giro Bank was
established in Barcelona, making it Europe’s first bank. At this
time Barcelona was the capital of the Aragon Kingdom.
(Econ, 1/10/09, p.74)
1418 In Spain an agreement with
the city council of Madrid set a fee of 50 maravedis - medieval
copper coins - per 1,000 sheep brought through the central Sol
square and Gran Via street. In 1994 sheep farmers began parading
their livestock through the city, along a route that once cut
through undeveloped countryside on their way to winter grazing
pastures in southern Spain.
1424 Dec 6, Don Alfonso V of
Aragon granted Barcelona the right to exclude Jews.
1429 Jan 10, Order of Golden
Fleece was established in Austria-Hungary & Spain.
1431 Jan 1, Rodrigo Borgia
Lanzol (d.1503), member of the Borgia family, was born in Xativa,
Spain. His mother was the sister of Pope Calixtus III. He was
elected Pope Alexander VI in 1492 and amassed a fortune by pocketing
church funds. His reign helped inspire the Protestant reformation.
He fathered numerous children including Lucrezia Borgia. Machiavelli
based "The Prince" on him.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(PTA, 1980, 424)
1449 Rodrigo Borgia Lanzol
(b.1431), father of Cesare and Lucretia, arrived in Rome from Spain
and Italianized his name from Borja to Borgia. His rise in the
church was helped a great deal when his uncle became Pope Calixtus
(HN, 8/10/98)(PTA, p.424)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)(MC,
1451 Apr 22, Isabella I of
Castile, Queen of Spain (1479-1504), patron of Christopher Columbus,
was born in Madrigal, Spain.
(HN, 4/22/98)(AP, 4/22/01)(MC, 4/22/02)
1452 Mar 10, Ferdinand II, the
Catholic King of Aragon (1479-1516) and Sicily (1468-1516), was
born. He bankrolled Columbus and expelled Jews.
(WUD, 1994 p.524)(MC, 3/10/02)
1455 May 3, Jews fled Spain.
1459 Mar 3, Ausias March,
Catalan poet, died.
1460 Apr 8, Ponce de Leon was
born in Spain. He searched for fountain of youth and found Florida.
1461 Aug 10, Alfonso ed Espina,
bishop of Osma, urged an Inquisition in Spain.
1462 Aug 20, Castilian forces
captured Gibraltar (Eighth Siege of Gibraltar).
1468 Juan Reixach created his
panel of St. Vincent Ferrer in the Hispano-Flemish style.
(WSJ, 3/2/05, p.D9)
1469 Oct 18, Crown prince
Fernando of Aragon (1452-1516) formally married princess Isabella
(1451-1504) of Castile.
1471 Henry IV of Castile issued
copper coins of small denominations known as blancas.
(AM, 7/97, p.59)
1474 Dec 12, Isabella crowned
herself queen of Castilia & Aragon.
1474 Bartolome de Las Casas
(d.1566), “Apostle to the Indians,” was born in Seville, Spain.
1475-1495 An 11-piece set of tapestries were
created with scenes from the Trojan War. They included "The Death of
Troilus, Achilles and Paris." They were later housed at the Museo
Catedralicio, Zamora, Spain.
(WSJ, 4/11/02, p.AD7)
1479 Sep 4, After four years of
war, Spain agreed to allow a Portuguese monopoly of trade along
Africa's west coast and Portugal acknowledged Spain's rights in the
1479 Nov 6, Johanna, the
Insane, Queen of Castilia (1504-20), was born.
1479 Jorge Manrique (b.1440),
Spanish military hero and poet, died.
1480 The Spanish Inquisition
was introduced by Ferdinand and Isabella to enable the crown to
control the inquiries into whether or not converted Jews were really
secret "Judaizers" who kept their original faith. "The Spanish
Inquisition," a history of the Inquisition was written by Henry
Kamen and a new edition was published in 1998.
(WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A1)
1481-1530 The first burnings of 8 people occurred
as a result of the Inquisition trials. Over this period some 2000
people were burned.
(WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A20)
1482 Feb 11, Pope Sixtus VI
appointed Reverend Dr. Tomas de Torquemada (1420-1498) as the
assistant inquisitor. In 1483 he became the Grand Inquisitor of
1483 Oct 17, The Reverend Dr.
Tomas de Torquemada (1420-1498), the Grand Inquisitor of Castile,
had his jurisdiction extended to Aragon.
1486 Feb 12, In Toledo, Spain,
some 750 lapsed Christians were paraded through the streets of
Toledo from the Church of San Pedro Martir to the cathedral in order
to be reconciled to the Christian faith.
(SSFC, 11/13/05, p.M3)
1486 May 1, Christopher
Columbus convinced Queen Isabella to fund expedition to the West
1491 Nov 15, 6 Jews and 5
Conversos (Jews who pretend to be Catholic converts) were accused of
killing Christians in La Guardia, Spain.
1492 Jan 2, Boabdil, the leader
of the last Arab stronghold in Spain surrendered to Spanish forces
loyal to King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella I. Sultan Muhammad XI
surrendered, ending Muslin rule in Spain. The combined Catholic
forces of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile drove out the
last of the Berbers from Spain. The Moors were expelled. King
Ferdinand and Queen Isabella took the town of Grenada, the last
Moslem kingdom in Spain. The event became marked by an annual
festival that began around 1516.
(ATC, p.73,100)(AP, 1/2/98)(SFEC, 3/22/98,
p.T11)(HN, 1/2/99)(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A6)(SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C20)
1492 Mar 30, King Ferdinand and
Queen Isabella signed a decree expelling all Jews from Spain. Jews
numbered about 80,000 and it was estimated that about half chose to
convert. [see Mar 31]
(HN, 3/30/98)(WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A20)
1492 Mar 31, King Ferdinand and
Queen Isabella of Spain issued an edict expelling Jews from Spanish
soil, except those willing to convert to Christianity. In 2002
Claudia Roden authored "The Ornament of the World," a collection of
stories of Sephardic Jews in Spain from 750 to 1492. A Jewish text
later known as the Sarajevo Haggadah was carried by a refugee to
Italy and later to Bosnia. [see Mar 30]
(AP, 3/30/97)(WSJ, 4/26/02, p.W12)(SSFC, 12/8/02,
1492 Apr 17, A contract was
signed by Christopher Columbus and a representative of Spain's King
Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, giving Columbus a commission to seek a
westward ocean passage to find the Indies [to Asia].
(AP, 4/17/97)(HN, 4/17/98)
1492 Apr 30, King Ferdinand and
Queen Isabella granted Christopher Columbus specific privileges and
prerogatives regarding the discovery and conquest of islands and a
continent in the (western) ocean.
(DAH, 1946, p.1)
1492 Aug 3, Christopher
Columbus, set sail from the port of Palos de la Frontera, in
southern Spain and headed for Cipangu, i.e. Japan. The voyage took
him to the present-day Americas. His squadron consisted of three
small ships, the Santa Maria, the Pinta, and the Nina. The 2nd ship
was owned by Cristóbal Quintero, and was named Pinta. The 3rd ship
was owned by Juan Niño, and was named the Santa Clara, but became
known by its nickname, the Nina.
(http://tinyurl.com/774v3)(SFEC, 8/8/99, Z1
p.8)(ON, 8/09, p.2)
1492 Oct 12, (Old Style
calendar; Oct. 21 New Style), Christopher Columbus sited land, an
island of the Bahamas which he named San Salvador, but which was
called Guanahani by the local Taino people. Seeking to establish
profitable Asian trade routes by sailing west, Columbus seriously
underestimated the size of the Earth--never dreaming that two great
continents blocked his path to the east. Even after four voyages to
America, Columbus believed until the end of his life in 1506 that he
had discovered an isolated corner of Asia.
(NH, 10/96, p.22)(AP, 10/12/97)(HNPD,
1492 Oct 28, Christopher
Columbus discovered Cuba and claimed it for Spain.
1492 Jews began arriving in
Morocco, Syria and elsewhere in the Arab world after their expulsion
(SFEC, 7/25/99, p.T11)(SSFC, 6/28/09, p.A8)
1493 Feb, Christopher Columbus
penned a letter to Spain's monarchs, four months after discovering
the New World, describing what he had found and laying the
groundwork for his request to fund another voyage. A Latin copy was
printed in Rome by Stephan Plannack in 1493, and found its way into
the Vatican Library. This was later stolen by book thief Marino
Massimo De Caro and sold in 2014 to American collector David Parsons
for $875,000. In 2018 it was returned to the Vatican.
1493 Mar 15, Christopher
Columbus returned to Spain, concluding his first voyage to the
(AP, 3/15/97)(HN, 3/15/98)
1493 Apr 15, Columbus met with
King Ferdinand and Isabella in Barcelona.
1493 May 4, The Discovery
Doctrine, a legal doctrine claiming the right and duty of Christian
states to rule newly discovered territories and their peoples, was
first issued by Pope Alexander VI regarding the Americas. The Papal
Bull Inter caetera ("Among other [works]") granted to the Catholic
Majesties of Ferdinand and Isabella (as sovereigns of Castile) all
lands to the "west and south" of a pole-to-pole line 100 leagues
west and south of any of the islands of the Azores or the Cape Verde
islands. “Inter Caetera” was amended in Sep. granting Spain the
right to hold lands to the “western regions and to India.” The
Patronata Real granted the Spanish throne the privilege and duty of
overseeing propagation of Christianity among Spain’s subjects in the
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inter_caetera)(SFC, 3/5/11, p.E3)
1493 Sep 25, Christopher
Columbus set sail from Cadiz, Spain, with a flotilla of 17 ships on
his 2nd voyage to the Western Hemisphere. He was accompanied by 13
clerics; Alvarez Chanca, a physician who left valuable accounts of
the voyage; Juan Ponce de Leon; Juan de la Cosa, a cartographer; and
Columbus’s younger brother Bartholomew.
(AP, 9/25/97)(AM, 7/97, p.58)
1493 Rodrigo de Jerez, a sailor
under Christopher Columbus, became the first person to bring tobacco
to Europe. In November 1492, Jerez and Luis de Torres first observed
natives smoking. The Spanish Inquisition imprisoned him for his
"sinful and infernal" habits.
(Econ, 3/30/13, p.38)(
1494 Jun 7, Spain and Portugal
divided the new lands they had discovered between themselves. King
Joao II signed the Treaty of Tordesillas in which he conceded to
Spain a monopoly on Columbus’ western route in exchange for a
Portuguese monopoly on the eastern route.
(HN, 6/7/98)(ON, 11/07,
1495 Mar 8, Juan de Dios,
Portuguese-Spanish saint, founder (Brothers of Mercy), was born.
1495 Oct 25, Portugal’s King
Joao II died without leaving male issue. He was succeeded by his
brother-in-law Manuel I.
1496 Oct 20, Spain’s Juana of
Castile (1479-1555) married Philip the Handsome, the Duke of
Burgundy, in Lier (later a part of Belgium). Philip's parents were
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and his first wife, Duchess Mary of
Burgundy. Juana had sailed from Spain with 15,000 men to the
Habsburg Netherlands. Between 1498 and 1507, she gave birth to six
children: two emperors and four queens.
1496 Juan de Flandes painted
“Christ Calming the Storm,” a commission by Spain’s Queen Isabel.
(WSJ, 12/16/04, p.D8)
1498 May 30, Columbus departed
Spain with 6 ships for his 3rd trip to America. He took 30 women
along on his third trip to the New World.
1498 Sep 16, Tomas de
Torquemada (b.1420) died in Avila, Spain. He was a Spanish Dominican
friar and the first Grand Inquisitor in Spain's movement to restore
Christianity among its populace in the late 15th century. He was one
of the chief supporters of the Alhambra Decree, which expelled the
Jews from Spain in 1492.
1499 The Spanish play
"Celestine" was published.
(WSJ, 11/19/98, p.A21)
1500 Jan 26, Spanish explorer
Vicente Yanez Pinzon reached the northeastern coast of Brazil during
a voyage under his command. Pinzon had commanded the Nina during
Christopher Columbus's first expedition to the New World.
1500 Feb 24, Charles V, king of
Spain (1516-1556), was born in Ghent, Belgium. He was the last Holy
Roman Emperor to be crowned by the Pope.
(HN, 2/24/99)(SFEC, 11/21/99, p.T10)(MC, 2/24/02)
1500 Oct, Governor De Bobadilla
of Santo Domingo captured Christopher Columbus and returned him in
shackles to Spain. Columbus, during his third sojourn to the new
world, engaged in a dispute with the ambassador plenipotentiary to
Santo Domingo, Hispaniola (later shared by Haiti and the Dominican
Republic). Columbus was later released and forgiven by the Queen.
(V.D.-H.K.p.143)(SFEC, 3/15/98, Z1
1502 Feb 12, Isabella issued a
royal order giving all remaining Moors in the realms of Castile the
choice between baptism and expulsion.
1502 May 11, Columbus embarked
on his 4th voyage with 150 men in 4 caravels. Among those in the
fleet were Columbus's brother Bartholomew, and Columbus' younger son
Fernando, then just 13 years old. They reached the coast of Honduras
after 8 months and passed south to Panama (1503). The ships included
the Capitana, which served as the flagship, and the Vizcaina. In
2006 Klaus Brinkbaumer authored “The Voyage of the Vizcaina.”
p.R49)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v4.htm)(WSJ, 5/26/06, p.W5)
1502 Jun 29, Christopher
Columbus arrived at Santo Domingo on his 4th voyage to the new
world. He requested harbor and advised Gov. Nicolas de Ovando of an
approaching hurricane. Ovando denied the request and dispatched a
treasure fleet to Spain. 20 ships sank in the storm, 9 returned to
port and one made it to Spain.
1502 Jul, Columbus reached the
coast of Honduras during his 4th voyage and passed south to Panama.
1502 Sep 18, Christopher
Columbus landed at Costa Rica during his 4th and last voyage.
Columbus left 52 Jewish families in Costa Rica.
(MC, 9/18/01)(WSJ, 6/15/00, p.A1)
1502 Spain legalized slave
shipments to the Americas.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)
1503 Jun 25, Christopher
Columbus beached his sinking ships in St. Anne’s Bay, Jamaica, and
spent a year shipwrecked and marooned there before returning to
1503 Aug 18, Alexander VI,
[Rodrigo di Borgia], Spanish Pope (1492-1503), died.
