Timeline Syria thru 2013

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Sunni Muslims comprised two thirds of Syria’s people. The Alawites, a religious group that broke away from Shiite Islam in the 9th century, comprised about 6% of Syria’s population. Pres. Hafez Assad was a member of the sect.
    (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.A11)(Econ, 3/26/11, p.53)(Econ, 4/2/11, p.22)

ArabGateway: http://al-bab.com/country/syria
BBC:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/middle_east/newsid_827000/827580.stm
Country Reports:
http://www.countryreports.org/country/Syria.htm
Travel Docs:
http://www.traveldocs.com/sy/index.htm
USLC:
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/sytoc.html

100,000BC    Hunters stalked giant camels in the Syrian desert about this time. Bones of the “Syrian Camel," as tall as some modern-day elephants, were discovered 150 miles north of Damascus in 2005.
    (AP, 10/11/06)

9000BC    In 2007 French archaeologists discovered an 11,000-year-old wall painting underground in northern Syria which they believe is the oldest in the world. The 2 square-meter painting, in red, black and white, was found at the Neolithic settlement of Djade al-Mughara on the Euphrates, northeast of the city of Aleppo.
    (Reuters, 10/11/07)

3600BC-1000BC    The Mesopotamian settlement of Nagar (in northeastern Syria) grew to become one of the first large cities of the Middle East. It began before 6,000BC and continued to about 1000BC.
    (MT, summer 2003, p.11)

3000BC-2000BC    Ebla was a commercial capital of this era. In 1975 tens of thousands of cuneiform tablets were found that supported Ebla's role.
    (WSJ, 9/30/99, p.A26)

2400BC    The Mesopotamian city of Nagar (in northeastern Syria) became the powerful state of Nagar about this time.
    (MT, summer 2003, p.11)

2300BC    Akkadian armies conquered Nagar about this time.
    (MT, summer 2003, p.13)

2291BC-2254BC    Naram-Sin ruled Akkad. He defeated a rebel coalition in Sumer and re-established Akkadian power. He re-conquered Syria, Lebanon, and the Taurus mountains, destroying Aleppo and Mari in the process.  During his reign the Gutians sacked the city of Agade and eventually destroyed all of Sumer (southern Iraq). During his reign Naram-Sin campaigned against the region of Magan (Oman).
    (http://tinyurl.com/ctv5f)

2100BCE    Amorites came from the Arabian peninsula and were the first important Semitic settlers in the area of Damascus. They established many small states.
    (SFEC, 11/21/99, p.A26)

c2000BCE    A palace was built at Qatanah, 12 miles south of Damascus, that was discovered in 1999.
    (SFEC, 11/21/99, p.A6)

1500-1200BCE    The Amorites in the time of Moses came from northeast Syria.
    (MT, Spg. ‘97, p.11)

1468BCE    In Egypt Hatshepsut died and Tuthmosis III, in his early thirties, declared war on the Prince of the Syrian city of Kadesh, who had organized a confederacy in Palestine and Syria. Tuthmosis defeated the Syrians following an 8 month siege of Megiddo.
    (ON, 3/01, p.11)

1294BC-1279BC    Sethi I (Seti I), son of Rammeses I and the father of Rammeses II, ruled during Egypt’s 19th Dynasty. He restored the ancient gods of Egypt, such as Amun-Re, Ptah, Seth, and Osiris. At Abydos he built a splendid temple to Osiris. Sethi claims to have inflicted a victory against the Hittite king, Mursillis II, the successor to Suppililiumas, at the towns of Yenoam and Bethshael. Seti overran Palestine, made peace with the Hittites in Syria, opened mines and quarries, and enlarged the Temple of Amun-Re at Karnak. His tomb was discovered in 1817.
    (NG, 9/98, p.17,19)(AM, 7/01, p.56)(www.crystalinks.com/dynasty18e.html)

c1182BC    Ramessu III beat back a formidable attack by northern countries. An inscription describing this war was engraved on the second pylon of the temple of Medinet Habu. The inscription describes how the northerners were disturbed, and proceeded to move eastward and southward, swamping in turn the land of the Hittites, Carchemish, Arvad, Cyprus, Syria, and other places of the same region. The Hittites and North Syrians had been so crippled by them that Ramessu took the opportunity to extend the frontier of Egyptian territory northward... the twofold ravaging of Syria left it weakened and opened the door for the colonization of its coast-lands by the beaten remnant of the invading army.
    (R.M.-P.H.C.p.23)

738BC    Mittinti, king of Ashkelon revolted, trusting to the support of Rezon of Syria. But the death of Rezon so terrified the king that he fell sick and died. His son Rukipti, who reigned in his stead, hastened to make submission.
    (R.M.-P.H.C.p.63)

734BC    Rezon of Syria, and Pekah of Samaria were in league, whereas Ahaz of Jerusalem had become a vassal of the king of Assyria. The Philistines had attached themselves to the Syrian league, so that Tiglath-Pileser came up with the special purpose of sacking Gaza. Hanunu, the king of Gaza, fled to Sebako, king of Egypt; but he afterwards returned and, having made submission, was received with favor.
    (R.M.-P.H.C.p.63)

732BC        Tiglath-pileser III, an Assyrian, took Damascus and killed Rezin. He then captured many cities of northern Israel and took the people to Assyria. The Egyptian troops had at one time joined forces with Damascus, Israel and some other states to resist Shalmaneser III at Qarqar.
    (www.crystalinks.com/dynasty21.html)

300BC        Dura-Europos, a Greek colony was built on the Euphrates in eastern Syria.
    (SSFC, 6/28/09, p.A8)

300-64BCE    Antioch served as the capital of the kingdom of Syria.
    (WUD, 1994 p.66)

175-164BCE    King Antiochus IV, Seleucid tyrant, ruled Syria.
    (MH, 12/96)(SFC, 12/6/04, p.B2)

170BCE    The rebel Maccabees were able to gain victory in Jerusalem occupied by Antiochus IV During the re-dedication of the temple they stretched a days worth of oil out to 8 days for which the holiday of Hanukkah is celebrated.
    (SFC, 11/27/96, zz1 p.F1)

168BCE    Syria’s Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes ruled over Israel and tried to outlaw Judaism. He tried to Hellenize the Jews by erecting idols. The Jews resisted and began the Maccabean revolt. The Maccabees were successful until internal dissension tore them apart.
    (eawc, p.15)(PC, 1992 ed, p.27)

167BCE    Antiochus IV, the Hellenistic tyrant of what later became called the Middle East, began to increase religious persecution against the Jews in Palestine and outlawed observance of the Torah. This included the circumcision of males, dietary restrictions and observance of the Sabbath. He installed a cult of Zeus in the Temple in Jerusalem. The Jewish priest Mattathias of Modin defied Antiochus, escaped outside Lydda with his 5 sons and began a revolt.
    (WSJ, 12/11/98, p.W15)(PC, 1992 ed, p.27)

165BCE    Jerusalem and sacred temple of Judah were recaptured by the Maccabees. They used guerrilla tactics and elephants as tanks to throw off the tyranny of the Greco-Syrian oppressors. During the cleanup they found one container of the sacred oil used to light the temple's candelabra known as a menorah. They gathered to light the oil which was expected to last only a day, but lasted eight nights. The event was memorialized in the celebration of Hanukkah (rededication), the Feast of Lights. [see 164BCE]
    (SFC,12/10/97, Z1 p.4)(SFC,12/23/97, p.A13)(WSJ, 11/27/98, p.W8)

6-4BCE    Publius Quinctilius Varus served as Roman governor of Syria.
    (http://www.rovenet.com/tno/tacitus%20named%20officials/varus.html)

4BCE        Publius Sulpicius Quirinus served as Roman governor of Cilicia, which was annexed to Syria.
    (www.botcw.com/bible/kjv/easton/east0953.htm)

6CE        Sulpicius Quirinius (Cyrenius), Roman governor of Syria, ordered a 2nd census of Judea.
    (Econ, 1/1/05, p.38)(www.biblehistory.net/volume2/Quirinius.htm)

9CE        Sep 15, Publius Quinctilius Varus, Roman viceroy of Syria, died of suicide at 59.
    (MC, 9/15/01)

19CE        Oct 10, Germanicus, the best loved of Roman princes, died of poisoning. On his deathbed he accused Piso, the governor of Syria, of poisoning him.
    (HN, 10/10/98)

c40CE    Saul of Tarsus, while on the road to Damascus, experienced a profound conversion to Christianity. He became known as St. Paul. In 1997 A.N. Wilson wrote "Paul: The Mind of the Apostle." Wilson argued that Paul was the real founder of the Church of Jesus. Paul was a student of the Jewish scholar Raban Gamliel.
    (CU, 6/87)(SFC, 3/28/97, p.C11)(Internet)

44CE        In Syria the funeral Tower of Ketout was built in Palmyra. It became famed for vivid scenes etched into its walls. In 2015 it was one of three funeral towers blown up by Islamic State militants.
    (AFP, 9/4/15)

83CE        In Syria the funeral Tower of Jambalik was built in Palmyra. In 2015 it was one of three funeral towers blown up by Islamic State militants. and.
    (AFP, 9/4/15)

103        In Syria the four-storey funeral tower of Elahbel was built in Palmyra. In 2015 it was one of three funeral towers blown up by Islamic State militants.
    (Reuters, 9/4/15)

117        Aug 11, The Roman army of Syria hailed its legate, Hadrian, as emperor, which made the senate's formal acceptance an almost meaningless event. One of his first acts was to withdraw Rome’s army from Mesopotamia (modern Iraq).
    (www.roman-emperors.org/hadrian.htm)(Econ, 7/19/08, p.94)

222        Mar 11, Varius A. Bassianus (18), Syrian emperor of Rome (218-22), was murdered.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

235        Mar 18, Marcus Aurelius Alexander, Syrian emperor of Rome (222-235), was murdered.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

266CE        King Odenathus of Palmyra, ruler of the Roman province of Syria, was murdered. Zenobia Septimia, his wife, took control in the name of her teenage son, Vaballathus.
    (ON, 7/00, p.1)

270        Zenobia of Syria proclaimed herself “Queen of the East" and attacked Roman colonies adjoining her and conquered Egypt.
    (ON, 7/00, p.1)

272        Roman emperor Aurelian sent an army to attack Zenobia’s troops in Egypt and was repulsed.
    (ON, 7/00, p.1)

272CE        Queen Zenobia led a failed uprising against the Romans, which left the city of Palmyra partly destroyed. Forces of Emperor Aurelian laid siege on Palmyra, from which Zenobia and a few retainers escaped. They were soon captured by Roman scouts. In 1967 Agnes Carr Vaughn authored “Zenobia of Palmyra." In 1994 Richard Stoneman authored “Palmyra and Its Empire: Zenobia’s Revolt Against Rome."
    (AMNHDT, 11/99)(ON, 7/00, p.3)

359CE        Christians allegedly established a camp in Skythopolis, Syria, to torture and execute pagans from around Europe. This can only be a reference to the Arian Bishop of Scythopolis, Patrophilus, who cruelly abused Christian bishops exiled to his see under Constantius. These included Eusebius of Vercelli. It was not a death-camp, nor did it last 30 years, nor were pagans the victims.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.70)(www.tektonics.org/af/crimeline.htm)

362CE        Jun 17, Emperor Julian issued an edict banning Christians from teaching in Syria.
    (HN, 6/17/98)

410        St. Maroun, founder of the Maronite Christians, died in Cyrrhus region of Syria. The Maronite movement reached Lebanon when St Maroun's first disciple Abraham of Cyrrhus, who was called the Apostle of Lebanon, realized that paganism was thriving in Lebanon, so he set out to convert the pagans to Christians by introducing them to the way of St Maroun.
    (http://www.maroun.org/saint/maroun/life/)

526        May 20, An earthquake killed 250,000 in Antioch, Turkey. This was the capital of Syria from 300-64BCE.  [see May 29]
    (MC, 5/20/02)

526        May 29, A devastating earthquake destroyed the city of Antioch. [see May 20]
    (AM, 11/00, p.69)

540-560    In Syria the monastery of St. Moses the Abyssinian (Deir Mar Musa al-Habashi) was built in the middle of the sixth century, and belonged to the Syrian Antiochian Rite. The site was abandoned after several hundred years, but was revived in the late 1980s by Italian Jesuit Paolo Dall’Oglio.
    (http://tinyurl.com/kudtzxa)(Econ, 8/10/13, p.42)

600-700CE    Calinicus, an engineer from Heliopolis, Syria, is thought to have brought “Greek fire," (flammable petrochemicals) to Constantinople.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.57)

628        Apr 3, In Persia, Kavadh sued for peace with the Byzantines. He handed back Armenia, Byzantine Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and Egypt.
    (HN, 4/3/99)

632-661    The Rashidun Caliphate, also known as the Rightly Guided Caliphate, comprising the first four caliphs in Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death. At its height, the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant, Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and Central Asia in the east. It was the one of the largest empires in history up until that time.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rashidun_Caliphate)

636        Aug 15, At the Battle at Yarmuk, east of the Sea of Galilee, Islamic forces beat a Byzantine army and gained control of Syria.
    (PC, 1992, p.61)

661        The Umayyad regime was founded by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan (602-680, long-time governor of Syria, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umayyad_Caliphate)
661        Muawija became caliph. He moved the capital from Medina to Damascus. His followers were called the Umayyads. Muawija was one of the soldiers who helped capture Damascus and for 25 years he had served as governor of Syria. Muawija began the practice of appointing his own son as the next caliph, and so the Umayyads ruled for the next 90 years. Muslim forces expanded into North Africa and completely conquered Persia. The Islamic Empire continued to expand into Afghanistan and Pakistan. After the Omayyad Caliphs conquered Damascus, they build the palace at Qasr Al-Kharaneh (in Jordan) as a recreational lodge.
    (ATC, p.67,78)(SFEC, 4/11/99, p.9)

686        Aug 2, John V, 1st Greek-Syrian Pope (685-86), died.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

697        The first Arab Islamic currency was struck in Damascus by the Umayyad ruler Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (697-698 A.D.)
    (http://tinyurl.com/6c6dlco)

701        Sep 8, Sergius I, Syrian and Italian Pope (687-701), died.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

705        Oct 8, Abd al-Malik, caliph of Damascus, died.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

744        Apr 17, Caliph Walid II was killed, at Al-Aghdaf in modern Jordan, after allegations he had organized drinking parties in Mecca. The Umayyad caliph had begun his rule in ruled in 743.
    (Econ, 12/19/15, p.67)

c800-900    The Alawi faith was founded by a 9th century Muslim, who declared himself the “gateway" to the divine truth and abandoned Islam.
    (WSJ, 6/12/00, p.A30)

803        Harun al-Rashid (~763-809), the fifth Abbasid Caliph and the last to make Raqqa his capital, had his most loyal adviser cut into three pieces.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harun_al-Rashid)(Econ, 3/25/17, p.40)

1058        Al-Ma’arri (b.973), a blind Syrian philosopher, poet and writer, died. He attacked the dogmas of religion and rejected the claim that Islam or any other religion possessed the truths they claimed.
    (Econ, 7/13/13, SR p.13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Ma%CA%BFarri)

1098        Dec 12, The 1st Crusaders captured and plundered Mara, Syria.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1099        Jan 13, Crusaders set fire to Mara, Syria.
    (MC, 1/13/02)

1110        Dec 4, Syria harbor city of Saida (Sidon) surrendered to the Crusaders.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1124        May 6, Balak, Emir of Aleppo (Syria), was murdered.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1126        Nov 26, Al-Borsoki, emir of Aleppo-Mosoel (Syria), was assassinated.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1133-1193    Rashid Al-Din Sinan, also known as "The Old Man of the Mountain," was a leader of the Assassins. He used the Syrian Masyaf castle as a base for spreading the beliefs of the Nizari Ismaili sect of Islam to which he and his followers belonged.
    (www.iis.ac.uk/view_article.asp?ContentID=104843)(Reuters, 7/13/07)

1144        In Syria the Knights Hospitallers began expanding a fortress 90 miles northwest of Damascus. It became known as The Crac des Chevaliers. The Mamelukes captured it in 1271 and converted the chapel into a mosque.
    (WSJ, 1/31/09, p.W12)

1148        Jul 24, Crusaders, led by Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, attacked Damascus. It was a dismal failure and effectively ended the 2nd Crusade.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Crusade)(V.D.-H.K.p.109)(ON, 6/12, p.5)

1174        Nureddin, the ruler of Syria died. Saladin, the vizier of Egypt, married Nureddin’s widow and assumed control of both state. The Ayyubids under Saladin spent the next decade launching conquests throughout the region and by 1183, the territories under their control included Egypt, Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Hejaz, Yemen, and the North African coast up to the borders of modern-day Tunisia.
    (ON, 6/07, p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ayyubid_dynasty)

1176        May 22, There was a murder attempt by "Assassins" (hashish-smoking mountain killers) on Saladin near Aleppo.
    (MC, 5/22/02)

1185        Arab traveler Ibn Jubayr (1145-1217) returned to Granada after travelling to Medina, Mecca Damascus, Mosul, Acre and Baghdad at Basra he saw how Indian timber was carefully used to make Lateen sail ships, returning in 1185 by way of Sicily. His path was not without troubles, including a shipwreck. On both occasions he travelled on Genoese ships.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Jubayr)

1187        Jul 4, In the Battle of Hittin (Tiberias) Saladin defeated Reynaud of Chatillon. Salah al Din, who ruled from his imperial seat in ancient Syria, defeated Christian armies of the Crusaders and forced their retreat from the Holy Land. The battle was depicted in a mosaic that was found and restored for the palace of Pres, Hafez Assad of Syria. Saladin personally executed Crusader Reynaud of Chatillon (b.1124/5). Reynaud of Chatillon, Lord of Kerak, Jordan, had violated twice violated a tenuous truce and earlier this year attacked a caravan of pilgrims returning from Mecca.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raynald_of_Chatillon)(WSJ, 9/30/96, p.A1)(Econ, 5/30/09, p.24)

1193        Mar 3, Saladin [Salah ed-Din]) Yusuf ibn Ayyub (52), sultan of Egypt and Syria (1175-1193), died.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1261)(SC, 3/3/02)

1201        Jul 5, An earthquake in Syria and upper Egypt killed some 1.1 million people.
    (www.geohaz.org/member/news/signif.htm)

1218        Aug 31, Al-Malik ab-Adil, Saphadin, Saif al-Din, brother of Saladin, died.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1260        Mar 1, Hulagu Khan, grandson of Genghis, conquered Damascus.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1271        The Mamelukes under Sultan Baibars captured The Crac des Chevaliers in Syria and converted the chapel into a mosque. It had been held by the Knights Hospitallers since 1144.
    (WSJ, 1/31/09, p.W12)(SSFC, 11/1/09, p.M5)

1328        Sep 26, Taqi ad-Din Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah (b.1263), a Sunni Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, died. He lived in Damascus during the troubled times of the Mongol invasions. As a member of the school founded by Ibn Hanbal, he sought the return of Islam to its sources: the Qur'an and the Sunnah. He had adopted the notion of takfir, denouncing as apostates Muslims whom he deemed wayward, a crime punishable by death.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Taymiyyah)(Econ, 7/14/07, p.30)(Econ, 7/25/15, p.69) (http://tinyurl.com/pfxhrq3)

c1400-1500    A Damascus cookbook titled “Kitab al-Tibakha" included a recipe that said “brown noodles in the oven and cook them with rice." The SF treat Rice-A-Roni began using the same basic recipe in 1958.
    (SFC, 11/25/98, Z1 p.5)

1492        Jews began arriving in Morocco, Syria and elsewhere in the Arab world after their expulsion from Spain.
    (SFEC, 7/25/99, p.T11)(SSFC, 6/28/09, p.A8)

1496        Mar 12, Jews were expelled from Syria.
    (HN, 3/12/98)

1497        Jan 6, Jews were expelled from Graz, Syria. [see Mar 12, 1496]
    (MC, 1/6/02)

1516        Aug 24, At the Battle of Marj Dabik, north of Aleppo, the Turks beat Syria. Suliman I (Selim the Grim), the Ottoman Sultan, routed the Mamelukes (Egypt) with the support of artillery capturing Aleppo and Damascus. This opened the way to 400 years of Ottoman Turkish rule over most of the Arab world.
    (PC, 1992, p.169)(Econ, 11/14/09, p.101)

1516        The Ottomans made Aleppo their second city following its seizure.
    (Econ, 10/1/16, p.46)

1799        Feb 10, Napoleon Bonaparte left Cairo, Egypt, for Syria, at the head of 13,000 men.
    (AP, 2/10/99)

1837        Jan 22, An earthquake in southern Syria killed thousands.
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1840        Feb 5, In Damascus, Syria, Father Thomas, originally from Sardinia, and the superior of a Franciscan convent at Damascus, disappeared with his servant. 13 prominent Jews were falsely accused of the ritual murder of the Franciscan monk and his servant. The “Damascus Affair" inspired international protests. In 2004 Ronald Florence authored “Blood Libel: The Damascus Affair of 1840."
    (SSFC, 6/28/09, p.A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Damascus_affair)

1860        Jul, Fighting in Lebanon spilled over into Damascus. With the connivance of the military authorities and Turkish soldiers, Muslim fanatics organized pogroms which lasted three days (July 9-11). 25,000 Christians were killed including the American and Dutch consuls. Churches and missionary schools were set on fire. Many Christians were saved through the intervention of the Muslim Algerian exile Abd al-Qadir and his soldiers.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1860_Lebanon_conflict)

1860        France sent 5,000 troops to Syria to stop the massacre of Maronite Christians at the hands of the Druze, which the Ottoman authorities were neither willing nor able to stop.
    (SFC, 9/7/08, Books p.5)

1876        Aug 19, George Smith (b.1840), British Assyriologist, died of dysentery in Syria. He was on his way home from a 3rd trip to Mesopotamia. Smith had completed the translation of the complete Epic of Gilgamesh in 1874.
    (ON, 11/07, p.6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Smith_(assyriologist))

1883        May 20, Faisal ibn Husayn (d.1933), the 3rd son of the grand sherif of Mecca, was born in Mecca. He later became 1st king of Syria (1920) and Iraq (1921).
    (www.wordiq.com/definition/Faisal_I_of_Iraq)

1915        Aug 29, Syriac Catholic bishop Flavien Michel Melki (b.1858) and his Chaldean counterpart, Monsignor Philippe-Jacques Abraham, were murdered in Cizre by Ottoman forces for refusing to renounce Christianity. In 2015 Melki was officially recognized as a "martyr" of the Catholic church and beatified by Pope Francis.
    (https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flavien_Michel_Melki)(AP, 8/30/15)   

1916          May 9, The Sykes-Picot Agreement, a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France, defined their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East. It was signed on 16 May 1916. Italian claims were added in 1917. Britain and France carved up the Levant into an assortment of monarchies, mandates and emirates. The agreement enshrined Anglo-French imperialist ambitions at the end of WW II. Syria and Lebanon were put into the French orbit, while Britain claimed Jordan, Iraq, the Gulf states and the Palestinian Mandate. Sir Mark Sykes (d.1919 at age 39) and Francois Picot made the deal. As of 2016 the boundaries of the agreement remained in much of the common border between Syria and Iraq.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sykes%E2%80%93Picot_Agreement)(WSJ, 2/27/00, p.A17)(Econ, 5/14/16, SR p.5)

1918        Oct 1, Damascus (Syria) fell to Arab forces as Turkish Ottoman officials surrendered the city.
    (ON, 10/05, p.9)(AP, 10/1/08)

1918        Arab Prince Faisal (1885-1933), aka Feisal, took control of Syria.
    (ON, 10/05, p.9)(Econ, 2/8/14, p.79)

1919        Aug 28, The American King-Crane Commission presented its report and recommendations to the allies on the status of Syria, Iraq, and Palestine. The report recommended that Jewish immigration should be definitely limited, and that the project for making Palestine distinctly a Jewish commonwealth should be given up. It also recommended the creation of a single Arab state - "Greater Syria"- that included Lebanon and Palestine and would have been administered under American mandatory power.
    (http://tinyurl.com/z4rnwf4)

1920        Mar, Faisal I ibn Hussein ibn Ali became the 1st king Syria.
    (www.wordiq.com/definition/Faisal)   

1920        Jul 23, King Faisal's Arab Army was defeated at Maysaloun and Syria fell effectively under French.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1920        The French carved Lebanon out of Syria to create a predominantly Christian country. A constitution was drawn up that required the president to be a Maronite Christian, the prime minister a Sunni Muslim, and the speaker of parliament a Shiite.
    (SFC, 9/28/98, p.A10)

1920-1946    Syria was a French-mandated territory.
    (SFC, 7/18/98, p.A11)

1921        Mar 12, The Cairo Conference, called by Winston Churchill, convened to establish a unified British policy in the Middle East. Britain and France carved up Arabia and created Jordan under Emir Abdullah; his brother Faisal became King of Iraq. France was given influence over Syria and Jewish immigration was allowed into Palestine.  Faisal I died one year after independence and his son, Ghazi I succeeded him. Colonial Sec. Winston Churchill wanted to keep an air corridor to Iraq, where the Royal Air Force was dropping poison gas on rebellious Arab tribes.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cairo_Conference_%281921%29)(SSFC, 10/14/01, p.D3)(Econ, 7/13/13, SR p.5)

1923        Jul 24, The Treaty of Lausanne, which settled the boundaries of modern Greece and Turkey, was concluded in Switzerland. It replaced the Treaty of Sevres and divided the lands inhabited by the Kurds between Turkey, Iraq and Syria. Article 39 allowed Turkish nationals to use any language they wished in commerce, public and private meetings, and publications. The treaty specifically protected the rights of the Armenian, Greek and Jewish communities. The former provinces of Baghdad, Basra and Mosul were lumped together to form Iraq. Both countries agreed to a massive exchange of religious minorities. Christians were deported from Turkey to Greece and Muslims from Greece to Turkey. A Muslim community of at least 100,000 was allowed in northern Greece. In 2006 Bruce Clark authored “Twice a Stranger: The Mass Expulsions that Forged Modern Greece and Turkey."
    (WSJ, 3/20/97, p.A17)(AP, 7/24/97)(SSFC, 12/22/02, p.A14)(Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.9)(Econ, 10/14/06, p.50)(Econ, 12/9/06, p.92)(Econ, 10/16/10, p.72)

1924        Mar 3, Kemal Ataturk forced the abolition of the Muslim caliphate through the protesting assembly and banned all Kurdish schools, publications and associations. This ended the Ottoman Empire and created the modern Middle East, though Iraq, Jordan, Syria and Saudi Arabia were still colonies of Britain and France.
    (WSJ, 2/11/99, p.A24)(SSFC, 10/14/01, p.A3)

1925        The Great Syrian Revolt, aka the Great Druze Revolt, was aimed against the French occupation in place since 1918. It was put down by the French by 1927.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Syrian_Revolt)(Econ, 7/11/15, p.73)

1926        May 19, French air force bombed Damascus, Syria. The French launched a major military campaign in Syria to suppress a revolt by the Druze, which began in 1925 under the leadership of Sultan al-Atrash. A large French force sent against them was defeated and the revolt spread into the Druze portions of Lebanon. When the insurgents gained a foothold in Damascus, the French bombarded the city.
    (HNQ, 5/25/99)(MC, 5/19/02)

1930        Oct 6, Hafez Assad, president from 1970-2000, was born. This was the official date but research indicated that he was born several years earlier. The family’s official name had been changed from Wahsh (wild beast or monster) to Assad (lion).
    (WSJ, 6/12/00, p.A30)

1930        Ali Ahmed Said, poet later known as Adonis, was born in Syria. He became a naturalized Lebanese citizen in 1960. His work included the 1970’s poem “The Funeral of New York," and the book “Transformations of the Lover" (1984).
    (SSFC, 9/30/01, DB p.63)

1937        The Alawite state, created under a French mandate, was incorporated into modern-day Syria. Under the French mandate, the Alawites had been granted an autonomous territory stretching in a band along the coast from the Lebanese border to the Turkish border.
    (AP, 7/25/12)

1941        Nov 26, Free French General Georges Catroux was placed in control of Syria and Lebanon. Shortly after taking up this post, Catroux recognized the independence of Syria and Lebanon in the name of the Free French movement.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syria-Lebanon_campaign)

1943        Aug 18, Shukri Kouatly was elected president of Syria.
    (http://tinyurl.com/m6qhfyp)

1945        Feb 26, Syria declared war on Germany and Japan. [see Mar 26]
    (HN, 2/26/98)

1945        Mar 26, Syria declared war on Germany. [see Feb 26]
    (HN, 3/25/98)

1945        Oct 20, Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Lebanon formed the Arab League to present a unified front against the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine.
    (HN, 10/20/98)

1946        Apr 12, Syria gained independence from France.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1946        Apr 17, The last French troops left Syria.
    (HN, 4/17/98)

1946        The Muslim Brotherhood, founded in Egypt in 1928 by Hasan al-Banna (d.1949), opened a branch in Syria. Branches soon began spreading across the globe.
    (WSJ, 12/8/95, p.A-8)(WSJ, 9/21/01, p.A16)(WSJ, 9/7/04, p.A20)(Econ, 6/4/05, p.44)

1947        Dec 2, A Syrian mob burned a synagogue where the Aleppo Codex was hidden. This followed a UN resolution calling for the creation of Arab and Jewish states in Palestine Nearly two-thirds of the pages were retrieved by congregant, Mourad Faham. But 196 pages vanished, including books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Ecclesiastes, Lamentations, Esther, Daniel, Ezra and Nehemiah, as well as pages from other books.
    (AP, 9/27/08)(SSFC, 6/28/09, p.A8)

1947        The Syrian Baath Party was created and Hafez Assad became a member.
    (WSJ, 6/12/00, p.A30)

1948        May 15, Hours after declaring its independence, the new state of Israel was attacked by Transjordan, Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Lebanon.
    (AP, 5/15/97)

1948        May 20, Israel made the 1st use of its Air Force and claimed its 1st war victory with the defeat of the Syrian army.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1949        Mar, In Syria a group of army officers staged a coup against elected Pres. Shukri Kouatly.
    (Econ, 7/13/13, SR p.5)

1949        Jul 20, Israel's 19 month war of independence ended with a ceasefire agreement with Syria.
    (www.wikipedia.org)

1949        Aug 5, A bomb exploded at a synagogue in Damascus, Syria, killing 12 people.
    (SSFC, 6/28/09, p.A8)(http://tinyurl.com/loxc6n)

1954        A French military court sentenced Alois Brunner to death in absentia for war crimes. He had sent 23,000 French Jews to death camps. Brunner fled from Germany to Syria.
    (SFC, 3/3/01, p.A10)

1955        Dec 11, Israel launched an attack on Syrian positions along the Sea of Galilee.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1241)(HN, 12/11/98)

1957        In Syria the Yarmouk Palestinian camp was created. It became the larges of 9 and evolved into a densely populated residential district just five miles (eight km) from the center of Damascus.
    (AP, 1/8/13)

1958        Feb 1, Syria and Egypt formed the United Arab Republic. Most Syrians resented the merger, which was led by the radical Baath (Arab Socialist Resurrection) party. The union of Syria and Egypt was dissolved in 1961 following a coup in Syria. Egypt kept the name United Arab Republic until 1971.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1555)(HNQ, 6/5/98)(AP, 2/1/08)

1958        Feb 5, Gamel Abdel Nasser was formally nominated to become the first president of the new United Arab Republic. Egypt used the UAR name from 1961-1971.
    (AP, 2/5/97)(WUD, 1994, p.1555)

1958        Feb 21, Egypt-Syria as UAR elected Gamel Nasser president with a 99.9% vote.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1961        Syria withdrew from the UAR following a coup.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1555)(HNQ, 6/5/98)

1961        Syria revoked the citizenship of its native Kurds.
    (Econ, 4/23/05, p.46)(http://tinyurl.com/7zamn)

1962        Jun 23, The Syrian government conducted a special population census only for the province of Jazira which was predominantly Kurdish. As a result, around 120,000 Kurds in Jazira were arbitrarily categorized as aliens.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurds_in_Syria)

1963        Mar, In Syria the pan-Arab Baath party staged a coup. Hafez Assad played an important role. Amin Hafez 1920-2009) was brought to power by the military coup only to be overthrown three years later.
    (WSJ, 6/12/00, p.A30)(SSFC, 5/4/03, p.A11)(AP, 12/18/09)

1963        The Muslim Brotherhood was banned in Syria following the Baath party coup.
    (Econ, 2/18/12, p.50)

1964        Dec 31, Syrian-based al-Fatah guerrillas of Yasser Arafat launched their 1st raid on Israel with the aim of provoking a retaliation and sparking an Arab war against Israel. Fatah, a Palestinian movement for independence, made the first terror attack on Israel and initiated the armed struggle for a state.
    (WSJ, 1/22/98, p.A1)(SFEC, 1/2/00, p.A24)(WSJ, 6/5/02, p.D7)

1965        May 18, Eli Cohen, who arrived in Syria in 1962, was hanged in a public square in Damascus for spying for Israel until his capture. As businessman Kamal Amin Thabit he worked his way into the upper echelons of Syrian government and society, feeding Israel with valuable political and military intelligence.
    (AP, 5/30/10)

1965        Hafez al-Assad became Syria's defense minister. He was a member of the Alawite clan, an offshoot of Shiite Islam. Nearly 80% of Syrians are Sunnis.
    (WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-1)
1965        The Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA), a state media organization linked to the Ministry of Information, was established.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Arab_News_Agency)

1966        Feb, The Alawis took power and presented themselves as standard Muslims. Hafez Assad, a member of the Alawite clan, was rewarded for his role and appointment as Defense Minister. Nearly 80% of Syrians are Sunnis.
    (WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-1)(WSJ, 6/12/00, p.A30)

1966        Mar 1, The Baath-party took power in Syria. Among the fighters who had a part in toppling Amin Hafez was Hafez Assad, who became president four years later and ruled Syria with an iron fist for three decades.
    (SC, 3/1/02)(AP, 12/18/09)

1967        Apr 7, A, Israeli-Syrian minor border incident escalated into a full-scale aerial battle over the Golan Heights, resulting in the loss of six Syrian MiG-21s to Israeli Air Force (IAF) Dassault Mirage IIIs, and the latter's flight over Damascus.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six-Day_War)

1967        Jun 5, The Six Day War erupted in the Middle East as Israel, convinced an Arab attack was imminent, raided Egyptian military targets. Syria, Jordan and Iraq entered the conflict. Jordan lost the West Bank, an area of 2,270 sq. miles. War broke out as Israel reacted to the removal of UN peace-keeping troops, Arab troop movements and the barring of Israeli ships in the Gulf of Aqaba. Israel destroyed Egypt’s air force on the ground and knocked out the planes of Jordan, Iraq and Syria.
    (AP, 6/5/97)(HN, 6/5/98)(NG, 5/93, p.58)(HNQ, 5/22/00)(Econ 5/20/17, SR p.3)
1967        Jun 5-1967 Jun 10, Israel fought the Six-Day War against Syria and captured the Golan Heights, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Allegations that Israeli soldiers killed hundreds of Egyptian prisoners with the knowledge of national leaders were made by Israeli historians in 1995. Israel occupied Syrian territory. The Gaza Strip and the West Bank were captured by Israel. Israel annexed the largely Arab East Jerusalem, which included the Old City, and has since ringed it with Jewish neighborhoods.
    (WSJ, 8/17/95, p.A-1)(WSJ,11/24/95, p.A-1)(WSJ, 5/6/96, p.A-13)(SFC, 6/25/96, p.A10)(SFC, 1/22/98, p.B12)(SFC, 4/24/98, p.A17)

1967        Jun 9, Israel completed its final offensive in the Golan Heights in the 6-Day Middle East War.
    (Econ 5/20/17, SR p.3)

1967        Jun 10, Israel and Syria agreed to observe a United Nations-mediated cease-fire. Israel took Gaza and the Sinai from Egypt, Old Jerusalem and the West Bank from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria. In 2002 Michael B. Oren authored "Six Days of War: June 1967 and the making of the Modern Middle East." Israeli military historian Arieh Yitzhaki later said that his research showed Israeli troops killed 300 Egyptian prisoners of war. Israel said soldiers on both sides committed atrocities. In 2007 Tom Segev authored “1967: Israel, the War and the Year that Transformed the Middle East."
    {Israel, Palestine, Syria, Egypt}
    (AP, 6/10/97)(WSJ, 6/5/02, p.D7)(AP, 3/6/07)(Econ, 5/26/07, p.97)

1968        Hafez Assad was appointed as Field Marshal.
    (WSJ, 6/12/00, p.A30)

1969        Feb, Gen. Hafez al-Assad became head of Syria.
    (http://i-cias.com/e.o/assad_hafiz.htm)

1970        Nov 12, Hafez al-Assad (1930-2000), Syrian defense minister, had his opponents arrested and took full control of Syria.
    (http://lexicorient.com/e.o/assad_hafiz.htm)

1970        Nov 27, Syria joined the pact linking Libya, Egypt and Sudan.
    (HN, 11/27/98)

1971        Jul 13-1971 Jul 19, Jordanian troops proceeded to wipe out Palestinian guerrillas; some 1,500 prisoners were brought to Amman; Iraq and Syria soon broke off relations with Jordan.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(www.onwar.com/aced/data/bravo/blacksept1970.htm)

1971        Aug 12, Syrian Pres Assad dropped diplomatic relations with Jordan.
    (www.answers.com/topic/1971)

1971        Syria allowed Russia to establish its only naval facility in the Mediterranean.
    (Econ., 4/18/15, p.42)

1973        Sep 13, Israel shot down 12 Syrian aircraft to1 Israeli loss when IAF jets were attacked during a reconnaissance mission over Syrian territory.
    (www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/intel73.html)

1973        Oct 6, The fourth Arab-Israeli war in 25 years was fought. Israel was taken by surprise when Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Jordan attacked on the Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur, beginning the Yom Kippur War. Syria tried to regain the Golan Heights with a massive attack with 1,500 tanks. The assault, empowered by Russian equipment, was repulsed by air power.
    (WSJ, 5/6/96, p.A-13)(TMC, 1994, p.1973)(AP, 10/6/97)(HN, 10/6/98)(Econ, 3/16/13, p.54)

1973        Oct 16, OPEC, the Arab oil-producing nations, announced they would begin cutting back on oil exports to Western nations and Japan. The next day, the five Arab members of the OPEC committee were joined in Kuwait by the oil ministers of Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Libya, and Syria. The result was a total embargo that lasted until March 1974 and caused oil prices to quadruple.
    (www.harvardir.org/articles/1659/)(AP, 10/17/97)(WSJ, 7/28/03, p.A8)

1973        Oct 22, Israeli troops reconquered Mount Hermon from Syria. The UN Security Council Resolution 338 called for a cease fire to the Yom Kippur War. The UN Security Council issued Resolution 338 calling for a ceasefire and the start of negotiations aimed at implementation of Resolution 242.
    (http://tinyurl.com/5m3oom)(http://tinyurl.com/4s8kua)

1973        Oct 23, In the Yom Kippur War Syria announced it had accepted a UN sanctioned cease-fire, and the Iraqi government ordered its forces home.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yom_Kippur_War)

1973        Oct 24, The UNSC passed Resolution 339, serving as a renewed call for all parties to adhere to the cease fire terms established in Resolution 338. Organized fighting on all fronts ended by October 26.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yom_Kippur_War)

1973        Dec 21, Israel, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, US and USSR leaders met in Geneva. The Geneva Conference of 1973 was an attempt to negotiate a solution to the Arab-Israeli conflict as called for in UN Security Council Resolution 338 which was passed after the 1973 Arab-Israeli War.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geneva_Conference_(1973))

1973        Syria acquired chemical weapons from Egypt just before war with Israel.
    (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.A11)

1973        Canadian Judy Feld Carr established a network to help Syrian Jews, barred from traveling, to leave the country clandestinely. Over the next 28 years she helped over 3,000 Jews leave Syria.
    (SSFC, 6/28/09, p.A8)

1974        May 31, Israel and Syria signed an agreement on the Golan Heights.
    (HN, 5/31/98)

1974        Quneitra, a city in the Golan Heights destroyed by Israel, was returned to Syria. It was preserved by Syria as an example of Israeli brutality.
    (SSFC, 5/6/01, p.A14)

1974        Haitham Naal, a communist dissident, was convicted for his affiliation with the Arab Communist Organization. 5 members were sentenced to death and executed. Naal was freed in 2002 due to deteriorating health.
    (SFC, 8/12/02, p.A8)

1976        Aug 12, Syrian backed Christian militias completed their siege of the Tell al-Za'tar Palestinian camp in Lebanon leaving some 2000 people killed.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tel_al-Zaatar_massacre)

1976        Nov 15, A Syrian peace force took control of Beirut, Lebanon. The Arab League gave Syria a peacekeeping mandate.
    (HN, 11/15/98)(SFC, 4/27/05, p.A8)

1976        Nov 21, Syrian army completed its final phase of occupation of Lebanon.
    (AP, 11/21/02)

1976        The film “The Message" by Syrian-American producer Moustapha Akkad (d.2005) told the story the Prophet Mohammad and the emergence of Islam.
    (SFC, 11/24/05, p.E2)

1977        Mar 16, In Lebanon Kamal Jumblatt (60) was killed. He was the leader of Lebanon’s Druze community, a member of the Lebanese Parliament and a Socialist-nationalist supporter of Palestinians. Jumblatt was assassinated by the Syrian Social Nationalist Party, which he had legalized as interior minister some years earlier.
    (Econ, 11/28/09, p.49)(http://tinyurl.com/yzgycku)

1977        Nov 19, The Libyan flag was adopted, after Libya left the Federation of Arabs Republic, which consisted of Libya, Egypt and Syria.
    (www.worldflags101.com/l/libya-flag.aspx)

1978        Oct 2, Syrian troops pounded Christian districts of Beirut with heavy artillery and rocket fire early today, and right-wing officials said Lebanese militias were fighting back with every weapon they had.
    (http://archive.gulfnews.com/indepth/30thyear/onthisday/10157571.html)

1979        Jun 16, In Aleppo, Syria, Captain Ibrahim el-Yousuf, the officer on duty (in charge of moral and political steering and head of Ba’ath Party Unit) at the Military Artillery school, committed a massacre, killing 32 cadets and wounding 54 others. The culprits targeted cadets from the Alawite sect, however the then minister of information Mr. Ahmad Iskander Ahmad stated that they included Christians and Sunni Muslims. Immediately after the massacre, a country-wide campaign was started to uproot the Muslim Brotherhood organization.
    (www.shrc.org.uk/data/aspx/d5/315.aspx)

1980        Feb 4, Syria withdrew its peacekeeping force in Beirut.
    (HN, 2/4/99)

1980        Jun 26, In Syria there was an assassination attempt by the Muslim Brotherhood on Pres. Assad. Syrian security forces retaliated by killing hundreds of Islamist inmates at the Tadmur prison. The Syrian public did not find out about this until January 1981.
    (http://tinyurl.com/5u5jw7)(Econ, 5/30/15, p.82)

1980        Aug, Iraq and Syria broke diplomatic ties after Damascus sided with Iran just before the Iran-Iraq war.
    (SFC, 2/28/00, p.C2)

1980        Abdullah Ocalan (b.1948), leader of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) crossed the border to Syria just before the September 12 Turkish military coup.
    (WSJ, 3/7/97, p.A10)(SFC, 1/6/99, p.A7)
1980        In Syria membership in the Muslim Brotherhood became punishable by death.
    (Econ, 2/18/12, p.50)
1980        In Syria a rebellion against President Hafez al-Assad in Jisr al-Shughour, a town of 50,000, was crushed with scores of deaths.
    (Reuters, 4/25/15)

1981        Apr 2, Heavy battle took place between Christian militia and Syrian army in East Lebanon. Casualties and injuries were in the hundreds.
    (www.2la.org/lebanon/ee/terrorlb.htm)

1981        The film “Lion in the Desert" by Syrian-American producer Moustapha Akkad (d.2005) told the story of Omar Mukhtar, hero of the Libyan resistance to Italian colonization during the Mussolini era.
    (SFC, 11/24/05, p.E2)

1982        Feb 2, Pres. Hafez Assad ordered the Syrian army under his brother, Rifaat Assad, to crush a fundamentalist Muslim revolt in Hama. As many as 25,000 people were killed. The Muslim Brotherhood played a role in the crushed uprising.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hama_Massacre)(Econ, 10/27/07, p.33)(Econ, 2/18/12, p.50)(Econ, 12/17/16, p.41)

1982        Jun 9, Israel wiped out Syrian SAM missiles in Bekaa Valley.
    (www.adl.org/ISRAEL/Record/lebanon.asp)

1983        Nov 25, Syria and Saudi Arabia announced a cease-fire in PLO civil war in Tripoli.
    (www.defense-update.com/2005/02/arafats-dissidents-challenge-to-abu.html)

1983        Nov, Hafez Assad, president of Syria, suffered a heart attack and his brother Rifat (b.1937) tried to take power by moving tanks against other Alawite chieftains. Hafez Assad recovered and stripped Rifat of power.
    (SFC, 6/13/00, p.A10)(www.meib.org/articles/0006_sd.htm)

1983        Dec 4, US jet fighters struck Syrian anti-aircraft positions in Lebanon in retaliation for Syrian-backed attacks on the US peacekeeping force. The Syrian anti-air defense shut down two American airplanes and a pilot was captured. The positions of the Marines at the Beirut International Airport were bombarded. Eight Marines were killed.
    (http://tinyurl.com/35ek6z)(SFC, 4/27/05, p.A8)

1984        Mar, Hafez Assad, president of Syria, appointed his brother Rifaat as one of Syria's three Vice-presidents (a relatively powerless position) and issued a decree transferring his command of the Defense Companies to another military officer.
    (www.meib.org/articles/0006_sd.htm)

1984        May, Hafez Assad, president of Syria, sent his brother Rifaat on a working visit to the USSR and ousted Rifaat’s associates at home. Rifaat moved to Geneva and began conspiring against the regime, reportedly meeting with Yasser Arafat, his brother's arch enemy at the time. Rifaat spent most of his time in France, Switzerland and Spain, though he retained the nominal position of vice-president until February 1998. He returned to Syria in 1992 following the death of his mother and stayed there off and on until 1998, when he again went into exile.
    (www.meib.org/articles/0006_sd.htm)

1984        Syria began the production of nerve gas.
    (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.A11)

1985        Aug, Syrian Sedki al-Maket was arrested for resisting the Israeli occupation of the Golan Heights. He served a 27 year prison sentence and in 2012 returned to his home town.
    (AFP, 8/22/12)

1985        Dec 28, A Syrian sponsored peace agreement was signed in Damascus between warring Lebanese Moslem and Christian leaders.
    (www.lebanese-forces.org/lebanon/agreements/damascus85.htm)

1985        Syria began manufacturing chemical warheads for missiles.
    (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.A11)

1987        Syria sent troops into West Beirut to enforce a cease-fire.
    (SFC, 4/27/05, p.A8)

1988        Patrick Seale (d.2014), British journalist and writer on Middle Eastern affairs authored a biography of Syrian President Hafez Assad, "Assad of Syria: The Struggle for the Middle East" (1988).
    (AP, 4/14/14)

1989        Nov, Turkey’s Pres. Turgut Ozal (1927-1993) alarmed Syria and Iraq when he announced that the flow of the Euphrates River would be held back for a month to fill the Ataturk dam. Flow was increased for 2 months before the cutback to offset the loss.
    (NG, 5/93, p.49)(http://tinyurl.com/2mmycb)

1989        Rafik Hariri financed a gathering of Lebanese politicians at the Saudi city of Taif to hammer out a deal to disband militias and distribute power more equitably. The Taif Agreement maintained sectarian divisions in government and led to the end of the civil war. It stipulated that Syria withdraw its troops to the border and leave within 2 years.
    (SFC, 9/28/98, p.A10)(SFC, 4/4/02, p.A13)(Econ, 2/19/05, p.43)

1989        In Lebanon PM Michel Aoun waged a “war of liberation" against Syrian forces. Pro-Syrian legislator Elias Hrawi was elected president.
    (SFC, 4/27/05, p.A8)

1990        Oct 13, In Lebanon, rebel Christian General Michel Aoun ended his mutiny against the government. Syrian forces defeated the army under Aoun. Jihad Georges Eid (20) a soldier in the Lebanese army, was taken from Lebanon by Syrian troops on the day of the last battle in the civil war. For the next 20 plus years, more than 600 families, Lebanese and Palestinian, Muslim and Christian, demanded authorities reveal the fate of thousands of political prisoners believed to have disappeared at the hands of Syrian troops.
    (AP, 10/13/00)(SFC, 4/27/05, p.A8)(AFP, 10/13/11)

