Timeline Sudan

Return to home

Sudan: http://countrystudies.us/sudan/
Travel Docs:
http://www.traveldocs.com/sd/index.htm
USLC:
http://www.loc.gov/collections/country-studies/?q=sudan

 The Sudanese people speak over 100 languages. There are 19 major ethnic groups that are further divided into more than 600 ethno-linguistic groups. Southern Sudan is the size of France and Germany combined. The Darfur region is nearly the size of France.
    (SFC, 1/28/97, p.A8)(MT, Fall. Ď97, p.21)(Econ, 5/15/04, p.23)(Econ, 10/15/05, p.49)
  Much of Sudan in ancient times was known as Nubia.
    (www.numibia.net)
        The Dinka Tribe is the dominant ethnic group of southern Sudan. They are renowned for their deep ebony skin and height.
    (SFC, 4/15/96,A-8)
        Sunni Muslims dominated the government.
    (WSJ, 8/21/98, p.A4)

12000BC-10000BC    A site along the Nile River in Sudan has a graveyard (Site 117) of this period that indicates warfare between communities.
    (NH, Jul, p.31)

1991BC-1962BC     Amenemhet I (Amenemhat I) founded Egyptís 12th Dynasty of Egypt and ruled for some 30 years. In 2007 Prof. Jahi Issa and Salim Faraji authored ďThe Origin of the Word Amen: Ancient Knowledge the Bible Has Never Told," in which they argued that the word Amen is derived from a pre-dynastic Egyptian culture found in the Sudan with roots in the ancient name for pharaoh, Amen, spelled in some cases as Amun. 
    (http://www.ancient-egypt.org/history/11_13/12.html)(SSFC, 12/2/07, p.A2)

1700BC    Nubia, known as the Kingdom of Kush in the Bible. By this time the Nubians have established sizable cities with a class society of workers, farmers, priests, soldiers bureaucrats and an aristocracy with technological and cultural skills on a level with other advanced civilizations of their day.
    (MT, 10/95, p.10-11)

750BC-719BC    Piye (Piankhy) ruled Kush (Nubia). In 722 he extended his rule to Egypt. Kashta, ruler of Kush, had begun a campaign against Egypt. With the help of his son, Piankhy, he was successful and Piankhy became pharaoh of Egypt. The Nubian King Piye conquered the weakened and disunited Egypt and became the first of several Nubian Pharaohs who ruled a unified Egyptian and Nubian state for the next century.
    (eawc, p.7)(MT, 10/95, p.10-11)(www.crystalinks.com/dynasty21.html)

722BC    Piye (Piankhy) marched north from Nubia and began his conquest of Egypt where he founded the 25th Dynasty. He consolidated his rule over Egypt and Kush and became the 1st king of the 25th Dynasty. It has been suggested that he revived pyramid building for royals in Egypt, a tradition that had gone extinct for over eight centuries.
    (www.crystalinks.com/dynasty21.html)(Arch, 9/02, p.55)

690BC-664BC    The Nubian Pharaoh Taharqa, brother of Shebitku, ruled over the upper Nile Nubian-Egyptian state. He is mentioned in the Bible as a pyramid builder. A sculpture of the Kushite king was discovered in the basement of "God's House Tower," an archeological museum, in England in 2000.
    (www.crystalinks.com/dynasty21.html)(MT, 10/95, p.10-11)(SFC, 2/16/00, p.A8)(Arch, 9/02, p.55)

663BC    The Kingdom of Kush was driven out of Egypt but flourished in the Sudan until the 4th century CE.
    (NG, May 1985, p.607)

593BC    The Nubians were defeated by a resurgent Egyptian dynasty after which they moved their capital from Napata to Meroe.
    (Arch, 9/02, p.56)

270BC    The Nubian royals opted for burial at Meroe about this time and pyramids were built there for some 700 years.
    (Arch, 9/02, p.56)

23-24    Strabo (b.~63-64BC), Greek geographer and historian, died about this time. He had traveled to Egypt and Kush, met members of the Noba tribe, and decided to call their country Nubia. Strabo is mostly famous for his 17-volume work Geographica, which presented a descriptive history of people and places from different regions of the world known to his era.
    (Arch, 9/02, p.55)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strabo)

350        In Sudan the last pyramid in the Egyptian tradition was built at Meroe about this time. The Meroe dynasty ruled Kush for more than 1,000 years until the kingdom's demise in 350 AD.
    (Arch, 9/02, p.55)(AP, 3/3/10)

632-661    The Rashidun Caliphate, also known as the Rightly Guided Caliphate, comprising the first four caliphs in Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death. At its height, the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant, Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and Central Asia in the east. It was the one of the largest empires in history up until that time.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rashidun_Caliphate)

c1600    Mahmud al-Kati authored the Tarikh al-Fattash, a history of the Sudan up to the late 16th century.
    (AM, 7/04, p.36)

1862        Jun, Samuel and Florence Baker arrived in Khartoum on their search for explorers John Speke and James Grant.
    (ON, 10/01, p.9)

1862        Dec 18, Samuel and Florence Baker departed Khartoum on their search for explorers John Speke and James Grant.
    (ON, 10/01, p.9)

1863        Feb 15, Samuel and Florence Baker encountered John Speke and James Grant at the frontier village of Gondokoro (southern Sudan). Speke and Grant said they had found the Nileís headwaters at a lake they named Victoria.
    (ON, 10/01, p.9)

1863        Mar 26, Samuel and Florence Baker departed Gondokoro to find a lake called Luta NíZige, through which flowed a branch of the Nile.
    (ON, 10/01, p.9)

1869-1899    In 2007 Dominic Green authored ďArmies of God: Islam and the Empire on the Nile, 1869-1899 Ė The First Jihad of the Modern Era."
    (Econ, 8/18/07, p.75)

1876        Apr 11, General Sir Charles ("Chinese") Gordon ended religious tolerance in Sudan.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1877-79    British Gen. Charles "Chinese" Gordon served as the governor of Sudan.
    (WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A21)

1879        Aug 23, Governor-general Charles Gordon of Sudan returned to Cairo.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1881        Jun 29, Muhammad Ahmad (1844-1855) proclaimed himself as the Mahdi or messianic redeemer of the Islamic faith in Sudan. El Mahdi (The One Who is Guided by God) soon united the disparate tribes of Sudan and led a successful military campaign against the Turco-Egyptian government of the Sudan (known as the Turkiyah).
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)(ON, 4/02, p.9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_Ahmad)

1882        British Gen. Charles "Chinese" Gordon (49) retired from active duty and moved to Jerusalem.
    (WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A21)

1882        Former British Gen. Charles "Chinese" Gordon, Field Marshal in the Turkish army, commanded the Egyptian forces in Sudan.
    (WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A21)

1883        Nov 3, A poorly trained Egyptian army, led by British General William Hicks, marched toward El Obeid in the Sudan--straight into a Mahdist ambush and massacre.
    (HN, 11/3/98)

1883-1884    In Sudan British officered Egyptian armies were defeated by the forces of El Mahdi, called Dervishes by the British.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)

1884        Jan 18, General Charles ("Chinese") Gordon departed London for Khartoum.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1884        Jan, Lord Garnet Wolseley, adjutant-general of the British Army, asked Charles Gordon to come out of retirement and lead an evacuation of 15,000 European and Egyptian civilians from Khartoum, Sudan. Gordon agreed.
    (ON, 4/02, p.9)

1884        Feb 18, General Charles Gordon arrived in Khartoum to battle the Mahdi and his terrorists.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1884        Mar 11, Gen. Gordon learned that the telegraph cable to Cairo had been cut. Khartoum soldiers killed 5 Mahdists at Halfaya. Mahdist insurgents in return massacred 150 men from the Khartoum garrison as they were cutting wood.
    (ON, 4/02, p.10)

1884        Mar 13, Siege of Khartoum, Sudan, began. Gen. Gordon ordered a counter-attack at Halfaya and troops rescued some 500 from a Mahdist assault.
    (ON, 4/02, p.10)(MC, 3/13/02)

1884        Mar 16, A 2nd counter-attack at Halfaya failed and Gordon ordered 2 commanders to be executed.
    (ON, 4/02, p.10)

1884        Oct 22, General Charles Gordon received a letter from Mahdi near Khartoum. British Geníl. Charles "Chinese" Gordon was sent to Khartoum to evacuate the Egyptian garrison. Gordon decided to hold the city against El Mahdi.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)(MC, 10/22/01)

1884        Nov 3, A British steamboat arrived a Khartoum with news that a relief force was on its way.
    (ON, 4/02, p.10)

1885        Jan 2, Gen. Wolseley received the last distress signal of Gen. Gordon in Khartoum.
    (MC, 1/2/02)

1885        Jan 26, In Sudan General "Chinese" Gordon (Charles George Gordon, 51), British gov-gen of Sudan, was killed on the palace steps in the garrison at Khartoum by the forces of Muhammad Ahmed, El Mahdi. In 1961 "General Gordonís Khartoum Journal," edited by Lord Elton, was published.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)(HN, 1/26/99)(MC, 1/26/02)(ON, 4/02, p.10)

1885        Jan 28, Geníl. Garnet Wolseley arrived at Khartoum to relieve Geníl. Gordon, but arrived 2 days late. El Mahdi died soon thereafter but was succeeded by the Khalifa.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)(ON, 4/02, p.10)

1885        Jun 22, In Sudan Muhammad Ahmad (b.1844), religious leader of the Samaniyya order, died of typhus. His chief deputy, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad took over the administration of the nascent Mahdist state.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_Ahmad)

1886        Henry Stanley (1841-1904), Welsh-born journalist, led the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition to "rescue" Emin Pasha, the governor of Equatoria in the southern Sudan.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Morton_Stanley)

1896        Sep 21, General Horatio Kitchener's army occupied Dongola, Sudan. Geníl. Herbert Kitchener led the British conquest of the Sudan. The "kit bag," another name for a knapsack, was named after him.
    (SFEC, 3/29/98, Z1 p.8)(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)(MC, 9/21/01)

1897        Aug 31, General Kitchener occupied Berber, North of Khartoum.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1898        Apr 8, British General Horatio Kitchener defeated the Khalifa, leader of the dervishes in Sudan, at the Battle of Atbara. Anglo-Egyptian forces crushed 6,000 Sudanese.
    (HN, 4/8/99)(MC, 4/8/02)

1898        Sep 1, Lord Kitchener's army bombed Omdurman, Sudan. Lt. Winston Churchill approached Omdurman, the rebel capital, as a scout in the cavalry along with the rest of Gen. Kitchener's army of 25,000 men. [see Sep 2]
    (ON, 10/99, p.2)(MC, 9/1/02)

1898        Sep 2, Anglo-Egyptian lines under Geníl. Kitchener were charged by 50,000 fanatical Dervishes and were mowed down by howitzers, machine guns and rifles. Lt. Winston Churchill led one of the last (and most useless) cavalry charges in history. Sir Herbert Kitchener led the British to victory over the Mahdists at Omdurman and took Khartoum. The Dervishes left 11,000 dead and 16,000 wounded. The Anglo-Egyptian army suffered fewer than a dozen casualties. In 1899 Winston Churchill published "The River War, An Account of the Reconquest of the Soudan." This was the 1st use of the machine gun in battle.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)(HN, 9/2/98)(ON, 10/99, p.3)(MC, 9/2/01)

1898        Sep 6, Lord Kitchener destroyed Mahdi's tomb in Omdurman (Sudan).
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1899        Nov 24, Abdullah ibn Mohammed al-Ta'a'ishi, Mahdi of Sudan (1883-99), died.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1902        The Sudan Bookshop opened in Khartoum. Three British businessmen ran it in the early years before it passed into Sudanese ownership in the late 1960s, when Abdel Rahman took over as manager.
    (AFP, 2/10/12)
1902        The novel "The Four Feathers" by A.E.W. Mason, was published. It was set mainly in England and Ireland over the years 1882-1888 during Englandís war in the Sudan and went on to inspire 7 films.
    (SFC, 9/20/02, p.D1)(http://www.stmoroky.com/reviews/books/4feather.htm)

1907        The first primary school for girls was founded by the Bedris family. It grew to become the private Ahfad University.
    (SFC, 2/20/98, p.A12)

1916        Independent sultanates ruled the Darfur region of Sudan until this year.
    (WPR, 3/04, p.32)

1916        George Reisner (1867-1942), American archeologist, began excavating pyramids at Meroe, Sudan.
    (Arch, 9/02, p.55)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mero%C3%AB)

1917        Darfur was an independent sultanate until 1917, when it was the last region to be incorporated into the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. The Fur, largely peasant farmers, occupy the central belt of the region Also in this central zone are the non-Arab Masalit, Berti, Bargu, Bergid, Tama and Tunjur peoples, who are all sedentary farmers.
    (www.sudanupdate.org/REPORTS/PEOPLES/Darf.htm)

1924        Nov 19, Sir Lee Stack, the Sirdar and Governor-General of the Sudan, was assassinated. This and subsequent British demands, which Egyptís PM Zaghloul felt to be unacceptable, led Zaghloul to resign and to play no further role in government.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saad_Zaghloul)

1924        Nov 22, England ordered the Egyptians out of Sudan.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1924        Slave trading was made illegal.
    (SFC, 5/23/02, p.A15)

1941        Feb 16, The Italians lost their last position in the Sudan.
    (HN, 2/16/98)

1954        Mar 1, Rebellion during visit of President Naguib in Khartoum, Sudan, 30 die.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1954        The Muslim Brotherhood, founded in Egypt (1928), formed in Sudan.
    (Econ, 2/18/12, p.50)

1955        Aug 18, South Sudanese openly open fire and told the government in Khartoum that enough is enough. Southern Sudanese were transported in thousands to Port Sudan to dig salt for the survival of the northern government. Regions in South Sudan come together to give support to Torit mutineers. The Torit mutiny resulted into the Anya-nya I war that ended with the Addis Ababa Agreement in 1972.
    (www.sudantribune.com/18-August-1955-South-Sudan-heroes,23627)

1955        Fighting erupted between north and south Sudan. The black southerners are Christian and animist, while the northerners are mostly Arabic and Muslim. Southern troops mutinied and demanded autonomy or secession.
    (SFC, 4/15/96,A-8)(SSFC, 3/25/01, p.C8)

1956        Jan 1, Sudan became independent from Britain. Northern Muslim parties took over rule. Southerners demanded autonomy and civil war began.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)(SFC, 11/17/00, p.A20)(WSJ, 10/22/03, p.A4)(Econ, 5/15/04, p.21)

1957        Mohammed Wardi (26) began his singing career in Sudan. He became known as the Golden Throat and blended Nubian music into the Arabic language.
    (SFC, 9/21/07, p.A12)

1958        In Sudan the 1st in a series of military coups overthrew the civilian-elected government.
    (WSJ, 10/22/03, p.A4)

1959        A water agreement between Egypt and Sudan was based on an annual net yield of 96.2 billion cubic yards of water and gave Egypt 72.15 billion and Sudan 20.04. Ethiopia got no allocation and never recognized the treaty.
    (WSJ, 8/22/97, p.A1)

1960s        Leni Riefenstahl, German filmmaker, published a collection of photographs of the Nuba tribe of southern Sudan.
    (SFC, 9/10/03, p.A19)

1964        Oct, In Sudan the so-called October Revolution centered around a general strike that spread throughout the country. Strike leaders identified themselves as the National Front for Professionals.
    (http://countrystudies.us/sudan/22.htm)

1969        May 25, Sudanese government was overthrown in a military coup. Gaafar an-Nimeiry (1930-2009), came to power with the support of communist and socialist leaders.
    (http://countrystudies.us/sudan/23.htm)(AP, 5/31/09)

1970        Nov 27, Syria joined the pact linking Libya, Egypt and Sudan.
    (HN, 11/27/98)

1970s        Large quantities of oil were discovered under south-central Sudan.
    (SFC, 6/13/01, p.D3)

1971        Mohammed Wardi, Nubian-Sudanese singer known as the Golden Throat, began a 2 year prison term under the authoritarian regime of Gen. Jaafar Nimeiri, who ruled Sudan from 1969-1985.
    (SFC, 9/21/07, p.A12)(http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/350170.stm)

1972        Mar 27, The Addis Ababa accords ended fighting between north and south Sudan. It made the south a self-governing region. Pres. Gaafar Muhammed Nimeiri ended the 17 year civil war in the Sudan between the north and south.
    (www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/sudan-civil-war1.htm)(WSJ, 10/22/03, p.A4)

1972        The Abyei people of southern Sudan were promised a vote on self-determination.
    (Econ, 10/26/13, p.57)

1973        Mar 2, Arab commandos, "Black September" terrorists, led by Abu Jihad executed 3 hostages: US ambassador Cleo A. Noel (54), deputy George Curtis Moore (47) and Belgian charge díaffaires Guy Eid (38), in Khartoum, Sudan. Pres. Nixon refused their demands. The operation was later reported to have been organized by Yasser Arafat.
    (WSJ, 1/10/02, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khartoum_diplomatic_assassinations)

1973        Sep, Gen. Jaafar Nimeiri, Sudanís military ruler, introduced Islamic Sharia law.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/350170.stm)

1973        Hassan Turabi, Sudanese scholar, authored "Women in Islam and Muslim Society."
    (www.soundvision.com/Info/women/turabi.asp)

1976        The deadly Ebola virus was 1st identified in western Sudan and the nearby region of Congo.
    (SFC, 1/8/02, p.A6)

1978        Chevron discovered oil in Sudan and sank wells north of Bentiu.
    (www.hrw.org/reports/2003/sudan1103/10.htm)(SFC, 6/13/01, p.D3)(WSJ, 10/22/03, p.A4)

1980        The giant Kenana sugar processing plant opened in Sudan. In 2002 El Nazir, Osman & Desai, and Govind D. authored ďKenana: Green Gold of Sudan."
    (www.shell-me.com/english/oct2002/views1.htm)(http://tinyurl.com/2vpzhc)

1980        French oil giant Total SA leased an oil patch in southern Sudan the size of Pennsylvania. In 2005 the lease came under dispute as southern Sudan gained limited autonomy and signed an oil deal with London-based White Nile Ltd.
    (WSJ, 6/19/06, p.A1)(www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article20234)

1983        Sudanís Pres. Gaafar Numeiri brought in Sharia law as the basis for criminal law causing much grievance in the non-Muslim south.
    (Econ, 8/8/09, p.44)

1983        Civil War began again in the Sudan when the Peopleís Liberation Army (SPLA) renewed the battle for greater autonomy from the Muslim north. The discovery of oil in the middle of the country and the imposition of Shariah law by the government reignited violence.
    (SFC, 5/29/96, p.A8)(SFC, 1/31/98, p.A9)(SSFC, 3/25/01, p.C8)

1983-1987    Drought in Sudan drove nomadic Zaghawa and Arab groups southwards into the central Fur region of Jebel Marra.
    (www.sudanupdate.org/REPORTS/PEOPLES/Darf.htm)

1983-1998    The civil war killed some 1.5 million people over this period.
    (SFC, 11/3/98, p.A10)

1984        Sudan enacted a land-tenure law that allowed the government to take over land abandoned for one year.
    (SFC, 12/4/04, p.A8)

1984        War rekindled in the Sudan. A government official stated that: "The southerners were being used by the Marxist Ethiopians and by Col. Qaddafi of Libya to cause trouble for Sudan." Pres. Nimeiri set an edict to make Islamic law the code of the land. The Sudanese Peopleís Liberation Army was led by John Garang a former Sudanese army colonel with a Ph.D. in economics from Iowa St. Univ.
    (NG, May 1985, p.609)

1984        Chevron Corp. pulled out of Sudan after rebels killed 3 employees.
    (SFC, 6/13/01, p.D3)

1985        Jan 18, In Sudan Mahmud Mohammed Taha (b.1909) was hanged for refusing to recant his unorthodox views on Islam. Sudanese president Jaafar Nimeiri, on the advice of Islamist leader Hassan al-Turabi, ordered the execution.
    (AFP, 4/23/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahmoud_Mohamed_Taha)

1985        Apr 4, A coup in Sudan ousted pro US President Gaafar Nimeiry and replaced him with Gen. Dahab.
    (HN, 4/4/99)(WSJ, 12/8/99, p.A19)

1985        Christian Col. John Garang and Muslim leader Sadiq el-Mahdi helped to restore democracy, but soon grew at odds.
    (WSJ, 3/4/97, p.A14)

1985        The people of the Nuba Mountains allied themselves with the Sudanese Peopleís Liberation Army (SPLA) after government backed Arab militias attacked their villages.
    (SSFC, 1/7/01, p.D1)

1986        May 15, In Sudan Francis Bok (7) was kidnapped when Arabs from a government-armed militia swept into his village shooting the men and cutting off their heads with swords.
    (WSJ, 5/23/02, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/ybn8g5)

1986        Ahmed Al-Mirghani (d.2008 at 67) headed the last democratically elected government of Sudan until 1989 before a military coup led by current President Omar al-Bashir unseated him.
    (AP, 11/3/08)
1986        In Sudan Sadiq al-Mahdi became the countryís last democratically elected prime minister.
    (Econ, 12/13/08, p.68)
1986        Sudan became subject to American sanctions. The IMF ended financial assistance to Sudan.
    (Econ, 8/5/06, p.42)

1986-1989    Arms were channeled into Darfur by Sudanís central government under Sadiq al-Mahdi, which armed the southern Baggara Arabs as a militia to fight against the SPLA (at that time threatening insurgency in the region), and also armed the northern Arab tribes, who were loyal to the Ansar of the Prime Minister's Umma Party.
    (www.sudanupdate.org/REPORTS/PEOPLES/Darf.htm)

1988-1989    The war induced famine in Sudan killed some 250,000 people.
    (SFC, 11/3/98, p.A10)

1989        Jun 30, In Sudan the elected coalition government was overthrown. Omar Hassan al-Bashir and Sheik Hassan al-Turabi, brother-in-law of Sadiq el-Mahdi, seized power. They imposed an Iranian style theocracy along with the strict Muslim Shariah law on the country including the Christian southern Sudan. The National Islamic Front (NIF), the political arm of the Muslim Brotherhood, backed the overthrow of a democratic government under PM Sadiq el-Mahdi and have ruled ever since. The Umma Party and the Democratic Union party established bases in Cairo and Eritrea and later allied with rebel groups that included the Southern People's Liberation Party.
    (SFC, 4/5/97, p.A12)(SFC, 2/20/98, p.A12)(SFC, 12/29/98, p.A6)(Econ, 2/18/12, p.50)

1989        A peace conference in mid-1989, mediated by the Sultan of the minority Masalit, temporarily settled some issues between Arabs and Fur. The government was forced to admit publicly that the problem was not merely one of banditry.
    (www.sudanupdate.org/REPORTS/PEOPLES/Darf.htm)

1989        The NIF divided the 9 provinces of Sudanís Darfur region into 26, weakening the traditional tribal leadership.
    (WPR, 3/04, p.32)

1989        A devastating draught prompted the international community to launch a massive relief effort called Operation Lifeline Sudan.
    (SFC, 4/15/96,A-8)

1989        An attack on Danbar, one of the villages in the Wade Saleh, left 226 people dead from the non-Arab population.
    (www.sudanupdate.org/REPORTS/PEOPLES/Darfur2.htm)

1990        Mar, Following the Sudanese government's failure to make any move toward restoring democracy after the June 1989 military coup, the US government suspended all development assistance to Sudan under Section 513 of the Foreign Assistance Act, which mandates a cutoff in most U.S. aid to any nation where an elected government has been overthrown in a coup. However, food aid under P.L. 480 and humanitarian assistance are permitted to continue.
    (www.hrw.org/reports/1992/WR92/AFW-09.htm)

1990        Islamist leader Hassan al-Turabi invited Osma bin Laden to Sudan and provided him with a safe haven from 1991 to 1996, when the Al-Qaeda chief was eventually expelled under mounting international pressure on Khartoum.
    (AFP, 4/23/06)

1991        Nov 26, UNICEF said fighting and crop failures in southern Sudan had forced an unprecedented exodus of 200,000 people.
    (AP, 11/26/02)

1991        Dec 13, Iranís Pres. Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani visited Sudan with some 157 officials. He signed agreements to train Sudanís Popular Defense Forces, a version of Iranís Revolutionary Guards, and agreed to pay China $300 million for weapons ordered for Sudan.
    (Econ, 4/4/09, p.50)(http://tinyurl.com/d6ruxp)

1991        Sudan adopted a federal system with nine states, matching the nine provinces that had existed from 1948 to 1973. The states were subdivided into 66 provinces, and then into 281 local government areas.
    (www.statoids.com/usd.html)
1991        Sudan issued a new penal code imposing death for a sweeping range of beliefs that can be categorized as apostasy.
    (Econ, 6/7/14, p.53)
1991        The Sudan Peopleís Liberation Army, the main rebel group, began to divide along tribal lines and now four factions control the south.
    (SFC, 4/15/96,A-8)
1991        In Sudan the National Democratic Alliance began as an opposition grouping.
    (WSJ, 12/8/99, p.A19)
1991        In Sudan an Arab tribe sought to resolve ancient disputes over land and water rights by attacking the Zaghawa, Fur, and Massalit peoples in Darfur. Arab groups launched a campaign in southwestern Darfur State that resulted in the destruction of some 600 non-Arab villages and the deaths of about 3,000 people. In southern Sudan the Nuer tribe massacred Dinka civilians in Bor. Some Dinka later said tens of thousands of women and children were killed, a number the Nuer called an exaggeration.
    (www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/36028.htm)(Econ, 5/8/10, p.50)
1991        Sudanese intelligence approached Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan and invited him to move to Khartoum, which he did.
    (WSJ, 9/13/01, p.A20)
1992        An agreement was made on sharing water from Nubian sandstone aquifer system, the largest in the world, located under Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan.
    (Econ, 10/9/10, p.87)

1992        In Kenya the Kakuma camp was founded for some 30,000 refugees from Sudan.
    (WSJ, 10/23/02, p.B1)

1994        Feb 4, In Khartoum, Sudan, five armed men attacked the mosque of Ansar al-Sunna during Friday prayers, killing 19 and injuring 26 of the worshippers.
    (www.africa.upenn.edu/Newsletters/SNV_2.html)

1994        Aug 14, Ilich Ramirez Sanchez, the terrorist known as "Carlos the Jackal," was captured in Khartoum, Sudan. He was jailed in France the next day.
    (SFC,12/17/97, p.A18)(AP, 8/15/97)

1994        Osama bin Laden arrived in Sudan from Afghanistan. He used his own money to finance road construction projects in the desert north of Khartoum.
    (SFEC, 8/23/98, p.A15)

1994        Ali A. Mohamed, a former US Army sergeant, allegedly trained bodyguards for bin Laden in Khartoum according to a 1999 US indictment.
    (SFC, 5/20/99, p.A2)

1994        Sudanís government began funding the (LTA) Lordís Resistance Army in retaliation for Ugandaís support of the southern-based rebel Sudan Peopleís Liberation Army.
    (SFC, 5/25/98, p.A12)

1996        Feb. 27, A Sudanese military plane crashed 25 miles south of Khartoum and killed 91 people on board. The plane was a US made C-130.
    (WSJ, 2/28/96, p.A-1)

1996        April 26, The UN called for sanctions against Sudan.
    (WSJ, 5/21/96, p.A-1)

1996        May 4, A Sudanese passenger plane crashed and killed all 53 onboard. The plane was a Russian Antonov-24 and had tried to land outside of Khartoum in an area cleared for a new airport because sand covered the runways at Khartoum.
    (SFC, 5/5/96, p.A-14)

1996        May 20, Britain ordered the expulsion of 3 Sudanese diplomats as part of the UNís April 26 call for sanctions.
    (WSJ, 5/21/96, p.A-1)

1996        May 28, Sudan asked Muslim militants to leave in an attempt to end UN diplomatic sanctions. The UN imposed sanctions to force the turn over of three suspects in the 1995 assassination attempt on Egyptís Pres. Mubarek.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. A-18)

1996        May 28, Two human rights groups accused Sudan of rights violations. Amnesty Intíl. reported that children were kidnapped, enslaved and shot. Human Rights Watch in Nairobi, Kenya, said that the denial of basic freedoms is routine and that an arms embargo should be imposed on all sides in the civil war.
    (SFC, 5/29/96, p.A8)

1996        May, Osama bin Laden was driven out of Sudan under pressure from the Clinton administration. His horse, ďSwift Like the Wind," was left behind. He had lived there for some years running a construction company and allegedly recruiting and training terrorists. Abdul Rasul Sayyaf, a Saudi Arabian-backed jihadist leader, invited bin Laden back to Afghanistan and bin Laden returned.
    (SFC, 8/21/98, p.A2)(SFC, 12/17/04, p.W4)(Econ, 9/17/05, p.40)(WSJ, 8/21/98, p.A4)

1996        Jul 12, At least 700,000 people were facing starvation in southern Sudan because of the Khartoum governmentís refusal to allow large-scale food aid.
    (SFC, 7/12/96, p.A14)

1996        Aug 31, Torrential rains threatened Sudan and Egypt with floods.
    (SFC, 8/31/96, p.A4)

1996        Oct, Former prime minister Sadiq el-Mahdi escaped house arrest in Khartoum and fled to Eritrea.

1996        Nov 2, Some 160,000 Beja people faced famine in northern Sudan because of a 2-year draught in the region.
    (SFC, 11/2/96, p.A18)

1996        Oct, After a peace agreement was established between Pres. Omar Hassan al-Bashir and 6 minor rebel factions, Kerubino [Kuayin] Kwanying Bol, a founding members of the rebels, was promoted to major general in the Sudanese army and attacked Bahr el Ghazal. Farming in this province of the Dinka tribe was disrupted and led to famine. Rebel leader John Garang refused to go along. Bol was a liberation army commander who switched allegiance to the governmentís side and then turned on the civilian population in his home territory.
    (SFC, 4/10/98, p.A17)(SFC, 7/29/98, p.A8)

1996        The Ashifa plant in Khartoum opened as a 50-50 venture between Bashir Hassan Bashir and a shipping company called Baaboud Trading and Shipping Agencies. The plant supplied malaria tablets and veterinary medicine for cattle. It was sold in 1998 to Salaheldin Idris.
    (WSJ, 8/24/98, p.A9)
1996        In Sudanís Abyei region the Heglig oil field was first developed and operated by the Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company. Sudan held a majority stake, with shares owned by companies from China, Malaysia and India.
    (AP, 7/22/09)
1996        The Red Cross suspended field work in Sudan after 2 members of its staff were seized briefly by a splinter rebel group.
    (SFC, 5/15/98, p.D3)
1996        The US embassy in Khartoum was abandoned.
    (WSJ, 8/21/98, p.A1)

1997        Jan 28, The government faced a new rebel offensive.
    (SFC, 1/28/97, p.A8)

1997        Jan, Many of the rebel opposition leaders were arrested in Khartoum.
    (WSJ, 3/4/97, p.A14)

1997        Mar 1, The government signed an agreement to build a 900-mile pipeline from the southern oilfields to Port Sudan on the Red Sea. Chinese National Petroleum would control 40% and Petronas of Malaysia would own 30% through its state owned oil company.
    (WSJ, 3/11/97, p.A22)(SFC, 6/13/01, p.D3)

1997        Mar 9, The national Democratic Alliance (NDA) began an offensive in the southern state of Equatoria.
    (SFC, 4/3/97, p.A10)

1997        Mar 21, Rebel leader John Garang prepared to attack Juba and claimed that the entire southern Sudan was under their control. Government information minister Tayeb Ibrahim Mohamed Kheir claimed that Ugandan forces were involved with the rebels.
    (SFC, 3/22/97, p.C1)

1997        May, In the village of Marial Bai, raiders killed 23 people and stole livestock. 67 women and children were missing and believed to have been abducted.
    (SFC, 7/31/97, p.A10)

1997        Sep, Gen. Omar Bashir accepted a 3-year-old proposal to hold direct negotiations with the Sudanese Peopleís Liberation Army (SPLA).
    (SFC,10/30/97, p.A12)

1997        Nov 4, US sanctions against Sudan were tightened due to the Iran-allied governmentís support for intíl. terrorism and abysmal human-rights record. After lobbying by trade associations the sanctions excluded US imports for gum arabic, a key ingredient for soft drinks, and other goods as an emulsifier.
    (WSJ, 11/5/97, p.A1)(SFC, 12/2/97, p.A8)

1997        Production of gum arabic from the acacia tree accounted for nearly half of Sudanís $20 million annual exports to the US. The derivative is used in soft drinks, cookies, and printing ink.
    (WSJ, 8/24/98, p.A14)

1997        China began investing in Sudan following US sanctions there. By 2005 Sudan provided China with about 5% if its oil imports.
    (WSJ, 3/29/05, p.A2)

1998        Jan 30, The city of Wau fell to rebels who pretended to defect and then attacked from inside.
    (SFC, 1/31/98, p.A9)

1998        Feb 12, Lt. Geníl. Al-Zubeir Mohammad Saleh, the countryís first vice-president, was killed along with 7 others in a plane crash in the southern Sudan. Rebels of the SPLA claimed to have shot the plane down.
    (SFC, 2/13/98, p.D5)

1998        Apr 2, Sudanese soldiers shot and beat to death 74 student conscripts who tried to flee the Ailafoon military camp. At least 55 others drowned when their boat capsized on the blue Nile while they tried to escape.
    (SFC, 4/13/98, p.A12)

1998        May 14, The Red Cross announced that it would resume operations after an 18-month break due the kidnapping of 2 staff members.
    (SFC, 5/15/98, p.D3)

1998        Jun 10, Three aid workers were killed when gunmen opened fire on a UN relief convoy.
    (SFC, 6/11/98, p.C2)

1998        Jun 30, Bombs were set off on this 9th anniversary of the coup that brought the National Islamic Front to power. 2 Catholic priests and 20 other men were arrested in August for the bombing. The 2 priests and at least 18 others were released in Dec 1999.
    (SFC, 12/8/99, p.A16)

1998        Jun, A new constitution was ratified.
    (SFC, 12/29/98, p.A6)

1998        Jul 15, Sudanese rebels declared a 3 month cease fire to allow food shipments to reach hundreds of thousands hungry people in the southwest.
    (WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A1)

1998        Jul 29, A UNICEF report said 130 people were dying every day in Ajiep out of a refugee population of 70,000 from famine. A program to provide 15,000 tons of food a month was planned. It would exceed the 1948 Berlin Airlift.
    (SFC, 7/29/98, p.A10)(SFC, 7/30/98, p.A16)

1998        Aug 3, The government declared a unilateral cease-fire.
    (SFC, 8/4/98, p.A12)

1998        cAug 7, Immediately after the bombing of 2 US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, Sudanese authorities arrested 2 men suspected of being involved in the plot.
    (SFC, 7/30/99, p.A12)

1998        Aug 20, Pres. Clinton ordered cruise missile attacks on Sudan and Afghanistan. About 50 missiles were fired at the camp of Osama Bin Laden and some 25 missiles against a suspected chemical plant in Khartoum. The plant in Sudan was suspected of producing the chemical EMPTA, one of the ingredients in VX nerve gas, but also an ingredient in fungicides and anti-microbial agents. The US Operation Infinite Reach began in Afghanistan and Sudan and cost over $50 million.
    (WSJ, 8/21/98, p.A1)(SFC, 8/27/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 9/22/99, p.A8)

1998        Aug 20, A missile attack destroyed the Sugar Sweet and Candy factory of Mustafa S. Ismaeil and killed a guard there. The owner planned to sue the US for damages.
    (SFC, 8/24/98, p.A8)

1998        Aug 21, Pres. Omar el-Bashir said that Sudan could prove that the bombed Shifa Pharmaceutical factory was not used for chemical weapons. Ten people were reportedly treated for injuries and damages were estimated at $100 million.
    (SFC, 8/22/98, p.A1,3)

1998        cAug 21, Sudanese authorities, angered by the US attack of US cruise missiles, released 2 men suspected in the bombing of 2 US embassies on Aug 7. The men were sent to Pakistan.
    (SFC, 7/30/99, p.A12)

1998        Aug 24, It was reported that Salaheldin Idris, a Saudi Arabian banker, planned to sue the US for $50 million for damages to his Ashifa pharmaceutical factory.
    (WSJ, 8/24/98, p.A9)

1998        Sep 2, It was reported that US officials acknowledged that they were not aware that Sudanís Shifa factory produced human and veterinary medicines. The admitted that their only knowledge about what the plant produced came from its Web site.
    (SFC, 9/2/98, p.A9)

1998        Oct 15, Foreign Minister Mustafa Osman Ismail said that Sudan will allow the UN to investigate any site alleged to be making chemical weapons.
    (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.A13)

1998        Dec 10, The death toll from the 15 year civil war was reported to have reached at least 1.9 million. A 40 nation African conference on refugees opened in Khartoum.
    (SFC, 12/11/98, p.D3)

1999        Jan 1, All opposition parties were to be allowed registration.
    (SFC, 12/29/98, p.A6)

1999        Jan 15, The government and rebels agreed to a 3-month extension of a cease-fire in a southwestern province.
    (SFC, 1/16/99, p.A11)

1999        Feb 8, An independent scientist hired by the owner of the pharmaceutical plant bombed by the US in August found no traces of chemical weapons.
    (SFC, 2/9/99, p.A8)

1999        Feb 23, In Khartoum health officials reported that some 140 people had died from meningitis and that another 1000 suffered from the disease.
    (SFC, 2/24/99, p.C3)

1999        Mar 5, From Sudan it was reported that southern rebels had kidnapped 7 people working with the Int'l. Committee of the Red Cross near the town of Bentiu, 500 miles south of Khartoum.
    (SFC, 3/8/99, p.A16)

1999        Apr 28, The US announced that it would allow US firms to sell food and medicine to Iran, Sudan and Libya.
    (SFC, 4/29/99, p.A3)

1999        May 3, The Justice and Treasury departments agreed to unfreeze the assets of Saleh Idris, the owner of the Sudanese factory that was bombed by US cruise missiles Aug. 20, 1998.
    (SFC, 5/4/99, p.A14)

1999        May 7, The rebels postponed peace talks indefinitely.
    (SFC, 5/8/99, p.C14)

1999        May, A team of 10,000 Chinese laborers under China Natural Petroleum Corp. completed a 1,000 mile oil pipeline, 2 wells and a refinery after 18 months of work. In exchange Sudan gave CNPC exclusive drilling rights to over 40,000 square miles near the city of Bor.
    (WSJ, 12/20/99, p.A22)

1999        Jul 12, It was reported that heavy fighting had left 150,000 people without food after they fled their homes.
    (WSJ, 7/12/99, p.A1)

1999        Jul 14, The Sudanese government banned aid flights to Western Upper Nile province where 2 factions allied to the government were fighting for control of oil fields. This soon put 150,000 people to face starvation.
    (SFC, 7/29/99, p.A16)

1999        Jul 27, The US eased sanctions against Iran, Libya and Sudan to allow the sale of food, medicine and medical equipment.
    (SFC, 7/27/99, p.A5)

1999        Aug 4, In Congo at least 518 people, mostly civilians, were killed when Sudanese planes, at the request of Congo's government, bombed the rebel-held towns of Makanza and Bogbonga. Sudan denied the charges and Congolese Pres. Kabila denied responsibility.
    (SFC, 8/5/99, p.A12)(SFC, 8/7/99, p.A12)

1999        Aug 30, Southern SPLA rebels rejected an Egyptian-Libyan peace plan. The rebels held that conditions put forward in negotiations were not included in the plan.
    (SFC, 8/31/99, p.A13)

1999        cOct 31, 25 Sudanese fighters were massacred by rival militiamen when they arrived for talks with Paulino Matep at Benitu
    (SFC, 11/4/99, p.A18)

1999        Nov 22, Pres. Bashir issued several decrees to promote national reconciliation.
    (SFC, 11/26/99, p.B4)

1999        Nov 25, Pres. Bashir met with former prime minister Sadiq al-Mahdi, head of the opposition Umma Party.
    (SFC, 11/26/99, p.B4)

1999        Nov 26, Sudan signed a peace agreement with the opposition Umma Party in Djibouti to end the 16-year old civil war.
    (SFC, 11/27/99, p.A15)

1999        Nov 29, The rebel Sudan People's Liberation Army rejected the Djibouti reconciliation between the government and an exiled opposition group.
    (SFC, 11/30/99, p.D3)

1999        Dec 7, An opposition group summit began in Kampala, Uganda.
    (WSJ, 12/8/99, p.A19)

1999        Dec 12, Sudan's Pres. Omar el-Bashir dissolved parliament, headed by Hassan Turabi, under a 3-month state of emergency. He cited internal and foreign threats. Parliament had been due to enact new constitutional amendments that would have taken away the presidentís say in the appointment of provincial governors.
    (WSJ, 12/13/99, p.A1)(SFC, 12/14/99, p.A12)(Econ, 6/28/03, p.48)

1999        Sudan created the Commission for the Elimination of Abductions of Women and Children to help eliminate slavery.
    (SFC, 5/23/02, p.A15)

2000        Jan 24, Pres. Omar el-Bashir reappointed an entirely new government. He fired 10 ministers, disbanded 2 ministries and appointed 25 new state governors.
    (SFC, 1/25/00, p.A12)

2000        Feb 8, A government plane bombed the rebel town of Kaouda in the Nuba Mountains and 13 students under age 14 were reported killed.
    (SFC, 2/9/00, p.C3)

2000        Feb 24, Some 160 aid workers began leaving the southern region following a rebel ultimatum to comply with new terms for aid deliveries or face expulsion. At least 11 int'l. aid organizations refused demands for higher taxes and more control.
    (SFC, 2/29/00, p.A12)

2000        Mar 1, Government aircraft bombed a hospital compound in rebel-held territory in Lui. 2 people were killed and a dozen injured.
    (SFC, 3/4/00, p.C1)

2000        May 6, Pres. Omar el-Bashir dismissed Hassan Turabi as the secretary-general of the ruling National Congress Party.
    (SFC, 5/8/00, p.A13)

2000        Jul 13, In southern Sudan rebels reported the killing of at least 92 pro-government fighters of the Murahilin tribe after 2 days of fighting.
    (SFC, 7/14/00, p.D2)

2000        Aug 23, A boat capsized on the Blue Nile near Sinja and 35 people, mostly schoolchildren, died.
    (SFC, 8/25/00, p.D8)

2000        Dec 8, In Garaffa, Sudan, Abbas al-Baqer Abbas opened fire at the al-Sunna al-Mohammediya Mosque and killed 20 people. 40 others were wounded and police killed Abbas, a member of the Takfir wal Hijra militant Islamic group.
    (SFC, 12/9/00, p.A18)(SSFC, 12/10/00, p.A28)

2000        Dec 18, It was reported that some 3.2 million people faced serious food and water shortages due to the civil war and drought.
    (SFC, 12/18/00, p.E6)

2000        Dec 29, Gen. Omar el-Bashir was declared the winner in elections marred by an opposition boycott. Civil war prevented voting in 3 of the 26 provinces.
    (SFC, 12/30/00, p.A10)

2000        The Caine Prize for African Writing, named in memory of the late Sir Michael Harris Caine (1927-1999), was first awarded to Leila Aboulela (b.1964) of Sudan at the Zimbabwe International Book Fair 2000 in Harare. Caine was a former Chairman of Booker plc., Chairman of Africa 95, and Chairman of the Booker Prize management committee for almost 25 years.
    (www.caineprize.com/about.php)
2000        The ďBlack Book" document began circulating among Sudanese rebels cataloguing how a handful of people from 3 Arab tribes had grabbed most of the power in Sudan.
    (Econ, 8/28/04, p.40)

2001        Jan 17, In Sudan some 30,000 people fled rebel-held regions in the Numa Mountains.
    (SFC, 1/18/01, p.A16)

2001        Jan, Rebels attacked an oil drilling derrick owned by Chinaís Great Wall Drilling Co. and 3 soldiers were killed along with 15 rebels.
    (SFC, 6/13/01, p.D3)

2001        Feb 20, Hassan Turabi, Sudanís top Islamic theologian and former parliamentary speaker, called for the Sudanese to rise against the government of Omar el-Bashir. He was arrested the next day.
    (SFC, 2/23/01, p.A20)

2001        Mar 8, In southern Sudan dozens of gunmen attacked and looted an aid agency. 4 workers were killed and 2 were kidnapped.
    (SFC, 3/13/01, p.A18)

2001        Apr 4, Col. Ibrahim Shamsul-Din, deputy defense minister, and 13 other high ranking military officers were killed as their Antonov plane crashed on takeoff in Adaril.
    (SFC, 4/5/01, p.A11)

2001        May 9, In southern Sudan a Red Cross plane was shot and its co-pilot, Dane Ole Friis Eriksen, was killed. The plane managed to land in Kenya.
    (SFC, 5/10/01, p.C5)

2001        May 24, The government planned to halt air strikes against rebels in the south May 25 in an effort to reach a cease-fire.
    (SFC, 5/25/01, p.D6)

2001        May 27, Sec. of State Colin Powell stopped in Uganda and urged the government of Sudan to halt bombing in southern towns and to stop interfering with the delivery of emergency assistance to victims of drought and war.
    (SFC, 5/28/01, p.B12)

2001        The US House voted (422-2) to forbid foreign oil companies doing business in Sudan from selling securities in the US.
    (SFC, 6/14/01, p.C3)

2001        Aug 29, In Sudan the UN reported that 3,480 child soldiers had been sent back to their southern homes following 6 months of retraining. 4,000 more children were expected to transition out of the Sudan Peopleís Liberation Army over the next 18 months.
    (SFC, 8/30/01, p.A12)

2001        Sep 6, Pres. Bush named John Danforth as a special envoy to broker a peace agreement in Sudanís civil war.
    (SFC, 9/7/01, p.A14)

2001        Sep 26, Sudan began rounding up extremists that have used the country as an operating base.
    (SFC, 9/27/01, p.A8)

2001        Sep 28, The UN Security Council lifted sanctions against Sudan after the US abstained from voting.
    (SFC, 9/29/01, p.A10)

2001        Nov 1, Pres. Bush extended sanctions against Sudan for one year.
    (SFC, 11/2/01, p.D5)

2002        Feb 20, In Sudan a government helicopter gunship attacked civilians waiting for food at a UN site and at least 17 people were killed. The US suspended peace efforts following the attack.
    (SFC, 2/22/02, p.A13)   

2002        Feb, Sudan arrested 9 terrorists including Anas al-Liby, a senior al Qaeda operative.
    (SFC, 3/19/02, p.A9)

2002        Mar, Uganda and the Sudanese government in Khartoum reached an agreement to allow forces into southern Sudan.
    (SFC, 5/16/02, p.A11)

2002        Mar, Ugandan forces in "Operation Iron Fist" pursued the Lordís Resistance Army (LRA) into southern Sudan, where the rebels killed at least 470 villagers.
    (WSJ, 5/13/02, p.A1)(SFC, 5/16/02, p.A11)

2002        Apr 20, Sudanese government forces began a major offensive against 3 southern provinces to oust the rebel Sudan Peopleís Liberation Army. Rebels said hundreds of thousands of people were displaced.
    (SFC, 4/24/02, p.A)

2002        Apr, Uganda and Sudan restored diplomatic relations.
    (SFC, 5/16/02, p.A11)

2002        May 22, A US-led intíl. commission condemned the Sudanese government for allowing slavery to flourish. Bondage to pay off debts still existed.
    (SFC, 5/23/02, p.A15)

2002        May, William Luk opened a bookshop in Rumbek, the capital of Sudan's Bahr el-Ghazal province. It was believed to be the only bookshop in southern Sudan.
    (Econ, 1/31/04, p.48)

2002        Jun 6, Ugandan troops killed 67 rebels in a battle inside southern Sudan as part of a continuing offensive to wipe out the 15-year old rebel group.
    (AP, 6/6/02)

2002        Jun 27, In Khartoum, Sudan, representatives of 57 Muslim nations pledged support for Palestinians in a resolution that made no mention of President Bush's call for Palestinians to elect a new leadership. In 21 months of violence, 1,739 people have been killed on the Palestinian side and 564 people on the Israeli side.
    (AP, 6/27/02)

2002        Jul 20, Sudan signed a peace deal with southern rebels in Kenya.
    (WSJ, 7/22/02, p.A1)

2002        Jul 29, Sudanese government-backed forces killed a foreign aid worker and abducted three others in an oil-rich area of Sudan. A rebel leader said the government killed some 1,000 civilians in a separate attack in the same region.
    (AP, 7/30/02)