(PTA, p.424)(MC, 8/18/02)
1503 Oct 30, Queen Isabella of
Spain banned violence against Indians.
1503 Nov 2, Christopher
Columbus discovered Panama during his 4th voyage and named the
harbor of Portobello, which became a principal city of Spanish
(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(AP, 5/9/97)(WSJ, 6/15/00,
p.A1)(PCh, 1992, p.164)
1503 Seville, Spain, was
awarded rights to all trade with the recently discovered New World.
(SSFC, 8/15/10, p.M4)
1503 The missionary Bartolome
de Las Casa described the brutal destruction of a Taino Indian city,
La Aleta (later in the Dominican Republic). Captain-Gen’l. Juan de
Esquival led a Spanish force that massacred 600-700 Higuey Tainos
for rebelling after one of their chiefs was disemboweled by a
Spanish attack dog. In 1997 archeologists found evidence of a city
at the site called La Aleta.
(SFC, 3/29/97, p.A10)(AM, 7/97, p.60)
1504 Jun 29, Diego Mendez, one
of Columbus's captains, returned to Jamaica with a small caravel and
rescued the Columbus expedition. Mendez had managed to take a canoe
from Jamaica to Hispaniola where he chartered the rescue ship.
1504 Nov 7, Columbus returned
to Spain following his 4th voyage after suffering a shipwreck at
Jamaica. Columbus brought back cocoa beans and chocolate drinks soon
became a favorite in the Spanish court. In 2005 Martin Dugard
authored “The Last Voyage of Columbus.”
(EWH, 1968, p.390)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(SSFC,
1504 Nov 26, Isabella I (53),
Catholic Queen of Castile and Aragon (1474-1504), patron of Columbus
1506 May 19, Columbus selected
his son Diego as sole heir.
1506 May 20, Christopher
Columbus (55) died in poverty in Spain, still believing he
discovered the coast of Asia. Columbus died in the Spanish city of
Valladolid, and was initially interred in a monastery there. Three
years later, his remains were moved to a monastery on La Cartuja. In
1537, Maria de Rojas y Toledo, widow of Columbus' son Diego, was
allowed to send the bones of her husband and his father to the
cathedral in Santo Domingo for burial. There they lay until 1795,
when Spain ceded the island of Hispaniola to France and decided
Columbus' remains should not fall into foreigners' hands. A set of
remains that the Spaniards thought were Columbus' were then dug up
from behind the main altar in the newly built cathedral and shipped
to a cathedral in Havana, where they remained until the
Spanish-American War broke out in 1898 and Spain brought them to
Seville. But in 1877, workers digging inside the Santo Domingo
cathedral unearthed a leaden box containing 13 large bone fragments
and 28 small ones. It was inscribed "Illustrious and distinguished
male, don Cristobal Colon." The Dominicans said these were the real
remains of Columbus and that the Spaniards must have taken the wrong
remains in 1795.
(AP, 5/20/97)(HN, 5/20/99)(AP, 10/13/02)(SFC,
1507 Mar 12, Cesare Borgia
(31), cardinal, soldier, politician, died while fighting alongside
his brother, the king of Navarre, in Spain.
(HN, 3/12/99)(MC, 3/12/02)
1508 Aug 12, Ponce de Leon
arrived and conquered the island of Boriquen (Puerto Rico). Spain
had appointed him to colonize Puerto Rico. He explored Puerto Rico
and Spanish ships under his command began to capture Bahamanian
Tainos to work as slaves on Hispaniola. His settlement at Caparra, 2
miles south of San Juan Bay, was plagued by Taino Indians and
cannibalistic Carib Indians.
(NH, 10/96, p.23)(SC,
1510 Garci Ordonez de Montalvo
authored "Serges de Esplandian" (The Adventures of Esplandian), a
novel that described an island filled with gold named California and
ruled by Queen Califia.
(SFEC, 4/18/99, BR p.1)(SFC, 2/25/00, p.C14)
1510 The Florentine banker
Bartolomeo di Marchionni lent the King of Spain money for the
crown’s first shipment of Africans to Santo Domingo.
(SFEC, 11/16/97, BR p.4)
1510-1515 Don Pedro Fajardo y Chacon, commissioned
a set of wood friezes for his Velez Blanco castle in Almeria. The
friezes were based on engravings by Jacopo da Strasbourg and Zoan
Andrea Vavasorri that depicted the triumphs of Caesar and events in
the mythical life of Hercules, the "Labors of Hercules."
(WSJ, 1/6/00, p.A20)(WSJ, 5/18/00, p.A24)
1510-1550 Spain took in gold shipments from the
New World at 3,000 pounds a year.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)
1511 King Ferdinand of Spain
said: "Get gold, humanely if possible, but at all hazards – get
(WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A24)
1511 Diego de Velazquez,
Spanish commander, occupied Cuba.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)
1512 Feb 22, Amerigo Vespucci
(b.1454), Italian explorer, financier, navigator, and cartographer,
died in Seville. He was born in the Republic of Florence and sailing
for Portugal around 1501–1502, demonstrated that Brazil and the West
Indies were not Asia's eastern outskirts (as initially conjectured
from Columbus' voyages) but a separate, unexplored land mass
colloquially known as the New World. In 1507, the new continent was
named America after the Latin version of Vespucci's first name.
1512 Apr 11, The forces of the
Holy League were heavily defeated by the French at the Battle of
Ravenna. France under Gaston de Foix beat the Spanish Army. Gaston
de Foix, French pretender to Navarre throne, died in battle.
(HN, 4/11/99)(MC, 4/11/02)
1512 The Spaniards conquered
Navarre and annexed it to Castile.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(Econ, 6/26/04, Survey p.13)
1513 Mar 27, Spanish explorer
Juan Ponce de Leon sighted Florida.
(AP, 3/27/97)(HN, 3/27/98)
1513 Apr 2, Spanish explorer
Juan Ponce de Leon landed in Florida. Juan Ponce de Leon, Spanish
explorer, discovered Florida and planted orange and lemon trees
there. [see March 27, 1512 entry] He also discovered the Dry
Tortugas, 10 small keys southwest of Key West. The Spanish governor
of Puerto Rico, Juan Ponce de Leon, discovered Florida and named it
Pascua Florida, "feast of the flowers." His discovery was made
during his search for the legendary Fountain of Youth.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(NH, 4/97, p.317)(AP,
4/2/97)(SFEC, 1/2/00, Z1 p.2)(HNQ, 3/9/00)
1513 Apr 8,
Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon and his expedition began
exploring the Florida coastline.
1513 Sept 25, Vasco Nunez de
Balboa, Spanish explorer, crossed the Isthmus of Panama and claimed
the Pacific Ocean for Spain. He was named governor of Panama and the
Pacific by King Ferdinand. In 2004 Hugh Thomas authored “Rivers of
Gold: The Rise of the Spanish Empire from Columbus to Magellan.”
(HFA, '96, p.38)(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(SFEC,
9/21/97, p.C7)(WSJ, 6/2/04, p.D12)
1513 Sep 29, Spanish explorer
Vasco Nunez de Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean.
1514 Spanish soldiers conquered
the natives of Cuba.
1514 1,500 Spanish settlers
went to Panama.
1515 Mar 28, Theresa of Avila
(d.1582), Teresa de Jesus (St. Theresa), Spanish Carmelite nun,
mystic writer, saint, was born. She initiated reforms in the Order.
She co-founded with John of the Cross (1542-1591) the Order of
Discalced (barefoot) Carmelites. "Untilled ground, however rich,
will bring forth thistles and thorns; so also the mind of man." "To
wish to act like angels while we are still in this world is nothing
(CU, 6/87)(WUD, 1994, p.769)(AP, 12/8/97)(AP,
1515 Dec 2, Gonzalo de Cordoba,
Spanish general, strategist, viceroy of Naples, died.
1515 Bartolome de Las Casas
(1474-1566), Dominican priest and the first Spanish priest to be
ordained in the New World, returned to Spain from Hispaniola to
plead on behalf of the ill-treated native Indians. He became known
as the “Apostle to the Indians.” Helen Rand Parish (1912-2005) later
authored a number of seminal works on Las Casas.
(NH, 10/96, p.29)(TL-MB, p.11)(SSFC, 5/15/05,
1515 Teresa of Avila, St.
Theresa (d.1582), Spanish Carmelite nun was born.
(CU, 6/87)(WUD, 1994, p.769)(AP, 12/8/97)
1515 Spanish explorer Juan
Ponce de Leon first described the Gulf Stream. In 1770 Benjamin
Franklin drew a map of the Gulf Stream and in 1786 described it in
detail in Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. In
2008 Stan Ulanski authored “The Gulf Stream: Tiny Plankton, Giant
Bluefin, and the Amazing Story of the Powerful River in the
(WSJ, 10/4/08, p.W9)
1516 Feb 23, The Hapsburg
Charles I succeeded Ferdinand in Spain.
1516 Seville Univ., Spain, was
1516 Archduke Charles, later
Emp. Charles V, succeeded his grandfather, King Ferdinand II of
Spain, and founded the Hapsburg dynasty.
1516 The Treaty of Noyon
brought peace between France and Spain.
1516 Juan Diaz de Solis,
Spanish explorer, was killed on the coast of Argentina.
1517 Oct, Ferdinand Magellan
arrived in Spain and began the first voyage to successfully
circumnavigate the world a little less than two years later. He
eventually died in the Philippines in 1521. The expedition was
completed by others in 1522.
1517 Seville Cathedral was
completed after 115 years of work.
1517 Bartolomeo de las Casas,
the first Spanish priest to be ordained in the New World, pleaded
the case of oppressed and enslaved American Indians.
1517 Archduke Charles left the
Netherlands for Spain and entered Valladolid in triumph.
1517 Francisco Fernandez de
Cordoba, Spanish explorer, discovered the Mayan civilization in the
Yucatan, southeast Mexico.
1518 Cardinal Wolsey arranged
the Peace of London between England, France, the Pope, Maximilian I
1518 Vasco Nunez de Balboa,
Spanish explorer, was wrongly charged with treason and beheaded.
(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)
1519 Feb 15, Pedro Menendez de
Aviles, explorer (found St. Augustine, Florida), was born.
1519 Jul 6, Charles of Spain
was elected Holy Roman emperor in Barcelona. The Catholic heir to
the Hapsburg dynasty, Charles V, was elected Holy Roman Emperor,
combining the crowns of Spain, Burgundy (with the Netherlands),
Austria and Germany. He was the grandson of Ferdnand and Isabella of
(V.D.-H.K.p.162)(NH, 9/96, p.18)(HN, 7/6/98)
1519 Sep 20, Portuguese
navigator Ferdinand Magellan set out from Spain with 270 men and 5
ships on a voyage to find a western passage to the Spice Islands in
Indonesia. Magellan was killed en route, but one of his ships
eventually circumnavigated the world. He was first European explorer
to reach the Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic by sailing through the
dangerous straits below South America that now bear his name. [see
Sep 20, 1520]
(V.D.-H.K.p.182)(DD-EVTT, p.41)(AP, 9/20/97)(HN,
1519-1682 In 2015 Robert Goodwin authored “Spain:
The Center of the World 1519-1682.”
(Econ, 7/25/15, p.67)
1520 May 20, Hernando Cortes
defeated Spanish troops sent to punish him in Mexico.
1520 Jun 30, Montezuma II was
murdered as Spanish conquistadors fled the Aztec capital of
Tenochtitlan during the night. Montezuma died from wounds inflicted
by his people. Conquistadors under Cortez plundered gold from
(HN, 6/30/01)(ON, 10/00, p.5)(MC, 6/30/02)
1520 Sep 20, Magellan set sail
from Spain with five ships and 265 men, on a voyage to find a
western passage to the Spice Islands of Indonesia. [see Sep 20,
1520 Oct 23, King Carlos I
(1500-1558) was crowned as German emperor Charles V (1520-1558), a
Holy Roman Emperor.
1520 Nov 28, Portuguese
navigator Ferdinand Magellan reached the Pacific Ocean after passing
through the South American strait, the straits of Magellan and
entered the "Sea of the South."
1520 A 9-piece tapestry set was
created for the Holy Roman Empire coronation of Belgium-born Charles
V, King of Spain, titled "Los Honores." The set was restored by
Belgium in 2000 for the 500th anniversary of Charles’ birth.
(WSJ, 4/11/02, p.AD7)
1521 Apr 22, French king
Francois I declared war on Spain.
1521 Apr 22, Juan de Padilla,
Spanish nobleman, communero-rebel, was beheaded.
1521 Apr 23, The Comuneros were
crushed by royalist troops in Spain.
1521 Apr 26, Magellan was
killed in a fight with natives on Mactan Island. Magellan named the
Mariana Islands Islas de los Ladrones (Islands of Thieves), and was
killed by natives on Cebu. Juan Sebastian Elcano, Magellan’s second
in command, returned to Spain with 18 men and one ship, the
Vittorio, laden with spices. His coat of arms was augmented in
reward with the inscription Primus circumdisti me: "You were the
first to encircle me."
(V.D.-H.K.p.177-178)(SFEC, 11/10/96, zone 1
1521 May 20, Ignatius Loyola
was seriously wounded by a cannon ball.
1521 Aug 31, Spanish conqueror
Cortez (1485-1547), having captured the city of Tenochtitlan,
Mexico, set it on fire. Nearly 100,000 people died in the siege and
some 100,000 more died afterwards of smallpox. In 2008 Buddy levy
authored “Conquistador: Hernan Cortes, King Montezuma, and the Last
Stand of the Aztecs.”
(HN, 8/31/98)(WSJ, 7/10/08, p.A13)
1521 Nov 19, Battle at Milan:
Emperor Charles V's Spanish, German, and papal troops beat France
and occupied Milan. An eight year war between France and the Holy
Roman Emp., Charles V, began after the French supported rebels in
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(MC, 11/19/01)
1521 The first running of the
bulls was held at Pamplona, Spain. [see 1591]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)
1522 Feb 7, Treaty of Brussels:
Habsburgers split into Spanish and Austrian Branches.