1991        May 12, Syrian President Hafez Assad, meeting with US Secretary of State James A. Baker the Third, refused to yield on key demands for joining a Middle East peace conference.
    (AP, 5/12/01)

1991        Jul 20, Lebanon joined Syria in agreeing to participate in Mideast peace talks with Israel.
    (AP, 7/20/01)

1991        Nov 3, Syria opened its first one-on-one meeting with Israel in 43 years.
    (AP, 11/3/01)

1991        In Lebanon Pres. Hrawi signed the “Treaty of Brotherhood, Cooperation and Coordination" with Syrian Pres. Hafez Assad. It formalized the intervention of Syria.
    (SFC, 6/2/00, p.A16)(SFC, 4/27/05, p.A8)

1991        The government passed legislation known as Law No. 10 to facilitate private investment.
    (WSJ, 6/19/00, p.A25)

1991        Akram Ojjeh, Syrian-born financier and art collector, died at age 68. He made his fortune as an arms dealer and investments in oil, hotels, and real estate.
    (WSJ, 9/3/99, p.W10)

1992        Syria’s Pres. Assad allowed many Syrian Jews to travel abroad freely after nearly 45 years of official prohibition from leaving the country.
    (SSFC, 6/28/09, p.A8)

1993        The president's son, Basel, died in a car crash.
    (WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-1)

1994        Jan 16, President Clinton held marathon talks in Geneva with Syrian President Hafez Assad, who offered Israel "normal, peaceful relations" in exchange for land.
    (AP, 1/16/99)

1994        Jan 21, Basil Assad (b.1961), the son of Syria’s Pres. Hafez Assad, was killed in a car accident.
    (SFEC, 6/11/00, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basil_al-Assad)

1994        Oct 27, In the first trip to Syria by an American president in 20 years, Pres. Clinton met with Syrian President Hafez Assad before heading to Jerusalem to meet with Israeli officials.
    (AP, 10/27/99)

1996        May 27, The latest of a series of explosions left a small crater outside the walls of the Old City of Damascus.
    (SFC, 6/10/96, C3)

1996        Dec 31, A New Year’s Eve bomb on a bus killed 9 and injured 44.
    (SFC, 1/3/97, p.A17)

1996        Dec 31, the number of political prisoners rose to 2,800, a hundred more than the previous year.
    (SFC, 2/26/97, p.A8)

1996        The Zeyzoun Dam was built to collect water from the Orontes River. It burst in 2002.
    (SFC, 6/8/02, p.A26)

1996        Syria acquired new chemical weapons technology from Russia.
    (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.A11)

1997        May 6, It was reported that Syrian missiles were tipped with VX, a lethal chemical that kills on contact with the skin. The Syrian chemical weapons program was assisted by Anatoly Kuntsevich, former head of the Russian Army’s Chemical Troops. The existing stockpile of Sarin, the nerve gas used by the terrorists in Tokyo, was hoped to be upgraded to VX.
    (WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A22)

1997        May 15, Saadallah Wannous, playwright, died at 56 in Damascus. His plays included “A Night Party for July 5," “Rituals of Signs and Changes," “The King Is the King," and “The Rape," an adoption of a Spanish play that was banned.
    (SFC, 5/19/97, p.A24)

1998        Jan 25, The population was reported to have reached 16 million with half under the age of 16.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, p.A18)

1998        Mar 30, A Syrian-Iraqi Health week started. Health Minister Iyad Shatti arrived in Iraq from Syria with 12 trucks of food and medicine.
    (SFC, 3/30/98, p.A9)

1998        Jun 24, The Clinton administration claimed that Syria has an active chemical weapons program and has armed missiles with the nerve gas sarin.
    (SFC, 6/25/98, p.A9)

1998        Oct 6, Syria anointed army chief Emile Lahoud, a Maronite Christian, as Lebanon’s president.
    (WSJ, 10/7/98, p.A1)(SFC, 10/16/98, p.D2)

1998        Oct 21, Turkey and Syria signed an accord whereby Syria agreed to brand the Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) as a terrorist group.
    (SFC, 10/22/98, p.C5)

1999        Feb 10, Pres. Hafez Assad (68) was elected to a 5th 7-year term.
    (SFC, 2/11/99, p.C2)

1999        Nov 29, A bus collided with a train in northern Syria and 11 people were killed.
    (SFC, 11/30/99, p.A17)

1999        Nov, In Damascus Pres. Assad's son, Maher, shot Assef Chawkat, a son-in-law of Pres. Assad and the head of military intelligence. Chawkat was treated in Paris.
    (SFC, 12/1/99, p.C3)

1999        Dec 8, Israel and Syria agreed to resume peace negotiations following a visit by Madeleine Albright to Damascus.
    (SFC, 12/9/99, p.A1)

1999        Dec 15, With President Clinton’s close mediation, Syria reopened peace talks with Israel in Washington.
    (AP, 12/15/00)

1999        Dec 16, Israel and Syria ended a first round of peace talks and scheduled a resumption for Jan 3.
    (SFC, 12/17/99, p.A12)

2000        Jan 17, The Clinton administration announced that talks between Israel and Syria had been postponed indefinitely.
    (SFC, 1/18/00, p.A1)

2000        Feb 28, It was reported that Iraq and Syria had established diplomatic ties that were cut in Aug 1980 when Damascus sided with Iran just before the Iran-Iraq war.
    (SFC, 2/28/00, p.C2)

2000        Mar 26, Pres. Clinton met with Pres. Assad of Syria in Geneva but failed to get an agreement to revive peace talks with Israel.
    (WSJ, 3/27/00, p.A1)

2000        Mar, Prime Minister Mahmoud el-Zoubi resigned after serving 13 years.
    (SFC, 6/15/00, p.A16)

2000        Mar, A new prime minister and several other ministers were appointed. The new government cut taxes on new joint stock companies from 56% to 25%.
    (WSJ, 6/19/00, p.A25)

2000        May 21, Syria’s former PM Mahmoud el-Zoubi (al-Zubi) committed suicide rather than answer questions on corruption.
    (SFC, 6/15/00, p.A16)(Econ, 10/15/05, p.50)

2000        Jun 10, In Syria Pres. Hafez Assad (69), the “Lion of Damascus," died. His son Bashar Assad (34) was expected to be named his successor. Assad had given Alawites powerful positions in the army and Baath party while the Sunnis were given a free rein in trade and industry.
    (SFEC, 6/11/00, p.A1)(SFC, 6/15/00, p.A16)

2000        Jun 11, A day after the death of Syrian President Hafez Assad, his son, Bashar, was unanimously nominated by Syria’s ruling Baath Party to succeed his father.
    (AP, 6/11/01)

2000        Jun 12, Rifaat Assad, the brother of Hafez Assad, claimed himself the rightful heir of power in Syria. Syrian security forces were ordered to arrest Rifaat if he entered the country.
    (SFC, 6/13/00, p.A10)

2000        Jun 18, Bashar Assad was elected as sec. gen. of the ruling Baath Party.
    (SFC, 6/19/00, p.A9)

2000        Jun, Gen. Hikmat Al-Shihabi, chief of staff for 20 years until 1998, fled to the US. He was alleged to have illegally earned millions from arms deals.
    (SFC, 6/15/00, p.A16)

2000        Jul 17, Bashar Assad, son of Hafez Assad, began a seven-year term as Syria’s 16th head of state.
    (AP, 7/17/01)

2000        Sep 27, 99 intellectuals published a demand for more democracy and freedom of expression.
    (SFC, 9/29/00, p.D5)

2000        Nov 16, Pres. Bashar Assad announced an amnesty for some 600 political prisoners.
    (SFC, 11/17/00, p.A20)

2000        Nov 21, Pres. Assad ordered the Mezze political prison to be turned into a hospital.
    (WSJ, 11/22/00, p.A1)

2000        Nov, In southern Syria at least 17 people were killed in clashes between urban residents and nomadic shepherds over grazing rights.
    (WSJ, 11/13/00, p.A1)

2000        Nov, Syria opened a pipeline to Iraq’s oil that generated at least $2 per day for Saddam Hussein’s regime.
    (SFC, 1/23/01, p.A11)

2000        Dec 11, Syria freed some 50 Lebanese political prisoners to placate an anti-Syria movement in Lebanon.
    (SFC, 12/12/00, p.B2)

2000        Syrian writer authored “Banquet for Seaweed." Publication in Egypt caused protests for what students claimed as insults to Islam.
    (SFC, 5/9/00, p.A14)

2000        Syria began the 1st of 5 redeployments in Lebanon.
    (SFC, 4/27/05, p.A8)

2001        Jan 21, Syria approved private banking and ended artificial exchange rates.
    (WSJ, 1/22/01, p.A1)

2001        Apr 16, Israeli warplanes struck deep in Lebanon and attacked a Syrian radar site. 3 Syrians were killed.
    (SFC, 4/16/01, p.A9)(WSJ, 4/16/01, p.A1)

2001        May 5, Pres. Bashar Assad greeted Pope John Paul II with a speech against Israel.
    (SSFC, 5/6/01, p.A14)

2001        May 6, In Syria Pope John Paul II prayed in the Great Umayyad Mosque, the 1st time a pontiff ever visited and prayed in a Muslim house of worship.
    (SFC, 5/7/01, p.A1)

2001        May 15, Fidel Castro arrived in Syria from Qatar for a 2-day visit.
    (SFC, 5/16/01, p.D14)

2001        Jun 19, Syria completed a pullout of its forces from Beirut.
    (WSJ, 6/20/01, p.A1)

2001        Sep 9, Najwa bin laden left her husband, Osama bin Laden, in Afghanistan and returned to her native Syria, taking with her a son and her two youngest daughters. Eman, Omar's sister, was left behind with her father and siblings. Omar bin Laden (20) had left the family and Afghanistan earlier in the year.
    (AP, 1/6/10)

2001        Sep 18, The US asked Lebanon and Syria to extradite Palestinian and Lebanese Shiites suspected of terrorism in the past 20 years.
    (WSJ, 9/19/01, p.A12)

2001        Oct 2, Farouk al-Sharaa, the foreign minister, said Syria is determined to help the int’l. effort to combat terrorism. He added that to achieve that goal, terrorism’s roots and causes would have to be addressed.
    (WSJ, 10/3/01, p.A17)

2001        Oct 8, Syria won a seat on the UN Security Council and was opposed only by Israel.
    (SFC, 10/9/01, p.B1)

2001        Nov 19, Egypt and Syria confirmed the extradition of Rifai Ahmed Taha, a former aide to Osama bin Laden, from Syria to Egypt.
    (SFC, 11/20/01, p.A12)

2001        Dec, Nazi war criminal Alois Brunner (89), responsible for the deaths of an estimated 130,000 Jews, died and was buried in the Al-Affif cemetery in Damascus, Syria. Brunner had been practically under house arrest in his apartment in the diplomatic quarter of Damascus from 1989. These details were reported by a French magazine in 2017.
    (AFP, 1/11/17)

2001        Syria’s first satirical newspaper was founded by cartoonist Ali Farzat. It was shut down by the regime in 2003 after 104 issues.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.131)

2001-2003    Canadian citizens Abdullah Almalki, Muayyed Nureddin and Ahmad El Maati were labeled as terrorists and arrested on separate visits to Syria where they were imprisoned and tortured and then released without charge. In 2008 a federal inquiry said Canadian officials indirectly contributed to their torture by wrongly sharing intelligence information with Syria. The men later sued the Canadian government demanding apologies, compensation and the removal of their names from any watch lists.
    (SFC, 10/22/08, p.A2)

2002        Mar 3, Syria’s Pres. Assad officially visited Lebanon for the 1st time in 27 years and met with Lebanon’s Pres. Emile Lahoud.
    (SFC, 3/4/02, p.A5)

2002        Apr 3, Israeli tanks entered the Wet Bank cities of Jenin, Salfeet and Nablus. At least 1 Israeli soldier and 12 Palestinians were killed. Gunners from Lebanon’s Hezbollah exchanged artillery and mortar fire with Israeli troops. Scores of Palestinian gunmen were holed up in the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem. The Egyptian government announced a cutoff of official contacts with Israel. Syria shifted 20,000 troops in Lebanon toward the Lebanese-Syrian border reportedly in accord with the 1989 Taif agreement.
    (SFC, 4/3/02, p.A1)(SFC, 4/4/02, p.A1,13)(WSJ, 4/4/02, p.A1)

2002        Jun 4, In Syria the Zayzoun Dam (b.1996) near Idlib burst and at least 20 people were killed. A 24 square-mile area was flooded and 3 villages submerged.
    (SFC, 6/7/02, p.A13)

2002        Sep 14, In Syria 2 buses collided in the northeast, killing 13 people and injuring four others.
    (AP, 9/15/02)

2002        Sep 26, US immigration officials seized Maher Arar, a Syrian-born Canadian, after his name popped up on a watch list at JFK. US officials refused to allow legal council or a phone call. The CIA questioned him and then handed him over to Syrian intelligence where he was held and tortured for 10 months before being released. The case came to be called an instance of "torture by proxy." In 2006 a Canadian government report said the US "very likely" sent the software engineer to Syria, where he was tortured, based on the false accusation by Canadian authorities that he was suspected of links to al-Qaida.
    (SSFC, 1/4/04, p.D1)(AP, 9/19/06)

2002        Oct 2, In northern Syria mountain homes collapsed after caves beneath them gave way in the Sawad Hill district. 31 people were killed and 22 injured.
    (AP, 10/2/02)(SFC, 10/3/02, p.A9)

2003          Feb 16, A Syrian military truck carrying diesel fuel overturned and caught fire at a Lebanese-Syrian border crossing, killing at least 17 people.
    (AP, 2/16/03)

2003          Mar 2, Syria reportedly finished pulling 4,000 troops out of Lebanon in an effort to reduce tensions and keep radical Sunni groups from attacking Israel.
    (SSFC, 3/2/03, A6)

2003        Mar 23, A US bomb struck a bus at a service area in al-Rutba, Iraq, enroute from Baghdad to Syria. 5 people were killed.
    (SFC, 3/25/03, p.W7)

2003        cApr 15, US forces cut off oil flow from Iraq to Syria. Oil flow had reached 130,000 barrels a day providing both countries over $10 million a month in profits.
    (SFC, 4/11/03, p.A18)

2003        Apr 17, Rafiq Jwaijatti (81), a former Syrian ambassador to the US and a renowned Syrian literary figure, died in Paris.
    (AP, 4/19/03)

2003        Jul 15, Officials reported that Syrian troops had begun dismantling bases in Lebanon.
    (SFC, 7/16/03, p.A3)

2003        Sep 18, Syria's new prime minister formed a 31-member Cabinet, touted as a new effort to carry out economic and bureaucratic reforms.
    (AP, 9/18/03)

2003        Oct 5, Israeli warplanes bombed the Ein Saheb base northwest of Damascus, Syria, in retaliation for a suicide bombing at a Haifa restaurant. Israeli military called it an Islamic Jihad training base. Residents later told the Associated Press the camp was abandoned years ago.
    (AP, 10/5/03)(AP, 10/6/03)

2003        Oct 20, Bush administration officials said some $3 billion of Saddam Hussein's former government was being held in Syria and Lebanon.
    (AP, 10/21/03)

2003        Nov 30, Syria handed over 22 suspects to Turkey in connection with the Nov 16 suicide bombings in Istanbul.
    (SFC, 12/1/03, p.A16)

2003        Nov, In Syria NewBoy Design Studio introduced the Fulla doll, a modest looking doll in Arab dress designed to reflect Arab values. The doll was manufactured at the same factory in Hong Kong that makes the Barbie doll.
    (SFC, 11/24/05, p.A31)(www.un-instraw.org/revista/hypermail/alltickers/en/0111.html)

2003        Dec 3, It was reported that Syria's president had agreed to a proposal to halt violence along Israel's northern border if Israel promises to end flights over Lebanon and not attack its territory.
    (AP, 12/4/03)

2003        Dec 5, Syria continued to reject US pressure to hand over an estimated $250 million that Saddam Hussein's regime had deposited there.
    (WSJ, 12/5/03, p.A1)

2003        Dec 12, Pres. Bush signed legislation calling for economic penalties against Syria for not doing enough to fight terrorism.
    (SFC, 12/13/03, p.A3)

2004        Jan 6, President Bashar Assad began the first-ever visit to Turkey by a Syrian head of state, hoping to further improve ties forge a joint position on growing Kurdish autonomy.
    (AP, 1/6/04)(WSJ, 1/7/04, p.A1)

2004        Mar 8, Syrian authorities broke up a rare protest by human rights activists demanding political and civil reforms on the 41st anniversary of the ruling party's accession to power.
    (AP, 3/8/04)

2004        Mar 12, In Qamishli, Syria, spectators inside the stadium were crushed in a stampede to escape an attack by rival fans and at least 5 people were killed. A riot broke out the next day during funeral services for 3 of the dead. The soccer riots spread to 3 other towns over the next few days and left 25 people dead and more than 100 injured in Kurdish areas of northern Syria.
    (AP, 3/13/04)(AP, 3/19/04)

2004        Apr 11, Syrian Kurdish parties issued a statement saying the Assad regime had arrested hundreds and tortured some to death following the unrest in March.
    (WSJ, 4/12/04, p.A1)

2004        Apr 27, In Damascus 4 gunmen detonated a bomb placed under a car before firing bullets and grenades at Syrian security forces. Hours later police found weapons including rocket propelled grenades and guns during the raid in the nearby town of Khan al-Sheih.
    (AP, 4/28/04)

2004        May 11, The Bush administration ordered economic sanctions against Syria for supporting terrorism. Food and medicine were excepted.
    (SFC, 5/12/04, p.A3)

2004        Sep 15, The Egyptian and Syrian presidents linked calls by the UN and fellow Arab leaders for Syrian troops to leave Lebanon to past UN resolutions demanding that Israeli pull out of the West Bank and Golan Heights.
    (AP, 9/15/04)

2004        Sep 21, Hundreds of Syrian soldiers stationed in the hills near Lebanon's capital began dismantling their bases in an effort to appease a U.N. Security Council demand that all 20,000 Syrian troops leave the country.
    (AP, 9/21/04)

2004        Sep 26, Ezzedin Sheikh Khalil, a senior Hamas operative, was killed in a car bombing outside his house in Damascus, the first such killing of a leader of the Islamic militant group in Syria. The hit was claimed by Israeli security officials.
    (AP, 9/27/04)(Econ, 10/2/04, p.47)

2004        Oct 4, Syrian President Bashar Assad replaced about one-third of his Cabinet, bringing new faces to the key interior and information ministries.
    (AP, 10/4/04)

2004        Dec 22, Turkey and Syria signed a free-trade accord.
    (WSJ, 12/23/04, p.A1)

2004        Dec, Syrian-born Mustafa Setmarian Nasar (b.1958), a.k.a. Abu Musab, Nouradin, Blond Blond, Abu al-Abed, Omar Abdelhakin, Abu Musab al Siri, Umar Abd al-Hakim,  authored "The International Islamic Resistance Call." His book named enemies as "Jews, Americans, British, Russian and any and all of the NATO countries, as well as any country that takes the position of oppressing Islam and Muslims."
    (AP, 8/4/05)

2004        Israel rejected a Syrian attempt to create a channel of communications. In response Alon Liel, a former Israeli ambassador, began talks with Ibrahim Suleiman, a Syrian in Washington with close ties to Pres. Assad, under the mediation of a Swiss diplomat.
    (Econ, 1/20/07, p.55)
2004        Israel’s PM Sharon agreed to allow Druze apple growers in the Golan Heights to trade with Syria. In 2009 the authorized consignment rose to 8,000 tons.
    (Econ, 2/21/09, p.49)

2005        Jan 8, Former Democratic presidential candidate John Kerry met with Syria's president and said he was hopeful that strained U.S.-Syrian relations could be improved.
    (AP, 1/8/05)

2005        Jan 13, Israel's foreign minister said the planned sale of advanced Russian missiles to Syria will disrupt regional stability and Moscow should call off the deal.
    (AP, 1/13/05)

2005        Feb 3, Iran and Syria rejected President Bush's charges that they sponsored terrorism. An Iranian official called the claims groundless. The Syrian information minister said the democracy America seeks for the Middle East could not come through force.
    (AP, 2/3/05)

2005        Feb 12, Syrian authorities released 55 members of the banned Muslim Brotherhood who had spent up to 20 years in jail.
    (AP, 2/12/05)

2005        Feb 16, Syria and Iran announced a united front amid perceived US threats.
    (WSJ, 2/17/05, p.A1)

2005        Feb 21, The Arab League chief said that Syria will "soon" take steps to withdraw its army from Lebanese areas in accordance with a 1989 agreement. Tens of thousands of opposition supporters shouted insults at Syria and demanded the resignation of their pro-Syrian government in a Beirut demonstration.
    (AP, 2/21/05)

2005        Feb 23, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak said that he expects further Syrian troop redeployments in Lebanon, and he dispatched his intelligence chief to Damascus to meet with President Bashar Assad to discuss increasing American and European pressure on Syria.
    (AP, 2/23/05)

2005        Feb 24, Lebanon's defense minister said Syria will withdraw troops from mountain and coastal areas in Lebanon in line with a 1989 agreement.
    (AP, 2/24/05)

2005        Feb 27, Iraqi security forces reported the capture of Saddam Hussein's half-brother and former adviser. Sabawi Ibrahim al-Hassan, the 6 of diamonds, was No. 36 on the list of 55 most-wanted Iraqis. Syria captured al-Hassan and 29 other fugitives and handed them over to Iraqi security. 2 American soldiers were killed in an ambush in the capital.
    (AP, 2/27/05)(SFC, 2/28/05, p.A1)

2005        Mar 2, In a new book entitled "Mari, the Metropolis of the Euphrates," Jean-Claude Margueron said the third millennium BC city, in modern day Syria, was "one of the first modern cities of humanity.
    (AP, 3/2/05)
2005        Mar 2, President Bush demanded in blunt terms that Syria get out of Lebanon.
    (AP, 3/2/05)

2005        Mar 3, An Arab League meeting opened in Cairo. An Arab diplomat said Syria has told Arab countries it needs to keep 3,000 troops and early-warning stations inside Lebanon to maintain its security despite international pressure for a full withdrawal. Saudi Arabia told Syria to withdraw its troops.
    (AP, 3/3/05)(SFC, 3/4/05, p.A3)

2005        Mar 5, Syria’s Pres. Assad outlined a two-step pullback: 1st to Lebanon's Bekaa Valley, nearer to the Syrian border; 2nd, a redeployment from there all the way to the Syrian frontier. He failed to address broad international demands that he completely withdraw Syria's 15,000 troops after nearly 30 years in Lebanon.
    (AP, 3/5/05)

2005        Mar 7, The presidents of Syria and Lebanon announced that Syrian forces will pull back to Lebanon's eastern Bekaa Valley by March 31, but a complete troop withdrawal will be deferred until after later negotiations.
    (AP, 3/7/05)

2005        Mar 9, Syrian soldiers flashed victory signs and waved automatic rifles as they drove east through Lebanon's mountains in the first phase of a pullback. Government lawmakers advised the president to bring back his pro-Damascus prime minister who was forced by opposition protests to resign.
    (AP, 3/9/05)

2005        Mar 11, The last Syrian troops left northern Lebanon but left behind intelligence officers in nine offices. The UN Mideast envoy said Syria needs to produce a timetable for a full withdrawal from the rest of Lebanon. Since 1976 some 15,000 Syrian troops were killed in the Lebanese civil war. Lebanese protests following the Feb 14 assassination of Rafik Hariri, later dubbed the “cedar revolution," forced Pres. Assad to withdraw his army after a 30-year stay.
    (AP, 3/11/05)(Econ, 4/2/05, p.41)(Econ, 7/25/09, SR p.11)

2005        Mar 29, Syria promised the UN that it will withdraw all troops from Lebanon before parliamentary elections but didn't mention a pullout of its intelligence operatives as demanded by the Security Council.
    (AP, 3/29/05)

2005        Apr 23, It was noted that Rami Makhlouf, a younger first cousin of Pres. Bashar Assad, is arguably the most powerful economic figure in Syria.
    (Econ, 4/23/05, p.45)(www.neal-us.org/who's_who.htm)

2005        Apr 24, Syrian troops burned documents and dismantled military posts in their final hours in Lebanon, before deploying toward the border and effectively ending 29 years of military presence in the country.
    (AP, 4/24/05)

2005        Apr 26, Syria ended its 29-year military domination of Lebanon as soldiers flashing victory signs completed a withdrawal.
    (AP, 4/26/05)

2005        May 8, In Syria a prominent Kurdish Islamic scholar was murdered in Damascus.
    (WSJ, 6/6/05, p.A1)

2005        May 20, Syrian Ambassador Imad Moustapha said Syria has cut off military and intelligence cooperation with the US over the last 10 days amid strains in relations between the two countries over the insurgency in Iraq.
    (AP, 5/24/05)

2005        May 26, Syria's UN ambassador said Syria has arrested more than 1,200 people trying to cross the border into Iraq in recent weeks and sent many back to their home countries because of suspicions they were trying to join the insurgency.
    (AP, 5/26/05)

2005        May 27, According to Israeli sources Syria test fired 3 Scud missiles, one of which broke up over two Turkish villages causing no injuries, in an act of defiance to the US and the UN. Syria denied the charges.
    (AFP, 6/3/05)(AP, 6/4/05)

2005        May, US forces fired across the Iraqi frontier and killed a Syrian soldier during an American military operation. The event was reported by a Syrian general 5 months later.
    (AP, 10/28/05)

2005        Jun 9, Syria's ruling Baath Party endorsed reforms that include allowing some independent political parties, relaxing a state of emergency and granting more press freedom.
    (AP, 6/9/05)
2005        Jun 9, Syrian forces raided a suspected terrorist hideout near the capital, killing 2 men, arresting a third and foiling alleged bombing plots that targeted the nation's Justice Palace.
    (AP, 6/11/05)

2005        Jun 21, In Lebanon a bomb killed a politician who was a harsh critic of Syria's power, the second slaying of an anti-Syrian figure this month.
    (AP, 6/21/05)

2005        Aug 1, Trucks loaded with produce and other merchandise began crossing into Syria from Lebanon on their way to Gulf countries after Syria eased restrictions that left them stranded for nearly four weeks in the border area.
    (AP, 8/1/05)

2005        Sep 2, Syrian troops clashed with members of the Jund al-Sham Islamic militant organization in the northern city of Hama. Five militants were killed.
    (AP, 9/3/05)

2005        Sep 8, In northeastern Syria security forces clashed with Islamic militants, killing one and arresting three others in the country's latest move against a group accused of planning bomb attacks.
    (AP, 9/8/05)

2005        Sep 10, Syrian President Bashar Assad met with leaders of 10 militant Palestinian groups based in Syria, defying U.S. pressure to crack down on these groups. Syria's official news agency SANA reported Assad urged the radical Palestinian leaders, including Khaled Mashaal, the political leader of the militant Hamas group, to close ranks and continue the struggle in order to achieve their goal of an independent Palestinian state.
    (AP, 9/10/05)

2005        Sep 12, Syria consented to a UN investigator's request to question top officials about the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri, a probe that increases the pressure on an increasingly isolated Damascus.
    (AP, 9/12/05)

2005        Oct 4, A new Syrian TV series began broadcasting around the Middle East. It tells the story of Arabs living in residential compounds in Saudi Arabia and the militant Islamists who want to blow them up so they can collect their rewards in heaven, 72 beautiful virgins.
    (AP, 10/10/05)

2005        Oct 12, Ghazi Kanaan, Syria's interior minister, died. He was one of several top officials caught up in the UN investigation into the slaying of Lebanon's former prime minister. The country's official news agency said he committed suicide in his office.
    (AP, 10/12/05)(Econ, 10/15/05, p.50)

2005        Oct 16, In Syria a pro-democracy group issued the Damascus Declaration for Democratic National Change. The group came to be called the Damascus Declaration.
    (AP, 10/29/08)(http://tinyurl.com/5jc9vh)

2005        Oct 20, A UN report implicated the brother-in-law of Syria's president in the Feb 14 assassination of former Lebanese PM Rafik Hariri, and Lebanese intelligence officials helped organize it. The UN inquiry officially linked Damascus to the slaying for the first time. Syria rejected the report. The names of top Syrians were edited out in the final version of the report.
    (AP, 10/21/05)

2005        Oct 28, A top military officer said Syria has increased military posts and patrols along its border with Iraq and stopped thousands of infiltrators from entering into the war-torn country.
    (AP, 10/28/05)
2005        Oct 28, Egyptian Pres. Hosni Mubarak held unexpected talks with his beleaguered Syrian counterpart Bashar Assad to discuss Damascus' crisis with the West over the killing of a former Lebanese leader.
    (AP, 10/28/05)
2005        Oct 28, The US joined with the UN, Russia and the EU in demanding Syria immediately close the offices of Islamic Jihad in Damascus and prevent use of its territory for terror actions.
    (AP, 10/28/05)

2005        Oct 29, Syrian President Bashar Assad issued an order for a special committee to investigate any Syrian involvement in the assassination of former PM Hariri in neighboring Lebanon.
    (AP, 10/29/05)

2005        Oct 31, A UN resolution sponsored by the US, France and Britain demanded that Syria assist fully with a probe into the February killing of former Lebanese leader Hariri. The P-5 ambassadors (the five permanent council nations) from the US, Russia, China, Britain and France, conducted intense negotiations to try to reach agreement on the resolution.
    (WSJ, 11/1/05, p.A1)(AP, 11/3/05)

2005        Nov 2, Syrian President Bashar Assad gave amnesty to 190 political prisoners to mark the Muslim feast of Eid al-Fitr.
    (AP, 11/2/05)

2005        Nov 17, It was reported that Syria had detained 4 Australian-Iraqi women at the Damascus airport for allegedly trying to take gun parts hidden in a child's toy onto a plane bound for Australia.
    (AFP, 11/17/05)

2005        Dec 3, Troops exhumed the remains of 25 bodies from a mass grave near a former Syrian military base in eastern Lebanon. About 17,000 Lebanese who disappeared during 1975-90 civil war are still missing, including 61 Lebanese soldiers.
    (AP, 12/03/05)

2005        Dec 4, Syrian security forces clashed with militants planning to launch terror attacks in the northern city of Aleppo. Five people were wounded, including two militants.
    (AP, 12/04/05)

2005        Dec 8, In northern Syria 8 Muslim militants died in a battle with security forces at a farmhouse.
    (AP, 12/08/05)

2005        Dec 17, The chief UN investigator into the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri said in published remarks that he believed Syrian authorities were behind the killing.
    (AP, 12/17/05)

2005        Dec 19, Lebanon closed a military route that crossed its border into Syria, ending nearly 3 decades of unmonitored flow of high-ranking officials and goods between the two countries.
    (AP, 12/19/05)

2005        Dec 27, Official Syrian news reported that Syria has signed a $2.7 billion memorandum of understanding with a Russian company for construction of a refinery and petrochemical plant in northeast Syria.
    (AP, 12/27/05)
2005        Dec 27, Abdel-Qadar Abdel Qader, a Syrian, was arrested in Lebanon on suspicion of involvement in the assassination of Gibran Tueni, the anti-Syrian general manager and columnist of Lebanon's leading newspaper.
    (AP, 12/27/05)

2005        Dec 29, Syria’s former Vice President Abdul-Halim Khaddam said in a television interview from Paris that Syrian President Bashar Assad threatened former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri months before Hariri was assassinated in a truck bombing.
    (AP, 1/1/06)

2005        Dec 31, Syria's ruling Baath Party stripped former Vice President Abdul-Halim Khaddam of membership and joined parliament in demanding his trial on a charge of high treason. The French Foreign Ministry confirmed Khaddam has been in France for several months but declined to give any details on his whereabouts.
    (AP, 1/1/06)

2005        Flynt Leverett authored “Inheriting Syria: Bashar’s Trial by Fire."
    (Econ, 4/23/05, p.79)

2005        Syria’s population at this time was about 18 million with 90.3% Arabs.
    (Econ, 10/1/05, p.41)

2006        Jan 18, Syrian authorities released five pro-democracy activists, including two prominent former legislators, after they had served nearly four years of their five-year prison sentences.
    (AP, 1/19/06)
2006        Jan 18, Pres. Bush ordered assets of Asef Shawkat, head of Syria’s military intelligence, to be frozen and barred trade with him because of violent meddling in Lebanon.
    (WSJ, 1/19/06, p.A1)(www.iht.com/getina/files/303997.html)

2006        Jan 19, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad began a visit to Syria to consolidate an old alliance made increasingly crucial as both countries face mounting US pressure and the threat of international sanctions.
    (AP, 1/19/06)
2006        Jan 19, Syria asserted that Iran had a right to atomic technology and said Western objections to Tehran's nuclear ambitions were not persuasive.
    (AP, 1/19/06)

2006        Feb 4, Rage against caricatures of Islam's revered prophet poured out across the Muslim world. Aggrieved believers in Syria called for executions, stormed, European buildings and torched the Danish and Norwegian embassies in Damascus. In Gaza Palestinians marched through the streets, storming European buildings and burning German and Danish flags.
    (AP, 2/4/06)(AP, 2/4/07)

2006        Feb 10, In Turkey a Syrian was charged with masterminding suicide bombings that killed 58 people in Istanbul, and Turkish prosecutors claimed that Osama bin Laden personally ordered him to carry out terror attacks in this pro-Western country. Loa'i Mohammad Haj Bakr al-Saqa (32) was accused of serving as a point man between al-Qaida and homegrown militants behind the series of suicide bombings in Istanbul in 2003, said the indictment. It said al-Saqa gave the Turkish militants about $170,000. He was captured in Turkey in August after an alleged failed plot to attack Israeli cruise ships in the Mediterranean.
    (AP, 2/10/06)

2006        Feb 14, The UN asked Lebanon to explain reports of arms shipments crossing the Syrian border destined for the Lebanese guerrilla group Hezbollah.
    (AP, 2/14/06)

2006        Feb 24, French legal authorities refused to extradite to Lebanon Zouheir Mohammad Assediq, an ex-Syrian intelligence officer, to answer questions about the murder of former Lebanese PM Rafiq el-Hariri.
    (AFP, 2/26/06)

2006        Mar 17, Exiled Syrian opposition figures in Belgium formed a united front, calling for a transitional government to prepare for the overthrow of President Bashar Assad's regime.
    (AP, 3/17/06)

2006        Apr 3, Mohammed al-Maghout (72), a Syrian poet and playwright known for his satirical depictions of authoritarian Arab regimes, died of a stroke at his home in Damascus.
    (AP, 4/3/06)

2006        May 14, Syria detained Michel Kilo (66), a prominent writer and democracy campaigner, who has long been one of the government's most outspoken critics.
    (AP, 5/15/06)

2006        Jun 2, Clashes between Syrian security forces and Islamic militants in an area of Damascus filled with government buildings left five dead and four wounded.
    (AP, 6/2/06)

2006        Jun 5, Key Syrian opposition figures urged Syrians to work to oust President Bashar Assad by using acts of civil disobedience reminiscent to the upheaval that freed nations behind the Iron Curtain.
    (AP, 6/5/06)

2006        Jun 7, In Syria Mohammad Ghanem, a journalist who edits a Web site and advocates greater rights for Kurds in Syria, was sentenced to a year in prison, but the military court commuted his sentence to six months. Ghanem was convicted on charges of "insulting the Syrian president, discrediting the Syrian government and fomenting sectarian unrest."
    (AP, 6/7/06)

2006        Jun 26, Syrian President Bashar Assad said in a published interview that Lebanon is becoming a shelter for al-Qaida-linked militants fleeing across the Syrian border after a crackdown by authorities there.
    (AP, 6/26/06)

2006        Jul 23, Syria, one of Hezbollah's main backers, said it will press for a cease-fire to end the fighting between Israel and the Islamic militant group but only in the framework of a broader Middle East peace initiative.
    (AP, 7/23/06)

2006        Aug 23, Syria opposed deployment of an international force along its border to prevent arms shipments to Hezbollah, and Israel called the situation in Lebanon "explosive." In southern Lebanon 3 Lebanese soldiers were killed while they dismantled an unexploded missile. An Israeli soldier was killed and three others wounded in southern Lebanon when their tank drove over a land mine.
    (AP, 8/23/06)(AP, 8/24/06)

2006        Aug 30, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez said in Damascus that he and Syrian President Bashar Assad shared a "decisive and firm" stance against American "imperialism" and "domination."
    (AP, 8/30/06)

2006        Sep 1, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan said that Syria had pledged to step up border patrols and work with the Lebanese army to stop the flow of weapons to Hezbollah.
    (AP, 9/1/06)

2006        Sep 7, Cyprus impounded a Panama-flagged vessel on arms smuggling suspicion. It carried 18 North Korean mobile radar units and 3 command vehicles due for delivery to Syria.
    (WSJ, 9/8/06, p.A1)(Reuters, 9/11/06)

2006        Sep 9, Italy's PM Romano Prodi said Syria has agreed "in principle" to a European Union presence on its border to help stem the flow of weapons into Lebanon.
    (AP, 9/9/06)

2006        Sep 12, In Syria armed Islamic militants attempted to storm the US Embassy in Damascus. Four people were killed, including three of the assailants. One of Syria's anti-terrorism forces was killed and 11 other people were wounded. The only Islamic militant arrested in the attack died from his wounds, and authorities were unable to question him.
    (AP, 9/12/06)(AP, 9/13/06)

2006        Sep 23, The TV series “The Renegades," directed by Najdat Anzour of Syria, began showing in Lebanon and the rest of the Arab world. It fictionalized the devastating effects of terrorism on Muslim families.
    (SFC, 10/4/06, p.A7)

2006        Oct 19, Syrian authorities ordered prominent writer and pro-democracy activist Michel Kilo released on bail after more than four months in detention.
    (AP, 10/19/06)

2006        Nov 6, Syria's foreign minister said his country was ready to resume peace talks with Israel and he urged the Jewish state's government to heed calls from within the country for renewed negotiations.
    (AP, 11/7/06)

2006        Nov 20, Iran invited Iraq and Syria to talks in Tehran aimed at curbing violence in Iraq.
    (SFC, 11/21/06, p.A1)

2006        Nov 21, Iraq restored diplomatic relations with Syria as part of a wider regional effort to clamp off violence in Iraq. Iraqi and US forces raided Baghdad's Sadr City and detained seven militia members, including one believed to have information about an American soldier kidnapped last month. A young boy and two other people were killed in the early morning raid.
    (AP, 11/21/06)

2006        Nov 25, Israel and the Palestinians agreed to a cease-fire to end a five-month Israeli military offensive in the Gaza Strip and the firing of rockets by Palestinian militants into the Jewish state. Hamas' leader, Damascus-based supreme leader Khaled Mashaal, said his group was willing to give peace negotiations with Israel six months to reach an agreement for a Palestinian state in Gaza and the West Bank, but threatened a new uprising if the talks fail.
    (AP, 11/25/06) (AP, 11/25/07)

2006        Nov 28, A Syrian leader of an Islamic militant group blew himself up at a border post with Lebanon after a gunbattle with Syrian security forces.
    (AP, 11/28/06)

2006        Dec 7, Ali Reza Asgari, a retired general who served in Iran's Revolutionary Guard, arrived in Turkey on a private visit from Damascus, Syria. He had become involved in the olive business after retirement. Iranian officials later said that he disappeared on Dec 9. In March, 2009, a former German Defense Ministry official said Asgari had defected and was providing information to the West on Iran's nuclear program. Asgari allegedly told the West that Iran was financing North Korean steps to transform Syria into a nuclear weapons power, leading to an Israeli airstrike that targeted a site in Syria on Sept. 6, 2007. In November Iranian news Web sites reported that Asgari had been abducted by Israeli agents and is now being held in Israel.
    (AP, 11/16/09)

2006        Dec 13, Syria said it has admitted more than 800,000 Iraqis who have fled the violence in their country.
    (AP, 12/13/06)

2006        Dec 18, Syria’s official SUNA news agency said Syria and Iraq had signed on to a plan to cooperate in combating terrorism and crime.
    (AP, 12/18/06)

2006        Dec 19, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad said he was ready for dialogue with the United States but warned Washington against giving Damascus orders.
    (AP, 12/19/06)

2007        Feb 5, Syria’s President Bashar Assad said cooperation, and negotiations, between Syria and the US could be the "last chance" to avoid full-scale civil war in Iraq.
    (AP, 2/5/07)

2007        Feb 11, A Syrian court sentenced Mohammed Haydar Zammar, a man believed to have known the Sept. 11 hijackers, to 12 years in prison for membership in the banned Muslim Brotherhood organization.
    (AP, 2/11/07)

2007        Feb 17, Syrian President Bashar Assad arrived in Iran to discuss Iraq and other Middle East issues with President Mahmoud Ahmadinajed.
    (AP, 2/17/07)

2007        Feb 22, The Israeli daily Haaretz reported that Syria has embarked on an "unprecedented" effort to bolster its armed forces with Iranian and Russian help.
    (AP, 2/22/07)

2007        Feb 28, Syria said it would participate in a Baghdad-organized conference of Iraq's neighbors that the US plans to attend. Iran said it was considering whether to take part.
    (AP, 2/28/07)

2007        Mar 8, Syria’s Pres. Bashar Assad inaugurated the first stage of a joint Syrian-Iranian auto factory, test-driving one of the new cars and declaring that the project will boost cooperation between the allies.
    (AP, 3/9/07)

2007        Apr 1, In Syria US House members meeting with President Bashar Assad said they believed there was an opportunity for dialogue.
    (AP, 4/1/07)

2007        Apr 4, In Damascus US House Speaker Nancy Pelosi held talks with Syria's leader despite White House objections, saying she pressed President Bashar Assad over his country's support for militant groups and passed him a peace message from Israel.
    (AP, 4/4/07)
2007        Apr 4, Iran’s President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad freed the 15 detained British sailors and marines as an Easter holiday "gift" to the British people. Syria said it played a key role in resolving the standoff over the 15 British sailors and marines held by Iran. Turkey brokered the release of the British sailors.
    (AP, 4/4/07)(Econ, 8/21/10, p.42)

2007        Apr 12, A Syrian-American businessman with ties to the Damascus government made an unprecedented appearance before an Israeli parliamentary panel, telling lawmakers that Syrian President Bashar Assad is ready to make peace with the Jewish state.
    (AP, 4/13/07)

2007        Apr 14, Syria distanced itself from comments by a Syrian-American businessman who recently told Israeli lawmakers that President Bashar Assad was ready to make peace with the Jewish state.
    (AP, 4/14/07)

2007        Apr 18, The UN Security Council expressed "serious concern" at mounting reports of weapons being smuggled from Syria to Lebanon and authorized an independent mission to evaluate monitoring of the border between the two countries.
    (AP, 4/18/07)

2007        Apr 23, Syrians voted for a second day in a tightly controlled election to pick a new legislature, a vote President Bashar Assad hopes can consolidate his rule, soften his regime's authoritarian image and ease its international isolation.
    (AP, 4/23/07)

2007        Apr 24, A Syrian court convicted prominent human rights activist Anwar al-Bunni of disseminating hostile information and sentenced him to five years in jail.
    (AP, 4/24/07)

2007        Apr 26, Syria’s government said that the ruling coalition took an overwhelming majority of seats in parliamentary elections that were boycotted by the opposition as a farce.
    (AP, 4/26/07)

2007        May 3, In Egypt a conference of nearly 50 nations opened at Sharm el-Sheik to rally international support, particularly from Arab nations, for an ambitious plan to stabilize Iraq. US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice met Syria's foreign minister in the first high-level talks between the two countries in years. Hours after the chief military spokesman in Iraq said Syria had moved to reduce "the flow of foreign fighters" across its border.
    (AP, 5/3/07)

2007        May 8, A newspaper owned by Saudi Arabia's royal family said one of seven recently exposed Saudi terrorist cells used Syria as a base for coordinating with al-Qaida in Iraq and held training camps in the desert of neighboring Yemen.
    (AP, 5/8/07)

2007        May 9, In northern Syria 7 people were killed and 7 were wounded when a 5-story building collapsed.
    (AP, 5/10/07)

2007        May 10, Kamal Labwani, a Syrian dissident who was arrested after meeting with White House officials two years ago, was convicted and sentenced to 12 years in prison for contacting a foreign country and inciting attack against his country. His sentencing follows another in recent days against Anwar al-Bunni, a human rights lawyer, who received a five-year prison sentence, signaling a continuing of a crackdown by authorities against dissent.
    (AP, 5/10/07)

2007        May 13, A Syrian court sentenced four pro-democracy campaigners, including one of Syria's most respected writers, to prison terms as part of President's Bashar Assad's latest crack down on dissent.
    (AP, 5/14/07)

2007        May 23, In northern Syria 14 people were killed and 20 injured when an Iraqi bus overturned on the Raqqa-Aleppo highway about 250 miles north of Damascus.
    (AP, 5/24/07)

2007        May 24, Hundreds of thousands of Syrians thronged Damascus to support a second seven-year term for President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 5/24/07)

2007        May 26, In Washington, DC, some 100 supporters of Syria’s largest exile opposition group, the National Salvation Front, gathered outside the Damascus embassy to protest against the government of Pres. Assad.
    (WSJ, 1/25/07, p.A1)

2007        May 27, Syrian President Bashar Assad cast his vote at a polling station as part of a one-day public referendum to endorse him for a second term and bolster his autocratic rule. Assad won another seven years in office, getting 97% of the vote in a nationwide referendum in which he was the only candidate.
    (AP, 5/27/07)(AP, 5/29/07)

2007        Jun 17, A Syrian court found 7 pro-Democracy advocates guilty of endangering the state and sentenced them 5 to 7 years in prison.
    (SFC, 6/19/07, p.A7)

2007        Jun, The World Monuments Fund added the Jordan River Valley to its list of 100 most endangered sites. Israel, Jordan and Syria diverted over 90% of the Jordan River water annually for drinking and irrigation, reducing flow to the Dead Sea.
    (SSFC, 8/12/07, p.A15)

2007        Jul 17, Syria’s Pres. Bashar Assad was sworn in for a 2nd, seven-year term in office.
    (AP, 7/17/07)

2007        Jul 21, In northern Syria 2 buses collided head-on, killing 20 people and wounding 50.
    (AP, 7/21/07)

2007        Jul 26, In northern Syria an explosion at an ordnance depot that was blamed on summer heat killed at least 15 soldiers and wounded 50 others.
    (AP, 7/26/07)

2007        Aug 20, Iraq's embattled PM Nouri al-Maliki came to Syria on his first visit here as prime minister amid efforts to garner neighbors' support for curbing violence at home. Syria said Iraq should set a timetable for the withdrawal of foreign troops. A roadside bomb killed Mohammed Ali al-Hassani (52), the governor of the predominantly Shiite Muthanna province, along with his driver and guard. Two bombings struck the Shiite district of Sadr City and a busy market district elsewhere in Baghdad, killing at least 7 people and wounding more than 20. Thousands rallied against the US in Sadr City, waving Iraqi flags and shouting "No, no to America."
    (AP, 8/20/07)

2007        Aug 27, Israel’s Haaretz newspaper reported that security officials fear Hamas' exiled leadership in Syria is working to renew suicide attacks against Israel in an effort to derail peace efforts by Israel and Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas. Israeli intelligence assessed that Islamic Hamas militants have smuggled 40 tons of weapons into the Gaza Strip since the group wrested control of the territory in June.
    (AP, 8/27/07)

2007        Sep 6, Israeli troops backed by tanks and bulldozers crossed into southern Gaza to strike at Palestinian militants and 10 militants were killed. Palestinian militants said fighters in a pickup truck and jeep crashed through a fence on the Gaza-Israel border and attacked an Israeli army post. An Israeli airstrike hit in Syria where it was believed weapons, being sent from Iran to the militant Islamic group in Lebanon, were stored. It was later reported that the airstrike was aimed at a partly constructed nuclear reactor.
    (AP, 9/6/07)(AP, 9/12/07)(SSFC, 10/14/07, p.A19)

2007        Sep 11, Syria complained to the UN about Israeli "aggression and violation of sovereignty" after what a US official said was Sep 6 airstrike deep in Syria.
    (AP, 9/11/07)(AP, 9/12/07)

2007        Sep 21, North Korea and Syria held high-level talks in Pyongyang, amid suspicions that the two countries might be cooperating on a nuclear weapons program.
    (AP, 9/21/07)