2002        Jul 31, Sudanese rebels claimed that government troops using bombers and helicopter gunships attacked areas of a town in Sudan's oil-producing Western Upper Nile Province.
    (AP, 7/31/02)

2002        Aug 27, In Sudan more members of the opposition Popular National Congress, including two former government ministers, were arrested on suspicion of creating "instability."
    (AP, 8/28/02)

2002        Sep 2, The Sudanese government suspended peace talks with southern rebels because of the rebel takeover of Torit.
    (AP, 9/2/02)

2002        Sep 27, In Sudan a thunder storm killed 26 people in two separate accidents in Khartoum when a Ferris wheel collapsed and a pleasure boat sank.
    (AP, 9/28/02)

2002        Sep 29, A Saudi prince signed deals worth $330 million to export Sudanese livestock and build a five-star hotel in Sudan's capital.
    (AP, 9/29/02)

2002        Oct 4, Regional mediators said the Sudanese government and southern rebels have agreed to a cessation of hostilities and the resumption of peace talks to end the country's 15-year civil war.
    (AP, 10/4/02)

2002        Oct 12, It was reported that 164,000 Eritrean refugees had begun returning home from camps in Sudan. Some 60,000 had already returned since 2001.
    (SFC, 10/12/02, p.A10)

2002        Oct 15, Sudan's government signed an agreement with rebels to suspend fighting during talks to end their 20-year-old war.
    (AP, 10/15/02)

2002        Oct 20, Sudan's government lifted a ban on relief flights to the southern Equatoria region after it signed a cease-fire with southern rebels.
    (AP, 10/20/02)

2002        Dec 18, In Sudan a bus crashed and burst into flames after hitting a hole on an ill-maintained highway known as "the road of death," killing 30 people.
    (AP, 12/19/02)

2002         In Sudan the Machakos Protocol outlined steps necessary to achieve peace.
    (WSJ, 10/22/03, p.A4)

2002        The Sudan Peace Act threatened a series of US diplomatic actions against Sudanís Islamist regime if it did not end its civil war against Christian and animist tribes in the south.
    (WSJ, 5/26/04, p.A1)

2003        Feb, War flared up in Sudanís northwestern region of Darfur.
    (Econ, 1/10/04, p.42)

2003         Mar, Fighting broke out in the Darfur region of western Sudan between Government forces and rebels from the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM).
    (www.un.org/News/dh/dev/scripts/darfur_formatted.htm)

2003        Apr, Sudan accused Eritrea of supporting Sudanese rebels in the eastern part of Sudan.
    (www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/hornafrica.html#eri)
2003        Apr, Refugees begin arriving in eastern Chad to escape the conflict. Large numbers of civilians become internally displaced people (IDPs) within Darfur.
    (www.un.org/News/dh/dev/scripts/darfur_formatted.htm)

2003        Jul 8, A Sudanese airliner crashed minutes after its captain reported technical problems following takeoff, killing 116 people. The only survivor was a 2-year-old boy.
    (AP, 7/8/03)

2003        Jul 11, In western Sudan about 30 rebels and an undisclosed number of government troops were killed during fighting near the border with Chad.
    (AP, 7/13/03)

2003        Sep 4, The SLA and the Sudanese government reach ceasefire agreement, but both sides soon accuse the other of breaking it.
    (www.un.org/News/dh/dev/scripts/darfur_formatted.htm)
 
2003        Sep 17, Tom Eric Vraalsen, Secretary-General Kofi Annanís Special Envoy for Humanitarian Affairs in Sudan, announces the Greater Darfur Initiative, appealing for $23 million to help those most in need.
    (www.un.org/News/dh/dev/scripts/darfur_formatted.htm)
 
2003        Sep 25, Sudan's government and main rebel group signed an agreement on security arrangements for a six-year political transition in efforts to end their 20-year civil war.
    (AP, 9/26/03)

2003        Sep 27, An illness called "nodding disease" was reported among children in southern Sudan. It caused victims to convulse with sharp nods of the head while eating or exposed to unusually cold conditions.
    (SFC, 9/27/03, p.A28)

2003        Sep, Refugee numbers in Chad reach 65,000. UN agencies estimate at least 500,000 people in Darfur need humanitarian aid.
    (www.un.org/News/dh/dev/scripts/darfur_formatted.htm)

2003        Oct 13, In Sudan, Hassan Turabi, hard-line Islamic leader and top opposition figure, was pardoned after more than 2 years under house arrest as part of a release of political prisoners.
    (AP, 10/13/03)

2003        cOct 18, In western Sudan 9 commercial hauling workers were killed during clashes between warring tribes. Recent fighting in Darfur had created more than 600,000 refugees.
    (AP, 10/26/03)(AP, 10/28/03)

2003        Oct 28, In western Sudan a helicopter transporting troops crashed, killing 19 members of the armed forces and a university student.
    (AP, 10/29/03)

2003        Nov 1, It was reported that central Sudan was experiencing its worst grasshopper attack in 3 decades. At least 11 people died and more than 16,000 were hospitalized with a respiratory illness doctors link to an annual locust invasion.
    (SFC, 11/1/03, p.A8)(AP, 11/2/03)

2003        Dec 6, Sudan's vice president and the leader of rebels fighting a 20-year civil war resumed their talks on a comprehensive peace deal, boosted by a landmark visit by rebels to the capital, Khartoum.
    (AP, 12/6/03)

2003        Dec 21, The Sudan government and rebels have moved a step closer to ending their 20-year civil war after agreeing on how to divide the country's oil revenue.
    (AP, 12/21/03)

2003        In Sudan a study indicated that AIDS had infected about 1.6% of the population. By 2009 the number was estimated to be approaching 3%.
    (Econ, 7/4/09, p.42)

2003-2006    The Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) appeared in the Darfur region. It consisted largely of members of the Zaghawa tribe. Soon after the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) sprang up. In response the government unleashed the janjaweed, an Arab militia with ranks swollen by ex-criminals. By 2006 as many as 300,000 civilians were killed in the Darfur region.
    (Econ, 5/15/04, p.22)(Econ, 8/28/04, p.40)(Econ, 5/13/06, p.14)

2003        Plumpyínut, a peanut paste developed in France in 1997, was 1st used on a large scale in Sudanís Darfur region to alleviate hunger.
    (Econ, 11/5/05, p.51)

2004        Jan 6, The Sudanese government and southern rebels agreed on how to share the country's wealth, including oil revenues, solving a key issue and taking a major step toward ending their 20-year conflict.
    (AP, 1/6/04)

2004        Jan 26, Sudanese planes dropped bombs in western Sudan, sending hundreds of people fleeing across the border into Chad where aid workers scrambled to provide them food and shelter in the barren desert.
    (AP, 1/27/04)

2004        Feb 11, Sudan government-backed militias reportedly attacked five villages in southern Darfur region, killing between 68 and 80 civilians. "Amnesty International continued to receive details of horrifying attacks against civilians in villages by government warplanes, soldiers and government-aligned militia."
    (AP, 2/18/04)

2004        Feb 17, UN agencies began urgently airlifting relief supplies into eastern Chad and western Sudan to help more than 600,000 Sudanese lacking food, water and medical supplies because of fighting.
    (AP, 2/17/04)

2004        Feb 27, Sudanese government forces launched a series of raids on western villages, killing at least 70 civilians and forcing tens of thousands to flee.
    (AP, 2/28/04)

2004        Mar 19, A senior U.N. official said that fighting in western Sudan has intensified in recent weeks, accusing Arab militia of systematically attacking villages and raping women.
    (AP, 3/19/04)

2004        Mar 31, In Sudan security police detained Hassan Turabi, the leading Islamic opposition leader, 3 days after members of his party were accused of conspiring to topple the government.
    (AP, 3/31/04)

2004        Apr 8, The Sudanese government signed a cease-fire with rebels in the western Darfur region.
    (SFC, 4/9/04, p.A2)

2004        Apr 18, The UN reported that at least 50,000 people have fled their homes in recent weeks because of militia attacks and fighting between Sudanese government and rebel forces in southern Sudan.
    (AP, 4/18/04)

2004        Apr 21, Refugees in Chad reported that Sudanese and Arab militias were conducting a "reign of terror" to push blacks out of western Sudan.
    (WSJ, 4/22/04, p.A1)

2004        May 4, The United States walked out of a U.N. meeting to protest its decision minutes later to give Sudan a third term on the Human Rights Commission.
    (AP, 5/4/05)

2004        May 22, Arab militiamen killed at least 56 people in a raid in western Sudan, just days after the government declared the troubled region was stable.
    (AP, 5/24/04)

2004        May 24, The WHO confirmed an outbreak of the deadly Ebola virus has killed four people in south Sudan.
    (AFP, 5/24/04)

2004        May 25, Sudanese officials said the government has reached an agreement with rebels on issues that have stalled talks to end the 21-year-old war, clearing the way for a comprehensive peace deal. The talks in Naivasha, 60 miles west of Nairobi, do not involve insurgents fighting a 15-month rebellion in the Darfur region of western Sudan.
    (AP, 5/25/04)

2004        May 26, Sudanese VP Ali Osman Taha and John Garang, SPLA southern rebel leader, signed protocols to pave the way for a comprehensive deal.
    (AP, 5/27/04)(Econ, 5/29/04, p.14)
2004        May 26, The U.N. Security Council called for the immediate deployment of international monitors to Sudan's western Darfur region and put new pressure on the country's government to end a conflict there.
    (AP, 5/26/04)

2004        May 27, Relief workers were racing against the clock to keep hundreds of thousands of people from dying in Sudan's western Darfur region, in what has become the biggest humanitarian crisis of "our age."
    (AP, 5/27/04)

2004        May 28, The Sudanese government and rebels from Darfur agreed that the first international observers of a fragile ceasefire would deploy there next week. Villagers in west Sudan said Sudanese aircraft bombed their village and killed at least 11 people.
    (AP, 5/28/04)(Reuters, 5/29/04)

2004        Jun 8, Britain planned to give an extra 15 million pounds (27 million dollars) in relief aid to Sudan's crisis-hit Darfur region.
    (AFP, 6/8/04)

2004        Jun 14, UN humanitarian chief Jan Egeland criticized the Sudanese government for blocking aid workers, food and equipment from reaching the Darfur region.
    (AP, 6/14/04)

2004        Jun 17, A Chad military official said Arab militias, known as Janjawids, fought Chadian troops in Birak, a locality inside Chad about 10 miles (six kilometers) from the border with western Sudan. 69 Janjawids militiamen were killed and two taken prisoner in the fighting. He did not give figures for any losses among Chadian troops.
    (AP, 6/17/04)

2004        Jun 19, Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir ordered "complete mobilization" to disarm all illegal armed groups in the western region of Darfur, including the Arab militias who have been harassing African villagers.
    (AP, 6/19/04)

2004        Jun 25-2004 Jun 27, Ugandan rebels (LRA) in southern Sudan unleashed a two-day campaign of arson, looting and murder, killing 100 villagers and forcing 15,000 others to flee their homes.
    (AP, 7/9/04)

2004        Jun 26, Rebels from Sudan's remote Darfur demanded the imposition of a military no-fly zone, free access for aid workers and war crimes trials for Arab militias who have looted and burned throughout the region.
    (AP, 6/26/04)

2004        Jun 27, Saudi Arabia dispatched two planeloads of aid to Sudan's war-torn western region of Darfur.
    (AFP, 6/27/04)

2004        Jul 1, The United Nation's World Food Program (WFP) began airlifting enriched food from the Ethiopian capital to Sudan's western Darfur region, where it estimates 1.2 million people will need food aid every month until October. UN Sec. Geníl. Kofi Annan visited the area.
    (AFP, 7/2/04)(WSJ, 7/2/04, p.A1)

2004        Jul 3, Sudan pledged to disarm Arab militias, known as Janjaweed.
    (Reuters, 7/3/04)

2004        Jul 6, Sudan ordered an end to restrictions on the movement of aid to the Darfur region.
    (WSJ, 7/7/04, p.A1)

2004        Jul 7, It was reported that fighting between Arab and African tribes has killed at least 70 people and displaced thousands more this week in the Darfur region of western Sudan.
    (Reuters, 7/7/04)

2004        Jul 10, Sudan, under international pressure to take action to end the humanitarian crisis in Darfur, agreed with Chad to deploy a joint force along their troubled border.
    (AFP, 7/11/04)

2004        Jul 17, Sudanese rebels walked out of peace talks, saying government representatives had refused to meet their conditions for a new round of negotiations.
    (AP, 7/17/04)

2004        Jul 23, Leaders from the 2 main rebel groups in Sudan's western Darfur region agreed to participate in "substantive negotiations" for a political solution to the humanitarian crisis.
    (AP, 7/24/04)

2004        Jul 24, It was reported that rebels fighting an 18-year insurgency in northern Uganda have killed at least 42 civilians in southern Sudan in the past week.
    (AP, 7/24/04)

2004        Jul 25, Central African Republic President Francois Bozize wrapped up a two-day visit to Sudan with a pledge to help his Sudanese counterpart Omar al-Beshir resolve the crisis in the western Darfur region.
    (AFP, 7/25/04)

2004        Jul 28, The Ugandan army reportedly killed 120 rebel Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) fighters during clashes in southern Sudan and narrowly missed capturing Joseph Kony, the insurgents' leader.
    (AP, 7/29/04)

2004        Aug 1, The Sudanese cabinet condemned the 30-day deadline for action on Darfur set by the U.N. Security Council, but said it would implement a 90-day program agreed earlier with U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan.
    (AP, 8/1/04)

2004            Aug 3, A Sudanese official and Arab tribal leader said rebels masquerading as Arab militia have killed 28 Arab tribesman in attacks in western Sudan over the last week.
    (AP, 8/4/03)

2004        Aug 2, The UN began air-dropping food for refugees in Darfur, Sudan.
    (WSJ, 8/3/04, p.A1)

2004        Aug 13, The first elements of a 300-strong African Union protection force left Kigali, Rwanda, for Sudan's troubled region of Darfur, Sudan.
    (AP, 8/14/04)

2004        Aug 19, It was reported that the Darfur refugee count in western Sudan had reached 11.2 million.
    (WSJ, 8/19/04, p.A1)

2004        Aug 21, Sudan signed an agreement to ensure the voluntary return of more than one million people displaced by fighting in the Darfur region and said it was giving Darfuris more say in local government.
    (AP, 8/21/04)

2004        Aug 22, Sudan said it would reduce paramilitary forces in Darfur by 30 percent to try to ease tensions in the western region.
    (AP, 8/22/04)

2004        Aug 24, The International Committee of the Red Cross said it was mounting a major airlift of relief supplies to Sudan's troubled Darfur region.
    (AP, 8/24/04)

2004        Aug 25, Sudan said it had closed its embassy in Washington after being unable to find a bank that would handle its financial matters.
    (AP, 8/26/04)

2004        Aug 29, The UN Security Council set this date for Sudan to stop the killing in Darfur, allow help to reach the region and disarm the militias terrorizing the region.
    (Econ, 8/28/04, p.39)

2004        Aug 31, The Sudanese government said rebels in Darfur had kidnapped 22 health workers in the strife-torn region, following the abduction of eight Sudanese nationals working for international aid groups.
    (AFP, 8/31/04)

2004        Sep 1, Rebels released six Sudanese aid workers in Darfur, four days after they went missing during a trip to register refugees.
    (AP, 9/1/04)
2004        Sep 1, A U.N. report called for a quick increase in the international monitoring force in Sudan, saying the government has not stopped attacks against civilians or disarmed marauding militias.
    (AP, 9/1/04)

2004        Sep 5, Londonís Sunday Times reported that John Knight, a millionaire British arms dealer, is reportedly fuelling a bloody civil war in Sudan by arranging to supply its government with tanks, rocket launchers and a cruise missile.
    (AP, 9/5/04)

2004        Sep 10, Canada said it was donating one million dollars (770,000 US) to United Nations efforts to pacify strife-torn Darfur in western Sudan.
    (AFP, 9/11/04)

2004        Sep 14, A UN World Health report said 6-10 thousand people were dying from disease and violence in Sudanís Darfur region.
    (SFC, 9/15/04, p.A3)

2004        Sep 15, A rebel faction said peace talks with the Sudanese government and rebels from the troubled Darfur region collapsed after three weeks without an accord.
    (AP, 9/15/04)

2004        Sep 18, A divided UN Security Council approved a resolution threatening oil sanctions against Sudan unless the government reins in Arab militias blamed for a killing spree in Darfur and ordered an investigation of whether the attacks constitute genocide.
    (AP, 9/19/04)
2004        Sep 18, Ugandan helicopter gunships and ground troops attacked a rebel hideout in southern Sudan, killing at least 25 insurgents and capturing seven others.
    (AP, 9/19/04)

2004        Sep 24, The UN High Commissioner for Refugees proposed autonomy for the troubled Darfur region of Sudan. The government has resisted this but said it would be willing to discuss it anew in an effort to end the violence that has killed 50,000 people.
    (CP, 9/24/04)

2004        Sep 25, Sudanese authorities accused an opposition party of plotting to kill more than three dozen senior government officials and blow up key sites in the capital.
    (AP, 9/25/04)

2004        Sep 30, Sudan's foreign minister pledged to allow more African troops and police to help end the conflict in Darfur, responding to international demands for action to protect civilians.
    (AP, 10/1/04)

2004        Oct 4, Iranian President Mohammad Khatami arrived in Khartoum to start a three-day visit to Sudan.
    (AP, 10/4/04)

2004        Oct 5, A Russian cargo plane crashed in war-ravaged southern Sudan, killing all four people onboard.
    (AP, 10/6/04)

2004        Oct 6, Sudan's U.N. ambassador challenged the US to send troops to the Darfur region if it really believes a genocide is taking place.
    (AP, 10/6/04)

2004        Oct 19, The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) said villages throughout Sudan's Darfur region face an "unprecedented food crisis," worse than the threat of famine in recent decades.
    (Reuters, 10/19/04)

2004        Oct 21, Negotiations between the Sudanese government and the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), an umbrella organization for opposition groups from around Sudan, opened in Cairo under the auspices of Egypt.
    (AP, 10/23/04)

2004        Oct 22, The EU said its member states will contribute $125 million to an African Union (AU) force in Sudan's troubled Darfur region.
    (AP, 10/23/04)

2004        Oct 26, In Nigeria a 2nd day of peace talks on the crisis in Sudan's Darfur region broke off after rebels called for more time to prepare proposals for a long-term political resolution to the conflict.
    (AP, 10/26/04)

2004        Oct 28, A contingent of 50 Nigerian soldiers arrived in Darfur, Sudan, aboard a US military plane, the first of 3,000 extra African Union troops deployed to monitor a shaky cease-fire.
    (AP, 10/29/04)

2004        Oct 29, Sudanese rebel leaders demanded that Islam be kept out of government in the war torn region of Darfur.
    (AP, 10/29/04)

2004        Oct 30, Rwandan troops arrived in Sudan's remote Darfur region to join Nigerian soldiers monitoring a shaky cease-fire in the country's troubled west.
    (AP, 10/31/04)

2004        Nov 9, Sudan's government and rebels agreed to sign fresh accords meant to stop hostilities in Darfur.
    (AP, 11/9/04)

2004        Nov 10, Sudanese police raided a camp in Darfur for the second time this month, destroying makeshift homes, firing into the air and shouting at terrified villagers.
    (AP, 11/11/04)

2004        Nov 16, Darfur rebels from the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) handed over 20 prisoners of war to the African Union (AU).
    (Reuters, 11/16/04)

2004        Nov 19, Rebel officials and the Sudanese government committed themselves to ending the 21-year civil war in southern Sudan before January, signing an agreement at a special meeting of the UN Security Council in Kenya.
    (AP, 11/19/04)

2004        Nov 22, Fighting near a village in Sudan's crisis-plagued Darfur region killed at least 17 people, while helicopters rescued dozens of workers who fled into the bush.
    (AP, 11/22/04)

2004        Nov 25, The UN World Food Program said it has suspended its operations in most of the Sudanese state of North Darfur and relocated its staff to the capital due to renewed clashes between rebels and government forces.
    (AP, 11/25/04)

2004        Nov 26, Sudan's pro-government Janjaweed militia killed 16 people in a western village in the troubled Darfur region.
    (AP, 11/27/04)

2004        Nov 27, In Sudan armed tribesmen attacked and looted four villages, killing at least 15 civilians near the Darfur town of Kossa Hill.
    (AP, 12/1/04)

2004        Nov 29, The Sudanese government declared the representatives of two British humanitarian organizations persona non-grata and gave them 48 hours to leave the country.
    (AP, 11/29/04)

2004        Dec 13, In Nigeria the first face-to-face working meeting between Sudan government and Darfur rebel negotiators began. Cease-fire violations were on the rise in Sudan's bloodied Darfur region and the fighting was "poisoning" peace talks.
    (AP, 12/13/04)
2004        Dec 13, The UN restricted its humanitarian operations in Sudan's troubled South Darfur area following a shooting that killed two aid workers. Rebels said they would boycott peace talks until the government stops a Darfur offensive.
    (AP, 12/14/04)(WSJ, 12/14/04, p.A1)

2004        Dec 16, The Sudanese government agreed to stop a military offensive in Darfur region.
    (AP, 12/16/04)

2004        Dec 18, The African Union said Sudan had started withdrawing troops in Darfur ahead of an evening deadline to end fighting there, but Khartoum said the pullout was conditional on the rebels halting attacks.
    (AP, 12/18/04)
2004        Dec 18, Sudan's government kept up attacks on rebels in Darfur, defying a deadline set by African Union mediators for an end to active hostilities.
    (AP, 12/19/04)

2004        Dec 21, Sudan's government and Darfur rebels agreed to formally end faltering talks. The African Union urged both sides to stop fighting so peace efforts could resume in January. Save the Children UK is pulling out of the Darfur region of Sudan because four of its workers have been killed there.
    (AP, 12/21/04)

2004        Dec 25, The Sudanese government said it has readied 13 planes for fighting swarms of desert locusts, poised to enter the country from Egypt.
    (AP, 12/25/04)

2004        Dec 26, The Independent reported that British PM Tony Blair has ordered the military to prepare to deploy up to 3,000 soldiers to the conflict-torn Sudanese region of Darfur.
    (AP, 12/26/04)

2004        Dec 27, In western Sudan rebel forces attacked the market town of Ghubaysh and the government retaliated. The UN World Food Program suspended food convoys to the Darfur region following the attacks.
    (AP, 12/29/04)

2004        Dec 31, Sudanese government and southern rebel officials signed landmark deals on how to implement a series of agreements on ending a 21-year civil war in southern Sudan.
    (AP, 12/31/04)

2004        Dec, Under a proposed peace deal rebel leader John Garang (SPLA) would become vice-president of a federal Sudan and allow southerners to vote for independence in 6.5 years.
    (Econ, 12/11/04, p.45)

2004        Dec, A 3-day attack by Sudanís government-sponsored militiamen left 32 people dead in the village of Um Seifa.
    (Econ, 4/2/05, p.41)

2004        The documentary film ďLost Boys of Sudan" was first broadcast on PBS. It follows two Sudanese refugees, made homeless by civil war in 1987, on an extraordinary journey from Africa to America.
    (www.lostboysfilm.com/about.html)(SFC, 5/28/08, p.B5)
2004        In Sudan the Eastern Front was set up as an alliance between 2 eastern tribal rebel groups, the Rashaida tribeís Free Lions and the Beja Congress. They were later joined by the Darfuriís Justice and Equality Movement (JEM). Eastern Frontís bases in Eritrea were clearly abetted by the government of Eritrea.
    (Econ, 10/1/05, p.53)
2004        Dr. Halima Bashir (24) was gang-raped by Sudanese soldiers after speaking out about atrocities in Darfur. She told UN workers about the attack by the Janjaweed militia. The military came after her. She was cut with knives, burned with cigarettes and gang-raped repeatedly. They let her live, taunting her with the words: "Now you can go and tell the world about rape." She wrote about her experiences in her memoir, "Tears of the Desert" (2008).
    (Reuters, 10/6/10)
2004        China invested almost $150 million in Sudan this year.
    (Econ, 10/28/06, p.54)

2005        Jan 8, Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo flew to Sudan's troubled Darfur region to assess the crisis there following talks with his Sudanese counterpart Omar al-Beshir.
    (AP, 1/8/05)
   
2005        Jan 9, Sudan's VP Ali Osman Mohammed Taha and John Garang, the country's main rebel leader, signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) to end Africa's longest-running conflict. The treaty said: The 10 states in southern Sudan will be secular, while the north will practice Islamic law; Former rebels will hold 30 percent of national posts, the south will be autonomous; Oil revenues from the south will be split 50-50 between the north and south: The south will vote on independence in 2011; UN observers will monitor a cease-fire and demobilization of troops.
    (AP, 1/9/05)(AP, 1/10/05)(Econ, 12/3/05, p.24)

2005        Jan 11, Fighting raged on in Sudan's western Darfur region where despite a peace accord ending a separate conflict in southern Sudan.
    (AP, 1/12/05)

2005        Jan 16, The Sudanese government and an alliance of opposition groups reached a tentative agreement on Sudan's political future that builds on a peace accord already signed with southern rebels.
    (Reuters, 1/16/05)

2005        Jan 22, South Sudan leader John Garang arrived in his southern bastion for the first time since a peace accord ended Africa's longest-running civil war.
    (Reuters, 1/22/05)

2005        Jan 26, The Sudanese air force bombed villagers in South Darfur, observers from the African Union reported, and an international aid organization said casualties were inflicted. The UN said renewed fighting in Sudan's Darfur region may have killed up to 105 civilians and displaced more than 9,000 last week.
    (AP, 1/26/05)

2005        Jan 29, In Sudan police clashed with rioting tribesmen in the Red Sea coastal city of Port Sudan, leaving at least 17 people dead and 16 injured. A tribal representative claimed 23 people were dead and 100 others were wounded.
    (AP, 1/29/05)(Econ, 10/1/05, p.43)

2005        Jan 31, A UN-appointed commission accused the Sudanese government of gross, systematic human rights violations in Darfur, but stopped short of labeling the violence in the region as genocide.
    (AP, 1/31/05)

2005        Feb 3, In Sudan the pilot of a cargo plane that was losing altitude steered away from a built-up area and crashed in open space outside Khartoum, killing 7 crew members.
    (AP, 2/3/05)
2005        Feb 3, The Kremlin said President Vladimir Putin has signed a resolution that would have Russian troops join a proposed U.N. peacekeeping operation in Sudan.
    (AP, 2/3/05)

2005        Feb 4, A Swiss-based group said Arab tribes in northern Sudan have freed 880 slaves during the past two weeks and allowed them to return to southern Sudan.
    (AP, 2/4/05)

2005        Feb 9, Sudanese Aviation Minister Ali Tamim Fartak said European aviation consortium Airbus Industrie has cancelled the 45-million dollar debt owed to it by Sudan Airways.
    (AFP, 2/9/05)

2005        Feb 16, In Sudan 6 tribal leaders in a southern Darfur area agreed to cease attacks against each other and drop all claims for blood money for past assaults on tribesmen.
    (AP, 2/17/05)

2005        Feb 19, Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi and Egyptian Pres. Hosni Mubarak backed an African solution to the crisis in Sudan's Darfur region during 2 rounds of talks in Cairo.
    (AFP, 2/19/05)

2005        Feb 20, In Sudan Sheik Abdul-Rahim al-Buraei (82), a top Sufi Islamic cleric who wrote mystical poems and helped peace efforts, died.
    (AP, 2/21/05)

2005        Feb 23, In Sudan an explosion at an ammunition dump in the southern town of Juba killed 24 people.
    (Reuters, 2/23/05)

2005        Feb 28, African Union (AU) chairman, Nigeria's President Olusegun Obasanjo, met Sudan's first vice president Ali Taha over the bloody crisis in Darfur region.
    (AFP, 2/28/05)

2005        Mar 4, Tribes from western Sudan and the neighboring Central African Republic signed a peace charter in a bid to end cross-border clashes.
    (AFP, 3/4/05)

2005        Mar 9, Jan Egeland, UN humanitarian chief, said far more people have died in Sudan's ravaged Darfur region than the 70,000 reported since last year, and many of those deaths were from preventable causes like pneumonia and diarrhea. Egeland said some 180,000 people died in Darfur over the past 18 months from hunger and disease.
    (AP, 3/9/05)(Econ, 4/2/05, p.41)

2005        Mar 14, Experts said poachers are killing between 6,000 and 12,000 elephants a year to supply illegal ivory markets in Sudan to meet growing Chinese demand. Most of the elephants are killed in southern Sudan, Congo and the Central African Republic, with some ivory also coming from Kenya and Chad.
    (AP, 3/14/05)

2005        Mar 23, France presented a U.N. resolution allowing for the prosecution of Sudanese war crimes suspects at the International Criminal Court, forcing the US to choose between accepting a body it opposes or casting a politically damaging veto.
    (AP, 3/23/05)

2005        Mar 25, The UN Security Council voted to send 10,700 peacekeepers to Sudan to monitor a peace deal ending a 21-year-civil war.
    (AP, 3/25/05)

2005        Mar 28, Sudanese authorities said they had detained 14 people on suspicion of crimes, including rape and murder, committed in the war-ravaged western region of Darfur.
    (AFP, 3/28/05)

2005        Mar 29, The UN Security Council ordered the Sudanese government to inform the UN before sending any more weapons to Darfur.
    (Econ, 4/2/05, p.42)

2005        Mar 31, After weeks of often bitter negotiations, the UN Security Council approved a resolution to refer Sudanese war crimes suspects to the International Criminal Court, agreeing to major concessions demanded by United States.
    (AP, 4/1/05)

2005        Apr 5, Tens of thousands of Sudanese marched through the capital Khartoum against a UN resolution referring war crime suspects to the International Criminal Court.
    (AP, 4/5/05)
2005        Apr 5, The UN handed prosecutors from the International Criminal Court thousands of documents and a list of 51 people to be investigated for alleged war crimes in Sudan's conflict-wracked Darfur region.
    (AP, 4/6/05)(Econ, 4/9/05, p.38)

2005        Apr 6, Security forces stormed the headquarters of Sudan's main opposition party, arresting scores of its members and top officials, apparently because of celebrations marking an anti-government uprising nearly 20 years ago.
    (AP, 4/6/05)

2005        Apr 8, The World Food Program said food rations will be cut for more than one million Darfuris who have fled fighting to makeshift camps in the region because of a drastic shortage of funds.
    (Reuters, 4/8/05)

2005        Apr 12, Donors exceeded Sudan's aid requests by pledging $4.5 billion to help it recover from Africa's longest civil war amid criticism of Khartoum for failing to halt atrocities in Darfur.
    (Reuters, 4/12/05)

2005        Apr 28, The African Union agreed to more than triple the size of its peacekeeping force in Sudan's western Darfur region.
    (AP, 4/29/05)

2005        Apr 30, Sudanese leaders began work on drafting an interim constitution expected to seal a peace deal with the south, but major opposition groups boycotted the opening session.
    (AFP, 4/30/05)

2005        Apr, Sudan and Uganda mounted their 1st joint military operations against the Lordís Resistance Army (LRA).
    (Econ, 5/7/05, p.41)

2005        May 7, Canadian Press reported that Canada will send up to 150 military personnel to Sudan to help the African Union and a UN mission keep the peace.
    (CP, 5/7/05)

2005        May 11, In Sudan's conflict ridden Darfur region 2 main rebel groups signed a declaration pledging to adhere to a cease-fire and help facilitate the flow of humanitarian relief aid.
    (AP, 5/11/05)

2005        May 13, The 2 main rebel groups fighting in Sudan's Darfur region announced they were willing to resume stalled peace talks, dropping their previous conditions for new negotiations.
    (AP, 5/13/05)
2005        May 13, Canada said it would go ahead with plans to send military advisors to Sudan's Darfur region despite Khartoum's insistence that it did not want the troops to enter the country.
    (Reuters, 5/13/05)

2005        May 17, Eritrean President Issaias Afeworki met with Sudan Pres. Omar al-Beshir in Tripoli, Libya. Beshir demanded that Eritrea refrain from harboring armed Sudanese opposition and stops offering assistance to that opposition.
    (AP, 5/17/05)

2005        May 18, In Sudan at least 17 people were killed in clashes between refugees and police in a squatter area some 10 kilometers (six miles) east of Khartoum.
    (AFP, 5/19/05)

2005        May 20, Illinois lawmakers voted to have the state sell off about $1 billion worth of investments in companies doing business with Sudan, part of a nationwide campaign to protest genocide in the African nation.
    (AP, 5/20/05)

2005        May 24, NATO Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer said NATO will offer airlift, training and other logistics support to African Union (AU) forces struggling to end the civil war in Sudan's Darfur region.
    (AP, 5/24/05)

2005        May 26, International donors pledged an additional $200 million to fund the African Union peacekeeping operation in Sudan's western Darfur region during a conference in Ethiopia to discuss the ongoing violence.
    (AP, 5/26/05)

2005        May 28, In Sudan tens of thousands of chanting refugees lined the muddy streets of Darfur's largest camp to greet the U.N.'s Kofi Annan, who later listened as women raped during the conflict told their stories.
    (AP, 5/28/05)

2005        May 29, The World Association of Newspapers' (WAN), meeting in Seoul, awarded veteran Sudanese journalist Mahgoub Mohamed Salih its 2005 press freedom award.
    (AP, 5/30/05)

2005        May 31, Sudan arrested a second aid worker from the Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) aid agency over a report on hundreds of rapes in the troubled Darfur region.
    (Reuters, 5/31/05)

2005        Jun 2, In Sudan 5 people were killed and 16 others injured when a passenger plane crashed shortly after take-off from Khartoum and caught fire.
    (AP, 6/2/05)

2005        Jun 6, The International Criminal Court at the Hague formally announced the opening of a war crimes investigation in Sudan's Darfur region after receiving a list of 51 potential suspects from UN.
    (AP, 6/6/05)

2005        Jun 11, A new round of peace talks on Sudan's Darfur region ran into early problems as Khartoum's negotiators rejected Eritrean participation, stopping the first behind-closed-doors plenary session from going ahead.
    (Reuters, 6/12/05)

2005        Jun 18, Sudan signed a reconciliation deal with one of the country's largest opposition groupings. The accord with the National Democratic Alliance is part of the government's drive to clean up Sudan's multiple political and military conflicts.
    (AP, 6/18/05)

2005        Jun 19, Eastern Sudanese rebels launched a major offensive near the country's main port, capturing government troops in what Khartoum charged was an operation mounted with the complicity of Eritrea.
    (AP, 6/20/05)

2005        Jun 25, Rebels in Sudan's remote east urged the world's media to come and see damage in civilian areas that they say was caused by government bombing. They said the bombing began in the Barka Valley on June 23 and resulted in a large but unknown number of civilian casualties who filled hospitals in Port Sudan and the town of Tokar.
    (AFP, 6/25/05)
2005        Jun 25, Gov. Rod Blagojevich signed a new state law that requires Illinois to divest about $1 billion worth of pension investments in companies that do business in Sudan to protest the ongoing humanitarian crisis in the country's Darfur region.
    (AP, 6/25/05)

2005        Jun 30, Sudan announced the imminent end of a 16-year state of emergency across most of the giant country and began releasing political prisoners, including the leading Islamic opposition figure.
    (AP, 6/30/05)(WSJ, 7/1/05, p.A1)

2005        Jul 5, Sudan and two Darfur rebel groups signed a "declaration of principles" aimed at helping bring peace to Darfur, but failed to reach a comprehensive deal to stop the violence that has left tens of thousands dead.
    (AP, 7/6/05)

2005        Jul 6, Sudan's National Assembly unanimously passed a new constitution that steps away from complete Islamic rule and paves the way for a Christian former rebel leader to be inaugurated as first vice president later this week.
    (AP, 7/6/05)

2005        Jul 8, John Garang, the rebel leader in a two-decade civil war for southern autonomy, returned to Sudan's capital for the first time in 22 years to take up his new position as first vice president in the government he once fought.
    (AP, 7/8/05)

2005        Jul 9, In Sudan John Garang, the former rebel leader who spent 21 years fighting Khartoum's government, was sworn in as first vice president. Garang and Pres. Omar el-Bashir signed into being Sudan's new constitution.
    (AP, 7/9/05)(AP, 7/10/05)

2005        Jul 10, Sudan's new presidency on Sunday lifted the state of emergency in Sudan, except in the conflict-torn regions of Darfur and the east.
    (Reuters, 7/10/05)

2005        Jul 17, The Sudanese council of ministers held its last meeting in Khartoum ahead of the formation of a power-sharing cabinet that will include southern former rebels.
    (AP, 7/17/05)

2005        Jul 19, In his first decrees as Sudan's No. 2 leader, former rebel chief John Garang dissolved his guerrilla movement and dismissed all government officials in 10 southern states.
    (AP, 7/19/05)

2005        Jul 21, Sudanese security officers roughed up members of Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice's entourage; Rice demanded and got an apology.
    (AP, 7/21/06)

2005        Jul 31, John Garang (60), Sudan's vice president and former southern rebel leader, died when the helicopter he was flying in crashed into a mountain in southern Sudan in bad weather killing him and the other 13 people on board.
    (AP, 8/1/05)

2005        Aug 1, Rioters burned cars and threw stones in Sudan's capital following news of the death of VP John Garanga in a helicopter crash. Garang's longtime deputy, Silva Kiir, was quickly named to succeed him as head of his Sudan People's Liberation Army and as president of south Sudan. 36 people died in riots.
    (AP, 8/1/05)(AP, 8/2/05)

2005        Aug 2, Violent mobs surged again into the streets of Sudan's capital sparked by the death of Sudanese vice president and former southern rebel leader John Garang.
    (AP, 8/2/05)

2005        Aug 3, Southern Sudanese Arabs fled Juba after ethnic Africans angered by the death of their popular rebel leader went on a two-day rampage, chasing Arabs in the street and burning Arab shops and homes. At least 18 people were killed. Northern and southern Sudanese leaders called for calm during a third day of clashes in the capital that have killed at least 84 people since the death of former southern rebel John Garang. Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir announced the launch of a committee to probe the death of vice president John Garang.
    (AP-Reuters, 8/3/05)

2005        Aug 4, The Sudanese Red Crescent (SRC) said at least 130 people have been killed and around 350 injured after 3 days of violence following the death of former rebel leader and First Vice President John Garang.
    (Reuters, 8/4/05)

2005        Aug 9, In Sudan Lt. Gen. Salva Kiir Mayardit, the commander of the Sudan People's Liberation Army was inaugurated as Sudan's first vice president and president of the new, autonomous southern government.
    (AP, 8/9/05)

2005        Aug 11, Southern leader Salva Kiir Mayardit was sworn in as Sudan's 1st vice president.
    (AP, 8/11/05)

2005        Aug 26, The UN food relief agency said that it's battling to feed 90,000 Eritrean and Ethiopian refugees displaced in eastern Sudan mainly due to a serious funding shortfall.
    (AP, 8/27/05)

2005        Sep 2, The African Union said it is suspending peacekeeper deployments to Sudan's war-torn western Darfur region for nearly three weeks due to lack of jet fuel and heavy rains.
    (AP, 9/2/05)

2005        Sep 19, Rebel groups said militias backed by the Sudanese government killed 30 people over the weekend in fresh attacks in Darfur, threatening new peace talks under way in Nigeria. The Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) said 17 people were killed in Korbia in northern Darfur Sep 17 and 13 died in attacks on Jabel Marra in the west on Sep 18.
    (Reuters, 9/20/05)

2005        Sep 20, Sudanese soldiers inflicted "heavy casualties" in driving off rebels who overran a town in the troubled Darfur region.
    (AP, 9/21/05)

2005        Sep 23, The UN Security Council extended the peacekeeping mission in Sudan by six months.
    (AP, 9/23/05)

2005        Sep 25, Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir met with King Abdullah in the Saudi city of Jeddah to discuss cooperation between their countries and regional developments.
    (AP, 9/25/05)

2005        Sep 28, Jan Egeland, UN humanitarian chief, said escalating violence in the Sudanese region of Darfur is threatening to halt aid work as increasing numbers of international staff come under attack.
    (AP, 9/28/05)
2005        Sep 28, An unprecedented attack on a displaced persons' camp in Sudan's embattled Darfur region reportedly killed 29 people. UN reports said up to 300 armed Arab men on horses and camels attacked the camp in northwest Darfur and burned about 80 makeshift shelters.
    (AP, 9/29/05)

2005        Oct 3, Sudan's government and rebels from the war-ravaged Darfur region agreed to sit down for face-to-face talks after a week of bickering that had put discussions on hold.
    (AP, 10/3/05)

2005        Oct 4, Sudan's government and rebels from Darfur met for a 2nd day of talks in Nigeria. The visiting Dutch PM urged all parties to reach a power-sharing deal by the end of the year.
    (AP, 10/4/05)

2005        Oct 7, The Sudanese government agreed for the first time to allow Ugandan troops to pursue members of the rebel Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) in all parts of southern Sudan.
    (AP, 10/12/05)

2005        Oct 8, In Sudan's Darfur region 2 African Union peacekeeping soldiers from Nigeria and 2 civilian contractors were killed in an ambush.
    (Reuters, 10/8/05)

2005        Oct 9, Rebels freed 36 members of an African Union team, including an American monitor, who were kidnapped earlier in the day in Sudan's western Darfur region.
    (AP, 10/9/05)(AP, 10/10/05)

2005        Oct 12, In Egypt a sit-in by hundreds of Sudanese refugees outside the offices of the UNHCR in the Cairo entered its 14th day, even as the agency insisted it could not meet their asylum demands. Some 14,400 Sudanese refugees were registered in Egypt.
    (AP, 10/12/05)

2005        Oct 16, Rebels and Sudanese forces clashed in North Darfur with artillery fire killing a number of civilians.
    (AP, 10/17/05)

2005        Oct 19, The UN said fighting and insecurity throughout Darfur is hindering food and relief aid to tens of thousands of people and forcing more displaced Sudanese into already crammed refugee camps.
    (AP, 10/19/05)

2005        Oct 20, Sudan's government and rebels ended a sixth round of talks on the crisis in the country's western Darfur region, announcing no agreements but pledging to reconvene in a month to push forward the slow-moving peace process.
    (AP, 10/20/05)

2005        Oct 25, The UN said Sudanese refugees released 15 aid workers they had detained on Oct 23 in a crowded camp in the violent western Darfur region. Five Sudanese nongovernment organization employees were still being held.
    (AP, 10/25/05)

2005        Oct 31, UN envoy Jan Pronk condemned the killing of 2 deminers contracted to the United Nations in southern Sudan in an ambush by suspected Ugandan rebels.
    (AP, 10/31/05)

2005        Nov 8, The US State Department issued its 7th annual report to Congress on religious freedom. It cited Burma, China, Eritrea, Iran, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Vietnam as restricting religious freedom.
    (AP, 11/8/05)

2005        Nov 9, An employee of the Sudanese embassy in Iraq was shot dead by armed men who opened fire on his car in the west of Baghdad.
    (AP, 11/9/05)

2005        Nov 12, In Egypt hundreds of Sudanese refugees staging a sit-in outside UN offices in Cairo began a hunger strike to press their case for asylum.
    (AFP, 11/12/05)

2005        Nov 16, A court set up by Sudan to try war crimes in its violence-plagued Darfur region issued its 1st sentences, condemning to death 2 soldiers in the torture killing of a Sudanese citizen.
    (AP, 11/16/05)

2005        Nov 19, Sudanese troops and rebels clashed in the western Darfur region clashed and a rebel group said 14 civilians and eight insurgents had been killed in the past 48 hours.
    (Reuters, 11/20/05)

2005        Nov 23, Sudan and Uganda said they have renewed a deal letting Ugandan troops pursue leaders of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) rebels deep into Sudanese territory.
    (AP, 11/23/05)

2005        Nov 29, A Sudanese Darfur rebel faction said it attacked a town in West Darfur state, killing 37 soldiers and police, to push for its inclusion in peace talks due to open in the Nigerian capital Abuja later in the day.
    (AP, 11/29/05)

2005        Dec 2, In Nigeria rebel leaders from the western Sudanese region of Darfur rejected an African Union draft agreement on power-sharing between their forces and the government in Khartoum, pushing the sides' seventh session of peace talks close to stalemate.
    (AFP, 12/02/05)

2005        Dec 17, A first group of southern Sudanese refugees began their journey home after two decades of living in a camp in Kenya.
    (AP, 12/17/05)

2005        Dec 18, Chad blamed its neighbor Sudan for a rebel raid on an eastern garrison and announced it was exercising its right to pursue the attackers on Sudanese soil. A spokesman said an early morning attack on Adre's garrison was mounted by army deserters allied with a recently formed rebel group called the Rally for Democracy and Liberty (RDL), which Chad accuses of being a "militia used by the Sudanese government."
    (AP, 12/18/05)

2005        Dec 19, In Sudan some 500 camel and horse-riding assailants killed 20 civilians and burned their huts in West Darfur.
    (AP, 12/21/05)
2005        Dec 19, Chad's army said its forces had killed about 300 rebels after they launched a failed offensive on a border town in one of the worst attacks in an escalating conflict. Chad's foreign minister said the troops then chased the rebels into Sudan and destroyed their bases across the border.
    (AP, 12/19/05)

2005        Dec 21, The UN and the African Union condemned an attack on a village in Sudanís western Darfur region in which camel and horse-riding assailants killed 20 civilians and burned their huts.
    (AP, 12/21/05)

2005        Dec 23, Two Arab satellite television channels said that a Sudanese diplomat and five other men had been kidnapped in Iraq. A Sudanese Foreign Ministry spokesman appealed for their release in an interview with Qatar-based Al-Jazeera.
    (AP, 12/23/05)

2005        Dec 28, Sudan denied Chadian accusations it was supporting dissidents trying to oust Pres. Idriss Deby and said an African Union summit would go ahead in Khartoum in January.
    (Reuters, 12/28/05)

2005        Dec 30, Sudan said it will close its embassy in Baghdad in an effort to win the release of six kidnapped employees. Al-Qaida in Iraq threatened to kill the captives if the diplomatic mission remained.
    (AP, 12/30/05)
2005        Dec 30, Sudanese security forces jailed without charge Zuheir Sirraj, a columnist for the al-Sahafa daily paper. He was accused of slandering President Omar Hassan al-Bashir in a move some parliamentarians called unconstitutional.
    (Reuters, 12/31/05)
2005        Dec 30, Egyptian police turned water cannons on Sudanese war refugees and beat them with sticks, clearing out a squatters camp in a city park. At least 10 people were killed.
    (AP, 12/30/05)

2005        Dec 31, In Egypt several Sudanese migrants injured when police violently cleared a ramshackle camp died later from their wounds, raising the death toll from the clash to 25. Sudanese refugees began trickling across the border to Israel following the clashes.
    (AP, 12/31/05)(Econ, 8/25/07, p.45)

2005        Sudanís GDP grew at an 8% rate. The IMF projected 13% growth for 2006.
    (Econ, 8/5/06, p.42)
2005        Some 200 Sudanese fleeing the bloodshed in Darfur made their way to Israel, where they were placed under low-security lockup.
    (SFC, 6/9/06, p.A14)
2005        A UN unit called the Joint Integrated Unit was created and stationed in Malakal, Sudan, after the 2005 north-south peace deal that ended more than two decades of civil war.
    (AP, 2/4/11)

2006        Jan 3, A Foreign Ministry spokeswoman said Egypt will deport 654 Sudanese refugees who were violently evicted from a protest camp in a Cairo park last week.
    (AP, 1/3/06)

2006        Jan 4, Chad's President Idriss Deby urged the UN to take control of Sudan's volatile Darfur region because he said Khartoum was using the conflict there to destabilize neighboring states.
    (Reuters, 1/4/06)

2006        Jan 11, Rebel sources said Sudanese troops had entered Hamesh Koreb, a town in eastern Sudan, and threatened to evict ex-southern rebels in a move that could threaten a landmark year-old peace deal.
    (AFP, 1/11/06)

2006        Jan 12, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan said he wants the US and European countries to help form a tough mobile force that would stop the bloodshed, rape and plunder in Sudan's Darfur region.
    (AP, 1/12/06)

2006        Jan 13, Sudan rejected a suggestion by UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan that the United States and Europe help set up a possible mobile force in Darfur to supplement African troops now on the ground.
    (AP, 1/13/06)

2006        Jan 21, African nations were split over Sudan's bid to head the African Union, a move which could scuttle peace talks in the country's Darfur region and damage Africa's efforts to improve its image abroad.
    (AP, 1/21/06)