1522 May 25, Emperor Karel I
returned to Spain.
1522 Jul 5, Antonio de Nebrija
(b.1441), Spanish scholar, died. His work included a Spanish
grammar written in Latin. It was the first systematic
treatment of a vernacular European language.
1522 Sep 6, Juan Sebastian
Elcano (Del Cano), Magellan’s second in command, returned to Spain
with 18 men and one ship, the Vittorio, laden with spices. His coat
of arms was augmented in reward with the inscription: Primus
circumdisti me: "You were the first to encircle me."18 survivors of
the original Magellan expedition completed the circumnavigation of
the globe under Sebastian del Cano. Plumes of the bird of paradise
from New Guinea were first brought back to Europe. One of the five
ships that set out in Ferdinand Magellan's trip around the world
made it back to Spain. Only 15 of the original 265 men that set out
survived. Magellan was killed by natives in the Philippines.
(V.D.-H.K.p.177-178)(SFEC, 11/10/96, zone 1
p.2)(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(NH, 9/96, p.8)(HN, 9/6/98)
1522 Sep 8, Spanish navigator
Juan de Elcano returned to Spain. He completed the 1st
circumnavigation of globe, expedition begun under Ferdinand
Magellan. [see Sep 6]
1522 A Bible was printed in
Alcala, Spain, in Hebrew, Greek, Latin and Aramaic.
1522 Pascual de Andagoya,
Spanish explorer, became the first European to set foot in Peru.
1523 The first turkeys were
introduced to Spain and Europe from America by the conquistadors.
(TL-MB, p.12)(SFEC, 11/24/96, p.A3)
1524 Aug 19, Emperor Charles
V's troops besieged Marseille.
1525 Francisco Pizarro, Spanish
conquistador, sailed from Panama to explore Peru.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)
1525 The Spanish made initial
contact with the Incas.
(SFC, 3/19/02, p.A2)
1526 Mar 26, King François I
returned Spanish captivity to France.
1526 Oct 18, Lucas Vazquez de
Ayllp, Spanish colonialist who settled in SC, died.
1527 May 6, German and Spanish
troops under Charles V began sacking Rome, bringing about the end of
the Renaissance. Libraries were destroyed, Pope Clement VII
was captured and thousands were killed. 147 of 189 of the Pope’s
Swiss guard were killed.
(HN, 5/6/02)(PCh, 1992, p.174)(WSJ, 4/14/06,
1527 May 21, Philip II
(d.1598), king of Spain and Portugal (1556-98), was born. He invaded
England and roasted heretics. He collected a fifth of all the wealth
generated from the mines and trade in the Americas. He invested
heavily into his military and lost it all with the defeat of the
Armada in 1588. His debt at his death amounted to 85 million ducats,
or 300 tons of gold.
(HN, 5/21/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(MC, 5/21/02)
1527 Don Alvar Nunez Cabeza de
Vaca, a Spanish soldier, was appointed 2nd in command under Panfilo
de Narvaez (47), to explore the recently discovered land of Florida.
(http://tinyurl.com/z36z9yk)(ON, 10/03, p.1)
1528 Jan 22, England &
France declared war on Emperor Charles V of Spain. The French army
was later expelled from Naples and Genoa.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(MC, 1/22/02)
1528 Apr 14, A Spanish
expedition, led by Panfilo de Narvaez, arrived at the west coast of
Florida with 400 soldiers and 42 horses.
(ON, 10/03, p.1)
1528 Sep 28, A Spanish fleet
sank in Florida hurricane; 380 died.
1529 Apr 22, Spain and Portugal
divided the eastern hemisphere in Treaty of Saragosa.
1529 Jul 26, Francisco Pizarro
was made governor for life and captain-general in New Spain. He
returned to Peru in a fleet of three ships. Pizarro received a royal
warrant in Toledo, Spain, to "discover and conquer" Peru.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(HN, 7/26/98)
1530 Feb 23, Spain's Carlos I
was crowned Holy Roman Emperor Charles V by Pope Clement VII in the
last coronation of a German king by a Pope. Charles restored the
Medici to power after capturing Florence and ceded Malta to the
landless religious order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem.
(TL-MB, p.14)(MC, 2/24/02)(PC, 1992, p.176)
1531 Jan 26, Lisbon was hit by
an earthquake and some about 30,000 died.
1533 Cartagena de Indias
(Colombia) was founded by Spain and served as a major port for the
trade of slaves, gold and cargo.
(SSFC, 5/18/03, p.C12)
1534 Apr 7, Josr de Anchieta,
Spanish Jesuit, missionary (Brazilian Tupi Indians), was born.
1536 Feb 2, The Argentine city
of Buenos Aires was founded by Pedro de Mendoza of Spain.
1536 Jul 14, France and
Portugal signed the naval treaty of Lyons aligning themselves
1536 Oct 14, Garcilaso de la
Vega, Spanish poet and diplomat, died in battle.
1537 Aug, Castaway Don Alvar
Nunez Cabeza de Vaca returned from Mexico to Spain where he wrote an
account of his 3,000 mile journey through North American and his
experiences with the Indians. These narratives were collected and
published in 1542 in Spain. They are now known as The Relation of
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca. The narrative of Cabeza de Vaca is the
“first European book devoted completely to North America. In 2006
Paul Schneider authored “Brutal Journey: The True Story of the First
Crossing of North America.” Schneider used de Vaca’s original memoir
as well as an official report prepared by survivors of the Narvaez
(ON, 10/03, p.5)(SSFC, 6/11/06,
1538 Jul 8, Diego de Almagro
(63), Spanish conquistador (Chile and Peru), died.
1539 May 30, Spanish explorer
Hernando De Soto landed at Tampa Bay in Florida in search of gold.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(AP, 5/30/97)(HN, 5/30/98)
1539 Jun 3, Hernando De Soto
claimed Florida for Spain.
1540 Cabeza de Vaca, a Spanish
conquistador, was appointed governor of the province of Rio de la
Plata. His advocacy of Indian rights caused him to be arrested and
banished to a Spanish outpost in North Africa.
(ON, 10/03, p.5)
1541 Feb 12, Santiago, Chile,
was founded by Spanish conquistador Pedro de Valdivia, a lieutenant
of Pizarro. When the Spaniards arrived in Chile, 11 languages were
in widespread use: Quechua, Aymara, Rapanui, Chango, Kunza,
Diaguita, Mapudungun, Chono, Kawesqar, Yagan and Selk’nam. By 2007
only the 1st 3 remained. The last ethnic Selk’nam died in the 1970s.
1541 Apr 4, Ignatius Loyola,
Spanish ecclesiastic, was elected 1st superior-general of the
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(MC, 4/4/02)
1541 Jun 26, Francisco Pizarro,
the Spanish Conqueror of Peru, was murdered by his former followers.
1541 Cabeza de Vaca, a Spanish
conquistador, became the 1st European to see the Iguacu Falls in
Brazil. He named the falls Saltos de Santa Maria but the
Tupi-Guarani name persisted.
(SFEC, 10/8/00, p.17)
1542 May 21, Spanish explorer
Hernando De Soto died while searching for gold along the Mississippi
River. His men buried his body in the Mississippi River in what is
now Louisiana in order that Indians would not learn of his death,
and thus disprove de Soto's claims of divinity.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(AP, 5/21/97)(MC, 5/21/02)
1542 Jun 24, Juan de la Cruz,
[de Yepes], Spanish Carmelite, poet, saint, was born.
1542 Nov 22, New laws were
passed in Spain giving protection against the enslavement of Indians
1542-1544 A 7-piece set of tapestries was created
titled the "Seven Deadly Sins." They were later housed at the
Palacio Real in Madrid.
(WSJ, 4/11/02, p.AD7)
1543 Apr 14, Bartoleme Ferrelo
returned to Spain after discovering a large bay in the New World
1533 Spaniards arrived at Zaci,
the capital of the Cupul Maya, in Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula and
were pushed out.
(SSFC, 6/29/08, p.E5)(http://tinyurl.com/4o62ox)
1543 Jan 3, Spanish explorer
Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo (43-44) died of gangrene and was buried at
San Miguel. He was injured in December while helping defend his men
fight off a band of Indians in the Channel Islands off California.
In 1989 Harry Kelsey authored the biography “Juan Rodriguez
(NPS-CNM, 4/1/97)(SFC, 10/18/14, p.A1)
1545 Apr 13, Elisabeth van
Valois, French queen of Spain, daughter of Henri II, was born.
1545 Jul 8, Don Carlos, son of
Spanish king Philip II (protagonist in Schiller's drama; hero
in Verdi opera), was born.
1546 A coalition of eastern
Maya laid siege to Valladolid, in Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula.
Spanish conquistadores brutally crushed a major Mayan rebellion in
(http://tinyurl.com/4o62ox)(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)
1547 Sep 29, Miguel de
Cervantes Saavedra (d.1616) was born, at Alcala de Henares, near
Madrid. "He was first a soldier and was captured by Barbary pirates
in 1575. His family was unable to raise the ransom money until 1580.
He was not initially successful as a writer until he wrote "The
Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha" (1604).
1547 Hernando Cortes, the
conquistador who subdued Aztec king Montezuma and stole his wife,
died in Spain. His remains were brought to Mexico in 1836.
(WSJ, 12/14/00, p.A8)
1549 Cosimo I di’Medici married
Eleonora of Toledo to gain a link to the Spanish ruling class that
(MT, Spring 02, p.23)
1551 Mar 9, Emperor Charles V
appointed his son Philip as heir to the throne. Don Philip was
recognized as the sole heir of Charles V.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(MC, 3/9/02)
1551 May 12, San Marcos
University opened in Lima, Peru. The Universidad Nacional Mayor de
San Marcos was founded under Spanish royal charter.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(MC, 5/12/02)(AM, 7/01, p.18)
1554 Jul 24, Queen Mary of
England married Philip II, king of Spain and the Catholic son of
Emp. Charles V.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(ON, 5/00, p.5)(MC, 7/24/02)
1554 Dragut, leader of the
Mediterranean pirates, recaptured Mehedia, Tunisia, from the
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)
1555 Sep 8, Thomas Villanova,
Spanish saint and archbishop of Valencia, died.
1555 Oct 21, English parliament
refused to recognize Philip of Spain as king.
1556 Feb 5, Henry II of France
and Philip of Spain signed the truce of Vaucelles.
1556 Mar 28, Philip II, Charles
V's son, was crowned king of Spain. [see Sep 12]
1556 Sep 12, Emperor Charles
resigned and his brother Ferdinand of Austria took over. Charles V
resigned and ended his days in a Spanish monastery. He bequeathed
Spain to his son Philip II, and the Holy Roman Empire to his brother
Ferdinand I. A few years of peace in Europe followed. The event
formed the basis for a later historical play by Friedrich Schiller,
which was in turn used by Verdi for his opera "Don Carlos."
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(WSJ, 3/21/96, p.A-12)(MC,
1556 Sep 13, Charles V and
Maria of Hungary marched into Spain.
1556 Philip II of Spain made
the Duke of Alba his chief military and political advisor.
(WSJ, 7/1/04, p.D8)
1557 Aug 10, Spanish and
English troops in alliance defeated the French at the Battle of St.
Quentin (San Quintino). French troops were defeated by Emanuele
Filiberto's Spanish army at St. Quentin, France. In 1559 Filiberto
made Turin capital of his Savoy state.
1557 The world’s first
sovereign bankruptcy took place following the indulgence of Genoese
lenders for Spain’s Philip II expensive taste for warfare.
(Econ, 9/23/06, p.11)
1557 The influx of New World
silver caused bankruptcies in France and Spain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)
1557 The Spanish enslaved local
Indians around Guanajuato, Mexico, to work a silver mine. A major
vein was struck in 1768.
(SSFC, 5/4/03, p.D7)
1558 Jul 13, Led by the court
of Egmont, the Spanish army defeated the French at Gravelines,
1558 Sep 21, Charles V
(b.1500), King of Spain (Carlos I), former Holy Roman Emperor
(1519-1556), died. In 2006 lab tests showed that Charles suffered
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(http://tinyurl.com/kq9sq)
1559 Apr 3, Philip II of Spain
and Henry II of France signed the peace of Cateau-Cambresis, ending
a long series of wars between the Hapsburg and Valois dynasties.
1559 Aug 14, Spanish explorer
Tristan de Luna entered Pensacola Bay, Florida. 1,500 Spanish
settlers sailed from Vera Cruz to found a settlement on Pensacola
Bay in Florida, but were repulsed by hostile Indians. The location
of the Spanish settlement founded in the area of Pensacola, Fl.,
remained a mystery until 2016 when amateur archaeologist Tom Garner
stumbled upon some shards of 16th century Spanish pottery.
(HN, 8/14/98)(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(AP, 3/24/06)
1559 Aug 22, Spanish archbishop
Bartholome de Carranza was arrested as a heretic.
1559 Sep, A Spanish expedition
was scuttled by a hurricane, shortly after the fleet arrived in
Pensacola. Five ships sank.
1559 Mateo Prunes, a Majorcan
mapmaker, created his portolan chart of the Mediterranean and Black
seas on the skin of a single sheep. Portolan charts are navigational
maps based on realistic descriptions of harbors and coasts.
(SSFC, 5/23/10, p.A15)
1559 The Escorial, an enormous
palace built on a grid plan for Philip II, was begun in Madrid.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)
1560 Jan 31, Spanish king
Philip II married Elisabeth de Valois.
1560 Cardinal Mendoza,
archbishop of Burgos, wrote "Tizon de la nobleza de Espana," (the
Blot on the Spanish Nobility). He claimed that virtually the entire
aristocracy had Jewish or Moorish blood to point out the folly of
the Inquisition’s campaign to prevent anyone with Jewish blood from
securing a position of authority under the crown.
(WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A20)
1561 Sep 23, Philip II of Spain
gave orders to halt colonizing efforts in Florida. The French took
advantage of the opportunity.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(HN, 9/23/98)
1561 Philip II moved his court
from Toledo to Madrid, which was but a village until this time, and
proclaimed Madrid as capital of Spain.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toledo,_Spain)(SFEC, 3/22/98, p.T11)
1562 Aug 8, Diego Te, a Maya
man in the Yucatec town of Sotuta, testified that a year earlier he
had witnessed a village leader and another man cut the hearts from 2
boys and hand them to a shaman, who rubbed the hearts onto the
mouths of two Maya idols. The account was preserved in the Archivo
General de Indias in Seville, Spain.
