Timeline Spain 1900 - Present

Return to home


1900        Jan 1, Xavier Cugat, bandleader (married Abbe Lane, Charo), was born in Barcelona, Spain.
    (MC, 1/1/02)

1901        Nov 22, Joaquin Rodrigo, Spanish composer (Juglares), was born in Sagunto, Valencia.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1904        May 11, Salvador Dali (d.1989), surrealist painter, was born in Figueres.
    (HN, 5/11/98)(WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A16)(SFEC, 7/16/00, p.T4)

1906        Apr 7, A general act was issued by the international conference of Algeciras, Spain. Thirteen powers participated in the deliberations on the Moroccan question, and despite strong German objections, agreed to entrust to France and Spain the management of the Moroccan police. The powers also made arrangements regarding Morocco's state bank, system of taxation, customs administration, and public works.
    (www.bartleby.com/67/1378.html)

1906        May 31, In Madrid, Spain, an anarchist bomb exploded under the wedding carriage King Alfonso and Queen Ena. 20 people were killed.
    (http://tinyurl.com/b45gm)

1907        Jun, Pablo Picasso stumbled on the African and Oceanic collection at the Ethnographic Museum of the Trocadero in Paris, as he was working on "Les Desmoiselles d’Avignon." The experience from that point on put an African influence on much of his work.
    (WSJ, 11/13/96, p.A20)(Econ, 2/11/06, p.81)

1907        Dec 2, Spain and France agreed to enforce Moroccan measures adopted in 1906.
    (HN, 12/2/98)

1907        Ricardo Anckermann (b.1842), ethnic German artist who painted in Mallorca, Spain, died.
    (WSJ, 12/27/07, p.D7)

1909        May 18, Isaac M F Albéniz (48), Spanish pianist, composer, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1912        Mar 5, Spanish steamer "Principe de Asturias" sank NE of Spain and 500 died.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1912        Nov 12, Jose Canalejas Y Mendez (b.1854), premier of Spain, was assassinated by anarchist Manuel Pardinas.
    (www.historia-es.com/usa/c_07_b02.htm)
 
1915        Apr 15, Manuel de Falla's ballet "El Amor Brujo," premiered in Madrid.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1917        Feb 16, The 1st Madrid synagogue in 425 years opened.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1917        Apr 7, De Falla's ballet "El Sombrero de tres Picos," premiered in Madrid.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1918        Oct 17, Anton Dilger (B.1884), an American saboteur educated as a surgeon in Germany, died of Spanish flu in Spain. [see 1916] In 2007 Robert Koenig authored “The Fourth Horseman: One Man’s Mission to Wage the Great War in America.”
    (SSFC, 1/14/07, p.M2)

1919        Oct 18, Madrid opened a subway system.
    (HN, 10/18/98)

1921        Mar 8, Spanish Premier Eduardo Dato was assassinated while leaving Parliament in Madrid.
    (HN, 3/8/98)

1921        Jul, Juan Miro (1893-1983), Spanish artist, began working on his painting titled “The Farm.” He completed it 9 months later. Ernest Hemingway, one of his sparring partners in Paris, purchased the painting in 1925. In 1987 the Hemingway family donated the painting to the National Gallery of Art.
    (WSJ, 12/13/08, p.W8)

1923        Aug 10, Joaquin Sorolla y Bastida (b.1863), Spanish impressionist painter, died in Cercedilla. His work included “A View of Malaga.”
    (WSJ, 10/29/04, p.A15)(www.britannica.com)

1923        Manuel de Falla composed "Master Peter’s Puppet Show," (El Retablo de Maese Pedro). It was intended as a puppet theater forged with the poet, Federico Garcia Lorca.
    (SFC, 8/25/97, p.E1)

1924        Nov 1, Victoria de los Angeles, soprano (Mimi-La Boheme), was born in Spain.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1925        Jun 22, France and Spain agreed to join forces against Abd el Krim in Morocco.
    (HN, 6/22/98)

1925        Jose Ortega y Gasset authored "The Dehumanization of Art," in which he pointed to the "grave dissociation of past and present."
    (WSJ, 1/28/02, p.A13)

1926        Jun 17, Spain threatened to quit the League of Nations if Germany was allowed to join.
    (HN, 6/17/98)

1926        Aug 7, The United States declared non-intervention in the Spanish Civil War.
    (HN, 8/7/98)

1926        The Marques de la Vega Inclan, the Royal Commissioner for Tourism under Alfonso III, began to promote hotels in remote places to boost local economies. The "Paradores" were to be built by the government. The first one opened in 1928 in the mountains of Gredos.
    (SFEM, 12/12/98, p.10)

1926        Antoni Gaudi, eccentric architect, died. His work included the Sagrada Familia Church with its Torre del Nacimento (Tower of Birth) in Barcelona.
    (WSJ, 7/21/00, p.W12)

1927        Mar 22, Federico Garcia Lorca's "El Maleficio," premiered in Madrid.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1929        Jul, Gala, wife of poet Paul Eluard, met Salvadore Dali (25) in Cadaques, Spain. She believed he was a genius on the verge of madness and decided to help him get a grip on reality while he unleashed his visions on canvas.
    (SFEM, 1/25/98, p.30)

1930        Nov 15, Madrid was paralyzed by general strikes and riots.
    (HN, 11/15/98)

1930        Dec 12, Revolution began in Spain as rebels took a border town.
    (HN, 12/12/98)

1930        Dec 16, A general strike was called in support of the revolution.
    (HN, 12/16/98)

1930        Dec 20, Thousands of Spaniards signed a revolutionary manifesto.
    (HN, 12/20/98)

1931        Apr 12, Spanish voters rejected the monarchy.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1931        Apr 14, In Spain a Republic was declared. King Alfonso XIII of Spain was overthrown and went into exile, and the Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed.
    (SFC, 11/12/96, p.A12)(HN, 4/14/98)(AP, 4/14/08)

1931        Jun 13, Santiago Rusinol (b.1861), Spanish Catalan post-impressionist painter, author, and playwright., died.
    (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0750803/)

1931        Aug 2, Spanish Catalonia agreed by over 99% for autonomous status.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1931        Oct 1, Spain established general female suffrage.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1931        Nov 29, The Spanish government seized large estates for land redistribution.
    (HN, 11/29/98)

1931        Dec 9, Spain became a republic.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1931        Randoplh Hearst, American newspaper magnate, purchased a collapsing former Trapist monestary in Spain, the Santa Maria de Ovila, for $97,000. Plans to rebuilt the 16th century chapter house at his mother’s Wyntoon estate went on hold with the Great Depression. Hearst later gifted the crated stones to San Francisco. In 1994 SF agreed to loan the stones to Cistercian monks at Vina, near Chico, Ca. In the spring of 2012 the scaffolding of rebuilt structure in Vina came down.   
    (SFC, 12/26/12, p.A1)

1932        Jan 22, Government troops crushed a Communist uprising in Northern Spain.
    (HN, 1/22/99)

1932        The town of Bunol banned bullfighting. An annual Tomatina festival later took its place where participants pelt each other with tomatoes. [see 1944-45]
    (SFC, 8/29/96, p.A12)

1933        Jan 12, An uprising of Guardia Civil in Spain left 25 dead.
    (MC, 1/12/02)

1933        Apr 12, Montserrat Caballe, soprano (Mimi-La Boheme), was born in Barcelona, Spain.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1933        May 9, Spanish anarchists called for a general strike.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1933        Jun 3, Pope Pius XI encyclical "On oppression of the Church in Spain."
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1933        Sep 15, Rafael Fruhbeck de Burgos, conductor, was born in Burgos, Spain.
    (http://wkar.org/90.5/page.php?content=history)

1933        Nov 5, Spanish Basques voted for autonomy.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1933        A revolutionary uprising was staged by anarchists at Casas Viejas and was drowned in blood by Spanish authorities.  In 1968 Jerome Mintz (d.1997 at 67), US anthropologist, published "The Anarchists of Casa Viejas," an account and oral history of the 1933 Spanish uprising.
    (SFC,12/20/97, p.A21)

1934        Dec 29, Federico Garcia Lorca's "Yerma," premiered in Madrid.
    (MC, 12/29/01)

1934        Spain annexed the interior area of Western Sahara.
    (SFC, 11/27/00, p.A12)

1935        Oct 20, 400,000 demonstrated against fascism in Madrid.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1936        Feb 16, Spanish Frente Popular (People's Front) won elections.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1936        May 4, El Cordobes (Manuel Benitez), Spanish matador, was born.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1936        Jul 17, Gen. Francisco Franco was flown from the Canary Islands, where he served as military governor, to Spanish Morocco where he led a rebellion against the elected Popular Front. This began the Spanish civil war. The first word of the rebellion was reported by Lester Ziffren (1906-2007) of the United Press. The rebel Nationalist movement under Francisco Franco gained support from the fascist regimes in Italy and Germany in opposition.
    (SFC, 11/12/96, p.A12)(SFC, 7/13/01, WBb p.3)(WSJ, 11/24/07, p.A8)

1936        Aug 3, The US State Department urged Americans in Spain to leave because of that country's civil war.
    (AP, 8/3/97)

1936        Aug 16, Spanish poet Garcia Lorca was arrested in Granada. He disappeared shortly thereafter. The 1997 film "The Disappearance of Garcia Lorca" was an attempt to depict the circumstances of his disappearance. Lorca was the author of "Gypsy Ballads," "Blood Wedding" and "The Poet." Spanish poet Fredico Garcia Lorca was shot by Franco's troops after being forced to dig his own grave.
    (LVRJ, 11/1/97, p.12B)(HN, 8/19/98)(MT, Spg. ‘99, p.2)

1936        Aug 18, Federico Garcia Lorca was shot and killed by a Francoist squad on the outskirts of Grenada and buried in an unmarked grave along with 3 other prisoners. His dramatic works included "Blood Wedding," "Yerma," Dona Rosita the Spinster," and "The House of Bernarda Alba." In 1998 the biography "Lorca: A Dream of Life" by Leslie Stainton was published in London.
    (MT, Spg. ‘99, p.3)

1936        Sep 21, The Spanish fascist junta named Franco generalissimo, supreme commander. [see Oct 1]
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1936        Sep 27, Franco troops conquered Toledo.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1936        Sep, Robert Capa's photograph of a falling Spanish Civil War militiaman was first published by French magazine Vu, and later in Life magazine. The caption on the legendary photojournalist's "Falling Militiaman" said it depicted the moment a Republican rifleman was mortally wounded. In 2009 Spanish researchers who studied events surrounding the picture believed it may have been staged.
    (AP, 7/23/09)

1936        Oct 1, General Francisco Franco was proclaimed the head of an insurgent Spanish state. [see Sep 21]
    (AP, 10/1/97)

1936        Nov 7, The Battle of Madrid began.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_Civil_War,_1936)
1936        Nov 7, In Spain as Franco’s army besieged Madrid, Santiago Carrillo (1915-2014) was appointed Councilor for Public Order in Madrid. His first act was to organize the execution of more than 2,000 imprisoned army officers, suspected of being “fifth-columnists.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santiago_Carrillo)(Econ, 9/13/14, p.90)

1936        Nov 19, German Luftwaffe bombed Madrid and continued bombing to Nov 23.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Madrid)

1936        Nov 23, U.S. abandoned the American embassy in Madrid, Spain, which was engulfed by civil war.
    (HN, 11/23/98)

1936        Nov-1936 Dec, In Spain hundreds of Franco supporters were killed at Paracuellos. Between 2,000 and 4,000 suspected supporters of the coup against the Second Spanish Republic, were killed by the Republican Army. The Soviet NKVD was later implicated.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paracuellos_massacre)(Econ, 3/24/12, p.86)

1936        The Gypsy Jimenez Malla was killed by Republican forces in Barbastro when he defended a priest and refused to renounce his faith. In 1997 he was beatified by Pope John Paul II.
    (SFC, 5/5/97, p.A8)
1936        Some 700 Soviet advisors were sent to Spain in an attempt to run and control the economy, government and armed forces. By the end of the civil war most were killed by Stalin’s purges.
    (WSJ, 7/11/01, p.A15)

1936-1939    The Spanish Civil War has been commonly referred to as "a rehearsal for World War II" by historians because of the intervention by Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and the Soviet Union, and their use of the war to test new weapons and military techniques. It was fought between the liberal Second Spanish Republic government and right-wing rebel forces, including the fascist Falangists, monarchists and Nationalists. The rebels had the support of the Roman Catholic Church, in addition to Germany and Italy. The Government supporters, called Loyalists, had the support of communists, socialists, anarchists, the Soviet Union and volunteers from around the world who formed the International Brigades. Between 400,000 and 1 million were killed in the war, ultimately won by the rebels. In 2008 Paul Preston authored “We Saw Spain Die: Foreign correspondents in the Spanish Civil War.” In 2012 Paul Preston authored “The Spanish Holocaust: Inquisition and Extermination in Twentieth-Century Spain.”
    (HNQ, 9//00)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.97)(Econ, 3/24/12, p.86)
1936-1939    The International Brigades of about 40,000 volunteers went to Spain to fight fascism [in the Spanish Civil War] and restore the legal government overturned by Franco. Of these the American Abe Lincoln Brigade had about 2,800 volunteers of whom more than half died. Some 500,000 to 1 million people died in the war. Veterans of the Brigades later published the "Volunteer."
    (SFC, 6/3/96, p.E2)(WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A12)(SFC, 11/12/96, p.A12)(SFC, 12/23/98, p.C5)
1936-1939    The Soviets brought to Spain both Russian commanders and the NKVD to suppress Trotskyists and anarchists who were fighting the volunteers. In 1998 William Herrick (83) published his memoir "Jumping the Line." Included in the work is his story of the time he spent with the Lincoln Battalion in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). The events were fictionalized in his 1969 novel "Hermanos." In 2001 the Soviet Union’s role was documented in "Spain Betrayed" edited by Ronald Radosh, Mary R. Habeck and Grigory Sevostianov.
    (WSJ, 4/30/98, p.A17)(WSJ, 7/11/01, p.A15)
1936-1939    The term "fifth column" was first applied during the Spanish Civil War of 1936-'39. As the forces of General Francisco Franco laid siege to Madrid, General Emilio Mola referred to a "fifth column" that would sabotage the city's defenses and help his forces, which were marching in four columns, take the city. Thereafter, the term has been used to refer to a clandestine, subversive force at work within a country to further the military and political aims of an enemy.
    (HNQ, 8/17/98)
 
1937        Jan 6, The U.S. banned the shipment of arms to war-torn Spain.
    (HN, 1/6/99)

1937        Mar 20, A Franco offensive took place at Guadalajara, Spain.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1937        Apr 26, German planes from the Condor Legion--sent to Spain by Adolf Hitler to help fascist General Francisco Franco overthrow the communist Popular Front regime-- attacked the Basque town of Guernica in Spain. Bombs fell for three  hours and escaping villagers were shot down by machine-gun fire from the air. The attack killed as many as 1,600-1,650 Basque civilians and injured 900. Although the alleged target was a bridge of military significance some distance from the town, dazed survivors described a merciless four-hour bombing and strafing attack by German pilots directed toward the village and its inhabitants. The Guernica atrocity became synonymous with the horror of modern warfare and inspired one of the 20th century's greatest works of art, Guernica, by Spanish artist Pablo Picasso.
    (440 Int’l., 4/26/97, p.2)(WSJ, 4/28/97, p.A1)(AP, 4/26/98)(HNPD, 4/26/99)

1937        Apr 27, German bombers of the Condor Legion conducted follow up raids at Guernica, Spain. [see Apr 26]
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombing_of_Guernica)

1937        May 31, German battleships shelled Almeria, Spain.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1937        Jun 19, The town of Bilbao, Spain, fell to the Nationalist forces.
    (HN, 6/19/98)

1937        Jul 1, Spanish bishops supported Franco & fascists.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1937        Jul 5, There was a Republican offensive by Brunete in Spain.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1937        Aug 6, Franco's artillery opened fire on Madrid.
    (MC, 8/6/02)

1937        Aug 24, There was a Republican offensive near Belchite, Spain.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1937        Oct 31, Spanish government moved from Valencia to Barcelona.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1937        Nov 28, Franco blockaded the Spanish coast.
    (HN, 11/28/98)

1937        Dec 1, Japan recognized Spain’s Franco govt.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1937        Pablo Picasso painted the black-and-white "Guernica" mural for the 1937 International Exposition in Paris. The Republican government commissioned the mural painting as part of the Spanish pavilion at the 1937 World’s Fair in Paris. Picasso managed to complete the huge work (11.5 by 25.5 feet) in just over three weeks, with the assistance of Dora Maar. Picasso never returned to his native Spain (he had last been there in 1934). Before his death in 1973, he directed that "Guernica" not be returned to Spain until the restoration of democracy there. Francisco Franco, leader of the Nationalist forces that overthrew the Republican government in the Spanish Civil War, remained the head of the Spanish government until 1973, dying in 1975. Economic initiatives and other reforms begun in the 1960s helped transform Spain into a democratic constitutional monarchy in the three years following his death. The painting "Guernica" was returned from New York City in 1981 and is now on exhibit, along with other 19th and 20th century works, at the Buen Retiro Palace in Madrid.
    (SFC, 4/26/00, p.C5)

1937        A Hungarian brigade joined the Spanish civil war to fight the fascists.
    (MT, Fall. ‘97, p.4)

1938        Jan 5, Juan Carlos I, King of Spain, was born.
    (HN, 1/5/99)

1938        Jan 12, Austria recognized the Franco government in Spain.
    (HN, 1/12/99)

1938        Feb 27, Britain and France recognized the Franco government in Spain.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1938        Apr 19, General Francisco Franco declared victory in the Spanish Civil War. [see 1939]
    (HN, 4/19/97)

1938        May 3, Vatican recognized Franco's Catholic and fascist Spain.
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1938        Oct 28, There was a farewell parade of International Brigade in Barcelona, Spain.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1938        Nov 15, Farewell Parade of International Brigades in Barcelona.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1938        Juan Miro, Spanish painter, completed a set of 8 etchings titled the "Black and Red Series."
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T3)

1938        The Spanish Loyalist defense at the battle of the Ebro was photographed by Robert Capa.
    (SFEM, 1/12/97, BR  p.9)

1939        Jan 26, Franco conquered Barcelona.
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1939        Feb 6, Spanish government fled to France.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1939        Feb 11, The Negrin government returned to Madrid, Spain.
    (HN, 2/11/97)

1939        Feb 28, Great Britain recognized the Franco regime in Spain. [see Feb 27, 1938]
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1939        Mar 6, Jose Miaja took over the Madrid government after a military coup and vowed to seek "peace with honor."
    (HN, 3/6/98)

1939        Mar 28, The Spanish Civil War ended as Madrid fell to Francisco Franco. He emerged victorious and became head of Fascist Spain ending the Spanish Civil War. France executed more than 100,000 people who had opposed him. In 1982 Dan Richardson wrote "Comintern Army," a historical work on the Spanish Civil War. "The Historical Dictionary of the Spanish Civil War" was published in 1982. In 1991 Burnett Bolloten wrote "The Spanish Civil War." In 2006 Antony Beevor authored “The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936-1936.” This was an update of his 1982 account.
    (SFC, 11/12/96, p.A12)(AP, 3/28/97)(HN, 3/28/98)(WSJ, 11/19/96, p.A22)(Econ, 6/24/06, p.97)

1939        Apr 1, The United States recognized the Franco government in Spain following the end of the Spanish civil war. A Spanish official later said that without American petroleum and American trucks and American credit we could never have won the civil war.
    (AP, 4/1/98)(Econ, 6/24/06, p.97)

1939        A handful of Spanish artists, including Eugenio Granell and Jose Vela Zanetti, immigrated to Santo Domingo of the Dominican Republic and introduced the modern art idiom.
    (WSJ, 6/18/96, p.A14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eugenio_Granell)

1941        Jan 21, Placido Domingo, opera tenor (Pinkerton-Mme Butterfly), was born in Madrid, Spain.
    (MC, 1/21/02)

1942        Camilo Jose Cela (d.2002), Spanish author, published "The Family of Pascual Duarte" in Argentina because it was considered too violent and crude for Spain. Cela won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1989. Cela’s style was called "tremendismo" and clashed with the lyrical writing of previous Spanish writers.
    (SFC, 1/19/02, p.A23)

1943        Sep 23, Julio Iglesias De la Cueva, Spanish singer (To All the Girls I’ve Loved Before…), was born in Madrid.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julio_Iglesias)

1943        Gonzalo Torrente Ballester (d.1998 at 88) published his first novel "Javier Marino." He went on to publish over 30 novels that included "La Saga/Fuga de J.B" (The Legend/Flight of J.B), "Los Gozos y Las Sombras" (The Delights and the Shadows).
    (SFC, 1/29/99, p.E2)

1944         Jan 16, In Leon Province, Spain, train wrecks in the Torro Tunnel killed more than 500 people.
    (AP, 2/18/04)(SFC, 6/4/98, p.A15)

1944-1945    Bunol, Spain, 25 miles west of Valencia. La Tomatina, the tomato throwing festival, began when some boys tossed tomatoes during a procession in honor of the patron saint, San Luis Bertran. The festival grew even though banned a few times in the 50's to the purchase of $18,400 worth of tomatoes by the town government from the Spanish province of Extremadura, 500 miles away. [see 1932]
    (WSJ, 8/31/95, p.A-1)

1945        Carmen Laforet (23), Spanish writer, authored her first novel “Nada” (Nothing). It was set in Spain during the 1930s and conveyed the crushing weight of war through its characters. An English translation became available in 2007.
    (SFC, 3/2/07, p.E7)

1946        Nov 14, Manuel de Falla (69), Spanish composer (Vita Breve, Atl ntida), died.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1946        Dec 5, Jose Carreras, opera tenor (I Lombardi, Werther, Three Tenors), was born in Barcelona, Spain.
    (MC, 12/5/01)

1946        Dec 11, Spain was suspended from the UN.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1947        Jul 9, Spain voted for Franco.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1947        Aug 18, Naval torpedo and mine factory exploded at Cadiz, Spain, killing 300.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1947        Aug 28, Legendary bullfighter Manolete was mortally wounded by a bull during a fight in Linares, Spain; he died the following day at age 30.
    (AP, 8/28/97)

1950        Nov 10, Spanish dictator Generalissimo Francisco Franco ended war in Gibraltar.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1950        Dec 27, U.S. and Spain resumed relations.
    (HN, 12/27/98)

1950        The Club Mediterranean resort opened catering to singles. Gilbert Trigano (d.2000 at 80) of France and Gerard Blitz, a Belgium water polo champion, founded the 1st Club Med on the Spanish island of Mallorca.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(SFC, 2/5/01, p.A21)

1952        Barnaby Conrad (30) authored the bestseller "Matador," about the life of Manolete, Spain's greatest bullfighter.
    (SSFC, 11/16/03, p.E3)

1952        Rafael del Pino founded Grupo Ferrovial S.A., a multinational Spanish company involved in construction, infrastructure, real estate, and related services.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferrovial)(Econ, 7/7/07, p.67)

1953        Feb 25, Jose Maria Aznar, later prime minister, was born.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)

1953        Sep 26, US and Spain signed a defense treaty with 4 US bases to be set in Spain .
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1953        Claudio Rodriguez published the first of his 5 books of poetry: "Don de Ebriedad" (Gift, or Master of Drunkenness).
    (SFC, 7/23/99, p.D6)
1953        The Spanish film “Bienvenido Mister Marshall!” was directed by Luis Garcia Berlanga.
    (Econ, 8/10/13, p.71)
1953        Opera lovers in Bilbao founded the Association Bilbaina de Amigos de la Opera (A.B.A.O.).
    (WSJ, 11/23/99, p.A21)

1954        Gen. Franco closed the Spanish consulate on Gibraltar in a fit of rage over a visit by Queen Elizabeth II.
    (AP, 9/19/06)

1955        Oct 18, Jose Ortega y Gasset, Spanish philosopher, died at 72.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1956        Apr 19, In Spain 12 people died and about 70 were injured following earthquakes in the southern Granada region.
    (AP, 5/12/11)(www.iberianature.com/material/earthquake.htm)

1956        Nov 6, Holland and Spain withdrew from Olympics, to protest Soviets in Hungary.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1957        Ramon Rubial (d.1999 at 92), an anti-Franco socialist, was released from prison and became the underground leader of the Socialist Party.
    (SFC, 5/26/99, p.C8)

1957        In Spain a flood devastated the Ciutat Vella, the historic district of Valencia. To avoid another such deluge the government diverted the Turia River and turned the riverbed into a public green zone.
    (SFC, 8/15/07, p.G1)

1958        May 29, Juan Ramón Jimenez (76), Spanish poet (Nobel 1956), died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1958        Dec, Julen Madariaga helped found ETA. EKIN (engage), a Basque nationalist group, transformed into Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (E.T.A., Basque Homeland and Freedom). ETA was the only armed group that emerged in the Spanish state during Francoism.
    (www.cla.wayne.edu/polisci/kdk/westeurope/sources/birtheta.html)(Econ, 9/11/10, p.62)

1958        New York papers reported that San Francisco writer and bon vivant Barnaby Conrad was dying due to a goring wound received in a Spanish bullfight. Conrad survived and later opened the Matador nightclub in SF.
    (SSFC, 11/16/03, p.E3)

1959        Jul 31, In Spain dissident student members of the Basque Nationalist Party (PNV), inspired by Marxist-Leninist teachings, formally founded ETA, which stands for Euskadi ta Askatasuna, meaning Basque Fatherland and Liberty in the Basque language. Its founders focused on Gen. Francisco Franco's suppression of the Basque language and culture.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ETA)(AP, 7/30/09)(www.cfr.org/publication/9271/)

1960        Aug 10, Antonio Banderas, actor (Phila, Evita, Mambo Kings, was born in Malaga, Spain.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1960        Nov 13, Fire in movie theater killed 152 children in Amude, Spain.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1961        Jul 15, Spain accepted equal rights for men and women.
    (MC, 7/15/02)

1961        Jul 18, In Spain ETA’s first violent action tried to derail a train carrying supporters of dictator Gen. Francisco Franco.
    (AP, 3/22/06)

1961        The film "Viridiana" from Spain was directed by Luis Bunuel.
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, DB p.44)

1962        May 14, Princess Sophia of Greece wed Don Juan Carlos of Spain.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1963        In Spain Amancio Ortega Gaona began to trade garments. He later founded Inditex, a holding company of retail brands, which included Zara. By 2005 Inditex had emerged as one of the world’s fastest-expanding makers of affordable fashion clothing.
    (Econ, 6/18/05, p.57)

1965        Jan 20, Generalissimo Francisco Franco met with Jewish representatives to discuss legitimizing Jewish communities in Spain.
    (MC, 1/20/02)

1966        Jan 2, The 1st Jewish child was born in Spain since the 1492 expulsion.
    (MC, 1/2/02)

1966        Jan 17, A US Air Force B-52 carrying four unarmed hydrogen bombs crashed on the Spanish coast. Three of the bombs were quickly recovered, but the fourth wasn't found until April. Two US Air Force jets collided in the skies over Spanish coastal village of Palomares. The mid-air crash of the B-52 bomber and a KC-135 refueling plane killed 8 crew members.
    (AP, 1/17/06)(www.commondreams.org/views01/0803-08.htm)

1966        May 27, 6 French fighters crashed above Spain.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1967        Jan 4, Mohamed Khider (b.1912), Algerian politician and a leading figure in the FLN, was assassinated in Madrid, Spain.
    (Econ, 12/31/11, p.67)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohamed_Khider)

1967        Nov 26, Cloudburst over Lisbon killed 450.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1968        Mar 3, The embassies of Greece, Portugal and Spain were bombed in the Hague.
    (http://1968ineurope.sneakpeek.de/index.php/chronologies/index/42)

1968        May 5, Spain closed its frontier with Gibraltar. This Followed a referendum in which Gibraltar's voters were asked whether they wished to become part of Spain and voted with a resounding no vote.
    (www.thepeoplehistory.com/may5th.html)

1968        Jun 7, In Spain ETA, a Basque Homeland and Freedom separatist group, shot and killed Civil Guard Jose Pardines Arcay at a checkpoint. This marked ETA’s 1st killing as it began fighting for independence. Its political wing was Herri Batasuna.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.A11)(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A10)(AP, 3/22/06)

1968        Oct 12, Eq. Guinea gained Independence was from Spain. Eq. Guinea consists of two geographic entities: the mainland of Rio Muni and the island of Bioko, formerly Fernando Poo. Francisco Macias became the 1st president and proclaimed himself God’s "unique miracle." He drove the economy into the ground and over a third of the population went into exile.
    (www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/eqguinea.html)(WP, 6/29/96, p.A15)(SFC, 5/15/01, p.A10)

1968        James Michener (1907-1997), American author, wrote his travel book "Iberia," a detailed and illustrated exploration of Spain at it was during the mid 1960s.
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.A17)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_A._Michener)

1969        Jan 4, Spain returned the Ifni province to Morocco.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ifni)

1969        Jan 23, Gregorio Ordonez, deputy mayor of San Sebastian, Spain, was assassinated by an ETA terrorist.
    (Econ, 5/17/08, p.66)(www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2001/basque/stories/overview.html)

1969        Jun 6, Gen. Franco closed the Gibraltar border with Spain. It stayed closed for 16 years. This effectively starved Gibraltar of workers while depriving some 9,000 former workers of much-needed jobs and of a right to claim pensions. The frontier was not fully reopened until 1985.
    (WSJ, 4/8/02, p.A8)(AP, 9/19/06)(http://web.mit.edu/cascon/cases/case_gib.html)

1969        Jun, A block of flats near Segovia, Spain, collapsed killing 58 people. Developer Jesus Gil y Gil (1933-2004) was jailed for 5 years for criminal negligence, but was pardoned after 18 months.
    (Econ, 8/23/03, p.40)(www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/1462047/Jesus-Gil.html)

1969        Jul 22,  Dictator Francisco Franco appointed Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon as official successor to the position of Head of State.
    (www.archontology.org/nations/spain/spain_1936s/franco.php)

1969        The International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas entered into force.  ICCAT, with headquarters based in Madrid, Spain, was established at a Conference of Plenipotentiaries, which prepared and adopted the convention, signed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1966.
    (Econ, 11/1/08, p.93)(www.iccat.int/en/)

1970        Jul 3, A British Dan-Air charter, flying a Comet 4 turbojet, crashed near Barcelona and 112 were killed.
    (www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=834)

1970        Airbus Industrie was formally set up following an agreement between Aerospatiale (France) and Deutsche Aerospace (Germany). In 1971 it was joined by CASA (Spain). The name "Airbus" was taken from a nonproprietary term used by the airline industry in the 1960s to refer to a commercial aircraft of a certain size and range, as term was acceptable to the French linguistically.
    (www.absoluteastronomy.com/reference/airbus)

1971        Jun 16, An El Greco sketch, "The Immaculate Conception," stolen in Spain 35 years earlier, was recovered in New York City by the FBI.
    (www.historynet.com/tdih0616.htm)

1972        Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) drew his chilling crayon self-portrait as a skull.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pablo_Picasso) (SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)(SFC, 7/14/96, p.C11)

1972        In southwest Spain a train collided with a bus killing 86 people and injuring 112.
    (AP, 7/25/13)

1973        Apr 8, Pablo Picasso (b.1881), Spanish artist, died at his home near Mougins, France, at age 91. He left some 50,000 works that included 1,885 paintings, 1,228 sculptures, 2,880 ceramics, 18,095 engravings, 6,112 lithographs, 3,181 linocuts, 7,089 drawings plus 4,669 drawings and sketches in 149 notebooks, 11 tapestries and 8 rugs. Two books of a planned 4-volume biography were published by John Richardson, who then interrupted the series in 2000 with "The Sorcerer’s Apprentice: Picasso, Provence, and Douglas Cooper." Picasso’s estate owed so much in death duties that many of his works fell into government hands. In 2007 John Richardson authored “A Life of Picasso: The Triumphant Years, 1917-1932.”
    (AP, 4/8/97)(SFEC, 1/30/00, BR p.6)(SSFC, 5/20/01, p.T8)(Econ, 11/17/07, p.99)

1973        Aug 6, Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar (b.1901), former dictator Cuba (1940-58), died in Spain.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fulgencio_Batista)

1973        Oct 22, Spanish cellist, conductor and composer Pablo Casals died in Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico, at age 96.
    (AP, 10/22/98)

1973        Dec 20, ETA killed PM Adm. Luis Carrero Blanco with a bomb in Madrid.
    (AP, 3/22/06)

1973        Salvador Dali (1904-1989), Spanish artist, painted "Portrait of Alice Cooper's Brain."
    (WSJ, 1/26/00, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvador_Dal%C3%AD)

1974        Sep 12, In its 1st major attack ETA killed 12 people with a bomb at a Madrid cafe.
    (AP, 3/22/06)

1974        The Dali Museum opened in Figueres.
    (SFEC, 7/16/00, p.T4)
1974        The Suresnes Congress in France handed power over the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party to Felipe Gonzalez (b.1942), who became prime minister of Spain four times (1982-1996).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felipe_Gonz%C3%A1lez)(Econ, 12/7/13, p.56)

1975        May, Spain moved out of Spanish Sahara and the native Sahrawi called for independence. Spain allowed Spanish Sahara (Western Sahara) to go to Morocco and Mauritania.
    (www.africaaction.org/docs02/wsah0205.htm)(WSJ, 6/7/00, p.A1)(Econ, 8/28/04, p.76)

1975        Oct 30, Juan Carlos (37) assumed power in Spain after General Franco, near death, gave him control.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/30/newsid_2464000/2464945.stm)

1975        Nov 20, After nearly four decades of absolute rule (1936-1975), Spain's General Francisco Franco died, two weeks before his 83rd birthday. Juan Carlos, grandson of King Alfonso, was his designated successor and the monarchy was restored. In 2002 Gabrielle Ashford Hodges authored "Franco: A Concise Biography."
    (SFC, 11/12/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 10/5/97, p.A17)(AP, 11/20/97)(SSFC, 4/21/02, p.M4)

1975        Nov 22, Juan Carlos was proclaimed king of Spain.
    (AP, 11/22/97)

1975        Spain created the Cervantes Prize, the Spanish speaking world’s highest literary prize.
    (SFC, 11/28/08, p.E10)
1975        Rosalia Mera (1944-2013), a seamstress, and her husband, Armancio Ortega, co-founded a clothing store in La Coruna, Spain. It grew into Zara, one of the world's largest retail chains.
    (AP, 8/16/13)

1976        Jul 3, Spain’s King Juan Carlos appointed Adolfo Suarez (1932-2014), a young Francoist minister, as prime minister in an effort to try to unite Francoists and anti-Franco socialists, who were still in a sense fighting the 1936-1939 civil war.
    (Reuters, 3/23/14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolfo_Su%C3%A1rez)

1976        Jul 14, Carmelo Soria (b.1921), a Spanish UN official in Chile, was abducted. His corpse found two days later in a car sunk in the Canal del Carmen in the Piramide sector of Santiago de Chile. He was assassinated by Chile's DINA agents as a part of Operation Condor. Soria was first detained in the Vía Naranja house in the sector of Lo Curro, shared by DINA agent Michael Townley.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carmelo_Soria)

1976        Sep 8, Joaquin Zamacois Soler (b,1894), Spanish composer, died.
    (http://ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joaquim_Zamacois_i_Soler)

1976        Nov 18, Spain's parliament approved a bill to establish a democracy after 37 years of dictatorship.
    (AP, 11/18/97)

1976        Dec 11, Hungarian art forger Elmyr de Hory (b.1906) died of a lethal overdose of barbiturates in Ibiza, Spain. The 1969 book "Fake" by Clifford Irving was about De Hory and both Irving and de Hory were featured in the 1975 Orson Welles film "F" for Fake.
    (SFC, 7/29/99, p.E6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elmyr_de_Hory)

1977        Jun 15, The first general election in Spain since 1936 resulted in victory for the UCD (Union of Democratic Centre).
    (HN, 6/15/99)

1977        Vicente Aleixandre (1898-1984), Spanish poet, won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (AP, 10/8/09)

1977        Spain began experiencing a banking crises.
    (Econ, 9/18/10, p.94)

1978        Jul 11, In Spain 216 people were killed at a camping site when a tanker truck overfilled with propylene gas exploded on a coastal highway south of Tarragona.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)(AP, 7/11/97)

1978        Dec 27, King Juan Carlos ratified Spain's 1st democratic constitution. A parliamentary monarchy was established with power in the hands of the legislative branch. Many powers centralized under Franco were devolved to the 17 autonomous regions. Manuel Fraga (1922-2012) helped write the country's post-Franco, democratic Constitution.
    (www.igsap.map.es/cia/dispo/ce_ingles_index.htm)(Econ, 1/14/06, p.17)(AP, 1/16/12)

1979        Jun 28, Philippe Cousteau (b.1940), the youngest son of Jacques Cousteau, was killed while testing a seaplane near Lisbon.
    (SFC, 6/26/97, p.A7)

1979        Pilar Miro (d.1997), film director, made "The Cuenca Crime," an expose of Civil Guard torture with graphic violence. It was censored.
    (SFC,10/20/97, p.A19)

1980        Mar 31, In Spain the first session of the Basque parliament was held in Guernica.
    (Econ, 3/7/09, p.60)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basque_Parliament)

1980        Jul 16, Juan Antonio Samaranch (b.1920) of Spain was elected president of the Int’l. Olympic Committee (IOC). His reign lasted 21 years.
    (www.olympic.org/uk/organisation/ioc/presidents/samaranch_uk.asp)

1980        Aug 29, Louis Darquier de Pellepoix (real name Louis Darquier), born in Cahors, France, on December 19, 1897, died near Malaga (Spain). He was commissioner to Jewish questions under the Vichy Régime from 1942-1944. In 2006 Carmen Callil authored “A Forgotten History of Family, Fatherland and Vichy, France.”
    (SSFC, 9/24/06, p.M1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Darquier_de_Pellepoix)

1980        In Spain ETA had its bloodiest year with 91 victims, nearly half of them civilians.
    (AP, 3/22/06)

1981        Feb 23, An attempted coup began in Spain as 200 members of the Civil Guard and some of the military invaded the Parliament, taking lawmakers hostage. The attempt, led by Colonel Antonio Tejero, collapsed 18 hours later. Juan Carlos spoke to the nation on behalf of democracy and the coup collapsed. In 2011 Javier Cercas authored “The Anatomy of a Moment: Thirty-Five minutes in History and Imagination,” an examination of the coup attempt.
    (SFC, 11/12/96, p.A12)(AP, 2/23/98)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.48)(Econ, 3/26/11, p.96)