2006        Jan 22, Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir urged the world to provide more equipment and other support for cash-strapped African forces monitoring a tentative truce in Sudan's violent Darfur region.
    (AP, 1/22/06)
2006        Jan 22, Sudanese police raided a human rights meeting, seized documents and laptops and briefly detained participants on the eve of an African summit in the country.
    (AP, 1/23/06)

2006        Jan 23, African leaders began their annual summit in disarray, failing to resolve dissension over Sudan's bid to chair the 53-state body. An AU official said 5 African leaders have asked Sudan to withdraw its bid to head the African Union because the appointment could sink Darfur peace talks and dent the group's credibility.
    (AP, 1/23/06)

2006        Jan 24, A government spokesman said Sudan has withdrawn from the competition to lead the African Union amid criticism of its human rights record. Diplomats said the presidency would go to the Republic of Congo.
    (AP, 1/24/06)

2006        Jan 27, The UN said killings, rapes and indiscriminate attacks on civilians continue in Darfur, accusing Sudanese soldiers of apparently coordinating with armed militia in terrorizing the troubled region.
    (AP, 1/27/06)

2006        Feb 3, Some 55,000 Darfuris fled Janjaweed attacks in Mershing, Sudan. Panic-stricken refugees stampeded, trampling to death about 13 infants. Another 220 children disappeared during the flight.
    (Econ, 2/11/06, p.46)(http://tinyurl.com/s4pj4)
2006        Feb 3, The UN Security Council authorized planning for the expected UN takeover of peacekeeping operations in Sudan's conflict-wracked Darfur region.
    (AP, 2/3/06)

2006        Feb 6, Sudanese officials said some seven people were killed in southern Sudan in recent clashes between renegade armed militias and the south Sudan army, despite a 2005 peace deal to end Africa's longest civil war there.
    (Reuters, 2/6/06)

2006        Feb 8, In Libya the leaders of Sudan and Chad signed a peace agreement to end increasing tension over Sudan's Darfur region, pledging to normalize diplomatic relations and deny refuge to each other's rebel groups. A communique issued by Sudan, Chad and Libya, as well as Burkino Faso, Congo and the Central African Republic, whose leaders attended the talks, said a committee of African countries overseen by Libya would monitor the implementation of the deal.
    (AP, 2/9/06)

2006        Feb 11, In southern Sudan a military transport plane blew a tire while landing at Aweil, swerved off the runway and exploded, killing all 20 people on board.
    (AP, 2/12/06)

2006        Feb 14, Darfur rebels said they had shot down a government helicopter and captured the only surviving crew member, named as Captain Muawiya Zubeir.
    (AP, 2/14/06)

2006        Feb 18, The WHO said a cholera outbreak in south Sudan has claimed 52 lives with more than 2,000 cases of the deadly disease.
    (AP, 2/18/06)

2006        Feb 22, A secret list compiled for the UN Security council said Sudan's interior and defense ministers and its national intelligence chief are among 17 people the UN Security Council should punish for blocking peace in Darfur.
    (Reuters, 2/22/06)

2006        Feb 25, In Rhode Island Brown University announced it will stop investing in companies that do business in Sudan because the country has been accused of genocide.
    (AP, 2/25/06)

2006        Feb 28, A top UN envoy said Sudan has begun a campaign to keep African Union troops in Darfur and prevent a UN force from taking over efforts to restore peace there. Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi rejected the replacement of an AU force in the Sudanese region of Darfur by UN peacekeepers.
    (AP, 2/28/06)

2006        Mar 6, Leaders from the main Darfur rebel group renounced Abdel Wahed Mohamed el-Nur, their party president, saying he was acting unilaterally and endangering fragile peace talks.
    (Reuters, 3/6/06)

2006        Mar 8, Western powers sought to persuade Sudan to agree to a weak African Union peacekeeping force being turned into a more robust UN mission to stop killing in the Darfur region. Thousands of Sudanese protested in Khartoum against any deployment of UN troops in Darfur.
    (Reuters, 3/8/06)

2006        Mar 10, The African Union decided to extend its peacekeeping mission in Sudan's Darfur region for six months to give itself time to negotiate a peace agreement, but it promised to transfer control to the United Nations once that is accomplished.
    (AP, 3/10/06)

2006        Mar 11, In Sudan 5 members of the main opposition group in eastern Sudan were arrested or detained, in a move party officials said hindered any chance to start long-delayed peace talks.
    (Reuters, 3/11/06)

2006        Mar 12, African Union mediators presented cease-fire proposals for the conflict in Sudan's Darfur region, asking rebels and the Sudanese government to work together to end military activity against relief supply routes and refugee camps.
    (AP, 3/12/06)

2006        Mar 13, Jan Egeland, the UN humanitarian chief, said increasing violence has left hundreds of thousands of civilians in Sudan's Darfur region without food and facing the prospect of widespread disease and death within weeks.
    (AP, 3/13/06)

2006        Mar 13, Jan Egeland, the UN humanitarian chief, said increasing violence has left hundreds of thousands of civilians in Sudan's Darfur region without food and facing the prospect of widespread disease and death within weeks.
    (AP, 3/13/06)

2006        Mar 15, Gunmen attacked a compound of the UN refugee agency in the town of Yei in southern Sudan, killing one person and critically wounding two others.
    (AP, 3/16/06)

2006        Mar 24, The UN Security Council voted keep UN peacekeepers in Sudan to monitor an accord ending a 21-year civil war and authorized planning for the expected extension of the UN force's operations to Darfur.
    (AP, 3/24/06)

2006        Mar 28, In Sudan Arab League Secretary-General Amr Moussa called on Arab leaders to move toward a goal of "entering the nuclear club" and making use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes. The absence of at least 10 heads of state, including President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt and Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah, raised concerns of a lackluster summit.
    (AP, 3/28/06)
2006        Mar 28, In Sudan Arab leaders promised to fund African soldiers in Darfur from October this year, despite international pressure to allow the United Nations to take over the mission.
    (Reuters, 3/28/06)

2006        Apr 3, Jan Egeland, the U.N.'s top humanitarian official in Sudan, said the government barred him from visiting Darfur to prevent him seeing poor conditions there.
    (AP, 4/3/06)

2006        Apr 5, Sudan said it would allow UN Undersecretary Jan Egeland to visit Darfur.
    (AP, 4/5/06)

2006        Apr 11, The UN Security Council demanded that the Sudanese government and rebels reach agreement by April 30 to end the conflict in Darfur.
    (AP, 4/11/06)

2006        Apr 12, Britain and the US called for sanctions against four Sudanese who have blocked peace efforts and violated human rights in the conflict-wracked Darfur region.
    (AP, 4/12/06)
2006        Apr 12-2006 Apr 13, Sudanese Janjaweed militia with local Chadian recruits shot or hacked to death 118 villagers in eastern Chad in a bloody spillover of violence from Sudan's Darfur region.
    (Reuters, 5/25/06)

2006        Apr 14, Chad broke off diplomatic relations with Sudan and threatened to expel 200,000 Sudanese refugees, blaming its neighbor for a rebel attack that killed 350 in the capital.
    (AP, 4/14/06)

2006        Apr 15, Cambodian soldiers departed to Sudan for a UN-backed landmine clearing operation, saying they hoped they could use their experience recovering from civil war to help the war-torn Sudanese.
    (AFP, 4/15/06)

2006        Apr 15-2006 Apr 17, In southern Sudan 15 people including 11 civilians were killed in clashes between militia fighters, straining a deal that ended the country's north-south civil war.
    (Reuters, 4/17/06)

2006        Apr 19, A UN spokesman said Sudan has refused to grant visas for a UN military assessment mission planning a UN peacekeeping operation in Darfur.
    (Reuters, 4/19/06)

2006        Apr 21, Canada said 2 RCMP members are heading to Sudan to assist the UN mission there in training and supporting Sudanese police and, where possible, advising them on policing methods.
    (CP, 4/21/06)

2006        Apr 22, Hassan al-Turabi, a Sudanese Islamist leader who once protected Al-Qaeda supremo Osama bin Laden, was branded an apostate by the country's Muslim scholars for taking a liberal stand on women's rights.
    (AFP, 4/23/06)

2006        Apr 25, The UN Security Council imposed sanctions on four men accused of atrocities in Sudan's Darfur region, the first time it has moved to punish those responsible for three years of conflict that has left 180,000 dead.
    (AP, 4/25/06)

2006        Apr 28, The UN food agency said it is cutting rations in half for about 3 million refugees in Sudan's war-ravaged Darfur region because of a shortage of money, calling it "scandalous" that it has to stretch out supplies while it pleads for funds.
    (AP, 4/28/06)
2006        Apr 28, Five member of US Congress were willingly arrested and led away from the Sudanese Embassy in plastic handcuffs after protesting the Sudanese government's alleged role in atrocities in the Darfur region.
    (AP, 4/28/06)

2006        Apr 30, The Sudanese government said it was ready to sign a draft peace deal with rebels from its Darfur region, but the rebels said they still had reservations about the agreement.
    (AP, 4/30/06)
2006        Apr 30, Some 100,000 rallied in Washington DC, SF and other US cities to urge the Bush administration to take decisive action to stop the genocide in Darfur.
    (SFC, 5/1/06, p.A1)

2006        May 1, Under pressure from the US rebels in Sudan's Darfur region agreed to continue negotiations in Nigeria with the Sudanese government after rejecting a peace proposal that would end a conflict that has killed tens of thousands of people.
    (AP, 5/1/06)

2006        May 5, Sudan's government and the largest Darfur rebel group agreed to sign a peace plan, marking major progress in an internationally backed effort to end the death and destruction in western Sudan. Two other rebel factions rejected the deal. The Abuja deal allocates an initial $30 million in compensation from the government for more than 3 million Darfuris the United Nations says were affected by the conflict. Opposition groups in the camps dismissed the $10 per person payout as a joke.
    (Reuters, 5/5/06)(AP, 6/6/06)

2006        May 8, Darfur refugees rioted and forced the UN humanitarian chief to rush from their camp, then later attacked African peacekeepers and killed a translator in a sign of deep tensions in Sudanís war torn region despite a fragile peace deal. Arab militias, known as Janjaweed, attacked Labado town in South Darfur, killing and injuring up to 50 people. The AU has a base in Labado town.
    (AP, 5/8/06)(Reuters, 5/20/06)

2006        May 13, In Sudan 6 people were killed when demonstrators opposed to a peace deal the Sudanese government signed with Darfur rebels clashed with police in the war-torn region.
    (AFP, 5/14/06)

2006        May 16, Seven African-American members of the US Congress were arrested at the Embassy of Sudan, where they were protesting atrocities in that country's Darfur region.
    (AP, 5/17/06)
2006        May 16, The UN Security Council passed a resolution pressing Sudan to cooperate with the United Nations as it prepares take over peacekeeping in Darfur from an underfunded African Union force.
    (AP, 5/16/06)

2006        May 17, The UN said armed militiamen had ignored a peace pact and  attacked several villages this week in Sudan's Darfur region, killing at least 11 people and wounding many others.
    (AP, 5/17/06)

2006        May 19, In Sudan's Darfur region dozens were killed in a major attack by government-backed militias on Shearia town, the latest in a wave of raids since a peace deal was signed earlier this month.
    (AP, 5/20/06)

2006        May 23, A high-level UN delegation arrived in Sudan to press a reluctant government to accept a large force of U.N. peacekeepers in the strife-torn Darfur region.
    (AP, 5/23/06)

2006        May 24, The African Union accepted a NATO offer to extend its assistance in Sudan's violent Darfur region, stressing its presence there would remain small.
    (Reuters, 5/24/06)

2006        May 25, Sudan said it would permit the UN to lay the groundwork for possible deployment of a peacekeeping force in Darfur, but cautioned that the world body's role would be smaller than some Security Council members want.
    (AP, 5/25/06)

2006        May 26, In Sudan one African Union soldier was killed and another critically wounded when heavily armed men ambushed a patrol not far from their base in West Darfur.
    (Reuters, 5/29/06)

2006        Jun 8, Breakaway factions from two rebel groups that rejected last month's peace accord for Sudan's violence-riven Darfur region signed declarations committing themselves to the pact. Southern Sudanese leaders said they are organizing peace talks with the rebel Lord's Resistance Army and the Ugandan government to try to end the brutal war in northern Uganda that has spilled across the border into their own country.
    (AP, 6/8/06)

2006        Jun 9, Tribal leaders rejected the possibility of UN peacekeepers replacing African Union forces in Darfur, with one chief threatening a "holy war" if non-African troops come to the Sudanese region.
    (AP, 6/10/06)

2006        Jun 11, Amnesty International released a report saying China's sales of military vehicles and weapons to Sudan, Nepal and Myanmar have aggravated conflicts and abetted violence and repressive rule in those countries.
    (AP, 6/11/06)

2006        Jun 14, The chief prosecutor of the International Criminal Court said his office had documented massacres with hundreds of victims in Sudan's war-torn Darfur region as well as hundreds of rape cases.
    (AFP, 6/14/06)

2006        Jun 15, Sudan said the International Criminal Court did not have jurisdiction over crimes in the violent Darfur region and no officials would be interrogated by the court.
    (AP, 6/15/06)
2006        Jun 15, The US Senate allocated $60 million toward launching a UN peacekeeping mission in the Darfur region of Sudan.
    (AP, 6/15/06)

2006        Jun 19, The Sudanese government and the Eastern Front under Eritrean mediation signed a ceasefire agreement and pledged to work for a comprehensive settlement of their dispute.
    (AFP, 10/10/06)

2006        Jun 20, Sudanese state news said President Omar Hassan al-Bashir ruled out letting UN troops into the Darfur region, saying he would not permit such a deployment as long as he was in power.
    (AP, 6/20/06)
2006        Jun 20, Chad accused Sudan of cross-border attacks and urged the Security Council to meet over its neighbor's alleged "aggression and destabilization."
    (AP, 6/20/06)

2006        Jun 25, Sudan suspended the work of all UN missions in Darfur except for UNICEF and the World Food Program, in response to the use of a UN helicopter to transport a rebel leader.
    (AP, 6/26/06)

2006        Jun 26, The Sudanese government lifted its partial suspension of UN work in conflict-wracked Darfur.
    (AP, 6/26/06)

2006        Jul 3, Sudan's foreign minister rejected calls by the top UN envoy in the country to make additions to a peace deal for Darfur after widespread rejection of the accord. A group of Sudanese rebels in more than 50 cars attacked the town of Hamarat Sheikh in the Kordofan region of Darfur. At least a dozen people were killed. In southern Sudan at least six people were killed and 11 wounded when gunmen ambushed a German aid agency vehicle. Witnesses said the attackers, some of whom were uniformed, were rebel fighters with the LRA.
    (Reuters, 7/3/06)(AP, 7/5/06)(AFP, 7/5/06)

2006        Jul 12, A UN official said rebels in Darfur are fighting each other with the Sudanese military apparently supporting one faction, sometimes with aircraft disguised as relief planes.
    (AP, 7/12/06)

2006        Jul 21, The UN refugee agency said international aid operations in refugee camps in the Zalinge area of Sudan's Darfur region have been suspended after three water workers were killed by a mob.
    (Reuters, 7/21/06)

2006        Jul 24, In Sudanís South Darfur's vast Kalma camp, 17 women were raped by armed militiamen as they went out to collect firewood.
    (Reuters, 7/29/06)

2006        Jul 25, A Darfur rebel leader was in Washington to meet President Bush, who is trying to convince Khartoum to accept UN peacekeepers to quell the increasing violence in Sudan's remote west. President Bush pressed Darfur rebel leader Minni Arcua Minnawi to help implement a deal aimed at ending the violence in western Sudan.
    (AP, 7/25/06)(Reuters, 7/25/06)

2006        Jul 28, Sudanese government forces and allied militias attacked bases of a new rebel alliance in Darfur despite a ceasefire in the violent west.
    (Reuters, 7/29/06)

2006        Jul, In Sudan 8 Sudanese aid workers were killed this month in attacks across Darfur.
    (SFC, 8/9/06, p.A3)

2006        Aug 7, The only rebel leader to have signed onto a peace deal for Darfur was sworn in as a senior aide to the Sudanese president as international aid groups said the fighting in the war-torn region has intensified.
    (AP, 8/7/06)

2006        Aug 8, Chad and Sudan agreed to reopen their borders and resume diplomatic relations that they severed in a dispute four months ago.
    (AP, 8/9/06)

2006        Aug 19, In Sudan 2 African Union peacekeepers from Rwanda were killed and 3 were wounded when their convoy was ambushed in the Darfur region.
    (AP, 8/19/06)

2006        Aug 23, Sudan's ruling party rejected a proposed Security Council resolution to transfer peacekeeping duties in conflict-wracked Darfur to a UN force, saying it would violate national sovereignty.
    (AP, 8/24/06)

2006        Aug 26, A Sudanese court charged reporter Paul Salopek (44) with espionage. He was detained by pro-government forces in Darfur on Aug 6. Salopek was on freelance assignment for National Geographic magazine.
    (SSFC, 8/27/06, p.A19)

2006        Aug 30, In Sudan riot police fired teargas and beat a journalist in central Khartoum on as opposition party supporters gathered to demonstrate against a recent rise in petrol and sugar prices.
    (AP, 8/30/06)

2006        Aug 31, The UN Security Council passed a resolution that would give the United Nations authority over peacekeepers in Darfur as soon as Sudan's government gives its consent, which it has so far refused to do.
    (AP, 8/31/06)

2006        Aug, In Khartoum, Sudan, the $4 billion Alsunut residential and office project began to take shape on 160 acres at the convergence of the Blue and White Niles. The public-private partnership between the government and DAL Group included 63 towers, with half their office space already sold to local and foreign companies.
    (Econ, 8/5/06, p.42)

2006        Sep 1, Human rights activists and African Union officials said the Sudanese government has launched a major offensive against rebels in war-torn Darfur.
    (AP, 9/1/06)

2006        Sep 2, Sudan's president ordered the release of an envoy of Slovenia's president who was convicted of espionage in the war-torn region of Darfur and sentenced to two years in prison. Tomo Kriznar, the Slovenian president's envoy to Darfur, was arrested in July and convicted on Aug. 14 by a court in the North Darfur capital of el-Fasher.
    (AP, 9/2/06)

2006        Sep 4, Sudan said it would allow African troops to remain in Darfur only under African Union control and accused Washington of attempting "regime change" in Khartoum by trying to bring in a UN force.
    (Reuters, 9/4/06)

2006        Sep 6, Sudanese security forces in Khartoum fired tear gas and beat demonstrators with sticks in a crackdown on protests against price increases for basic goods, after thwarting similar protests a week ago. In Khartoum the beheaded body of Mohammed Taha Mohammed Ahmed, editor-in-chief of the independent daily Al-Wifaq, was recovered, a day after he was kidnapped by gunmen. He had been accused of insulting Islam. A group claiming to be al-Qaida's branch in Sudan said that it killed the chief editor. In 2007 ten people were sentenced to death for the murder and beheading of Ahmed.
    (Reuters, 9/6/06)(AP, 9/7/06)(AP, 9/13/06)(AP, 11/10/07)

2006        Sep 8, Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir agreed to release American journalist Paul Salopek and his Chadian assistants after meeting with New Mexico Gov. Bill Richardson.
    (AP, 9/9/06)

2006        Sep 9, Sudan authorities confiscated all copies of the independent al-Sudani newspaper, the latest move in a resurgence of censorship since the beheading of a journalist last week. Paul Salopek was released from a prison in the war-torn Darfur region where he was held for more than a month on espionage charges.
    (Reuters, 9/10/06)

2006        Sep 17, Peace activists around the world staged a day of action to highlight the "forgotten war" in Darfur where tens of thousands of people have been killed and more than 2 million left homeless.
    (AP, 9/17/06)

2006        Sep 19, Sudan's Pres. Omar Hassan al-Bashir, on the sidelines of the UN General assembly, said his country would never allow UN peacekeepers into Darfur and charged that the West wanted to dismember his country in order to help Israel. He agreed that the 7,000 AU peacekeepers could stay.
    (Reuters, 9/19/06)(Econ, 9/23/06, p.51)

2006        Sep 20, The African Union (AU) agreed to extend the mandate of its peacekeepers in Sudan's troubled Darfur region for three months until December 31 after receiving promises of financial and logistical support from the United Nations and Arab states.
    (AP, 9/20/06)

2006        Sep 25, A spokesman for the AU said the African Union will add 4,000 troops to its extended Darfur peacekeeping mission, bringing the number of police and soldiers in western Sudan to 11,000. The UN got its first pledges of troops for a proposed peacekeeping force in Sudan's Darfur region at a meeting of 49 potential contributing nations.
    (AP, 9/25/06)(Reuters, 9/25/06)
2006        Sep 25, California Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger signed two bills to bar the state's massive pension funds from investing in companies in Sudan and to indemnify the University of California system from liability from divesting its investments in the country.
    (Reuters, 9/25/06)

2006        Sep 26, The UN and Sudan discussed the deployment of UN military advisers to reinforce African Union peacekeepers in Darfur, in a possible compromise in their standoff over the war-torn region.
    (Reuters, 9/26/06)

2006        Sep 29, The UN Security Council allowed UN experts, who have recommended sanctions on top Sudanese officials, to continue monitoring atrocities and arms embargo violations in Darfur.
    (AP, 9/29/06)

2006        Oct 4, Sources said fresh inter-rebel fighting in Sudan has forced 10,000 Darfuris to seek refuge near a camp of African Union forces monitoring a widely-ignored truce.
    (AP, 10/4/06)

2006        Oct 5, The US called emergency UN Security Council consultations after Sudan warned nations considering troops for Darfur that their action was a "prelude to an invasion."
    (AP, 10/5/06)

2006        Oct 7, Sudanese soldiers crossed the border into eastern Chad to fight a group of Darfur rebels, leaving more than 300 people injured.
    (AP, 10/8/06)

2006        Oct 10, The Sudanese government and eastern rebels signed a power sharing agreement in the Eritrean capital Asmara after months of peace talks. Under Eritrean mediation, Khartoum and the Eastern Front signed a ceasefire agreement on June 19 and pledged to work for a comprehensive settlement of their dispute.
    (AFP, 10/10/06)
2006        Oct 10, The World Food Program (WFP) said nearly a quarter of a million people in Sudan's Darfur region cannot access U.N. food rations due to fighting.
    (AP, 10/10/06)

2006        Oct 13, President Bush signed a law imposing sanctions against people responsible for genocide and war crimes in Sudan. He also signed a ports security bill that contained language barring the electronic settling of gambling debts.
    (Reuters, 10/13/06)(WSJ, 10/14/06, p.A1)

2006        Oct 14, The Sudanese government signed a peace deal with a group of rebels from eastern Sudan, ending a deadly strife that has been overshadowed by the conflict in the country's western Darfur region.
    (AP, 10/14/06)

2006        Oct 16, Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak and Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi held talks on how to resolve the Darfur crisis in Sudan without intervention from outside Africa.
    (AFP, 10/16/06)

2006        Oct 17, A former Janjaweed fighter in London recounted to the BBC how the Sudanese government has actively supported the militia that is accused of genocide against non-Arab ethnic groups in Darfur.
    (AFP, 10/18/06)

2006        Oct 18, Local and UN officials said Sudanese Janjaweed militia and Chadian rebels have attacked at least 10 villages in south-east Chad in the past fortnight, killing over 100 people and displacing more than 3,000. In southern Sudan unknown gunmen killed 38 civilians in at least five attacks. At least 50 soldiers from the former rebel Sudan People's Liberation Army drowned in southern Sudan after two steamboats collided on the Nile.
    (Reuters, 10/18/06)(Reuters, 10/19/06)

2006        Oct 20, The UN refugee agency said it had received reports of at least 38 civilians killed in attacks in southern Sudan and was suspending its operation helping Sudanese refugees return from neighboring Uganda.
    (AP, 10/20/06)

2006        Oct 21, Uganda's president traveled to southern Sudan to bolster faltering talks between his government and rebels aimed at ending a brutal 19-year conflict in northern Uganda.
    (AP, 10/21/06)

2006        Oct 22, The Sudanese government ordered the chief UN envoy to leave the country within three days after he wrote that the Sudanese army had suffered serious losses in fighting with rebels in northern Darfur.
    (AP, 10/22/06)

2006        Oct 26, Mo Ibrahim, a self-made Sudanese millionaire, offered African politicians an annual prize worth $5 million if they avoid being seduced by power and corruption. The prize would be presented to former leaders who had demonstrated excellence in government. Ibrahim founded Celtel International, an African cell phone network. He sold Celtel for $3.3 billion in 2005.
    (Reuters, 10/26/06)(AP, 10/27/06)

2006        Oct 28, Chad accused Sudan's air force of bombarding four towns along its eastern frontier and said its armed forces were ready to repel further aggression.
    (Reuters, 10/28/06)

2006        Oct 31, Attacks in West Darfur, Sudan, killed at least 63 people, half of them children. Some 300 to 500 Arab militiamen on horseback raided at least eight villages as well as the Hajlija IDP camp.
    (AP, 11/3/06)

2006        Nov 1, US President George W. Bush renewed US economic sanctions on Sudan for one year and left open the door to imposing new ones linked to the violence in Darfur.
    (AFP, 11/1/06)

2006        Nov 3, Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir said that his government will not relent on its rejection of UN peacekeeping troops for Darfur. Rebels accused Khartoum of remobilizing Arab militia after suffering two military defeats on the Sudan-Chad border.
    (AP, 11/3/06)

2006        Nov 10, A Norwegian refugee group said it is closing down its humanitarian operations for nearly 300,000 people in Darfur because it is impossible to work in the Sudanese region.
    (AP, 11/10/06)

2006        Nov 11, Sudanese armed forces deliberately attacked civilians in western Darfur killing 11, including a woman burnt to death in her home. African Union sources later claimed 30 people were killed and 40 injured, blaming Khartoum-backed Janjaweed militia.
    (Reuters, 11/13/06)(AFP, 11/24/06)

2006        Nov 13, Senegalís President Abdoulaye Wade received a letter from Sudan President Omar al-Bashir that accepted some sort of UN intervention.
    (AP, 11/14/06)
2006        Nov 13, The UN said it has pledged about $77 million in personnel and equipment to help the overwhelmed African Union force in Darfur as Sudan blocks the world body from sending its own peacekeepers to the war-torn region.
    (AP, 11/13/06)

2006        Nov 16, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan worked with key African, Arab, European leaders in Ethiopia to break the deadlock over worsening violence in Sudan's Darfur region. Leaders agreed in principle to a joint African Union-United Nations peacekeeping force for Darfur. UN humanitarian chief Jan Egeland arrived in Darfur to find security so bad he could not visit the camps outside el-Geneina town housing tens of thousands of displaced Darfuris.
    (Reuters, 11/16/06)(AP, 11/16/06)(AP, 11/16/07)

2006        Nov 17, Sudan reversed its long-standing opposition to allowing UN peacekeepers within its borders, agreeing in principle to a plan that will permit an international force to bolster African troops in Darfur, one of the world's bloodiest conflict zones. A former southern rebel soldier killed 5 policemen in the Jabal Awliaa area, 30 kilometers (19 miles) south of Khartoum.
    (AP, 11/17/06)(Reuters, 11/17/06)
2006        Nov 17, UN aid bodies said torrential rains and floods have hit up to 1.8 million people in the Horn of Africa, driving tens of thousands from their homes and threatening to trigger epidemics. Torrential rains have pounded the Horn of Africa this month, bringing misery to large parts of Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan and Eritrea.
    (AP, 11/17/06)

2006        Nov 18, Sudanese Foreign Minister Lam Akol told reporters "We did not agree to the deployment of hybrid United Nations-African Union forces in Darfur, as was declared by UN Secretary General Kofi Annan after the Addis Ababa consultative meeting." He said the Sudanese delegation agreed only on UN technical units to back up the AU forces in Darfur.
    (AP, 11/18/06)

2006        Nov 19, Darfur rebels said the Sudanese government has launched a major offensive in North Darfur despite an agreement to hold new talks among all parties to the conflict.
    (AP, 11/19/06)

2006        Nov 20, Sudanís President Omar al-Bashir's government hailed a new agreement with the UN over peacekeepers in Darfur as a diplomatic breakthrough, but said serious differences remain over the force's makeup and command.
    (AP, 11/20/06)

2006        Nov 21, Arab and African leaders in Libya agreed to work together to end the crisis in the Darfur region of Sudan.
    (AP, 11/22/06)

2006        Nov 22, Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir told Britain and the UN that he still rejects the deployment of UN troops in war-torn Darfur.
    (AFP, 11/23/06)

2006        Nov 23, In Sudan 6 policemen were killed and 7 wounded in an attack by unidentified rebels on a police camp in South Darfur state.
    (AFP, 11/24/06)

2006        Nov 26, In Sudan the National Redemption Front said its fighters had seized the Abu Jabra oil field on the edge of South Darfur and Southern Kordofan. Sudanese military said its forces had repelled the attack and were in full control of the field.
    (AP, 11/27/06)

2006        Nov 27, In Sudan fighting began in the southern town of Malakal and escalated into full trench warfare between the northern Sudanese Armed Forces and the SPLA. Hundreds of people may have been killed in the heaviest fighting between Sudan's former north-south foes since they signed a peace deal last year.
    (Reuters, 11/30/06)

2006        Nov 30, Sudan's president rejected a proposal to send UN peacekeepers to Darfur to boost a beleaguered 7,000-member African Union force, crushing hopes for a quick solution to the violence spreading across central Africa.
    (AP, 11/30/06)

2006        Dec 2, A UN official said days of fighting between former rebels and government forces killed more than 150 people and wounded at least 400 in a southern Sudanese town.
    (AP, 12/2/06)

2006        Dec 4, In Sudan militias entered El Fasher, the main town in the Darfur region and started looting the market. Militias there fought members of a former rebel group in clashes which the rebels said left up to seven people dead.
    (AP, 12/4/06)(Reuters, 12/4/06)

2006        Dec 6, Sudanese newspapers reported that Salva Kiir, Sudan's first vice president, demanded the arrest of two pro-Khartoum generals involved in deadly clashes in the southern town of Malakal last month. Pro-government janjaweed militiamen in the Darfur region killed 2 students in El Fasher, a day after another student was killed. Rebel groups massed nearby in preparation for a possible attack against the forces.
    (AP, 12/6/06)(AP, 12/7/06)

2006        Dec 8, President George W. Bush and visiting South African President Thabo Mbeki pressed for urgent deployment of international peacekeepers in violence-torn Darfur.
    (AFP, 12/8/06)

2006        Dec 9, In Sudan militiamen on horseback ambushed a refugee convoy in Sirba in western Darfur, killing 22 civilians. The governor of West Darfur said the attack was carried out by rebel groups who refused to sign the May peace agreement.
    (AFP, 12/10/06)

2006        Dec 11, Official sources said the Sudanese government has approved a budget of 11.7 billion dollars for 2007 and is targeting a growth rate of 10%. Rebels in Sudan's western region of Darfur said a government warplane killed eight civilians, mostly children, in a northern village.
    (AP, 12/11/06)(Reuters, 12/12/06)

2006        Dec 15, In Kenya 11 African heads of state attending the 2nd International Conference on the Great Lakes Region signed a landmark $2 billion (1.5-billion-euro) security and development pact to forestall fresh violence in the area.
    (AFP, 12/15/06)
2006        Dec 15, The US and the EU stepped up calls for Sudan to let international troops in to support African Union forces in Darfur amid growing talk of sanctions on Khartoum.
    (AP, 12/15/06)

2006        Dec 16, The African Union (AU) said the situation in Sudan's troubled Darfur region was worsening due to the return of re-armed Janjaweed militia and Khartoum's resolve to use military force.
    (AP, 12/16/06)

2006        Dec 18, Sudan's justice minister said he was ready to cooperate with a UN fact-finding team due to investigate human rights abuses in war-torn Darfur.
    (AFP, 12/18/06)

2006        Dec 19, The UN evacuated 71 aid workers from the largest refugee camp in Darfur after gunmen looted their compounds, leaving some 130,000 refugees virtually without humanitarian help.
    (AP, 12/19/06)

2006        Dec 20, The Sudanese army killed 200 rebels while repelling an attack in Darfur, the deadliest single military operation reported in the war-torn region since fighting started there four years ago. The army also said that 20 of its troops were wounded during the fighting.
    (AFP, 12/21/06)

2006        Dec 21-2006 Dec 22, Fighting between Darfur rebels and government forces near the town of Kutum killed 7 people and insurgents shot down 2 army helicopters in the area.
    (Reuters, 12/24/06)

2006        Dec 26, President Omar al-Bashir said in the letter to UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan that Sudan is ready to immediately implement two recent agreements endorsing a three-step UN plan to strengthen the beleaguered 7,000-strong African Union force in Darfur.
    (AP, 12/27/06)

2006        Dec 29, Sudanese military planes bombed two rebel positions in the north of Darfur just days after the head of the African Union's peacekeeping force visited the area to urge the rebels to join a cease-fire agreement. The African Union peacekeeping mission in Sudan called for a halt to such attacks.
    (AP, 12/31/06)

2006        Dave Eggers authored ďWhat Is the What: The Autobiography of Achak Deng." Deng, a Sudanese ďlost boy," managed to escape to Ethiopia and work his way to Kenya and ultimately America in 2001. Eggersí novel is based on interviews with Deng. In 2010 Deng returned to his home in Marial Bai, South Sudan.
    (SSFC, 12/24/06, p.M1)(Econ, 2/5/11, p.58)
2006        The largest American embassy in Africa was under construction in Khartoum.
    (Econ, 12/9/06, p.29)
2006        The population of southern Sudan was about 12 million. Over 40% of its oil money was earmarked for military expenditure.
    (Econ, 12/9/06, p.28)

2007        Jan 2, A UN official said the UN will investigate a report of allegations of sexual abuse and child rape by peacekeepers operating in southern Sudan.
    (AP, 1/2/07)

2007        Jan 4, Sudan described the alleged sexual abuse of children by UN peacekeepers in south Sudan as "outrageous" and said it would launch its own investigation into the affair.
    (AP, 1/4/07)

2007        Jan 5, Sudanese aircraft carried out strikes on Bamina and Gadir in North Darfur state near the border with Chad, endangering a fragile ceasefire.
    (AFP, 1/9/07)

2007        Jan 10, Sudan and rebel groups, prodded by New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson, agreed on a 60-day ceasefire, plus diplomatic efforts by the UN and African Union, to end the conflict in Darfur.
    (AFP, 1/11/07)

2007        Jan 12, A Darfur rebel group denied that it agreed to a cease-fire with the Sudanese government during a meeting this week with New Mexico Gov. Bill Richardson.
    (AP, 1/12/07)

2007        Jan 16, Rebels said Sudanese government planes bombed Darfur rebel areas despite a declared truce.
    (AP, 1/16/07)

2007        Jan 21, Darfur rebels accused the Sudanese government of bombing its areas for two days, killing at least 17 civilians, in an attempt to delay a conference of rebel leaders.
    (AP, 1/21/07)

2007        Jan 22, The EU threatened Sudan with sanctions if it refused to allow UN peacekeepers into war-torn Darfur, but rights groups and analysts said the warning was not enough to stop the killings.
    (AP, 1/22/07)

2007        Jan 24, A hijacker seized a Sudanese passenger plane carrying 103 people and forced the pilot to fly to the Chadian capital, N'Djamena, where he surrendered. The gunman wanted the plane to be flown to Britain but when told there was insufficient fuel agreed to go to the capital of neighboring Chad. He said he wanted to draw attention to the Darfur conflict.
    (AP, 1/24/07)

2007        Jan 26, Darfur rebels said they would refuse peace talks and would fight African Union peacekeepers on the ground if Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir became chairman of the pan-African body. In southern Sudan gunmen killed an Indian peacekeeper and wounded 2 others.
    (Reuters, 1/26/07)(AP, 1/27/07)
2007        Jan 26, Officials said Jody Williams, the US anti-landmine campaigner and Nobel Peace Prize winner, will lead a team of United Nations investigators to probe killings, rapes, destruction of villages and mass flight in Darfur.
    (AP, 1/26/07)

2007        Jan 30, In Sweden former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan and Darfur human rights activist Mossaad Mohamed Ali won the Olof Palme Prize for their work to protect human rights.
    (AP, 1/30/07)

2007        Feb 1, Radhika Coomaraswamy, the Special Representative of the UN Secretary General for Children and Armed Conflict, said child soldiers are increasingly being used in the war-torn region of Darfur, even as their use is on the decline elsewhere in Sudan.   
    (AP, 2/1/07)

2007        Feb 2, Chinese President Hu Jintao offered Sudan assistance for the peaceful resolution of the Darfur conflict but ignored Western pressure to make future aid conditional on the progress made. Jintao agreed on closer economic cooperation with Sudan after sealing talks with a series of trade agreements. Jintao told Sudan's leader he must give the United Nations a bigger role in trying to resolve the conflict in Darfur.
    (AFP, 2/2/07)

2007        Feb 7, The Washington Post reported that President George W. Bush has approved plans for the US Treasury Department to block US commercial bank transactions connected to Sudan's government, including those involving oil revenue.
    (AFP, 2/7/07)

2007        Feb 15, A summit of African leaders opened in Cannes on the French Riviera. The crisis in Darfur and violence in Guinea overshadowed the summit, as well as perennial issues of poverty, development and AIDS. France won agreement from three involved African nations (Sudan, Chad and Central African Republic) that they would not support armed rebel movements on each other's territories.
    (AP, 2/15/07)(AP, 2/15/07)
2007        Feb 15, A US federal judge ordered a trial for a suit seeking $105 million from Sudan for aid to al-Qaeda in the USS Cole bombing that killed 17 in 2000.
    (WSJ, 2/16/07, p.A1)

2007        Feb 16, In Sudan heavy fighting took place between the Targem and Rezegat Maharia tribes in South Darfur state. Unconfirmed reports suggested that between 70 to 100 tribesmen were killed and 14 injured.
    (Reuters, 2/19/07)

2007        Feb 21, At a regional meeting in Libya the leaders of Sudan and Chad said they agreed to redouble efforts to end violence spilling over their border from Darfur.
    (Reuters, 2/21/07)

2007        Feb 26, Sudan rejected the legitimacy of the International Criminal Court in pressing charges over the conflict in Darfur, still ravaged by war and famine four years after the violence erupted.
    (AP, 2/26/07)

2007        Feb 27, The International Criminal Court's prosecutor in Netherlands named Ahmed Muhammed Harun, a former Sudanese junior minister, and Ali Mohammed Ali Abd-al-Rahmann (aka Ali Kushayb), a janjaweed leader, as suspects in war crimes and crimes against humanity in the Darfur region. Sudan rejected the legitimacy of the ICC, insisting it would try Darfur war criminals.
    (Reuters, 2/27/07)(AFP, 2/27/07)(Econ, 7/19/08, p.55)

2007        Feb 28, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad made his first visit to Khartoum, for talks with his Sudanese opposite number Omar al-Beshir.
    (AP, 2/28/07)

2007        Mar 5, In Sudan gunmen killed two African Union peacekeepers and critically wounded a third in the western Darfur region.
    (AP, 3/7/07)

2007        Mar 6, Sudan said it will try three Sudanese for crimes committed in Darfur, including a member of the country's security forces who is being sought by an international war crimes court.
    (AP, 3/6/07)

2007        Mar 14, A US judge in Virginia ruled that Sudan should pay damages to the families of 17 sailors killed in the October 2000 bombing of the U.S.S. Cole.
    (Reuters, 3/14/07)

2007        Mar 19, Sudan's Pres. Bashir denied his government was involved in widespread human rights abuses in Darfur, where an estimated 200,000 people have been killed in what the US says is the first genocide of this century. Amnesty International said 2 Sudanese women have been sentenced to death by stoning for adultery after a trial in which they had no lawyer and which used Arabic, not their first language. Sadia Idriss Fadul was sentenced on Feb 13 and Amouna Abdallah Daldoum on March 6 and their sentences could be carried out at any time.
    (Reuters, 3/19/07)(Reuters, 3/20/07)

2007        Mar 22, Sudan temporarily suspended 52 non-governmental organizations working in Darfur as the new UN humanitarian chief began his first visit to the country, hoping to win aid groups better access to the region.
    (AP, 3/22/07)

2007        Mar 24, In Sudan 11 people were killed including 2 policemen and eight members of Darfur's former rebel Sudanese Liberation Movement (SLM) in Omdurman, Khartoumís twin city. Abdel Shafee Jomaa Arabi, a senior rebel commander, was killed in an ambush in Darfur.
    (AFP, 3/24/07)(AFP, 3/26/07)

2007        Mar 25, European leaders called for new international sanctions on Sudan over its treatment of civilians in Darfur, where the new UN humanitarian chief warned that humanitarian efforts were at risk of collapse.
    (AP, 3/25/07)

2007        Mar 28, Sudan and the UN signed an agreement to guarantee humanitarian access to refugees in Darfur. UN chief Ban Ki-moon tried to persuade President Omar al-Bashir to accept UN peacekeepers in Darfur, hours after al-Bashir flatly rejected the deployment.
    (AP, 3/28/07)

2007        Mar 30, Authorities arrested a man armed with a knife who hijacked a Sudan Airways plane while flying from Libya to Sudan.
    (AP, 3/30/07)

2007        Mar 31, In western Sudan at least 62 people were killed and 21 wounded in an attack on an Arab tribe in the Darfur region.
    (AFP, 4/1/07)

2007        Apr 1, Unidentified gunmen killed five African Union soldiers guarding a "water point" near the Sudanís border with Chad in the deadliest attack on the peacekeepers since their deployment in 2004. The attackers fled the scene after AU troops killed three of them in an exchange of fire.
    (AP, 4/2/07)

2007        Apr 2, In Sudan 53 people were killed in a gruesome pair of minibus accidents north of Khartoum.
    (AP, 4/2/07)

2007        Apr 6, A Chinese delegation arrived in Sudan's troubled Darfur region for a 4-day visit. They met officials and visited camps for the internally displaced.
    (AP, 4/8/07)

2007        Apr 9, A Sudanese army spokesman said 17 Sudanese soldiers were killed in clashes with Chadian troops inside Sudanese territory.
    (Reuters, 4/9/07)
2007        Apr 9, China urged Sudan to be more flexible on a plan put forward by former UN chief Kofi Annan to bolster peacekeeping operations in the war-torn western region of Darfur.
    (AFP, 4/9/07)

2007        Apr 10, South African President Thabo Mbeki arrived in Khartoum to join the international push for UN peacekeepers in Darfur, amid fears of a regional spillover after clashes between Sudan and Chad. Officials said the UN, the African Union and the Sudanese government have reached agreement to beef up the African force in Sudan's violence-wracked Darfur region with UN troops, police and equipment.
    (AP, 4/10/07)

2007        Apr 11, At least 40 civilians were killed and 25 wounded in an attack believed to have be carried out by the Janjaweed militia in the war-torn Darfur region.
    (AFP, 4/16/07)

2007        Apr 13, A landmine killed nine Sudanese army soldiers and wounded 11 on Sudan's eastern border with Ethiopia.
    (AP, 4/14/07)

2007        Apr 14, In Sudan unidentified gunmen killed a Ghanaian military officer in the African Union's peacekeeping force in the Darfur region and hijacked his car within yards of the AU mission's headquarters. The dead officer was the ninth peacekeeper slain this month, raising to 18 the number of AU soldiers killed since the mission deployed in 2004.
    (AP, 4/15/07)

2007        Apr 15, The official Saudi news agency reported that Sudan has signed a joint agreement with the UN and the African Union that defines their respective roles in Darfur.
    (AP, 4/16/07)

2007        Apr 16, Foreign Minister Lam Akol said Sudan will accept UN attack helicopters in its Darfur region as part of a support package for the African Union force struggling to maintain peace in its vast west. US Deputy Secretary of State John Negroponte said the janjaweed militia, accused of widespread atrocities in Darfur, is actively supported by the Sudanese government.
    (Reuters, 4/16/07)

2007        Apr 19, A Sudanese rebel group said government aircraft destroyed a village in northern Darfur in an air strike.
    (Reuters, 4/19/07)
2007        Apr 19, British aerospace engine maker Rolls-Royce said that it will withdraw from Sudan, citing "increasing international humanitarian concerns" in the violence-scarred region of Darfur.
    (AP, 4/19/07)

2007        Apr 21, Eritrean President Issaias Afeworki arrived in Sudan determined to kick-start talks to end the violence in Darfur.
    (AFP, 4/21/07)

2007        Apr 23, A top Sudanese government official offered a two-month halt in military operations in strife-torn Darfur to allow for rebel groups to join the peace process.
    (AP, 4/23/07)

2007        Apr 25, The UN food agency said Sudanese authorities were holding up to 100,000 tons of sorghum meant for Darfur, alleging that it is genetically modified. Laboratory tests had shown it was not genetically modified.
    (Reuters, 4/26/07)

2007        Apr 28, Actors and musicians including Elton John, George Clooney, Bob Geldof and Mick Jagger called on world leaders to take "decisive action" over atrocities in Darfur. Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi urged African, Arab and Western diplomats to work with Sudanese rebels to find an immediate solution to the crisis in Sudan's troubled Darfur region.
    (AP, 4/28/07)

2007        Apr 29, Protests took place around the world to demand that world leaders act to prevent further bloodshed in Darfur on the fourth anniversary of the conflict's start.
    (AP, 4/29/07)

2007        Apr 30, The Sudanese armed forces vowed to "crush" a coalition of rebel groups in Darfur for killing an officer whose helicopter had landed in north Darfur after a technical failure.
    (Reuters, 4/30/07)

2007        May 2, The International Criminal Court in the Hague said it  has issued arrest warrants for the Sudanese government's humanitarian affairs minister and a janjaweed militia leader suspected of committing war crimes in Darfur.
    (AP, 5/2/07)

2007        May 3, African neighbors Sudan and Chad signed a Saudi-brokered reconciliation deal in Saudi Arabia, requiring both sides to cooperate with the United Nations to stabilize Darfur and the adjacent region in Chad.
    (AP, 5/3/07)

2007        May 5, In southern Sudan an attack by one tribe left 54 members of another tribe dead, mainly women.
    (AP, 8/24/07)

2007        May 8, Amnesty Intíl. said in a report that China and Russia are supplying arms to Sudan that are being used to fuel the violence in the Darfur region in violation of a UN arms embargo. China and Russia quickly rejected the report and Sudan's government said it was "not justified." China confirmed it would send military engineers for a planned UN peacekeeping force to Sudan's Darfur region.
    (AP, 5/8/07)

2007        May 10, China, criticized for not pushing its close ally Sudan to resolve the Darfur crisis, said that it had appointed a special representative on African affairs to focus on the issue.
    (AP, 5/10/07)

2007        May 14, EU foreign ministers gave the green light for a 40-million euro aid package to the African Union peacekeeping force in the troubled Sudanese province of Darfur.
    (AP, 5/14/07)

2007        May 18, The UN accused Sudan government forces of direct involvement in recent machine-gunning of Darfur villages that left at least 100 dead.
    (WSJ, 5/19/07, p.A1)

2007        May 21, US Democratic presidential hopeful Joseph Biden called for US troops to help quell the violence in Sudan's Darfur region, drawing a strong rebuke from Sudan's UN envoy.
    (AP, 5/21/07)

2007        May 26, Egyptian Lieutenant Colonel Ihab Ahmed, a UN peacekeeper, died after he was shot during a robbery at his residence in El Fasher. Ahmed, part of a small group of reinforcements sent to Darfur, became the UN's first casualty since its arrival in the region.
    (AP, 5/26/07)

2007        May 29, President Bush ordered new US economic sanctions to pressure Sudan's government to halt the bloodshed in Darfur.
    (AP, 5/29/07)

2007        Jun 1, The UN refugee agency said hundreds of women and children fled by foot and on donkeys from Darfur to the neighboring Central African Republic after their town was attacked by planes and helicopters. The refugees said their town of Dafak, in southern Darfur, was attacked repeatedly by janjaweed militia from May 12 to May 18 and that their homes had been bombarded by airstrikes.
    (AP, 6/1/07)
2007        Jun 1, The African Union objected to a proposal for a 23,000-strong AU-U.N. force to help end the bloodshed in Sudan's troubled Darfur region because it would give the United Nations command and control.
    (AP, 6/2/07)

2007        Jun 3, In Libya African leaders sought to reconcile differences between neighbors Chad and Sudan over Darfur and boost Somalia's embattled transitional government at a regional summit.
    (AFP, 6/3/07)

2007        Jun 6, The UN and African Union chief executives resolved a dispute over command of a proposed joint military force to help end bloodshed in Darfur, but the deal still must be approved by their organizations' security councils and Sudan's government.
    (AP, 6/6/07)