(AM, 7/05, p.43)
1562 Nov 25, Lope Felix de
Vega, dramatist and poet (Angelica, Arcadia), was born in Madrid,
1562 Titian painted the "Rape
of Europa" for Philip II of Spain. It is the most celebrated of his
(TL-MB, 1988, p.20)
1562 In the Yucatan a campaign
to root out idolatry ended with the destruction of thousands of
ritual objects and most of the Maya books in existence. The campaign
was led by Franciscan leader Diego de Landa, who was later tried in
Spain for his excessive behavior and acquitted. He recorded the oral
traditions of the Maya in “An Account of the Things of the Yucatan”
before returning there in 1573 as Bishop of Yucatan.
(AM, 7/05, p.44)
1563 Construction began on the
San Lorenzo del Escorial Palace in Madrid.
1564 Aug 18, Spanish king
Philip II joined the Council of Trent.
1565 Aug 28, A Spanish
expedition under Pedro Menendez de Aviles arrived at an inlet on the
Florida coast on the feast day of St. Augustine and gave the
theologian’s name to the encampment.
(WSJ, 7/18/08, p.W8)
1564 Sep 4, A 10-ship Spanish
fleet under Pedro Menendez de Aviles made landfall in Florida.
Menendez was under orders from Phillip II to oust the French.
(Arch, 1/05, p.47)
1565 Sep 8, A Spanish
expedition under Pedro Menendez de Aviles established the first
permanent European colony in the present day St. Augustine, Fla.
Aviles founded St. Augustine on the site of the Timucuan Indian
village of Seloy, 42 years before the English settled at Jamestown
and 55 years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock. St.
Augustine, Florida is the oldest permanent European settlement in
the US. Castillo de San Marco fortress was built by the Spanish to
defend St. Augustine.
(AP, 9/8/97)(NG, March 1990, p.117)(WSJ, 8/3/95,
p.A-8)(WSJ, 5/21/98, p.A1)
1565 Sep 20, A Spanish fleet
under Pedro Menendez de Aviles wiped out some 350 Frenchmen at Fort
Caroline, in Florida. Spanish forces under Pedro Menendez massacred
a band of French Huguenots that posed a potential threat to Spanish
hegemony in the area. They also took advantage of the local Timucuan
Indian tribe. Artist Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues managed to escape
and return to France, where he painted watercolors depicting the
local botany. His alleged paintings of Indians living nearby were
later thrown into question.
(WSJ, 8/3/95, p.A-8)(Arch, 1/05, p.47)(WSJ,
7/18/08, p.W8)(Arch, 5/05, p.31)(Arch, 1/06, p.25)
1565 Philip II of Spain sent
Miguel Lopez de Legazpi and 1,000 mercenaries from Mexico to
wrest the Philippines from Muslim sultans, who had ruled since the
(SFC, 7/7/03, p.A6)
1566 Dec 1, Spanish king Philip
II named Fernando Alvarez, duke of Alba.
1566 Bartolome de Las Casas
(b.1474), “Apostle to the Indians,” died in Madrid, Spain.
1567 Oct 6, The Duke of Alba
became guardian of the Netherlands. Spain’s Duke of Alba arrived in
Brussels at the head of a 10,000 troops to quell the iconoclastic
(MC, 10/6/01)(WSJ, 7/1/04, p.D8)
1568 May 3, French forces in
Florida slaughter hundreds of Spanish. On a sultry summer day in
1742, a handful of British and Spanish colonial troops faced each
other on a Georgia coastal island and decided the fate of a colony.
1568 Jul 23, Don Carlos (c23),
son of Spanish king Philip II, died.
1569 Feb 7, King Philip II
ordered the inquisition in South America.
1569 May 10, John of Avila
(b.1500), Spanish minister and writer, died. He became the patron
saint of Spain's diocesan clergy and was considered one of the
greatest preachers of his time. He was canonized in 1970. In 2012
Pope Benedict XVI named him as a “doctor” of the Catholic church.
1570 Mar 4, Spain’s King Philip
II banned foreign Dutch students.
1570 Apr 24, Spanish troops
battled followers of Sultan Suleiman.
1570 Seville, Spain, by this
time stood as the 3rd largest city in Europe, behind Rome and
Venice, as it reaped the rewards of trade rights, granted in 1503,
with the New World.
(SSFC, 8/15/10, p.M4)
1571 Mar 19, Spanish troops
occupied Manila. [see May 19]
1571 May 19, Miguel Lopez de
Lagazpi founded the city of Manila in the Philippines and
encountered Chinese settlements. [see Mar 19]
(DTnet, 5/19/97)(WSJ, 12/26/02, p.A1)
1571 May 20, Venice, Spain
& Pope Pius formed an anti-Turkish Saint League.
1571 Oct 7, Spanish, Genoese
and Venetian ships of the Christian League defeated an Ottoman fleet
in the naval Battle of Lepanto, Greece. In the last great clash of
galleys, the Ottoman navy lost 117 ships to a Christian naval
coalition under the overall command of Spain's Don Juan de Austria.
1571 Miguel de Cervantes
(1547-1616) was wounded in the Battle of Lepanto, which pitted
Ottoman Turkish forces against the Holy League, led by Spain.
Returning home aboard the ship La Marquesa he was hit with three
musket shots by Turkish pirates and spent years captive in Algiers.
The Trinitarian order negotiated his release and helped pay a ransom
that ruined the Cervantes family. In 1604 he published the first
part of "The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha."
1572 Oct 5, The Spanish army
under Duke of Alva's son Don Frederik plundered Mechelen (Flanders).
1572 Dec, The Dutch town of
Naarden surrendered to Imperial Spanish troops under the Duke of
Alba (1507-1582). The town was then burned and the entire population
massacred. Alba’s attempt to impose a 10% sales tax on commodities
stirred resistance that led to the Dutch independence. In 2004 Henry
Kamen authored ”The Duke of Alba.”
(WSJ, 7/1/04, p.D8)
1572 Dutch warships, Beggars of
the Sea, effectively harried Spanish shipping in the English Channel
and fueled the Dutch War of Independence.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1572 The Dutch used carrier
pigeons during the Spanish siege of Haarlem.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1572 Fray Luis de Leon, Spanish
scholar and poet at Salamanca, was denounced as a heretic and served
5 years in prison.
(SSFC, 6/8/03, p.C8)
1574 Spanish forces in the
Netherlands besieged Leyden, but William the Silent breached the
dykes to flood the land. This allowed his ships to sail up to the
walls and lift the siege.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1574 Turkish troops captured
Tunis from the Spaniards.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1576 May 29, Spanish army under
Mondragón conquered the Zierik sea.
1576 Jul, The Spanish ship San
Felipe departed Manila for the port of Acapulco. It wrecked on the
coast of Baha, California. Artifacts from the wreckage were later
used to identify the ship.
(SFC, 8/23/11, p.C1)
1577 Painter El Greco (36),
born in Crete as Domenikos Theotokopoulos, went to Spain and settled
there permanently in Toledo.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(WSJ, 6/18/01, p.A16)
1577 Fray Luis de Leon, Spanish
scholar and poet at Salamanca, was released from prison after
serving 5 years for heresy. He greeted his students with the words:
"As I was saying, yesterday..."
(SSFC, 6/8/03, p.C8)
1578 Mar 31, Juan de Escobedo,
secretary of Spanish land guardian Don Juan, was murdered.
1578 Apr 14, Philip III, king
of Spain and Portugal (1598-1621), was born.
1579 Jan 6, The Union of
Atrecht (French: Arras) was an accord signed in Atrecht (Arras),
under which the southern states of the Spanish Netherlands, today in
Wallonia and the Nord-Pas-de-Calais (and Picardy) regions in France,
expressed their loyalty to the Spanish king Philip II and recognized
the landlord, Don Juan de Austria. It is to be distinguished from
the Union of Utrecht, signed later in the same month. The Peace of
Arras ensured that the southern provinces of The Netherlands were
reconciled to Philip II. It joined the Low Country Walloons
(Catholics) with those of Hainaut and Artois.
1579 Mar 1, Sir Francis Drake
waylaid a Spanish treasure galleon, the Nuestra Senora de la
Concepcion, off the coast of Panama.
(ON, 7/03, p.7)
1579 Jul 29, Spain's King
Philip II arrested plotters Antonio Perez and Princess of Eboli.
1579 The Peace of Arras ensured
that the southern provinces of The Netherlands were reconciled to
Philip II. [out of order, see 1580]
(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1580 Mar 15, Spanish king
Philip II put 25,000 gold coins on head of Prince William of Orange.
1580 Aug 25, Spain defeated
Portugal in the Battle of Alcantara.
1580 Nov 9, Spanish troops
landed in Ireland.
1580 The Duke of Alba invaded
Portugal and put it under Spain’s rule. Spain’s Philip II was
proclaimed King Philip I of Portugal and united the colonial empires
of Spain and Portugal.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(PCh, 1992, p.200)
1580-1640 The Azores was occupied by Spain and
bullfighting was introduced.
(SFEC, 5/24/98, p.A10)
1581 The Portuguese Cortes
(national assembly) submitted to Philip II of Spain.
1581 Bernal Diaz del Castillo
(b.1492/93), Spanish conquistador and governor of Santiago de los
Caballeros (Antigua, Guatemala), died. He wrote “Verdadera Historia
de la Conquista de Nueva España” (True History of the Conquest of
New Spain) in response to claims made in the earlier work by Cortes’
chaplain. It was not published until his manuscript was found in
Madrid in 1632.
1582 Oct 4, Theresa of Avila
(b.1515), Spanish mystic writer and saint, died. She co-founded with
John of the Cross (1542-1591) the Order of Discalced (barefoot)
Carmelites. "Untilled ground, however rich, will bring forth
thistles and thorns; so also the mind of man."
(CU, 6/87)(WUD, 1994, p.769)(AP, 12/8/97)(MC,
1582 Oct 15, The Gregorian (or
New World) calendar was adopted in Italy, France, Spain, and
Portugal; and the preceding ten days were lost to history. This day
followed Oct 4 to bring the calendar into sync. by order of the
Council of Trent. Oct 5-14 were dropped.
(K.I.-365D, p.97)(NG, March 1990, J.
1582 In Spain Fernando Alvarez
de Toledo (b.1507), military and political advisor to Philip II,
died. In 2004 Henry Kamen authored ”The Duke of Alba.”
(WSJ, 7/1/04, p.D8)
1583 Nov, Francis Throckmorton,
who was born in 1554, was arrested. He made a full confession of the
Throckmorton Plot for the overthrow of Queen Elizabeth I and the
restoration of papal authority in England after being tortured on
the rack. He was tried and then executed on July 20, 1584.
Throckmorton was the central figure in the conspiracy involving
France and Spain, which called for a French invasion of England and
the release from prison of Mary, Queen of Scots.
1584 Jul 10, William of Orange
(1533-1584), Prince of Orange (1544-1584), Count of Nassau
(1559-1584), and first stadholder of the United Provinces of the
Netherlands, was assassinated by Burgundian Balthasar Gerard (25)
with a handgun. Philip II of Spain had called for a volunteer
assassin due to William’s reluctance take a public stand on
religious issues. William was succeeded by his 17-year-old son,
Maurice of Nassau. In 2006 Lisa Jardine authored “The Awful End of
Prince William the Silent.”
(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(WSJ, 4/5/06, p.D8)
1584 The San Lorenzo del
Escorial Palace in Madrid, begun in 1563, was completed. It was
consecrated in 1586
1585 Luca Cambiaso (b.1527),
Genovese Renaissance painter, died in San Lorenzo de El Escorial,
Spain, where he was working under commission for King Phillip II.
1586 El Greco began to paint
"The Burial of Count Orgaz." This depicted the miracle of the
saintly count’s funeral, where St. Augustine and St. Stephen
personally descend from heaven to bury the corpse with their own
(TL-MB, p.24)(WSJ, 11/6/03, p.D10)
1587 Apr 19, Sir Frances Drake
sailed into Cadiz, Spain, and sank the Spanish fleet.
1587 Sir Edward Stafford,
English ambassador in Paris, contacted the Spanish ambassador and
offered to provide news of Queen Elizabeth’s plans and to offer the
English disinformation concerning Spanish plans. Stafford’s
brother-in-law was Lord Howard Effingham, commander in chief of the
(WSJ, 11/24/98, p.A20)
1588 Feb, King Philip II (61)
appointed Don Alonzo Perez de Guzman el Bueno (37), the Duke of
Medina Sedonia, as Captain General of the High Seas and ordered him
to take charge of the Spanish Armada. Philip intended to restore
England to Catholicism
(ON, 3/02, p.1)
1588 May 11, The Spanish Armada
of 130 ships with 30,000 men left Lisbon for England. [see May 19]
(ON, 3/02, p.2)
1588 May 19, The Spanish Armada
set sail to Lisbon bound for England; it was soundly defeated by the
English fleet the following August. [see May 11]
(AP, 5/19/97)(DTnet, 5/19/97)
1588 May 30, Spanish Armada
under Medina-Sidonia departed Lisbon to invade England.
1588 Jul 20-22, The Spanish
Armada, after month in Corunna, set sail for England. The Duke of
Medina Sedonia sailed in the flagship San Martin with Admiral Juan
Martinez de Recalde.
(HN, 7/20/01)(ON, 3/02, p.2)
1588 Jul 27, The Spanish
anchored off Calais in a crescent-shaped, tightly-packed defensive
formation, not far from Parma's army of 16,000, which was waiting at
1588 Jul 29, At midnight of
July 28th the English set eight fireships (filled with pitch,
gunpowder, and tar) alight and sent them downwind among the
closely-anchored Spanish vessels. The English attacked the Spanish
Armada in the Battle of Gravelines, resulting in an English victory.
1588 Jul 30, The English
exchanged fire with the Spanish Armada.