1981        Sep 10, Pablo Picasso’s painting Guernica was returned to Spain and installed in Madrid’s Prado Museum. Picasso had stated in his will that the painting was not to return to Spain until the Fascists lost power and democracy was restored.
    (HN, 9/10/00)

1981        Adulterated cooking oil killed 500 [435] people and more than 20,000 [30,000] remained disabled in 1996. In the original 1989 trial 13 merchants were convicted and sentenced to prison. They were also ordered to compensate the victims but declared bankruptcy. Miguel Hernandez Bolanos, director of the Central Customs Laboratory, was found guilty in 1996 of negligence for having written a favorable report for the industrial oil sold as cooking oil. In 1997 Federico Povedano Alonso, a former official in charge of agricultural imports, was also found guilty. Both men received 6-year suspended sentences.
    (SFC, 5/25/96, p.A11)(SFC, 10/3/97, p.B3)

1982          May 30, Spain became NATO's 16th member, the first country to enter the Western alliance since West Germany in 1955.
    (AP, 5/30/97)(http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1982/index_en.htm)

1982        Oct 28, The Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party won the elections and Felipe Gonzalez (b.1942) became prime minister. He served 4 successive mandates and stepped down as head of the party in 1997.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felipe_Gonz%C3%A1lez)(WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-10)

1982        Oct 31, Pope John Paul II became the 1st pontiff to visit Spain.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_pastoral_visits_of_Pope_John_Paul_II_outside_Italy)

1982        Gala, wife of Salvadore Dali, died.
    (SFEC, 7/16/00, p.T5)

1983        Nov 27, In Spain 181 people were killed when a Colombian Avianca Airlines Boeing 747 crashed near Madrid's Barajas airport.
    (AP, 11/27/07)

1983        Dec 7, In Madrid, Spain, an Aviaco DC-9 collided on a runway with an Iberia Air Lines Boeing 727 that was accelerating for takeoff, killing all 42 people aboard the DC-9 and 51 aboard the Iberia jet.
    (AP, 12/7/03)

1983        Dec, Segundo Marey, a French furniture dealer, was kidnapped from his home in France as a suspected Basque terrorist. In 1998 former Interior Minister Jose Barrionuevo and Rafael Vera, former director of state security, were arrested for the kidnapping and misappropriation of government funds for the crimes along with Julian Sancristobal, former civil governor of Vizcaya province.
    (SFC, 7/30/98, p.A16)

1983-1987    Spain waged a "dirty war" against Basque rebels. A former interior minister and 11 others went on trial in 1998 for kidnapping linked to the war in which 27 [28] people were killed. The killings were attributed to the Anti-Terrorist Liberation Groups known as GAL.
    (SFC, 6/13/96, p.C3)(WSJ, 5/26/98, p.A1)(SFC, 6/24/98, p.A12)

1984        Dec, Spain’s Socialist government permanently shuttered its nuclear facilities.
    (WSJ, 5/10/96, p.A-5D)

1984        In Spain excavations began in a cave in the Atapuerco mountains at a site called Sima de los Huesos (the Pit of the Bones). In 2014 a UC Berkeley scientist dated Neanderthal bones found there to between 410,000 and 470,000 years of age.
    (SFC, 6/20/14, p.D1)(www.atapuerca.org/huesosin.htm)

1985        Feb 19, 150 were killed when a Spanish jetliner crashed approaching Bilbao, Spain.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ylaall)

1985        Mar 24, Thousands demonstrated in Madrid against the NATO presence in Spain.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1985        Mar 29-1985 Mar 30, A European Council is held in Brussels, Belgium. It accepts the adhesion of Spain and Portugal in the European Communities and agrees on the Integrated Mediterranean Programmes (IMP) as proposed by the Commission.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1985/index_en.htm)

1985        Apr 12, A bombing in Madrid, Spain, killed 18 and injured 82. Shia Muslim extremists claimed responsibility.
    (WSJ, 3/12/04, p.A11)

1985        Jun 12, Spain and Portugal signed Accession Treaties to the European Community.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1985/index_en.htm)

1985        Jul 20, Divers found the wreck of Spanish galleon Atocha.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1985        The Socialist government approved pensions for 60,000 soldiers or their dependents who supported the losing Republican side in the Civil War.
    (SFEC,12/28/97, p.A18)

1986        Jul 14, In Spain Jose Ignacio De Juana Chaos (b.1955), a former police officer who joined one of ETA's most active commando units, took part in a Madrid car bombing. The car bomb on República Dominicana Square killed 12 Civil Guard policemen. 45 people were wounded.
    (AP, 8/2/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I%C3%B1aki_de_Juana_Chaos)

1986        Spain’s Socialist government paid $30 million and returned 100 properties to the Socialist-leaning General Workers Union. In 1997 the union sought an additional $155 million for hundreds of other properties.
    (SFEC,12/28/97, p.A18)

1986        Portugal and Spain entered the European Union expanding the membership to 12.
    (WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 7/18/03, p.D5)(Econ, 6/13/09, SR p.3)

1987        Jan 16, Jose Ignacio De Juana Chaos (b.1955), a former police officer who joined one of ETA's most active commando units, was arrested. In 1989 he was convicted of killing 25 people in a string of attacks, including the Madrid car bombing that killed 12 Civil Guard policemen on July 14, 1986. In 2008 De Juana Chaos (52) was released from prison after serving 21 years.
    (AP, 8/2/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I%C3%B1aki_de_Juana_Chaos)

1987        May 13, The Bank of Spain signed an agreement to join the European Monetary System.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1987/index_en.htm)

1987        Jun 3, Andres Segovia (b.1893), Spanish classical guitarist, died in Madrid.
    (WSJ, 8/7/00, p.A6)(www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Andr%E9s_Segovia)

1987        Jun 19, In Spain a bombing killed 21 people and injured 45. The Hipercor bombing was a car bomb attack by the Basque separatist organisation ETA at the Hipercor shopping centre on Avinguda Meridiana, Barcelona, Spain. This was ETA’s bloodiest attack. In 2003 two top members of the outlawed Basque separatist group ETA were sentenced to 790 years in prison.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1987_Hipercor_bombing)(AP, 7/26/03)(AP, 3/22/06)

1987        Dec 26, A bomb exploded at a USO bar in Barcelona, Spain, killing one U.S. sailor and injuring nine others; a little-known group called the Red Army of Catalonian Liberation claimed responsibility.
    (AP, 12/26/97)

1988        The intelligence agency, CESID, kidnapped 3 street people to test an experimental tranquilizer they hoped to use on a fugitive Basque separatist leader.
    (SFC, 9/18/96, p.A10)

1989        Jan 23, Surrealist artist Salvador Dali died in his native Spain at age 84. His autobiography was titled "Secret Life of Salvadore Dali." His work included 2 surrealist films made with Luis Bunuel: "Un Chien Andalou" and "L'Age d'Or." In 1984 Rafael Santos Torroella (d.2002 at 88), art historian, authored "La Miel Es Mas Dulce Que La Sangre" (Honey Is Sweeter Than Blood), considered one of the most important studies of Dali’s art. In 1998 Albert Field (d.2003), Dali expert, published his "Official Catalogue of the Graphic Works of Salvador Dali." In 1999 Ian Gibson published "The Shameful Life of Salvador Dali."
    (AP, 1/23/99)(WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A16)(SFEC, 7/16/00, p.T4)(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A26)(SFC, 8/15/03, p.A25)

1989         Jan, In Spain ETA called a unilateral truce to help ultimately unsuccessful peace talks in Algeria.
    (AP, 3/22/06)

1989        Jun 19, The Spanish peseta entered the European Monetary System (EMS) exchange-rate mechanism; the composition of the ECU is adjusted following the inclusion of the Spanish peseta and the Portuguese escudo.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1989/index_en.htm)

1989        Oct 19, Camilo Jose Cela (d.2002 at 85)) of Spain received the Nobel Prize for literature.
    (AP, 10/19/99)(WSJ, 1/18/02, p.A1)

1989        Nov 16, In El Salvador 6 Jesuit priests and two other people were slain by uniformed gunmen at the Jose Simeon Canas University in an attack later blamed on army troops. Later 19 Salvadoran soldiers, trained at the US Army School of the Americas, were linked to the killing. In 2006 US police in Los Angeles arrested a Salvadoran ex-lieutenant convicted of killing the 6 Jesuits. In 2009 a Spanish judge opened an investigation into 14 ex-Salvadoran military officials and considered indicting them over the killings. In 2009 the 6 Jesuits were decorated with the country's highest honor. In 2011 20 Salvadorans were indicted in Spain for their alleged roles in the killings.
    (AP, 11/16/99)(SFC, 9/21/96, p.A3)(WSJ, 10/27/06, p.A1)(AP, 1/13/09)(AP, 11/16/09)(SFC, 9/12/12, p.A8)

1989        The 300-sq. km. Donana wetland, the richest in Europe, was declared a national park. The belt around Donana was managed by the regional government of Andalusia. The Madrid government managed the park.
    (WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A13)

1989        Thomas Nord Riley (d.2001 at 87) authored "Nord Riley’s Spain," a collection of columns originally published in Lookout, an English-language magazine published in Spain.
    (SFC, 12/25/01, p.A28)

1989        The Spanish government paid $350 million for half of the (German-Hungarian) Thyssen-Bornemusza art collection and provided a substantial gallery to house the collection. In 2007 David R.L. Litchfield authored “The Thyssen Art Macabre.”
    (Econ, 3/3/07, p.88)

1990        Jul 1, The first phase of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) comes into force. Four Member States (Spain, Portugal, Greece and Ireland) are granted an exceptional regime given their insufficient progress towards financial integration.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1990/index_en.htm)

1991        Feb 5, Pedro Arrupe (83), Basque priest and head of the Jesuit order, died.
    (www.bc.edu/offices/ministry/justice/arrupe/pedro/)

1991        Jul 28, Miguel Indurain of Spain won the Tour de France bicycle race.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1991        Oct 4, In Madrid, Spain, 26 nations, including the United States, signed the Antarctic Treaty, which imposed a 50-year ban on oil exploration and mining in Antarctica. It would be up for review in 2048. China acceded to the treaty in 1983.
    (AP, 10/4/01)(Econ, 11/16/13, p.50)

1991        Oct 30, The Middle East peace conference in Madrid, Spain, opened with addresses to the delegates by President George Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev. The Madrid Two conference was organized by the US.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 9/19/01, p.A14)(AP, 10/30/01)

1991        Oct 31, On the second day of the Middle East peace conference in Madrid, Spain, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir and Arab delegates clashed bitterly over land issues.
    (AP, 10/31/01)

1991        Nov 1, The 3-day session of the Middle East peace conference recessed in Madrid, Spain. The conference led to Israeli deals with Jordan and the Palestinians and established the principle of land for peace.
    (AP, 11/1/01)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madrid_Conference_of_1991)(Econ, 5/24/08, p.68)

1991        Spain’s economics began a current account reversal.
    (Econ, 8/19/06, p.64)

1992        Jul 25, Opening ceremonies were held in Barcelona, Spain, for the 25th Summer Olympics.
    (AP, 7/25/97)

1992        Jul 26, Miguel Indurain of Spain won cycling's Tour de France for the second year in a row.
    (AP, 7/26/97)

1992        Jul 27, At the Barcelona Olympics, the U.S. women's 400-meter freestyle relay team won the gold medal.
    (AP, 7/28/97)

1992        Aug 7, Jennifer Capriati won the gold medal in tennis at the Barcelona Olympics, beating Steffi Graf.
    (AP, 8/7/02)

1992        Nov 25, Spain ratifies the Treaty on the European Union.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1992/index_en.htm)

1992        Dec 3, The Greek tanker Aegean Sea spilled 21.5 million gallons of crude oil when it ran aground at La Coruna, Spain.
    (AP, 12/3/97)

1992        In Spain the suspension bridge El Puente de las Oblatas was built over the Arga River.
    (SSFC, 6/16/02, p.C7)
1992        Spain signed accords with Islamic, Jewish and Protestant representatives.
    (Econ, 7/30/05, p.46)
1992        Leaders of the Basque Separatist Group (ETA) were captured. The acronym stands for Basque Homeland and Liberty.
    (WSJ, 1/3/96, p.A-6)
1992        Spain opened its first high-speed rail line, the Alta Velocidad Espanola (AVE), between Madrid and Seville.
    (WSJ, 4/20/09, p.A12)
1992        Eduardo Barreiros (b.1919), Spanish businessman, died in Havana. He was Spain’s most important businessman during the middle years of the Franco dictatorship. In 2009 Hugh Thomas authored “Eduardo Barreiros and the Recovery of Spain.”
    (Econ, 5/23/09, p.90)(www.history.ac.uk/ihr/Resources/Books/yale.html)

1993        A national hydrological plan was proposed by Spain’s Socialist government.
    (Econ, 1/10/04, p.45)

1993-1996    Felipe Gonzalez led Spain's socialist government.
    (Econ, 11/22/03, p.49)

1994        Jan 31, Barcelona opera theater "Gran Teatro del Liceo" burned down.
    (MC, 1/31/02)

1994        Mar 9, Fernando Rey (b.1917), Spanish actor (French Connection), died of cancer.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0721073/)

1994        Apr 1, Leon Degrelle (b.1906), Belgium-born founder of the fascist Rexist party, died in Malaga, Spain. He was a Walloon Belgian politician, who founded Rexism and later joined the Nazi German Waffen SS (becoming a leader of its Walloon contingent). After World War II, he was a prominent figure in the neo-Nazi and Holocaust denial movements.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%C3%A9on_Degrelle)

1995        Mar 18, Spain's Princess Elena married a banker, Jaime de Marichalar y Saenz de Tejada, in Seville; it was Spain's first royal wedding in 89 years.
    (AP, 3/18/00)

1995        Apr 1, In Spain infantry brigadier Mariano de Juan Santamaria was shot in the head in the northern city of San Sebastian. In 2014 ETA member Juan Ramon Carasatorre Aldaz (52) was sentenced to 29 years for the killing. Two others were already sentenced for taking part in the same crime.
    (AP, 6/16/14)

1995         Apr 19, In Spain a failed ETA car-bomb attempted to kill conservative opposition leader and future Prime Minister Jose Maria Aznar.
    (AP, 3/22/06)

1995        Nov 22, In Spain Juan Holgado (26), who dabbled in modeling and dreamt of playing pro soccer, was stabbed to death by robbers while working the graveyard shift at a gas station, filling in for a colleague as a favor. The four suspects were repeatedly picked up and released.
    (AP, 1/15/11)

1995        Nov, The Barcelona Process, launched by Euro-Mediterranean Foreign Ministers, formed an innovative alliance based on the principles of joint ownership, dialogue and co-operation. It brings together the 27 Members of the European Union and 12 Southern Mediterranean states. Economic incentives and the strengthening of civil society were used to encourage reform.
    (http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/euromed/index_en.htm)(Econ, 11/26/05, p.68)

1995        Dec11, A car bomb killed six and injured 15 in southern Madrid. Authorities suspected Basque separatists.
    (WSJ, 12/12/95, p.A-1)

1995        Dec, Foreign Minister Javier Solana was elected as secretary of NATO.
    (WSJ, 12/4/95, p.A-9)   

1995        Bilbao on the Nervin River opened a subway system designed by British architect Norman Foster.
    (SFEM, 2/1/98, p.11)
1995        Spain and Morocco agreed to build a channel tunnel under the Strait of Gibraltar. The plan was for 3 tunnels at a cost of $4 bil.
    (WSJ, 6/18/96, p.A10)
1995        In Spain the Asocamu group was set up to promote rural re-population by organizing parties for single men and woman.
    (AP, 4/22/12)

1996        Jan 17, In Spain ETA abducted a prison officer and held him for 532 days.
    (AP, 3/22/06)

1996        Mar 4, In Spain the conservative Popular Party under Jose Maria Aznar won general elections over PM Felipe Gonzalez and ended 13 years of Socialist rule. The national government created an Environment Ministry. Previously the environment was the responsibility of the Public Works Ministry.
    (WSJ, 3/4/96, p. A-1)(SFEC, 4/20/97, p.A17)

1996        Jun 9, The latest unemployment rate was 22.5%.
    (SFC, 6/9/96, Parade, p.9)

1996        Jun 10, The new center-right government introduced sweeping economic measures. Taxes were eased on small and mid-size companies, savings and job creation were encouraged, the powerful professional guilds were weakened and various markets liberalized, and double taxation for large foreign companies was eliminated.
    (WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A9A)

1996        Jun 12, Judge Jose Jimenez Alfaro lost most of his right hand when a letter bomb exploded at his courthouse in Madrid. He had sent policemen to jail for Spain’s "dirty war" war on Basque rebels in the 1980s.
    (SFC, 6/13/96, p.C3)

1996        Jul 20, The Basque separatist group ETA set off 3 bombs at tourist sites. One at the airport of Reus, and 2 at the beach resorts of Cambrils and Salou.
    (SFC, 7/21/96, p.A18)

1996        Aug 7, Flash floods in the Pyranees killed at least 71 people at a campground.
    (WSJ, 8/9/96, p.A1)

1996        Oct 6, At the Tokyo Int’l. film festival a special jury prize went to the Spanish film "Libertarias" by Vicente Aranda.
    (SFEC, 10/7/96, D3)

1996        Spain's Magic Box Int'l. introduced Crazy Bones to Europe, popcorn-size plastic figures for kids to use in their own games. They reached the US market in 1997 and by 1999 were a major craze.
    (WSJ, 2/4/99, p.B1)
1996        Spanish chemist Pilar Mateo patented a microencapsulation technique that embedded pesticides into house paints.
    (SSFC, 5/20/12, p.F3)

1997        Feb 10, A Supreme Court Justice, Rafael Martinez Emperador, was shot dead in Madrid. In Grenada a car bomb exploded and killed one person and wounded 7. Guerrillas of the ETA, Basque Homeland and Liberty, were blamed.
    (USAT, 2/11/97, p.5A)

1997        Feb 17, A Basque court guard, Modesto Rico Pasarin (33), was killed by a car bomb attributed to the ETA. He was the 4th victim in a week.
    (SFC, 2/18/96, p.A8)

1997        Mar 2, Matadors across the country went on strike as the bullfighting season opened. They favored a policy of shaving bull’s horns that was opposed by the government.
    (SFEC, 3/3/97, p.A12)

1997        Mar 4, Matadors agreed to go back to work but the bull horn issue remained unsettled.
    (SFC, 3/5/97, p.A9)

1997        Mar 31, A passenger train north of Pamplona derailed and killed at least 22 and injured some 87 people.
    (WSJ, 4/1/97, p.A1)

1997        Apr 19, A Barcelona court found Jose Puignero, factory owner, guilty of illegally dumping chemical dyes into a river in the town of Sant Bartomeu del Grau. This was the first punishment for crimes against the environment ever handed out.
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, p.A17)

1997        Apr 21, The ashes of Timothy Leary, Gene Roddenberry and 22 others were fired into space aboard a rocket that carried the first Spanish satellite, MINI-SAT-01, into orbit.
    (SFC, 4/22/97, p.A3)

1997        May 3, Narciso Yepes, Spanish classical guitarist, died at age 69. His interpretation of Rodrigo’s "Concert of Aranjuez" was one of his greatest achievements. He designed a 10-string guitar suited to Baroque music.
    (SFC, 5/5/97, p.A20)

1997        May 29, Spanish scientists announced a new human species in 780,000 year old fossil.
    (www.anomalous-images.com/news/news049.html)

1997        May 31, Thousands of olive oil workers protested in Madrid against the EU plan to force a cut in olive oil production and to lower subsidies.
    (SFEC, 6/1/97, p.D1)

1997        Jun 5, The parliament approved a labor reform pact to reduce the 22% unemployment.
    (SFC, 6/6/97, p.E2)

1997        Jun 20, Former prime minister Felipe Gonzalez quit as the leader of the Spanish Socialist Party. He was succeeded by Joaquin Almunia.
    (WSJ, 6/23/97, p.A1)

1997        Jul 10, Miguel Angel Blanco was kidnapped by the ETA.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.A11)

1997        Jul 12, ETA kidnapped small town politician Miguel Angel Blanco and demanded that the group's prisoners be brought to Basque jails. Blanco was found mortally dead shortly after a deadline. His slaying triggered widespread demonstrations in Spain.
    (AP, 7/12/98)(AP, 3/22/06)

1997        Jul 13, In San Sebastian Miguel Angel Blanco (29), a Basque town councilor and low-ranking member of the Popular Party of Prime Minister Jose Maria Aznar, died of head wounds from the ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom, a Basque separatist group. Almost 800 people have died since the ETA began fighting in 1968.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.A11)

1997        Jul 14, More than 2 million people took to the streets across Spain to mourn the death of Miguel Angel Blanco and to condemn the Basque separatist guerrillas who killed him.
    (SFC, 7/15/97, p.A10)

1997        Jul 27, In San Sebastian, some 30,000 marched in support of the ETA separatist movement.
    (SFC, 7/28/97, p.A11)

1997        Oct 4, Princess Christina Federica de Borbon y Grecia (32) married Inaki Urdangarin (29), a Basque professional handball team player.
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, p.A17)

1997        Oct 14, A separatist guerrilla group killed a policeman while trying to bomb the new Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao. Jose Maria Aguirre was killed when he helped foil the ETA attack. One of three gunmen, Kepa Arronnategui, was captured.
    (SFC,10/16/97, p.A14)(SFC,10/18/97, p.A10)

1997        Oct 18, There was an attempt to assassinate Spain's King Juan Carlos. In 2011 British officers arrested Eneko Gogeaskoetxea Arronategui (44), a suspected Basque separatist, in connection with the attempted assassination.
    (AFP, 7/7/11)

1997        Oct 19, In Bilbao the new Guggenheim Museum Bilbao opened. The 256,000 sq. ft. titanium, limestone and glass structure was designed by American (Canadian-born) architect Frank Gehry and funded entirely by the Basque regional government under the direction of Thomas Krens, director of the Guggenheim.
    (WSJ, 7/2/96, p.A12)(USAT, 10/8/97, p.1D)(WSJ, 10/16/97, p.A20)

1997        Oct 19, Pilar Miro, film director, died in Madrid at age 57. Her films included "Beltenebros," "Gary Cooper Is in Heaven," "Bird of Happiness," "The Dog in the Manger," and the 1979 expose "The Cuenca Crime."
    (SFC,10/20/97, p.A19)

1997        Oct, The 23-member leadership council of Herri Batasuna was arrested for distributing a video that presented the ETA's terms for peace.
    (SFC, 5/24/99, p.A4)

1997        Nov 6, Flooding of the Guadiana River killed 18 people in Badajoz. A total of 31 died along the Spanish-Portuguese border from the storm induced flood.
    (SFC,11/7/97, p.D3)

1997        Dec 1, Spain’s Supreme Court convicted 23 leaders of the Herri Batsuna (Unified Country) Basque separatist coalition. Each was sentenced to 7 years in prison and fined $3,500. In 1999 the Constitutional Court annulled the sentences and 22 leaders were released.
    (SFC, 12/2/97, p.A10)(SFC, 7/21/99, p.A12)

1997        Dec 2, The National Court found journalists Fernando Alonso and Andoni Murga guilty of weapons possession and membership in the ETA and sentenced them to 39 years each in prison.
    (SFC, 12/3/97, p.C5)

1997        Dec 5, In San Sebastian a politician’s bodyguard was shot to death hours before authorities arrested 19 of 23 leaders of the pro-Basque independence party, Herri Batasuna. Protestors also commandeered a bus and burned it.
    (SFC,12/6/97, p.A8)

1997        Dec 11, Jose Luis Caso, a former town councilor in Renteria, was killed by two suspected Basque separatists in Irun.
    (SFC,12/12/97, p.B6)

1997        Dec 13, Tens of thousands marched in San Sebastian to protest the murder of Jose Luis Caso.
    (SFEC,12/14/97, p.A24)

1997        Dec 27, In Bilbao thousands marched on behalf of the 23 Basque separatists of the Herri Batasuna separatist group, who were recently sentenced to 7 years each in prison.
    (SFEC,12/28/97, p.A18)

1997        Dec 30, A Spanish judge accused 36 Argentine military and police officers of involvement in torture and the disappearance of 600 Spaniards during the dirty war from 1976-1983. Most of those named served in the ESMA, a torture center used by the military regime.
    (SFC,12/31/97, p.A9)

1997        Goya's 18th-century "The Apparition of the Virgin of Pilar" and el Greco's 16th-century "The Annunciation," were stolen after a private exhibition tour. In 2011 Spanish police recovered the stolen masterpieces at a private house near the southeastern city of Alicante.
    (AP, 4/15/11)
1997        Mohamad Kamal Mustafa, imam of Fuengirola, Spain, authored “Women in Islam,” in which he defended a husband’s right to beat his wife.
    (WPR, 3/04, p.11)
1997        Jerome Mintz (d.1997 at 67), US anthropologist, published "Carnival, Song and Society: Gossip, Sexuality and Creativity in Andalusia." He had earlier produced 6 films about tradition and change in Andalusia.
    (SFC,12/20/97, p.A21)
1997        The film "The Disappearance of Garcia Lorca" was directed by Puerto Rican Marcos Zurinaga. It was based two books by Ian Gibson that describe the story of a journalist who returned to Spain in 1954 to seek the murderer of the poet Federico Garcia Lorca.
    (SFC, 9/8/97, p.D5)
1997        The documentary film "Flamenco" was filmed by Vittorio Storaro in an abandoned train station in Seville.
    (SFC, 9/8/97, p.D5)(AP, 9/18/97)
1997        The Spanish film "Mouth to Mouth" was directed by Peter Cattaneo. It was about an actor struggling to survive in Madrid while working at a phone-sex service.
    (WSJ, 9/16/97, p.A20)
1997        The German film "Ballermann 6" was about a bar by the same name on the Spanish Island of Majorca.
    (WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A1)
1997        Luis Antonio Garcia Navarro (d.2001) was named music and artistic director at the long-closed Teatro Real in Madrid.
    (SFC, 10/18/01, p.A21)
1997        Pernod Ricard SA acquired the Spanish gin Larios.
    (WSJ, 9/7/05, p.B2)

1998        Jan 30, Alberto Jimenz Becerril, a Popular Party Councilman, and his wife, Asuncion Garcia Ortiz, were assassinated in Seville.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.A12)

1998        Apr 25, A wall of acidic toxic liquid, 5 million cubic meters, broke free from a Aznalcollar mine waste lagoon near Seville and threatened the 300-sq. ml. Donana National Park. The tainted water was diverted to the Guadalquivir River and then to the Gulf of Cadiz. 13,300 acres of cropland were expected to be left barren for 25 years due to the spill.
    (WSJ, 4/27/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A13)(SFC, 4/29/98, p.A10)

1998        Jun 23, A Boeing 727 with 131 people was hijacked and diverted to Valencia.
    (SFC, 6/23/98, p.A11)

1998        Jul 11, It was reported that tens of thousands of rotting fish were left when a section of the Llobregat River was drained too fast to fill a  repaired canal.
    (SFC, 7/11/98, p.A8)

1998        Aug 31, Jose Antonio Ardanza, 14-year president of the Basque country, dissolved the regional parliament and set elections for Oct 25. He urged ETA extremists to lay down their arms.
    (SFC, 9/1/98, p.A9)

1998        Sep 16, The Basque separatist ETA announced an indefinite cease fire to begin Sep 18. It ended 14 months later after one round of talks with the Aznar government. PM Jose Maria Aznar responded with a hard-line crackdown that ended cooperation between Basque moderates and Spanish political parties.
    (SFC, 9/17/98, p.C4)(SFC, 5/24/99, p.A1)(AP, 3/22/06)

1998        Oct 8, In northeastern Spain and excursion boat capsized and sank on Lake Banyoles and 20 French tourists were drowned.
    (WSJ, 10/8/98, p.A1)

1998        Oct 17, In Britain former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet was arrested in a London medical clinic following a request from Spain for his extradition. Chilean officials lodged a formal complaint to Britain.
    (SFEC, 10/18/98, p.A1)

1998        Oct 19, A Spanish judge filed a motion for the extradition of Gen’l. Pinochet from England that encompassed 94 cases of genocide, as well as the deaths of 79 Spaniards who were killed in Chile after being abducted by an alliance of south American intelligence services.
    (SFC, 10/20/98, p.A8)

1998        Oct 30, Spanish judges ruled that Spain had the legal right to bring criminal charges against Augusto Pinochet and to seek his extradition from Britain.
    (SFC, 10/31/98, p.A12)

1998        Nov 3, Prime Minister Jose Aznar authorized preliminary talks with the Basque ETA.
    (SFC, 11/4/98, p.A12)

1998        Dec 19, Antonio Ordonez, bullfighter, died at age 66. His career was chronicled in a Hemingway novel.
    (WSJ, 12/21/98, p.A1)

1998        Dec 30, Joan Brossa, poet, died in Barcelona at age 79. He published poems in Catalan and founded a surrealist magazine in 1948 with Antoni Tapies.
    (SFC, 1/2/99, p.C2)

1998        Spain deregulated its energy market.
    (AFP, 10/23/06)

1998        Ramon Sampredro, a Spanish paraplegic who campaigned for euthanasia and spent 30 years in bed, died by sipping water laced with cyanide. He did this after crafting a complex scheme to have friends prepare and deliver the poison in incremental steps so no single one of them could be charged criminally. The story was made into the movie "El Mar Adentro" (The Sea Inside), which won an Oscar for best foreign film in 2005.
    (AP, 11/29/06)

1999        Jan 1, Spain along with 10 other European Union nations made the transition to the new Euro monetary system.
    (SFC, 1/1/99, p.A8)

1999        Mar 10, Nine Basque separatists were arrested.
    (WSJ, 3/11/99, p.A1)

1999        Mar 20, Some 60,000 people marched in Bilbao to protest recent arrests of members and supporters of the ETA.
    (SFEC, 3/21/99, p.A23)

1999        Jun 14, Dolores Jimenez, a leading flamenco singer known as La Nina de la Puebla, died at age 90 in Malaga.
    (SFC, 6/16/99, p.B4)

1999        Jul 6, Joaquin Rodrigo, classical composer, died at age 97 in Madrid. His best known work was "Concierto de Aranjuez."
    (SFC, 7/8/99, p.A19)

1999        Jul 22, Claudio Rodriguez, poet, died at age 65.
    (SFC, 7/23/99, p.D6)

1999        Oct 7, In Barcelona the Gran Teatre del Liceu opera house opened after a 3-year, $120 million renovation due to a 1994 fire.
    (SFC, 10/8/99, p.C10)

1999        Nov 28, The Basque ETA announced that it would end a 14-month cease-fire due to inaction over their call for independence.
    (SFC, 11/29/99, p.A12)

1999        Nov, In Spain Ekin, a civic support organization for the Basque separatist group ETA, was formed with the aim of "impelling independence, nation-building and socialism at street level." On Oct 1, 2011, the Gara newspaper's website said two unidentified spokesmen told it that "Ekin members have ended their endeavors as an organization."
    (AP, 10/1/11)

1999        Dec 22, Police found a 2nd van loaded with 1,650 pounds of explosives in Alhama de Aragon. Two days earlier a van, bound for Madrid, was stopped with 1,980 pounds of explosives.
    (SFC, 12/24/99, p.A20)

1999        Mark Kurlansky authored "The Basque History of the World."
    (SFEC, 10/17/99, Par p.20)
1999        The Spanish film "Barrio" was written and directed by Fernando Leon de Aranoa.
    (SFEC, 4/11/99, DB p.37)
1999        The Spanish film "Open Your Eyes" was directed by Alejandro Amenabar.
    (WSJ, 4/16/99, p.W1)
1999        In Bilbao the Euskalduna Palace of Congresses and Music was completed with the design by Federico Soriano and Dolores Palacios.
    (WSJ, 11/23/99, p.A21)
1999        Parliament approved an amnesty for illegal immigrants and authorized visas for those able to prove that they had arrived before July 1, 1999.
    (SFC, 8/11/00, p.D4)
1999        Spain’s Ferrovial, led by Rafael del Pino, went public.
    (Econ, 7/7/07, p.67)

2000        Jan 21, In Madrid Basque separatists ended a 19-month lull in their guerrilla war with a remote bomb that killed Lt. Col. Pedro Antonio Blanco Garcia (48).
    (SFC, 1/22/00, p.A10)

2000        Jan 23, Some 1.1 million people marched in Madrid to protest the recent car-bomb attack by Basque separatists.
    (SFC, 1/24/00, p.A6)

2000        Feb 22, A car bomb killed Fernando Buesa, a Socialist Party leader in Vitoria, and his bodyguard Jorge Diez Elorza (27).
    (SFC, 2/23/00, p.A14)

2000        Mar 12, The conservative Popular Party under Prime Minister Jose Maria Aznar won the general election with 44.7% of the vote. The party won 183 of the 350 seats in Congress of Deputies.
    (SFC, 3/13/00, p.A10)

2000        May 7, Jose Luis Lopez de La Calle, a columnist for El Mundo, was shot and killed in Andoain. The ETA was blamed.
    (SFC, 5/8/00, p.A13)

2000        Jul 6, A bus enroute to a summer camp for teens collided with a truck hauling pigs near Soria and at least 25 people were killed.
    (SFC, 7/7/00, p.D6)

2000        Jul 10, DASA (minus MTU) merged with Aerospatiale-Matra of France and Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) of Spain to form the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS). DASA was founded as Deutsche Aerospace AG on May 19, 1989 by the merger of Daimler-Benz's aerospace interests (MTU, Dornier and two divisions of AEG). In July 1989 the two AEG divisions were themselves merged within Deutsche Aerospace to form Telefunken Systemtechnik (TST). In December 1989 Daimler-Benz acquired Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) and merged it into DASA.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DASA)

2000        Jul 12, A car bomb exploded at the entrance of the Corte Ingles department store in Madrid. 10 people were injured.
    (SFC, 7/13/00, p.C4)

2000        Jul 18, Jose Angel Valente, poet, died at age 71. He wrote in Spanish and Galician and published his 1st poems in 1947.
    (SFC, 7/19/00, p.B2)

2000        Jul 25, A 100-foot-high gusher burst forth in the city of Granatula in central Spain as olive growers were deepening a well.
    (SFC, 9/9/00, p.A22)

2000        Jul 29, A Socialist politician was killed and Basque separatists were blamed.
    (WSJ, 7/31/00, p.A1)

2000        Aug 7, A bomb exploded in Bilbao and killed 3 suspected Basque separatists, who appeared to be transporting explosives.
    (SFC, 8/8/00, p.A12)

2000        Aug 8, A car bomb exploded in Madrid, where 11 people were injured and in Zumaia where 1 man was killed. The ETA was blamed.
    (SFC, 8/9/00, p.A14)

2000        Aug 9, Francisco Casanova Vicente, army officer, was shot twice in the back as he arrived home in Pamplona. The murder was blamed on the ETA.
    (SFC, 8/10/00, p.A11)

2000        Aug 20, A bomb killed 2 Spanish Civil Guard officers in Sallent de Gallego. The ETA was blamed.
    (SFC, 8/21/00, p.A8)

2000        Aug 29, Manuel Indiano (29), a councilman in Zumarraga, was shot and killed outside his candy store. The ETA was blamed.
    (SFC, 8/30/00, p.B10)

2000        Sep 13, Masked police raided the EKIN offices, the fund-raising wing of the ETA. 20 people were arrested.
    (SFC, 9/14/00, p.C5)

2000        Sep 14, Ramon Rekalde, a former Socialist Party official, was wounded with a shot in the head in San Sebastian. The ETA was blamed.
    (SFC, 9/15/00, p.D2)

2000        Sep 15, Truckers across Europe blocked highways to protest high fuel costs. Protests hit Spain, Germany, Ireland, Poland and the Czech Republic.
    (SFC, 9/16/00, p.A10)

2000        Sep 21, Jose Luis Ruiz Casado (42), a town councilor, was shot and killed in Sant Adria de Besos outside of Barcelona. The ETA was blamed.
    (SFC, 9/22/00, p.D2)

2000        Oct 9, Luis Portero, a head state attorney for the Andalusian Superior Court, was shot to death in Granada. The ETA was suspected.
    (SFC, 10/10/00, p.A13)

2000        Oct 16, Col. Antonio Munoz Carinanos (58), a military doctor, was killed in Seville by 3 suspected Basque gunmen. 2 suspects were arrested.
    (WSJ, 10/17/00, p.A1)(SFC, 10/18/00, p.A26)

2000        Oct 22, Maximo Casada Carrera (44), a prison officer, was killed by a car bomb in Vitoria. The ETA was blamed.
    (SFC, 10/23/00, p.A11)

2000        Oct 30, In Madrid a car bomb killed Supreme Court magistrate Jose Francisco Querol (69), his driver and an escort. 35 were wounded and the ETA was blamed.
    (SFC, 10/31/00, p.A12)(WSJ, 10/31/00, p.A1)

2000        Nov 21, Ernest Lluch (63), a former government minister, was killed by suspected ETA gunmen in a Barcelona suburb.
    (SFC, 11/22/00, p.C6)

2000        Nov 22, The government reported its 1st case of mad cow disease.
    (SFC, 11/23/00, p.D6)

2002        The Web site Hoopshype.com was started by 3 young men from Spain. By 2008 the site was attracting half a million unique visitors a month.
    (WSJ, 3/21/08, p.W1)
2000        The Bank of Spain began requiring leading banks to set aside a portion of profits against future losses.
    (Econ, 2/19/11, p.78)
2002        Spain planed to abolish the draft by the end of this year and to reduce its military to about 168,000.
    (SFEC, 10/31/99, p.A28)
2000        Spanish journalist Emilio Silva was shown where his grandfather was buried. The mass grave in El Bierzo contained dozens of other victims of Francoist repression. Spaniards across the country soon began reporting on thousands of victims buried in similar unmarked graves.
    (Econ, 3/13/10, p.63)

2001        Jan 1, A weekend storm killed 7 people, including 5 in the Pyranees.
    (SFC, 1/2/01, p.A10)

2001        Jan 3, A commuter train hit a van near Lorca and 12 Ecuadoran farm workers were killed.
    (WSJ, 1/04/01, p.A1)

2001        Jan 24, Portugal Telecom and Spain’s Telefonica announced today the formation of a US$ 10 billion Strategic Joint Venture ("JV") for mobile services in Brazil. The resulting entity, named Vivo, was formed from seven assorted mobile units they already controlled.
    (Econ, 5/22/10, p.71)(http://tinyurl.com/2cxlgd4)