2007        Sep 22, North Korea's No. 2 leader met with a Syrian delegation in Pyongyang, amid suspicions of a secret nuclear connection between the two countries.
    (AP, 9/22/07)

2007        Oct 1, Syria began requiring visas for Iraqis entering the country, hoping to stem the flow of refugees fleeing violence in their homeland.
    (AP, 10/1/07)

2007        Oct 4, Iranian state television reported that Iran and Syria have signed an agreement for Tehran to export a billion dollars worth of gas every year to its chief regional ally.
    (AP, 10/4/07)

2007        Oct 17,     Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, on a visit to Turkey, said that Damascus would back a possible Turkish incursion into northern Iraq to crack down "against terrorist activities" there.
    (AP, 10/17/07)

2007        Oct 18, The UN said action would be taken against the interpreter responsible for an erroneous report that Syria has a nuclear facility and expressed regret at the incident.
    (AP, 10/18/07)

2007        Oct 21, In Syria a high-level North Korean official held talks with PM Naji Otari on ways to improve cooperation between the two countries.
    (AP, 10/21/07)

2007        Oct 25,     In northern Syria authorities hanged five men for murders they committed during attempted robberies.
    (AP, 10/25/07)

2007        Dec 18, A human rights group said that Syrian authorities have arrested two activists, raising to at least seven the number detained following a recent meeting of opposition groups in Damascus. The two had attended the National Council of the Damascus Declaration for Democratic Change, a Dec. 1 gathering of numerous opposition groups and activists calling for democratic reforms in Syria.
    (AP, 12/18/07)

2007        Dec 30, President Nicolas Sarkozy said France will have no more contact with Syria until Damascus shows its willingness to let Lebanon end its current crisis and appoint a new president.
    (AP, 12/30/07)

2007        Dec 31, Syria’s state-run media called on the US to begin a direct dialogue, a day after an influential US senator said Washington could "bridge the gap" between Israel and Syria.
    (AP, 12/31/07)

2007        Syria’s oil exports were expected to almost cease by this time.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, p.A18)
2007        Syria’s population numbered about 19 million.
    (Econ, 11/17/07, p.55)

2008        Jan 5, Syria joined other Arab nations in endorsing the head of Lebanon's army as that country's next president, putting pressure on the Lebanese opposition to drop demands that have blocked a compromise over the post.
    (AP, 1/5/08)

2008        Jan 9, The US imposed sanctions on Mishan Jaburi, owner of Al Zawra television in Syria, and Brig. Gen. Ahmed Foruzandeh, leader of the Iranian Quds Force, for broadcasting attacks on American troops and calls to violence. Jaburi, a former parliamentarian in Iraq, had fled to Syria in 2006 amid charges that he had embezzled millions from Iraq’s treasury. The BBC said the station was last seen July 27.
    (SFC, 1/10/08, p.A13)

2008        Feb 12, In Syria Imad Mughniyeh (45), the suspected mastermind of dramatic attacks on the US Embassy and US Marine barracks that killed hundreds of Americans in Lebanon in the 1980s, died in a car bombing. Hezbollah and its Iranian backers blamed Israel for the killing. Israel denied involvement and said it was looking into the death. Mughniyeh, a Lebanese Shia, was recruited by Ali Hassan Salameh (d.1979), the chief of operations officer of Black September. In 2015 the Washington Post reported that the CIA and Israel's spy agency Mossad were behind the plot.
    (AP, 2/13/08)(Econ, 6/7/14, p.88)(AFP, 1/31/15)

2008        Feb 14, The chief of Hezbollah vowed to retaliate against Israeli targets anywhere in the world after accusing the Jewish state of killing the militant Imad Mughniyeh in Syria.
    (AP, 2/14/08)

2008        Mar 3, Tens of thousands of Syrians filled the central square of the capital to protest an Israeli offensive in the Gaza Strip that has left scores of Palestinians dead.
    (AP, 3/3/08)

2008        Mar 8, North Korea’s official news agency reported that leader Kim Jong Il hopes for stronger friendship with Syria, amid lingering suspicions of a secret nuclear connection between the two countries.
    (AP, 3/8/08)

2008        Mar 11, At least 42 people were killed across Iraq. A roadside bomb hit a bus traveling in southern Iraq, killing at least 16 civilians, while gunmen opened fire on another bus in the capital, leaving one person dead. The Pentagon said up to 90% of the foreign fighters in Iraq cross from Syria.
    (AFP, 3/11/08)(AP, 3/12/08)(WSJ, 3/12/08, p.A1)

2008        Mar 14, In northern Syria a bus carrying high school students rammed into a house and flipped over, killing at least 24 people and injuring 34.
    (AP, 3/14/08)

2008        Mar 24, Saudi Arabia said its king would send a lower level diplomat to the March 29 Arab League summit in Syria, which hoped to help solve the stalemate in Lebanon.
    (WSJ, 3/25/08, p.A1)

2008        Mar 25, It was reported that Syria is cracking down more on Internet use, imposing tighter monitoring of citizens who link to the Web, as well as jailing bloggers who criticize the government and blocking YouTube and other Web sites deemed harmful to state security.
    (AP, 3/25/08)

2008        Mar 28, Jordan, Iraq and Yemen announced at the last minute that their top leaders will not attend this weekend's Arab summit in Damascus.
    (AP, 3/28/08)

2008        Mar 29, An Arab League summit in Damascus, where Syrian President Bashar Assad questioned how long Arab nations can keep offering Israel a land-for-peace proposal. Islamic and Arab leaders denounced a Dutch film that portrays Islam as a ticking time bomb aimed at the West, demanding international laws to prevent insults to religions.
    (AP, 3/29/08)(AP, 3/30/08)

2008        Mar 30, In Syria Iraq refused to endorse the final declaration of the Arab summit because it did not condemn terrorism in the country, a divisive end to a gathering marred by disputes and boycotts.
    (AP, 3/30/08)

2008        Apr 18,     Former US Pres. Jimmy Carter arrived in Syria where he met Pres. Bashar Assad, the political leader of the militant Palestinian Hamas group and Syrian businessmen.
    (AP, 4/18/08)

2008        Apr 19, In Syria defying US and Israeli warnings, former President Jimmy Carter met again on with Khaled Mashaal, the exiled leader of the militant Hamas group, and his deputy, Moussa Abu Marzouk.
    (AP, 4/19/08)

2008        Apr 23, Syria handed over a trove of some 700 looted artifacts to Iraq after seizing the items from traffickers since the US-led invasion that toppled Saddam Hussein.
    (AP, 4/24/08)

2008        Apr 24, Syria dismissed US accusations that North Korea was helping it build a nuclear reactor that could produce plutonium. Israeli warplanes bombed a site in Syria on Sept. 6, 2007, that private analysts said appeared to have been the site of a reactor, based on commercial satellite imagery taken after the raid. Syria later razed the site.
    (AP, 4/24/08)

2008        Apr 26, Turkey's PM Erdogan was in Syria in a bid to restart peace negotiations between Damascus and its Mideast foe, Israel.
    (AP, 4/26/08)

2008        May 21, Israel and Syria said they were holding indirect peace talks through Turkish mediators on a dispute that centers on the Golan Heights.
    (AP, 5/21/08)

2008        Jun 2, The chief of the International Atomic Energy Agency says Syria has agreed to let inspectors into the country this month to probe allegations of illegal nuclear activity.
    (AP, 6/2/08)

2008        Jun 5, Diplomats said Syria has told a 35-nation meeting that it will limit what UN nuclear inspectors can see when they go to check on allegations that Damascus is hiding atomic facilities.
    (AP, 6/5/08)

2008        Jun 15, Israeli officials said that indirect peace talks between Israel and Syria have resumed, with Turkish mediation.
    (AP, 6/15/08)

2008        Jun 16, Officials said 2 days of peace talks in Turkey involving Israel and Syria had concluded and more talks were planned.
    (AP, 6/16/08)

2008        Jun 23, UN experts began probing allegations that Syria has a hidden nuclear program, as Damascus imposed strict secrecy on the visit, warning the UN not to drag it into a drawn-out investigation like the standoff with Iran.
    (AP, 6/24/08)

2008        Jun 25, A senior UN atomic inspector said an initial probe of US allegations that a Syrian site hit by Israeli warplanes was a secretly built nuclear reactor is inconclusive and further checks are necessary.
    (AP, 6/25/08)

2008        Jul 5, In Syria military police officers killed at least 9 inmates during a riot at the Saydnaya Prison. The prisoners took 9 officials and guards hostage.
    (SSFC, 7/6/08, p.A7)

2008        Jul 12, French President Nicolas Sarkozy met his Egyptian counterpart Hosni Mubarak, kicking off a round of diplomacy with Middle East leaders ahead of an EU-Mediterranean summit. Sarkozy said that Syria and Lebanon will open embassies in each other's countries for the first time. Syria's leader cautioned there was still work to be done before that could happen.
    (AP, 7/12/08)(AP, 7/13/08)

2008        Aug 1, A sniper assassinated Brig. Gen. Mohammed Suleiman, a senior Syrian general close to President Bashar Assad, at a beach resort in the northern port city of Tartous.
    (AP, 8/4/08)

2008        Aug 9, Syria said it would bar UN nuclear investigators from revisiting a site bombed by Israeli jets on suspicion it was a secretly built atomic reactor.
    (AP, 8/9/08)

2008        Aug 14, Syria agreed to a longtime Lebanese demand to negotiate the demarcation of their border a day after the countries said they would establish full diplomatic relations for the first time.
    (AP, 8/14/08)

2008        Sep 3, French President Nicolas Sarkozy encouraged Syria to pursue face-to-face peace talks with Israel during his first trip to the Arab nation, a visit also aimed at undercutting Iranian influence in Damascus.
    (AP, 9/4/08)

2008        Sep 4, Syrian President Bashar Assad announced that his country has handed over proposals for peace with Israel to Turkish mediators and would wait for Israel's response before holding any face-to-face negotiations.
    (AP, 9/4/08)

2008        Sep 12, Russia’s Itar-Tass news reported that Syria’s Tartous port is being renovated to provide a permanent facility for the Russian navy.
    (SFC, 10/3/08, p.A14)

2008        Sep 27, In Damascus, Syria, a car packed with explosives detonated on a crowded residential street, killing 17 people and wounding more than a dozen others.
    (AP, 9/27/08)

2008        Oct 9, Two American journalists, Holli Chmela (27) and Taylor Luck (23), who went missing during a vacation in Lebanon eight days ago were released in Syria and returned to Jordan. The next day they said they had been "kidnapped" by their taxi driver and taken into Syria, where they were held in custody for a week before being released.
    (AP, 10/9/08)(AP, 10/10/08)

2008        Oct 14, Syria established diplomatic relations with Lebanon, ending six decades of non-recognition of its neighbor's sovereignty in an apparent bid to curry favor with the West as it pursues indirect peace talks with Israel.
    (AP, 10/14/08)

2008        Oct 15, The foreign ministers of Syria and Lebanon signed an agreement formalizing diplomatic ties between the two countries for the first time in their turbulent history.
    (AP, 10/15/08)

2008        Oct 26, Four US military helicopters attacked a civilian building under construction shortly before sundown in Sukkariyeh about five miles inside the Syrian border. A government statement said eight people were killed, including a man and his four children and a woman. An Associated Press journalist at the funerals in the village's cemetery saw the bodies of seven men, none of them minors. The area targeted is near the Iraqi border city of Qaim, which had been a major crossing point for fighters, weapons and money coming into Iraq.
    (AP, 10/27/08)

2008        Oct 28, The Syrian government ordered that an American school and a US cultural center in Damascus be closed in response to a deadly raid by US helicopters near the Syrian border with Iraq.
    (AP, 10/28/08)

2008        Oct 29, A Syrian criminal court convicted 12 dissidents of fomenting sectarian strife and sentenced them to two and a half years in prison. The defendants, members of a pro-democracy group known as the Damascus Declaration, were arrested last December. The Damascus Declaration, formed in 2005, is the broadest coalition of opposition figures in Syria.
    (AP, 10/29/08)

2008        Oct 30, Scientists reported that 1 in 17 men living on the coasts of North Africa and southern Europe may have a Phoenician direct male line ancestor. Evidence was based on Y-chromosomes collected in Cyprus, Malta, Morocco, the West Bank, Syria and Tunisia.
    (SFC, 10/31/08, p.A14)

2008        Dec 14, In Syria former US President Jimmy Carter met with Khaled Mashaal, the exiled leader of the Palestinian militant group Hamas, for the second time this year.
    (AP, 12/14/08)

2008        Syrian authorities blocked 225 internet sites this year, up from 159 in 2007.
    (Econ, 7/25/09, SR p.13)

2009        Jan 11, An estimated 2,500 Lebanese and Palestinians protested peacefully in downtown Beirut against Israel's offensive in the Gaza Strip, as hundreds of demonstrators in neighboring Syria shouted insults at the both the Jewish state and Arab leaders.
    (AP, 1/11/09)

2009        Feb 19, The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) said samples taken from a Syrian site suspected of being a secretly built reactor have revealed new traces of processed uranium.
    (AP, 2/19/09)

2009        Feb 24, Syria's nuclear chief told the UN's nuclear agency that his nation has built a new missile facility on the site of what the US says was a nearly finished nuclear reactor bombed by Israel in Sep 2007.
    (AP, 2/25/09)

2009        Mar 10, Syria opened its first stock exchange, closed since the 1960s, as it shifted from socialist policies toward a more market oriented system.
    (SFC, 3/11/09, p.A2)(Econ, 11/28/09, p.50)

2009        Mar 11, Saudi Arabia hosted the leaders of Egypt and Syria in an effort to persuade Damascus to move away from Iran and join with US-allied Arab countries in working to blunt Tehran's influence.
    (AP, 3/11/09)

2009        Mar 16, Lebanon opened its first-ever embassy in Syria in another sign of improving ties between the long-feuding neighbors.
    (AP, 3/16/09)

2009        Mar 31, The US Government Accountability Office released a report saying 4 countries designated a terrorism sponsors received $55 million from a US supported program promoting the peaceful use of nuclear energy under the IAEA’s Technical Cooperation program. Between 1997 and 2007 Iran received over $15 million, $14 million went to Syria, while Sudan and Cuba received over $11 million each.
    (WSJ, 3/31/09, p.A3)

2009        Apr 17, Mohammed Zuhair Siddiq, purported Syrian intelligence officer and one of the suspects in the 2005 assassination of a former Lebanese prime minister, was arrested in Dubai. He was arrested in France in October 2005 as a suspect in the murder, but disappeared from house arrest in France in March, 2008.
    (AP, 4/20/09)

2009        Apr 26, Chinese Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi wrapped up a regional Middle East visit in Damascus saying Israel should return the Golan Heights to Syria.
    (AFP, 4/26/09)

2009        May 1, In northern Iraq Ammar Afif Hamada (19), a would-be Syrian suicide bomber linked to al-Qaida in Iraq, was tackled by guards on the doorstep of a mosque in Kirkuk.
    (AP, 5/2/09)

2009        May 5, The leaders of Iran and Syria reaffirmed their support for Palestinian resistance, a defiant message to the US and its Mideast allies who are uneasy over Washington's efforts to forge closer ties with the hard-line government in Tehran.
    (AP, 5/5/09)

2009        May 10, Syria rejected the Obama administration's decision to renew economic and diplomatic sanctions against Damascus and urged Washington to abandon "foolish polices."
    (AP, 5/10/09)

2009        May 17, Israel's President Shimon Peres urged Syria to open direct peace talks and said indirect negotiations mediated by Turkey had not resumed.
    (AP, 5/17/09)

2009        Jul 2, The BBC reported that Syria’s Pres. Assad has issued a presidential decree ordering honor killers to face at least 2 years in prison.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/8130639.stm)

2009        Aug 7, Portugal said it has agreed to take two Syrian detainees from Guantanamo prison.
    (AP, 8/7/09)

2009        Aug 19, Syrian President Bashar Assad opened talks with Iranian officials in a visit expected to include an appeal to free a French academic accused of plotting to overthrow the Islamic regime.
    (AP, 8/19/09)

2009        Aug 25, Iraq recalled its ambassador from Syria and demanded that Damascus hand over two suspected Saddam Hussein loyalists it has linked to the Aug 19 suicide attacks.
    (AP, 8/25/09)

2009        Aug 29, Portugal’s government said 2 Syrians previously held at Guantanamo Bay have arrived in Portugal as free men.
    (AP, 8/29/09)

2009        Sep 3, A water rights battle over the historic Tigris and Euphrates rivers simmered, as Iraq and Syria appealed for increased water flows to cope with severe drought but Turkey said it was already too overstretched.
    (AP, 9/3/09)

2009        Sep 15, In Turkey security talks failed over Syria's refusal to extradite some suspects accused of deadly bombings in Baghdad. Senior Iraqi and Syrian diplomats attended the talks.
    (AP, 9/16/09)

2009        Sep 16, Syrian President Bashar Assad met with Turkey's PM Erdogan in Istanbul to discuss ways to revive the stalled peace process between Syria and Israel, a day after security talks with Iraq collapsed.
    (AP, 9/16/09)

2009        Sep 27, It was reported that some 300,000 Syrian farmers, herders and their families have been forced by drought to abandon their homes for makeshift urban camps.
    (SSFC, 9/27/09, p.A18)

2009        Oct 6, Syria held its first ever fashion design competition, meant to encourage young Syrian talents and local products.
    (AP, 10/7/09)

2009        Oct 7, Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah made his first visit to Syria since becoming monarch, the strongest indication yet of thawing relations between the two rival nations following years of tension. The 2-day talks between Abdullah and Assad focused on the need for Arab solidarity in view of the numerous challenges facing the Arab world.
    (AP, 10/7/09)(AP, 10/9/09)

2009        Oct 12, Syria's Pres. Bashar Assad issued a decree banning smoking in public places, joining an anti-smoking trend already under way in other Arab countries. The decree will go into effect in six months and ban smoking in restaurants, cafes, cinemas, theaters, schools, official functions and on public transport. Offenders will be fined 2,000 Syrian pounds, about $45.
    (AP, 10/12/09)

2009        Oct 15, The Syrian-based leadership of the militant Palestinian Hamas said it has rejected an Egyptian-mediated proposal to reconcile with the rival Fatah group. Hamas and seven other Damascus-based Palestinian factions issued a joint statement saying the reconciliation plan must be revised to include a reference to the Palestinian right to resist Israeli occupation.
    (AP, 10/15/09)

2009        Oct, Turkish ministers traveled to Baghdad and Damascus to sign a package of 48 co-operation deals with Iraq and 40 with Syria, covering everything from tourism to counter-terrorism and joint military exercises.
    (Econ, 10/31/09, p.57)

2009        Dec 17, Former Syrian President Amin Hafez (b.1920) died. He was brought to power by a military coup only to be overthrown three years later. Hafez became president in a 1963 coup, but Baath Party radicals drove him from power three years later.
    (AP, 12/17/09)

2009        Dec 19, Lebanon's PM Saad Hariri, who has blamed neighboring Syria for the assassination of his father, visited Damascus for the first time since the 2005 killing, a trip that a close associate said was extremely difficult for him to make.
    (AP, 12/19/09)

2009        Dec 27, Syrian security agents detained Tal al-Mallohi (19), a high school student blogger, after summoning her for questioning. Authorities have not allowed al-Mallohi's family to communicate with her since she was picked up. On Sep 20, 2010, The New York-based Human Rights Watch called for her immediate release. On Feb 14, 2011, she was sentenced to 5 years in prison on charges of spying for a foreign country.
    (AP, 9/20/10)(SFC, 2/15/11, p.A2)

2009        Syria’s population numbered about 22 million people, including about 1.5 million Kurds.
    (Econ, 11/28/09, p.50)
2009        Russia began to modernize the Syrian port of Tartus, its only military base outside the former Soviet Union.
    (Econ, 1/14/12, p.47)

2010        Feb 25, Syria and Iran defended their strong ties and dismissed US efforts to break up the 30-year-alliance, saying America should not dictate relationships in the Middle East.
    (AP, 2/25/10)

2010        Mar 4, A Syrian archaeologist said more than 250 silver coins dating back to the time of Alexander the Great have been unearthed. The coins were discovered two weeks ago in a bronze box in northern Syria when a local man was digging the foundations of his new home.
    (AP, 3/4/10)

2010        Mar 21, Syrian police opened fire at a group of Kurds celebrating the new year, killing at least one person despite signs that tensions were easing between the government and its restive Kurdish minority.
    (AP, 3/29/10)

2010        Mar 26, Tens of thousands of Syrians and Palestinians gathered in a Damascus square in a government-orchestrated "march of anger" against Israeli settlements in east Jerusalem.
    (AP, 3/26/10)

2010        Apr 21, In Syria a smoking ban that few are expected to abide by went into effect. The law, which also forbids the sale of cigarettes to minors, was approved six months ago by President Bashar Assad, a British-trained eye doctor. A 1996 decree issued by Assad's late father, President Hafez Assad, had banned smoking in government offices, hospitals and the airport. A 2004 law banned smoking in internet cafes and another law in 2006 made buses, railway stations, movie theaters, parks and cultural centers smoke-free, with violators facing a fine of about $10 and three months in jail. But the bans were often flouted and not strictly enforced.
    (AP, 4/21/10)

2010        Apr 29, Iraq's election commission said recounting all the ballots from the key Baghdad province will take around 2 to 3 weeks, further delaying the formation of a long awaited new government. 8 people were killed and 20 injured in car bomb outside a Baghdad liquor store. Iraq's banned Baath party, booted out of power in the 2003 US-led invasion, held its first public meeting in the Syrian capital.
    (AP, 4/29/10)(AFP, 4/30/10)

2010        May 3, The US renewed sanctions against Damascus, saying Syria has made some progress containing terror networks that use the country to infiltrate Iraq but that Damascus continues to support terrorists and pursue weapons of mass destruction.
    (AP, 5/5/10)

2010        May 11, Israeli Foreign Minister Avigdor Lieberman accused nuclear power North Korea of supplying Syria with weapons of mass destruction.
    (AP, 5/11/10)
2010        May 11, Russia's Pres. Medvedev said that Israeli-Arab tensions threaten to draw the Middle East into a new catastrophe, as he added Moscow's weight to a diplomatic push to ease antagonism between Israel and Syria. While in Syria, Medvedev unnerved Israel by paying a visit to Khaled Meshaal, the exiled leader of the Palestinian Islamist group Hamas.
    (AP, 5/11/10)(AP, 5/14/10)

2010        May 14, Russia’s Itar-Tass news agency quoted a senior Russian arms trader as saying Russia has signed deals with Syria under which it will sell it warplanes, anti-tank weapons and air defense systems. Federal Service for Military-Technical Cooperation chief Mikhail Dmitriyev said Russia will sell MiG-29 fighter jets, Pantsyr short-range air defense systems and armored vehicles. He didn't give any numbers or provide any further details.
    (Reuters, 5/14/10)(AP, 5/15/10)

2010        Jun 22, In Syria a severe 4-year drought was reported to be devastating rural communities, forcing them to abandon the country's traditional breadbasket in the northeast for cities in search of employment.
    (AFP, 6/22/10)

2010        Jun 23, In Syria a court in Damascus convicted Muhannad al-Hassani (44), a leading Syrian lawyer and rights activist, of spreading false information and sentenced him to three years in prison. He was also charged with "weakening national sentiments," a term often used in Syria against those who challenge the regime.
    (AP, 6/23/10)

2010        Jun 26, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez met with Syrian President Bashar Assad and called on Latin America and the Arab world to fight what he called America's imperialist and capitalist interests abroad.
    (AP, 6/26/10)

2010        Jun 28, In Cuba President Bashar Assad of Syria sat down with Raul Castro as part of his first tour of Latin America, a trip that is taking him to meetings with many of the region's left-leaning governments.
    (AP, 6/28/10)

2010        Jul 3, In Syria Mohammed Oudeh (b.1937), the key planner of the 1972 Munich Olympics attack that killed 11 Israeli athletes, died.
    (AP, 7/3/10)(SSFC, 7/4/10, p.C9)

2010        Jul 18, Syria announced a ban on the niqab, the face-covering Islamic veil, from the country's universities.
    (AP, 7/19/10)

2010        Jul 30, The leaders of Syria and Saudi Arabia, once bitter rivals, made an unprecedented show of cooperation, traveling together to Lebanon in hopes of preventing any violence if members of a militant group are indicted in the 2005 assassination of former Lebanese PM Rafik Hariri. Saudi Arabia, which was close to the slain premier, holds sway with Lebanon's ruling alliance led by his son Saad, while Syria and Iran support a rival camp led by Hezbollah.
    (AP, 7/30/10)

2010        Sep 25, In Syria leaders of the two rival Palestinian movements Fatah and Hamas held reconciliation talks in Damascus and said they wanted the discussions to continue.
    (AFP, 9/25/10)

2010        Oct 2, Visiting Iran Syrian President Bashar al-Assad assured Pres. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad that their ties were solid, a view unlikely to please Washington which is working to isolate the Islamic state.
    (Reuters, 10/2/10)

2010        Oct 4, An official said Syria has accused a 19-year-old blogger who is in prison of being a spy in the first comment from authorities on a case that sparked calls by a leading rights group for the young woman's release. Tal al-Mallohi was taken into custody in December. Her blog, known for poetry and social commentary, focused mostly on the suffering of Palestinians.
    (AP, 10/4/10)
2010        Oct 4, It was reported that Syria has ordered the arrest of 33 people over false testimony given in the UN-backed probe into the assassination of Lebanese ex-premier Rafiq Hariri. Observers said the warrants carried no legal weight in Lebanon as the crime in question took place on Lebanese soil and the complainant as well as most of the defendants are Lebanese.
    (AFP, 10/4/10)

2010        Oct 13, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad told visiting Iraqi premier Nuri al-Maliki that better ties between the two nations will be strengthened by the formation of a new Iraqi government.
    (AP, 10/13/10)

2010        Oct 21, In Syria Venezuelan Pres. Chavez met with his Pres. Bashar Assad on the Mideast leg of an international tour partly intended to counter what he calls US "imperialism."
    (AP, 10/21/10)

2010        Nov 9, Representatives of Hamas and the Fatah party of Palestinian president Mahmud Abbas started a meeting in Damascus for reconciliation talks.
    (AFP, 11/10/10)
2010        Nov 9, A UN report suggesting North Korea may have supplied Syria, Iran and Myanmar with banned nuclear technology headed to the Security Council. The latest report by the so-called Panel of Experts on Pyongyang's compliance with UN sanctions was delivered to the Security Council's North Korea sanctions committee in May, but did not move for nearly six months due to Chinese objections.
    (Reuters, 11/9/10)

2010        Dec 29, President Barack Obama bypassed Congress to name the first US ambassador to Syria in nearly six years. Obama took the controversial step of forcing through the appointments of Ambassador Robert Ford and five other officials while the Senate, which normally needs to confirm nominations, was out of session.
    (AF, 12/30/10)

2011        Jan 15, The prime ministers of Iraq and Syria agreed to boost cooperation in security and economic affairs during talks aimed at improving relations strained by Baghdad's allegations that the Syrians were harboring Iraqi insurgents.
    (AP, 1/15/11)

2011        Jan 16, Syria’s first American ambassador since 2005 arrived in Damascus at a time of regional turmoil and with Syrian-US relations still mired in mutual distrust.
    (AP, 1/16/11)

2011        Jan 31, Syria's president Assad, who has resisted calls for political freedoms and jailed critics of his regime, said in an interview published today that his nation is immune from the kind of unrest roiling Tunisia and Egypt.
    (AP, 1/31/11)

2011        Feb 1, Syrians were reported organizing campaigns on Facebook and Twitter calling for a "day of rage" in Damascus on Feb 4-5, taking inspiration from Egypt and Tunisia in using social networking sites to rally their followers for sweeping political reforms.
    (AP, 2/1/11)

2011        Mar 7, Syrian authorities released Haitham al-Maleh (80), a leading lawyer and human rights activist, just hours after President Bashar Assad issued an amnesty for older prisoners and others convicted of minor crimes.
    (AP, 3/8/11)

2011        Mar 15, The Israeli navy intercepted an Egyptian-bound ship carrying a large delivery of weapons off the Mediterranean coast, saying the arms had been sent by Syria to Palestinian militants in the Gaza Strip. PM Netanyahu said the source of the weaponry was Iran.
    (AP, 3/15/11)

2011        Mar 18, In Syria human rights activists said plainclothes security officers forcefully broken up about a dozen protesters in central Damascus. Syrian security forces launched a harsh crackdown on protesters calling for political freedoms. Accounts from activists and social media say at least five people died in Daraa.
    (AP, 3/18/11)(AP, 3/19/11)

2011        Mar 20, In Syria more than 100 people were wounded as security forces fired live bullets and tear gas at thousands of demonstrators in the town of Daraa.
    (AFP, 3/20/11)

2011        Mar 21, Syrian riot police armed with batons chased the crowd off without incident. The gathering was meant to mourn those who died after security troops fired at protesters in Deraa on March 18 killing five people.
    (AP, 3/21/11)

2011        Mar 22, In Syria Gov. Faisal Kalthoum was fired from his position in Daraa. A deadly government crackdown in the southern city of has Daraa left 7 people dead in 3 days of unrest.
    (AP, 3/22/11)

2011        Mar 23, Syrian security forces shot live ammunition and tear gas near the Omari mosque in Daraa where protesters have been camped out. At least 15 people were killed in an operation that began before dawn.
    (AP, 3/23/11)(SFC, 3/24/11, p.A4)(Econ, 3/26/11, p.53)

2011        Mar 24, In Syria thousands called for liberty in the southern city of Daraa, defying a deadly government crackdown as they took to the streets in funeral marches for protesters killed by police gunfire. The Syrian government pledged to consider lifting some of the Mideast's most repressive laws in an attempt to stop the weeklong uprising from spreading and threatening its nearly 50-year rule.
    (AP, 3/24/11)(AP, 3/25/11)

2011        Mar 25, In Syria demonstrations took place in Daraa and throughout the country in what organizers called a "Day of Dignity." Thousands took to the streets demanding reforms and mourning dozens of protesters who were killed during a violent, weeklong crackdown that has brought extraordinary pressure on the country's autocratic regime. Presidential adviser Buthaina Shaaban said 34 people have been killed in the weeklong crackdown. 4 people were reported killed when armed forces fired on protesters in Latakia. Troops and soldiers opened fire in at least six places, killing some 15 protesters.
    (AP, 3/25/11)(AP, 3/26/11)

2011        Mar 26, Syrian government forces and protesters clashed in the coastal city of Latakia, where demonstrators set fire to the offices of President Bashar Assad's ruling Baath party.
    (AP, 3/26/11)

2011        Mar 27, Syria's government said that unknown gunmen firing from rooftops and prowling the streets of Latakia are to blame for two days of violence that killed 12 people. A human rights activist said authorities have released 17 political detainees in another apparent attempt to appease the protesters.
    (AP, 3/27/11)

2011        Mar 28, Syrian security forces fired tear gas and live ammunition on hundreds of protesters in Daraa as President Bashar Assad faced down the most serious unrest of his 11 years in power with a bloody, weeklong crackdown. Reuters’ photographer Khaled al-Hariri, a Syrian based in Damascus, lost with colleagues.
    (AP, 3/28/11)(SFC, 3/29/11, p.A3)(AP, 3/31/11)

2011        Mar 29, Syrian President Bashar Assad fired his 32-member Cabinet to help quell a wave of popular fury that erupted more than a week ago, threatening Assad’s 11-year rule in one of the most authoritarian nations in the Middle East. Hundreds of thousands of supporters of Syria's regime poured into the streets as the government tried to show it has mass support. Human Rights Watch said more than 60 people have died since March 18 as security forces cracked down on protesters. Reuters’ correspondent Suleiman al-Khalidi was detained by Syrian authorities in Damascus.
    (AP, 3/29/11)(AP, 3/31/11)

2011        Mar 30, Syrian President Bashar Assad blamed "conspirators" for a wave of dissent against his authoritarian rule, but he failed to lift the country's despised emergency law or offer any concessions in his first speech since the protests began nearly two weeks ago.
    (AP, 3/30/11)

2011        Mar 31, Syria's Pres. Bashar Assad, facing a massive protest movement demanding reform, set up committees to look into the deaths of civilians during nearly two weeks of unrest and replacing decades-old emergency laws.
    (AP, 3/31/11)

2011        Apr 1, Thousands of Syrians shouting "We want freedom!" marched in Daraa city, which has become the epicenter of an extraordinary protest movement as security forces deployed across the country. At least 10 people were killed as security forces cracked down on demonstrations in Douma.
    (AP, 4/1/11)(AP, 4/2/11)(SFC, 4/4/11, p.A3)

2011        Apr 2, Syrian security forces made dawn arrests as mourners prepared to bury the first of at least nine people killed in anti-government protests on the Muslim day of rest.
    (AFP, 4/2/11)

2011        Apr 3, Syrian President Bashar Assad appointed Adel Safar (58), a former agriculture minister, to form a new government. This was part of a series of overtures toward reform as the country faced a wave of anti-government protests.
    (AP, 4/3/11)

2011        Apr 5, The southern Syrian town of Daraa, the center of pro-democracy protests, was hit by a general strike and braced for fresh rallies after midday prayers.
    (AFP, 4/5/11)

2011        Apr 6, Syria closed the country's only casino and reversed a decision that bans teachers from wearing the Islamic veil, moves seen an attempt to reach out to conservative Muslims ahead of calls for pro-democracy demonstrations.
    (AP, 4/6/11)

2011        Apr 7, Syria’s Pres. Bashar Assad granted citizenship to thousands of Kurds living in a northeastern province. Kurds, the largest ethnic minority in Syria, made up 15 percent of the country's 23 million population and have long complained of neglect and discrimination. Assad also sacked Governor Mohammad Iyad Ghaza of central Homs province, the scene of clashes between anti-government protesters and security forces in the past three weeks.
    (AP, 4/7/11)

2011        Apr 8, Syrian security forces fired tear gas and live ammunition as thousands of protesters gathered in Daraa. 25 people were killed in Daraa. State-run TV said 19 policemen and security forces were killed. 37 protesters were killed nationwide.
    (AP, 4/8/11)(SFC, 4/9/11, p.A3)(AP, 4/13/11)

2011        Apr 9, Syrian security forces fired on a funeral for protesters in Daraa. Some 37 people were killed around the country with most of the deaths in Daraa as the death toll in 3 weeks of protests climbed to over 170.
    (SSFC, 4/10/11, p.A7)

2011        Apr 10, Syrian security forces and pro-government gunmen killed four protesters in the port city of Banias after the army sealed off the city as hundreds of protesters gathered. State TV reported that nine soldiers were killed in an ambush near the city.
    (AP, 4/10/11)

2011        Apr 11, Syrian troops encircled the flashpoint coastal town of Banias, where weekend shootings left 13 dead and scores wounded. An activist in Damascus said security forces have beat up and arrested several at the university's science faculty. Hundreds of students had been shouting for freedoms and unity among Syrians. Activists said security forces killed a student during the protest at Damascus University.
    (AFP, 4/11/11)(AP, 4/11/11)(AP, 4/12/11)

2011        Apr 12, Syrian pro-government gunmen launched an attack on two villages, Bayda and Beit Jnad, in the northeast.
    (AP, 4/12/11)

2011        Apr 13, In Syria thousands of women and children holding white flags and olive branches blocked a main coastal highway, demanding authorities release detainees picked up during a crackdown on opponents of President Assad's authoritarian regime. Authorities released about 100 of the detainees and brought them to the area where the protesters had gathered. Protesters turned out at Damascus University in the capital and in Aleppo University in the country's north.
    (AP, 4/13/11)

2011        Apr 15, Syrian security forces fired tear gas at thousands of protesters who were marching toward Damascus.
    (AP, 4/15/11)

2011        Apr 16, Thousands of Syrians took to the streets for the funeral of a slain protester, shouting for freedom just hours before President Bashar Assad was expected to appear in a televised speech. Assad spoke to government insiders acknowledging economic woes.
    (AP, 4/16/11)(Econ, 4/23/11, p.49)

2011        Apr 17, In southern Syria thousands of people waving flags and shouting "We Want Freedom!" took to the streets, a day after President Bashar Assad promised to end nearly 50 years of emergency rule in an attempt to quell the growing uprising. Security forces opened fire on crowds challenging authoritarian rule. 20 people were killed in Homs and 2 in Latakia.
    (AP, 4/17/11)(AP, 4/18/11)(SFC, 4/19/11, p.A3)

2011        Apr 18, In Syria at least seven people were killed when security forces fired into a crowd in the flashpoint town of Homs, as nationwide protests showed no sign of abating.
    (AFP, 4/18/11)

2011        Apr 19, Syria's government approved lifting the country's nearly 50-year-old state of emergency to meet a key demand of anti-government protesters. Syria imposed a total ban on all demonstrations after warning of a crackdown on an "armed revolt" by Islamist radicals. Security forces fired on protesters in the city of Homs, killing at least 15.
    (AP, 4/19/11)(AFP, 4/19/11)(Econ, 4/23/11, p.49)

2011        Apr 20, In Syria thousands of students held demonstrations against the authoritarian regime, brushing off President Assad's sweeping declarations of reform as the country's growing protest movement vowed to stage the biggest rallies to date on April 22.
    (AP, 4/20/11)

2011        Apr 21, Syria's President Bashar Assad ratified an end to the country's 50-year-old state of emergency. The move was a formality after the government abolished the emergency laws two days ago.
    (AP, 4/21/11)

2011        Apr 22, Syrian security forces fired live bullets and tear gas at tens of thousands of people shouting for freedom and democracy in several areas across the country. At least 109 people were killed in the clashes.
    (Reuters, 4/22/11)(AP, 4/23/11)(Reuters, 4/24/11)(SFC, 4/25/11, p.A3)

2011        Apr 23, Syrian security forces fired on tens of thousands of mourners during funeral processions killing at least 12 people including 4 in Nawa. Two members of parliament from Deraa resigned in protest against the killing of protesters. The death toll from two days of violence reached 120. Rights campaigners said the death toll rose to around 350, with scores of missing since the demonstrations broke out on March 18.
    (AP, 4/23/11)(AFP, 4/23/11)(Reuters, 4/24/11)(SFC, 4/25/11, p.A3)

2011        Apr 24, Thousands of Syrians called for the overthrow of President Bashar al-Assad at a funeral for protesters killed by security forces in the southern town of Nawa. Syrian security forces detained dozens of opposition activists and others in raids. In Jableh (Jabla) army troops and police reportedly opened fire from rooftop positions even though no protest was in progress, killing one person and wounding several others.
    (Reuters, 4/24/11)(AP, 4/24/11)

2011        Apr 25, Syria sharply escalated its already deadly campaign to crush a five-week uprising, sending troops backed by tanks, snipers and knife-wielding security forces into Daraa where the rebellion began, killing at least 25 people. Syria sealed off its border with Jordan.
    (AP, 4/25/11)(AFP, 4/25/11)(Reuters, 4/26/11)(AFP, 4/27/11)

2011        Apr 26, In Syria gunfire reverberated in the southern city of Daraa where the dead still lay unclaimed in the streets a day after a brutal government crackdown on the popular revolt against President Bashar Assad. European governments urged Syria to end violence against demonstrators. Security forces shot dead at least 6 people.
    (AP, 4/26/11)(Reuters, 4/26/11)

2011        Apr 27, Syrian troops tightened control over flashpoints of protest against President Bashar al-Assad, who faced growing international calls to end violence that a rights group said had killed over 450 people. The Syrian army sent more tanks and reinforcements into Daraa as part of a widening crackdown.
    (AP, 4/27/11)

2011        Apr 28, Syrian tanks rolled into the northern port of Latakia, a key city in the heartland of Syria's ruling elite, and security forces opened fire on anti government demonstrators, while heavy shooting rang out again in the southern protest hotbed of Daraa.
    (AP, 4/28/11)
2011        Apr 28, The UN nuclear agency said for the first time that a target destroyed by Israeli warplanes in the Syrian desert five years ago was a covertly built nuclear reactor, countering assertions by Syria that it had no atomic secrets to hide.
    (AP, 4/28/11)

2011        Apr 29, Thousands of Syrians called for the toppling of President Bashar al-Assad and pledged support for the city of Deraa where tanks and troops have tried to crush resistance to his authoritarian rule. At least 65 people were killed with 36 of the deaths in the Daraa province, 27 in the central Homs region, one in Latakia and another in the Damascus countryside. Tamer Mohammed al-Sharei (15) disappeared in Daraa. Activists on June 9 released video of his dead body and said he was tortured by security forces.
    (AP, 4/29/11)(AP, 4/30/11)(SFC, 6/10/11, p.A2)

2011        Apr 30, Syrian army troops backed by tanks and helicopters took a prominent mosque that had been controlled by residents in a besieged southern city, killing four people. Another six people were killed in separate incidents. 138 members of Assad's ruling Baath Party resigned to protest the crackdown. Troops and snipers killed six civilians as Syrians prepared to bury scores of people killed in a "day of rage", while the United States and EU imposed sanctions on Damascus.
    (AP, 4/30/11)(AFP, 4/30/11)(AP, 5/1/11)

2011        May 1, Syrian army tanks shelled the old quarter of Daraa and rolled in more reinforcements to the area, which has been under siege for nearly a week. Syrian forces arrested more dissidents in Daraa and in a Damascus suburb under siege for a week. The death toll soared to 545 nationwide from government forces firing on demonstrators.
    (AP, 5/1/11)(AFP, 5/1/11)

2011        May 2, Syrian troops conducted door-to-door raids in cities and towns across the nation, arresting scores of people in a campaign of intimidation aimed at crushing the six-week uprising against President Bashar Assad's authoritarian regime.
    (AP, 5/2/11)

2011        May 3, Syrian security forces fired tear gas in the northern city of Aleppo to disperse hundreds of students rallying and calling for an end to Daraa's siege. Rights groups said at least 545 Syrians have been killed since the uprising began in Daraa.
    (AP, 5/4/11)

2011        May 5, The Syrian army said it has begun withdrawing from Daraa, a city at the heart of the country's uprising, but the regime expanded its crackdown elsewhere by deploying soldiers and arresting hundreds ahead of a fresh wave of anti-government protests. Syrian troops arrested 300 people in a Damascus suburb.
    (AP, 5/5/11)(AFP, 5/5/11)

2011        May 6, Thousands of Syrians rallied on a "Day of Defiance" even as the regime of President Bashar al-Assad deployed tanks in at least three centers of an uprising against his autocratic rule. Security forces opened fire on protesters, killing at least 30 people, as thousands joined demonstrations across the country calling for an end to Assad's regime.
    (AFP, 5/6/11)(AP, 5/6/11)(AP, 5/7/11)
2011        May 6, The EU agreed to place sanctions on Syrian officials next week as it tries to halt a government crackdown against protesters.
    (AP, 5/6/11)

2011        May 7, Syrian tanks rolled into the Mediterranean coastal town of Banias in an escalating crackdown by President Bashar Assad. Rights groups said more than 580 civilians and 100 soldiers have been killed since the revolt began.
    (AP, 5/7/11)

2011        May 8, In Syria a 12-year-old boy was killed as gunfire and shelling erupted in the central city of Homs. An activist said the two-day death toll in Banias had risen to six. State-run SANA said authorities have seized sophisticated weapons and that the army is still hunting down "armed terrorist groups" across the country, including in Banias.
    (AP, 5/8/11)

2011        May 9, Syrian security forces arrested hundreds of activists and anti-government protesters in house-to-house raids across the country, part of an escalating government crackdown aimed at stamping out the nationwide revolt engulfing the country.
    (AP, 5/9/11)

2011        May 10, Syrian forces tightened the noose on key protest hubs, including flashpoint Banias, sealing off neighborhoods and arresting leaders of the anti-regime dissent movement. Syria’s National Organization for Human Rights said over 750 civilians have been killed in Syria since an uprising against President Bashar Assad's regime began in mid-March. Activists said three protesters were killed when government forces fired on demonstrations in Jassem. In Banias at least 7 civilians, including 4 women, were killed during military operations.
    (AFP, 5/10/11)(AP, 5/10/11)(AP, 5/11/11)

2011        May 11, The Syrian army shelled residential areas in Homs, the country's third-largest city, leaving at least 10 dead as part of an offensive to crush demonstrations against President Bashar Assad's rule. An official, who was not identified, said two soldiers were killed and five wounded during confrontations. Al-Jazeera said that Dorothy Parvaz, one of the network's journalists with extensive connections in the US and Canada, has been sent to Iran following her detention last month in Damascus.
    (AP, 5/11/11)(SFC, 5/12/11, p.A3)

2011        May 12, Syrian soldiers and tanks executing a nationwide crackdown on regime opponents surrounded the city of Hama.
    (AP, 5/12/11)

2011        May 13, Syrian security forces and snipers opened fire on thousands of protesters, killing at least 6 people as soldiers tried to head off demonstrations by occupying mosques and blocking public squares.
    (AP, 5/13/11)(SFC, 5/14/11, p.A2)

2011        May 14, Syrian troops killed three people and wounded several others in the border town of Tall Kalakh. Hundreds of Syrians, including four wounded people, crossed into Lebanon fleeing violence in their country as an uprising against President Bashar Assad's regime entered its eighth week.
    (AFP, 5/14/11)(AP, 5/14/11)

2011        May 15, In Syria at least 8 people were killed in Talkalakh, the most recent casualties from a government crackdown that already has killed 850 people nationwide since mid-March.
    (AP, 5/16/11)
2011        May 15, Israeli troops clashed with Arab protesters along three hostile borders, leaving at least 12 people dead and dozens wounded in an unprecedented wave of violence marking the anniversary of the mass displacement of Palestinians surrounding Israel's establishment in 1948. Israeli gunfire killed two protesters and wounded dozens as civilians crossed from Syria onto the annexed Golan Heights, raising tensions between Damascus and the Jewish state. 10 of the dead were Palestinian refugees living in Lebanon.
    (AP, 5/15/11)(AFP, 5/15/11)(AP, 5/16/11)
2011        May 15, A Lebanese soldier was wounded from gunfire coming from the Syrian side of the border.
    (AP, 5/15/11)

2011        May 16, Syrians fleeing their homeland described a "catastrophic" scene in the besieged border town of Talkalakh that has been largely sealed off as the army strove to crush a two-month uprising. Talkalakh is a Sunni city, surrounded by 12 Alawite villages.
    (AP, 5/16/11)

2011        May 17, Syria's opposition called for a general strike on May 18 in defiance of a government campaign to crush pro-democracy protests, as the army presses its siege of the restive town of Tall Kalakh, the latest target of its brutal crackdown. Syrian government agents chased students who were protesting against President Bashar Assad's regime at campus in Aleppo, beating them with batons and injuring dozens.
    (AFP, 5/17/11)(AP, 5/17/11)

2011        May 18, The Swiss government passed a measure restricting arms sales to Syria and freezing the assets and banning the travel to Switzerland of 13 senior Syrian officials.
    (AP, 5/18/11)
2011        May 18, The US slapped sanctions on Syrian Pres. Bashar Assad and six of his senior officials for human rights abuses.
    (SFC, 5/19/11, p.A4)

2011        May 19, The Syrian army shelled the border town of Talkalakh overnight and early today, sparking gunbattles that killed at least 8 people. The government condemned US sanctions targeting President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 5/19/11)

2011        May 20, Syrian security forces opened fire on protests around the country in the latest sign the conflict could be moving toward a long and bloody stalemate. The crackdown on protesters in different parts of the country left at least 44 people dead, making it one of the deadliest days since an uprising against Pres. Assad's regime began two months ago.
    (AP, 5/20/11)(AP, 5/21/11)

2011        May 21, In Syria at least five people were killed while marching during the funeral procession of several people among 44 killed during protests a day earlier.
    (AFP, 5/22/11)

2011        May 23, The EU imposed sanctions on Syrian President Bashar Assad because of his government's continuing crackdown on anti-government protesters, condemning the violence in which more than 900 people have reportedly been killed.
    (AP, 5/23/11)

2011        May 24, Ammar Qarabi of the National Organization for Human Rights in Syria said his group has documented the names of 1,062 people who have died since the uprising erupted in mid-March.
    (AP, 5/24/11)

2011        May 25, In Syria the body of Hamza al-Khatib (13) was returned to his family, following his disappearance after a demonstration in Daraa on April 29. The body bore multiple marks of abuse including bullet holes and castration.
    (AFP, 5/28/11)(Econ, 6/4/11, p.56)

2011        May 27, Syrian security forces opened fire on anti-government demonstrations, killing at least 12 people as thousands took to the streets despite the near-certainty they will face gunfire, tear gas and stun guns.
    (AP, 5/27/11)(AFP, 5/28/11)