(ON, 3/02, p.3)
1588 Aug 1, Sir Francis Drake
captured the Nuestra Senora del Rosario, one of the largest Spanish
(ON, 3/02, p.4)
1588 Aug 2, The English and
Spanish fleets exchanged fire all day. The English used up all their
ammunition and sailed into nearby ports.
(ON, 3/02, p.4)
1588 Aug 4, The English and
Spanish fleets exchanged fire all day off the Isle of Wight.
(ON, 3/02, p.4)
1588 Aug 6, The Spanish Armada
anchored of Calais.
(ON, 3/02, p.4)
1588 Aug 8, The English Navy
destroyed the Spanish Armada. 600 Spaniards were killed in the day’s
fighting and 800 badly injured. The Duke of Medina Sidonia led the
"invincible" Spanish Armada from Lisbon against England. It was
shattered around the coasts of the English Isles by an English fleet
under the command of Lord Howard of Effingham with the help of Sir
Francis Drake, Sir John Hawkins, and a violent storm (see Aug 18).
The victory opened the world for English trade and colonization. In
1959 Garrett Mattingly authored “The Armada.” In 1998 Geoffrey
Parker published "The Grand Strategy of Phillip II." In 2005 Neil
Janson authored “The Confident Hope of a Miracle: The True Story of
the Spanish Armada,” and James McDermott authored “England & the
Spanish Armada: The necessary Quarrel.”
(ON, 3/02, p.5)(SSFC, 2/20/05, p.B2)(Econ,
1588 Aug 10, The remnants of
the Spanish Armada sailed north to avoid the English fleet.
(ON, 3/02, p.6)
1588 Aug 18, A storm struck the
remaining 60 ships of the Spanish Armada under the Duke of Medina
Sidonia after which only 11 were left. Many of the ships went to
Ireland where most of the Spaniards were killed by the English. 600
Spaniards wrecked in Scotland were later returned to Spain. In 1978
Niall Fallon authored "The Armada in Ireland."
(ON, 3/02, p.6)
1588 Sep 21, Medina Sidonia's
Spanish Armada flagship, the San Martin, arrived at Santander,
Spain. Almost half of the 130 ships were lost. 20k of 30k men died.
1,500 died in battle, the rest from shipwreck, massacre, starvation
or disease. In 1981 David Howarth authored "The Voyage of the
Armada." In 1988 Peter Kemp authored "The Campaign of the Spanish
(ON, 3/02, p.6)
1588 Sep 25, A heavy storm
drove 3 Spanish ships onto the coast of Ireland. Francisco de
Cuellar, an officer on the galleon Lavia, spent the next 6 months
evading English forces and getting to Scotland and then the
(ON, 5/02, p.12)
1588 Oct 23, Medina Sidonia's
Spanish Armada returned to Santander. [see Sep 21]
1589 Oct 4, Francisco de
Cuellar, a Spanish Armada officer from the wrecked galleon Lavia,
wrote a letter from Antwerp to King Philip that was later valued for
its descriptions of Ireland.
(ON, 5/02, p.12)
1590 Fray Jose de Acosta,
Spanish Jesuit priest, authored “Historia Natural y Moral de las
Indies.” In it he suggested that the Americas were populated by
people from Asia.
(Arch, 9/00, p.72)
1591 Dec 14, San Juan de la
Cruz (b.1542), Spanish poet, died. He is remembered for his treatise
“Dark Night of the Soul.”
1591 Philip II bought the
Hieronymus Bosch painting "the Garden of Earthly Delights." It hung
in the Escorial from this time to 1939 when it was moved to the
(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)
1591 The encierro (running of
the bulls) at Pamplona, Spain, began as a means of moving the bulls
to the bull fighting arena. It became known as Los San Fermines.
(SSFC, 6/16/02, p.C6)(SSFC, 7/7/02, p.A2)
1592 Juan de Fuca, a Greek
sailing for Spain, sailed into a strait that later became the border
between Canada’s Vancouver Island, BC, and the Olympic Peninsula of
Washington state. The waterway was later named the Strait of Juan de
(NG, 7/04, p.66)
1594 Jun 7, Roderigo Lopez was
executed at Tyburn, England, on charges of spying for the king of
(WSJ, 9/24/04, p.W7)
1595 Jun 5, Henry IV’s army
defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Fontaine-Francaise.
1595 Jul, The Spanish galleon
San Agustin departed the Philippines with 130 tons of cargo and 70
men. See Nov, 1595.
(SFC, 9/26/97, p.A21)(SFC, 8/23/11, p.C3)
1595 Nov, The San Agustin, a
Spanish galleon from Manila, sank off the coast of northern
California near Point Reyes with a load of silks and porcelains from
the Orient. Skipper Sebastian Rodriguez Cermeno sailed with
survivors in an open boat 2,500 miles to Acapulco.
(SFC, 9/26/97, p.A21)(SFC, 8/23/11, p.C3)
1596 Jul 1, An English fleet
under the Earl of Essex, Lord Howard of Effingham and Francis Vere
captured and sacked Cadiz, Spain.
1596 Oct 25, The Spanish fleet
sailed from Lisbon to Ireland.
1597 Jun 9, Jose de Anchieta,
Spanish Jesuit, missionary, died.
1597 El Greco (1541-1614),
Spanish artist, completed his visionary “View of Toledo” about this
(WSJ, 6/28/08, p.W12)
1598 Sep 1, Spanish king Philip
II ("Scourge of Heretics") received his last rites sacrament. [see
1598 Sep 13, Philip II (71),
King of Spain (1556-98), died. He had ordered the 1588 Spanish
Armada attack on England. After its failure he dispatched 3 smaller
armadas, but they all failed.
(MC, 9/13/01)(ON, 3/02, p.6)
1598 Oct 15, Spanish general
strategist Bernardino de Mendoza occupied Fort Rhine.
1599 Jun 6, Velazquez (d.1660),
Diego Rodriguez de Silva, Spanish painter of Portuguese ancestry,
was born. He painted "Count Duke of Olivares" and "Rokeby Venus"
(1647-51) The Venus is at the London National Gallery.
p.T8)(WSJ, 1/5/07, p.W12)
1600-1681 Pedro Calderon de la Barca, Spanish
baroque master dramatist. His work included: "Life Is a Dream."
"Cuando amor no es locura, no es amor." (When love is not madness,
it is not love).
(WSJ, 10/20/95, p. A-12)(WSJ, 4/5/96, p.A-6)(AP,
1601 Mar 19, Alonzo Cano,
Spanish painter, sculptor (Cathedral Granada), was born.
1601-1658 Baltasar Gracian, Spanish philosopher:
"You should avoid making yourself too clear even in your
1602 Jan 2, Battle at Kinsale,
Ireland: English army beat the Spanish.
1602 Apr 2, Maria de Jesus de
Agreda (Maria Coronel), Spanish Franciscan, was born.
1604 May 18, (OS)England and
Spain agreed signed the Treaty of London ending the 19 year
1604 Sep 20, After a two-year
siege, the Spanish retook Ostend [NW Belgium], the Netherlands, from
(WUD, 1994, p.1019)(HN, 9/20/98)
1604 Miguel de Cervantes
Saavedra (1547-1616) published the first part of "The Ingenious
Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha." Don Quixote and his friend Sancho
Panza seek what a modern poet has called an impossible dream, a
dream of justice in an earthly paradise, a contradiction in terms,
as practical men have always known... Cervantes was the first to see
that the new world coming into being needed such heroes; otherwise
it would go mad." In 2006 Manuel Duran and Fay R. Rogg authored
(V.D.-H.K.p.150)(HN, 9/29/02)(WSJ, 6/10/06, p.P8)
1605 Apr 8, Philip IV king of
Spain and Portugal (1621-65), was born.
1605-1612 Don Pedro de Zuniga served as the
Spanish ambassador to England. Zuniga actively engaged in espionage
while serving as ambassador to England, sending various reports and
maps concerning the English colony in Virginia to the Spanish court.
1607 Francisco de Rojas
Zorrilla (d.c1660), Spanish dramatist, was born at Toledo. He became
a knight of Santiago in 1644. The exact date of his death is
1608 Shogun Ieyasu ordered Will
Adams to go to the Philippines to invite the Spanish Gov. Don Diego
Vevero y Velasco to compete with the Portuguese for trade with
(ON, 11/02, p.10)
1609 Apr 9, Spain’s King Philip
III decreed the expulsion of the Moriscos, descendants of the
Muslim population that converted to Christianity under threat of
exile from Ferdinand and Isabella in 1502.
1609 Spanish ships began
visiting Japan and Spanish Dominicans began missionary work.
(ON, 11/02, p.10)
1609 Don Alonzo Perez de Guzman
el Bueno, the Duke of Medina Sedonia and head of the failed Spanish
(ON, 3/02, p.6)
1611 Don Diego de Molina, a
Spanish spy, was taken prisoner in Jamestown. Molina managed to send
reports about the colony to agents in London. When he eventually
returned to Spain, Molina urged King Philip to eliminate the English
presence in Virginia, but Philip again demurred.
(AH, 6/07, p.31)
1611-1670 Antonio de Pareda, Spanish allegorist
painter. His work included "El Sueño del Caballero" (The Gentleman’s
(WSJ, 1/09/00, p.A20)
1614 Apr 7, El Greco (b.1541),
born in Crete as Domenikos Theotocopoulos, died in Toledo, Spain.
His paintings included "The Resurrection" (1597) and “View and Plan
of Toledo” (1610-1614).
1616 Feb 26, Spanish
Inquisition delivered an injunction to Galileo.
1616 Apr 23, Miguel de
Cervantes (b.1547), Spanish poet and novelist, died in Madrid.
1620 The Plaza Mayor, a grand,
arcaded square in Madrid, dates to this time.
(SFEC, 5/31/98, p.T9)
1622 Sep 6, A Spanish silver
fleet disappeared off Florida Keys; thousands died. The Santa
Margarita, discovered off of Key West in 1980 by pioneering
shipwreck salvor Mel Fisher, was bound for Spain when it sank in a
hurricane in 1622.
(MC, 9/6/01)(AP, 6/18/07)
1623 Velazquez painted the
portrait: "Gaspar de Guzman, Count-Duke of Olivares."
(WSJ, 12/29/99, p.A12)
1624 May 3, Spanish silver
fleet sailed to Panama.
1624 Velasquez painted a
portrait of King Philip IV.
(WSJ, 12/16/04, p.D8)
1625 May 18, Francisco Gómez de
Sandoval y Rojas, Spanish marquis of Denia, died.
1625 Jul 2, The Spanish army
took Breda, Spain, after nearly a year of siege.
1627 Luis de Gongora y Argote
(b.1561), Spanish poet, died.
1628 Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish
painter, was called upon to broker a peace between Catholic Spain
and Protestant England.
(Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)
1629 Jun 18, Piet Heyn (51),
lt.-admiral (Spanish silver fleet), died in battle.
1631 Jun 17, The Spanish
galleon San Jose smashed into rock off the Pacific coast of Panama.
It was overloaded with 200 passengers and 700 tons of cargo. Silver
coins and bars were lost over a 40-mile trail.
(http://tinyurl.com/hmy8v7f)(SFC, 12/1/15, p.A7)
1631 Oct 14, The ship Our Lady
of Juncal set sail from the Gulf coast port of Veracruz, as part of
a 19-ship fleet bearing described only as "a valuable shipment of
the goods obtained by the king's ministers to feed the Spanish
empire." Most of the fleet never made it.
1632-1635 Velazquez painted "The Jester Pablo de
(WSJ, 4/16/03, p.D10)
1633 Francisco de Zurbaran
(1598-1644), Spanish artist, painted his “Still Life With Lemons
Oranges and a Rose," later described as symbolic objects to the
Virgin Mary. It was the work that Zurbaran ever signed and dated. In
1998 it was held by the Los Angeles Norton Simon Museum of Art.
(SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)(WSJ, 2/21/09, p.W7)
1634 Sep 5, Battle at
Nordlingen: King Ferdinand III & Catholic Spain beat Sweden
& German protestants.
1635 May 19, Cardinal Richelieu
of France intervened in the great conflict in Europe by declaring
war on the Hapsburgs in Spain.
(DTnet, 5/19/97)(HN, 5/19/99)
1636 Aug 8, The invading armies
of Spain, Austria and Bavaria were stopped at the village of
St.-Jean-de-Losne, only 50 miles from France.
1640 Dec 1, Spain lost Portugal
as the Duke of Braganza was proclaimed João IV (John IV), king of
1640 Spain’s medieval kingdom
of Aragon rebelled against Madrid.
(Econ, 11/8/08, SR p.10)
1640 Pope Urban VIII ordered
Spanish priests to stop smoking cigars.
(SFC, 5/24/97, p.E3)
1643 May 19, A French army
destroyed Spanish army at the Battle at Rocroi /Allersheim in France
(DTnet, 5/19/97)(HN, 5/19/98)
1644 Velazquez painted the
portrait: "King Philip IV of Spain."
(WSJ, 12/29/99, p.A12)
1647 Velazquez (1599-1660)
began his painting "Toilet of Venus." It was completed in 1651.
(WSJ, 2/24/00, p.A16)
1648 Apr 5, Spanish troops and
feudal barons struck down people's uprising in Naples.
1648 May 15, The independence
of the Netherlands was finally recognized with the Dutch and Spanish
ratification of the Treaty of Munster, initially signed on January
1649 In Seville one in three
died of the Black Plague.
(SFEC, 10/13/96, p.T6)
c1650 Velazquez painted the
portrait: "Juan de Pareja."
(WSJ, 12/29/99, p.A12)
1654 Sep 8, Peter Claver,
Spanish saint (baptized 300,000 slaves), died.
c1655 Esteban Murillo
(1617-1682), Spanish artist, painted a self-portrait. Some of his
mid-century work in Seville portrayed the effects of the Plague that
killed 50% of the population in 4 months. [see 1649]
(WSJ, 4/9/02, p.D19)
1657 Mar 23, France and England
formed an alliance against Spain.
1657 Apr 20, English Admiral
Robert Blake fought his last battle when he destroyed the Spanish
fleet in Santa Cruz Bay.
