Timeline Switzerland

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Switzerland is about 2 times the size of New Jersey.
(SSFC, 10/9/05, Par p.27)
Swiss democracy starts in its 2,800 odd communities. The 26 cantons form the next tier. The federal tier is responsible for foreign and security policy, national legislation, customs and currency matters.
(Econ, 2/14/04, Survey p.7)

210Mil BC    The Plateosaurus, a peaceful herbivore measuring up to 10 meters from head to tail, roamed river deltas in large herds about this time, when most of Switzerland was covered with desert and its landscape may have looked much like the estuary of the Nile now.
    (Reuters, 8/9/07)

152 Million    In 2004 a Swiss paleontologist said hundreds of dinosaur prints dating back this time had been discovered in the Jura mountains in the northwest of Switzerland.
    (AFP, 10/11/04)

14600BC-14100BC    A canine jaw, dating to this time, was found in Switzerland in 1873. Analysis in 2010 indicated the age of the bone and proved humans were keeping dogs at this time.
    (SFC, 8/4/10, p.A2)

3063BC     In 2010 Swiss archaeologists in Zurich said they have unearthed a 5,000-year-old door that may be one of the oldest ever found in Europe. Using tree rings to determine its age, they believed the door could have been made in the year 3,063 BC, around the time that construction on Britain's world famous Stonehenge monument began.
    (AP, 10/20/10)

c45BC    Colonia Julia Equestris, a veterans’ colony, was founded in what is now Nyon, Switzerland. Nyon is derived from the Celtic name Noviodunum.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.10)

c111AD    A Roman amphitheater was built at Nyon. An inscription at the site had a dedication to the emperor Trajan.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.10)

287        Maurice (Mauritius), leader of the legendary Roman Theban Legion in the 3rd century, was believed executed at Agaunum, Switzerland, after refusing an order by Roman Emperor Maximian to harass local Christians. Because of his name and native land, St. Maurice had been portrayed as black ever since the 12th century.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maximian)

563        A tsunami devastated Geneva. It was generated by a massive rockfall on what was called Mount Tauredunum.
    (Econ, 11/3/12, p.79)

990        A set of instructions on chess, the Versus de Scachis (Poem About Chess), emerged in Switzerland about this time. The game had begun in India before the 6th century.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.40)(Econ, 10/29/11, p.97)

1291        Aug 1, The Everlasting League formed and became the basis of Swiss Confederation. The people of the 3 small cantons (Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden) formed a co-operative pact called the Bundesbrief following the death of Habsburg Emp. Rudolf I.
    (Econ, 2/14/04, Survey p.6)

1294        Jun 30, Jews were expelled from Bern, Switzerland.
    (MC, 6/30/02)

1315        Nov 15, Swiss soldiers ambushed and slaughtered invading Austrians in the battle of Morgarten.
    (HN, 11/15/98)

1347-1350    The Black Death: A Genoese trading post in the Crimea was besieged by an army of Kipchaks from Hungary and Mongols from the East. The latter brought with them a new form of plague, Yersinia pestis. Infected dead bodies were catapulted into the Genoese town. One Genoese ship managed to escape and brought the disease to Messina, Sicily. The disease quickly became an epidemic. It moved over the next few years to northern Italy, North Africa, France, Spain, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, Germany, the Low countries, England, Scandinavia and the Baltic. There were lesser outbreaks in many cities for the next twenty years. An estimated 25 million died in Europe and economic depression followed. In 2005 John Kelly authored “The Great Mortality: An Intimate History of the Black Death, the Most Devastating Plague of All Time."
    (NG, 5/88, p.678)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B1)(SFC, 10/13/11, p.A6)

1348        Sep 21, Jews in Zurich Switzerland were accused of poisoning wells.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1348        Nov 15, Rudolph of Oron, a bailiff in Lausanne, wrote a letter  to the Strasbourg authorities in which he declared that certain Jews of Lausanne had confessed to poisoning all the drinking wells in the Rhine Valley that somehow selectively killed only Christians.
    (http://tinyurl.com/maa4q7b)

1349        Jan 9, In Basel, Switzerland, 700 Jews were burned alive in their houses.
    (MC, 1/9/02)

1349        Feb 13, Jews were expelled from Burgsdorf, Switzerland.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1349        Feb 22, Jews were expelled from Zurich, Switzerland.
    (HN, 2/22/98)

1357        In Switzerland Konrad Mueller killed Heinrich Stucki. To atone Mueller promised to always pay to keep an eternal lamp lit. In 2013 a court in Glarus canton ruled that the current farm owner no longer has to pay $76 each year for oil and candles because Swiss mortgage reforms in the mid-19th century made the practice invalid.
    (SFC, 1/9/13, p.A2)

1365        Basel, Switzerland, was wrecked by an earthquake.
    (AP, 8/4/07)

1378        Sep 20, The election of Robert of Geneva as anti-pope by discontented cardinals created a great schism in the Catholic church.
    (HN, 9/20/98)

1386        The counts of Habsburg tried to reach their goals by military force but were again defeated by Swiss forces at the battle of Sempach.
    (http://history-switzerland.geschichte-schweiz.ch/old-swiss-confederacy-1291.html)

1388        The counts of Habsburg tried to reach their goals by military force but were again defeated by Swiss forces at the battle of Naefels.
    (http://history-switzerland.geschichte-schweiz.ch/old-swiss-confederacy-1291.html)

1427        May 10, Jews were expelled from Berne, Switzerland.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1444        Aug 26, In the Battle of St. Jakob an der Birs, fought near Basel in Switzerland, a Swiss force of some 1,600 soldiers stopped some 30,000 French mercenaries on their way to relieve a siege of Zurich.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_St._Jakob_an_der_Birs)

1460        Apr 4, University of Basle, Switzerland, formed.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1476        The Swiss overcame Burgundy’s Charles the Bold at the Battle of Murten.
    (SSFC, 5/26/02, p.C5)

1477        Jan 5, Swiss troops defeated the forces under Charles the Bold of Burgundy at the Battle of Nancy.
    (HN, 1/5/99)

1478        The Swiss began annexing the southern approaches to the strategic and lucrative St. Gothard Pass over the Alps.
    (SFEC, 6/14/98, p.T4)

1489        Apr 6, Hans Waldmann, Swiss military, mayor (Zurich), was beheaded.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1493        May 1, Phillippus Paracelsus (d.1541), physician and alchemist, was born in Switzerland. He was christened as Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim.
    (HN, 5/1/98)(NH, 6/00, p.30,34)(MC, 5/1/02)

1494        Carol Verardi in Basel published an illustrated report of the first expedition to the new world by Christopher Columbus.
    (HNPD, 10/12/98)

1506        Jan 22, The Swiss Guard mercenaries, summoned by Pope Julius II to protect the pope and the Vatican, arrived in Rome. In 2006 Robert Royal authored “The Pope’s Army."
    (USAT, 5/6/98, p.6A)(AP, 1/22/06)(WSJ, 4/14/06, p.W5)

1507        Jan 15, Johann Oporinus [Herbster], Swiss book publisher (Koran), was born.
    (MC, 1/15/02)

1513        The Swiss completed the acquisition of the southern province of Ticino.
    (SFEC, 6/14/98, p.T4)

1515        Sep 13, King Francis of France defeated the Swiss army under Cardinal Matthias Schiner at Marignano, northern Italy. Switzerland was last involved in a war. French armies defeated the Swiss and Venetians at the Battle of Marignano and Milan fell to the French. Francis  I conquered Lombardy in northern Italy.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(SFC, 6/7/96, p.A12)(HN, 9/13/98)

1515        Hans Holbein the Younger arrived in Basel, the European center of book publishing. The city in 1997 owned 340 prints by Holbein.
    (WSJ, 6/24/97, p.A20)

1516        Mar 26, Konrad von Gesner, naturalist (Bibliotheca Universalis), was born in Zurich, Switzerland.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1516        Hans Holbein painted a wooden shingle as a sort of advertisement for the schoolmaster Oswald Geishüsler. It marked the beginning of "profane" painting in the West.
    (WSJ, 6/24/97, p.A20)

1518        Ulrich Zwingli, a Swiss clergyman, supported Martin Luther’s Reformation.
    (TL-MB, p.11)

1523        Hans Holbein completed the first of several portraits of Erasmus in Basel. He also began the design of 51 plates on the "Dance of Death," which reflected ideas of the Reformation.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(WSJ, 6/24/97, p.A20)

1524        Ulrich Zwingli abolished the Catholic mass in Zurich.
    (TL-MB, p.12)

1529        Jun 9, Zurich declared war on Catholic cantons.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1529        Oct 1-3, Martin Luther met with Huldrych Zwingli.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1531        Oct 11, The Catholics defeated the Protestants at Kappel during Switzerland’s second civil war.
    (HN, 10/11/98)
1531        Oct 11, Huldrych Zwingli, Swiss church reformer (Zwinglian), died. Ulrich Zwingli, Swiss Protestant reformer, was killed in the Swiss civil war between the Protestant and Catholic cantons.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(MC, 10/11/01)

1531        Nov 23, Peace of Kappel ended the second civil war in Switzerland.
    (AP, 11/23/02)

1535        Oct 4, The 1st full English translation of the Bible was printed in Switzerland. Miles Coverdale’s translation of the Bible into English (from Dutch and Latin) was the first complete version in English and was dedicated to Henry VIII.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(MC, 10/4/01)

1538        May 26, Geneva threw out John Calvin and his zealots. Calvin was exiled from Geneva for three years and lived in Strasbourg.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(MC, 5/26/02)

1539        Apr 17, Tobias Stimmer, Swiss painter, cartoonist (Comedia), was born.
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1540        The pulmonary circulation of the blood was discovered by Michael Servetus, a Spanish theologian and physician. In 1553 he was burned at the stake in Geneva for heresy.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(WSJ, 9/18/02, p.D8)

1541        Sep 24, Philippus Aureolus Paracelsus (b.1493), Swiss alchemist, physician and theologian, died. The 1835 poem "Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim" by Robert Browning was based on the life of Paracelsus. In 2006 Philip Ball authored "The Devil’s Doctor: Paracelsus and the Renaissance World of Magic and Science."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paracelsus)(Econ, 1/21/06, p.81)

1554        John Knox fled to Geneva where he met Jean Calvin.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1527        Theophrastus von Hohenheim established chemotherapy and the modern school of medical thinking at the Univ. of Basel in Switzerland.
    (TL-MB, p.13)

1529        Bernardino Luini, a pupil of Leonardo da Vinci, completed his fresco of the Passion and Crucifixion at the Santa Maria degli Angioli church in Lugano.
    (SFEC, 6/14/98, p.T4)

1536        May 21, The Reformation was officially adopted in Geneva, Switzerland.
    (HN, 5/21/98)

1540        The pulmonary circulation of the blood was discovered by Michael Servetus, a Spanish theologian and physician. In 1553 he was burned at the stake in Geneva for heresy.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(WSJ, 9/18/02, p.D8)

1541        Sep 23, Philippus Aureolus Paracelsus (b.c1493), Swiss physician and alchemist, died at 47. The 1835 poem "Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim" by Robert Browning was based on the life of Paracelsus.
    (HC, 1/9/98)(WUD, 1994, p.1045)(MC, 9/23/01)

1553        Oct 27, Michael Servetus (b.1511), Spanish theologian and physician, was burnt for heresy in Geneva, Switzerland. His last book "Christianismi Restitutio" included a chapter on the pulmonary circulation of blood. In 2002 Lawrence and Nancy Goldstone authored "Out of the Flames." [see 1540]
    (HN, 10/27/98)(WSJ, 9/18/02, p.D8)(WSJ, 1/18/08, p.W10)

1554-1562    Pierre Eskrich (aka Pierre DuVase), a French illustrator, produced a collection of 218 bird paintings. He had fled Lyon to Geneva to escape the Edict of Chateaubriand (1551), a crackdown on Protestantism in France.
    (SFC, 3/17/06, p.E7)

1559        May 13, Excavated corpse of heretic David Jorisz was burned in Basel.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1564        May 27, John Calvin (54), one of the dominant figures of the Protestant Reformation, died in Geneva.
    (HN, 5/27/99)(MC, 5/27/02)

1570        The hotel Crusch Alva in Zuoz in the Engadine dates back to this time.
    (Hem., 2/97, p.28)

1622        Dec 28, Francois de Sales (55), French bishop of Geneva, writer and saint, died.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1648        Oct 24, Switzerland's independence was recognized with the Peace of Westphalia.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1654-1705    Jacob Bernouilli, Swiss mathematician and physicist. The Bernouilli effect is named after him.
    (WUD, 1994, p.141)

1667-1748    Johan Bernouilli, Swiss mathematician, brother of Jacob.
    (WUD, 1994, p.141)

1684        Jan 11, In Switzerland this day “was so frightfully cold that all of the communion wine froze," said an entry by Brother Josef Dietrich, governor and "weatherman" of the Einsiedeln Monastery. The Einsiedeln abbots, princes within the Holy Roman Empire until 1798, were powerful leaders who ruled over large swaths of central Switzerland's mountainous terrain.
    (AP, 9/15/07)

1693        The history of the Amish church began with a schism in Switzerland within a group of Swiss and Alsatian Anabaptists led by Jakob Ammann (1656-1730).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amish)

1700        Jan 29, Daniel Bernoulli, mathematician (10 time French award), was born in Basel, Switzerland.
    (MC, 1/29/02)

1708        Oct 16, Albrecht von Haller, Swiss experimental physiologist, was born.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1712        Jun 28, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (d.1778), writer and philosopher, was born in Geneva, Switzerland. His books include "The Social Contract" (1762) and Emile (1762).
    (www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm)(HN, 6/28/99)

1714        Sep 7, In Baden, Switzerland, Charles VI signed the Treaty of Baden, also called the Peace of Baden, on behalf of the Holy Roman Empire. It was one of the agreements that concluded the War of the Spanish Succession.
    (www.emersonkent.com/historic_documents/treaty_of_baden_1714.htm)

1724        May 18, Johann K. Amman (54), Swiss-Dutch doctor for deaf-mutes, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1738        Daniel Bernouilli (1700-1782), Swiss physicist, mathematician and son of Johan explained how lift is created, as in a backward spinning golf ball, by a difference of air pressures. He is known for the Bernouilli equation.
    (WUD, 1994, p.141)(SFEC, 6/14/98, p.A12)

1741-1801    Johann Kaspar Lavater, Swiss theologian: "I am prejudiced in favor of him who, without impudence, can ask boldly. He has faith in humanity, and faith in himself. No one who is not accustomed to give grandly can ask nobly and with boldness."
    (AP, 1/2/99)

1754        The Carouge area of Geneva was ceded to the Kingdom of Sardinia.
    (SSFC, 1/7/01, p.T8)

1761        Dec 1, Madame Tussaud, Swiss-born modeler in wax, was born. She founded the world-famous exhibition in London's Baker Street. [see Dec 7]
    (HN, 12/1/99)

1761        Dec 7, Madame Tussaud [Marie Grosholtz], creator of the wax museum, was born. [see Dec 1]
    (MC, 12/7/01)

1767        Horace de Saussure, Swiss scientist, developed a solar cooker using the greenhouse effect, in the form of several glass boxes set inside one another and placed on a dark surface.
    (SFC, 7/11/07, p.F5)

1782        Mar 4, Johann Wyss, Swiss folklorist, writer (Swiss Family Robinson), was born.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1782        In Switzerland Anna Goeldi was beheaded as a witch for an alleged case of poisoning. A museum on Goeldi was opened in Mollis in 2007 on the 225th anniversary of her death. In 2008 the canton of Glarus said she should be exonerated because the execution was a miscarriage of justice. Goeldi was exonerated on August 27, 2008.
    (AP, 6/11/08)(AP, 8/27/08)

1783        The great Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler introduced latin squares as a new kind of magic squares. It later formed the basis for the “sudoku" number game.
    (www.cut-the-knot.org/arithmetic/latin.shtml)(Econ, 5/21/05, p.67)

1787        Aug 2, Horace de Saussure, Swiss scientist, reached the top of Mont Blanc.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1798        Mar 29, Republic of Switzerland formed.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1798        Henri Jomini of Switzerland began his military career, volunteering his services to the French Army. He used the campaigns of Napoleon to formulate theories of warfare that influenced military commanders through much of the 19th century. With the peace of Amiens, he left the army and wrote his Treatise of Grand Military Operations. The book impressed Napoleon enough to have Jomini appointed a staff colonel in 1805, Jomini having volunteered again in 1804. Jomini rose to become chief of staff under Marshall Ney, but left the French army to fight for Russia in 1813 as a general and aide-de-camp of Alexander I. By the time of his death in 1869, he had written several other works, organized the Russian military academy and advised kings on tactics for their various military campaigns.
    (HNQ, 9/10/02)

1803        Feb 15, John Augustus Sutter (d.1880), Swiss-US colonist (New Helvetia, Ca., Sutter Mill), was born.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1803-1933    Carouge creamware ceramics were produced by local artisans.
    (SSFC, 1/7/01, p.T8)

1806        In Switzerland a landslide into Lake Lauerz triggered a tsunami 20 meters high.
    (Econ, 11/3/12, p.79)

1807        May 28, Jean Louis Agassiz (d.1873), Swiss naturalist and educator, was born.  He wrote a succession of papers [1840] outlining continental glaciation not only of Europe but of North America.
    (DD-EVTT, p.129)(AHD,1971, p.24)(HN, 5/28/01)

1809        May 5, Citizenship was denied to Jews of Canton of Aargau, Switzerland.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1812        Swiss explorer Jean Louis Burckhardt rediscovered the ancient city of Petra in present-day Jordan.
    (HNQ, 5/26/01)

1815        Feb 3, World's 1st commercial cheese factory was established, in Switzerland.
    (MC, 2/3/02)

1815        The city-state of Geneva, briefly the capital of the Kingdom of Burgundy, and then a republic, became part of the Confederation of Switzerland.
    (Hem., 1/96, p.81)

1815        Switzerland became officially neutral.
    (SFC, 6/7/96, p.A12)

1816        Lord Byron and guests gathered at the Villa Diodati on Lake Geneva, Switz. It was here that Byron challenged his guests to write a ghost story. This led Mary Shelley to produce Frankenstein in 1818 and John Polidori to create his short story “The Vampyre" (1819).
    (Econ, 1/13/07, p.75)

1818        May 25, Jacob Christoph Burckhardt (d.1897), Swiss cultural historian, was born. "The people no longer believe in principles, but will probably periodically believe in saviors." "Neither in the life of the individual nor in that of mankind is it desirable to know the future."
    (AP, 5/6/98)(AP, 6/11/98)(SC, 5/25/02)

1818        Jun 16, An ice-dammed lake in the Val de Bagnes above Martigny broke through its barrier causing many deaths. This event led Jean de Charpentier to focus on Swiss glaciers and then influence Louis Agassiz with his ideas regarding glacier development.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ignaz_Venetz)

1821        Ignatz Venetz, Swiss civil engineer, presented a paper titled “Temperature Variation in the Swiss Alps" to the Helvetic Society of Natural Sciences, in which he described retreating ice glaciers and acknowledged Jean-Pierre Perraudin, a hunter and mountain guide, as the originator of the idea that a glacier had once occupied the full length of the Val de Bagnes. In 1833 Jean de Charpentier (1786-1855), a German-Swiss geologist, arranged to have the paper published.
    (ON, 10/08, p.10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_de_Charpentier)

1821-1881     Henri Frederic Amiel, Swiss critic: "The man who has no inner life is the slave of his surroundings."
    (AP, 8/3/97)

1823        Steam powered shipping began on Lake Geneva.
    (SFEC, 7/19/98, p.T3)

1827        Feb 17, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (81), Swiss educator, died.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1827        Jun 12, Johanna Spyri (d.1901), Swiss author, was born as Johanna Louise Heusser. She is best known for her novel Heidi, the story of a young girl who leave her home in the Swiss Alps for adventures in the world below. [see June 12, 1829]
    (WUD, 1994 p.1379)(HN, 6/12/99)

1828        May 8, Jean Henri Dunant (d.1910), Swiss philanthropist, was born. He founded the Int’l. Committee of the Red Cross and was the first recipient (jointly) of the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (HN, 5/8/99)

1829        Jun 12, Johanna Spyri (d.1901), Swiss author (Heidi), was born. [see June 12, 1827]
    (HN, 6/12/01)

1837        Louis Agassiz (1807-1873), Swiss paleontologist, proposed to the Helvetic Society that ancient glaciers had not only flowed outward from the Alps, but that even larger glaciers had simultaneously encroached southward on the plains and mountains of Europe, Asia and North America, smothering the entire northern hemisphere in a prolonged Ice Age. 
    (ON, 10/08, p.12)

1839        Swiss scientist Louis Agassiz described a fossil fish that had been found in Permian marl slate near Durham, northern England. He named it coelacanthus. Over the decades similar fossils were found dating from around 380 million to 70 million years ago.
    (Econ, 12/14/13, IL p.10)

1840        Apr 27, Edward Whymper (d.1911), the first person to climb the Matterhorn (1865) on the border of Switzerland and Italy, was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Whymper)

1847        A religious quarrel led to a short Swiss civil war.
    (Econ, 2/14/04, Survey p.6)

1848        A Swiss constitution was enacted that included a mandate for neutrality. It copied almost wholesale the American constitution. It was revised in 1874. A new one was adopted in 1999.
    (SFC, 7/6/99, p.C6)(SFC, 7/18/02, p.A15)(Econ, 2/14/04, Survey p.7)(Econ, 4/23/11, SR p.6)

1850        Apr 16, Marie [Gresholtz] Tussaud (89), Swiss-born maker of wax figures, died.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1850        Switzerland established a currency union to replace multiple cantonal currencies.
    (Econ, 7/19/14, p.49)

1852        Nov 30, Jean Henri Dunant (1828-1910), Swiss Calvinist, founded the Geneva branch of the YMCA. In 1855 he took part in the Paris meeting devoted to the founding of its international organization.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Dunant)

1855        Dec 12, Jean de Charpentier (b.1786), a German-Swiss geologist, died in Bex, Switzerland.
    (ON, 10/08, p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_de_Charpentier)

1855        The  World Alliance of the YMCA was established at the first International Conference held in Paris. Jean Henri Dunant (1828-1910), Swiss Calvinist, founded the Geneva branch of the YMCA in 1852. In 1855 he took part in the Paris meeting devoted to the founding of its international organization.   
    (http://www.ymca.int/index.php?id=15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Dunant)

1859        Jun 24, At the Battle of Solferino, also known as the Battle of the Three Sovereigns, the French army led by Napoleon III defeated the Austrian army under Franz Joseph I in northern Italy. Some 6,000 men died in the battle and thousands of wounded were effectively abandoned as witnessed by Henri Dunant (31), a Swiss businessman seeking Napoleon for a land development proposal. In 1862 Dunant published “A Memory of Solferino" and began a campaign for a volunteer society to aid wounded soldiers.
    (HN, 6/24/99)(ON, 4/08, p.11)

1861        Italy and Switzerland drew a border line through the Monte Rosa Masif of the Alps with the line at several places set at the watershed of glaciers. In 2009 shrinking glaciers due to global warming forced the line to be reset.
    (Econ, 4/18/09, p.56)

1862        Nov, Jean Henri Dunant (1828-1910) published "A Memory of Solferino." His ideas about creation of a volunteer committee to care for war-wounded led to the creation in 1863 of the Permanent International Committee for Relief to Wounded Combatants, later called the International Red Cross. Dunant, a Swiss businessman, had witnessed the plight of thousands of wounded left helpless on the battlefield at Solferino, Italy, on June 24, 1859.  Organizing local volunteers to help, Dunant brought aid to as many of the victims as he could.
    (WUD, 1994, p.442)(HNQ, 9/16/99)(ON, 4/08, p.11)

1863        Feb 9, Henri Dunant (1828-1910) addressed the Geneva Society for Public Welfare and asked the members to form a volunteer society to aid wounded soldiers. The Intl. Committee of Red Cross (Nobel 1917, 1944, 1963) was formed in Geneva, Switz. The red cross design based on the Swiss flag with the colors reversed.
    (ON, 4/08, p.11)(www.redcross.org)(SFC, 6/20/06, p.A4)

1863        The first road to Vissoie in the Val d’Anniviers was built.
    (SFEC, 5/9/99, p.T14)

1864        Mar 19, Alexandre Calame (b.1810), Swiss painter, died in Menton, France.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandre_Calame)

1864        Aug 8, The 1st Geneva Convention was issued on protecting the war wounded.
    (www.redcross.org)

1864        Aug 22, In Geneva, Switzerland, representatives of 12 nations agreed to sign the First Geneva Contention “for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field." By 1866 twenty countries had signed. 194 states were signatories as of 2008.
    (ON, 4/08, p.12)

1865        Jul 14, Edward Whymper, Charles Hudson, Michel Croz, and Douglas Hadow became the 1st to climb the Matterhorn, on the border of Switzerland and Italy. Only Edward Whymper survived the descent.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Whymper)

1865        Dec 23, France, Belgium, Italy and Switzerland formed the Latin Monetary Union (LMU). It was a 19th century attempt to unify several European currencies into a single currency that could be used in all the member states, at a time when most national currencies were still made out of gold and silver. Spain and Greece joined in 1868. It quickly weakened as members pursued their own economic policies. It was disbanded in 1927.
    (WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin_Monetary_Union)

1870        Jul 30, Clara Barton departed for field with the Red Cross following the French declaration of war against Prussia. In Basle Antoinette Margot (27) joined her as an aide and interpreter.
    (ON, 8/12, p.11)

1872        Sep 14, Britain paid US $15 million for damages during Civil War. The British government paid £3 million in damages to the United States in compensation for building the Confederate commerce-raider Alabama. The confederate navy‘s Alabama was built at the Birkenhead shipyards. Despite its official neutrality during the American Civil War, Britain allowed the warship to leave port, and it subsequently played havoc with Federal shipping. The U.S. claimed compensation, and a Court of Arbitration at Geneva agreed, setting the amount at £3 million.
    (HNQ, 9/2/00)(ON, 9/01, p.12)

1872-1887    The Bad Ragaz resort helped revitalize Johanna Spyri, author of the "Heidi."
    (SFEC, 9/24/00, p.T6)

1873        The Lake Geneva Gen’l. Shipping Co. was founded. The 232-sq ml lake is bordered by Switzerland and France.
    (SFEC, 7/19/98, p.T3)

1874        May 29, The present constitution of Switzerland took effect.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1875        Jul 26, Carl Jung (d.1961), Swiss psychiatrist and analytical psychologist who identified the introvert and extrovert types, was born in Kesswil, Switzerland. He saw the I Ching as a tool to help tune into the noncausal connectedness of the universe-- what he called synchronicity.
    (NH, 9/97, p.13)(WUD, 1994, p.774)(SFEC,10/19/97, BR p.3)(HN, 7/26/98)

1877        Jul 2, Herman Hesse (d.1962), German philosopher poet and author, was born in Switzerland. His work included "Steppenwolf" and he won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1946.
    (HN, 7/2/99)(WUD, 1994, p.666)(SC, 7/2/02)

1879        Dec 18, Paul Klee (d.1940), Swiss abstract painter best known for The Mocker Mocked, was born.
    (HN, 12/18/98)

1880        "Heidi’s Years of Wandering and Learning" was published. It was later made famous by a film version with Shirley Temple. It was partly set in Maienfeld, Switzerland. Johanna Spyri authored the 2-volume Heidi novel published in 1880-1881. The 2nd volume was titled "Heidi Makes Use of Her Experience."
    (WSJ, 10/2/97, p.A11)(SFEC, 9/24/00, p.T6)(SFC, 7/5/01, p.C7)