2011        May 28, Syrian activists called for renewed protests in honor of Hamza al-Khatib, a 13-year-old boy who allegedly was tortured and killed by security forces.
    (AP, 5/28/11)

2011        May 29, Syrian government troops backed by tanks attacked the towns of Rastan and Talbiseh in the central province of Homs in an attempt to stop round-the-clock protests there against Pres. Assad's regime. The toll of those shot dead rose to 11 from a previously reported seven in Rastan and Talbisa. Security forces reportedly opened fire in the early hours at about 8,000 protesters in the northeastern town of Deir el-Zour, wounding several people.
    (AP, 5/29/11)(AFP, 5/30/11)

2011        May 30, Syrian troops shelled the central town of Tabliseh, and for the first time in the two-month-old revolt against the president, residents armed with automatic rifles and rocket-propelled grenades put up fierce resistance. State media said four soldiers were killed. Two bodies were found in the area of Bab Amro cemetery, raising the death toll from the two-day crackdown in the country's turbulent heartland to 11.
    (AP, 5/30/11)

2011        May 31, The Syrian military used heavy machine guns and artillery in renewed attacks on Rastan, a town in the country's turbulent heartland. Opponents of the Syrian regime gathered on Turkey's Mediterranean coast for a conference aimed at overcoming their differences and bolstering protesters who have endured a bloody crackdown under President Bashar Assad. 20 people were reported shot dead in Rastan.
    (AP, 6/1/11)(AP, 6/1/11)

2011        Jun 1, The Syrian government freed hundreds of political prisoners in an amnesty and the president set up a committee for national dialogue in an effort to end the 10-week uprising. Syrian military forces killed 42 people in raids around Homs. Over 300 Syrian exiles gathered in Antalya, Turkey, to discuss alternatives to Bashar Assad’s rule.
    (AP, 6/1/11)(AP, 6/2/11)(SFC, 6/2/11, p.A2)(Econ, 6/4/11, p.57)

2011        Jun 2, Syrian government troops pounded a central town with artillery and gunfire, renewing attacks in a restive area that has been largely cut off from outside contact for six days. At least 15 people died, bringing the total killed there to 72 since the onslaught began.
    (AP, 6/2/11)

2011        Jun 3, Syrian security forces opened fire in Hama during one of the largest anti-government protests so far in the 10-week revolt, killing at least 70 people.
    (AP, 6/3/11)(AP, 6/4/11)(SFC, 6/5/11, p.A4)(Econ, 6/11/11, p.53)

2011        Jun 4, In Syria more than 100,000 mourners turned out for the funerals of protesters killed by security forces in Hama. Authorities released Ali Abdullah, a leading opposition figure of the Damascus Declaration Group. He had been jailed since 2007.
    (AP, 6/4/11)

2011        Jun 5, Israeli troops opened fire across the Syrian frontier to disperse hundreds of pro-Palestinian protesters who stormed the border of the Israeli-controlled Golan Heights. Syrian state television said 20 people were killed by the Israeli Defense Forces. Israelis said only 10 demonstrators were killed near Kuneitra when their own Molotov cocktails triggered border anti-tank mines.
    (AP, 6/5/11)(Reuters, 6/5/11)(AFP, 6/5/11)(SFC, 6/6/11, p.A2)(Econ, 6/11/11, p.54)

2011        Jun 6, Syrian American lesbian blogger Amina Arraf was allegedly last seen in Damascus after being bundled into a car by 3 men in civilian clothes. On June 13 this story was revealed as a hoax and a 40-year old American man living in Scotland apologized for posing as Arraf.
    (SFC, 6/8/11, p.A2)(SFC, 6/14/11, p.A2)

2011        Jun 7, Syria’s government said 120 of its forces were killed in Jisr al-Shughour as people fled the area for the nearby Turkish border. Syria said armed gangs killed security personnel in the town after large demonstrations there.
    (SFC, 6/8/11, p.A4)(Reuters, 4/25/15)

2011        Jun 8, Civil strife continued in Syria, as elite troops, led by President Bashar Assad’s brother Maher, were sent to the northern region of the country to crack down on anti-government rebels, who are fighting to overthrow the Assad regime.
    (AP, 6/8/11)

2011           Jun 9, In Syria government troops surrounded Jisr al-Shughour in a crack down on rebels. Over 2,400 people fled the area escaping over the border into Turkey, where they were settled in a temporary refugee camp. Policemen turned their guns on each other and soldiers shed their uniforms rather than obey orders to fire on protesters. 3 young men from Latakia were beheaded by forces loyal to Assad.      
            (Reuters, 6/9/11)(SFC, 6/10/11, p.A5)

2011        Jun 10, Syrian government forces killed at least 32 protesters. The military fired live ammunition at a group of demonstrators in the Hauran Plain region. Government troops fanned out to quell similar protests in a number of other regions as demonstrators rose up in no fewer than 138 places calling for the overthrow of the regime of Bashar al-Assad.
            (Reuters, 6/10/11)(SFC, 6/11/11, p.A4)(Econ, 6/18/11, p.16)

2011             Jun 12, Syrian troops, led by President Assad’s brother and assisted by tanks and helicopters, successful regained control of Jisr al-Shughour, one of the first regions where anti-government protests had shown strength.  
            (AP, 6/12/11)

2011        Jun 15, Terrified Syrians ran for their lives as elite army units swept through a restive northern province.
    (SFC, 6/16/11, p.A2)
2011              Jun 15, Turkey’s president Tayyip Erdogan held talks with an envoy of Syrian president Bashar al-Assad as a growing number of Syrians fled their country seeking safety in refugee camps. Relations between Turkey and Syria strained, as Turkey wants Syria to stop its brutal crackdown on protesters.
            (Reuters, 6/15/11)

2011        Jun 16, Syrian security forces made sweeping arrests, randomly detaining males above the age of 16 in a northwestern province that has been under military siege for a week.
    (AP, 6/16/11)

2011        Jun 17, Syrian security forces killed 19 people, including a 16-year-old boy, during anti-government protests. Thousands of people poured into the streets throughout Syria after prayers calling for the downfall of President Bashar Assad's regime. Security forces opened fire on protesters in the western coastal city of Banias.
    (AP, 6/17/11)(AFP, 6/17/11)(AP, 6/18/11)

2011        Jun 18, Syrian troops backed by tanks and firing heavy machine guns swept into a village near the Turkish border, the latest in a series of intensified army operations in the northwest where there have been heavy clashes between loyalist troops and defectors. The number of Syrians who have taken refuge in Turkey to escape bloody unrest in their country increased to about 10,100. At least 19 unarmed people were killed in the day’s violence.
    (AP, 6/18/11)(AFP, 6/18/11)(SFC, 6/18/11, p.A3)

2011        Jun 19, Syrian troops tightened their grip on a restive area near the Turkish border, setting fire to homes and a bakery that was supplying bread to thousands of displaced people. The Turkish government began providing food for the first time to Syrians across the border who had fled the army campaign.
    (AP, 6/19/11)

2011        Jun 20, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad pledged political reforms within months to address a wave of protests against his rule, but blamed saboteurs for the unrest and warned that no deal could be reached with gunmen. Assad called on the 10,000 who have already crossed the frontier to come home. Demonstrations erupted overnight in the cities of Hama, Homs, Latakia, Deir al-Zor, the town of Madaya near the Lebanese border, several suburbs of the capital Damascus and in Albu Kamal on the border with Iraq.
    (Reuters, 6/20/11)

2011        Jun 21, Syria’s President Bashar al-Assad ordered a new general amnesty, a day after an offer of "national dialogue" to end Syria's deadly unrest and as a huge crowd rallied in Damascus in his support.  Government supporters and opponents clashed in at least two cities, leaving three people dead in Homs and Deir el Zour. Assad's authoritarian regime mobilized tens of thousands of people to wave flags and pictures of Assad in several major cities.
    (AP, 6/21/11)(AFP, 6/21/11)

2011        Jun 23, Syrian troops massed near the Turkish border, raising tensions with Ankara as protests against President Bashar al-Assad's rule hit the 100 day mark. Syrian forces stormed the border town of Khirbet al-Jouz. Rights groups said Syrian security forces have killed more than 130 civilians and arrested 2,000 in the military campaign southwest of Aleppo. Some 1,300 civilians have been killed across Syria since mid-March.
    (Reuters, 6/23/11)(SFC, 6/24/11, p.A3)

2011        Jun 24, In Syria at least 18 people were killed when security forces opened fire to disperse demonstrations in Damascus, the town of Kiswah, Qusair and the central city of Homs. Demonstrations rocked many Syrian cities, including the eastern oil hub of Deir Ezzor where 30,000 protesters filled the streets. The EU this week issued fresh sanctions against Syria, which expanded a blacklist targeting 23 top leaders including the embattled president Assad.
    (AFP, 6/24/11)(AFP, 6/25/11)

2011        Jun 25, Syrian tanks rolled into a village on the border with Turkey where workers are scrambling to erect a huge tent city for fear of a new exodus of refugees from the crackdown. Government forces opened fire at funerals for slain political protesters leaving two dead in al-Kaswa, a suburb of the Syrian Damascus. Two other people were killed in the village of al-Quseir. One person was killed in the Barzeh neighborhood of Damascus.
    (AFP, 6/25/11)(AP, 6/26/11)

2011        Jun 26, Syrian troops pushed towards the Lebanese border as they pressed on with a deadly crackdown on dissent in central towns, where gunfire rattled overnight.
    (AFP, 6/26/11)

2011        Jun 27, In Syria nearly 200 critics of President Bashar Assad met in Damascus for the first time during the three-month uprising against his rule, in a government-sanctioned gathering some activists complained would be exploited to give legitimacy to the regime.
    (AP, 6/27/11)

2011        Jun 28, In Syria some 50,000 to 60,000 protesters marched through the eastern town of Deir Ezzor, where demonstrations have become a daily event. Author and activist Munzer Khaddam, who a day earlier presided over a public meeting of opposition figures in Damascus, was taken to task by pro-regime supporters.
    (AP, 6/29/11)

2011        Jun 29, Syrian army tanks rolled into more northwestern villages. 10 people were shot dead when soldiers backed by tanks and armored personnel carriers swept into in the district of Jabal al-Zawiyah, including Mar-Ayan, Al-Rami, Sarja and Kafr Haya. Some 300 hundred lawyers staged a sit-in protest in the second city of Aleppo. The US Treasury issued a new list of asset freezes, targeting Syria's Political Security Directorate and air force intelligence chief Major General Jamil Hassan.
    (AP, 6/29/11)(AP, 6/30/11)

2011        Jun 30, Syria's second city Aleppo braced for a mass rally, after a call for anti-regime protesters to "light the spark of the revolution," as pro-democracy dissidents joined ranks at home and abroad. Only five Syrians made it across the border today as the death toll from a two-day military siege rose to 11 people.
    (AFP, 6/30/11)(AP, 6/30/11)

2011        Jul 1, In Syria hundreds of thousands of protesters flooded cities in one of the largest outpourings against the regime of President Bashar Assad since the uprisings. Security forces in Hama shot dead over 20 protesters.
    (AP, 7/1/11)(AP, 7/2/11)(Econ, 7/16/11, p.55)

2011        Jul 2, Syrian Pres Assad dismissed Ahmed Abdul-Aziz, the governor of the key central city of Hama, after one of the largest protest gatherings to demand an end to Assad's authoritarian regime.
    (AP, 7/2/11)

2011        Jul 3, In Syria security police reportedly shot dead two protesters in a Damascus suburb that has seen expanding protests against Pres. Assad. Armed troops returned to Hama. At least 24 people were killed in widespread demonstrations over the next 2 days.
    (Reuters, 7/4/11)(Econ, 7/9/11, p.45)

2011        Jul 4, Syrian troops stormed houses in Hama as thousands of people took to the streets shouting "God is greatest," in the city which saw huge protests last week against President Bashar al-Assad. Two adults and 12-year-old Omar Khalouf were killed in Hama.
    (Reuters, 7/4/11)(SFC, 7/6/11, p.A3)

2011        Jul 5, Syrian troops fired on residents who set up makeshift roadblocks to prevent the advance of tanks ringing the city of Hama. The London-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 14 people were killed in Hama. Another group, the National Organization for Human Rights in Syria said, as many as 22 people were shot dead and more than 80 wounded.
    (AP, 7/5/11)(AP, 7/6/11)

2011        Jul 6, In Syria security forces detained dozens of men in the town of Dumair near Damascus. Amnesty International said that Syrian security forces may have committed war crimes during a deadly siege of an opposition town in May, citing witness accounts of deaths in custody, torture and arbitrary detention.
    (AP, 7/6/11)

2011        Jul 7, Syrian protesters hurled stones and set roadblocks of burning tires against government forces trying to enter Hama, a key opposition city, where Syrian troops had killed 23 civilians since July 5. Around a hundred families fled Hama fearing a military crackdown.
    (AP, 7/7/11)(AFP, 7/7/11)

2011        Jul 8, Tens of thousands of Syrians carrying olive branches and shouting for the downfall of President Bashar Assad's regime streamed into the flashpoint city of Hama. US and French ambassadors traveled to Hama a day earlier and left today before the protests began. Security forces killed three protesters in Maaret al-Numan, a town on the highway linking Damascus, the capital, with Syria's largest city, Aleppo. Two other people were killed in Damascus' central neighborhood of Midan and in the nearby town of Dumari. Activists said the crackdown killed at least 13 people.
    (AP, 7/8/11)(AP, 7/9/11)

2011        Jul 9, Human Rights Watch, in a report citing defectors from President Bashar Assad's regime, said Syrian commanders have told security forces they were fighting terrorists and ordered them to open fire on anti-regime demonstrations even after they found unarmed protesters instead.
    (AP, 7/9/11)

2011        Jul 10, Syria's vice president Farouk al-Sharaa called for a transition to democracy and credited protesters with forcing the regime to consider reforms. Syria's Foreign Ministry said it had summoned the American and French ambassadors to protest their visits to the restive city of Hama. Security forces in Homs killed the son of an anti-regime tribal leader.
    (AP, 7/10/11)(AP, 7/11/11)

2011        Jul 11, Syrian troops stormed into Homs, the country's third-largest city with armored personnel carriers and heavy machine guns. At least 2 people were killed as a dialogue over possible government reforms moved into a second day in Damascus. The talks were boycotted by the main opposition factions. Pro-government mobs broke windows at the French and US embassies to protest a visit last week by the American and French ambassadors to the opposition stronghold of Hama.
    (AP, 7/11/11)(AP, 7/12/11)

2011        Jul 12, In northeastern Syria an explosion hit a gas pipeline in the first attack on the country's energy infrastructure since protests erupted in March.
    (AFP, 7/13/11)

2011        Jul 13, In Syria at least 7 people were killed during army raids in the Jabal al-Zawiya region in northern Idlib province. Security forces broke up a peaceful anti-government protest in Damascus, beating some protesters and arresting Syrian intellectuals, actors and artists.
    (AP, 7/14/11)

2011        Jul 14, In Syria a 45-year-old man was shot dead in Deir el-Zour province, near the border with Iraq, when security forces fired at protesters.
    (AP, 7/14/11)

2011        Jul 15, Syrian security forces killed at least 28 protesters as hundreds of thousands flooded the streets nationwide in the largest anti-government demonstrations since the uprising began more than four months ago. Casualties included 14 people in a suburb of Damascus, three in the northwestern city of Idlib, three in the central city of Homs and one in Daraa.
    (AP, 7/15/11)(AP, 7/16/11)(SFC, 7/16/11, p.A3)

2011        Jul 16, In Syria security forces continued a weekslong operation in the restive Idlib province, near the Turkish border. Authorities raided homes in the village Kfar Nabl and made scores of arrests. A civilian was killed in Al-Bukamal when security forces opened fire to break up a demonstration against the regime of President Assad. 3 security personnel were killed and two kidnapped in an attack on a government building. An opposition conference in Turkey, called the National Salvation Conference, was attended by some 400 dissidents looking to form a unified opposition to Pres. Assad, whose family has ruled Syria for more than 40 years. The corpses of 3 Alawite government supporters were dumped in Homs with their eyes gouged out.
    (AP, 7/16/11)(AP, 7/17/11)(SFC, 7/19/11, p.A5)

2011        Jul 17, Syrian troops backed by tanks stormed the town of Zabadani near the border with Lebanon. Security forces reportedly have rounded up more than 500 people, including a leading dissident, across the country over the past two days. 6 bodies from various sects were found dumped in Homs, apparently in revenge attacks. Pro-government thugs called shabiha then went on a rampage, opening fire in predominantly Sunni neighborhoods in Homs.
    (AP, 7/17/11)(AP, 7/18/11)

2011        Jul 18, In Syria the Qatari embassy in Damascus suspended operations due to recent protests outside the embassy against Al-Jazeera's coverage of the Syrian uprising. Al-Jazeera is based in Qatar. Security forces in Homs killed 10 people in raids.
    (AP, 7/18/11)(AP, 7/18/11)

2011        Jul 19, Syrian activists said security forces have fired on a funeral procession in Homs, killing at least 10 people.
    (AP, 7/18/11)

2011        Jul 20, Syrian security forces swept through restive neighborhoods, detaining dozens of people, including George Sabra, a key opposition figure. Authorities released prominent political activist Ali Abdullah of the Damascus Declaration opposition group, three days after he was taken from his home near Damascus.
    (AP, 7/20/11)

2011        Jul 21, Syrian security forces swept through neighborhoods in Homs, firing machine guns and pulling people from their homes in a series of arrests. Activists said up to 50 people have been killed in Homs since the latest crackdown and sectarian violence began on July 16. 3-4 more people were reportedly killed in Homs.
    (AP, 7/21/11)(AP, 7/21/11)

2011        Jul 22, Tens of thousands of Syrians defied a massive security crackdown and flooded the streets of Damascus and other cities, insisting their protest movement was united and demanding the downfall of President Bashar Assad's regime. At least five people were reported killed, as security forces used batons, bullets and tear gas to disperse protesters.
    (AP, 7/22/11)(AP, 7/23/11)

2011        Jul 23, A Syrian passenger train derailed and caught fire near Homs, killing the driver and injuring 14 passengers, after "saboteurs" tore out part of the tracks.
    (AP, 7/23/11)

2011        Jul 24, Syria's government endorsed a draft law that it says will allow the formation of political parties alongside President Assad's ruling Baath Party, part of a series of promised reforms that the opposition has dismissed as largely symbolic. The bill still needed to be endorsed by parliament and will likely be presented for debate at the next session on August 7. Troops stormed a northwestern village and made sweeping arrests in the region and in the capital Damascus.
    (AP, 7/25/11)

2011        Jul 25, Syrian security forces tightened their siege of neighborhoods in the city of Homs, sending military reinforcements and cutting mobile and land lines in the Khaldieh and Bayada districts. Troops shot dead three civilians in central and northern Syria.
    (AP, 7/25/11)(AP, 7/26/11)

2011        Jul 26, Syria’s Cabinet endorsed draft legislation that would enable newly formed political parties to run for parliament and local councils.
    (AP, 7/27/11)

2011        Jul 27, Syrian troops opened fire on scores of people in a Damascus suburb, killing at least 8 people trying to halt the soldiers' advance by throwing stones and burning tires. Zainab al-Hosni (18) was abducted by plainclothes individuals believed to be members of the security forces, apparently to pressure her activist brother Mohammad Deeb al-Hosni to turn himself in. On Sep 23 it was reported that her family found her corpse by chance as they searched for her activist brother's body in Homs. The family said she had been decapitated, her arms cut off, and skin removed.
    (AP, 7/27/11)(AP, 9/23/11)

2011        Jul 28, A global campaigning organization, Avaaz.org, said that one person disappears in Syria every hour and that almost 3,000 people have gone missing since the start of the uprising against President Bashar Assad more than four months ago.
    (AP, 7/28/11)

2011        Jul 29, Syrian troops fired live ammunition and tear gas on tens of thousands of protesters calling for the regime's ouster in several cities around the country, killing at least one demonstrator in Latakia. A bomb blast struck a major oil pipeline in western Syria, causing oil to spill into a nearby lake. State television said the explosion was a "terrorist" attack by a group of "saboteurs." 4 people were killed during a raid on the Damascus suburb of Kiswah. One person was killed when troops entered the eastern border town of al-Boukamal near Iraq's border.
    (AP, 7/29/11)(AP, 7/30/11)

2011        Jul 30, Syrian troops stormed the eastern city of Deir el-Zour and barraged neighborhoods with heavy machine gun fire. One person was shot dead in a nearby village.
    (AP, 7/30/11)

2011        Jul 31, Syrian security forces reportedly killed at least 74 people, including 55 in Hama, in an escalation of the crackdown on protests ahead of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. State-run news agency SANA said that gunmen in Hama and Deir el-Zour had erected barricades and sand barriers in the streets, and that extremists in Hama torched police stations and that 2 policemen, an officer and 2 soldiers were killed.
    (AP, 7/31/11)(AP, 8/1/11)

2011        Aug 1, Syrian troops kept up attacks on the restive city of Hama on the start of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. The EU expanded its sanctions against Syria, imposing asset freezes and travel bans against five more military and government officials. Some 24 people were reported killed in Hama. Activists later said 130 civilians were killed in the first day of the attack in Hama.
    (AP, 8/1/11)(AP, 8/2/11)(AP, 8/31/11)

2011        Aug 2, Syrian troops tightened their siege on the city of Hama by taking up positions near homes and sending residents fleeing for their lives.
    (AP, 8/2/11)
2011        Aug 2, Italy recalled its ambassador to Syria to protest the repression of anti-government protests and urged other European nations to do the same.
    (AP, 8/2/11)

2011        Aug 3, Syrian tanks took over a main square in the besieged city of Hama and electricity and telephone phone lines were cut off. Security forces shot dead at least 7 people who took part in anti-regime protests that erupted after nighttime Ramadan prayers across the country. A rights group that tracks death tallies reported up to 30 people were killed in Hama.
    (AP, 8/3/11)(AP, 8/4/11)(AP, 8/4/11)

2011        Aug 4, Syria’s Pres. Assad issued two legislative decrees that will allow the formation of political parties alongside the Baath Party and enable newly formed parties to run for parliament and local councils. Telephone and communication lines remained cut with the restive city of Hama, where a deadly military operation has been under way since July 31. Military operations were also under way in the central city of Homs, where heavy machine guns and automatic gunfire was heard throughout the night in the Bab Sbaa and Qalaa districts.
    (AP, 8/4/11)

2011        Aug 5, Syrian security forces opened fire on protesters, killing at least four in the Damascus suburb of Arbeen, as tens of thousands poured into streets across the country, chanting for the fall of President Bashar Assad. The six-day-old assault on Hama has killed at least 100 people. At least 24 civilians were reported killed, most of them in Damascus suburbs when security forces opened fire during daytime protests and late night demonstrations following evening Ramadan prayers. 5 people were reported killed in Hama and its surrounding countryside.
    (AP, 8/5/11)(AP, 8/6/11)

2011        Aug 6, The Syrian military tightened its suffocating siege on the city of Hama in its drive to crush the main center of the anti-regime uprising in the country. Foreign Minister Walid al-Moallem pledged to press ahead with reforms and said the new parliament "will represent the aspirations of the Syrian people."
    (AP, 8/6/11)

2011        Aug 7, Syrian government forces killed at least 59 people including 42 in the eastern city of Deir el-Zour. 10 people were reported shot dead in Idlib while taking part in a funeral. The 22-member Arab League, which had been silent since the uprising began, said it is "alarmed" by the situation in Syria and called for the immediate halt of all violence. Saudi Arabia said it is recalling its ambassador to Syria for consultations.
    (AP, 8/7/11)(AP, 8/8/11)
2011        Aug 7, Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah demanded a stop to Syria’s “killing machine."
    (Econ, 8/13/11, p.43)

2011        Aug 8, Syria’s eastern city of Deir el-Zour came under fresh artillery fire as a deadly military assault left President Bashar Assad's regime increasingly isolated, with Arab nations forcefully joining the international chorus of condemnation for the first time.
    (AP, 8/8/11)

2011        Aug 9, The Syrian army launched raids on restive areas, defying growing international reproach over the regime's deadly crackdown on a 5-month-old uprising. There was heavy machine-gun fire in the eastern city of Deir el-Zour. Human rights groups said at least 22 people were killed across the country including 8 children.
    (AP, 8/9/11)
2011        Aug 9, More than 2,000 Kuwaitis rallied outside the Syrian embassy in the Gulf state demanding the expulsion of the Syrian envoy and the "freezing" of relations with Damascus.
    (AFP, 8/10/11)

2011        Aug 10, Syrian troops launched operations in three suburbs of the capital Damascus as well as the northwestern village of Sarmin, near the Turkish border, where a woman was killed and three people wounded. Security forces also killed an activist in the northwestern town of Taftanaz, where the army is conducting a military operation. Hama appeared to be under full government control. Security forces shot dead at least 15 people in Homs. The Obama administration announced new sanctions.
    (AP, 8/10/11)(AP, 8/11/11)

2011        Aug 11, The Syrian army stormed Saraqeb, a northwestern town near Turkey's border, and shot dead 11 people in Qusair, a western town near the Lebanese border.
    (AP, 8/11/11)

2011        Aug 12, Syrian activists said troops and tanks stormed the town of Khan Sheikhon in the northern province of Idlib amid heavy gunfire. Syrian soldiers opened fire on tens of thousands of protesters who flooded the streets shouting "We will not kneel!" Security forces killed at least 15 protesters. The US stepped up calls for a global trade embargo on oil and gas from Syria. Four people were killed in Aleppo as security forces attacked protesters.
    (AP, 8/12/11)(AP, 8/13/11)(SFC, 8/13/11, p.A3)(AP, 8/15/11)

2011        Aug 13, Syrian tanks fanned out across a neighborhood in the coastal city of Latakia amid intense shooting that sent many resident fleeing to safer areas. Scores of security agents and pro-government gunmen, known as Shabiha, entered the town of Qusair near the border with Lebanon and several nearby villages, arresting scores of residents. At least two people were killed after 20 tanks and armored personnel carriers rolled into Latakia’s al-Ramel district.
    (AP, 8/13/11)(AP, 8/14/11)

2011        Aug 14, Syrian gunboats firing heavy machine guns pounded impoverished districts of Latakia, killing at least 19 people in a renewed assault on the Mediterranean coastal city. A health official said two law enforcement officials were killed in Latakia and 41 wounded in addition to a number of gunmen whose identities were not known.
    (AP, 8/14/11)

2011        Aug 15, Syrian troops besieged residential areas of Latakia and Homs, firing on residents as they fled for safety and killing at least two people during broad military assaults to root out dissent against President Bashar Assad's autocratic regime. At least 17 people were reported killed, six of them in Latakia. The other deaths were in Homs and Houla.
    (AP, 8/15/11)(AP, 8/16/11)

2011        Aug 16, In Syria heavy machine-gun fire erupted across the besieged city of Latakia as the death toll rose to 35 from a military assault now in its fourth day. Army units began withdrawing from Deir el-Zour after clearing the city of "armed terrorist gangs" in an operation that lasted several days.
    (AP, 8/16/11)

2011        Aug 17, Syrian troops detained dozens of people in a Damascus neighborhood and the coastal city of Latakia in overnight raids as President Bashar Assad's regime tried to forcefully end a five-month uprising. A woman died of her wounds two days after she was injured in Latakia. In the northwestern Idlib province, a bullet killed a man as he stood on his balcony. , Activists said security forces killed 18 people across the country including 9 in Homs.
    (AP, 8/17/11)(AP, 8/18/11)

2011        Aug 18, Syrian President Bashar Assad told the UN chief that military operations in his country have ended. The EU urged Syria's President Assad to resign amid a mounting crackdown on an anti-government revolt. Activists reported intense shooting around noon in the flashpoint city of Latakia.
    (AP, 8/18/11)
2011        Aug 18, The chief of Russia's state arms trader Rosoboronexport, Anatoly Isaikin, said Moscow will keep supplying combat jets and other military gear to Syria under contracts totaling about $3.5 billion (euro2.43 billion).
    (AP, 8/19/11)

2011        Aug 19, Syrian security forces fired at thousands of protesters who poured into the streets throughout the country, killing at least 29 people one day after the United States and its European allies demanded that President Bashar Assad step down.
    (AP, 8/19/11)(AP, 8/20/11)
2011        Aug 19, Russia's Foreign Ministry cautioned the West against encouraging the Syrian opposition, and said it doesn't support Western calls for President Bashar Assad to resign.
    (AP, 8/19/11)
2011        Aug 19, The UN released the full text of its report on the Syrian crackdown. It said Syrian government forces may have committed crimes against humanity by conducting summary executions, torturing prisoners and targeting children. The release included rebuttals from the Syrian Foreign Ministry, offering a rare firsthand look into the regime's justifications for the crackdown.
    (AP, 8/20/11)

2011        Aug 20, Syrian security forces dead two people in the town of Rastan, near the provincial capital of Homs. Troops also wounded at least 8 people in Homs, where a general strike was under way to protest the crackdown and most of the city's markets were closed. A Syrian military official said an "armed, terrorist group" ambushed a military bus in Homs, killing two officers and wounding three others.
    (AP, 8/21/11)

2011        Aug 21, Syria’s Pres. Assad promised imminent reforms, including parliamentary elections by February. The opposition rejected his remarks. Pro-regime gunmen fired their guns in celebration after Assad's appearance, killing two people overnight.
    (AP, 8/22/11)

2011        Aug 22, Syria's state-run news agency said Assad formed a committee to pave the way for the formation of political groups other than his Baath party, which has held a monopoly in Syria for decades. Thousands of anti-government protesters took to the streets across the country after a televised appearance by President Bashar Assad, shouting for him to step down and chanting "Gadhafi is gone, now it's your turn Bashar!" Syrian security forces killed at least 7 people in Homs soon after a UN humanitarian assessment team left the area because the security situation was deteriorating.
    (AP, 8/22/11)(AP, 8/23/11)
2011        Aug 22, A UN human rights expert said Arab nations have agreed to demand that Syria allow an international probe within its borders to see whether crimes against humanity have been committed. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon criticized Assad for failing to halt a military crackdown.
    (AP, 8/22/11)(AP, 8/23/11)

2011        Aug 23, The UN's top human rights body voted overwhelmingly to demand that Syria end its crackdown and cooperate with an international probe into possible crimes against humanity. The opposition took steps toward forming a national council, but serious divisions and mistrust among the members have prevented them from presenting a unified front against Assad's regime.
    (AP, 8/23/11)(AP, 8/24/11)

2011        Aug 24, Syrian activists said tanks stormed Deir el-Zour and made sweeping arrests there as the regime faced international threats of an arms embargo and new sanctions.
    (AP, 8/24/11)
2011        Aug 24, The EU announced that it was leveling sanctions against Iran’s Al Quds military force, saying it had given technical and material aid to Pres. Assad of Syria in his efforts to quell a 5-month old uprising against his rule.
    (SFC, 8/25/11, p.A2)

2011        Aug 25, Masked gunmen dragged Ali Ferzat (60), Syria's best-known political cartoonist, from his car before dawn, beat him severely and broke both his hands as a warning to stop drawing just days after he compared Syria's president to Moammar Gadhafi.
    (AP, 8/25/11)

2011        Aug 26, Syrian security forces fired on tens of thousands of anti-government protesters, killing at least two people in Deir el-Zour more than five months into the country's uprising. Another person was killed when protesters emerged from a mosque in Daraa province.
    (AP, 8/26/11)(AFP, 8/26/11)
2011        Aug 26, In Algeria a bomb explosion followed by a suicide attack outside a military academy killed 16 officers in training and 2 civilians in Cherchell. Two Syrian officers were among 18 people killed in the twin suicide bombing.
    (AP, 8/26/11)(AFP, 8/28/11)

2011        Aug 27, Iran warned that a power vacuum in Damascus could spark an unprecedented regional crisis, as thousands of protesters insisted they will defy tanks and bullets until President Bashar Assad is toppled.
    (AP, 8/27/11)

2011        Aug 28, Syrian authorities pursuing a crackdown against Pres. Assad's critics banned three prominent opposition figures from leaving the country, and security forces killed two people and arrested several others in northern Khan Sheikon village. Snipers shot dead one man in the Damascus suburb of Saqba overnight after troops deployed in the restive area. Assad endorsed a new media law that would restrict government censorship of local and foreign publications and end government control over the media.
    (AP, 8/28/11)

2011        Aug 30, Syrian security forces opened fire on thousands of anti-government protesters, killing at least seven people, including a 13-year-old boy, as worshippers poured out of mosques after prayers to mark the end of the holy month of Ramadan. The Syrian Revolution Coordinating Union grassroots activists' group said Assad's forces killed 551 people during the month of Ramadan.
    (AP, 8/30/11)

2011        Aug 31, Syrian troops backed by tanks raided houses looking for activists in two main districts of the city of Hama. Troops shot dead one villager, Hazem al-Shihadi, at a checkpoint overnight near the northwestern border town of Kfaruma. Dozens of people were arrested at Qadam and Qabun in the Damascus region, and at Zabadani. Other arrests occurred at Jizeh in the southern region of Daraa, at Hama and at Al-Jura and Quriyya. Hama province attorney general Adnan Bakkour appeared on video declaring his resignation to protest President Bashar Assad's crackdown, saying security forces killed hundreds of people in the restive city of Hama and arrested thousands of "peaceful protesters." Bakkour said security forces killed 72 prisoners on July 31 and another 420 people during a military siege on Hama, the main city in the province of the same name, in August.
    (AP, 8/31/11)(AFP, 9/1/11)(AP, 9/1/11)

2011        Sep 1, In Syria 2 civilians were killed as government security forces moved into a district of the central city of Homs and a village in the northwest.
    (AFP, 9/1/11)

2011        Sep 2, The EU banned oil imports from Syria in a move that will cost the embattled regime millions of dollars each day as it uses deadly force to try to crush a 5-month-old uprising. At least 17 people were killed, most of them in suburbs of Damascus. Pro-regime thugs reportedly attacked the convoy of Hama province attorney general Adnan Bakkour in the Maaret Hirmeh area, Idlib province, killing 4 people accompanying him and wounding 3 others.
    (AP, 9/2/11)(AP, 9/3/11)(AP, 9/5/11)

2011        Sep 3, Syrian security forces searching for an alleged high-profile defector from President Bashar Assad's regime killed two people near the town of Maaret al-Numan in the northern province of Idlib.
    (AP, 9/3/11)
2011        Sep 3, Around 50 expatriated Syrian Kurds gathered in Sweden for a two-day conference on how to strengthen Kurds inside Syria and get them more involved in efforts to overthrow Bashar al-Assad's regime.
    (AFP, 9/3/11)

2011        Sep 4, Syria saw a wave of violence and arrests as the head of the International Committee of the Red Cross visited Damascus to address issues including caring for the wounded and access to detainees. The state-run news agency reported that nine people were killed in central Syria in an ambush by armed groups.
    (AP, 9/4/11)

2011        Sep 5, Syrian soldiers raided homes and made arrests in a manhunt for Adnan Bakkour, the attorney general who appeared on video last week saying he had defected from President Bashar Assad's regime. Troops stormed the flashpoint districts of Khaldieh and in central Homs province, killing at least two people.
    (AP, 9/5/11)

2011        Sep 6, Syrian soldiers opened fire in the restive city of Homs and armored vehicles rolled through its streets, as the UN secretary-general urged the world community to take action on Syria. Security forces opened fire from a checkpoint in Rastan, just north of Homs, killing two people, including a 15-year-old boy. 5 unidentified corpses, including that of a woman, also were found dumped around the city center.
    (AP, 9/6/11)(AP, 9/7/11)

2011        Sep 7, In Syria a barrage of gunfire by security forces in Homs killed at least 29 people, wounded several others and left residents cowering in their homes. State-run news agency SANA said a "terrorist group" kidnapped two Baath party officials in Rastan. The embattled regime faced surprising calls to end the violence from its closest ally, Iran.
    (AP, 9/7/11)(AP, 9/8/11)(AFP, 9/8/11)

2011        Sep 8, Syrian security forces unleashed one of the deadliest military assaults on the rebellious city of Homs. Security forces stormed the northwestern village of Ibleen and killed three military defectors.
    (AP, 9/8/11)(AFP, 9/8/11)

2011        Sep 9, Syria's opposition leaders said they expected more support from Russia after the Russian upper house of parliament's foreign affairs chief Mikhail Margelov met a visiting Syrian delegation that included National Organization for Human Rights in Syria head Ammar Qurabi. Syrian protesters appealed for int’l. help calling for observation missions and human rights monitors to help deter attacks on civilians
    (AFP, 9/9/11)(SFC, 9/10/11, p.A2)

2011        Sep 10, Syria's President Bashar Assad and Arab League head Nabil Elaraby held talks in Damascus. Investigators at the so-called 'Polish' prison in Homs severely beat rights campaigner Najati Tayar (66).
    (AP, 9/10/11)(AFP, 9/11/11)

2011        Sep 12, In Syria raids around Hama began after security forces cut all roads leading to the area along with electricity and telephone lines. Security forces shot dead 17 people and arrested more than 60 around Hama. 3 others were reported killed in Douma and Al Rastan. Russia’s President Dmitry Medvedev defended the Russian position for “open direct talks" in talks in Moscow with British PM David Cameron even as the Syrian security forces pressed their deadly crackdown on dissent.
    (AP, 9/12/11)(AFP, 9/13/11)

2011        Sep 13, Syrian security forces riding in vehicles mounted with machine-guns raided neighborhoods outside the capital, Damascus, before dawn as Turkey's PM Erdogan said he was concerned Syria could descend into a sectarian civil war. Pro-democracy activists called a "day of anger" across Syria to protest against Russia's backing for President Bashar al-Assad. More than 20 people were reported killed throughout Syria. Syrian troops fired tear gas at a gathering of mourners just hours after U.S. Ambassador Robert Ford and other Western diplomats expressed their condolences to the family of a rights advocate killed last week.
    (AP, 9/13/11)(AFP, 9/13/11)(AP, 9/14/11)

2011        Sep 14, Syrian troops conducted raids in the northwestern province of Idlib and the central region of Homs. Security forces shot dead eight people, including a child, in a huge sweep on against anti-regime protesters in the northwest.
    (AP, 9/14/11)(AFP, 9/15/11)

2011        Sep 15, Syrian opposition members announced a national council made up of 60 exiled opponents and 70 dissidents inside Syria, in their bid to present a united front against President Bashar Assad's regime.
    (AP, 9/15/11)

2011        Sep 16, Syrian troops reportedly killed at least 17 people in raids on anti-government protesters, but failed to stop thousands from pouring into streets nationwide and taking their uprising against President Bashar Assad's autocratic rule into a seventh month.
    (AP, 9/16/11)

2011        Sep 19, Syria's security forces opened fire during a raid on political dissidents in the town of Houla in central Homs province, a flashpoint in the months-long anti-regime uprising. Syrian forces killed five people in raids on anti-government protesters.
    (AFP, 9/19/11)(AP, 9/19/11)

2011        Sep 21, Syrian security forces moved against several schools around the country and detained students who demonstrated against President Bashar Assad's regime, while troops shot dead at least four people in Homs and Rastan.
    (AP, 9/21/11)

2011        Sep 22, Syrian students chanting for revolution marched outside the capital and other areas after class in a new tactic that brought a swift response from security services, who beat up or detained many of the young protesters. The state-run news agency said an armed group ambushed a bus with policemen, killing 5 and wounding 18 officers in Daraa province. At least one person was shot dead by security forces in Homs.
    (AP, 9/22/11)

2011        Sep 23, Syrian security forces opened fire on thousands of protesters calling for the opposition to unite against Assad's regime. The high command of the Syrian armed forces announces the death of the army's deputy chief of staff, General Bassam Najm Eddin Antakiali, who succumbed after suffering a heart attack.
    (AP, 9/23/11)(AFP, 9/24/11)

2011        Sep 24, Syrian security forces security forces had killed 12 civilians in Qusseir, in the central province of Homs, and one more in Hama, further north.
    (AP, 9/25/11)

2011        Sep 25, Syria pressed on with a crackdown on anti-regiment dissent, dispatching troop reinforcements to the flashpoint province of Homs and security forces near Damascus. The British-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported the death of four people, including that of Hassan Eid, the head of the surgery department at the state-run hospital in Homs, who was shot dead outside his home. Gunmen kidnapped 14 army officers in an ambush that killed six soldiers and a security agent outside the town of Qusair near the border with Lebanon.
    (AFP, 9/25/11)(AP, 9/26/11)

2011        Sep 27, Syrian government troops firing machine guns mounted on tanks stormed the rebellious town of Rastan as part of military operations aimed at crushing the six-month-old uprising against President Assad. Security operations also took place in the northwestern region of Jabal al-Zawiya with at least two people killed.
    (AP, 9/27/11)

2011        Sep 28, Syria's state-run news agency said Aws Khalil, a nuclear engineer, has been assassinated in a hail of bullets in the restive central city of Homs. He became the fourth Syrian academic to be assassinated in Homs recently.
    (AP, 9/28/11)

2011        Sep 30, Syrian troops in Rastan fought intense battles with hundreds of fellow soldiers who have turned their weapons against the regime of Pres. Assad. Troops also clashed with armed anti-regime forces in central regions. Across the country tens of thousands of demonstrators took to the streets, braving gunfire by government forces who have waged a relentless crackdown. At least 11 protesters were killed and scores were wounded.
    (AP, 9/30/11)

2011        Oct 1, Syrian government troops retook most of Rastan after five days of intense fighting with army defectors who sided with protesters. Some 250 tanks were sent in to quell clashes between the army and deserters. Troops spread out across Rastan after defectors pulled out from the town. Mansur Atassi (63), a leader of a coalition of opposition groups, was detained in his office in Homs by security agents.
    (AP, 10/1/11)(AFP, 10/2/11)

2011        Oct 2, Syrian dissidents meeting in Turkey formally announced the creation of a broad-based council designed to overthrow President Bashar Assad's regime in what appeared to be the most serious step yet to unify a fragmented opposition. The 21-year-old son of Syria's top Sunni Muslim cleric was killed in an ambush in a restive northern area.
    (AP, 10/2/11)(AP, 10/3/11)

2011        Oct 3, Syrian troops going house to house have detained more than 3,000 people in the past three days in the rebellious town of Rastan that government forces recently retook in some of the worst fighting since the country's uprising began six months ago.
    (AP, 10/3/11)

2011        Oct 4, In Syria at least four people were killed in clashes between government troops and army defectors in the country's northwest.
    (AP, 10/4/11)
2011        Oct 4, China and Russia vetoed a UN Security Council resolution threatening action against Syria's deadly crackdown on protests.
    (AP, 10/5/11)

2011        Oct 5, A woman appeared on Syrian state television claiming that she is the young Syrian, Zainab al-Hosni, who was widely reported to have been beheaded and mutilated by security agents while in custody last month. Amnesty International issued a statement saying: "If the body was not that of Zainab al-Hosni, then clearly the Syrian authorities need to disclose whose it was, the cause and circumstances of the death, and why Zainab al-Hosni's family were informed that she was the victim."
    (AP, 10/5/11)
2011        Oct 5, Syrian Colonel Riad al-Asaad, who now heads a group of army defectors calling themselves the Free Syrian Army, said he has fled Syria and found refuge in neighboring Turkey.
    (AP, 10/5/11)
2011        Oct 5, Turkey's PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan said on Wednesday his government would announce a package of sanctions against neighboring Syria despite a UN resolution blocked by Russia and China.
    (AFP, 10/5/11)
2011        Oct 5, A US federal grand jury charged Mohamad Anas Haitham Soueid (47) with six counts for spying on activists in the United States and Syria opposed to Syrian President Bashar al-Assad's regime. Soueid of Leesburg, Va., was arrested on Oct 11.
    (AFP, 10/12/11)

2011        Oct 6, Syrian activists said clashes between troops and deserters killed 12 people, as Western powers sought to pressure Syria over its crackdown on dissent.
    (AFP, 10/6/11)

2011        Oct 7, Syrian security forces opened fire at protesters in several parts of the country, killing at least eight people and wounding scores. Leading opposition figure Riad Seif was beaten up by pro-government gunmen and rushed to a hospital in Damascus. Russia’s Pres. Dmitry Medvedev told Syrian leader Bashar al-Assad to either reform or resign. In Qamishli Mashaal Tammo, a prominent and charismatic Kurdish opposition figure, was gunned down by masked gunmen.
    (AP, 10/7/11)(AP, 10/8/11)

2011        Oct 8, Syrian security forces opened fire on tens of thousands of mourners who turned out for the funeral of a slain Kurdish opposition leader in Qamishli, killing at least 5 people. Kurds, the largest ethnic minority in Syria, make up 15% of the country's 23 million people and have long complained of neglect and discrimination.
    (AP, 10/8/11)(AP, 10/9/11)

2011        Oct 9, Syria's foreign minister warned the international community not to recognize a new umbrella council formed by the opposition, threatening "tough measures" against any country that does so. At least 7 civilians were killed in Homs province. 5 soldiers and 3 civilians were killed in Dael. Other soldiers and civilians were killed in the Jabal al-Zawiyah areas in Idlib province. A shooting at a funeral in the Damascus suburb of Dumair left three dead.
    (AP, 10/9/11)(AP, 10/10/11)

2011        Oct 11, Syrian security forces mounted an offensive in Homs where 7 people were reported killed.
    (SFC, 10/12/11, p.A2)

2011        Oct 12, In Syria tens of thousands of people rallied in central Damascus in a show of support for the regime of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad which has been shaken by mass protests for nearly seven months.
    (AFP, 10/12/11)(SFC, 10/13/11, p.A5)

2011        Oct 13, Syrian troops clashed with armed men believed to be military defectors in a southern village and a northwestern town, killing at least 13 people in the latest sign that the 7-month-old uprising against President Bashar Assad is becoming increasingly militarized.
    (AP, 10/13/11)

2011        Oct 14, Syrian forces killed 11 people as they fired on rallies supporting army defectors opposed to a crackdown that the UN said has killed more than 3,000 people. Navi Pillay, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, warned that the unrelenting crackdown by the government of President Bashar Assad could worsen unless further action is taken.
    (AP, 10/14/11)(AP, 10/15/11)

2011        Oct 15, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad announced the creation of an ad hoc committee tasked with preparing a new constitution within four months. At least five people were wounded in the central neighborhood of Midan during the funeral of a teenager killed a day earlier. Activist Ziad al-Obeidi was killed in Deir el-Zour.
    (AFP, 10/15/11)(AP, 10/15/11)(AP, 10/16/11)

2011        Oct 16, The Arab League called an emergency meeting in Cairo to discuss whether to suspend Syria. The Arab League said that it would make contact with the Damascus government and a raft of opposition groups with the aim of launching "national dialogue within the seat of the Arab League and under its guidance within 15 days." Security forces opened fire on a funeral for a slain activist in the east. Security forces arrested at least 44 people in the capital's suburbs in house-to-house raids. The Observatory for Human Rights in Syria said 923 people from Homs have been arrested in the past week.
    (AP, 10/16/11)(AFP, 10/17/11)

2011        Oct 17, Five Syrian soldiers were killed during clashes with gunmen suspected to be army defectors in the flashpoint central province of Homs. 2 civilians were also killed. UN chief Ban Ki-moon urged President Bashar al-Assad to immediately stop the killings of civilians.
    (AFP, 10/17/11)

2011        Oct 18, Syrian army cross-border raids into east Lebanon left 3 dead, including 2 in Qaa and one in Aarsal. The Lebanese government, dominated by the powerful militant group Hezbollah, a strong ally of the Syrian regime, has for the most part stayed mum on the issue.
    (AFP, 10/26/11)

2011        Oct 19, Syrian security forces and pro-government gunmen killed at least 10 people in the rebellious province of Homs. Tens of thousands of Syrians demonstrated in Aleppo, a huge show of support for the country's embattled president.
    (AP, 10/19/11)
2011        Oct 19, The UN called on Damascus to end its incursions into Lebanon, which have left three Syrians dead in recent weeks, warning the raids could ignite tensions in the region.
    (AFP, 10/20/11)

2011        Oct 23, Syrian security forces moved into villages where residents have been on strike and shot 2 people dead in the village of Qalaat al-Madeeq, Hama province. Pres. Assad named Yasser al-Shoufi, a former police general, as governor of the northwestern province of Idlib.
    (AP, 10/23/11)

2011        Oct 24, Syrian security forces killed four people in Homs, while government troops clashed with gunmen believed to be defectors from the military. The US pulled its ambassador, Robert Ford, out of Syria, saying threats against him make it no longer safe for him to remain.
    (AP, 10/24/11)