1660 Aug 6, Diego Rodriguez de
Silva Velazquez (b.1599), Spanish court painter, died in Madrid. In
1906 C. Lewis Hind authored “Days with Velazquez.” In 1986 Jonathan
Brown authored “Velazquez: Painter and Courtier.” In 2016 Laura
Cumming authored “The Vanishing Man: In Pursuit of Velazquez.”
1667-1668 The War of Devolution was fought between
France and Spain as a result of the claim by Louis XIV of France
that the ownership of the Spanish Netherlands devolved to his wife,
Marie Therese, upon the death of her father, Philip IV of Spain.
France conquered the area, now Belgium, and also seized the
Franche-Comte, a Spanish possession that bordered on Switzerland.
1668 The Spaniards established
a permanent settlement on Guam. They forced the Chamorros to convert
to Catholicism. Under Spanish rule the Chamorro numbers were reduced
to some 2,000.
(SFEC, 3/7/99,Z1 p.4)
1672 Aug 9, Jose Ximenez (70),
Spanish composer, died.
1676 King Carlos II of Spain,
having successfully outlawed a drink suspected of leading to
homicides, inattentiveness at church and moral turpitude, warned his
colonial rulers in Bogota of a drink "that is, beyond all
comparison, more dangerous and which goes by the name of
aguardiente." In 1988 Gilma Mora de Tovar's authored, "Aguardiente
and Social Conflicts in 18th Century New Granada,"
1679 Dec 17, Don Juan, ruler of
1681 May 25, Caldéron de la
Barca (b.1600), Spanish dramatist & poet, died.
(WUD, 1994 p.210)(SC, 5/25/02)
1682 Apr 3, Esteban Murillo
(b.1617), Spanish painter, died. Some of his mid-century work in
Seville portrayed the effects of the Plague that killed 50% of the
population in 4 months.
(WSJ, 4/9/02, p.D19)(MC, 4/3/02)
1683 Feb 20, Philip V, first
Bourbon King of Spain, was born. [see Dec 19]
1683 Dec 19, Philip V, King of
Spain (1700-24, 24-46), was born in Versailles, France. [see Feb 20]
1686 A Spaniard by the name of
Francisco Lazcano named a group of about 500 small coral islands
east of the Philippines, the Caroline Islands, after King Charles II
of Spain who funded the expedition.
1689 Apr 15, French king Louis
XIV declared war on Spain.
1689 Aug 25, Battle at
Charleroi: Spanish and English armies chased the French.
1691 The Spanish Inquisition
killed 37 Jews from Mallorca for secretly practicing their faith. In
2011 the island’s leading government official issued an official
condemnation for the killing.
(SFC, 5/6/11, p.A2)
1692 Oct 25, Elisabeth Farnese,
princess of Parma and queen of Spain, was born.
1697 Sep 20, The Treaty of
Ryswick was signed in Holland. It ended the War of the Grand
Alliance (aka War of the League of Augsburg,1688-1697) between
France and the Grand Alliance. Under the Treaty France’s King Louis
XIV (1638-1715) recognized William III (1650-1702) as King of
England. The Dutch received trade concessions, and France and the
Grand Alliance members (Holland and the Austrian Hapsburgs) gave up
most of the land they had conquered since 1679. The signees included
France, England, Spain and Holland. By the Treaty of Ryswick, a
portion of Hispaniola was formally ceded to France and became known
as Saint-Domingue. The remaining Spanish section was called Santo
1698 The Spanish established
Presidio Santa Maria de Galve (later Pensacola, Florida).
1699 The King of Spain, due to
competition, banned the production of wine in the Americas, except
for that made by the church.
(SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T8)
1700 Apr, A siege by Spanish
forces shut down a Company of Scotland colony called "New Caledonia"
on the Isthmus of Panama. As the Darien company was backed by nearly
half the money circulating in Scotland, its failure left the
country, which had suffered a run of bad harvests, completely ruined
and was an important factor in weakening resistance to the Act of
Union (finally consummated in 1707) among the political elite.
1700 The Spanish crown
monopolized the Aquardiente industry in Colombia.
1700s Bullfighting emerged in
its modern form.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)
1700-1746 Philip V (1683-1746) was King of Spain.
(WUD, 1994, p.1081)
1701 Feb 19, Philip V of Spain
made his ceremonial entry into Madrid.
1701 Spain’s medieval kingdom
of Aragon again rebelled against Madrid.
(Econ, 11/8/08, SR p.10)
1701 The War of Spanish
Succession began and continued to 1714.
1704 Jul 24, Admiral George
Rooke took Gibraltar from the Spanish.
1704 Aug 4, In the War of
Spanish Succession, an Anglo-Dutch fleet captured Gibraltar.
1704 Aug 13, The Battle of
Blenheim, Germany, was fought during the War of the Spanish
Succession, resulting in a victory for English and Austrian forces.
The Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Austria defeated the
French Army at the Battle of Blenheim. In 1705 Joseph Addison wrote
the poem "The Campaign" for the Duke of Marlborough to commemorate
the military victory over France and Spain at the Battle of
Blenheim: "Do you not think an angel rides in the whirlwind and
directs this storm."
(AP, 8/13/97)(HN, 8/13/98)(SSFC, 1/21/01, p.A6)
1705 Oct 14, The English Navy
captured Barcelona in Spain.
1707 Apr 25, At the Battle of
Almansa, Franco-Spanish forces defeated Anglo-Portuguese.
1708 Jun 8, The San Jose, a
62-gun, three-masted Spanish galleon, was trying to outrun a fleet
of British warships off Colombia's Baru peninsula, when a mysterious
explosion sent it to the bottom of the sea with gold, silver,
emeralds and 600 men. 14 men survived. In 1979 Sea Search signed a
deal with Colombia giving Sea Search exclusive rights to search for
the San Jose and 50 percent of whatever they find. In 1982 Sea
Search announced to the world it had found the San Jose's resting
place 700 feet below the water's surface, a few miles from the
historic Caribbean port of Cartagena. In 1984 Colombian President
Belisario Betancur signed a decree reducing Sea Search's share from
50% to a 5% "finder's fee." By 2007 the treasure was valued at more
than $2 billion. In July, 2007, Colombia’s highest court ruled that
the ship must first be recovered before an international dispute
over the fortune can be settled. In 2007 Carla Rahn Phillips
authored “The Treasure of San Jose: Death at Sea in the War of the
Spanish Succession.” In 2015 experts confirmed that they found the
San Jose on November 27 in a place never before referenced by
previous research. The Remus 6000, an underwater autonomous vehicle
operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, assisted in
(AP, 6/3/07)(AP, 7/6/07)(WSJ, 1/31/07, p.D6)(AP,
1711 English ships captured the
Spanish galleon San Joaquin, part of a fleet returning to Spain from
Portobelo under Don Miguel Augustin de Villanueva, who was mortally
wounded. New World wealth was on another ship, which managed to
return to Spain.
(WSJ, 1/31/07, p.D6)
1713 Apr 11, Spain ceded the
2.5-sq. mile Gibraltar in perpetuity to Britain under the Treaty of
(WSJ, 11/29/99, p.A29)(SFC, 2/19/02, p.A2)
1713 Nov 24, Junipero Serra
(d.1784), Spanish Roman Catholic missionary to the Indians in
California and Mexico was born on the Spanish isle of Palma de
Mallorca. He came to the New World in 1749 accompanied by 14 other
Mallorcans including the geographer Crespi and Father Francisco
Palou, biographer of Serra and historian of the missions. Serra was
beatified in 1988.
4/28/96, p.6)(SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A18)
1714 Mar 6, the Treaty of
Rastatt ended the war between Austria and Spain. It complemented the
Treaty of Utrecht, which had, the previous year, ended hostilities
with Britain and the Dutch Republic. The Spanish Netherlands became
the Austrian Netherlands, and Spain gave up her possession in Italy,
Luxembourg and Flanders. A third treaty, the Treaty of Baden (Sep 7,
1714), was required to end the hostilities between France and the
Holy Roman Empire.
(PCh, ed. 1992,
1714 Sep 7, In Baden,
Switzerland, Charles VI signed the Treaty of Baden, also called the
Peace of Baden, on behalf of the Holy Roman Empire. It was one of
the agreements that concluded the War of the Spanish Succession.
1714 Sep 11, The Bourbon
monarchy suppressed Catalonia’s medieval institutions following the
end of the War of Spanish Succession. The Kingdom of Aragon troops
that fought in support of the Habsburg dynasty's claim to the
Spanish throne were finally defeated at the Siege of Barcelona by
the army of the Borbon king Philip V of Spain after 14 months of
siege. This became the National Day of Catalonia (Diada) first
celebrated in 1886.
1715 Jul 30, Eleven of twelve
Spanish ships carrying gold and silver disappeared in a hurricane
near Vero Beach, Florida.
1716-1788 Charles III, (Carlos III) king of Spain
from 1759-1788, was born in Madrid. He was a member of the
Bourbon-Parma dynasty. He was King of Naples from 1734-1759 and
authorized expeditions from Mexico to California.
(WUD, 1994, p.249)(SFC, 6/7/00, p.A15)
1719 The French captured and
burned the Spanish settlement Presidio Santa Maria de Galve (later
Pensacola, Flordia), but handed Pensacola back to Spain three years
later. Hurricanes forced the Spanish to repeatedly rebuild.
1720 Jan 26, Guilio Alberoni
was ordered out of Spain after his abortive attempt to restore his
1720 Feb 17, Spain signed the
Treaty of the Hague with the Quadruple Alliance ending a war that
was begun in 1718.
1724 Jan 10, King Philip V
shocked all of Europe when he abdicated his throne in favor of his
eldest son, Louis. Philip V (1683-1746) was King of Spain from
(WUD, 1994, p.1081)(HN, 1/10/99)
1725 Apr 30, Spain withdrew
from the Quadruple Alliance.
1729 Dec 3, Padre Antonio
Francisco J. Jose Soler, composer (Fandango), was born in Olot,
1734 Mar 10, Spanish army under
Don Carlos (III) drew into Naples.
1739 Oct 19, England declared
war on Spain over borderlines in Florida. The War is known as the
War of Jenkins’ Ear because a member of Parliament waved a dried ear
and demanded revenge for alleged mistreatment of British sailors.
British seaman Robert Jenkins had his ear amputated following a 1731
barroom brawl with a Spanish Customs guard in Havana and saved the
ear in his sea chest.
(EWH, 4th ed, p.555)(HN, 10/19/98)(PCh, 1992,
1739 Nov 22, Adm. Edward Vernon
captured the Spanish city of Portobello, Panama, with a force of 6
(PCh, 1992, p.292)
1743 Jun 20, The British
warship Centurion under Commodore George Anson engaged and overcame
the Spanish treasure galleon, Nuestra Senora de Covadonga, near the
Philippines. 58 Spaniards were killed and 83 wounded. Anson captured
over 1 million Spanish silver dollars and 500 pounds of native
(ON, 4/01, p.7)
1744 Feb 9, Battle at Toulon:
French-Spanish faced the English fleet of Adm. Matthews.
1744 Feb 21, The British
blockade of Toulon was broken by 27 French and Spanish warships
attacking 29 British ships.
1746-1828 Francisco Jose de Goya y
Lucientes(d.1828), Spanish painter. 128 of his paintings are at the
Prado in Madrid, Spain. Among these are: "La Maja Desnuda," "La Maja
Vestida," "El Dos de Mayo," "El Tres de Mayo," "The Witches
Sabboth," "Saturn eating one of his children," "La Quinta del Sordo"
(House of the Deaf Man) murals (1820-1823) that he applied to the
walls of his Madrid rooms. Known as El Rapidisimo, he painted more
than 600 works. Other works include: "Los Caprichos," "Disasters of
War," "Family of Charles IV," "Boys Climbing a Tree," "The Kite,"
"The Injured Workman," "The Drunken Workman," "The Wedding," "The
Duchess of Alba" and "Pinturas Negras." Goya spent his last years in
(WSJ, 5/20/96, p.A-12)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994,
p.612)(WSJ, 5/4/99, p.A20)
1750 The Spanish ship La Galga
sank. It was later believed that the wild ponies of Chincoteague
Island off the coast of Virginia came from this ship.
(USAT, 5/7/98, p.9A)
1756-1763 The Seven Years War. France and Great
Britain clashed both in Europe and in North America. In 2000
"Crucible of War" by Fred Anderson was published. France, Russia,
Austria, Saxony, Sweden and Spain stood against Britain, Prussia and
Hanover. Britain financed Prussia to block France in Europe while
her manpower was occupied in America.
(V.D.-H.K.p.223)(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.7)(WSJ,
1759-1788 Charles III ruled as King of Spain.
(WUD, 1994, p.249)
1760 Jan 20, Charles III, King
of Spain, was born.
1762 Aug 12, The British
captured Cuba from Spain after a two month siege.
1762 Oct 5, The British fleet
bombarded and captured Spanish-held Manila in the Philippines.
1762 Nov 3, Spain acquired
Louisiana. [see Dec 3]
1762 Dec 3, France ceded to
Spain all lands west of the Mississippi- the territory known as
Upper Louisiana. [see Nov 3]
(CO, Grolier's, 11/10/95)(HN, 12/3/98)
1763 Feb 10, Britain, Spain and
France signed the Treaty of Paris ending the French-Indian War.
France ceded Canada to England and gave up all her territories in
the New World except New Orleans and a few scattered islands. France
retained the sugar colonies of Martinique and Guadeloupe.
(HN, 2/10/97)(AP, 2/10/97)(AP, 2/10/08)(SSFC,
1766 Mar 5, Spanish official
Antonio de Ulloa (1716-1795) arrived in Louisiana to take possession
of the Louisiana Territory from the French. The French colonists
refused to recognize Spanish rule and de Ulloa was expelled by a
Creole uprising during the Louisiana Rebellion of 1768.
1766 Jul 11(Jun 11), Elisabeth
Farnese (73), princess of Parma, queen of Spain, died.
1766 France handed its
settlement on the Falkland Islands over to Spain.
(Econ, 7/15/06, p.36)
1767 Jun 25, Mexican Indians
rioted as Jesuit priests were ordered home. Spain expelled the
Jesuits from Mexico and their work was taken over by the Dominican
(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)(HN, 6/25/98)(Econ, 6/1/13,
1768 King Carlos III of Spain
sent Father Junipero Serra from Mallorca to California.