2001        Feb 4, A crowd of 10-40 thousand marched in Barcelona to protest a tough new against illegal immigrants.
    (SFC, 2/5/01, p.A8)

2001        Feb 22, Two people were killed when suspected Basque separatists bombed a train station in San Sebastian. Separately French police arrested the alleged ETA military chief.
    (WSJ, 2/23/01, p.A1)

2001        Mar 11, Over 100,000 people protested in Madrid against a $23 billion plan to divert water from the Ebro river to areas in the south.
    (SFC, 3/12/01, p.A14)

2001        Mar 17, Santos Santamaria Avedano (32), a police officer, was killed when a car bomb went off as he evacuated guests from a hotel in Roses.
    (SFC, 3/19/01, p.A9)

2001        Mar 20, Froilan Elespe, Socialist deputy mayor of Lasarte, was shot and killed. The ETA was blamed.
    (SFC, 3/21/01, p.A14)

2001        May 6, Manuel Jimenez Abad (52), a politician of the ruling Popular Party, was shot to death in Zaragoza.
    (SFC, 5/7/01, p.C3)

2001        May 13, Basque elections were held in Spain. Nationalists won the regional elections.
    (WSJ, 5/11/01, p.A1)(SFC, 5/14/01, p.A9)

2001        May 24, In San Sebastian Santiago Oleaga Elejabarrieta (54), financial director of the El Diario Vasco daily newspaper, was shot and killed. The ETA was blamed.
    (SFC, 5/25/01, p.D6)

2001        Jun 10, In Spain thousands marched in Madrid to protest an upcoming visit by Pres. Bush.
    (SFC, 6/11/01, p.A10)

2001        Jun 12, Pres. Bush on his 1st major overseas trip met with Prime Minister Jose Maria Aznar in Madrid and pushed for his missile defense shield.
    (SFC, 6/11/01, p.A10)(SFC, 6/13/01, p.A1)

2001        Jun 28, A parcel bomb in Madrid injured Gen. Justo Oreja Pedraza (63), a defense minister, along with 15 others. The ETA was blamed.
    (SFC, 6/29/01, p.D4)

2001        Jul 10, In Madrid a policeman was killed by a bomb. Basque rebels were blamed.
    (WSJ, 7/12/01, p.A1)

2001        Jul 14, In Spain gunmen shot and killed a police officer, Mikel Uribe (44), in Leaburu and a bomb killed a local politician, Jose Javier Mugica (50), in Leiza. The ETA was blamed.
    (SSFC, 7/15/01, p.A18)

2001        Aug 18, A Basque rebel car bomb exploded outside 2 resort hotels in Salou.
    (WSJ, 8/20/01, p.A1)

2001        Aug 27, A Basque bomb went off in the parking structure of Madrid’s main airport. There were no injuries due to a phoned in tip.
    (WSJ, 8/28/01, p.A1)

2001        Aug 29, A Binter Mediterraneo CN-235 airplane crash-landed near Malaga’s airport and at least 3 of 47 people aboard were killed.
    (WSJ, 8/30/01, p.A1)

2001        Sep 26, Spain detained 6 Algerians with alleged links to Osama bin Laden and a group planning attacks on US targets in Europe.
    (SFC, 9/27/01, p.A3)

2001        Oct 1, In Spain suspected Basque militants exploded a car bomb in Vitoria that caused much damage to the city center.
    (WSJ, 10/2/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct 4, The EU made a joint announcement with Spain that the Basque ETA would be put on the list of terrorist organizations whose assets would be frozen by the EU.
    (WSJ, 10/5/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct 12, A bombing caused wide damage in Madrid. Basque separatists were suspected.
    (WSJ, 10/15/01, p.A1)

2001        Nov 6, In Madrid a rush hour car bomb blast injured 95 people. The ETA was suspected and a man and woman were arrested.
    (SFC, 11/7/01, p.A13)

2001        Nov 7, Judge Jose Maria Lidon Corbi was shot to death as he drove out of his garage in Gexto, a suburb of Bilbao. The ETA was held responsible.
    (SFC, 11/8/01, p.A19)

2001        Nov 13, Spanish police arrested 11 people with suspected links to Osama bin Laden.
    (SFC, 11/14/01, p.A6)

2001        Nov 18, In Spain 8 men detained last week were reported to be members of the al Qaeda network and to have played a role in the Sep 11 attacks.
    (SFC, 11/19/01, p.A5)

2001        Nov 23, Spain set terms for extradition of 8 men charged with complicity in the Sep 11 attacks that included trial by a civilian court. 2 policemen were killed in Beasain.
    (SFC, 11/24/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/26/01, p.A1)

2001        Carlos Ruiz Zafon authored “The Shadow of the Wind.” It became a best seller in Spain and in 2004 was translated into English by Lucia Graves.
    (Econ, 4/3/04, p.87)

2002        Jan 17, Camilo Jose Cela (85), novelist and 1989 Noble Prize winner, died in Madrid.
    (WSJ, 1/18/02, p.A1)

2002        Jan 19, Spain arrested 2 suspected members of al Qaeda.
    (SSFC, 1/20/02, p.A4)

2002        Feb, Bruge 2002 opened. It had been named as one of two Cultural Capitals of Europe for this year. The other was Salamanca, Spain.
    (SSFC, 2/24/02, p.C5)

2002        Mar 18, Police discovered at least 19 corpses at the home and car of an ex-funeral parlor employee in Malaga.
    (SFC, 3/20/02, p.A10)

2002        Mar 21, A local Spanish official was shot to death by gunmen in the Basque region. Police suspected the ETA.
    (WSJ, 3/22/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr 23, Spanish police arrested Mohamed Zouaydi on charges of financing terrorist activities around the world.
    (SFC, 4/25/02, p.A9)

2002        May 1, In Madrid a bomb exploded near a sports stadium and 17 people were injured.
    (SFC, 5/2/02, p.A11)

2002        May 14, Police arrested 2 suspected ETA members who planned to bomb an upcoming meeting of Latin American and European leaders.
    (SFC, 5/16/02, p.A8)

2002        Jun 5, Carlos Berlanga (42), pop singer and composer, died. He was associated with the La Movida (The Happening) arts movement that surfaced after Franco’s death in 1975.
    (SFC, 6/11/02, p.A22)

2002        Jun 15, In Spain tens of thousands of people marched through Bilbao protesting the government’s intention to outlaw a political party that refuses to condemn terrorism in the name of independence.
    (AP, 6/15/02)

2002        Jun 21, Two car bombs exploded at Spanish coastal resort as a European Union summit got under way about 90 miles away at a heavily guarded convention center in Seville.
    (AP, 6/21/02)

2002        Jun 22, In Spain it was reported that police had found 10 of 17 artworks stolen last year from the collection of a Spanish billionaire, including paintings by Goya, Pissarro and Breughel.
    (AP, 6/22/02)
2002        Jun 22, Two new bombs rocked Spain's tourist coasts, making five in two days that the government blamed on Basque separatist group ETA trying to disrupt a European Union summit in Seville.
    (Reuters, 6/22/02)
2002        Jun 22, Tens of thousands of people banged drums, blew whistles and danced their way through Seville's streets in a rally against globalization. The EU Summit ended with new measures to deter illegal immigration.
    (AP, 6/22/02)(SSFC, 6/23/02, p.A22)

2002        Jul 5, In Spain a judge froze all bank accounts of Batasuna, the radical Basque political party.
    (SSFC, 7/7/02, p.A18)

2002        Jul 7, The 14th Int’l. AIDS Conference opened in Barcelona. Estimates said AIDS had claimed 20 million lives to date and threatened 40 million currently infected. African cases were estimated at 28.5 million.
    (SFC, 7/5/02, p.A1)(SSFC, 7/7/02, p.A6)

2002        Jul 11, Moroccan soldiers planted a national flag on Perejil Island (parsley in Spanish), 200 yards off the coast near Ceuta. Spain had claimed control since the 17th century. Moroccans called the 0.58-square mile rocky outcrop Leila (night in Arabic). Spanish troops swiftly dislodged the Moroccans without a shot being fired. Under a diplomatic resolution, both sides agreed to leave it as a no man's land.
    (SSFC, 7/14/02, p.A20)(SFC, 7/20/02, p.A10)(AP, 11/3/07)

2002        Jul 17, Spanish troops reclaimed the island of Perejil off the coast of Morocco, a week after it was occupied by Moroccan troops.
    (WSJ, 7/18/02, p.A1)(SFC, 7/18/02, p.A17)

2002        Jul 22, Morocco and Spain, prodded by the US, agreed to leave Perjil Island empty and free of symbols of sovereignty and planned for future talks on the issue.
    (SFC, 7/23/02, p.A8)

2002        Jul 25, The Spanish government welcomed a British proposal to turn its military base in Gibraltar into a NATO facility, a move that would open it to all alliance members including Spain. Spain and Britain came up with the idea of sharing sovereignty over the Rock. This was rejected resoundingly in a nonbinding referendum in Gibraltar.
    (AP, 7/25/02)(AP, 9/19/06)

2002        Aug 4, In southeastern Spain 2 people, including a 6-year-old girl, were killed and several others were injured when a car bomb exploded in front of a military police barracks. Twenty-five others were injured.
    (AP, 8/5/02)

2002        Aug 19, Eduardo Chillida (78), Basque sculptor, died. He created monumental works and promoted peace in the Basque region. His work included "The Comb of the Winds," an iron tangle in San Sebastian.
    (SFC, 8/21/02, p.A19)

2002        Sep 24, In Spain a booby-trapped sign bearing the logo of the armed Basque separatist group ETA exploded, killing one police officer and wounding three others.
    (AP, 9/24/02)

2002        Oct 6, Pope John Paul II raised to sainthood Josemaria Escriva de Balaguer the Spanish priest who founded the conservative Catholic organization Opus Dei (1928), only 27 years after his death.
    (AP, 10/6/02)

2002        Oct 25, In Spain Jose Antonio Rodriguez Vega (44), a serial killer sentenced to 440 years in jail for raping and strangling 16 elderly widows, was murdered in prison. Two prisoners with makeshift knives attacked Vega in the courtyard of Topas jail in western Salamanca province.
    (AP, 10/25/02)

2002        Nov 13, The Bahamian-registered Prestige, with 85,000 tons of oil, sprang a leak during a storm off the coast of Spain. Some 3,300 tons leaked and began reaching the coast of Spain after a few days.
    (AP, 11/16/02)

2002        Nov 19, The Prestige oil tanker, carrying 20 million gallons of fuel oil, broke in two and sank in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Spain. It leaked up to 1.02 million gallons of oil and threatened a spill nearly twice as big as the Exxon Valdez in 1989. Leakage continued at some 33,000 gallons per day and could drain until 2006. Spain later put the estimated cost of the Prestige oil tanker spill at least $1.05 billion. In 2013 a judge acquitted crew members and a top maritime official of causing the massive oil spill. The Greek captain (78) of the Prestige was sentenced to nine months in prison for resisting attempts to tow the wreck away from shore before it spilled its load.
    (AP, 11/19/02)(WSJ, 12/11/02, p.A1)(AP, 1/15/03)(AP, 11/13/13)

2002        Dec 21, In Spain Jose Hierro (80), a poet who won the Spanish-speaking world's highest literary award while writing in a Madrid coffee shop, died.
    (AP, 12/21/02)

2002        Dec 22, In Spain tens of thousands of people marched in silence through the coastal city of Bilbao to demand the dissolution of the armed Basque separatist group ETA.
    (AP, 12/22/02)

2002        Spain planed to abolish the draft by the end of this year and to reduce its military to about 168,000.
    (SFEC, 10/31/99, p.A28)
2002        The Web site Hoopshype.com was started by 3 young men from Spain. By 2008 the site was attracting half a million unique visitors a month.
    (WSJ, 3/21/08, p.W1)

2003        Jan 2, A motorized rubber boat carrying 41 illegal immigrants sank off the southern coast of Spain, and six passengers drowned.
    (AP, 1/2/03)

2003        Jan 3, Jose Maria Gironella (85), Spanish author, died. His work included "The Cypresses Believe in God," a trilogy based on the 1936-1939 Civil War, for which he won the 1953 National Literary prize.
    (SFC, 2/10/03, p.B5)

2003        Jan 16, The European Union's Court of Justice ordered Spain and Italy to drop national rules on what constitutes chocolate, saying they can no longer bar British and Irish confections made with vegetable fats instead of cocoa butter.
    (AP, 1/16/03)

2003        Jan 17, France and Spain opened the new 5.3-mile Somport tunnel through the western Pyrenees mountains.
    (AP, 1/18/03)

2003        Jan 24, In Spain police arrested 16 suspected al-Qaida terrorists.
    (AP, 1/24/03)

2003          Feb 20, In Spain police shut down the daily Egunkaria, a Basque-language newspaper, and arrested its editor-in-chief and 10 other executives on suspicion of aiding the armed separatist group ETA.
    (AP, 2/20/03)

2003          Feb 21, Spain’s PM Jose Maria Aznar arrived in Texas for a meeting with Pres. Bush.
    (WSJ, 2/21/03, p.A8)

2003        Feb 22, Pres. Bush told Spain’s PM Aznar that nations like Mexico, Angola, Chile and Cameroon must know that the security of the United States is at stake. Bush threatened nations with retaliation if they did not vote for a UN resolution backing the Iraq war. A transcript of a meeting on this day, one month before the US-led invasion of Iraq, was published in the El Pais daily in 2007.
    (AFP, 9/26/07)

2003         Mar, Spain’s Supreme Court outlawed the radical Batasuna party linked to ETA.
    (AP, 3/22/06)

2003        Apr 3, In Spain a female doctor described as mentally unbalanced stabbed several people at a Madrid hospital, killing a colleague and a patient and wounding six others.
    (AP, 4/3/03)

2003        Apr 8, In Iraq 2 cameramen and one other journalist were killed and at least 3 others wounded when an American tank hit the Hotel Palestine where they were staying. An Al-Jazeera journalist was killed by US fire. In 2005 a Spanish judge issued an arrest warrant for the 3-member US tank crew, for the death of Jose Couso, who worked for the Spanish television network Telecinco. Khalid Ibrahim Sa'id, Iraqi physicist, was killed in Baghdad by a US tank crew as he rode in a car to check on his home. British forces began establishing the first post-war administration, putting a local sheik into power in the southern city of Basra. Looting erupted shortly after their troops took control of the city. A US warplane was shot down near Baghdad. US forces seized Rasheed military airport.
    (AP, 4/8/03)(AP, 4/9/03)(SFC, 4/9/03, p.A1)(AP, 10/19/05)(SSFC, 11/9/03, p.A14)(SSFC, 5/4/03, p.C3)(SSFC, 3/6/11, p.F6)

2003        May 3, Pope John Paul II began a whirlwind visit to Madrid, Spain.
    (AP, 5/3/03)

2003        May 4, In Spain Pope John Paul II proclaimed five new saints and urged Spaniards to emulate them. They included: Pedro Poveda, a priest killed in 1936; Angela de la Cruz, who founded the Sisters of the Company of the Cross; Genoveva Torres, who founded the Sisters of the Sacred Heart and of the Holy Angels; Maravillas de Jesus, who founded convents for the Order of Barefoot Carmelites, and Jose Maria Rubio, a Jesuit priest.
    (AP, 5/4/03)

2003        May 9, Spain's highest court barred nearly 1,500 Basque nationalists from running in municipal elections, calling them camouflaged members of the outlawed party Batasuna.
    (AP, 5/9/03)

2003        May 25, In Spain PM Jose Maria Aznar's party held its ground in city and regional elections.
    (AP, 5/26/03)

2003        May 26, An airplane carrying Spanish peacekeepers crashed into a mountain in northeastern Turkey while making its third attempt to land in thick fog. All 74 people aboard were killed. The Yak-42 was chartered from a Ukrainian company.
    (AP, 5/26/03)(WSJ, 5/27/03, p.A1)

2003        May 30, In northern Spain ETA committed its final fatal attack. A car bomb, placed by Basque separatists, killed two police officers in Sanguesa in northern Navarra region.
    (AP, 5/30/03)(AP, 3/22/06)

2003        Jun 3, In Spain a head-on train collision near Chinchilla in Albacete province left at least 11 people dead and another 16 missing.
    (AP, 6/4/03)

2003        Jun 8, In Barcelona, Spain, more than 7,000 people gathered at daybreak and shed their clothes to take part in artist Spencer Tunick's largest work yet, an installation featuring a sea of nude bodies covering a central Barcelona avenue.
    (AP, 6/8/03)

2003        Jun, Moroccan authorities warned Spain that Jamal Zougan, a radical Islamist with suspected links to terrorists, had returned to Madrid.
    (WSJ, 3/19/04, p.A11)

2003        Jul 10, Spain's Pres. Aznar began a visit to 3 US states, California, New Mexico and Texas, to promote trade and cultural connections.
    (SFC, 7/11/03, p.A1)
2003        Jul 10, Grenada, Spain, unveiled its first mosque since 1492 when the Moors were expelled.
    (AP, 7/11/03)

2003        Jul 11, Spain, a leading U.S. ally during the war to oust Saddam Hussein, agreed to send 1,300 soldiers to Iraq.
    (AP, 7/12/03)

2003        Jul 25, In Spain 2 top members of the outlawed Basque separatist group ETA were sentenced to 790 years in prison for a 1987 bombing that killed 21 people and injured 45.
    (AP, 7/26/03)

2003        Sep, Spanish judge Baltasar Garzon indicted 35 suspected militants.
    (Econ, 3/27/04, p.47)

2003        Oct 10, Spain's new Madrid-Leida bullet train made its maiden journey. The train had an average speed of 108 mph, with a peak of 124 mph. This was slower than the intended average speed of 186 mph with peaks of 217 mph.
    (AP, 10/11/03)

2003        Oct 12, In northern Spain 2 bombs exploded in a parking lot, destroying 11 freight trucks. No one was injured in the blast blamed on the armed Basque separatist group ETA,
    (AP, 10/12/03)

2003        Oct 18, Manuel Vazquez Montalban (64), one of Spain's best-known authors and the creator of the Barcelona-based detective Pepe Carvalho, died.
    (AP, 10/19/03)

2003        Oct 26, In Spain conservatives regained control of Madrid's regional legislature in an election giving PM Aznar's party momentum going into next year's general elections.
    (AP, 10/27/03)

2003        Oct 28, Joan Perucho (82), judge, novelist and art critic, died in Barcelona.
    (SFC, 10/31/03, p.A25)

2003        Nov 3, Spanish authorities closed the border with the British colony of Gibraltar before the arrival of a virus-stricken cruise ship carrying some 2,000 passengers. More than 400 passengers on the ship fell ill with a norovirus after the ship left Southampton, England, for a Mediterranean voyage on Oct. 20.
    (AP, 11/3/03)

2003        Nov 16, Catalans chose among parties all pledging to seek greater autonomy or independence from Spain in elections that will give the wealthy region a new leader for the first time in almost a quarter century.
    (AP, 11/16/03)

2003        Nov 29, In Iraq US senators Hillary Rodham Clinton and Jack Reed met with local officials in the oil-rich northern city of Kirkuk. Attackers in Mahmudiyah killed 7 members of a Spanish intelligence team as it returned from a mission. In northern Iraq gunmen ambushed and murdered two Japanese diplomats and their Iraqi driver.
    (AP, 11/29/03)(SSFC, 11/30/03, p.A1)(AP, 11/30/03)

2003        Dec 9, French police arrested Gorka Palacios Alday, the alleged military leader of the banned Basque separatist group ETA, along with three accomplices.
    (AP, 12/9/03)

2003        Dec 20, Spain's PM Jose Maria Aznar paid a surprise visit to Spanish troops in Iraq.
    (AP, 12/20/03)

2003        Dec 22, The world's richest lottery spread $2.2 billion in Christmas cheer throughout Spain, including to a village whose name means luck.
    (AP, 12/22/03)

2003        Dec 29,  Jaime de Pinies, a longtime Spanish diplomat who served as president of the United Nations General Assembly (1985), died in Madrid.
    (AP, 12/31/03)

2003        In Spain Jesus Gil y Gil (1933-2004), developer and football club owner, was sentenced to 3½ years plus a fine of some $16m for siphoning off Atletico funds and fraud. Gil was mayor of Marbella on the Costa del Sol. Extensive corruption in the town was unveiled in 2006.
    (Econ, 8/23/03, p.40)(Econ, 4/8/06, p.52)

2004        Jan 14, In Spain Mohammed Kamal Mustafa, imam of the southern town of Fuengirola, was given a suspended sentence of to 15 months in prison. Spanish women's associations hailed the conviction of the Islamic cleric who advised Muslims how to beat their wives.
    (AP, 1/15/04)

2004        Jan 16, Kepa Junkera, button accordionist, performed his rendition of Basque Trikitixa music at Stanford, Ca.
    (SFC, 1/13/04, p.D1)

2004        Feb 18, The armed Basque separatist group ETA unilaterally declared a cease-fire for the northeastern region of Catalonia, but the move was immediately criticized by Spain's prime minister and politicians who refuse to negotiate with the militant group.
    (AP, 2/18/04)

2004        Feb 29, Spain averted a bombing by the Basque separatist group ETA after the Civil Guard stopped a small truck and found about 1,100 pounds of bomb-making chemicals.
    (AP, 2/29/04)

2004        Mar 11, In Madrid, Spain, a series of 10 bombs hidden in backpacks exploded in quick succession at 3 stations, blowing apart four commuter trains. 191 people were killed and over 1,450 wounded. Spanish leaders were quick to accuse Basque terrorists but a shadowy group claimed responsibility in the name of al-Qaeda. On October 31, 2007, 3 lead defendants were convicted of murder. Four other top suspects were acquitted of murder but convicted of lesser charges. In all 21 of the 28 defendants were convicted. On July 17, 2008, a Spanish court cleared four of the 21 people charged for crimes related to the train bombings. In 2009 7 people were indicted for helping the bombers flee.
    (WSJ, 3/12/04, p.A1)(AP, 3/13/04)(SFC, 3/13/04, p.A1)(SFC, 3/19/04, p.A3)(AP, 3/23/08)(AP, 10/31/07)(Reuters, 7/17/08)(AP, 11/2/09)

2004        Mar 14, Elections in Spain returned the Socialists to power. Mariano Rajoy (48) of the ruling conservative Popular Party was the prime minister's hand-picked candidate to succeed him. Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero of the Socialist Party hoped to end eight years of conservative government after promising to pull Spanish troops out of Iraq and address unaffordable housing and job insecurity at home. PM Jose Maria Aznar's conservatives became the first government that had backed Washington in Iraq to be voted from office. Zapatero led the Socialists to victory.
    (AP, 3/15/04)(Econ, 3/20/04, p.49)

2004        Mar 15, Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero, the leader of Spain's victorious Socialists, said he will withdraw his nation's support for the U.S.-led occupation of Iraq.
    (AP, 3/15/04)

2004        Mar 16, Spanish police identified five additional Moroccan suspects they think took part in last week's train bombing that killed 190 and injured 1,647 others.
    (AP, 3/16/04)(AP, 3/23/04)

2004        Mar 20, The Economist reported that a Goldman Sachs study found consumers in Australia and Spain to be the most vulnerable, of 19 countries, to higher interest rates or recession.
    (Econ, 3/20/04, p.85)

2004        Mar 21, Spain's incoming Socialist government rejected an offer for dialogue from the Basque separatist group ETA.
    (AP, 3/21/04)

2004        Apr 2, A Spanish railroad inspector found a 26-pound bomb hidden in a bag on a busy high-speed line. Police said the device may contain the same dynamite used in last month's Madrid train bombings.
    (AP, 4/2/04)

2004        Apr 3, In Spain Sarhane Abdelmajid Fakhet (35), a Tunisian national and the alleged ringleader of last month's train bombings in Madrid, was among 5 suspects who blew themselves up as police raided their apartment.
    (AP, 4/4/04)(SFC, 4/5/04, p.A3)(WSJ, 4/6/04, p.A1)

2004        Apr 6, The Barcelona city council passed a resolution condemning bullfighting and declaring the city Spain's first to come out against the centuries-old sport.
    (AP, 4/6/04)

2004        Apr 16, Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero, Spain's young and largely untested Socialist leader, won parliamentary Friday as prime minister.
    (AP, 4/16/04)

2004        Apr 18, Rodriguez Zapatero, Spain's new PM, ordered the withdrawal of 1,300 Spanish troops from Iraq.
    (SFC, 4/19/04, p.A1)

2004        Apr 22, Spain has agreed to a U.S. request to leave its intelligence agents in Iraq and not withdraw them along with its 1,300 troops.
    (AP, 4/22/04)

2004        Apr 28, A Spanish judge indicted Amer Azizi, a Moroccan fugitive, on charges of helping to plan the Sept. 11 hijackings.
    (AP, 4/28/05)

2004        May 6, The US FBI, using fingerprint evidence, arrested Oregon lawyer Brandon Mayfield as part of the investigation into the Madrid, Spain, train bombings. The bureau later said Mayfield's arrest had been a mistake, and apologized. In 2006 the US government agreed to pay Mayfield $2 million to settle a lawsuit.
    (AP, 5/6/05)(SFC, 11/30/06, p.A7)

2004        May 22, Spain's Crown Prince Felipe married former TV anchorwoman Letizia Ortiz, the first commoner in line to be queen in Spanish history.
    (AP, 5/22/04)

2004        Jul 5, Animal rights activists protested in Pamplona, Spain, on the eve of the start of the famous running of the bulls 'San Fermin' festival.
    (Reuters, 7/5/04)

2004        Jul 20, EU lawmakers elected a pro-European from Spain to be its next president as the expanded European Parliament met for the first time. The 732-member assembly chose Josep Borrell, a relatively unknown Spanish Socialist, to its top job.
    (AP, 7/20/04)

2004        Jul 25, A Spanish newspaper reported that Morocco had warned Spain earlier this month that it lost track of 400 Moroccan Islamist militants who trained in al Qaeda camps in Afghanistan, Bosnia or Chechnya.
    (AP, 7/25/04)

2004        Jul 26, Close to 5,000 'cybernauts' gathered for a weeklong computer party in Spain’s southeastern city of Valencia.
    (AP, 7/26/04)
2004         Jul 26, Banco Santander Central Hispano of Spain, with the help of Royal Bank of Scotland, announced a deal to acquire Abbey National Bank in the UK. The $16 billion deal created the tenth largest bank in the world.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbey_(bank))

2004        Sep 25, A film about Iraqi children victims of war "Turtles can fly" directed by Iranian Bahman Ghobadi won the Concha de Oro (Golden Shell) at the prestigious San Sebastian film festival.
    (AFP, 9/25/04)

2004        Oct 1, Spain's Socialist government approved a controversial law that would give gay and lesbian couples the same right to marry, divorce and adopt children as heterosexuals.
    (Reuters, 10/1/04)

2004        Oct 3, Two of Spain's most wanted alleged terrorists and at least 16 other suspected members of the armed Basque separatist group ETA were captured in a vast French-Spanish police operation. Mikel “Antza” Albizu Iriarte was arrested with his girlfriend Soledad Genetxea.
    (AP, 10/3/04)(Econ, 10/9/04, p.48)

2004        Oct 6, In Spain a judge ordered the top banker to stand trial on charges of tax fraud.
    (AP, 10/6/04)

2004        Nov 16, Spanish police arrested 17 suspected members of the armed Basque separatist group ETA in a series of pre-dawn raids in northern Spain.
    (AP, 11/16/04)

2004        Dec 6, In Spain bombs injured at least 18 people in 7 cities following warnings from callers claiming to represent the Basque separatist group ETA.
    (WSJ, 12/7/04, p.A1)

2004        Dec 28, The Spanish government has reached an agreement with unions and employers to raise the minimum monthly wage by 4.5 percent to euro512.90 ($699) on Jan. 1.
    (AP, 12/28/04)

2004        Dec 30, Spain approved new guidelines on immigration, including a partial amnesty aimed at giving papers to some of the 800,000 illegal immigrants estimated to be living in the country.
    (AP, 12/30/04)

2004        Dec 31, Spain's socialist government approved a bill to legalize same-sex marriages.
    (AP, 12/31/04)

2004-2006    In Spain Duke Inaki Urdangarin, the Duke of Palma de Mallorca and husband of Princess Cristina, headed the nonprofit Noos Institute. In 2011 it was revealed that the Duke and business partner Diego Torres used the institute to organize events related to sports and tourism diverting millions of euros in public and private funds into their own companies.
    (SFC, 12/13/11, p.A7)

2005        Jan 1, Spain was forecast for 3% annual GDP growth with a population at 41.3 million and GDP per head at $26,660.
    (Econ, 1/8/05, p.89)

2005        Jan 13, In Spain an explosion killed seven workers at a warehouse in the northern city of Burgos. A gas leak was suspected.
    (AP, 1/13/05)

2005        Jan 16, The armed Basque separatist group ETA threw its weight behind an initiative by its political wing to open dialogue with the Spanish government on solving the Basque problem.
    (AP, 1/16/05)

2005        Feb 6, The bodies of 18 victims of carbon monoxide poisoning from a faulty gas heater were found at a cottage near the village of Todolella in Spain’s Castellon province.
    (WSJ, 2/7/05, p.A1)

2005        Feb 7, Spain launched an immigrant amnesty program. As many as 800,00 new residency permits were expected.
    (WSJ, 2/7/05, p.A16)

2005        Feb 9, In Spain a car bomb exploded in a business park on the outskirts of Madrid just after the morning rush hour, injuring 43 people. Government officials blamed the Basque separatist group ETA.
    (AP, 2/9/05)

2005        Feb 13, Firefighters shot jets of water on one of Madrid’s tallest office buildings for a 2nd day, fighting to control a fiery orange blaze that began the night before and threatened to collapse the 32-story skyscraper.
    (AP, 2/13/05)

2005        Feb 17, Spanish police arrested two suspected members of the armed Basque separatist group ETA in Valencia, seizing explosives that they planned to use for imminent attacks.
    (AP, 2/17/05)

2005        Feb 20, Spanish voters endorsed the EU constitution in a nonbinding referendum.
    (SFC, 2/21/05, p.A3)

2005        Mar 8, In Madrid, Spain, a summit on terrorism opened.
    (AP, 3/8/05)

2005        Mar 9, Spanish serial killer Alfredo Galan, nicknamed the "playing card assassin" because he left a card at the scene of each murder, received jail sentences totaling 142 years.
    (AP, 3/9/05)

2005        Mar 12, Spanish police said they had cracked a money-laundering operation worth up to 250 million euros ($335.8 million) which might have links to YUKOS, but had not specified what those links might be.
    (AP, 3/13/05)

2005        Apr 10, Spanish police seized a cache of explosives in an operation against the armed Basque separatist group ETA one week before a Basque regional election.
    (AP, 4/10/05)

2005        Apr 17, In northern Spain the Basque region's ruling nationalists faced a test of their drive to secure more autonomy as elections got under way. The Basque Nationalist Party (PNV), led by Juan Jose Ibarretxe, lost 4 seats.
    (AP, 4/17/05)(Econ, 4/23/05, p.51)

2005        Apr 19, A Spanish court convicted Adolfo Scilingo (58), a former Argentine naval officer, of crimes against humanity for throwing 30 naked and drugged prisoners from planes during his country's "dirty war" more than two decades ago. It sentenced him to 640 years in prison. During the trial, Scilingo insisted he fabricated the taped testimony to trigger an investigation into Argentina's "dirty war."
    (AP, 4/19/05)

2005        May 17, Spain’s Parliament approved a resolution authorizing a “negotiated end” to almost 40 years of separatist violence. Parliament backed Socialist PM Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero's offer of talks with ETA if its groups end violence.
    (WSJ, 5/18/05, p.A12)(AP, 3/22/06)
2005        May 17, The captain of the Greenpeace boat, "The Rainbow Warrior," was sentenced to six months in prison for disobedience during a protest against the war in Iraq in 2003. The case stemmed from the detention of five men on March 14, 2003, for staging a protest aboard the boat captained by Daniel Rizzotti, an Argentine citizen, near the U.S.-Spanish Rota naval base in southern Spain.
    (AP, 5/17/05)

2005        May 18, Spain's Senate ratified the new European Union constitution, becoming the ninth country to approve the landmark document.
    (AP, 5/18/05)

2005        May 25, A powerful car bomb exploded in Madrid after a warning call from the armed Basque separatist group ETA. 18 people were injured.
    (AP, 5/25/05)

2005        Jun 8, A 2-day conference on racism sponsored by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) opened in Cordoba, Spain.
    (AP, 6/9/05)

2005        Jun 15, Spanish authorities said police had arrested 16 Islamic terror suspects in raids in several cities, including 11 men accused of having ties to Abu-Musab al-Zarqawi's group al-Qaida in Iraq and recruiting people for suicide attacks there.
    (AP, 6/15/05)

2005         Jun 18, In Spain ETA announced it will no longer kill elected members of political parties.
    (AP, 3/22/06)

2005        Jun 19, Voters in Spain's northwest Galicia region were deciding whether to extend the 15-year rule of Manuel Fraga (82), the last surviving politician of Gen. Francisco Franco's regime. Fraga had served as Interior Minister from 1975-1976, when police still occasionally  fired on demonstrators.
    (AP, 6/19/05)(Econ, 4/17/10, p.57)

2005        Jun 28, In Madrid a Tibetan group presented a criminal case against top Chinese officials for genocide and crimes against humanity, seeking to take advantage of Spain's laws on international human rights crimes.
    (AP, 6/28/05)

2005        Jun 30, Spain’s Parliament voted 187-147 to legalize gay marriages, defying conservatives and clergy making Spain the 3rd country to allow same-sex unions nationwide.
    (AP, 6/30/05)(WSJ, 7/1/05, p.A1)

2005        Jul 17, In central Spain 11 firefighters trying to extinguish a forest fire sparked by a smoldering barbeque were killed.
    (AP, 7/17/05)

2005        Jul 18, The United States extradited a Moroccan held at Guantanamo Bay who was indicted in Spain for his alleged links to an al-Qaida cell.
    (AP, 7/19/05)

2005        Jul 22, Spain banned lighting fires in open spaces nationwide until November. This was Spain’s worst drought since 1947. Spaniards will no longer allowed to smoke as they take a Sunday stroll in the woods, under new government rules aimed at curbing the risk of fires such as a recent one in which 11 firefighters died in Guadalajara.
    (Reuters, 7/25/05)(Econ, 7/23/05, p.47)

2005        Jul 27, France Telecom bought an 80% stake in Amena, Spain’s 3rd largest mobile telephone operator.
    (Econ, 7/30/05, p.54)

2005        Aug 16, Two helicopters carrying NATO-led forces to prepare for next month's elections crashed in the desert in western Afghanistan, killing at least 17 Spanish troops.
    (AP, 8/16/05)

2005        Aug 31, In Spain tens of thousands of people armed with 100 tons of plum tomatoes took part in the "Tomatina," joyously splattering each other in the town of Bunol.
    (AP, 8/31/05)

2005        Aug, A report, only made public in 2008, marked confidential and bearing the official seal of Spain's Defense Ministry charged that Pakistan's spy service was helping arm Taliban insurgents for assassination plots against the Afghan government.
    (AP, 10/1/08)

2005        Sep 26, Spain’s high court convicted 18 Muslim immigrants of terrorism-related charges. Imad Eddin Barakat Yarkas, a suspected al-Qaida cell leader, was sentenced to 27 years in prison. He was convicted of conspiring to commit murder in connection with the Sept. 11 attacks in the US, concluding Europe's biggest trial of alleged members of the terrorist group. Among those convicted was an Al-Jazeera TV correspondent, who was sentenced to 7 years.
    (Reuters, 9/26/05)(SFC, 9/27/05, p.A3)

2005        Sep 29, Hundreds of African migrants charged a razor-wire border fence at a Spanish enclave in northern Morocco before dawn, and five people were killed and 50 injured, prompting Spain to send troops to secure the frontier.
    (AP, 9/29/05)

2005        Sep 30, Catalonia's parliament approved a new charter that called the wealthy region in northeastern Spain "a nation," wording that has some worried that the region is heading toward a break with Spain.
    (AP, 9/30/05)

2005        Sep, The Economist Intelligence Unit ranked IESE Business School, an arm of Spain’s Univ. of Navarre, as the world’s top business school.
    (Econ, 9/24/05, p.81)

2005        Oct 3, More than 300 Africans tore through a razor-wire fence separating Morocco from the Spanish enclave of Melilla, clashing with police in the latest wave of undocumented immigrants seeking a foothold in Europe.
    (AP, 10/3/05)

2005        Oct 4, Spain said it will build a third high-security fence between its Melilla enclave and Morocco after undocumented immigrants repeatedly stormed two existing barriers.
    (AP, 10/4/05)

2005        Oct 5, Some 500 African immigrants defied increased security and tried to surge across razor-wire fences separating Morocco and the Spanish enclave of Melilla, the 5th such rush in a week. The assault in a week prompted Spain to announce plans to expel the illegal migrants.
    (AP, 10/6/05)

2005        Oct 13, Spanish authorities said police have seized 3.5 tons of cocaine in a fishing boat bound for Spain from Venezuela after tip-offs from U.S. authorities.
    (AP, 10/13/05)
2005        Oct 13, At the Ibero-American Summit in Spain, foreign ministers from Latin America, Spain and Portugal backed Cuba on in two of its battles against the US, calling for an end to the US embargo and the expulsion from the U.S. of a Cuban militant wanted for a 1976 plane bombing.
    (AP, 10/13/05)

2005        Oct 14, At the Ibero-American Summit in Spain UN Sec.-General Kofi Annan called for greater progress in trade talks on farming.
    (AP, 10/14/05)

2005        Oct 15, In northeastern Spanish at least 5 north African men were killed, four were injured and one was believed still trapped under rubble after a three-storey 17th century building collapsed in the town of Piera.
    (AP, 10/15/05)

2005        Oct 19, A court officials said a Spanish judge has issued an international arrest warrant for three US soldiers whose tank fired on a Baghdad hotel during the Iraq war, killing a Spanish journalist and one other. Jose Couso, who worked for the Spanish television network Telecinco, died April 8, 2003, after a US army tank crew fired a shell on Hotel Palestine. Spanish courts authorized criminal charges against 3 American soldiers, but Spanish prosecutors, under US pressure, moved to scuttle the case.
    (AP, 10/19/05)(SSFC, 3/6/11, p.F6)

2005        Oct 22, In Spain the Basque country's ruling party called for new initiatives to end violence by ETA guerrillas in Spain and break a political deadlock over the region's status.
    (AP, 10/22/05)