2011        Oct 26, In Syria an Arab League team held talks with President Assad at the start of a bid to mediate with the opposition. Activists said at least 15 people were killed in military operations including 12 in Homs. Tens of thousands of Assad supporters rallied in Damascus.
    (AFP, 10/26/11)(SFC, 10/27/11, p.A4)

2011        Oct 27, Tens of thousands of Syrians held a mass rally in Latakia in support of embattled President Bashar Assad, but the regime's crackdown on dissent continued in opposition areas as security forces killed at least four people. Oil Minister Sufian Allaw acknowledged Damascus was having difficulty selling its oil after the European Union banned oil imports from Syria. Syrian troops were seen planting mines along a region bordering northern Lebanon in a bid to stem weapons smuggling.
    (AP, 10/27/11)(AFP, 10/27/11)
2011        Oct 27, Five Arab Spring activists won the European parliament's Sakharov prize awarded to campaigners for freedom. They include Mohamed Bouazizi of Tunisia, awarded posthumously, Egyptian militant Asmaa Mahfouz, Libyan dissident Ahmed al-Zubair Ahmed al-Sanusi, Syrian lawyer Razan Zeitouneh and Syrian cartoonist Ali Farzat.
    (AFP, 10/27/11)

2011        Oct 28, Syrian security forces reportedly killed at least 40 people. Authorities disrupted telephone and Internet service in restive areas during mass protests calling for the downfall of President Bashar Assad's regime. Activists called for a no-fly zone to protect civilians and soldiers deserting the army.
    (AFP, 10/28/11)(AP, 10/28/11)(AP, 10/29/11)

2011        Oct 29, Syrian troops shelled the Baba Amr district of Homs killing three people. Raids and arrests also were reported around the eastern city of Deir el-Zour. Syrian soldiers were killed and 53 wounded in clashes with presumed army deserters in Homs. 10 security agents and a deserter were killed in a bus ambush. At least 12 civilians died from sniper or machinegun fire in the province.
    (AP, 10/29/11)(AFP, 10/30/11)

2011        Oct 30, The Arab League handed Syrian officials a plan for ending seven months of increasingly violent unrest against President Bashar al-Assad's rule, and Assad told Russian Television he would cooperate with the opposition. The plan involved talks in Cairo between the Syrian authorities and their opponents. At least two people were killed in fresh violence. Pres. Assad in an interview with Britain's Sunday Telegraph newspaper warned of "another Afghanistan" if foreign forces intervened in his country as they had with the Libyan uprising.
    (Reuters, 10/30/11)(AFP, 10/30/11)

2011        Nov 1, Officials and witnesses said Syria is planting landmines along parts of the country's border with Lebanon as refugees streamed out of the country to escape the crackdown on anti-government protests.
    (AP, 11/1/11)

2011        Nov 2, Arab foreign ministers met anew in Cairo to step up pressure on Syria to end nearly eight months of deadly violence. Gunmen stormed a factory in Syria’s province of Homs killing 10 workers while security forces shot dead 4 civilians in several Homs neighborhoods. Damascus pledged to withdraw its forces from protest centers under a plan put forth by the Arab league. Not timetable was set.
    (AFP, 11/2/11)(AFP, 11/3/11)
2011        Nov 2, A Syrian security official said Syria has arrested Wael Abbas, a top suspect in the kidnapping of 7 Estonians, freed four months after their abduction in Lebanon, and handed him over to Beirut.
    (AFP, 11/2/11)

2011        Nov 3, Syrian troops killed at least 18 people in a security crackdown in Homs.
    (AP, 11/4/11)

2011        Nov 4, Syrian security forces killed at least 15 people after thousands of protesters took to the streets, charging that President Bashar Assad never intended to abide by an Arab League plan to end violence.
    (AP, 11/4/11)(AP, 11/5/11)
2011        Nov 4, Lebanon’s PM Najib Mikati confirmed in a broadcast interview that opposition figures from neighboring Syria had been kidnapped in Lebanon, but said they were isolated incidents.
    (AFP, 11/4/11)

2011        Nov 5, Syrian activists reported more violence, including tank shelling, in the restive central city of Homs. Nabil Elaraby, head of the Arab League, warned that the failure of an Arab-brokered plan to end the violence in Syria would have disastrous consequences.
    (AP, 11/5/11)

2011        Nov 6, Syrians in the restive region of Homs performed special prayers for a major Muslim holiday to the sound of explosions and gunfire as government troops pushed forward their assault on the area, killing at least 16 people. The Arab League called an emergency meeting on Syria's failure to implement its peace plan. Altogether 23 people were killed in today’s crackdown.
    (AP, 11/6/11)(AFP, 11/6/11)(AP, 11/7/11)

2011        Nov 7, Syrian troops stormed a defiant neighborhood of the embattled city of Homs, kicking in doors and making arrests after nearly a week of violence pitting soldiers against army defectors and protesters demanding the downfall of President Bashar Assad. Activists said two people were killed in the city and the surrounding province, pushing the death toll from the past 24 hours to at least 18.
    (AP, 11/7/11)

2011        Nov 8, Syrian activists reported that 20 people were killed across the country, including eight soldiers and 12 civilians, among them a child. The UN said the death toll from the eight-month Syrian uprising has reached 3,500.
    (AP, 11/8/11)(AFP, 11/9/11)
2011        Nov 8, The Syrian opposition urged authorities in neighboring Lebanon to act over reports that more than a dozen of their members in that country have been kidnapped.
    (AFP, 11/9/11)

2011        Nov 9, Syrian troops killed 16 civilians as they pressed their bloody crackdown on dissent, said the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. Protesters threw eggs at a four-man delegation of the Syrian National Coordination Committee (NCC), headed by Hassan Abdul-Azim, as they tried to enter the Arab League's headquarters in downtown Cairo. The Syria-based National Coordination Committee is a rival to the broad-based Syrian National Council group that was announced in Turkey in October and rejects all forms of contact with the regime under the current crackdown.
    (AFP, 11/9/11)(AP, 11/9/11)(AFP, 11/10/11)

2011        Nov 10, In Syria a young girl and six soldiers were among 26 Syrians killed when security forces cracked down on protests and in clashes between troops and army deserters.
    (AFP, 11/10/11)
2011        Nov 10, US Senators Mark Kirk, R-Ill., and Robert Casey, D-Pa., sent a letter to the State and Commerce departments requesting an investigation into companies whose technology has been used to monitor activities of Syrian citizens. US companies included NetApp Inc. and Blue coat Systems Inc. of Sunnyvale, Ca. The Syrian Internet surveillance project, headed by the Italian company Area, was designed to intercept and catalog virtually every e-mail flowing through Syria.
    (SFC, 11/11/11, p.A5)

2011        Nov 11, In Syria at least 14 people were killed in violence, most of them in the restive city of Homs, as Human Rights Watch accused the regime of crimes against humanity.
    (AFP, 11/11/11)
2011        Nov 11, A Lebanese man had a leg blown off after stepping on a mine planted hours earlier by Syrian troops along Lebanon's northern border.
    (AFP, 11/11/11)

2011        Nov 12, The 22-member Arab League voted to suspend Syria and warned the regime could face sanctions if it does not end its bloody crackdown against anti-government protesters. The decision was a symbolic blow to a nation that prides itself on being a powerhouse of Arab nationalism. 18 countries agreed to the suspension, scheduled to take effect on Nov 16.
    (AP, 11/12/11)

2011        Nov 13, In Syria tens of thousands of government supporters poured into the streets to protest an Arab League vote to suspend the country's membership, as Turkey sent planes to evacuate diplomatic staff and their families after a night of attacks on embassies. Activists reporting at least 11 people killed in shootings by security forces in several parts of the country.
    (AP, 11/13/11)

2011        Nov 14, In southern Syria dozens of soldiers and security forces were gunned down by suspected army defectors. As many as 90 people killed across the country.
    (AP, 11/15/11)
2011        Nov 14, EU foreign ministers decided to impose additional sanctions on 18 Syrians in response to the killings of protesters by Syrian President Bashar Assad's regime. The sanctions also include suspending the disbursement of European Investment Bank loans.
    (AP, 11/14/11)
2011        Nov 14, Jordan's King Abdullah II said Syria’s Pres. Assad should step down for the good of his country, the first Arab leader to publicly make such a call.
    (AP, 11/15/11)

2011        Nov 16, The rebel Free Syrian Army announced the creation of a temporary military council with the aim of ousting the regime of President Bashar al-Assad and protecting civilians from his forces. Army defectors attacked military and intelligence bases near the capital and an army checkpoint during a spate of assaults, killing at least 8 soldiers and security forces in the central province of Hama. Arab ministers gave Damascus "three days to stop the bloody repression," as at least 23 people were killed in violence.
    (AFP, 11/16/11)(AP, 11/16/11)(AP, 11/17/11)

2011        Nov 17, Syrian rebel troops hit youth offices of Syria's ruling Baath party, a day after a spectacular raid on a military intelligence base outside Damascus. Mohammad Riad Shakfa, the leader of Syria's exiled Muslim Brotherhood, said that his compatriots would accept Turkish "intervention" in the country to resolve months of bloody unrest. Syria said it had issued a warning to its citizens that they would be arrested and prosecuted if they took part in further attacks as security forces shot dead a nine-year-old girl. Government troops made sweeping arrests in the restive Hama province.
    (AFP, 11/17/11)(AP, 11/17/11)

2011        Nov 18, Syria said it has agreed "in principle" to allow an observer mission into the country, as security forces killed at least 16 anti-government protesters and France called for tough UN Security Council action.
    (AP, 11/18/11)(AP, 11/19/11)

2011        Nov 19, Syrian troops stormed the town of Shezar in the central province of Hama and the restive Jabal al-Zawiya region near the Turkish border in search of regime opponents. At least 15 people were killed.
    (AP, 11/19/11)(SSFC, 11/20/11, p.A10)

2011        Nov 20, The Arab League said it has rejected amendments proposed by Syria to a peace plan to end the crisis in the country, saying the changes put forward by Damascus alter the "essence" of the plan. Syria's foreign minister attacked the Arab League for suspending Damascus and accused the organization of being used as a "tool" by the West.
    (AP, 11/20/11)
2011        Nov 20, Turkish President Abdullah Gul in published comments said there was "no place for authoritarian regimes" in the Mediterranean region, heaping more pressure on the embattled Syrian regime.
    (AFP, 11/20/11)

2011        Nov 21, Syria's security forces carried out a "qualitative" operation in the Bayada district of Homs in which they killed four terrorists and confiscated their weapons. A "top terrorist" nicknamed Bandar was among them. Syrian soldiers opened fire on at least two buses carrying Turkish citizens.
    (AP, 11/22/11)

2011        Nov 22, Turkey's PM Erdogan said that Syria's Pres. Bashar Assad must step down over the country's crackdown on dissent. 6 children and 5 mutinous soldiers were among 34 people killed across Syria. 122 countries voted for a resolution at the UN General Assembly's human rights committee condemning the government crackdown.
    (AP, 11/22/11)(Reuters, 11/23/11)(AFP, 11/23/11)

2011        Nov 24, The EU said that protecting civilians caught up in Syria's crackdown on anti-government protests "is an increasingly urgent and important aspect" of responding to the bloodshed there. At least three more people were killed by Syrian security forces. The British-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights and the Local Coordination Committees said 15 defectors were either killed or wounded in clashes near Rastan. 6 elite pilots and 4 technical officers were killed in an ambush in Homs. The Arab League gave Syria 24 hours to agree to an observer mission or face sanctions.
    (AP, 11/24/11)(AP, 11/25/11)

2011        Nov 25, The Syrian military vowed to "cut every evil hand that targets Syrian blood," saying recent attacks on elite security forces marked a dangerous escalation in the country's 8-month-old crisis. Damascus faced the possibility of sweeping economic sanctions from the Arab League after missing a deadline to allow hundreds of observers into the country. A UN human rights panel expressed alarm at reports it received of security forces in Syria torturing children. Syrian security forces fired outside mosques in Daraa province. At least six people were killed as protesters flooded the streets in support of the Free Syrian Army. At least 10 troops and security service agents were killed in clashes with mutinous soldiers in Deir Ezzor.
    (AP, 11/25/11)(AFP, 11/26/11)
2011        Nov 25, In Egypt Mona al-Gharib (25), the pregnant wife of Syrian dissident and journalist Thaer al-Nashef, was reportedly abducted in Egypt by Syrian intelligence agents.
    (AP, 11/26/11)

2011        Nov 26, In Syria one civilian was reported killed as security forces launched raids in Deir Ezzor and carried out arrests. At least 12 civilians were killed in Homs province.
    (AFP, 11/26/11)(SSFC, 11/27/11, p.A8)

2011        Nov 27, The Arab League, meeting in Cairo, approved unprecedented sanctions on Syria over its crackdown on 8-month uprising.
    (AP, 11/27/11)

2011        Nov 28, Syria hit out at the Arab League for the treatment it has meted out to Damascus, accusing it of ignoring the presence of "terrorists" in the country and prematurely imposing economic sanctions. Tens of thousands of supporters of President Bashar al-Assad took to the streets to protest against the Arab League sanctions.
    (AFP, 11/28/11)
2011        Nov 28, A UN investigation concluded that Syrian forces committed crimes against humanity by killing and torturing hundreds of children, including a 2-year-old girl reportedly shot to death so she wouldn't grow up to be a demonstrator.
    (AP, 11/28/11)

2011        Nov 29, Aisha Kadhafi, the daughter of the slain Libyan leader, called for the overthrow of Libya's interim government in an audio message aired on Syrian-based Arrai television.
    (AFP, 11/30/11)

2011        Nov 30, Turkey slapped tough economic sanctions on Syria, freezing assets of officials involved in the government's crackdown on an 8-month-old uprising, suspending ties with the nation's central bank and banning all military sales.
    (AP, 11/30/11)

2011        Dec 1, Syria's opposition called a general strike over President Bashar Assad's deadly crackdown as government troops stormed a village in the central province of Hama, killing six people. Arab League chief Nabil al-Arabi rejected any foreign intervention in Syria as he joined EU talks aimed at ramping up pressure on the regime over its crackdown on dissidents. The EU's latest sanctions were announced, targeting 12 more people and 11 companies. The UN high commissioner for human rights said that the violence in Syria is a civil war.
    (AP, 12/1/11)(AFP, 12/1/11)(AP, 12/2/11)
2011        Dec 1, Lebanese bankers said they have adopted strict measures to ensure compliance with international sanctions against neighboring Syria and are closely scrutinizing transactions by Syrian clients.
    (AFP, 12/1/11)

2011        Dec 2, In Syria hours of intense shooting and clashes killed at least four people and wounded dozens more, including an 11-year-old girl who was struck by stray bullets that whizzed across the border into Lebanon. The European Union released the names of Syrian officials and companies to be added to a growing sanctions blacklist.
    (AP, 12/2/11)

2011        Dec 3, Violence swept across Syria killing 25 people, most of them in a battle between troops and a growing force of army defectors who have joined the movement to oust President Bashar Assad. Syrian troops detained at least 27 people in the village of Talkalakh on the border with Lebanon and set fire to the homes of nine activists who were on the run. The Arab League approved details of sanctions against Syria aimed at pressuring the regime to end its deadly eight-month crackdown on dissent.
    (AP, 12/3/11)

2011        Dec 4, Syria signaled it still might be willing to comply with the Arab League's plan, saying its objections were simply a matter of details. In central Syria new violence killed at least six people, including a female university professor and a father and his three children.
    (AP, 12/4/11)

2011        Dec 5, In Syria 36 bodies were dumped in the streets of Homs. Syria agreed to allow Arab League observers but demanded that the Arab League scrap recent decisions taken against Damascus, including economic sanctions and suspending the country from the Arab League when a protocol allowing observers is signed.
    (AP, 12/5/11)(AP, 12/6/11)(SFC, 12/6/11, p.A5)(SFC, 12/7/11, p.A4)

2011        Dec 6, Syrian activists said a surge in violence in Homs has killed up to 50 people in the past 24 hours, leaving dozens of bodies in the streets.
    (AP, 12/6/11)

2011        Dec 7, Syria’s Pres. Assad, speaking to veteran journalist Barbara Walters in a rare interview to foreign media, said he was not responsible for the bloodshed and drew a distinction between himself and individual members of the military. Assad dismissed the death toll, estimated by the UN at more than 4,000 people, saying: "Who said that the United Nations is a credible institution?"
    (AFP, 12/7/11)

2011        Dec 8, Syrian activists launched a campaign of civil disobedience to pile pressure on President Bashar al-Assad, after he drew a stinging rebuke from the US for denying he ordered a deadly crackdown. A major Syrian pipeline carrying oil to a refinery in the restive Homs province was blown up. Security forces reportedly killed up to 14 people, most of them in Homs.
    (AFP, 12/8/11)(AP, 12/8/11)(SFC, 12/9/11, p.A6)

2011        Dec 9, Syrian forces killed 41 people, including 7 children, as they fired on anti-government demonstrations across the country. The opposition warned the regime was planning a "massacre" in Homs which has been ringed by troops for more than two months.
    (AP, 12/9/11)(AFP, 12/10/11)

2011        Dec 10, Syrian activists said 9 civilians were killed by the security forces in the flashpoint regions of Homs, Daraa and Idlib. World powers piled pressure on Syria to allow observers to monitor spiraling deadly violence as activists condemned rights violations on this anniversary of International Human Rights Day.
    (AFP, 12/10/11)

2011        Dec 11, Syrian troops battled army defectors in clashes that set several military vehicles ablaze. Opposition activists called for a general strike starting today in a bid to squeeze the government and push it to stop its bloody crackdown. About a dozen Syrians attacked their embassy in Jordan’s capital, Amman, injuring at least two diplomats and four other consulate employees. As many as 23 people were killed as government forces clashed with armed insurgents and protesters.
    (AP, 12/11/11)(SFC, 12/12/11, p.A2)

2011        Dec 12, Syrians closed their businesses and kept children home from school in several parts of the country in a show of civil disobedience against the regime as a new and fierce round of clashes between troops and army defectors spread. Syrians voted in municipal elections even as violence raged in some parts of the country where security forces were pressing a deadly crackdown against dissent. Border guards intercepted 15 gunmen trying to infiltrate from Turkey. Two were reported killed in the ensuing firefight and others were injured.
    (AP, 12/12/11)(AFP, 12/12/11)(AP, 12/13/11)

2011        Dec 13, Syrian security forces fired on a funeral procession in a restive northwestern border region, killing two people. Activists reported the deaths of at least 28 civilians across Syria. State media reported that "armed terrorists" — its usual term for regime opponents — shot and killed Brig. Gen. Ghanem Ibrahim al-Hassan, who teaches at the Assad Military Engineering Academy in the town of Saraqeb in Idlib.
    (AP, 12/13/11)(AP, 12/14/11)(SFC, 12/14/11, p.A4)

2011        Dec 14, Syrian Army defectors killed at least eight Syrian troops in an act of revenge after security forces shot dead five civilians.
    (AFP, 12/14/11)

2011        Dec 15, Syrian army defectors reportedly killed at least 27 government forces in clashes in the southern province of Daraa. Human Rights Watch issued a report alleging that dozens of Syrian military commanders and officials authorized or gave direct orders for widespread killings, torture, and illegal arrests during the wave of anti-government protests.
    (AP, 12/15/11)

2011        Dec 16, Syrian security forces opened fire on anti-government protesters after Friday prayers at several locations around the country, while the army sent reinforcements into a southern area where military defectors recently launched deadly attacks on regime troops. At least 10 people were left dead.
    (AP, 12/16/11)(SFC, 12/17/11, p.A3)

2011        Dec 19, Syria signed an Arab League initiative that will allow Arab observers into the country, as part of an effort to end the nation's increasingly bloody 9-month-old crisis.
    (AP, 12/19/11)

2011        Dec 20, Syrian state-run news agency SANA said President Bashar Assad has issued a new law under which anyone found guilty of distributing weapons with the aim of committing "terrorist acts" would be sentenced to death. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said Assad's forces carried out a "massacre" by killing some 110 civilians in the northwestern town of Kfar Owaid. 12 more people were killed in Homs. In addition, at least 100 army deserters were killed or wounded over the last 24 hours in Idlib. 14 security force members were killed in southern Daraa province. An Arab League official said an advance team will arrive in Syria this week to prepare for an observer mission as a possible step toward solving the crisis. 5 Iranian engineers working at a power plant project in Homs were abducted.
    (AP, 12/20/11)(AFP, 12/21/11)(AP, 12/22/11)(Econ, 1/28/12, p.47)
2011        Dec 20,  Five Iranian engineers working on an electricity power plant in Jandar, close to the city of Homs, Syria, were abducted. Two others working for Iran Power Plant Projects Management Company (Mapna) were taken when they went to investigate their colleagues' disappearance. On Jan 2 an unknown group calling itself the "Movement Against the Expansion of Shiism in Syria" claimed responsibility for their abduction.
    (AFP, 1/4/12)

2011        Dec 21, The opposition Syrian National Council urged the UN Security Council and Arab League to hold emergency meetings after regime forces "massacred" more than 200 people in two days.
    (AP, 12/21/11)

2011        Dec 22, In Syria fresh raids and gunfire by government forces killed at least 19 people, most of them in the central city of Homs and northern Idlib province. Arab League delegates traveled to Syria to arrange the deployment of foreign monitors under a plan aimed at ending the regime's deadly 9-month-old crackdown on dissent. A total of 500 observers are planned.
    (AP, 12/22/11)

2011        Dec 23, In Syria twin suicide car bomb blasts ripped through an upscale Damascus district, killing 44 people. The blasts went off outside the main headquarters of the General Intelligence Agency and a branch of the military intelligence. Activists reported anti-government protests in several locations across Syria after Friday prayers during which security force shot dead at least eight people, mostly in the restive central province of Homs. 4 people were found dumped on the streets in Houla, also in Homs province.
    (AP, 12/23/11)(AP, 12/24/11)

2011        Dec 24, In Syria thousands of mourners carrying flags and pictures of the dead took part in a mass funeral for 44 people killed in twin suicide bombings that targeted intelligence agency compounds in Damascus. Shelling in the city of Homs killed at least three people in the Baba Amr district and set several homes and shops ablaze.
    (AP, 12/24/11)

2011        Dec 26, In Syria intense shelling by government forces was reported in the center of the country, just hours before the Arab League monitoring teams were to arrive. Security forces killed at least 42 people, most of them in Homs.
    (AP, 12/26/11)(AP, 12/27/11)

2011        Dec 27, Syria's army suspended days of attacks on the restive city of Homs and began withdrawing its tanks just as Arab League monitors visited the area. The Sudanese head of the mission to Syria, Gen. Mohamed Ahmed Mustafa al-Dabi, was leading the team of at least 12 observers to Homs. Security forces shot dead two people in the Damascus suburb of Douma, one in the southern province of Daraa and one in the northwestern province of Idlib. The Local Coordination Committees (LCC) said 23 people were killed, including six in Homs. A student at Damascus University opened fire with a pistol inside a classroom at the medical department killing one student and wounding four. He was said to be a former anti-regime detainee who had been recently beaten by the pro-regime students, including the one he shot dead.
    (AP, 12/27/11)

2011        Dec 28, Syrian security forces reportedly fired guns and tear gas at thousands of anti-government protesters in the central city of Hama and killed at least six people. At least four soldiers were killed in an ambush carried out by a group of military defectors in the country's south. Activists said two people died in the Baba Amr district of Homs. The Syrian government released 755 prisoners detained over the past nine months in the regime's crackdown on dissent as observers toured a flashpoint city to see whether authorities were complying with an Arab plan to stop the bloodshed that has killed thousands.
    (AP, 12/28/11)

2011        Dec 29, Syrian security forces opened fire on tens of thousands protesting outside a mosque in a Damascus suburb, close to a municipal building that members of the Arab League monitoring mission were visiting. Activists said at least four people were killed. The British-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said a total of 16 people have been shot by security forces and killed so far today, most of them in several suburbs of Damascus.
    (AP, 12/29/11)

2011        Dec 30, Hundreds of thousands of Syrians poured into the streets across the nation in the largest protests in months, shouting for the downfall of the regime in a defiant display invigorated by the presence of Arab observers. Activists said at least 35 people were killed across the country, most of them shot during anti-government protests. Syrian forces were accused of firing nail bombs to disperse protesters. The rebel Free Syrian Army said it has stopped its offensive against government targets during a month-long mission by Arab League monitors, saying it wants to expose how the regime is killing peaceful protesters. 5 members of the security forces were reported shot dead in a clash in Homs.
    (AP, 12/30/11)(AFP, 12/30/11)(Reuters, 12/31/11)(SFC, 12/31/11, p.A3)
2011        Dec 30, Syria's two largest opposition groups signed an agreement in Cairo on setting up a democracy after President Bashar Assad's regime falls.
    (AP, 12/31/11)

2011        Dec 31, In Syria at least six people were killed in attacks on protests, including one in Damascus. Syria's state-run TV said Arab League observers visited the southern city of Daraa and the restive central city of Homs. Three other civilians were killed by security force gunfire, two of them by snipers in the flashpoint central province of Homs.
    (AP, 12/31/11)(AFP, 1/1/12)

2011        According to the Syrian Local Coordination Committees (LCC), a total of 5,862 people were killed in the regime's crackdown during this year, including "321 male children, 74 female children and 146 women.
    (AP, 1/1/12)

2012        Jan 1, An Arab League advisory body called for the immediate withdrawal of the bloc's observers from Syria saying their presence was having no impact on the government's deadly crackdown on protests. YouTube videos circulating on the Internet showed protesters across Syria welcoming 2012 in with fireworks and holding up signs pledging "Freedom for Life" and denouncing President Bashar al-Assad as the enemy.
    (AFP, 1/1/12)

2012        Jan 2, The Arab League chief said Syria's government has withdrawn heavy weapons from inside cities and freed about 3,500 prisoners but security forces continue to kill protesters even with foreign monitors in the country. Syrian security forces fired on protesters in Hama province.
    (AP, 1/2/12)

2012        Jan 3, The Arab League called for an emergency meeting to discuss whether to withdraw the group's monitors from Syria. The British-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said security forces shot dead three people in the restive city of Homs. The LCC had a higher toll, saying security forces killed four people in Homs, one in the Damascus suburb of Kfar Batna and one in the central province of Hama. An explosion struck a gas pipeline in central Syria in an attack the government blamed on terrorists.
    (AP, 1/3/12)

2012        Jan 4, Syrian activists accused President Bashar Assad's regime of misleading Arab League observers by taking them only to areas loyal to the government and changing street signs to confuse them. Security forces and pro-government gunmen reportedly shot dead at least three people, two in the province of Homs and one in the central province of Hama.
    (AP, 1/4/12)

2012        Jan 5, Syrian state-TV reported that authorities have released more than 500 prisoners accused of involvement in anti-regime activities. Avaaz, an online global activist group, issued a report saying 617 people have been confirmed killed under torture by President Bashar Assad's forces as they cracked down on the revolt. Avaaz said that 37,000 people remain in detention.
    (AP, 1/5/12)

2012        Jan 6, In Syria an explosion ripped through a busy intersection in Damascus, hitting a bus carrying police and killing 26 people in what authorities said was the second suicide attack in as many weeks. A smaller bomb exploded in the Damascus suburb of Tal, killing a girl. Syrian troops opened fire on demonstrators holding anti-Assad sit-ins in two parts of the country, killing one and wounding at least 20. In other shootings, security forces killed at least six more people. State media SANA said terrorists blew up a pipeline that carries diesel from the central province of Homs to nearby Hama.
    (AP, 1/6/12)(AP, 1/7/12)

2012        Jan 7, In Syria troops attacked a sit-in in the restive central city of Homs, during which at least one person was killed. The British-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said security forces killed six other people.
    (AP, 1/7/12)

2012        Jan 8, Syrian security forces conducting raids on homes and pro-regime snipers on rooftops killed at least 10 civilians, including 2 teenagers, most of them in the central city of Homs. Fierce clashes in Basr al-Harir, southern Daraa province, between government troops and military defectors left 11 soldiers dead.
    (AP, 1/8/12)(AP, 1/9/12)

2012        Jan 9, Activists said Syrian troops have fired on protesters as Arab League observers toured the Khaldiyeh neighborhood of Homs province. A group of Arab League observers were attacked in the northern city of Latakia and two Kuwaiti army officers were lightly injured.
    (AP, 1/9/12)(AP, 1/10/12)

2012        Jan 10, Syrian President Bashar Assad vowed to respond to threats against him with an "iron hand" and refused to step down. Activists said Syrian security forces have shot dead at least 10 people in the eastern city of in Deir el-Zour despite the presence of an Arab observer mission in the area. The UAE's foreign minister accused the Syrian regime of not facilitating the job of Arab League observers.
    (AP, 1/10/12)(AFP, 1/10/12)

2012        Jan 11, In Syria French journalist Gilles Jacquier was killed and another wounded during a grenade barrage in Homs. President Assad joined thousands of his supporters in a rare public appearance, telling a pro-regime rally in the capital that the "conspiracy" against his country will fail.
    (AP, 1/11/12)(AP, 1/12/12)

2012        Jan 12, Turkish officials said a Russian ship, allegedly carrying tons of weapons, made a dash for Syria after Cypriot officials allowed it to leave their waters. The Chariot was ferrying cargo owned by Russia's state arms trader Rosoboronexport.
    (AP, 1/12/12)

2012        Jan 13, The head of the Arab League warned that Syria may be sliding toward civil war. The British-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said security forces killed one protester in the central city of Hama and another in the town of Ariha in the northwestern province of Idlib, where more than 20,000 people were demonstrating.
    (AP, 1/13/12)

2012        Jan 14, Top Syrian army defector General Mustafa Ahmad al-Sheikh (54) was set to take charge of the rebel army's operations. A council headed by Sheikh will oversee military operations in conjunction with the Free Syrian Army. The FSA said it has some 40,000 fighters under its command. The US accused Iran of supplying munitions to aid Damascus' bloody crackdown on protests. Violence in Homs reportedly claimed two lives.
    (AFP, 1/14/12)
2012        Jan 14, Lebanese citizen Hassan Obeid (17) died in a clinic where he was rushed after being hit in the stomach by a bullet  in his northern hometown of Bkarha coming from the Syrian side of the border.
    (AP, 1/14/12)

2012        Jan 15, Syria’s President Bashar Assad granted a general amnesty for crimes committed during the unrest of the past 10 months. State-run news agency SANA said the amnesty covers those who have peacefully demonstrated. At least six factory workers were killed when a roadside bomb detonated near the bus they were traveling in the town of Khan Sheikhoun in northern Syria. The British-based Syrian Observatory for Human Right and other activists said seven other people died in the central city of Homs, including three from indiscriminate gunfire and one in the northern province of Idlib.
    (AP, 1/15/12)(SFC, 1/18/12, p.A2)
2012        Jan 15, A member of Syria's parliament left the country to join the opposition. Imad Ghalioun, who represents the central city of Homs, said the city is a disaster after months of being a focus of the regime's fierce crackdown.
    (AP, 1/16/12)
2012        Jan 15, UN chief Ban Ki-moon, speaking in Beirut, called for an end to Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, saying the illegal building of settlements worked against a two-state solution. Ban Ki-moon also demanded that Syria's president stop killing his own people.
    (AFP, 1/15/12)(AP, 1/15/12)

2012        Jan 16, In Syria an "armed terrorist group" reportedly launched rocket-propelled grenades at an army checkpoint, killing an officer and five army personnel about 6 miles (9 km) southwest of Damascus.
    (AP, 1/17/12)

2012        Jan 17, In Syria at least 34 people were killed in several towns and cities across the country, including 6 soldiers who had defected and 3 members of the security forces.
    (SFC, 1/18/12, p.A2)

2012        Jan 18, Syria's state-owned media accused Qatar of arming and financing opponents of President Bashar al-Assad's regime. Qatar's emir, Sheikh Hamad Ben Khalifa al-Thani, said in an interview aired at the weekend that he backs sending Arab troops to Syria. Activists said Syrian troops have shelled the mountain resort of Zabadani near the border with Lebanon, and living conditions are deteriorating there after six days of siege. By nightfall government tanks and armored vehicles pulled back from Zabadani to two military barracks on the outskirts.
    (AFP, 1/18/12)(AP, 1/18/12)(AP, 1/19/12)

2012        Jan 19, In Syria at least 16 people were killed by security forces across the country. An Arab League observer mission ends today but can be renewed for another month.
    (AP, 1/19/12)(SFC, 1/20/12, p.A2)

2012        Jan 20, In Syria thousands of people held anti-government protests, chanting for the downfall of the regime. At least eight people were killed by security forces across the country. In Egypt two Arab League officials said the organization is likely to extend its observer mission.
    (AP, 1/20/12)

2012        Jan 21, In northwestern Syria a string of explosions struck a police truck transporting prisoners on the Idlib-Ariha highway, killing at least 14 people. Government troops also battled defectors in the north in fighting that left 10 people dead. Clashes erupted after security forces killed four civilians when they fired on mourners at a funeral in Douma.
    (AP, 1/21/12)(AP, 1/22/12)(AFP, 1/23/12)
2012        Jan 21, Lebanese officials said the Syrian navy arrested three Lebanese fishermen and confiscated their boat in Lebanese waters off the northern town of Arida.
    (AP, 1/21/12)

2012        Jan 22, Syrian security forces retreated from the center of Douma one of the biggest Damascus suburbs after intense clashes with anti-government army defectors. State-run news agency, SANA, said an estimated 5,255 prisoners have been released over the past week under a recent amnesty, raising the total freed since November to more than 9,000. 11 residents of Douma were either shot dead by security forces or killed in clashes between army defectors and troops.
    (AP, 1/22/12)
2012        Jan 22, The Arab League officials said its observer's mission in Syria has been extended for another month.
    (AP, 1/22/12)

2012        Jan 23, Syria rejected the Arab League's wide-ranging new plan to end the country's 10-month crisis, saying the League's call for a national unity government in two months is a clear violation of Syrian sovereignty. The EU backed the Arab plan, and it extended existing sanctions against Assad's government by adding 22 more officials and 8 companies to the blacklist. Troops and army defectors clashed near the western town of Qusair. It said five soldiers were killed and 13 were wounded. The LCC put today’s death toll at 10. Funerals in Douma drew more than 150,000 people. Radwan Rabih Hamadi (46), a prominent opposition figure, was ambushed and assassinated by gunmen.
    (AP, 1/23/12)(AP, 1/24/12)
2012        Jan 23, Russia's business daily Kommersant reported that Moscow has signed a contract to sell 36 Yak-130 combat jets to Syria, a deal that, if confirmed, would openly defy international efforts to pressure Assad's regime.
    (AP, 1/23/12)

2012        Jan 24, Syria's foreign minister said that "half the universe" is conspiring against his country, as Gulf Arab nations withdrew from a monitoring mission in Syria because the government has failed to stop 10 months of violence. Syrian troops opened fire to disperse hundreds of people in al-Barra village in the Jabal al-Zawiya region of northern Syria who had gathered for the funeral of Radwan Rabih Hamadi, assassinated a day earlier.
    (AP, 1/24/12)

2012        Jan 26, Syrian troops stormed a flashpoint suburb of Damascus, rounding people up in house-to-house raids and clashing with army defectors. Tens of thousands of backers of Pres. Assad poured into the streets of several cities in a show of support for his embattled regime. At least 200 people were reported detained in Douma. A joint army and police force was ambushed near the town of Khirbet Ghazaleh, killing four members of the security forces and wounding five more. A sniper shot dead a woman in the central city of Hama, while a stray bullet killed a 14-year-old boy in the southern province of Daraa. State-run news said an army colonel was shot dead by "an armed terrorist" in front of his home in the central city of Homs. Activists said 62 people were killed across the country including 54 in Homs and Hama.
    (AP, 1/26/12)(AFP, 1/27/12)(SFC, 1/27/12, p.A2)
2012        Jan 26, Iranian security forces killed six Pakistani traders taking goats into Iran. Gunmen in Syria kidnapped 11 Iranian pilgrims traveling by road from Turkey to Damascus.
    (AP, 1/26/12)(AFP, 2/3/12)

2012        Jan 27, In Syria heavy gunfire hammered Homs in a second day of chaos. Activists said  21 people were killed across the country. The UN Security Council held a closed-door meeting to discuss the crisis, a step toward a possible resolution against the Damascus regime. The rebel Free Syrian Army said it had captured five Iranian soldiers in Homs who it said were under orders of the Syrian intelligence service.
    (AP, 1/27/12)(AFP, 1/27/12)

2012        Jan 28, The Arab League halted its observer mission to Syria, sharply criticizing the regime of President Bashar Assad for escalating violence in recent days that has killed at least 80 people across the country. Government forces clashed with anti-regime army defectors across the country. At least nine were reported killed in the clashes and other violence. State-run news said "terrorists" ambushed a bus carrying army officers near the tense Damascus suburb of Douma, killing seven of them.
    (AP, 1/28/12)
2012        Jan 28, Iraqi Kurdish leader Massud Barzani backed minority Kurds in Syria, who have rallied against the rule of President Bashar al-Assad during 10 months of nationwide protests. He spoke at a two-day conference of Syrian Kurds in the Iraqi Kurdish capital of Arbil.
    (AFP, 1/28/12)

2012        Jan 29, The Syrian military launched an offensive to regain control of suburbs on the eastern edge of Damascus, storming neighborhoods and clashing with army defectors. Fierce fighting sent residents fleeing and killed at least 3 civilians. 6 soldiers were killed when a roadside bomb detonated near the bus they were traveling in several miles south of the capital. Some 80 people were reported killed across Syria, half of them civilians.
    (AP, 1/29/12)(AFP, 1/30/12)

2012        Jan 30, Syrian forces heavily shelled the restive city of Homs and troops pushed back dissident troops from some suburbs on the outskirts of Damascus in an offensive trying to regain control of the capital's eastern doorstep. Activists reported the discovery of a family of six, a couple and their four children, who had been killed by gunfire several days earlier in the Karm el-Zeitoun district of Damascus. SANA state news reported that a "terrorist group" blew up a gas pipeline in the province of Homs. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said almost 100 people, including 55 civilians, were killed during a regime assault on Homs.
    (AP, 1/30/12)(AFP, 1/30/12)(AFP, 1/31/12)
2012        Jan 30, Russia's Foreign Ministry said it has invited Syrian authorities and opposition for talks in Moscow.
    (AP, 1/30/12)

2012        Jan 31, Syrian government forces moved into Zamalka and Arbeen, the two remaining towns still in rebel hands. Army defectors gained full control of the central town of Rastan after days of intense clashes. Activists said the day’s death toll was at least seven, although the LCC put the figure at up to 28.
    (AP, 1/31/12)

2012        Feb 1, Syrian troops battled army defectors in a string of towns in the mountains overlooking Damascus in a new assault to crush rebellious areas around the capital. Activists said at least 6-17 people were killed in the fighting. 8 residents in Homs were reported killed. A UN Security Council resolution would give Assad 15 days to start implementing the Arab peace plan and halt the crackdown, otherwise the Council would consider "further measures."
    (AP, 2/1/12)
2012        Feb 1, Eleven Iranian pilgrims were kidnapped in the central Syrian city of Hama.
    (AFP, 2/3/12)

2012        Feb 2, Tunisia cut ties with Syria. TAP news agency said authorities have seized dozens of yachts as well as cars, company shares and houses belonging to ousted leader Zine El Abidine Ben Ali and his family. Confiscated items included 34 vehicles, shares in 117 companies, 233 property deeds and 48 yachts and two homes.
    (AFP, 2/2/12)(AP, 4/2/15)

2012        Feb 3, In Syria fighting in Jassem, in the southern province of Daraa, killed at least one soldier and wounded five. Human Rights Watch said in a new report that it has documented at least 12 cases of children detained under "inhumane" conditions and tortured, as well as children shot in their homes or on the street. The Observatory said more than 20,000 people marched in the streets of the southern villages of Dael and Nawa where security forces opened fire to disperse the crowds. The Local Coordination Committees activist group said security forces killed at least 12 people while the Observatory said four people were shot dead.
    (AP, 2/3/12)
2012        Feb 3, Iran banned its citizens from traveling to Syria by road following the recent abductions of 29 Iranians in the escalating uprising in its key Middle East ally.
    (AFP, 2/3/12)

2012        Feb 4, Syrian forces hammered restive neighborhoods in the city of Homs for hours with mortars and artillery, sending terrified residents fleeing into basements and killing more than 200 people in what appeared to be the bloodiest episode of the nearly 11-month-old uprising, Syrian security forces opened fire on funeral processions near Damascus, killing 12 people in Daraya.
    (AP, 2/4/12)(AFP, 2/4/12)
2012        Feb 4, Tunisia decided to expel Syria's ambassador in response to the "bloody massacre" in Homs. Dozens of Syrian protesters were arrested after storming their country's embassies in cities in Europe and the Middle East.
    (AP, 2/4/12)(AFP, 2/4/12)
2012        Feb 4, Western diplomats at the United Nations said they are determined to vote on a resolution condemning bloodshed in Syria, despite strong Russian objections.
    (AFP, 2/4/12)

2012        Feb 5, Syria's opposition appealed for international backing, a day after Russia and China vetoed a UN Security Council resolution aimed at pressuring President Bashar Assad to end his bloody crackdown. The Observatory also said that one person was shot dead by a sniper in the central city of Homs. Another activist group, the Local Coordination Committees said nine people were killed in different parts of the country.
    (AP, 2/5/12)

2012        Feb 6, The US closed its embassy in the Syrian capital of Damascus in a dramatic escalation of pressure on President Bashar Assad to give up power. Activists said shells slammed into a makeshift medical clinic and residential areas in Homs, killing at least 23 people in the third day of a new offensive on the epicenter of the country's uprising. Another 10 people were reported killed elsewhere. State-run news said that gunmen killed three soldiers and captured others at a checkpoint in the Jabal al-Zawiyah region of Idlib province.
    (AP, 2/6/12)

2012        Feb 7, Syrian forces renewed their assault on the flashpoint city of Homs as Russia's foreign minister stressed the need for reform and dialogue during talks in Damascus with President Bashar Assad about the country's escalating violence. Activists reported that at least 15 people, including a 15-year-old boy, were killed in violence across the country. The six-nation Gulf Cooperation Council said it is pulling its ambassadors from Syria. France said it is recalling its ambassador to Syria for consultations. Other Western powers including Britain, the United States and Italy have called back their top envoys in the wake of new violence.
    (AP, 2/7/12)
2012        Feb 7, Australia imposed new travel bans and financial sanctions on Syrian leaders on as it stepped up actions to force an end to violence against Syria's civilian population.
    (Reuters, 2/7/12)
2012        Feb 7, Turkey's PM Erdogan announced a new initiative with regional players to halt the violence in Syria, saying the veto of a UN resolution had given President Bashar al-Assad a "license to kill."
    (AFP, 2/7/12)

2012        Feb 8, A senior European Union official said the EU will impose harsher sanctions on Syria, as Russia tried to broker talks between the vice president and the opposition to calm violence. Activists reported at least 50 killed in military assaults targeting government opponents in Homs.
    (AP, 2/8/12)

2012        Feb 9, Syrian forces fired mortars and rockets that killed scores of people in the rebellious city of Homs. The Local Coordination Committees said an estimated 90 people were killed in Homs, but the death toll was impossible to independently verify. Activists also reported violence in Zabadani and Daraa.
    (AP, 2/9/12)
2012        Feb 9, China said a Syrian opposition delegation visited Beijing and met Vice Foreign Minister Zhai Jun as the country insisted it wants to maintain contacts and communication with Syrian opposition groups.
    (AP, 2/9/12)
2012        Feb 9, Germany expelled four Syrian diplomats,.
    (AP, 2/9/12)
2012        Feb 9, Swiss news reported that Hafez Makhlouf, a cousin of Syria's President Bashar Assad, has won a legal bid to unfreeze euro3 million ($4 million) held in bank accounts in Switzerland, overturning a last-ditch effort by Swiss prosecutors to block the release of the funds on suspicion of money laundering.
    (AP, 2/9/12)

2012        Feb 10, In Syria 2 explosions struck security compounds in Aleppo, killing 28 people, the first significant violence in a major city that has largely stood by President Bashar Assad in the 11-month-old uprising against his rule. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 27 civilians were killed as security forces opened fire on antigovernment protesters who streamed out of mosques. A Syria-based activist, said the regime appears to be trying to take over rebel-held areas in Homs and the northwestern restive province of Idlib before Feb. 17, when Assad's ruling Baath party is scheduled to hold its first general conference since 2005.
    (AP, 2/10/12)(SFC, 2/11/12, p.A3)
2012        Feb 10, Nearly 2,000 Syrians took part in a demonstration outside the Syrian consulate in Dubai.
    (AP, 2/26/12)

2012        Feb 11, In Syria gunmen assassinated Brig. Gen. Issa al-Khouli in Damascus in the first killing of a high ranking military officer in the capital since the uprising against President Bashar Assad's regime began in March. Al-Khouli was a doctor and the chief of a military hospital in the capital. Violence in other parts of the country left at least 11 people dead as regime troops pushed into rebel-held neighborhoods in Homs and shelled the mountain town of Zabadani. Zabadani capitulated to government forces.
    (AP, 2/11/12)(Econ, 2/18/12, p.51)

2012        Feb 12, The Arab League foreign ministers meeting in Cairo adopted a draft resolution calling for an immediate cease-fire in Syria and called on the UN Security Council to pass a resolution creating a joint peacekeeping force for Syria. Al-Qaida chief Ayman al-Zawahri threw the terror network's support behind Syrian rebels trying to topple President Bashar Assad. Arab League chief Nabil Elaraby accepted the resignation of Gen. Mohammed Ahmed Al-Dabi, the head of the Syrian observer mission, and nominated former Jordanian Foreign Minister Abdullah al-Khatib as the new envoy.
    (AP, 2/12/12)

2012        Feb 13, Syrian rebels repelled a push by government tanks into Rastan, a key central town held by forces fighting President Bashar Assad's regime. At least three soldiers were left dead. A sniper shot dead a civilian in Hama.
    (AP, 2/13/12)

2012        Feb 14, Syrian government forces renewed their assault on the rebellious city of Homs in what activists described as the heaviest shelling in days. 9 civilians, four defectors and 7 soldiers were reported killed as pro-Assad forces and army defectors battled for hours in the northern town of Atareb.
    (AP, 2/14/12)(AP, 2/15/12)

2012        Feb 15, Syrian President Bashar Assad ordered a referendum on Feb 26 on a new constitution that would allow political parties other than his ruling Baath Party, the centerpiece of reforms he has promised to ease the crisis, even as the Syrian military besieged rebellious areas. The LCC said 13 people were killed in violence around the country, while the Observatory put the death toll at five. An oil pipeline in Homs was attacked.
    (AP, 2/15/12)

2012        Feb 16, Syrian forces attacked the city of Daraa, carrying out arrests and shooting randomly in the city where the uprising against President Bashar Assad erupted 11 months ago. At least 41 people were killed as security forces bore down on focal points of dissent. UN chief Ban Ki-moon called for an end to the violence in Syria and urged the international community to find a common response to the unrest. The UN General Assembly demanded an immediate halt to Syria's brutal crackdown on dissent. In a strongly worded resolution adopted by a 137-12 vote, member states demanded Assad's government stop attacking civilian demonstrators and start pulling troops back to barracks.
    (AP, 2/16/12)(AFP, 2/16/12)(AFP, 2/17/12)

2012        Feb 17, Thousands of Syrians rallied to demand Bashar al-Assad's ouster, as the embattled president's forces unleashed their heaviest pounding yet of Homs in a brutal bid to crush dissent. Nine bodies of unidentified people were found in Homs, said the Observatory, which also reported the heaviest shelling in the city for two weeks. 4 people were killed by security forces in Damascus following protests in the area.
    (AFP, 2/17/12)(AP, 2/17/12)(AFP, 2/19/12)
2012        Feb 17, France and Britain pledged to help the Syrian opposition in its struggle against Bashar al-Assad's regime but said conditions were not right for a foreign intervention as in Libya. Pres. Sarkozy urged anti-Assad forces to unite and be better organized.
    (AFP, 2/18/12)

2012        Feb 18, Syrian security forces fired live rounds and tear gas at thousands of people marching in a funeral procession that turned into a protest in Damascus, killing at least one person. The Observatory said two other people were killed, one in Homs who died from sniper fire and another in the north, who was shot by security forces conducting raids. Visiting Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Zhai Jun called on all parties to stop violence. Jamal Bish, a city councilor in Aleppo was reported killed. Syrian authorities freed blogger Razan Ghazzawi, symbol of an 11-month uprising, and six other female activists arrested last week.
    (AP, 2/18/12)(AFP, 2/19/12)