1881-1882    Dr. Muller of Germany was said to be working at the Swiss Geisenheim viticultural station when he made the crossing that joined the late-ripening Riesling and the early-ripening and prolific Silvaner`. The grape became know as Muller-Thurgau. Müller-Thurgau entered the well-kept records of Germany's vineyards in 1921, but it was not until a major symposium on the crossing was held at Alzey in 1938 that it gained any widespread acceptance.
    (www.winepressnw.com/features/story/4842844p-4779998c.html)

1882        May 20, The St. Gotthard-railroad tunnel opened between Switzerland and Italy.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1882        The Hotel Weisshorn was built in the Val d'Anniviers by an Englishman who brought in all required materials by mule.
    (SFEC, 5/9/99, p.T14)

1883        Nov 11, Ernest Ansermet, conductor, was born in Vevey, Switzerland.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1884        Jan 28, Jean Felix Piccard, scientist, explorer (balloonist), was born in Switzerland.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1884        Nov 8, Hermann Rorshach, Swiss psychiatrist, was born. He was the inventor of the inkblot test.
    (HN, 11/8/00)

1885        The Brissago Islands on Lago Maggiore were bought by a Russian baroness. she built a villa there to house her salon of artists and writers.
    (SFEC, 6/14/98, p.T5)

1886        May 10, Karl Barth (d.1966), Swiss theologian, was born. "Conscience is the perfect interpreter of life."
    (AP, 3/9/01)(HN, 5/10/02)

1886        Sep 9, The Berne International Copyright Convention took place at the instigation of Victor Hugo and backed the individual copyright laws of the European states. It was updated in 1971. In 1993 the Brussels directive brought in a Europe-wide 70-year rule.
    (HN, 9/9/00)(WSJ, 1/31/02, p.A16)(www.ifla.org.sg/documents/infopol/copyright/ucc.txt)

1886        The Forces Motrices power station was built over the Rhone in Geneva.
    (SSFC, 1/7/01, p.T8)

1887        Oct 6, Charles-Edouard Jeanneret (d.1965), aka Le Corbusier, Swiss-born French architect and city planner, was born. He became known for trenchantly stated principles, such as "a house is a machine for living in" and "a curved street is a donkey track, a straight street, a road for men."
    (HN, 10/6/00)(V.D.-H.K.p.363)

1887        The Marxist Hunchakian Revolutionary Party, called the Hunchaks, was founded in Geneva, Switzerland by Armenians from Russia.
    (http://homepages.cae.wisc.edu/~dwilson/Armenia/justin.html)

1887        A. Eugen Fick, a Swiss physician, published the results of experiments with glass lenses that fit over the entire eye, the first contact lenses.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R21)

1888        Dr. Eugen Frick made the first set of contact lenses.
    (SFEC, 1/24/99, Z1 p.8)

1890        Bobsled racing was introduced at St. Moritz, Switz.
    (SSFC, 1/23/05, p.E14)

1892        The Brienz Rothornbahn steam-powered cog-wheeled train began operating a 5-mile run from Brienz to the 7,700 Rothorn mountain top.
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, p.T5)

1893        Aug 20, Shechita (ritual slaughtering) was prohibited in Switzerland.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1894        Ferdinand Hodler (1853-1918), Swiss painter, created a painting 10 meters high for the Exposition in Antwerp. It depicted the story of the 1865 descent of Edward Whymper (1840-1911) after he became the first man to climb the Matterhorn. Four of his party died. Hodler allowed the painting to be cut up and it’s now in a museum in Berne.
    (Econ, 2/18/12, ILp.26)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Whymper)

1896        Oct 30, Kaspar Wicki, Swiss inventor, received Swiss patent Nr. 13329 for a key configuration for the concertina, that made fingering identical in any key.
    (WSJ, 12/7/07, p.W4)(www.concertina.com/gaskins/wicki/)

1896        Antoine Borel, San Francisco banker and Swiss consul, purchased the medieval castle of Gorgier in the Canton of Neuchatel, Switzerland,.
    (Ind, 4/5/03, 5A)

1896        F. Hoffman-La Roche & Co. was founded in Switzerland.
    (SFC, 3/13/09, p.A10)

1897        The first Zionist Congress was held in Basel, Switzerland.
    (SFEC, 4/26/98, BR p.1)

1898        Feb 14, Fritz Zwicky, Swiss astronomer (super nova), was born.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1898        Aug 13, Sigmund Freud (42) signed into the Schweizerhaus, a Swiss Alps inn, with Minna Bernays (33), his wife’s sister, and registered her as his wife.
    (SFC, 12/25/06, p.A23)

1900        May 19, Simplon Tunnel opened as the world's longest railroad tunnel at 12 miles; it linked Italy & Switzerland through the Alps.
    (DT internet 5/19/97)

1901        Jul 7, Johanna Spyri, author of the Heidi books, died.
    (SFC, 7/5/01, p.C7)

1901        Oct 10, Alberto Giacometti (d.1966), sculptor and painter, was born in Borgonovo, Switzerland. He was later quoted saying "there is less reality in the work of contemporary sculptors than in tin soldiers in toy shop windows." His biography was written by David Sylvester and titled: "Looking At Giacometti." Another biography by James Lord was titled: "Giacometti: A Biography."
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.BR-4)(WSJ, 9/30/96, p.A14)(HN, 10/10/01)(WSJ, 12/19/01, p.A16)

1901        Henry Dunant (1828-1910), Swiss businessman, won the 1st Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts in establishing the Int’l. Red Cross and the First Geneva Convention covering treatment of those wounded in war. The prize was shared with Frederic Passy (1822-1912), French economist, for his efforts toward international peace.
    (ON, 4/08, p.12)(http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1901/passy-bio.html)

1903        Jun 19, The young school teacher, Benito Mussolini, was placed under investigation by police in Berne, Switzerland.
    (HN, 6/19/98)

1905        Nestlé S.A. originated in a merger of the Anglo-Swiss Milk Company for milk products established in 1866 by the Page Brothers in Cham, Switzerland, and the Farine Lactée Henri Nestlé Company set up in 1866 by Henri Nestlé to provide an infant food product.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nestl%C3%A9)

1905        Jean Lanfray, a Swiss laborer, murdered his wife and children after drinking 2 glasses of absinthe. The murder led to a ban on the sale of absinthe. The ban was lifted in 2005.
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.A3)(SFC, 11/4/04, p.A2)

1906        Jan 11, Albert Hoffmann, Switzerland, chemist (discovered LSD in 1943), was born.
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1907-1917    Vladimir Ilyich Lenin frequently lived in Switzerland.
    (WSJ, 12/1/97, p.A18)

1908        Jacques Brandenberger, a Swiss chemist, came up with cellophane when he tried to invent a stain-proof tablecloth. [2nd source says 1912]
    (SFC, 2/19/99, p.E5)(SFEC, 5/23/99, p.B7)

1909        Aug 21, C. Dillon Douglas, US Secretary of Treasury (1961-65), was born in Geneva, Switz.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1910        Oct 30, Jean Henri Dunant (b.1828), Swiss philanthropist, died. His book “A Memory of Solferino" (1862) led to the foundation of the Int’l. Committee of the Red Cross. He was the first recipient (jointly) of the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (http://tinyurl.com/gbxhd)

1910        In Switzerland Kaspar Winkler founded SIKA, a building materials firm. He had invented a compound used to waterproof the Gotthard railway tunnel under the Alps.
    (Econ., 2/21/15, p.64)

1911        May 15, Max Frisch (d.1991), Swiss architect and writer, was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Frisch)

1911        Eugene Bleuler, Swiss psychiatrist, coined the term “schizophrenia."
    (Econ, 10/29/05, p.84)

1913        Feb 22, Ferdinand de Saussure (b.1857), Swiss linguist and founder of Structuralism, died in Geneva.
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article-9065908)

1915        Mar 26, Antoine Borel, former SF banker and Swiss consul, died while visiting home.
    (Ind, 4/5/03, 5A)

1916          Mar 1, A conference of Lithuanians in Berne (Mar 1-5) demanded for the 1st time the full independence of Lithuania.
    (LHC, 3/1/03)

1917        May 13, Ernest Bloch (1880-1959), Swiss composer, premiered his work "Schelomo."
    (WUD, 1994 p.159)(MC, 5/13/02)

1918        The Swiss Fatherland Association, an anti-Semitic and anti-immigration, group was founded.
    (SFC, 6/10/98, p.A10)

1919        Nestle exhausted its local supply of milk and began opening factories in Australia, England, Germany and Norway.
    (Econ, 10/31/09, p.81)

1920        Feb 8, Swiss men voted against women's suffrage.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1920        Feb 13, The League of Nations recognized the perpetual neutrality of Switzerland.
    (AP, 2/13/98)

1920        Oct 27, League of Nations moved headquarters in Geneva.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1920        Nov 15, Forty-one nations opened the first League of Nations session in Geneva.
    (HN, 11/15/98)

1920        Dec 8, President Wilson declined to send a representative to the League of Nations in Geneva.
    (HN, 12/8/98)

1921        Jan 5, Friedrich Durrenmatt (d.1990), Swiss author and playwright, was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_D%C3%BCrrenmatt)

1921        Hermann Rorschach (1984-1922), Swiss psychiatrist, wrote his book Psychodiagnostik, which was to form the basis of the inkblot test. He devised the original Rorschach test to deduce elements of personality from a series of inkblots.
    (Econ, 11/12/11, p.96)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_Rorschach)

1922        Jul 28, Jacques Piccard, undersea explorer (bathyscaph Trieste), was born in Switzerland.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1923        Jul 24, The Treaty of Lausanne, which settled the boundaries of modern Turkey, was concluded in Switzerland. It replaced the Treaty of Sevres and divided the lands inhabited by the Kurds between Turkey, Iraq and Syria.
    (AP, 7/24/97)(SSFC, 12/22/02, p.A14)

1923        Oct 16, John Harwood patented a self-winding watch in Switzerland.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1923        Jul 24, The Treaty of Lausanne, which settled the boundaries of modern Greece and Turkey, was concluded in Switzerland. It replaced the Treaty of Sevres and divided the lands inhabited by the Kurds between Turkey, Iraq and Syria. Article 39 allowed Turkish nationals to use any language they wished in commerce, public and private meetings, and publications. The treaty specifically protected the rights of the Armenian, Greek and Jewish communities. The former provinces of Baghdad, Basra and Mosul were lumped together to form Iraq. Both countries agreed to a massive exchange of religious minorities. Christians were deported from Turkey to Greece and Muslims from Greece to Turkey. A Muslim community of at least 100,000 was allowed in northern Greece. In 2006 Bruce Clark authored “Twice a Stranger: The Mass Expulsions that Forged Modern Greece and Turkey."
    (WSJ, 3/20/97, p.A17)(AP, 7/24/97)(SSFC, 12/22/02, p.A14)(Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.9)(Econ, 10/14/06, p.50)(Econ, 12/9/06, p.92)(Econ, 10/16/10, p.72)

2008        Jul 29, WTO Director-General announced on that the latest negotiations for a much-delayed trade liberalization deal under the so-called Doha Round had broken down after nine days due to unresolved differences. The deadlock centered on a row between the US and India over special tariff measures to protect poor farmers from surging imports or price falls.
    (AFP, 7/30/08)

1925        In debates over the Geneva Protocol opponents touted poison gas as a "decisive offensive weapon." A ban on chemical and biological weapons was signed by most nations, but not the US until much later. The Geneva Convention outlawed the use of biological warfare, but did not prohibit nations from continuing the production of biological agents.
    (SFC,11/12/97, p.C2)(NH, 10/98, p.18)(AH, 6/03, p.46)

1926        Sep 25, The Convention to Suppress the Slave Trade and Slavery, an international treaty created under the auspices of the League of Nations, was first signed in Geneva to be effective March 9, 1927.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1926_Slavery_Convention)

1927        The Brissago Islands on Lago Maggiore were sold to a wealthy German businessman, who added a Roman bath to the villa there.
    (SFEC, 6/14/98, p.T5)

1928        Mar 20, Hans Kung, Swiss religious theologian, was born.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1928        The Winter Olympic were held at St. Moritz, Switz.
    (SSFC, 1/23/05, p.E14)

1928        Switzerland’s 1st ski school was introduced at St. Moritz.
    (SSFC, 1/23/05, p.E14)

1928        Jean-Leon Reutter, a Swiss engineer, developed the Atmos clock, which was powered by changes in the atmosphere. LeCoultre & Cie bought the patent in 1935 and began making the clock a year later. In 1937 the Swiss company became Jaeger-LeCoultre.
    (SFC, 11/19/08, p.G6)

1930        The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) was founded in Basel, Switzerland.
    (Econ, 10/11/08, SR p.20)

1930        Adolf Wolfli (66), Swiss outsider artist, died. He had been consigned to the Bern psychiatric hospital from age 30 to his death. He created thousands of drawings and 45 large illustrated books. Elka Spoerri (d.2002 at 77), art historian, deciphered and transcribed much of his work.
    (SFC, 6/15/02, p.A19)

1932        In France the Basler Handelbank affair broke out. The president and vice-president of the commercial bank in Basle were arrested in Paris by the French police. In their trunks, the investigators found the list of 2,000 French clients who had confidentially deposited their holdings in Switzerland. They represented all of French high society: a few senators, a former minister, bishops, generals and manufacturers.
    (Econ, 3/7/09, p.62)(http://swiss-bank-accounts.com/e/banking/secrecy/handelsbank.html)

1934        Mar 26, Switzerland banned all slanderous criticism of state institutions in the press and threatened the suspension of publications if the ban was not heeded.
    (HN, 3/25/98)

1934        Jun 11, The Disarmament Conference in Geneva ended in failure.
    (HN, 6/11/98)

1934        The Switzerland dramatically tightened banking secrecy laws in response to a bank’s exposure in a French tax scandal.
    (SFC, 10/24/96, p.C2)(Econ, 2/16/13, SR p.5)

1934        The Eispalast at Jundfraujoch was carved 65 feet below the surface of a glacier. It was later enlarged and decorated with sculptures.
    (WSJ, 7/21/00, p.W12)

1935        Ella Maillart (d.1997 at 94), Swiss sportswoman, wrote "Among Russian Youth: from Moscow to the Caucasus." In 1947 she took a trip to Afghanistan with a sick, morphine-addicted friend and wrote "The Cruel Way, Two Women and a Ford in Afghanistan."
    (SFC, 3/29/97, p.A20)

1936        Feb 20, Switzerland bared all Nazis from entering the country.
    (HN, 2/20/98)

1936        Jul 20, Turkey signed a treaty, the Montreux Convention, by which it agreed not to interfere with transit through the Bosporus. It granted ships unrestricted passage except in times of war.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, p.A23)(WSJ, 7/28/05, p.A7)(http://tinyurl.com/6lyog2)

1936        Aug 26, The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty, calling for most British troops to leave Egypt, except those guarding the Suez Canal, was signed in Montreux, Switzerland. It was abrogated by Egypt in 1951.
    (AP, 8/26/05)

1938        May 28, Hindemith's opera "Mathis der Maler," premiered in Zurich.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1938        Nov 9, Maurice Bavaud (25), a Swiss theology student, failed in his attempt to shoot Hitler at a Nazi parade in Munich. Switzerland, which followed a policy of neutrality toward Germany before and during World War II, failed to intervene on Bavaud's behalf, and he was guillotined in May, 1941, in Berlin's notorious Ploetzensee prison.
    (AP, 11/8/08)

1938        In Lucerne, Switzerland, the International Festival of Music began its annual event. Toscanini and Ernest Ansermet created the music festival of Lucerne, Switzerland, at Tribschen, the house in which Wagner wrote "Die Meistersinger."
    (SFC, 7/21/96, p.T1,5)(Hem, 6/96, p.141)(SFEC, 6/7/98, p.T3)

1938        Switzerland asked Berlin to stamp German passports with "J" so that they could bar most Jews. This was later acknowledged.
    (WSJ, 5/19/97, p.A18)

1938        Swiss chemists Albert Hofmann discovered lysergic acid diethylamide-25 (LSD) in 1938 while studying the medicinal uses of a fungus found on wheat and other grains at the Sandoz pharmaceuticals firm, later part of Novartis. Hofmann was the first person to test the drug when a tiny amount of the substance seeped on to his finger during a repeat of the laboratory experiment in April 1943.
    (AP, 1/11/06)

1939        Sep 1, Switzerland proclaimed neutrality.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1939        Sep, Paul Hermann Muller, a Geigy pesticide researcher in Switzerland, first synthesized DDT. He combined chloral hydrate with chlorobenzene and a catalyst to make dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. The discovery was reported 2 years later.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, z1 p.2)(ON, 11/01, p.6)

1939-1945    US Intelligence revealed  in 1997 that during WW II the Swiss National Bank sent 280 truckloads of Nazi gold to Spain and Portugal.
    (USAT, 1/13/97, p.3A)

1939-1945    Switzerland took in nearly 30,000 Jews fleeing Nazi terror and turned away at least 24,500. Refugees were forced to work in labor camps.
    (SFC, 1/15/98, p.A12)(SFC, 12/11/99, p.C1)

1940        Jun 29, Paul Klee (b.1879), Swiss-German painter, tutor (Modern Art), died in Switzerland. In 2005 the Klee Center, designed by Renzo Piano, opened in Bern.
    (www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/klee/)(Econ, 7/23/05, p.79)

1940        Jun, The Germans began to loot the artwork of Paris and more than 70,000 residences were plundered. A lot of artwork was sold to the industrialist  Emil G. Buhrle and his Foundation in Switzerland, the largest buyer of confiscated French art. The story is told by Hector Feliciano in his 1997 book: "The Lost Museum." The best book on the fate of European art in WW II was reported to be "The Rape of Europa" by Lynn Nicholas.
    (SFEC, 7/6/97, BR p.7)(SFC,11/19/97, p.E6)

1940        Denis de Rougemont (1906-1985), Swiss writer who wrote in French, authored “Love in the Western World," a sweeping history of 8 centuries of romantic passion.
    (WSJ, 1/5/08, p.W8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denis_de_Rougemont)

1941        Jan 13, Novelist James Joyce (58) died in Zurich, Switzerland. In 1983 Richard Ellmann authored the 900-page "James Joyce" biography. In 1999 Edna O'Brien authored the pocket bio "James Joyce."
    (AP, 1/13/98)(SFC, 12/9/99, p.B1)

1941        Apr 19, B. Brecht's 1939 play "Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder (Mother Courage and her Children)," premiered in Zurich.
    (www.theatre.ubc.ca/mother_courage/subject.shtml)

1942        Apr 16, Swiss Nazis in Payerne killed Jewish cattle trader Arthur Bloch. In 2009 novelist Jacques Chessex (1934-2009) recounted the event in his novel “A Jew Must Die."
    (AP, 10/10/09)(http://tinyurl.com/yzz3kvl)

1942        May, Jacob Spirig was arrested by Swiss police for helping Jews escape from Austria to Switzerland. Spirig (22) was sentenced to 3 months in prison.
    (WSJ, 6/5/01, p.A1)

1942        Aug 8, Gerhart Riegner (d.2001 at 90), World Jewish Congress official in Geneva, cabled the US vice consul to describe Hitler’s plan to deport an estimated 4 million Jews to Eastern Europe and to annihilate them.
    (SFC, 12/4/01, p.A19)

1942        Oct 17, Eduard von Steiger, Justice Minister and minister of police, told leaders of the Swiss Fatherland Assoc. that the government had decided on a "fundamental slowing" of Jewish immigration.
    (SFC, 6/10/98, p.a10)

1942        Switzerland passed a euthanasia law to enable those with just a few weeks to live the opportunity of a dignified death. Swiss law made assisted suicide lawful under some conditions.
    (WSJ, 11/22/02, p.A1)(Econ, 10/15/05, p.59)
1942        Switzerland outlawed capital punishment for civilians.
    (SFC, 7/20/12, p.A2)
1942        Switzerland legalized prostitution.
    (AP, 8/26/13)   

1942-1945    Jose Arturo Castellanos (d.1977 at 86), Salvadoran diplomat in Geneva, gave citizenship certificates to as many as 40,000 Jews during the Holocaust. In 2010 Israel named him posthumously as one of the "Righteous Among the Nations."
    (AP, 5/14/10)(http://tinyurl.com/28n2pd7)

1943        Apr 16, Swiss chemist Albert Hoffman (1906-2008) felt the first rush of LSD when a tiny amount of the substance seeped onto his finger during a laboratory experiment.
    (AP, 4/30/08)

1943        Apr 19, Swiss chemist Albert Hoffman, following up on an experiment on April 16, deliberately ingested .25 milligrams of LSD and soon began to feel its effects. Hallucinations continued on his bicycle ride home and lasted for some 6 hours.
    (SFC, 5/9/96, p.A-1)(Econ, 5/10/08, p.98)

1943        Aug 9, Bertolt Brecht's "Galileo," premiered in Zurich.
    (MC, 8/9/02)

1944        Aug 17, Japanese and Swiss officials agreed to divert 40% of millions of dollars, paid by the US and Britain for the care of prisoners of war held by the Japanese, to pay off Japan’s debts to Swiss businesses. The other 60% was for the free disposal by the Japanese government.
    (SFC, 12/1/97, p.A10)

1944        Oct, In Hungary Eduard Benedek Brunschweiler, a Swiss representative of the International Red Cross, took charge of the Pannonhalma Abbey and kept it under Red Cross protection until Soviet forces expelled him in April 1945. Some 3,000 people, mostly children, spent the end of the war in the abbey, including dozens of Jews. In 2006 Hungarian officials unveiled a memorial at the abbey honoring Brunschweiler.
    (AP, 10/16/06)

1945        Apr 28, US 5th army reached the Swiss border.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1945        The Swiss constitution introduced the concept of paid maternity leave, but did not create provisions for payment.
    (SFC, 6/14/99, p.A14)

1945        Switzerland agreed with the US to freeze financial transactions with Germany in early 1945. The agreement was violated.
    (SFC, 12/1/97, p.A10)

c1945        After the war the US and its allies made a deal with the Swiss to accept repayment of $60 million and waived further claims. The claims were for gold acquired from the Nazis during the war. Much of the gold was from occupied countries and Jews.
    (FB, 9/12/96, p.A9)

1945        The Union Bank of Switzerland took over the Eidgenoessische Bank which had built up an extensive business with Germany during the Third Reich.
    (SFC, 1/17/96, p.A1)
 
1945-1988    The Swiss maintained contingency plans for building 400 nuclear warheads. A supply of uranium was maintained in Wimmis, 21 miles southeast of Berne.
    (SFC, 6/7/96, p.A12)

1946        Apr 8,    The League of Nations assembled in Geneva for its last session.
    (AP, 4/8/08)

1946        Sep 19, Winston Churchill made a speech in Zurich where he said: If Europe were once united in the sharing of its common inheritance there would be no limit to the happiness, prosperity, and glory of which its 300 or 400 million people would enjoy."
    (WSJ, 3/25/98, p.A22)

1946        Nov, A US Air Force Douglas C-53 Skytrooper carrying four crew members and eight passengers crashed on the Swiss Gauli Glacier. A rescue mission used an aircraft for the first time to land on the glacier and led to the creation of Switzerland's air rescue services. There were some injuries but no fatalities.
    (AP, 8/9/12)

1946        Hermann Hesse (1877-1962), Swiss-born German philosopher poet and author, was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature "for his inspired writings which, growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style."
    (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1946/)
1946        The Swiss government agreed to turn over half of some German assets in vaults to help war refugees and other victims. The agreement was not kept.
    (SFC, 12/1/97, p.A10)
1946        The "Washington accord" was designed to wrap up Switzerland's obligations to the Allies following WW II.
    (SFC, 3/15/00, p.A20)

1947        Apr 7, At Mont Pelerin, Switzerland, Friedrich A. von Hayek invited a group of classical liberals to discuss the threat of freedom posed by the expansionist governments of the day. The group founded the Mont Pelerin Society to continue meetings and discussions in the future. They viewed central planning as the single most important threat to liberty.
    (WSJ, 5/8/97, p.A22)(www.montpelerin.org/montpelerin/mpsAbout.html)

1947        The US began holding a seat on the Human Rights Commission based in Geneva. It lost its elected seat in 2001.
    (WSJ, 5/4/01, p.A1)

1948        Aug 23, The World Council of Churches (WCC) was formed in Amsterdam to help reconcile differences among Christians. Delegates of 147 churches assembled to merge the Faith and Order Movement and Life and Work Movement. Church leaders had agreed in 1937 to establish a World Council of Churches, based on a merger of the Faith and Order Movement and Life and Work Movement organizations. Headquarters were later established in Geneva.
    (Econ, 2/23/08, p.79)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Council_of_Churches)

1948        Paul Hermann Muller (d.1965), a Geigy pesticide researcher in Switzerland, won the Noble Prize in medicine for his 1939 synthesis of DDT.
    (ON, 11/01, p.6)

1948        The Winter Olympic were held at St. Moritz, Switz., for a 2nd time.
    (SSFC, 1/23/05, p.E14)

1948        George de Mestral (1907-1990), a Swiss inventor, began studying the burdock plant because of the plant’s ability to attach its seed to his clothes and dog’s fur. His analysis of the hook and loop system of plant led to the development of velcro, patented in 1955.
    (Econ, 6/11/05, TQ p.18)(http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa091297.htm)

1949        Aug 12, Four Geneva Conventions were signed on this date. Signatories agreed that occupiers would not settle occupied territory with their own people. Protection of civilian life and property was added to the 4th Geneva Conventions. The Convention for the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War began on April 21. Two additional protocols were signed in 1977.
    (SFC, 8/11/00, p.A15)(Econ, 8/27/05, p.39)(www.spj.org/gc-texts.asp)

1950            Dec 2, Dinu Lipatti (b.1917), Romania-born pianist, died of leukemia in Geneva, Switz.
    (www.inkpot.com/classical/lipatti.html)

1951        Aug 15, Artur Schnabel (b.1882), Austrian born US pianist (Reflections on Music), died in Switzerland.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1951        Sep 20, Swiss males voted against female suffrage.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1951        Switzerland and the US signed an accord on income tax that dealt with issues of bank secrecy and exchange of sensitive information. The accord was renegotiated in 1996.
    (WSJ, 2/28/96, p.A-1)
1951        The Geneva-based International Organization for Migration (IOM), an intergovernmental organization, was established as the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM) to help resettle people displaced by World War II.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Organization_for_Migration)

1954        Oct 22, As a result of the Geneva accords granting Communist control over North Vietnam, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorized a crash program to train the South Vietnamese Army.
    (HN, 10/22/98)

1955        Jul 18, A summit opened in Geneva, Switzerland, attended by Pres. Eisenhower, Soviet Premier Nikolai Bulganin, British PM Anthony Eden and French Premier Edgar Faure.
    (AP, 7/18/05)

1955        Jul 21, During the Geneva summit, President Eisenhower presented his "open skies" proposal under which the United States and the Soviet Union would trade information on each other's military facilities and allow aerial reconnaissance.
    (AP, 7/21/07)

1955        Nov 16, Big Four talks, taking place in Geneva on German reunification, ended in failure.
    (HN, 11/16/98)

1956        Swiss designer Max Miedinger devised the Helvetica typeface. It was later adjusted to work on Linotype machines by British-born American typographer Mike Parker (1929-2014). Parker and Matthew Carter left Linotype in 1981 to found Bitstream, the first company dedicated to producing digital fonts.
    (Econ, 3/8/14, p.94)
1956        E.G. Buehrle (b.1890), German-born Swiss industrialist, died. Emil Buhrle provided arms to the Third Reich during World War II and amassed one of Europe's greatest private collections in the aftermath of the war.
    (www.buehrle.ch/collection.php?lang=en)