2007        Jun 12, Sudan agreed to a "hybrid" UN-AU force of between 17,000 and 19,000 troops and an additional 3,700 police. Some diplomats feared conditions may be attached.
    (Reuters, 6/13/07)

2007        Jun 13, Sudanís foreign ministry said Sudan has formally rejected an international conference on Darfur to be held in Paris this month because it was not consulted beforehand.
    (AP, 6/13/07)

2007        Jun 14, Sudanís press reported that 4 people were killed and at least 10 wounded when police dispersed residents in the Kijbar region of north Sudan protesting a dam project which they say will destroy their community.
    (AFP, 6/14/07)

2007        Jun 21, China's special envoy on Darfur said his country will seriously consider sending troops for a peacekeeping mission in the war-torn Sudanese region and insisted Beijing is doing its best to help solve the conflict.
    (AP, 6/21/07)

2007        Jun 23, Sudanís oil production stood at 480,000 barrels per day with proven reserves at 1.6 billion barrels.
    (Econ, 6/23/07, p.54)

2007        Jun 27, Majzub al-Khalifa, a close adviser to Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir tasked with handling the Darfur crisis, was killed in a road crash.
    (AFP, 6/27/07)

2007        Jun 28, In Sudan China's No. 1 oil company, CNPC, and Indonesia's PT Pertamina agreed to co-develop a Sudanese offshore oil block, ignoring international efforts to isolate Sudan over the crisis in its Darfur region.
    (AP, 7/1/07)

2007        Jul 10, Sudanís head of the civil defense authority said flash floods across central and eastern Sudan have killed 20 people and destroyed 15,000 houses, and predicted worse weather conditions to come.
    (Reuters, 7/10/07)

2007        Jul 12, Sudanís Interior Ministry said flash floods across central and eastern Sudan have killed 30 people and destroyed 25,000 houses.
    (AFP, 7/12/07)

2007        Jul 13, Andrew Natsios, the US envoy to Sudan, accused the country's government of resuming bombing civilian positions in its troubled Darfur region, and warned of a "disturbing" trend of Arab groups resettling in the area.
    (AP, 7/13/07)

2007        Jul 14, Sudan arrested 14 alleged plotters including retired army officers. The next day the interior ministry accused an opposition leader of heading a plot to overthrow the regime by creating armed chaos that would lead to international intervention.
    (AFP, 7/15/07)

2007        Jul 15, UN and African Union representatives gathered in Tripoli to evaluate Darfur.
    (AP, 7/15/07)

2007        Jul 19, Sudanís head of civil defense said more than 50 people have been killed and 20 injured in the worst floods in living memory which have partially or completely destroyed 18,000 homes.
    (Reuters, 7/19/07)

2007        Jul 21, Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir, implicated by many in the international community in Darfur's genocide, visited the troubled region for the first time in the four-year conflict there.
    (AP, 7/21/07)

2007        Jul 22, Egyptian police shot and killed a Sudanese woman (28) and seriously wounded four others on the Sinai Peninsula as they tried to sneak into Israel. They were among 27 Darfur refugees caught by border guards in the desert after paying 700 dollars (500 euros) to a Bedouin smuggler.
    (AP, 7/22/07)(AFP, 7/24/07)

2007        Jul 23, The European Union took the first step towards sending forces to Chad and the Central African Republican to help the United Nations protect refugees trapped in the violent region bordering Darfur.
    (AP, 7/23/07)

2007        Jul 25, Sudanese papers reported that another 16 people died in clashes between the two tribes when Aballa men fell on a band of Torjum, killing nine.
    (AFP, 7/31/07)

2007        Jul 27, Sudan said it would appeal a US ruling ordering it to pay $7.9 million in compensation to the families of the 17 sailors killed in the October 2000 bombing of the USS Cole in Yemen. The bombing was carried out by two Yemeni militants with Osama bin Laden's Al-Qaeda network who had trained in Sudan. US federal Judge Robert Doumar ruled in mid-March that Sudan should be held accountable for the attack, and on July 25 ruled that it must pay compensation to the families.
    (AP, 7/27/07)

2007        Jul 31, A senior Sudanese official said floods and heavy rains have caused 23,000 mudbrick homes to collapse and killed at least 62 people across Sudan this month. In southern Darfur Mahria Arab tribesmen attacked Terjem Arabs killing over 60 Terjem. Conflict between Arab tribes was on the increase and included clashes between the Habanniya and Salamat tribes.
    (AP, 7/31/07)(SFC, 9/3/07, p.A16)

2007        Aug 1, Rebels captured the town of Adila, where Sudanese troops were stationed to protect the only railway linking Darfur to the capital of Khartoum. Some 100 (Sudanese) soldiers or janjaweed were killed in the fighting.
    (AP, 8/10/07)
2007        Aug 1, Denmark, France and Indonesia offered to contribute to a joint UN-African Union mission for Darfur, a 26,000-strong force expected to be made up mostly of peacekeepers from Africa with backup from Asian troops. Sudan accepted a UN resolution approving a joint African Union-UN peacekeeping force in Darfur.
    (AP, 8/1/07)(AFP, 8/1/07)

2007        Aug 3, In Tanzania Darfur's fractious rebel groups gathered for talks aimed at hammering out a united front, following UN approval of a beefed up peacekeeping mission in the Sudanese region.
    (AP, 8/3/07)

2007        Aug 5, Darfur's fractious rebel groups held a third day of reconciliation talks in Tanzania in a bid to present a united front at future peace talks with Khartoum.
    (AP, 8/5/07)

2007        Aug 6, In Tanzania Darfur's rebel groups concluded four days of talks by agreeing on a common platform to soon enter final peace negotiations with the Sudanese government.
    (AFP, 8/6/07)

2007        Aug 7, Darfur rebel commanders shot down a government MiG 29 plane they say was bombing civilian villages in their areas in Sudan's Darfur region.
    (Reuters, 8/8/07)

2007        Aug 9, The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies more than doubled its Sudan floods appeal to almost 5.5 million Swiss francs (4.6 million dollars, 3.3 million euros) after flood waters rose above levels set in 1988.
    (AP, 8/9/07)

2007        Aug 10, The Sudanese Media Centre said security forces have handed 33 suspects accused of trying to overthrow the government to the justice ministry for investigation.
    (Reuters, 8/10/07)
2007        Aug 10, Malawi said it will deploy 800 troops to Darfur in Sudan to serve in the future United Nations-African Union peacekeeping force.
    (AFP, 8/10/07)

2007        Aug 11, A security official said disarmament has finally started in south Sudan's state of Eastern Equatoria under a 2005 peace deal now it has been made possible by the departure of Ugandan rebels.
    (Reuters, 8/12/07)

2007        Aug 17, Saudi King Abdullah ordered two aid packages worth 20 million dollars each be dispatched to Sudan and Mauritania to help the impoverished African countries hit by severe floods.
    (AFP, 8/17/07)

2007        Aug 19, In Sudan armed raiders killed a policeman and wounded four others in an attack on a refugee camp in Darfur.
    (Reuters, 8/20/07)
2007        Aug 19, Israel said it would expel refugees from Sudan's war torn Darfur region, touching off hot debate over whether the Jewish state, founded after the Nazi genocide, has a duty to take in people fleeing persecution.
    (AP, 8/19/07)

2007        Aug 21, Sudanese forces surrounded and attacked Darfur's most volatile camp to flush out rebels they say are behind recent attacks on police.
    (AP, 8/21/07)

2007        Aug 23, Sudan summoned the envoy of the European Commission and the Canadian charge d'affaires and informed them they were considered persona non grata because they interfered in Sudanese affairs. The UN chief called on the Sudanese military to remove troops remaining in southern Sudan, expressing disappointment that a July 9 deadline was not met as called for in a 2005 peace deal.
    (AFP, 8/24/07)(AP, 8/24/07)
2007        Aug 23, Rwanda's exiled opposition groups dismissed as insulting the appointment of General Kerenzi Karake, a Rwandan general, as deputy chief of a planned peace force for Sudan's war-torn Darfur region.
    (AFP, 8/23/07)

2007        Aug 25, Sudan said it will allow an EU envoy it ordered out of the country to remain until his tenure expires next month, following an EU apology.
    (AP, 8/25/07)

2007        Aug 27, A Sudanese criminal court dismissed the case against nine people on trial in connection with the beheading of Mohammed Taha, a prominent journalist, and brought formal charges against 10 other defendants. CAREís country director Paul Barker said the Sudanese government's Humanitarian Aid Commission had given him 72 hours to leave the country without giving reasons for the decision.
    (AP, 8/27/07)(Reuters, 8/27/07)

2007        Aug 29, JEM and Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) attacked an army base in the Kordofan region next to Darfur, which they said was the logistical and supply centre for ongoing attacks in South Darfur. The rebels said 15 soldiers were killed. The government later reported that 41 people were killed in the Kordofan region. Officials said floods across Sudan have killed 101 people, spread disease and destroyed livelihoods by wiping out agricultural crops.
    (Reuters, 8/29/07)(Reuters, 8/30/07)(Reuters, 9/1/07)

2007        Aug 30, Darfur rebels accused the Sudanese government of bombing South Darfur, the latest attack in an aerial campaign that has driven thousands of people from their homes over the past month.
    (Reuters, 8/30/07)

2007        Sep 3, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon arrived in Sudan in a bid to jumpstart the peace process in strife-torn Darfur ahead of a massive joint UN-African Union peacekeeping operation.
    (AFP, 9/3/07)

2007        Sep 5, Interior Minister Meir Sheetrit said Israel will grant citizenship to some of the estimated 300 refugees from Sudan's violence-ridden Darfur region who have already arrived.
    (AP, 9/5/07)

2007        Sep 9, Southern Sudanese officials said government troops have agreed to end their siege of 61 south Sudanese soldiers, resolving a stand-off that risked undermining the north-south peace deal.
    (Reuters, 9/9/07)

2007        Sep 10, Sudanese government forces resumed air strikes in Darfur with an attack on a town that killed more than a dozen civilians.
    (AP, 9/10/07)

2007        Sep 14, Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir said his government is ready to implement a cease-fire with rebel forces at the start of peace talks over the conflict in Darfur, scheduled for next month in Libya.
    (AP, 9/14/07)

2007        Sep 21, The Red Cross warned that a massive aid effort is needed to cope with floods in 18 countries across Africa that have already affected at least 1.5 million people and killed at least 270 in Ghana, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Togo, Uganda and other countries.
    (AFP, 9/21/07)

2007        Sep 22, To date 144 countries had ratified the UN Convention Against Torture. Holdouts included Sudan, North Korea, Myanmar, Zimbabwe and India.
    (Econ, 9/22/07, p.72)

2007        Sep 24, A group of UN experts monitoring Darfur said that serious human rights violations appeared to be continuing in the strife-torn western Sudanese region.
    (AP, 9/24/07)

2007        Sep 25, Darfur rebel leader Khalil Ibrahim said he would carry on fighting during upcoming peace talks until a final settlement is reached to end the conflict in western Sudan.
    (AP, 9/25/07)
2007        Sep 25, The UN Security Council unanimously passed a French resolution endorsing sending a European Union-UN force to Chad and the Central African Republic to protect civilians reeling from a spillover of the Darfur conflict.
    (AP, 9/25/07)

2007        Sep 29, In Sudan a large force of rebels stormed an African Union peacekeeping base in Haskanita, Darfur, killing 12 soldiers and wounding 8 others in the biggest attack on the mission so far. More than 50 AU peacekeepers and support personnel were missing in action. In 2009 the International Criminal Court (ICC) said fighters commanded by Darfur rebel chief Bahar Idriss Abu Garda brutally murdered 12 African peacekeepers before looting their camp. In 2010 Abdallah Banda Abakaer Nourain and Saleh Mohammed Jerbo Jamus, suspected in the deadly attack, voluntarily surrendered in the Netherlands to the International Criminal Court to face war crimes charges.
    (AP, 9/30/07)(Reuters, 10/8/07)(AFP, 10/19/09)(AP, 6/16/10)

2007        Oct 1, Sudan's Pres. Omar Hassan al-Bashir, during talks with members of a visiting group of elder statesmen, promised to pay $300 million in compensation to the country's war-torn Darfur region, tripling a previous pledge. This was made public 2 days later by former US President Jimmy Carter, one of the visiting elders.
    (Reuters, 10/3/07)
2007        Oct 1, The African Union began probing an unprecedented attack on one of its bases in Sudan's war-ravaged Darfur that left 10 peacekeepers dead and 40 missing, vowing to punish those responsible.
    (AP, 10/1/07)

2007        Oct 2, A group of elder statesmen, including former President Carter and Nobel peace laureate Desmond Tutu, began a tour of Darfur to promote a political solution to the region's conflict.
    (AP, 10/2/07)

2007        Oct 4, Prominent world figures led by former President Carter and Desmond Tutu of South Africa said they were shocked by the suffering in Darfur and criticized Sudan's government in exceptionally harsh terms.
    (AP, 10/4/07)
2007        Oct 4, Ethiopia pledged 5,000 troops to a future UN-African Union peacekeeping mission for Darfur.
    (AP, 10/4/07)

2007        Oct 6, A UN inspection team found the Darfur town of Haskanita, under the control of Sudanese troops, burned down. The destruction of the town was in apparent retaliation for the Sep 29 rebel attack on an African Union peacekeeping base in which 10 AU troops were killed. 7,000 residents were forced to flee the area.
    (Reuters, 10/7/07)(WSJ, 10/8/07, p.A1)

2007        Oct 8, Sudan said it will host hundreds of Palestinian refugees who have been stranded in terrible conditions on Iraq's border with Syria and Jordan.
    (Reuters, 10/8/07)
2007        Oct 8, Sudanese government troops and allied militia attacked a town belonging to the only Darfur rebel faction to sign a 2006 peace deal. The assault killed at least 45 people in the Darfur town of Muhajiriya, where bodies littered the streets amid burned out buildings. The Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) said five SLA soldiers were killed and eight injured. A key Darfur rebel leader accused the Sudanese army of burning Haskanita in the troubled region, killing up to 100 people in retaliation for an attack on African Union troops.
    (Reuters, 10/8/07)(Reuters, 10/9/07)

2007        Oct 11, Southern Sudan's former rebels suspended participation in the central government, accusing it of failing to abide by a peace deal in a dispute that threatens a rare success in the troubled nation.
    (AP, 10/11/07)

2007        Oct 14, Former rebels from south Sudan delivered a letter to Khartoum detailing their demands for resolving a crisis sparked by the southerners' pullout from the unity government.
    (AP, 10/14/07)

2007        Oct 15,     Representatives of seven Darfur rebel groups met in south Sudan to try to reach a common negotiating position ahead of peace talks with the government.
    (Reuters, 10/15/07)
2007        Oct 15, European Union foreign ministers gave their final approval to deploy a 3,000-strong EU peacekeeping force for one year to help refugees and displaced people living along Darfur's borders with Chad and the Central African Republic.
    (AP, 10/15/07)

2007        Oct 16, In Sudan 2 truck drivers working for the UN's World Food Program were killed in an ambush near the South Darfur town of Ed Daien. A 3rd was killed on Oct 12.
    (AP, 10/17/07)

2007        Oct 17,     Sudan's former southern rebels said they would rejoin the national government to work through a stalemate on implementing a 2005 peace deal which ended Africa's longest civil war.
    (AP, 10/17/07)

2007        Oct 18,     Crisis talks between Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir and southern leader Salva Kiir ended without agreement on getting his former rebels to rejoin the unity government they quit a week ago.
    (AFP, 10/18/07)

2007        Oct 21,     Sudanese government officials said around 50 people have been killed in three days of tribal clashes in the central region of Kordofan.
    (AP, 10/21/07)
2007        Oct 21,     Thousands of British Muslims gathered for a charity peace concert dubbed "Muslim Live 8" to raise money for victims of Sudan's long-running Darfur conflict.
    (AP, 10/21/07)

2007        Oct 23,     A new Bin Laden tape called for foreign forces to be driven from Darfur. The Justice and Equality Movement, one of the leading Darfur rebel groups, attacked the Defra oil field in Sudanís Kordofan region and abducted 2 foreign workers. A rebel chief gave a one-week ultimatum for foreign oil companies to cease operating in the zone.
    (SFC, 10/24/07, p.A3)(AP, 10/25/07)

2007        Oct 27, Sudan's government and some rebel groups began talks in Libya to end 4-1/2 years of conflict in Darfur. Sudan's government committed to a cease-fire in Darfur, but mediators and journalists outnumbered the few rebels who did not boycott the UN-sponsored negotiations, reducing hopes for an end to the fighting. According to 2 rebel factions Sudanís government attacked the Jabel Moun area along the Chad-Sudan border.
    (Reuters, 10/27/07)(AP, 10/28/07)(Reuters, 10/29/07)

2007        Oct 28, UN-brokered peace talks ground to a halt, with officials saying there could be no key steps until the fighters decided how to negotiate with the Sudanese government.
    (AP, 10/28/07)

2007        Nov 2, Sudanís President Omar al-Beshir reached agreement with southern leader Salva Kiir, who is also first vice president, that all provisions of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement would now be implemented by the end of the year.
    (AFP, 11/3/07)

2007        Nov 6, Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir met with South African President Thabo Mbeki in Cape Town for talks on the situation in war-torn Darfur and political upheaval in Khartoum.
    (AP, 11/6/07)

2007        Nov 7, The UN said the governor of South Darfur ordered the UN humanitarian director to leave the state, which has been the scene of recent fighting. South Darfur's Governor Ali Mahmood Mohammed said in a letter that Wael Al-Haj Ibrahim, a Canadian, "was not complying with the Humanitarian Act," but he didn't elaborate.
    (AP, 11/7/07)

2007        Nov 12, A Darfur rebel group freed five workers, including two foreigners, taken hostage in a rare attack on a Sudanese oil installation almost three weeks ago.
    (AFP, 11/12/07)

2007        Nov 13, Six breakaway factions from one of Darfur's biggest rebel groups and two other insurgent forces said they had united under one banner, in a rare but tentative show of unity in the troubled region.
    (Reuters, 11/13/07)

2007        Nov 17, Sudanís President Omar al-Beshir ordered the reopening of auxiliary training camps to prepare for war and refused to accept certain countries from sending peacekeepers to Darfur. Beshir said the "boots of those who attacked the prophet Mohammed would never trample on Sudanese land". He was referring to Swedes and Norwegians who want to participate in a UN-African Union hybrid force set to deploy to Darfur. Beshir also said Sudan would not allow Nepal or Thailand to send troops to Darfur, although he agreed with the UN for engineering troops to arrive from China and Pakistan.
    (AFP, 11/17/07)

2007        Nov 18, Two Sudanese journalists from the independent Al-Sudani newspaper were jailed after refusing to pay a fine for an article about the arrest of other journalists.
    (AP, 11/18/07)

2007        Nov 22, The World Health Organization said an outbreak of Rift Valley Fever in Sudan has killed 164 people.
    (AP, 11/22/07)

2007        Nov 23, Sudan's Pres. Omar al-Beshir said he would not accept non-African troops in a combined United Nations/African Union peacekeeping force in Darfur, apart from Chinese and Pakistani technical units already committed.
    (Reuters, 11/23/07)

2007        Nov 24, More than 100 Chinese engineers arrived in Sudan's war-torn Darfur as part of the vanguard for a joint African Union-UN peacekeeping mission to be in place next year. Rebels demanded Beijing pull its peacekeepers out of Darfur, just hours after a unit of Chinese army engineers arrived.
    (AFP, 11/24/07)(AP, 11/25/07)

2007        Nov 25, In Sudan Gillian Gibbons (54), a British teacher, was put under detention for allegedly insulting Islam's prophet by allowing children to call a teddy bear Mohammed. She was arrested because of a complaint under Article 125 of the penal code, which provides punishment for publicly insulting or degrading any religion, its rites, beliefs and sacred items or humiliating its believers. On Nov 28 Sudan charged Gibbons with inciting religious hatred.
    (AFP, 11/26/07)(AP, 11/27/07)(AP, 11/28/07)

2007        Nov 29, Gillian Gibbons, the British teacher arrested in Sudan on Nov 25 for insulting Islam by allowing her students to name a teddy bear "Muhammad," was sentenced to 15 days in prison and deportation. She avoided the more serious punishment of 40 lashes. Gibbons was pardoned after spending more than a week in custody; she then left the country.
    (AP, 11/30/07)(AP, 11/29/08)

2007        Nov 30, Thousands of Sudanese, many armed with clubs and knives, rallied in a central square and demanded the execution of a British teacher convicted of insulting Islam for allowing her students to name a teddy bear "Muhammad."
    (AP, 11/30/07)

2007        Dec 2, Defense lawyers said Sudan has authorized the release of Mubarak al-Fadil, a high-profile opposition leader detained for more than four months. Fadil is the leader of the opposition Umma Party for Renewal and Reform and the cousin of former PM Sadig al-Mahdi.
    (AP, 12/2/07)

2007        Dec 3, Sudan's president pardoned Gillian Gibbons, the British teacher jailed for insulting Islam after allowing her students to name a teddy bear Muhammad. Gibbons arrived back in England the next day.
    (AP, 12/3/07)(AP, 12/4/07)

2007        Dec 4, UN human rights experts said Sudanese forces and allied militia have killed several hundred civilians in ground attacks and aerial bombardments on villages in Darfur in the past six months.
    (Reuters, 12/4/07)

2007        Dec 11, Darfur rebel group the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) said it had attacked and taken over a Chinese-run oilfield in central Sudan.
    (AP, 12/11/07)

2007        Dec 12, North and south Sudanese leaders said they had resolved almost all their differences and that the former rebel Sudan People's Liberation Movement would soon rejoin the unity cabinet.
    (AP, 12/12/07)

2007        Dec 16, Darfur rebels said they had inflicted a crushing defeat on Sudan's army in West Darfur in an overnight battle during which they captured 29 soldiers, 32 vehicles and heavy weaponry.
    (Reuters, 12/16/07)

2007        Dec 24, Southern army officials said militias supported by Khartoum's army have attacked southern Sudanese soldiers near the north-south border killing dozens of people.
    (AP, 12/24/07)

2007        Dec 27, South Sudanese former rebels rejoined the national government, two months after walking out because of disputes over the implementation of a peace deal that ended two decades of war.
    (AFP, 12/27/07)

2007        Dec 29, Sudan accused Chadian aircraft of bombing its western Darfur region in what it called "repeated aggressions" by its western neighbor. a Sudanese foreign ministry statement said 3 Chadian war planes bombed two areas in West Darfur on December 28.
    (AFP, 12/30/07)

2007        Dec 30, Local media reported dozens of people have been killed in fighting between Arab tribesmen and ex-rebel south Sudanese forces along the line separating north and south Sudan.
    (AFP, 12/30/07)

2007        Dec 31, In Sudan the African Union transferred authority to a new joint peacekeeping force with the UN in Darfur. An AU official said Ethiopia and Egypt will each send 850 troops early in the new year to serve with a joint UN-AU force in the Darfur region.
    (AP, 12/31/07)(Reuters, 12/31/07)
2007        Dec 31, President George W. Bush signed into a law a measure aimed at allowing states, local governments, mutual funds and pension funds to divest from Sudan businesses, particularly its oil sectors.
    (Reuters, 12/31/07)

2007        M.W. Daly authored ďDarfurís Sorrow: A History of Destruction and Genocide.
    (Econ, 8/18/07, p.75)

2008        Jan 1, In Sudan an American diplomat and his driver were shot to death in Khartoum. John Granville (33), an official for the US Agency for International Development, was being driven home at about 4 a.m. when another vehicle cut off his car and opened fire before fleeing the scene. A group calling itself Ansar al-Tawhid later claimed responsibility for the murder. On Feb 9 Sudanese security forces arrested two suspects in the murder. On Sep 20 five Sudanese Islamists admitted in filmed statements their role in murdering Granville and his driver. They were formally charged on Feb 5, 2009. On June 24 four Islamists were sentenced to death. A 5th man was sentenced to 2 years in prison for providing a weapon.
    (AP, 1/1/08)(AP, 1/2/08)(AFP, 1/5/08)(AP, 2/10/08)(AP, 9/21/08)(AP, 2/5/09)(AFP, 6/24/09)

2008        Jan 2, Darfur rebels in Sudan said they had taken a town around Geneina, the main city of west Darfur which they claim to have surrounded.
    (AFP, 1/2/08)

2008        Jan 3, South Sudanese officials said North Sudanese troops have missed a third deadline to fully redeploy from the south following over two decades of north-south civil war that ended in 2005.
    (AP, 1/3/08)

2008        Jan 4, Fresh fighting erupted between southern Sudanese forces and Khartoum-backed Arab tribesmen near key oil areas of the country, former southern rebels said, further denting hopes of an end to north-south hostilities.
    (AP, 1/4/08)

2008        Jan 7, Armed men opened fire on a UN/African Union supply convoy in Sudan's war-torn Darfur region, the first attack on the newly formed joint peacekeeping mission.  On Jan 10 Sudan admitted that its troops had opened fire on a joint UN/African Union peacekeeping convoy in Darfur saying the attack was the result of a "shared mistake."
    (Reuters, 1/8/08)(Reuters, 1/10/08)

2008        Jan 9, Norway and Sweden dropped plans to send some 400 troops to the UN peacekeeping force in Darfur because of opposition by Sudan.
    (WSJ, 1/10/07, p.A1)

2008        Jan 14, A rebel chief said Sudanese warplanes have been bombing rebel positions around the town of Geneina for the past three days in a bid to break the siege on the West Darfur state capital. Local media said gunmen stormed a Darfur prison, setting free at least 90 detainees, as sporadic violence continued to erupt throughout the western Sudanese region. A UN official in South Darfur said the attack appeared to have been conducted by fighters from the Salamat tribe of nomadic Arabs, who escaped with several of the detainees also believed to be Salamat. The Salamat and other Darfur nomadic tribes are among the groups suspected of belonging to the janjaweed.
    (AFP, 1/14/08)(AP, 1/14/08)

2008        Jan 15, A southern official said in the local press that troops from northern Sudan are hiding out in bushes of south Sudan in defiance of a peace deal requirement to withdraw.
    (AFP, 1/15/08)

2008        Jan 21, Sudan confirmed that it has appointed Musa Hilal, the suspected head of a Sudanese militia accused of murder, rape and other atrocities in Darfur, to a senior government post. President Omar al-Bashir dismissed allegations against the man as untrue.
    (AP, 1/21/08)

2008        Jan 22, According to anti-Khartoum Sudanese rebels armed militias backed by Sudan's government killed 21 people in an attack on Sureif Judad, a village in West Darfur.
    (Reuters, 1/27/08)

2008        Jan 28, The EU launched its long-awaited peacekeeping force for Chad and the Central African Republic to help protect hundreds of thousands of refugees from strife-torn Darfur.
    (AFP, 1/28/08)

2008        Feb 3, Chadian forces backed by tanks and helicopter gunships struggled to repel a rebel assault on the capital, and insurgents claimed to have trapped the president in his palace. Chadian rebels, reportedly backed by Sudanese military aircraft, launched an attack on the eastern town of Adre, which borders on Sudan's Darfur region.
    (AP, 2/3/08)(AFP, 2/3/08)

2008        Feb 5, UN officials said Ethiopia and Bangladesh have offered to jump-start the UN peacekeeping mission in Darfur by loaning it helicopters to fly troops and supplies around the vast region in western Sudan.
    (AP, 2/5/08)

2008        Feb 7, Chadian President Idriss Deby Itno issued a "solemn call" for a European peacekeeping force for Darfur refugees, to deploy as soon as possible. The president also said he was "ready to pardon" six French aid workers convicted in December of trying to kidnap more than 100 children they said were orphans from Darfur.
    (AP, 2/7/08)(AFP, 2/7/08)

2008        Feb 4, Ugandan rebels from the Lord's Resistance Army killed 136 people and looted property during an attack in and around Kajo-Keji in southern Sudan. In March officials said Sudanese renegades frustrated with not being absorbed into the military -- and not Ugandan rebels initially suspected -- were behind the attacks in south Sudan.
    (AFP, 2/8/08)(AFP, 3/15/08)

2008        Feb 8, The Sudanese military said it bombed 3 towns in West Darfur while striking at rebel forces. Rebels said Sudanese government aircraft, army and militia attacked towns in West Darfur state, causing heavy civilian casualties. A rebel chief said Sudanese troops backed by Janjaweed militia left at least 150 dead and wounded in the assault. A Sudanese employee of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) was killed in Darfur. On March 20 the UN accused the Sudanese army of looting towns and raping girls and women during the attacks on Sirba, Sileia and Abu Suruj. The attacks killed at least 115 people and caused some 30,000 to flee their homes.
    (AP, 2/8/08)(AFP, 2/8/08)(AFP, 2/12/08)(SFC, 3/21/08, p.A11)

2008        Feb 9, Sudan and the African Union-UN peacekeeping mission for Darfur signed an agreement determining how the joint force will operate, capping weeks of drawn-out negotiations.
    (AP, 2/10/08)

2008        Feb 10, The UN refugee agency said up to 12,000 "terrified" refugees from Sudan's Darfur region have fled across the border to neighboring Chad after the latest air strikes by the Sudanese military and thousands more may be on their way.
    (AP, 2/10/08)

2008        Feb 11, Chad's PM Nouradin Koumakoye demanded that the international community remove refugees who have fled to Chad from Sudan's Darfur region.
    (AP, 2/11/08)

2008        Feb 12, The EU resumed deployment of a much-awaited peacekeeping force for two countries neighboring Sudan's troubled Darfur region.
    (AP, 2/12/08)

2008        Feb 19, Sudan's army clashed with Darfur rebels in the mountainous Jabel Moun area in a government offensive to reclaim the West Darfur area from insurgents who took up arms five years ago.
    (AP, 2/19/08)

2008        Feb 26, The deadly conflict in Darfur entered its sixth year with no solution in sight, as Khartoum continued to resist the full deployment of a peacekeeping force amid a fresh wave of bombings.
    (AP, 2/26/08)

2008        Feb 27, In Sudan unidentified gunmen attacked a village in Darfur, killing about 20 civilians. A Darfur rebel group blamed pro-government militiamen for the dawn raid.
    (AP, 2/28/08)

2008        Feb 29, The UN refugee agency said that 3,000 refugees from Darfur have arrived in Chad in the last week, bringing the total number to over 13,000 in February alone.
    (AFP, 2/29/08)

2008        Mar 1, At least 69 nomads and nine soldiers were killed were killed in clashes with forces from the ex-rebel Sudan People's Liberation Army in southern Sudan.
    (AFP, 3/2/08)

2008        Mar 3, The UN in Sudan accused a rebel group of blocking access to a mountainous area in Darfur where 20,000 people are trapped after fighting between government and rebels.
    (Reuters, 3/3/08)

2008        Mar 4, In southern Sudan activists warned that the 2006 arrival of White Nile Petroleum Company (WNPOC), a consortium led by Malaysia's Petronas, in Unity State threatens the Sudd wetlands, the world's largest maze of swamps, lagoons and tributaries. Villagers said thousands were forcefully evicted to make way for the low-sulphur crude oil venture. They lost ancestral homes, died from contamination and saw livelihoods jeopardized.
    (AFP, 3/4/08)
2008        Mar 4, France pinned the blame on Sudanese forces for a shooting near the border with Chad that left one French soldier wounded and another missing and asked Sudanese authorities for help in locating the missing soldier. Sgt. Gilles Pollinís remains were formally identified Mar 7 and flown to Paris from Khartoum.
    (AP, 3/4/08)(AP, 3/7/08)
2008        Mar 4, Ugandan troops clashed with rebels from the Lord's Resistance Army inside neighboring Sudan.
    (AFP, 3/6/08)

2008        Mar 6, Journalists and a security official said Sudanese authorities have reimposed daily censorship of newspapers after they published reports accusing the government of backing Chadian rebels.
    (Reuters, 3/6/08)

2008        Mar 13, Chad accused Sudan of sending anti-government rebels across their border into its territory as international mediators struggled to broker a fresh peace accord between the two neighbors. The presidents of Chad and Sudan signed a non-aggression pact, vowing not to support rebel attacks against each other, many of which were launched from troubled Darfur.
    (AP, 3/13/08)(AFP, 3/14/08)
2008        Mar 13, A human rights group said Chinese sales of assault rifles and other small arms to its ally Sudan have grown rapidly during the Darfur conflict despite a UN arms embargo.
    (Reuters, 3/13/08)
2008        Mar 13, A deployment of 100 Sudanese soldiers arrived in Comoros, ahead of a likely African Union-backed operation against the rebel island of Anjouan.
    (AFP, 3/14/08)

2008        Mar 18, Darfur rebels said they had fought off a major assault from Sudanese government forces in the troubled region, inflicting casualties and pushing troops back to West Darfur's capital.
    (Reuters, 3/18/08)

2008        Mar 22, In southern Sudan two World Food Program (WFP) drivers on their way to the oil-rich Abyei state were stabbed to death by six assailants.
    (Reuters, 3/26/08)

2008        Mar 25, In Sudan a World Food Program (WFP) driver was shot dead and his assistant seriously wounded in South Darfur state.
    (Reuters, 3/26/08)

2008        Mar 26, The African Union-UN mission said 5 civilians were killed and more than a dozen others injured when an international peacekeeping vehicle crashed into a bus in Darfur.
    (AFP, 3/26/08)

2008        Apr 6, Angry Sudanese border guards killed one civilian and wounded three others in a market after opening fire indiscriminately in Darfur's political capital.
    (AFP, 4/7/08)

2008        Apr 8, The UN refugee agency unveiled a new partnership with Internet giant Google to help track refugees from Iraq to Darfur and raise public awareness of its work.
    (AP, 4/8/08)

2008        Apr 9, In Sudan gunmen attacked police from the African Union and UN peacekeeping force (UNAMID) in Darfur for the first time, pistol whipping one officer in the back of the neck. UNAMID police do not carry weapons and this particular patrol was on duty without protection.
    (AFP, 4/10/08)

2008        Apr 11, In Moldova a Sudanese-owned transport plane laden with fuel crashed shortly after takeoff from an airport near the capital and burst into flames, killing all 8 people on board.
    (AP, 4/12/08)

2008        Apr 12, In Sudan the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) clashed with Sudanese armed forces in West Darfur near the Sudan-Chad border. Both sides claimed they had inflicted heavy casualties.
    (Reuters, 4/13/08)

2008        Apr 21, In Sudan gunmen killed a second driver delivering food aid for the UN's World Food Program in the Darfur region, where banditry has forced vital rations to be halved.
    (AFP, 4/24/08)

2008        Apr 22,     In Sudan counting started in a census seen as a vital step towards holding democratic elections after a landmark 2005 north-south peace deal. In southern Sudan ethnic clashes broke out that also targeted equipment and facilities used in the nationwide census. Later reports said some 95 people were killed.
    (AP, 4/22/08)(AFP, 4/25/08)

2008        Apr 27, In Sudan Chinaís state-owned China Water and Electric Corp (CWE) and Sino-Hydro signed a 400-million dollar (255-million euro) deal to raise the height of Sudan's oldest dam, in the southern Blue Nile state.
    (AFP, 4/27/08)

2008        Apr 30, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to extend the UN peacekeeping mission in southern Sudan and called for demarcation of the contested oil-rich border region between the north and south.
    (AP, 5/1/08)

2008        May 2, South Sudan's defense minister, Lieutenant General Dominic Dim Deng, was killed in a plane crash along with 23 other people, most of them senior members of the southern former rebel leadership.
    (AFP, 5/2/08)(AP, 5/3/08)

2008        May 4, In Sudan government bombs hit a primary school and a busy market place in Darfur, killing at 12 people, including 6 children. Darfur rebels said three other areas were also bombed: Ein Sirro and Jabel Medop in North Darfur and an area in West Darfur near rebel-held Jabel Moun.
    (Reuters, 5/5/08)(AP, 5/6/08)

2008        May 7, World Bank figures indicated that donor countries and organizations had pledged some $4.8 billion to aid Sudan. Norway, the host of a donorsí conference, pledged $500 million. The EU promised $435 million and Japan promised to double its contribution to $200 million.
    (WSJ, 5/8/08, p.A8)

2008        May 10, Sudanese soldiers clashed with Darfur rebels of the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) in the north of the capital Khartoum where a curfew has now been imposed. Officials later said more that 200 people were killed in the weekend fighting. The rebels had traveled from Chad in 191 land cruisers and pick-up trucks. On May 27 an official Egyptian newspaper claimed that Sudanese forces searching the rebel JEM movement found modern Iranian weapons with them and that authorities had seized large amounts of ammunition and Iranian equipment.
    (AFP, 5/10/08)(AP, 5/13/08)(Econ, 5/17/08, p.59)(AFP, 5/27/08)

2008        May 11, Sudan severed diplomatic ties with Chad, accusing its neighbor of backing a first ever Darfur rebel assault on Khartoum, and partly lifted a curfew amid its clampdown on remaining rebels.
    (AFP, 5/11/08)

2008        May 12, Sudan arrested its leading fundamentalist Islamic ideologue, accusing him of aiding a Darfur rebel attack on the capital. Hassan Turabi was arrested after dawn at his home in Khartoum and at least 10 other members of his Popular Congress Party members were detained in a government sweep across the city. Authorities released al-Turabi and four members of his party after detaining them for several hours.
    (AP, 5/12/08)(AP, 5/12/08)
2008        May 12, Chad closed its border with Sudan and put a halt to bilateral trade, a minister said, a day after Sudan severed diplomatic ties with Chad.
    (AP, 5/12/08)

2008        May 14, In Sudan clashes erupted in Abyei between the northern-based national army and former guerrillas from the south. Arab Misseriya nomads, some armed by the northerners, and the southern Ngok Dinka, protected by the SPLM, held a historic animosity in the area over land and water. The UN mission (UNMIS) there did little more than protect the local UN base.
    (Econ, 5/24/08, p.66)(Econ, 11/22/08, p.33)

2008        May 15, In Sudan thousands of civilians fled clashes between former north-south civil war foes in the oil-rich central town of Abyei. The SPLM said more than $1 billion in oil revenues from Abyei has been taken by the ruling National Congress Party rather than shared with the south as the peace deal prescribes.
    (Reuters, 5/15/08)

2008        May 20, In Sudan deadly fighting raged between rival forces in Abyei, a flashpoint oil district between north and south whose status remains contested three years after the end of civil war. 22 government troops died in fighting that threatened the peace process.
    (AP, 5/20/08)(AFP, 5/21/08)

2008        May 21, Dozens of men on horseback armed with machine guns and rocket-propelled grenades ambushed Nigerian peacekeepers serving with the joint UN-African Union force in Darfur. No casualties were reported.
    (AP, 5/23/08)

2008        May 27, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon said the UN will investigate allegations by a leading children's charity that UN peacekeepers are involved in widespread sexual abuse of children. The report by Save the Children UK was based on field research in southern Sudan, Ivory Coast and Haiti.
    (AP, 5/27/08)

2008        May 28, In Sudan a Ugandan policeman serving with the joint UN-African Union peacekeeping force in the western Darfur region was found dead riddled with bullets.
    (AFP, 5/29/08)

2008        Jun 4-2008 Jun 5, In South Sudan more than 20 people were killed, including soldiers and several children, in Ugandan rebel attacks near the border with Congo. The Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) guerrillas had targeted the villages of Nabanga and Yamba.
    (AFP, 6/7/08)

2008        Jun 5, Sudan said it was banning US companies from working with international peacekeepers in Darfur and would not renew a contract held by a unit of US defense firm Lockheed Martin Corp.
    (Reuters, 6/5/08)

2008        Jun 8, The leaders of Sudan's northern and southern halves signed an agreement to settle a dispute over the oil-rich Abyei region that, if implemented, could stop the nation's slide back into civil war.
    (AP, 6/8/08)

2008        Jun 10, A Sudan Airways plane carrying 214 people veered off a runway and burst into flames after landing at Khartoum International Airport, killing at least 30 people.
    (SFC, 6/11/08, p.A2)(AP, 6/12/08)

2008        Jun 15, The EU threatened to impose sanctions against Sudanese who do not cooperate in bringing those accused of war crimes in Darfur to the international court.
    (AFP, 6/16/08)

2008        Jun 21, A Sudanese official said Sudan is grounding its national carrier Sudan Airways from June 23 for at least a month for breaking civil aviation rules, mainly over administration. On June 23 the Civil Aviation Authority agreed to a one month reprieve.
    (AP, 6/21/08)(AFP, 6/24/08)

2008        Jun 22, Sudanese media said leaders of north and south Sudan have agreed to submit a dispute over the oil rich Abyei region to international arbitration in The Hague.
    (AP, 6/22/08)

2008        Jun 27, In Sudan a small cargo plane crashed mid-flight, killing 7 crew members, including 5 foreigners, in the third fatal aviation accident to blight the African country in the past two months. There was one survivor. Gunmen killed a Ugandan driver contracted to deliver aid for the World Food Program in Sudan, in the 7th such killing in the country in three months.
    (AFP, 6/28/08)(AP, 6/28/08)(AFP, 6/29/08)

2008        Jun 30, In Sudan a cargo plane crashed shortly after takeoff from Khartoum's airport, killing all four Russian crew members aboard. The plane hit an electricity pole shortly after takeoff and then crashed into an empty field.
    (AP, 6/30/08)

2008        Jul 7, Sudan's parliament approved a new electoral law, a crucial step towards scheduled national elections and a democratic transition laid out in peace arrangements after a 21-year civil war.
    (AP, 7/7/08)

2008        Jul 8, In Sudan about two hundred gunmen on horseback and in SUVs ambushed peacekeepers from a joint UN-African Union force in the Darfur region. Five Rwandan soldiers and two police officers, one from Ghana and the other from Uganda, were killed in fierce gunbattles that lasted more than two hours.
    (AP, 7/9/08)
2008        Jul 8, Sudan's army spokesman claimed Ethiopian forces had attacked a police base 17 kilometers (11 miles) inside Sudanese territory, killing 19 people, including one police officer. Ethiopia denied the accusations.
    (AFP, 7/9/08)

2008        Jul 12, The Arab League said it will hold crisis talks on Sudan after reports the International Criminal Court may seek Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir's arrest, amid fears for peace efforts in Darfur. It would mark the first-ever bid by the ICC, based in The Hague, to charge a sitting head of state. The African Union said that plans by the ICC could jeopardize peace efforts in Darfur.
    (AFP, 7/12/08)

2008        Jul 13, In Sudan thousands of protesters chanting "Down, Down USA!" rallied in Khartoum after reports that the International Criminal Court (ICC) may seek the arrest of Sudan's president for alleged war crimes. A stampede among crowds of people attending a military graduation ceremony killed 17 people at the al-Merriekh Stadium in Omdurman, the twin city of Khartoum. The dead were mostly women and children with 3 dozen others injured.
    (Reuters, 7/13/08)(AP, 7/14/08)

2008        Jul 14, The prosecutor of the International Criminal Court filed genocide charges against Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir, accusing him of masterminding attempts to wipe out African tribes in Darfur with a campaign of murder, rape and deportation. The filing marked the first time prosecutors at the world's first permanent, global war crimes court have issued charges against a sitting head of state.
    (AP, 7/14/08)

2008        Jul 15, China voiced concern over an International Criminal Court prosecutor's decision to seek an arrest warrant for Sudan's president on charges of genocide in the African country's war-torn Darfur region.
    (AP, 7/15/08)

2008        Jul 16, In Sudan a peacekeeper with the United Nations-African Union was shot and killed in Darfur. The peacekeeper, believed to be a Nigerian company commander, died while on patrol near a peacekeeping camp.
    (AP, 7/16/08)

2008        Jul 17, A new company of Chinese engineers deployed to Sudan's war-torn western region of Darfur, boosting the number of UN-led peacekeeping troops to 8,000.
    (AP, 7/17/08)

2008        Jul 18, Senegalís President Abdoulaye Wade said Sudan President Omar al-Beshir has agreed to restore relations with Chad, more than two months after Khartoum severed ties accusing Ndjamena of backing Darfur rebels.
    (AFP, 7/18/08)

2008        Jul 19, The Arab League criticized the International Criminal Court's prosecutor for seeking the arrest of Sudan's president on genocide charges, saying diplomacy should be given a priority to solve the conflict in Darfur.
    (Reuters, 7/19/08)

2008        Jul 21, The African Union urged the UN Security Council to put on hold the International Criminal Court's move to indict Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir over war crimes in Darfur.
    (Reuters, 7/21/08)

2008        Jul 23, In Sudan government planes bombed Karbala, a Darfur village, while Pres. Bashir was addressing cheering crowds in the nearby city of el-Fasher. according to a rebel faction 3 people were killed and 8 injured.
    (Reuters, 7/25/08)

2008        Jul 25, Sudan threatened to expel peacekeepers from Darfur if President Omar al-Beshir is indicted for war crimes by the International Criminal Court.
    (AFP, 7/25/08)

2008        Jul 26, Sudanís army attacked a rebel police post in North Darfur, killing four troops, before conducting search operations in nearby villages according the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM). Sudan's army initially denied the report. On July 29 Khartoum said rebels of Minni Arcua Minnawi's Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) attacked a convoy on that road and the police responded, killing four of them and injuring two.
    (Reuters, 7/27/08)(Reuters, 7/29/08)

2008        Jul 31, Sudanese courts sentenced another 22 alleged Darfur rebels to death over an unprecedented attack on the capital last May in which more than 222 people were killed.
    (AFP, 7/31/08)
2008        Jul 31, Fourteen of the UN security council's 15 members voted in favor of Resolution 1828 to extend the mandate of the joint UN-African Union peacekeeping force in Darfur (UNAMID) for one year from this day, when it had been set to expire. The United States abstained in the vote because language added to the resolution noting concern that any indictment of Beshir might jeopardize the Darfur peace process.
    (AFP, 8/1/08)

2008        Aug 7, The US Olympic team chose Lopez Lomong, one of the "Lost Boys" of Sudan, to carry the flag at the Olympic opening ceremony, throwing the spotlight on China's much-criticized policy on Darfur.
    (AFP, 8/7/08)

2008        Aug 8, In Beijing, China, the 29th Olympic Games, costing an estimated 40 billion dollars and shrouded by political controversies, burst into life with a spectacular opening ceremony. Actress activist Mia Farrow began Web-casting her own "Darfur Olympics" from a refugee camp on the barren Sudan-Chad border, aiming to shame China into using its influence with Khartoum to end the Darfur conflict.
    (AP, 8/8/08)(AP, 8/7/08)

2008        Aug 11, President George W. Bush said he used talks with China's leaders during the Beijing Olympics to press them to use their influence with Sudan to help end the humanitarian crisis in Darfur.
    (Reuters, 8/11/08)

2008        Aug 12, Sudan's army began a massive operation to wipe out rebel bases in Darfur's far north. The army attacked with more than 200 vehicles in Wadi Atron, near the Sudanese-Libyan border and took control of areas which had for years been under the control of rebels who want more autonomy for the region. North Darfur is part of Sudan's oil Block 12A operated by a consortium led by the Saudi Arabian company al-Qahtani. Chinese companies dominate Sudan's budding oil sector which produces more than 500,000 barrels per day of crude.
    (Reuters, 8/13/08)

2008        Aug 17, A Sudanese court sentenced to death a top Darfur rebel and seven others, bringing to 38 the number condemned to hang over an unprecedented attack on Khartoum that killed more than 222 people.
    (AP, 8/17/08)

2008        Aug 19, Turkey's President Abdullah Gul urged Sudanese leader Omar al-Bashir, during talks at a summit of African leaders, to act responsibly and to end the suffering in the devastated Darfur region.
    (AP, 8/19/08)

2008        Aug 20, In Turkey Sudan's indicted president denied that his regime is orchestrating genocide in the troubled western region of Darfur, and offered hope for an end to the violence and the dawn of reconciliation by promising free and fair elections next year.
    (AP, 8/20/08)

2008        Aug 25, Deadly clashes broke out when Sudanese security forces thrust into Kalma, one of the largest camps for displaced people in South Darfur, leaving at least 33 and as many as 70 people dead.
    (AFP, 8/25/08)(AP, 8/26/08)(SFC, 8/28/08, p.A9)

2008        Aug 26, Sudanese hijackers commandeered the Boeing 737 jetliner, which was carrying 95 passengers and crew, soon after it took off from the southern Darfur town of Nyala, not far from a refugee camp that the Sudanese military attacked a day earlier.
    (AP, 8/27/08)
2008        Aug 26, A Maltese fishing trawler rescued the migrants. Authorities said the survivors first told the fishermen that 10 people were missing, but later said as many as 70 people from Somalia, Eritrea and Sudan made the sea voyage with them.
    (AP, 8/28/08)