2012        Feb 19, Syrian security forces flooded a tense neighborhood where a mourner was shot dead in the largest anti-regime rally seen in Damascus, blunting calls for a "day of defiance." Activists said 18 people were killed, with nine in Idlib and six in Homs. This included a Syrian state prosecutor, a judge and their driver in Idlib. Regime forces pounded the flashpoint central city of Homs for the 15th straight day. Leading Syrian businessman Faisal al-Qudsi told the BBC that foreign exchange reserves have tumbled from $22 billion (16.7 billion euros) to about $10 billion.
    (AFP, 2/19/12)(AP, 2/20/12)
2012        Feb 19, Egypt said it was withdrawing its ambassador to Syria, the latest Arab country to scale back its relations with the embattled regime in Damascus.
    (AP, 2/19/12)

2012        Feb 20, Syria's military sent tanks and other reinforcements toward the restive central city of Homs in what appeared to be preparations by President Bashar Assad's regime for an offensive aimed at retaking rebel-held neighborhoods. The Observatory said that shelling of the Baba Amr district killed five civilians. Troops conducted raids in the southern village of Harrah, where at least nine people were detained.
    (AP, 2/20/12)

2012        Feb 21, Syrian forces killed at least 68 people across the country, including 16 in the shelling of neighborhoods in Homs. The International Committee of the Red Cross called for a daily two-hour cease-fire so it can deliver emergency aid and evacuate people who are wounded or sick.
    (AFP, 2/21/12)(AP, 2/21/12)(AFP, 2/22/12)

2012        Feb 22, In Syria veteran American war correspondent Marie Colvin (57) of Britain's Sunday Times and freelance French photojournalist Remi Ochlik (28) were killed while fleeing a bombardment in the besieged rebel city of Homs. Freelance photographer Paul Conroy and journalist Edith Bouvier of Le Figaro were wounded. 24 others were also killed in Homs. Syrian citizen journalist Rami al-Sayyed, who provided live footage on the Internet from Baba Amr, was also killed. In 2016 documents filed in US district court in Washington said the Syrian military intercepted Colvin's communications and unleashed a barrage of rocket fire on her in Homs.
    (AP, 2/22/12)(AFP, 2/23/12)(AFP, 7/10/16)
2012        Feb 22, Russia expressed "serious concern" about the humanitarian situation in Syria and said it backed an International Committee of the Red Cross call for a daily two-hour truce that could provide help to civilians.
    (AFP, 2/22/12)

2012        Feb 23, Syrian forces launched a massive bombardment of rebel districts of Homs. Across the country, at least 16 people were killed in attacks by security forces in rebellious areas.
    (AP, 2/23/12)

2012        Feb 24, Syrian government troops shelled rebel-held areas in central Syria, killing at least 22 people. Thousands of people in dozens of towns across Syria staged anti-regime protests under the slogan: "We will revolt for your sake, Baba Amr," referring to the besieged Homs neighborhood that has become the center of the Syrian revolt. The Red Cross and the Syrian Arab Red Crescent evacuated seven Syrians wounded in shelling by regime forces as well as 20 sick women and children. They were taken to Homs' Al-Amine hospital.
    (AP, 2/24/12)(AP, 2/25/12)(SFC, 2/25/12, p.A2)
2012        Feb 24, Russia welcomed the appointment of Kofi Annan as the UN and Arab League envoy for the crisis in Syria and called for an immediate ceasefire to evacuate wounded from the city of Homs.
    (AFP, 2/24/12)
2012        Feb 24, Tunisian police wielding batons beat back several dozen pro-Syrian protesters trying to enter the venue of an international meeting on the Syria crisis. The US secretary of state and other leading Western and Arab officials were in Tunis for the "Friends of Syria" meeting aimed at increasing pressure on President Bashar al-Assad's regime over its bloody crackdown on the opposition.
    (AFP, 2/24/12)

2012        Feb 25, Syrian government forces resumed their shelling of Homs' Baba Amr district, and attacked elsewhere, killing at least 16 civilians across the country. The Red Cross made a new attempt to bring out people trapped in Homs. Activists said at least 89 people were killed  across the country.
    (AP, 2/25/12)(AFP, 2/26/12)(SSFC, 2/26/12, p.A5)

2012        Feb 26, Syria held a referendum on a new constitution. Western leaders called it a farce. The Local Coordination Committees (LCC) said attacks by government soldiers killed 55 people, most of them in Homs. On Feb 28 the Interior Ministry said the charter won 89.4 percent of votes cast with a turnout of 57.4 percent.
    (SFC, 2/27/12, p.A3)(AFP, 2/28/12)
2012        Feb 26, A Jordanian government official said more than 80,000 Syrian refugees have fled the nearly 11 months of violence in their homeland and settled in neighboring Jordan.
    (AP, 2/26/12)
2012        Feb 26, Syrian activists said Emirati authorities have cancelled the residencies of dozens of Syrians for taking part in a Feb 10 protest against their regime outside the consulate in Dubai.
    (AP, 2/26/12)

2012        Feb 27, In Syria Red Cross teams reached Hama for the first time in more than a month, delivering food and other goods to the central Syrian city battered by a military crackdown on the anti-government uprising. Syria says voters have approved a new constitution in a vote that the West has dismissed as a "farce" meant to justify deadly crackdowns on dissent. The Britain-based monitoring group reported more than 100 people killed across Syria, including 11 members of the security forces, and 68 civilians.
    (AP, 2/27/12)(AFP, 2/28/12)
2012        Feb 27, European Union foreign ministers said they were increasingly appalled by the Syrian government's ruthless campaign of repression against civilians, and imposed new sanctions in hopes of pressuring the regime to change course.
    (AP, 2/27/12)
2012        Feb 27, Iraqi Kurdistan said it has granted refugee status to 30 Kurdish Syrian troops who defected to the region in the first such instance in the revolt against Bashar al-Assad's regime.
    (AFP, 2/27/12)

2012        Feb 28, Activists of the Syrian Revolution 2011 Facebook page said that Baba Amr was bombarded for the 25th straight day by regime forces. At least five civilians died in Baba Amr. Five Syrian soldiers were killed in fighting against deserters in the southern province of Daraa. Wounded British photographer Paul Conroy (47) escaped overnight from Homs to Lebanon. 13 Syrian activists were killed trying to help Le Figaro journalist Edith Bouvier and Conroy and to bring in aid to Baba Amr. Bouvier remained trapped in Baba Amr.
    (AFP, 2/28/12)(AFP, 2/29/12)

2012        Feb 29, Syrian forces launched a ground assault on Homs to crush the last pockets of resistance in the city's rebel-held districts, a security source said, even as Washington worked on a UN Security Council draft demanding humanitarian access.
    (AFP, 2/29/12)
2012        Feb 29, Britain withdrew its diplomatic staff from Syria because of a growing risk to their safety.
    (AFP, 3/1/12)

2012        Mar 1, Syrian rebels retreated from the Baba Amr neighborhood in Homs that they had held for months, saying they were running out of weapons and humanitarian conditions were catastrophic after almost four weeks of government bombardment.
    (AP, 3/1/12)
2012        Mar 1, The opposition Syrian National Council said it wanted to organize weapons deliveries to Syrian rebels and was uniting armed factions fighting against President Bashar al-Assad's regime. Kuwait's parliament joined the call for arming the rebels, adopting a non-binding resolution urging the oil-rich Gulf state to supply weapons to the opposition and to sever diplomatic ties with Damascus.
    (AFP, 3/1/12)
2012        Mar 1, Members of the UN Human Rights Council voted 37 in favor and three against a resolution proposed by Turkey that calls on Syria to immediately stop all attacks on civilians and grant unhindered access to aid groups. Russia, China and Cuba objected to the resolution.
    (AP, 3/1/12)

2012        Mar 2, Syrian activists accused regime forces of carrying out execution-style killings and burning homes as part of a scorched-earth campaign in a restive neighborhood of Homs, while the Red Cross headed to the area following a bloody, monthlong siege to dislodge rebel forces. The Observatory said 10 people were killed in the town of Rastan near Homs when a mortar landed near marchers. The LCC said 16 were killed in the same event, among 52 reported dead nationwide.
    (AP, 3/2/12)
2012        Mar 2, France said it is closing its embassy in Syria, a day after two French journalists escaped to Lebanon.
    (AP, 3/2/12)

2012        Mar 3, Syrian forces renewed their bombardment of rebellious areas of Homs, as the Red Cross vowed to try again to reach thousands of people stranded in a district overrun by regime troops after a monthlong siege. A suicide car bomb exploded in Daraa, killing at least two people and wounding 20. Human Rights Watch said Syrian forces killed some 700 people and wounded thousands in a 27-day bombardment of Homs, with shells sometimes falling at the rate of 100 an hour. 12 civilians, including five children, were killed when a rocket slammed into a crowd of protesters in Rastan.
    (AP, 3/3/12)(AFP, 3/3/12)(AFP, 3/4/12)

2012        Mar 4, Syrian artillery gunners turned their sights on the rebel city of Rastan, killing 7 civilians, as the Red Cross delivered aid to refugees from the battered Baba Amr quarter nearby. The Syrian Observatory reported at least 44 people killed, including 14 members of the security forces who died in clashes with deserters near Daraa.
    (AFP, 3/4/12)

2012        Mar 5, Canada said it has shut its embassy in Damascus and is imposing fresh sanctions on Syria, banning all dealings with the central bank as part of a campaign to stop President Bashar al-Assad's crackdown against rebels.
    (Reuters, 3/5/12)
2012        Mar 5, China said it will send a new envoy to Syria and is ready to support international aid under the auspices of the United Nations or another "impartial" organization.
    (AFP, 3/5/12)

2012        Mar 6, Syrian troops shelled Herak and clashed with army defectors holed up inside in violence that killed a 15-year-old boy and five government soldiers. Government forces pounded rebel-held towns and blasted a bridge used by refugees to escape to Lebanon. At least 16 people were killed as regime forces launched a major assault on Herak, a town in the southern province of Daraa.
    (AP, 3/6/12)(AFP, 3/6/12)(AFP, 3/7/12)

2012        Mar 7, UN's humanitarian chief Valerie Amos arrived in Syria to try to secure aid for battered protest cities, as tanks and troops headed for a rebel bastion in Idlib. Syria's deputy oil minister, Abdo Husameldin, defected to Turkey. His online video emerged the next day, making him the highest ranking civilian official to abandon the regime since the uprising against President Bashar Assad erupted a year ago.
    (AFP, 3/7/12)(AP, 3/8/12)(Econ, 3/10/12, p.60)

2012        Mar 8, Two Syrian generals, a colonel and two sergeants defected to Turkey.
    (AP, 3/9/12)

2012        Mar 9, The leader of Syria's main opposition group, Burhan Ghalioun, rejected calls by UN envoy Kofi Annan for dialogue with President Bashar Assad's government, saying such talks are pointless and unrealistic as long as the regime massacres its own people. Activists said at least 26 people were killed across Syria today.
    (AP, 3/9/12)
2012        Mar 9, Russia said it opposed an "unbalanced" Washington-backed UN draft resolution on Syria because it failed to call for a simultaneous halt in violence by the government and rebels.
    (AFP, 3/9/12)

2012        Mar 10, Syrian troops pushed ahead with a new assault on the northern region of Idlib. 17 civilians and four regular army troops were killed in clashes in Idlib province. 28 people were reported killed nationwide. UN envoy Kofi Annan met with Pres. Assad in Damascus trying to bring a halt to fighting and arrange talks between the two sides. Assad told Annan that any political dialogue was doomed to fail "as long as there are armed terrorist groups that work to spread anarchy and destabilize the country." The opposition as well has rejected dialogue, saying it is impossible to talk to Assad's regime.
    (AP, 3/10/12)(AFP, 3/10/12)(SSFC, 3/11/12, p.A6)
2012        Mar 10, Arab and Russian foreign ministers meeting in Cairo called for an end to the violence in Syria "whatever its source," as they struggled try to find common ground on ways to resolve the deadly conflict. Qatari Foreign Minister Sheikh Hamad bin Jassim al-Thani said that it was time to send Arab and foreign troops to Syria.
    (AFP, 3/10/12)
2012        Mar 10, Turkish journalist Adem Ozkose (34) and cameraman Hamit Coskun (21) reported from Idlib as Syrian forces with tanks and artillery were preparing to move against poorly armed rebels there. They were not heard from again until May 5 when they called their families while under Syrian detention. On May 11 Iran, acting as diplomatic go-between between Syria and Turkey, negotiated their release.
    (AP, 5/11/12)

2012        Mar 11, In Syria international peace envoy Kofi Annan said he handed over a set of "concrete proposals" aimed at defusing the Syrian crisis during a second round of talks with President Bashar al-Assad. 20 bodies were discovered in the Dbeit district in Idlib. A massacre in Homs left 26 children and 21 women, some with their throats slit and others bearing stab wounds in the Karm el-Zaytoun and Al-Adawiyeh neighborhoods of Homs. Four civilians were killed in government shelling and 10 soldiers were killed when their checkpoint was attacked by defectors in Idlib province.
     (AFP, 3/11/12)(AFP, 3/12/12)(AP, 3/13/12)

2012        Mar 12, The Syrian army launched a new assault in the restive northern province of Idlib and the city itself. Security force gunfire killed at least two people in the Idlib town of Maaret al-Numan and in the Hazzan area. SANA reported that an "armed terrorist group" blew up a pipeline that transports diesel from the central province of Homs to the nearby region of Hama, setting it on fire.
    (AFP, 3/12/12)(AP, 3/12/12)
2012        Mar 12, UN-Arab League peace envoy on Syria, Kofi Annan, held talks with top Qatari officials after a weekend trip to Damascus where he urged leaders to end the bloodshed there.
    (AFP, 3/12/12)

2012        Mar 13, The Syrian army recaptured the northern rebel stronghold of Idlib near the Turkish border, a major base that military defectors had held for months. An international rights group, meanwhile, said the regime was mining the border with Turkey. The LCC and the Observatory said that bodies of six people were found today near the village of Maaret Shoureen in Idlib province.
    (AP, 3/13/12)
2012        Mar 13, Russian Deputy Defense Minister Anatoly Antonov said Russia will abide by existing contracts to deliver weapons to Syria despite Pres. Assad's yearlong crackdown on the opposition.
    (AP, 3/13/12)

2012        Mar 14, Two prominent Syrian dissidents said they have quit the main opposition group that emerged from the year-old uprising against the regime in Damascus, predicting more would soon abandon what one of the men described as an "autocratic" organization. Amnesty International said that Syrian security forces routinely torture people detained during the uprising. 37 people were reported killed in violence across Syria, 20 of them in Daraa.
    (AP, 3/14/12)(AFP, 3/15/12)
2012        Mar 14, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov accused Pres. Assad of "inertia" and said Russia's hugely controversial policy on Syria was not aimed at defending his regime.
    (AFP, 3/14/12)
2012        Mar 14, Saudi Arabia said it has closed its embassy in Damascus and pulled out its diplomats and staff as Syrian President Bashar Assad steps up attacks against the opposition.
    (AP, 3/15/12)

2012        Mar 15, In Syria 23 mutilated corpses were found near Mazraat Wadi Khaled, west of the city of Idlib. The regime's bloody crackdown entered its second year to a rising world outcry. Violent clashes broke out overnight as rebels attacked army posts in the eastern region of Deir Ezzor (Deir el-Zour). State television showed tens of thousands of people waving Syrian flags and Assad's portrait in cities including Damascus, the second-largest city Aleppo and Latakia. Tanks and snipers besieged opposition areas, including the southern city of Daraa. At least 34 other people were killed in violence, mostly in Idlib province bordering Turkey.
    (AFP, 3/15/12)(AP, 3/16/12)(AFP, 3/16/12)
2012        Mar 15, France rejected weapons requests by the Syrian rebel forces, saying that arming the Syrian opposition could lead to catastrophic civil war.
    (AP, 3/16/12)
2012        Mar 15, Turkey’s deputy prime minister said Syria has planted landmines near its border with Turkey along routes used by refugees fleeing the regime's deadly crackdown on dissent. The foreign ministry said Around 1,000 Syrian refugees, including a defecting general, flocked into Turkey in the last 24 hours.
    (AFP, 3/15/12)

2012        Mar 16, Syrian troops clashed with army defectors in several areas near Damascus in the first significant battles there since President Bashar Assad's forces regained control of the suburbs weeks ago. 7 people were reported killed in overnight fighting in Dmeir and Qatana, also in the Damascus region. Activists called for rallies across Syria to demand immediate military intervention. Two more generals fled Syria to Turkey and linked up with rebels trying to overthrow President Bashar al-Assad's regime
    (AP, 3/16/12)(AFP, 3/16/12)(AFP, 3/19/12)
2012        Mar 16, The Gulf Cooperation Council announced that all six of its member states were closing their Damascus embassies after having last month withdrawn their ambassadors.
    (AFP, 3/16/12)
2012        Mar 16, Russia said it has encouraged the Syrian government to cooperate with Kofi Annan, the envoy charged with trying to help end the violence there, and urged the West to do the same with the Syrian rebels.
    (AP, 3/16/12)
2012        Mar 16, Turkey urged its citizens in Syria to return home, saying some consular services will be halted in Damascus next week.
    (AP, 3/16/12)

2012        Mar 17, In Syria twin car bombs struck intelligence and security buildings in Damascus, killing at least 27 people and wounding nearly 100. A third blast went off near a military bus at the Palestinian refugee camp Yarmouk in Damascus, killing the two suicide bombers. On March 21 an Islamist group called the Al-Nusra Front to Protect the Levant claimed responsibility for twin suicide bombings.
    (AP, 3/17/12)(AP, 3/18/12)(AP, 3/21/12)

2012        Mar 18, In Syria an explosion ripped through a residential neighborhood in the northern city of Aleppo. State news said it was a "terrorist bombing." Two people were reported killed and 30 wounded. The opposition faced a harsh security crackdown aimed at preventing rallies marking one year since the first nationwide demonstrations of the country's uprising.
    (AP, 3/18/12)

2012        Mar 19, In Syria rare gunbattles between security forces and rebels broke out in an upscale Damascus neighborhood where embassies are located and senior officials live. It was one of the most serious confrontations in the tightly controlled capital since the anti-government uprising began a year ago. At least 4 people were killed.
    (AFP, 3/19/12)

2012        Mar 20, Russia said it is ready to support a UN resolution endorsing Kofi Annan's plan for settling the Syrian crisis, signaling it is prepared to raise the pressure on its old ally.
    (AP, 3/20/12)
2012        Mar 20, Human Rights Watch accused some in Syria's armed opposition of carrying out serious abuses, including the kidnapping and torture of security forces, in a sign of the growing complexity of the year-old uprising against President Bashar Assad. Fresh clashes broke out in the capital and security forces killed at least 30 people, all but two of them civilians, in violence elsewhere across the country. Syrian soldiers backed by tanks seized the eastern city of Deir el-Zour from rebels.
    (AP, 3/20/12)(AFP, 3/20/12)

2012        Mar 21, The UN Security Council passed a statement urging Syria’s Pres. Assad and the opposition to implement "fully and immediately" envoy Kofi Annan's peace plan. The Syrian National Council, the main opposition group, dismissed the UN statement, saying it offered "the regime the opportunity to push ahead with its repression in order to crush the revolt. Activists reported shelling by government in forces in hotspots including the central province of Homs, and fighting between army defectors and soldiers in Damascus suburbs.
    (AP, 3/21/12)(AFP, 3/22/12)
2012        Mar 21, Japan's foreign ministry said it would close its embassy in Syria, citing deteriorating security conditions amid a brutal crackdown on anti-government protestors.
    (AFP, 3/21/12)

2012        Mar 22, In Syria fierce clashes erupted with a busload of fleeing civilians among dozens killed. The army attacked a string of towns, while rebel fighters struck military posts in several provinces and announced a command structure to coordinate hit-and-run strikes in and around Damascus. Activists reported dozens of people killed including at least 12 government soldiers.
    (AFP, 3/22/12)(SFC, 3/23/12, p.A3)

2012        Mar 23, Syrian government forces fired machine guns and mortars in fierce clashes with rebel army defectors in a town near the Turkish border. EU foreign ministers imposed sanctions on the wife and three other close relatives of Syrian President Bashar Assad. The LCC said a total of at least 18 people were killed throughout the country. Tens of thousands of Syrians braved tear gas and gunfire to protest across the country, vowing to storm the capital Damascus to oust President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 3/23/12)

2012        Mar 24, Syrian troops launched raids on several rebel towns that left at least 20 people dead after raging overnight firefights with army deserters. Fighting in Saraqeb left 2 rebels and 9 government troops dead. 14 people were reported killed in Homs province.
    (AFP, 3/24/12)(SSFC, 3/25/12, p.A6)

2012        Mar 25, Syrian forces attacked flashpoint areas, carrying out raids and clashing with rebels as President Bashar Assad's allies in Russia said the country may be facing its last chance for peace. The LCC reported five troops and three mutinous soldiers killed in the southern town of Nawa.
    (AP, 3/25/12)
2012        Mar 25, Pres. Obama met with Turkish leader Recep Tayyip Erdogan ahead of a nuclear security conference in South Korea. Obama other key allies considered providing Syrian rebels with communications help, medical aid and other "non-lethal" assistance.
    (AP, 3/25/12)

2012        Mar 26, Syrian troops shelled rebel-held neighborhoods in Homs. The LCC said 19 people were killed in Syria, nine of them in Homs. The Observatory said 10 people were killed, including five in the Homs shelling. The government banned military aged males 18-42 from traveling outside the country.
    (AP, 3/26/12)(SFC, 3/27/12, p.A3)

2012        Mar 26, The Norwegian Foreign Ministry said it has decided to close down its embassy in Damascus due to security concerns.
    (AP, 3/26/12)
2012        Mar 26, Turkey closed its embassy in Damascus and recalled its ambassador as relations between the former allies continued to deteriorate.
    (AFP, 3/26/12)

2012        Mar 27, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad toured the flashpoint Baba Amr neighborhood of Homs. A spokesman for UN envoy Kofi Annan said Syria has accepted his 6-point plan to end the bloodshed in the country. Syrian security forces reportedly killed 10 people as the regime pushed to retake areas still under rebel control.
    (AFP, 3/27/12)(AP, 3/27/12)

2012        Mar 28, Syrian activists said government forces have captured the northern town of Saraqeb from rebels after four days of fighting in which more than 40 people were killed and homes were burned down. 3 Syrian soldiers were killed in clashes with rebels in the central province of Homs.
    (AP, 3/28/12)

2012        Mar 29, In Syria gunmen struck in the heart of Aleppo, Syria's largest city and a stronghold of support for President Bashar Assad, killing two army colonels at a downtown roundabout in an attack that state media blamed on terrorists. Rebels attacked an army truck in Hama province killing two soldiers. Activists said security forces killed at least 11 civilians across the country.
    (AP, 3/29/12)

2012        Mar 30, Fresh clashes between Syrian soldiers and rebels erupted across many parts of Syria as UN envoy Kofi Annan urged the government to lay down its weapons first to immediately end the nation's yearlong crisis. The Local Coordination Committees said 15 people were killed across the country, including eight who died in the town of Quriya in the eastern Deir el-Zour province. Thousands across the country held demonstrations calling for Assad's ouster as they emerged from mosques following Friday prayers.
    (AP, 3/30/12)

2012        Apr 1, Syria blasted an international conference on the country's spreading crisis before it even started in Istanbul, calling it part of an international conspiracy to kill Syrians and weaken the country. Monitors said at least 16 people were killed, including eight soldiers who died during ambushes and gun battles in the east, northwest and near Damascus. Participants at the 60-nation “Friends of the Syrian People" meeting said Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries are creating a multimillion-dollar fund to pay members of the rebel Free Syrian Army and soldiers who defect from the regime and join opposition ranks.
    (AP, 4/1/12)(AFP, 4/1/12)(SSFC, 4/1/12, p.A5)

2012        Apr 2, Syria pressed its deadly bid to crush dissent, reportedly targeting rebels near Turkey as it brushed off an Istanbul meeting of the "Friends of Syria" as a failure. Violence across the country killed at least 18 people. Gunmen in Aleppo attacked the home of the head of military institutions late today and killed two guards.
    (AFP, 4/2/12)(AP, 4/3/12)
2012        Apr 2, UN-Arab League envoy Kofi Annan said Syrian President Bashar al-Assad had accepted an April 10 deadline to start implementing a peace plan, as more than 30 people died in new clashes.
    (AFP, 4/2/12)

2012        Apr 3, Syrian opposition groups reported army raid and arrest campaigns across the country as well as clashes with local rebels. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said two civilians were killed in clashes in the northern village of Taftanaz, where rebel destroyed one army vehicle and regime forces torched a number of homes. The International Committee of the Red Cross pressed Syria to give aid workers access to civilians endangered by shelling and armed clashes. Assaults and clashes killed across the country killed at least 80 people.
    (AP, 4/3/12)(AFP, 4/4/12)
2012        Apr 3, Russia's Foreign Ministry announced that the Syrian government said it has begun implementing a UN envoy Kofi Annan’s peace plan that requires it to withdraw its forces from towns and cities within a week.
    (AP, 4/3/12)

2012        Apr 4, Syrian troops clashed with army defectors and shelled rebellious districts in Homs, a day after the government claimed it had begun a troop withdrawal ahead of the April 10 deadline to implement an international truce plan. A former political detainee identified as Ahmad al-Othman (50) and his brother Adnan (40), a lawyer, were killed overnight when troops fired on their car from a machine gun on a tank in Idlib province. 52 people were killed around the country, including 28 civilians, with most of the casualties in the city and province of Homs.
    (AP, 4/4/12)(AFP, 4/4/12)

2012        Apr 5, In Syria fierce clashes between government forces and rebels erupted near Damascus ahead of an agreed truce. Some 2,500 crossed the border today, bringing to 24,000 the number of Syrian refugees now in Turkey.
    (AFP, 4/5/12)(AP, 4/6/12)
2012        Apr 5, A team led by a Norwegian major general arrived in Damascus to negotiate the possible deployment of a UN team that would monitor a cease-fire agreement between Syrian government troops and rebel forces.
    (AP, 4/5/12)

2012        Apr 6, Syrian troops conducted raids in the suburbs of Saqba and Douma following overnight clashes with army defectors in Saqba and the nearby suburb of Arbeen, where 3 members of the military were reported killed. A cease-fire was expected to begin April 12. Tens of thousands of protesters marched in towns across Syria, calling for the ouster of the Assad regime.
    (AP, 4/6/12)

2012        Apr 7, In Syria some 86 civilians were killed as regime forces pressed a protest crackdown three days ahead of a deadline to cease fire and pull back. 16 rebels and 17 members of the security forces were also killed nationwide. The head of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation said at least one million Syrians affected by violence need urgent humanitarian aid worth $70 million. Thousands of demonstrators turned out in Damascus to show their backing for President al-Assad's ruling Baath party on the 65th anniversary of its creation.
    (AFP, 4/7/12)(AFP, 4/8/12)

2012        Apr 8, Syria's main opposition group urged UN intervention after one of the deadliest days in a year saw nearly 130 people killed, mostly civilians. 11 more people were killed today. A UN-brokered peace deal appeared to collapse as the government made a new demand that its opponents provide "written guarantees" to lay down their weapons before regime forces withdraw from cities.
    (AFP, 4/8/12)(AP, 4/8/12)

2012        Apr 9, Syrian forces fired across the border into a refugee camp in Turkey, wounding at least five people. Lebanese journalist Ali Shaaban, who works as a cameraman for Al Jadeed TV station, was shot and killed as he was filming in the northern Wadi Khaled area on the Lebanese side of the border. 12 members of the Syrian security forces were killed as clashes ensued in several regions. Human Rights Watch said it has documented the killings by Syrian forces of 85 civilians, including women and children, and the summary executions of at least 16 wounded or captured opposition fighters. The Syrian rebel army said it is ready to respect an April 10 truce brokered by UN-Arab League envoy Kofi Annan if the regime of President Bashar al-Assad abides by the peace deal.
    (AP, 4/9/12)(AFP, 4/9/12)

2012        Apr 10, Syrian troops shelled and raided opposition strongholds across Syria, activists said, denying claims by the foreign minister that regime forces have begun pulling out of some areas in compliance with a UN-brokered truce.
    (AP, 4/10/12)

2012        Apr 11, Syrian troops took control of large parts of villages and towns near the border with Turkey. The state-run news agency SANA said gunmen shot and killed army Brig. Gen. Jamal Khaled in the Damascus suburb of Aqraba. It added that Khaled's driver, a soldier, was also killed in the attack. 2 people were reported killed and dozens wounded when government troops stormed and shelled Barada valley. 2 more people were reported killed in the eastern town of Qoriah during raids by regime force. The military unleashed a lethal offensive against protest centers, killing 25 civilians today.
    (AP, 4/11/12)(AFP, 4/12/12)

2012        Apr 12, In Syria a fragile cease-fire brokered by the UN took hold with regime forces apparently halting widespread attacks on the opposition. Renewed bloodshed killed at least four people, putting to the test a hard-won ceasefire plan that was supposed to take effect at dawn.
    (AP, 4/12/12)(AFP, 4/12/12)

2012        Apr 13, In Syria tens of thousands of poured into the streets for anti-government protests in the first major test of a UN-brokered truce. Government troops fought with rebels near the border with Turkey, and other scattered violence was reported. 6 civilians were killed.
    (AFP, 4/13/12)(AFP, 4/14/12)

2012        Apr 14, Syria shelled rebel districts of Homs. A fragile truce was now in its third day. 5 people were killed, among them Samir Shalab al-Sham (26), a photographer and father of two who had been documenting the destruction. In Aleppo 3 civilians were wounded when a funeral procession came under fire. In Dmeir, outside Damascus, security forces opened fire on a car killing one civilian and wounding two. 2 soldiers were killed in an attack on their car in the southern province of Daraa. The UN Security Council in New York voted to authorize an advance team of observers to help maintain the cease-fire. UN Resolution 2042 approved the sending of 30 unarmed military observers as soon as possible and called on both the government and opposition forces to halt "armed violence in all its forms."
    (AFP, 4/14/12)(AP, 4/15/12)(AFP, 4/16/12)

2012        Apr 15, Syrian troops shelled residential neighborhoods dominated by rebels in the central city of Homs, killing at least three people hours before the first batch of United Nations observers were to arrive in Damascus to shore up a shaky truce. The bodies of two other people were found in the Deir Baalbeh and al-Dablan districts.
    (AP, 4/15/12)

2012        Apr 16, Syrian forces fought with rebels in Idlib and shelled Homs, hours after UN peacekeepers arrived to oversee a truce aimed at ending a year of bloodshed. At least 26 people were reported killed. The Local Coordination Committees said at least 55 people were killed, including 26 in Idlib.
    (AFP, 4/16/12)(AP, 4/17/12)

2012        Apr 17, The Syrian regime widened shelling attacks on opposition strongholds, targeting a second town in a new sign that a UN-brokered cease-fire is quickly unraveling despite the presence of foreign observers. Army tanks shelled the southern town of Busra al-Harir, killing at least two people.
    (AP, 4/17/12)

2012        Apr 18, Syrian troops opened fire on protesters, wounding eight in the Damascus suburb of Arbeen, visited by a UN observer team. Regime forces fired mortar shells at the central city of Homs. State news said two separate roadside bombs killed 10 members of the security forces and a civilian in northern Syria. 30 people were killed today, 22 of them civilians. In the central city of Homs alone, 13 civilians died in renewed bombardment.
    (AP, 4/18/12)(AFP, 4/19/12)
2012        Apr 18, Turkey said it has intercepted an Antigua and Barbuda-flagged vessel in the Mediterranean suspected of carrying weapons and ammunition to Syria. The "Atlantic Cruiser" belonged to a German company. The ship was chartered by a Ukrainian firm, which said that the cargo contained no weapons, but legal goods for civilian use.
    (AFP, 4/18/12)(AFP, 4/19/12)

2012        Apr 19, Syria and the UN signed a deal on the framework for observers to monitor a shaky ceasefire, as Arab and Western ministers gathered in Paris to pile pressure on Damascus. At least three people were reported killed in violence across Syria today.
    (AFP, 4/19/12)

2012        Apr 20, Syrian troops fired bullets and tear gas to disperse thousands of protesters. State media reported that bombs and shooting killed 17 soldiers in the latest violence to defy international efforts to calm the country's crisis. Activists reported at least 11 civilians killed.
    (AP, 4/20/12)(SFC, 4/21/12, p.A4)

2012        Apr 21, In Syria a group of UN cease-fire observers toured a rebel-held neighborhood in the central city of Homs as residents chanted loudly for a military intervention to protect them from President Bashar Assad's regime forces. State media said Syria has released 30 people who were detained for their alleged role in an anti-regime uprising, but who have "no blood on their hands." Fighting and government shelling stopped in Homs and troops hid tanks in advance of the visit by the UN observers. A huge explosion rocked a Syrian military airport on the outskirts of the capital.
    (AP, 4/21/12)(AFP, 4/21/12)

2012        Apr 22, In Syria UN cease-fire monitors toured the rebel-held town of Hama with army defectors, while government troops pounded a Damascus suburb with artillery and heavy machine guns. 2 people were reported killed by indiscriminate firing in Douma. 4 soldiers were also killed when a roadside bomb hit an armored personnel carrier in the town. Security forces also killed three people in the northern province of Idlib and one person in the village of Hteita outside Damascus when troops opened fire from a checkpoint.
    (AP, 4/22/12)

2012        Apr 23, Syrian state news said that "terrorists" had killed a doctor in the country's south, two military officers in the central province of Hama and two others in the south. UN observers monitoring the shaky cease-fire visited a string of rebellious Damascus suburbs. The EU banned the sale of luxury goods and products that can have military as well as civilian uses. At least 55 people were killed across Syria, most in the central city of Hama, a day after a visit by UN observers. Regime forces "summarily executed" nine activists.
    (AP, 4/23/12)(AP, 4/24/12)(AFP, 4/26/12)

2012        Apr 24, Syrian rebels seeking to topple President Bashar Assad killed three regime officers in separate attacks around Damascus.
    (AP, 4/24/12)

2012        Apr 25, In Syria an explosion in Hama killed at least 16 people. The government blamed rebels. Activists on the ground put the death toll as high as 68, including 16 children. UN envoy Kofi Annan urged the fast deployment of the full, 300-strong mission and voiced alarm about persistent violence. Observers now numbered 15. Syria was refusing to accept monitors from the Western and Arab coalition of countries in the so-called Friends of Syria group which has backed the Syrian opposition.
    (AFP, 4/25/12)(AFP, 4/26/12)(SFC, 4/27/12, p.A3)

2012        Apr 26, Syria's main opposition group called for an emergency UN Security Council meeting as it accused regime forces of having killed more than 100 people in the central city of Hama. Reports out of Lebanon said Islamist militant Abdel Ghani Jawhar, one of the country's most wanted men, was killed in Syria fighting alongside rebels against the army. At least two people were killed today, as clashes were reported in several provinces.
    (AFP, 4/26/12)

2012        Apr 27, Syrian state media said a suicide car bombing in Damascus killed 11 people. Thousands of Syrians protested elsewhere to denounce persistent violence by President Bashar Assad's regime. Damascus was hit by four explosions. At least 7 more people were killed in protests elsewhere.
    (AFP, 4/27/12)(AP, 4/28/12)(AFP, 4/30/12)

2012        Apr 28, Syrian army defectors clashed briefly with troops in the coastal town of Burj Islam, home to the presidential summer palace.
    (AP, 4/28/12)

2012        Apr 29, In Syria Maj. Gen. Robert Mood, head of the UN observer mission, arrived in Damascus to take charge of an advance team of 16 UN monitors. The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said government snipers shot dead two people in the Homs neighborhood of Joret al-Shayah. The group also said one civilian was killed and four wounded in random gunfire by security forces in the village of al-Saliha in the central Hama province.
    (AP, 4/29/12)

2012        Apr 30, In Syria twin blasts targeting security buildings killed more than 20 people in the northwest Syrian city of Idlib. Most of those killed in Idlib were members of the security forces. State television put the death toll at eight. Rockets struck the central bank in Damascus, killing nine people and wounding 100. UN monitors said at least 70 people, among them 47 civilians, were killed nationwide at the weekend.
    (AFP, 4/30/12)(AP, 5/1/12)

2012        May 1, Syrian forces fired mortar shells at the village of Mishmishan in the country's north, killing at least 10 people, including 7 from the same family. A 13-year-old was killed in the nearby town of Maaret al-Noman by random gunfire from regime forces.
    (AP, 5/1/12)

2012        May 2, Syria's army reportedly suffered its deadliest day in a ceasefire when rebel fighters killed 20 troops, in the latest violation of the three-week truce the UN says both sides are flouting. The rebels killed 15 soldiers, including two colonels, in a dawn ambush in the northern province of Aleppo, where two rebel fighters also died. Clashes near Damascus killed six troops, while the army shelled and torched activists' homes in eastern Deir Ezzor province and regime gunfire killed a civilian in southern Daraa. 24 UN monitors were currently in place. Security forces stormed dorms Aleppo University to break up anti-government protests there, killing at least four students and wounding several others with tear gas and live ammunition.
    (AFP, 5/2/12)(AP, 5/3/12)

2012        May 3, Syrian security forces arrested two sons of prominent opposition figure Fayez Sara, hauling them off to an unknown location without showing a warrant. Sara was among more than 100 journalists who founded an "Association of Syrian Journalists" in February.
    (AFP, 5/3/12)

2012        May 4, Syrian security forces killed several demonstrators.
    (AFP, 5/5/12)

2012        May 5, In Syria thousands of people took to the streets of Damascus for funerals to mourn slain protesters. An explosion in a car wash in Aleppo killed at least five people.
    (AFP, 5/5/12)(AP, 5/5/12)

2012        May 7, Syria's main opposition group slammed the regime for holding parliamentary polls "under gunfire," saying it did not have the legitimacy to run elections. Polling stations opened for Syria's first "multiparty" election in five decades. Turnout, boycotted by the opposition, was later reported at 51.26%.
    (AFP, 5/7/12)(AP, 5/15/12)

2012        May 9, In Syria bullets flying across the Syrian border into Lebanon killed a 70-year-old woman and wounded her daughter. A roadside bomb struck a Syrian military truck, wounding 6 soldiers just seconds after a convoy carrying the head of the UN observer mission passed by.
    (AP, 5/9/12)

2012        May 10, In Syria 2 suicide blasts ripped through Damascus, killing 55 people and leaving scenes of carnage in the streets in the deadliest bombing attack since the country's uprising began 14 months ago. A military intelligence building appeared to be the target. The next day a group calling itself the Al-Nusra Front said the bombing was in response to attacks on residential areas by the regime of President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 5/10/12)(AP, 5/12/12)

2012        May 11, Syrian troops opened fire on anti-regime protesters in Damascus, wounding five people, as thousands of people took part in demonstrations across Syria. In Hama province troops shot and wounded 20 demonstrators in the town of Helfaya, where two civilians were killed in a raid. At least 12 people died across the country. State TV said the army foiled a would-be suicide attack a day after twin bombings a day earlier in Damascus killed dozens.
    (AFP, 5/11/12)

2012        May 13, In Syria regime forces battled rebels and carried out raids across the country in a surge of violence that killed at least 30 people. Syrian forces killed at least five people when they raided the Sunni farming village of Al-Tamanaa Al-Ghab in Hama province. The UN mission said it now has 189 military observers on the ground, nearly two-thirds of its planned strength of 300.
    (AFP, 5/13/12)

2012        May 14, Syrian troops shelled the rebel-held town of Rastan, sparking intense clashes that sent bloodied victims flooding into hospitals and clinics. Activists said at least 23 soldiers and seven civilians died in the fierce clashes. Government troops stormed the Damascus suburb of Qaboun where they conducted raids and deployed snipers on roofs of buildings. At least three people were killed in an explosion in the coastal city of Banias.
    (AP, 5/14/12)(AP, 5/15/12)(AFP, 5/17/12)   

2012        May 15, In Rome the Syrian National Council elected Paris-based academic Burhan Ghalioun as head of the exiled opposition coalition.
    (AFP, 5/15/12)
2012        May 15, In Syria regime troops "massacred" 20 people during a funeral procession in Khan Sheikhun. A roadside bomb hit a UN convoy in the town and left them stranded overnight with rebel forces. The attack came minutes after witnesses said regime forces gunned down mourners at a funeral procession nearby. Across the country 64 people were reportedly killed, including two rebel fighters and 11 regular army soldiers.
    (AP, 5/16/12)(AFP, 5/16/12)

2012        May 16, Syrian regime troops shot dead at least five people in a new assault on the town of Khan Sheikhun and opened fire on a refugee camp in southern Daraa province. In an interview with Russian TV Pres. Assad insisted his regime is fighting back against foreign mercenaries who want to overthrow him.
    (AFP, 5/16/12)(AP, 5/16/12)

2012        May 17, Syrian regime forces sent shells crashing into rebel stronghold Rastan. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights called on UN observers to rush to the town in central Homs province. 2 blasts rocked the neighborhoods of Al-Jamila and Al-Furqan in Aleppo, while other explosions were heard across the northern city. Syrian National Council chief Burhan Ghalioun said he will step down to avert divisions within the opposition bloc, after activists on the ground accused him of monopolizing power.
    (AFP, 5/17/12)(AFP, 5/18/12)

2012        May 18, Syrian security forces fired tear gas and live ammunition to disperse thousands rallying in the northern city of Aleppo, which activists said saw the largest turnout since the start of the uprising in March 2011. Regime forces shelled the town of Rastan.
    (AP, 5/18/12)

2012        May 19, In eastern Syria a suicide vehicle bomb tore through the parking lot of a military compound in Deir al-Zour, killing nine people. A day earlier the state-run news agency SANA reported that authorities had foiled an attempt to blow up a car rigged with explosives in the city and detained those involved.
    (AP, 5/19/12)

2012        May 20, Syrian rebels claimed in an Internet statement that they carried out a sophisticated attack that killed top political and security officials meeting in the capital. Syrian officials made quick denials. At least 48 people were killed elsewhere in the country including 34 civilians slain in the village of Souran, Hama province.
    (AP, 5/20/12)(AFP, 5/21/12)

2012        May 21, Syrian forces ambushed and killed nine army deserters in a north Damascus suburb, as NATO ruled out military action against the regime of President Bashar al-Assad. A bomb struck a restaurant late in the in Damascus killing at least five people.
    (AFP, 5/21/12)(AP, 5/22/12)

2012        May 22, In Syria intense clashes were reported between troops and defectors in the towns of Atareb in Aleppo province and Kfar Rouma in Idlib. 11 Lebanese Shiites were abducted in Aleppo province.
    (AP, 5/22/12)(AP, 5/23/12)

2012        May 23, Syria's oil minister acknowledged the heavy toll international sanctions have taken on the country's oil sector, saying that they had sucked about $4 billion from the economy.
    (AP, 5/23/12)
2012        May 23, The executive committee of the Syrian National Council asked Burhan Ghalioun to pursue his duties until a new president is elected at a meeting on June 9 and 10.
    (AP, 5/24/12)

2012        May 24, Syrian opposition groups said government forces shelled the rebel-held town of Rastan, killing at least three people. The state-run news agency said an armed group assassinated a lieutenant, shooting him and his 13-year-old son outside Damascus.
    (AP, 5/24/12)

2012        May 25, Syrian forces fired tear gas and live ammunition to disperse thousands of protesters calling for Assad's ouster, killing two people in the northern city of Aleppo. Government forces shelled the Qusour and Jobar neighborhoods in Homs province as protests took place in Damascus, Aleppo and the southern Daraa province. Government troops shelled a string of villages in central Syria before pro-regime thugs swept through the area, shooting people in the streets and in their homes in attacks that killed an estimated 108 people. 34 children and 49 women were among the dead in Houla.
    (AP, 5/25/12)(AFP, 5/26/12)(AFP, 5/27/12)(AFP, 5/28/12)

2012        May 26, In Syria regime forces pounded rebel positions elsewhere in Homs province, according to the Observatory, which reported 9 people killed in violence across the country, including four civilians. UN observers rushed to Houla where scores of civilians were reportedly massacred.
    (AFP, 5/26/12)

2012        May 27, Syrian government troops shelled residential areas of central Hama and the rebel-held town of Rastan north of Homs. The government said it was "not at all" responsible for the May 25 massacre of at least 92 people in the central town of Houla.
    (AFP, 5/27/12)

2012        May 28, Syrian troops shelled several neighborhoods of Hama over night killing at least 24 people. Special UN envoy Kofi Annan arrived in Damascus for talks with Syrian President Bashar Assad and other senior officials.
    (AP, 5/28/12)

2012        May 29, In Syria monitors said at least 19 people were killed in violence as clashes between regime troops and rebels raged. One of those killed in Homs was filmmaker and photography student Bassel Shehade, who returned to Syria from the United States around three months ago. At least 7 nations, including France, Britain, Germany, Italy, Spain, Canada and Australia, expelled Syrian diplomats to protest the May 25 Houla killings, ramping up the pressure on Pres. Bashar Assad's regime. Int’l. envoy Kofi Annan met with Assad to express "grave concern" about the Houla killings and other violence.
    (AFP, 5/29/12)(AP, 5/29/12)

2012        May 30, Syrian activists said government troops shelled restive suburbs of Damascus and rebel-held areas in Homs. The monitoring mission said UN observers have discovered 13 bound corpses in Deir el-Zour province, many of them apparently shot execution-style.
    (AP, 5/30/12)
2012        May 30, Japan ordered the Syrian ambassador in Tokyo to leave the country because of concerns about violence against civilians.
    (AP, 5/30/12)
2012        May 30, Turkey said it has ordered Syrian diplomats to leave the country within 72 hours following the massacre of more than 100 civilians in Houla which has triggered global outrage.
    (AFP, 5/30/12)

2012        May 31, The rebel Free Syrian Army's command inside the country gave the president an ultimatum to halt violence by midday June 1. Syrian forces resumed shelling in Houla with a young boy killed by a sniper. Battles raged as troops and rebels clashed across the country, with the Observatory saying at least three other people were killed.
    (AFP, 5/31/12)
2012        May 31, UN chief Ban Ki-moon, speaking in Istanbul, warned that Syria risks a "catastrophic civil war" following the May 25 massacre that sparked global outrage.
    (AFP, 5/31/12)

2012        Jun 1, In Syria gunmen killed 11 workers at a state-owned fertilizer factory near Qusair, Homs province, the second execution-style shooting reported in Syria in less than a week. A previously unknown Syrian rebel group said it is holding 11 Lebanese Shiite pilgrims kidnapped on May 22 after crossing into Syria from Turkey on their way to Lebanon. State TV aired interviews with two witnesses from Houla who said the victims of the massacres were members of families that support the government and did not take part in anti-Assad protests.
    (AP, 6/1/12)(AP, 6/2/12)
2012        Jun 1, The UN Human Rights Council in Geneva voted overwhelmingly to condemn Syria over the slaughter of more than 100 civilians last week. Only Russia, China and Cuba voted against the resolution, with Uganda and Ecuador abstaining. The Philippines was absent.
    (AP, 6//12)

2012        Jun 2, Violence in Syria killed 89 people, including 57 soldiers, the largest number of casualties the military has suffered in a single day since an uprising began in March 2011.
    (AFP, 6/3/12)

2012        Jun 3, Syrian President Bashar Assad denied that his government had anything to do with last week's gruesome Houla massacre, saying not even "monsters" would carry out such an ugly crime.
    (AP, 6/3/12)

2012        Jun 4, In Syrian government forces attacked rebel strongholds in Idlib province and in and around Deir Ezzor as violence across the country claimed at least 35 lives. A Syrian opposition group, the Syrian Rebels Front, announced in Turkey that they are creating a new military structure consisting of 12,000 fighters to topple the regime.
    (AP, 6/5/12)(AFP, 6/5/12)(SFC, 6/4/12, p.A2)

2012        Jun 5, Syria barred a string of US and European diplomats, saying they were "no longer welcome" as the country plunged into its most profound international isolation in decades. Troops and pro-regime militia backed by tanks went on a new offensive against rebels, seizing the central town of Kfar Zita after three days of bombardment. UN officials announced that Syria's government has agreed to a written deal with the United Nations and other international organizations that would allow aid workers and supplies to enter four hard-hit provinces. Clashes and raids in Latakia province killed 33 people. 55 people were killed across the country, including 26 soldiers, 19 civilians and 10 rebels.
    (AP, 6/5/12)(AFP, 6/6/12)
2012        Jun 5, Some 85 Syrian military defectors and their families crossed into Turkey.
    (Econ, 7/7/12, p.46)