1959        Nov 20, Seven European nations (Austria, Britain, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland) signed the Stockholm Convention to form the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). The organization becoming operative on May 3 1960.
    (www.iceland.org/efta/the-mission/int-organizations/efta/)

1959        Robert Frank (b.1924), a Swiss-born photographer, published “The Americans," a collection of 83 powerful photographs taken during a driving trip around American from 1955-1957. The published photos were selected from some 26,000 negatives.
    (Econ, 10/17/09, p.100)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Frank)

1959        A Swiss gentleman’s agreement gave 2 cabinet seats each to the 3 major parties, the Free Democrats, The Christian People’s Party, and the Social Democrats. One went to the right-wing Swiss People’s Party, SVP.
    (Econ, 2/14/04, Survey p.5)

1960        Mar 6, The Swiss granted women the right to vote in municipal elections.
    (HN, 3/6/98)

1960        Mar 15, Ten nations met in Geneva to discuss disarmament.
    (HN, 3/15/98)

1961        Jun 6, Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung (b.1875), one of the founders of modern psychiatry, died in Zurich. “As far as we can discern, the sole purpose of human existence is to kindle a light in the darkness of mere being." In 1997 Richard Noll published "The Aryan Christ: The Secret Life of Carl Jung." Frank McLynn published "Carl Gustav Jung, A Biography." In 2003 Deirdre Bair authored "Jung: A Biography." In 2004 Sonu Shamdasani authored “Jung and the Making of Modern Psychology." In 2009 “The Red Book" was published. It was edited by Sonu Shamdasani and duplicated Jung’s original manuscript, which he worked on from 1914 to 1930.
    (SFEC,10/19/97, BR p.3)(SSFC, 12/7/03, p.M6)(Econ, 3/13/04, p.84)(Econ, 10/10/09, p.89)(Econ, 9/27/14, IL p.8)

1962        Mar 25, Auguste Piccard (78), Swiss explorer, balloonist, died.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1962        Apr 5, St. Bernard Tunnel was finished and Swiss and Italians workers shook hands.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1962        Aug 9, Hermann Hesse (85), winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature (1946), died in Switzerland.
    (iUniv. 7/2/00)(MC, 8/9/02)

1963        Jan 28, Jean Felix Piccard, Swiss explorer, died on his 79th birthday.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1963        Werner Thomas, accordionist, began performing a tune he’d written in the late 1950s at his restaurant in Davos. The tune later became known worldwide as the chicken dance.
    (WSJ, 7/16/01, p.A1)

1964        Feb, Yuri Nosenko (1927-2008), Soviet KGB officer, defected under CIA guidance in Geneva. He had begun passing information in June, 1962. He was incarcerated for his first 3 years in the US and settled there under a new name in 1969.
    (Econ, 9/6/08, p.101)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuri_Nosenko)

1965        May 22, Heinrich Barth, Swiss philosopher (Das Sein in der Zeit), died.
    (MC, 5/22/02)

1965        Aug 27, Le Corbusier (b.1887), Swiss-French architect and writer, died in France. He was born as Charles Edouard Jeanneret-Gris in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. His book included books include “Vers une architecture" (Towards a New Architecture) (1923), “The City of Tomorrow" (1925), and “When the Cathedrals Were White" (1937). In 2014 Anthony flint authored “Modern man: The Life of Le Corbusier, Architect of Tomorrow."
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/lecorbu.htm)(Econ, 11/15/14, p.85)

1965        Oct, Paul Hermann Muller (d.1965), a Geigy pesticide researcher in Switzerland, died. He discovered DDT in 1939 and won a Nobel prize in 1948.
    (ON, 11/01, p.6)

1966        Jan 11, Albert Giacometti (64), Swiss-French painter and sculptor, died in Switzerland.
    (WSJ, 12/19/01, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alberto_Giacometti)

1966        Nov 20, Men in Zurich voted against female suffrage.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1967        The Brissago Islands on Lago Maggiore passed to the local government.
    (SFEC, 6/14/98, p.T5)

1967        Adrienne von Speyr (b.1902), Swiss mystic, author and physician, died. From her conversion to Catholicism in 1940 on she experienced episodes of trance from Good Friday to Holy Saturday reliving the passion of Jesus.
    (WSJ, 4/18/03, p.W13)

1968        Mar 2, In Switzerland the World Ice Pairs Figure Skating Championship in Geneva was won by Lyudmila Belousova and Oleg Protopopov (USSR). The Ladies Figure Skating Championship was won by Peggy Fleming (USA). The Men's Figure Skating Championship was won by Emmerich Danzer (Austria).
    (SC, 3/2/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Figure_Skating_Championships)

1969        Feb 18, The PLO (PFLP-GC) machine-gunned an Israeli El-Al plane in Zurich, Switzerland.  One Palestinian was killed and 4 were arrested.
    (SFC, 5/21/02, p.A16)(www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Terrorism/incidents.html)

1969        Feb 20, Ernest Ansermet (b.1883), Swiss conductor and composer, died.
    {Composer, Switzerland}
    (www.bach-cantatas.com/Bio/Ansermet-Ernest.htm)

1969        May 13,  Paul Wild, Swiss astronomer, discovered asteroid #1775, Zimmerwald.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1775_Zimmerwald)

1969        Sep 14, Males of Swiss canton Schaffhausen rejected female suffrage.
    (www.keesings.com/search?kssp_a_id=23580n02swi&kssp_selected_tab=article)

1970        Feb 21, The PFLP-GC, a Palestinian terrorist group, planted a parcel bomb on Swissair Flight 330 that blew up on a flight from Zurich to Tel Aviv. All 47 aboard were killed.
    (SFC, 5/21/02, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swissair_Flight_330)(Econ, 11/6/10, p.74)

1970        Feb 24, 29 Swiss Army officers died in avalanche at Reckingen, Switzerland.
    (http://library.thinkquest.org/C003603/english/avalanches/casestudies.shtml#54)

1970        The PFLP-GC planted a time bomb on a Swissair jet that blew up on a flight from Zurich to Tel Aviv. All 47 aboard were killed.
    (SFC, 5/21/02, p.A16)

1971        Feb 7, Switzerland voted to introduce female suffrage at the federal but not the cantonal level.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(AP, 2/7/01)

1971        Jul 24, The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works was promulgated in Paris. It was first accepted in Berne in 1886 at the instigation of Victor Hugo.
    (www.ifla.org.sg/documents/infopol/copyright/ucc.txt)(PNI, 2/5/97, p.4)

1971        Oct 11, Switzerland established diplomatic relations with North Vietnam.
    (www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/reps/asia/vvnm/bilvie.html)

1971        Ernest Beyeler (1921-2010), Swiss art dealer, helped found the Art Basel art fair. In 1982 he and his wife created the Beyeler foundation and commissioned Renzo Piano to design a museum in Riehen to house their private collection.
    (SSFC, 2/28/10, p.C10)
1971        In Switzerland business professor Klaus Schwab (32) organized a meeting of European executives that grew to become the World Economic Forum (WEF) at Davos. By 2000 the forum was a powerful player in global economic affairs.
    (WSJ, 1/27/00, p.A18)(Econ, 1/17/15, p.66)

1971-1985    In 2005 Peter Hug, history professor at the Univ. of Bern, reported that a Swiss nuclear research center aided South Africa between 1971 and 1985 in the sectors of acceleration technology and uranium enrichment.
    (AP, 10/28/05)

1972        Switzerland signed a free trade treaty with the European Common Market.
    (SFC, 3/15/00)

1973        Jul 6, Otto Klemperer (b.1885), German-born conductor and composer, died in Zurich. He had taken United States citizenship in 1937 and Israeli citizenship in 1970.
    (WSJ, 8/20/96, p.A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_Klemperer)

1973        Jul 27, Eddie Rickenbacker (b.1890), American WW I fighter pilot, died in Zurich. He and several associates bought Eastern Airlines in 1938 and guided it to become one of the most profitable airlines in the postwar era.
    (HNPD, 10/7/98)(www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=324)

1973        Dec 21, Israel, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, US and USSR leaders met in Geneva. The Geneva Conference of 1973 was an attempt to negotiate a solution to the Arab-Israeli conflict as called for in UN Security Council Resolution 338 which was passed after the 1973 Arab-Israeli War.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geneva_Conference_(1973))

1973        Paul Sacher (d.1999 at 93), industrialist and symphony conductor, set up the Paul Sacher Foundation to house manuscripts and letters of composers in Basel. Sacher and other family members controlled Roche Holding AG and their joint fortune was valued at $17-20 billion.
    (SFC, 5/27/99, p.C6)

1974        Feb 8, Fritz Zwicky (75), Swiss-US astronomer (supernova), died.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1974        Billy Graham, American evangelist, went to Lausanne to set up a new body that would focus on winning some 2.7 billion people who had yet to hear the Christian message. Geneva was already the base for the World Council of Churches (WCC). Church leaders agreed in 1937 to establish a World Council of Churches, based on a merger of the Faith and Order Movement and Life and Work Movement organizations. Its official establishment was deferred with the outbreak of World War II until August 23, 1948.
    (Econ, 10/30/10, p.67)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Council_of_Churches)

1975        Vladimir Prelog (d.1998 at age 91), a Swiss chemist, won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in stereochemistry and the architecture of molecules like cholesterol and antibiotics.
    (SFC, 1/17/98, p.A19)

1976        Dec 6, Dutch War criminal Pieter Menten (1899-1987) was arrested in Switzerland after fleeing there in November.
    (http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pieter_Menten)

1977        Jul 2, Vladimir Nabokov, Russian-born author, died in Switzerland. In 1996 a 3-volume collection of his prose work was issued by the Library of America. In 1999 Kurt Johnson and Steven Coates authored "Nabokov's Blues: The Scientific Odyssey of a Literary Genius."
    (WSJ, 4/22/99, A20)(SFEC, 10/17/99, BR p.4)(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/nabokov.htm)

1977        Jun 7, Protocols I and II were added to the 1949 Geneva Conventions. They prohibited environmental damage during int’l. and internal armed conflict. Protocol I prohibited "widespread, long-term and severe damage to the environment." Guerrilla warfare was affirmed as a legitimate means of conflict by the Geneva Conventions in 1977, when prisoner of war status was extended to guerrilla fighters.
    (SFC, 8/11/00, p.A15)(www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/93.htm)

1977        Dec 25, Comedian Sir Charles Chaplin died in Corsier-sur-Vevey, Switzerland at age 88. In 2006 Richard Schickel edited “The Essential Chaplin."
    (AP, 4/16/00)(WSJ, 6/23/06, p.W6)

1977        Protocols I and II were added to the Geneva Conventions. They prohibited environmental damage during int’l. and internal armed conflict. Protocol I prohibited "widespread, long-term and severe damage to the environment." Guerrilla warfare was affirmed as a legitimate means of conflict by the Geneva Conventions in 1977, when prisoner of war status was extended to guerrilla fighters.
    (SFC, 8/11/00, p.A15)(HNQ, 10/14/01)

1978        Mar 3, The remains of comedian Charles Chaplin were stolen by extortionists from his grave in Cosier-sur-Vevey, Switzerland. The body was recovered near Lake Geneva 11 weeks later.
    (AP, 3/3/98)

1978        The Wild-2 comet was discovered by Swiss astronomer Paul Wild.
    (SFC, 2/6/99, p.A8)

1979        Sep 24, Russian ice skaters Protopopov and Beloussova asked for asylum in Switzerland.
    (MC, 9/24/01)

1979        Dec 3, Christie's in Switzerland auctioned a thimble for a record sum. A London dealer bid $18,000 for a Meissen porcelain thimble that dated to about 1740.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thimble)

1979        The new Swiss canton of Jura was separated from Bern.
    (Econ, 2/14/04, Survey p.7)

1979        At Davos, Switzerland, the World Economic Forum became the first nongovernmental institution to initiate a partnership with China’s economic development commissions.
    (WSJ, 1/23/08, p.A8)

1980        Sep 5, The St. Gotthard tunnel in the Swiss Alps, the world's longest auto tunnel, opened.
    (HFA, '96, p.38)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gotthard_Road_Tunnel)

1980        Sep 8, Jean Piaget, Swiss psychologist, theorist and educator, died at 84.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1981        Nov 30, The United States and the Soviet Union opened negotiations in Geneva aimed at reducing nuclear weapons in Europe.
    (AP, 11/30/97)

1981        The SEC sued the Swiss bank Svizzera Italiana to freeze the assets in trades it suspected were based on material, nonpublic information, i.e. insider trading. It eventually got the names.
    (WSJ, 9/19/96, p.C18)

1982        Nov 29, An 88-nation world trade conference meeting in Geneva agreed on a new set of guidelines for encouraging free trade and halting a tide of global protectionism.
    (http://tinyurl.com/36ozv8)

1982        Dec 20, Artur Rubinstein (95), pianist (My Young Years), died in Geneva.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1982        Dec, Swiss investigators discovered a 14-page Arabic document that became widely known as “The Project." It set out the Muslim Brotherhood’s strategy for global dominion.
    (www.historycommons.org/context.jsp?item=a1282theproject)(Econ, 10/30/10, p.92)

1982        Klaus Jacobs (1936-2008), head of the German coffee dealer Jacobs AG, orchestrated the takeover of Switzerland’s Interfood SA, maker of the Toblerone candy bar. In 1990 Philip Morris bought Jacobs Suchard for $3.8 billion. Klaus went on to buy a Swiss staffing firm and in 1996 merged it with France’s Ecco SA to form Adecco SA, which became one of the world’s largest staffing firms.
    (WSJ, 9/20/08, p.A12)

1983        Jul 29, David Niven (b.1910), actor, died in Switzerland.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Niven)

1983        Nicolas Hayek (1928-2010), Lebanese-born businessman, introduced the Swatch, an inexpensive wristwatch, which became highly collectible. He was later credited with having saved the Swiss watch industry.
    (SFC, 6/30/10, p.C5)

1984        Feb 29, In Switzerland a court ruled that the villagers of Zermatt owned the Matterhorn.
    (SFC, 2/29/00, p.A1)

1984        Aug 5, Actor Richard Burton (58) died at a hospital in Geneva, Switzerland.
    (AP,  8/5/97)

1984        Paul Jolles (d.2000), diplomat and architect of economic foreign policy following WW II, retired from government service. He then joined the Board of Nestle S.A.
    (SFC, 3/15/00, p.A20)

1985        The Swiss Nestle S.A. corporation bought the SF based Hills Bros. Coffee and MJB. In 1997 it had 494 production facilities in 71 countries.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.D2)

1985-1999    Swiss glaciers lost at least 18% of their surface area during this period.
    (NH, 2/05, p.17)

1985-2000    The number of Swiss working in agriculture declined by 32% to 200,000. The number of farms dropped by 29% to 70,000.
    (Econ, 2/14/04, Survey p.11)

1986        Jun 14, Jorge Luis Borges (b.1899), Argentine author (Book of Sand), died in Geneva. In 1998 a new English translation by Andrew Hurley of his "Collected Fictions" was published. In 1999 Alexander Coleman edited "Selected Poems." Also in 1999 Eliot Weinberger edited "Selected Non-Fictions." In 2004 Edwin Williamson authored “Borges: A Life."
    (SFEC, 12/13/98, BR p.1)(SFEC, 4/18/99, BR p.3)(WSJ, 8/17/99, p.A18)(WSJ, 8/5/04, p.D8)

1986        Nov 1, A fire in a Sandoz factory in Basel left 30 tons of chemicals in the Rhine.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yhsjad)

1986        Georg Bednorz and Alexander Muller, researchers at IBM’s Zurich laboratory, discovered that that an exotic ceramic material behaved like a superconductor at 35°K.
    (Econ, 12/3/11, TQ p.20)
1986        Swiss physicists Gerd Binning and Heinrich Rohrer (1933-2013) at IBM's Almaden Research Center won the Nobel Prize in Physics for inventing the scanning-tunneling microscope used to see and manipulate atoms. They shared the prize with Ernst Ruska.
    (SJBJ, Jan., '96, p.40)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Rohrer)

1987        Jul 23, Hussein Hariri (21), a Lebanese hijacker, commandeered an Air Afrique DC-10 flying from Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, to Paris. He was captured during a refueling stop in Geneva and was sentenced to life in prison for killing a passenger and seriously wounding a flight attendant. In 2004 he was released and deported to Lebanon.
    (AP, 10/17/04)

1988        Dec 13, PLO chairman Yasser Arafat addressed the U.N. General Assembly in Geneva, where it had reconvened after the United States refused to grant Arafat a visa to visit New York.
    (AP, 12/13/98)

1988        In Switzerland banking regulators published the first Basel Capital Accord, Basel 1. It recognized that some loans and investments were less risky than others and weighed them accordingly. Work on the Basel 2 accords, Int’l. Convergence of Capital Measures and Capital Standards," began in 1996 and were published in 2004.
    (Econ, 5/20/06, Survey p.10)

1988        At Davos, Switzerland, during the World Economic Forum, Prime Ministers Papandreou of Greece and Ozal of Turkey embarked on a peace initiative, setting up a hot-line and vowing to avoid war.
    (WSJ, 1/23/08, p.A8)

1989        Apr 19, Adnan Khashoggi, a Saudi financier, was arrested in Switzerland at the request of the US Government, which is seeking his extradition to New York to stand trial on charges of racketeering, fraud and obstruction of justice. He faced charges stemming from ''illegal property dealings'' on behalf of Ferdinand E. Marcos, the ousted President of the Philippines, and his wife, Imelda. In 1992 Khashoggi  and Imelda Marcos were found not guilty of racketeering by a jury in Manhattan.
    (http://tinyurl.com/qp8da)(www.maykuth.com/Archives/marcos90.htm)

1989        In Zurich authorities experimented with an open access to drugs program, which caused an escalation in drug dealing and violence.
    (SFEC, 11/29/98, p.A21)

1989        Tim Berners-Lee wrote a proposal at CERN, Switzerland, that a global hypertext space be created in which any network-accessible information could be referred to by a single "Universal Document Identifier". In 1990 he wrote a program called WorldWideWeb.
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, p.W26)(http://www3.org/People/Berners-Lee/ShortHistory.html)

1990        Nov 27, The canton Appenzell Rhodes-Interieur was required to count women’s votes by a decision of the Swiss Federal Tribunal. It was the last Swiss state to finally give women the right to vote.
    (Hem., 2/97, p.26)

1990        Dec 14, Friedrich Durrenmatt (b.1921), Swiss author and playwright, died. In 2006 the Univ. of Chicago published a translation of his selected writings in 3 volumes. "What was once thought can never be unthought."
    (AP, 11/15/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_D%C3%BCrrenmatt)

1990        In Switzerland legislation was passed to punish bankers who knowingly accepted money that came from a crime.
    (WSJ, 7/3/96, p.A8)

1990        Kazem Rajavi, exiled Iranian opposition leader, was shot to death in Geneva.
    (AP, 4/9/06)

1991        Mar 3, Switzerland voted on lowering voting age from 20 to 18.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1991        Mar 25, Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, a rebellious conservative in the Roman Catholic Church, died in Martigny, Switzerland, at age 85.
    (AP, 3/25/01)

1991        Apr 4, Max Frisch (d.1991), Swiss architect and writer, died. His books included “I’m Not Stiller" (1958), a look at the nature of identity.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Frisch)(WSJ, 4/25/09, p.W8)

1991        Swiss-based Roche Corp. paid Cetus Corp. of Emeryville, Ca., $300 million for its PCR gene amplification business, a DNA copying method that became the foundation for genetic diagnostics.
    (SFC, 3/13/09, p.A10)

1991        A dye-sensitized solar cell, also known as Gratzel cells, was invented by Michael Gratzel and Brian O'Regan at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. He pioneered research on energy and electron transfer reactions in mesoscopic-materials and their optoelectronic applications.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dye-sensitized_solar_cell)

1992        May 20, Switzerland formally applies to join the European Communities.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1992/index_en.htm)

1992        Aug 7, The 39-nation Conference on Disarmament in Geneva produced the final draft of a treaty to ban chemical weapons, ending 24 years of talks.
    (AP, 8/7/97)

1992        Dec 6, A narrow majority of Swiss referendum voters rejected the idea of joining the European Economic Area, a free trade club embracing the EU and Liechtenstein.
    (Econ, 5/22/04, p.46)(http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1992/index_en.htm)

1992        Switzerland outlawed capital punishment for the Swiss military.
    (SFC, 7/20/12, p.A2)
1992        In Zurich, Switzerland, a festival was begun known as the Street Parade to celebrate techno music under the motto: "Love, peace and tolerance." From 2,000 people at the first event it grew to some 400,000 by 1997.
    (SFC, 8/18/97, p.E4)
1992        Scientists at Novartis synthesized the compound that would become Gleevec (Glivec). It had been identified as promising compound for treating leukemia. In 2001, the US FDA approved Gleevec for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).
    (http://tinyurl.com/6e9nnb)

1993        Sep 11, Austrian born US conductor and author Erich Leinsdorf died in Zurich, Switzerland, at age 81. His work included "Cadenza."
    (AP, 9/11/98)

1993        Dec 15, In Geneva, 117 countries completed the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, agreeing on a reform package intended to jump-start the global economy.
    (AP, 12/15/98)

1994        Jan 1, The North American Free Trade Agreement went into effect. Under the system a complaint is referred to a panel of experts who debate it and render a decision. The losing nation must then change its practices or offer compensation to the injured nations. Members who refuse to comply can be subjected to trade retaliation, such as tariffs to their exports. It was run out of Geneva by Renato "Rocky" Ruggiero. GATT gave poorer countries 10 years to strengthen their drug-patent laws and a similar period for the US to lift its textile quotas. The World Trade Organization (WTO), founded as the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), a relatively weak regulator of int’l. trade, was a product of the Uruguay Round of negotiations (1986-1994). In 2000 John R. MacArthur authored "The Selling of "Free Trade:" NAFTA, Washington, and the Subversion of American Democracy."
    (SFC, 10/17/96, A9)(WSJ, 12/3/96, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/13/96, p.A1)(AP, 1/1/98) (SFC, 11/24/99, p.A1)(SFEC, 7/2/00, BR p.3)

1994        Sep 25, Swiss voters approved a ban on racist propaganda. The law became effective Jan 1,1995.
    (http://natall.com/national-vanguard/114/freedom.html)(www.ihr.org/jhr/v17/v17n4p-2.html)

1994        Oct 5, 48 members of a secret religious doomsday cult were found dead in apparent murder-suicides carried out simultaneously in two Swiss villages; five other bodies were found in a sect apartment in Montreal, Canada.
    (AP, 10/5/99)

1994        Oct, Seven Picasso paintings worth an estimated $44 million are stolen from a gallery in Zurich. They are recovered in 2000.
    (AP, 2/11/08)

1994        Switzerland began a controversial 3-year experimental heroin distribution program. The program led to a huge drop in crime and survived a ballot challenge in 1997.
    (SFC, 7/11/97, p.A14)

1995        Feb, In Zurich the police clamped down on the open drug scene and dispersed the junkies. There were an estimated 30,000 addicts in the country.
    (SFC, 7/11/97, p.A11)

1995        Oct, Swiss astronomers Michel Mayor (b.1942) and Didier Queloz (b.1966) revealed that the spectrum of light from the star 51 Pegosi shifts on a regular 4.23-day period and concluded that the shifts were due to a nearby planet.
    (SFC, 2/27/97, p.A6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michel_Mayor)

1995        A group of 7 Swiss artists registered the domain name of Etoy.com with Network Solutions. In 1999 the toy company EToys.com sued the artists and forced them to shut their web site down. In 2003 Adam Wishart and Regula Bochsler authored: "Leaving Reality Behind: "Etoy vs. eToys.com & Other Battles to Control Cyberspace."
    (SSFC, 2/2/03, p.AM3)
1995        Binjamin Wilkomirski authored his memoir "Fragments," which purported to be about his survival at the Majdanek concentration camp. In 2002 Blake Eskin authored "A Life in Pieces" that told the story of how Bruno Doessekker (b.1941) fabricated the story.
    (WSJ, 2/5/02, p.A16)
1995        Prompted by Jewish groups Swiss banks searched their dormant accounts and claimed to have found only $32 million.
    (SFC, 10/24/96, p.C2)
1995        Protease inhibitors, a cocktail drug therapy for AIDS, were first introduced. AIDS became the leading cause of death among Americans aged 25-44. Hoffman-La Roche, a Swiss drug firm, launched the first protease inhibitor.
    (SSFC, 6/3/01, p.A21)(Econ, 6/2/12, p.80)

1996        Jan 31, In Switzerland 5 people died in the Bernese Alps when their hot air balloon crashed into a mountainside at a height of 2,400 meters.
    (AP, 2/26/13)

1996        Mar 8, In Zurich Ciba-Geigy and Sandoz planned a merger valued at $30 billion. The new company was named Novartis.
    (WSJ, 1/2/97, p.R2)(WSJ, 6/6/00, p.A1)

1996        May 3, A weak compromise treaty was passed in Geneva that aimed to phase out non-detectable plastic mines, and introduced rules to limit the lifespan of anti-personnel mines planted outside marked fields to 3 months. The new treaty will go into effect once it is signed by 20 countries and revised an outdated 1980 weapons protocol signed by 57 nations. It has few enforcement provisions. The international conference in Geneva ended 30 months of arduous negotiations over whether to ban land mines with a weak compromise treaty giving countries nine years to switch to detectable, self-destructive devices.
    (SFC, 5/4/96, p.A-1)(AP, 5/3/97)

1996        Jul 4, The defense ministry hoped to save $476,000 a year by pensioning off 7,000 carrier pigeons.
    (SFC, 7/4/96, p.C1)

1996        Jul 7, The average cost of a Big Mac in Switzerland was $4.80.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, Par, p.17)

1996        Jul 12, Gottfried von Einem (b.1918), Swiss composer, died in Oberduirnbach.
    (www.einem.org/en/komp_ll.htm)

1996        Oct 30, The government announced that it would join NATO’s Partnership for Peace program to promote European security.
    (SFC, 10/31/96, p.A12)

1996        The independent Volcker commission was set up to find the truth about assets deposited by Holocaust victims in Swiss banks. In 1999 the committee presented a list of some 54,000 accounts with "possible or probable relationships" to Holocaust victims with a total value of as much as $1.3 billion.
    (SFC, 12/7/99, p.A10)

1996        The Independent Commission of Experts on Switzerland and WW II was set up. It was led by Francois Bergier, Swiss historian. In 2001 the commission published their report "Switzerland as a Hub for German Covert Operations from 1939-1952."
    (SFC, 12/7/01, p.F5)

1996        The French firm Ecco merged with Adia of Switzerland to form Adecco. The merger made Adecco the world’s largest employment firm ahead of Manpower.
    (Econ, 1/6/07, p.57)

1996        Karl Muller, Swiss engineer, invented a new type of shoe designed to re-create the positive effects of walking barefoot. The shoes were named MBTs (Masai Barefoot Technology) after the African Masai tribe.
    (SSFC, 11/25/07, p.F3)(www.sunsetbirkenstock.com/shop/mbt.php)

1997        Jan 5, Jewish leaders blasted the remark of former Swiss Pres. Jean-Pascal Delamuraz, who called Jewish demands for the compensation of Holocaust victims "blackmail."
    (SFC, 1/6/97, p.A9)