2008        Aug 27, Two hijackers, who commandeered a jetliner from Sudan's Darfur region and diverted it to a remote desert airstrip in southern Libya, surrendered after a 22-hour standoff.
    (AP, 8/27/08)

2008        Sep 6, Sudanese forces launched ground and air attacks on two rebel bases in North Darfur, killing an unknown number of people.
    (AP, 9/6/08)

2008        Sep 7, A Darfur rebel group says it has successfully repelled a government assault in North Darfur, but the Sudanese government denies it carried out any operations in the area.
    (AP, 9/7/08)

2008        Sep 12, The Sudanese government army and Janjaweed militias launched new attacks in a mountainous area of south Darfur according to rebel claims made the next day. UN boss Ban Ki-moon welcomed the establishment of an Arab League panel led by Qatar that will work with the African Union and United Nations to sponsor peace talks in Sudan's Darfur region.
    (AFP, 9/12/08)(AFP, 9/13/08)

2008        Sep 13, In Sudan an army spokesman said troops had entered the North Darfur area to arrest armed bandits.
    (Reuters, 9/14/08)

2008        Sep 14, In Sudan Minni Minnawi, a leader of the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) faction turned presidential advisor after signing the peace deal with Khartoum, said his forces had came under attack at their base at Kolge in the east Jebel Marra region.
    (AFP, 9/14/08)

2008        Sep 15, Darfur rebels said they were fighting back against attacking government troops for a fourth day, the latest in a series of battles in Sudan's war-torn western region.
    (AP, 9/15/08)

2008        Sep 18, Rebels said Sudanese aircraft bombed Darfur rebel positions in the latest offensive in the war-torn region, with the UN reporting wounded government troops in the area.
    (AP, 9/18/08)

2008        Sep 19, Masked kidnappers in Egypt seized 19 hostages including German, Italian and Romanian tourists in a remote desert area near the Sudanese and Libyan borders. The kidnappers demanded $15 million in ransom. On Sep 29 Egyptian and Sudanese forces rescued the captives near the Sudanese-Chadian border.
    (Reuters, 9/22/08)(AP, 9/29/08)

2008        Sep 24, Sudanese forces were laying siege to a remote desert hideout where bandits held 19 people captive, including European tourists, but said they did not plan to storm the area. Negotiations were continuing with the kidnappers, who have reportedly demanded a ransom of up to 15 million dollars.
    (AFP, 9/24/08)

2008        Sep 25, Pirates seized the 530-foot, Ukrainian cargo vessel, MV Faina, with 21 people aboard off eastern Somalia. Russia's navy soon sent a warship to Somalia's coast a day after pirates seized the Ukrainian vessel loaded with 33 tanks, ammunition and 3 Russian crew members. The ITAR-Tass news agency said the military equipment had been sold to Kenya. It was later reported that the arms were destined for southern Sudan and that Kenyaís cooperation would be rewarded in the future with cheap oil. The shipped was released on Feb 5, 2009, following a ransom of $3.2 million.
    (AP, 9/26/08)(SFC, 9/27/08, p.A5)(Econ, 10/4/08, p.49)(AP, 2/5/09)

2008        Sep 28, Sudanese forces engaged a group of kidnappers in a gunbattle in northwest Sudan who had been sent out to get gas and food. Six kidnappers were killed in the fight, and two captured. The two told the authorities where the rest of the kidnappers and their captives were hiding. The kidnappers were believed to be armed desert tribesmen. Kidnappers released the 19-member European tour group, abducted on Sep 19, into one car near the Sudanese-Chadian border. The group drove some 200 miles before encountering Egyptian special forces and returning safely to Cairo.
    (AP, 9/29/08)(AP, 9/30/08)

2008        Sep 29, US warships and helicopters surrounded a hijacked cargo ship loaded with Sudan-bound tanks and other arms to keep the weapons from falling "into the wrong hands." The shipment of 33 Russian-designed tanks, rifles and ammunition on the Ukrainian-operated Faina was headed for Sudan, not Kenya as previously claimed by Kenyan officials. Somali pirates demanded a $20 million ransom.
    (AP, 9/29/08)(SFC, 9/29/08, p.A12)
2008        Sep 29, In Sudan a helicopter contracted to UN-led peacekeepers crashed in the Darfur region, killing two people with two more feared dead.
    (AP, 9/29/08)

2008        Oct 5-2008 Oct 17, Arab militia attacked at least 15 Sudanese villages. Aid workers and a rights watchdog later said the violence near Muhagariya, a south Darfur flashpoint has displaced 12,000 people and killed more than 40 civilians.
    (AP, 10/25/08)

2008        Oct 6, A Nigerian UN peacekeeper was killed when up to 60 gunmen ambushed a patrol in Sudan's war-torn western region of Darfur.
    (AFP, 10/7/08)

2008        Oct 7, The UN refugee agency said at least 5,000 people have fled violence in northeastern Congo and sought shelter in neighboring Sudan over the last two weeks due to ferocious attacks by rebels of the Lord's Resistance Army from neighboring Uganda.
    (AP, 10/7/08)
2008        Oct 7, Former Guantanamo detainee Mustafa Ibrahim Mustafa Al Hassan arrived in the Sudanese capital of Khartoum and vowed to campaign for the release of the roughly 255 inmates remaining at the US military prison.
    (AP, 10/9/08)

2008        Oct 9, According to the Sudanese army 15 people were killed when Darfur rebels attacked a local government convoy with military escort in the far west of the region.
    (AFP, 10/10/08)

2008        Oct 11, In Sudan Abu Bakr Kadu, a Sudan Liberation Movement-Unity commander, said 23 civilians had died after Janjaweed Arab militia assaulted villages over 3 days in the Muhagiriya area of southern Darfur. He also said 28 Janjaweed were killed.
    (AFP, 10/12/08)

2008        Oct 13, Sudanese officials disclosed the arrest of Ali Muhammad Ali Abd-al-Rahman (aka Ali Kushayb), a Janjaweed militia leader who was charged by the Intíl. Criminal court in 2007 for crimes against humanity.
    (SFC, 10/14/08, p.A6)

2008        Oct 16, Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir launched his "people's initiative" for peace in Darfur with an elaborate ceremony attended by regional dignitaries but no rebels involved in fighting.
    (AFP, 10/16/08)

2008        Oct 18, In southern Sudan unknown assailants kidnapped nine Chinese oil workers.
    (AP, 10/19/08)

2008        Oct 27, In central Sudan kidnappers killed 4 Chinese oil workers out of nine they had been holding hostage for more than a week. A local leader in troubled South Kordofan state, where the hostages were abducted and killed, said the Chinese died as a result of fighting between the Sudanese army and the kidnappers. The next day 3 bodies and 3 wounded were flown to Khartoum. A 4th body was found on Oct 29. The last 2 were reported found Oct 31, one alive and one dead.
    (AFP, 10/28/08)(AFP, 10/29/08)(AP, 10/29/08)(Reuters, 10/31/08)

2008        Oct 29, In Sudan gunmen opened fire on a group of South African peacekeepers guarding a well in Darfur, killing one and seriously wounding another.
    (AP, 10/30/08)

2008        Nov 2, Ahmed Al-Mirghani (67) former head of Sudanís last democratically elected government (1986-1989), died in Egypt. In 1989 a military coup led by current President Omar al-Bashir unseated him.
    (AP, 11/3/08)

2008        Nov 4, Sudanese journalists launched a mass hunger strike, and three independent newspapers stopped work for three days in the country's biggest organized media protest against draconian censorship.
    (AP, 11/4/08)

2008        Nov 8, Sudanese security banned two newspapers from publishing after they protested against draconian censorship measures and arrests of journalists.
    (AFP, 11/8/08)

2008        Nov 9, Troubled neighbors Chad and Sudan exchanged ambassadors, six months after diplomatic ties were ruptured over tit-for-tat accusations of support for armed rebels.
    (AFP, 11/9/08)

2008        Nov 12, Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir, facing a possible indictment by the International Criminal Court for alleged war crimes in Darfur, announced a ceasefire in the region.
    (Reuters, 11/12/08)

2008        Nov 16, Sudanese and rebel forces traded accusations that the other is initiating a new wave of fighting in the ravaged Darfur region just days after the government had offered a cease-fire.
    (AP, 11/16/08)

2008        Nov 17, Sudanese police detained more than 60 journalists for around three hours and instructed them to go to court for protesting against draconian censorship.
    (AFP, 11/17/08)

2008        Nov 20, The International Criminal Court prosecutor requested arrest warrants for rebels in Sudan's Darfur region, accusing them of storming an African Union camp and killing 12 peacekeepers in Sep, 2007.
    (Reuters, 11/20/08)

2008        Nov 26, Sudanese police demolished about 10,000 homes in a shanty town south of Khartoum, using tear gas to disperse protesting residents.
    (AFP, 11/27/08)

2008        Nov 29, In Qatar French President Nicolas Sarkozy told Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir to take action to end the conflict in Darfur.
    (AFP, 11/29/08)

2008        Dec 13, Sudanese officials said thousands have fled the volatile oil town of Abyei after fresh north-south fighting has reignited tensions over the contested area.
    (AP, 12/13/08)

2008        Dec 14, Uganda, southern Sudan and Congo launched an offensive against the Lord's Resistance Army bases based in eastern Congo in an attempt to end one of the continent's longest and most brutal wars.
    (AP, 12/15/08)

2008        Dec 15, Peacekeepers in Sudan said as many as 250 people have died in separate tribal clashes in remote parts of Sudan's south Darfur region over the last week.
    (AP, 12/15/08)

2008        Dec 22, A Sudanese official said at least 18,000 Eritrean and Somali refugees have arrived in Sudan since the start of the year, and the government is struggling to provide them with aid.
    (Reuters, 12/22/08)

2008        Dec 29, In Sudan Lt. Commander Pape Lamine Ndiaye, a Senegalese military officer, died after being shot in Darfur on Dec 27, whilst serving with the AU peacekeeping force.
    (AFP, 12/31/08)

2008        Halima Bashir and Damien Lewis authored ďTears of the Desert: One Womanís True Story of Surviving the Horrors of Darfur." Dr. Bashir (30), was gang-raped in 2004 by Sudanese soldiers after speaking out about atrocities in Darfur.
    (Econ, 8/16/08, p.80)(Reuters, 10/6/10)
2008        Craig Walzer compiled and edited ďOut of Exile: Narratives from the Abducted and Displaced People of Sudan."
    (SSFC, 12/14/08, Books p.1)
2008        Jok Madut Jok, Sudanese-born associate professor of history at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, returned to southern Sudan and built the Marol Academy in his home village. In October, 2010, Southern Sudan announced that Jok is joining the Ministry of Culture and Heritage as undersecretary.
    (AP, 11/6/10)
2008        The ICC issued an arrest warrant for Ahmed Haroun, Sudanís Minister of Humanitarian Affairs, on 51 charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed in Sudan's western Darfur region in 2003 and 2004.
    (AP, 1/28/09)
2008        Qatar and Sudan set up a joint venture for investments in Sudan, which focused on developing agricultural land.
    (Econ, 5/23/09, p.62)
2008        Sudan and Iran signed an agreement to strengthen bilateral military relations.
    (AP, 10/31/12)

2009        Jan 5, President George W. Bush authorized the immediate use of US aircrafts to transport supplies to the international peacekeeping force in Darfur.
    (AP, 1/6/09)

2009        Jan 8, Darfur rebels accused Sudan's army of bombing their positions over the last 24 hours, breaking a period of relative calm in the country's violent west.
    (Reuters, 1/8/09)

2009        Jan 13, Sudanese army planes bombed near Muhajiriya in south Darfur, targeting rebels who had rejected a 2006 peace agreement and the unconditional ceasefire declared by Bashir last year.
    (AP, 1/14/09)

2009        Jan 14, Sudanese security officers arrested iconic opposition leader Hassan al-Turabi (76) two days after he urged the head of state to surrender to the International Criminal Court. Al-Turabi was freed on March 9.
    (AP, 1/14/09)(Reuters, 3/9/09)

2009        Jan 15, The US Air Force began airlifting heavy machinery to Rwandan troops serving in an international mission in Darfur, the first time the new US Africa Command has undertaken a large-scale peacekeeper support operation.
    (AP, 1/15/09)

2009        Jan 18, The UN-African Union peacekeeping mission said rebels from the Justice and Equality Movement have taken control of Muhajaria town in the western Sudan region of Darfur.
    (AP, 1/19/09)

2009        Jan 22, Sudanese troops battled with rebels in southern Darfur, and the fighting killed five rebels and two soldiers.
    (AP, 1/22/09)

2009        Jan 24, Sudanese government planes bombed a key town in south Darfur, a week after it was seized by Darfuri JEM rebels. The next day peacekeepers said the bomb attack killed and wounded civilians.
    (Reuters, 1/24/09)(Reuters, 1/25/09)

2009        Jan 26, Sudanese warplanes bombed Darfur rebel positions near the key town of El-Fasher ahead of an expected ground offensive.
    (AFP, 1/26/09)

2009        Jan 27, Sudanese armed forces waged air strikes and artillery attacks on rebels in two key areas of Darfur for a second day.
    (AFP, 1/27/09)
2009        Jan 27, The UN refugee agency said thousands of Congolese civilians have fled across the border to South Sudan to escape rebels of the Lord's Resistance Army.
    (AP, 1/27/09)

2009        Jan 28, A Sudanese man, Mohammed el-Sari, was jailed for 17 years on charges of trying to help the International Criminal Court investigate a minister suspected of war crimes in Darfur. He was arrested in June accused of trying to solicit information about special police in Darfur, men trained and paid by the government and supervised by current Minister of Humanitarian Affairs Ahmed Haroun.
    (AFP, 1/28/09)

2009        Jan 31, Sudanís state media reported that a US aid group has been thrown out of the Darfur region after officials found thousands of Arabic-language bibles stacked in its office. The Texas-based Thirst No More website described its work in Darfur as focused on repairing and drilling water wells and makes no mention of evangelism or other faith-based work.
    (Reuters, 1/31/09)

2009        Jan, In northeast Sudan Israel carried out an attack in which at least 30 people were killed, to stop weapons being transported to Gaza during its offensive against Hamas. Reports from Sudan quoted a lone survivor of the attack as saying two planes flew over the convoy then came back and shot up the "four or five" trucks. Israeli aircraft or drones destroyed 23 lorries carrying Iranian arms destined for Hamas. On May 25 Sudanís Defense Minister Gen. Abdul-Rahim Hussein told parliament that the airstrikes killed 56 smugglers and 63 people they were trying to transport across the border to Egypt, including Somali and Ethiopian migrants.
    (Reuters, 3/27/09)(Econ, 4/4/09, p.50)(AP, 5/26/09)

2009        Feb 1, In Sudan a spokeswoman for the UN mission known as UNAMID said the has government asked peacekeepers to clear out of the town of Muhajeria. She said Sudan wants to launch an offensive against rebels from the Justice and Equality Movement, a Chad-backed rebel group that has held the south Darfur town since mid-January.
    (AP, 2/1/09)

2009        Feb 10, A Sudanese government delegation met Darfur rebels from the Justice and Equality Movement in the Qatari capital for their first peace contacts since 2007.
    (AFP, 2/10/09)

2009        Feb 14, Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Abul Gheit held talks with Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir amid reports that the International Criminal Court has decided to issue a warrant for his arrest..
    (AFP, 2/14/09)

2009        Feb 17, The Sudanese government and Darfur's most powerful rebel group signed an declaration to conduct future peace negotiations, but failed to agree on a hoped-for cease-fire after a week of talks.
    (AP, 2/17/09)
2009        Feb 17, Sudanese writer Tayeb Salih (b.1929), one of the most respected Arab novelists of the 20th century, died in London where he spent most of his life. His books included the classic "Season of Migration to the North" (1966) about a Sudanese man's experiences of life and love in Britain in the 1960s.
    (AFP, 2/18/09)

2009        Feb 18, Sudanese forces bombed rebel positions in Darfur, with the ink barely dry on a deal between Khartoum and the strongest rebel group that was hailed as a turning point in efforts to end the six-year conflict. The next day the Sudanese army said that it was an allied armed group that fought Darfur rebels the previous day, not government troops.
    (AP, 2/18/09)(AFP, 2/19/09)

2009        Feb 21, Sudan's justice minister said Sudan will free 24 Darfur prisoners as part of a goodwill agreement with rebels, even as fresh reports of violence came in from the battle-scarred region. Two Sudanese working for Aide Medicale Internationale, a French humanitarian group in Darfur, were shot dead in an attack that also left four people wounded. A gang of 24 men on horses and camels ambushed the workers on a road between Kurunji and Khor Abeshe in South Darfur.
    (Reuters, 2/21/09)(AFP, 2/23/09)

2009        Feb 24, In Sudan fighting erupted in the key southern city of Malakal. Some 50 people were killed and another 100 wounded in 2 days of fighting.
    (AFP, 2/27/09)

2009        Feb 26, Sudanís President Omar al-Beshir, who faces a possible arrest warrant for alleged war crimes in Darfur, said he wanted to hold "free" elections soon to guarantee stability.
    (AFP, 2/26/09)

2009        Mar 1, In Sudan Riek Machar, the vice president of the southern Sudan government, said clashes last week between militia and local government troops in Malakal killed at least 57 people and wounded nearly 100.
    (AP, 3/2/09)

2009        Mar 3, Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir inaugurated a massive hydro-electric project that has displaced tens of thousands and is the largest to be built along the Nile in 40 years.
    (AP, 3/3/09)

2009        Mar 4, The International Criminal Court at The Hague issued an arrest warrant for Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur. He is the first sitting head of state the court has ordered arrested. The French medical aid organization Doctors Without Borders (MSF) said it was pulling staff out of Darfur after the Sudanese government ordered them to leave. Sudan ordered at least 10 humanitarian groups expelled from Darfur.
    (AP, 3/4/09)(AFP, 3/4/09)

2009        Mar 6, A UN spokesman said its human rights office will examine whether Sudan's decision to expel aid groups constitutes a breach of basic human rights and possibly a war crime. UN agencies warned that Sudan's decision to expel 13 international aid groups will leave more than a million people without food or health care and could threaten thousands of lives.
    (AP, 3/6/09)(AFP, 3/6/09)

2009        Mar 8, Sudan's Pres. Omar al-Bashir threatened to kick out more aid groups and expel diplomats and peacekeepers during his first trip to the beleaguered Darfur region after an international court indicted him on war crimes.
    (AP, 3/8/09)

2009        Mar 9, In Sudan 4 soldiers from the joint UN-African Union peacekeeping force in the war-torn Darfur region have been wounded in an ambush.
    (AFP, 3/10/09)

2009        Mar 11, In Sudan armed men abducted three international aid workers and two Sudanese guards in the Darfur region, a week after the government ordered aid groups expelled in response to an international arrest warrant for Sudan's president on war crimes charges. The abducted workers were from the Belgian branch of Doctors Without Borders and they were seized from their offices in the Saraf Umra area.
    (AP, 3/12/09)

2009        Mar 13, A spokeswoman for Doctors Without Borders says 35 of its foreign staff are leaving Darfur after the abduction of three colleagues.
    (AP, 3/13/09)

2009        Mar 14, In Sudan 3 foreign aid workers kidnapped in Darfur were freed and were returning to Khartoum with an official who said they were abducted in response to the international arrest warrant issued for the Sudanese president.
    (AP, 3/15/09)

2009        Mar 16, Sudan's Pres. Omar al-Bashir he wants all international aid groups out of the country within a year, insisting they can drop off supplies "at airports or seaports" and let Sudanese organizations take care of it.
    (AP, 3/16/09)
2009        Mar 16, Amr Moussa (b.1936), former Egyptian Foreign Minister and head of the Arab League, said AL countries will not carry out an International Criminal Court request to arrest Sudan's president on charges of war crimes in Darfur.
    (AP, 3/17/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amr_Moussa)

2009        Mar 17, In Sudan a UN/African Union peacekeeper was killed in an ambush in Darfur.
    (AP, 3/17/09)
2009        Mar 17, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir will be responsible for "every single death" caused by the expulsion of 13 foreign aid groups from Sudan.
    (Reuters, 3/17/09)

2009        Mar 18, Defiant Sudanese Pres. Omar al-Bashir rallied Arab supporters in Darfur by saying no war crimes court or the UN Security Council can touch even "an eyelash" on him despite an international order for his arrest.
    (AP, 3/18/09)
2009        Mar 18, US Pres. Barack Obama named retired Air Force general Scott Gration as his special envoy to Sudan to confront what Washington sees as a "horrendous" situation in Darfur.
    (AFP, 3/18/09)

2009        Mar 20, In Sudan the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), a major rebel group in Darfur, said it had decided to end peace talks with the Sudanese government until it lets back aid groups expelled from the troubled region.
    (AP, 3/20/09)

2009        Mar 23, Sudan's president traveled to Eritrea, choosing one of Africa's most politically isolated nations for his first trip abroad since an international court sought his arrest on charges of war crimes in Darfur. Adam Khater (39), the Fellowship for African Relief's Darfur director, was shot to death at his home in the town of Kongo Haraza, near Sudan's border with Chad.
    (AP, 3/23/09)(AP, 3/24/09)

2009        Mar 25, Egypt, one of the strongest US allies in the Middle East, welcomed Sudan's president despite an international warrant seeking his arrest on charges of war crimes in Darfur. Egypt is not an ICC signatory and both it and the Arab League have backed al-Bashir.
    (AP, 3/25/09)
2009        Mar 25, Sudanese officials said at least 2 people were killed when attackers set fire overnight to a camp for the internally displaced in Darfur, destroying hundreds of shelters. A spokesman for the Darfur rebel group Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) put the toll at three dead and three injured and blamed a pro-government militia for the attack.
    (AFP, 3/25/09)

2009        Mar 26, Sudan's president Omar al-Bashir visited his third country in four days, this time touching down in Libya, the latest country to welcome the leader who's wanted by an international court on war crimes.
    (AP, 3/26/09)

2009        Mar 29, Sudan's Pres. Omar al-Bashir, who is sought by an international court on charges of war crimes in Darfur, received a warm welcome in Qatar, where he will attend this week's Arab League summit.
    (AP, 3/29/09)

2009        Mar 31, The US Government Accountability Office released a report saying 4 countries designated a terrorism sponsors received $55 million from a US supported program promoting the peaceful use of nuclear energy under the IAEAís Technical Cooperation program. Between 1997 and 2007 Iran received over $15 million, $14 million went to Syria, while Sudan and Cuba received over $11 million each.
    (WSJ, 3/31/09, p.A3)

2009        Mar, Adam Osman Mohammed (32) was gunned down in his home in front of his wife and four-year-old son just days after arriving in his village in south Darfur. In August, 2008, he was flown to Khartoum under the Britainís assisted voluntary return program, in which refugees are paid to go back to their country of origin.
    (www.indymedia.org.uk/en/2009/03/424417.html)
2009        Mar, In Southern Sudan hundreds of women and children were killed in the Jonglei province. Some local put the totals at over 700.
    (Econ, 4/11/09, p.47)

2009        Apr 1, Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir arrived in Saudi Arabia for a brief pilgrimage, his latest trip abroad in defiance of an international arrest warrant against him.
    (Reuters, 4/1/09)

2009        Apr 2, In Sudan new US special envoy Scott Gration told journalists he had come to "look, learn and listen" and hoped for its friendship and cooperation, indicating a shift in tone by Washington under President Barack Obama.
    (Reuters, 4/2/09)

2009        Apr 4, In Sudan armed men in the Darfur kidnapped two aid workers Claire Dubois of France and Canadian Stephanie Jodoin, of Aid Medicale International (AMI). They were seized from their compound in the south Darfur settlement of Ed el Fursan. Both women were released on April 29.
    (AFP, 4/5/09)(Reuters, 4/12/09)(AP, 4/30/09)

2009        Apr 15, A Sudanese court condemned 10 rebels from the Darfur rebel Justice and Equality Movement to death for an unprecedented attack on Khartoum in May, 2008, which killed more than 220 people.
    (AFP, 4/15/09)

2009        Apr 16, In Sudan US Senator John Kerry said after talks with senior officials that Khartoum would allow some foreign aid to be restored in its western Darfur region but that it was not sufficient.
    (Reuters, 4/17/09)

2009        Apr 19, In Sudan 21 people were killed when a bus they were travelling in collided with a truck about 25 miles south of Khartoum.
    (AFP, 4/19/09)

2009        Apr 20, A south Sudan district official said weekend clashes left more than 170 people dead as armed fighters from the Murle ethnic group in remote Akobo county in eastern Jonglei state attacked Lou Nuer villages.
    (AFP, 4/20/09)

2009        Apr 21, Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir arrived in Ethiopia, on his sixth foreign trip since an international arrest warrant for alleged war crimes was issued against him.
    (AFP, 4/21/09)

2009        Apr 22, A Sudanese court sentenced 11 members of the Darfur rebel Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) to death and acquitted five others for an unprecedented 2008 attack on Khartoum. A district official said the death toll from clashes between rival ethnic groups in south Sudan has risen to 250 people, with dozens of children also abducted.
    (AFP, 4/22/09)

2009        Apr 26, A Sudanese court sentenced another 11 Darfur rebels to death for a 2008 attack on Khartoum, raising to 82 the number of Justice and Equality Movement fighters ordered hanged for the raid.
    (AFP, 4/26/09)

2009        Apr 30, The UN Security Council extended for another year the mandate of UN peacekeepers in southern Sudan who monitor compliance with a peace deal that ended Sudan's two-decade-long civil war.
    (Reuters, 4/30/09)

2009        May 5, Sudan denied accusations by the government of Chad that its forces had launched an attack against the neighboring African state.
    (AFP, 5/5/09)
2009        May 5, H.H Sheikh Sultan Bin Tahnoun Al Nahyan, Chairman of the Abu Dhabi Tourism Authority (ADTA), announced the official launch of Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort at the Intercontinental Hotel in Abu Dhabi. Sudan had recently signed a leasing agreement with an Al Ain National Wildlife for some 6,180 square miles of southeastern wilderness to be developed as a safari site with semi-permanent  tented camps and top-class hotels.
    (www.ameinfo.com/155601.html)(Econ, 7/11/09, p.46)

2009        May 6, Senior Sudanese aid official Hassabo Mohammed Abdelrahman said that Khartoum was ready to allow foreign aid groups to operate in Darfur but ruled out the return of the 13 aid agencies kicked out in March.
    (AFP, 5/7/09)

2009        May 7, Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir named Ahmed Harun, who is wanted for war crimes in Darfur, as governor of disputed south Kordofan province, transferring him from his post as a state minister. In 2007 the ICC issued a warrant for Harun on 51 charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed in Sudan's western Darfur region in 2003 and 2004.
    (AFP, 5/8/09)
2009        May 7, A UN peacekeeper was shot dead and his car stolen by unknown gunmen in the South Darfur state capital Nyala.
    (AFP, 5/8/09)

2009        May 8, South Sudanese gunmen killed up to 49 people from a rival tribe, most of them women and children, in one of a string of attacks that have raised fears for elections in the region. Fighters from the Lou Nuer tribe raided the village of Torkeij, home to the Nuer Jikany, in the region's Upper Nile state, in apparent revenge for cattle thefts.
    (Reuters, 5/11/09)

2009        May 8, South Sudanese gunmen killed dozens of people from a rival tribe, most of them women and children, in one of a string of attacks that have raised fears for elections in the region. Fighters from the Lou Nuer tribe raided the village of Torkej, home to the Nuer Jikany, in the region's Upper Nile state, in apparent revenge for cattle thefts. Some 71 people were killed in Torkej.
    (Reuters, 5/11/09)(Econ, 6/13/09, p.49)

2009        May 11, In Sudan armed men on camel and horseback shot dead three Sudanese policemen in an ambush in the war-ravaged western region of Darfur.
    (AFP, 5/12/09)

2009        May 16, Sudan accused Chad of mounting a second series of air strikes on its territory and said the conflict between the African neighbors must be resolved politically.
    (AFP, 5/16/09)

2009        May 17, In Sudan rebels of Darfur's Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) said they had seized a town in North Darfur after a clash with government forces.
    (AP, 5/18/09)
2009        May 17, The International Criminal Court said Bahr Idriss Abu Garda, a Sudanese rebel leader, has turned himself in to face war crimes charges for an attack that killed 12 African Union peacekeepers in Darfur in September 2007.
    (AP, 5/17/09)
2009        May 17, Chad said its air force had completed raids on "mercenaries" inside Sudan, announcing its aircraft had destroyed seven groups of fighters while ground forces had captured 100 prisoners on the border.
    (Reuters, 5/17/09)

2009        May 21, Sudan announced the results of a nationwide census seen as crucial to prepare constituencies for elections next year, but which former southern rebels said they would reject. The census showed Sudan to have a total population of 39,154,490, with 8,260,490 or 21 percent living in the south.
    (AFP, 5/21/09)

2009        May 24, In Sudan raiders attempted but failed to overrun the army base at Umm Baru, close to the Chadian border in north Darfur. The next day an army spokesman said 20 Sudanese soldiers were killed in the fierce fighting and that 43 rebels had died.
    (Reuters, 5/25/09)(AFP, 5/25/09)

2009        May 26, In Sudan scores of policemen and nearly 200 tribesmen were killed when 3,000 armed Arab tribesmen on horseback attacked security forces in the oil-producing Southern Kordofan region.
    (Reuters, 5/26/09)(Reuters, 5/29/09)

2009        May 28, In Sudan Darfur's most active rebel group said it intends to free 60 Sudanese troops as a "sign of goodwill" ahead of Qatari-brokered peace talks with Sudan's government.
    (AFP, 5/28/09)

2009        May 30, Former Sudanese President Gaafar al-Nimeiry (b.1930) died after a period of illness. He took power in a coup in 1969 and brought Islamic rule to Sudan. He spent 16 stormy years as Sudan's leader until he was ousted in April 1985 by a military coup and granted political asylum in Egypt.
    (Reuters, 5/30/09)

2009        Jun 1, China's special envoy to Darfur met with Sudan's President Omar al-Beshir and pledged three million dollars in humanitarian aid for the volatile region. Liu Guijin "greeted the president for the beginning of talks in Doha between the JEM and the government."
    (AFP, 6/2/09)

2009        Jun 8, Sudan passed an amended version of a media bill that sparked protests in Khartoum last month, but the new version failed to allay the fears of many Sudanese journalists.
    (AP, 6/8/09)

2009        Jun 10, Sudanís President Omar al-Beshir inaugurated a new plant that he said will begin producing ethanol from sugar cane with a target of 200 million liters in two years. Former rebels who fought a devastating 22-year civil war in south Sudan began laying down their arms as the UNís biggest demobilization program stepped up a gear.
    (AFP, 6/10/09)

2009        Jun 12, At least 40 south Sudanese soldiers and civilians were killed when tribal fighters ambushed boats carrying UN food aid, the latest in a string of ethnic attacks threatening a fragile peace deal.
    (Reuters, 6/14/09)

2009        Jun 26, Canadian citizen Abousfian Abdelrazik, accused by the UN of being linked to al Qaeda, flew out of Sudan after a court order ended his six-year exile in Khartoum. Abdelrazik was born in Sudan and gained Canadian citizenship in 1995 after entering the country as a refugee. He returned to Sudan in 2003 to visit his sick mother and was arrested and held by Sudanese authorities on two occasions.
    (Reuters, 6/26/09)

2009        Jun 28, In Sudan 6 people were killed in weekend tribal clashes between Nuba and Misseriya tribesmen in Sudan's South Kordofan region, which borders Darfur.
    (AFP, 6/29/09)

2009        Jul 1, Darfur rebels signed an accord with one of Sudan's main opposition parties in Cairo, agreeing to push for a new transitional government, a move that will infuriate Khartoum.
    (Reuters, 7/3/09)

2009        Jul 2, African heads of state meeting in Libya discussed a drastic new decision against the International Criminal Court that would in practice give Sudan's president impunity from prosecution for war crimes by the ICC, a draft document at the AU summit showed. Leaders also struggled to overcome divisions on a proposed "African government", as Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi pressed for a powerful new continental authority.
    (AP, 7/2/09)(AFP, 7/2/09)

2009        Jul 3, In Sudan gunmen kidnapped an Irish and Ugandan women from the office of the Irish aid group Goal in the North Darfur city of Kutum. A Sudanese watchman was also seized before being released later. Arab tribes supported by the government were implicated. Sharon Commins (33) and her Ugandan colleague, Hilda Kuwuki (42), were released on Oct 18.
    (AFP, 7/4/09)(AP, 10/18/09)(AFP, 10/24/09)
2009        Jul 3, Sudanese police arrested 13 women in a raid on a Khartoum cafe for wearing trousers in violation of the country's strict Islamic law. 10 of them were flogged inside a Khartoum police station. One of those arrested, journalist Lubna Hussein, said she is challenging the charges, which can be punishable by up to 40 lashes.
    (AP, 7/13/09)(AP, 7/21/09)
2009        Jul 3, In Libya peacekeepers in Somalia and the war crimes warrant for Sudan's president dominated the final day of an African Union summit, after a late-night compromise on a new regional authority. Africa's leaders agreed to denounce the International Criminal Court and refuse to extradite Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir, who has been indicted for crimes against humanity in Darfur.
    (AFP, 7/3/09)(AP, 7/3/09)

2009        Jul 8, A senior UN official said fighting between tribes in southern Sudan has increasingly targeted women and children and likely killed more than 1,000 people since January.
    (AP, 7/8/09)

2009        Jul 13, Uganda said it would arrest Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir if he enters the country, an unusual stance after a summit of African leaders denounced the international arrest warrant against al-Bashir.
    (AP, 7/13/09)

2009        Jul 16, The Chadian rebel Union of Forces of Resistance (UFR) claimed the Chadian air force attacked two villages in the southeastern Chadian region of Tissi. Rebels claimed some 50 had been killed some 100 wounded. Sudan accused Chad of launching air raids on its western region of Darfur.
    (AFP, 7/16/09)

2009        Jul 18, Sudanese rebels set free 60 captured government soldiers and policemen in north Darfur. The detainees had been held by the Justice and Equality Movement following recent armed clashes.
    (AP, 7/18/09)

2009        Jul 19,     Sudan said it was committed to peace with neighboring Chad after accusing it of bombing its western Darfur region last week, but also warned it would not be held back if threatened.
    (AFP, 7/19/09)

2009        Jul 22, An international arbitration panel awarded the Sudanese government control over almost all major oil reserves in a disputed region of Sudan that erupted into violence last year between state forces and former southern rebels.
    (AP, 7/22/09)

2009        Jul 29, A Sudanese court adjourned the case of Lubna Ahmed al-Hussein, a woman journalist facing 40 lashes for wearing "indecent" trousers. 10 women had already been whipped on July 3 for similar offences against Islamic law. "I wish to resign from the UN, I wish this court case to continue," Hussein told a packed courtroom before the judge adjourned the case to August 4.
    (AFP, 7/29/09)

2009        Jul 30, The UN Security Council unanimously extended the mandate for the joint UN-African Union peacekeeping mission which has been slowly deploying in Sudan's conflict-torn Darfur region.
    (Reuters, 7/30/09)

2009        Jul 31, Turkey's navy commandos aboard a frigate captured seven pirates in the Gulf of Aden off Somalia's coast. Turkish commandos had captured five other pirates in a similar operation in the Gulf of Aden a week ago.
    (AP, 7/31/09)

2009        Aug 2, In southeast Sudan armed tribesmen attacked a fishing village where hundreds of displaced people were camped near a river, leaving at least 185 people, most of them women and children, dead in the worst violence in three months.
    (AP, 8/3/09)

2009        Aug 4, Sudanese police fired tear gas and beat women protesting outside a Sudanese court during the trial of a female journalist accused of violating the Islamic dress code by wearing trousers in public. The judge adjourned Lubna Hussein's trial for a month to seek clarification from Sudan's foreign ministry.
    (AP, 8/4/09)

2009        Aug 18, In Sudan clashes between rival militias broke out in the southern oil-rich Unity state, the latest to hit a region still recovering from two decades of civil war.
    (AFP, 8/18/09)

2009        Aug 19, In Sudan former enemies from the north and south signed a deal aimed at bolstering the 2005 peace deal that ended a 22-year civil war, the African continent's longest.
    (AP, 8/20/09)

2009        Aug 27, In Sudan Martin Luther Agwai, the outgoing military commander of the joint UN-African Union (UNAMID) peacekeeping force in the western Sudan region, said there is no more war in Darfur. Agwai defended his soldiers against persistent criticism of their effectiveness, insisting they have ended the massacres that long plagued the Sudanese region. The Nigerian officer will be replaced next week by Rwandan Patrick Nyamvumba.
    (AFP, 8/27/09)

2009        Aug 28, In southern Sudan the Lou-Nuer tribe attacked a village of the Dinka tribe in Twic East County, leaving 46 people dead and 15 in critical condition. The attackers wore new military uniforms and were using new machine guns, but did not provide their identity.
    (Reuters, 8/29/09)(AP, 9/1/09)

2009        Aug 29, In Sudan an armed group kidnapped two foreign civilians working for the joint UN-African Union peacekeeping mission in Darfur. The UNAMID workers, a Nigerian man and a Zimbabwean woman, were released on Dec 13.
    (AP, 8/29/09)(AFP, 12/13/09)

2009        Sep 4, In southern Sudan heavily armed fighters attacked an ethnic Dinka settlement in Bony-Thiang, north of the state capital Malakal, killing 20 people. Angry Dinka groups then launched a retaliatory raid on the nearby Shilluk village of Bon, killing five people including a woman and two children.
    (AFP, 9/5/09)

2009        Sep 7, A Sudanese judge convicted Lubna Hussein, a woman journalist, for violating the public indecency law by wearing trousers outdoors and fined her $200, but did not impose a feared flogging penalty. Hussein said she will not pay a penny while still in court custody, wearing the same trousers that had sparked her arrest.
    (AP, 9/7/09)
 2009        Sep 7, UK-based Global Witness said they had found serious discrepancies in reports of Sudan's oil revenues which could mean Khartoum's government was underpaying its strife torn south by hundreds of millions of dollars.
    (Reuters, 9/7/09)

2009        Sep 8, Sudanese journalist Lubna Ahmed Hussein, who spent a day in jail for refusing to pay a fine for wearing "indecent trousers," vowed on her release to keep up the battle against the law. The UNís human rights office said Sudan's conviction Hussein for indecency for wearing trousers violates international law and is emblematic of wider gender discrimination in the Islamic country.
    (AFP, 9/8/09)(Reuters, 9/8/09)

2009        Sep 18, In Sudan Darfur rebels accused Sudanese government forces of attacking their positions over the last 2 days, weeks after a senior peacekeeper said the region was no longer in a state of war.
    (Reuters, 9/19/09)

2009        Sep 20, The Sudanese army said it has cleared several more areas of rebel control in North Darfur province ahead of peace talks set for October. Rebels denied the government claims. In southern Sudan Lou Nuer tribesman attacked the village of Duk-Padiet in Jonglei state killing around 102 people, including 51 civilians and 23 attackers.
    (AP, 9/20/09)(AFP, 9/21/09)

2009        Sep 27, Sudanís President Omar al-Beshir announced the immediate lifting of state censorship on the press, meeting a key demand of the media ahead of Sudan's first elections in almost 25 years.
    (AFP, 9/27/09)
2009        Sep 27, In Venezuela Pres. Hugo Chavez proposed that South American and African nations unite to create a cross-continental mining corporation to keep control of their resources. Chavez made diplomatic inroads in Africa at a summit of South American and African leaders where he offered Venezuela's help in oil projects, mining and financial assistance. Venezuela signed agreements to work together on oil projects with South Africa, Mauritania, Niger, Sudan and Cape Verde.
    (Reuters, 9/27/09)(AP, 9/28/09)

2009        Sep 28, In Sudan a Nigerian peacekeeper was killed and two Kenyan colleagues were wounded in the troubled Darfur region when armed men ambushed their convoy.
    (Reuters, 9/29/09)

2009        Sep 30, Amnesty International said tens of thousands of women who fled unrest in Darfur face the daily threat or rape and violence in refugee camps in neighboring Chad.
    (AP, 9/30/09)

2009        Oct 2, In southern Sudan fighting broke out in an oil-rich area between forces loyal to an ex-warlord and the stateís governor.
    (AP, 10/2/09)(AFP, 10/3/09)

2009        Oct 3-2009 Oct 4, In southern Sudan 16 people were killed in clashes between forces loyal to an ex-warlord and the governor's guards in oil-rich Unity State. At least 23 people were killed and more than a thousand fled their homes in ethnic clashes over the weekend.
    (AFP, 10/5/09)

2009        Oct 11, Four Sudanese who face the death penalty for killing a US diplomat dismissed their defense team, denounced the trial as political and labeled the United States murderers of Muslims. John Granville (33), who worked for the US Agency for International Development, and his driver, Abdelrahman Abbas Rahama (39), were killed Jan 1, 2008.
    (Reuters, 10/11/09)

2009        Oct 12, A Sudanese court sentenced 4 Islamists to death for a 2nd time for the murder of a US diplomat John Granville and his driver in Khartoum last year. The sentencing came after the mother of John Granville, who worked with the US Agency for Intíl. Development (USAID), and the wife of driver Abdel Rahman Abbas both demanded the men be executed.
    (AFP, 10/12/09)

2009        Oct 16, A top southern Sudanese official said former enemies in north and south Sudan have reached agreement on details for a key referendum on the southís full independence. Clashes broke out in the remote border region between southern Sudan and north-west Kenya. At least three Kenyan soldiers were reported killed in cross border raids. An officer was killed when security forces tracked down raiders in south Darfur, shooting dead two of the attackers in an exchange of fire. Two officers were killed a day earlier as up to four men raided a guesthouse in the south Darfur town of Kass.
    (AFP, 10/16/09)(AFP, 10/17/09)(Reuters, 10/17/09)

2009        Oct 17, In western Sudan 3 peacekeepers were wounded, two of them seriously, when their vehicle came under fire in the Darfur region.
    (AFP, 10/17/09)

2009        Oct 18, In Sudan Irish national Sharon Commins and Ugandan Hilda Kawuki, who worked for Irish charity GOAL, were freed. They had been kidnapped on July 3 at gunpoint. The Irish Times newspaper reported on Oct 24 that a 150,000-euro (225,000-dollar) ransom was paid to secure the release of two aid workers in the western Darfur region.
    (AFP, 10/24/09)

2009        Oct 19, US President Barack Obama unveiled a new policy on Sudan and warned Khartoum of more US pressure if it failed to respond to his fresh incentives to stop "genocide" and "abuses" in Darfur.
    (AFP, 10/19/09)

2009        Oct 21, A Sudanese cargo plane crashed shortly after takeoff from Sharjah International Airport north of Dubai, killing the 6-member crew but causing no other casualties on the ground.
    (AP, 10/21/09)

2009        Oct 22, A Sudanese court sentenced two women to 20 lashes for dressing "indecently." Judge Hassan Mohammed Ali said: "The two women wore trousers and no headscarf. The court therefore finds them guilty according the public order laws." Last year nearly 43,000 women were detained for indecent clothing offences in Khartoum region, where five million people live.
    (AFP, 10/22/09)
2009        Oct 22, In Sudan gunmen kidnapped Gauthier Lefevre (35), a French staff member working for the International Committee of the Red Cross, in the western Darfur region. The kidnappers soon demanded a three-million-euro ransom. Lefevre was released on March 18, 2010.
    (AP, 10/22/09)(AFP, 10/27/09)(AP, 3/18/10)

2009        Oct 27, President Barack Obama formally renewed US sanctions on Sudan under his new strategy of keeping up pressure while offering incentives to the Khartoum government. Robert Cabelly (61), a former State Department employee and US lobbyist, was charged with violating Sudanese sanctions regulations, acting as an unregistered agent of a foreign power, money laundering, passport fraud and making false statements.
    (Reuters, 10/27/09)(AP, 10/28/09)
2009        Oct 27, A UN official said more than 300,000 children under the age of five die of preventable diseases each year in Sudan, almost a third of them before they reach the age of one month.
    (AFP, 10/28/09)

2009        Nov 3, The British government said survivors of the Darfur conflict will no longer be deported from Britain, after concerns about a deterioration in conditions in the Sudanese capital. The Home Office said asylum seekers will have the right to remain in Britain for up to five years, or until the situation improves in Sudan.
    (AFP, 11/3/09)

2009        Nov 6, The aid agency Medecins Sans Frontieres (Doctors Without Borders) warned that Southern Sudan is facing a "serious outbreak" of the deadly kala azar tropical disease. Kala azar, or visceral leishmaniasis, is a neglected tropical disease contracted by the bite of a sand fly, endemic in some parts of southern Sudan. Without treatment, almost all victims die within one to four months. If treatment is received on time, some 95% can recover.
    (AFP, 11/6/09)
2009        Nov 6, Turkey rebuffed an EU call to reconsider its decision to allow Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir, who is accused of war crimes in Darfur, to attend a summit in Istanbul. Turkey has not signed the Rome Statute which set up the ICC and has said previously the ICC arrest warrant for Beshir could hurt moves to end the conflict in Darfur.
    (AFP, 11/6/09)
2009        Nov 6, A UN report said 2 Iranian businessmen working at a Dubai-based firm were linked to video surveillance devices sold to Sudan and used in unmanned drones in Darfur in violation of a UN arms embargo.
    (Reuters, 11/6/09)

2009        Nov 8, Turkey said that Sudan's internationally indicted leader, President Omar al-Bashir, will not attend the Nov 9 Istanbul summit of the 57-nation Organization of the Islamic Conference.
    (AP, 11/9/09)

2009        Nov 9, In eastern Chad a French Red Cross staff member was abducted by several armed men, close to the border with Sudan. Laurent Maurice was freed in Sudan on Feb 6.
    (AFP, 11/10/09)(AP, 2/7/10)

2009        Nov 10, Nigerian football star Stephen Worgu (20) was fined and sentenced to 40 lashes in Sudan after being convicted of drunk driving in Khartoum. Worgu said he was stopped by police driving home late from dinner at a friend's house in August. No tests were done but officers told the court they had smelled the home-brewed spirit aragi on his breath.
    (Reuters, 11/12/09)

2009        Nov 11, In Sudan 11 people were killed in fighting in southern Jonglei state in clashes between the Dinka and Shilluk ethnic groups.
    (AFP, 11/12/09)

2009        Nov 16, In southern Sudan 47 people were killed in ethnic clashes in the Lakes state region. The violence followed an attack a day earlier in which five were killed and a minister in the semi-autonomous southís government was wounded in Central Equatoria state. It was all a continuation of traditional cattle raids, but with the use modern automatic weapons.
    (AFP, 11/18/09)

2009        Nov 18, Egyptian fans were attacked after Algeria won a make-or-break World Cup qualifying game in the Sudanese capital Khartoum, and offices of Egyptian companies in Algeria were ransacked after a matchup in Cairo over the weekend.
    (AP, 11/19/09)
2009        Nov 18, Qatar hosted what it billed as the ceremonial launch of Darfur peace talks, but neither Sudanese government nor rebel representatives took part.
    (AFP, 11/18/09)

2009        Nov 21, In Sudan Silva Kashif (16), a girl from south Sudan, was arrested convicted and lashed 50 times after a Khartoum judge ruled her knee-length skirt was indecent. Her mother, Jenty Doro, later said she planned to sue the police who made the arrest and the judge who imposed the sentence, as her daughter was underage and a Christian.
    (Reuters, 11/27/09)(AFP, 11/28/09)

2009        Dec 4, In Sudan gunmen killed three Rwandan soldiers in an ambush in the northern town of Saraf Umra in the western Darfur region.
    (AP, 12/5/09)

2009        Dec 5, In Sudan's Darfur region 2 Rwandan peacekeepers were shot dead and one wounded, in the second deadly attack on their contingent in 24 hours. The next day a former Darfur rebel group captured 3 gunmen who allegedly killed the 5 Rwandan peacekeepers.
    (Reuters, 12/5/09)(AFP, 12/8/09)

2009        Dec 7, In Sudan southern protesters torched offices of the ruling party after Khartoum police arrested 3 southern leaders and dozens of protesters in a crackdown against a pro-reform demonstration. Pagan Amum, Yassir Arman and Abbas Gumma from the former rebel Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) were freed after a few hours.
    (AFP, 12/7/09)