(SFEC, 3/12/00, p.T4)
1769 King Carlos III chose Don
Jose Galvez to protect interests in Mexico. Galvez sent Gaspar de
Portola and Father Junipero Serra out to establish a settlement at
San Diego and on a northerly journey from Loreto to found missions
along the Baha Peninsula and into California.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)
1770 Apr 28, Marie AC de
Camargo (60), Spanish-Italian-Belgian dancer, died.
1772 Apr 11, Manuel Jose
Quintana, Spanish author, poet (El Duque de Viseo), was born.
1774 Jul 11(Jun 11), Jews of
Algiers escaped an attack of the Spanish Army.
1774 Spain established a small
settlement on the Falkland Islands, which lasted to 1811. An
Argentine outpost was established in the 1820s.
(Econ, 4/7/07, p.36)
1775 Aug 5, Spanish Lieutenant
Juan Manuel de Ayala and his crew of 30 became the first European
explorers to sail into the San Francisco Bay. He anchored at Angel
Island and waited for the overland expedition of Captain Juan
Bautista de Anza. Angel Island was one of the first landforms named
by the Spanish when they entered SF Bay. The 58-foot Spanish
fregata, Punta de San Carlos, was the first sailing vessel to enter
the SF Bay while on a voyage of exploration. Ayala named Alcatraz
Island after a large flock of pelicans, called alcatraces in
(CAS, 1996, p.19)(SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W4)(SFEC,
3/8/98, p.W38)(SFC, 12/26/01, p.A28)(SFC, 8/16/14, p.C1)
1776 Sep 17, The Presidio of SF
formed as a Spanish fort. The Spanish built the Presidio on the hill
where the Golden Gate Bridge now meets San Francisco.
(WSJ, 9/17/96, p.A12)(MC, 9/17/01)
1778 King Carlos III sent
Spanish settlers from the Canary Islands to Louisiana. They settled
in St. Bernard Parish and became known as Islenos or Spanish Cajuns.
(SFC, 9/4/00, p.B2)
1779 Jun 16, Spain, in support
of the US, declared war on England.
1779 Jun 16, Vice-Admiral Hardy
sailed out of Isle of Wight against the Spanish fleet.
1779 Jul 24, The Siege of
Gibraltar by the Spanish and French was begun. British Gen. George
Eliott led the 5,000 man Gibraltar garrison. The siege was finally
lifted on Feb 7, 1783. In 1965 T.H. McGuffie authored "The Siege of
(HN, 2/7/99)(ON, 7/01, p.8)
1780-1820 Some 5,000 cases came before the Spanish
Inquisition from which only 6 Spaniards were prosecuted for Judaism.
(WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A20)
1781 Tupak Katari, Aymara
Indian leader, laid siege to La Paz, Bolivia, for 109 days. A
Spanish army finally broke through and Katari was executed by being
drawn and quartered.
(SFC, 4/5/01, p.A12)(WSJ, 1/8/04, p.A1)
1782 Sep 13, The British
fortress at Gibraltar came under attack by French and Spanish
1783 Jan 20, The fighting of
the Revolutionary War ended. Britain signed a peace agreement with
France and Spain, who allied against it in the American War of
(HFA, '96, p.22)(HN, 1/20/99)
1783 Feb 3, Spain recognized
United States' independence.
(AP, 2/3/97)(HN, 2/3/99)
1783 Feb 7, The Siege of
Gibraltar, pursued by the Spanish and the French since July 24,
1779, was finally lifted. [see Sep 13, 1782]
(HN, 2/7/99)(ON, 7/01, p.10)
1783 Dec 20, Antonio Francisco
Jawer Jose Soler (54), Spanish composer (Fandango), died.
1784 Oct 13, Ferdinand VII,
king of Spain, was born.
1792-1793 Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes
(1746-1828), Spanish painter, went deaf from an unexplained illness.
(WSJ, 5/10/02, p.W8)(Econ, 10/18/03, p.81)
1794 May 6, In Haiti Toussaint
Louverture (L’Ouverture), Haitian rebel leader, ended his alliance
with the Iberian monarchy and embraced the French Republicans. An
order followed that led to the massacre of Spaniards.
1794 Spanish painter Goya
completed his painting “Yard With Lunatics,” the last in a series of
uncommissioned small paintings executed during his convalescence
from an illness that left him deaf.
(WSJ, 6/18/08, p.D7)
1795 Jul 22, Spain signed the
Peace of Basel, a treaty with France ending the War of the Pyrenees.
The treaty ceded Santo Domingo to France.
1795 Oct 27, The United States
and Spain signed the Treaty of San Lorenzo (also known as Pinckney's
Treaty), which provided for free navigation of the Mississippi
1797 Feb 14, The Spanish fleet
was destroyed by the British under Admiral Jervis (with Nelson in
support) at the battle of Cape St. Vincent, off Portugal.
1799 Goya (1746-1828) made his
famous etching "The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters," in which
fluttering bats hover darkly above a man dozing at his desk.
(WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)
1800 Oct 1, Spain ceded
Louisiana to France in a secret treaty.
1801 Jun 6, The Treaty of
Badajoz (also known as the Peace of Badajoz) was signed in Badajoz
between John VI of Portugal and representatives from the Kingdom of
1802 Apr 19, Spain reopened the
New Orleans port to American merchants.
1802 Oct 28, The frigate Juno,
enroute back to Spain from Mexico, ran into a storm off the coast of
Virginia with 425 men, women and children and an estimated
half-billion dollars in treasure.
(USAT, 5/7/98, p.9A)
1803 Nov 30, Spain, in a
ceremony at New Orleans, completed the process of ceding Louisiana
to France, which had sold it to the United States.
(CO, Grolier’s, 11/10/95)(AP, 11/30/04)
1804 Oct 5, The Nuestra Senora
de las Mercedes, a Spanish galleon, was sunk by the British navy
southwest of Portugal with more than 200 people on board. In May
2007, Odyssey Marine Exploration announced that it had discovered a
wreck in the Atlantic and its cargo of 500,000 silver coins and
other artifacts worth an estimated $500 million. Spain claimed this
was the Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes. In 2009 Peru pushed claims
to the silver coins arguing that they were minted in Lima. In 2012 a
US judge ordered that the treasure be returned to Spain.
1/29/09)(SFC, 2/18/12, p.A7)
1804 Nov 27, Pres. Jefferson
issued a nationwide proclamation to military and public officials
warning of a conspiracy to attack Spanish territory in Texas. He had
opened negotiations with Spain to purchase Texas territory west of
New Orleans. Jefferson had heard rumors that Aaron Burr had begun
plotting an invasion of Texas. Jefferson ordered Gen. James
Wilkinson to move federal troops into defensive positions between
the Sabine River and New Orleans. Wilkinson, unbeknownst to
Jefferson, was a close confidant of Burr and also worked as a spy in
the employ of Spanish officials in Mexico.
(ON, 12/08, p6)
1805 Aug 9, Austria joined
Britain, Russia, Sweden and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in the
Third Coalition against Napoleonic France and Spain.
(HN, 8/9/98)(HNQ, 10/19/98)
1805 Oct 21, A British fleet
commanded by Vice Adm. Horatio Nelson defeated a French-Spanish
fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar fought off Cape Trafalgar, Spain.
Admiral Nelson won his greatest victory and though fatally wounded
in the battle aboard his flagship, he lived long enough to see
victory: "England expects every man to do his duty." The crew
fittingly preserved his body in rum. Over 8,500 Englishmen,
Frenchmen and Spaniards were lost in the battle or the hurricane
that swept over the ships the next day. In 1807 Nelson’s surgeon
William Beatty authored “authentic narrative of the Death of Lord
Nelson.” In 1999 Barry Unsworth authored the novel "Losing Nelson."
In 2001 Joseph F. Callo edited "Nelson Speaks: Admiral Lord Nelson
in His Own Words." In 2005 Adam Nicolson authored “Men of Honour:
Trafalgar and the Making of the English Hero;” Roy Adkins authored
“Nelson’s Trafalgar,” and Adam Nicolson authored “Seize the Fire.”
(WSJ, 5/24/01, p.A20)(Econ, 6/25/05, p.82)(WSJ,
8/19/05, p.W6)(ON, 3/06, p.2)(Reuters, 7/13/10)
1806 Jul 5, A Spanish army
repelled the British during their attempt to retake Buenos Aires,
1808 Feb 16, The Peninsular War
began when Napoleon ordered a large French force into Spain under
the pretext of sending reinforcements to the French army occupying
1808 Mar 19, Spain's King
Charles IV abdicated.
1808 Mar 23, Napoleon's brother
Joseph took the throne of Spain.
1808 May 2, The citizens of
Madrid rose up against Napoleon. It culminated in a fierce battle
fought out in the Puerta del Sol, Madrid's central square. The
Spanish were defeated, and during the night the French army lead by
Grand Duke Joachim Murat slaughtered hundreds of citizens along the
Prado promenade in reprisal.
(HN, 5/2/98)(MC, 5/2/02)
1808 May 3, Spanish executions
took place and were later commemorated in Goya’s painting
"Executions of 3rd of May."
1809 Jul 27-28, Arthur
Wellesley led the British army to triumph against the Spanish King
Joseph Bonaparte at Talavera de la Reina against a French army twice
his size. For this he was made Duke of Wellington.
(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A15)(PC, 1992 ed, p.371)
1809 Aug 10, Ecuador struck its
first blow for independence from Spain.
1810 May 25, Argentina declared
independence and began its revolt from Napoleonic Spain.
(AP, 5/25/97)(HN, 5/25/98)
1810 Jul 20, Colombia declared
independence from Spain.
1810 Sep 18, Chile declared its
independence from Spain. Bernardo O’Higgins helped lead Chile to
(AP, 9/18/97)(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T9)
1810 Oct 27, US annexed West
Florida from Spain.
1810 General Count Hugo, the
father of Victor Hugo, governed Central Spain during the Peninsula
War. He exterminated guerrillas and nailed up their severed heads.
(WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)
1811 May 14, Paraguay gained
independence from Spain (Nat’l Day).
1811 Jul 31, Miguel Hidalgo y
Costilla, Mexican hero priest, was executed by Spanish.
1811 Nov 5, El Salvador fought
its 1st battle against Spain for independence.
1812 Mar 19, Spanish Cortes
passed a liberal constitution under a hereditary monarch.
1812 Jul 22, English troops
under the Duke of Wellington defeated the French at the Battle of
Salamanca in Spain.
(AP, 7/22/97)(HN, 7/22/98)
1812 Jul, British troops under
the Duke of Wellington pillaged the Spanish town of Badajos. This
prompted Wellington to call his troops "the scum of the earth."
(WSJ, 1/6/95, A-10)
1812 Aug 12, British commander
the Duke of Wellington occupied Madrid, Spain, forcing out Joseph
1812 Oct 22, The Duke of
Wellington abandoned his 1st siege of Burgos, Spain.
1813 Jun 21, The Peninsular War
ended. It began on February 16, 1808, when Napoleon ordered a large
French force into Spain under the pretext of sending reinforcements
to the French army occupying Portugal.
1813 Nov 6, Chilpancingo
congress declared Mexico independent of Spain.
1811 Aug 14, Paraguay declared
independence from Spain.
(PC, 1992, p.373)
1814 Nov 7, Andrew Jackson
attacked and captured Pensacola, Florida, defeating the Spanish and
driving out a British force.
1815 Dec 22, Spaniards executed
Mexican revolutionary priest Jose Maria Morelos.
1816 Jul 9, Argentina declared
independence from Spain.
1816 Jul 14, Francisco de
Miranda (b.1750), Venezuela-born self-appointed leader of
independence for South America from Spanish rule, died in a Spanish
prison in Cadiz. He is regarded as a forerunner of Simón Bolívar,
who during the Spanish American wars of independence successfully
liberated much of South America.
1817 Spain formally accepted
the principle to abolish slavery.
(WSJ, 12/16/97, p.A18)
1818 Feb 12, Chile gained
independence from Spain.
1818 The last prosecution of
the Spanish Inquisition was held.
(WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A20)
1818 An annual national
Christmas lottery was begun.
1819 Feb 22, Spain signed the
Adams-Onis Treaty with the United States ceding eastern Florida.
Spanish minister Do Luis de Onis and U.S. Secretary of State John
Quincy Adams signed the Florida Purchase Treaty, in which Spain
agrees to cede the remainder of its old province of Florida. Spain
renounced claims to Oregon Country. [see 1821]
(AP, 2/22/99)(HN, 2/22/99)
1819 Aug 7, Bolivar defeated
the Spanish in Colombia at the Battle of Boyaca. This established
the independence of Colombia from Spain. The battle took place
shortly after South American liberator Simon Bolivar defeated a
force of Spanish regulars north of Bogota.
(MC, 8/7/02)(HNQ, 9/12/99)
1819 Spain’s Prado opened as
the Real Mueso de Pintura y Escultura.
(WSJ, 4/16/03, p.D10)
1820 Oct 20, Spain sold a part
of Florida to US for $5 million. [see Feb 22, 1821]
1821 Feb 22, The Adams-Onis
Treaty became final, whereby Spain gave up all of Florida to the US.
The boundary between Mexico and the Louisiana Purchase was
established and the US renounced all claims to Texas.
(AH, 2/06, p.15)
1821 Feb 24, Mexico rebels
proclaimed the "Plan de Iguala," their declaration of independence
from Spain, and took over the mission lands in California.
(HT, 3/97, p.61)(AP, 2/24/98)(HN, 2/24/98)
1821 Jul 17, Spain ceded
Florida to the United States. [see Feb 22]
1821 Jul 28, Peru declared its
independence from Spain. Lima had been the seat of the Spanish
viceroys until this time.
(SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)(AP, 7/28/97)
1821 Aug 23, After 11 years of
war, Spain granted Mexican independence as a constitutional
monarchy. Spanish Viceroy Juan de O'Donoju signed the Treaty of
Cordoba, which approved a plan to make Mexico an independent
(HN, 8/23/00)(MC, 8/23/02)
1822 May 24, At Battle of
Pichincha, Bolivar secured the independence of Quito [Ecuador] from
(HN, 5/24/98)(MC, 5/24/02)
1824 Aug 24, Simon Bolivar's
army beat the Spanish in Peru in the Battle at Junin.