1997        Jan 9, Christoph Meili, night watchman at the Union Bank of Switzerland, salvaged an armful of books and papers that contained bank records from the Nazi era that were about to be shredded. His dismissal from the security company for which he worked, effective at the end of April, was announced Feb 24.
    (SFC, 1/17/96, p.E1)(SFC, 2/24/96, p.A14)

1997        Jan 27, The Swiss ambassador to the US, Carlo Jagmetti, resigned after remarks against groups that represented Holocaust victims seeking recompense from Swiss banks.
    (SFC, 1/28/97, p.A6)

1997        Jan 31, Pres. Arnold Koller expressed regret to Israeli PM Netenyahu for the wrongdoings of the Holocaust.
    (SFC, 2/1/97, p.C1)

1997        Feb, Three Swiss banks announced that they had put about $70 million into an account with the Swiss National Bank to establish a "Humanitarian Fund" for the victims of the Holocaust.
    (SFC, 2/6/97, p.C2)

1997        Mar 22, In Lausanne, Switz., Tara Lipinski, at age 14 years and 10 months, became the youngest women's world figure skating champion.
    (AP, 3/22/97)

1997        Mar 27, Ella Maillart (b.1903), Swiss sportswoman and travel writer, died. She chronicled the savage collectivization of Karakalpak agriculture in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan in the 1930s.
    (Econ, 5/16/09, p.91)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ella_Maillart)

1997        May 17, In Zaire rebel forces entered Kinshasa and Laurent Kabila declared himself president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Kabila requested Swiss authorities to block Mobuto Sese Seko’s access to his Swiss villa. The house was seized and searched and documents were found that related to his wealth. The seizure was declared legal Aug 7.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 8/8/97, p.E3)(AP, 5/17/98)

1997        Jul 10, A 3 year pilot heroin distribution program was declared a success.
    (SFC, 7/11/97, p.A14)

1997        Jul 23, Swiss banks published a list of 2,000 WW II-era dormant accounts that included assets of holocaust victims.
    (SFC, 7/23/97, p.A8)

1997        Aug 7, In Switzerland the measures to freeze the assets of deposed Zairian Pres. Mobuto Sese Seko were declared legal.
    (SFC, 8/8/97, p.E3)

1997        Sep 1, In Switzerland robbers made off with $37 million in cash from a Zurich post office. By Sep 8 Swiss and Italian police had detained 13 suspects. A total of 19 people in five countries were arrested in connection with the case.
    (WSJ, 9/2/97, p.A1)(SFC, 9/9/97, p.A11)(AP, 9/1/07)

1997        Sep 29, It was reported that Swiss voters backed the continuation of a 3-year experiment in more lenient drug laws that included free heroin to hard-core addicts to cut crime.
    (WSJ, 9/29/97, p.A1)

1997        Oct 13, Swiss bank officials said that 4,000 more unclaimed accounts from the Holocaust era were found containing about $4 million.
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.A12)

1997        Oct 24, The Swiss government announced plans to sell up to half of its gold reserves. The announcement sent gold prices to a 12-year low to $308.80.
    (SFC,10/24/97, p.D1)

1997        Oct 29, Swiss banks released findings of an additional $12.4 million in unclaimed funds from WW II.
    (SFC,10/30/97, p.A13)

1997        Nov 2, Franziska Rochat-Moser of Switzerland led the women in the 28th New York City Marathon in two hours, 28 minutes and 43 seconds.
    (WSJ, 11/3/97, p.A1)

1997        Nov 8, It was reported that Swiss authorities had evidence that 7 Israeli secret service agents were involved in a plot to kidnap Athena Roussel, the 12-year-old daughter of Christina Onassis and heir to a $2.4 billion trust fund.
    (SFC,11/8/97, p.A10)

1997        Nov 18, Holocaust survivors from Latvia received the first checks from a $200 million fund set up by Swiss banks. Individual survivors were to each receive $1000.
    (SFC,11/19/97, p.C4)

1997        Dec 8, Union Bank of Switzerland and the Swiss Bank Corp. announced a merger. It will create the world’s 2nd largest bank.
    (SFC,12/897, p.A16)

1997        Dec 12, Negotiators in Geneva for the World Trade Organization (WTO) signed an accord to open up the banking and insurance sectors of some 70 member countries to foreign competition.
    (SFC,12/13/97, p.A10)

1997        Dec 12, The high court told Swiss banks to send some $500 million in assets of the late Ferdinand Marcos back to the Philippines.
    (SFC,12/13/97, p.A14)

1997        The Swiss film "Fire in Paradise" was directed by Markus Imhoof. It was set in 1912 and was about an woman who takes another’s place for an arranged marriage in Asia.
    (SFC, 1/9/98, p.D6)

1997        Urs Kamber, a national track star, introduced the Heidiland concept for the town of Sargans.
    (SFEC, 9/24/00, p.T6)

1997        A Swiss federal law made money laundering and abetting it a criminal offense.
    (Econ, 2/14/04, Survey p.12)

1997        Endeavor, a New York-based non-profit group dedicated to promoting entrepreneurship in emerging economies, was founded. Initial operations began in Argentina and Chile with seed capital from Stephan Schmidheiny, a Swiss industrialist.
    (Econ, 8/2/08, p.69)

1997        Peter Brabeck took over as CEO of Nestle SA.
    (WSJ, 3/18/04, p.A1)

1997        Prionics AG developed the 1st efficient test for mad cow disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy.
    (WSJ, 1/08/00, p.A23)

1998        Jan 28, From Switzerland 3 balloonists set out to circle the globe in the Breitling Orbiter 2. They failed to get clearance from flying over China in time and were forced down in Burma on Feb 7 after traveling a record 4,730 miles.
    (SFC, 2/7/98, p.11)

1998        Feb 19, Police arrested 3 Israeli Mossad agents for spying on diplomats in Berne.
    (SFC, 2/26/98, p.A9)

1998        Feb 25, The first legal brothel opened in Zurich.
    (SFC, 2/26/98, p.A13)

1998        Feb, The Schwab Foundation for Economic and Social Development was established with Klaus Schwab as president.
    (WSJ, 1/27/00, p.A18)

1998        Mar 26, Three major Swiss banks pledged to set up a compensation fund in the US for a global settlement with Holocaust victims. The Swiss government announced a blunt non-involvement in the global settlement.
    (SFC, 3/27/98, p.A12)(SFC, 4/2/98, p.C2)

1998        Apr 1, The Swiss government announced a blunt non-involvement in the global settlement by banks with Holocaust victims.
    (SFC, 4/2/98, p.C2)

1998        Jun 28, The 12th World AIDS Conference opened in Geneva with some 12,000 participants.
    (SFC, 6/29/98, p.A1)(AP, 6/28/99)

1998        Aug 12, Representatives of Swiss banks and holocaust survivors agreed to a settlement of $1.25 billion in reparations for victims of the Nazi regime.
    (SFC, 8/13/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 19, The new Kultur and Knogresszentrum designed by Jean Nouvel will open.
    (SFC, 7/21/96, p.T5)

1998        Sep 18, A secret, 269 page Swiss report asserted that Raul Salinas assumed control of practically all drug shipments in Mexico in 1988 when his brother became president.
    (SFC, 9/19/98, p.A12)

1998        Oct 4, Former Swiss Pres. Jean-Pascal Delamuraz died at age 62. He served his one year rotating term in 1996 and made headlines that Dec. when he described Jewish demands for compensation for Holocaust victims as blackmail.
    (SFC, 10/5/98, p.A17)

1998        Oct 20, In Switzerland officials announced that they seized over $90 million from Raul Salinas after an investigations revealed that the money was received for protecting drug shipments. Swiss authorities requested that Britain seize an additional $23.4 million deposited in England.
    (SFC, 10/21/98, p.A10)

1998        Nov 29, The Swiss voted on whether to legalize drug use.
    (SFEC, 11/29/98, p.A21)

1998        Dec 12, Marc Hodler (1919-2006), Swiss lawyer and International Olympics Committee official, unleashed a series of corruption allegations that included systemic buying and selling of votes in Olympic bidding, particularly for the 2002 Winter Games in Salt Lake City.
    (SFC, 10/21/06, p.B6)

1998        Dec, Swiss authorities indicted Pavlo Lazarenko, a former prime minister of Ukraine, on money laundering charges. Sergei Mikhailov, an alleged Moscow kingpin, was tried on charges that he belonged to a criminal organization. Mikhailov was acquitted on insufficient evidence.
    (SFEC, 12/20/98, p.A32)

1998        In Switzerland Ludwig Minelli founded Dignitas, a physician assisted suicide organization for foreigners.
    (WSJ, 11/22/02, p.A1)

1998        In Zurich 815 man-made Swiss brown milking cows were used to help celebrate the 150th anniversary of the constitution.
    (SFC, 7/6/99, p.C6)

1998        In Lucerne the new $134 million, 1,840 seat Culture and Convention Center auditorium opened. It was designed by Jean Nouvel of France and the acoustics were done by Russell Johnson.
    (SFEC, 6/13/99, p.T10)

1999        Jan 2, Rolf Liebermann, Swiss composer, died in Paris. He led the Hamburg Opera from 1959-1972 and the Paris Opera from 1973-1980. His work included "Eleonore 40/45," "Penelope," "L'Ecole des Femmes" and "La Foret."
    (SFC, 1/4/99, p.D2)

1999        Feb 1, In Switzerland the IOC adopted its first ethics commission and code of conduct.
    (SFC, 2/2/99, p.A10)

1999        Feb 3, In Switzerland 60 of the 105 members of the IOC met to formulate an assault on performance enhancing drugs.
    (WSJ, 2/4/99, p.A1)

1999        Feb 23, Heavy rain and snow in the Alps left 5 people dead and 13 missing in Austria, Switzerland, France and Germany. An avalanche in the Austrian Alps at Galtuer killed 9 people and at least 30 were missing.
    (WSJ, 2/23/99, p.A1)(SFC, 2/24/99, p.A8)

1999        May 20, The US Justice Dept. settled charges against Roche Holding AG and BASF AG, two of the largest vitamin makers, for price fixing. Roche agreed to pay $500 million with a guilty plea, and BASF agreed to pay $225 million with a guilty plea.
    (SFC, 5/21/99, p.A3)

1999        Jun 13, Swiss voters defeated government plans to introduce paid maternity leave 61-39%. Voters endorsed the state distribution of heroin to addicts by a vote of 54%.
    (SFC, 6/14/99, p.A14)

1999        Jul 27, In Switzerland 19 people were killed as they tried to "canyon" down a narrow gorge on the Saxeten River off Lake Brienz. Two people were still missing and 13 were identified as Australians. 18 tourists and 3 guides died in the flash flood. In 2001 6 former employees of the adventure company were convicted of negligent manslaughter and given suspended sentences with fines.
    (SFC, 7/28/99, p.A1)(SFC, 7/29/99, p.A10)(SFC, 12/12/01, p.A7)

1999        cAug 22, The chief of the secret service was suspended amid reports that he had embezzled millions of dollars and was using the money to assemble a private army. Accountant Dino Bellasi was accused of embezzling $6 million from the Defense Ministry and used the money to train a secret army.
    (WSJ, 8/23/99, p.A1)(SFC, 9/3/99, p.A8)

1999        Oct 24, In Swiss parliamentary elections the right wing People's Party gained 14 seats in the 200 member lower house for a total of 44.
    (SFC, 10/25/99, p.A11)

1999        Nov 10, The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) was founded in Lausanne, Switzerland, to thwart drug users in all sports.
    (www.wada-ama.org/en/About-WADA/History/WADA-History/)

1999        Dec 26, In Europe heavy winds and rain killed 88 people in France, 17 dead in Germany and 13 dead in Switzerland. A 2nd storm hit a day later. Damages from the storms were later estimated to be at least $4 billion with 90 people dead. The storms destroyed an estimated 400 million trees across France.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.A12)(WSJ, 12/27/99, p.A1)(SFC, 12/28/99, p.A8)(SFC, 1/4/00, p.A11)(SFC, 1/15/00, p.A1)(AP, 1/25/09)

1999        At Davos, Switzerland, during the World Economic Forum, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan announced a Global compact to give a human face to the global market. He also called on business leaders to set global labor and environmental standards.
    (WSJ, 1/23/08, p.A8)

1999        The Swiss-based Center for Humanitarian Dialogue (CHD) was founded by 4 people. By 2008 it had a staff of over 70 and had helped resolve major conflicts in Indonesia and Kenya.
    (Econ, 7/5/08, p.71)

1999         Pres. Nazarbayev grew more self-protective after he came under suspicion of stowing funds in Swiss bank accounts. The Swiss froze over a dozen Kazakhstan bank accounts for alleged money laundering.
    (WSJ, 9/12/02, p.A8)(WSJ, 5/6/03, p.A24)

2000        Jan 10, In Switzerland a Crossair Saab-340 airplane crashed after takeoff from Zurich and all 10 people aboard were killed.
    (SFC, 1/11/00, p.A11)

2000        Jan 29, Pres. Clinton addressed the World Economic Forum at Davos and urged corporate leaders to help lift the burden of debt from developing countries and to examine environmental concerns. Some 1000 protestors demonstrated outside.
    (SFEC, 1/30/00, p.A16)

2000        Feb 21, An avalanche in Switzerland killed 3 skiers at Davos.
    (SFC, 2/22/00, p.A10)

2000        Jun 5, Jeanne Hersch, philosopher, died at age 89. She was the 1st woman to be appointed a professor at a Swiss university. Her books included ""The Right to Be a Man," Ideologies and Reality," and "The Power of Freedom."
    (SFC, 6/6/00, p.A21)

2000        Oct 14, A mudslide in Gondo left 18 people missing.
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, p.A20)

2000        Oct 15, The Palestinian Hezbollah seized an Israeli colonel, Elchanan Tennenbaum, in Switzerland.
    (SFC, 10/16/00, p.A1)

2000        Oct 15, At least 31 people were killed as landslides due to heavy rains continued in the Alps of Switzerland and Italy. 23 died in northern Italy and 8 in southern Switzerland
    (SFC, 10/16/00, p.F8)(SFC, 10/18/00, p.A14)(SFC, 10/19/00, p.C4)

2000        Nov 17, Jurgen Graf, prominent Swiss revisionist author, arrived in Iran. He fled his homeland rather than serve a 15-month prison sentence for "Holocaust denial."
    (www.ihr.org/conference/beirutconf/background.html)

2000        Dec 13, A Sri Lankan national murdered his girlfriend, Kavitha Kandiahr (23), in Basel, Switzerland. He was arrested on Aug 26, 2014, in New Zealand under a Swiss warrant and granted interim name suppression by a New Zealand court pending an appearance next week.
    (AP, 8/26/14)

2000        The Swiss franc was explicitly backed by gold until this year.
    (Econ, 11/29/14, p.66)

2001        Jan 27, Riot police prevented some 1,000 protestors from reaching the World Economic Forum at Davos.
    (SFC, 1/29/01, p.A14)

2001        Feb 18, Balthus (b.1908), painter aka Count Balthazar Klossowski de Rola, died at age 92 in Switzerland. In 2002 His memoir "Vanished Splendors," as told by Alain Vircondolet, was published.
    (SFC, 2/21/01, p.A18)(AP, 2/18/02)(SSFC, 1/12/03, p.M3)

2001        Mar 4, Swiss voters rejected membership talks with the EU by 77%.
    (SFC, 3/5/01, p.A11)

2001        Mar 23, Parliament voted to permit abortions until the 12th week. The centrist Christian People’s Party planned to force a national referendum on the issue.
    (SFC, 3/24/01, p.A11)

2001        Apr 1, The Pritzker Prize for Architecture was awarded to Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Mueron of Basel, Switzerland.
    (SFC, 4/2/01, p.D1)

2001        Jun 1, Police in Geneva found the decomposed body of a 16-month-old girl whose mother, a Portuguese immigrant, was arrested May 8 for stealing a cell phone.
    (SFC, 6/21/01, p.A10)

2001        Jun 10, Swiss voters by a narrow margin approved arming their soldiers on int’l. peacekeeping missions and to allow them to train with NATO.
    (SFC, 6/11/01, p.A9)

2001        Sep 10, In Switzerland nurse Roger Andermatt (32) was reported to have confessed to killing of 27 elderly and ailing patients over a 6-year period (1995-2001). In 2005 he was sentenced to life in prison for killing 22 elderly nursing home residents.
    (SFC, 9/12/01, p.C4)(AP, 1/28/05)

2001        Sep 27, In Switzerland gunman Friedrich Leibacher killed at least 14 people at the regional parliament of Zug.
    (SFC, 9/28/01, p.D2)

2001        Oct 2, Cash-strapped Swissair shut down flight operations and stranded thousands of passengers around the globe.
    (SFC, 10/3/01, p.D3)

2001        Oct 4, Swissair resumed flying following a 2-day shut down propped by a $281 million Swiss government loan. [see Jan 31, 2002]
    (SFC, 10/5/01, p.B4)

2001        Oct 24, In Switzerland 2 trucks collided in the 10.6 mile Gotthard tunnel and at least 10 people were killed. 11 were later confirmed dead with 30 people missing. The tunnel was expected to stay closed for weeks.
    (SFC, 10/25/01, p.A15)(SFC, 10/26/01, p.D2)(SFC, 10/27/01, p.C1)

2001        Nov 24, In Switzerland a Swiss Crossair Jumbolino Avro RJ-100 crashed with 33 people on board. 24 were killed including American pop singer Melanie Thornton.
    (SSFC, 11/25/01, p.A18)(WSJ, 11/26/01, p.A1)(AP, 11/24/02)

2001        Dec 13, It was reported that 83 vanadium miners at the Vantech Tech. mining operations in Steelport, South Africa, were let go between 1998 and 2001 after suffering respiratory problems. Vantech was a subsidiary of the Swiss-based Xstrata.
    (SFC, 12/13/01, p.E2)

2002        Jan 22, The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was established as a Swiss Foundation.
    (www.theglobalfund.org/en/about/publications/)

2002        Jan 31, Crossair, a regional carrier and successor airline to the bankrupt Swissair, announced plans that will make it Europe's 4th largest international airline, under the new name Swiss.
    (EB, 2002, p.11)(Econ, 2/14/04, p.10)

2002        Feb 23, Switzerland largest bank said it was freezing accounts containing money of the family of Sani Abacha of Nigeria, dictator from 1993-1998. The total blocked now reached $720 million.
    (SSFC, 2/24/02, p.A20)

2002        Mar 3, Switzerland voted in a referendum to join the UN, the 190th member, abandoning almost 200 years of formal neutrality.
    (SFC, 3/4/02, p.A2)(Econ, 2/14/04, Survey p.4)(AP, 3/3/07)

2002        Apr 17, The Swiss government announced that the family of Sani Abacha will return $1 billion to Nigeria in an out-of-court settlement that allowed them keep $100 million.
    (SFC, 4/18/02, p.A11)

2002        May 15, The National Exhibition, Expo.02, opened. The $823 million production, scattered around 3 lakes and 4 town, was set to close Oct 20.
    (SSFC, 5/26/02, p.C5)

2002        Jun 2, About 72% of Swiss voters approved a measure permitting abortions in the 1st 12 weeks of pregnancy.
    (SFC, 6/3/02, p.A6)
2002        Jun 2, It was reported that atrazine, a commonly used herbicide made by Sygenta AG of Switzerland, had been linked to cancer in humans and deformities in frogs.
    (SSFC, 6/2/02, p.A3)

2002        Jul 1, Bashkirian flight 2937 with 45 Russian children headed for a beach vacation in Spain were among 71 people killed when their chartered Tupolev airliner slammed into a Boeing 757 DHL cargo plane over southern Germany. The flights were under Swiss air control. An onboard device told the pilot to climb but he followed a controller’s order to dive instead. In 2007 four employees of a Swiss air traffic control company were convicted of negligent homicide for the crash of flight 2937.
    (AP, 7/2/02)(SFC, 7/2/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 7/2/02, p.A1)(SFC, 7/3/02, p.A6)(WSJ, 7/9/02, p.A1)(AP, 9/4/07)

2002        Jul 3, Swiss authorities said a collision-warning system was out of service in the Zurich tower when it took control of a Russian airliner and a cargo jet shortly before they collided on July 1 at 35,000 feet, killing 71 people, including 45 children headed for an end-of-school beach holiday. One of 2 required air controllers was on a break.
    (AP, 7/3/02)(SFC, 7/4/02, p.A8)

2002        Jul 8, Peter Friedrich, Switzerland's ambassador to Luxembourg, was arrested on suspicion of money laundering.
    (AP, 7/11/02)

2002        Ju 17, Switzerland formally requested membership to the United Nations.
    (SFC, 7/18/02, p.A15)

2002        Aug 20, The Swiss government returned to Peru about $77.5 million linked to former Peruvian spy chief Vladimiro Montesinos, saying the money came from corrupt arms deals. The money includes assets of Gen. Nicolas de Bari Hermoza Rios, Peru's former armed forces chief, who also faces corruption charges. $33 million linked to Montesinos remained blocked in Swiss banks.
    (AP, 8/21/02)

2002        Sep 8, Georges-Andre Chevallaz (87), a former Swiss president (1980) and member of the ruling cabinet for 10 years, died in Lausanne.
    (AP, 9/9/02)

2002        Sep 10, Switzerland became the 190th member of the UN, preserving its historic neutrality but stepping more actively onto the world stage.
    (AP, 9/10/02)

2002        Sep 22, Switzerland held a referendum on the use of tons of "excess" gold sold weekly from the vaults of Switzerland's central bank. The government wants to split the money three ways: a third to Swiss cantons, or states, a third to its social security program exclusively for Swiss residents and a third to be divided evenly between self-help projects for use at home and abroad.
    (AP, 9/21/02)

2002        Sep 29, Hans Peter Tschudi (88), twice Swiss president (1965, 1970) and interior minister for 14 years, died.
    (AP, 9/30/02)

2002        Nov 5, In Switzerland representatives of over 40 countries along with industry representatives and advocacy groups passed a UN-backed certification plan to block the trade of illicit diamonds.
    (SFC, 11/6/02, p.A18)

2002        Xstrata was born out of the initial public offering of the coal mines of Glencore, a private commodity trader based in Switzerland. It was first listed on the London Stock Exchange as it acquired Glencore's coal assets in Australia and South Africa. The Company was founded in 1926 in Switzerland as Sudelektra, an infrastructure and electricity projects concern operating in Latin America.
    (Econ, 3/13/10, p.68)

2003        Jan 26, At the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, Bill Gates announced that his charitable foundation will spend $200 million for medical research in poor and undeveloped countries.  In partnership with the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMFG) granted $200 million to the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Challenges_In_Global_Health)(SFC, 1/27/03, p.A3)

2003        Feb 9, Swiss voters approved measures to further extend their direct democracy.
    (AP, 2/10/03)

2003      Mar 1, In Geneva more than 170 nations agreed, despite US objections, on a text for a tobacco treaty that would impose worldwide restrictions on advertising and labeling, while clamping down on smuggling and second-hand smoke.
    (AP, 3/1/03)

2003        Mar 2, Landlocked Switzerland became the first European country to win the America's Cup as "Alinghi" swept Team New Zealand in five races.
    (AP, 3/2/04)

2003        Apr 9, In Geneva inventions from around the planet were presented during the world's largest inventions fair.
    (AP, 4/10/03)(SFC, 4/10/03, p.A2)

2003        May 18, Swiss voters agreed to modernize their armed forces, overhaul the country's civil defense and keep nuclear energy.
    (AP, 5/19/03)

2003        Jul 8, In Switzerland a swerving car plowed through pedestrians on a downtown bridge in Lausanne. Two people were killed, including a woman pushing her child in a stroller.
    (AP, 7/8/03)

2003        Jul 17, Walter Zapp (97), inventor of the Minox mini camera featured in spy movies, died, in northern Switzerland. Zapp was born in 1905 in Riga, Latvia.
    (AP, 7/28/03)

2003        Sep 28, A nationwide power blackout in Italy hit virtually the whole population in the dead of night. Power was out for as much as 18 hours. Problems began after a tree branch hit power lines in Switzerland.
    (AP, 9/28/03)(WSJ, 10/1/03, p.A1)(AP, 10/1/03)

2003        Oct 19, The nationalist Swiss People's Party (SVP), led by Christoph Blocher, won elections to become the leading party in the lower house of parliament with 55 of 200 seats.
    (AP, 10/19/03)(SFC, 10/20/03, p.A8)(Econ, 2/14/04, Survey p.5)

2003        Dec 10, The World Summit on the Information Society began a 3-day meeting in Geneva, Switz.
    (SSFC, 12/7/03, p.C2)

2003        Aug, In Switzerland Sheikh Falah bin Zayed bin Sultan al-Nahyan, the brother of the president of the United Arab Emirates, hit an Italian-American, Silvano Orsi, with the buckle of his belt in a hotel. in a trial in June, 2008, he was ordered to pay 540,000 Swiss francs (337,000 euros, 532,000 dollars) by the court, suspended for three years. The sheikh was also sentenced to pay legal costs of nearly 3,000 Swiss francs. In 2009 he was acquitted on appeal against the imposed fines.
    (AFP, 3/28/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falah_bin_Zayed_bin_Sultan_Al_Nahyan)

2004        Jan 8, Teams of Swiss police in 5 cantons arrested 8 suspected accomplices in the May 12 al Qaeda car bomb attack in Saudi Arabia.
    (SFC, 1/10/04, p.A3)

2004        Jan 24, Some 2,000 opponents of the World Economic Forum marched in Davos, Switz., to protest the meeting, which they say is elitist and does nothing for ordinary people.
    (AP, 1/24/04)

2004        Feb 8, Swiss voters approved a measure to put into effect some of Europe's harshest laws on violent criminals and pedophiles.
    (SFC, 2/9/04, p.A3)

2004        Feb 24, In Switzerland Vitaly Kaloyev of Russia killed Pieter Nielsen, a Danish air traffic controller with the Swiss company Skyguide. Nielsen had been on duty during the July 1, 2002, collision between a Bashkirian Airlines plane and a DHL cargo jet. Kolayev’s family was killed in the crash. In 2007 Switzerland's highest court ordered Kolayev’s release because he had served more than two-thirds of his sentence with good behavior.
    (AP, 11/8/07)

2004        Jun 14, The Swiss parliament voted to end a 96-year ban on absinthe. The green spirit was allowed back into shops in much of western Europe following an EU directive in 1981, but it remained outlawed in Switzerland.
    (AFP, 6/14/04)

2004        Jun 26, The world’s top central bankers approved Basel 2, “Int’l. Convergence of Capital Measures and Capital Standards," a new capital-adequacy framework for banks.
    (Econ, 7/3/04, p.61)(www.bsp.gov.ph/about_bsp/CAF/basel2.htm)(Econ, 5/20/06, Survey p.10)

2004        Jul 31, World Trade negotiators in Geneva broke months of deadlock and put together a framework for the rest of the Doha trade round.
    (Econ, 8/7/04, p.59)

2004        Aug 22, Ota Sik (b.1920) Czech economist and painter, died in St. Gallen, Switz.
    (SFC, 8/25/04, p.B7)

2004        Nov 13, A 61-year-old German engineer, Gotthard L., was arrested in Switzerland on an international warrant on suspicion that he helped Libya's past efforts to build a nuclear bomb.
    (AP, 11/16/04)

2004        Nov 18, A survey said Swiss teenagers smoke more cannabis than their peers in every other European country.
    (Reuters, 11/19/04)

2004        Nov 23, The UN Working Group on Internet Governance (40 delegates) met in Geneva.
    (Econ, 11/20/04, p.65)

2005        Jan 1, A new Swiss law took effect that legalized the production of absinthe.
    (SFC, 11/4/04, p.A2)
2005        Jan 1, Switzerland was forecast for 2% annual GDP growth with a population at 7.4 million and GDP per head at $51,490.
    (Econ, 1/8/05, p.90)