2009        Dec 10, In Sudan gunmen in Nyala, western Darfur, shot and killed Hassan Tageddine Hassan al-Helw of the ruling National Congress Party along with 2 others in his car.
    (AP, 12/11/09)

2009        Dec 14, Sudanese police fired tear gas, used water cannons and rounded up dozens of opposition supporters in a bid to halt a pro-democracy rally outside parliament.
    (AFP, 12/14/09)

2009        Dec 15, Sudanese officials said up to 48 opposition supporters will face charges for taking part in a banned rally close to parliament calling for democratic reforms.
    (AP, 12/15/09)

2009        Dec 20, Sudanís Parliament passed a new law curbing the powers of the intelligence services, although former southern rebels and some opposition parties rejected the move as not going far enough.
    (AFP, 12/20/09)

2009        Dec 21, The UN accused the Ugandan-based Lord's Resistance Army of killing, mutilating and raping villagers in Sudan and Congo in what may have been crimes against humanity.
    (AP, 12/21/09)

2009        Dec 24, A delegation headed by Chadian Foreign Minister Moussa Faki Mahamat met Sudanese Omar al-Beshir and helped restore trust between the neighbors.
    (AFP, 12/25/09)

2009        Dec 27, Sudan, angling to become Africa's leading exporter of ethanol, sent out its first shipment of the bio-fuel to the Netherlands. Kenana's plant, located in the White Nile State south of Khartoum, was built by the Brazilian ethanol supplier Dedini.
    (AFP, 12/28/09)

2009        Dec 29, Sudan's parliament adopted a key law, setting up a planned referendum on southern independence after northern and southern leaders overcame a dispute that had threatened a 2005 peace deal.
    (AFP, 12/30/09)

2009        Dec 31, In Sudan 17 people were killed when armed civilians ambushed south Sudanese soldiers trying to disarm tribes following heavy fighting in the semi-autonomous region.
    (AP, 1/6/10)

2009        In Sudan the Chinese-built Merowe dam was completed at a cost of more than $2 billion. It doubled Sudan's power generation capacity. It also displaced 15,000 families, who were ordered to leave their homes three years ago to make way for the dam and the huge reservoir that formed behind it.
    (AFP, 12/20/11)
2009        In southern Sudan over 2,500 were killed and 400,000 displaced mostly after cattle raids between tribes.
    (Econ, 5/8/10, p.50)

2010        Jan 2, In southern Sudan armed Nuer tribesmen killed at least 139 members of a rival tribe in an attack in Tonj, one of the most remote parts of the oil-producing south.
    (Reuters, 1/7/10)

2010        Jan 11, Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir retired as commander-in-chief of the army, in what sources said was a procedural move before the first multi-party elections in 24 years.
    (Reuters, 1/11/10)

2010        Jan 13, Sudanese forces clashed with rebels in a key area of the troubled western region of Darfur.
    (AFP, 1/13/10)

2010        Jan 16, Sudanese warplanes and artillery pounded insurgents in the troubled western region of Darfur.
    (AFP, 1/16/10)

2010        Jan 18, In southern Sudan clashes began in the troubled southern state of Jonglei leaving 9 people dead.
    (AFP, 1/22/10)

2010        Jan 19, Sudan's Pres. Bashir said he would support the country's oil-producing south if it chose independence in a looming referendum, in his closest acknowledgement of the possibility of separation. A Sudanese court sentenced another two Darfur rebels to death for a deadly 2008 attack, raising to 105 the number of Justice and Equality Movement fighters ordered hanged for the raid.
    (AP, 1/19/10)(AFP, 1/20/10)

2010        Jan 21, In southern Sudan clashes continued for a 4th day in the troubled southern state of Jonglei leaving 15 more people dead.
    (AFP, 1/22/10)

2010        Jan 22, Belgian scientists said nearly 80 percent of the 300,000 conflict-related deaths in Darfur were due to diseases like diarrhea, not violence.
    (Reuters, 1/22/10)

2010        Jan 23, In Sudan a military spokesman said at least 24 people have been killed in clashes in the troubled southern Sudanese state of Jonglei in recent days.
    (AFP, 1/23/10)

2010        Jan 26, Sudan's former PM Sadiq al-Mahdi vowed to put an end to "totalitarianism" and resolve the conflict in Darfur by taking power at elections in April.
    (AFP, 1/26/10)

2010        Jan, In Sudan an attack targeted a convoy travelling from Khartoum to Nyala in South Darfur. JEM rebels killed the convoy commander and 53 soldiers and stole fuel trucks and food supplies. In 2011 a Sudanese court sentenced seven members of a Darfur rebel group to death by hanging for ambushing the convoy.
    (AFP, 11/28/11)

2010        Feb 2, UN and Sudanese officials said almost half the population of south Sudan is facing food shortages because of conflict and drought, a fourfold rise in the numbers needing aid since last year.
    (Reuters, 2/2/10)

2010        Feb 3, At The Hague appeals judges said the International Criminal Court was wrong when it decided that Sudan's Pres. Omar al-Bashir can't be charged with genocide in Darfur. The unprecedented ruling could lead al-Bashir's indictment with humanity's worst crime.
    (AP, 2/3/10)

2010        Feb 4, In Sudan 16 people were killed in clashes between south Sudan troops and cattle herders from the northern Messeria tribe in the southern Unity state.
    (AFP, 2/6/10)

2010        Feb 9, In Sudan militias raided a Darfur refugee camp, shooting dead two people and injuring at least 10. The raid followed the murder of a militia member's relative who appeared to be searching the camps in Kass, South Darfur for the suspect.
    (AP, 2/10/10)

2010        Feb 10, In Sudan Mohamed Musa (23), a Darfuri student, was abducted in Khartoum and later found dead. Fellow students later said they had seen his body, that his hands were burned, his head and body beaten, cut and swollen and his clothes soaked in blood.
    (AP, 2/15/10)

2010        Feb 16, In Sudan gunmen attacked a police convoy outside Nyala in south Darfur, wounding seven Pakistani police officers serving with the UN-AU force. 2 people were soon arrested in connection with an ambush.
    (AP, 2/18/10)

2010        Feb 20, Darfur's most heavily armed rebel group, the Justice and Equality Movement, said that it had signed a framework agreement with the Sudanese government in Chad that provides for a ceasefire. Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir was due to sign the same agreement with JEM leader Khalil Ibrahim in Qatar on Feb 23, watched by diplomats and the presidents of Chad and Eritrea.
    (AFP, 2/20/10)(Reuters, 2/23/10)

2010        Feb 21, In southern Sudan weekend fighting between armed clan members and soldiers killed at least 30 people over the last 24 hours. After the attempt to seize weapons, the armed Gok Dinka, a sub-clan of the Dinka, the south's largest tribe, carried out a spate of attacks on an army base in Cueibet town.
    (Reuters, 2/23/10)

2010        Feb 23, Darfur's most powerful rebel group and the Sudanese government signed a truce in Cairo after a year of internationally sponsored negotiations, raising hopes the bloody seven-year conflict could draw to a close. According to the framework agreement, JEM would take part in the government's executive, judicial and legislative branches.
    (Reuters, 2/23/10)(AP, 2/24/10)(SFC, 2/24/10, p.A2)

2010        Feb 25, In Sudan the head of the most heavily armed Darfur rebel group ordered the release of 50 Sudanese government personnel following the signing of a peace deal. The move followed the government's release a day earlier of 57 fighters of the rebel Justice and Equality Movement, some 50 of whom had been condemned to death for their part in an unprecedented assault on Khartoum in 2008. A Darfur rebel group accused the Sudanese army of attacking its positions a day earlier, the same day that the president declared the Darfur war over. Aid workers said 100,000 people had fled the surge of fighting.
    (AFP, 2/25/10)(Reuters, 2/25/10)

2010        Feb 26, In Sudan rebels and UN officials said heavy fighting between government forces and a rebel group in central Darfur led a French-aid group to suspend its activities. A government offensive on the rebel Sudan Liberation Army's (SLA) stronghold in Jebel Marrah began two weeks ago, but fighting intensified in the last few days, with confirmed reports of aerial bombardments in Deribat, a town of 50,000, and two other surrounding areas.
    (AP, 2/26/10)

2010        Mar 1, A UN source said hundreds of civilians were feared to have died last week in a surge of fighting between the Sudanese army and rebels in the turbulent Darfur region.
    (Reuters, 3/1/10)

2010        Mar 2, South Sudanís 17 rival political parties signed an election code of conduct, committing themselves to ensure upcoming polls in April are free and fair.
    (AFP, 3/3/10)

2010        Mar 3, In western Sudan 11 people died in fighting between the Misseriya and Nuwayba tribes in the Darfur region.
    (AFP, 3/7/10)

2010        Mar 6, In western Sudan 10 people were killed in renewed clashes between the Misseriya and Nuwayba tribes in the Darfur region.
    (AFP, 3/7/10)

2010        Mar 9, In Switzerland a senior Google executive welcomed a US decision to relax restrictions on exporting Internet communications services to Iran, Sudan and Cuba.
    (AP, 3/9/10)

2010        Mar 17, In southern Sudan at least 13 people were killed in fighting between northern nomads and the southern army.
    (AFP, 3/19/10)

2010        Mar 18, Sudan's government and a collection of Darfur rebel groups signed a cease-fire, opening the way for political negotiations ahead of a full peace agreement. Government representative Ghazi Salah Eddin Atabani and rebel leader Al-Tijani Al-Sissi signed the truce in Doha, Qatar. Al-Sissi's Liberation and Justice Movement is an umbrella organization that includes several small Darfur rebel groups that recently united to negotiate with the government.
    (AP, 3/18/10)

2010        Mar 20, In Sudan 19 members of the Misseriya tribe and six from the rival Nuwayba tribe were killed as fighting broke out. More than 20 people were wounded.
    (AFP, 3/23/10)

2010        Mar 21, In Cairo, Egypt an international donors conference raised $850 million in pledges for projects intended to ensure the safe return of more than 2.7 million people displaced during the war in Darfur. The one-day conference was organized by the 57-nation Organization of The Islamic Conference and included representatives from the US, European nations, UN agencies and aid groups.
    (AP, 3/21/10)(AP, 3/22/10)

2010        Mar 27, In Sudan Darfur rebels allegedly shot down 2 Sudanese army helicopters in the latest reports of fighting that have marred faltering peace talks between Khartoum and other insurgents. Sudan's army said two of its helicopters crashed after developing technical problems.
    (Reuters, 3/29/10)

2010        Mar 30, The International Crisis Group, a Brussels-based think-tank, said Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir has long been working to ensure next month's elections are rigged, making the eventual winner illegitimate.
    (AFP, 3/31/10)

2010        Mar 31, Southern Sudan's main political party withdrew its candidate from the country's upcoming presidential election and said it will not contest parliamentary and local polls in Darfur, a move that erodes the credibility of Sudan's first multiparty election in decades.
    (AP, 4/1/10)

2010        Apr 10, The border between Chad and Sudan reopened seven years after the Darfur conflict forced its closure, in another sign of improved relations between the former foes.
    (AFP, 4/14/10)

2010        Apr 11, The Sudanese people began voting in a 3-day election that will decide whether President Omar al-Bashir wins another term despite his indictment on charges he committed international war crimes in Darfur. Voters were left with few alternatives after al-Bashir's main challengers boycotted the race, claiming it was not fair. In addition to the president, the country was also electing a national parliament, local governors and parliaments and president of the semiautonomous government of South Sudan. 4 peacekeepers with the joint UN-African Union force (UNAMID) in the western Sudanese region of Darfur went missing. The 4 peacekeepers were released on April 26.
    (AP, 4/11/10)(AFP, 4/12/10)(AFP, 4/26/10)

2010        Apr 12, Observers urged Sudan to extend voting in its first open elections in 24 years after thousands of ballots were cast incorrectly and polling faced serious delays in many areas of Africa's largest country.
    (Reuters, 4/12/10)

2010        Apr 13, Sudanese trickled into polling stations following a two-day extension of the vote aimed at making up for a chaotic start to the country's first competitive election in over two decades.
    (AFP, 4/13/10)

2010        Apr 14, Sudan's ruling party said it would invite opposition groups to join the government if it won elections, in an apparent bid to heal rifts over fraud accusations and faltering peace deals.
    (Reuters, 4/14/10)

2010        Apr 15, Sudanese voters cast ballots on the last day of landmark elections. Sudan's ruling party said that the southern army had killed 9 people, including at least 5 of its officials, stoking tensions during voting in the first open elections in 24 years. Commission official Abel Alier said on April 26 that al-Bashir had garnered 68% of over 10 million valid ballots.
    (Reuters, 4/15/10)(AP, 4/26/10)

2010        Apr 17, International monitors said that Sudan's first multiparty elections in more than two decades failed to meet international standards, an assessment that diminishes hopes the voting would set the nation on the road to peace and democracy. Preliminary results from the presidential race showed incumbent Omar al-Bashir had won between 88% and 94% of votes counted after his most credible challengers dropped out of the race in protest.
    (AP, 4/17/10)

2010        Apr 23, In Sudan an announcement that Unity state incumbent Taban Deng had retained his post in this month's election was followed by protests in the state capital Bentiu that left two people shot dead by police and a third wounded. Supporters of Deng's main rival Angelina Teny, wife of south Sudan's vice president Riek Machar, were accused of trying to wreck a local radio station. The National Election Commission also announced that Beshir's ruling National Congress Party had won the posts of governor in North Darfur and West Darfur, with results for South Darfur yet to be released.
    (AFP, 4/23/10)

2010        Apr 25, In Sudan clashes continued for a 4th day in Darfur between Arab nomads and south Sudan's army along the country's volatile north-south border. Local tribal officials reported more than 50 Arab nomads were killed in the fighting with soldiers from the southern Sudan's People Liberation Army.
    (AP, 4/25/10)

2010        Apr 28, In Sudan around 2,000 people gathered in El Fasher, capital of North Darfur, after discovering that the scheme had collapsed. Police used tear gas to break up a protest by hundreds of investors who lost money in a Ponzi scheme that stretched across Sudan's strife-ridden Darfur region and beyond.
    (Reuters, 4/29/10)

2010        Apr 30, In south Sudan at least seven people were killed after men said to be affiliated with a defeated candidate in regional elections attacked an army base.
    (AFP, 4/30/10)

2010        May 1, In Sudan the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), Darfurís main rebel group, warned that the government has brought the Darfur peace process to an end by launching a military offensive.
    (AFP, 5/2/10)

2010        May 2, In Sudan gunfire broke out and ambulance sirens wailed as hundreds of angry victims of a failed pyramid scheme protested in the Darfur region. Police opened fire as the protesters tried to march on the house of the state governor. At least 3 people died in the clashes.
    (AFP, 5/2/10)(Reuters, 5/5/10)

2010        May 3, Darfur's most powerful rebel group said it was suspending peace talks with Sudan's government, accusing Khartoum of attacking villages and military positions in breach of a ceasefire. In South Sudan a renegade army general said he had taken command of a body of soldiers and demanded the removal of the man who beat him in recent elections. South Sudan's army accused George Athor of masterminding an attack on one of its bases on April 30 and plotting further assaults after he lost in the race to become governor of the oil-producing south's Jonglei state last week.
    (AP, 5/3/10)(Reuters, 5/3/10)

2010        May 5, Sudanís justice minister said police investigating an investment scam in the Darfur region have collected bounced checks and receipts for up to $27 million and arrested 58 people. The south Sudan armed forces said clashes over livestock between members of two large tribes killed 26 people in the south Sudan state of Warrap.
    (Reuters, 5/6/10)(AFP, 5/6/10)

2010        May 6, In southern Sudan government troops clashed with soldiers loyal to renegade General George Athor, leaving 53 dead and ending hopes of a negotiated end to his mini revolt.
    (Reuters, 5/7/10)

2010        May 7, In Sudan gunmen killed two Egyptian peacekeepers and wounded three more in an ambush on their convoy in south Darfur. Police soon arrested two men in the South Darfur area of Edd al Fursan and were hunting down the rest of a seven-man bandit gang blamed for the attack.
    (AP, 5/7/10)(Reuters, 5/10/10)

2010        May 12, The UN peacekeeping mission in Sudan said Clashes between rival Arab tribes have claimed 107 lives since March in Darfur, warning of a buildup of government and rebel troops in the region.
    (AFP, 5/12/10)

2010        May 14, In Sudan government troops killed 108 fighters from the rebel Justice and Equality Movement in the Jebel Moon area of western Darfur. Government forces also battled JEM rebels near Nyala in south Darfur where 27 police and 33 rebels were killed. Forces loyal to a renegade south Sudanese general clashed with government troops for the fourth time in two weeks, leaving at least five soldiers dead.
    (AP, 5/15/10)(Reuters, 5/14/10)
2010        May 14, Four African countries (Ethiopia, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda) signed a new treaty on the equitable sharing of the Nile waters despite strong opposition from Egypt and Sudan, who have the lion's share of the river waters. The new agreement, the Nile Basin Cooperative Framework, is to replace a 1959 accord between Egypt and Sudan that gives them control of more than 90 percent of the water flow. Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Abul Gheit warned at the weekend that Cairo's water rights were a "red line" and threatened legal action if a partial deal is reached.
    (AFP, 5/14/10)

2010        May 15, Sudanese authorities arrested Islamist opposition leader Hassan al-Turabi and closed his newspaper, sparking a furious reaction from the country's opposition. A coalition of 17 opposition parties, including the heavyweight Umma party, signed a statement condemning Turabi's arrest as a "violation against freedoms and democratic transformation and the constitution."
    (AFP, 5/16/10)(Econ, 6/5/10, p.54)

2010        May 18, A female American aid worker, Flavia Wagner (35), and two Sudanese colleagues were ambushed and abducted by gunmen in Abu Ajura, South Darfur state. On Aug 30 the foreign ministry said police had freed Wagner in the Abu Agora area south of Nyala.
    (AFP, 5/18/10)(AFP, 8/30/10)

2010        May 19, Chadian authorities at Ndjamena airport refused entry to Khalil Ibrahim and a number of other JEM members who had arrived from the Libyan capital Tripoli. Chadian authorities confiscated their passports and refused to let them into Chadian territory and ordered them to go back to Libya. Khalil and his delegation had planned to head to Darfur through Chad.
    (AP, 5/19/10)

2010        May 20, In Sudan Darfur's most militarized rebel group (JEM), said it had killed 200 Sudanese government troops in the western region over the previous 2 days, but the army denied the toll in the latest fighting to cloud troubled peace talks.
    (AFP, 5/21/10)
2010        May 21, In southern Sudan President Salva Kiir was sworn in eight months ahead of a scheduled referendum on whether the south will secede from the north. The south and the northern government, led by Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir, must still negotiate how the two regions will share oil revenues and divide access to the Nile River waters before the referendum.
    (AP, 5/21/10)

2010        May 26, The International Criminal Court reported Sudan to the UN Security Council for refusing to arrest a government minister and a militia leader suspected of war crimes in Darfur. Judges at the court say that Khartoum has refused to hand over Humanitarian Affairs Minister Ahmed Harun and Janjaweed militia leader Ali Kushayb. The court ordered the men arrested in 2007 on 51 charges of crimes against humanity and war crimes.
    (AP, 5/26/10)

2010        May 27, Sudan's president was sworn in on for another five-year term after an election marred by boycotts and fraud allegations, the only head of state to be re-elected while facing an international arrest warrant for war crimes.
    (AP, 5/27/10)

2010        May 28, Sudan's autonomous southern government announced, during a visit by UN relief chief John Holmes, that it had earmarked $35 million (Ä28 million) to fight food shortage.
    (AP, 5/28/10)

2010        May 30, Sudanís President Omar al-Beshir dissolved the government four days after he was sworn in for a new term, ahead of the formation of a fresh cabinet line-up.
    (AFP, 5/30/10)

2010        May 31, In southern Sudan renegade general George Athor said 3 top officers who quit south Sudan's army over alleged fraud in national elections are coordinating attacks in the oil-producing region, but the army played down the threat.
    (Reuters, 6/1/10)

2010        May, Clashes in west Sudan's Darfur region cost almost 600 lives this month, the highest monthly death toll since peacekeepers were deployed in 2008.
    (AFP, 6/7/10)

2010        Jun 2, Sudanese security forces beat up and arrested several leaders of a doctors' syndicate which had called for strike action.
    (AFP, 6/3/10)
2010        Jun 2, South Sudan army forces clashed with insurgents in Unity state leaving 9 people dead including one soldier and eight men loyal to renegade commander Galwak Gai.
    (AFP, 6/3/10)

2010        Jun 6, In Sudan a tribal leader said clashes between rival Arab tribes in the western region of Darfur killed 41 people in three days. Fighting broke out on June 3 when "members of the Rezeigat tribe attacked a village west of the town of Kass" in South Darfur.
    (AFP, 6/7/10)

2010        Jun 8, A report by the European Coalition on Oil in Sudan (ECOS) charged that a consortium led by Swedish Lundin Petroleum is partly to blame for war crimes  committed in Sudan between 1997 and 2003.
    (AFP, 6/8/10)

2010        Jun 10, In Sudan 4 Islamists sentenced to hang for the 2008 New Year's murder of US diplomat John Granville and his driver in Khartoum escaped the Kober prison in Khartoum.
    (AFP, 6/11/10)

2010        Jun 15, South Sudan's army clashed with forces loyal to renegade militia leader George Athor, a day after flushing him out of his hideout in the region's Jonglei oil state. At least 20 people were killed in fresh fighting between rival Sudanese tribes in western Darfur.
    (Reuters, 6/16/10)(AFP, 6/15/10)

2010        Jun 18, In  western Sudan 50 people were killed as rival Arab tribes clashed for the third time this month in the Darfur region.
    (AFP, 6/19/10)

2010        Jun 21, In Sudan more than two dozen gunmen attacked Rwandan peacekeepers in the ravaged Darfur region, killing three of them in an hour-long fire fight.
    (AP, 6/21/10)
2010        Jun 21, Sweden's public prosecutor opened a criminal investigation into allegations that Swedes working for a consortium of oil companies during the Sudanese civil war may have been complicit in human rights abuses.
    (Reuters, 6/21/10)

2010        Jun 22, In Sudan 2 German humanitarian workers were abducted when unknown gunmen swooped on the offices of the THW group in south Darfur. Fighting between government troops and rebels of the Justice and Equality Movement killed 50 people and wounded 101 in Sudan's Darfur region. The release of the German aid workers was announced on July 27.
    (AFP, 6/23/10)(AP, 7/27/10)

2010        Jun 23, British-based risk consultancy Maplecroft said African nations led by Mauritania, Somalia and Sudan have the most precarious water supplies in the world.
    (Reuters, 6/23/10)

2010        Jun 27, In Ethiopia water minister of Egypt and Sudan said they will not be forced into signing a new deal on the sharing of the Nile's waters. Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya and Rwanda inked a framework in March, 2010, replacing a 1929 colonial-era treaty between Egypt and Britain which gave Cairo veto power over upstream projects. A two-day meeting concluded of regional water ministers concluded with Egypt handing over the body's chair to Ethiopia.
    (AFP, 6/27/10)

2010        Jun 28, Sudan said will close its border crossings with Libya next month as it ramps up security on the frontier in response to banditry. Leaders from the Misseriya and Rizeigat groups signed a reconciliation deal in the West Darfur town of Zalingei, raising hopes for an end to fighting that has killed more than 200 people since March.
    (AFP, 6/29/10)(Reuters, 6/29/10)

2010        Jul 1, Sudanese opposition leader Hassan Turabi said his 45-day detention and the shuttering of his party newspaper are proof that the country's historic elections haven't changed the regime's "oppressive" ways. Turabi was arrested in May after sharply criticizing Sudan's historic multiparty elections, saying they were marred by "shameful" fraud.
    (AP, 7/1/10)

2010        Jul 6, Sudan intelligence services imposed press censorship, which was lifted in September, six months ahead of a key referendum on independence for south Sudan.
    (AFP, 7/6/10)

2010        Jul 7, Sudanese prisoner Ibrahim al Qosi (50), accused of guarding Osama bin Laden and helping him escape US forces in Afghanistan, pleaded guilty at Guantanamo, giving the Obama administration its first conviction in the controversial war crimes court.
    (Reuters, 7/7/10)

2010        Jul 8, In France exiled Darfur rebel leader Abdelwahid Nur announced his decision to join peace talks brokered by Qatar.
    (AFP, 7/9/10)

2010        Jul 9, South Sudan's army killed seven militia fighters in a raid on their camps. Youths led an SPLA division to two hideouts used by a militia loyal to Akol's SPLM- DC (Democratic Change) party in Upper Nile.
    (Reuters, 7/11/10)

2010        Jul 10, Northern and southern Sudanese leaders said they would consider forming a confederation or a common market if southerners chose to declare independence in an upcoming referendum.
    (Reuters, 7/10/10)

2010        Jul 11, In Sudan peacekeepers said a total of 221 people died in tribal fighting and other violence in Sudan's Darfur in June, as the region's two main rebel groups continued to shun peace talks.
    (Reuters, 7/11/10)

2010        Jul 12, The International Criminal Court charged Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir with three counts of genocide in Darfur, a move that will pile further diplomatic pressure on his isolated regime.
    (AP, 7/12/10)

2010        Jul 15, In Sudan aid officials said the government has issued expulsion orders against two top relief officials in Darfur after the International Criminal Court charged President Omar al-Beshir with genocide over the seven-year conflict there. When the ICC issued a warrant for Beshir's arrest for the other charges in March last year, the Sudanese government expelled 13 relief organizations from Darfur. Three journalists working for the opposition Rai al-Shaab newspaper were handed jail terms ranging from two to five years for publishing "false reports."
    (AFP, 7/15/10)
2010        Jul 15, Sudanese police said at least 33 people have been killed and several others were missing following powerful floods in eastern Sudan.
    (AFP, 7/15/10)

2010        Jul 16, The Sudanese army said it inflicted a series of defeats on Darfur's most powerful rebel group, killing and capturing hundreds in a series of clashes over the past few days. General Al-Tayeb al-Musbah Osman told the state news agency that the army killed at least 300 members of the rebel Justice and Equality Movement and captured another 86. The army said 75 of its troops were also killed.
    (AP, 7/17/10)

2010        Jul 20, Sudan expelled three top Chadian rebel chiefs on the eve of a visit to Chad by Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir.
    (AFP, 7/20/10)

2010        Jul 21, President Omar al-Bashir arrived in Chad, the first time Sudan's leader has been in a member state of the International Criminal Court. He arrived to take part in a summit of the Community of Sahel-Saharan States. Human Rights Watch said that Chad should arrest al-Bashir or risk becoming the first ICC member state to harbor a suspected war criminal.
    (AP, 7/21/10)
2010        Jul 21, Sudanese rebel group JEM signed a landmark deal with the UN, pledging to protect children caught up in the Darfur conflict.
    (AFP, 7/21/10)

2010        Jul 26, In Sudan a helicopter, which was assigned to the UN-AU force, disappeared while transporting three members of the rebel Liberation Justice Movement from peace negotiations with the government in Doha, Qatar, to locations in South Darfur. The Russian-owned helicopter, which landed in the wrong place in Darfur, was recovered the next day with all the passengers and crew except the Russian pilot. Pilot Yevgeny Mostovshchikov was returned to his UN peacekeepers' base on July 29.
    (AP, 7/27/10)(AFP, 7/29/10)

2010        Jul 28, In Sudan 3 people were killed during a gun battle between supporters of rival rebel groups in a camp for displaced people in west Darfur. 7 UNAMID peacekeepers on patrol in west Darfur were wounded when they were ambushed by unidentified armed individuals.
    (AFP, 7/29/10)

2010        Jul 29, In Sudan gunmen ambushed a UNAMID patrol in West Darfur state, leaving four peacekeepers slightly wounded. UNAMID soldiers repelled their assailants with heavy gunfire.
    (AFP, 7/29/10)

2010        Jul 30, The UN Security Council extended the stay of peacekeepers in Sudan's western Darfur region by another year, telling the force to focus primarily on protecting civilians and aid deliveries.
    (Reuters, 7/30/10)

2010        Aug 2, A cattle raid in Southern Sudan possibly sparked by the region's high bride price, 100 cows or more, left 21 people dead.
    (AP, 8/4/10)

2010        Aug 4, A Sudanese court sentenced 19 young Muslim men to 30 lashes and a fine for breaking moral codes by wearing women's clothes and makeup, a case exposing Sudanese sensitivity toward homosexuality.
    (Reuters, 8/4/10)

2010        Aug 6, In Sudan humanitarian officials said all aid agencies have been denied access to Darfur's Kalma camp after five people were killed there and thousands fled when divisions over peace talks turned violent. UN-African Union peacekeepers (UNAMID) have been in a stand-off with South Darfur's  government and Khartoum since five men and a woman sought refuge in their Kalma police base during the violence late last month.
    (Reuters, 8/6/10)

2010        Aug 8, Gunmen in south Sudan killed 23 people, including police officers, in an ambush on a truck in the key oil producing state of Unity, Koch county.
    (AFP, 8/11/10)

2010        Aug 9, Sudan halted BBC broadcasts in Arabic on FM radio frequencies after suspending its agreement with the British public broadcaster for reasons it said had nothing to do with its newscasts.
    (AFP, 8/9/10)

2010        Aug 10, Northern and southern Sudanese leaders resumed negotiations on the ramifications of possible southern independence early next year, such as the distribution of oil wealth.
    (AFP, 8/10/10)

2010        Aug 14, In Sudan's Darfur region two Jordanian peacekeepers, deployed with the joint United Nations-African Union mission, were kidnapped. On Aug 17 Jordanian and Sudanese officials said the peacekeepers have been freed.
    (AP, 8/15/10)(AFP, 8/17/10)

2010        Aug 16, In Sudan lightning struck a religious school in the country's western Darfur region, killing seven children.
    (AP, 8/16/10)

2010        Aug 18, Sudan's government confirmed it will expel a number of international aid workers from the restive western region of Darfur, without specifying how many.
    (AP, 8/18/10)

2010        Aug 23, The southern Sudan finance minister said the fledgling economy is being "deliberately" weakened by former civil war enemies in the north who are paying Juba's share of oil revenues in local currency.
    (AFP, 8/23/10)

2010        Aug 27, Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir, for whom international arrest warrants have been issued over the Darfur conflict, returned home after a trip to Kenya.
    (AFP, 8/28/10)

2010        Aug 29, Gunmen in Sudanís Darfur region kidnapped a Russian helicopter captain and 2 crew members working for a company transporting food for international peacekeepers. Security forces fought with the kidnappers the next night freeing 3 men.
    (AFP, 8/30/10)(AP, 8/31/10)

2010        Aug 30, The government of Southern Sudan said it will purge child soldiers from the ranks of its former rebel army by year's end, a policy change that could see thousands of young troops pushed out of the military.
    (AP, 8/30/10)

2010        Aug 31, The army of Southern Sudan has been looting food convoys and carrying out other attacks on aid groups, officials of those groups alleged, and a top military officer warned that the humanitarian groups could be expelled if the complaints get too "harsh." South Sudan health officials said floods have forced nearly 60,000 people from their homes, warning that the situation could worsen.
    (AP, 8/31/10)(AFP, 8/31/10)

2010        Sep 2, In Sudan armed men attacked the settlement of Tabarat and reportedly killed 74 people in attacks on a busy market there and in surrounding villages in rebel-held territory of the Darfur region. Air force bombing continued to the next morning. The insurgent Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) accused the Sudanese army of attacking the settlements west of the town of Tawila in North Darfur state. The UNAMID force was later able to verify from eyewitnesses that 37 people were killed and 30 were injured.
    (Reuters, 9/3/10)(AFP, 9/3/10)(AP, 9/5/10)

2010        Sep 4, In Sudan a Darfur rebel group said 10 people were killed in clashes with Sudanese police in two camps for displaced people in West Darfur state. U.N.-African Union peacekeepers said 9 people were killed in the clashes.
    (AFP, 9/4/10)(AP, 9/5/10)(AP, 9/8/10)

2010        Sep 8, In Sudan a Darfur rebel group was attacked by Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army guerrillas. The group later said 2 small reconnaissance groups of about 20 young LRA rebels carrying light arms shot and killed one LJM soldier before retreating into dense forest in remote South Darfur.
    (Reuters, 9/10/10)

2010        Sep 9, A senior southern Sudan official said northern Sudan has resolved an angry dispute with the south by returning the payment of crucial oil revenues to hard currency.
    (AFP, 9/9/10)

2010        Sep 11, In Sudan a rare three-day meeting of 30 religious and community leaders as well as local government officials from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), south Sudan, the Central African Republic (CAR) and Uganda criticized the "lack of a coordinated and comprehensive strategy" to tackle the LRA rebels.
    (AFP, 9/11/10)

2010        Sep 16, In Sudan 37 people were killed and 26 injured when two buses collided in the northern state of White Nile.
    (AFP, 9/16/10)

2010        Sep 17, In Sudan 13 people travelling to mourn victims of a bus crash drowned when their boat capsized in Sudan's White Nile state.
    (AFP, 9/18/10)

2010        Sep 24, Sudanís information minister said South Sudanese people will lose the right to be citizens in the north if their region votes for independence in a referendum, raising fears for southerners living in northern settlements.
    (Reuters, 9/25/10)

2010        Sep 27, Sudanís government promised to inject almost two billion dollars into conflict-stricken Darfur, but again demanded war crimes charges against its president be dropped.
    (AFP, 9/27/10)

2010        Oct 1, In Sudan Darfur rebels accused Sudan's army of killing 27 people in a week-long campaign of air and ground assaults on their positions, as peace efforts in the arid region continued to flounder.
    (Reuters, 10/2/10)

2010        Oct 6, In Britain Halima Bashir (30), a doctor who says she was gang-raped in 2004 by Sudanese soldiers after speaking out about atrocities in Darfur, won the Anna Politkovskaya award for women human rights defenders. She wrote about her experiences in her memoir, "Tears of the Desert" (2008).
    (Reuters, 10/6/10)

2010        Oct 7, Sudan's army said it attacked rebel positions in the Darfur region hours before the arrival of a delegation of UN Security Council envoys in the territory. Armed men abducted a civilian peacekeeper in the capital North Darfur state hours after the arrival of UN Security Council envoys.
    (Reuters, 10/7/10)(Reuters, 10/8/10)

2010        Oct 9, In Sudan some 30 separatists in Khartoum clashed with police as some 3,000 opponents of the country's potential breakup in a southern independence vote due in January demonstrated during a visit by UN ambassadors. Envoys from the 15 UN Security Council members were in the capital on the final stage of a four-day visit in which they expressed the international community's concern that the referendum go ahead on schedule.
    (AFP, 10/9/10)

2010        Oct 14, A senior Sudanese official said it is impossible to hold a referendum on the future of the north-south border region of Abyei as planned. Dirdiri Ahmed, a member of Sudan's northern ruling party, said that internationally-mediated talks over Abyei failed to yield an agreement on who is eligible to vote in the region.
    (AP, 10/14/10)

2010        Oct 15, Adrian Edwards, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, said the rebels of the Lord's Resistance Army have killed at least 2,000 people and forced 400,000 to flee in three countries in less than two years. A UNHCR communique documented a mounting "campaign of terror against civilians" in the DR Congo, South Sudan and the CAR.
    (AFP, 10/15/10)

2010        Oct 18, The UN said it is sending 100 more troops to Sudan's oil-producing Abyei region to step up security ahead of a referendum that could pitch the area back into bloodshed.
    (Reuters, 10/18/10)

2010        Oct 19, The UN said that 377 people had died in flooding in central and west Africa, with nearly 1.5 million people affected since the start of the rainy season in June. The highest toll was in Nigeria with 118, followed by Ghana (52), Sudan (50), Benin (43), Chad (24), Mauritania (21), Burkina Faso (16), Cameroon (13), Gambia (12), with other countries reporting less than 10 dead.
    (AFP, 10/19/10)

2010        Oct 20, The United States relaxed sanctions on Sudan to exempt farm equipment, a move seen as part of a wider scheme of carrots and sticks before a sensitive referendum that could split Africa's largest country.
    (Reuters, 10/21/10)

2010        Oct 21, China rejected a UN report that says Chinese bullets were used in attacks on peacekeepers in Sudan's troubled Darfur region, calling the charge groundless.
    (AFP, 10/21/10)

2010        Oct 24, In Sudan the Darfur-based rebel Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) said it was ready to start discussions with international mediators in Qatar, but was not yet prepared to re-join full peace negotiations.
    (AP, 10/25/10)

2010        Oct 25, Libya's Kadhafi Foundation announced projects costing eight million dollars to help Darfur refugees displaced by the conflict in western Sudan to return to their homes.
    (AFP, 10/25/10)

2010        Oct 26, A Southern Sudan official said that northern Sudan leaders are holding an oil-rich region "hostage" in negotiations being held before a January independence referendum.
    (AP, 10/26/10)

2010        Oct 27, US officials said the Obama administration has granted a waiver allowing Chad, CongoDRC, Sudan and Yemen to continue receiving US military aid despite their use of child soldiers. Officials said cutting off aid would do more damage than good.
    (SFC, 10/28/10, p.A2)

2010        Oct 30, Sudan began arresting Darfur activists, just weeks ahead of a southern referendum on secession. 9 activists including a prominent human rights lawyer were arrested over the next 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 11/1/10)

2010        Oct 31, Sudan shut the Khartoum office of Radio Dabanga, whose reports on Darfur have angered it, and arrested 13 staff from the radio station and a rights group that shares its offices. 9 journalists and four HAND activists were detained during the weekend raids.
    (Reuters, 11/2/10)

2010        Nov 3, Sudanese intelligence agents arrested Gaafar al-Subki, a Darfuri journalist working for one the country's leading independent newspapers, As-Sahafa. Darfur rebels clashed with government troops in South Darfur, marking a resumption of fighting after heavy rains had largely subdued hostilities in Sudan's war-torn west.
    (AFP, 11/3/10)(Reuters, 11/4/10)

2010        Nov 4, In western Sudan 3 Latvian helicopter crew working for the United Nations were kidnapped. They were contracted to the UN Humanitarian Air Service, which delivers aid to poverty-stricken Darfur. On Dec 8 officials said the men had been freed with no ransom paid.
    (AP, 11/5/10)(AP, 12/9/10)

2010        Nov 7, Senior US officials said the United States will drop Sudan from its list of state sponsors of terrorism as early as July 2011, if Khartoum ensures two key referendums take place on schedule in January and the results are respected.
    (Reuters, 11/7/10)

2010        Nov 11, In Sudan a Tarco Airline Russian-built Antonov 26 carrying 36-38 people crashed on landing in the western Darfur region killing at least 6 and wounding four others.
    (AP, 11/11/10)(AFP, 11/12/10)
2010        Nov 11, The WHO said a rare parasitic disease has killed 260 people in southern Sudan in the past year, a figure that is threatening to double in the coming months. Kala azar, or visceral leishmaniasis, is a rare tropical disease contracted by the bite of a sand fly.
    (AFP, 11/12/10)

2010        Nov 12, North Sudan's military bombed a disputed north-south border area, but a Southern Sudan army spokesman said the bombing was not a provocation. Casualties were said to be in the single digits.
    (AP, 11/13/10)
2010        Nov 12, After weeks of delays due to Chinese objections, the UN Security Council received a report on violations of the arms embargo in Sudan's western Darfur region that infuriated Beijing. The confidential report said Khartoum committed multiple breaches of the embargo and China has done little to ensure its weaponry is not used in Darfur.
    (Reuters, 11/12/10)

2010        Nov 13, Sudanese Pres. al-Bashir left Khartoum for the annual hajj in Mecca, despite an outstanding arrest warrant issued for al-Bashir by the International Criminal Court for alleged war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide in Darfur.
    (AP, 11/13/10)

2010        Nov 19, US President Barack Obama lifted a ban on US aid and government assistance for Sudan to allow computers to be exported into the country ahead of a key referendum.
    (AFP, 11/20/10)

2010        Nov 23, East African leaders met in the Ethiopian capital to discuss beefing up the African Union force in Somalia and tensions in Sudan ahead of January's referendum on autonomy for the south.
    (AFP, 11/23/10)

2010        Nov 24, Sudan's south accused the northern army of carrying out an airstrike on an army base in southern Sudan in an attempt to derail a January 9 referendum on southern independence.
    (Reuters, 11/24/10)

2010        Dec 1, In southern Sudan northern-backed militias ambushed its army killing 10 soldiers and two civilians in the latest hike in north-south tensions ahead of a January 9 vote on southern independence.
    (Reuters, 12/2/10)
2010        Dec 1, Kuwait began hosting a two-day conference to try to attract aid and investment to resource-rich but neglected east Sudan.
    (AFP, 11/30/10)

2010        Dec 2, In Sudan a protest outside a Western Darfur university against peace mediators ended violently when police fired gunshots to disperse the crowd, leaving two civilians dead.
    (AP, 12/2/10)
2010        Dec 2, In Kuwait City a two-day conference on east Sudan ended. Donors and investors pledged 3.55 billion dollars for the development of resource-rich but neglected area.
    (AFP, 12/2/10)

2010        Dec 6, In Sudan aircraft from the northern Sudanese military began 3 days of bombings in western Bahr el Ghazal state. No casualties were reported. They follow multiple bombing runs by the north in November in a disputed region on the border between neighboring northern Bahr el Ghazal state and southern Darfur state. A committee with representatives from the UN mission in Sudan and the northern and southern Sudanese militaries later found that the bombings violated the 2005 agreement that ended more than 20 years of civil war.
    (AP, 12/16/10)

2010        Dec 8, US State Department spokesman Philip Crowley said the self-determination referendum on Sudan's oil-rich Abyei region will not take place as planned on January 9.
    (AFP, 12/8/10)

2010        Dec 11, The Sudanese army attacked a village in South Darfur for a second consecutive day in violence that has left one person dead and driven at least 250 civilians from their homes.
    (AP, 12/11/10)
2010        Dec 11, South Sudanís ruling party formally confirmed for the first time that it will support secession in a January independence referendum that could lead to the break-up of Africa's largest nation.
    (AFP, 12/11/10)

2010        Dec 12, Lawyers for a Sudanese campaign group launched a legal bid to halt Sudan's referendum on southern independence, accusing organizers of mishandling the process, a move which could derail the January 9 vote.
    (Reuters, 12/12/10)

2010        Dec 13, Israel flew home 150 illegal Sudanese migrants in a secret operation that was the largest such deportation from the Jewish state.
    (AP, 12/14/10)

2010        Dec 14, Sudanese authorities arrested about 30 women who tried to hold a protest in Khartoum against the brutal police whipping of a young woman shown in a video posted on YouTube and charged them with disrupting public order.
    (AFP, 12/14/10)

2010        Dec 16, The UN's human rights chief said that Sudan is blocking aid workers from entering the country ahead of next month's referendum on independence for the south.
    (AP, 12/16/10)

2010        Dec 17, Sudan's army clashed with Darfur rebels for a third time in a week. UN officials said clashes between the Sudanese army and former rebels who signed a peace treaty with Khartoum have forced the displacement of more than 12,000 people in less than a week.
    (Reuters, 12/17/10)(AFP, 12/17/10)

2010        Dec 18, Luis Moreno Ocampo, the prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, said he has evidence Sudanese Pres. Omar al-Bashir has stolen billions of dollars from his impoverished country. The embezzlement accusations were first reported by British newspaper The Guardian, based on a diplomatic cable provided by the Wikileaks website.
    (AP, 12/18/10)

2010        Dec 19, Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir said the country would adopt an Islamic constitution if the south split away in a referendum due next month, in a speech in which he also defended police filmed flogging a woman.
    (Reuters, 12/19/10)

2010        Dec 21, A Sudan military source said 20 soldiers from the south Sudan army (SPLA) have been killed in clashes with rebels led by former general George Athor.
    (AFP, 12/22/10)
2010        Dec 21, The leaders of Egypt and Libya were in Khartoum for talks with Sudanese leaders on the future of Africa's largest country ahead of a referendum that's likely to break it into two.
    (AP, 12/21/10)

2010        Dec 22, In Sudan Mudawi Ibrahim, a prominent Darfur activist, was sentenced to one year in prison and fined on embezzlement charges. He was acquitted on the same charges earlier. Authorities appealed and won a new verdict without a retrial.
    (AP, 12/25/10)

2010        Dec 23, In western Sudan Darfur's main rebel groups fought alongside each other for the first time in years as they clashed with government forces. Rights group Amnesty International said that a Sudanese court had sentenced high profile rights activist Mudawi Ibrahim to one year in jail for embezzlement despite an earlier acquittal which found no fraud within his aid agency, SUDO, one of many shut down last year.
    (AFP, 12/23/10)(Reuters, 12/24/10)

2010        Dec 24, Sudanese government troops killed at least 40 rebels and wounded many more in a new offensive in the country's troubled Darfur region. 3 soldiers also died and 13 were wounded when army forces attacked joint positions of two rebel groups: the Justice and Equality Movement and the Sudan Liberation Movement.
    (AP, 12/25/10)

2010        Dec 29, Sudan demanded a detailed UN audit on a program to rehabilitate ex-civil war soldiers following charges that millions of dollars have been embezzled or mismanaged.
    (AFP, 12/29/10)
2010        Dec 29, Groups including the UN, Harvard University, Google Inc and Not On Our Watch, an organization co-founded by actor George Clooney, launched the Satellite Sentinel Project, a project using satellites to "watch" Sudan for war crimes before a vote that could split the African country in two.
    (Reuters, 12/29/10)

2010        In Sudan the Darfur conflict claimed more than 2,300 lives in 2010, according to new UN figures released in January 2011.
    (AFP, 1/19/11)

2011        Jan 3, In Sudan a Darfur alliance of rebel splinter factions said that it has agreed to sign a final peace settlement with the Sudanese government.
    (AP, 1/3/11)

2011        Jan 8, In Sudan 6 people were killed in clashes between rebel militias and south Sudan's army over the last 24 hours, a day before a referendum in which the south is expected to vote for independence. A spokesman for the southern Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) said his forces ambushed fighters loyal to militia leader Galwak Gai in oil-producing Unity state on Jan 7 and Gai's men launched a counter-attack on Jan 8. Gai was among several southern militia leaders who rebelled after April elections, accusing the south's government of fraud. In Jonglei state deadly clashes between men commanded by militia leader David Yauyau and the southern military left at least one civilian dead.
    (AP, 1/8/11)

2011        Jan 9, In Sudan millions of jubilant south Sudanese started voting in an independence referendum expected to see their war-ravaged region emerge as Africaís 54th sovereign state. Khartoum's government was expected to lose a third of its land, nearly a quarter of its population and much of its main moneymaker, oil. Armed Arab nomads clashed with tribespeople in the disputed Abyei region for the third day leaving 20 people dead. At least 36 people were reported dead in clashes over the last three days between tribespeople and Arab nomads near Sudan's north- south border.
    (Reuters, 1/9/11)(Reuters, 1/9/11)(AP, 1/10/11)(Econ, 1/8/11, p.11)
2011        Jan 9, South Sudan journalist Nhial Bol published the first edition of The Citizen newspaper to mark the referendum that paved the way for South Sudan's full independence six months later. In 2015 Bol quit journalism following death threats.
    (AFP, 9/10/15)

2011        Jan 10, Thousands of south Sudanese poured out to vote for a second straight day in a landmark independence referendum, bringing the region a step closer to becoming the world's newest state. Former US President Jimmy Carter told CNN that Sudan's President Omar Hassan al-Bashir offered to take on all of the country's crippling debt if the south declares independence after a referendum. Armed men killed 10 southern Sudanese in an ambush on a convoy of people returning to the south for the referendum. The attack had happened on the northern side of the border between the northern state of Southern Kordofan and the southern state of Northern Bahr al-Ghazal.
    (AFP, 1/10/11)(Reuters, 1/10/11)(Reuters, 1/11/11)

2011        Jan 12, Sudanese students demonstrating against rising food and petrol prices began 2 days of clashes with police in three towns in the mostly Arab north, including Khartoum.
    (Reuters, 1/15/11)

2011        Jan 13, In Sudan 3 Bulgarians flying aircraft for the World Food Program were kidnapped in the western Darfur region.
    (AP, 1/13/11)
2011        Jan 13, South Sudan's independence vote cleared two major hurdles after former president Jimmy Carter gave the poll his endorsement and organizers said high turnout meant the result would be binding. Former US president Jimmy Carter said that Khartoum wants all of Sudan's $39-billion debt forgiven, saying he had erred in earlier saying it was ready to assume the south's share.
    (Reuters, 1/13/11)(AFP, 1/13/11)