2012        Jun 6, Syrian President Bashar Assad appointed loyalist Riad Farid Hijab, a member of the ruling Baath Party and the former agriculture minister, as prime minister as he battles a 15-month uprising against his rule. Rebels went on the offensive in and around Damascus while 18 people were killed in shelling, blasts and clashes across the country. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least 55 people were killed in an assault on Al-Kubeir, a small Sunni farming enclave surrounded by Alawite villages in the central province of Hama.
    (AP, 6/6/12)(AFP, 6/6/12)(AFP, 6/7/12)
2012        Jun 6, Clashes broke out between Syrian troops and residents of the border town of Arsal in eastern Lebanon after a Lebanese man was killed and three wounded at dawn as they tried to cross the border into Syria.
    (AFP, 6/6/12)
2012        Jun 6, A group of expat Syrian businessmen announced in Qatar the creation of a $300 million (239 million euro) fund to support the rebellion against President Bashar al-Assad.
    (AFP, 6/6/12)

2012        Jun 7, Syrian troops blocked UN observers from reaching the site of a new mass killing. The Syrian National Council said 78 people, including women and children, were killed overnight in the village of Mazraat al-Qubair in central Hama province when government-aligned militiamen converged on the village from neighboring pro-regime villages.
    (AP, 6/7/12)

2012        Jun 8, Syrian troops heavily shelled a rebel-held neighborhood in the central city of Homs as the military appeared to be readying to storm the area. State-run media said armed "terrorist groups" attacked military units charged with protecting al-Omar oil field of al-Furat Oil Company in the oil-rich city of Deir Ezzor province. SANA also said a car bomb in the Damascus suburb of Qudsaya killed 3 policemen, while another explosion in the northern city of Idlib killed 2 soldiers and 3 civilians. In Daraa at least 17 civilians were killed in the shelling. Troops clashed with rebels from the Free Syrian Army in the Kfar Souseh district of Damascus in fierce fighting sparked when the armed fighters attacked a military checkpoint in the area.
    (AP, 6/8/12)(AP, 6/9/12)

2012        Jun 9, Syrian troops shelled the southern city of Daraa. For the first time in the uprising regime tanks opened fire in streets of Damascus, with shells slamming into residential buildings. At least four people were killed. At least 111 people, 83 civilians and 28 soldiers, were killed, according to Observatory figures.
    (AP, 6/9/12)(AFP, 6/10/12)

2012        Jun 10, In Syria clashes and shelling by midday killed at least 12 people. Kurdish activist Abdel Basset Sayda (Abdulbaset Sieda), the opposition's new leader, said that President Bashar al-Assad's regime was on its "last legs."
    (AFP, 6/10/12)(AP, 6/10/12)

2012        Jun 11, Syrian troops attacked a central, rebel-held town with helicopter gunships and shelled other restive areas across the nation. 12 people, including three children, were killed in a car bomb blast in Deir Ezzor's Al-Joura neighborhood. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said nationwide violence cost the lives of at least 111 people, including 79 civilians.
    (AP, 6/11/12)(AFP, 6/12/12)

2012        Jun 12, Syrian forces pounded a neighborhood of the eastern city of Deir Ezzor with mortar fire, killing 10 civilians including a young girl. 3 people were reported killed and dozens wounded in clashes in Al-Haffe. US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said that she had information Russia was sending attack helicopters to Syria.
    (AFP, 6/12/12)(AFP, 6/13/12)

2012        Jun 13, Syria’s the official SANA news agency quoted officials as saying the northwest region of Al-Haffe has been "cleansed" of terrorists and "calm has been restored" in the area. Rebels withdrew from the besieged town of Al-Haffe and nearby villages that had been under intense shelling by regime forces for eight days. Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov accused the United States of supplying weapons to Syria's rebels.
    (AFP, 6/13/12)
2012        Jun 13, A Turkish foreign ministry official said around 2,500 Syrians have fled to Turkey in the last 48 hours amid fresh attacks that even targeted UN observers.
    (AFP, 6/13/12)

2012        Jun 14, In Syria a suicide bomber detonated his van packed with explosives in a Damascus suburb, wounding 14 people and damaging one of Shiite Islam's holiest shrines. Troops continued to pound rebel-controlled areas in Homs, while rebels reportedly clashed with government forces in several other parts of the country. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 3 civilians were killed overnight in clashes at the entrances of the Jouret el-Shayyah neighborhood in Homs city. Another died in the rebel-held town of Rastan north of Homs. UN observers entered the nearly deserted town of Haffa and found smoldering buildings, looted shops, smashed cars and a strong stench of death. According to the Observatory at least 84 people died in clashes and bombings across Syria, 48 of them civilians.
    (AP, 6/14/12)(AP, 6/15/12)(AFP, 6/15/12)
2012        Jun 14, Syrian authorities arrested terrorist Mohamed Hossam al-Saddaqa, a member of the Al-Nusra Front of Al-Qaeda, who was planning to blow himself up inside Al-Rifai Mosque in Damascus during Friday prayers."
    (AFP, 6/15/12)

2012        Jun 15, The Syrian regime kept up a ferocious offensive on rebel areas around the country in one of the most serious escalations in violence since Annan brokered the truce. Activists said at least 10 people were reported killed when security forces opened fire on protests across the country. Syrian opposition members began a two-day meeting in Turkey to discuss a vision for a post-Assad Syria and steps need to be taken to ensure a transition to democracy. Human Rights Watch said that Syrian government forces have used sexual violence to torture men, women, girls and boys detained during the current conflict. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 9 bodies, some of them mutilated, were found in a town near Damascus.
    (AP, 6/15/12)(AFP, 6/15/12)

2012        Jun 16, UN observers suspended their mission to Syria, blaming intensifying violence as government forces shelled rebel strongholds including Douma near the capital and the central city of Homs. A watchdog 69 people were killed across the country, including 51 civilians, 16 troops and two rebels.
    (AFP, 6/16/12)(AFP, 6/17/12)

2012        Jun 17, Syrian troops intensified their shelling of rebel-held neighborhoods in the central city of Homs as living conditions there deteriorate further. A watchdog said 10 people were killed across Syria, taking the weekend death toll to nearly 80.
    (AP, 6/17/12)(AFP, 6/17/12)

2012        Jun 18, Syrian forces renewed shelling of the central city of Homs. The Observatory later said 94 people were killed today across the country.
    (AP, 6/18/12)(AFP, 6/24/12)

2012        Jun 19, Syria's government said it was ready to act on a UN call to evacuate civilians trapped in the rebellious central city of Homs for more than a week, but blamed rebels for obstructing efforts to get them out. The Observatory later said 62 people were killed today across the country.
    (AP, 6/19/12)(AFP, 6/24/12)
2012        Jun 19, A Russian ship allegedly carrying refurbished attack helicopters and missiles destined for Syria has stopped off the Scottish coast after its British insurer, Standard Club, withdrew cover for the MV Alaed. On June 24 the ship was re-flagged as a Russian vessel.
    (AFP, 6/19/12)(SFC, 7/13/12, p.A4)

2012        Jun 20, In Syria 29 soldiers were among 46 people killed in violence, as UN observers said they were "morally obliged" to stay in the country despite the risks. The mission's mandate ends on July 20. The Observatory later said 88 people were killed today across the country.
    (AFP, 6/20/12)(AFP, 6/24/12)

2012        Jun 21, Syrian pilot Colonel Hassan Merei al-Hamade sought political asylum after landing his MiG fighter jet in neighboring Jordan, in the first such defection of the revolt. 4 senior army officers also defected from the regime. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 168 people were killed today in violence across the country.
    (AFP, 6/21/12)(AP, 6/22/12)(AFP, 6/24/12)

2012        Jun 22, Syria’s state-run news agency, SANA, said terrorist groups had killed and mutilated at least 25 people in Daret Azzeh, a rebel-held area in the Aleppo countryside. A video emerged showing more than a dozen bloodied corpses, some of them piled on top of each other and in military uniforms, in what the government said was a "massacre" by rebels in the northern province of Aleppo. Activists reported that thousands of people rallied in various parts to protest the regime following afternoon prayers. Syria said it shot down a Turkish military plane that entered Syrian air space. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 116 people were killed today in violence across the country.
    (AP, 6/22/12)(AP, 6/23/12)(AFP, 6/24/12)

2012        Jun 23, Syrian President Bashar Assad issued a decree forming a new government, but it will be headed by a key loyalist and the foreign, defense and interior ministers kept their jobs.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 116 people were killed today in violence across the country.
    (AP, 6/23/12)(AFP, 6/23/12)(AFP, 6/24/12)

2012        Jun 24, Violence in Syria killed at least 34 people, more than half of them troops who died in clashes with rebels. Regime troops stormed the Neirab refugee camp in Aleppo province, where there were reports of casualties.
    (AFP, 6/24/12)
2012        Jun 24, A Russian ship that tried to deliver repaired attack helicopters to Syria entered the northern port of Murmansk after being forced to abandon its initial attempt.
    (AFP, 6/24/12)

2012        Jun 25, Dozens of Syrian soldiers defected overnight to Turkey, crossing the border with their families. The state-run Anadolu news agency said 33 soldiers defected, including a general and two colonels. Syrian troops killed 10 "terrorists" in the Damascus suburb of Douma.
    (AP, 6/25/12)(AP, 6/26/12)
2012        Jun 25, The European Union imposed fresh sanctions on President Bashar al-Assad's regime, targeting six government ministries as well as a bank and television company. This was the 16th round of sanctions agreed by the bloc's foreign ministers since the repression of anti-Assad protests began in March 2011.
    (AFP, 6/25/12)

2012        Jun 26, Syria's Pres. Assad announced for the first time that the country was indeed at war. His elite Republican Guard forces clashed with rebels outside the capital in some of the most intense fighting involving the special forces since an uprising against President Bashar Assad's regime began last year. The LCC reported intense shelling in the eastern city of Deir el-Zour. Rebels shot down a helicopter gunship in Idlib province.
    (AP, 6/26/12)(AP, 6/27/12)(Econ, 7/7/12, p.45)
2012        Jun 26, Turkey's PM Erdogan vowed to retaliate against Syria for its 'heinous' downing of one of its warplanes, as the head of NATO said such an attack on one of its members was unacceptable.
    (AFP, 6/26/12)

2012        Jun 27, In Syria gunmen raided the headquarters of Al-Ikhbariya, a pro-government TV station, killing seven employees, kidnapping others and demolishing buildings in Drousha. Some 30 more Syrian soldiers defected to Turkey with their families overnight. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least 10 government soldiers were killed in an ambush in the eastern province of Deir el-Zour.
    (AP, 6/27/12)

2012        Jun 28, In Syria a strong explosion rocked Damascus near a busy market and the country's highest court, wounding at least three people. Elsewhere activists reported clashes between troops and rebels. Opposition groups later reported that today’s death toll reached 190 in fighting across the country.
    (AP, 6/28/12)(AP, 6/29/12)(SFC, 6/30/12, p.A4)

2012        Jun 29, Syrian troops rained tank and artillery shells down on a rebellious suburb of Damascus, killing dozens of people during a particularly bloody week across the country. 75 people were killed nationwide.
    (AP, 6/29/12)(AFP, 6/30/12)

2012        Jun 30, Syrian activists said government troops have regained control of a rebellious Damascus suburb after a 10-day assault that left dozens dead, hundreds wounded and caused a major humanitarian crisis. Activists said at least 22 people were killed in violence today. Dozens more were reported killed and wounded in a powerful evening explosion that hit a funeral procession in a suburb of Damascus.
    (AP, 6/30/12)(AP, 7/1/12)
2012        Jun 30, In Geneva representatives of global and regional powers accepted a UN-brokered plan calling for creation of a transitional national unity government in Syria. But at Russia's insistence, the compromise agreement left the door open to Assad being part of the interim administration.
    (AP, 6/30/12)(AP, 7/1/12)

2012        Jul 1, Syrian opposition groups rejected a UN-brokered peace plan for a political transition in Syria, calling it ambiguous and a waste of time and vowing not to negotiate with President Bashar Assad or members of his "murderous" regime. 3 pro-government militiamen were killed in Hama province.
    (AP, 7/1/12)(AFP, 7/3/12)

2012        Jul 2, Syria's main exiled opposition groups met in Cairo to try to forge a common vision for a political transition in Syria. Rebel fighters and activists based in Syria announced they would boycott the Cairo meeting. At least 78 people were confirmed killed across Syria, 44 of them civilians.
    (AFP, 7/2/12)(AFP, 7/3/12)
2012        Jul 2, Lebanon's General Security agency said  a rocket fired from Lebanon wounded two Syrian border police. The Syrians pursued the gunmen and a Lebanese General Security post was hit.
    (AFP, 7/2/12)

2012        Jul 3, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said government troops pounded several rebel-held districts in the central city of Homs. The Observatory said 38 people were killed across the country.
    (AFP, 7/3/12)
2012        Jul 3, The Syrian Revolution General Commission (SRGC) pulled out of the Cairo conference, citing political disputes. The Syrian Kurdish National Council stormed out of the meeting, protesting that the final document failed to specifically mention the Kurds.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)

2012        Jul 4, Syria's fractured opposition groups wound up talks in Cairo that descended into chaos and even fist fights as they tried to forge a common vision for a transition in their country. They did agree on the final documents, which included an end to the Assad regime, support of the Free Syrian Army, and agreement on basic constitutional principles of justice, democracy and pluralism.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)
2012        Jul 4, The Swiss government temporarily blocked all arms shipments to the United Arab Emirates after a newspaper published a photograph indicating that a Swiss-made hand grenade was found in Syria. The hand grenade appearing in a photograph published July 1 by Zurich weekly Sonntagszeitung came from a shipment of 225,162 hand grenades by Swiss-based RUAG Holding AG to the United Arab Emirates in 2003.
    (AP, 7/5/12)

2012        Jul 5, Iraq's top diplomat said he had "solid information" that al-Qaida militants were crossing from Iraq to Syria to carry out attacks. Explosions in Baghdad and Mosul killed at least six people and wounded 17 more. The Baghdad attack targeted the house of a government official killing his wife and two daughters.
    (AFP, 7/5/12)

2012        Jul 6, In Syria anti-regime activists say government forces have killed at least 25 people over the last two days, arrested scores more and torched dozens of homes while seizing the northern city of Khan Sheikhoun from rebels. It emerged that General Munaf Tlass, the son of a former defense minister who was a close friend of Assad's late father and predecessor, Hafez, had defected. The United States and its international allies called for new, global sanctions against President Bashar Assad's regime.
    (AP, 7/6/12)(AP, 7/6/12)

2012        Jul 7, Syria's military began large-scale exercises simulating defense against outside "aggression." Activists struggling to topple the regime reported fierce government offensives to try to retake rebellious areas outside of Aleppo and near Damascus. Shells fired from inside Syria killed 2 Lebanese civilians and injured 10 others. 77 people were killed across Syria, among them 39 civilians, 25 soldiers and 13 rebels.
    (AP, 7/7/12)(AP, 7/8/12)(AFP, 7/8/12)

2012        Jul 8, Syrian forces pounded Aleppo and Deir Ezzor provinces as at least 35 people were killed across the country, among them 17 civilians.
    (AFP, 7/8/12)

2012        Jul 10, In Syria 82 people were killed in violence including 30 civilians, 26 soldiers and 26 rebels according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.
    (AFP, 7/11/12)
2012        Jul 10, Jordan said it has set up a camp to accommodate a growing number of refugees fleeing violence in Syria.
    (AP, 7/10/12)

2012        Jul 11, Syrian rebels and regime troops clashed in the Damascus district of Qadam as at least nine people were killed in violence across the country.
    (AFP, 7/11/12)

2012        Jul 12, Syrian troops shelled and then stormed the village of Treimsa in the central province of Hama. Pressure mounted on President Bashar al-Assad after Nawaf Fares, his ambassador to Iraq, became the first senior diplomat to defect and Western powers drew up a 10-day sanctions ultimatum. Fares urged the army to turn its guns on the regime. Syrian government troops using tanks and helicopters massacred more than 150 people in the central province of Hama, bringing the day's total death toll to over 200. Syria later denied its armed forces carried out a massacre in Treimsa but said 37 gunmen and two civilians were killed in clashes with rebels.
    (AFP, 7/12/12)(AFP, 7/13/12)(AFP, 7/15/12)

2012        Jul 13, In Syria 118 people died including dozens of civilians gunned down by troops at anti-regime protests.
    (AFP, 7/14/12)

2012        Jul 14, In Syria hundreds of soldiers backed by helicopter gunships attacked Khirbet Ghazaleh in the province of Daraa. A pregnant woman was among 115 people killed across the country. A suicide bomber blew up his car in the central town of Muhrada killing three civilians and one security officer.
    (AFP, 7/14/12)(AP, 7/14/12)(AFP, 7/15/12)

2012        Jul 15, Syrian troops bombarded rebel areas in several parts of the country as violence across the country reportedly killed 105 people. The International Committee of the Red Cross said Sunday it now considers the conflict in Syria to be a full-blown civil war, meaning international humanitarian law applies throughout the country.
    (AFP, 7/15/12)(AP, 7/15/12)(AFP, 7/16/12)

2012        Jul 16, Syrian troops resuming shelling of the southern Damascus neighborhood of Tadamon and soldiers and the Free Syrian Army (FSA) clashing in two other districts. The rebel Free Syrian Army said it has launched a large-scale operation dubbed "the Damascus volcano and earthquakes of Syria."
    (AFP, 7/16/12)(AFP, 7/17/12)

2012        Jul 17, Syrian government forces backed by helicopter gunships battled rebels in heavy clashes in Damascus. The Muslim Brotherhood urged the Syrian people to rise up and back the rebels. The Israeli army intelligence chief said al-Assad has moved army forces from the Golan Heights area next to Israel toward Damascus and other internal conflict zones.
    (AFP, 7/17/12)
2012        Jul 17, Iraq's government urged all its citizens living in Syria to return home immediately to escape the escalating civil war.
    (AP, 7/17/12)

2012        Jul 18, In Syria a bomb ripped through a high-level security meeting in Damascus, killing three top regime officials, including Gen. Assef Shawkat (62), President Bashar Assad's brother-in-law. Also killed was Defense Minister Dawoud Rajha, 65, a former army general. Hassan Turkmani (77), a former defense minister, died of his wounds in the hospital. At least 214 people, including 124 civilians, 62 soldiers and 28 rebels were killed across the country.
    (AP, 7/18/12)(AP, 7/19/12)(AFP, 7/19/12)

2012        Jul 19, Syrian government forces fired heavy machine guns and mortars in battles with rebels in a number of neighborhoods in Damascus. State-run TV warned citizens that gunmen were disguising themselves in military uniforms to carry out attacks. Activists reported that 302- 310 people were killed in violence nationwide making it the single deadliest day of fighting since the revolt began. Syrian rebels seize the Bab al-Hawa border crossing with Turkey. Rebels ransacked customs buildings and pulled cargo from the back of stranded trucks.
    (AP, 7/19/12)(AP, 7/20/12)(AFP, 7/21/12)(AFP, 7/22/12)
2012        Jul 19, At the United Nations permanent Security Council members Russia and China vetoed resolutions on Syria for the third time in nine months.
    (AFP, 7/19/12)

2012        Jul 20, Syrian troops and tanks drove rebels from a Damascus neighborhood where some of the heaviest of this week's fighting in the capital left cars gutted and fighters' bodies in the streets. A fourth member of President Bashar Assad's inner circle, national security chief Gen. Hisham Ikhtiyar, died of wounds he suffered in the July 18 bomb blast. The death toll for the last 2 days was over 470 people.
    (AFP, 7/20/12)(SFC, 7/21/12, p.A2)
2012        Jul 20, Iraqi officials said hundreds of Iraqis had flown out of Syria over the past two days to escape an escalating civil war. They said an estimated 50 buses, some 3,000 people, had so far come through al-Walid.
    (AP, 7/20/12)
2012        Jul 20, The UN refugee agency said up to 30,000 Syrians have fled into Lebanon over the past 48 hours. The UN Security Council added a "final" 30 days to the mandate of the UN Supervision Mission, tasked with overseeing a ceasefire that was supposed to have taken effect in April but which has been violated daily.
    (AFP, 7/20/12)(AFP, 7/21/12)

2012        Jul 21, Syrian troops clashed with rebels in the city of Aleppo for a second day, forcing inhabitants to flee to safer areas in some of the fiercest fighting to date. At least 20 people were killed across Syria.
    (AP, 7/21/12)(AFP, 7/21/12)

2012        Jul 22, Syrian forces headed by President Bashar al-Assad's brother used helicopters in a new offensive against rebels in Damascus, as clashes also raged in Aleppo. The death toll in fighting across Syria stood at 123, including 67 civilians, 22 rebels and 34 soldiers.
    (AFP, 7/22/12)(AFP, 7/23/12)
2012        Jul 22, A top US official said that Washington has given $100 million in aid to Jordan to help host tens of thousands of Syrians who have fled the unrest back home and taken refuge in the kingdom.
    (AFP, 7/22/12)

2012        Jul 23, The Syrian regime threatened to use its chemical and biological weapons in case of a foreign attack, in its first ever acknowledgement that it possesses weapons of mass destruction. The Arab League offered Syrian President Bashar Assad and his family a "safe exit" if he steps down. EU foreign ministers began talks in Brussels with an agreement to freeze the assets of 26 Syrians and three firms close to the Assad regime in the 17th round of sanctions since protests erupted last year.
    (AP, 7/23/12)(AFP, 7/23/12)

2012        Jul 24, Syria’s President Bashar Assad reshuffled the generals at the core of his regime's highly secretive security apparatus. Clashes continued with the Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reporting at least 33 people killed nationwide. Fierce clashes spread to new neighborhoods in Aleppo in a fourth day of fighting there. Helicopter gunships began to hammer the outskirts of Aleppo.
    (AP, 7/24/12)(AFP, 7/24/12)(Econ, 7/28/12, p.38)
2012        Jul 24, Saudi state TV announced that the government has collected about $32.5 million in donations as part of a national drive to support "our brothers in Syria."
    (AP, 7/24/12)

2012        Jul 25, The opposition Syrian National Council said 2 more Syrian diplomats, the envoy to Cyprus and her husband, the former ambassador to the UAR, have  defected. Opposition activists said fighting raged through the night in many neighborhoods of Aleppo, bringing the conflict in Syria's largest city into its fifth day. At least 19 civilians, three rebels and an unknown number of soldiers died in fighting in Aleppo. The Observatory said 143 people were killed throughout Syria, including 75 civilians, 41 soldiers and 27 rebel fighters.
    (AP, 7/25/12)(AP, 7/25/12)(AFP, 7/26/12)
2012        Jul 25, Turkey sealed its border with Syria to trucks, effectively cutting off a trade relationship once worth almost $3 billion with the embattled nation. A foreign ministry diplomat said 2 more Syrian brigadier generals crossed into Turkey, bringing to 27 the number of generals who have fled the unrest in Syria.
    (AP, 7/25/12)(AFP, 7/25/12)

2012        Jul 26, Syrian troops prepared to launch an all-out offensive on rebel-held districts across Aleppo, as pro-regime media warned of a looming "mother of all battles." Jordanian authorities reported that the Syrian army shot dead a six-year-old Syrian boy while firing at his parents and a dozen other refugees as they tried to cross the border fence. Ikhlas Badawi, a female lawmaker from Aleppo, defected to Turkey.
    (AFP, 7/26/12)(AFP, 7/27/12)(AP, 7/29/12)

2012        Jul 27, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said troops bombarded the neighborhood of Fardous (Fardoss) killing at least four people. It added that Sunni cleric Abdul-Latif al-Shami was kidnapped and killed in Aleppo. Rebels captured 150 regime troops and militia members in the northern city of Aleppo and the northwestern province of Idlib. The Observatory said that at least 148 people were killed nationwide including 90 civilians, 24 rebels and 34 soldiers.
    (AP, 7/27/12)(AFP, 7/27/12)(AFP, 7/28/12)

2012        Jul 28, The Syrian army launched a massive assault on rebels in Aleppo amid growing world concern about the risks of reprisals against the civilian population. At least 10 soldiers and six rebels were killed in fierce fighting after the assault began. The Observatory said that nationwide violence killed at least 52 people, 22 civilians, 16 rebels and 14 soldiers.
    (AFP, 7/28/12)
2012        Jul 28, Jordan opened its first tent camp for Syrians fleeing violence in their country, as government officials said a surge of refugees left them no other choice. After 3 years the Zaatari Refugee Camp held 81,000 people and was counted as the ninth-biggest city in Jordan.
    (AP, 7/29/12)(SFC, 8/3/15, p.A2)

2012        Jul 29, Syrian troops, backed by air power and tanks, pushed on in the second day of an assault on the of Aleppo, sparking international fears of a humanitarian catastrophe. The Syrian regime accused regional powerhouses Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Turkey of supporting a plot hatched by Israel to destroy the country. A group of 12 Syrian officers crossed into Turkey including a brigadier general who was deputy chief of police in Syria's Latakia region.
    (AFP, 7/29/12)(AP, 7/29/12)(AP, 7/30/12)

2012        Jul 30, Syrian government forces mounted new ground attacks against rebel-controlled neighborhoods in Aleppo, but failed to dislodge the opposition from their strongholds. The UN said 200,000 Syrians have fled the embattled city of Aleppo since intense clashes between regime forces and rebels began 10 days ago. The Observatory reported 93 people killed across the country. Khaled al-Ayoubi, Syria's top diplomat in London, said he could no longer represent the regime and defected.
    (AP, 7/30/12)(AFP, 7/31/12)

2012        Jul 31, Syrian rebels attacked key military targets and overran two police stations in Aleppo, killing 40 officers, as fighting there stretched into its 11th day. In the southern province of Daraa, regime troops shelled a camp for displaced persons as the towns of Tafas and Al-Ghariyeh also came under shelling, leaving an unknown number of casualties.
    (AFP, 7/31/12)(AP, 7/31/12)

2012        Aug 1, In Syria rebels continued battling government forces for a 12th day. The UN mission in Syria said its observers have witnessed government fighter jets opening fire on Aleppo.
    (AP, 8/1/12)
2012        Aug 1, It was reported that President Barack Obama has signed a secret order authorizing US support for rebels seeking to depose Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and his government.
    (Reuters, 8/1/12)

2012        Aug 2, Syrian opposition activists say regime forces have swept through neighborhoods south of the capital Damascus in a deadly military operation that has inflicted casualties. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said more than 179 people were killed today.
    (AP, 8/2/12)(AFP, 8/3/12)
2012        Aug 2, Kofi Annan, the UN-Arab League envoy to Syria, resigned citing divisions within the Security Council preventing a united approach to stop the fighting.
    (AP, 8/3/12)

2012        Aug 3, In Syria mortars rained down on a crowded marketplace in the Palestinian Yarmouk refugee camp Damascus, killing 21 people as regime forces and rebels clashed on the southern outskirts. Senior Syrian officials pleaded with Moscow for financial loans and supplies of oil products, an indication that international sanctions are squeezing Assad's regime.
    (AP, 8/3/12)(AP, 8/4/12)
2012        Aug 3, Britain’s Foreign Secretary William Hague pledged greater support for Syria's rebel fighters, as the battle for the country's commercial capital Aleppo intensified.
    (AFP, 8/3/12)
2012        Aug 3, The UN General Assembly denounced Syria’s crackdown on dissent voting 133 in favor, 12 against and 31 abstaining. UN Security Council resolutions have been stopped by Russian and Chinese vetoes.
    (SFC, 8/4/12, p.A3)

2012        Aug 4, In Syria heavy explosions shook Damascus and helicopters circled overhead as rebels appeared to be renewing their offensive in the city. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said Syrian television presenter Mohammed al-Saeed, kidnapped from his Damascus home on July 19, has been executed. Violence nationwide reportedly killed 205 people, 115 civilians, 38 rebel fighters and 52 soldiers.
    (AP, 8/4/12)(AFP, 8/4/12)(AFP, 8/5/12)
2012        Aug 4, In Syria gunmen snatched a bus filled with 48 Iranian pilgrims from a Damascus suburb as they headed to visit a shrine holy to Shiites.
    (AP, 8/4/12)
2012        Aug 4, Turkey reported the defection of another Syrian general, along with five colonels, who came over the border with a group of refugees.
    (AP, 8/4/12)

2012        Aug 5, The Syrian army pounded rebel positions in second city Aleppo ahead of a threatened ground assault after boasting its capture of the last rebel-held district of the capital. General Muhammed Ahmed Faris, a military aviator who became the first Syrian in space, fled to Turkey. Alawite film director Bassam Mohieddin (b.1955) was assassinated near his home on the outskirts of Damascus.
    (AFP, 8/5/12)(AFP, 8/7/12)
2012        Aug 5, Iran appealed for help from governments with ties to the Syrian opposition in securing the release of 48 of its nationals seized from a bus in Damascus. Rebel captors charged that their hostages were Revolutionary Guards.
    (AFP, 8/5/12)

2012        Aug 6, In Syria a bomb ripped through the third floor of the state TV building in Damascus. At least three people were wounded in the bomb attack targeting the building which also houses the country's state radio. Rebels claimed that three of 48 Iranian captives were killed during shelling by government forces in Damascus and its suburbs.
    (AP, 8/6/12)(AP, 8/7/12)
2012        Aug 6, A Jordanian official and a rebel spokesman said Syria's PM Riad Hijab has defected and fled to neighboring Jordan.
    (AP, 8/6/12)

2012        Aug 7, In Syria total of 225 people, mostly civilians, were reported killed. A Turkish government official said 1,328 Syrian refugees had crossed the border by midmorning, nearly double the number of refugees who reached Turkey a day earlier.
    (AFP, 8/8/12)(AP, 8/7/12)

2012        Aug 8, Syrian troops launched a broad ground assault on rebel-held areas of Aleppo and activists reported clashes as opposition forces fought back. Turkey's state-run news agency reported that some 2,400 people crossed into Turkey overnight to escape the escalating violence. Residents said Syrian fighter jets launched airstrikes on Tel Rifat, hitting a home and a high school and killing six people from one family. The Observatory said violence across Syria cost the lives of at least 167 people -- 95 civilians, 54 soldiers and 18 rebels.
    (AP, 8/8/12)(AFP, 8/9/12)(AP, 8/9/12)

2012        Aug 9, Syrian rebels staged what they called a "tactical withdrawal" as regime forces advanced into a key district of Aleppo. Pres. Assad appointed health minister Wael al-Halqi as his new premier following the defection this week of Riad Hijab. At least 191 people killed nationwide -- 107 civilians, 45 rebels and 39 soldiers.
    (AFP, 8/9/12)(AFP, 8/10/12)
2012        Aug 9, Iran hosted a 29-nation conference on Syria with the aim of stopping bloodshed there and forging a role for Tehran as peace-broker for its beleaguered Arab ally.
    (AFP, 8/9/12)

2012        Aug 10, Syrian government forces fought rebels outside Damascus and in Aleppo as more civilians streamed across the border into neighboring Turkey. Rebels operating in the town abducted a pro-government TV crew in al-Tal suburb just north of Damascus. Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least six people were killed in heavy shelling on al-Tal. At least 103 people were reported killed nationwide, including 55 civilians,
    (AP, 8/10/12)(AP, 8/11/12)(AFP, 8/11/12)
2012        Aug 10, Britain's government, meanwhile, said it was offering 5 million pounds (US$7.8 million) to Syria's rebel forces to pay for communications equipment and medical supplies in an effort to bolster ties with the Syrian opposition. World powers were set to name veteran Algerian diplomat Lakhdar Brahimi (78) as their new envoy to seek a peaceful and politically workable end to a 17-month uprising that has cost more than 21,000 lives.
    (AP, 8/10/12)(AFP, 8/10/12)
2012        Aug 10, The Obama administration set new, largely symbolic, sanctions on Syria's state-run oil company and the Hezbollah militant group, moves designed to underscore Iran's key role in propping up the Syrian regime over the span of its civil war.
    (AP, 8/10/12)

2012        Aug 11, Syrian forces pounded a suburb of the capital Damascus with mortars and artillery shells, a day after rebels operating in the town abducted a pro-government TV crew. Two Syrian journalists were killed in Damascus. A bus was attacked in a Damascus suburb, killing six passengers traveling from the central province of Hama. 15 civilians were killed in shelling and clashes in the town of Al-Tal. , the Observatory said they were among 148 people killed across Syria -- 85 civilians, 20 rebels and 43 soldiers.
    (AP, 8/11/12)(AP, 8/12/12)(AFP, 8/12/12)

2012        Aug 12, The Syrian army pressed its assault on rebels in commercial capital Aleppo, while both sides reported atrocities and Arab foreign ministers postponed a planned meeting on the 17-month conflict.
    (AFP, 8/12/12)
2012        Aug 12, In Syria Austin Tyce, an American journalist, disappeared while covering the country’s civil war.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austin_Tice)(SFC, 4/9/16, p.A2)

2012        Aug 13, Syria's top representative at the UN Human Rights Council said he has defected. Activists released a video which they claim shows a government Soviet-made MiG warplane catching fire apparently after it was hit by ground fire over the eastern province of Deir el-Zour. State-run media said the pilot ejected from the warplane after technical failure. Regime forces bombarded rebel strongholds around Damascus and launched a mass raid in the historic heart of the capital. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 160 people were killed nationwide. Gunmen abducted the correspondent of Iran's Arabic-language TV al-Alam in the central city of Homs.
    (AP, 8/13/12)(AFP, 8/13/12)(AP, 8/14/12)
2012        Aug 13, A Syrian rebel group kidnapped Hassan al-Muqdad, accusing him of being a sniper and a member of Lebanese Shiite militia Hezbollah.  American freelance journalist Austin Tice (31), a former US Marine,     disappeared in Syria.
    (AFP, 8/15/12)(AP, 11/12/12)

2012        Aug 14, In Syria activists reported clashes and shelling in the northern city of Aleppo, southern province of Daraa, suburbs of Damascus and the northwestern region of Idlib. Syria's PM Riad Hijab, who defected to the opposition, said that Bashar Assad's regime was near collapse and urged other political and military leaders to tip the scales and join the rebel side. In a video, said to have been released by rebels and aired by Arab satellite TV Al-Arabiya, a man identifies himself as Hassane Salim al-Mikdad, and says he was one of 1,500 Hezbollah fighters sent to Syria on Aug 3.
    (AP, 8/14/12)
2012        Aug 14, UN humanitarian chief Valerie Amos arrived in Syria to address the "deteriorating humanitarian situation" in the conflict-ravaged country and discuss ways of scaling-up relief efforts.
    (AFP, 8/14/12)

2012        Aug 15, In Syria a bomb attached to a fuel truck exploded outside a Damascus hotel where UN observers are staying, wounding at least three people. Fierce fighting erupted between the Syrian army and rebels near the prime minister's office in Damascus. Activists reported shelling and clashes in Aleppo. Two Syrian fighter jets bombed the rebel-held town of Azaz. Human Rights Watch said over 40 people were killed. 757 Syrians fled into Turkey. Syria TV said three journalists from the pro-regime TV station Al-Ikhbariya were freed in a "qualitative operation" in the town of al-Tal.
    (AFP, 8/15/12)(AP, 8/15/12)(AP, 8/16/12)
2012        Aug 15, The Organization of Islamic Cooperation, comprised of 57 member states, released a final statement from its two day summit in Saudi Arabia's Muslim holy city of Mecca urging support of Syria’s opposition.
    (AP, 8/15/12)
2012        Aug 15, The large Lebanese Shiite clan called Muqdad claimed it had kidnapped 33 Syrians and a Turkish man after a family member was abducted two days earlier by a Syrian rebel group which accused him of being a Hezbollah sniper. Dozens more Syrians were seized and their shops vandalized by rioters in southern Shiite areas of Beirut. Rioters closed the road to Beirut airport and to the border with Syria.
    (AFP, 8/16/12)
2012        Aug 15, A UN panel laid the groundwork for possible prosecutions in international courts against the Syrian leader and other senior government officials. It called the May 25 massacre in Houla a war crime perpetrated by the government forces and shabiha militia backing the regime of President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 8/15/12)

2012        Aug 16, Syrian forces shelling the besieged city of Aleppo struck a bread line outside a bakery killing at least 10 people. The LCC said 49 people were killed all over Aleppo.
    (AFP, 8/16/12)
2012        Aug 16, In Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, the top world Muslim body, suspended Syria, saying it can no longer accept a regime that "massacres its people", as rights groups accused Damascus of a new atrocity against civilians.
    (AFP, 8/16/12)

2012        Aug 17, Syrian forces battled rebels near the airport in Aleppo. A UN refugee agency spokesman said 3,500 people crossed into Turkey over the previous 2 days. UN officials in Syria were starting to close down their military observer mission after failed international attempts to broker a cease-fire.
    (AP, 8/17/12)
2012        Aug 17, The UN said Lakhdar Brahimi (78) of Algeria, a veteran diplomat troubleshooter, will take over from Kofi Annan as the international envoy on the Syria conflict.
    (AFP, 8/17/12)

2012        Aug 18, Syrian activists said government troops shelled and carried out air raids at rebel areas across the country, including the southern province of Daraa, the northern region of Aleppo and the suburbs of the capital, Damascus. A Syrian warplane bombed a small town partially controlled by anti-regime fighters near the Turkish border, killing eight people and wounding at least 20.
    (AP, 8/18/12)
2012        Aug 18, Lebanese security officials said that five more Syrians were abducted in Beirut's southern suburbs overnight.
    (AP, 8/18/12)

2012        Aug 19, In Syria at least 56 people died in violence on the first day of Eid al-Fitr. This included 6 children killed by shelling near their home in the rebel-held town of Maaret al-Numan in the northwestern province of Idlib. President Bashar al-Assad made a rare public appearance with top officials for Eid prayers at a Damascus mosque, while demonstrators took to the streets of the capital and other cities to vent their rage at the regime. The mandate of the UN Supervision Mission in Syria (UNSMIS) expired at midnight.
    (AFP, 8/19/12)(AFP, 8/20/12)
2012        Aug 19, Jordan's government spokesman sternly criticized Syria for artillery shelling on its northern border that wounded a Jordanian girl and panicked other civilians. Four shells landed in Jordan during clashes between the Syrian military and rebel forces on the Syrian side of the border.
    (AP, 8/20/12)

2012        Aug 20, In Syria deadly fighting rocked Daraa, the birthplace of the Syrian uprising, as rebels doggedly resisted a regime onslaught. Government forces pummeled Aleppo with airstrikes and tanks and shelled parts of Damascus and southern Syria Monday, killing at least 100 people.
    (AFP, 8/20/12)(AP, 8/20/12)
2012        Aug 20, In Syria Mika Yamamoto (45), a veteran Japanese war reporter, died after she was shot in the neck when coming under fire from up to 15 apparently pro-government troops in Aleppo.
    (AFP, 8/21/12)
2012        Aug 20, US President Barack Obama warned Syria that Washington will not tolerate any deployment of chemical weapons.
    (AFP, 8/20/12)

2012        Aug 21, Syrian government forces stormed Moadamiyeh, a rebel-held town outside Damascus after days of fierce fighting, killing at least 23 fighters. Warplanes and helicopters attacked towns and villages north of Aleppo, killing 2 civilians, including a young boy. At least 128 people were killed nationwide, among them 81 civilians.
    (AP, 8/21/12)(AFP, 8/21/12)
2012        Aug 21, Syrian deputy PM Qadri Jamil visiting Moscow held out the prospect that embattled President Bashar al-Assad could leave power as part of a negotiated settlement to the increasingly ferocious conflict.
    (AFP, 8/21/12)
2012        Aug 21, In Lebanon overnight clashes between supporters and opponents of President Bashar Assad left two dead and as many as 45 wounded.
    (AP, 8/21/12)

2012        Aug 22, Syrian regime forces shelled two Damascus districts before troops backed by tanks swept through to carry out house-to-house raids in search of opposition fighters, killing at least 41 suspected rebels. The United States and France again pushed for the embattled Assad to stand down quickly after a top Syrian official said Damascus was ready to discuss his departure as part of a negotiated settlement to the 17-month conflict. Some 200 were killed across the country.
    (AP, 8/22/12)(AFP, 8/22/12)(AFP, 8/23/12)(Reuters, 8/23/12)
2012        Aug 22, Lebanese security sources said at least eight people have been killed in clashes between rival pro- and anti-Damascus gunmen in the city of Tripoli.
    (AFP, 8/22/12)

2012        Aug 23, Syrian military planes crossed into Iraqi airspace in order to carry out air strikes against the border town of Albu Kamal, which is held by rebel forces. Rebels waged fierce battles with regime troops in a town along the Iraqi border, capturing a string of security posts and the local police headquarters despite heavy government shelling and bombing runs by warplanes. The Syrian army recaptured Christian areas in Aleppo. Artillery and helicopters hammered the Sunni Muslim town of Daraya for 24 hours, killing 15 people and wounding 150, before soldiers moved in and raided houses. A total of 149 people were killed across the country, including 14 children.
    (AFP, 8/23/12)(AP, 8/23/12)(Reuters, 8/23/12)(AFP, 8/24/12)

2012        Aug 24, Syrian forces blitzed areas in and around the northern city of Aleppo. At least 50 unidentified bodies were found shot dead in the last 24 hours, notably in Aleppo and Damascus. Prominent independent film producer Orwa Nyrabia went missing after going to Damascus airport to catch a flight to Cairo.
    (AFP, 8/24/12)(AFP, 8/25/12)
2012        Aug 24, In Lebanon new clashes between pro- and anti-Syrian factions in Tripoli killed two people holing a fragile truce and stoking fears of a spillover of bloodshed.
    (AFP, 8/24/12)

2012        Aug 25, Syrian army forces launched arrest raids and clashed with rebels in the southwestern belt of Damascus. A full scale invasion on Daraya followed 5 days of shelling. At least 380 bodies were buried following the attack. Activists said security agents have arrested television actor Mohammed Omar Oso, who opposes the Damascus regime, as well as members of his family. At least 380 bodies were buried following the attack in Daraya.
    (AFP, 8/25/12)(AFP, 8/26/12)(AP, 8/26/12)(Economist, 9/1/12, p.49)
2012        Aug 25, Syrian rebels freed one of 11 Lebanese Shiite pilgrims they have been holding since May 22, in a move aiming to ease cross-border tensions.
    (AFP, 8/25/12)

2012        Aug 26, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said that 32 dead bodies were found in the streets of Daraya and they had been killed by "gunfire and summary executions."
    (AP, 8/26/12)

2012        Aug 27, A Syrian military helicopter caught fire and crashed after it was apparently hit during fighting between government forces and rebels in the capital Damascus. SANA reported that authorities released a total of 378 people detained for their participation in street protests. A car-bomb killed 12 mourners at a funeral for two regime supporters in the largely Druze and Christian Damascus suburb of Jaramana. Some 190 people were reported killed across Syria.
    (AP, 8/27/12)(AFP, 8/28/12)(Economist, 9/1/12, p.49)
2012        Aug 27, In Syria Czech Ambassador Eva Filipi, who has overseen US interests in Syria since the US embassy was closed in February, told a Czech television station that US reporter Austin Tice (31) has been "detained by government forces on the outskirts of Damascus. Tice last communicated with his colleagues on August 13, though he did not indicate how he planned to leave Syria.
    (AFP, 8/30/12)

2012        Aug 28, Syria's army pounded parts of the eastern belt of Damascus. At least 10 people were killed in the northwestern town of Kafr Nabal in Idlib province. 7 men were reported killed by government troops in the central province of Hama. A car bomb rocked the funeral of two government loyalists in a Damascus suburb killing 27 people. The number of deaths from a 5-day onslaught in Daraya was raised to 340. According to the Observatory violence today cost 189 lives: 143 civilians, 14 rebels and 32 soldiers.
    (AFP, 8/28/12)(AFP, 8/29/12)

2012        Aug 29, Syrian rebels said they destroyed five helicopters in a raid on a military airport between the northern cities of Aleppo and Idlib. State television said the attack was repelled.
    (AFP, 8/29/12)
2012        Aug 29, Jordanian PM Fayez Tarawneh said that Syrian refugees responsible for violence in a camp near the border will be deported. About 200 of 21,000 refugees went on a rampage the previous evening at Zaatari Camp to protest conditions there.
    (AP, 8/29/12)

2012        Aug 30, Syrian rebels reportedly shot down a regime warplane over the northern province of Idlib.
    (AP, 8/30/12)
2012        Aug 30, Egypt’s Pres. Mohammed Morsi urged the world to support the rebels in Syria as he spoke in Tehran before an int’l. meeting of nonaligned nations.
    (SFC, 8/31/12, p.A3)

2012        Aug 31, Syrian rebels said they have begun a major operation in the Aleppo region. According to the Observatory there were 125 people killed in violence nationwide including 74 civilians, 29 soldiers and 22 rebels.
    (AP, 8/31/12)(AFP, 9/1/12)
2012        Aug 31, Syrian troops fired at least 25 shells overnight striking a Lebanese Christian village on the northern border, wounding one person and causing damage.
    (AFP, 8/31/12)

2012        Sep 1, Syrian rebels launched deadly attacks on the military in a campaign increasingly targeting its air power. 18 unidentified bodies were found in the Damascus area. Summary executions by both sides in the conflict were on the increase. State media said that a "terrorist" group had killed five members of a family in the central Marjeh district of Aleppo. In Idlib province rebels attacked an army roadblock in the Harem district, killing or wounding 9 soldiers. In Hama province rebels killed at least four soldiers in a similar attack. A car bomb near a Palestinian refugee camp in a suburb of Damascus killed at least 15 people.
    (AFP, 9/1/12)(AP, 9/2/12)
2012        Sep 1, Jordan and the UN's refugee agency issued an urgent call to international donors for $700 million to handle the rapidly rising number of Syrian refugees seeking safe haven in the country.
    (AP, 9/1/12)

2012        Sep 2, In Syria 2 bombs exploded near the military's joint chiefs of staff's offices in central Damascus, lightly wounding four army officers and causing damage to a building and cars. State media said a car bomb exploded near a mosque in the southern outskirts of Damascus, killing 15 people.
    (AP, 9/2/12)(AFP, 9/2/12)

2012        Sep 3, In Syria Government warplanes bombed the northern town of al-Bab killing at least 19 people.
    (AP, 9/3/12)

2012        Sep 4, Red Cross chief Peter Maurer launched a mercy mission in Syria to seek greater protection for civilians, as activists said rebel-held areas of Aleppo faced severe food shortages under a regime offensive.
    (AFP, 9/4/12)

2012        Sep 5, In Syria 45 bodies of young men with their hands bound were found by the road in a government-held area
    (Economist, 9/8/12, p.48)
2012        Sep 5, American senators visiting Iraq warned the Baghdad government that it risked damaging relations with the US if it is allowing Iran to fly over its airspace to deliver weapons to Syria.
    (AP, 9/5/12)

2012        Sep 6, Syrian troops recaptured from rebels Tel Chehab, a border town used by refugees to cross to Jordan, an apparent bid by the regime to stem the flood of Syrians fleeing their country's civil war.
    (AP, 9/6/12)

2012        Sep 7, In Syria a bomb exploded near a mosque in the northern Damascus neighborhood of Rukneddine, killing at least five people. A 2nd bomb exploded in Damascus, hitting near two government ministries with no casualties. The Observatory said the 16 bodies of men were found in the Damascus suburb of Deir al-Asafir, which it said was subjected to a major operation by the regime in the past few days. , activists and state media reported that several people were either killed or wounded when a Palestinian refugee camp in Damascus was shelled. At least 60 people were killed in violence around the country.
    (AP, 9/7/12)
2012        Sep 7, The UN nearly doubled its humanitarian appeal for Syria, seeking $347 million for people in need, including more than half a million children forced to flee their homes.
    (AP, 9/7/12)

2012        Sep 8, The Syrian government pounded Aleppo with warplanes and artillery. Some 148 people were reported killed across the country including 77 in Aleppo.
    (SSFC, 9/9/12, p.A5)
2012        Sep 8, Sierra Leone said that 10 suspected Iranian ships "hiding" under the Sierra Leonean flag "have recently been removed from the register." The action was in relation to a vessel that was seized in Lebanon recently carrying arms for Syria, and allegedly flying the Sierra Leone flag.
    (AP, 9/9/12)