2005        Oct 23, Stella Obasanjo (59), the wife of Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo, died after undergoing liposuction surgery in Spain. In 2009 A court in Malaga convicted plastic surgeon Antonio Mena Molina of negligent homicide. He was given a suspended sentence of a year in jail, barred from practicing medicine for three years, and ordered to pay euro120,000 ($175,000) in damages to the woman's son.
    (AP, 10/23/05)(AP, 9/22/09)

2005        Oct 31, The Spanish telecommunications company Telefonica announced an agreed $31.5 billion takeover of mobile-phone operator O2, to be paid in cash.
    (Econ, 11/5/05, p.65)

2005        Oct, Spain’s ENCE planned to start a cellulose plant on the Uruguay River bordering Argentina.
    (Econ, 10/8/05, p.47)

2005        Nov 4, Spain's Supreme Court sentenced pro-Basque independence leader Arnaldo Otegi to a year in prison for slandering King Juan Carlos by saying he was in charge of torturers.
    (AP, 11/4/05)

2005        Nov 7, A section of a bridge under construction in southern Spain collapsed on workers, killing at least five of them.
    (AP, 11/7/05)

2005        Nov 13, China's President Hu Jintao has arrived in Spain for the final leg of a European trip dominated by trade, but was again set to be dogged by protests over his country's human rights record.
    (AP, 11/13/05)

2005        Nov 14, Spanish court officials said the National Court has received a prosecutor's report on allegations that the CIA used an airport on the Spanish island of Mallorca for a program of covert transfers of terror suspects. The 114-page report was submitted in July.
    (AP, 11/14/05)

2005        Nov 23, Spanish police arrested 11 people suspected of financing and giving logistical support to an Islamic extremist group linked to al-Qaida.
    (AP, 11/23/05)

2005        Nov 28, Spain agreed to sell 12 military planes and eight patrol boats to Venezuela in a $2 billion deal that the United States has threatened to block.
    (AP, 11/29/05)

2005        Nov 29, Spain announced it plans to sell planes and helicopters to Colombia.
    (WSJ, 11/30/05, p.A1)

2005        Nov, In western Spain officers of Seprona, the environmental unit of the paramilitary Civil Guard, arrested hunters skinning a Bengal tiger. Agents also found another tiger and lion in cages waiting their turn to be hunted. In the 1st half of the year officers confiscated 678 illegally imported live animals.
    (WSJ, 4/12/06, p.A1)

2005        Dec 7, Spanish authorities arrested former Gen. Ante Gotovina, the top Croatian war crimes suspect, after four years on the run. He was captured in the Canary Islands when special police agents surprised him as he dined in a luxury beach hotel.
    (AP, 12/08/05)

2005        Dec 9, Spanish police arrested at least 7 people over the last 24 hours suspected of financing and giving logistical support to an Islamic extremist group with links to al-Qaida.
    (AP, 12/09/05)

2005        Dec 19, Spanish police arrested 15 people on suspicion of recruiting and indoctrinating fighters for Iraq's insurgency.
    (AP, 12/19/05)

2005        Dec 22, A lottery known as "El Gordo" — the Fat One — sprinkled more than $2.4 billion in Christmas cheer around Spain, with this Catalan town known for its churches and convents blessed with a quarter of the windfall.
    (AP, 12/22/05)

2005        Dec 27, In Spain a new law that took effect ordering government ministries to close no later than 6 p.m., part of a broad package of measures that are geared to help Spaniards juggle their jobs and families.
    (AP, 12/28/05)

2005        Spain unveiled a Renewable Energy Plan.
    (AFP, 10/23/06)
2005        Spain adopted the so-called “Beckham law,” a preferential tax status to foreigners.
    (Econ, 9/24/11, p.85)
2005        Housing starts in Spain reached 715,000 for the year.
    (Econ, 9/16/06, p.61)
2005        Some 650,000 people arrived in Spain pushing the total population to over 44 million. Some 700,000 illegal immigrants were granted amnesty.
    (Econ, 10/14/06, p.59)

2006        Jan 1, Spanish smokers faced a wrenching change New Year's Day as a nationwide ban on tobacco in the workplace came into force in a country known for its smoky bars.
    (AP, 1/1/06)

2006        Jan 10, Spanish police arrested 20 people, mostly Moroccans, linked to Islamic terrorism and violence in Iraq in raids across Spain.
    (AFP, 1/10/06)

2006        Jan 12, Spanish police detained Omar Nakcha (23), a Moroccan whom they suspect of being the leader of two extremist groups recruiting volunteers to fight in Iraq.
    (AP, 1/12/06)

2006        Feb 9, Spanish police in Madrid arrested Ricardo Taddei (63), a former Argentine police officer, wanted in connection with kidnappings and torture during his country's "dirty war" against leftist dissidents.
    (AP, 2/9/06)

2006        Feb 13, In Spain survivors and relatives of people killed in terrorist attacks worldwide gathered to share stories of their common tragedy, discuss ways to fight the scourge and hear what governments plan to do to make their citizens safer.
    (AP, 2/13/06)

2006        Feb 22, Spanish PM Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero expressed reticence about a takeover bid for leading domestic electricity group Endesa by E.ON of Germany, saying national interest was paramount. In July Spain’s energy regulator (CNE) imposed 19 conditions on the bid for Endesa. On Aug 25 EU regulators warned that government restrictions on E.ON’s bid were illegal.
    (AP, 2/22/06)(Econ, 9/2/06, p.58)

2006        Mar 19, In Seville, Spain, Muslim and Jewish leaders met in a rare face-to-face forum and appealed to their faithful not to view each other as enemies and keep religion from being hijacked by extremists. The 4-day meeting, called the Second World Congress of Imams and Rabbis for Peace, was sponsored by Hommes de Parole, a peace foundation based in Paris.
    (AP, 3/19/06)

2006        Mar 13, A Spanish judge indicted 32 people for allegedly plotting to drive a truck packed with explosives into a courthouse that has been the hub for anti-terrorism investigations. Authorities suspected that Mohamed Achraf was planning to ram a truck loaded with 1,100 pounds of explosives into the court in downtown Madrid.
    (AP, 3/21/06)

2006        Mar 22, The Basque separatist group ETA announced a permanent cease-fire, ending a decades-long campaign of violence and closing the door on one of Western Europe's last active armed separatist movements.
    (AP, 3/22/06)

2006        Mar 30, Spain's lower house of parliament approved a divisive proposal to grant greater autonomy to Catalonia and boost the wealthy region's tax collecting and judicial powers.
    (AP, 3/30/06)

2006        Mar, In Spain a dozen councilors from the southern resort of Marbella were arrested for graft related to construction projects.
    (Econ, 9/16/06, p.61)

2006        Apr 1, Tens of thousands of people gathered at a rally in the northern city of Bilbao to call for greater Basque self-determination and negotiations between the Spanish government and separatists.
    (AP, 4/1/06)

2006        Apr 11, In Spain a judge handed down the first indictments in the Madrid train bombings, charging 29 people with murder, terrorism or other crimes after a two-year investigation.
    (AP, 4/11/06)

2006        Apr 16, In Spain a bus carrying Boy Scouts overturned on a northern highway, killing at least four people, including three minors.
    (AP, 4/16/06)

2006        May 10, In Madrid, Spain, hundreds of thousands of small investors who fell victim to a stamp scam demonstrated to try to recover lost savings potentially amounting to billions of euros. A day earlier police arrested nine directors of two philately organizations, Afinsa and Forum Filatelico.
    (AP, 5/10/06)

2006        May 12, Spain's Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria (BBVA) agreed to the French bank BNP Paribas' purchase of its 14.75-percent stake in Italy's Banca Nazionale del Lavoro (BNL), saying it will reap 567 million euros (731 million dollars) in capital gains from the sale.
    (AP, 5/13/06)

2006        May 13, Spanish police and rescue vessels intercepted six boats carrying over 460 sub-Saharan illegal migrants off the coast of the Canary Island of Tenerife. Officials said as many as 1,000 immigrants may have drowned on this route over just the last 6 months.
    (AP, 5/13/06)(Econ, 5/13/06, p.61)

2006        May 14, The armed Basque group ETA stated publicly for the first time since a ceasefire declaration in March that it still demands self-determination for the Basque Country.
    (AFP, 5/14/06)

2006        Jun 1, Spain's Supreme Court acquitted the only person convicted of involvement in the September 11 attacks in a trial last year of suspected Al Qaeda members. Imad Eddin Barakat Yarkas, known as Abu Dahdah, had been convicted of conspiracy to commit terrorist murder and sentenced to 27 years in jail. He will, however, continue to serve a 12 year sentence for leading a terrorist group.
    (Reuters, 6/1/06)
2006        Jun 1, In Spain Rocio Jurado (61), hailed as the country’s greatest singer, died of cancer. Her recordings included 5 platinum and 30 gold records.
    (SFC, 6/2/06, p.B9)

2006        Jun 6, The Spanish interior ministry said that 67 suspects had been arrested for accessing child porn on the Internet over the past five days. The international police operation arrested 38 in France, 10 in Spain, 9 in Slovakia, 7 in Belgium and 3 in the Netherlands.
    (AP, 6/6/06)
2006        Jun 6, Britain’s BAA, owners of Heathrow, Stansted and Gatwick airports, accepted an $18.8 billion bid from Spain’s Grupo Ferrovial, led by Rafael del Pino.
    (Econ, 6/10/06, p.55)(Econ, 7/7/07, p.67)

2006        Jun 10, Tens of thousands of Spaniards marched in Madrid to demand the government not hold talks with Basque separatists.
    (AP, 6/10/06)

2006        Jun 18, Catalans went to the polls in a referendum on giving their region increased autonomy, in a crucial test for Spanish PM Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero as he seeks to rally support for peace talks with Basque separatists. Catalan voters overwhelmingly approved a blueprint that some fear could leave Spain's government cash-strapped and powerless.
    (AP, 6/18/06)

2006        Jun 20, In Spain and France 12 people, including one of the founders of the Basque separatists ETA, were arrested in pre-dawn raids in a crackdown on illegal financing of the armed group.
    (AFP, 6/20/06)

2006        Jun 29, Spain officially announced the start of peace negotiations with the Basque separatist group ETA after formally informing parliament, and PM Zapatero warned that talks to end decades of bloodshed would be long and difficult.
    (AP, 6/29/06)

2006        Jul 3, A subway train derailed in the eastern Spanish city of Valencia, killing 43 people. "Initial investigations show it was an accident," said Vicente Rambla, spokesman for the Valencia regional government.
    (AP, 7/3/07)

2006        Jul 6, A delegate from Spain's ruling party met with the leader of an outlawed Basque separatist group in historic talks hailed by both sides as a possible step toward peace.
    (AP, 7/6/06)

2006        Jul 7, A Spanish judge charged two former Guatemalan dictators with genocide and issued international warrants for their arrest. National Court Judge Santiago Pedraz issued warrants on charges of genocide, torture, terrorism and illegal detention against Gen. Efrain Rios Montt, Gen. Oscar Humberto Mejia Victores and six other men.
    (AP, 7/7/06)
2006        Jul 7, Spain’s Agriculture Ministry said it has recorded its first case of H5N1 bird flu. The deadly strain was found in a water fowl in a marsh area outside the northern city of Vitoria.
    (AP, 7/7/06)

2006        Jul 8, Pope Benedict XVI stressed family values during a visit to Spain, where church influence has waned and the government has angered the Vatican with its liberal take on issues including gay marriage.
    (AP, 7/8/06)

2006        Jul 20, Bio Fuel Systems, a Spanish company, claimed to have developed a method of breeding plankton and turning the marine plants into oil, providing a potentially inexhaustible source of clean fuel.
    (Reuters, 7/20/06)

2006        Jul 27, Police found the bodies of four Africans on a boat packed with 26 other would-be immigrants that was intercepted off Spain's Canary Islands.
    (AP, 7/28/06)

2006        Jul 28, The Spanish government approved a divisive bill allowing reparations for victims of the Spanish Civil War and the ensuing dictatorship of Gen. Francisco Franco.
    (AP, 7/29/06)

2006        Jul, Spain’s inflation stood close to 4%, almost 1.5 points above the average for the euro area. Spain’s current account deficit was among the highest in the world heading for over 9% of GDP. Housing was estimated to be overvalued by as much as 25-30%.
    (Econ, 7/29/06, p.49)
2006        Jul, In Spain employees of the airline Iberia blocked Barcelona runways over a new baggage check arrangement. In 2011 Spain’s Supreme Court confirmed 2-year prison sentences for 23 employees whose actions affected some 600 flights leaving 100,000 passengers stranded.
    (SFC, 1/29/11, p.A2)

2006        Aug 6, Crews fought more than 20 forest fires in northern Spain and stopped blazes from advancing into two historic towns. The fires killed three people and destroyed thousands of acres of woodland. Authorities said most of the blazes were deliberately set.
    (AP, 8/6/06)(AP, 8/7/06)

2006        Aug 12, Hundreds of paratroopers joined the struggle to control scores of forest fires in northwestern Spain. A total of 24 people have been arrested since Aug. 1 on suspicion of deliberately starting many of the fires.
    (AP, 8/13/06)

2006        Aug 21, In northern Spain at least 6 people died in a train derailment.
    (AP, 8/21/06)

2006        Aug 22, In Spain Grigory Perelman (40), a reclusive Russian, won a Fields Medal, the math world's highest honor, for solving a problem that has stumped some of the discipline's greatest minds for a century, but he refused the award.
    (AP, 8/22/06)

2006        Aug 27, Mauritania police said the bodies of 15 people found washed ashore on the beaches of Nouakchatt, Mauritania's capital, are believed to be those of African migrants who were trying to reach Spain's Canary Islands by boat. Spain's Interior Ministry said more than 18,300 people have reached the Canary Islands so far this year, the highest total ever.
    (AP, 8/27/06)

2006        Sep 1, Spain's Cabinet approved sending 1,100 troops to the UN peacekeeping force in Lebanon, calling it a "legitimate" mission to help maintain peace in the region.
    (AP, 9/1/06)
2006        Sep 1, In Spain self-contained, nonsmoking areas with their own ventilation systems, became requisite for larger restaurants and bars.
    (AP, 9/1/06)

2006        Sep 15, Alberto Linero (27) and Alberto Sanchez (24) both privates in the Spanish air force, exchanged vows in a reception room at Seville's town hall, in the first known wedding among same-sex members of the military since Spain legalized gay marriage last year.
    (AP, 9/15/06)

2006        Sep 18, Britain and Spain reached a historic deal to resolve side issues stemming from their 300-year-old dispute over Gibraltar, but sidestepped the main one, their claims to the Rock's sovereignty.
    (AP, 9/19/06)

2006        Sep 23, Spain's Basque separatist group ETA has said it will not give up its weapons until independence for the Basque region is won, fuelling concerns over the future of a six-month-old ceasefire.
    (AFP, 9/24/06)

2006        Sep, In Sesena, Spain, a town of fewer than 10,000 40 km from Madrid, some 13,000 apartments were under construction. Mayor Manuel Fuentes expected 40,000 new arrivals.
    (Econ, 9/16/06, p.61)

2006        Oct 9, Khaled al-Masri (43), a Kuwaiti-born German citizen, testified in a Spanish court that he was kidnapped on Dec 31, 2003, at the Serbia-Macedonia border while on vacation, tortured by US intelligence agents for 23 days, then flown by the CIA to Afghanistan where he was imprisoned and abused for five months. He was released in Albania in May 2004 after the CIA discovered they had the wrong person.
    (AP, 10/9/06)

2006        Oct 14, In northwestern Spain vandals freed over 15,000 minks from breeding farms.
    (SFC, 10/16/06, p.A3)

2006        Oct 26, Spanish police arrested Orlando Sabogal Zuluaga (40), a leading member of one of Colombia's most feared drug-trafficking cartels, in a shopping center on the outskirts of Madrid.
    (AP, 10/31/06)

2006        Nov 4, Spanish police said that 1.8 billion euros (2.3 billion dollars) had been frozen in bank accounts as investigations continued into possible tax fraud.
    (AP, 11/4/06)
2006        Nov 4, Swathes of Austria, Belgium, Croatia, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands and went dark for up to an hour in the late evening as cold Germans rushing to switch on heaters sucked up electricity from Europe's interconnected networks.
    (AP, 11/5/06)

2006        Nov 6, In Italy a Milan court sentenced Rabei Ousmane Sayed Ahmed, the accused mastermind of the March 2004 train bombings in Madrid, to 10 years in jail for membership of a terrorist organization. A second Egyptian, Yahya Mawad Mohamed Rajeh, was sentenced to five years in jail in the case.
    (AFP, 11/6/06)

2006        Nov 7, French authorities handed over to Spain Jose Javier Arizcuren Ruiz, a former leading member of the armed Basque separatist group ETA, who police blame for killing at least 15 people and planning several major attacks. Ruiz, also known as "Kantauri," was arrested in Paris in 1999 and served time in a French prison on charges of being a member of an armed group.
    (AP, 11/7/06)

2006        Nov 12, Spanish farmers led a flock of hundreds of bleating sheep through downtown Madrid in a protest urging the protection of ancient grazing routes threatened by urban sprawl.
    (AP, 11/12/06)

2006        Nov 16, Spain, France and Italy unveiled a five-point Middle East peace initiative, calling Israeli-Palestinian violence intolerable and saying that Europe must take a lead role in ending the conflict.
    (AP, 11/16/06)

2006        Nov 17, Italy turned over Rabei Osman Sayed Ahmed (35) an Egyptian Muslim militant convicted of terrorism to Spain, where he is charged as a key suspect in the 2004 Madrid terror bombing.
    (AP, 11/17/06)

2006        Nov 22, Authorities in Italy, Spain, the United States and several South American countries arrested 76 people as part of a major drug crackdown in which a restaurant linked to one of Colombia's most feared warlords was seized.
    (AP, 11/22/06)

2006        Dec 12, Hundreds of Spanish police and security officials arrested at least 11 suspected Islamic militants in pre-dawn raids in Ceuta, a tiny Spanish enclave on Morocco's coast.
    (AP, 12/12/06)

2006        Dec 22, Residents of Almazan, a small town in rural Spain, won the top prize of 390 million euros in the world's richest lottery, known as El Gordo or "the fat one".
    (Reuters, 12/22/06)

2006        Dec 24, A new study was published saying traces of cocaine can be found on 94% of banknotes in Spain, a country that has one of the world's highest rates of users.
    (AP, 12/24/06)

2006        Dec 30, A car bomb exploded in a parking lot at Madrid's glittery new airport terminal, and the government blamed the Basque separatist group ETA. 26 were slightly injured. The bodies of two people from Ecuador were later recovered. This signaled the apparent end of a nine-month ceasefire.
    (AP, 12/31/06)(AP, 1/6/07)
2006        Dec 30, Maria del Carmen Bousada (66) of Spain became the world's oldest mother after she gave birth to twins in the northern city of Barcelona. She had previously undergone in vitro fertilization in Los Angeles. Bousada (69) died of cancer on July 11, 2009, leaving behind her twin toddlers.
    (AP, 12/30/06)(AP, 7/15/09)

2006        Javier Marias (b.1951), Spanish novelist, authored “Written Lives,” a profile of his literary favorites. The English translation was by Margaret Jull Costa.
    (WSJ, 3/4/06, p.P8)

2006        Giles Tremlett authored “Ghosts of Spain: Travels Through a Country's Hidden Past.”
    (WSJ, 2/3/07, p.P13)

2006        Spain prepared to launch production of solar energy from what will be Europe's largest thermo-electric plant at Sanlucar La Mayor, near the southern city of Seville.
    (AFP, 10/23/06)

2006        Italy was taken over by Spain in GDP per head. This was made public in late 2007.
    (Econ, 1/5/08, p.44)

2007        Jan 4, Police in the Basque region said they had found a bomb in northern Spain, five days after a Madrid car bombing, blamed on the separatist group ETA, killed 2 people.
    (AP, 1/4/07)(AP, 1/6/07)

2007        Jan 9, Armed Basque separatist group ETA claimed responsibility for the bomb attack at Madrid airport that killed 2 people last week but said its ceasefire still held and it wanted peace.
    (AFP, 1/9/07)

2007        Jan 16, Spanish court officials said Spain has issued an international arrest warrant for three US soldiers after reopening a murder investigation into the killing of Spanish television cameraman Jose Couso in Iraq on Apr 18, 2003.
    (Reuters, 1/16/07)

2007        Jan 31, Two Spanish men, both charged with providing explosives for Islamist train bombings in Madrid in 2004, were given jail sentences in a separate trial for selling explosives in 2001. The court in Asturias said it jailed former miner Jose Emilio Suarez-Trashorras and his brother-in-law, Antonio Toro, for 10 and 11-1/2 years respectively on charges of drugs and explosives trafficking.
    (Reuters, 1/31/07)

2007        Feb 3, Tens of thousands of people marched in Madrid to reject any negotiations with the Basque separatist group ETA, whose car bombing in the capital a month ago shattered a nascent peace process.
    (AP, 2/4/07)

2007        Feb 5, A home-made bomb ripped through a train station in Spain's Basque region. Police said it appeared to have been the work of Basque independence street gangs, rather than armed separatists ETA.
    (AP, 2/5/07)

2007        Feb 7, The Spanish Civil Guard said authorities have arrested 52 people in a major crackdown on a suspected ring of antiquities looters from dozens of sites in southern Spain.
    (AP, 2/7/07)

2007        Feb 16, BBVA, Spain's number two bank, said it has reached an agreement to buy US bank Compass Bancshares for around 9.6 billion US dollars (7.4 billion euros) in the latest major foreign acquisition by a Spanish firm.
    (AFP, 2/16/07)

2007        Feb 24, In Spain thousands of people waving red-and-yellow Spanish flags protested in Madrid against a court ruling that shortened the prison sentence for one of the Basque separatist group ETA's most notorious killers.
    (AP, 2/25/07)

2007        Mar 1, In France, Germany and Spain workers at Airbus revolted against massive cutbacks, planning a strike next week in a warning to the company that its recovery strategy is in for a long, tough haul.
    (AFP, 3/1/07)

2007        Mar 9, Thousands of people across Spain took part in rallies called by the right wing opposition to protest the Socialists government's decision to allow a hunger-striking Basque separatist serve out his jail term under house arrest.
    (AP, 3/9/07)

2007        Mar 11, Spain unveiled a towering monument to those killed three years ago in the bombings that ripped apart rush-hour commuter trains, a glass oval containing messages of condolence written in the aftermath of Europe's worst Islamic terror attack.
    (AP, 3/11/07)

2007        Mar 12, Authorities said Spanish police have arrested Brian David Anderson (61), a Canadian man suspected of helping finance Islamist terrorist activities. The Interior Ministry said Anderson is thought to be linked to a New York businessman, Abdul Tawala Ibn Ali Alishtari, 53, who was charged last month with terrorism financing, material support of terrorism and money laundering.
    (AP, 3/12/07)

2007        Mar 15, Spain’s Parliament passed a gender-equality bill aimed at getting more Spanish women into elected office and corporate boardrooms, and more men heating baby bottles and changing diapers.
    (AP, 3/15/07)

2007        Mar 17, In Spain film director Pedro Almodovar joined tens of thousands of people in a march through Madrid to protest the war in Iraq and to demand the closure of the US military prison at Guantanamo Bay.
    (AP, 3/17/07)

2007        Mar 20, The Madrid government said El Hierro, one of the smallest of Spain's Canary Islands, is to receive 100 percent of its electricity supply from renewable energy sources.
    (AFP, 3/20/07)

2007        Apr 24, Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf arrived in Spain, part of a four-nation tour of Europe, for talks expected to focus on Islamic radicalism and NATO's mission in Afghanistan.
    (AP, 4/24/07)

2007        Apr 25, Royal Bank of Scotland, Fortis, a Belgian-Dutch lender and Santander of Spain launched a blockbuster 72-billion-euro takeover battle for Dutch group ABN Amro, outgunning by far an agreed offer by Barclays.
    (AFP, 4/25/07)(Econ, 4/28/07, p.85)(Econ, 7/19/08, p.84)

2007        Apr 27, A Spanish judge indicted three US soldiers in the 2003 death of Jose Couso, a Spanish journalist who was killed when their tank opened fire at a hotel in Baghdad.
    (AP, 4/27/07)

2007        May 6, Spain's Supreme Court barred hundreds of Basque separatist candidates from running in regional elections later this month because of links to an outlawed party closely tied to armed group ETA.
    (AP, 5/6/07)

2007        May 14, In Tunisia Sfax port officials said the Tunisian coastguard had rescued 35 African would-be immigrants who were trying to sail to Italy from the Libyan coast. More than 1,000 people have landed on Spanish or Italian territory since May 10.
    (AFP, 5/14/07)

2007        May 15, A Spanish anesthesiologist with hepatitis C was sentenced to prison for infecting 275 people with the virus by injecting them with morphine from the same needles he used to feed his own addiction. Juan Maeso (65) was sentenced to 1,933 years in prison. The most he can serve under Spanish law is 20 years.
    (AP, 5/15/07)

2007        May 27, Spain's rival Socialists and conservatives fought to a virtual tie in local elections, highlighting the deep divisions in the country a year before national elections. The opposition People’s Party (PP) led by Mariano Rajoy won 35.6% vs. 34.9% for the Socialists.
    (AP, 5/27/07)(Econ, 6/9/07, p.59)

2007        May 28, Spain arrested 2 Algerians and 14 Moroccans, on suspicion of recruiting volunteers to fight in Iraq and other countries.
    (AP, 5/28/07)(SFC, 5/29/07, p.A3)(WSJ, 5/29/07, p.A1)

2007        May 31, The Spanish government said it has filed a lawsuit in a US federal court against an American firm over a shipwreck the company has found laden with a colonial-era treasure.
    (AP, 5/31/07)

2007        Jun 5, In Spain the Basque separatist group ETA called off its 15-month-old cease-fire, formalizing what many saw as the demise of a once-promising peace process already struck down by a deadly bombing in December.
    (AP, 6/5/07)
2007        Jun 5, Spanish media said a court has ordered police to capture and search two vessels belonging to a Florida firm that recently announced it had found a shipwreck in the Atlantic Ocean laden with an estimated $500 million worth of Colonial-era treasure.
    (AP, 6/5/07)

2007        Jun 7, In Spain Monzer al-Kassar (61), a Syrian arms dealer previously accused of arming militants from Iraq to Somalia, was arrested on suspicion of plotting to send millions of dollars worth of weapons to Colombian rebels. A federal indictment unsealed in NYC said al-Kassar has provided weapons and military equipment to violent factions in Nicaragua, Brazil, Cyprus, Bosnia, Croatia, Somalia, Iran and Iraq. Tareq Mousa al Ghazi and Luis Filipe Moreno Godoy, also included in the indictment, were arrested in Romania.
    (AP, 6/8/07)

2007        Jun 8, Spanish police arrested Arnaldo Otegi (48), the Basque separatist movement's most prominent politician, on a court order for him to start serving a 15-month sentence for defending terrorism. A judge indicted 32 people on charges of belonging to or collaborating with a militant group working in Spain to recruit fighters for al-Qaida in Iraq.
    (AP, 6/8/07)(AP, 6/9/07)

2007        Jun 16, Spanish police, working with US and British authorities, seized four tons of cocaine aboard a ship off the northwest coast.
    (AP, 6/18/07)

2007        Jun 28, Federal authorities in Brazil arrested 10 Brazilians accused of luring South American women to Spain and forcing them into prostitution.
    (AP, 6/29/07)

2007        Jun 29, Spanish researchers said they had unearthed a human tooth more than one million years old, which they estimated to be the oldest human fossil remain ever discovered in western Europe.
    (AFP, 6/29/07)

2007        Jul 2, In Yemen a suicide bomber plowed his car into people visiting a temple linked to the ancient Queen of Sheba, killing seven Spaniards and two Yemenis.
    (AP, 7/3/07)

2007        Jul 3, Spanish PM Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero promised that every child born in Spain would receive a baby bonus of €2,500, according to national press reports.
    (Econ, 2/16/08, p.59)(http://piurl.com/5i)

2007        Jul 8, Spain's largest fighting bulls lived up to their fearsome reputation, goring two and crushing at least seven people as thousands of daredevils sprinted down narrow streets Sunday in Pamplona's annual running of the bulls.
    (AP, 7/8/07)

2007        Jul 12, In Spain charging bulls gored 7 people and seriously injured several others as this year's San Fermin festival in Pamplona served up its longest and most dangerous run yet.
    (AP, 7/12/07)
2007        Jul 12, Spanish Civil Guards heightened a battle over a $500 million treasure of gold and silver coins from a shipwreck when they seized the Ocean Alert, a vessel belonging to a Tampa, Fla.,-based company. The ship was released a week later.
    (AP, 7/12/07)(Econ, 7/21/07, p.51)

2007        Jul 13, The Great Canary Telescope, one of the most powerful in the world, began spying on the universe, using its 34-foot wide mirror to search for planets similar to our own from a mountaintop on one of Spain's Canary Islands. The Canary Island observatory said institutes in Mexico and the US collaborated in the project, involving more than 1,000 people in nearly 100 companies.
    (AP, 7/14/07)

2007        Jul 15, Spanish officials said police investigating a child pornography ring have arrested 66 people and seized computer hard drives containing 48 million photographs and video images. The nationwide sweep came after a 10-month investigation.
    (AP, 7/15/07)

2007        Jul 19, Up to 50 migrants were missing in rough seas south of the Canary Islands after their boat capsized.
    (AP, 7/19/07)

2007        Jul 21, Jesus de Polanco (77), chairman of Spain's main media group Prisa and one of the country's richest men, died in Madrid.
    (AFP, 7/21/07)

2007        Jul 23, Spain arrested Roberto Florez Garcia in Tenerife, the Canary Islands, for selling the identity of Spanish spies and other information about the intelligence agency from 2001 until he left the service in 2004. Police accused him of being a double agent for Russia.
    (AP, 7/24/07)(WSJ, 1/25/07, p.A1)

2007        Jul 24, Barcelona, Spain, faced Day Two of a major power outage.
    (AP, 7/24/07)

2007        Jul 25, Miguel Angel Moratinos, Spain’s Foreign Minister arrived in Algeria on a visit aimed at strengthening cooperation in energy and sorting out a row with Madrid's top gas supplier.
    (AP, 7/25/07)

2007        Jul 26, Juan Cruz Maiza, the alleged head of ETA’s logistics, was arrested in France along with two helpers.
    (Econ, 8/4/07, p.44)

2007        Jul 30, A raging forest fire has destroyed thousands of acres of woodland on Spain's Gran Canaria island and forced the evacuation of more than 2,000 people.
    (AP, 7/30/07)

2007        Aug 24, In Spain a van loaded with explosives blew up outside a police station in the Basque city of Durango, slightly injuring two officers in what appeared to be the first major attack by the separatist group ETA since it called off a cease-fire in June.
    (AP, 8/24/07)

2007        Sep 1, Police arrested four suspected members of the armed Basque separatist group ETA in south-west France, believed to be linked to the deadly Madrid airport bomb in December.
    (AP, 9/1/07)

2007        Sep 9, Shepherds from 32 countries joined their Spanish colleagues to lead flocks of sheep through the streets of downtown Madrid in defense of ancient grazing routes threatened by urban sprawl and manmade frontiers. Modern-day Madrid lies squarely in the way of two venerable north-south routes, one dating back to 1372.
    (AP, 9/9/07)

2007        Sep 20, Spain’s Interior Ministry said Spanish police and the FBI had arrested two Pakistani nationals in a joint operation in Madrid and Barcelona on suspicion of being involved in financing international terrorism. The men, identified as Anar Muhammad Shan and Preces Mehmood Sandhu, were also held on suspicion of belonging to a terrorist organization.
    (AP, 9/21/07)

2007        Oct 4, Spanish police arrested almost the entire leadership of Batasuna as the banned party held a meeting in the Basque town of Segura. The operation confirmed the hard line against ETA by the Socialist government of PM Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero since the armed group officially ended a 15-month-old ceasefire in June.
    (AP, 10/5/07)

2007        Oct 9, A car bomb exploded in the northern city of Bilbao in Spain's Basque Country, badly burning a man who worked as a bodyguard for a local politician.
    (Reuters, 10/9/07)

2007        Oct 24, Spanish police broke up an Islamic cell suspected of using the Internet to recruit fighters for the Iraq insurgency, arresting six people in raids near the northern city of Burgos.
    (AP, 10/24/07)

2007        Oct 28, The Vatican staged its largest mass beatification ceremony ever, putting 498 victims (1934-1937) of religious persecution before and during Spain's civil war on the path to possible sainthood.
    (AP, 10/28/07)

2007        Oct 31, Spanish lawmakers passed historic legislation condemning Gen. Francisco Franco's coup and nearly 40-year fascist dictatorship, brushing aside complaints from the conservative opposition that the bill would reopen old divides. 3 lead defendants in the 2004 Madrid terror bombings that killed 191 people were convicted of murder by the Spanish court. Four other top suspects were acquitted of murder but convicted of lesser charges. In all 21 of the 28 defendants were convicted.
    (AP, 10/31/07)

2007        Nov 7, Moroccan PM Abbas El Fassi condemned Spain's "occupation" of two disputed enclaves, in the wake of a visit by Spain's King Juan Carlos which prompted Rabat to recall its ambassador to Madrid.
    (AFP, 11/7/07)

2007        Nov 13, Two cartoonists who depicted Spain's crown prince having sex with his wife were convicted of insulting the heir to the throne and were fined $4,370 each.
    (AP, 11/13/07)

2007        Nov 16, In Spain negotiators concluded a policy guide for governments on global warming that declares climate change is here and is getting worse.
    (AP, 11/16/07)

2007        Dec 1, ETA gunmen shot and killed a Spanish policeman and seriously injured another in France, the first killing by the Basque separatist group in almost a year.
    (AP, 12/1/07)

2007        Dec 5, French police arrested two armed people in connection with a weekend shooting that left two Spanish officers dead in what authorities described as the first Basque-related killings in France in more than three decades.
    (AP, 12/5/07)

2007        Dec 6, Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe arrived in Lisbon for an EU-Africa summit, which British Prime Minister Gordon Brown is boycotting because he would not "sit down at the same table" as him.
    (Reuters, 12/6/07)

2007        Dec 8, In Spain 53 African and 27 European countries began a summit to bury old colonial relationships in favor of something more modern. German Chancellor Angela Merkel challenged European and African leaders to confront human rights abuses in Zimbabwe, putting the country's president Robert Mugabe in the spotlight at an EU-Africa summit.
    (Econ, 12/8/07, p.54)(AP, 12/8/07)

2007        Dec 9, In Lisbon, Spain, Senegal's Pres. Abdoulaye Wade said most African leaders have rejected EU proposals for a free-trade deal that would replace colonial-era trading systems at a summit marred by disputes over Zimbabwe and Darfur. Africa and Europe's first summit in seven years ended without agreement on the key issue of trade.
    (AP, 12/9/07)(Reuters, 12/9/07)

2007        Dec 13, EU leaders signed the Treaty of Lisbon to reform the bloc's institutions and give it stronger leadership, marking the end of a difficult process that has lasted nearly a decade.
    (Reuters, 12/13/07)

2007        Dec 16, Spanish police said they had arrested 63 people across the country in five investigations into child pornography being posted, viewed and paid for on the Internet.
    (AP, 12/16/07)
2007        Dec 16, Spanish construction group BTP Sacyr Vallehermoso said it had created a joint company with the Libyan government to bid for infrastructure contracts there.
    (AP, 12/16/07)

2007        Dec 20, Spain banned parents from using corporal punishment on children.
    (WSJ, 12/21/07, p.A1)

2007        Dec 22, Spain's "El Gordo," the world's biggest lottery, gave out 2.2 billion euros ($3.2 billion) in Christmas prizes.
    (AP, 12/22/07)

2007        Dec 30, Spain’s Catholic bishops called some 150,000 people onto the streets of Madrid for a rally dubbed “Christian Family Day,” in opposition to Socialist PM Zapatero.
    (Econ, 1/12/08, p.46)

2007        Spain’s Santander Bank acquired ABN’s Brazilian unit.
    (Econ, 5/15/10, SR p.15)

2008        Jan 12, Angel Gonzalez (82), one of Spain's most prominent poets and member of a literary generation known for its opposition to the dictatorship of Gen. Francisco Franco, died.
    (AP, 1/14/08)

2008        Jan 19, In Spain civil guard police found explosives and other equipment during raids on five addresses in Barcelona and arrested 12 Pakistanis and two Indians after receiving information from its own and other European intelligence agencies.
    (Reuters, 1/19/08)

2008        Feb 11, Spanish police arrested at least 13 members of the outlawed Basque separatist party Batasuna in a crackdown on groups linked to the armed organization ETA before next month's elections.
    (AP, 2/11/08)

2008        Feb 27, Spanish judges acquitted 20 Islamic terror suspects of the most serious charges in an alleged plot to blow up a court, but convicted them of lesser offenses.
    (AP, 2/27/08)

2008        Feb, A senior Spanish judge issued arrest warrants against 40 Rwandan army officers, including 11 generals, for genocide and crimes against humanity related to events that took place between 1994 and 2000.
    (AFP, 9/1/11)

2008        Mar 1, In Spain thousands of pro-hunting demonstrators blowing bugles and accompanied by hunting dogs, thronged a boulevard in central Madrid to protest a law restricting the use of lead shot.
    (AP, 3/1/08)

2008        Mar 7, Both of Spain's major political parties called off all election campaigning nationwide after Isaias Carrasco, a former city councilman, was shot dead in the Basque region just two days before general elections.
    (AP, 3/7/08)

2008        Mar 9, Spaniards voted in a general election after a divisive campaign dominated by economic concerns. PM Zapatero won re-election as the Socialists gained five seats for a total of 169 in the 350-seat parliament. The opposition conservative Popular Party (PP) also gained five seats to reach 153, while smaller left-wing parties and some nationalist parties lost ground.
    (AP, 3/9/08)(AP, 3/10/08)(WSJ, 3/10/08, p.A1)

2008        Mar 16, Ola Brunkert (62), a former drummer for 1970s Swedish pop group ABBA, was found dead after an apparent accident in his house in Mallorca. He first played with ABBA on the group's first single, "People Need Love," and toured with the band in 1977, 1979 and 1980.
    (AP, 3/17/08)

2008        Mar 21, In Spain a car bomb exploded at a police barracks in the northern Rioja region following a warning from the Basque separatist organization ETA, injuring one person.
    (AFP, 3/21/08)