2011        Jan 15, In South Sudan voters began celebrating after the end of a weeklong independence referendum.
    (AP, 1/15/11)

2011        Jan 16, Southern Sudan's Pres. Salva Kiir offered a prayer of forgiveness for northern Sudan and the killings that occurred during a two-decade civil war, as the first results from a weeklong independence referendum showed an overwhelming vote for secession.
    (AP, 1/16/11)

2011        Jan 18, Sudanese security forces arrested Hassan Turabi, Sudan's top Islamist opposition leader, overnight after he called for a Tunisia-style uprising in the country. Around eight other members of Turabi's Islamic Popular Congress Party also were arrested.
    (AP, 1/18/11)

2011        Jan 19, Sudanese police clashed with protesters demanding the release of opposition leader Hassan al-Turabi, who was detained after he called for a "popular revolution" over price rises and political demands.
    (Reuters, 1/19/11)

2011        Jan 20, Sudan's army clashed with fighters from two rebel factions in Darfur in a four-hour fight that left 21 people dead.
    (Reuters, 1/21/11)

2011        Jan 21, A Sudanese man, Al-Amin Musa Al-Amin (25), set himself on fire in the latest instance of self-immolation in the Arab world. He was being treated in hospital for second-degree burns in Omdurman, Khartoum's twin city.
    (AFP, 1/22/11)

2011        Jan 23, Sudanese government forces swept the Zamzam camp on the outskirts of the Darfurís historical capital El-Fasher, arresting 37 people and seizing weapons and ammunition. The camp is considered a stronghold of Minnawi's faction of the Sudan Liberation Army.
    (AFP, 1/25/11)
2011        Jan 23, South Sudanís referendum commission's website said provisional results from the referendum showed that almost 99 percent of voters have chosen independence, after 98.7 percent of the votes had been counted. Turnout exceeded 100 percent in several areas, and a top election official said that some results were being quarantined.
    (AP, 1/23/11)

2011        Jan 24, A Sudanese man, Al-Amin Musa Al-Amin (25), who was hospitalized on Jan 21 after setting himself on fire in a suburb of Khartoum, died from his wounds.
    (AFP, 1/25/11)

2011        Jan 25, Sudan's army clashed with Darfur rebels for the second time in a week. Insurgents said they shot down a helicopter gunship, killing at least three people.
    (Reuters, 1/25/11)

2011        Jan 30, In north Sudan students clashed with police as youths heeded calls to take to the streets for a day of nationwide anti-government protests, despite a heavy security presence on the ground. Mohammed Abdulrahman, a student beaten by police during the demonstrations in Khartoum, died of his wounds in Omdurman hospital.
    (AFP, 1/30/11)(AFP, 1/31/11)
2011        Jan 30, Sudanís government welcomed the preliminary results of the southern Sudan referendum but said there was a "huge amount" to do before it becomes an independent nation. Southern Sudan's referendum commission said close to 99 percent of south Sudanese chose to secede from the north in the landmark January 9-15 referendum.
    (AFP, 1/30/11)

2011        Feb 1, China Harbor Engineering Company, a subsidiary of state-owned China Communications Construction Company, signed a 1.2-billion-dollar contract to build Khartoum's new international airport.
    (AFP, 2/15/11)

2011        Feb 3, Sudanese police beat and tear gassed students protesting in Sennar state, the latest in a series of short-lived demonstrations partly inspired by uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt. Police arrested dozens of people near the scene of a planned protest in the capital's Khartoum North suburb.
    (Reuters, 2/4/11)

2011        Feb 4, In Sudan two days of fighting in Malakal, a flashpoint town near the north-south border, has killed nine people, including a UN staff member.
    (AP, 2/4/11)

2011        Feb 5, In South Sudan a rebellion by former pro-Khartoum militiamen against giving up their heavy weapons sparked clashes in oil-producing Upper Nile state. Fighting in Malakal close to the border with the north, has killed 20 people and wounded at least 24. Soldiers in north Sudan's army fought each other, killing at least 30 in a dispute over who gets to keep the artillery they are holding in Southern Sudan. The fighting took place in two towns in Upper Nile state. 11 soldiers were killed in Paloich and 19 in Melut.
    (AP, 2/5/11)(AP, 2/6/11)

2011        Feb 7, Sudan's Pres. Omar al-Bashir accepted a southern vote for independence in a referendum that is set to create Africa's newest state and open up a fresh period of uncertainty in the increasingly volatile region. The final results of the historic independence referendum showed that 98.83 percent had voted for secession.
    (Reuters, 2/7/11)(AFP, 2/8/11)

2011        Feb 10, The fighting in Southern Sudan between the region's army and a rebel faction left 105 people dead, including 39 civilians, 24 southern soldiers and police officers and 42 rebels. Rebel commander George Athor's troops captured Fangak a day earlier, and the fighting continued today until the southern military retook it. Rebel troops attacked the town of Phom el-Zeraf over two days. Women and children ran for their lives ó straight into a river, where many drowned or were shot to death. Some 240 people, mostly civilians, were killed.
    (AP, 2/11/11)(SFC, 2/12/11, p.A3)(AP, 3/11/11)(http://tinyurl.com/4bsgaep)

2011        Feb 12, In Sudan hundreds of civilians sought refuge at a UN compound in the contested town of Abyei following a spate of violence that killed three people from north Sudan.
    (AP, 2/14/11) 

2011        Feb 13, In Sudan a group of women demonstrated in Khartoum to demand the release of dozens of protesters arrested last month, as 3 journalists were detained in a separate rally.
    (AFP, 2/13/11)

2011        Feb 16, In South Sudan a one-day meeting began in Juba between leaders of all the southís parties, the start of a consultation process to draw up a constitution for the new nation. South Sudan's ruling party accused northern authorities of arming rebels since the region's landmark independence vote last month, including renegade troops behind clashes that killed more than 200 people last week.
    (AFP, 2/16/11)

2011        Feb 24, Sudan's army attacked remnants of a divided rebel movement in the western Darfur region, setting off clashes that killed 25 of the fighters and two government soldiers.
    (AP, 2/25/11)

2011        Feb 27, In Sudan at least 10 people died when a militia attacked a police post in the disputed area of Abyei. The fertile area is claimed by both north and south Sudan and is near several large oil fields.
    (AP, 2/28/11)

2011        Mar 1, In Sudan fresh clashes broke out in the Abyei region between gunmen from the northern-supported nomadic Arab Misseriya people and local the Ngok Dinka tribe, who backed the south.
    (AP, 3/2/11)(Econ, 5/28/11, p.54)

2011        Mar 2, In Sudan at least 70 people were killed and two villages razed in two days of fighting in the flashpoint oil-producing border district of Abyei.
    (AFP, 3/2/11)

2011        Mar 8, Sudanese riot police arrested more than 40 women minutes after they started a protest against rape and rights abuses in the Khartoum suburb of Omdurman.
    (Reuters, 3/8/11)

2011        Mar 12, South Sudan's ruling party said it has suspended talks with Khartoum after uncovering a plot overseen by President Omar al-Bashir to topple it ahead of southern independence in July. Renegotiating a revenue sharing formula was one of the various issued that Juba and Khartoum were trying to resolve ahead of July. A pre-dawn rebel attack on the capital of south Sudan's oil-rich Upper Nile state killed 11 people, with the army battling to regain control of Malakal. The rebel group that launched the attack was commanded by a man called Ulony, whose men fought with the SPLA in Owach, west of Malakal, earlier this week.
    (AFP, 3/12/11)

2011        Mar 13, A top Southern Sudanese official said Southern Sudan is suspending talks and diplomatic contact with northern Sudan over claims that the northern government is funding militias in the south.
    (AP, 3/13/11)

2011        Mar 23, South Sudan's army (SPLA) accused the north of bombing its territory, violating a 2005 peace deal ahead of the oil-producing region's independence.
    (Reuters, 3/23/11)

2011        Apr 5, In Sudan an unidentified plane flew in from the Red Sea and fired a missile at a car travelling from the airport to Port Sudan, killing both passengers and destroying the vehicle. The next day Foreign Minister Ali Ahmad Karti accused Israel of carrying out the air strike.
    (AFP, 4/6/11)

2011        Apr 7, Northern Sudanese Armed Forces have deployed two Mi-24 helicopter gunships and at least nine T-55 tanks about 60 miles (100 km) from Abyei's border according to the US-based Satellite Sentinel Project.
    (AP, 4/7/11)

2011        Apr 10, Sudan said that remnants of a missile used in a mysterious attack that killed two people on April 5 proved that Israel carried out the strike.
    (Reuters, 4/10/11)

2011        Apr 14, In Sudan Ahmed Haroun, a candidate for South Kordofan state governor, said Sudanese militia have killed 17 people in the oil-producing South Kordofan region just two weeks before long-delayed elections. Haroun has been accused by the International Criminal Court of coordinating brutal militias during a counter-insurgency campaign in Darfur. Most of the north's oil reserves have been discovered in South Kordofan. South Kordofan lies on the fault line between north and south Sudan, incorporating: the Nuba population, which largely sided with the south during the war.
    (Reuters, 4/14/11)(http://tinyurl.com/455t92s)

2011        Apr 18, A Sudanese army helicopter crashed in North Darfur, killing all five people on board.
    (AFP, 4/18/11)

2011        Apr 28, Sudanís President Omar al-Bashir warned that Khartoum will not recognize the new state of south Sudan when it declares independence in July if it insists on claiming the disputed Abyei region.
    (AFP, 4/28/11)

2011        May 1, In Sudan tribal clashes over a land dispute in the oil-producing state of South Kordofan left at least 15 people dead. A heavily armed Sudanese military convoy entered the flashpoint border district of Abyei, sparking clashes that left up to 14 people dead. Neither the northern or southern armies are authorized to maintain troops in the disputed Abyei area.
    (AFP, 5/2/11)(AFP, 5/3/11)(AP, 5/4/11)

2011        May 2, In Sudan former civil war foes faced off in polls to elect a new governor and regional assembly in the oil-producing northern state of South Kordofan, a key battleground in the conflict. Sudan's Islamist opposition leader Hassan al-Turabi, who helped slain Al-Qaeda mastermind Osama bin Laden settle in Khartoum in the 1990s, was freed after more than three months in jail.
    (AFP, 5/2/11)

2011        May 8, North and south Sudan agreed to start withdrawing unauthorized troops from the flashpoint Abyei border region, a week after clashes there left 14 people dead. The pullout would begin May 10 and be completed within a week.
    (AFP, 5/9/11)

2011        May 15, Sudan said the northern ruling party won an election for governor in South Kordofan, the north's main oil state, after a vote the south said was rigged, creating a fresh flashpoint before the south secedes in July.
    (Reuters, 5/15/11)
2011        May 15, Sudan's army carried out air strikes against the villages of Labado and Esheraya in the troubled western Darfur region.
    (AP, 5/17/11)

2011        May 19, In Sudan a UN convoy transporting 200 northern army troops was attacked as they were pulling out of the contested region of Abyei along the north-south border. Sudan's army spokesman said northern troops were ambushed by the southern army and suffered "huge losses." A spokesman for the south's Sudan Peoples' Liberation Army (SPLA) said the northern forces provoked the fighting in at attempt to seize the disputed area. 70 northern troops were killed and more than 120 others were missing.
    (AP, 5/20/11)(AP, 5/24/11)

2011        May 21, Southern Sudan's army said the northern army is bombing by air for a second day in the border hotspot of Abyei. Local officials said at least six rebels and soldiers have been killed in clashes between the southern army and rebels over the last 24 hours in Unity state. Northern Sudanese forces with tanks occupied the disputed town of Abyei, scattering southern troops that were there as part of a joint security unit.
    (AP, 5/21/11)(AP, 5/22/11)

2011        May 22, Northern Sudanese troops seized control of most of Abyei district on Sudan's north-south border as the south accused Khartoum of an "illegal invasion" that threatens the lives of thousands.
    (AFP, 5/22/11)

2011        May 23, In Sudan armed men burned and looted the flashpoint town of Abyei. Southern Sudan's military said the northern army is moving to carry out a "full-scale war" in the contested region. Angry Sudanese rallied in the southern capital of Juba, demanding northern forces end their "invasion" of the contested Abyei region.
    (AP, 5/23/11)(AFP, 5/23/11)

2011        May 24, In Sudan gunmen from an Arab tribe fired on four UN helicopters taking off from Abyei a disputed border town at the heart of a new north-south conflict.
    (AP, 5/25/11)

2011        May 25, Sudan's president gave northern troops a "green light" to attack southern forces if provoked. President Barack Obama, speaking at a news conference in London, called for the rapid reinforcement of UN peacekeeping troops in the Abyei region, from which tens of thousands of civilians have fled over the last week.
    (AP, 5/25/11)

2011        May 26, South Sudan's President Salva Kiir called on north Sudan to withdraw its forces from the disputed Abyei region. He also said there would be no war over the incursion and it would not derail independence.
    (Reuters, 5/26/11)

2011        May 28, Sudanís Suna news agency said Khartoum has ordered the official termination of the UN's north-south peacekeeping mission on July 9, the date the south is to declare full independence following a referendum.
    (AFP, 5/29/11)
2011        May 28, South Sudan's vice president flew to Khartoum on a mission to "ease tensions" over Abyei, one week after northern troops overran the contested border region.
    (AFP, 5/28/11)

2011        May 29, Advocacy group Satellite Sentinel Project said new satellite images provide evidence that northern Sudanese troops have committed war crimes, including ethnic cleansing, in the contested border town of Abyei where forces rolled in on May 21. Save the Children's U.K. office said the conflict has displaced up to 35,000 children in the Abyei region.
    (AP, 5/29/11)

2011        May 31, The African Union said representatives from north and south Sudan have agreed to set up a demilitarized zone along their shared border, ten days after the north seized the disputed Abyei region.
    (Reuters, 5/31/11)

2011        Jun 1, Sudanese farmers clashed with police in Gezira state, Sudan's agricultural heartland, while demonstrating against an "unacceptable" government offer to buy their land. Under the Gezira Scheme, set up by colonial ruler Britain in 1925 to cultivate cotton and spanning 840,000 hectares of land divided into lots of 20 feddans (around 8-9 hectares), Khartoum was supposed to pay the farmers rent in return for a share of production, but had not done so for more than 40 years.
    (AP, 6/1/11)

2011        Jun 3, The UN Security Council demanded that Sudan withdraw troops from Abyei and stop looting and attacks in the region disputed with rival southern Sudan.
    (AP, 6/4/11)

2011        Jun 8, In Sudan an eyewitness allegedly saw 100 bodies or more put into a pit in Southern Kordofan state, where the Arab military has been targeting a black ethnic minority loyal to the military of the newly independent Republic of South Sudan. On July 14 the Satellite Sentinel Project released images showing what appeared to be freshly dug grave sites in Southern Kordofan state. In August satellite imagery revealed the existence more mass graves, bringing the total number of mass graves sited there to eight.
    (AP, 7/14/11)(AP, 8/24/11)

2011        Jun 9, In Sudan fighting resumed for a 5th day along the north-south order.
    (SFC, 6/10/11, p.A2)

2011        Jun 16, The Sudanese army said it will continue to fight by all available means to stop the rebellion in South Kordofan, as concern grew over the humanitarian impact of the conflict. Aid workers and a UN report said fighting has erupted along a new front near the internal border between north and south Sudan with dozens of people reported killed.
    (AFP, 6/16/11)(AP, 6/16/11)

2011        Jun 17, The army of north Sudan shelled a town just south of the flashpoint Abyei border region, with tensions rising along the frontier just weeks before southern independence. Satellite images showed northern Sudanese military vehicles including heavy transports and artillery massing in the capital of the conflict-stricken Southern Kordofan state.
    (AFP, 6/17/11)(Reuters, 6/19/11)

2011        Jun 20, Rival north and south Sudan signed a deal to demilitarize their disputed frontier region of Abyei and let in an Ethiopian peacekeeping force. Sudanese intelligence agents were said to have posed as Red Crescent workers and ordered some 7000 civilians to leave a UN camp in Kadugli, Southern Kordofan. The IFRC launched an investigation but found no evidence that its emblem was misused.
    (AP, 6/21/11)(AP, 6/23/11)(AP, 6/28/11)(AP, 7/15/11)

2011        Jun 22, In Sudan sporadic air strikes and shelling began taking place in the eastern and southern parts of South Kordofan's Nuba Mountains, home to Sudan's indigenous non-Arab Nuba. One woman was killed and four others, including two children, were wounded in an aerial attack on Kauda. The Nuba peoples had fought with former southern rebels, the SPLA, during their 1983-2005 war with Khartoum.
    (AP, 6/26/11)

2011        Jun 25, A South Sudanese officials said 8 members of a militia tied to the northern government were killed during an attack on Turalei. 3 South Sudanese soldiers were also killed.
    (SSFC, 6/26/11, p.A2)
2011        Jun 25, In Iran Pakistani Pres. Asif Ali Zardari and his Afghan counterpart Hamid Karzai attended an international anti-terrorism conference alongside Sudan's Pres. Omar al-Bashir, Iraqi Pres. Jalal Talabani and Tajik Pres. Emomali Rahmon. The presidents of Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan agreed to join forces in combating militancy.
    (AP, 6/25/11)(AFP, 6/25/11)

2011        Jun 27, The UN Security Council ordered a 4,200-strong Ethiopian peacekeeping force to Abyei to monitor the withdrawal of northern Sudanese troops who occupied the disputed border region on May 21.
    (AFP, 6/29/11)

2011        Jun 28, Sudanese leader Omar al-Bashir arrived in China for talks with President Hu Jintao.
    (AFP, 6/28/11)

2011        Jun 29, Sudanís state media said the government has agreed to appoint a vice president from the war-torn Darfur region, taking a step toward satisfying a key rebel demand for greater power-sharing.
    (AFP, 6/29/11)
2011        Jun 29, North and south Sudan agreed to create a demilitarized buffer zone along their common border just days before the country splits.
    (AFP, 6/29/11)
2011        Jun 29, In China Sudan's Pres. Omar al-Bashir, wanted on a war crimes warrant, won pledges from China and its state-owned energy firm they will continue investing in his country after its resource-rich southern region becomes independent next month.
    (AP, 6/29/11)

2011        Jun 30, In Sudan an Ethiopian peacekeeper was killed in West Darfur and another wounded when an unidentified gunman fired at their vehicle.
    (AFP, 7/2/11)

2011        Jul 1, Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir ordered the army to fight in South Kordofan until it has "cleaned" the border state of rebels.
    (AFP, 7/1/11)

2011        Jul 2, Sudanís northern army carried out cross-border air strikes that killed three civilians and wounded 17 in south Sudan's oil-producing Unity state just a week before independence.
    (AFP, 7/3/11)

2011        Jul 4, North and south Sudan agreed to continue negotiating outstanding issues between the two sides after southern independence on July 9.
    (AFP, 7/5/11)

2011        Jul 5, Sudanese journalist Fatima Ghazali was jailed for a month, and her editor fined, for publishing reports on the alleged rape of Safiya Ishaq, a female opposition activist, by security force personnel after her arrest in Khartoum last February.
    (AFP, 7/6/11)
2011        Jul 5, A boat caught fire of Sudanís northeastern coast and almost 200 African migrants, on their way to Saudi Arabia, were feared drowned. 3 migrants were rescued.
    (SFC, 7/6/11, p.A2)

2011        Jul 9, South Sudan raised the flag of its new nation for the first time, as thousands of South Sudanese citizens and dozens of international dignitaries swarmed the new country capital of Juba to celebrate the country's birth. Salva Kiir was sworn in as South Sudan's president. South Sudan expected to become the 193rd country recognized by the United Nations next week and the 54th UN member state in Africa.
    (AP, 7/9/11)

2011        Jul 12, Sudan's Pres. Omar al-Bashir said his country will issue a new currency following the loss of oil revenues resulting from South Sudan's independence last week.
    (AP, 7/12/11)

2011        Jul 14, The Doha Document for Peace in Darfur, finalized in May in Qatar, was signed by the Sudanese government and the Liberation and Justice Movement, one of a myriad of rebel groups.
    (Econ, 4/6/13, p.57)(http://tinyurl.com/bg6u952)
2011        Jul 14, The Satellite Sentinel Project released images showing what appear to be freshly dug sites in Southern Kordofan state, where Sudan's Arab military has been targeting a black ethnic minority loyal to the military of the newly independent Republic of South Sudan. The group said that an eyewitness reported seeing 100 bodies or more put into one of the pits on June 8.
    (AP, 7/14/11)

2011        Jul 18, In Sudan the Darfur rebel group Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) said that it carried out a deadly attack on Sudanese army positions in South Kordofan alongside anti-government forces there.
    (AFP, 7/18/11)

2011        Jul 22, Sudanese police used tear gas in Khartoum to break up three separate protests at the lack of running water, two days after a similar demonstration in neighboring Gezira state.
    (AFP, 7/22/11)

2011        Jul 24, Sudan launched a new currency, six days after the newly independent south did so amid fears of a currency war, but the central bank said it was ready to negotiate with Juba on the old money.
    (AFP, 7/24/11)

2011        Jul 25, Sudan jailed journalist Amal Habani for reporting the alleged rape of a female opposition activist by security forces.
    (AFP, 7/25/11)
2011        Jul 25, A Southern Sudanese official said northern Sudan has declared "economic war" by violating an agreement and issuing a new currency just weeks after the two countries split. He said the north had agreed not to issue a new currency until six months after the south did. The move will cost the southern government at least $700 million.
    (AP, 7/25/11)

2011        Jul 27, UNAMID, the joint African Union-UN peacekeeping force, said air strikes 2 weeks ago around the village of Abu Hamara in Sudan's war-torn Darfur region killed one civilian and prompted villagers to flee their homes.
    (AFP, 7/27/11)
2011        Jul 27, Chadian rebels denounced the repatriation and imprisonment of 27 senior members of their force captured in Sudan.
    (AFP, 7/27/11)

2011        Aug 2, In Sudan a landmine killed four Ethiopian UN peacekeepers and badly wounded seven others on patrol in the disputed territory of Abyei.
    (AFP, 8/2/11)
2011        Aug 2, In Sudan a heavy rain storm in West Darfur caused two buildings housing Sudanese soldiers to collapse, killing 20 and injuring another 30.
    (AFP, 8/3/11)

2011        Aug 5, Sudanís foreign ministry said it has blocked a shipment of southern oil after Juba refused to pay customs fees, escalating a row between the two sides, with the south accusing Khartoum of sabotaging its economy. The ship was released the next day but negotiations over transit fees remained stalled.
    (AFP, 8/5/11)(AFP, 8/6/11)

2011        Aug 7, Sudanese security forces seized all the copies of Al-Ahdath newspaper from the printers, in the latest sign of a clampdown on independent media in Khartoum.
    (AFP, 8/7/11)

2011        Aug 8, Sudan said it has granted a petroleum exploration license to China after visiting Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi and President Omar al-Bashir held talks in Khartoum.
    (AFP, 8/8/11)

2011        Aug 15, The United Nations called for a thorough probe into alleged war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Sudan's South Kordofan region between June 5-30, shortly before the nation formally separated into two countries.
    (AP, 8/15/11)

2011        Aug 19, In South Sudan fighters loyal to rebel leader George Athor crossed the border from north Sudan and attacked a town in Upper Nile state. The violence left 60 people dead, including seven soldiers and 53 militia members. Soldiers managed to repel the attackers.
    (AP, 8/21/11)

2011        Aug 23, Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir declared a two-week ceasefire in South Kordofan state which has been rocked since June by violent clashes between the Sudanese army and Nuba rebels.
    (AFP, 8/23/11)

2011        Aug 30, International rights groups accused Sudan's government of killing at least 26 people in indiscriminate aerial bombardments of a contested region in the country's main oil-producing state. Researchers from Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch investigated 13 air strikes in the Kauda, Delami, and Kurchi areas of South Kordofan during a week in late August.
    (AP, 8/30/11)

2011        Sep 1, In Sudan 17 civilians were killed in attacks by the SPLA in the areas of Um Dahilib and Murung, in the Kalugi region of South Kordofan state.
    (AFP, 9/3/11)
2011        Sep 1, South Sudan completed the swift circulation of its new currency, a move matched by Khartoum, but strengthening the south's formal independence from the north less than two months ago.
    (AFP, 9/1/11)

2011        Sep 2, Sudan's president declared a state of emergency in Blue Nile state and fired elected governor Malik Agar after clashes broke out between armed forces and a rebel group. The SPLM-North's secretary general Yasser Arman met with leaders of the three main Darfuri rebel groups to form the nucleus of a united political and military movement for change.
    (AP, 9/3/11)(AFP, 9/4/11)

2011        Sep 3, Sudan's government shut down all the offices of the country's largest opposition party, the SPLM-North, charging that it was not a legally represented political party. The SPLM-North vowed to fight for regime change through armed struggle and mass protests, and called for international support. The UN refugee agency said some 16,000 people have fled across the Sudanís border to Ethiopia since fighting erupted on Sep 1.
    (AFP, 9/3/11)(AP, 9/3/11)

2011        Sep 7, The UN humanitarian office said Sudan has denied it and other aid agencies access to Blue Nile state, where at least 50,000 people have been displaced by fighting that erupted last week. The armed forces clashed with remnants of Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) near Bau town in Blue Nile state, and reportedly inflicted heavy losses on them.
    (AFP, 9/7/11)

2011        Sep 8, The governments of the rival Sudans struck a new agreement to withdraw their troops from the flashpoint border region of Abyei where UN forces are now in place. They agreed that between September 11 and 30 there is going to be a redeployment or withdrawal of the troops" from Abyei by both sides.
    (AFP, 9/8/11)
2011        Sep 8, Thirteen Sudanese police officers were killed and 30 wounded in clashes with an armed gang as they tried to rescue three hostages in the war-torn Darfur region.
    (AFP, 9/9/11)

2011        Sep 16, The UNHCR warned that more than 8,000 people have fled violence in Sudan's South Kordofan state to South Sudan and more are expected to arrive.
    (AFP, 9/16/11)

2011        Sep 19, In Saudi Arabia Abdul Hamid al-Fakki, a Sudanese man, was executed for the crime of sorcery.
    (Econ, 9/24/11, p.73)
2011        Sep 19, The UN refugee agency said nearly 3,000 Eritreans were flooding into Sudan and Ethiopia every month from Eritrea, a country of some five million people and about the size of England.
    (AFP, 9/19/11)

2011        Sep 19, Sudan's official news agency said Sudan and its newest neighbor, breakaway South Sudan, have signed their first agreement since their split in July. The accord sets out 10 crossing points between the two nations for people and goods.
    (AP, 9/19/11)
2011        Sep 19, The Sudanese army attacked a heavily armed convoy of Darfur rebels, Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), near the war-torn region's border with Libya, killing one and seizing a truck load of weapons. The rebels were traveling in two big vehicles, one full of fuel and the other full of weapons, that they had hijacked in Libya.
    (AFP, 9/20/11)

2011        Sep 22, Sudan approved measures aimed at boosting agricultural output and reining in spiraling food prices by cutting tax on some food products and easing imports. A deadly gunbattle in the North Darfur village of Tamaru broke between nomads and farmers trying to stop them crossing their land. Rebels initially blamed the Sudanese army.
    (AFP, 9/22/11)(AFP, 9/23/11)(AP, 9/25/11)

2011        Sep 23, The Satellite Sentinel Project said images from Sudan show heavily camouflaged military equipment and several thousand troops moving south toward the rebel stronghold of Kurmuk in Blue Nile state. The group said the force appears to be equipped with tanks, artillery and infantry fighting vehicles.
    (AP, 9/23/11)

2011        Sep 26, In Sudan police fired tear gas and used batons to break up a protest in Khartoum against the punitive rise in food prices, witnesses said, with protesters burning tires and demanding cheaper food.
    (AFP, 9/27/11)

2011        Sep 27, Sudanese security officers shut down the independent Al-Jarida newspaper, in what rights groups say is the latest sign of increasing political repression. Sudanese riot police used tear gas to disperse youths demonstrating in Khartoum against unaffordable food prices, in the second incident of its kind in just two days.
    (AFP, 9/27/11)
2011        Sep 27, The UN refugee agency said some 25,000 people have fled Sudan's troubled Blue Nile state to Ethiopia in the last three weeks amid fighting between the Sudanese army and rebels.
    (AFP, 9/27/11)

2011        Sep 28, In Sudan a Chinese oil worker was killed and another wounded by unidentified gunmen in South Kordofan, Sudan's only oil producing state where the army is battling insurgents. A leader of the local Misseriya tribe said criminals had carried out the attack on the Chinese workers.
    (AFP, 10/3/11)

2011        Sep 30, Sudan failed to meet an agreed troop withdrawal deadline for the contested Abyei region and blocked the return of displaced southern residents.
    (AFP, 9/31/11)

2011        Oct 8, South Sudanese President Salva Kiir led the first top-level delegation to Khartoum since southern secession. After one-to-one talks both presidents pledged to work together for peace and stability, and to put the years of conflict behind them.
    (AFP, 10/8/11)

2011        Oct 10, In Sudan attackers killed UNAMID three peacekeepers and wounded six others near the Zam Zam displaced persons camp in North Darfur. One assailant was killed.
    (AP, 10/11/11)

2011        Oct 13, Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir arrived in Malawi for a regional trade summit, in defiance of the international war crimes warrant against him.
    (AFP, 10/13/11)

2011        Oct 25, Human Rights Watch said Sudan has condemned more than 300 Eritreans asylum seekers to "certain detention and abuse" by deporting them back to Eritrea, one of the "most brutal" countries in the world. Last week Sudan handed more than 300 Eritreans to the neighboring country's military without screening them for refugee status.
    (AFP, 10/25/11)

2011        Oct 28, The UN refugee agency said fresh aerial bombings in Sudan's border Blue Nile state are sending more refugees fleeing to Ethiopia, with 2,000 arriving in the last four days.
    (AFP, 10/28/11)

2011        Oct 31, Hundreds of SPLM-North rebels were killed in clashes with the Sudanese army in South Kordofan, Sudan's only oil producing state where the army is battling insurgents.
    (AFP, 10/31/11)

2011        Nov 3, Sudan said its army has captured the key rebel stronghold of Kurmuk in the country's war-torn border state of Blue Nile.
    (AFP, 11/3/11)

2011        Nov 6, In Sudan unidentified gunmen killed a UN peacekeeper and injured two others in an attack on a patrol in the war-ravaged Darfur region.
    (AFP, 11/7/11)

2011        Nov 10, Military aircraft from Sudan crossed the new international border with South Sudan and dropped bombs in and around a camp filled with refugees fleeing violence in the north. At least 12 people were killed. The violence in and near the Yida refugee camp, located 10 miles (15 km) south of the border, came one day after bombings were reported in another region of South Sudan. A cross-border attack by Sudanese troops on a military base left 18 fighters dead and 73 wounded.
    (AP, 11/10/11)(AFP, 11/11/11)

2011        Nov 12, In Sudan an alliance of rebel groups committed to regime change said that a key Darfur rebel movement had joined them, as they convened for a second meeting in the Nuba Mountains.
    (AFP, 11/12/11)
2011        Nov 12, Global aid organization Oxfam said it has withdrawn 22 staff from South Sudan's Upper Nile state because of escalating violence along the newly independent country's tense border with the north.
    (AFP, 11/13/11)

2011        Nov 17, Sudanís government blocked South Sudanese oil exports through its Red Sea port due to a dispute over transit fees. The pipeline was not been shut down, but the south was not being allowed to ship its oil cargo out of Port Sudan.
    (AFP, 11/28/11)

2011        Nov 28, A Sudanese court sentenced seven members of a Darfur rebel group to death by hanging for ambushing a convoy in Jan, 2010, and killing 54 soldiers escorting it.
    (AFP, 11/28/11)
2011        Nov 28, A Kenyan judge issued a warrant for Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir, wanted by an international court for genocide, after the government failed to arrest him during a visit last year.
    (AFP, 11/28/11)

2011        Nov 30, Sudan said it will take 23% of the south's vital oil exports as payment in kind, after talks in Addis Ababa failed, but will not block Juba's exports. Sudan was looking to charge the south $36 per barrel for the use of its oil infrastructure, in contrast to a southern offer of 70 cents. Southern oil minister Stephen Dhieu Dau rejected the north's fee as "extortionate."
    (AP, 11/30/11)

2011        Dec 7, Sudan's ruling party approved a new coalition government, giving representation to 14 other parties but keeping the top cabinet posts.
    (AFP, 12/7/11)
2011        Dec 7, China inserted itself into the fight over oil between Sudan and its former territory South Sudan, sending a special envoy to try to break a deadlock between two rivals who often appear on the brink of renewed conflict.
    (AP, 12/7/11)

2011        Dec 12, The world court (ICC) said it was referring Malawi to the UN Security Council over its refusal to arrest Sudan's Pres. Omar al-Bashir, wanted by the court for genocide, during his October visit for a meeting of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA).
    (AFP, 12/12/11)

2011        Dec 19, Sudanís parliament raised taxes on the Internet, mobile phone calls and other telecommunications in a bid to help cover lost oil income from South Sudan.
    (AP, 12/20/11)

2011        Dec 20, Sudanese riot police used batons to beat youths shouting anti-regime slogans in support of residents displaced by the giant Merowe dam.
    (AFP, 12/20/11)

2011        Dec 22, A rebel spokesman said troops from Sudan's Darfur region have begun moving towards the capital Khartoum, more than three years after they made an unprecedented attack on the capital.
    (AFP, 12/23/11)

2011        Dec 23, The Sudanese army killed the leader of the main Darfur rebel group in fighting. Khalil Ibrahim, who led the Darfur-based Justice and Equality Movement, or JEM, was killed during a military offensive in North Kordofan state to retaliate for a deadly rebel attack there a day earlier. Ibrahim and several associates were killed in Wad Banda.
    (AP, 12/25/11)(AP, 1/26/12)

2011        Dec 25, Sudanese riot police and university students battled in central Khartoum after students staged an exam boycott.
    (AFP, 12/25/11)

2011        Dec 29, Sudanese air raids killed 17 people in the South Sudan border state of Western Bahr al-Ghazal, the second day of stepped-up bombing along the northern frontier.
    (AFP, 12/29/11)

2011        Dec 30, In Sudan all six crewmen aboard a military helicopter were killed when it crash-landed and burned in North Kordofan state.
    (AFP, 12/30/11)

2012        Jan 2, Sudanese authorities shut down Rai al-Shaab, the newspaper of the opposition Popular Congress Party, just months after it started publishing again following an earlier raid.
    (AFP, 1/2/12)

2012        Jan 7, In Sudan aerial bombing reportedly left 16 villagers and five government troops dead near the South Sudanese frontier. Rebels later said more bombing the next day around Al-Buram killed another seven civilians.
    (AFP, 1/14/12)

2012        Jan 8, In Sudan 3 people were killed and several injured during a stampede after police fired tear gas at an Independence Day celebration in the Sennar state capital of Singa.
    (AFP, 1/8/12)

2012        Jan 12, Speaking in Sudan the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Antonio Guterres, said Eritrean refugees are being kidnapped and sometimes killed by human traffickers. He called for global action against the crimes.
    (AFP, 1/12/12)

2012        Jan 13, In Sudan Hussein Khogli, editor in chief of Al-Wan, said authorities have ordered his independent daily newspaper to suspend publishing. The previous dayís edition was blocked from distribution without explanation.
    (AFP, 1/13/12)

2012        Jan 14, The Sudanese military denied bombing civilians in a Jan 7-8 operation which rebels said left 16 villagers and five government troops dead near the South Sudanese frontier.
    (AFP, 1/14/12)

2012        Jan 15, In Sudan international oil companies gathered in Khartoum to study six exploration blocks that Sudan opened for bidding ahead of talks aimed at resolving a long-running oil fee dispute with South Sudan.
    (AFP, 1/15/12)

2012        Jan 16, The Sudanese Media Center said intelligence officers have broken up a ring preparing to smuggle Eritreans to Israel, just days after UN officials voiced concern over the gangs.
    (AFP, 1/16/12)
2012        Jan 16, In Sudan rebels in South Kordofan reportedly captured El-Ahmier, a key outpost near the state capital. The country's armed forces denied even being in the area.
    (AFP, 1/17/12)

2012        Jan 20, South Sudan ordered the shutdown of oil production that provides some 98 percent of its revenue, amid a deepening row with Khartoum over pipeline fees. Shutting down production would not be immediate, and that South Sudanese President Salva Kiir would meet with Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir before it was stopped.
    (AFP, 1/20/12)

2012        Jan 21, In Sudan gunmen ambushed a UN-African Union peacekeeping patrol in the conflict-stricken Darfur region, killing one Nigerian soldier and wounding three.
    (AFP, 1/21/12)

2012        Jan 23, South Sudanese President Salva Kiir accused Sudan of stealing $815 million of the crude oil that makes up the new nation's economic lifeblood, as it began a production shutdown in protest. At least one Sudanese refugee boy was injured and 14 others left missing following an air raid in South Sudan.
    (AFP, 1/23/12)(AFP, 1/24/12)

2012        Jan 25, In Sudan arson and looting broke out in the war-ravaged Darfur region after a protest against the appointment of a new governor. Hundreds had turned out in Nyala to show support for Abdul Hamid Kasha, the ousted elected governor. Kasha was offered the post of governor in the newly created state of East Darfur but refused.
    (AFP, 1/25/12)

2012        Jan 26, In Sudan the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM). A Darfur region rebel group, said it has chosen Gibril Ibrahim (56), a one-time university professor, to head the movement after his brother, the former leader, was killed last month.
    (AFP, 1/26/12)

2012        Jan 28, Sudan agreed to free ships with South Sudanese oil as a goodwill gesture to ease negotiations aimed at resolving a furious row over pipeline transit fees.
    (AFP, 1/28/12)
2012        Jan 28, In Sudan's South Kordofan state rebels of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) captured 29 Chinese workers after a battle with government forces. Nine members of the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) were also being held. On Feb 7 all 29 Chinese workers were released and flown to Kenya. Sudan's foreign ministry spokesman said that in addition to the 29 freed Chinese, 17 others had earlier been "released" by the Sudan Armed Forces but one other Chinese died.
    (AFP, 1/29/12)(AFP, 2/7/12)
2012        Jan 28, In South Sudan a Nuer tribe from Unity state attacked a Dinka community in neighboring Warrap state. 70 people were reported killed and attackers took more than 4,000 cattle. On Jan 30 South Sudan accused its former foes in the Khartoum government of arming gunmen who killed over 40 people in the cattle raid.
    (AP, 1/30/12)(AFP, 1/30/12)

2012        Jan 29, Sudan released three oil tankers held in a dispute with breakaway South Sudan, which has accused Khartoum of theft.
    (AFP, 1/30/12)

2012        Jan 30, Sudanese officials said the army has freed 14 Chinese road construction workers, part of a group reportedly abducted by militants on Jan 28 in a remote region in the country's south. China had an estimated 10,000 workers in Sudan.
    (AP, 1/30/12)(Econ, 1/21/12, SR p.35)
2012        Jan 30, The World Food Program estimated that as many as a half million people could be forced to flee Sudan if the government in Khartoum does not allow humanitarian aid into the country. A top US official said that a humanitarian crisis is looming.
    (AP, 1/30/12)

2012        Feb 1, Sudan's military bombed a Bible school built by a US Christian aid group, prompting students and teachers at the school to run for their lives in the Nuba Mountains in South Kordofan state. The Heiban Bible College was built by Samaritan's Purse, a North Carolina-based aid group.
    (AP, 2/3/12)

2012        Feb 10, The UN refugee agency said it needs $145 million (110 million euros) in extra funds to help thousands fleeing fighting in Sudan's Blue Nile and South Kordofan states.
    (AFP, 2/10/12)

2012        Feb 12, Sudan and breakaway South Sudan agreed to cooperate in the transfer of more than 300,000 people to the South. The deal allowed South Sudanese to choose where they want to live and set an April 8 deadline for 500,000 people to go back to their homeland or to "normalize" their stay in Sudan.
    (AFP, 2/12/12)(AP, 2/14/12)

2012        Feb 14, An Eritrean opposition party official, Mohammed Ali Ibrahim, went missing in eastern Sudan. His party feared he may have been kidnapped by Asmara's security agents.
    (AFP, 2/16/12)

2012        Feb 15, South Sudan said Khartoum's decision to stop the return of hundreds of thousands of Southerners by barge on the White Nile was a looming disaster, and that alternative means were untenable.
    (AFP, 2/15/12)

2012        Feb 17, Sudanese police raided student dormitories at Khartoum's main university, beating and arresting hundreds of students in the latest crackdown on youth protesters. Students at the university began protesting in late December to demand compensation for people displaced from their homes by construction of a dam near the city of Dammir. They also have been calling for the right to form a student union and for an end to police violence.
    (AP, 2/17/12)

2012        Feb 18, Mohammed Wardi (b.1932, Sudan's lead singer, died.
    (AFP, 2/19/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohammed_Wardi)

2012        Feb 19, In Sudan Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebels in the Darfur region detained 49 international peacekeepers and three suspected Sudanese intelligence agents for "investigation" after they entered a rebel-held area. The next day Rebels freed all 49 international peacekeepers, but continued to hold three Sudanese.
    (AFP, 2/20/12)

2012        Feb 20, Sudanese editors said intelligence agents have blocked the publication of articles alleging they bugged the offices of a leading opposition politician. Security officers seized all copies being printed of Al Tayar, which carried on the front page allegations by the Islamist opposition leader Hassan al-Turabi.
    (AFP, 2/20/12)(AFP, 2/22/12)

2012        Feb 22, Sudan's Al Tayar newspaper editor said the countryís intelligence agency has suspended publication of the paper, which tried to report allegations the agency spied on an opposition political party.
    (AFP, 2/22/12)
2012        Feb 22, The Sudan Liberation Army faction of Minni Minawi attacked a government position at Alawna, south of the North Darfur state capital of El Fasher. Rebels later claimed that a dozen government soldiers were killed. An official said 10 civilians were the victims.
    (AFP, 2/24/12)

2012        Feb 26, In Sudan rebels in a "revolutionary front" aimed at toppling the Khartoum regime claimed their first joint attack against government forces. The offensive happened at Jau, a disputed area in an oil-rich region on the poorly defined border. Rebels later said 150 government soldiers were killed in the attack along the disputed border.
    (AFP, 2/26/12)(AFP, 2/28/12)

2012        Feb 27, In Sudan rebels fighting along the disputed border with the breakaway south said they had seized the key area of Taruje, near the southern border, clearing a path for refugees fleeing the fighting.
    (AFP, 2/27/12)

2012        Feb 29, In Sudan one peacekeeper was killed and three wounded when unknown gunmen ambushed a patrol of the African Union-United Nations mission to Darfur (UNAMID).
    (AFP, 2/29/12)

2012        Mar 1, The International Criminal Court said it has issued an arrest warrant for Sudanese Defense Minister Abdelrahim Mohamed Hussein (60) for crimes against the civilian population in Darfur.
    (AFP, 3/1/12)
2012        Mar 1, South Sudan officials said Sudanese fighter jets have bombed oil and water wells deep inside South Sudan and its ground troops have crossed into contested oil-rich border regions. Khartoum swiftly denied the claims.
    (AFP, 3/1/12)

2012        Mar 6, Talks between Sudan and South Sudan resumed in the Ethiopian capital to resolve a furious oil dispute as tensions remain high between the two nations.
    (AFP, 3/6/12)
2012        Mar 6, In Sudan Patrick Noonan, a British aid worker working for the UN World Food Program, was abducted by armed men in the Darfur region. He was released after 86 days.
    (AFP, 5/30/12)

2012        Mar 7, Qatarís official QNA news agency reported that the government has promised to invest $2 billion in Sudan, as Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir visited the gas-rich state.
    (AFP, 3/7/12)

2012        Mar 16, In Washington, DC, actor George Clooney and several members of the US Congress were handcuffed and arrested outside Sudan's embassy as they demanded an end to an offensive they fear will cause thousands to starve.
    (AFP, 3/16/12)

2012        Mar 21, The United States urged Sudan to allow in food shipments immediately to avert a humanitarian disaster, as Hollywood star George Clooney accused the Khartoum government of war crimes. Clooney testified before a Senate committee at which US officials warned that some 250,000 people could soon go hungry.
    (AFP, 3/22/12)

2012        Mar 26, Sudan and South Sudan clashed in the disputed border town of Jau, prompting Sudan to cancel Pres. al-Bashir's trip to meet with South Sudan President Salva Kiir next week.
    (AP, 3/27/12)

2012        Mar 27, In Sudan 3 people were killed, including one apparently shot dead by government troops, in a dispute over a market in the Darfur region.
    (AFP, 3/28/12)
2012        Mar 27, South Sudan said Sudan's military bombed oil fields in the town of Bentiu.
    (AP, 3/27/12)

2012        Mar 30, Sudanese troops fought deadly battles with rebel fighters in the strategic village of Talodi, close to the border with the newly independent south.
    (AFP, 3/30/12)

2012        Apr 1, In Ethiopia African Union mediators redoubled their efforts to kickstart crisis talks between Sudan and South Sudan after fresh fighting that Khartoum accuses Juba of backing.
    (AFP, 4/1/12)

2012        Apr 3, In Sudanís North Darfur region aerial bombardments and pro-government militia attacked areas around Sortony, forcing thousands of civilians to flee.
    (Econ, 4/14/12, p.57)  

2012        Apr 4, South Sudan said it shot down a Sudanese fighter jet after two military planes dropped bombs around its oil fields, but Sudan denied it had lost such an aircraft.
    (AP, 4/4/12)

2012        Apr 9, Airlines cancelled flights from Sudan to the newly independent South, after new rules treating the route as international took effect.
    (AFP, 4/9/12)

2012        Apr 10, South Sudanese troops moved into Heglig, an oil-rich border town claimed by Sudan, as fighting intensified between the countries over who controls the area.
    (AFP, 4/11/12)

2012        Apr 11, Sudan and South Sudan ordered mass civilian mobilizations for defense as their armies battled along their contested border, raising the specter of a return to all-out war.
    (AFP, 4/11/12)

2012        Apr 12, South Sudan's President Salva Kiir rejected calls to pull out from contested border regions, but said he did not want war with Khartoum. Sudanese war planes dropped five bombs at dawn targeting a strategic bridge on the edge of Bentiu, the capital of the oil-producing Unity border state.
    (AFP, 4/12/12)

2012        Apr 15, The first batch of Sudanese prisoners of war captured in days of bloody fighting arrived in the South Sudanese capital, as the South's army said clashes continued in contested border regions. A Sudanese division raided Mugum, killed 25 rebels and seized a large quantity of weapons and equipment.
    (AFP, 4/15/12)(AP, 4/16/12)

2012        Apr 16, Sudan's parliament voted unanimously to brand the government of South Sudan an enemy, after southern troops invaded the north's main oilfield. The Sudan Media Center reported that Sudan's army took control of Mugum, a stronghold of the southern army in Blue Nile state. Officials said clashes have spread along the border of Sudan and South Sudan. Sudan's military bombed an oil well outside Heglig.
    (AFP, 4/16/12)(AP, 4/16/12)(AP, 4/17/12)

2012        Apr 17, Along the Sudan-South Sudan border a firefight killed seven South Sudan soldiers and 15 Sudan soldiers. It reportedly began after a Sudanese soldier shot a South Sudan soldier who was getting water from the river.
    (AFP, 4/18/12)

2012        Apr 18, Sudanís Pres. Omar el-Bashir threatened to topple the government of South Sudan and liberate its people.
    (SFC, 4/19/12, p.A2)

2012        Apr 19, South Sudan said it repulsed four attacks from Sudan over a 24-hour period as fighting on the border showed no signs of slowing. A Sudanese air raid struck a Heglig oil processing facility, setting it ablaze. A pipeline was damaged and oil poured into the ground.
    (AP, 4/19/12)(AFP, 4/24/12)

2012        Apr 20, Sudan said its forces have retaken the main town in the Heglig oil region 10 days after South Sudanese troops seized it. The announcement came shortly after South Sudanese President Salva Kiir ordered the immediate withdrawal of his troops from Heglig, following intensified global diplomatic efforts to pull the two nations from the brink of wider war.
    (AFP, 4/20/12)

2012        Apr 21, In Sudan a Muslim mob has set ablaze a Catholic church frequented by Southern Sudanese in the capital Khartoum.
    (AP, 4/22/12)

2012        Apr 23, Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir said there will be no more talks with South Sudan, as fresh Sudanese air raids drew swift condemnation from the US and France. Sudanese bombs fell on a key bridge and a market, killing at least two children in the state capital of Bentiu. Sudanís armed forces commander said more than 1,000 South Sudanese troops died during the battle for the oilfield of Heglig.
    (AFP, 4/23/12)