2005        Jan 9, In Basel, Switzerland, central bankers, joined by commercial counterparts and financial regulators from around the globe, opened a 2-day meeting to discuss ways to ensure smooth economic growth amid worries over widening U.S. deficits.
    (AP, 1/10/05)

2005        Jan 26, The World Economic Forum, the global business meeting that attracts world leaders and Hollywood stars, opened in Davos, Switzerland. A Chinese economist said that China has lost faith in the stability of the US dollar and would seek to broaden the exchange rate for the yuan to a more flexible basket of currencies.
    (AP, 1/26/05)(SFC, 1/27/05, p.C1)

2005        Jan 30, The World Economic Forum ended 5 days of talks in Davos, Switz. Chinese Vice Premier Huang Ju said Chinese per capita income will triple during the next 15 years and there was no reason for the world to fear his country's emergence as a global giant.
    (AP, 1/30/05)

2005        Mar 1, In Geneva, Switz., Edouard Stern, French financier and former Lazard banker, was found dead in his home. Swiss police later arrested Cecile Brossard (36), his French lover, who confessed to the sex-related killing of banker Edouard Stern. During her trial in 2009 she said that she lost control after Stern called her a whore. On June 18, 2009, Brossard was sentenced to eight and a half years in prison.
    (WSJ, 3/3/05, p.A1)(AP, 3/16/05)(WSJ, 4/14/05, p.A1)(SFC, 6/15/09, p.A2)(AP, 6/18/09)

2005        Mar 4, Swiss police said they have detained five purported Islamic extremists suspected of running Web sites that showed the execution of hostages and provided details of how to make bombs and carry out attacks.
    (AP, 3/4/05)

2005        Mar 12, In Lenzerheide, Switzerland, Bode Miller became the first American in 22 years to win skiing's overall World Cup title.
    (AP, 3/12/06)

2005        Mar 17, Stephane Lambiel of Switzerland won the men's title at the World Figure Skating Championships in Moscow.
    (AP, 3/17/06)

2005        Apr 17, A Swiss tourist bus carrying 27 people plunged into an Alpine ravine near the Great St. Bernard Pass, and at least 100 rescuers descended to the wreck on ropes to try to aid the injured. 12 people were killed.
    (AP, 4/17/05)(AP, 4/17/06)

2005        Apr 28, Swiss engineers blasted through the final four yards of rock to complete the bore of the first of two deep rail tunnels under the Swiss Alps linking north and south Europe. The 21-mile Loetschberg tunnel, part of a massive construction project to move heavy European Union trucks off Switzerland's narrow highways and onto transport trains, will shorten the travel time between Germany and Milan, Italy, by an hour.
    (AP, 4/28/05)

2005        May 31, In Switzerland Griselidis Real (76), writer and well-known prostitute who campaigned for the rights and dignity of sex workers, died in Geneva. In 2009 she was re-buried in the presence of 200 people at the Cemetery of the Kings, which is reserved for individuals that have profoundly marked Swiss or international history.
    (www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/griselidis-real-493264.html)(AP, 3/10/09)

2005        Jun 5, Swiss voters approved, by a 55-45% majority, joining the European Union in the Schengen passport-free travel zone, abolishing checks on the country's border by 2007. They also granted same-sex couples more rights.
    (AP, 6/6/05)(Econ, 6/11/05, p.48)

2005        Jun 6, IBM and Ecole Polytechnique of Lausanne, Switz., announced a partnership to begin building a computer model of the human brain.
    (Econ, 6/11/05, p.75)

2005        Aug 20, The 184-pound "Unspunnenstein," named after the site of Switzerland's most revered stone-throwing contest, was stolen from a hotel in the central Swiss city of Interlaken where it was on display before the competition scheduled for Sept. 3-4.
    (AP, 8/20/05)

2005        Aug 25, Rescue workers began evacuating more people from submerged sections of the Swiss capital as central and southern Europe struggled with the aftermath of flooding that has killed at least 42 people.
    (AP, 8/25/05)

2005        Sep 1, The Swiss firm Novartis AG said it is offering $4.5 billion in cash for the remaining stake in Chiron Corp. to complete its takeover of the US-based biotech company.
    (AP, 9/1/05)

2005        Sep 5, UBS said it will sell three of Switzerland's oldest private banks and asset manager GAM to Julius Baer for 5.6 billion Swiss francs ($4.6 billion), to enable it to focus on its own private banking business.
    (AP, 9/5/05)

2005        Sep 25, A majority of the Swiss electorate voted to allow citizens of the 10 new EU member states to work in Switzerland, according to the final results of a national referendum.
    (AP, 9/25/05)

2005        Oct 3, Switzerland decided to extradite Russia's former nuclear minister to the US on charges of stealing up to $9 million that was intended to improve security of nuclear plants. Russia has been fighting the US extradition request for Yevgeny Adamov out of fear that he could reveal nuclear secrets while facing the charges in the United States.
    (AP, 10/3/05)

2005        Oct 17, Serono Laboratories, a Swiss drug-maker, pleaded guilty to US federal conspiracy charges and agreed to pay $740 million for kickbacks to doctors for the AIDS drug Serostim and for manipulating a test for AIDS patients.
    (SFC, 10/18/05, p.E1)

2005        Oct 26, A Swiss court found Vitaly Kaloyev, a Russian architect, guilty of premeditated homicide for the Feb 2004 killing of the air traffic controller on duty at the time of the Jul 1, 2002, midair plane collision in which his wife and child were lost. Kaloyev was released in 2007.
    (AP, 10/26/05)(AP, 7/1/12)

2005        Oct 31,     Chiron Corp., a biotech operation in Emeryville, Ca., merged with the Swiss firm Novartis. Novartis paid $5.1 billion for Chiron.
    (SFC, 11/1/05, p.D1)

2005        Nov 18, Swiss Reinsurance Co., the world's second-largest reinsurer, said it will acquire most of General Electric Co.'s insurance unit for $6.8 billion in cash and stock.
    (AP, 11/18/05)

2005        Nov 22, Nestle SA, the world's biggest food company, said it has recalled hundreds of thousands of gallons of baby milk from France, Portugal, Spain and Italy after traces of ink from the packaging were found in the product.
    (AP, 11/22/05)

2005        Nov 25, Swiss authorities said they will block major foreign acquisitions by the telecommunications operator Swisscom because of financial risk to the state, which holds most of the company's shares.
    (AFP, 11/25/05)

2005        Nov 27, Swiss voters approved a blanket five-year ban on the use of genetically modified organisms in farming. Switzerland already prohibits most of such technology from being used in agriculture.
    (AP, 11/27/05)

2005        Dec 1, in northern Switzerland a pack of dogs mauled a boy walking to his kindergarten class killing him instantly.
    (AP, 12/01/05)

2005        Dec 29, Switzerland's top court ordered the extradition of Yevgeny Adamov, Russia's former nuclear minister, to his homeland instead of the US, where he's been indicted for allegedly diverting $9 million in US aid money to his businesses. The Swiss court made its ruling Dec. 22 but it was made public Dec 29.
    (AP, 12/30/05)

2005        In Geneva the large Hadron Collider of CERN was expected to be completed for $6 billion. The US provided over $500 million towards the construction of a the new atom smasher.
    (SFC,12/9/97, p.A9)

2006        Jan 25, The World Economic Forum opened in Davos, Switzerland. 15 heads of state, top business leaders and celebrities attended the session to brainstorm on key issues facing the globe, including high oil prices, Iran's nuclear ambitions, new business models and the shifting balance of power in Asia.
    (AP, 1/25/06)

2006        Mar 23, Stephane Lambiel of Switzerland won his second straight World Figure Skating Championships title, in Calgary, Alberta.
    (AP, 3/23/07)

2006        Mar 31, Swiss prosecutors said they have filed charges against 19 former top executives and board members of the defunct Swissair for their part in the national airline's 2001 bankruptcy.
    (AP, 3/31/06)

2006        Apr 9, A Swiss investigator has issued an international arrest warrant for Iran's former intelligence chief in the killing of an exiled Iranian opposition leader. It demands the arrest of Ali Fallahian, intelligence minister from 1989-1997, on grounds he "decided and ordered the execution of Kazem Rajavi." Rajavi was shot to death in Geneva in 1990.
    (AP, 4/9/06)

2006        Jun 7, Swiss senator Dick Marty, the head of an investigation into alleged CIA clandestine prisons, said 14 European nations colluded with US intelligence in a "spider's web" of secret flights and detention centers that violated international human rights law. Marty asserted that at least 7 European governments were complicit in the transports.
    (AP, 6/7/06)(Econ, 6/10/06, p.49)

2006        Jun 19, Swiss chocolate-maker Nestle AG said it will fatten up its weight-loss business by buying Jenny Craig Inc. for $600 million.
    (AP, 6/19/06)

2006        Jul 1, In Geneva developing countries emerged from a failed World Trade Organization meeting more united than ever and warned rich countries not to undermine the development thrust of the Doha Round of global trade talks.
    (AFP, 7/1/06)

2006        Jul 24, WTO members in Geneva called a halt to more than five years of commerce liberalization talks (the Doha talks) as differences over farm aid proved unbridgeable. The 25-nation EU criticized US intransigence over agricultural subsidies for the breakdown, while the US blamed Brazil and India for being inflexible on cutting barriers to industrial imports and the EU for refusing to make deeper cuts in its farm import tariffs.
    (AP, 7/24/06)

2006        Aug 9, A Justice Ministry official said Swiss authorities will provide the US with details from bank accounts US investigators suspect of being used for terrorist funding.
    (AP, 8/9/06)

2006        Sep 14, The Swiss central bank raised its key Libor interest rate by a quarter of a percentage point to a range between 1.25% and 2.25% to dampen the threat of inflation.
    (AFP, 9/14/06)

2006        Sep 24, Swiss voters in a national referendum backed tougher asylum rules put forth by justice minister Christoph Blocher, despite fears that the new rules will deny refugees a fair hearing. 68% approved a new immigration law which was meant to tackle what authorities say is the lack of integration of many foreigners into Swiss society.
    (AP, 9/24/06)(Econ, 9/30/06, p.61)

2006        Oct 26, Sri Lanka's warring parties arrived in Geneva for their first face-to-face meeting in eight months as the EU racked up international pressure for a halt to ethnic bloodshed.
    (AP, 10/26/06)

2006        Oct 27, Swiss officials said authorities have found enough evidence to seek a full investigation into allegations the CIA was trying to obtain personal details of about 500 labor union members, most of them Arabs.
    (AP, 10/27/06)

2006        Nov, Swiss-based Novartis, the world’s 4th largest pharmaceutical company, announced plans to invest $100 million in a new research facility in Shanghai.
    (Econ, 11/11/06, p.72)

2006        Dec 8, In Basel, Switzerland, a 3.4 magnitude tremor was accidentally triggered by engineers drilling deep into the Earth's crust to tap its inner heat, in the world's search for new sources of energy.
    (AP, 8/4/07)

2007        Jan 22, Scientists warned that glaciers will all but disappear from the Alps by 2050, and that most would be gone by 2037.
    (SFC, 1/23/07, p.A4)

2007        Jan 24, Some 2,400 registered participants gathered at Davos, Switzerland, for the 4-day World Economic Forum, whose theme this year was: "The Shifting Power Equation."
    (AP, 1/24/07)

2007        Jan 20, Richard Vollenweider (1922-2007), Swiss scientist, died. He developed methods for quantifying the eutrophication of freshwater. His methods were used to save Lake Erie and helped form the basis of the 1972 Great Lakes Water Quality Act.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ygrc3p)(WSJ, 2/3/07, p.A8)

2007        Jan 27, In Switzerland major powers at Davos agreed to resume global free trade talks. A meeting of the world's top commercial powers yielded only a vague pledge of commitment to global trade liberalization efforts, a disappointment after business and political leaders called for progress in the World Trade Organization talks.
    (AP, 1/27/07)

2007        Feb 2, A ruling by Switzerland's highest court opened up the possibility that people with serious mental illnesses could be helped by doctors to take their own lives.
    (AP, 2/2/07)

2007        Feb 9, Bolivia’s Pres. Evo Morales declared the Vinto tin smelter to be nationalized. Glencore, the Swiss based owner, demanded compensation saying the seizure violated a 1991 bilateral agreement between Bolivia and Switzerland.
    (Econ, 2/17/07, p.40)

2007        Feb 13, In Geneva the US clashed with China and Russia during a disarmament debate over how to prevent an arms race in outer space, and Washington criticized Beijing for its recent test of an anti-satellite missile. Russia and China, in turn, condemned the "one state" that refuses to consider a treaty banning space weapons, a reference to the US.
    (AP, 2/13/07)

2007        Feb 28, A Swiss court acquitted seven men of providing logistical support to a Saudi terror cell in the first Swiss trial of alleged al-Qaida associates.
    (AP, 2/28/07)

2007        Mar 4, Avalanches killed at least five skiers in the Swiss and French Alps following days of heavy snow.
    (AP, 3/5/07)

2007        Mar 9, A prominent Turkish politician was convicted of breaching Swiss anti-racism laws by saying that the early 20th-century killing of Armenians could not be described as genocide. Perincek was charged with breaking Swiss law by denying during a visit to Switzerland in 2005 that the World War I-era killings of up to 1.5 million Armenians amounted to genocide. He was ordered to pay a fine of $2,450 and was given a suspended penalty of $7,360.
    (AP, 3/10/07)

2007        Mar 29, A Swiss man was jailed for 10 years for insulting Thailand's revered king by vandalizing his portraits during a drunken spree.
    (AP, 3/29/07)

2007        Apr 12, The Swiss-based Nestle SA, the world's biggest food and drink company, said it will buy Gerber Products Co. from pharmaceutical maker Novartis SA for $5.5 billion, giving it the largest share of the global baby food market.
    (AP, 4/12/07)

2007        Apr 10, In Switzerland thieves stole jewelry worth about $825,000 from the Baselwood fair, the world's biggest and most luxurious watch and jewelry fair.
    (AP, 4/15/07)

2007        May 13, One of Switzerland's central bankers said further increases in Swiss interest rates are still on the cards, while also praising the management of the euro currency.
    (AP, 5/13/07)

2007        May 24, In Switzerland an arson fire gutted the interior of Hekhal Haness Synagogue, Geneva's largest synagogue.
    (AP, 6/1/07)

2007        May, A Geneva court temporarily blocked the release of some of the US$6.2 million stashed in Switzerland by Duvalier. Many in Haiti considered the money to have been stolen from public funds before Duvalier was ousted.
    (AP, 1/17/11)

2007        Jun 7, In Switzerland all 19 managers and consultants accused in the collapse of former national carrier Swissair were acquitted and will receive compensation totaling more than $2 million.
    (AP, 6/7/07)

2007        Jun 14, The Swiss National Bank raised interest rates by a quarter point.
    (Econ, 6/16/07, p.80)

2007        Jun 15, Swiss officials inaugurated the Loetschberg Base Tunnel, the world's longest overland tunnel, a 34.6-kilometer-long (21-mile-long) rail link under the Alps meant to ease highway traffic jams.
    (AP, 6/15/07)

2007        Jun 20, In Switzerland 2 people accused of running al-Qaida-linked Web sites that showed the slaying of hostages and gave details of how to make bombs and carry out attacks went on trial. Moez Garsallaoui (39), a Tunisian based in Switzerland, and Malika El Aroud 948), the Belgian-born widow of an al-Qaida suicide bomber, appeared in court on charges that included providing support for terrorists.
    (AP, 6/20/07)

2007        Jun 27, A Swiss investigator said European governments have built a "wall of silence" surrounding their complicity with a CIA program that included holding terrorist suspects in secret jails.
    (AP, 6/27/07)

2007        Jul 3, The Alinghi team from Switzerland successfully defended sailing's coveted America's Cup, beating Emirates Team New Zealand 5-2.
    (AP, 7/3/08)

2007        Jul 5, Peter Wuffli, chief executive of UBS, a Swiss-based global bank, was dismissed. In May UBS shut down a hedge-fund operation, which invested in American mortgages, at a cost of $425 million.
    (Econ, 7/14/07, p.77)

2007        Jul 12, In the Swiss Alps 6 soldiers on an alpine training exercise were killed when an avalanche sent them plummeting thousands of feet into a valley.
    (AP, 7/12/07)

2007        Jul 23, An attempt to break an aviation speed record went horribly wrong when a small "experimental" plane crashed through an apartment building in the Swiss city of Basel, killing the pilot and injuring at least three other people.
    (AP, 7/23/07)

2007        Aug, The Swiss government extended a freeze on Duvalier's funds for a year. Many in Haiti considered the money to have been stolen from public funds before Duvalier was ousted.
    (AP, 1/17/11)

2007        Sep 24, The Swiss drugmaker Novartis AG said that the European Commission had approved its Exelon skin patch to treat Alzheimer's disease.
    (AP, 9/24/07)

2007        Oct 1, Swiss banking giant UBS warned that the crisis in the US housing market had cost it around 4.0 billion Swiss francs, as it announced a major management shakeup and plans to cut 1,500 jobs.
    (AP, 10/1/07)

2007        Oct 18,     Swiss pharmaceutical giant Novartis announced more than 1,200 job losses in the US after its third quarter results weakened on sharper competition from generic drugs.
    (AP, 10/18/07)

2007        Oct 21,     A Swiss nationalist party rode an anti-immigrant wave to the best showing of any party in parliamentary elections since 1919, while the Greens made gains by appealing to environmental concerns. The Swiss People's Party (SVP), led by justice minister Christoph Blocher, won 62 seats and received 29% of the vote, after a bitter campaign blaming foreigners for much of the country's crime.
    (AP, 10/21/07)(AP, 10/22/07)(Econ, 10/27/07, p.62)
2007        Oct 21,     In Brazil activists trying to invade a 304-acre biotech seed farm, owned by the Swiss firm Syngenta AG,  clashed with guards and at least two people were shot dead.
    (AP, 10/22/07)
2007        Oct 21, Ernst Ludwig Ehrlich (86), a Jewish religious philosopher, died at his home in Basel, Switz. He had escaped the Nazis and became a European bridge-builder between Christians and Jews.
    (AP, 10/24/07)

2007        Oct 30, Switzerland's largest bank, UBS, reported its first quarterly loss in five years after its third quarter results were hit in the financial crisis caused by the ailing US home loans market.
    (AP, 10/30/07)

2007        Nov 30, In Geneva the International Red Cross said 7 countries including the US and Britain have joined in a new move to ensure the safety of journalists in war zones. France, Germany, Australia, Canada and Denmark also committed themselves to accept a new nonbinding accord on protecting correspondents in line with the Geneva Conventions on the conduct of warfare.
    (AP, 12/1/07)

2007        Dec 10, Swiss banking giant UBS AG said it will write off a further $10 billion on losses in the US subprime lending market and will raise capital by selling substantial stakes to Singapore and an unnamed investor in the Middle East.
    (AP, 12/10/07)

2007        Bradley Birkenfeld, an American employed by Swiss-based UBS, approached officials in Washington to reveal the bank’s surreptitious servicing of thousands of rich, tax-dodging Americans.
    (Econ, 2/7/15, p.58)

2008        Jan 6, In Zurich Sonntag newspaper reported that Credit Suisse faces a fresh assets write-off of 2.5 billion Swiss francs (1.5 billion euros, $2.3 billion) from the US sub-prime crisis.
    (AP, 1/6/08)

2008        Jan 24, In Davos, Switzerland, fears of world recession briefly took a back seat at the World Economic Forum, where leaders from Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iraq focused on how to establish security in their volatile regions. Afghan Pres. Karzai stressed how extremists used economic exploitation to recruit bombers.
    (AP, 1/24/08)(AFP, 1/24/08)
2008        Jan 24, In Switzerland the country's supreme court said prosecutors acted within the law when they froze funds belonging to the Russian central bank at the behest of a Swiss firm. The funds were frozen over a legal dispute with Geneva-based trading firm Noga dating back to the end of the Soviet era.
    (AP, 1/24/08)

2008        Jan 25, At Davos, Switzerland, Microsoft chairman Bill Gates announced at the World Economic Forum that his foundation would give $306 million to use green technology and farming techniques to boost millions out of hunger and poverty.
    (AP, 1/25/08)

2008        Jan 30, Subprime-related problems at UBS AG mounted as the Swiss bank unveiled $4 billion in new write-downs in a surprise statement and sank deep into the red for the year, depressing its shares.
    (AP, 1/30/08)

2008        Feb 6, In eastern Switzerland 2 paintings by Pablo Picasso worth nearly five million Swiss francs (4.5 million dollars, 3.1 million euros) were stolen from a museum. The two oil paintings, "Tete de Cheval" from 1962 and "Verre et pichet" from 1944, were stolen from a cultural centre in the eastern town of Pfaeffikon.
    (AFP, 2/8/08)

2008        Feb 10, In Switzerland armed robbers stole paintings by Cezanne, Degas, van Gogh and Monet worth $163.2 million from the E.G. Buehrle Collection in Zurich, one of Europe's finest private museums for Impressionist and post-Impressionist art. 2 of the paintings were recovered in an abandoned car on Feb 18.
    (AP, 2/11/08)(AP, 2/19/08)

2008        Feb 14, In Switzerland UBS AG posted a 4th-quarter net loss of $11.28 billion, and a loss for the entire year, besieged by investments in US subprime mortgages. Chairman Marcel Ospel announced his resignation on Feb 27.
    (AP, 2/14/08)(Econ, 4/5/08, p.72)

2008        Apr 1, In Switzerland UBS AG's chairman abruptly resigned as the Swiss bank reported a first-quarter loss of $12.1 billion and said it would seek $15.1 billion in new capital.
    (AP, 4/1/08)

2008        Apr 7, Switzerland's Novartis AG said it will spend about $39 billion in a two-step bid for a majority stake in U.S. eye-care company Alcon.
    (AP, 4/7/08)

2008        Apr 23, Switzerland said it had frozen the assets of a further 12 Iranian companies in accordance with new UN sanctions aimed at stopping Tehran's alleged nuclear program.
    (AP, 4/23/08)

2008        Apr 29, Albert Hofmann (102), the father of the mind-altering drug LSD, died. His medical discovery inspired, and arguably corrupted, millions in the 1960s hippie generation. The Swiss chemist discovered lysergic acid diethylamide-25 in 1938 while studying the medicinal uses of a fungus found on wheat and other grains at the Sandoz pharmaceuticals firm in Basel. He became the first human guinea pig of the drug when a tiny amount of the substance seeped onto his finger during a laboratory experiment on April 16, 1943. Hofmann to LSD for the last time when he was 97.
    (AP, 4/30/08)(Econ, 5/31/08, p.21)

2008        May 6, Swiss bank UBS, hard hit by the US subprime crisis, reported a first-quarter loss of $10.97 billion and said it will slash almost 7 percent of its work force.
    (AP, 5/6/08)

2008        May 14, A Swiss pilot strapped on a jet-powered wing and leaped from a plane for the first public demonstration of the homemade device, turning figure eights and soaring high above the Alps.
    (AP, 5/15/08)

2008        Jun 1, Voters in Switzerland rejected a plan to give local communities the power to decide which immigrants should be granted Swiss citizenship. Currently, after living at least 12 years on Swiss soil, foreigners who wish to acquire Swiss citizenship face a naturalization procedure that includes a knowledge of the country's traditions, history and culture.
    (AFP, 6/1/08)

2008        Jun 4, Swiss pharmaceutical Novartis announced it had bought Protez Pharmaceuticals for $100 million (64.8 million euros), thus acquiring the rights to a new antibiotic.
    (AP, 6/4/08)

2008        Jun 19, Bradley Birkenfeld, a former UBS executive, pleaded guilty to helping clients hide hundreds of millions of dollars and evade US taxes in a case that is part of a probe into whether the Swiss banking giant did the same for other wealthy individuals.
    (AP, 6/19/08)(Econ, 7/5/08, p.79)

2008        Jun 26, Swiss police said they have arrested about 30 people in a crackdown on a large drug trafficking network.
    (AP, 6/27/08)

2008        Jul 9, German investigators carried out raids on 600 homes in Austria, Switzerland and Germany seeking chemicals used to produce an illicit date-rape drug.
    (AP, 7/9/08)

2008        Jul 15, In Switzerland Hannibal Kadhafi (32), the son of Libya’s leader, was arrested along with his wife Aline at a luxury hotel in Geneva after the servants, a Moroccan and a Tunisian, alleged they had been abused by the couple. The 2-day detention led to reprisals by Libya. Days after Hannibal Kadhafi’s arrest, Swiss businessmen Max Goeldi and Rachid Hamdani were detained in Libya on alleged visa violations. The servants later dropped their legal complaints after receiving some compensation. In November, 2009, Goeldi and Hamdani were handed over to the Swiss embassy in Tripoli. Libya then announced that they would go on trial on accusations of tax evasion and violating residency laws.
    (AP, 9/2/08)(AP, 11/9/09)(AP, 11/12/09)

2008        Jul 17, An official of the Swiss bank UBS announced that it was halting its offshore banking services for US citizens after it came under scathing criticism for facilitating massive tax evasion.
    (AFP, 7/18/08)

2008        Jul 21, Swiss pharmaceutical giant Roche offered 43.7 billion dollars to acquire the remaining shares in US subsidiary Genentech, the bio-tech pioneer underpinning its dominance of the cancer treatment market.
    (AP, 7/21/08)

2008        Jul 24, Libya said it will halt fuel supplies to key oil client Switzerland in the latest reprisal for last week's brief detention in Geneva of a son of Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi.
    (AFP, 7/24/08)

2008        Aug 8, UBS AG agreed to buy back $19 billion in auction rate securities improperly sold as higher-rate equivalents for super-safe money market funds.
    (WSJ, 8/9/08, p.A1)
2008        Aug 8, The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, began initial tests.
    (Econ, 8/2/08, p.78)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Large_Hadron_Collider)

2008        Aug 20, Swedish wireless equipment maker LM Ericsson AB and Swiss chip-maker STMicroelectronics NV unveiled plans to create a 50-50 joint venture that will make a key component known as chipsets for mobile phones.
    (AP, 8/20/08)

2008        Sep 3, Swiss prosecutors said police have broken up an Internet child pornography ring operating in at least four European countries where men exchanged details about their contacts with young girls. In all investigators said they had identified 600 people in Germany, 40 in Austria, 13 in Switzerland and four in Liechtenstein using the forum.
    (AP, 9/3/08)

2008        Sep 10, In Geneva the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest particle collider, passed its first major tests by firing two beams of protons in opposite directions around a 17-mile (27-kilometer) underground ring in what scientists hope is the next great step to understanding the makeup of the universe. On Sep 19 it started leaking helium and had to be turned off. The technical problems delayed for at least two months the quest for scientists to learn more about the nature of the universe and the origins of all matter.
    (AP, 9/10/08)(AP, 9/20/08)(Econ, 9/27/08, p.96)
2008        Sep 10, Ruedi Rymann (75), a farmer and cheesemaker and renowned yodeler, died at his home in Giswil, Switzerland. In 2007 Viewers of a Swiss television series devoted to popular national music voted Rymann’s “Dr Schacher Seppli" as the greatest Swiss hit of all.
    (SFC, 10/9/08, p.B8)(www.youtube.com/watch?v=fmsy6wA-T0o)

2008        Sep 26, Yves Rossy of Switzerland leapt from a plane and into the record books, crossing the English channel in 13 minutes on a homemade jet-propelled wing.
    (AP, 9/26/08)