2008        Mar 24, Rafael Azcona (b.1926), Spanish novelist and scriptwriter, died. He was known for films such as the Oscar-winning comedy "Belle Epoque" and Luis Garcia Berlanga's "The Executioner."
    (AP, 5/21/08)(http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rafael_Azcona)

2008        Apr 1, Pedro Zaragoza Orts (85), former Spanish mayor of Benidorm (1950-1967), died. In 1952 he allowed the newfangled bikinis everywhere in town. During his term he turned his town into a mecca for tourists from northern Europe.
    (Econ, 4/19/08, p.105)

2008        Apr 7, Spanish officials said 2 people in Spain have died of the human variant of mad cow disease, in the first such fatalities since 2005. The two new victims apparently contracted the disease prior to 2001 and health controls on livestock and meat production are much tighter now than they were then. Spain has reported more than 700 cases of mad cow disease since it was first detected in this country in 2000.
    (AP, 4/7/08)

2008        Apr 9, Spanish astronomers announced the discovery of "GJ 436T," the smallest planet discovered to date outside the solar system, located 30 light years from earth.
    (AFP, 4/9/08)

2008        Apr 12, Spain's re-elected PM Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero was sworn in for his second term. He announced a government which for the first time included more women than men and a female defense minister.
    (AFP, 4/12/08)

2008        Apr 17, In Spain a bomb exploded in the offices of the governing Socialist party in the northern Basque city of Bilbao, injuring seven police officers.
    (AP, 4/17/08)

2008        Apr 18,     Spain's newly re-elected government announced an 18-billion-euro plan to revive the economy, which is suffering a slowdown after a decade-long boom that had been the envy of the rest of Europe.
    (AP, 4/18/08)

2008        Apr 19, In southern Spain a crash of a bus filled with Finnish tourists left nine people dead near the resort town of Benalmadena. Police arrested the driver of the other vehicle, who was not seriously injured, after he failed a blood alcohol test.
    (AP, 4/20/08)

2008        Apr 20, Pirates off the Somali coast, armed with grenade launchers, stormed a Spanish tuna fishing boat, the Playa de Bakio, with 26 crew members.
    (AFP, 4/21/08)

2008        Apr 26, The Spanish government said the 26 crew members onboard the Playa de Bakio fishing boat, hijacked by pirates off the coast of Somalia nearly a week ago, have been freed. A maritime official said it was freed after a 1.2 million-dollar ransom was paid.
    (AP, 4/26/08)(AP, 4/27/08)

2008        May 1, Three bombs exploded in Spain's Basque region. No one was injured in the blasts, which police said were carried out by the separatist group ETA.
    (AP, 5/1/08)

2008        May 3, The Asian Development Bank, announced emergency funding to help poor countries struggling with rice prices that have nearly tripled in four months. The Manila-based organization made the announcement while meeting in Spain.
    (AP, 5/4/08)

2008        May 8, Spain formally laid claim to a shipwreck that yielded a $500 million treasure, saying it has proof the vessel was Spanish. Officials said the shipwreck at the heart of the dispute is the Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes, a Spanish warship sunk by the British navy southwest of Portugal in 1804 with more than 200 people on board.
    (AP, 5/8/08)

2008        May 14, In Spain a booby-trapped van exploded outside a civil guard barracks in the restive Basque country, killing one guard and wounding four others. The government blamed the attack on separatist group ETA.
    (AP, 5/14/08)

2008        May 17, Spanish police announced the arrest of five people this week suspected of hacking into or outright disabling thousands of Internet pages, some of them run by government agencies in the US, Latin America and Asia. Two of the suspects were 16 years old. The others were 19 or 20.
    (AP, 5/17/08)

2008        May 19, Suspected members of a Basque separatist group allegedly exploded a car bomb in a northern Basque town, causing considerable damage but no injuries.
    (AP, 5/19/08)

2008        May 20, Xavier Lopez Pena (49), the suspected leader of the Basque separatist group ETA, was detained along with three other suspected ETA members in a sweep on an apartment in the French city of Bordeaux just before midnight.
    (AP, 5/21/08)

2008        May 21, The interior ministers of Senegal and Spain signed an agreement extending cooperation between the west African nation and the EU border control agency Frontex to combat illegal immigration by one year.
    (AFP, 5/21/08)

2008        May 25, Spanish coastguard boats rescued 67 immigrants, including two corpses, from the sea near the Canary Islands.
    (AP, 5/25/08)

2008        Jun 5, Dutch police arrested Aqueel Ur Rehman Abbasi, a 26-year-old Pakistani man, sought in Spain on terrorism charges. He was arrested in his prison cell in Vught where he was being held by the immigration and naturalization services.
    (AFP, 6/6/08)

2008        Jun 10, Spanish officials announced the arrest of 8 suspected members of an Islamic extremist cell. The Europa Press news agency said the detainees were suspected of raising money for terrorist activities.
    (AP, 6/10/08)

2008        Jun 11, Spain deployed riot police to lift striking truckers' blockades of a border crossing with France and a major highway outside Madrid and made dozens of arrests.
    (AP, 6/11/08)

2008        Jun 13, A Spanish judge jailed six Algerians on provisional charges of aiding terror groups linked to al-Qaida in North Africa.
    (AP, 6/13/08)
2008        Jun 13, The US Embassy in Madrid said suspected Syrian arms dealer Monzer al-Kassar was extradited to the US. He was arrested in Spain in June 2007 as part of a US sting operation. The United States said he had plotted to buy weapons for leftist rebels in Colombia.
    (AP, 6/13/08)

2008        Jun 14, Zaragoza, Spain, opened a World Expo and expected some 6 million visitors. The expo was due to close on Sep 14.
    (SSFC, 3/25/07, p.G2)
2008        Jun 14, Spanish police said they had charged 20 people with exchanging child pornography online and arrested 14 others in a nationwide operation.
    (Reuters, 6/14/08)

2008        Jun 15, Rafael Del Pino Y Moreno (b.1920), Spain’s “King of the Bricks,” died. His Grupo Ferrovial SA built the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao and other emblematic infrastructure across Spain.
    (WSJ, 6/21/08, p.A6)

2008        Jun 25, Spain's parliament voiced its support for the rights of great apes to life and freedom in what will apparently be the first time any national legislature has called for such rights for non-humans.
    (Reuters, 6/25/08)

2008        Jun 27, In Spain the Basque parliament approved a plan for a regional referendum on self-determination, setting the stage for a confrontation with the central Spanish government in Madrid which has condemned the poll as illegal.
    (AP, 6/27/08)

2008        Jun 29, Spain’s soccer team beat Germany 1-0 to win the Euro 2008 finals.
    (www.guardian.co.uk/media/2008/jun/30/tvratings.television?gusrc=rss&feed=media)

2008        Jul 9, A Spanish patrol boat rescued 33 people and recovered one body from the boat off the coast of southern Almeria province. 15 African migrants, most of them small children, died of hunger, thirst or exposure as they drifted across the Mediterranean on the small, overcrowded boat.
    (AP, 7/10/08)

2008        Jul 14, Spain's biggest bank, Santander, said it had reached agreement to buy British lender Alliance and Leicester in an all-share deal worth 1.26 billion pounds (1.57 billion euros) as it continues its push into the British market.
    (AFP, 7/14/08)
2008        Jul 14, Spanish construction giant Martinsa-Fadesa announced in a filing with Spanish stock market regulators that it is seeking protection from creditors.
    (AP, 7/15/08)

2008        Jul 15, A plan for a referendum on self-determination in Spain's northern Basque Country became law in the region, setting the stage for a confrontation with the government in Madrid which has termed the poll illegal.
    (AP, 7/15/08)

2008        Jul 16, In Spain King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia kicked off an interfaith conference in Madrid, an effort to bring Muslims, Christians and Jews closer together amid a world that often puts the three faiths at odds.
    (AP, 7/16/08)

2008        Jul 18, In Spain, a spokesman said police in the southern city of Seville have been left red-faced after more than 100 kilos of drugs were stolen from police headquarters and replaced with talcum powder.
    (AFP, 7/18/08)
2008        Jul 18, In Spain a Saudi-organized conference of the world's great religions called for an international agreement to combat terrorism, "a universal phenomenon that requires unified international efforts."
    (AFP, 7/18/08)

2008        Jul 20, In northern Spain 4 bombs exploded at popular seaside resorts in Cantabria, after warning calls from the Basque separatist group ETA. No casualties were reported.
    (AP, 7/20/08)

2008        Jul 22, Spanish police dismantled the most active cell of the armed Basque separatist group ETA with the detention of nine suspected members of the group. Among those captured was Arkaitz Goikoetxea, the leader of the "Vizcaya" cell which Spanish authorities suspect was behind most of the attacks carried out by ETA since it called off a ceasefire in June 2007.
    (AFP, 7/22/08)

2008        Jul 26, In Spain Maria Remedios Garcia Albert (57) was arrested in San Lorenzo de el Escorial on suspicion of belonging to Colombia's FARC rebel group.
    (AP, 7/27/08)

2008        Jul 27, Spain's National Court jailed seven people on charges of belonging to a militant cell of the Basque separatist group ETA.
    (AP, 7/27/08)

2008        Jul 31, Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez said his government will nationalize Banco de Venezuela, the local unit of the Spanish banking giant Banco Santander.
    (WSJ, 7/31/08, p.A6)

2008        Aug 12, Spanish officials said local police acting on a tip-off from US authorities have seized 1.4 tons of cocaine and arrested eight South American suspects, 6 from Colombia and 2 from Venezuela.
    (AP, 8/12/08)

2008        Aug 13, An alleged assault by Saudi Prince Alwaleed bin Talal (b.1955) reportedly took place on a young model (20) on a yacht on the Mediterranean island of Ibiza. An investigating magistrate on the resort island closed the case in 2010 on grounds of insufficient evidence. In 2011 Spain reopened a rape probe after tests done by a forensic lab found semen in the woman and traces of a sedative called nordazepam.
    (AP, 9/14/11)

2008        Aug 14, American Airlines, British Airways and Iberia of Spain said they had signed an agreement to cooperate over flights between North America and Europe to help them overcome soaring fuel costs.
    (AP, 8/14/08)

2008        Aug 18, Equatorial Guinea's exiled opposition leader Severo Moto was released from a Spanish jail four months after he was detained for allegedly trying to send weapons to the oil-rich African nation.
    (AFP, 8/18/08)

2008        Aug 20, A Spanair MD-82 bound for the Canary Islands caught fire while trying to make an emergency landing just after departing from Madrid airport leaving 153 people dead. This was the nation's worst air disaster in nearly 25 years. The toll rose to 154 on Aug 23 leaving 18 survivors. In 2010 authorities investigating the crash of Spanair flight 5022 discovered a central computer system used to monitor technical problems in the aircraft was infected with malware.
    (AP, 8/20/08)(AP, 8/21/08)(Reuters, 8/23/08)(http://tinyurl.com/2azr8zj)

2008        Aug 27, In Spain tens of thousands of people from around the world hurled tons of ripe tomatoes at each other in the annual food fight in the eastern Spanish town of Bunol.
    (AP, 8/27/08)

2008        Sep 1, A Spanish judge began gathering information about people who disappeared during Spain's civil war and subsequent dictatorship, seeking to produce a reliable list of victims slain away from the battlefield during the vicious fight between left and right.
    (AP, 9/2/08)

2008        Sep 3, Spanish authorities found 13 bodies and 46 survivors on a packed migrant boat near one of Spain's Canary Islands.
    (AP, 9/3/08)

2008        Sep 4, Spanish police arrested Vallejo-Guarin (47), a suspected Colombian drug trafficker, listed among the most wanted by the US Drug Enforcement Administration.
    (AP, 9/5/08)

2008        Sep 7-2008 Sep 8, Spanish police said immigrants went on a rampage in the southern Spanish town of Roquetas de Mar overnight, setting fire to homes and cars and throwing stones at police, after a Senegalese man (28) was stabbed to death in an apparent dispute over drugs. The Rampage continued for a 2nd night.
    (Reuters, 9/7/08)(AP, 9/8/08)

2008        Sep 19, Spain approved a decree under which it will pay jobless immigrants to go home, more evidence of how its once-booming economy has quickly gone bust.
    (AP, 9/19/08)

2008        Sep 21, In northeast Spain suspected Basque separatists threw petrol bombs at a police station in Ondorroa to lure officers outside before detonating a car bomb, which injured 10 people. The attack came only hours after a car bomb exploded in the regional capital of Vitoria. Nobody was injured. Authorities suspected ETA.
    (AFP, 9/21/08)

2008        Sep 22, In northern Spain a car bomb killed a soldier in the third attack in just over 24 hours by the Basque separatist group ETA.
    (AP, 9/22/08)

2008        Oct 1, Spanish police said they have staged their biggest ever operation against Internet child pornography, arresting 121 people suspected of involvement in a network that reached 75 countries. Some 800 police took part in Operation Carousel, an investigation that began last year in cooperation with Brazilian police.
    (AFP, 10/1/08)

2008        Oct 10, Spain's government insisted that a 30 billion euros ($41 billion) fund it will use to buy assets from banks starved for liquidity will have zero cost for taxpayers.
    (AP, 10/10/08)

2008        Oct 14, The World Conservation Congress ended in Barcelona, Spain. The meeting was awash in gloomy forecasts.
    (Econ, 10/18/08, p.68)

2008        Oct 16, Spain's leading judge agreed to investigate the disappearances of tens thousands of people during the 1936-39 civil war and the ensuing Franco dictatorship, many of whom are believed to be buried in mass graves. Spanish police arrested 13 men accused of harboring Islamic extremists and helping them flee the country, including several suspects in the Madrid terror bombings of 2004.
    (AFP, 10/16/08)(AP, 10/16/08)

2008        Oct 30, A powerful car bomb exploded at a university in the northern Spanish city of Pamplona, wounding 17 people and setting a building on fire in an attack blamed on Basque separatists.
    (AP, 10/30/08)

2008        Oct 31, Spain approved a measure to let descendants of people who fled into exile after its 1936-39 Civil War apply for Spanish citizenship. The government said it believes up to 500,000 children and grandchildren of such emigres are eligible. The government says 300,000 of those people live in Argentina.
    (AP, 11/1/08)

2008        Nov 3, Spain's government, grappling with soaring unemployment and an economy buffeted by the global credit crunch, announced a plan to help families make mortgage payments and reward businesses that hire.
    (AP, 11/3/08)

2008        Nov 4, Spain’s government reported that the number of people claiming unemployment benefits has jumped to 2.8 million (11.3%), the highest since 1996, in the latest devastating fallout from the international financial crisis.
    (AP, 11/4/08)

2008        Nov 7, European planemaker Airbus said that Spanish tourism company Grupo Marsans has signed a firm order for 61 aircraft worth almost $9 billion at list prices.
    (AP, 11/7/08)

2008        Nov 9, In western Afghanistan a Taliban suicide attacker rammed a bomb-filled minivan into a NATO military convoy, killing two Spanish soldiers and critically wounding another.
    (AFP, 11/9/08)
2008        Nov 9, Egyptian authorities denied entry to one of Osama bin Laden's sons and put him on a plane to Qatar, becoming the third country to reject the self-proclaimed "ambassador for peace." Omar Osama bin Laden (27) and his British wife, Zaina Alsabah (52), arrived at Cairo International Airport over the weekend after he unsuccessfully tried to seek political asylum in Spain.
    (AP, 11/9/08)

2008        Nov 17, French police arrested ETA's alleged military chief, the most wanted Basque separatist still at large and a man Spanish officials branded a "bloodthirsty terrorist." Miguel De Garikoitz Aspiazu Rubina (35), alias "Txeroki", was captured in Cauterets, a spa and ski resort in the Pyrenees near the border with Spain's autonomous Basque region. On Nov 24 Spain indicted Aspiazu and four other men over the car bombing at a Madrid airport parking garage on Dec. 30, 2006.
    (AFP, 11/17/08)(AP, 11/24/08)

2008        Nov 18, Spanish artist Miquel Barcelo unveiled his lavish, $23 million ceiling painting at the European headquarters of the United Nations in Switzerland, a project that has evoked controversy over its hefty price tag.
    (AP, 11/18/08)
2008        Nov 18, Spain's most famous judge abandoned a drive for a symbolic indictment of the late Gen. Francisco Franco and his regime, dropping a probe into atrocities committed during and after the country's ruinous civil war.
    (AP, 11/18/08)

2008        Nov 19, Spanish doctors reported the successful transplant to a woman of a new windpipe with tissue grown from her own stem cells, eliminating the need for anti-rejection drugs.
    (AP, 11/18/08)

2008        Nov 27, Spain's prime minister announced an euro11 billion ($14 billion) stimulus plan to revive the country's flagging economy.
    (AP, 11/27/08)
2008        Nov 27, In Spain novelist Juan Marse (75), known for his descriptions of hardship in Catalonia during the Spanish civil war (1936-1939), won the Cervantes Prize, the Spanish speaking world’s highest literary prize.
    (SFC, 11/28/08, p.E10)

2009        Nov 29, In Mauritania 3 Spanish volunteers were kidnapped by gunmen. Spain's interior minister said the next day that he suspected al-Qaida-linked Islamists were behind the attack. On Dec 2 a Mauritanian official said the 3 aid workers were being taken by their captors to neighboring Mali. Aid worker Alicia Gamez (35) was released on March 10, 2010. Businessmen Roque Pascual and Albert Vilalta remained captive. Al-Qaida's offshoot in North Africa said on March 12 that it had released Gamez because she voluntarily converted to Islam.
    (AP, 11/30/09)(AP, 12/2/09)(AP, 3/10/10)(AP, 3/12/10)

2008        Dec 3, In Spain's northern Basque region suspected ETA separatists shot and killed a businessman in the first attack linked to the group since the arrest of its military chief last month.
    (AP, 12/3/08)

2008        Dec 11, As Greece suffered through its sixth day of violence, there were troubling signs of unrest spreading across Europe. Angry youths smashed shop windows, attacked banks and hurled bottles at police in small but violent protests in Spain and Denmark, while cars were set alight outside a consulate in France.
    (AP, 12/11/08)

2008        Dec 13, In northern Spain about 100 demonstrators, formerly jailed as members of the violent Basque group ETA, protested and called on the government to begin talks to end the region's long-running separatist conflict.
    (AP, 12/13/08)

2008        Dec 16, In Spain an unoccupied hotel on the resort island of Mallorca partially collapsed during remodeling work, killing four workers.
    (AP, 12/16/08)

2008        Dec 26, Spain approved a new provision that also allows anyone whose parents or grandparents were born in Spain but went overseas because of their political beliefs or economic hardship to become Spaniards.
    (AP, 12/29/08)

2008        Spain’s population reached 45 million, up from 40 million in 2000, mostly due to immigration. 12% of the population was foreign born, up from 3% in 1998.
    (Econ, 11/8/08, SR p.11,16)

2009        Jan 8, In Spain Leonidas Vargas (60), a convicted Colombian drug baron with links to two major smuggling cartels, was shot dead in a Madrid hospital.
    (AP, 1/8/09)

2009        Jan 19, An Atheist Bus Campaign's message, translated into Catalan, began appearing on two routes in Barcelona, with plans to extend the campaign to the rest of the country. A campaign with the concise message "There's probably no God. Now stop worrying and enjoy your life," took to the road in Britain this month. In Italy buses with the slogan "The bad news is that God does not exist. The good news is that we do not need him" will begin traversing the northern Italian city of Genoa on February 4.
    (AFP, 1/24/09)

2009        Jan 20, In Spain 6 people of Pakistani origin were arrested on suspicion of "fraud" in Barcelona. They were suspected of financing terrorist activities by carrying out thefts and sending money raised from criminal activities to Pakistan.
    (AFP, 1/20/09)

2009        Jan 24, A storm killed 11 people in Spain, including four children who were killed when a sports center collapsed near Barcelona, and four in France as high winds swept across Spain and southern France.
    (AP, 1/24/09)(AP, 1/25/09)

2009        Jan 26, Spain's Prado Museum named Asensio Julia as the workshop assistant believed mostly likely to have painted "Colossus" (1808-1912), a work that was once attributed to Francisco de Goya y Lucientes.
    (AP, 1/26/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Colossus)

2009        Feb 3, Spanish police arrested 13 people on suspicion of links to organized crime and terrorism groups.
    (AP, 2/3/09)

2009        Feb 9, Spain's interior minister blamed the armed Basque separatist group ETA for an explosion in the east of Madrid, which police said caused extensive damage but no casualties.
    (AP, 2/9/09)

2009        Feb 16, In Spain Samsung of South Korea unveiled the world's first solar-powered mobile phone at an industry show where the sector is showcasing the new technology it hopes will drive demand through the economic crisis.
    (AFP, 2/16/09)

2009        Feb 19, In Spain the mobile phone industry's biggest trade show wrapped up after four days that delivered exciting news for technophiles, average phone users and even environmentalists. During the show leading manufacturers announced an initiative to produce a standard charger that would fit all phones by 2012 in a step set to reduce waste and increase convenience.
    (AFP, 2/19/09)

2009        Feb 25, Spain’s Foreign Minister Miguel Angel Moratinos said Spain is open 'in principle' to accepting prisoners from the US prison camp at Guantanamo Bay.
    (AP, 2/25/09)

2009        Mar 1, In Spain Basque voters chose a new government. Socialists scored big electoral gains at the expense of nationalists who have held power there for nearly 30 years. The nationalist coalition with 37 seats fell one seat short of the needed majority.
    (AP, 3/1/09)(AP, 3/2/09)(SFC, 3/2/09, p.A2)

2009        Mar 10, Spanish police said they have arrested an Ecuadorian woman who tried to smuggle into Barcelona liquid cocaine hidden in spray cans of products to starch clothes or clean glass.
    (AFP, 3/10/09)

2009        Mar 19, Venezuela’s Pres. Chaves announced the nationalization of Banco de Venezuela, a unit of Spain’s Banco Santander SA.
    (WSJ, 3/20/09, p.A10)

2009        Mar 29, In Spain tens of thousands of demonstrators crowded central Madrid, chanting slogans against government plans to liberalize the country's abortion laws.
    (AP, 3/29/09)

2009        Apr 2, Morocco transferred to Spain Hassan Al Haski, an Islamist convicted in both countries for terrorist acts, apparently to resume serving time behind bars there.
    (AFP, 4/3/09)

2009        Apr 10, In France Ekaitz Sirvent Auzmendi (29), suspected of being a master forger for ETA, was captured by French and Spanish police as he got off a bullet train that had arrived from Bordeaux at the French capital's Montparnasse station.
    (AP, 4/11/09)

2009        Apr 11, Corin Tellado (81), a well-known Spanish author of more than 4,000 romance novels, died while celebrating the Easter holidays with her family.
    (AP, 4/11/09)

2009        Apr 18, French and Spanish security forces thwarted a new ETA attack with the arrest of Jurdan Martitegi, the military chief of the Basque separatist group, and seven other suspected members.
    (AFP, 4/19/09)(Econ, 4/25/09, p.56)
2009        Apr 18, Jon Anza Ortunez (47), a member of the armed Basque group ETA, was last seen. ETA blamed Spanish police for a role in his disappearance — a claim Spain denied. ETA said Anza had been transporting a large sum of money between the French cities of Bayonne, which is not far from the border with Spain, and Toulouse for the group when he vanished. In 2010 his body turned up in a morgue in France. French officials told Anza's family that he had fallen ill on a street on April 29 and was taken to a hospital in Toulouse, where he died May 11. At the time, no one was reportedly able to identify him.
    (AP, 3/12/10)

2009        Apr 27, Governments around the world acted to stem a possible flu pandemic, as a virus that has killed 103 people in Mexico and spread to North America was confirmed to have reached Europe. Spain's Health Ministry confirmed the country's first case of swine flu and said another 20 people are suspected of having the disease.
    (Reuters, 4/27/09)(AP, 4/27/09)

2009        May 3, In northwest Spain one member of the country’s second-place junior female volleyball team died and 12 others were injured, two seriously, in a bus crash. The Emeve de Lugo team had just arrived in Santiago de Compostela from the Canary Islands when their bus overturned.
    (AP, 5/3/09)

2009        May 5, In Spain Basque Socialist leader Patxi Lopez (49), expected to be sworn in as the Basque region's first non-nationalist president, vowed to wage a relentless fight against the armed separatist group ETA.
    (AP, 5/5/09)

2009        May 6, Spanish authorities said they have arrested 29 people suspected of forging credit cards to finance an elaborate scheme to smuggle Cubans into the US from Mexico.
    (AP, 5/6/09)

2009        May 14, In Spain a new study said the air in Madrid and Barcelona is laced with at least five drugs, including trace amounts of amphetamines, opiates, cannabinoids and lysergic acid, a relative of LSD. The tests were done in areas where drugs were likely to be consumed.
    (AP, 5/14/09)

2009        May 15, In Spain police arrested of Raffaele Amato, an alleged Camorra boss who investigators say was one of Italy's top cocaine importers.
    (AP, 5/19/09)

2009        May 19, A Spanish court sentenced three senior army officers to prison for knowingly misidentifying the bodies of 30 peacekeepers killed in a plane crash on May 26, 2003, in northwestern Turkey. 32 of the Spaniards were identified correctly but relatives of the other 30 got the wrong bodies.
    (AP, 5/19/09)

2009        May 27, In Spain some 100,000 people spilled onto the streets of the Catalan capital after Barcelona's 2-0 triumph over Manchester United in Rome. The carnival atmosphere turned ugly after midnight when youths began clashing with police around Las Ramblas, the city's most famous street. Police arrested 134 people and more than 150 were injured.
    (AFP, 5/28/09)

2009        Jun 4, British naturalist Sir David Attenborough won Spain's prestigious Prince of Asturias social sciences prize for his "great contributions to the defense of life and conservation of our planet."
    (AP, 6/4/09)

2009        Jun 17, American engineers Raymond Tomlinson (b.1941) and Martin Cooper (b.1928), who were instrumental in developing e-mail and mobile phones, won one of Spain's prestigious Prince of Asturias awards for revolutionizing the way people communicate.
    (AP, 6/17/09)

2009        Jun 19, In Spain a powerful bomb exploded near the Basque city of Bilbao, killing a policeman in an attack blamed on the separatist group ETA.
    (AP, 6/19/09)

2009        Jun 25, Spanish legislators voted to change a law that let judges indict Osama bin Laden and Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet, narrowing its scope to cases with a clear link to this country and yielding to criticism that Spain should not be a global cop.
    (AP, 6/25/09)

2009        Jul 1, In San Sebastian, Spain, a meeting was underway of five regional fisheries management organizations, tasked primarily with protecting tuna populations worldwide. The groups representing 80 countries met for the first time in two years to assess stocks of the fish and determine what more can be done to save the 23 tuna populations, nine of which are under threat.
    (AP, 7/1/09)

2009        Jul 2, Spain's intelligence chief, Alberto Saiz, resigned amid allegations he used government money to go on hunting and fishing trips and had staffers remodel his house.
    (AP, 7/2/09)

2009        Jul 4, A joint French-Spanish operation captured 3 suspected members of ETA in the French city of Pau.
    (SFC, 7/6/09, p.A2)

2009        Jul 7, Spanish police arrested Jorge Alberto Soza (72), an ex-Argentine police official suspected of human rights abuses committed during the South American country's dirty war. Soza was wanted in Argentina in connection with 18 cases of kidnapping and torture between 1975 and 1977 when he was an assistant Federal Police commissioner and chief delegate in the southern Argentine city of Neuquen.
    (AP, 7/24/09)

2009        Jul 10, In Spain charging bull gored a young Spanish man to death at Pamplona's San Fermin festival, the first such fatality in nearly 15 years. Nine others were injured in a particularly dangerous and chaotic chapter of the running of the bulls.
    (AP, 7/10/09)

2009        Jul 12, In Spain 10 people were injured, two of them seriously, in the Pamplona bull run, two days after a man was gored to death by a bull.
    (AP, 7/12/09)

2009        Jul 21, Mali's president's office announced that Spain plans to help Mali fight Al-Qaeda of the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), which is active in the desert north of the west African nation.
    (AFP, 7/21/09)

2009        Jul 24, In Europe deadly summer wild fires spread across Spain, France, Italy and Greece with holidaymakers rescued from beaches and thousands of firefighters brought into the battle.
    (AFP, 7/24/09)

2009        Jul 29, In northern Spain a powerful car bomb destroyed a police barracks housing officers and their families in Burgos, injuring about 60 people and causing major damage in the surrounding area. The attack was blamed on the Basque separatist group ETA.
    (AP, 7/29/09)

2009        Jul 30, On the Spanish island of Majorca 2 civil guard officers were killed when their booby-trapped car exploded near a barracks.
    (AP, 7/30/09)

2009        Aug 4, Officials said a forest fire on the Canary Island of La Palma was brought under control and another that raged for two weeks in Spain's northern Catalonia region has been extinguished.
    (AP, 8/4/09)

2009        Aug 6, Juan Manuel Inciarte Gallardo (55), a suspected member of the armed Basque group ETA, was deported from Mexico and arrested in Spain, where he is wanted for allegedly killing five Spanish police officers and a pregnant wife of one of the officers. Inciarte allegedly took part in the slaying of the five police officers and the pregnant wife of one officer between 1983 and 1985. He was wanted on terrorism charges.
    (AP, 8/6/09)

2009        Aug 9, On the Spanish island of Mallorca a small bomb exploded in a restaurant, causing minor damage and no injuries. A caller, who said he was calling on ETA's behalf, warned of the bomb.
    (AP, 8/9/09)

2009        Aug 19, French police with Spanish help detained three suspected members of Basque separatist group ETA in a French Alps ski resort and seized material for making explosives, after a series of bombings claimed by the group on the Spanish island of Mallorca.
    (AP, 8/19/09)

2009        Aug 26, In Spain Bunol's town hall estimated more than 40,000 people, some from as far away as Japan and Australia, took up arms with 100 tons of tomatoes in the yearly food fight known as the "Tomatina," now in its 64th year.
    (AP, 8/26/09)

2009        Sep 9, Spain’s PM Rodriguez Zapatero told Parliament the 2010 budget would aim to raise overall taxes by 1.5% of GDP in order to help meet demands of the most needy. Unemployment, the worst in Europe, had reached 18% and was still climbing.
    (Econ, 9/12/09, p.58)

2009        Sep 10, Berlin won Spain's prestigious Prince of Asturias prize for its contribution to promoting peace and harmony.
    (AP, 9/10/09)

2009        Sep 11, Spain's government agreed to send 220 more troops to Afghanistan, raising the total to about 1,000.
    (AP, 9/11/09)
2009        Sep 11, In Spain Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez paid a brief courtesy call on King Juan Carlos and met briefly with PM Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero to discuss energy issues and Spanish investment in oil-rich Venezuela.
    (AP, 9/11/09)

2009        Sep 13, Bolivia's Pres. Evo Morales began a visit to Spain. His plans to nationalize Bolivia’s electricity sector and how this might affect Spanish companies will be among the top items on his agenda.
    (AP, 9/14/09)

2009        Sep 17, Spanish National Court Judge Ismael Moreno indicted three alleged ex-Nazi death camp guards, who are or were longtime residents of the United States, charging them with being accessories to genocide and crimes against humanity. Moreno issued international arrest warrants for the three: Johann Leprich, Anton Tittjung and Josias Kumpf. The 18-page indictment says Kumpf apparently lives now in Austria and other two in the US.
    (AP, 9/17/09)
2009        Sep 17, Spanish oil major Repsol YPF said it had discovered oil off the coast of Sierra Leone, its first find in the west African nation, along with its Australian, American and British partners.
    (AFP, 9/17/09)

2009        Sep 22, In Spain Julio Alberto Poch, an Argentine-born pilot for a low-cost airline, was arrested during a stopover in a Spanish airport on suspicion of piloting planes that carried hundreds of dissidents to their deaths during his country's 1976-1983 "dirty war." He was wanted for questioning in four probes of more than 1,000 deaths during his time as a pilot at the Navy Mechanics School.
    (AP, 9/23/09)
2009        Sep 22, A sharply divided EU failed to protect the threatened bluefin tuna, as the bloc's Mediterranean nations refused to back even a temporary a ban on catching the fish prized by sushi aficionados. Greece, Cyprus, Malta, Spain, France and Italy, with strong fishermen's lobbies at home, insisted on continuing the hunt despite the precarious state of the species. Conservation groups had earlier criticized the EU for not pushing to list the bluefin tuna under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species.
    (AP, 9/22/09)

2009        Sep 24, Spain said it has disqualified a group of Israeli academics from a solar power design competition because their university is in the West Bank, the latest in a series of low-level European sanctions against Israel over its settlement policy.
    (AP, 9/24/09)
2009        Sep 24, In Spain Garry Kasparov soundly defeated Anatoly Karpov in an exhibition chess match marking the 25th anniversary of their first title bout.
    (AP, 9/25/09)

2009        Sep 25, Spanish pianist Alicia de Larrocha died (86). She thrilled music listeners for decades with polished and enthralling interpretations of great classical works.
    (AP, 9/26/09)

2009        Sep 26, In Spain "City of Life and Death," Chinese director Lu Chuan's account of the Japanese occupation of Nanjing in 1937, won top honors at the San Sebastian film festival.
    (AFP, 9/26/09)

2009        Oct 2, In Denmark the IOC opened a meeting hearing the cases led by government leaders and kings to win the right to stage the 2016 Olympic Games. US Pres. Obama spoke for Chicago, Japan's new PM Yukio Hatoyama spoke for Tokyo, Brazil's President Luiz Inacio Lula Da Silva spoke for Rio de Janeiro, and Spain's King Juan Carlos and PM Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero spoke for Spain. Brazil won the bid.
    (AFP, 10/2/09)(AP, 10/3/09)
2009        Oct 2, Somali pirates hijacked the Alakrana, a Spanish tuna trawler, with a 36-member crew in the Indian Ocean 415 miles (670km) from the Seychelles islands. Two days after the hijacking, Spanish naval forces taking part in the EU anti-piracy mission captured two suspected pirates as they tried to travel ashore to Somalia from the Alakrana in a skiff.
    (AP, 10/2/09)(AP, 11/5/09)

2009        Oct 6, In Spain part of the secrecy surrounding the legal proceedings was lifted, new revelations came out, including phone conversations that had been taped by police. Francisco Correa, a Spanish businessman, faced jail as the alleged kingpin in a network of corruption at the heart of the country's main opposition group, the rightwing People's party.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y9ow6cs)(Econ, 10/31/09, p.63)

2009        Oct 10, Stephen Gately (33), a singer with the Irish boy band Boyzone, died while visiting Spain’s island of Mallorca. He made headlines a decade ago when he came out as gay. An autopsy revealed that he died due to excess fluid in his lungs.
    (AP, 10/11/09)(AP, 10/13/09)

2009        Oct 11, Pope Benedict XVI canonized five new saints, including Father Damien, a 19th-century priest who worked with leprosy patients on a Hawaiian island; Zygmunt Szcezesny Felinski, a 19th-century Polish bishop who defended the Catholic faith during the years of the Russian annexation; Spaniards Francisco Coll y Guitart, who founded an order of Dominicans in the 19th century, and Rafael Arniaz Baron, who renounced an affluent lifestyle at age 22 to live a humble life in a strict monastery and dedicate himself to prayer; and Jeanne Jugan (d.1879), a French nun, who helped found the Little Sisters of the Poor.
    (AP, 10/11/09)

2009        Oct 17, In Spain a huge crowd rallied in Madrid against a bill to ease restrictions on abortion, a vivid and emotional show of how the issue remains sensitive two decades after abortion was legalized in this traditionally Roman Catholic country.
    (AP, 10/17/09)

2009        Oct 22, The EU said it has launched an investigation into a prized Spanish wetland that has turned bone dry through mismanagement of water resources and is now on fire underground, white smoke now rising from areas where fish once swam. The EU wants the Spanish government to explain how it plans to save Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park in the central Castilla-La Mancha region. It is classified as a UNESCO biosphere site and an EU-protected area because of its birdlife.
    (AP, 10/22/09)

2009        Oct 28, Somali pirates exchanged fire with a French fishing vessel. They sped away, but were soon stopped by a Spanish naval helicopter. 7 pirates were detained on the German naval vessel, FGS Karlsruhe.
    (AP, 10/28/09)

2009        Nov 3, African countries boycotted meetings at UN climate talks in Barcelona, saying that industrial countries had set carbon-cutting targets too low for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions.
    (AP, 11/3/09)
2009        Nov 3, Francisco Ayala (103), Spanish novelist and sociologist, died in Madrid. He was one of Spain's leading scholars and had gone into exile during the country's decades of dictatorship. Ayala published his first book, "Tragicomedia de un hombre sin espiritu" (Tragicomedy of a Man Without Spirit), in 1925. The collapse of moral order and the hopelessness of human relations are also common themes in pessimistic and satirical novels such as "Muertes de Perro" (Death as a Way of Life) and "El Jardin de Las Delicias" (Garden of Delights).
    (AP, 11/3/09)

2009        Nov 12, Spain created its bank bailout fund, the FROB, with a potential capacity of €99 billion.
    (Econ, 6/16/12, p.27)(www.frob.es/financiera/inversores_en.html)
2009        Nov 12, British Airways PLC and Spanish airline Iberia SA confirmed they are holding separate board meetings about a long-awaited merger, responding to feverish speculation that has sent the companies' shares soaring.
    (AP, 11/12/09)

2009        Nov 17, Somali pirates freed 36 crew members from the Spanish trawler Alakrana after holding them since Oct 2. A self-proclaimed pirate said the hostage-takers were paid $3.3 million in ransom, while Spain's PM Zapatero said the country did what it had to do.
    (AP, 11/17/09)

2009        Nov 29, In Mauritania 3 Spanish volunteers were kidnapped by gunmen. Spain's interior minister said the next day that he suspected al-Qaida-linked Islamists were behind the attack. On Dec 2 a Mauritanian official said the 3 aid workers were being taken by their captors to neighboring Mali. Aid worker Alicia Gamez (35) was released on March 10, 2010. Businessmen Roque Pascual and Albert Vilalta remained captive. Al-Qaida's offshoot in North Africa said on March 12 that it had released Gamez because she voluntarily converted to Islam. Pascual and Vilalta were released in August 2010.
    (AP, 11/30/09)(AP, 12/2/09)(AP, 3/10/10)(AP, 3/12/10)(Reuters, 8/23/10)

2009        Dec 11, In Spain the A400M military transport plane, that has been causing Airbus and European defense ministers budgetary and logistical headaches, finally took to the skies for its maiden flight.
    (AP, 12/11/09)