(PC, 1992, p.394)
1824 Dec 9, In the Battle of
Ayacucho (Candorcangui) Peru defeated Spain.
1824 Francisco Jose de Goya y
Lucientes, painter, left Spain for Bordeaux.
(WSJ, 5/10/02, p.W8)
1828 Feb 18, More than 100
vessels were destroyed in a storm at Gibraltar.
1828 Apr 16, Francisco Jose
Goya y Lucientes (b.1746), Spanish painter, cartoonist, died at age
82 in France. He had served 3 generations of Spanish kings as court
painter. In 2002 Julia Blackburn authored "Old Man Goya." In 2003
Robert Hughes authored "Goya." See link for Goya timeline.
(WSJ, 5/10/02, p.W8)(Econ, 10/18/03,
1831 Apr 9, Robert Jenkins lost
an ear which started a war between Britain and Spain.
1833 Sep 29, King Ferdinand of
Spain died and his daughter Isabella was proclaimed as queen. A
civil war broke out in Spain between Carlisists, who believed Don
Carlos deserved the throne, and supporters of Queen Isabella.
(HNQ, 8/20/98)(HN, 9/29/98)
1833-1868 The Carlist Wars comprised the dynastic
struggle in Spain between Isabelline liberalism and the reactionary
rural traditionalism represented by Don Carlos. With the death of
Ferdinand on September 29, 1833, and the proclamation of his
daughter Isabella as queen--excluding Ferdinand's brother Don Carlos
from the succession--the First Carlist War was ignited.
1834 In Madrid, Spain, a time
capsule with books, documents and mementos, was buried beneath a
statue of writer Miguel de Cervantes. The lead box was uncovered in
(SFC, 1/16/10, p.A2)
1836 Dec 28, Spain recognized
the independence of Mexico.
1836 Spain’s central government
revoked the Basque’s fiscal privileges. These were restored in 1979.
(Econ, 11/8/08, SR p.10)
1839 In Seville, Spain, the
Monasterio de Santa Maria de las Casas was purchased by a British
businessman and turned into a ceramic tile factory. It had been
badly run down during occupation by French troops (1808-1812).
(SSFC, 8/15/10, p.M5)
1843 Feb 19, Adelina Patti,
opera soprano (Lucio), was born in Madrid, Spain.
1844 Mar 10, Pablo Martin M de
Sarasate y Navascuez, composer (Spanish Dances), was born.
1844 Mar 28, Jose Zorilla's
"Don Juan Tenorio," premiered in Madrid.
1844 Nov 6, The first
constitution of the new Dominican Republic was signed in San
Cristobal. Pedro Santana, fearing political instability, controlled
revisions to the newly written constitution that allowed him to stay
in power, and declared himself president of the nation, a post he
would hold from 1844-1848, 1853-1856, and 1858-1861. Spain granted
independence to the Dominican Republic. The Dominican Republic won
independence from next door Haiti after 2 occupations. [see Feb 27]
5/16/96, p.A-9)(Econ, 2/20/10, p.35)
1845 The "Handbook for
Travelers in Spain" was first published. It described Valencians as:
"perfidious, vindictive, sullen, mistrustful, fickle, treacherous,
smooth, empty of all good, snarling and biting like hyenas, and
smiling as they murder."
(SSFC, 12/1/02, p.C3)
1847 April, A cattle market
began in Seville, Spain, that changed over the years to a week long
celebration of Holy Week.
(Hem, 4/96, p.51)
1852 Jun 25, Antoni Gaudi
(d.1926), Spanish modernist architect (Sagrada Familia, Barcelona),
(MC, 6/25/02)(SFEM, 10/8/00, p.61)
1857 Banco Santander was
founded in Spain to finance trade between the port city of Santander
and Latin America.
(WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-6)
1859 Oct 22, Spain declared war
on the Moors in Morocco.
1859 Dec 10, In Venezuela’s war
for independence from Spain Ezequiel Zamora (1817-1860) led the
Battle of Santa Ines. Zamora and 3,400 men defeated the Central Army
of 2,300 men, with about 1,200 casualties altogether on both sides.
Zamora had returned to Venezuela to lead the Federal War, which
lasted to 1863.
1860 May 29, Isaac [Manuel F]
Albéniz, Spanish pianist, composer (Iberia), was born.
1864-1936 Miguel de Unamuno, Spanish philosopher:
"La vida es duda, y la fe sin la duda es solo muerte." (Life is
doubt, and faith without doubt is nothing but death.)
1865 Oct 10, Raffaele Merry del
Val, Spanish cardinal, was born.
1865 Dec 23, France, Belgium,
Italy and Switzerland formed the Latin Monetary Union (LMU). It was
a 19th century attempt to unify several European currencies into a
single currency that could be used in all the member states, at a
time when most national currencies were still made out of gold and
silver. Spain and Greece joined in 1868. It quickly weakened as
members pursued their own economic policies. It was disbanded in
1866 Aug 12, Jacinto Benavente
y Martinez, Spanish dramatist (Nobel 1922), was born.
1867 Jul 27, Enrique Granados,
composer (Maria del Carmen), was born in Lerida, Spain.
1868 Oct 10, Cuba revolted for
independence against Spain.
1871 Mar 26, Serafín Alvarez
Quintéro, Spanish dramatist, playwright (El Flechazo), was born.
1871 Pepita, a celebrated
Spanish dancer, died. She had captivated British diplomat Lionel
Sackville, later the second Lord Sackville in 1852 and bore him
seven children, five of whom survived. In 2014 Robert Sackvile-West
authored “The Disinherited: A Story of Family, Love and Betrayal.”
(Econ, 4/26/14, p.82)
1872 May, Don Carlos (24),
Spanish pretender, entered Navarre. King Amadeo I routed his forces
at Oroquista and forced him to take refuge in the Pyranees.
(PCh, 1992, p.523)
1873 Feb 12, The 1st Spanish
Republic was proclaimed. King Amadeo I abdicated following a 2-year
reign. Emilio Cistelar y Ripolo (40) became prime minister,
but the Carlist civil war continued.
(PCh, 1992, p.527)
1873 Many Basques fled Spain
during the 2nd Carlist War.
(SFC, 3/16/02, p.A2)
1873 The British based Rio
Tinto Company was formed by investors to mine ancient copper
workings at Rio Tinto near Huelva in southern Spain. By 2003 the
company had mining interests in 40 countries and revenues of $11.8
1873-1874 Spain’s system of federal government
(Econ, 11/17/12, p.15)
1876 Nov 23, Manuel de Falla
(d.1946), composer (El Amor Brujo), was born in Cadiz, Spain.
(WUD, 1994, p.512)(MC, 11/23/01)
1876 Dec 29, Pablo Casals,
violinist, conductor, composer, was born in Vendrell, Catalonia,
1878 Feb 10, Cuba’s 10 year war
with Spain ended with the signing of the pact of Zanjon. The
nationalist uprising failed.
1879 In Spain Marcelino Sanz de
Sautuola, a lawyer and amateur archeologist, discovered the Altamira
Cave. His daughter Maria (8) discovered the 14,500 year-old wall
(WSJ, 9/18/01, p.A20)(ON, 10/02, p.1)
1880 Captain Salvador Ordonez
developed a new artillery piece to defend harbors and military
(G, Spring/98, p.5)
1881 Oct 25, Pablo Picasso
(d.1973), painter and sculptor, was born in Malaga, Spain. He worked
in France and a painter and sculptor. Francoise Gilot was the mother
of 2 of his children. His work includes “Gilot,” and “Self-Portrait
with a Palette” (1906). He immortalized the French apéritif Pernod
by including it in many paintings. “Picasso and Dora” was written by
(SFC, 7/14/96, p.C11)(SFC, 8/14/96, zz-1 p.4)
(WSJ, 9/30/96, p.A14)(HN, 10/25/98)
1882 Dec 9, Joaquin Turina,
composer (Rima), was born in Seville, Spain.
1882 In Barcelona, Spain,
ground was broken for the new Sagrada Familia church. Antoni Gaudi
(1852-1926) became involved in the project in 1883. Completion of
the 5-tower basilica was expected in 2026.
1883 May 9, Spanish philosopher
Jose Ortega y Gasset was born in Madrid.
1884 Spain annexed the coastal
area of Western Sahara.
(SFC, 11/27/00, p.A12)
1886 Oct 7, Spain abolished
slavery in Cuba.
(SFC, 4/12/01, p.C4)(MC, 10/7/01)
1887 Mar 23, Juan Gris, cubist
painter (Still Life Before an Open Window), was born in Spain.
1888 In Spain the fishing
company Grupo Viera SA was founded.
(WSJ, 1/18/07, p.A13)
1892 Dec 4, Francisco Franco (y
Bahamonde), Spanish general and dictator (1936-75), was born. He
came to power as a result of the Spanish Civil War.
(HN, 12/4/00)(MC, 12/4/01)
1893 Feb 21, Andrés Segovia
(d.1987), Spanish classical guitarist, was born in Linares, Spain.
(WUD, 1994 p.1291)(HN, 2/21/01)(MC, 2/21/02)
1893 Apr 20, Joan Miró (Joan
Miro), Spanish painter, was born.
1893 Nov 7, In Barcelona,
Spain, 23 people including 9 women, were killed at Liceo Opera House
by a bomb thrown by anarchist Salvador Franch bomb.
1895 Mar 26, King Alfonso
planted a pine sapling in Madrid and started Spain's Arbor Day.
1895 Nov 28, Jose Iturbi,
pianist (Pequena danza Espanola), was born in Valencia, Spain.
1893 Apr 20, Joan Miró, Spanish
painter, was born.
1897 Aug 8, Anarchist Miguel
Angiolillo assassinated Spanish PM Antonio Canovas del Castillo at
Santa Agueda, Spain. Práxides Mateo Sagasta became prime minister of
1897 Nov 25, Spain granted
Puerto Rico autonomy.
1898 Feb, 15, The battleship
USS Maine exploded and sank in Havana harbor. It had been sent there
to menace Imperial Spain and its sinking helped to precipitate the
(Civilization, July-Aug, 1995, p. 14)(NH, 4/97,
1898 Apr 11, American President
McKinley asked Congress to authorize military intervention in Cuba.
The war was fomented by New York newspapers in their own battle for
(AP, 4/11/07)(WSJ, 5/19/98, p.A20)
1898 Apr 20, President
McKinley signed a congressional resolution recognizing Cuban
independence from Spain. He signed the Joint Resolution for War with
Spain that authorized U.S. military intervention to Cuban
(AP, 4/20/97)(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A19)
1898 Apr 21, The
Spanish-American War began. In 1998 David Traxel published "1898:
The Birth of the American Century," a history of the
(HN, 4/21/98)(SFEC, 7/5/98, BR p.6)
1898 Apr 22, With the United
States and Spain on the verge of formally declaring war, the U.S.
Navy began blockading Cuban ports. In the first Spanish-American War
action the USS Nashville captured a Spanish merchant ship, the
Buenaventura, off Key West, Fla. Also, Congress authorized creation
of the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry, popularly known as the "Rough
Riders." In 1998 the book "Empire by Default" by Ivan Musicant
retold the story of the was in detail.
(AP, 4/22/97)(WSJ, 2/23/98, p.A20)(AP,
1898 Apr 24, Spain declared war
on the United States after rejecting America's ultimatum to withdraw
(AP, 4/24/97) (HN, 4/24/98)
1898 Apr 25, The United States
formally declared war on Spain. The US House passed the declaration
311 to 6.
(AP, 4/25/97)(HN, 4/25/98)(SSFC, 3/30/03, p.A1)
1898 May 18, Juan J.
Domenchina, Spanish poet, interpreter (sombra desterrada), was born.
1898 Jun 5, Federico Garcia
Lorca (d.1936), Spanish poet and dramatist, was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.584)(MT, Spg. ‘99, p.2)(HN, 6/5/01)
1898 Jul 17, During the
Spanish-American War, Spain surrendered to the United States at
1898 Jul 21, Spain ceded Guam
1898 Jul 28, Spain, through the
offices of the French embassy in Washington, D.C., requested peace
terms in its war with the United States.
1898 Aug 12, Fighting in the
Spanish-American War came to an end. The peace protocol ending the
Spanish-American War was signed Dec 10 after three months and 22
days of hostilities. 460 US soldiers died in battle. The US paid
Spain $20 million to vacate Cuba, Guam, Puerto Rico and the
Philippines. Over the next 3 years US casualties in the Philippines
war totaled over 4,000.
(AP, 8/12/97)(WSJ, 2/23/98, p.A20)(HN,
8/12/00)(SSFC, 3/30/03, p.D1)(WSJ, 7/2/03, p.B1)
1898 Oct 18, The American flag
was raised in Puerto Rico shortly before Spain formally relinquished
control of the island to the US.
1898 Dec 10, The United States
and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris, ending the Spanish-American
War. This ceded Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam to the United
States. The US Senate ratified the treaty February 6, 1899. The US
military governed Puerto Rico from October 1898 until May 1900, when
the US Congress instituted a civil government. The civil government
underwent many changes until a Constitutional Assembly formed in
1950 and established a Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, which was
proclaimed on July 25, 1952. [see Aug 12]
(AP, 12/10/97)(HN, 12/10/98)(HNQ, 7/28/01)
1899 Feb 6, A peace treaty
between the United States and Spain was ratified by the U.S. Senate.
Spanish-American War ended.
(AP, 2/6/97)(HN, 2/6/99)
1899 Apr 11, The Treaty of
Paris ending the Spanish-American War was declared in effect. Spain
ceded Puerto Rico to US. [see Apr 12, 1898]
(AP, 4/11/97)(MC, 4/11/02)
1899 Germany bought the
Caroline Islands, a group of about 500 small coral islands east of
the Philippines, from Spain for 25 million pesetas.
1899-1935 Eusebia Palomino Yenes (1899-1935) of
Spain: a nun of the Institute of the Daughters of Mary, Help of
Christians. She was beatified in 2004.