2008        Oct 6, Switzerland's top prosecutor charged 10 people with laundering more than US$1 billion dollars (1.349 billion euros) during a decade-long mafia cigarette smuggling operation. Authorities said they broke up the smuggling ring in 2004.
    (AP, 10/6/08)

2008        Oct 7, Harvard Univ. said medical device billionaire Hansjorg Wyss, chairman of Swiss-based Synthes Inc., had donated $125 million, the largest one-time gift in the history of the school. In 2004 Wyss had donated $25 million to support doctoral programs at Harvard.
    (WSJ, 10/8/08, p.A6)

2008        Oct 8, Six central banks jolted markets by cutting interest rates together in an attempt to shore up confidence in the world's crisis-stricken financial system. The US Fed reduced its key rate from 2% to 1.5%. The Bank of England unexpectedly slashed its key lending rate by a half-point to 4.5%. The Bank of Canada cut its key interest rate by 50 basis points to 2.5%. China also cut its key interest rates for a second time in less than one month to 6.9%. The European Central Bank sliced its rate by half a point to 3.75%. Sweden, and Switzerland also cut rates. Earlier in a day Japan's Nikkei showed its biggest drop since the October, 1987 stock market crash. The IMF said the world economy is entering a major downturn.
    (AP, 10/8/08)(AFP, 10/8/08)(Econ, 10/11/08, p.100)

2008        Oct 9, The Libyan oil company Tamoil said the Libyan government has again decided to halt oil deliveries to Switzerland.
    (AFP, 10/9/08)

2008        Oct 10, The Libyan news agency JANA said Libya will withdraw $7 billion of assets in Swiss banks, cut economic ties with Switzerland and stop supplying it with oil to protest against poor treatment of Libyan diplomats and businessmen.
    (AP, 10/10/08)

2008        Oct 12, Pope Benedict XVI gave the Roman Catholic church four new saints, including an Indian woman whose canonization is seen as a morale boost to Christians in India who have suffered Hindu violence. They included Sister Alphonsa (1910-1946) of the Immaculate Conception, a nun from southern India and India’s first woman saint; Gaetano Errico (1791-1860), a Neapolitan priest who founded a missionary order in the 19th century; Sister Maria Bernarda, born as Verena Buetler (1848-1924) in Switzerland, who worked as a nun in Ecuador and Colombia; and Narcisa de Jesus Martillo Moran (1832-1869), a 19th century laywoman from Ecuador who helped the sick and the poor.
    (AP, 10/12/08)

2008        Oct 13, Swiss authorities said they have found high concentrations of melamine in biscuits from Thailand and Sri Lanka and have called on other European countries to withdraw the products.
    (AP, 10/13/08)
2008        Oct 13, Stock markets rejoiced after governments worldwide launched multibillion-dollar bailouts to shore up banks, and Britain called for a new Bretton Woods agreement to reshape the world financial system. The US Central Bank said it would provide unlimited dollars the European Central Bank, the Bank of England and the Swiss National Bank. Britain committed £37 billion ($64 billion) to capitalize its big banks. Wall Street rebounded with the biggest stock rally since the Great Depression. The DJIA rose 936 points to close at 9,387.61, its largest point gain ever and one of its largest percentage increases.
    (Reuters, 10/13/08)(SFC, 10/14/08, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/14/08, p.A3)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.83)

2008        Oct 30, A Swiss court convicted 2 brothers from Kosovo of running a massive drug smuggling ring that prosecutors said supplied Western Europe with up to half of its heroin. Ragip and Kemal Shabani channeled 1.5 tons of heroin through Europe from the mid-1990s until 2003, when they were shut down.
    (AP, 10/30/08)

2008        Nov 1, Jacques Piccard (b.1922), a scientist and underwater explorer who plunged deeper beneath the ocean than any other man, died in Geneva, Switzerland.
    (AP, 11/1/08)

2008        Oct 10, Heinz Imhof, known as the Father of Syngenta, died, He orchestrated the 2000 merger of the crop-protection and seeds divisions of Switzerland’s Novartis AG and Anglo-Swedish Astra-Zeneca PLC, creating Sygenta, the biggest agrichemical business in the world.
    (WSJ, 11/8/08, p.A6)

2008        Nov 12, US prosecutors charged Raoul Weil, a senior executive of Swiss bank UBS AG, of helping some 20,000 rich clients evade federal income taxes on assets of some $20 billion from 2002-2007. In 2014 a federal court in Florida acquitted Mr. Weil.
    (WSJ, 11/13/08, p.A1)(Econ, 11/8/14, p.76)

2008        Nov 18, Spanish artist Miquel Barcelo unveiled his lavish, $23 million ceiling painting at the European headquarters of the United Nations in Switzerland, a project that has evoked controversy over its hefty price tag.
    (AP, 11/18/08)

2008        Nov 20, Switzerland’s central bank cut its benchmark interest by a full percentage point, the latest in a global round of aggressive rate cuts amid stuttering economic growth.
    (WSJ, 11/21/08, p.A16)

2008        Nov 27, Switzerland reached an agreement with the EU to join the European Union's Schengen passport-free travel zone effective next month.
    (AP, 11/27/08)

2008        Nov 30, A pioneering Swiss program to give addicts government-authorized heroin was overwhelmingly approved, according to projections that showed voters simultaneously rejecting the decriminalization of marijuana.
    (AP, 11/30/08)

2008        Dec 2, In Switzerland Alex Widmer (52), head of private banking at Julius Baer Holding AG, committed suicide.
    (www.iht.com/articles/2008/12/05/europe/baer.php)(WSJ, 2/2/09, p.C4)

2008        Dec 12, Switzerland became the 25th member of the passport-free zone of the Schengen countries, after interior and justice ministers of the 27 EU member states formally approved the accession of this non-EU country on Nov 27. The number of Chinese visitors quickly soared.
    (www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/reps/eur/vbel/ref_visinf/visbel.html)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.116)

2008        Herve Falciani, a native of Monaco, walked out of a Geneva branch of HSBC, where he had worked for three years, with five CD-ROMS containing data on thousands of account holders.
    (Econ, 10/19/13, p.79)
2008        The ATLAS particle detector at CERN, Switzerland, was completed.
    (Econ, 4/27/13, p.66)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ATLAS_experiment)

2009        Jan 9, Lithuania’s FlyLAL airline, privatized in 2005, announced that SCH Swiss Capital Holdings, a Switzerland-based firm, has purchased it for $1 million and debt of about 1 million euros. On Jan 17 FlyLAL airline said it has suspended its operations after a buyout deal by Swiss investment firm SCH Swiss Capital Holdings failed.
    (AP, 1/9/09)(AP, 1/17/09)

2009        Jan 15, Swiss pharmaceutical giant Novartis AG said it has secured a $486 million contract to build a new flu vaccine plant in North Carolina.
    (AP, 1/15/09)
2009        Jan 15, A Luxembourg court ordered Swiss bank UBS AG to pay French financial company Oddo & Cie euro30 million ($40 million) it had invested in a fund linked to the alleged fraud perpetrated by US financier Bernard Madoff.
    (AP, 1/15/09)

2009        Jan 21, Germany banned the production, sale or possession of a synthetic marijuana-like drug known as "Spice," effective as of Jan 22, becoming the 4th nation to ban the substance, marketed as an herbal room-freshener, after Austria, the Netherlands and Switzerland.
    (AP, 1/21/09)

2009        Jan 28, In Switzerland some 2,500 business and political leaders met at Davos for the World Economic Forum, as the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression served to mute the enthusiasm of previous years. China’s Premier Wen Jiabao and Russia’s PM Vladimir Putin blamed the US-led financial system for the global economic slump.
    (AP, 1/28/09)(WSJ, 1/29/09, p.A1)

2009        Jan 29, Swiss police said they stumbled across a large marijuana plantation last year while using Google Earth, the search engine company's satellite mapping software. They arrested 16 people and seized 1.1 tons (1.2 US tons) of marijuana as well as cash and valuables worth 900,000 Swiss francs ($780,000).
    (AP, 1/29/09)
2009        Jan 29, At the economic forum in Davos, Switzerland, Israel’s Pres. Peres (85) traded accusations with Turkey’s PM Erdogan, who declared: “You kill people," and criticized Israel’s blockade of Gaza. Erdogan stalked off stage after being cut short during the exchange.
    (SFC, 1/30/09, p.A4)(WSJ, 1/30/09, p.A1)

2009        Jan 31, In Geneva, Switzerland, riot police fired tear gas after some 1000 demonstrators began throwing bottles protesting against the annual World Economic Forum meeting at Davos.
    (AP, 1/31/09)

2009        Jan, Four tourists, two Swiss, a German and a Briton, were kidnapped on the Mali-Niger border. They were transferred to Al-Qaida's North Africa branch, which asked for a ransom and the release of a radical Islamist preacher held in Britain. A Swiss and a German tourist were released in April. Edwin Dyer of Britain, was killed by his captors on May 31. The 2nd Swiss citizen, Werner Greiner, was released in July.
    (AP, 4/23/09)(AP, 7/12/09)

2009        Feb 1, In Switzerland the 5-day World Economic Forum at Davos ended with the realization that the depth of the global financial crises is still unknown and that the solution remains elusive.
    (SFC, 2/2/09, p.A10)

2009        Feb 8, Voters in Switzerland approved an expanded labor deal with the European Union that allows Romanians and Bulgarians to work in the Alpine republic.
    (AP, 2/8/09)

2009        Feb 9, In Switzerland Paula Oliviera (26), a lawyer from Brazil, claimed she was attacked by three skinheads, one with a Nazi symbol tattooed on the back of his head, outside a Zurich train station. On Feb 13 investigators said  was not pregnant and probably cut wounds into herself.
    (AP, 2/13/09)

2009        Feb 19, Banking giant UBS said it has agreed to pay $780 million and turn over once-secret Swiss banking records to settle allegations it conspired to defraud the US government of taxes owed by thousands of American clients.
    (AP, 2/19/09)

2009        Feb 20, Banking details of eight American clients of Switzerland's largest bank were sent to US authorities along with the names of more than 240 other American clients of UBS. A Swiss court order blocking the move came too late to stop the action.
    (AP, 2/21/09)

2009        Mar 9, Helg Sgarbi, a man dubbed "the Swiss gigolo" by the German media, was sentenced to six years in prison for defrauding BMW heiress Susanne Klatten (46), Germany's richest woman, of euro7 million ($9 million) and attempting to blackmail her for tens of millions more.
    (AP, 3/9/09)

2009        Mar 12, Swiss pharmaceutical giant Roche agreed to pay $46.8 billion to buy the 44 percent of biotech pioneer Genentech that it doesn't already own, ending a long corporate struggle with its US-based cancer drug partner.
    (AP, 3/12/09)

2009        Mar 13, The Swiss government said it would cooperate on cases of international tax evasion, breaking with a long-standing tradition of protecting wealthy foreigners accused of hiding billions of dollars in the Alpine nation.
    (AP, 3/13/09)

2009        Apr 3, The Swiss central bank said UBS has transferred its final installment of toxic assets to a special state aid fund, bringing the total to 38.7 billion dollars.
    (AP, 4/3/09)

2009        Apr 6, The US Federal Reserve said it will supply new lines of credit worth up to $287 billion to the central banks of Japan, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and EU.
    (AP, 4/6/09)

2009        Apr 12, The Pritzker jury named Peter Zumthor (65), a Swiss architect, as the 2009 winner of the Pritzker Architecture Prize.
    (AFP, 4/12/09)(SFC, 4/13/09, p.A7)

2009        Apr 20, A UN racism conference opened in Geneva. Iran’s Pres. Ahmadinejad accused Israel of being the "most cruel and racist regime," sparking a walkout by angry Western diplomats. The US, Australia, Canada, Germany, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand and Poland boycotted the conference out of concern that it could be used by Muslim countries to criticize Israel and to limit free speech when it comes to criticizing their religion.
    (AP, 4/19/09)(AP, 4/20/09)

2009        Apr 21, In Geneva over 100 countries agreed on a declaration to combat racism and related forms of intolerance worldwide. The US was not among them, prompting sharp criticism from African-American groups participating in the UN's second global conference on racism.
    (AP, 4/21/09)

2009        Laurent Keller, Swiss prof. of ecology, and Elisabeth Gordon authored “The Lives of Ants." The English translation was by James Grieve.
    (Econ, 4/11/09, p.85)

2009        Apr 26, Voters in the heart of the Swiss Alps passed legislation banning naked hiking after dozens of mostly German nudists started rambling through their picturesque region.
    (AP, 4/26/09)

2009        May 12, In Switzerland a rare 7.03-carat blue diamond sold for 9.3 million Swiss francs (more than $8.4 million), the highest price ever for a gem of its kind, according to Sotheby's.
    (AP, 5/12/09)

2009        May 29, In Geneva a 65-nation Conference on Disarmament broke a dozen years of deadlock and opened the way to negotiate a new nuclear arms control treaty.
    (AP, 5/29/09)
2009        May 29, In Argentina Swiss architect Peter Zumthor (66) received the 2009 Pritzker Architecture Prize. He compared his creative process to the arc of a love affair.
    (AP, 5/30/09)

2009        Jun 12, Swiss pharmaceuticals company Novartis AG said it has successfully produced a first batch of swine flu vaccine weeks ahead of expectations.
    (AP, 6/12/09)

2009        Jun 26, In Switzerland Solar Impulse, a project run by aviators Bertrand Piccard and Andre Borschberg, unveiled a prototype solar powered airplane, the HB-SIA.
    (AP, 6/26/09)(Econ, 6/13/09, p.83)

2009        Jun 28, Swiss police said they have uncovered a child pornography ring involving more than 2,000 people in 78 countries.
    (AP, 6/28/09)

2009        Jul 1, Switzerland said it had refused a request to extradite a Rwandan national wanted in his own country for alleged genocide and war crimes. Other European countries have also refused extradition requests arguing that suspects cannot at present receive a fair trial in the country.
    (AFP, 7/1/09)

2009        Jul 8, Switzerland's government said it would forbid the Swiss bank UBS AG from complying with any court-ordered transfer of data on tens of thousands of American clients to the US government, and would consider seizing documents to prevent that.
    (AP, 7/8/09)

2009        Jul 10, In Switzerland British conductor Edward Downes (b.1924) died with his wife Joan (74) at an assisted suicide clinic. He was a longtime stalwart at the Royal Opera and maestro of the first-ever performance at Sydney's iconic Opera House.
    (AP, 7/14/09)

2009        Jul 12, Swiss police divers harpooned a zander fish, which was 70 centimeters (two feet three inches) long and weighed eight kilos (17.5 pounds), after it bit six swimmers over the weekend in Lac Majeur.
    (AFP, 7/13/09)

2009        Aug 3, In Switzerland there was an arson attack at Novartis CEO Daniel Vasella's lodge in Bach, Austria. An attack on his mother's grave took place a week earlier. The next day drug maker Novartis said animal rights militants were responsible.
    (AP, 8/4/09)

2009        Aug 14, A Swiss court backed the government's plan to give aid agencies 7 million Swiss francs ($6 million) seized from bank accounts linked to Haiti's former dictator Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier. The Duvalier family, which wants to reclaim the money, can now appeal the case to Switzerland's highest court. The accounts have been blocked since 2002.
    (AP, 8/14/09)

2009        Aug 19, Swiss banking giant UBS AG agreed to turn over to the IRS the details of 4,450 accounts suspected of holding undeclared assets by American customers, piercing Switzerland's long-standing tradition of banking secrecy.
    (AP, 8/19/09)

2009        Aug 20, Swiss President Hans-Rudolf Merz and Libyan PM al-Baghdadi Ali al-Mahmoudi signed an accord pledging to restore relations between the two countries and to have Hannibal Gadhafi July 15, 2008, arrest examined by a joint arbitration tribunal in London. The next day Merz defended his apology to Libya for the arrest of Moammar Gadhafi's son, saying it was the only way to secure the release of two Swiss citizens detained by Tripoli.
    (AP, 8/21/09)

2009        Sep 24, Swiss lawmakers decided not to join the European Union's anti-piracy efforts, amid concern that participating in the mission off Somalia could violate the Alpine nation's long-standing neutrality.
    (AP, 9/24/09)

2009        Sep 26, In Switzerland director Roman Polanski (76) was taken into custody on a 31-year-old US arrest warrant, where he traveled to receive an award at the Zurich Film Festival for his lifetime work as a director. Polanski fled the United States in 1978, a year after pleading guilty to unlawful sexual intercourse with a 13-year-old girl in 1977.
    (AP, 9/27/09)(SFC, 9/30/09, p.A4)

2009        Oct 1, In Switzerland senior American and Iranian delegates met one-on-one during a lunch break at seven-nation talks in Geneva. Iran brought a broad range of geopolitical issues to the table, while the six powers, the permanent UN Security Council members plus Germany, sought to soften Iran's resistance to freezing its uranium enrichment program. Iran accepted a demand to allow UN inspectors into its covertly built enrichment plant.
    (AP, 10/1/09)(AP, 10/2/09)

2009        Oct 8, French police arrested Adlene Hicheur, a nuclear physicist in Vienne, on suspicion that he had links to terrorist organizations in Algeria. The man had been working on analysis projects with the LHCb experiment at CERN since 2003.
    (AP, 10/9/09)(AFP, 3/29/12)

2009        Oct 9, Jacques Chessex (b.1934), one of French-speaking Switzerland's leading novelists and the first non-Frenchman to receive the prestigious Prix Goncourt, died. He was honored in 1973 with the Prix Goncourt literary award for his novel "L'ogre" ("The Ogre"), a largely autobiographical account of a difficult father-son relationship.
    (AP, 10/10/09)

2009        Oct 10, Armenia and Turkey signed a deal in Switzerland to establish diplomatic ties ending a century of enmity. To take effect, the agreements must be ratified by the Turkish and Armenian parliaments, but it faced stiff opposition in both countries.
    (AP, 10/11/09)

2009        Oct 14, It was reported that Swiss researchers have found that Alpine glaciers melting under the impact of climate change are releasing highly toxic pollutants that had been absorbed by the ice for decades.
    (AFP, 10/14/09)

2009        Oct 23, Swiss and US authorities said the US has asked Switzerland to hand over Roman Polanski to authorities in California, where he could serve up to two years in prison for having sex in 1977 with a 13-year-old girl.
    (AP, 10/23/09)

2009        Nov 2, The Swiss government said it has handed banking documents over to Argentina in a $25 million dollar corruption probe linked to former President Carlos Menem and French defense company Thales.
    (AP, 11/2/09)

2009        Nov 3, Britain pressed ahead with a fresh wave of restructuring in its crisis-ravaged banking system, as Lloyds Banking Group PLC sought at least 21 billion pounds ($34.2 billion) through a record share issue and debt swap. World stock markets mostly fell amid renewed concerns about the banking sector after Britain's Royal Bank of Scotland PLC got more government help and Switzerland's UBS AG booked another massive charge.
    (AP, 11/3/09)

2009        Nov 20, Swiss authorities said that they had ordered some 350 million dollars of assets to be seized from the son of the late Nigerian dictator Sani Abacha for graft.
    (AFP, 11/20/09)
2009        Nov 20, In Geneva, Sw., CERN scientists restarted the $10 billion Large Hadron Collider (LHC) following more than a year of repairs. They were surprised that they could so quickly get beams of protons whizzing near the speed of light during the restart.
    (AP, 11/21/09)

2009        Nov 23, In Geneva the world's largest atom smasher made another leap forward Monday by circulating beams of protons in opposite directions at the same time and causing the first particle collisions in the $10 billion machine after more than a year of repairs.
    (AP, 11/23/09)

2009        Nov 25, Yves Rossy, a Swiss adventurer, landed in the Atlantic after trying to soar from Morocco to Spain on jet-powered wings.
    (SFC, 11/26/09, p.A2)

2009        Nov 26, The Swiss Justice Ministry said Roman Polanski will be placed under house arrest at his Alpine chalet as soon as possible, announcing it would not appeal a court's decision to release the 76-year-old director on bail.
    (AP, 11/26/09)

2009        Nov 29, Switzerland held a nationwide referendum on a proposal by the right-wing Swiss People’s Party to ban Muslim minarets. Swiss voters approved the ban. The four minarets already attached to mosques in the country are not affected by the initiative.
    (SFC, 11/28/09, p.A4)(AP, 11/29/09)

2009        Nov 30, In Switzerland the world's largest atom smasher broke the world record for proton acceleration Monday, firing particle beams with 20 percent more power than the American lab that previously held the record.
    (AP, 11/30/09)

2009        Dec 1, Libya sentenced two Swiss businessmen to 16 months in prison and a fine, in a row stemming from the arrest in Geneva last year of Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi's son.
    (AP, 12/2/09)

2009        Dec 4, In Switzerland Roman Polanski took refuge at his snowbound chalet after being granted bail under house arrest, while he fights extradition to the US on a child sex case.
    (AP, 12/4/09)

2009        Dec 9, In Switzerland the world's largest atom smasher recorded its first high energy collision of protons.
    (SFC, 12/10/09, p.A2)

2009        Dec 15, Credit Suisse confirmed that it was fined $536 million for helping Iran hide financial transactions.
    (Econ, 2/27/10, p.68)

2009        Dec 16, The Swiss government said it will take in one detainee from the US detention facility at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.
    (AP, 12/16/09)

2009        Dec 17, Hannibal Kadhafi, the son of the Libyan leader, filed a civil lawsuit for "protection of personality" against the Swiss canton of Geneva and a local newspaper over the publication of police mugshots taken when he was arrested in Switzerland in July, 2008.
    (AFP, 12/23/09)

2009        Dec 23, Nestle, the Swiss-based food giant, said Zimbabwean government officials and police had made an "unannounced visit" to the plant on Dec 19, forcing staff to take delivery of a tanker of milk from non-contracted suppliers. "Since under such circumstances normal operations and the safety of employees are no longer guaranteed, Nestle decided to temporarily shut down the factory."
    (AFP, 12/23/09)

2009        Switzerland changed its customs law and required collectors to detail the contents of their storage lockers.
    (Economist, 9/1/12, p.73)

2010        Jan 3, In Switzerland avalanches killed at least four skiers and a rescue doctor. Two of the avalanches occurred in Diemtig Valley, the first hitting a group of skiers, the second the rescuers who came to their aid. A third avalanche buried two skiers near Switzerland's borders with France and Italy.
    (AP, 1/4/10)

2010        Jan 4, Novartis, a Swiss drug company, agreed to buy a controlling 52% stake in Alcon, an American listed but Swiss-based eyecare company, from food giant Nestle Corp.
    (Econ, 1/9/10, p.66)

2010        Jan 12, Novartis, a Swiss drug company, announced its decision to spend $24 million to secure exclusive licenses and options on drug delivery technologies developed by Proteus Biomedical, a California start-up.
    (Econ, 1/16/10, p.62)
2010        Jan 12, Switzerland's highest court ruled that $4.6 million seized from bank accounts linked to Haiti's former dictator Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier can be handed over to his family. The decision was not published until Feb 3. Many in Haiti considered that money to be stolen from public funds. Duvalier was ousted in 1986.
    (AP, 2/3/10)

2010        Jan 18, Swiss Reinsurance Co. said it transferred part of its US life insurance business to American investor Warren Buffett's Berkshire Hathaway Inc. for 1.3 billion Swiss francs ($1.27 billion) to free up capital and invest it more profitably.
    (AP, 1/18/10)

2010        Jan 19, Swiss bank Credit Suisse said that it would reduce bonuses paid to its top executives in London by about 30% in response to a tax announced last month by British authorities.
    (AP, 1/19/10)

2010        Jan 22, A Swiss court ruled that Switzerland cannot hand over files on 26 suspected tax cheats to US authorities because their failure to declare assets does not constitute fraud under Swiss law.
    (SFC, 1/23/10, p.A2)

2010        Jan 26, The US Justice Department said an Uzbek detainee held at the US military prison at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba has been sent to Switzerland.
    (Reuters, 1/26/10)

2010        Jan 29, At Davos, Switzerland, Microsoft co-founder and his wife said The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation will donate $10 billion over the next decade to research new vaccines and bring them to the world's poorest countries.
    (AP, 1/29/10)

2010        Jan 30, In Davos, Switzerland, government regulators from the US and Europe laid out their financial reform plans before a skeptical banking industry, asking financiers for input but adamant that change was coming with or without their support.
    (AP, 1/30/10)

2010        Jan 31, Switzerland's justice minister warned in an interview that top bank UBS could collapse if sensitive talks with the US over a high-profile tax fraud investigation fall through.
    (AP, 1/31/10)
2010        Jan 31, In Davos, Switzerland, the world's foremost gathering of business and government leaders wrapped up a five-day meeting with widespread agreement that a fragile recovery is under way but no consensus on what's going to spur job growth and prevent another global economic meltdown.
    (AP, 1/31/10)
2010        Jan 31, A Libyan appeal court overturned a jail term slapped on Swiss businessman Rashid Hamdani on a charge of overstaying his visa, easing a Tripoli-Bern diplomatic spat.
    (AFP, 1/31/10)

2010        Feb 2, Germany and Switzerland headed for a fresh spat over banking secrecy after Berlin decided to buy a disc said to hold details of some 1,500 suspected tax-dodgers with funds in Swiss accounts.
    (AFP, 2/2/10)

2010        Feb 3, The Swiss government approved the resettlement of two Chinese inmates at Guantanamo as part of its commitment to help President Barack Obama's administration close the detention center.
    (AP, 2/3/10)
2010        Feb 3, "L'homme qui marche I" (Walking Man I), a 1961 life-size bronze statue of a man by Swiss artist Alberto Giacometti (1901-1966), smashed the world record for an art work at auction, selling in London for £65,001,250.
    (AFP, 2/4/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alberto_Giacometti)

2010        Feb 6, A Libyan court ordered Max Goeldi, one of two Swiss men entangled in a diplomatic row, to pay an 800-dollar fine for illegal business activities. Fellow businessman Rashid Hamdani was cleared last week of charges of overstaying his visa.
    (AFP, 2/6/10)

2010        Feb 7, A Libyan court dropped a case against Rashid Hamdani, a Swiss businessman for alleged illegal business activities, clearing the way for him to go home after 19 months stuck in the country.
    (AFP, 2/7/10)

2010        Feb 11, A Libyan appeal court reduced the 16-month jail sentence of Max Goeldi, a Swiss businessman, for overstaying his visa to four months.
    (AFP, 2/11/10)

2010        Feb 15, Libya suspended the issuing of entry visas to European citizens apart from British nationals. Italy's foreign ministry confirmed the measure and said it was in retaliation for Switzerland's recent decision to publish a blacklist of 180 Libyans banned from entering the country.
    (Reuters, 2/15/10)

2010        Feb 19, The German Tax Union said about 2,500 people in Germany have confessed to tax evasion to avoid punishment amid a heated debate over whether authorities should buy stolen data from Swiss bank accounts.
    (AP, 2/19/10)

2010        Feb 22, In Libya Rashid Hamdani, one of two Swiss businessmen held in Libya for 19 months amid a diplomatic row between the two states, left for home as Max Goeldi emerged from his country's embassy to serve 4 months in jail. Goeldi was released on June 10 and prepared to fly home.
    (AFP, 2/22/10)(AFP, 6/11/10)

2010        Feb 25, Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi turned up the heat in his country's dispute with Switzerland, calling for jihad over a recent Swiss ban on the construction of minarets.
    (AFP, 2/26/10)

2010        Feb 28, In Switzerland operators restarted the Large Hadron Collider following a winter shutdown for improvements.
    (SFC, 3/1/10, p.A2)