2009        Dec 13, In Spain people in Catalonia voted in symbolic referendums that organizers hoped would be a step towards eventual independence from Spain for the wealthy region. About 94% favored independence with turnout of about 25%.
    (AP, 12/13/09)(AP, 12/14/09)

2009        Dec 14, Spain’s National Court in Madrid found 11 men guilty of belonging to a terrorist organization and sentenced them to up to 14 years in prison. 9 were of Pakistani nationality or origin and 2 were from India. They  had been accused of planning attacks in Barcelona.
    (SFC, 12/15/09, p.A2)

2009        Dec 22, Spain's Christmas lottery showered hundreds of thousand of euros (dollars) in prize money on the country's capital. The top prize of the lottery, ranked among the world's richest, went to holders of tickets bearing the number 78294. The number appears on 1,950 tickets, and each holder stood to win euro300,000 ($430,000).
    (AP, 12/22/09)

2009        Dec 30, Spain's socialist government approved a 1.5% increase in the national minimum wage to 633.3 euros ($911.2) from 624 euros a month during its last cabinet meeting of the year.
    (AFP, 12/30/09)

2009        Antonio Munoz Molina authored his novel “In the Night of Time” set in Spain’s civil war. In 2014 an English translation by Edith Grossman was published.
    (SFC, 2/25/14, p.78)
2009        Roberto Bolano, Spanish novelist, completed his 3rd and final volume of “Your Face Tomorrow,” a metaphysical trilogy subtitled “Poison, Shadow and Farewell.”
    (Econ, 11/28/09, p.97)
2009        Spain’s treasurer Luis Barcenas resigned from his job after being indicted in a scheme of kickbacks and illegal payments to other Popular Party politicians. In 2013 Swiss authorities informed the Spanish judiciary that Barcenas had amassed as much as 22 million euros in Swiss bank accounts.
    (SSFC, 1/20/13, p.A5)

2010        Jan 1, Spain took over the presidency of the EU, with PM Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero promising to work to end the continent's economic crisis.
    (AP, 1/1/10)

2010        Jan 9, Four suspected members of the Basque separatist group ETA were arrested in Portugal and France, one driving a van loaded with explosives near a police barracks. two police officers stopped the van in Spain when their suspicions were raised by its French license plates. The driver of the van then pushed passed the police and proceeded to flee the scene driving off in their patrol car which he stole. The police alerted their Portuguese counterparts who rapidly arrested the man and a woman, who had been following the van in a presumed getaway vehicle with French plates.
    (AP, 1/10/10)

2010        Jan 18, A Spanish Foreign Ministry official said the country will take in two inmates from the US prison at Guantanamo Bay.
    (AP, 1/18/10)

2010        Jan 28, Spanish police arrested two suspected members of Basque separatist group ETA in northern Spain and discovered a hidden cache containing explosives and bomb-making equipment.
    (AP, 1/28/10)
2010        Jan 28, In Spain prosecutors say charges have been filed against Mohamed Benbrahim, a Muslim imam, for threatening a woman in Cunit, Catalonia, who refused to wear an Islamic headscarf.
    (AP, 1/28/10)

2010        Feb 6, Spanish matador Jairo Miguel Sanchez Alonso (16) killed six bulls in one afternoon, pulling off a feat normally attempted only by seasoned veterans and winning trophies for his skill, ears from animals he had just slain.
    (AP, 2/6/10)

2010        Feb 11, In Spain Roberto Florez Garcia (44), a former Spanish intelligence officer, was convicted of trying to sell secrets to Russia and imprisoned for 12 years. Garcia worked at Spain's intelligence headquarters from 1991 to 2004, when he quit. He was arrested on the Canary island of Tenerife in 2007 and went on trial in January.
    (AP, 2/11/10)

2010        Feb 15, Spain said it is willing to take in five inmates from the US prison in Guantanamo Bay, not just the two it had announced last month.
    (AP, 2/15/10)
2010        Feb 15, In Spain, at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, Apple announced its new Windows Phone 7 software. Nokia, the world's biggest maker of mobile handsets, said it would merge its Linux Maemo software platform, used in its flagship N900 phone, with Intel's Moblin, which is also based on Linux open-sourced software, to create a new platform, MeeGo. The software deal was set to boost Intel's chances of getting its chips into the cellphones of the Finnish company, which controls around 40% of the global phone market.
    (Reuters, 2/15/10)(SFC, 2/16/10, p.D1)

2010        Feb 19, Pope Benedict XVI approved sainthood for Mother Mary MacKillop (1842-1909), making the woman known for her work among the needy Australia's first saint. Sainthood was also approved for Stanislaw Soltys, a 15th-century Polish priest; Italian nuns Giulia Salzano and Battista Varano; Spanish nun Candida Maria de Jesus Cipitria y Barriola and a Canadian brother, Andre Bessette (d.1937). The formal canonization will take place Oct. 17 in Rome.
    (AP, 2/19/10)

2010        Feb 22, In Spain Hokman Joma tried to hit Turkey’s PM Erdogan with a shoe as the Turkish leader got into a car during a visit to the southern city of Seville. Hokman shouted "Long live Kurdistan" in Spanish before being arrested. In June the Syrian Kurd was sentenced to three years in jail in Spain.
    (AP, 9/22/10)

2010        Feb 24, The US got help from Europe in its troubled drive to shut down Guantanamo Bay, as Spain accepted a former inmate from the prison for terror suspects and the tiny Balkan nation of Albania took in three more.
    (AP, 2/24/10)

2010        Feb 28, The leader of the armed Basque group ETA was arrested in France, in another setback for the separatists, who have seen five of their commanders taken into custody in the last two years. Eta chief Ibon Gogeascoechea and two other suspected separatists, Jose Ayestaran and Beinat Aginagalde, were arrested in a joint French-Spanish police operation in the village of Cahan, France.
    (AP, 2/28/10)(Econ, 3/6/10, p.69)
2010        Feb 28, A violent late winter storm named Xynthia battered France, Spain, Portugal and Germany with fierce rain and hurricane-strength winds. The storm smashed sea walls and killed at least 62 people across western Europe.
    (AP, 2/28/10)(AP, 3/1/10)(SFC, 3/2/10, p.A2)

2010        Mar 2, It was reported that Spanish investigators, working with private computer-security firms, have arrested the three alleged ringleaders of the so-called Mariposa botnet, which appeared in December 2008 and grew into one of the biggest weapons of cybercrime. The Mariposa botnet infected almost 13 million computers across 190 countries. More arrests were expected soon in other countries.
    (AP, 3/2/10)(SSFC, 3/14/10, p.D1)

2010        Mar 3, Freak waves off the coast of Spain smashed into the Louis Majesty, a Mediterranean cruise ship, flooding cabins, breaking windows in a restaurant and terrifying many travelers in an ordeal that claimed two lives.
    (AP, 3/4/10)

2010        Mar 4, In Pakistan robbers kidnapped Sahil Saeed, a five-year-old British boy, in the town of Jhelum, about 100 km (65 miles) south of Islamabad, demanding a ransom of 100,000 pounds, prompting his mother to make a tearful plea for the return of her boy. In the northwest an overnight gunbattle left 30 insurgents and one soldier dead in the Chamarkand area of the Mohmand tribal region. Sahil Saeed was released on March 16. Spanish police arrested 3 suspects in the kidnapping in Tarragona province. They were suspected of having traveled to another European city to collect ransom money.
    (AFP, 3/4/10)(SFC, 3/5/10, p.A2)(AFP, 3/16/10)(AP, 3/17/10)

2010        Mar 5, In Spain the regions of Madrid, Valencia and southern Murcia said they will keep bullfighting legal and give the sport cultural heritage protection.
    (SFC, 3/6/10, p.A2)

2010        Mar 19, Spanish ministers approved a wide-ranging 10-year reform plan designed to wean the economy off its dependence on construction and create broader, more sustainable growth as the country fights to climb out of recession.
    (AP, 3/19/10)

2010        Mar 20, Spanish surgeons completed the world’s most extensive full-face transplant. It was the 11th known face transplant in the world. The 24-hour operation provided a young farmer (30) a new nose, jaw and teeth.
    (SFC, 4/24/10, p.A3)(http://tinyurl.com/2fqgwfm)

2010        Mar 21, In Spain the Basque armed separatist movement ETA said it is ready to move forward on the path of political change, but it stopped short of renouncing violence as demanded by the Spanish government.
    (AFP, 3/21/10)

2010        Mar 23, Somali pirates hijacked the Malta-flagged MV Frigia, a Turkish ship with 21 crew on board. A 2nd hijacking, of the refrigerated MV Talca, took place off the coast of Oman. Private security guards shot and killed a Somali pirate during an attack on a merchant ship off the coast of East Africa in what is believed to be the first such killing by armed contractors. The guards were onboard the MV Almezaan when a pirate group approached it twice. During the 2nd approach on the Panamanian-flagged cargo ship, which is United Arab Emirates owned, there was an exchange of fire between the guards and the pirates. The Spanish warship Navarra intercepted two skiffs and a larger vessel believed to be a pirate mothership. Spanish forces arrested the six remaining pirates, took custody of the pirate's body and sunk the larger boat. The 6 pirates were soon released after the captain of the MV Almezaan said he could not identify the men detained by the Spanish navy as the group of pirates who attacked him. The Talca was freed on May 11 along with its 25 crew members 3 days after a ransom was paid. The Frigia was freed on July 29, 2010.
    (AP, 3/23/10)(AP, 3/24/10)(SFC, 3/24/10, p.A2)(AP, 3/25/10)(AP, 5/11/10)(AP, 7/29/10)

2010        Mar 31, In Spain flight attendant Adriana Ricardo said attendants owed up to nine months' wages by a grounded Spanish airline have posed nude for a calendar to draw attention to their plight. Air Comet, run by the embattled chairman of Spain's main employers' association CEOE, Gerardo Ferran, filed for administration in December after a British court impounded nine of its aircraft at the request of German bank HSH Nordbank.
    (Reuters, 3/31/10)

2010        Apr 7, In Spain Baltasar Garzon (54), the judge who became an international hero by going after Augusto Pinochet and Osama bin Laden, was indicted for having dared to investigate what is arguably Spain's own biggest unresolved case: atrocities committed during and after its ruinous Civil War.
    (AP, 4/7/10)

2010        Apr 16, In eastern Haiti 4 soldiers died in the fiery crash of a Spanish military helicopter in the rugged mountains of the Fond Verrettes area.
    (AP, 4/16/10)

2010        Apr 24, In Spain tens of thousands of people marched through Madrid and other Spanish cities in a boisterous show of support for Judge Baltasar Garzon, who has been indicted on charges of abusing his authority by investigating atrocities committed during the civil war and the early years of Gen. Francisco Franco's dictatorship.
    (AP, 4/24/10)

2010        May 4, Spain’s Interior Ministry said Spain has taken in a second former inmate from the Guantanamo Bay prison for terrorism suspects. Another Guantanamo detainee was sent to Bulgaria. This left about 181 prisoners at Guantanamo Bay prison.
    (AP, 5/4/10)(SFC, 5/5/10, p.A2)

2010        May 6, Julio Alberto Poch (57), a pilot who allegedly flew death flights for Argentina's military dictatorship, was extradited from Spain. Spain acted on Argentina's request, arresting him in front of his passengers and family during a stop in Valencia on what was supposed to be his final flight back to the Netherlands before retiring from Transavia.
    (AP, 5/6/10)

2010        May 7, Spain’s central bank said the country has scraped out of recession after six quarters of economic shrinkage, becoming the last major world economy to return to growth after the global financial crisis.
    (AFP, 5/7/10)

2010        May 8, Hundreds of flights between Europe and North America were either delayed or canceled due to the spreading cloud of volcanic ash stretching across much of the northern Atlantic. Spain shut 19 northern airports including Barcelona because of the cloud of ash.
    (AP, 5/8/10)(Reuters, 5/8/10)

2010        May 11, Volcanic ash from Iceland wound its way down to North Africa and curled over to Turkey, forcing authorities to shut down Casablanca airport in Morocco as well as airports in Spain and airspace over Turkey.
    (AP, 5/11/10)

2010        May 12, Spain’s PM Zapatero announced sweeping spending cuts totaling $19 billion that included 5% pay cuts for civil servants and 15% cuts for government ministers.
    (SFC, 5/13/10, p.A3)
2010        May 12, The European Union set out plans to vet member state budgets before national parliaments do in a power-grab that could trigger a divisive referendum in Britain and provoked Swedish anger. Spain announced big public sector wage cuts and market sentiment buoyed by positive growth figures as several states shook off recession.
    (AP, 5/12/10)

2010        May 14, In Spain Judge Baltasar Garzon (54), the crusading judge who indicted Augusto Pinochet and Osama bin Laden, was suspended for allegedly overstepping his jurisdiction in a probe of one of Spain's biggest cases, atrocities committed during and after the nation's ruinous civil war. Human rights groups called Garzon's suspension a sad day for the Spanish justice system.
    (AP, 5/14/10)

2010        May 18, Martin Smith (45) was flown back from Spain to Britain, the same day as the bodies of his children were found dead in the coastal resort of Lloret de Mar, Spain. His wife, Lianne Smith (43), was arrested on suspicion of the murder of his two children Rebecca (5) and Daniel (11 months). Lianne Smith was charged with murder on May 21.
    (AFP, 5/19/10)(AP, 5/21/10)

2010        May 20, French police arrested the leader of Basque separatist group ETA and his second in command, calling it an important blow but not a death knell for the violent organization.
    (AP, 5/20/10)

2010        May 21, Spain convicted 3 members of Basque separatist group ETA of detonating a car bomb at Madrid airport in 2006 that killed two Ecuadorians.
    (Reuters, 5/21/10)

2010        May 22, Spanish railway workers called for a one-day stoppage on May 28 in protest at proposed changes in working conditions.
    (Reuters, 5/22/10)

2010        May 27, In Spain emergency measures to cut a bloated deficit passed by one vote in parliament, saving the Socialist government from an embarrassing defeat and suggesting the depth of resistance to the spreading austerity measures aimed at halting Europe's government debt crisis.
    (AP, 5/27/10)

2010        May 28, The Spanish city of Lleida, population of 135,000, barred women from wearing face-covering Islamic veils inside its municipal buildings.
    (AP, 5/28/10)

2010        Jun 2, Pakistan and Spain expressed their joint commitment to fight terrorism as they signed a broad bilateral agreement aimed at enhancing cooperation on security, trade and other issues.
    (AFP, 6/2/10)

2010        Jun 7, Spanish healthcare company Grifols SA said it had acquired Talecris Biotherapeutics, based in North Carolina, for euro2.8 billion ($3.4 billion).
    (AP, 6/7/10)

2010        Jun 14, In Spain Barcelona City Mayor Jordi Hereu announced a measure to bar the use of face-covering Islamic veils in municipal buildings. He insisted it was not specifically religious saying it is aimed at all dress that impedes identification, and thus includes motorcycle helmets and ski masks.
    (AP, 6/14/10)

2010        Jun 16, Spain embarked on shaking up its economy with labor market reforms designed to encourage companies to hire, enacting long-awaited structural changes as it struggles to reassure markets and investors who are worried over its public finances and pushing Spanish borrowing costs to new highs.
    (AP, 6/16/10)

2010        Jun 23, In Spain 12 people died and 14 others were injured when a passenger train slammed into a group of young revelers who crossed a railway track instead of using a crowded underground passageway at the Castelldefels Playa station some 25 km (15 miles) south of Barcelona.
    (AFP, 6/24/10)

2010        Jun 24, The Police Service of Northern Ireland arrested Fermin Vila Michelena (40), a Basque separatist, in central Belfast. Michelena faced three Spanish arrest warrants over a string of ETA attacks. A ministry statement accused Michelena of membership in an ETA terror cell that committed four car-bomb attacks in Spain  in 2001.
    (AP, 6/25/10)

2010        Jul 6, In Pamplona, Spain, tens of thousands of Spaniards and foreigners jammed a historic city plaza and sprayed each other with wine as a firecracker rocket blasted off to launch the famed San Fermin bull-running festival. The 9-day street drinking party got under way at midday with the traditional shout from the city hall balcony of "Viva San Fermin!," followed seconds later by the firing of the firecracker known as the chupinazo.
    (AP, 7/6/10)

2010        Jul 10, In Spain more than a million people gathered in northeastern Barcelona to demand greater regional autonomy for Catalonia and protest a recent court ruling forbidding this prosperous region from calling itself a nation.
    (AP, 7/10/10)

2010        Jul 11, In South Africa Spain beat Holland for soccer’s World Cup.
    (AP, 7/12/10)

2010        Jul 13, Seven former political prisoners from Cuba smiled and gave victory signs after they and their families arrived in Madrid, the first of 52 dissidents the Cuban government has promised to free in a historic policy shift.
    (AP, 7/13/10)

2010        Jul 14, British Airways and Iberia won the EU's regulatory approval to merge and to team up with American Airlines to share more of their lucrative trans-Atlantic routes.
    (AP, 7/14/10)

2010        Jul 18, Spain said 9 more Cuban political prisoners will fly this week to freedom in Madrid along with around 50 of their relatives.
    (AP, 7/18/10)

2010        Jul 19, San Francisco welcomed Barcelona, Spain, as its newest sister city.
    (SFC, 7/20/10, p.D1)

2010        Jul 20, Spain's Parliament rejected a proposal to ban women from wearing in public places Islamic veils that reveal only the eyes.
    (AP, 7/20/10)

2010        Jul 21, Spain accepted a third former inmate from the US prison for terrorism suspects at Guantanamo Bay. The inmate was originally from Afghanistan.
    (AP, 7/22/10)

2010        Jul 23, Seven out of 91 banks failed European stress tests, which were organized in hope of reviving investor confidence in Europe's embattled banking sector. German state-owned lender Hypo Real Estate, five regional savings banks in Spain and ATEBank of Greece failed the test of whether they could resist a new financial shock. All have been ordered to recapitalize or take state aid.
    (AFP, 7/24/10)

2010        Jul 28, In Spain a bullfighting ban, passed in Catalonia's parliament, provoking passionate reactions throughout the country.
    (Reuters, 7/28/10)

2010        Jul 29, A Spanish judge in Madrid reissued arrest warrants for three US servicemen over the death of a Spanish journalist killed by American tank fire in Iraq on April 8, 2003.
    (AP, 7/29/10)

2010        Aug 8, In Spain people began complaining of jellyfish attacks. Over the next three days some 700 people were stung at three beaches on the Costa Blanca near Elche, where normally just a handful get stung daily.
    (AP, 8/11/10)

2010        Aug 12, Demonstrators in Morocco slapped a commercial blockade on Melilla, a Spanish enclave, allowing in only some trucks in a dispute over alleged police violence and racism against Moroccans entering the city. Besides a bustling commercial flow, about 35,000 Moroccans cross daily into Melilla, population 70,000, to work or shop.
    (AP, 8/12/10)

2010        Aug 18, In Spain a bull leapt into the packed grandstands of a bullring at the Tafalla arena in the northern region of Navarra and ran amok, charging and trampling spectators and leaving 40 people injured.
    (AP, 8/19/10)

2010        Aug 23, Two Spanish aid workers held by al Qaeda's North African wing were freed in Mali, ending a kidnapping that lasted nearly nine months, the longest period of captivity in the Sahara desert. Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) said it seized Albert Vilalta and Roque Pascual while they were traveling through Mauritania with a relief aid convoy last November.
    (AP, 8/23/10)

2010        Aug 25, In Afghanistan a driver for the Spanish police contingent opened fire during a training exercise, killing 2 Spanish officers and their interpreter in what appeared to be the latest in a series of attacks by infiltrators linked to the insurgency. 10 campaign workers were kidnapped while traveling in the western province of Herat. 3 Afghan civilians were killed by a homemade bomb in Kandahar's Arghandab district. 2 Taliban commanders were killed in fighting with a joint Afghan-Taliban force in Uruzgan province, along with 12 regular insurgent fighters. In Badakhshan province Afghan army commandos aided by US special forces discovered a major weapons cache in the remote village of Nawci. Weapons found included 78 rockets with launchers, 47 mortar rounds, more than 9,000 rounds of ammunition, and 24 rocket-propelled grenades. All were destroyed.
    (AP, 8/25/10)(AP, 8/26/10)(AP, 8/27/10)

2010        Aug 31, Spanish police said that for the first time they have broken up a human-trafficking gang that brought men to the country to work as prostitutes, providing them with Viagra, cocaine and other stimulant drugs to be available for sex with other men 24 hours a day. Authorities arrested 14 people, mainly Brazilians, on suspicion of running the organization and another 17 alleged prostitutes for being in Spain illegally.
    (AP, 8/31/10)

2010        Sep 5, The Basque separatist militant group ETA declared a cease-fire in a video statement, suggesting it might turn to a political process in its quest for an independent homeland.
    (AP, 9/5/10)

2010        Sep 6, The Spanish government rejected a new ceasefire announcement by the separatist group ETA and ruled out negotiations on an independent Basque homeland, saying the militants have been decimated by arrests and are desperate to regroup and rearm.
    (AP, 9/6/10)
2010        Sep 6, In southwestern Spain a passenger train crashed into a heavy-duty dump truck, killing two people and injuring eight others.
    (AP, 9/6/10)

2010        Sep 9, Spain gave final approval to labor market reforms designed to shake up a listless economy and help slash a bloated deficit that has prompted European-wide worries of another Greek-style debt crisis.
    (AP, 9/9/10)

2010        Sep 10, In Spain 50 coal miners 1,640 feet (500 meters) underground entered the ninth day of a strike over unpaid wages and government aid.
    (AP, 9/10/10)

2010        Sep 17, Spain approved a request to ask that South Africa extradite former Rwandan army chief Faustin Kayumba Nyamwasa, who is wanted on charges of genocide and for the murder of four Spaniards in Rwanda in the 1990s. Nyamwasa fled to South Africa in February after abandoning his post as Rwanda's envoy to India. Four months later he was shot in the stomach outside his home in an upmarket Johannesburg suburb.
    (AFP, 9/18/10)
2010        Sep 17, Cuba's Roman Catholic Church revealed the names of four more political prisoners to be released into exile in Spain, bringing to 36 the number freed and sent off the island under an agreement with President Raul Castro's government.
    (AP, 9/17/10)

2010        Sep 19, Spain’s armed Basque separatist group ETA says it is willing to accept international mediation to help solve its long-running conflict with Spain's government. The statement came a day after the Spanish newspaper El Pais released a video on its website believed to have been filmed by ETA earlier this year as a training aid which shows a hooded gunman practicing assassination techniques by shooting into a car.
    (AP, 9/19/10)

2010        Sep 24, Spain's government approved an "austere" budget for 2011 aimed at reassuring nervous markets over its ability to rein in a massive public deficit and fix its battered economy.
    (AFP, 9/24/10)

2010        Sep 26, In Spain the Basque separatist group ETA said it is willing to declare a permanent cease-fire, verified by international observers, in a bid to settle the troubled region's long-running conflict with the Spanish government.
    (AP, 9/26/10)

2010        Sep 27, Representatives of 45 nations and international bodies met in Madrid to consider plans to strengthen an African Union peacekeeping force in war-torn Somalia.
    (AFP, 9/27/10)

2010        Sep 28, Spanish police arrested a US citizen of Algerian origin who is suspected of financing al-Qaida's North African affiliate. Mohamed Omar Dehbi (43) was arrested in the town of Esplugues de Llobregat, a Barcelona suburb. On Sep 30 a Spanish judge ordered Dehbi’s release, citing lack of evidence, but barred him from leaving Spain and ordered him to check in with police daily. Dehbi was cleared of suspicion on March 8, 2011.
    (AP, 9/29/10)(AP, 9/30/10)(AP, 3/22/11)
2010        Sep 29, Anti-austerity protests erupted across Europe. Greek doctors and railway employees walked out, Spanish workers shut down trains and buses, and one man even blocked the Irish parliament with a cement truck to decry the country's enormous bank bailouts.
    (AP, 9/29/10)

2010        Oct 1, Spanish energy giant Repsol announced the sale of 40 percent of its Brazilian affiliate to China's Sinopec for 7.1 billion dollars, securing funding for the development of oil fields in Brazil.
    (AP, 10/1/10)

2010        Oct 3, Spain's beleaguered PM Zapatero suffered an embarrassing setback in a local election race, and a poll showed his party trailing ever further behind the opposition conservatives at the national level.
    (AP, 10/4/10)

2010        Oct 6, American Airlines, British Airways and Iberia launched their transatlantic joint business, unveiling new routes and detailing benefits for customers that include a shared frequent flyers program.
    (AP, 10/6/10)

2010        Oct 17, Pope Benedict XVI proclaimed Australia's first saint, canonizing Mary MacKillop (1842-1909), a 19th-century nun. The Vatican also declared five other saints in an open-air Mass attended by tens of thousands. Brother Andre (1845-1937), a Canadian, Italian nuns Giulia Salzano and Battista Camilla da Varano, and Spanish nun Candida Maria de Jesus Cipitria y Barriola were also canonized.
    (AP, 10/17/10)

2010        Oct 20, Spain enacted a tough new anti-smoking law, eliminating its status as Western Europe's last country where lighting up in indoor public places is allowed.
    (AP, 10/20/10)

2010        Nov 6, In Spain Pope Benedict XVI blasted the "aggressive" anti-church sentiment he said was flourishing in Spain as he sought to rekindle the faith in a once-staunchly Roman Catholic nation that is now among Europe's most liberal.
    (AP, 11/6/10)

2010        Nov 7, In Spain Pope Benedict XVI consecrated a world monument to family, the Sagrada Familia church, but faced a gay kiss-in protest before he attacked abortion and defended male-female marriage.
    (AFP, 11/7/10)

2010        Nov 13, In Spain thousands of people demonstrated in Madrid against Morocco's recent crackdown that has left at least 10 people dead in the former Spanish colony of Western Sahara in northwestern Africa.
    (AP, 11/13/10)

2010        Nov 16, The UN Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recognized everything from the growing of corn, beans and chilies to Mexican dishes prepared with grinding stones and mortars as an ancient process worth safeguarding in the face of encroaching global influences. France's multi-course gastronomic meal, Flamenco in Spain and carpet-weaving in Azerbaijan also made the list.
    (AP, 11/17/10)

2010        Nov 23, A Spanish judge ordered Carlos Vielmann, a former Guatemalan interior minister, be freed because authorities in the Central American country failed to request his extradition on charges he ordered the extra-judicial execution of seven inmates. He resigned in 2007 after allegations in one of those cases became known.
    (AP, 11/23/10)

2010        Nov 26, Spain’s PM Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero said there was no chance Spain would seek a bailout.
    (AP, 11/26/10)

2010        Nov 28, Spain's Socialist government, battered by fears of an Irish-style rescue of its troubled economy, braced for a new blow as voters went to the polls in regional elections in Catalonia. The pro-business Convergence and Union (CIU) nationalists routed the ruling Socialists. The CIU won 62 of the 135 seats in the Catalan parliament.
    (AFP, 11/28/10)(Econ, 12/4/10, p.65)

2010        Nov 29, Investors fled Spanish debt, pushing 10-year bond rates to an eight-year high, as Ireland's 85-billion-euro rescue failed to stop fears the crisis may spread.
    (AFP, 11/29/10)

2010        Nov 30, Investors sold off government bonds from Spain, Portugal and Italy amid worries that Europe's debt crisis has not been contained by Ireland's bailout but will force more expensive rescue efforts.
    (AP, 11/30/10)

2010        Dec 1, Spain said it will sell off a third of its national lottery business, partially privatize airports and cut both a key jobless benefit and taxes for small companies in an unexpected move to soothe market fears about debt.
    (AP, 12/1/10)
2010        Dec 1, Spain’s Interior Ministry said police over the last 24 hours have arrested seven people in Spain and three in Thailand in an international operation against a group suspected of forging passports for an al-Qaida-linked Islamic terrorist group.
    (AP, 12/1/10)

2010        Dec 2, Spanish police and media said hooded thieves have stolen a van containing some 20 pieces of art reportedly including works by Picasso, Colombian artist Fernando Botero and Spanish sculptor Eduardo Chillida. The art was valued at least €5 million ($6.6 million).
    (AP, 12/2/10)

2010        Dec 3, The Spanish government approved new austerity measures and a limited economic stimulus package to ease investor fears about its debt, and insisted again it was taking strong steps to right its ailing economy.
    (AP, 12/3/10)
2010        Dec 3, In Spain a sickout by air traffic controllers created travel chaos. Spain’s military assumed control and the government threatened the controllers with jail terms in an unprecedented emergency order to get planes back in the skies and clear chaotic airports clogged with irate travelers.
    (AP, 12/4/10)(SFC, 12/4/10, p.A2)

2010        Dec 15, In Spain a man walked into a bar in the town of Olot and shot two men dead with a shotgun. Minutes later, he went to a bank and killed two staff members. The man had a mortgage at the bank for an apartment that was going to be seized for nonpayment.
    (AP, 12/15/10)

2010        Dec 18, In Spain tens of thousands of workers staged strikes in 40 cities to protest state plans to up the retirement age to slash public deficit.
    (AFP, 12/18/10)

2010        Dec 22, Spain's "El Gordo", one of the world's biggest lotteries, gave out 2.3 billion euros (1.9 billion British pounds) in Christmas prizes with Spaniards spending almost the same as last year on tickets.
    (Reuters, 12/22/10)

2010        Dec 29, Spain's government formally launched the privatization of air traffic control in 13 airports, just weeks after clamping down on a wildcat strike by controllers.
    (AFP, 12/29/10)

2010        Dec 30, A Spanish court convicted four Civil Guard police officers of torturing members of the armed Basque group ETA who were arrested for bombing Madrid's airport in 2006. The officers were found guilty of beating and threatening Mattin Sarasola and Igor Portu after they were taken into custody in 2008.
    (AP, 12/30/10)

2011        Jan 2, Four Argentines were arrested in Spain for allegedly transporting almost a ton of cocaine in a private plane. They included Gustavo and Eduardo Julia, sons of the late former head of the Air Force Jose Julia, and Gaston Miret, son of Jose Miret, the former Air Force brigadier who was secretary of planning during Argentina's 1976-1983 dictatorship. The cocaine was almost pure with a value of more than 30 million euros (about $39 million).
    (AP, 1/7/11)

2011        Jan 6, Spain's second most important lottery dished out euro840 million ($1.1 billion) in new year joy across a country struggling to emerge from recession, with the top prize tickets being sold in a working class area of Madrid.
    (AP, 1/6/11)

2011        Jan 8, In Spain tens of thousands of people marched in the Basque region to protest the government policy of shipping separatist prisoners convicted of terror to jails far from their homes.
    (AP, 1/8/11)

2011        Jan 10, The militant Basque separatist group ETA declared a permanent cease-fire in what it called a firm step toward ending its bloody decades-long independence fight, but Spain's government quickly dismissed the announcement and demanded ETA disband outright.
    (AP, 1/10/11)

2011        Jan 11, Police in Spain and France arrested two suspected members of ETA, suggesting the government in Madrid will keep up pressure on the violent Basque separatist group despite the latter's declaration of a permanent cease-fire.
    (AP, 1/11/11)

2011        Jan 18, A court in the northeastern Spanish region of Catalonia suspended a ban by the city of Lleida on face-covering Islamic veils in municipal buildings. The ban was suspended while the court studies an appeal lodged by a Muslim association. Only about 3 percent of Lleida's population is Muslim and only a handful of women actually wear body-covering burqas or face-covering niqab garments.
    (AP, 1/18/11)
2011        Jan 18, Spanish police said they have arrested 25 people, including Spaniards and Colombians, and dismantled what they claim is the biggest and most sophisticated cocaine laboratory known to date in Europe. The operation began Dec. 7 and followed two years of investigations.
    (AP, 1/18/11)

2011        Jan 21, The Spanish government said it is drawing up a new plan to restructure the country's regional savings banks, the weak link in its banking system and a major cause of concern over the public finances.
    (AFP, 1/21/11)

2011        Jan 27, Spain arrested Malik Imtanan Sarwar (30), Pakistani man, in Barcelona. Sarwar was said to be linked to a cell that forged passports for al-Qaida-linked groups. Police had been looking for him since seven members of the cell were arrested in Spain in December and three more in Thailand.
    (AP, 1/28/11)

2011        Jan 28, Spain's Cabinet approved a plan to raise the retirement age by two years to 67 for most workers, a key structural reform aimed at reassuring markets that are uneasy over the country's finances.
    (AP, 1/28/11)

2011        Jan 31, A major Spanish savings bank born from a merger of seven institutions, Banco Financiero y de Ahorros, announced plans to list on the market to tap private capital.
    (AFP, 1/31/11)

2011        Feb 2, Spain’s PM Zapatero signed a solemn “social pact” with unions and employers, covering pensions, collective bargaining and more.
    (Econ, 2/5/11, p.62)

2011        Feb 5, In Spain several hundred Basque separatists held small street rallies, hung posters and painted political graffiti on walls throughout the troubled northern region to support a new political party to be launched next week.
    (AP, 2/5/11)

2011        Feb 6, Rock guitarist Gary Moore (58), a former member of influential Irish band Thin Lizzy, was found dead at a hotel on Spain's Costa del Sol. Thin Lizzy had global hits in the 1970s with songs like "The Boys are Back in Town" and "Whiskey in the Jar." Frontman Phil Lynott died in 1986, but with a different lineup the band continues to tour today.
    (AP, 2/6/11)

2011        Feb 7, In Spain Basque separatists launched Sortu (“Create”) a new political party they say rejects violence by the armed group ETA, in an unprecedented step designed to move the troubled region toward peace.
    (AP, 2/7/11)(Econ, 2/26/11, p.56)

2011        Feb 21, British detectives named the country's 10 most wanted fugitives who have bolted to the "Costa del Crime", fleeing the urban ganglands for the Spanish sunshine.
    (AFP, 2/21/11)

2011        Feb 24, In Spain a powerful explosion at a military academy in Hoyo de Manzares killed five soldiers and wounded three when a mine de-activation training drill went awry.
    (AP, 2/24/11)

2011        Feb 25, Spain said it will lower highway speed limits, cut train ticket prices and use more biofuel under an emergency energy-saving initiative because of soaring oil prices brought on by the unrest in Libya.
    (AP, 2/25/11)

2011        Feb 26, In Spain Austin Bice (22), a San Diego State University exchange student, was last seen outside the Riviera concert venue and discotheque in Madrid. Bice’s body was pulled out of the Manzanares River in western Madrid on March 8. An autopsy report on his body suggested an accidental death.
    (AP, 3/6/11)(AP, 3/8/11)(AP, 5/10/11)

2011        Feb 28, Spanish nuns in Zaragoza first reported €1.5 million ($2 million) were stolen, then lowered the figure to €400,000 ($556,000). Plastic bags stuffed with cash were stolen from a convent, whose cloistered nuns include one who is a well-paid artist. Sister Isabel is well-known in Spanish art circles for realist-style portraits and still-life paintings. Police later said a judge will probe the possibility of tax evasion.
    (AP, 3/9/11)

2011        Mar 1, Spain announced it had narrowly beaten its target for slashing the public deficit in 2010, critical to the eurozone's fourth largest economy regaining confidence in world financial markets.
    (AFP, 3/1/11)
2011        Mar 1, Spanish police arrested four suspected members of the armed Basque separatist group ETA they believe may have been behind several attacks in recent years.
    (AP, 3/1/11)

2011        Mar 7, Spanish drivers slowed down under a new speed limit designed to reduce energy use, angering some motorists but pleasing others who say every euro saved helps a nation slammed by Libya's oil chaos and Europe's financial crisis.
    (AP, 3/7/11)

2011        Mar 10, In France the suspected leader of the Basque separatist group ETA's armed cells and three other alleged members of the organization were arrested in Willencourt in northern Pas-de-Calais region. They included Alejandro Zobaran Arriola (29), who an Interior Ministry statement described as the head of ETA's "military apparatus." Another was the alleged logistics chief, Mikel Oroz Torrea (31).
    (AP, 3/11/11)

2011        Mar 19, In Spain six firefighters died when their helicopter crashed in a remote region in the northeastern province of Aragon as they flew to try and put out a wildfire. A seventh crew member survived the accident.
    (AP, 3/19/11)

2011        Mar 22, Spain's Parliament overwhelmingly approved the prime minister's decision to take part in the US-led coalition enforcing a no-fly zone over Libya.
    (AP, 3/22/11)

2011        Mar 31, Britain's Prince Charles met with Spanish PM Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero for talks centering on the environment and sustainable development.
    (AP, 3/31/11)

2011        Apr 1, A Spanish court issued an international arrest warrant seeking the extradition of Jorge Sosa Orantes (53), a former Guatemalan soldier for his alleged part in the massacre in the village of Dos Erres in 1982 in which more than 100 people died. Sosa has been in custody in Canada since January on US charges of lying about his role in Guatemala's war when he applied for American citizenship in 2008.
    (AP, 4/4/11)

2011        Apr 2, In Spain tens of thousands of people demonstrated in the troubled Basque region, calling for the government to legalize a new pro-independence party that says it rejects violence by armed separatist group ETA.
    (AP, 4/2/11)

2011        Apr 7, Spain said around 30 former Cuban political prisoners and 200 relatives will be brought to Madrid, the largest group yet to arrive since the two countries agreed to the transfers.
    (AP, 4/7/11)

2011        Apr 8, A total of 37 Cuban ex-political prisoners and more than 200 relatives arrived in Madrid in the largest and last such exodus since Spain started accepting dissidents last summer.
    (AP, 4/8/11)

2011        Apr 10, Police in central France arrested a man and a woman allegedly linked to the Basque separatist group ETA following a pair of weekend shooting incidents against officers that injured at least one.
    (AP, 4/10/11)

2011        Apr 14, Spanish telecoms giant Telefonica said it plans to cut its workforce in Spain by about 20 percent, or some 6,000 people, over the next three years as a cost-cutting measure.
    (AFP, 4/14/11)

2011        Apr 16, Spain’s labor minister warned in a published interview that the number of unemployed could reach a record of more than five million. Spain already had the highest jobless rate among developed countries.
    (AFP, 4/16/11)

2011        Apr 18, Spain raised 4.66 billion euros in short-term debt but had to pay more than previously as Portugal's bailout talks sparked fresh fears over Madrid's ability to stabilize its own public finances.
    (AFP, 4/18/11)

2011        Apr 18, Spanish police arrested Sicilian mafia fugitive Claudio Adriano Giusto (43) after 13 years on the run for murder and robbery. Giusto was accused of shooting and killing Giuseppe Magaddino with a 7.65 mm firearm and then taking his wallet in Italy in March 1998.
    (AFP, 4/20/11)