2012        Apr 24, South Sudan's Pres. Salva Kiir, on a visit to Beijing where he met President Hu Jintao, said his "neighbor in Khartoum has declared war on the Republic of South Sudan." Kiir accused Sudan of declaring war as Khartoum's fighter jets bombed border regions in defiance of international calls for restraint.
    (AFP, 4/24/12)

2012        Apr 25, South Sudan freed 14 Sudanese prisoners of war as a "goodwill gesture" despite weeks of fierce fighting along their contested border. South Sudanís Pres. Kiir cut short his visit to China amid violence with Sudan, as Beijing announced plans to send a peace envoy.
    (AFP, 4/25/12)

2012        Apr 27, In Sudan a mother and her two children were killed when a Sudanese plane bombed a village around Umm Durain, South Kordofan state. Government troops were reported killed when they tried to retake a position from rebels in the Talodi area.
    (AFP, 4/30/12)

2012        Apr 28, Sudan rejected UN Security Council involvement in efforts to end weeks of border clashes with South Sudan, which said it repelled an attack by Khartoum-backed rebels. A Briton, a Norwegian, a South African and a South Sudanese were captured by Sudanese troops in the oil-rich region of Heglig. The next day a representative for one of the three said that they were on a humanitarian mine-clearing mission.
    (AFP, 4/28/12)(AP, 4/29/12)

2012        May 2, Sudanese officials extended the expulsion deadline for thousands of ethnic South Sudanese encamped south of Khartoum. A UN Security Council resolution called for Sudan and South Sudan to cease hostilities along their border, and resume talks to settle unresolved issues.
    (AFP, 5/2/12)(AFP, 5/10/12)

2012        May 7, Sudan's finance minister told parliament that failure to agree with South Sudan on oil fees has cost the Sudanese economy $2.4 billion dollars. Sudan resumed its aerial bombardment of South Sudan, violating international calls for a cessation of hostilities between the two countries. Attacks over the next 24 hours took place in the states of Upper Nile, Unity and Northern Bahr el Ghazal.
    (AFP, 5/7/12)(AFP, 5/9/12)

2012        May 8, Rebels in Sudan's Darfur region said they had seized control of Girayda (Gereida) town from government troops, the latest in a reported upsurge of fighting in a region that has seen nearly a decade of unrest.
    (AFP, 5/8/12)

2012        May 9, Sudan offered African tribesmen in the disputed oil-rich region of Abyei its citizenship in an effort to woo them to the north. Abyei's fate was left unresolved when South Sudan split from Sudan. Sudanese armed forces said they have repulsed an attack by Darfur rebels in Gereida (Girayda). 9 soldiers and an unknown number of rebels were reported killed.
    (AFP, 5/9/12)(AP, 5/9/12)

2012        May 12, The first group of ethnic South Sudanese, among up to 15,000 camped in Sudan, began their journey home ahead of a major airlift to begin May 13.
    (AFP, 5/12/12)

2012        May 20, Sudan released 4 United Nations deminers, arrested over 3 weeks ago by the Sudanese army along the country's tense southern border, and turned them over to chief African Union mediator Thabo Mbeki.
    (AFP, 5/20/12)

2012        May 22, In Sudan driver Nassir Awadallah Ahmed Saeed (65), a Port Sudan businessman, was killed when his car exploded on the Red Sea coast. A year earlier Sudan blamed Israel for an air strike in the same region.
    (AFP, 5/22/12)

2012        May 25, The Sudanese Media Center (SMC), which is close to the security apparatus, said that after five days of fighting troops had overrun the rebel-held Jam and Suda areas, giving them control of the surrounding Angasana mountains.
    (AFP, 5/25/12)

2012        May 28, South Sudan said Sudanese war planes and artillery have bombarded its territory for the last 3 days on the eve of peace talks, as Southern officials set off to attend African Union-led negotiations in Ethiopia.
    (AFP, 5/28/12)

2012        May 29, Sudanese troops withdrew from the disputed territory of Abyei. Top negotiators for Sudan and South Sudan met in Ethiopia for their first talks since deadly border fighting last month took them to the brink of war.
    (AFP, 5/29/12)

2012        May 31, South Sudan filed a complaint with the UN over alleged Sudanese attacks. Juba said attacks numbered more than 100 since November.
    (AFP, 6/1/12)

2012        Jun 3, The Sudanese army said at least 45 rebels have been killed in Sudan's North Darfur after they attacked the military. Clashes began after rebels from the Justice and Equality Movement attacked Fataha, a village in North Darfur, looted the market and killed an unspecified number of villagers.
    (AP, 6/3/12)

2012        Jun 4, In Sudan government agents blocked distribution of the country's largest-circulation newspaper, the hardline anti-South Sudan daily Al Intibaha.
    (AFP, 6/5/12)

2012        Jun 5, Sudanese journalists and Communist Party members held a sit-in to protest against repeated restrictions against their newspaper, part of what press freedom advocates describe as an intensifying clampdown on critical voices.
    (AFP, 6/5/12)

2012        Jun 6, In Sudan an "exceptional" airlift of almost 12,000 South Sudanese ended with a final flight from Khartoum, but thousands more continue to live in makeshift conditions while they, too, await transport to the South.
    (AFP, 6/6/12)

2012        Jun 7, In Ethiopia peace talks between Khartoum and Juba to set up a demilitarized buffer zone ended with Sudan accusing South Sudan of seeking to create "10 disputed areas."
    (AFP, 6/8/12)

2012        Jun 10, Sudanese rebels said they have repulsed an attack by government forces in troubled Blue Nile state, but the army dismissed the claims.
    (AFP, 6/10/12)

2012        Jun 17, Sudanese riot police attacked a Khartoum student demonstration against high food prices, firing tear gas and beating some of the protesters with batons. Sudanese security agents seized all the copies of three independent newspapers, the latest such move in a week long crackdown on local independent dailies.
    (AFP, 6/17/12)

2012        Jun 18, In Sudan anti-regime protesters clashed with police in Khartoum, as President Omar al-Bashir announced a raft of austerity measures aimed at propping up the country's ailing finances.
    (AFP, 6/18/12)

2012        Jun 21, Sudanese Pres. Omar al-Bashir issued new decrees to cut expenditures as part of the austerity plan. Opposition leader Saata Ahmed al-Haj said riot police fired tear gas and civilians armed with machetes and swords attacked protesters during five days of demonstrations sweeping Khartoum demanding the ouster of al-Bashir.
    (AP, 6/21/12)

2012        Jun 22, In Sudan black smoke hung over Khartoum and tear gas stung the air as security forces tried to disperse widening protests sparked by rising food prices.
    (AFP, 6/22/12)

2012        Jun 24, Sudanese security forces used tear gas to break up anti-regime demonstrations in Khartoum, as the government vowed to press ahead with economic austerity measures that set off a wave of unrest last weekend.
    (AP, 6/24/12)

2012        Jun 28, Amnesty International said both South Sudan's army and rebel groups are using weapons imported from China, Ukraine and neighboring Sudan in fighting that has claimed dozens of civilian lives. Amnesty said the army was using Ukrainian-supplied T-72 battle tanks and that the rebel SSLA laid Chinese-made anti-vehicle mines and were firing Sudanese-made ammunition.
    (AFP, 6/28/12)

2012        Jun 29, Sudanese police fired tear gas to disperse hundreds of peaceful protesters outside an opposition party mosque, the 14th day of anti-regime demonstrations sparked by inflation. About 1,000 people were arrested and hundreds hurt.
    (AFP, 6/29/12)(AFP, 6/30/12)

2012        Jul 3, Sudan inked oil exploration and production-sharing agreements with companies from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Egypt, France-Belgium and Nigeria.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)

2012        Jul 5, Rivals Sudan and South Sudan resumed security talks aimed at easing tensions on the disputed border, after they failed to reach a deal at negotiations last week.
    (AFP, 7/5/12)
2012        Jul 5, The Red Cross said rebels in Sudan's Darfur region have freed more than 60 Sudanese soldiers who have been handed over to government authorities.
    (AFP, 7/5/12)

2012        Jul 6, In Sudan activists, politicians and students were among many people arrested during the latest anti-regime demonstrations at the Wad Nubawi mosque of the opposition Umma party in Khartoum's twin city of Omdurman.
    (AFP, 7/7/12)
2012        Jul 6, In Sudan Ibrahim Balandiya, the speaker of the legislature in South Kordofan state, was killed in an ambush along with seven other people. Rebels in the region denied any involvement.
    (AFP, 7/7/12)

2012        Jul 7, Sudan and South Sudan pledged to cease hostilities along their disputed oil-rich border but stopped short of actually signing an agreement.
    (AFP, 7/7/12)
2012        Jul 7, In Sudan  Kamal Omar, head of the politburo in the opposition Popular Congress Party, was taken from his home by suspected agents of the National Intelligence and Security Service. Omar was to fly to Qatar on July 9 for an appearance on Al-Jazeera satellite news channel.
    (AFP, 7/8/12)

2012        Jul 8, Sudanese security forces fired tear gas after demonstrations broke out at the University of Khartoum, where nationwide protests against high prices began last month.
    (AFP, 7/8/12)

2012        Jul 11, Ibrahim al-Qosi, the former cook of slain Al-Qaeda founder Osama bin Laden, returned to his native Sudan. He had been held at the US-run Guantanamo prison since 2002.
    (AFP, 7/11/12)

2012        Jul 11, Some 100 Sudanese university students armed with sticks and stones staged perhaps their largest protest since unrest sparked by inflation began nearly a month ago.
    (AFP, 7/11/12)
2012        Jul 11, Sudan opened what it billed as Africa's largest sugar refinery, hoping to boost exports after the loss of billions of dollars in oil revenue when South Sudan separated. White Nile Sugar announced earlier that it aimed to produce 450,000 tons of sugar annually and 60 million liters (13 million gallons) of ethanol.
    (AFP, 7/11/12)

2012        Jul 13, In Sudan more than 30 people were arrested in Khartoum's twin city of Omdurman when police fired tear gas at the Wad Nubawi mosque, which has become a focus of Arab Spring-style protests.
    (AFP, 7/13/12)

2012        Jul 16, In Sudan 7 military personnel died when their helicopter crashed in conflict-plagued Darfur because of a malfunction.
    (AFP, 7/16/12)

2012        Jul 19, Sudanís official SUNA news agency said nearly 60 people have been killed this week in fighting between Arab tribes in Sudan's conflict-plagued Darfur region.
    (AFP, 7/19/12)

2012        Jul 23, Sudan turned down South Sudan's proposal of a higher oil transit fee and an $8.2 billion financial deal, ruling out any comprehensive settlement of outstanding issues by the August 2 deadline.
    (AFP, 7/23/12)

2012        Jul 28, A 2nd day of Sudanese aerial bombing killed three civilians and wounded 21 in Blue Nile state bordering South Sudan. In South Kordofan state 6 civilians were killed in an attack against villages by Khartoum government forces before rebels battled the army, leaving the 17 soldiers dead.
    (AFP, 7/30/12)(AFP, 7/31/12)

2012        Jul 31, In Sudan at least eight people died as police and anti-regime protesters clashed in the South Darfur state capital Nyala.
    (AFP, 8/1/12)

2012        Aug 1, In Sudan Abdelrahman Mohammed Eissa, the head of Al-Waha district in North Darfur state, succumbed to his wounds in hospital after an ambush of his car in Kutum town.
    (AFP, 8/1/12)

2012        Aug 4, Landlocked South Sudan said it has a struck a deal with Sudan over the exportation of oil through Sudan's pipelines. In a statement South Sudan's government said that it will pay approximately $9.48 a barrel to transport its fuel through Sudan's pipelines.
    (AP, 8/4/12)

2012        Aug 5, Sudanís state-linked media said 2 Sudanese soldiers were killed when the army moved in to restore order in Darfurís Kutum town after unrest that followed the killing in an ambush of a local official.
    (AFP, 8/5/12)

2012        Aug 10, The UN said that 25,000 people have been displaced in Sudan's Darfur region after unrest that began 10 days ago with the killing of a government official.
    (AFP, 8/10/12)

2012        Aug 15, In Sudan 6 people were killed and 12 wounded during a dispute in Mellit town, north of the Darfur state capital El Fasher. An "exchange of accusations" over the death of one person reportedly sparked the incident.
    (AFP, 8/16/12)

2012        Aug 19, A Sudanese government helicopter crashed before landing in a remote town in the country's southern mountains, killing all 32 people on board. Its 26 passengers included the minister of endowment, a leading politician, two army generals and a TV crew.
    (AP, 8/19/12)

2012        Aug 29, Rebels in Sudan's South Kordofan state destroyed a military camp in Rashad, killing four soldiers after vowing to step up their efforts to overthrow the government.
    (AFP, 8/31/12)
2012        Aug 29, Israeli Interior Minister Eli Yishai warned that illegal immigrants from Sudan who do not leave the country by October 15 will be detained. Israel began expelling South Sudanese in June.
    (AFP, 8/29/12)

2012        Sep 4, Sudan and South Sudan resumed talks in the Ethiopian capital to resolve outstanding disputes over oil, border demarcation, security and the Abyei region.
    (AFP, 9/4/12)

2012        Sep 14, In Sudan heavy violence came in Khartoum, where a prominent sheik on state radio urged protesters to march on the German Embassy to protest alleged anti-Muslim graffiti on mosques in Berlin and then to the US Embassy to protest against an anti-Muslim film. Police dispersed the crowd with tear gas, starting a stampede. Two protesters were killed in a traffic accident during chaotic demonstrations outside the US Embassy.
    (AP, 9/14/12)(AP, 9/15/12)

2012        Sep 16, Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir arrived in Egypt for a state visit, even though he is wanted for arrest by the International Criminal Court.
    (AP, 9/16/12)

2012        Sep 26, The leaders of Sudan and South Sudan reached nine agreements but did not work out the issues surrounding the contested Abyei region or the demarcation of their shared border. South Sudan President Salva Kiir said the two countries would sign a "protocol of collaboration" on Sep 27.
    (AP, 9/26/12)

2012        Oct 2, In Sudan 4 Nigerian peacekeepers were killed and 8 wounded in an ambush in West Darfur.
    (SFC, 10/4/12, p.A2)

2012        Oct 9, Sudanís military said rebel shelling has killed 5 women and wounded over 20 near the border with South Sudan.
    (SFC, 10/10/12, p.A2)

2012        Oct 16, Sudan said that fighting in two states along its disputed border with South Sudan has left over 600 people dead over the past 16 months.
    (AP, 10/17/12)

2012        Oct 24, In Sudan an explosion and fire at a military factory south of the capital, Khartoum, killed two people. Minister of Information Ahmed Belal Osman said four aircraft hit the Yarmouk Complex, setting off a huge blast that rocked the capital before dawn. Israel was blamed for the attack.
    (AP, 10/24/12)

2012        Nov 2, In Sudan's Darfur region an alleged attack killed 10 people. The Sudanese military blocked a UN convoy from reaching the area of the alleged attack to gather information on the incident.
    (AP, 11/4/12)

2012        Nov 8, The Sudan Peopleís Liberation Movement-North rebels said that they ambushed a military patrol killing 10 soldiers and shot down a government warplane in the Nuba Mountains of South Kordofan state, after its bombs killed 2 civilians.
    (SFC, 11/9/12, p.A2)

2012        Nov 13, The World Health Organization reported that a yellow fever outbreak in Sudan's Darfur region has killed 107 people in the last six weeks, warning that the disease could spread all over the country.
    (AP, 11/13/12)

2012        Nov 19, The UN said Sudan has begun a massive vaccination campaign to immunize3 2.4 million people against an outbreak of yellow fever in the Darfur region.
    (SFC, 11/20/12, p.A2)

2012        Nov 22, Sudanese authorities said they have foiled a military coup and that several military officers and civilians involved in the scheme have been arrested.
    (AP, 11/22/12)

2012        Nov 23, A South Sudanese official said Sudan has carried out aerial bombardments on the northern part of South Sudan in the last three days, killing seven people and wounding others, accusing their northern neighbor of breaking an agreement between the two countries to end hostilities.
    (AP, 11/23/12)

2012        Nov 30, Sudanese police killed two Islamic militants and arrested about 20 in a raid on a militant training camp in the country's south.
    (AP, 12/3/12)
2012        Nov 30, The US-based Satellite Sentinel Project said that the images show that the government of Sudan deliberately burned 13 villages in the war-torn border region of South Kordofan from Nov. 17-22.
    (AP, 12/1/12)

2012        Dec 1, In Sudan a 95% decline in foreign currency was reported to have triggered an economic crises, newly printed money and an inflation rate of 45%.
    (Econ, 12/1/12, p.56)

2012        Dec 16, Libya's parliament voted to close the country's borders with Sudan, Niger and Chad, declaring the south a restricted military area. Four policemen were shot dead in the eastern city of Benghazi when gunmen fired rocket-propelled grenades on a security compound there.
    (AP, 12/16/12)

2012        Dec 21, The UN said 4 peacekeepers have been killed and one injured in Sudanís Darfur region when one peacekeeper opened fire on fellow UN-AU peacekeepers.
    (SFC, 12/22/12, p.A2)

2012        Dec 25, Sudan reportedly launched attacks in the border area with South Sudan killing at least five people. Antonov warplanes bombed the village of Werguet, in Northern Bahr el Ghazal state, while ground forces working with "militiamen" attacked nearby Kiir Adem.
    (AP, 12/27/12)

2013        Jan 9, The Sudanese army said its soldiers have killed at least 30 rebels in clashes in the troubled North Darfur region. The rebel forces were said to belong to the Justice and Equality Movement.
    (AP, 1/9/13)

2013        Jan 12, Four Chinese workers were abducted in Sudan's North Darfur region by unidentified gunmen. They were released on Jan 16. Eleven Sudanese workers who were abducted together with the Chinese remained hostages.
    (AP, 1/14/13)(AP, 1/16/13)

2013        Jan 17, South Sudan said it is withdrawing its troops from a disputed border region with Sudan so that a demilitarized zone can be established.
    (AP, 1/17/13)
2013        Jan 17, The United Nation-African Union Mission in Darfur said in a report that over 100 deaths and the displacement of 70,000 people resulted from clashes between the Abbala and Beni Hussein tribes in Jabel Amir, the site of gold mines in North Darfur state in western Sudan.
    (AP, 1/17/13)

2013        Jan 19, Officials in Ethiopia said South Sudan and Sudan have failed to reach an agreement on security arrangements and oil exports after several days of talks in Addis Ababa.
    (AP, 1/19/13)

2013        Feb 19, The Sudanese army said clashes in the country's south near the border with South Sudan have killed at least 60 rebels.
    (AP, 2/19/13)

2013        Feb 23, In Sudan renewed fighting between two Arab tribes over mining rights left 60 people dead in the northern Darfur region.
    (AP, 2/24/13)

2013        Apr 1, Sudanís Pres. Omar al-Bashir declared that he would release all political prisoners. 7 political prisoners, including a female politician, were released at midnight from Kober prison in Khartoum, after they were held there for over two months without trial.
    (AP, 4/2/13)(Econ, 4/6/13, p.57)

2013        Apr 4, Egypt's president began a two-day visit to Sudan aimed at boosting cooperation after deteriorating relations between the two nations under ousted leader Hosni Mubarak.
    (AP, 4/4/13)

2013        Apr 7, Britain pledged $102 million to Sudan over three years, with about half going to Darfur.
    (AP, 4/8/13)

2013        Apr 8, Qatar pledged $500 million to help rebuild Sudan's war-battered region of Darfur as part of an international conference seeking ways to boost stability after a decade of violence.
    (AP, 4/8/13)

2013        Apr 9, In South Sudan armed rebels that South Sudan believes are backed by Sudan opened fire on a UN convoy, killing five UN peacekeepers from India and at least seven civilians.
    (AP, 4/9/13)

2013        Apr 12, Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir traveled to South Sudan for the first time since the south peacefully broke away from Sudan in 2011. The two presidents agreed to the free movement of people and goods across the border.
    (AP, 4/12/13)
2013        Apr 12, The Small Arms Survey, an independent Swiss research group, said Sudan has supplied weapons and ammunition to rebels fighting neighboring South Sudan's government.
    (AP, 4/13/13)

2013        Apr 26, The US-based watchdog group Resolve said fugitive African warlord Joseph Kony recently found safe haven in territory controlled by Sudan, accusing the Sudanese military of offering aid to commanders of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA).   
    (AP, 4/26/13)

2013        May 4, In Sudan 21 people were killed in Abyei district, including Koul Deng Majok, an ethnic Ngok Dinka from neighboring South Sudan, two peacekeepers, and 17 members of the Misseriya tribe. Majok's tribe had failed to inform Misseriya tribesmen they would be visiting the area.
    (AP, 5/5/13)

2013        May 27, Sudanese government troops clashed with rebels in the Southern Kordofan state near the border with South Sudan. The Sudanese army said government forces clashed with rebels who attacked Dandor, killing more than 70. Rebels claimed they killed and wounded many government troops and said 5 of their fighters were killed.
    (AP, 5/28/13)

2013        Jun 6, A Sudanese military spokesman said a military training helicopter has crashed in the country's south, killing its two crew members.
    (AP, 6/6/13)

2013        Jun 8, Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir ordered the closure of pipelines exporting South Sudanese oil. Al-Bashir said that the move was in response to South Sudan's funding of rebels fighting his regime.
    (AP, 6/8/13)

2013        Jun 29, Thousands of Sudanese called for the overthrow of veteran President Omar Hassan al-Bashir, spurred on by an opposition trying to stoke an Arab Spring style uprising.
    (Reuters, 6/29/13)

2013        Jul 5, South Sudan accused Sudan's army of launching two separate attacks with planes and land troops on areas near their disputed border, in a new sign of friction between the former civil war foes.
    (Reuters, 7/5/13)

2013        Jul 13, In Sudanís western region of Darfur seven Tanzanian peacekeepers were killed in an ambush. 17 others were wounded.
    (AP, 7/14/13)

2013        Jul 14, Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir arrived in Nigeria for an African Union summit on HIV/AIDS as his hosts chose to ignore an International Criminal Court (ICC) arrest warrant against him.
    (AP, 7/15/13)

2013        Jul 27, In Sudan new clashes erupted between the army and rebels in the country's main oil-producing state of South Kordofan, bordering South Sudan. A rebel ambush on an army convoy in Abyei killed 9 soldiers. Tribal leaders said up to 94 people have been killed in new clashes between two rival tribes in the strife-torn Darfur region.
    (Reuters, 7/27/13)(AP, 7/31/13)

2013        Jul 29, In Sudan some 134 people were killed in new clashes between two rival tribes in the strife-torn Darfur region.
    (Reuters, 7/30/13)

2013        Aug 5, One Sudanese soldier was killed in a clash with troops from South Sudan after a patrol from the south crossed the border.
    (Reuters, 8/5/13)

2013        Aug 10, In Sudan two days of clashes over land resulted in the deaths of 41 from the Rezeigat tribe of Darfur. 70 people on the Maaliya side were also killed.
    (Reuters, 8/11/13)

2013        Sep 8, In Sudan Yousef Mohammed Saleh Lebis, jailed in connection with an alleged coup attempt nine years ago, walked free following a pardon by President Omar al-Bashir.
    (AFP, 9/10/13)

2013        Sep 23, Sudanese police fired tear gas to disperse hundreds of people protesting in the capital Khartoum against the lifting of petrol subsidies by veteran President Omar Hassan al-Bashir.
    (Reuters, 9/23/13)

2013        Sep 25, Sudanese security forces fired tear gas to disperse dozens of protesters who demonstrated and torched a police station in northern Khartoum. Thousands marched in protests over the lifting of fuel subsidies. At least 27 people were killed as rioting continued for a 3rd day.
    (AP, 9/25/13)(Reuters, 9/26/13)

2013        Sep 26, Sudanese authorities deployed troops around vital installations and gas stations in Khartoum as rioting continued over gas price hikes with 30 people left dead since Sep 23.
    (SFC, 9/27/13, p.A2)
2013        Sep 26, In Sudanís Darfur region fighting resumed in the southwest between Arab tribes reportedly leaving 51 people dead and 65 injured in the Umm Dukhun area.
    (AP, 9/28/13)

2013        Sep 27, Sudanese security forces opened fire on protesters as thousands marched through the streets of Khartoum in an opposition push to turn a wave of popular anger over fuel price hikes into an outright uprising against the 24-year rule of President Omar al-Bashir.
    (AP, 9/27/13)

2013        Sep 28, Sudanese police fired teargas to break up thousands of protesters calling President Omar Hassan al-Bashir a killer, after days of unrest in which dozens of people have died. 31 politicians, including members of al-Bashir's ruling party and military officials signed a petition calling on the president to carry out reforms because his rule is "at stake."
    (Reuters, 9/28/13)(AP, 9/28/13)
2013        Sep 28, Sudan's most popular newspaper, which has been a regular critic of a controversial government decision to cut fuel subsidies, was ordered to stop publishing. Authorities also shut the Khartoum offices of pan-Arab satellite channels Al-Arabiya and Sky News Arabia.
    (AFP, 9/29/13)

2013        Sep 30, Sudanís government said 700 people have been arrested during a week of the worst unrest in central Sudan in years, as protests continued against President Omar Hassan al-Bashir. The opposition later said at least 200 people were killed. Government figures said 87.
    (Reuters, 9/30/13)(Econ, 10/5/13, p.52)(Econ, 2/1/14, p.41)

2013        Oct 8, It was reported that fighting in Sudan between rival tribes over the Jebel Amer gold mine, that stretches for some 10 km (six miles) beneath the sandy hills of North Darfur, has killed more than 800 people and displaced some 150,000 others since January.
    (Reuters, 10/8/13)

2013        Oct 11, In Sudan some 150 pro-democracy activists and Islamists protested outside Khartoum's Grand Mosque after Friday prayers in the latest of a wave of anti-government demonstrations.
    (Reuters, 10/11/13)
2013        Oct 11, In Sudan a Zambian military observer with UNAMID was killed by unidentified assailants in El Fasher, North Darfur state.
    (AFP, 10/12/13)

2013        Oct 13, In Sudan 3 Senegalese UNAMID peacekeepers were killed and one injured in an attack by unidentified gunmen in West Darfur.
    (AP, 10/14/13)

2013        Oct 23, In Sudan carjackers killed a Sudanese aid worker in the country's Darfur region, bringing to four the number of humanitarian staff killed this year in the region's worsening unrest.
    (AFP, 10/31/13)

2013        Oct 24, Sudanese journalist Faisal Mohammed Salih (53 vowed to keep up efforts to report freely despite "difficult and harsh" conditions as he received the Peter Mackler Award for Courageous and Ethical Journalism.
    (AFP, 10/25/13)

2013        Oct 27, Hundreds of Sudanese in the disputed border region of Abyei voted in a referendum that they hope will decide whether they join Sudan or South Sudan. Voting ended on Oct 29. Abyei residents chose overwhelmingly to join South Sudan in the unofficial referendum. Only one of the two ethnic groups (the Ngok Dinka) living in the area voted in the poll, which is not recognized by either Khartoum or Juba.
    (AP, 10/27/13)(AP, 10/31/13)

2013        Oct 28, In Sudan 9 university professors, many of them activists, were detained during a campus raid, hours after President Omar al-Bashir spoke of political dialogue and reform. They were all released the next day.
    (AFP, 10/29/13)(AP, 10/30/13)

2013        Oct 31, In Sudan the pan-Arab satellite channel Sky News Arabia reopened its bureau in Khartoum after a one-month suspension that authorities imposed during anti-regime protests.
    (AFP, 10/31/13)

2013        Nov 12, Thousands of Sudanese demanded the removal of a local police chief, on the third day of unrest sparked by an attack on a female student. Unrest began Nov 10 after an attack on the young woman, which led crowds to burn the local market.
    (AFP, 11/12/13)

2013        Nov 14, In Sudan friendly fire killed five members of the Sudanese security forces in South Kordofan state, as troops battled an insurgency.
    (AFP, 11/14/13)
2013        Nov 14, In Sudan a number of Chadian troops in a joint force with Sudan were killed battling tribal fighters in the troubled Darfur region.
    (AFP, 11/16/13)

2013        Nov 16, Sudan state radio reported that heavy fighting in a border region of Darfur has killed 100 people.
    (AFP, 11/16/13)

2013        Nov 17, Sudanese rebels struck a town near the border of troubled South Kordofan state, where witnesses confirmed fighting was underway.
    (AFP, 11/17/13)

2013        Nov 24, In Sudan attackers killed a Rwandan peacekeeper in an ambush on a UN convoy in conflict-stricken Darfur.
    (AFP, 11/24/13)

2013        Nov 25, Two Sudanese health ministry workers helping to vaccinate children in the Darfur region were killed. They were part of a team inoculating vulnerable children against measles in West Darfur state.
    (AFP, 11/29/13)

2013        Nov 30, Sudanese media said more than 11,000 Sudanese workers have returned voluntarily from Saudi Arabia after an amnesty for foreign employees to legalise their status.
    (AFP, 11/31/13)

2013        Dec 5, In Sudan a tribal dispute on the border of the Darfur region killed 38 people including 16 Maaliya and 22 Hamar tribesmen.
    (AFP, 12/11/13)

2013        Dec 7, Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir announced the resignation of First Vice President Ali Taha. Taha was replaced by Lieutenant General Bakri Hassan Saleh.
    (Reuters, 12/8/13)

2013        Dec 8, Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir replaced his two vice-presidents and unveiled a new cabinet after urgent calls for reform in the 24-year-old regime.
    (AFP, 12/8/13)
2013        Dec 8, The Sudan People's Liberation Army-North (SPLA-N) launched attacks in Bau district of Blue Nile state. Insurgents later said one rebel fighter was reported killed and three wounded during attacks against military convoys that also left several government troops dead.
    (AFP, 12/10/13)

2013        Dec 9, Water ministers from Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan held talks on an Ethiopian dam project, after Egypt's objections delayed formation of a committee to implement expert advice.
    (AFP, 12/9/13)

2013        Dec 19, The last Sudanese prisoners to be released from US detention at Guantanamo Bay arrived home, as US President Barack Obama tried to speed up repatriations and close the controversial facility. Mohammed Noor Uthman (51) and Ibrahim Othman Ibrahim Idris (52) were both considered by the US military to be members of Al-Qaeda.
    (AFP, 12/19/13)

2013        Dec 21, Sudan's military said it has "liberated" several areas of war-torn South Kordofan state, but rebels dismissed the claim as propaganda, saying a government offensive achieved nothing.
    (AFP, 12/21/13)

2013        Dec 22, A Sudanese court acquitted award-winning journalist Faisal Mohammed Salih of publishing lies in a column he wrote about an activist's allegation of rape in custody.
    (AFP, 12/22/13)

2014        Jan 6, Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir arrived in Juba calling for an end to three weeks of fighting in South Sudan as mediators struggled to get peace negotiations under way in neighboring Ethiopia.
    (AFP, 1/6/14)

2014        Jan 12, The UNís refugee agency said around 10,000 people have fled north to Sudan from South Sudan where government troops and rebels have battled for the past month.
    (AFP, 1/12/14)

2014        Jan 17, The Sudan People's Liberation Army-North reportedly "managed to destroy" a government convoy at Malkan, Blue Nile state. They claimed to have killed dozens of soldiers and disabled a tank during battle, but the military said it was the victor.
    (AFP, 1/19/14)

2014        Jan 28, In Sudan a Russian diplomat and his wife were stabbed in Khartoum by a man anguished by the death of his brother in violence-plagued Central African Republic.
    (AFP, 1/28/14)

2014        Feb 1, Sudanís Secretary of the National Council for Press and Publications Obeid Murawah told the Sudanese state news agency that all restrictions on the opposition "The People's Opinion" daily had been lifted and that the paper could resume printing after completing the appropriate procedures. Three other newspapers remained banned.
    (AP, 2/1/14)
2014        Feb 1, Sudan suspended activities of the international Red Cross because it violated guidelines for working in the war-torn country.
    (AFP, 2/2/14)

2014        Feb 26, The International Criminal Court led calls for the government of Democratic Republic of Congo to arrest visiting Sudanese President Omar Bashir, who is wanted on charges of genocide in Darfur.
    (AFP, 2/26/14)

2014        Mar 3, The African Union-UN Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) said arson and looting by militia has displaced about 20,000 people in Darfur.
    (AFP, 3/3/14)

2014        Mar 5, A Sudanese court overturned an order by state security agents which has stopped the presses at Al-Tayar, a prominent daily newspaper, for almost two years. A journalists' rights group said the National Intelligence and Security Service have seized the press runs of three other newspapers.
    (AFP, 3/6/14)

2014        Mar 12, Sudanese police fired tear gas when mourners called for "revolution" following the funeral of a student allegedly gunned down by security forces at a protest against violence in Darfur.
    (AFP, 3/12/14)

2014        Mar 13, A court in Sudan sentenced former governor of the southern Blue Nile State and leader of the opposition group Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North Malik Agar and 17 other members of the group to death by hanging. 47 others were given life sentences in a hearing. All but one were tried in absentia.
    (AP, 3/14/14)

2014        Mar 14, Diplomatic and other sources said major European and Saudi banks have stopped dealing with Sudan. The US imposed a trade embargo on Sudan in 1997 over accusations that included human rights violations.
    (AFP, 3/14/14)

2014        Mar 20, A Sudanese worker for the International Committee of the Red Cross was killed in El Fasher, the capital of North Darfur state.
    (AFP, 3/21/14)

2014        Mar 22, In Sudan some 300 gunmen attacked and burned a camp for displaced people in the Darfur region, adding to an upsurge of suspected militia violence which has wreaked havoc. At least one person was killed.
    (AFP, 3/24/14)

2014        Mar 23, Sudanese officials said the countryís rich but under-developed archaeological heritage has received an unprecedented $135 million (98 million euros) in funding from the Gulf state of Qatar.
    (AFP, 3/23/14)

2014        Mar 25, Sudan said a pro-government militia has killed 151 rebels in clashes this week in the country's restive Darfur region.
    (AP, 3/25/14)

2014        Apr 2, Qatar's emir held talks in Sudan at a time of strained ties with his country's Gulf neighbors over its perceived support for the Egypt-based Muslim Brotherhood. After the emir's departure, Sudan's Finance Minister Badraldin Mahmoud Abbas told reporters that Qatar will provide Sudan with $1 billion to help boost its reserves of hard currency.
    (AFP, 4/2/14)

2014        Apr 5, South Sudanese President Salva Kiir arrived in Khartoum to meet Sudanese President Omar Bashir.
    (AP, 4/5/14)

2014        Apr 8, Sudan expelled the country chief of a UN agency and accused her of interfering in domestic affairs. Pamela DeLargy, an American, had headed the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) office in Sudan.
    (AFP, 4/9/14)

2014        Apr 14, Sudan's official SUNA news agency reported that President Omar al-Bashir has issued a decree banning political parties from holding meetings without permission from the authorities.
    (AFP, 4/15/14)

2014        Apr 18, In Sudan the Darfur Justice and Equality Movement attacked the Kunar oil field, operated by the Sudanese Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company in the West Kordofan State, abducting three engineers, two of them Chinese and one Sudanese. On May 2 Xinhua media service said the two Chinese engineers have been released.
    (Reuters, 5/4/14)

2014        May 3, In Sudan hundreds of exhausted illegal migrants reached the safety of a northern town, after 10 died when human traffickers abandoned them in the desert. Most appeared to be Ethiopian or Eritrean but there were some Sudanese as well.
    (AP, 5/3/14)

2014        May 15, In Sudan Mariam Ibrahim (26), a pregnant woman doctor who married a Christian man in 2011 and who was convicted earlier this week on charges of "apostasy," was sentenced to death. The court in Khartoum also ordered Ibrahim be given 100 lashes for committing "zena" ó an Arabic word for illegitimate sex. On May 27 Ibrahim gave birth to her child in jail. On June 23 the Court of Cassation canceled her sentence and ordered her release. On June 24 Khartoum airport passport police arrested Meriam Ibrahim after she presented emergency travel documents issued by the South Sudanese embassy and carrying an American visa. She was freed again on June 26. On July 16 a suit by her father to establish her as his Muslim daughter was dropped.
    (AP, 5/15/14)(AP, 5/18/14)(AP, 5/29/14)(AP, 6/23/14)(AP, 6/26/14)(Reuters, 7/17/14)


2014        May 17, Sudanese authorities in Khartoum arrested Sadiz al-Mahdi (78), a prominent opposition leader, following remarks criticizing the governmentís security policies in Darfur.
    (SSFC, 5/18/14, p.A4)

2014        May 22, In Sudan battles between the Hamar and Maaliya tribes in the border region of West Kordofan and East Darfur states. At least 28 people were killed over the next 24 hours in the renewed fighting.
    (AFP, 5/24/14)

2014        May 24, Sudanese rebels launched a major operation against an area in South Kordofan which a controversial counter-insurgency unit showed off to journalists after "liberating" it last week. The Daldako field commander of Rapid Support-2 was killed in the rebel counter-attack.
    (AFP, 5/25/14)

2014        Jun 6, Sudanese troops captured a rebel position in South Kordofan.
    (AFP, 6/6/14)

2014        Jun 8, Sudanese authorities arrested Ibrahim al-Sheikh, the head of the opposition Congress Party, for reportedly participating in a political lecture the previous evening.
    (Reuters, 6/8/14)

2014        Jun 27, In Israel Eritrean and Sudanese migrants left the open Holot detention center, saying Israel has not processed their claims for asylum. They camped out by the border after Israel's army prevented them from crossing into Egypt.
    (AP, 6/29/14)

2014        Jun 28, In Sudan North Darfur state Gov. Osman Kbir announced the death of Ali Karbino, a Darfur rebel leader, who experts said was responsible for some of the deadliest attacks against Sudanese forces.
    (AFP, 6/29/14)

2014        Jul 1, Sudanese state security agents arrested another members of the opposition Sudanese Congress Party. This was in addition to six other members held since June 11 in the West Kordofan town of En Nahud.
    (AFP, 7/1/14)
2014        Jul 1, The UN warned that nearly 800,000 refugees in Africa have had their food rations slashed by up to 60 percent, threatening to push many to the brink of starvation. The situation was most dire for the 300,000 refugees in Chad, mainly from Sudan's Darfur region and from the Central African Republic.
    (AP, 7/1/14)

2014        Jul 2, African nations agreed to suspend military operations for six months against Congo-based Rwandan rebels in order to give them more time to lay down their arms. The suspension was announced after a meeting in Angola of foreign ministers from a regional bloc including Angola, Burundi, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo, DRC, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania and Zambia.
    (Reuters, 7/3/14)

2014        Jul 5, In Sudan combat between two Arab tribes in the Darfur region killed 18 people. The clash began when a Maaliya killed a Rezeiga.
    (AFP, 7/6/14)

2014        Jul 10, The European Union slapped a travel ban and asset freeze on two South Sudanese military leaders for committing atrocities and obstructing the peace.
    (AFP, 7/10/14)

2014        Jul 16, The UN said the worsening conflict in Darfur and an influx of people fleeing war in South Sudan helped push to almost seven million the number needing aid in Sudan.
    (AFP, 7/16/14)

2014        Jul 19, In Sudan 13 civilians were killed in an ambush on a commercial convoy about 30 km (19 miles) west of El Fasher, the North Darfur capital. The rebel Sudan Liberation Army denied involvement.
    (AFP, 7/21/14)

2014        Aug 5, Sudan reported that 18 Sudanese people have been killed by a rocket strike in the Libyan capital. Khartoum said the situation does not yet warrant an evacuation of its nationals.
    (AFP, 8/6/14)

2014        Aug 12, Sudanese security agents arrested Mariam al-Mahdi, deputy leader of the opposition Umma Party led by her father Sadiq al-Mahdi, after it reached a deal in Paris to cooperate with rebels.
    (AFP, 8/12/14)

2014        Sep 6, Libyaís government said a Sudanese military transport plane bound for a Tripoli airport under control of an armed faction had entered its airspace to supply a "terrorist group" with ammunition. 12 people were reportedly killed and ten wounded in the shelling of Warshefana residential areas near Tripoli.
    (Reuters, 9/7/14)

2014        Sep 29, In Sudan a Spanish diplomat (61) was found stabbed to death in his apartment in Khartoum.
    (AP, 9/29/14)

2014        Oct 1, Sudanese activists said police have arrested scores of activists, lawyers and journalists over the past two weeks around the anniversary of massive protests against the lifting of fuel subsidies.
    (AP, 10/1/14)

2014        Oct 27, UN chief Ban Ki-moon announced at the start of a visit to Ethiopia that the EU and several regional development banks have pledged $8 billion in development aid for projects across eight countries in the Horn of Africa. Countries targeted are Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Uganda.
    (AFP, 10/27/14)(AP, 10/27/14)

2014        Oct 31, Sudanese soldiers attacked the village of Tabit in the Darfur region. In an apparent 2-day rampage over the disappearance of one of their own they reportedly raped some 200 women. An official UNAMID statement found no evidence of such crimes. An internal UNAMID report said people were warned not to talk. On Feb 11, 2015, a new Human Rights Watch report, based on more than 130 interviews, said girls as young as 10 were raped by Sudanese army forces, and that some women and girls were assaulted multiple times and in front of their families.
    (Econ, 12/6/14, p.62)(AP, 2/11/15)

2014        Nov 8, In Sudan a sword-wielding man described as "insane" killed two soldiers before being shot dead as he tried to enter the palace in Khartoum where President Omar al-Bashir has his offices. The man was identified as Salah Kafi Quwa, and said to be originally from the town of Kadugli, South Kordofan state, where insurgents were battling the government.
    (AFP, 11/8/14)

2014        Nov 12, Sudanese warplanes reportedly bombed South Sudan, wounding six civilians in areas bordering war zone regions where Khartoum was trying to crush rebel fighters.
    (AFP, 11/14/14)
2014        Dec 12, International Criminal Court prosecutor Fatou Bensouda told the UN Security Council that she has suspended investigations into alleged war crimes in Sudan's Darfur, criticizing the UN Security Council for inaction over the conflict-hit region.
    (AFP, 12/13/14)

2014        Dec 21, Sudanese security agents raided the headquarters of a human rights monitor and seized computers, nearly two weeks after one of its founders was arrested.
    (AFP, 12/21/14)

2014        Dec 24, In Sudan at least 8 asylum-seekers drowned trying to cross a river during an attempt to smuggle them out of the Shegarab-1 refugee camp in the eastern state of Kassala.
    (AFP, 12/25/14)

2014        Dec 25, Sudan was reported to have ordered two senior United Nations officials to leave, after a recent spike in tensions between Khartoum and the peacekeeping mission in Darfur.
    (AFP, 12/25/14)

2014        James Copnall authored ďA Poisonous Thorn in Our Hearts: Sudan and South Sudanís Bitter and Incomplete Divorce."
    (Econ, 4/12/14, p.82)  
2014        In Sudan militias linked to Pres. Omar al-Bashir burned over 3,000 villages in the Darfur region this year.
    (Econ., 4/18/15, p.44)

2015        Jan 4, Sudan's parliament passed constitutional amendments allowing President Omar al-Bashir (71) to appoint state governors directly and expanding the mandate of its powerful security agency.
    (AFP, 1/4/15)

2015        Jan 29, In Sudan two Russian pilots were kidnapped in the Darfur region.
    (AFP, 2/3/15)

2015        Jan, In Sudan members of the Rapid Support Forces raped at least 60 women in the western Darfur region after taking over the town of Golo.
    (SFC, 9/10/15, p.A6)

2015        Feb 8, In Sudan 3 staff of the Sudanese Red Crescent were killed in an attack in Blue Nile state, where Khartoum is battling rebels.
    (AFP, 2/9/15)

2015        Feb 16, Sudanese security officers seized the print runs of 13 newspapers in one of the most sweeping crackdowns on the press in recent years. There was no immediate word from the authorities on why the newspapers had been seized.
    (AFP, 2/16/15)

2015        Mar 22, Sudanese rebels said they had launched a "lightning" assault on a government garrison in the conflict-hit Blue Nile region, with the army saying the attack was repulsed.
    (AFP, 3/22/15)

2015        Mar 26, Sudan said it is providing ground troops as well as warplanes for a Saudi-led military intervention against Shiite rebels in Yemen.
    (AFP, 3/26/15)

2015        Apr 9, In Sudan two top political figures were freed from detention without explanation, days before national elections. Farouk Abu Issa and Amin Makki Madani were detained in December after signing an agreement to unite opposition to President Omar al-Bashir.
    (AFP, 4/9/15)
2015        Apr 9, A Sudanese airstrike on South Sudanese killed 4 people and wounded nine others.
    (SFC, 4/10/15, p.A2)

2015        Apr 13, Sudan began nationwide elections. President Omar al-Bashir (71) was widely expected to extend his 25-year rule as the opposition boycotted. The government had already said there would be no voting in one district of Central Darfur and seven in South Kordofan for security reasons. The Sudan People's Liberation Army-North (SPLA-N) attacked "polling centers in the Habila district" in South Kordofan and two centers in the Abbasiya area.
    (AFP, 4/14/15)

2015        Apr 15, Sudan extended nationwide elections by one day after a low turnout that the opposition said reflected apathy towards a vote President Omar al-Bashir is widely expected to win. Election results on April 27 said Bashir took 94.05% of votes and his National Congress Party (NCP) won 323 of 426 parliamentary seats. Voter turnout was put at 46.4%, above African Union monitors' estimates of 30-35%.
    (AFP, 4/15/15)(Reuters, 4/27/15)

2015        Apr 18, Sudanese security agents seized the entire edition of independent daily Al-Youm al-Tali over an article about activist Sandra Kaduda, who was detained in the run-up to the country's general elections.
    (AfP, 4/18/15)

2015        May 25, Sudanese security forces seized the print runs of 10 newspapers and suspended the publishing licenses of four of them in a major media crackdown.
    (AFP, 5/25/15)

2015        May, In eastern Central African Republic two groups of some 200 poachers from Sudan were active, killing elephants and other wild animals, according to a UN report made public in September.
    (AP, 9/2/15)

2015        Jun 2, Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir was sworn in for another five years after he swept elections in April marked by a low turnout and an opposition boycott.
    (AFP, 6/2/15)

2015        Jun 8, Sudanese security agents prevented seven senior opposition figures from traveling to a European parliament meeting in France and confiscated their passports.
    (AFP, 6/8/15)

2015        Jun 14, A South African judge ordered authorities to prevent Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir, who is in South Africa for an African Union summit, from leaving the country because of an international order for his arrest. The South African government had granted immunity "for all (summit) participants. Bashir arrived home the next day.
    (AP, 6/14/15)(Reuters, 6/15/15)

2015        Jun 17, South Sudan's government accused Sudan of bombing two locations in its territory, killing at least one soldier and wounding others on June 14-15.
    (AP, 6/17/15)

2015        Sep 1, Chinese President Xi Jinping welcomed Sudan's President Omar Hassan al-Bashir, an accused war criminal, as an "old friend", as China's foreign ministry defended his invite to a military parade to mark the end of World War Two.
    (Reuters, 9/1/15)

2015        Sep 3, The Sudan Liberation Army Ė Abdul Wahid, a Darfur-based rebel group, released 18 government soldiers over the last 24 hours who were being held as prisoners. The release was assisted by the Red Cross.
    (AFP, 9/3/15)

2015        Sep 27, Rebels in Sudan's Darfur region ambushed a South African unit that is part of a UN-African Union peacekeeping mission, killing one soldier and seriously injuring another.
    (AP, 9/27/15)

2015        Oct 10, Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir formally reopened talks with rebel and opposition groups but only one significant opposition party showed up, and he urged them to halt a boycott on dialogue in return for a ceasefire.
    (Reuters, 10/10/15)

2015        Nov 15, In Egypt 15 Sudanese migrants, about to illegally enter Israel from the Sinai Peninsula, were killed as they were caught up in the crossfire of a gun battle between Egyptian security forces and Bedouin smugglers.
    (AP, 11/15/15)(SFC, 11/16/15, p.A2)

2015        Nov 22, UNICEF's representative said some two million Sudanese children under five suffer from malnutrition every year.
    (AFP, 11/22/15)

2015        Nov 23, Egyptian security officials said 6 Sudanese migrants were killed and 17 wounded during a gun battle between security forces and smugglers as they tried to illegally enter Israel from Egypt's Sinai Peninsula.
    (AP, 11/23/15)

Go to http://www.timelinesdb.com
Subject = Sudan
End of file