2010        Feb, In a reversal, Switzerland's top court said at least US$4.6 million in Swiss bank accounts previously awarded to charities must be returned to the family of Duvalier. Many in Haiti considered the money to have been stolen from public funds before Duvalier was ousted.
    (AP, 1/17/11)

2010        Mar 9, In Switzerland a senior Google executive welcomed a US decision to relax restrictions on exporting Internet communications services to Iran, Sudan and Cuba.
    (AP, 3/9/10)

2010        Mar 13, The Swiss daily Neue Zuercher Zeitung quoted Swiss Abbot Martin Werlen saying around 60 people over the last 15 years have reported being victims of abuse by Catholic priests in Switzerland.
    (AP, 3/13/10)

2010        Mar 24, Switzerland said it will lift a travel ban on senior Libyan officials to ease tensions in a dispute that has drawn in much of Europe. The Swiss government expressed hope that Libya would respond by ending visa restrictions against citizens of Switzerland and 24 other nations in Europe's passport-free zone.
    (AP, 3/24/10)

2010        Mar 25, In Switzerland the Geneva-based UN Human Rights Council (HRC) voted 20-17 for a text that lists the “defamation of religion" as an infringement of liberty.
    (Econ, 4/3/10, p.62)

2010        Mar 26, Germany and Switzerland said they have reached a preliminary deal on an agreement to exchange information on suspected tax cheats, an important step toward defusing a long-festering irritant in their relations.
    (AP, 3/26/10)

2010        Mar 27, Libya lifted a visa ban on citizens of 25 European countries after EU president Spain said a Swiss-instigated visa blacklist against 188 Libyans in those countries had been scrapped.
    (Reuters, 3/28/10)

2010        Mar 28, In Switzerland an armed gang of masked men raided the Grand Casino, packed with about 600 guests near Basel, and made off with hundreds of thousands of dollars.
    (AP, 3/28/10)

2010        Mar 30, In Switzerland scientists cheered the historic crash of two proton beams at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.
    (SFC, 3/31/10, p.A4)

2010        Mar 31, Swiss authorities said they could not reopen a money-laundering case against the Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari as long as he enjoys legal immunity.
    (AP, 3/31/10)

2010        Apr 7, In Switzerland the Solar Impulse aircraft, a pioneering Swiss bid to fly around the world on solar energy, successfully completed its first test flight.
    (AFP, 4/7/10)

2010        Apr 12, A Swiss court rejected Hannibal Gadhafi's demand for 100,000 Swiss francs ($94,500) in reparations for the publication of a police mug shot from his 2008 arrest in Geneva. Gadhafi was arrested in 2008 for allegedly beating up his servants in a luxury hotel. He was later released and charges were dropped.
    (AP, 4/13/10)

2010        Apr 15, In Switzerland 3 people, members of the Italian terrorist group Il Silvestre, were arrested with explosives in traffic two miles from an IBM nanotech center near Zurich. The alleged eco-terrorists went on trial in July, 2011.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3hsk53d)(SFC, 7/20/11, p.A2)

2010        May 9, A plume of volcanic ash snaked its way through southern France, Switzerland, Italy and Germany, shutting down airports and disrupting flights across Europe.
    (AP, 5/9/10)

2010        Apr, In Switzerland a police probe began after muddy, encrusted urns filled with human ashes were discovered accidentally by divers near Zurich's extravagantly wealthy "Gold Coast" only 5 miles (8 km) from the city center. Speculation connected the urns to Dignitas, a Swiss group that has helped hundreds of people, including Americans, Britons, Germans and Frenchmen, take their lives in recent years. A probe against Dignitas founder Ludwig A. Minelli in connection with the urns was dropped July 28.
    (AP, 4/28/10)(AP, 8/4/10)

2010        May 28, A Swiss man fined for nude hiking won an appeal of the 100-franc ($87) penalty because a court decided that the charge of "indecent behavior" did not apply.
    (AP, 5/28/10)

2010        Jun 9, The Technology Academy of Finland awarded Michael Graetzel of Switzerland, a German-born chemist, the international Millennium Technology Prize for inventing low-cost solar cells used in renewable energy. The prize included euro800,000 ($960,000).
    (AP, 6/9/10)

2010        Jun 12, In Switzerland a bus carrying 48 Canadian tourists crashed in the canton of Valais, killing two people and injuring at least 15 others, five of them seriously.
    (AP, 6/13/10)

2010        Jun 13, Libya said that Switzerland has paid $1.5 million for mistreating Moammar Gadhafi's son during his arrest there in 2008, and Switzerland expected the return of Max Goeldi , a citizen held in Tripoli, as the countries ended a two-year diplomatic row.
    (AP, 6/13/10)

2010        Jun 15, The Swiss parliament approved a treaty with the US that will hand thousands of files on suspected tax cheats to US authorities, but obstacles remain that could delay the deal for several more months.
    (AP, 6/15/10)

2010        Jun 28, In Switzerland Alfred Donath (78), a Jewish activist who helped Holocaust victims and their heirs recover money from Swiss banks, died. Donath was the vice president of the Swiss Federation of Jewish Communities when Swiss banks reached an out-of-court settlement in 1998 to pay Holocaust victims and their heirs $1.25 billion. He led the organization from 2000 to 2008.
    (AP, 6/29/10)

2010        Jul 8, In Switzerland an experimental solar-powered plane completed its first 24-hour test flight successfully, proving that the aircraft can collect enough energy from the sun during the day to stay aloft all night.
    (AP, 7/8/10)

2010        Jul 12, The Swiss government declared renowned film director Roman Polanski a free man after rejecting a US request to extradite him on a charge of having sex in 1977 with a 13-year-old girl. The Swiss mostly blamed US authorities for failing to provide confidential testimony about Polanski's sentencing procedure in 1977-1978.
    (AP, 7/12/10)

2010        Jul 23, Switzerland's popular Glacier Express tourist train derailed in the Alps, killing one person and injuring 42.
    (AP, 7/23/10)
2010        Jul 23, A Dutch court slapped a one million euro fine on Trafigura, a Swiss-based company whose chartered ship dumped hazardous waste the Ivory Coast says killed 17 people on its soil. It was also found guilty of concealing what the charge sheet referred to as the "harmful nature" of the waste on board the Probo Koala ship that arrived at the port of Amsterdam on July 2, 2006, but was redirected to the Ivory Coast.
    (AFP, 7/23/10)

2010        Aug 16, Teams from Australia, Germany and Switzerland have set off from Geneva in electric vehicles for what they hope will be the first carbon neutral race around the world. The race set up by Swiss inventor Louis Palmer will pass through 150 cities including Berlin, Moscow, Shanghai, Los Angeles and Cancun before returning to Geneva in January after 18,642 miles (30,000 km) on the road.
    (AP, 8/16/10)

2010        Aug 28, In Switzerland former UBS banker Bradley Birkenfeld hit out against the "corrupt" US judiciary which sent him to jail even though he was the whistleblower who led to the US tax fraud case against the bank. “Why am I the only one in prison when I had revealed everything?" Birkenfeld's revelations about the bank had led to US tax authorities' offensive against UBS in 2008. In a prosecution through US courts, the bank was forced to hand over 300 client names and pay a 780-million-dollar fine.
    (AFP, 8/28/10)

2010        Sep 22, Swiss women for the first time captured most of the seats in the country's seven-member executive branch, brushing aside Switzerland's history as one of Europe's last nations to grant women full suffrage.
    (AP, 9/22/10)

2010        Oct 8, The Swiss Im Grueene Foundation awarded Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales $104,000 for “democratizing the access to knowledge."
    (SFC, 10/9/10, p.A2)

2010        Oct 15, Swiss engineers smashed through the last stretch of rock to create the world's longest tunnel (35.4 miles), The Gotthard Base rail tunnel, sparking a national groundswell of elation over a costly, technically difficult project that has been 60 years in the making.
    (AP, 10/15/10)(SFC, 10/15/10, p.A5)

2010        Oct 20, Swiss mining giant Xstrata said that it would spend 4.9 billion rands (710 million dollars, 510 million euros) on expanding a ferrochrome smelter in South Africa.
    (AFP, 10/20/10)

2010        Nov 5, Swiss adventurer Yves Rossy (51) jumped from a hot-air balloon near Lake Geneva and completed two aerial loops using his custom-made jet-propelled wingsuit.
    (SFC, 11/6/10, p.A2)

2010        Nov 15, In Switzerland Russian billionaire Dmitry Rybolovlev (43) warned reporters not to cover his divorce case as his wife Elena demanded $6 billion from the man known as the “fertilizer king" for a fortune amassed in potash mining. According to Forbes, he was the 60th richest person in the world in 2008.
    (SFC, 11/16/10, p.A2)(http://tinyurl.com/32lymtu)

2010        Nov 16, In Switzerland a rare pink diamond was auctioned for a record $46,158,674 to London jeweler Laurence Graff.
    (SFC, 11/17/10, p.A2)

2010        Nov 17, Scientists at CERN reported that they have stored 38 atoms of the antimatter called antihydrogen for a tiny fraction of a second. The first antihydrogen atoms were made 15 years ago at CERN.
    (SFC, 11/18/10, p.A9)

2010        Nov 28, Swiss voters approved a plan to automatically deport foreigners found guilty of committing serious crimes or benefit fraud. Swiss national broadcaster SF1 says 52.9% of voters backed the proposal put forward by the nationalist Swiss People's Party, or SVP. Anti-racism groups bemoaned that the SVP's posters showing white sheep kicking black sheep off a Swiss flag played on stereotypical images of foreigners as criminals.
    (AP, 11/28/10)

2010        Dec 6, In Switzerland six world powers held their first meeting in 14 months with Iran over its disputed nuclear program, sounding out Tehran's intentions after it claimed to have taken a new step in making fissile material.
    (AFP, 12/6/10)

2010        Dec 7, In Switzerland 6 world powers wrapped up two days of "substantive" talks with Iran on its contentious nuclear program, with the two sides agreeing to meet again in Istanbul next month.
    (AFP, 12/7/10)

2010        Dec 18, Germany’s weekly Der Spiegel reported that local tax authorities recovered 1.6 billion euros this year from citizens who had stashed their cash in secret accounts in Liechtenstein and Switzerland.
    (AFP, 12/18/10)

2010        Dec 22, In Rome, Italy, all embassies were informed about a pair of package bombs that exploded at the Swiss and Chilean embassies, injuring two people who opened them.
    (AP, 12/23/10)

2011        Jan 14, The Swiss National Bank said it expects its loss in 2010 to reach 21 billion Swiss francs, as the country's strengthening currency pared down the bank's foreign currency holdings.
    (AFP, 1/14/11)

2011        Jan 16, Swiss whistleblower Rudolf Elmer is planning to handover to WikiLeaks two CDs containing data of around 2,000 bank clients who may have been evading taxes, according to an interview published today.
    (AFP, 1/16/11)

2011        Jan 17, Angry Swiss lawmakers called for the ouster of US diplomats suspected of illegally spying on people around their diplomatic missions, in a standoff over the use of counterterrorism measures.
    (AP, 1/17/11)
2011        Jan 17, WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange vowed to publish secret details of offshore accounts after Rudolf Elmer, a Swiss banking whistleblower, handed over data on 2,000 purportedly tax-dodging individuals and firms.
    (AFP, 1/17/11)(SSFC, 1/23/11, p.A5)

2011        Jan 19, Switzerland's federal council said it has agreed to freeze any assets of Tunisia's ousted president and the incumbent leader of Ivory Coast.
    (AP, 1/19/11)

2011        Jan 26, The World Economic Forum opened at Davos, Switzerland. Participants wrestled with the thorny questions surfaced by the explosion of online information and the WikiLeaks phenomenon in particular.
    (AP, 1/26/11)

2011        Jan 28, In Switzerland Daniel Domscheit-Berg, a former member of the group that created WikiLeaks, said a new platform called OpenLeaks will allow sources to choose specifically who they want to submit documents to anonymously, such as to a particular news outlet. He hoped it would be fully operational later this year.
    (AP, 1/28/11)

2011        Feb 1, Switzerland blocked Haiti ex-dictator Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier's frozen Swiss millions under new legislation that came into force today to ease their return to the impoverished country. The "Duvalier law" was rushed through parliament last year to ease the restitution of assets stolen by corrupt or greedy politicians to their home countries.
    (AFP, 2/1/11)

2011        Feb 3, In southern Italy Matthias Kaspar Schepp (43), a Canadian-born resident of Switzerland, was found dead by a railway station of an apparent suicide. Swiss police said they still had no evidence of the whereabouts of his twin daughters, Alessia and Livia (6), reported missing on Jan 30. The girls were last seen on a ferry to the French island of Corsica four days before their father apparently killed himself in Italy.
    (SFC, 2/8/11, p.A5)(AP, 2/9/11)

2011        Feb 10, In western Switzerland a Roman Catholic diocese said it has suspended two priests after allegations they sexually abused minors.
    (AP, 2/10/11)

2011        Feb 11, Switzerland froze any assets belonging to Egypt’s Hosni Mubarak or his family.
    (SFC, 2/12/11, p.A5)
2011        Feb 11, In Switzerland a twin-engine plane crashed at an altitude of 9,200 feet (2,800 meters) in the Val d'Anniviers near the border with Italy. A Swiss pilot and a French family of 4 were killed in the crash.
    (AP, 2/13/11)

2011        Feb 13, Switzerland, which has the highest rate of suicide by firearms in Europe, voted to hold fast to its long-standing tradition of letting citizens keep army-issue weapons at home.
    (AFP, 2/13/11)

2011        Feb 14, A Swiss court said an Iranian man convicted of heroin trafficking will be expelled and returned to his home country, even though the man claimed that he could be persecuted for being homosexual.
    (AFP, 2/14/11)

2011        Feb 17, Swiss media reported that a private helicopter carrying five people has crashed near the western Swiss ski resort of Les Diablerets.
    (AP, 2/17/11)

2011        Mar 1, Swedish carmaker SAAB, now owned by Spyker Cars, showed off its new PhoeniX prototype at the Geneva motor show.
    (Econ, 4/9/11, p.72)(http://tinyurl.com/3bmnxnx)

2011        Mar 14, The Swiss government suspended plans to replace and build new nuclear plants pending a review of two hydrogen explosions at Japanese plants.
    (AP, 3/14/11)

2011        Mar 26, In Switzerland 1 person was missing after an avalanche swept away 11 French skiers near the southern border with Italy. 4 people were killed.
    (AP, 3/26/11)

2011        Mar 31, In Switzerland a letter bomb exploded at an office of the Swiss nuclear power industry in the northern city of Olten, injuring two people.
    (AP, 3/31/11)

2011        Apr 1, In Switzerland 3 people were killed and one was injured on after seven ski hikers from Germany were swept away by a giant avalanche high in the southwestern Swiss Alps.
    (AFP, 4/1/11)
2011        Apr 1, Greek authorities said an Italian radical anarchist group, the Informal Anarchist Federation, has claimed responsibility for three mail bomb attacks on a Greek prison, an office of the Swiss nuclear power industry and an Italian military barracks.
    (AP, 4/1/11)(SFC, 4/1/11, p.A2)

2011        Apr 14, Glencore, a Swiss-based mining company, said it would list 20% of its shares in London and Hong Kong in an IPO that will raise as much as $11 billion.
    (Econ, 4/16/11, p.68)

2011        Apr 27, Health products giant Johnson & Johnson said it will buy US-Swiss medical device maker Synthes Inc. for $21.3 billion, greatly increasing its share of the market for surgical trauma equipment and orthopedic implants.
    (AP, 4/27/11)

2011        May 2, The Swiss government said it has identified potential assets belonging to Libya’s Moammar Khadafy and his entourage amounting to $415 million. Assets of $473 million were also found linked to Egypt’s Hosni Mubarak and $69 million to Tunisia’s Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali.
    (SFC, 5/3/11, p.AA2)

2011        May 13, Pioneering Swiss solar-powered aircraft Solar Impulse landed in Brussels after a 12-hour flight from Switzerland, the futuristic aircraft's first international sortie.
    (AP, 5/13/11)

2011        May 17, The Swiss-based World Health Organization said it will cut $1 billion from its next budget because of financial problems among rich donor nations and the exchange rate for the weak US dollar.
    (AP, 5/17/11)

2011        May 18, The Swiss government passed a measure restricting arms sales to Syria and freezing the assets and banning the travel to Switzerland of 13 senior Syrian officials.
    (AP, 5/18/11)

2011        May 19, Takeda Pharmaceutical Co. said it will buy Switzerland's Nycomed for $13.6 billion, giving Japan's biggest drugmaker coveted access to emerging markets.
    (AP, 5/19/11)

2011        May 25, The Swiss government said it will decommission all its nuclear power plants.
    (AP, 5/25/11)

2011        Jun 27, A Swiss man (62) appeared in court accused of drugging and sexually abusing some 50 girls at a camp and a private boarding school between 1996 and his arrest in 2007. On July 1 the man was sentenced to 13 years in prison and ordered to pay his victims 65,000 Swiss francs ($77,000).
    (AP, 6/27/11)(AP, 7/1/11)
2011        Jun 27, In Geneva more than 80 states began meeting for the first four-day intercessional meeting on the Convention on Cluster Munitions to advance their commitments to a world free of cluster bombs. During the meeting Thailand and Cambodia indicated their intention to join in the near future.
    (AFP, 7/1/11)(www.stopclustermunitions.org/news/?id=3086)

2011        Jul 1, In Pakistan 2 Swiss tourists, David Och and Daniela Widmer, were kidnapped in southwest Baluchistan province. The couple were reported freed on March 15, 2012.
    (AP, 7/2/11)(AP, 3/15/12)

2011        Jul 14, Switzerland suspended imports of some seeds, beans and sprouts from Egypt, after the EU blamed Egyptian fenugreek seeds for E.coli outbreaks in Germany and France. The temporary ban would expire in October 31, 2011, in line with the EU's suspension.
    (AFP, 7/14/11)

2011        Jul 17, In Switzerland the son of an American UN diplomat was attacked by up to a dozen assailants in Geneva, who beat him with metal rods and attempted to throw him into the river Rhone before a passing cyclist raised the alarm.
    (AP, 8/15/11)

2011        Aug 23, The Geneva-based Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria said it is lifting the freeze on funding to China to ensure AIDS work in the country continues while it works with government officials, representatives from United Nations' agencies and private groups to resolve the dispute.
    (AP, 8/23/11)

2011        Sep 6, The Swiss franc dropped sharply after the country's central bank pegged it against the euro.
    (AP, 9/6/11)

2011        Sep 15, British police arrested Kweku Adoboli (31) in London after the rogue trader at Swiss bank UBS lost an estimated $2.3 billion in unauthorized trades. On Sep 24 UBS announced the resignation of CEO Oswald Gruebel.
    (AFP, 9/15/11)(AFP, 9/16/11)(SSFC, 9/25/11, p.A15)

2011        Sep 22, It was reported that CERN physicists have found that tiny particles called neutrinos are making a 454-mile (730-km) underground trip faster than they should, more quickly, in fact, than light could do. If the results are confirmed, they could throw much of modern physics into upheaval. Researchers in 2012 published papers that refuted the faster than light neutrino travel.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3k9puhj)(SFC, 9/23/11, p.A5)(Econ, 3/24/12, p.82)

2011        Oct 6, Britain and Switzerland signed an agreement to tax money kept by British residents in secret Swiss bank accounts, a move which could net the British government billions of pounds and help Swiss banking clean up its image. The deal, which must still be approved by the parliaments of both countries, should come into force in 2013.
    (Reuters, 10/6/11)

2011        Oct 14, A British pilot (29) and his passenger (40) died in the crash of their small plane in Switzerland.
    (AFP, 10/15/11)

2011        Oct 23, Switzerland held national elections. Citizens were poised to hand nationalists an unprecedented 30 percent voice, following voting dominated by concerns about immigration, nuclear power and the economy.
    (AP, 10/23/11)

2011        Oct 25, In Geneva US and North Korean officials concluded their two-day talks about Pyongyang's nuclear program. Top US envoy Stephen Bosworth expressed confidence about the prospects of restarting long-stalled nuclear negotiations after two days of "very positive" talks with North Korea.
    (AFP, 10/25/11)

2011        Oct 31, Zimbabwe state media said President Robert Mugabe has warned Switzerland he would "reciprocate" after his wife and top officials were denied visas to attend a UN meeting in that country.
    (AFP, 10/31/11)

2011        Nov 30, Amid fears of a eurozone collapse, central banks of the United States, the eurozone, Britain, Japan, Canada and Switzerland said that they would cut the cost of providing dollars to banks. The move pushed the DJIA up 490 points, its biggest gain since March 2009.
    (AFP, 12/1/11)(SFC, 12/1/11, p.D1)

2011        Nov, The Swiss Cabinet decided to order 22 Gripen fighters from Sweden's Saab AB to replace the air force's aging Northrop F-5 Tigers.
    (AP, 2/14/12)

2011        Dec 13, Scientists at CERN, Switzerland, announced the possible discovery of the Higgs boson, a fundamental particle proposed by British researcher Peter Higgs in 1964.
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.137)

2011        Alice Odiot authored "Commodities: Switzerland's Most Dangerous Business." It looks at the social and environmental impact on Zambia and the Mopani Copper Mines owned by Swiss giant Glencore.
    (AP, 9/20/11)

2012        Jan 9, Swiss National Bank chief Philipp Hildebrand resigned acknowledging he could not prove his innocence amid a public uproar over his private currency deals. Dollar swaps last year netted him and his wife tens of thousands in profits.
    (SFC, 1/10/12, p.A2)

2012        Jan 24, The Coryton refinery in Essex, one of Britain's largest oil refineries halted sales, casting doubt over the future of 1,000 jobs and putting petrol supplies at risk. Petroplus, its Swiss owner, said it would file for insolvency. It had bought the refinery from BP in 2007.
    (AFP, 1/24/12)

2012        Jan 25, Corporate leaders gathered in Davos, Switzerland, for the annual World Economic Forum. Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany was the opening speaker.
    (Econ, 1/21/12, p.76)(Econ, 1/28/12, p.51)

2012        Jan 27, Fitch ratings downgraded the debt of Belgium, Cyprus, Italy, Slovenia and Spain even as European finance chiefs gathering in Davos sought to reassure global business leaders that Europe is on track to solve its debt crises.
    (SFC, 1/27/12, p.A4)

2012        Jan 28, At Davos, Switzerland, 3 topless Ukrainian protesters were detained while trying to break into an invitation-only gathering of international CEOs and political leaders to call attention to the needs of the world's poor. Separately, demonstrators from the Occupy movement marched to the edge of the gathering.
    (AP, 1/28/12)

2012        Feb 2, The US Justice Department said it has indicted Wegelin, the oldest Swiss private bank, on charges that it enabled wealthy Americans to evade taxes on at least $1.2 billion hidden in offshore bank accounts. In January, 2013, a reduced Wegelin pleaded guilty in a New York court to allowing more than 100 American citizens to hide $1.2 billion from the Internal Revenue Service over a 10-year period.
    (Reuters, 2/3/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wegelin_%26_Co.)

2012        Feb 7, Swiss materials giant Glencore and mining firm Xstrata announced a vast merger, creating a $90 billion (€69 billion) group and the world’s 4th largest mining company.
    (AFP, 2/7/12)(Econ, 2/11/12, p.65)

2012        Feb 9, Swiss news reported that Hafez Makhlouf, a cousin of Syria's President Bashar Assad, has won a legal bid to unfreeze euro3 million ($4 million) held in bank accounts in Switzerland, overturning a last-ditch effort by Swiss prosecutors to block the release of the funds on suspicion of money laundering.
    (AP, 2/9/12)

2012        Feb 17, Swiss authorities said they have confiscated $6 trillion in counterfeit US bonds at the request of Italian prosecutors. In Italy eight people were arrested across the country and placed under investigation for fraud and other crimes. The bonds, carrying the false date of issue of 1934, had been transported in 2007 from Hong Kong to Zurich, where they were transferred to a Swiss trust.
    (AP, 2/17/12)

2012        Mar 13, In Switzerland a bus carrying Belgian students returning from a ski holiday crashed into a wall in a tunnel near Sierre, killing 22 Belgian 12-year-olds and six adults. Another 24 students were hospitalized with injuries.
    (AP, 3/14/12)

2012        Mar 15, In Pakistan Swiss couple David Och and Daniela Widmer, held captive for nearly a year by the Taliban, turned up at an army post close to the Afghan border, claiming to have escaped from their captors. Taliban commanders said a ransom was paid in exchange for their release.
    (AP, 3/15/12)

2012        Mar 27, Swiss authorities said five out of every 1,000 deaths in Switzerland now involve assisted suicide, with women more likely to die this way than men.
    (AP, 3/27/12)

2012        Apr 20, Switzerland said it has revised a tax pact agreed with Britain last year and will offer it a higher rate of withholding tax, after Germany earlier this month succeeded in obtaining more favorable terms in a similar deal with the Swiss government.
    (Reuters, 4/20/12)

2012        Apr 23, Swiss-based Nestle said it would buy Pfizer Nutrition, the infant nutrition arm of American Drug firm Pfizer, for $11.85 billion.
    (Econ, 4/28/12, p.75)

2012        May 24, The jumbo jet-size Solar Impulse, an experimental solar-powered airplane, took off from Switzerland on its first transcontinental flight, aiming to reach North Africa next week.
    (AP, 5/24/12)

2012        Jun 17, Swiss voters decided that they have enough democracy already, dealing a heavy defeat to a proposal to hold more referendums on international treaties.
    (AP, 6/17/12)

2012        Jun 30, In Geneva representatives of global and regional powers accepted a UN-brokered plan calling for creation of a transitional national unity government in Syria. But at Russia's insistence, the compromise agreement left the door open to Assad being part of the interim administration.
    (AP, 6/30/12)(AP, 7/1/12)

2012        Jul 4, The Swiss government temporarily blocked all arms shipments to the United Arab Emirates after a newspaper published a photograph indicating that a Swiss-made hand grenade was found in Syria. The hand grenade appearing in a photograph published July 1 by Zurich weekly Sonntagszeitung came from a shipment of 225,162 hand grenades by Swiss-based RUAG Holding AG to the United Arab Emirates in 2003.
    (AP, 7/5/12)
2012        Jul 4, Physicists at CERN, Switzerland, said they had found a new sub-atomic particle consistent with the elusive Higgs boson which is believed to confer mass.. “We have discovered a boson, and now we have to determine what kind of boson it is." Finding the Higgs would validate the Standard Model, a theory which identifies the building blocks for matter and the particles that convey fundamental forces.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)

2012        Aug 13, Julius Baer Group, a Swiss private banking group, said it has agreed to pay 860 million francs ($879 million) to buy Bank of America Corp.'s Merrill Lynch wealth management operations outside the United States.
    (AP, 8/13/12)

2012        Aug 23, In Switzerland the Green Climate Fund, which aims to channel $100 billion a year in aid to poor countries, selected as leaders Zaheer Fakir, head of international relations for South Africa's environment agency, and Ewen McDonald, deputy head of Australia's international development agency.
    (AP, 8/23/12)

2012        Aug 30, Swiss authorities said a self-styled healer has been indicted by a Swiss court on charges that he intentionally infected 16 people with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, in cases (2001-2005) going back more than a decade.
    (AP, 8/30/12)

2012        Oct 27, In Greece Costas Vaxevanis, publisher of Hot Doc magazine, printed a list of 2,059 Greek depositors at a bank in Switzerland. The list, dating from 2007, was allegedly given to the Greek government by French officials in 2010. Vaxevanis was arrested, faced trial and was acquitted. On Oct 8, 2013, he appeared in court again to stand trial again for violating privacy laws.
    (SFC, 10/29/12, p.A2)(Econ, 11/3/12, p.54)(Reuters, 10/8/13)