2011        Apr 20, In Spain the Madrid Superior Court of Justice upheld a ban barring atheists from holding a march on Holy Thursday, saying that would be offensive to Spanish Catholics who mark Easter with processions of their own. The ban was imposed last week by the Interior Ministry office for the Madrid region.
    (AP, 4/21/11)

2011        May 6, Spanish police searched for 22 African migrants missing in the Mediterranean Sea after a packed boat they were traveling in nearly sank.
    (AP, 5/6/11)

2011        May 7, Spanish-born Seve Ballesteros (b.1957), Europe’s greatest golfer, died of brain cancer.
    (Econ, 5/21/11, p.90)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seve_Ballesteros)

2011        May 11, In Spain a pair of temblors, with magnitudes of 4.4 and 5.2, killed nine people and caused extensive damage in Lorca.
    (AP, 5/12/11)

2011        May 13, Spanish regional government authorities said Deyan Valentinov, a homeless Bulgarian man, beheaded Jennifer Mills-Westley (60), a British grandmother of five, in a supermarket on the Spanish resort island of Tenerife in the Canary Islands. The suspect was detained by security guards.
    (AP, 5/13/11)(AP, 5/14/11)

2011        May 17, Spanish wind turbine giant Gamesa said it had won a $2 billion (1.4-billion-euro) deal to supply turbines in India, touting it as one of the largest contracts of its kind in the world.
    (AFP, 5/17/11)

2011        May 19, Thousands of Spaniards defied a ban on a pre-election demonstration and mounted a protest camp in the heart of Madrid to express anger at political parties and the country's handling of the economic crisis. Spain is battling to emerge from nearly two years of recession that has left it with a swollen deficit and a staggering 21.3% unemployment rate.
    (AP, 5/19/11)

2011        May 21, Spanish protesters furious over soaring unemployment remained camped in a Madrid square after all-night festivities in defiance of a 48-hour ban ahead of local elections.
    (AFP, 5/21/11)

2011        May 22, Spain held regional and municipal elections as protesters, fuming over mass unemployment, defied a ban on their swelling movement. The ruling Socialists suffered a crushing defeat to the conservative opposition Popular Party.
    (AFP, 5/22/11)(SFC, 5/23/11, p.A4)

2011        May 27, Spanish police fired rubber bullets and swung truncheons to disperse anti-crisis protesters in a Barcelona square as cleaning crews cleared their tent camp.
    (AFP, 5/27/11)

2011        May 30, A Spanish judge indicted 20 Salvadorans for the November 16, 1989, slaying of six Jesuit priests and two other people during the Central American country's civil war.
    (AP, 5/30/11)
2011        May 30, Russia banned the import of all vegetables from Germany and Spain and warned the sanction could soon be applied to the rest of Europe because of the deadly E. coli bacteria scare. German officials suspect the deadly strain, which has already killed 12 people, may have come from organic cucumbers imported from Spain.
    (AFP, 5/30/11)

2011        May 31, The death from a food-borne bacterial outbreak in Germany rose to 16 with nearly 400 people suffering severe symptoms. Scientists were unsure of which produce and which country was responsible for the unusual E. coli germ.
    (SFC, 6/1/11, p.A2)

2011        Jun 2, Spain's prime minister hit out at the European Commission and Germany for singling out the country's produce as a possible source of a deadly bacterial outbreak in Europe, and said the government would demand explanations and reparations. The World Health Organization said the E. coli bacteria responsible for a mysterious outbreak that has left 18 people dead and sickened hundreds is a new strain that has never been seen before. The illness had now spread to at least 10 European countries and fanned uncertainty about eating tomatoes, cucumbers and lettuce.
    (AP, 6/2/11)

2011        Jun 10, The Spanish government announced it had arrested three men who were suspected of being part of the hacker group known as Anonymous; the men, called “hacktivists,” were charged with organizing and carrying out the hacking of the websites of Sony Corporation, as well as several banks.  
            (Reuters, 6/10/11)

2011        Jun 16, Spain’s National Police arrested Hussein Salem, an Egyptian associate of ousted president Hosni Mubarak, in Mallorca. Police the next day said he had obtained money illegally in Egypt and sent it to accounts in Spain held by his family. Spain froze euro33 million ($47 million) in accounts held by Salem, who is also wanted back home.
    (AP, 6/17/11)

2011        Jun 17, Spain’s attorney general said prosecutors are investigating 849 cases of newborn children stolen from their mothers and sold to other families for profit.
    (AP, 6/17/11)

2011        Jun 19, Spanish protesters of all stripes marched in Madrid to drive home their anger over high unemployment, bleak economic prospects and politicians they see as inept.
    (AP, 6/19/11)

2011        Jun 24, Spain said it will slash the government spending limit by 3.8 percent in 2012 as it fights to lower the public deficit.
    (AFP, 6/24/11)

2011        Jul 6, French police arrested ETA suspect Daniel Derguy on terrorism charges in Cahors.
    (AFP, 7/7/11)

2011        Jul 7, British officers arrested Eneko Gogeaskoetxea Arronategui (44), a suspected Basque separatist, in connection with a 1997 attempted assassination of Spain's King Juan Carlos. The arrest came a day after the arrest of ETA suspect Daniel Derguy on terrorism charges in Cahors, France.
    (AFP, 7/7/11)

2011        Jul 6, In Santiago de Compostela, Spain, the 12th century Calixtinus Codex was reported missing from a strongbox in the cathedral's archive room. The codex is considered the first guide for people making the ancient Christian pilgrimage known as the Camino de Santiago, the Spanish name for the Way of St. James. There were no signs of a break-in. Police believed it was taken the previous week.
    (AP, 7/8/11)

2011        Jul 11, Spanish officials said a surgical team in Valencia, led by Dr. Pedro Cavada, has carried out the world’s first double leg transplant.
    (SFC, 7/12/11, p.A2)

2011        Jul 18, Spain’s Transport Minister Jose Blanco confirmed that a Spanish consortium has won a contract worth 7.0 billion euros ($10 billion) to build a high-speed rail network linking Medina, Jeddah and the Muslim pilgrimage site of Mecca in Saudi Arabia.
    (AFP, 7/19/11)

2011        Jul 23, In Spain several hundred people, angry about their country’s economic crises, protested on the outskirts of Madrid following a month-long march from their hometowns.
    (SSFC, 7/24/11, p.A4)

2011        Aug 2, In Spain a man (74) was charged and killed by the young bull during an early morning bull-run in the northern town of Lodosa.
    (AP, 8/2/11)

2011        Aug 4, In Spain clashes between demonstrators, angry over the government’s austerity program, and police left 7 officers and 13 protesters injured.
    (SSFC, 8/7/11, p.A5)

2011        Aug 6, In Spain thousands of demonstrators angry over the government’s austerity program occupied a central Madrid plaza.
    (SSFC, 8/7/11, p.A5)

2011        Aug 13, Fashion designer Jesus del Pozo (65), one of Spain's most influential style modernizers, died. Del Pozo opened his first outlet in Madrid in 1974, making him a contemporary of Antonio Miro and Adolfo Dominguez. His first collection was unveiled in 1976.
    (AP, 8/14/11)

2011        Aug 15, In Spain 3 children were found dead at a home for disabled kids in Boecillo and a woman (55) who worked there was taken into custody. The children were severely disabled and had very limited mobility.
    (AP, 8/15/11)

2011        Aug 17, In Spain an anti-pope demonstration was held in Madrid. Police had arrested Mexican chemistry student Jose Perez Bautista (24) a day earlier because of threats he made on the Internet against anti-pope demonstrators due to take part in the rally. Bautista was released on Aug 18 but remained under investigation.
    (AP, 8/18/11)

2011        Aug 18, Spanish authorities arrested Aeromexico co-pilot Ruben Garcia Garcia for attempting to smuggle 93 pounds of cocaine into the European country.
    (AP, 8/23/11)
2011        Aug 18, Pope Benedict XVI arrived in Spain for a nearly 4-day visit to celebrate World Youth Day.
    (SFC, 8/18/11, p.A2)

2011        Aug 19, In Spain Pope Benedict XVI lamented what he called modern society's "amnesia" about God as he traveled to a famed Spanish monastery on the second day of his four-day visit for the church's world youth festival.
    (AP, 8/19/11)

2011        Aug 20, In Spain Pope Benedict XVI said he would confer one of the Catholic Church's highest honors on St. John of Avila, an influential 16th-century Spanish saint, making a surprise announcement during a Mass at the church's world youth festival. Pope John Paul II added St. Therese of Lisieux to the list in 1997, the last time one was proclaimed, making her #33.
    (AP, 8/20/11)

2011        Aug 21, In Spain Pope Benedict XVI urged more than 1.5 million young people to become missionaries for the faith as he concluded a glitch-marred church youth festival and announced that the next edition will be in Rio de Janeiro in 2013.
    (AP, 8/21/11)

2011        Aug 31, In Spain tens of thousands of people pelted each other with 120 tons of ripe tomatoes in an annual battle that left the eastern town of Bunol awash in red pulp. The event has its roots in a food fight between childhood friends back in 1945.
    (AP, 8/31/11)

2011        Sep 25, Spain's powerful northeastern region of Catalonia bid farewell to the country's emblematic tradition of bullfighting with a final bash at the Barcelona bullring. A regional ban on the bloody pastime takes effect Jan. 1, 2012.
    (AP, 9/25/11)

2011        Aug, Belgium, France, Italy and Spain introduced bans to prevent the short selling of financial stocks. The EU banned naked shorting of shares in October, effective in Nov, 2012.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, p.88)

2011        Sep 26, Spain's PM Zapatero dissolved Parliament, setting the stage for a Nov. 20 general election that is likely to focus on an economy saddled with 21 percent unemployment, anemic growth and gloomy future prospects.
    (AP, 9/26/11)

2011        Sep 27, Spanish police arrested five Algerians suspected of helping finance an al-Qaida-linked terror group in North Africa. On Oct 1 they were freed by a judge who said there was no significant evidence against them.
    (AP, 9/27/11)(AP, 10/2/11)

2011        Sep 29, In Spain a gunman (34) walked into St. Mary's Church in a middle-class neighborhood of Madrid as about 40 people were waiting for Mass to start. He shot a pregnant woman (36) in the head at point-blank range, then proceeded down the center aisle and shot a woman (52) in the chest, then walked a bit further, knelt down in front of the altar and shot himself dead. The 2nd victim survived. Paramedics cut the baby from the mother and revived him following cardio-respiratory arrest. The victims were apparently shot at random. The infant died on Oct 3.
    (AP, 9/30/11)(AP, 10/4/11)
2011        Sep 29, In Sweden the winners of Right Livelihood Awards, sometimes referred to as the alternative Nobel prizes, were announced. Human rights activist Jacqueline Moudeina of Chad; Spanish-based nonprofit GRAIN; and American midwifery educator Ina May Gaskin will share the euro150,000 ($205,000) cash award. Chinese solar power pioneer Huang Ming received an honorary award for developing "cutting-edge technologies."
    (AP, 9/29/11)

2011        Sep 30, Spain took over savings banks (cajas) valuing their equity at close to zero.
    (Econ, 10/8/11, p.88)

2011        Oct 1, In Spain the Gara newspaper's website said two unidentified spokesmen told it that "Ekin members have ended their endeavors as an organization." Ekin, a civic support organization for the Basque separatist group ETA, was formed in 1999 with the aim of "impelling independence, nation-building and socialism at street level."
    (AP, 10/1/11)

2011        Oct 5, The Spanish Duchess of Alba (85), considered the world's most title-laden noble, married Alfonso Diez, a civil servant 25 years her junior, shrugging off her children's qualms and celebrating by kicking off her shoes and dancing flamenco. Estimates of her wealth ranged from euro600 million ($800 million) to euro3.5 billion ($4.7 billion).
    (AP, 10/6/11)
2011        Oct 5, US defense officials said the Obama administration has agreed to base Aegis Cruisers on Spain's coast, as part of the anti-ballistic missile defense system to protect Europe against a potential Iranian nuclear threat.
    (AP, 10/5/11)

2011        Oct 7, Spain's Queen Sophia started a rare royal visit to Haiti to see some of the aid projects that her country has helped finance in the earthquake-stricken country.
    (AP, 10/7/11)
2011        Oct 7, Spanish bullfighter Juan Jose Padilla (39) was pinned to the ground and gored by a bull in Zaragoza. He is likely to suffer facial paralysis and lose the sight in one eye after a terrifying goring.
    (AP, 10/8/11)

2011        Oct 20, ETA announced it was ceasing its 43-year-long bloody campaign for an independent Basque state in territory straddling northern Spain and southwest France. But the group stopped short of declaring defeat and called on Spain and France to open talks on the conflict.
    (AP, 10/21/11)

2011        Oct 23, In Algeria gunmen kidnapped three aid workers, two Spaniards and an Italian, from the Rabuni refugee camp near Tindouf, injuring one of the hostages and a local guard in the late night attack. Security sources in Nouakchott and Bamako later said those responsible belonged to a Sahrawi wing of the north African Al-Qaeda branch, Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Magreb (AQIM). The group later demanded 30 million euros ($39 million) to free the 3 aid workers held in northern Mali. Spaniards Enric Gonyalons and Ainhoa Fernandez del Rincon and Italian Rossella Urru were released on July 18, 2012, in exchange for three Islamists. The Islamist rebel group that freed them claimed that they also received a ransom of €15 million ($18.4 million).
    (AP, 10/23/11)(AFP, 12/5/11)(AFP, 3/3/12)(AP, 7/19/12)(AP, 7/20/12)

2011        Oct 28, In Spain a man in Valencia went on a stabbing rampage at his apartment building, killing three people and seriously injuring at least two others. The man was arrested, but a motive for the attack was not given.
    (AP, 10/29/11)

2011        Nov 4, British Airways owner IAG said it has agreed to buy Lufthansa's UK unit bmi in a bid to squeeze more growth from its capacity constrained Heathrow hub and expand services to emerging markets in Asia and Latin America.
    (Reuters, 11/4/11)

2011        Nov 20, Spain held a national election. It was expected to become the third eurozone country in as many weeks to throw out its governing party in an attempt to dig itself out of an economic crisis. Opposition leader Mariano Rajoy (56) and his conservative Popular Party were expected to win control of Parliament in a landslide. The Popular Party won 186 seats in the 350-seats lower chamber of Parliament, compared with 154 in the last legislature. The Socialists plummeted from 169 seats to 110, their worst performance ever.
    (AP, 11/20/11)(AP, 11/21/11)

2011        Nov 21, Spain's conservative Popular Party began tackling the gigantic task of lifting the country out of its worst economic crisis in decades, following an overwhelming and historic victory in the general election.
    (AP, 11/21/11)

2011        Dec 2, Spanish police said they have arrested L. Morris (66), a British man, suspected of raping his step-daughter when she was nine years old and years later abusing her daughter as well. He had moved to Spain from Kent where the alleged rapes took place.
    (AFP, 12/2/11)

2011        Dec 14, Amnesty International accused Spanish authorities of using racial and ethnic profiling, with police singling out people who are not white in order to meet quotas.
    (AP, 12/14/11)

2011        Dec 18, Spanish airline Iberia cancelled a third of its flights because of a strike by pilots fearing job losses when company planes are diverted for a planned new budget carrier.
    (SFC, 12/18/11, p.A2)

2011        Dec 28, Spain's scandal-hit royals revealed their detailed income for the first time, showing King Juan Carlos received a salary plus expenses of €292,752 ($382,600) in 2011.
    (AFP, 12/28/11)

2011        Dec 30, Spain’s new PM Mariano Rajoy announced tax rises on income, savings and property. The top tax rate will jump 7 points to 52%.
    (Econ, 1/7/12, p.44)

2011        Spain ranked 133rd in the World Bank’s ranking of how easy it is to start a business.
    (Econ, 11/12/11, SR p.6)

2012        Jan 3, In Spain Ibrahima Dyey (32) of Senegal was shot in the San Marti neighborhood of Barcelona. Dyey’s death led to rioting and the arrest of four members of a Roma family. One of the arrested men had asked a group of youths to stop playing football on the street and after they refused he opened fire on them with a gun, striking Dyey in the chest.
    (AFP, 1/4/12)

2012        Jan 7, In Spain tens of thousands of protesters filled the streets of Bilbao to call for an amnesty that would allow some 700 ETA prisoners to serve out the remainder of their sentences in the Basque region.
    (SSFC, 1/8/12, p.A6)
2012        Jan 7, In Spain Dartmouth College student Crispin Scott was found dead in Barcelona. Police on February 7 detained a suspect.
    (AP, 2/13/12)

2012        Jan 12, El Salvador's government said it has received a formal request from Spain for the extradition of 13 former military officers accused in the 1989 slayings of six Jesuit priests and two other people. Two other officers were in the United States.
    (AP, 1/12/12)

2012        Jan 14, In Spain Jose Luis Alvarez Enparantza (b.1927), one of the founders of Basque separatist group ETA, died. His work "Leturiaren Egunkari Ezkutua" is regarded as the first modern novel written in Basque.
    (AP, 1/14/12)

2012        Jan 15, Spain’s Interior Ministry said French police acting alongside Spanish counterparts have arrested three men at a railway station in France on suspicion of belonging to Basque separatist group ETA. They were identified as Jon Echeverria Oyarbide (33), Ruben Rivero Campo, and Inigo Sancho Marco.
    (AP, 1/15/12)
2012        Jan 15, In Spain Manuel Fraga Iribarne (89), the founder Spain's ruling conservative party, died. He was the last surviving minister from Gen. Francisco Franco's right-wing regime.
    (AP, 1/16/12)

2012        Jan 21, In eastern Spain a flaming-horned bull trampled and fatally gored a man during a festival in Navajas. Catalonia had legislation protecting flaming bulls, despite a ban that took effect on Jan 1.
    (AP, 1/21/12)

2012        Jan 26, In Spain Andrew Robert Levene (41), an American man accused of killing a jewelry store owner in the US and stealing $300,000 (euro228,000) in diamonds before fleeing to Europe, was found hanged in his prison cell in the Modelo prison in Barcelona.
    (AP, 1/27/12)

2012        Jan 27, Fitch ratings downgraded the debt of Belgium, Cyprus, Italy, Slovenia and Spain even as European finance chiefs gathering in Davos sought to reassure global business leaders that Europe is on track to solve its debt crises.
    (SFC, 1/27/12, p.A4)

2012        Jan 29, In Spain thousands of protesters, including artists, politicians and union members, marched in downtown Madrid in support of Baltasar Garzon, a judge who is on trial for allegedly overstepping his jurisdiction by probing atrocities stemming from Spain's civil war.
    (AP, 1/29/12)

2012        Feb 9, Spanish judge Baltasar Garzon (56), celebrated for pursuing international human rights cases, was convicted of overstepping his jurisdiction in a domestic corruption probe and barred from the bench for 11 years.
    (AP, 2/9/12)
2012        Feb 9, Spanish police arrested 3 members of the Serbian paramilitary group known as "Arkan's Tigers" as well as belonging to Zemun Clan. They included Vladimir Milisavljevic, who had been a fugitive for five years after being convicted in absentia for the March 12, 2003, assassination of Serbia’s PM Zoran Djindjic. Milisavljevic was convicted in 2007 and sentenced in absentia in Serbia to 35 years for his involvement in the assassination of Djindjic and to another 40 years for other crimes. Luka Bojovic (39) and Sinisa Petric were also arrested. Bojovic was wanted in connection with 20 murders in Serbia, the Netherlands and Spain.
    (AP, 2/10/12)

2012        Feb 10, Spain’s new conservative government approved sweeping labor market reforms as part of a drive to revive the economy and reduce the nearly 23% unemployment.
    (SFC, 2/11/12, p.A2)

2012        Feb 12, In Spain some ten thousands people took to the streets of Madrid in support of Baltasar Garzon, a judge who won global fame for taking on international human rights cases, but has now been barred from the bench for ordering jailhouse wiretaps.
    (AP, 2/12/12)

2012        Feb 13, Spain's Supreme Court threw out a case against recently barred magistrate Baltasar Garzon in which he was suspected of improperly receiving money while on sabbatical in New York in 2005-2006. The court cited a three-year statute of limitations on bribery charges. Garzon awaited a verdict in a third case for allegedly overstepping jurisdiction by launching a 2008 probe of right-wing atrocities during and after the 1936-1939 Spanish civil war.
    (AP, 2/13/12)

2012        Feb 16, The US returned shipwreck treasure from the Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes, which sank off the coast of Portugal in 1804, to Spain. Odyssey marine Exploration of Tampa, Florida, salvaged treasure from the ship in 2007 at a cost of $2.6 million. Spain had agreed to pay $20 for each coin found on the ship. Some 594,000 silver coins and a couple hundred gold coins were found.
    (SFC, 6/11/12, p.E1)

2012        Feb 19, In Spain hundreds of thousands of protesters marched in 57 cities in a show of anger over new labor reforms that make it easier for companies to fire workers and pull out of collective bargaining agreements.
    (SFC, 2/20/12, p.A2)

2012        Feb 25, In Spain Inaki Urdangarin, the Duke of Palma and son-in-law of King Juan Carlos, arrived at a courthouse on Palma de Mallorca island, to face corruption charges. He was suspected of using his high-profile status to win contracts from regional governments for a nonprofit foundation he ran, then subcontract the work to companies he also oversaw, sometimes charging the public ridiculously inflated prices and stashing at least some of the income in overseas tax havens.
    (AP, 2/24/12)

2012        Feb 27, In Spain Baltasar Garzon (56), the embattled superstar judge known for taking on high-profile international human rights cases, was acquitted on charges of overstepping his jurisdiction by launching an investigation into right-wing atrocities during and after the 1936-1939 Spanish Civil War.
    (AP, 2/27/12)

2012        Mar 2, Leaders of 25 EU countries signed a new treaty in Brussels designed to limit government overspending. Spain’s PM Mariano Rajoy said he would miss deficit targets this year to spare his country from austerity overload.
    (SFC, 3/3/12, p.A2)

2012        Mar 11, In Spain hundreds of thousands of people across the country took part in demonstrations called by trade unions to protest the government’s tough new labor reforms.
    (SFC, 3/12/12, p.A2)

2012        Mar 27, Spanish police arrested a suspected member of al-Qaida, identified as M.H.A. M.H.A. – born in Jordan with Saudi citizenship, who was key to the terror group's Internet propaganda and recruiting operations.
    (AP, 3/27/12)

2012        Mar 26, A Spanish court dropped a rape probe against a Saudi prince who is one of the world's richest people, saying his accuser's allegations are inconsistent and do not stand up. The ruling cleared Prince Alwaleed bin Talal (57) and was released today by a court in Palma in Spain's Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean. The drugging and sexual assault of a young Spanish model was alleged to have occurred aboard a yacht moored at the island of Ibiza in the wee hours of Aug 12, 2008.
    (AP, 3/29/12)

2012        Mar 29, Spain’s National Court handed fines of about $1,170 to each of three members of the Ardor de Estomago (Heartburn) rock band for insulting King Juan Carlos.
    (SFC, 3/30/12, p.A2)

2012        Apr 9, In Spain four people died in a fire that destroyed a makeshift hut in which they were living in the northeastern city of Barcelona. Spanish National Radio cited police at the scene as saying they were Romanians.
    (AP, 4/9/12)

2012        Apr 13, Spanish officials warned Argentina that the country risks becoming "an international pariah" if it follows through on its threats to nationalize Spanish-owned energy company Repsol's majority stake in its South American YPF unit. concern" YPF represents 42 percent of Repsol's total reserves, estimated at 2.1 billion barrels of crude.
    (AP, 4/13/12)

2012        Apr 13, Spain's King Juan Carlos (74) was injured while on an expensive elephant hunting trip in Botswana amid the nation's deep financial woes. The accident required a hip replacement and led to scathing criticism amid the nation's deep financial woes.
    (AP, 4/15/12)

2012        Apr 16, Argentina’s President Cristina Fernandez pushed forward a bill to renationalize the country's largest oil company despite fierce criticism from abroad and the risk of a major rift with Spain.
    (AP, 4/17/12)

2012        Apr 18, Spain's King Juan Carlos apologized for having gone elephant-hunting in Africa while everyday people endure a severe economic crisis.
    (AP, 4/18/12)

2012        Apr 20, The European Union parliament condemned Argentina's move to seize control of the YPF division of Spanish oil and gas giant Repsol and demanded that EU takes action against Buenos Aires at the World Trade Organization.
    (AP, 4/20/12)

2012        Apr 23, Ferrovial-owned BAA said it had agreed to sell Edinburgh airport to Global Infrastructure Partners (GIP) for 807 million pounds ($1.3 billion), adding the Scottish hub to an investment portfolio that includes London's Gatwick and City airports.
    (Reuters, 4/23/12)

2012        Apr 29, In Spain tens of thousands of people protested against education and health care cuts as the country suffered its 2nd recession in three years.
    (SFC, 4/30/12, p.A2)

2012        May 9, Spain’s government nationalized Banco Financiero y de Ahorros (BFA), parent of Bankia, the largest property lender in the country.
    (Econ, 5/12/12, p.79)

2012        May 12, In Spain masses of chanting "indignant" activists poured into the streets across the country in a vast show of strength one year on from igniting a global protest against economic injustice. The marches, held in 80 cities and towns across Spain, launched a four-day protest that will end on May 15, the anniversary of the movement's birth -- dubbed 15-M.
    (AFP, 5/12/12)

2012        May 18, Spanish company Repsol said an exploratory oil well off the northern coast of Cuba has proved a failure and will be capped and abandoned, a disappointment for a cash-strapped nation hoping for an economic lifeline.
    (AP, 5/18/12)

2012        May 22, In Spain teachers and students from every level of the education system went on strike to protest wide-ranging government spending cuts.
    (AP, 5/22/12)

2012        May 26, Spain's fourth biggest lender, Bankia, prepared to sell stakes it holds in companies to meet European competition rules after a state rescue that has so far cost 23.5 billion euros ($29.40 billion). A day earlier Bankia sought 19 billion euros ($24 billion) in bailout money from the Spanish government. The loan will count as sovereign debt.
    (Econ, 6/16/12, p.27)(http://tinyurl.com/8xqxzmk)

2012        Jun 5, The Solar Impulse, an experimental solar-powered plane, took off from Madrid en route to Morocco for the 2nd leg of a bid to complete its first transcontinental flight.
    (AP, 6/5/12)

2012        Jun 8, In Britain 6 men were handed jail sentences for running a website, Confidential Access, that earned millions of pounds by selling fake documents and coaching fraudsters in how to conduct successful scams. Two masterminds ran the site from villas in Alicante in Spain while associates in Britain created fake documents including bank statements, pay slips, driving licenses and bills.
    (AFP, 6/9/12)

2012        Jun 9, Euro zone finance ministers agreed to lend Spain up to 100 billion euros ($125 billion) to help its battered banks.
    (Reuters, 6/10/12)(SSFC, 6/10/12, p.A6)

2012        Jun 27, Spanish scientists reported evidence that dinosaurs were warm-blooded, despite being reptiles.
    (SFC, 6/28/12, p.A1)

2012        Jul 10, Spanish coal miners angered by huge cuts in subsidies converged on Madrid for protest rallies after walking nearly three weeks under a blazing sun from the pits where they eke out a living.
    (AP, 7/10/12)

2012        Jul 11, Spanish riot police fired rubber bullets at coal miners protesting in the streets of Madrid over subsidy cuts they fear will jeopardize their meager livelihood.
    (AP, 7/11/12)

2012        Jul 13, Spanish civil servants, some dressed in mourning, took to the streets to protest the latest round of government austerity measures and their second wage cut in as many years.
    (AP, 7/13/12)

2012        Jul 17, Spain successfully tapped bond market investors for €3.6 billion ($4.4 billion) in the first debt auction since the government's latest package of spending cuts and tax increases.
    (AP, 7/17/12)

2012        Jul 19, In Spain tens of thousands protested in 80 cities throughout the country against the government’s latest austerity package.
    (SFC, 7/20/12, p.A2)

2012        Jul 20, Finance ministers from the 17 countries that use the euro unanimously approved the terms for a bailout loan for Spanish banks of up to €100 billion ($122.9 billion).
    (AP, 7/20/12)

2012        Jul 22, In Spain a vacationing French family of five jumped off a seaside cliff in a desperate attempt to escape a raging wildfire in Portbou, with the father and one of his children plummeting some 50 meters (165 feet) to their deaths. Two other people were also killed by the weekend fires in northeastern Spain.
    (AP, 7/23/12)
2012        Jul 22, Cuban activist Oswaldo Paya (60) died in a car crash in La Gavina. Fellow activist, Harold Cepero Escalante, was also killed. Paya had spent decades speaking out against the communist government of Fidel and Raul Castro and became one of the most powerful voices of dissent against their half-century rule. Cuba later charged Angel Carromero, a Spanish citizen and the driver of the car, with homicide while driving a vehicle on public roads. On Dec 14 Spain's Deputy PM Soraya Saenz de Santamaria said that Carromero would be returning to Spain to complete his 4-year sentence, but did not give an exact date.
    (AP, 7/23/12)(AP, 7/31/12)(AP, 12/14/12)

2012        Jul 23, Spain's market regulator says it has temporarily banned short-selling of shares on its stock indexes owing to volatility in Spanish and European markets. It noted that Italy took similar steps today.
    (AP, 7/23/12)

2012        Aug 1, Spain‘s police arrested three suspected members of al-Qaida (a Russian, a Russian of Chechen descent, and a Turk), who had amassed explosives and may have been plotting attacks in Spain or elsewhere in Europe. Two of them had practiced flying light aircraft.
    (AFP, 8/2/12)

2012        Aug 8, Britain arrested Spaniard Kemen Uranga Artola (43) in London suspected of being a member of the Basque separatist group ETA. Media reports said Uranga is suspected of the murder of a judge, Jose Maria Lidon, who was killed by an ETA group in 2001.
    (Reuters, 8/8/12)

2012        Aug 12, Spain’s regional governments reported 10 wildfires raging across the country, including fires on the Canary islands of La Gomera and Tenerife.
    (AP, 8/12/12)

2012        Aug 13, In Spain 2 firefighters died over the last 24 hours from injuries sustained in battling a wildfire in the eastern province of Alicante, while hundreds were evacuated by boat to escape a fire raging on the Canary Island of La Gomera.
    (AP, 8/13/12)

2012        Aug 28, In Spain the regional government of Catalonia said it needed a $6.3 billion government rescue.
    (Economist, 9/1/12, p.54)

2012        Aug 31, Spain’s FROB, a bank rescue fund set up to help the deeply troubled financial sector, said it will immediately inject financial aid into Bankia after the troubled lender announced losses of €4.4 billion ($5.6 billion) in the first half of the year.
    (AP, 8/31/12)

2012        Sep 4, Spain’s government lifted a 6-year ban on televising live bullfights.
    (SFC, 9/5/12, p.A2)
2012        Sep 4, Spanish police evicted more than 80 illegal migrants that had occupied Isla de Tierra, a tiny island off Africa's Mediterranean coast.
    (AFP, 9/4/12)

2012        Sep 6, The European Central Bank unveiled a new bond-buying program that is largely designed to keep a lid on Spain’s borrowing rates.
    (AP, 9/7/12)

2012        Sep 11, In Spain some 1.5 million protesters flooded the streets of Barcelona to demand the independence of the Catalonia region.
    (SFC, 9/12/12, p.A2)

2012        Sep 18, Santiago Carrillo (b.1915), former leader of Spain’s Communist Party (1960-1982), died in Madrid. In 2014 Pauil Preston authored “The Last Stalinist: The Life of Santiago Carrillo.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santiago_Carrillo)(Econ, 9/13/14, p.90)

2012        Sep 15, In Spain tens of thousands of people from all over the country converged on Madrid to hold a large anti-austerity demonstration.
    (AP, 9/15/12)

2012        Sep 25, Spanish police arrested 38 people and 64 people injured when officers clashed with protesters demonstrating against austerity cutbacks and tax hikes. Catalonia’s president said that his region will hold early elections on Nov 25.
    (AP, 9/26/12)(Economist, 9/29/12, p.16)

2012        Sep 26, In Madrid thousands of angry protesters again swarmed as close as they could get night to Parliament, watched by a heavy contingent of riot police. There was no fresh violence. They demanded the release of people detained the previous evening and new elections to oust PM Mariano Rajoy and his conservative government, which has imposed cutbacks and tax hikes, deepening the gloom in a country struggling with recession and unemployment of nearly 25 percent.
    (AP, 9/26/12)

2012        Sep 27, Spain outlined plans to reduce government spending and raise taxes to convince international lenders and financial markets it is on track to cut deficits. Spain’s government warned it will stop a Catalonia referendum on self-determination after the regional parliament voted to stage such a referendum with a view of possibly seceding.
    (AP, 9/27/12)(SFC, 9/28/12, p.A2)

2012        Sep 28, In Spain a tornado swept through a fair ground in Gandia, Valencia state, knocking down a Ferris wheel and injuring 35 people. Flooding in the same southern region left 10 people dead.
    (AP, 9/29/12)

2012        Oct 3, Spanish police arrested a man on suspicion that he planned to imitate the 1999 Columbine school killings by planting bombs around a university campus. Police seized 140 kilograms (308 pounds) of bomb-making material when they arrested the 21-year-old man in the Balearic island city of Palma de Mallorca.
    (AP, 10/4/12)

2012        Oct 5, The Spanish government agreed to participate in NATO's anti-missile shield that will see specialized United States warships based at a Spanish base already used by the US Navy.
    (AP, 10/5/12)

2012        Oct 7, In Spain thousands of people marched in 56 cities to protest punishing austerity cuts they say will only increase unemployment and job insecurity in a country suffering from its second recession in three years and record high unemployment.
    (AP, 10/7/12)

2012        Oct 10, The Spanish Red Cross launched its first-ever campaign for donations to help Spaniards hit by economic crisis, in a sign of how needy this nation has become.
    (AP, 10/10/12)

2012        Oct 22, Spain’s national statistics institute reported that 21.1% of the nation’s 47 million population lives below the poverty line, set at an annual $9,610.
    (SFC, 10/23/12, p.A2)

2012        Oct 28, French police arrested Izaskun Lesaka (37) and another suspected ETA member, Joseba Iturbide Ochoteco (35), in a hotel in Macon. Police said Lesaka was considered one of ETA's top three leaders and that police also seized abundant computer equipment and a stolen car with false number plates.
    (AP, 10/28/12)

2012        Oct 30, A Spanish judge indicted 6 Chileans and an American accused of the 1976 kidnapping, torture and murder of Carmelo Soria, a Spanish UN official in Chile. International arrest warrants were issued for them to be tried in Spain. The American named was Michael Townley, who served five years in a US prison for complicity in the 1976 assassination in Washington of former Chilean Ambassador Orlando Letelier and his assistant.
    (AP, 10/31/12)

2012        Oct 31, Spanish infrastructure company Ferrovial said an arm of China's sovereign wealth fund has taken a 10 percent stake in the holding company controlling Britain's largest airport Heathrow.
    (AP, 10/31/12)

2012        Nov 1, In Spain an early morning stampede at Madrid Arena, where thousands of people were attending a Halloween party, killed 3 women and critically injured 2. Someone had set off a flare or a firework, causing the stampede.
    (AP, 11/1/12)

2012        Nov 9, In Spain Amaia Egana (53) threw herself from her fourth-floor balcony as bailiffs arrived to repossess her flat. PM Mariano Rajoy said government will aim to fast track reforms to halt evictions related to mortgage.
    (AP, 11/10/12)

2012        Nov 12, Spain’s major banks agreed to suspend evictions for two years of the most financially vulnerable homeowners.
    (SFC, 11/13/12, p.A2)

2012        Nov 14, Workers across the European Union sought to present a united front against rampant unemployment and government spending cuts with a string of strikes and demonstrations across the region. In Belgium a 24-hour rail stoppage and scattered strikes through the south of the nation disrupted daily life. A Spanish strike shut down most schools and while hospitals operated with a skeleton staff. In Portugal the second general strike in eight months left commuters stranded as trains ground to a virtual halt.
    (AP, 11/14/12)

2012        Nov 25, Spanish voters in Catalonia choosing lawmakers for parliament amid a threat from Catalan leader Artur Mas to hold an independence referendum that would test the country's unity. Catalonia voters showed that they want the right to decide on possible independence, but split their votes between fractious separatist parties, making that overall goal less likely than ever.
    (AP, 11/25/12)(AP, 11/26/12)

2012        Dec 12, Spanish authorities said they have arrested a Panamanian woman arriving at Barcelona airport from Bogota, Colombia, with 1.38 kg (3 pounds) of cocaine concealed in breast implants.
    (AP, 12/12/12)

2012        Dec 18, In Spain thousands of people hit the streets to protest government spending cuts as the PM Mariano Rajoy defended austerity measures. Unemployment was at 25%.
    (SFC, 12/18/12, p.A4)

2012        Dec 30, Spain's Interior Ministry said police have arrested 17 people on suspicion of smuggling Nigerian women into Spain and forcing them into prostitution using threats including claims they would cast Voodoo spells on them if they didn't comply.
    (AP, 12/30/12)

2013        Jan 3, The Basque nationalist group known as Batasuna, legal in France but banned in Spain, announced that it is dissolving after 11 years.
    (AP, 1/3/13)

2013        Jan 6, Spain’s “El Nino” lottery showered €840 million ($1.1 billion) on top ticket holders in five regions as the country endured a deep recession and high unemployment.
    (AP, 1/6/13)

2013        Jan 11, Spanish police said they have arrested two people and seized equipment they say was due to be shipped to Iran for use in Tehran's nuclear program.
    (AP, 1/11/13)

2013        Jan 17, British, Norwegian and Spanish oil companies evacuated workers from Algerian energy facilities following the hostage-taking by Islamic militants in the Sahara desert and Algeria's attempt to free them.
    (AP, 1/17/13)

2013        Jan 18, Spain's central bank said the level of bad debt in the country's banks rose to a new record 11.38 percent in November, up from 11.23 percent in October. It was the 17th monthly increase in a row.
    (AP, 1/18/13)

2013        Jan, Spanish papers reported that slush money had flowed liberally for at least two decades through the headquarters of the Popular Party, led by PM Mariano Rajoy. Much of the money came from construction magnates who received public contracts and helped inflate Spain’s disastrous real-estate bubble.
    (Econ, 2/9/13, p.51)

2013        Feb 10, Acclaimed Spanish writer Antonio Munoz Molina said he will accept the prestigious Jerusalem Prize, an Israeli award given to authors, despite calls from pro-Palestinian activists to boycott the Jewish state.
    (AP, 2/10/13)

2013        Feb 13, Spanish authorities announced the breakup of a cybercrime gang that used a “ransomware” virus to lock computers throughout Europe. The gang had made at least $1.35 annually.
    (SFC, 2/14/13, p.A2)

2013        Feb 21, Spain’s Ferrovial, a construction and services company, announced that it would buy Enterprise, a British provider of municipal services, for £385 mil ($608m).
    (Econ, 3/9/13, p.68)

2013        Mar 1, The Spanish government said it will challenge a recent declaration by lawmakers in Catalonia that the region is a sovereign entity.
    (AP, 3/1/13)

2013        Mar 22, Spain’s restructuring fund, the FROB, imposed haircuts of up to 61% as it turned junior debt and preference shares in 4 nationalized banks (Bankia, Catalunya Banc, Banco Gallego, and NCG Banco) into equity.
    (Econ, 3/30/13, p.72)

2013        Mar 23, Spanish, Portuguese and British police boarded a ship loaded with nearly two tons of cocaine destined for sale in Europe and arrested nine people. The ship was in the Atlantic Ocean, some 700 miles southwest of Portugal's Cape Verde islands.
    (AP, 3/24/13)

2013        Mar, Norway expelled the leadership of the Basque Homeland and Liberty (ETA) separatists.
    (http://tinyurl.com/qd8kbqg)(Econ, 8/17/13, p.46)

2013        Apr 3, Spain's Princess Cristina (47), daughter of King Juan Carlos, was charged in a corruption inquiry amid evidence that she was an accomplice to her husband, Inaki Urdangarin, who has been accused of tax fraud and embezzling 6 million euros in public funds when he headed a charitable foundation.
    (Reuters, 4/3/13)

2013        Apr 14, In Spain thousands of people demonstrated against the monarchy in Madrid.
    (SFC, 4/15/13, p.A2)

2013        Apr 23, Spanish police were reported to have arrested two suspected members of al-Qaida's North African branch. Nou Mediouni (23), an Algerian, was arrested in Zaragoza, while Hassan El Jaaouani (52), a Moroccan, was arrested in Murcia. Neither was known to possess any explosives nor be planning any attack.
    (AP, 4/23/13)

2013        Apr, Spain’s government passed legislation to stop banks foreclosing until mortgages are 3 months in arrears. Poorer families have 2 years.
    (Econ, 4/27/13, p.52)

2013        May 2, Spanish police said they have arrested 30 suspects who allegedly smuggled drugs into Spain through the southern coast using boats and jet skis.
    (AP, 5/2/13)

2013        May 7, A Spanish court withdrew a subpoena for King Juan Carlos' daughter, Princess Cristina (47), as a suspect in a corruption case, following an appeal by prosecutors.
    (AP, 5/7/13)

2013        May 10, British fugitive Andrew Terence Moran (31) was taken into custody in Spain's eastern town of Calpe. He was accused of taking part in the armed robbery of 25,000 pounds from a mail van in England in 2005, then escaping from security guards during his UK trial four years ago.
    (AP, 5/13/13)

2013        May 15, Dutch sociologist Saskia Sassen was awarded Spain's Prince of Asturias social sciences prize for her work in the field of globalization and urban sociology. The jury said that one of her greatest scientific contributions was "her concept of the 'global city', now accepted and used worldwide."
    (AP, 5/15/13)

2013        May 24, In Spain the Catholic Archdiocese in Madrid said it needed more exorcists to help some of its faithful cope with the devil.
    (SFC, 5/25/13, p.A2)
2013        May 24, Arthur Budovsky, the founder of Liberty Reserve, a Costa Rica-based digital currency system long favored by cybercrime scammers, was arrested in Spain. A defendant identified as Budovsky's partner, Vladimir Kats, was in custody in New York. Budovsky was soon indicted in the United States along with six other people in a $6 billion money-laundering scheme described as "staggering" in its scope.
    (AP, 5/29/13)(SFC, 5/29/13, p.D1)

2013        May 29, The EU granted France, Spain, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and Slovenia more time to bring their budget deficits under control to support the bloc's shrinking economy. The European Commission approved France’s request to postpone by 2 years the target of cutting its budget deficit to 3% of GDP.
    (AP, 5/29/13)(Econ, 6/1/13, p.55)

2013        Jun 21, Spanish police arrested eight people suspected of recruiting jihadist militants for al-Qaida-linked groups in Syria. The arrests were made in the Spanish enclave of Ceuta on the northwest African coast.
    (AP, 6/21/13)
2013        Jun 21, A Spanish court sentenced Joan Vila (48), a former nursing home worker, to prison after a jury found him guilty of murdering 11 elderly residents by forcing them to drink toxic liquids. The killings happened in 2009 and 2010 at a nursing home in the small northeastern city of Olot
    (AP, 6/21/13)

2013        Jun 26, The board of Spanish energy giant Repsol rejected a $5 billion offer of compensation from Argentina for the company's YPF unit that the country seized last year. In December Repsol accepted the government offer of $5 billion to avoid arbitration.
    (AP, 6/26/13)(Econ, 11/30/13, p.36)

2013        Jun 30, In Spain Aurea Vazquez Rijos, accused of hiring someone to kill her wealthy Canadian husband in Puerto Rico on Sep 23, 2005, was arrested by Spanish police after being sought for five years in the alleged murder-for-hire scheme.
    (AP, 6/30/13)

2013        Jul 7, In Spain several thousand thrill-seekers tested their bravery by dashing alongside six fighting bulls through the streets of of Pamplona on the first day of the running of the bulls at the annual San Fermin festival. Only four people were treated for injuries and no one was gored.
    (AP, 7/7/13)

2013        Jul 12, In Spain an American and two Spaniards were gored during a danger-filled sixth bull run of the San Fermin festival, with one loose bull causing panic in the packed streets of the city of Pamplona.
    (AP, 7/12/13)

2013        Jul 13, In Spain the penultimate bull run of the San Fermin festival left at least 23 people injured. Two of the injuries were gorings.
    (AP, 7/13/13)

2013        Jul 14, In Spain a bull gored an Australian woman (23) and left her seriously injured during the final run of this year's annual San Fermin festival. 4 other runners were hospitalized with cuts and bruises.
    (AP, 7/14/13)

2013        Jul 15, Spain’s former treasurer Luis Barcenas began talking about about two decades of illicit Popular party (PP) financing.
    (Econ, 7/20/13, p.48)

2013        Jul 16, Spanish police said they have arrested Brian Charrington, a Briton suspected of leading a drug-trafficking organization, describing him as one of Europe's top 10 most wanted criminals. He was arrested along with his girlfriend and son as part of a police operation in which 13 people were detained between Spain and Venezuela.
    (Reuters, 7/16/13)

2013        Jul 18, In Spain thousands of protesters demanding the resignation of PM Mariano Rajoy demonstrated in Madrid. What started as a peaceful event turned violent toward midnight after riot police clashed with some protesters, resulting in at least several people arrested and injured.
    (AP, 7/18/13)

2013        Jul 23, Spanish police arrested 25 members of the Hells Angels motorcycle gang on the Mediterranean resort island of Mallorca. Police said they were wanted for suspected drug trafficking, trafficking in human beings, extortion, money laundering and corruption.
    (AP, 7/24/13)

2013        Jul 24, A Spanish train hurtled off the rails and smashed into a security wall as it rounded a bend near Santiago de Compostela. 79 people were killed in the country’s deadliest wreck in four decades. The train was carrying 218 passengers in eight carriages when it crashed. Later reports said the driver was taking on the phone and reading a document.
    (AP, 7/25/13)(SFC, 7/31/13, p.A2)

2013        Jul 26, Spanish police detained Francisco Jose Garzon Amo (52), the driver of a July 24 train crash. The death was lowered toll from 80 to 78 and authorities took possession of the "black box" of the train hoping to shed light on why it was going faster than the speed limit on the curve where it derailed. The train was later reported to have been traveling at 95-mph, far above the 50-mph speed limit on the curve where it crashed killing 79 people.  
    (AP, 7/26/13)(SFC, 7/27/13, p.A5)(SFC, 7/31/13, p.A2)

2013        Jul 27, In Spain a youth (16) was gored in the back while celebrating the Apostle James feast at Isso, 322 km (200 miles) southeast of Madrid.
    (AP, 7/28/13)

2013        Aug 1, Spain’s PM Mariano Rajoy told lawmakers that his government would toughen up corruption laws and rules for the allocation of public contracts, in the wake of a corruption scandal.
    (Reuters, 8/1/13)

2013        Aug 3, Morocco’s King Mohamed VI revoked a pardon granted on July 30 to Spanish pedophile Daniel Fino Galvan. Galvan, already back in Spain, was soon arrested by Spanish authorities.
    (Reuters, 8/6/13)

2013        Aug 10, Spain’s Interior Ministry said that 75 people have been arrested in a joint operation by Spanish and French police. They included 51 in Spain and 24 in France. Two Barcelona-based suspected heads of the gang, that allegedly smuggled Chinese citizens into Europe and the United States, were among those arrested.
    (AP, 8/10/13)

2013        Aug 15, Rosalia Mera (69), Spain's richest woman, died in La Coruna. The former seamstress and her then-husband, Armancio Ortega co-founded a clothing store in 1975 in La Coruna that grew into Zara, one of the world's largest retail chains. Ortega is listed by Forbes as the world's third-richest person.
    (AP, 8/16/13)

2013        Aug 16, British PM David Cameron asked European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso to "urgently" send monitors to Gibraltar's border with Spain where tightened security checks are fuelling a row between the two countries.
    (Reuters, 8/16/13)

2013        Aug 18, Spanish fishermen in some 60 fishing boats protested the building of an artificial reef near the disputed British territory of Gibraltar.
    (AP, 8/18/13)

2013        Aug 27, In Portugal and Spain firefighters and local residents struggled to tackle raging wildfires that have consumed large swathes of forest, claiming the lives of 4 emergency workers. Almost 31,000 hectares (77,000 acres) of Portugal's countryside has already been destroyed by fire this year.
    (AFP, 8/27/13)

2013        Aug 28, In Spain some 20,000 revelers pelted each other with 130 tons (286 pounds) of squashed tomatoes in a rain-drenched annual Spanish food fight known as the Tomatina, but this year they had to pay to join the fun.
    (AFP, 8/28/13)

2013        Sep 2, Spanish police said they have arrested a gang of 10 bank robbers in Madrid who used the drains to enter and flee from bank branches.
    (AFP, 9/2/13)

2013        Sep 11, Thousands of Catalan separatists gathered to try to form a 400 Km (250 mile) human chain across the region and renew pressure for a referendum on breaking away from Spain.
    (Reuters, 9/11/13)

2013        Sep 16, In Syria an al-Qaida linked group kidnapped Xavier Espinosa, a Spanish journalist, and photographer Ricardo Garcia Vilanova. Both men were released on March 30, 2014.
    (SFC, 12/11/13, p.A2)(AP, 3/30/14)

2013        Sep 17, Hundreds of Africans seeking to enter Europe made a coordinated assault on the triple wall that divides Spanish enclave Melilla from Morocco, with about a hundred of them getting over.
    (Reuters, 9/17/13)

2013        Sep 30, A Spanish man (39) confessed to killing his younger brother with a hammer, cutting up the body and putting the remains in the freezer after a tempestuous year of sharing the same home.
    (AFP, 9/30/13)

2013        Oct 4, A Spanish court convicted 53 people in the country’s biggest corruption trial. The two year trial centered on widespread real estate fraud and bribery in the resort town of Marbella.
    (SFC, 10/5/13, p.A2)

2013        Oct 5, In northern Spain tens of thousands of people took to the streets to protest a crackdown on an association that aids jailed members of armed Basque separatist group ETA.
    (AFP, 10/5/13)

2013        Oct 12, In Spain thousands of people gathered in Barcelona to demonstrate against a proposed Catalonia split away from Spain.
    (SSFC, 10/13/13, p.A3)

2013        Oct 13, The Vatican beatified 522 people — mostly priests and nuns — who were killed in the turmoil that led to Spain's 1936-39 civil war.
    (AP, 10/13/13)

2013        Oct 17, Spanish police said they have arrested 17 people for their role in stealing watches worth 23 million euros ($31 million) in Dec 2012, resolving one of the country's biggest jewelry heists.
    (AP, 10/17/13)

2013        Oct 18, In Spain Luis Barcenas, the jailed former financial chief of the ruling Popular Party, said he personally handed thousands of euros to the party's current secretary general as part of an off-the-books payment scheme he acknowledges he ran.
    (AP, 10/18/13)

2013        Oct 21, Europe's top human rights court ordered Spain to release a Basque separatist militant, saying her extended detention was illegal, a ruling victims groups warned would let dozens of prisoners walk free. Ines del Rio was jailed in 1989 for her role in 23 assassinations and car bombings carried out by the Basque independence movement ETA.
    (Reuters, 10/21/13)
2013        Oct 21, Spain's oil company Repsol announced a high quality light oil find in Libya's Sahara Desert.
    (AP, 10/21/13)

2013        Oct 22, Spanish judges ordered ETA prisoner Ines del Rio freed after Europe's rights court ruled against her prolonged detention, opening the way to the release of dozens of other violent Basque separatists.
    (AP, 10/22/13)

2013        Oct 27, In Spain several thousand people gathered in downtown Madrid to protest the release from jail of Basque separatists, convicted of attacks but freed under a European Court of Human Rights ruling.
    (AP, 10/27/13)

2013        Oct 28, A Spanish newspaper published a document that it said shows the US National Security Agency spied on more than 60 million phone calls in Spain in one month alone — the latest revelation about alleged massive US spying on allies.
    (AP, 10/28/13)
2013        Oct 28, In northern Spain 6 miners died and five others were injured after a gas leak at a coal mine at the Santa Lucia mine near the town of Pola de Gordon.
    (AP, 10/28/13)

2013        Oct, In Spain all the factories of appliance-maker Fagor ceased operations. Fagor was part of Mondragon, the world’s biggest group of worker-owned co-operatives.
    (Econ, 11/9/13, p.72)

2013        Nov 2, Britain’s Guardian newspaper reported that spy agencies in Germany, France, Spain and Sweden are carrying out mass surveillance of online and phone traffic in collaboration with Britain, according to documents leaked by Edward Snowden.
    (AFP, 11/2/13)

2013        Nov 4, A Spanish court impounded a luxury villa and other properties belonging to the son-in-law of Spanish King Juan Carlos in a corruption case. The court in Mallorca ordered the seizure of properties owned by Inaki Urdangarin, husband of the king's daughter Cristina. The court is investigating accusations that Urdangarin, an ex-Olympic handball player, and his former business partner Diego Torres embezzled six million euros in public funds.
    (AFP, 11/4/13)

2013        Nov 8, A Spanish court ordered nine imprisoned members of the Basque militant group ETA freed to comply with a controversial European rights ruling made last month.
    (AFP, 11/8/13)

2013        Nov 10, Spanish police said they have busted a gang of 25 Nigerians who were engaged in human trafficking for sexual exploitation, Internet fraud and money laundering.
    (AP, 11/10/13)

2013        Nov 11, In Spain cartons, plastic bottles and other litter piled up in the streets of Madrid as an open-ended strike by street-sweepers against layoffs and pay cuts entered the seventh day.
    (AFP, 11/11/13)

2013        Nov 14, EU officials welcomed the end of bailout support for Spain and Ireland, saying that showed the effectiveness of more than four years of efforts to cut excessive government debt.
    (AP, 11/14/13)

2013        Nov 15, The EU executive said it had found no proof of British claims that Spain had violated European Union rules on border and customs checks at Gibraltar's border.
    (AFP, 11/15/13)

2013        Nov 19, Spain's National Court said it has issued arrest orders for former Chinese president Jiang Zemin and four other Chinese officials as part of a probe into alleged genocide by China against Tibet.
    (AP, 11/19/13)
2013        Nov 19, Mexican journalist and author Elena Poniatowska won the 2013 Cervantes Prize, the Spanish-speaking world's highest literary honor.
    (AP, 11/19/13)

2013        Nov 21, A Spanish court sentenced the town mayor of Marinaleda and four others to seven months in prison for occupying unused military land they wanted to be loaned to farmers hard hit by the economic crisis.
    (AP, 11/21/13)

2013        Dec 4, Scientists reported mitochondrial DNA results from a human thighbone found in Spain estimated to be 400,000 years old. The DNA showed a closer relation to Denisovans who lived in Siberia than to Neanderthals.
    (SFC, 12/5/13, p.A9)

2013        Dec 12, In Spain separatist parties in the northeastern Catalonia region agreed the wording of an independence referendum on November 9, 2014, but the Spanish government said the vote was illegal and would not happen.
    (Reuters, 12/12/13)

2013        Dec 15, France and Spain inaugurated high-speed rail service between Barcelona and Paris cutting travel time by half to about six hours.
    (SFC, 12/16/13, p.A2)

2013        Dec 19, Spanish police searched the headquarters of the ruling People's Party (PP) for 14 hours as part of a corruption investigation that earlier this year threatened to destabilize the government of PM Rajoy.
    (Reuters, 12/20/13)

2013        Dec 20, Spain's government approved a tightening of the abortion law that would overturn women's right to abort freely up to 14 weeks of pregnancy.
    (AFP, 12/20/13)

2013        Dec 22, In Spain millions were glued to their televisions as 2.5 billion in euros was distributed in the country’s Christmas lottery during a 4-hour TV show. For the first time 20% of winnings over 2,500 euros was taxed.
    (SFC, 12/23/13, p.A2)

2013        Jeremy Treglown authored “Franco’s Crypt: Spanish Culture and Memory Since 1936.”
    (Econ, 8/10/13, p.71)

2014        Jan 3, Spanish police said they have caught two women flying in from Brazil with more than a kilo (two pounds) of cocaine each hidden under their wigs. The two women, who were Portuguese and aged 18 and 28, arrived at Madrid's Barajas airport on different days from Sao Paulo.
    (AFP, 1/3/14)

2014        Jan 5, Spanish police arrested Abdeluahid Sadik Mohamed at Malaga airport after arriving on a flight bound from Istanbul. He was suspected of belonging to an al-Qaida linked terror organization and participating in the Syrian conflict.
    (AP, 1/5/14)

2014        Jan 7, Princess Cristina (48), the younger daughter of Spain's King Juan Carlos, was charged with tax fraud and money-laundering.
    (Reuters, 1/7/14)

2014        Jan 9, Disparate Syrian opposition groups, including several Islamist rebel representatives, met for the first time in the Spanish city of Cordoba to seek common ground ahead of peace talks with President Bashar al-Assad's government later this month.
    (Reuters, 1/9/14)

2014        Jan 10, A Spanish court ordered the extradition of Aurea Vazquez Rijos (33), a Puerto Rican woman, wanted by US federal authorities for allegedly hiring a hit man to kill her wealthy Canadian husband. Adam Anhang was beaten and stabbed to death in Puerto Rico on Sep 23, 2005, while he walked with Vazquez near a bar he had bought for her.
    (AP, 1/10/14)

2014        Jan 11, In Spain tens of thousands of protesters marched in Bilbao in support of jailed members of the Basque separatist group ETA. A high court judge had vetoed the march, which was initially organized by prisoners' supporters to call for inmates to be moved to jails closer to their homes.
    (Reuters, 1/11/14)

2014        Jan 15, In Spain police clashed with demonstrators in Madrid as thousands of people marched across the country to protest against costly plans to redevelop a street in the northern city of Burgos, where protests continued for a 6th day.
    (AFP, 1/15/14)
2014        Jan 15, Roughly 60 migrants entered Spain's north African territory of Melilla after charging a barbed-wire border fence bordering Morocco.
    (AFP, 1/15/14)

2014        Jan 16, In Spain Catalan lawmakers voted in favor of asking for the right to hold a referendum on independence.
    (AP, 1/16/14)

2014        Jan 18, Officials say Spanish police have arrested Juegers Veloz (37),    a Dominican fugitive wanted by US authorities for a multimillion dollar cellphone fraud in 2009-2011.
    (AP, 1/18/14)

2014        Jan 19, Pope Francis' newly chosen Spanish cardinal, Fernando Sebastian Aguilar (84), described homosexuality as a "defect" that can be corrected with treatment, sparking condemnation from gay rights groups.
    (AFP, 1/20/14)

2014        Jan 22, In Pakistan gunmen opened fire on police escorting Spanish cyclist Javier Colorado through Baluchistan province, killing six officers and wounding the Spaniard. He was reported to be cycling around the world.
    (AP, 1/22/14)

2014        Jan 29, Int’l. charity Save the Children said a third of the children in Spain are at the risk of poverty or social exclusion due to ongoing austerity measures.
    (SFC, 1/30/14, p.A2)

2014        Feb 1, In Spain thousands of people marched in Madrid to protest against a government plan to limit abortions that has caused unusually open divisions in the ruling conservative People's Party.
    (Reuters, 2/1/14)

2014        Feb 2, In Spain several thousand people marched from a Coca-Cola bottling plant in a southwestern suburb to downtown Madrid to protest the company's plan to close four plants in Spain and lay off 1,253 workers.
    (AP, 2/2/14)

2014        Feb 4, Spanish police said drug traffickers used a sophisticated system of floating backpacks with a tracking system to try to smuggle 900 kg (2,000 pounds) of cocaine into the country.
    (AP, 2/4/14)

2014        Feb 5, A planned extension of the Panama Canal, one of the world's most important shipping routes, was thrown into doubt after a group of companies, led by Spanish builder Sacyr, said its talks with Panama's government over how to expand the canal had fallen apart. Panama Canal Authority head Jorge Quijano said the expansion project will be completed in 2015 with or without a Spanish-led consortium.
    (Reuters, 2/5/14)
2014        Feb 5, The Luno, mostly empty Spanish cargo ship, broke in two after hitting a sea wall off the southwestern coast of France in high winds and was leaking some fuel into the water.
    (Reuters, 2/5/14)

2014        Feb 6, At least 7 migrants, including a woman, drowned while trying to swim to the Spanish enclave of Ceuta from a beach in neighboring Morocco. Authorities said "around 400 sub-Saharans" had taken part in the desperate bid to reach EU territory. On Feb 13 Spain said border police had fired rubber bullets in an attempt to turn back around 200 migrants who tried to cross the frontier.
    (AFP, 2/6/14)(Reuters, 2/13/14)

2014        Feb 7, Spain’s Cabinet approved a bill amending previous legislation that granted nationality by naturalization to Sephardic Jews who chose to apply for it. The reform will allow dual nationality, enabling people who can prove Sephardic ancestry to also retain their previous citizenships.
    (AP, 2/7/14)

2014        Feb 8, In Spain thousands of women marched in the streets of Madrid to protest against the Spanish government's plan to restrict access to abortion.
    (AFP, 2/8/14)

2014        Feb 10, Spanish High Court Judge Ismael Moreno sought international arrest orders for former Chinese President Jiang Zemin, ex-PM Li Peng and others on allegations of genocide in Tibet.
    (Reuters, 2/10/14)

2014        Feb 17, A wave of around 250 African migrants managed to breach the high defenses of the Spanish enclave of Melilla in Morocco, with more than half making it into the EU territory.
    (AFP, 2/17/14)

2014        Feb 21, In Spain international mediators said the armed Basque separatist group ETA has placed a small quantity of guns and explosives out of use in what is seen as a first step toward an unconditional total disarmament.
    (AP, 2/21/14)
2014        Feb 21, A Spanish court ruled that Arthur Budovsky (40), accused of being behind Liberty Reserves, one of the world's biggest money laundering businesses, can be extradited to the US to face charges there.
    (AP, 2/22/14)

2014        Feb 24, In Morocco hundreds of sub-Saharan migrants armed with sticks and stones stormed the six-meter (20-foot) high double barbed wire border fence in a bid to enter Spain's northwest African enclave of Melilla, with about 100 of them making it across.
    (AP, 2/24/14)

2014        Mar 1, In Spain armed Basque separatist group ETA pledged to give up all its weapons but warned the government that any attack or obstacle could impact negatively on the disarmament process.
    (Reuters, 3/1/14)

2014        Mar 4, Moroccan forces turned back some 700 sub-Saharan African migrants who attempted to cross into the Spanish enclave of Ceuta.
    (AP, 3/4/14)

2014        Mar 14, Moroccan and Spanish authorities arrested seven suspected members of an al-Qaida-linked extremist cell allegedly recruiting members to fight in Syria and other hotspots.
    (AP, 3/14/14)

2014        Mar 17, British telecommunications company Vodafone agreed to buy Spain's Ono for 7.2 billion euros ($10 billion) as it seeks to expand operations across Europe.
    (AP, 3/17/14)

2014        Mar 18, In Morocco hundreds of migrants tried to force their way into Spain's North African enclave of Melilla in two attempted mass crossings, throwing stones at police who tried to stop them. 500 people made it over.
    (Reuters, 3/18/14)(SFC, 4/10/14, p.A5)

2014        Mar 22, Spanish police detained 24 people during street violence late today following a large anti-austerity demonstration in Madrid in which dozens were injured.
    (AFP, 3/23/14)

2014        Mar 23, In Spain Adolfo Suarez (b.1932), prime minister from 1976-1981, died. He had steered Spain through one of the most turbulent periods in its political history and built bridges between the "two Spains" after fascist dictator General Francisco Franco died in 1975.
    (Reuters, 3/23/14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolfo_Su%C3%A1rez)

2014        Mar 26, Spanish police arrested more than 50 students during a protest at a Madrid university during the first day of a strike to protest a government education reform and cutbacks in grants and staffing.
    (AP, 3/26/14)
2014        Mar 26, A British financial watchdog said it has fined Spanish banking giant Santander almost £12.4 million for mis-advising customers.
    (AFP, 3/26/14)

2014        Mar 28, In Morocco some 800 African migrants tried to climb barbed-wire fences to enter the Spanish enclave of Melilla. Most were turned back by security forces from both sides.
    (AP, 3/28/14)

2014        Apr 2, Britain summoned the Spanish ambassador to condemn what it called a provocative incursion by Spanish boats into Gibraltar's territorial waters a day earlier.
    (Reuters, 4/2/14)

2014        Apr 5, Spain’s foreign minister announced that his country has suspended the export of riot gear to Venezuela’s government following weeks of unrest.
    (SSFC, 4/6/14, p.A2)

2014        Apr 7, Spain said it has dismantled a group it accused of plotting to send industrial equipment to Iran that could be used for weapon manufacture in violation of international sanctions. Four suspects were arrested.
    (Reuters, 4/7/14)

2014        Apr 8, Spanish lawmakers overwhelmingly shot down Catalonia's bid for an independence referendum.
    (AFP, 4/9/14)

2014        Apr 18, Spanish art dealer Jose Carlos Bergantinos Diaz, who is wanted for fraud in the United States, was arrested at a luxury hotel in Seville. His partner, Glafira Rosales, was arraigned in New York in August, accused of peddling counterfeit art for 15 years as undiscovered works by world-renowned artists.
    (AP, 4/20/14)

2014        May 1, In Morocco some 700 African migrants charged Spain's barbed-wire border fences in the North African enclave of Melilla, clashing with Spanish and Moroccan border police. 140 of the migrants managed to enter Spanish territory despite the efforts of the border police.
    (AP, 5/1/14)

2014        May 8, In southwestern Spain 5 members of a youth football team aged between 12 and 15 were killed when their bus collided with another vehicle. police arrested the driver of the second vehicle, a farm digger, after he tested positive for drugs.
    (AP, 5/9/14)

2014        May 17, In Morocco some 700 African migrants charged barbed wire fenses in two waves at the Spanish enclave of Melilla. Moroccan and Spanish border guards repulsed the charges.
    (SSFC, 5/18/14, p.A4)

2014        May 28, In Spain 30 people were arrested and 14 others hurt when police clashed with stone-throwing youths in a third night of riots sparked by a squat eviction in Barcelona.
    (AFP, 5/29/14)
2014        May 28, In Morocco more than 1,000 would-be immigrants tried to forced their way over razor-wire barriers into Spain's North African enclave of Melilla, with about half succeeding. Around 2,000 have breached the 12-km. barriers so far this year, up from just over 1,000 for the whole of 2013.
    (Reuters, 5/28/14)

2014        May 29, In Spain police in Barcelona arrested 23 people after a fourth night of clashes with hooded youths.
    (AP, 5/30/14)

2014        May 30, Spain's police arrested six members of a group that allegedly recruited jihadist militants to fight in Libya and Mali. The arrests took place in north African enclave city of Melilla.
    (AP, 5/30/14)

2014        Jun 1, Spanish police arrested six more people after a sixth night of clashes with youths in Barcelona.
    (AP, 6/1/14)

2014        Jun 2, Spain's King Juan Carlos announced he will abdicate in favor of his son, Crown Prince Felipe (46), making way for a "new generation." He had led Spain's transition from dictatorship to democracy but faced royal scandals amid the nation's near financial meltdown.
    (AP, 6/2/14)

2014        Jun 7, In Spain thousands of protesters took to the streets of Madrid to demand a referendum to abolish Spain's monarchy, just days after King Juan Carlos abdicated in favor of his son.
    (AFP, 6/8/14)

2014        Jun 8, In Spain suspected ETA member Maria Jesus Elorza Zubizarreta was arrested as she arrived on a flight from Venezuela. She had fled to France in 1984 and allegedly participated in bomb-making activities for the group before moving to Venezuela.
    (AP, 6/8/14)
2014        Jun 8, In Spain tens of thousands of Basques held hands to form a 123-km chain stretching across the northern Spanish region calling for the right to hold a vote on independence.
    (Reuters, 6/8/14)

2014        Jun 9, In Spain a Eurofighter jet crashed while landing at the Moron air base near Seville. Media reported that the pilot had died in the crash.
    (AFP, 6/9/14)

2014        Jun 11, Spanish lawmakers approved the abdication of King Juan Carlos by a wide margin, paving the way for his son Felipe to take the scandal-hit throne despite anti-royalist protests.
    (AFP, 6/11/14)
2014        Jun 11, Taxi drivers staged protests in London, Berlin, Barcelona, Madrid and Paris. Cabbies and train workers walked off the job, leaving traffic snarled, as they protested changes to the travel industry that they say could endanger passengers and give untested upstarts an unfair advantage.
    (AP, 6/11/14)

2014        Jun 13, The Spanish government said it has approved legislation to sell 49 percent of the national aviation authority AENA and also open up one of the country's passenger rail routes to a private operator.
    (AP, 6/13/14)

2014        Jun 14, Spanish and Moroccan security forces drove back 1,000 African migrants who tried to scramble over a border fence from Morocco into the Spanish territory of Melilla.
    (AFP, 6/14/14)

2014        Jun 16, In Spain a Madrid court sentenced ETA member Juan Ramon Carasatorre Aldaz (52) to 29 years for the killing of infantry brigadier Mariano de Juan Santamaria, who was shot in the head on April 10, 1995, in the northern city of San Sebastian.
    (AP, 6/16/14)
2014        Jun 16, Spanish police detained eight people in Madrid on suspicion of recruiting jihadi militants for the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, or ISIL.
    (AP, 6/16/14)

2014        Jun 18, In Morocco some 400 sub-Saharan migrants stormed Spain's multiple-barbed-wire border fences separating its North African enclave of Melilla from Morocco, but failed in their bid to enter Europe.
    (AP, 6/18/14)

2014        Jun 19, In Spain divorced former journalist, Letizia Ortiz, became Spain's first commoner queen when her husband, Felipe VI (46), was sworn in as king.
    (Reuters, 6/19/14)

2014        Jun 22, Spain’s police said three people have been arrested on suspicion of illegally scanning and then unlawfully publishing books on a large scale. More than 1000 books and 10 computer hard drives full of texts were seized.
    (SFC, 6/23/14, p.A2)

2014        Jun 24, Spain's Supreme Court approved a $7-billion oil exploration project off the Canary Islands.
    (Reuters, 6/24/14)

2014        Jun 25, In Spain a judge in Madrid charged Princess Cristina with tax fraud and money laundering in a case involving her husband and business associates charged with embezzling millions in public funds earmarked for sports events.
    (SFC, 6/26/14, p.A2)
2014        Jun 25, In Spain award-winning author Ana Maria Matute (88), best known for her books set during the Spanish Civil War, died.
    (AP, 6/25/14)

2014        Jun 29, In Morocco around 500 migrants of sub-Saharan origin tried to storm Spain's barbed-wire border fence separating its North African enclave of Melilla from Morocco but all failed in their bid to enter Europe.
    (AP, 6/29/14)

2014        Jul 9, Spain’s Interior Ministry said police in Madrid have arrested 32 suspected members of Italy's Camorra crime group involved in drug trafficking, extortion, fraud and money laundering. Four arrests were also reported in Italy.
    (Reuters, 7/9/14)

2014        Jul 18, Spanish police in Alicante arrested Hernan Alonso Villa (40), the alleged leader of a Colombian drug trafficking group.
    (SSFC, 7/20/14, p.A7)

2014        Jul 27, Spanish police said they have arrested 14 members of a gang of suspected of selling forged passports for entry to the US. Eleven Cuban and three Spaniards were arrested in Tenerife and Madrid.
    (SFC, 7/28/14, p.A2)

2014        Jul 29, A Spanish judge issued an indictment against Jordi Pujol (b.1930) and his wife for money laundering and tax evasion. The former leader of Catalonia (1980-2003) had recently admitted that his family had hidden money in Switzerland for the past 35 years.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jordi_Pujol_i_Soley)(Econ, 8/23/14, p.52)

2014        Aug 6, Spanish police said they have seized 127 kg of cocaine from a Spanish navy training ship, which allegedly carried the drug from Colombia and dropped off some in New York. A Civil Guard statement said three sailors were arrested on July 12 when the ship returned to Spain, but the drug wasn't found until Aug 2.
    (AP, 8/6/14)

2014        Aug 12, The Spanish sea rescue service said it has picked up more than 900 migrants trying to enter Spain clandestinely by crossing the Strait of Gibraltar in boats from north Africa over the past two days. Some 700 migrants stormed border fences to try to enter Spain's northwest African enclave city of Melilla from Morocco. Some 30 migrants managed to enter the city.
    (AP, 8/12/14)
2014        Aug 12, A Spanish missionary priest being treated for Ebola died in a Madrid hospital amid a worldwide debate over who should get experimental Ebola treatments. Miguel Parajes (75) had worked for the San Juan de Dios hospital order, a Catholic aid group, and had been helping to treat people with Ebola in Liberia when he became ill and was evacuated.
    (AP, 8/12/14)

2014        Aug 14, In Morocco some 250 African migrants tried to leap a triple-layer border fence around Spain's north African territory of Melilla but only one person made it through.
    (AFP, 8/14/14)

2014        Aug 16, Spanish poilice said they have arrested a Venezuelan woman (43) arriving from Colombia carrying 3.7 pounds of cocaine in her breast implants.
    (SFC, 8/16/14, p.A2)

2014        Sep 9, In Spain banking magnate Emilio Botin (79) died of a heart attack. He built the country's Banco Santander into a global financial giant and was widely seen as the nation's most influential business leader.
    (AP, 9/10/14)

2014        Sep 11, In Spain hundreds of thousands marched in downtown Barcelona on Catalonia’s annual National Day. This was seen as a prelude to an upcoming vote for secession.
    (SSFC, 9/14/14, p.A4)

2014        Sep 17, Barcelona, Spain, captured the grand prize in a competition that spurs cities to develop novel approaches to improve urban life. Former New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg announced the Mayors Challenge winners, selected from 21 finalists, in Paris.
    (AP, 9/17/14)

2014        Sep 25, Spain's National Statistics Institute said money generated by drug trafficking, prostitution, smuggling and illegal gambling contributed some 9 billion euros ($11.4 billion) to the national economy last year.
    (AP, 9/25/14)
2014        Sep 25, China and Spain signed business deals worth $4 billion on as Spanish PM Mariano Rajoy visited the Asian powerhouse to seek support for Spain's struggling economy.
    (AP, 9/25/14)

2014        Sep 26, Morocco and Spain said a cross-border cell in the Spanish enclave of Melilla and the neighboring Moroccan city of Nador to recruit jihadis to fight for the Islamic State group has been dismantled.
    (AP, 9/26/14)

2014        Sep 27, In Spain Artur Mas, the president of the Catalonia region, signed a decree calling for a referendum on independence on Nov. 9, putting the local government on a collision course with Madrid, which says such a vote is illegal.
    (Reuters, 9/27/14)
2014        Sep 27, Spanish director Carlos Vermut won this year's top award for his film "Magical Girl" and also claimed the best director prize at Spain's San Sebastian Film Festival.
    (AP, 9/27/14)

2014        Sep 28, Spanish police said they have arrested 10 of the country's most active graffiti painters on suspicion of being responsible for over 600,000 euros ($760,000) worth of damage to subway rolling stock.
    (AP, 9/28/14)

2014        Sep 29, In Sudan a Spanish diplomat (61) was found stabbed to death in his apartment in Khartoum.
    (AP, 9/29/14)

2014        Sep 30, In Spain the regional government of Catalonia said it will heed a decision by Spain's top court suspending its plans to hold an independence referendum but vows to continue efforts to hold a vote.
    (AP, 9/30/14)

2014        Oct 1, Spain's El Pais newspaper said five Spanish soldiers who served in Iraq in 2004 faced trial on charges of torture for brutally beating two Iraqi prisoners.
    (AP, 10/1/14)

2014        Oct 3, In Spain the pro-independence regional government in Catalonia said it still plans to hold a secession referendum Nov. 9 as it studies ways to convince Spain's Constitutional Court to lift a provisional suspension of the vote.
    (AP, 10/3/14)

2014        Oct 6, In Spain a nursing assistant was diagnosed with Ebola. She had cared for a Spanish priest who died of the disease last month. 4 other people were quarantined and her dog was ordered killed.
    (SFC, 10/8/14, p.A3)

2014        Oct 11, In Spain three more people were under observation for Ebola in a Madrid hospital, boosting the number being monitored for symptoms to 16. A nursing assistant infected with the virus remained in serious but stable condition.
    (AP, 10/11/14)

2014        Oct 15, In Morocco some 300 African migrants scaled fences six-meters (20-feet) high to try to enter Spain's northwest African enclave city of Melilla. 5 police officers and 5 migrants were treated for minor injuries. Three migrants managed to reach Melilla.
    (AP, 10/15/14)

Go to http://www.timelinesdb.com
Subject = Spain
End of file