2012        Nov 13, In Switzerland Christie's auctioned off the Archduke Joseph Diamond for nearly $21.5 million, a world auction record price per carat for a colorless diamond.
    (AP, 11/13/12)

2012        Nov 20, Former UBS trader Kweku Adoboli (32) was convicted and sentenced to seven years in jail for the biggest fraud in British history, which resulted in a loss of $2.3 billion for the Swiss bank. Adoboli was released on parole in 2015 after serving about half his sentence.
    (Reuters, 11/20/12)(AP, 6/24/15)

2012        Dec 19, Switzerland's UBS AG agreed to pay some $1.5 billion in fines to international regulators following a probe into the rigging of a key global interest rate.
    (AP, 12/19/12)

2012        Swiss authorities arrested Erwin Sperisen, a former police chief in Guatemala, for planning and directing operations to kill detainees during his tenure from 2004-2007. Sperisen had dual Swiss and Guatemalan nationality and in 2014 was sentenced in Geneva to life in prison.
    (SFC, 6/7/14, p.A2)

2013        Jan 2, In Switzerland a man armed with an old military rifle and a handgun shot and killed three women and wounded two men in the village of Daillon. Police shot and wounded the suspect after he threatened to also shoot officers.
    (AP, 1/3/13)

2013        Jan 13, In Geneva delegates from more than 130 nations began a final round of negotiations on the creation of the first legally binding treaty to reduce mercury emissions.
    (SFC, 1/14/13, p.A2)

2013        Jan 19, In Geneva more than 140 nations adopted the first legally-binding international treaty aimed at reducing mercury emissions, capping four years of negotiations on how to set limits on the use of a highly toxic metal. 50 nations must ratify it before it comes into force, which officials said they would expect to happen within about three to four years.
    (AP, 1/19/13)

2013        Jan 26, In Switzerland 3 women from Ukrainian feminist activist group Femen, angry over sexism and male domination of the world economy, ripped off their shirts and tried to force their way into a gathering of corporate elites in Davos.
    (AP, 1/26/13)

2013        Jan 28, Britain received an initial 340 million pounds from the Swiss government as part of a deal to tackle tax evasion that the government expects will net it some 5 billion pounds over the next six years.
    (Reuters, 1/29/13)

2013        Feb 12, IOC leaders meeting in Switzerland dropped wrestling from the Olympic program, a surprise decision that removes one of the oldest Olympic sports from the 2020 Games.
    (AP, 2/12/13)

2013        Feb 14, The US Treasury Department said that Switzerland and the United States have signed a pact to make Swiss banks disclose information about US account-holders.
    (Reuters, 2/14/13)

2013        Feb 27, In Switzerland a longtime employee (42) opened fire at a wood-processing company in Menznau, leaving 3 people dead, including the assailant.
    (AP, 2/27/13)

2013        Mar 3, Swiss citizens voted on a plan, the “Rip-Off Initiative," to boost shareholders’ authority over executive pay. 68% voted in favor. The plan became effective in 2015.
    (SFC, 3/4/13, p.A2)(Econ, 3/9/13, p.64)(Econ., 2/21/15, p.65)

2013        May 8, Belgian, French and Swiss authorities arrested at least 31 people in a sweep for robbers who pulled off a diamond theft on Feb 18 with clockwork precision at Brussels Airport.
    (AP, 5/8/13)

2013        May 14, The European Court of Human Rights found that Swiss laws on passive assisted suicide are unclear and need revising to clarify when people are entitled to a medical prescription for a lethal dose of drugs.
    (AP, 5/14/13)

2013        May 16, Heinrich Rohrer (79), Swiss physicist and Nobel Prize winner (1986), died in Switzerland. He is regarded as the father of nanotechnology.
    (Econ, 6/1/13, p.90)

2013        May 29, The Swiss government announced that it will let banks circumvent the country's strict client secrecy laws as part of an effort to end a long-running tax evasion dispute with the United States.
    (AP, 5/29/13)

2013        Jun 2, Authorities in parts of central Europe issued disaster warnings and scrambled to reinforce flood defenses as rivers swelled by days of heavy rain threatened to burst their banks. Several people have died or were missing in the floods in Germany, the Czech Republic and Switzerland.
    (AP, 6/2/13)

2013        Jun 26, In Switzerland financier Marc Rich (b.1934) died of a stroke at a hospital in Lucerne. During the Arab oil embargo of the 1970s, Rich used his Middle East contacts to purchase crude oil from Iran and Iraq and made a fortune selling it to American companies.
    (AP, 6/26/13)

2013        Jul 19, In Switzerland the world's top particle physics lab said it had measured the decay time of a particle known as a Bs (B sub s) meson into two other fundamental particles called muons, which are much heavier than but similar to electrons. It was observed as part of the reams of data coming from CERN's $10 billion Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest atom smasher.
    (AP, 7/19/13)

2013        Jul 25, In Switzerland a member of the notorious "Pink Panther" jewel thief gang escaped from prison after accomplices rammed a gate and overpowered guards with bursts from their AK-47s. Milan Poparic (34) fled with fellow inmate Adrian Albrecht (52) from the Orbe prison in the western canton (state) of Vaud.
    (AP, 7/26/13)

2013        Jul 29, In Switzerland two trains collided head-on late today, injuring 26 people and killing the driver of one at Granges-près-Marnand in the canton of Vaud.
    (Reuters, 7/29/13)

2013        Aug 14, In Switzerland British stuntman Mark Sutton (42) was killed during a gathering organized by Online extreme sports involving 20 wingsuit pilots who were filmed as they jumped from helicopters.
    (AP, 8/15/13)

2013        Aug 26, Zurich, Switzerland, launched publicly funded, drive-in, open wooden garages to make prostitution less of a public nuisance and safer for women.
    (AP, 8/26/13)

2013        Sep 10, Lawmakers in Switzerland, where prostitution is legal, agreed to make it a criminal act to pay for sex with anyone who is under 18 years old.
    (AP, 9/10/13)

2013        Sep 22, Switzerland voted overwhelmingly to keep military conscription, the 3rd time its citizens had rejected an attempt to reconstitute an institution regarded by many Swiss as a national glue.
    (Reuters, 9/22/13)
2013        Sep 22, Switzerland's Italian-speaking region was on course to ban the wearing of a full-face veil, projected results from a referendum showed.
    (AP, 9/22/13)

2013        Sep 27, The Swiss government urged voters to reject a Nov 24 proposal to limit monthly executive pay to no more than what the company's lowest-paid staff earn in a year, saying it could hurt the attractiveness of Switzerland as a business destination.
    (Reuters, 9/27/13)

2013        Oct 10, Iraq's prime minister said his country has signed a $6 billion contract with Swiss company Satarem to build and run an oil refinery in the southern province of Maysan.
    (AP, 10/11/13)

2013        Oct 18, Swiss customs agents said they have seized one million fake tablets of anti-anxiety drug Xanax at the Zurich airport, which were destined for Egypt. The counterfeit tablets, packed in four crates and weighing 400kg, had originated in China, according to Swissmedic, the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products.
    (AFP, 10/18/13)

2013        Oct 23, Swiss-based petrochemical firm Ineos said it would close its Grangemouth plant in Scotland with the loss of hundreds of jobs after failing to resolve a bitter labor dispute.
    (AFP, 10/23/13)
2013        Oct 23, A Swiss Air Force F/A-18 jet went down near a military airport in Alpnach in the Lake Lucerne region.
    (AP, 10/23/13)

2013        Nov 7, Swiss scientists confirmed that Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat ingested lethal radioactive polonium before his death in 2004 and had high levels of it in his body that could not have been accidental. Palestinian officials have alleged from the start that Israel poisoned Arafat.
    (AP, 11/7/13)

2013        Nov 13, In Switzerland an enormous diamond known as "The Pink Star" sold for more than $83 million at auction in Geneva. Sotheby's said the sale is the highest price ever paid for a gemstone at auction.
    (AP, 11/14/13)

2013        Nov 26, In Switzerland the director-general of the World Trade Organization said negotiators have failed to craft the first global trade deal in more than a decade, which could have given the world economy a $1 trillion boost.
    (AP, 11/26/13)

2013        Dec 18, The Swiss government said it has decided to keep 760 million Swiss francs ($858 million) in Egyptian and Tunisian assets frozen for three more years.
    (AP, 12/18/13)

2013        Dec 22, NY-based Tiffany & Co. said it was ordered to pay Swatch Group AG about 402 million Swiss francs ($449 million) in compensation over a contractual dispute. The Netherlands Arbitration Institute also required Tiffany to pay more than $9 million for the Swiss watchmaker's legal fees and the cost of arbitration.
    (AP, 12/23/13)

2013        Swiss novelist Joel Dicker authored “The Truth about the Harry Quebert Affair." In 2014 the popular novel was published in English.
    (Econ, 4/19/14, p.78)

2014        Jan 5, In southern Switzerland 4 skiers were killed and another was in a critical condition after a series of avalanches hit the Alps.
    (AFP, 1/5/14)

2014        Jan 22, In Switzerland peace talks intended to carve a path out of Syria's civil war got off to a rocky start in Montreux as a bitter clash over President Bashar Assad's future threatened to collapse the negotiations even before they really begin. On Jan 24 the talks moved to Geneva.
    (AP, 1/22/14)(Econ, 1/25/14, p.37)

2014        Jan 23, Iran’s President Hassan Rouhani told the World Economic Forum in Davos that Tehran was ready to help create a new multilateral body tasked with stabilising global energy supplies. Rouhani also called for free and fair elections in Syria, saying it would respect any outcome.
    (AFP, 1/23/14)(AP, 1/23/14)

2014        Jan 25, In Switzerland the first face-to-face meeting between Syria's government and the opposition hoping to overthrow President Bashar Assad ended after barely a half-hour, with the two sides facing each other silently as a UN mediator laid groundwork for talks.
    (AP, 1/25/14)

2014        Jan 26, Syrians on opposite sides of their country's civil war tried again to find common ground in Geneva. The UN mediator said the two sides have reached a deal to allow women and children to leave Homs, a city under government siege for more than a year.
    (AP, 1/26/14)

2014        Jan 27, In Geneva the first meeting meant to discuss the issue of a Syrian transitional government broke up less than an hour after it began following a tense session that one delegate described as "a dialogue of the deaf." UN envoy Brahimi broke up the meeting and was scheduled to meet with both sides separately later in the day.
    (AP, 1/27/14)

2014        Feb 9, Swiss voters narrowly backed proposals to reintroduce immigration quotas with the European Union. 50.3% backed the so-called "Stop mass immigration" initiative.
    (Reuters, 2/9/14)

2014        Feb 10, Peace talks between the Syrian government and the opposition resumed in Geneva.
    (CSM, 2/10/14)

2014        Feb 16, Switzerland told the newest EU member, Croatia, that it will not be able to sign a labor market pact as planned on July 1, following a shock referendum vote in favor of immigration curbs.
    (Reuters, 2/16/14)

2014        Feb 17, Ethiopian Airlines co-pilot Hailemedehin Abera Tagegn (31) locked his colleague out of the cockpit, hijacked a Rome-bound plane and landed in Geneva, all in an attempt to seek asylum in Switzerland. On March 16, 2015, Tagegn was convicted in absentia by Ethiopia’s high court.
    (AP, 2/17/14)(AFP, 2/17/14)

2014        Feb 28, Switzerland, Austria and Liechtenstein moved to freeze assets and bank accounts of up to 20 Ukrainians including ousted president Viktor Yanukovich and his son, after Ukraine's new rulers said billions had gone missing.
    (Reuters, 2/28/14)

2014        Mar 10, Switzerland froze the assets and bank accounts of nine more Ukrainians, including another son of ousted president Viktor Yanukovich and the son of a former prime minister, all of whom are suspected of human rights abuses and misuse of state funds.
    (Reuters, 3/10/14)
2014        Mar 10, The office of Switzerland's attorney general said its criminal investigation into former Texas tycoon R. Allen Stanford's massive Ponzi scheme has concluded that some of the victims' money was laundered in Swiss accounts.
    (AP, 3/10/14)

2014        Mar 12, Swiss authorities said they have opened a money laundering investigation into Gulnara Karimova, the eldest daughter of Uzbekistan's Pres. Islam Karimov, related to the country's telecommunications market.
    (AFP, 3/12/14)

2014        Mar 28, Russia said Switzerland has imposed restrictions on military exports to Russia over events in Ukraine which were counterproductive and not in line with the country's policy of neutrality.
    (Reuters, 3/28/14)

2014        Mar 31, Switzerland's competition regulator named eight global banks it is investigating for possible manipulation of foreign exchange rates. It cited the two largest Swiss banks, UBS and Credit Suisse, along with Zurich Cantonal Bank, Julius Baer and JP Morgan Chase, Citigroup, Barclays Bank and Royal Bank of Scotland Group.
    (AP, 3/31/14)

2014        Mar, Swiss authorities arrested three Iraqi citizens who were suspected of providing support to Islamic State and planning an attack in Europe. The arrests were first reported in September and confirmed by the government in October.
    (Reuters, 10/31/14)

2014        Apr 2, The Swiss government said it has decided not to adopt European Union sanctions against 33 people in connection with Russia's annexation of Crimea, but will prevent them from using Switzerland to get around the visa bans and asset freezes.
    (AP, 4/2/14)

2014        Apr 7, Swiss-based Holcim and its French counterpart, Lafarge, two of the world's largest suppliers of building materials, announced plans for a merger of equals.
    (AP, 4/7/14)

2014        Apr 11, The Swiss government said the Palestinians can join the Geneva Conventions governing the rules of war and military occupations, twenty-five years after they made their first bid for membership.
    (AP, 4/11/14)
2014        Apr 11, Switzerland said it will hand over to Tunisia $40 million (29 million euros) stashed in Swiss bank accounts by the family of ousted dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali. Investigations into the origin of $28.5 million remaining continued.
    (AFP, 4/11/14)

2014        Apr 13, Glencore, based in Switzerland, said it has signed an agreement to sell its entire interest in the Peruvian Las Bambas copper mine to a consortium led by MMG Ltd., a mining company controlled by state-owned China Minmetals Nonferrous Metals Co. Ltd.
    (AP, 4/14/14)

2014        Apr 22, Swiss pharmaceutical firm Novartis AG launched a major overhaul of its business, unveiling a series of multibillion-dollar deals with Britain's GlaxoSmithKline PLC and the U.S.'s Eli Lilly & Co.
    (AP, 4/22/14)

2014        Apr 30, Switzerland said it will grant workers from Croatia access to its labor market in a bid to kickstart treaty negotiations with the EU that were frozen after Swiss voters approved curbs on immigration.
    (Reuters, 4/30/14)

2014        May 7, Switzerland’s Kunstmuseum Bern said that it has been named as the unrestricted and unfettered heir of German art collector Cornelius Gurlitt, who a day earlier.
    (SFC, 5/8/14, p.A2)(AFP, 5/13/14)
2014        May 7, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin urged that a planned May 11 referendum on autonomy in southeast Ukraine be postponed. In a meeting with Swiss president Didier Burkhalter, Putin also called on Ukraine's military to halt all operations against pro-Russia activists who have seized government buildings and police stations across at least a dozen towns in eastern Ukraine.
    (AP, 5/7/14)

2014        May 19, A Swiss court ordered Dmitry Rybolovlev of Monaco to pay his ex-wife, Elena Rybolovlev, 4,020,555,987.80 Swiss francs to settle their divorce after a 6-year legal fight. The Russian billionaire had made his fortune in potash mining. Forbes estimated his worth at $8.8 billion.
    (SFC, 5/20/14, p.A2)
2014        May 19, Swiss-based Credit Suisse pleaded guilty to a criminal charge of having helped its customers elude America’s tax authorities. The bank was fined $2.8 billion.
    (Econ, 5/24/14, p.65)

2014        Jun 2, The Swiss-made Solar Impulse 2 airplane made a successful inaugural flight as its makers prepare for what they hope will be the first round-the-world solar flight.
    (AP, 6/2/14)

2014        Jun 12, Swiss authorities said they have arrested Swiss winemaker Dominique Giroud, a spy and two others on charges of hacking the computers of at least two journalists.
    (AP, 6/12/14)

2014        Jul 9, A Swiss prosecutor brought charges against former Julius Baer private banker Rudolf Elmer for allegedly handing over confidential data to WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange and attempting to pass on files to German officials.
    (Reuters, 7/9/14)

2014        Aug 6, In Switzerland a man arrested a day earlier, for suspected involvement in the theft and leaking of a medical file on injured ex-Formula One champion Michael Schumacher, was found hanged in his cell.
    (AFP, 8/6/14)

2014        Aug 24, Swiss pharmaceutical giant Roche said it is buying InterMune of Brisbane, Ca., for $8.3 billion in an all cash transaction.
    (SFC, 8/25/14, p.D1)

2014        Aug 27, Switzerland said Russian banks will require approval to issue long-term financial instruments in Switzerland, as it detailed measures to ensure it does not become a place for individuals or funds to avoid European sanctions on Moscow.
    (Reuters, 8/27/14)

2014        Sep 4, In Switzerland some 200 experts huddled in Geneva to debate experimental treatments for the Ebola virus as the world's worst-ever outbreak raged in west Africa.
    (AFP, 9/4/14)

2014        Sep 18, In Switzerland some 200 companies pledged to create new work and training opportunities for Europe's young jobseekers, of which one out of four is unemployed.
    (AP, 9/18/14)

2014        Sep 30, The Swiss-based WWF issued a report saying about 3,000 species of wildlife around the world have seen their numbers plummet far worse than previously thought.
    (AP, 9/30/14)

2014        Oct 2, In France a helicopter that took off from neighboring Switzerland crashed in the yard of a home in eastern France, killing at least 5 people in the town of Bart.
    (AP, 10/2/14)

2014        Nov 3, In Switzerland the bodies of 3 Portuguese citizens were discovered near a train station in the Swiss Alps town of Wilderswill, amid reports of a murder-suicide.
    (AFP, 11/3/14)

2014        Nov 16, On the Italian-Swiss border at least 4 people were killed as landslides triggered by torrential rain slammed into houses and buildings on either side of the border.
    (AFP, 11/16/14)

2014        Nov 19, In Switzerland scientists at CERN, the world's largest smasher, said they have discovered two new subatomic particles never seen before that could widen our understanding of the universe. The new particles, which were predicted to exist, are both baryons made from three quarks bound together by a strong force.
    (AP, 11/19/14)

2014        Nov 24, Switzerland’s Kunstmuseum Bern agreed to accept a priceless collection of long-hidden art from the late German collector Cornelius Gurlitt, saying it will work closely with Germany to make sure that any pieces looted by the Nazis are returned to their Jewish owners.
    (AP, 11/24/14)

2014        Nov 30, Swiss voters overwhelmingly rejected three citizen-backed proposals to protect the country's wealth by investing in gold, drastically limit immigration and eliminate a special tax that draws rich foreigners.
    (AP, 11/30/14)

2014        Dec 11, Swiss authorities charged Herve Falciani, a fugitive banking analyst, with data theft in what is considered to be one of the biggest security breaches in the country's often-secretive banking sector. He has been accused of stealing stole information between 2006 and 2007 relating to 24,000 customers of the Swiss division of HSBC.
    (AP, 12/11/14)

2014        Dec 17, In Geneva the international community delivered a stinging rebuke to Israel's settlement construction in the West Bank and east Jerusalem, saying the practice violates its responsibilities as an occupying power in a declaration adopted by consensus among 126 of the 196 parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention.
    (AP, 12/17/14)
2014        Dec 17, The United States slapped sanctions on Dutch and Swiss oil trading firms for their dealings with the Syrian government. This put Netherlands-based Staroil B.V. as well as two Swiss-based firms, Rixo International Trading Ltd and Bluemarine SA, on its list of sanctioned entities, which effectively cuts them off from the US financial system.
    (AP, 12/17/14)

2014        Dec 18, Switzerland sought to prevent the Swiss franc from breaching upper limits imposed on the currency by introducing negative interest rates on commercial bank deposits following the fallout of the slide in the Russian ruble.
    (AP, 12/18/14)

2015        Jan 15, Switzerland ditched an increasingly expensive policy to limit the export-sapping rise of the Swiss franc — a decision that propelled the currency a whopping 30 percent higher against the euro within minutes.
    (AP, 1/15/15)

2015        Jan 19, Oxfam International said in a report released as the World Economic Forum begins in Davos, Switzerland, that the richest 1 percent of the population will own more than half the world's wealth by 2016.
    (AP, 1/19/15)

2015        Jan 21, In Switzerland the annual 3-day World Economic Forum (WEF) opened in Davos. The theme this year was “the new global context".
    (Econ, 1/17/15, p.66)
2015        Jan 21, In Switzerland Ukraine's President Petro Poroshenko courted European support World Economic Forum in Davos against what he says are 9,000 Russian troops occupying 7 percent of his nation's territory.
    (AP, 1/21/15)

2015        Jan 23, In Davos, Switzerland, political and financial leaders at the World Economic Forum began campaigning in earnest for twin global accords aimed at cooling the planet and easing the suffering of multitudes.
    (AP, 1/23/15)

2015        Feb 1, Swiss police said 11 people have died in off-piste skiing accidents in the Swiss Alps despite repeated avalanche warnings over the past four days.
    (AFP, 2/1/15)

2015        Feb 13, Meeting in Geneva almost 200 countries agreed a draft text for a deal to fight climate change, but put off hard choices about narrowing down a vast range of options for limiting a damaging rise in temperatures.
    (Reuters, 2/13/15)

2015        Feb 18, Swiss authorities raided the offices of British banking giant HSBC's Swiss unit as part of a money laundering probe into the bank that has been accused of helping clients to dodge millions of dollars in taxes.
    (AFP, 2/18/15)

2015        Feb 20, In Switzerland two trains slammed into each other near the city of Zurich, tipping over carriages and injuring at least six people.
    (AFP, 2/20/15)

2015        Feb 21, In the Swiss Alps an avalanche swept away a group of Italian skiers leaving 4 dead.
    (AFP, 2/22/15)

2015        Feb 27, Switzerland became the first country to submit a pledge to the UN for a new global climate deal, vowing to cut its greenhouse gas emission in half by 2030 compared with 1990 levels.
    (SFC, 2/28/15, p.A2)

2015        Mar 3, Australia and Switzerland signed an accord in Canberra aimed at cracking down on tax evaders.
    (AP, 3/3/15)

2015        Mar 9, The Solar Impulse 2 aircraft set off from Abu Dhabi on a bid to make the first round-the-world tour. Swiss pilot Andre Borschberg (63) will trade flying the Si2 with Bertrand Piccard. The epic journey was scheduled to spread over five months, with a total flight time of around 25 days.
    (AFP, 3/9/15)(SFC, 3/9/15, p.A2)

2015        Mar 17, Swiss officials said they are returning to Nigeria some $380 million linked to the country's former dictator, Gen. Sani Abacha. The money, confiscated on the basis that the Abacha family was a criminal organization, will now be returned to Nigeria under World Bank supervision.
    (AP, 3/17/15)

2015        Mar 19, Switzerland signed a preliminary agreement with the European Union that will make it much harder for the 28-nation bloc's citizens to evade taxes by hiding money in Swiss vaults.
    (AP, 3/19/15)

2015        Mar 20, Europol, the European Union's policy agency, said that raids earlier this week in Austria, Cyprus, Slovenia and Switzerland led to 26 arrests and the identification of 14 possible victims of the smugglers. The raids of brothels and restaurants targeted Chinese criminal networks that reportedly smuggled people to the continent.
    (AP, 3/20/15)

2015        Mar 21, Swiss artist Hans Erni (b.1909) died. His prolific work ranged from tiny postage stamps to enormous frescoes.
    (AP, 3/22/15)

2015        Apr 2, In Switzerland negotiators reached a framework for a nuclear accord with Iran. US President Barack Obama hailed it as an “historic understanding," but senior global diplomats cautioned that hard work lies ahead to strike a final deal.
    (Reuters, 4/3/15)

2015        Apr 5, In Switzerland CERN said the world's largest particle smasher has restarted after a two-year upgrade that will allow physicists to explore uncharted corners of the matter that makes up the universe.
    (AFP, 4/5/15)

2015        May 9, In Switzerland a gunman (36) killed 3 relatives and a neighbor in a late-night rampage in in Wuerenlingen before turning his weapon on himself.
    (Reuters, 5/10/15)(SFC, 5/11/15, p.A2)

2015        May 20, CERN scientists operating the world's biggest particle collider set a new energy record ahead of the massive machine's full restart in June. The Large Hadron Collider is located in a 27-km (16.8-mile) tunnel beneath the Swiss-French border.
    (AP, 5/21/15)

2015        May 23, In Geneva delegates from the WHO's 194 member states approved the creation of a $100 million fund to help the World Health Organization respond rapidly to emergencies.
    (AP, 5/23/15)

2015        May 27, Swiss police detained seven FIFA leaders in a dawn raid as part of a twin corruption inquiry that rocked world football's governing body two days before its leader Sepp Blatter seeks a new term. 14 people were indicted in a separate US graft probe. Three Argentine officials were included in the US indictment.
    (AFP, 5/27/15)(SSFC, 5/31/15, p.A4)(Econ, 5/30/15, p.14)

2015        May 29, In Switzerland Sepp Blatter was re-elected president of FIFA for a fifth term after his only challenger conceded defeat in an election overshadowed by allegations of rampant corruption in world soccer.
    (Reuters, 5/29/15)

2015        May 31, Swiss pilot Andre Borschberg took off from Nanjing, China, for a six day flight to Hawaii in the solar powered Solar Impulse. This was the 7th of twelve flights in the round the world journey. Borschberg made an unscheduled stop in Japan on June 1 to wait out bad weather.
    (SFC, 6/1/15, p.A2)(SFC, 6/2/15, p.A2)

2015        Jun 2, In Switzerland Sepp Blatter, recently re-elected president of FIFA for a fifth term, announced that he would resign. Blatter said he would remain president until a new election can be set up, sometime between December and March.
    (AP, 6/3/15)

2015        Jun 3, In Switzerland the upper house of parliament voted through a bill dubbed "Lex FIFA", aimed at cracking down on corruption inside international organizations.
    (AFP, 6/3/15)

2015        Jun 4, In Geneva, Switzerland, prosecutors said HSBC will pay 40 million Swiss francs ($43 million) to settle an investigation over allegations the bank helped rich clients avoid taxes.
    (AP, 6/4/15)

2015        Jun 11, In Switzerland FIFA's top spokesman left his job, hours after Sepp Blatter was urged to do the same by the European Parliament.
    (AP, 6/11/15)

2015        Jun 12, Journalist Emin Huseynov flew out of Azerbaijan on the plane of Swiss diplomat Didier Burkhalter (35). The opposition journalist had been sheltering for 10 months at the Swiss embassy in Baku.
    (AFP, 6/13/15)

2015        Jun 22, Bosnia asked Switzerland to hand over Naser Oric, the wartime Muslim defender of Srebrenica, and not extradite him to Serbia. The row that threatened to overshadow the 20th anniversary of the massacre. Oric stood trial at a UN court in The Hague for crimes against Bosnian Serbs and was acquitted of all charges in 2008.
    (Reuters, 6/22/15)

2015        Jun 25, Swiss authorities approved the extradition of Naser Oric, the wartime Bosnian commander of Srebrenica, to his home country rather than to Serbia. Oric agreed to be extradited to Bosnia.
    (AP, 6/25/15)

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