2012        Sep 9, In Syria a blast ripped through the northern city of Aleppo killing at least 30 people. State-run SANA news blamed terrorists and members of the military were reported among the dead.
    (AP, 9/10/12)

2012        Sep 12, In Syria an explosion targeting regime forces killed at least three people in northern Syria, and possibly up to 18, amid rising violence ahead of a visit by the new UN-Arab League envoy who is trying to end the country's civil war. The Observatory and another activist group, the Local Coordination Committees, said at least 11 bodies were found in the central town of Halfaya in Hama province. They said the bodies were found in fields a day after government troops stormed the town.
    (AP, 9/12/12)

2012        Sep 16, Syrian activists reported heavy bombardment of rebel-held areas throughout the country. The state-run news agency said troops have captured and cleared the neighborhood of Midan in the embattled northern city of Aleppo.
    (AP, 9/16/12)

2012        Sep 17, Syrian warplanes hit Lebanese territory. 4 missiles hit the border town of Arsal, but no casualties were reported.
    (SFC, 9/18/12, p.A2)

2012        Sep 18, In Syria Fierce clashes broke out between rebels and regime forces battling for control of a border crossing on the frontier with Turkey. Turkish authorities told residents to evacuate the area.
    (AP, 9/18/12)

2012        Sep 19, Syrian rebels seized control of a border crossing on the frontier with Turkey, pulling down the Syrian flag and briefly allowing people to crawl under a barbed wire barrier between the countries. The rebel seizure of the Tal Abyad post is believed to be the first time they have overrun a frontier post in the northern province of Raqqa.
    (AP, 9/19/12)

2012        Sep 20, In Syria at least 30 people were killed and dozens wounded in regime air strikes on a gas station in the northern town of Ain Issa.
    (AP, 9/20/12)

2012        Sep 22, Syrian rebels and government troops fought a fierce battle near the border with Jordan that last several hours. The leaders of the rebel Free Syrian Army said they have moved their command center from Turkey to Syria with the aim of uniting rebels.
    (AP, 9/22/12)

2012        Sep 23, Syrian opposition figures called for the overthrow of President Bashar Assad at a rare meeting of anti-regime groups held in the government-controlled capital.
    (AP, 9/24/12)

2012        Sep 24, Syrian warplanes bombed two buildings in the northern city of Aleppo, killing at least five people including three children from the same family.
    (AP, 9/24/12)

2012        Sep 25, Syrian soldiers fought rebels in a firefight that killed nine people and sent several mortars sailing across the border into the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights.
    (AP, 9/25/12)

2012        Sep 26, In Syria two massive explosions targeting the regime's military command center were set off by two suicide car bombers killing four people. An Iranian correspondent was killed while covering the blasts in Damascus.
    (AP, 9/26/12)

2012        Sep 27, In Syria fighters from the main rebel group known as the Free Syrian Army began a new push to drive regime forces from Aleppo, Syria's commercial capital, calling it the "Decisive Battle." The Syrian military sent text message on cellular telephones to members of the armed rebellion reading: "Game over."
    (AP, 9/28/12)

2012        Sep 28, In Syria fighting over Aleppo intensified with some of the fiercest battles in two months as rebel forces launched a new offensive to rout President Bashar Assad's forces. A huge fire began in Aleppo amid heavy government shelling.
    (AP, 9/28/12)(AP, 9/29/12)
2012        Sep 28, The UN's top human rights body extended by six months the mission of its independent expert panel probing alleged war crimes in Syria's 18-month conflict.
    (AP, 9/28/12)

2012        Sep 29, Syrian rebels and residents of Aleppo struggled to contain a huge fire that destroyed parts of the city's medieval souks, or markets, following raging battles between government troops and opposition fighters there.
    (AP, 9/29/12)

2012        Sep 30, In Syria a suicide attacker in a parked car blew himself up in an area housing security offices in the northeast, killing at least four people. Activists put the death toll at eight and said it was expected to rise because 15 people sustained serious wounds. The explosion came hours after fighting between rebels and government forces killed at least five people in Aleppo.
    (AP, 9/30/12)
2012        Sep 30, Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan urged Syria's allies to stop backing the Assad regime. "We call on Russia, China and Iran, please review your stance," Erdogan told a conference of his ruling Justice and Development Party.
    (AP, 9/30/12)

2012        Oct 1, Syrian troops bombed Salqin, a northern town near the Turkish border, killing at least 12 people, including 5 children. Rebels reportedly captured an air defense base in the Eastern Ghouta area near the capital.
    (AP, 10/1/12)    (AP, 10/5/12)

2012        Oct 2, A Lebanese security official says Hezbollah commander Ali Hussein Nassif and several other fighters from the militant group have been killed in Syria.
    (AP, 10/2/12)

2012        Oct 3, In Syria 3 suicide bombers detonated cars packed with explosives in the main square of the northern city of Aleppo, killing over 40 people, leveling buildings and trapping survivors     under the rubble. Regime troops reportedly killed two more would-be suicide bombers before they could detonate their explosives. A fourth car bomb went off in the Bab Jnein area near the Old City where the Chamber of Commerce is located.
    (AP, 10/3/12)(SFC, 10/4/12, p.A3)
2012        Oct 3, Syrian-Turkish cross-border tensions escalated after a shell fired from inside Syria landed on a home in the Turkish village of Akcakale, killing two women and three of their daughters and wounding at least 10 others.
    (AP, 10/4/12)

2012        Oct 4, Turkey's Parliament authorized military operations against Syria and its military fired on targets there for a second day after deadly shelling from Syria killed five civilians in a Turkish border town.
    (AP, 10/4/12)

2012        Oct 5, Syrian warplanes and artillery pounded the central city of Homs, subjecting the rebel stronghold to its heaviest bombardment in months.
    (AP, 10/5/12)
2012        Oct 5, Turkish troops fired at Syria again, responding to another mortar shell from Syria that struck Turkish territory.
    (AP, 10/5/12)

2012        Oct 6, Syrian soldiers clashed with two armed groups that infiltrated from Lebanon, killing several of them.
    (AP, 10/7/12)
2012        Oct 6, Turkish artillery fired into Syria for the fourth day in a row, retaliating for mortar shells that landed in Turkish territory. Rebels clashed with Syrian government troops in the border area, activists said, as fears revived that the Syrian crisis could spiral into a regional conflict.
    (AP, 10/6/12)

2012        Oct 7, Syrian troops pressed their offensive to retake rebel-held areas in the northern city of Aleppo, Homs, towns around the Syrian capital of Damascus and southern villages on the border with Jordan. A car bomb exploded near the police headquarters in central Damascus, killing at least one person and damaging nearby buildings.
    (AP, 10/7/12)
2012        Oct 7, Turkish artillery fired toward Syria for a fifth day in a row, minutes after a Syrian shell landed on Turkish territory.
    (AP, 10/7/12)

2012        Oct 8, In Syria a suicide attacker detonated a car bomb near a compound of the Syrian intelligence on the outskirts of Damascus.
    (AP, 10/10/12)
2012        Oct 8, Turkey's state-run news agency said a Syrian shell landed on Turkish territory for a sixth day, but made no mention of any immediate Turkish retaliation.
    (AP, 10/8/12)

2012        Oct 9, In Syria Ankhar Kochneva, a Ukrainian woman who worked as an interpreter for a Russian TV crew, was kidnapped by rebels in the country's west. Kochneva was reported free on March 12, 2013.
    (AP, 10/16/12)(AP, 3/12/13)

2012        Oct 10, A Syrian Air A320 from Moscow that was forced to land in Ankara. Turkish state-run television TRT reported the next day that the passenger plane was carrying military communications equipment. Damascus branded the incident piracy amid growing tensions between the two countries. The plane's 37 passengers and crew were allowed to continue to Damascus after several hours, without the cargo.
    (AP, 10/11/12)

2012        Oct 12, In Syria Jabhat al-Nusra, a shadowy jihadi group believed to be linked to al-Qaida, fought alongside rebels who seized overnight the air defense base near the village of al-Taaneh.
    (AP, 10/12/12)

2012        Oct 13, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, which relies on a network of activists on the ground, said regime forces were pounding the rebel stronghold of Homs in central Syria with mortars and artillery. The southern province of Daraa also sustained shelling by the Syrian army. Fighting between army troops and rebels raged around Idlib province and in and around the northern city of Aleppo.
    (AP, 10/13/12)
2012        Oct 13, Syria's state-run news agency SANA says Syria has decided to ban Turkish Airlines flights from Syrian airspace.
    (AP, 10/13/12)

2012        Oct 14, Syrian gunmen fired on a bus transporting workers to a blanket factory, killing four and wounding eight. Syrian refugee Mustafa Ali Kassim (24) died of shrapnel wounds inflicted when the Syrian army opened fire at his group of 229 Syrian refugees while crossing a border fence into Jordan before dawn. U.S.-based Human Right Watch said it has obtained new evidence that Syrian troops are using cluster bombs — widely banned munitions that pose a grave risk to civilians because they burst into bomblets over large areas and often linger on the ground, detonating only when touched.
    (AP, 10/14/12)
2012        Oct 14, Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu announced that Turkey is barring Syrian civilian flights from Turkey's airspace, a day after Syria issued such a ban for Turkish commercial aircraft.
    (AP, 10/14/12)

2012        Oct 15, Syrian President Bashar Assad ordered immediate repairs to the historic Umayyad mosque in the city of Aleppo, a move likely aimed at containing Muslim outrage after fierce fighting between rebels and regime forces set parts of the mosque on fire over the weekend.
    (AP, 10/15/12)
2012        Oct 15, Jordan said it is planning to open a second camp for Syrian refugees, whose numbers are expected to climb to 250,000 by the year's end.
    (AP, 10/15/12)

2012        Oct 16, The Syrian military unleashed heavy artillery bombardments and airstrikes targeting rebel strongholds in Idlib and Aleppo provinces, killing at least 90 people. There were 343,871 Syrians formally registered as refugees or being helped by the UN refugee agency. The vast majority of them have found refuge in neighboring Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey.
    (AP, 10/16/12)

2012        Oct 17, Lakhdar Brahimi, the international envoy to the Syrian conflict, called on President Bashar Assad's regime to take the lead in a cease-fire during a major Muslim holiday later this month, calling it a "microscopic" step toward ending a crisis that he said could consume the whole region.
    (AP, 10/17/12)
2012        Oct 17, France's foreign minister Laurent Fabius said Syria's air force is using so-called barrel bombs — makeshift weapons consisting of containers stuffed with TNT — to heavily damage neighborhoods. Fabius met with representatives of about 20 countries to share details about a secret French aid program and encourage others to join it.
    (AP, 10/17/12)

2012        Oct 18, In northern Syria over 40 civilians, including at least 15 children, were killed in an airstrike on the town of Maarat Numan. A day earlier activist in the area posted a video showing what they said was a government helicopter shot down by rebels. In all over 200 people were reported killed in the country.
    (SFC, 10/19/12, p.A5)

2012        Oct 21, In Syria a taxi rigged with explosives blew up near a police station in Damascus, killing at least 13 people even as the UN envoy to the nation's crisis was visiting to push his call for a cease-fire in talks with President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 10/21/12)

2012        Oct 22, In Syria 42 civilians, arrested at a military checkpoint in the Damascus suburb of Moadamia Al-Sham, were soon found executed.
    (SFC, 10/24/12, p.A2)
2012        Oct 22, A Jordanian soldier was killed in clashes with armed militants trying to cross the border into Syria.
    (AP, 10/22/12)
2012        Oct 22, Lebanese troops launched a major security operation to open all roads and force gunmen off the streets. Sectarian clashes overnight left four dead as Syria's civil war spilled into neighboring countries.
    (AP, 10/22/12)

2012        Oct 23, Syrian warplanes struck Maaret al-Numan, a strategic rebel-held town in the country's north in an attempt to reopen a key supply route. At least 20 people were killed in Aleppo when a bakery was hit by a shell. Over 100 people were reported killed in fighting across the country. A UN-proposed cease-fire meant to start this week appeared increasingly unlikely to take hold.
    (AP, 10/23/12)(SFC, 10/24/12, p.A2)

2012        Oct 24, Syrian warplanes struck Mar Shureen village near a strategic rebel-held town in the country's north, killing five members of an extended family.
    (AP, 10/24/12)
2012        Oct 24, The UN-Arab League envoy to Syria said the government in Damascus and some rebel leaders have agreed to a temporary cease-fire during a four-day Muslim holiday that starts Oct 26.
    (AP, 10/24/12)

2012        Oct 25, In Syria anti-regime forces advanced in Aleppo and took control of several neighborhoods. The deputy head of the United Nations urged Syrian rebels and the regime in Damascus to observe a four-day cease-fire to observe the Muslim holy day of Eid al-Adha on Oct 26.
    (AP, 10/25/12)

2012        Oct 26, Syrians took to the streets for the largest anti-regime protests in months in several cities, taking advantage a lull in fighting as a cease-fire took effect at the start of a Muslim holiday. A few hours after the truce took effect, a car bomb in a residential area of Damascus killed at least 15 people and wounded more than 30. Another rigged car went off near an army checkpoint in the southern city of Deraa, killing 3 soldiers. In Aleppo fighting raged near the military airport, killing at least 4 people. At least 22 people were killed by regime shelling and sniper fire in the Damascus suburbs of Harasta and Douma, and in the northern Idlib province.
    (AP, 10/26/12)(AP, 10/29/12)

2012        Oct 27, Syrian warplanes bombed a building in a suburb of the capital Damascus in the first airstrike since an internationally mediated cease-fire went into effect. 8 people were reported killed and many others wounded in the airstrike in Arbeen.
    (AP, 10/27/12)

2012        Oct 28, Syrian warplanes and artillery struck rebellious suburbs east of Damascus, while rebels attacked regime positions elsewhere near Damascus. The violence marred the third day of what was meant to be a four-day holiday truce. At least 150 people were reported killed.
    (AP, 10/28/12)(AP, 10/29/12)

2012        Oct 29, Syrian warplanes launched some 60 airstrikes against rebel targets around the country. A government official said a car bomb killed 10 people on the outskirts of Damascus. Activists said more than 80 people were killed nationwide today and that at least 500 people were killed over the last four days period when a UN-backed truce was supposed to be in effect.
    (AP, 10/29/12)

2012        Oct 30, Syrian warplanes pounded Maaret al-Numan, a strategic northern city, with three airstrikes as ground troops pushed forward to recapture the area recently taken by rebels. In Damascus Syrian troops and rebels clashed in the Palestinian refugee camp of Yarmouk. At least 185 people were killed nationwide in airstrikes and artillery shelling. At least 47 soldiers were also reported killed.
    (AP, 10/30/12)(AP, 10/31/12)

2012        Oct 31, Syrian warplanes pounded opposition strongholds around Damascus and in the north, as President Bashar Assad's forces intensified airstrikes against rebels seeking to topple him. Activists said 116 were killed nationwide in airstrikes, artillery shelling and fighting. This included 41 people killed in Aleppo and 35 in the suburbs of Damascus.
    (AP, 10/31/12)(AP, 11/1/12)

2012        Nov 1, Syrian rebels killed 28 soldiers in attacks on military checkpoints in northern Idlib province, just hours after a wave of bombings hit Damascus and its outskirts. 5 rebels died in gun battles following the attacks. Rebels killed a group of captured soldiers during an assault by rebels on the northern town of Saraqeb. A video of the killings was made public and human rights groups the next day warned that the gunmen may have committed a war crime. The Observatory said 83 soldiers were killed in attacks by rebels and clashes.
    (AP, 11/1/12)    (AP, 11/2/12)

2012        Nov 3, Syrian rebels launched a dawn assault on Taftanaz airbase, a strategic site in the north of the country, trying to disrupt strikes by warplanes and helicopters that pound rebel-held towns and give the regime of Pres. Bashar Assad a major edge in the civil war.
    (AP, 11/3/12)

2012        Nov 4, In Syria a car bomb exploded near a major hotel in Damascus, wounding several people. State news agency SANA reported that gunmen assassinated a leading member of the ruling Baath party. It said the gunmen broke into the home of Ismail al-Hamadeh at dawn and sprayed him with bullets as he slept, killing him instantly. SANA also said the army destroyed some rebel vehicles fitted with machine guns in the Damascus suburbs of Harasta and al-Hajira and killed a handful of rebels. Syrian rebels overran the al-Ward oilfield in the province of Deir el-Zour near the border with Iraq.
    (AP, 11/4/12)

2012        Nov 5, The main Syrian opposition bloc, Syrian National Council, broadened its ranks to include more activists and political groups from inside the country. It had been  dominated by exiles and academics.
    (AP, 11/5/12)
2012        Nov 5, In Syria a suicide attack  in the village of Ziyara in the central province of Hama killed more than 50 Syrian soldiers and pro-government gunmen.  The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the attack was carried out by Jabhat al-Nusra, an al-Qaida-inspired Islamic militant group. The Observatory also reported that an air raid on the northern town of Harem killed at least 20 rebels. 6 regime supporters were killed when 11 mortars rounds fell near a pro-government demonstration in the northern city of Aleppo.
    (AP, 11/5/12)    (AP, 11/6/12)

2012        Nov 6, In Syria gunmen killed Mohammed Osama Laham, the brother of Syria's parliament speaker, as he drove to work in Damascus. The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said air raids on Houla, a group of villages in central province of Homs, killed seven people.
    (AP, 11/6/12)
2012        Nov 6, A spokesman for Hamas said the Syrian government has sealed its offices in Damascus, finalizing the break between the Islamic militant group and its former patron.
    (AP, 11/6/12)
2012        Nov 6, Turkey's state-run news agency reported that seven Syrian generals have defected to Turkey.
    (AP, 11/6/12)

2012        Nov 7, Syrian rebels made a new push into Damascus. A car bomb killed a judge in Damascus, the second assassination in the capital in two days targeting high-ranking supporters of President Assad. At least 104 people were killed in fighting, according to the Britain-based activist group Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. 4 rebels were killed in clashes with a pro-government faction in the Palestinian refugee camp in Damascus.  At least 30 soldiers were also killed, including 10 in Damascus and on its outskirts.
    (AP, 11/7/12)    (AP, 11/8/12)
2012        Nov 7, In Qatar Syria's main opposition bloc began electing new leaders, amid intense international pressure from critics who say the exile-dominated group does not represent those risking their lives on the frontlines to oust President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 11/7/12)
2012        Nov 7, Western efforts to oust Syrian President Bashar Assad shifted dramatically, with Britain announcing it will deal directly with rebel military leaders and Turkey saying NATO members have discussed using Patriot missiles to protect a safe zone inside Syria.
    (AP, 11/7/12)

2012        Nov 8, In Syria rebels took over the border crossing of Ras al-Ayn.
    (AP, 11/8/12)
2012        Nov 8, The Syrian National Council conference in the Qatari capital of Doha failed to promote a single woman to the decision-making group of 41 members. SNC chief Abdelbaset Sieda said he was "so sad" and would try to add four women to the general secretariat by decree.
    (AP, 11/8/12)

2012        Nov 9, Syria's president said in an interview broadcast that his country is not in a state of civil war, and that he has no regrets about any decisions he has made since the uprising against him began nearly 20 months ago. UN officials said at least 11,000 Syrian refugees have fled their country over the last 24 hours, including some 9,000 to Turkey and the rest to Jordan and Lebanon.
    (AP, 11/9/12)
2012        Nov 9, In Qatar Syria's main opposition group in exile elected George Sabra, a left-wing veteran dissident born into a Christian family, as its new president.
    (AP, 11/9/12)
2012        Nov 9, Turkey's state-run agency said a group of Syrian soldiers, including two generals and 11 colonels, have fled to Turkey with their families.
    (AP, 11/9/12)
2012        Nov 9, A UN plan to provide $836 million in emergency aid to Syrians battered by their nation's civil war ran into funding problems despite an additional US donation of $34 million.
    (AP, 11/9/12)

2012        Nov 10, In Syria suicide car bombings ripped through a government base in Daraa, killing at least 20 soldiers. George Sabra, the newly elected leader of the main opposition bloc, the Syrian National Council, urged the international community to support rebels without any conditions.
    (AP, 11/10/12)

2012        Nov 11, Israel was drawn into the Syrian civil war for the first time, firing warning shots into the neighboring country after a stray mortar shell from across the border hit an Israeli military post in the Golan Heights. Syrian army forces backed by helicopter gunships and artillery attacked a border area with Turkey after rebels captured the Ras al-Ayn crossing point.
    (AP, 11/11/12)
 2012        Nov 11, In Qatar Syrian anti-government groups struck a deal under intense international pressure to form a new 63-member opposition leadership. The delegates elected Islamic preacher Maath al-Khatib president of the new coalition. Leading opposition figures Riad Seif and Suheir Atassi were elected vice presidents. The new leadership will be called the Syrian National Coalition for Opposition and Revolutionary Forces.
    (AP, 11/11/12)(Econ, 11/17/12, p.47)

2012        Nov 12, A Syrian fighter jet bombed a rebel-held area near the Turkish border, killing at least six people and wounding a dozen others. One rocket-propelled grenade landed in Turkey. A Syrian helicopter bombed rebel positions in an area further south of Ras al-Ayn and the rebels could be heard responding with machine guns.
    (AP, 11/12/12)
2012        Nov 12, An Israeli tank scored a "direct hit" on a Syrian armored vehicle after a mortar shell landed on Israeli-held territory in the Golan Heights, in the first direct confrontation between the countries since the Syrian uprising broke out, sharpening fears that Israel could be drawn into the civil war next door.
    (AP, 11/12/12)

2012        Nov 13, Syria's air force bombed a rebel-held region near the border with Turkey for a second day, killing at least one person and wounding three others.
    (AP, 11/13/12)
2012        Nov 13, France became the first Western country to formally recognize Syria's newly formed opposition coalition as the sole legitimate representative of the Syrian people.
    (AP, 11/13/12)

2012        Nov 14, In Syria regime jet fighters targeted the rebellious suburbs of Damascus. Heavy clashes between rebel units and Assad's troops were ongoing in the northern city of Aleppo. Syrian troops used aircraft and artillery in an attempt to dislodge rebels from a town next to the border with Turkey.
    (AP, 11/14/12)
2012        Nov 14, The Israeli defense minister says "almost all" Syrian villages near the frontier with Israel have fallen into rebel hands.
    (AP, 11/14/12)

2012        Nov 15, Turkey endorsed the newly formed Syrian rebel coalition as the legitimate leader of Syria.
    (SFC, 11/16/12, p.A2)

2012        Nov 16, A Syrian general and a dozen other officers defected with their families to Turkey.
    (Reuters, 11/17/12)

2012        Nov 17, Cameraman Cuneyt Unal, captured while covering fighting in the city of Aleppo, was released returned to Turkey. Unal and reporter Bashar Fahmi, a Jordanian citizen of Palestinian origin, had been missing since August. Both were working for the US-based Alhurra TV and were believed to have been captured by Syrian government forces.
    (AP, 11/17/12)

2012        Nov 18, A group of 13 extremist Islamist factions in Syria rejected the country's new opposition coalition, saying in a video statement they have formed an "Islamic state" in the embattled city of Aleppo to underline that they want nothing to do with the Western-backed bloc.
    (AP, 11/19/12)
2012        Nov 18, Syrian rebels took over a large military base in the country's north, carting off tanks, armored vehicles and truck-loads of munitions.
    (AP, 11/20/12)
2012        Nov 18, Iran held a conference to reconcile Syria's government with some 200 opposition members and Syria's National Reconciliation Minister Ali Haidar to end the country's civil war.
    (AP, 11/18/12)

2012        Nov 20, Britain announced that it has formally recognized the newly formed Syrian opposition as the sole legitimate representative of the Syrian people.
    (AP, 11/20/12)

2012        Nov 21, Syrian warplanes bombed Damascus suburbs and rebel-held areas in the country's north as the government blasted the European Union for endorsing a newly formed opposition coalition. Syrian warplanes flattened a building next to a hospital in Aleppo, killing at least 15 people.
    (AP, 11/21/12)(AP, 11/22/12)
2012        Nov 21, Turkey's government requested the deployment of NATO's Patriot surface-to-air missiles to bolster its defenses along its border with Syria.
    (AP, 11/21/12)

2012        Nov 22, Syrian rebels seized a key military base with artillery stockpiles in the country's east, strengthening their hold in an oil-rich strategic province bordering Iraq. Fighting broke out in the city of Ras al-Ayn on the Syrian side of the border, but it was between Kurdish and Arab rebel factions. Journalist Bassil Toufic Youssef, who worked for state TV, was shot dead outside his house in Damascus.
    (AP, 11/22/12)(AP, 11/23/12)
2012        Nov 22, American  journalist James Foley (39), of Rochester, N.H., was kidnapped in northwest Syria by unknown gunmen in Idlib province.
    (AP, 1/2/13)
2012        Nov 22, The body of Syrian novelist Mohammed Rashid Roweily (65) was found in the eastern city of Deir el-Zour, nearly two months after he was kidnapped. His decomposed body was found along with four other bodies, including that of a retired army officer. All were kidnapped around the same time.
    (AP, 11/23/12)
2012        Nov 22, In Syria a bomb blast in a Palestinian refugee camp in Damascus killed four people and seriously wounded a member of a faction that has backed President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 11/23/12)

2012        Nov 23, In Syria a suicide attacker blew up his car in the northwestern Idlib province, killing at least three people and wounding four. Islamic extremists, including members of the al-Qaida inspired Jabhat al-Nusra group, battled with pro-government Kurdish gunmen in the northern town of Ras al-Ayan, near the border with Turkey.
    (AP, 11/23/12)

2012        Nov 24, Lebanese soldiers raided an apartment in the country's south and arrested five Syrian nationals for possession of explosives.
    (AP, 11/24/12)

2012        Nov 25, Syrian rebels seized control of the Marj al-Sultan base on the outskirts of Damascus. At least 15 rebels and eight soldiers were killed in the fighting that started a day earlier.
    (AP, 11/25/12)

2012        Nov 26, Syrian rebels captured a hydroelectric dam on the Euphrates River in the country's north after days of heavy clashes. Rebels and pro-government Kurdish gunmen struck a truce to end days of fighting in the town of Ras al-Ayn. Airstrikes by government warplanes killed and wounded several people in the border town Atmeh.
    (AP, 11/26/12)

2012        Nov 27, Syrian warplanes bombed an olive press factory in Idlib, killing at least 20 people and wounding dozens more. The pro-government daily Al Watan published a list of 142 Arab and foreign terrorists it said were killed in Syria in recent months. Rebels reportedly shot down a government helicopter west of Aleppo.
    (AP, 11/27/12)(SFC, 11/28/12, p.A3)(Econ, 12/1/12, p.54)

2012        Nov 28, In Syria twin suicide car bombs ripped through a Damascus suburb minutes apart, killing at least 34 people with 83 injured. Regime warplanes struck rebel-held areas in the northern Idlib province and Damascus suburbs. Rebels claimed they shot down a Syrian air force fighter jet near Daret Azzeh.
    (AP, 11/28/12)

2012        Nov 29, Syrian activists said authorities have blocked Internet and cell phone signals in parts of the nation's capital. Two US-based Internet-monitoring companies say Syria has shut off Internet nationwide. Syrian rebels in Daraa bombed the house of Hussein Rifai, a top member of the country's ruling Baath party, killing him and his three body guards.
    (AP, 11/29/12)

2012        Nov 30, Syrian rebels battled regime troops south of Damascus and Internet and most telephone lines were cut for a second day, but the government reopened the road to the capital's airport in a sign the fighting could be calming.
    (AP, 11/30/12)
2012        Nov 30, Lebanon dispatched troops to Tripoli as a precautionary measure after an announcement that 20 Lebanese Sunnis had been killed inside Syria while fighting alongside rebels, who are predominantly Sunnis as well.
    (AP, 12/1/12)

2012        Nov, British journalist John Cantlie arrived in Syria and was soon captured by a militant group. In 2014 an Internet video titled “Lend Me Your Ears" showed Cantlie delivering a message warning against the US and allies waring against the Islamic State.
    {Britain, Syria}
    (SFC, 9/19/14, p.A4)

2012        Dec 1, Syrian troops backed by helicopter gunships clashed with rebels as government forces pushed a major offensive on villages and towns near the capital's international airport. Internet and telephone service were restored across much of the country following a two-day, nationwide communications blackout.
    (AP, 12/1/12)

2012        Dec 2, Syria forces bombarded rebel strongholds in Damascus. A car bomb exploded near a mosque in the city of Homs, killing at least 15 people. The official SANA news agency claimed that, the Syrian army killed scores of rebels in an attack on their hideouts on the outskirts of Homs.
    (AP, 12/2/12)(SFC, 12/3/12, p.A3)
2012        Dec 2, The Syrian conflict spilled into Lebanon, after Lebanese troops exchanged fire with rebels across the border late today.
    (AP, 12/3/12)

2012        Dec 3, Syrian warplanes bombed a security building that had been taken over by rebels along the Turkish border, killing at least one person, wounding 20 more and sending dozens of civilians fleeing across the frontier. A regime shell attack on the Aleppo neighborhood of Bustan al-Qasr killed 12 men. 13 people were reported dead in a separate attack in Aleppo's Halak neighborhood. At least 17 unidentified bodies were found in the Damascus suburb of Thiyabiyeh.
    (AP, 12/3/12)(AP, 12/4/12)

2012        Dec 4, Syrian state media said a mortar slammed into a school in the Damascus suburbs, killing 29 students and a teacher. Syrian forces fired artillery at rebel targets in and around the capital. The international community grew increasingly alarmed about the regime's chemical weapons stocks. Naji Assaad, a journalist for the state-run Tishrin newspaper, was killed near his home in al-Tadhamon, a suburb of Damascus.
    (AP, 12/4/12)

2012        Dec 5, In Lebanon gunmen loyal to opposite sides in neighboring Syria's civil war battled in the streets of Tripoli where two days of fighting killed at least five people and wounded 45.
    (AP, 12/5/12)

2012        Dec 6, Syria's state television said a booby trapped car has exploded in a neighborhood of the capital, Damascus, killing one person.
    (AP, 12/6/12)
2012        Dec 6, NATO moved forward with its plan to place Patriot missiles and troops along Syria's border with Turkey to protect against potential attacks.
    (AP, 12/6/12)

2012        Dec 7, Syrian rebels fighting to topple President Bashar Assad declared Damascus International Airport a "legitimate target" in a bid to cut off regime supplies, as clashes between government troops and rebels forced the closure of the airport road for the second time this week.
    (AP, 12/7/12)

2012        Dec 8, An official with the rebel Free Syrian Army said commanders from all over the country have elected a new Supreme Military Council and named Brig. Gen. Salim Idriss as the group's chief of staff.
    (AP, 12/8/12)

2012        Dec 9, In Syria 9 judges in Idlib defected from the regime of Pres. Assad. They identified themselves by name and read a joint statement urging others to break ranks with Assad. Rebels captured parts of another large army base in the country's north, just west of the city of Aleppo, tightening the opposition's grip on areas close to the Turkish border.
    (AP, 12/9/12)(AP, 12/10/12)
2012        Dec 9, In Lebanon four people were killed in fighting in the city of Tripoli between gunmen loyal to opposite sides in Syria's civil war.
    (AP, 12/9/12)
2012        Dec 9, Russian and US diplomats met with UN peace envoy Lakhdar Brahimi for more talks on the civil war in Syria.
    (AP, 12/9/12)

2012        Dec 10, Syrian rebels killed 13 soldiers in an ambush near a strategic northern town along a road linking Aleppo with Damascus.
    (AP, 12/10/12)
2012        Dec 10, Germany said it has expelled four employees of the Syrian embassy in Berlin in a diplomatic move to put pressure on the regime of President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 12/10/12)

2012        Dec 11, Syrian rebels, backed by Islamic extremist fighters of Jabhat al-Nusra, took full control of the Sheik Suleiman military base near Aleppo after a two-day battle that killed at least 35 government troops. In Aleppo four mortar rounds hit the predominantly Kurdish neighborhood of Sheik Maksoud, killing 11, including 3 children and 2 women, and wounding a dozen other people.
    (AP, 12/11/12)

2012        Dec 12, French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said more than 100 countries have recognized a new Syrian opposition coalition. Fabius called the "Friends of the Syrian People" conference meeting in Marrakech, Morocco, "extraordinary progress." US and NATO said President Bashar Assad's forces had fired Scud missiles at rebel areas.
    (AP, 12/12/12)(AP, 12/13/12)

2012        Dec 13, In Syria a bomb blast near a school in a Damascus suburb killed 16 people, at least half of them women and children. Three bombs collapsed walls of the Interior Ministry building, killing 9 people. One of the dead was parliament member Abdullah Qairouz. State TV journalist Anmar Mohammed was one of 3 killed in explosions near the Palace of Justice in the suburb of Jermana and in the upscale Mezzeh 86 district. American correspondent Richard Engel and his team were kidnapped shortly after crossing the border from Turkey into Syria. They escaped on Dec 16 at a security checkpoint in Idlib province and two captors were killed.
    (AP, 12/13/12)(AP, 12/18/12)
2012        Dec 13, NATO's Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said he thinks Syria President Bashar Assad's regime is on the brink of collapse.
    (AP, 12/13/12)
2012        Dec 13, Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Mikhail Bogdanov said that President Bashar Assad is losing control of his country and the rebels might win the civil war.
    (AP, 12/13/12)

2012        Dec 14, The Pentagon said the US will send two batteries of Patriot missiles and 400 troops to Turkey as part of a NATO force meant to protect Turkish territory from potential Syrian missile attack.
    (AP, 12/14/12)

2012        Dec 16, In Syria the Al-Tawheed Brigade, an Islamist faction of rebels, captured the Hanano Barracks, an infantry base in the northern city of Aleppo. Al-Tawheed commander, Col. Youssef al-Jader, was killed. Government warplanes blasted a Palestinian refugee camp near Damascus, killing eight people and wounding dozens.
    (AP, 12/16/12)

2012        Dec 17, Syria's longtime vice president Farouk al-Sharaa said the army cannot defeat the rebels fighting to topple the regime, the first admission by a top government official that a victory by President Bashar Assad is unlikely.
    (AP, 12/17/12)
2012        Dec 17, Italy's government said an Italian technician and two other employees at a Syrian steel plant near Latakia have been kidnapped.
    (AP, 12/17/12)

2012        Dec 18, Clashes between Syrian rebels and an armed Palestinian group loyal to President Bashar Assad raged inside a Damascus refugee camp, as the Syrian military deployed tanks outside.
    (AP, 12/18/12)

2012        Dec 19, Syrian state media said government forces are carrying out a broad offensive against rebels in the suburbs of Damascus, as the UN appealed for a billion dollars to support rising numbers of Syrian refugees.
    (AP, 12/19/12)

2012        Dec 20, In Syria days of intense fighting in a Palestinian refugee camp subsided and some of the more than 100,000 residents who fled the violence in the capital Damascus began to trickle back.
    (AP, 12/20/12)

2012        Dec 21, Syrian rebels attacked a base protecting a military industrial compound in the country's north as anti-government forces pushed forward in efforts to capture wider areas near the border with Turkey. 7 rebels were reported killed in the attack on the air defense base in the town of al-Safira.
    (AP, 12/21/12)
2012        Dec 21, NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmusen said the Syrian military has continued to fire Scud-type missiles against anti-government forces, describing the move as an act of desperation of a regime nearing its end.
    (AP, 12/21/12)

2012        Dec 23, Syrian activists said a government airstrike on a bakery in a rebel-held town in Halfaya killed more than 60 people. The attack coincided with the start of a two-day visit by Lakhdar Brahimi, who represents the UN And the Arab League, to meet with top Syrian officials. 6 Syrian rebels reportedly died in two neighborhoods after inhaling white smoke that came out of shells fired by government troops in the area.
    (AP, 12/23/12)(AP, 12/25/12)

2012        Dec 25, Syrian rebels fully captured Harem, a northern town near the Turkish border, after weeks of siege and heavy fighting. In the Damascus suburb of Jaramana, opposition gunmen ambushed and wounded the head of military intelligence in the area. He died of his wounds. Maj. Gen. Abdul-Aziz Jassem al-Shallal, the head of Syria's military police, appeared in a video aired on Al Arabiya TV saying he is joining "the people's revolution."
    (AP, 12/25/12)(AP, 12/26/12)

2012        Dec 26, Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said shelling in an agricultural area of Raqqa province near the village of Qahtaniyeh killed 20, including eight children. It said at least five rebels were killed in the fighting that started after midnight and added that Syrian army warplanes attacked rebel positions in the areas.
    (AP, 12/26/12)

2012        Dec 27, Russia and Lakhdar Brahimi, UN envoy for Syria, both said that they want to revive a long-shelved peace initiative that would call for a transitional government to run the country until elections can be held.
    (AP, 12/27/12)

2012        Dec 28, Syrian rebels stepped up their siege of a military base in north of the country as government warplanes bombed surrounding areas to support the defenders. A government airstrike on al-Safira killed 14 people, including 2 woemn and 8 children.
    (AP, 12/28/12)
2012        Dec 28, Officials at Turkey's Foreign Ministry said two Syrian air force generals have defected and crossed the border.
    (AP, 12/28/12)

2012        Dec 30, Syrian rebels captured an oil pumping station and a military post that used to protect the station in the province of Raqqa after days of fighting.
    (AP, 12/30/12)

2012        Dec 31, Syrian rebels blew up a natural gas pipeline in the country's oil-rich east. The blast, some 30 km (18 miles) north of Deir el-Zour, caused the loss of around 1.5 million cubic meters of gas.
    (AP, 12/31/12)

2012        Croatian arms bought by Saudi Arabia were flown to Jordan for distribution to Syrian rebels in a deal backed by the CIA.
    (Econ, 4/16/15, p.44)
2012        In Lebanon the Beirut-based pan-Arab satellite channel Al-Mayadeen was launched. It was backed by Iran and Syria.
    (Econ, 2/14/15, p.41)

2013        Jan 1, Syrian warplanes took part in bombing Daraya, a few miles (kms) from the strategic military air base of Mazzeh, a western neighborhood of Damascus.
    (AP, 1/1/13)

2013        Jan 2, A Syrian warplane blasted a gas station near Damascus, killing and wounding dozens of people and igniting a huge fire in one of the bloodiest attacks in weeks during the 22-month civil war. Rebels attacked the sprawling Taftanaz air base. Rebels bombarded the Mannagh air base, which has been subjected to almost daily attacks since late last month.
    (AP, 1/2/13)
2013        Jan 2, The UN said more than 60,000 people have killed in the 21-months of the Syrian conflict.
    (SSFC, 1/6/13, p.A4)

2013        Jan 3, Syrian troops and rebels fought intense battles around the Taftanaz air base in the country's north and a suburb of the capital that government forces have been trying to capture since last month. Rebels reportedly killed the commander of the air base, a brigadier general. The Observatory and the LCC said 8 people were killed in Douma and nearby areas. Dozens of people were also killed or wounded in the town of Hayan in Aleppo province. A car bomb blew up in a Damascus gas station, killing at least 9 people.
    (AP, 1/3/13)(AP, 1/4/13)
2013        Jan 3, Syrian journalist Suheil al-Ali, who worked for a pro-government television station, died four days after a "terrorist" opened fire on him as he was returning home from work in the suburbs of Damascus.
    (AP, 1/5/13)

2013        Jan 4, Syrian ground and air forces bombarded rebel strongholds on the outskirts of Damascus and other areas around the country. Anti-government forces targeted a military post near the capital with a car bomb.
    (AP, 1/4/13)

2013        Jan 5, Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said rebels and government troops clashed in suburbs south of Damascus, including Harasta and Daraya. The Observatory, which relies on reports by activists on the ground, said government troops had arrested several residents in raids in the suburb of Qatana.
    (AP, 1/5/13)

2013        Jan 6, Syria’s Pres. Bashar Assad offered a national reconciliation conference, elections and a new constitution but demanded regional and Western countries stop funding and arming rebels trying to overthrow him first. Syria's opposition swiftly rejected the proposal. Fighting between rebels and government forces raged across the country.
    (AP, 1/6/13)
2013        Jan 6, Israel announced that it is building a border fence along the length of its armistice line with Syria in the Golan Heights.
    (SFC, 1/7/13, p.A3)

2013        Jan 7, The Dutch military shipped Patriot missiles to Turkey, a fellow NATO member, after the alliance agreed in December to deploy the anti-missile systems along Turkey's southern border with Syria. Fighting in Syria continued unabated.
    (AP, 1/7/13)

2013        Jan 8, Palestinian factions in Syria called for a cease-fire after fighting flared at a refugee camp in the capital, Damascus. 5 people were killed on Yarmouk Street, four of them when a shell exploded and the fifth in sniper fire.
    (AP, 1/8/13)
2013        Jan 8, In Jordan Syrian refugees in a refugee camp attacked aid workers with sticks and stones, frustrated after cold, howling winds swept away their tents and torrential rains flooded muddy streets overnight.
    (AP, 1/8/13)
2013        Jan 8, The UN World Food Program said it is unable to help 1 million Syrians who are going hungry.
    (AP, 1/8/13)

2013        Jan 9, Syrian rebels freed 48 Iranians held captive since August in exchange for the release of more than 2,000 detainees in the first major prisoner swap of the country's civil war.
    (AP, 1/9/13)
2013        Jan 9, The NATO alliance detected the launch of an unguided, short-range ballistic missile in Syria.
    (AP, 1/10/13)

2013        Jan 10, Rebels trying to topple Syrian President Bashar Assad's regime battled army troops inside an air base in the north as government forces fought opposition strongholds near the seat of his government in Damascus.
    (AP, 1/10/13)

2013        Jan 11, In Syria Islamic militants seeking to topple Pres. Bashar Assad took full control of the strategic Taftanaz air base in a significant blow to government forces, seizing helicopters, tanks and multiple rocket launchers. Government warplanes bombed the air base after the rebel takeover.
    (AP, 1/11/13)

2013        Jan 12, Syrian troops captured most of Daraya, a strategic Damascus suburb used by rebels as a base to threaten key regime facilities in the capital.
    (AP, 1/12/13)

2013        Jan 13, Syrian fighter jets Damascus suburbs in a government offensive to dislodge rebels from strategic areas around the capital. At least 45 people were killed in the government barrage. Troops battled rebels in the suburb of Daraya a day after government officials claimed the army had taken much of the strategic area. Heavy fighting was reported in the northern province of Deir el-Zour, involving attacks by warplanes.
    (AP, 1/13/13)(AP, 1/14/13)

2013        Jan 14, A Syrian airstrike slammed into a house in a rebellious suburb of Damascus, killing at least 13 people including eight children. Fighter jets also carried out fresh airstrikes on the suburb of Daraya. Regime warplanes also bombed targets in the north.
    (AP, 1/14/13)

2013        Jan 15, In Syria 2 explosions struck the main university in Aleppo, killing 87 people. Activists reported clashes in suburbs south of Damascus. In other regions government air raids and shelling killed dozens of people. Forces loyal to President Bashar Assad swept through Haswiyeh, a small farming village near Homs, torching houses and shooting and stabbing residents in an attack that killed up to 106 people. All of the dead appeared to be Sunni Muslims.
    (AP, 1/15/13)(AP, 1/16/13)(AP, 1/17/13)

2013        Jan 16, In northern Syria suicide bombers driving vehicles packed with explosives blew themselves up near security targets, killing at least 22 people in Idlib.
    (AP, 1/16/13)

2013        Jan 17, In Syria an air raid killed at least 15 people in the town of Kfar Nabouedeh in the central province of Hama. Violence continued in different parts of the country. Clashes in the northern town of Ras al-Ayn least eight rebels and one Kurdish PYD fighter.
    (AP, 1/17/13)
2013        Jan 17, French journalist, Yves Debay was shot and killed in Aleppo by a regime sniper while covering clashes between rebels and forces loyal to President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 1/18/13)
2013        Jan 17, Jordan's PM Abdullah Ensour said Jordan will prevent a mass exodus of Syrian refugees from entering its territory if President Bashar Assad's regime collapses, and will instead create a safe haven inside Syria to protect them.
    (AP, 1/17/13)

2013        Jan 18, In Syria 2 car bombs exploded in Daraa and a rocket slammed into a building in Aleppo. Fighting between rebels and Assad's loyalists flared in the Yarmouk Palestinian refugee camp in Damascus, killing 12 people and wounding at least 20 others. Syrian fighter jets pounded villages in rebel-held areas in Latakia province, dropping makeshift bombs made from hundreds of pounds (kg) of explosives stuffed into barrels.
    (AP, 1/18/13)

2013        Jan 19, Syrian troops fought intense battles against rebels who are trying to capture two military bases in the northwest. Dozens of people were killed and wounded as Syria's air force targeted a mosque and a school building that apparently was sheltering displaced Syrians in the town of Salqin in Idlib province.
    (AP, 1/19/13)

2013        Jan 20, Syrian government troops battled rebels in several areas outside Damascus. Regime warplanes bombed opposition-held areas around the capital, including an airstrike on the village of al-Barika that killed at least seven people.
    (AP, 1/20/13)

2013        Jan 21, The Syrian government blamed a rebel attack on a key power line for a blackout that hit Damascus and much of the country's south overnight. By midday power returned to more than half of the capital. At least 42 people were reported killed in a car bombing at a headquarters of a pro-government militia in Salamiya, Hama province. A week later Jabhat al-Nusra, an al-Qaida-linked group fighting, claimed responsibility for the attack.
    (AP, 1/21/13)(AP, 1/24/13)(AP, 1/28/13)

2013        Jan 22, Syrian government forces and rebels battled in the suburbs of Damascus and elsewhere. Four buses carrying Russian citizens escaping the civil war crossed into Lebanon, in the first evacuation organized by Moscow since the start of the conflict nearly two years ago.
    (AP, 1/22/13)

2013        Jan 23, In Syria a rocket fired by regime forces slammed into Abu Taltal, a northern rebel-held village, killing six members of a single family. Violence was reported elsewhere with air raids around the capital Damascus and clashes and shelling in the southern province of Daraa and the central region of Homs.
    (AP, 1/23/13)

2013        Jan 24, Syrian warplanes bombed rebel-held areas near Damascus as President Bashar Assad's troops battled opposition fighters for control of a strategic road that links the capital with the main airport. Twin car bombs in the Syrian-controlled part of the Golan Heights killed eight people in Quneitra, as thegovernment called on those who fled the country during the civil war to return, including regime opponents.
    (AP, 1/24/13)(AP, 1/25/13)

2013        Jan 25, Syrian troops shelled the city of Homs and soldiers battled rebels around the central province with the same name. An amateur video posted online by activists showed rockets slamming into buildings in the rebel-held town of Rastan. Activist groups said at least 140 people were in fighting nationwide.
    (AP, 1/25/13)(SFC, 1/26/13, p.A2)

2013        Jan 26, Syria’s Sana state news said government troops raided an opposition stronghold in Daraya, killing rebels and uncovering tunnels they used to move around and smuggle weapons. An air raid on the northern town of Al-Bab, which killed at least four people and wounded others. Activist groups reported heavy clashes in Homs and Qusair.
    (AP, 1/26/13)

2013        Jan 27, In northern Syria  at least 10 rebels were killed in fighting that erupted after the opposition fighters attacked a government checkpoint.
    (AP, 1/28/13)

2013        Jan 28, Syrian activists said troops battled rebels in several towns and villages around Damascus, including in Daraya, Arbeen and Zabadani.
    (AP, 1/28/13)

2013        Jan 29, Syrian rebels stormed a government intelligence complex in the east of the country, freeing at least 11 people held in a prison at the facility in  Deir el-Zour. Regime warplanes carried several airstrikes on rebel positions in towns and villages around Damascus, including eastern Ghouta and Yalda, and hit other suburbs with artillery. The bodies of some 80 people, some with hands tied behind their backs, were pulled from a river near Aleppo as the government and rebels trying to overthrow it blamed each other for the latest mass killing. The Observatory said a total of at least 160 people were killed today in Syria, while the LCC put the figure at 162.
    (AP, 1/29/13)(Econ, 2/2/13, p.38)
2013        Jan 29, In Syria Musa Maragha (86), a hard-line Palestinian military commander who rebelled against leader Yasser Arafat to form his own rival party, died in Damascus. Maragha was better known by his nom de guerre, "Abu Musa."
    (AP, 1/29/13)
2013        Jan 29, In Jordan a wave of 21,000 Syrian refugees arrived in the past week, moving into northern Jordan at about five times the usual daily rate. The crowded Zatari camp, already struggling with flooding, short supplies and tent fires, was overwhelmed.
    (AP, 1/29/13)

2013        Jan 30, Israeli jets bombed a convoy near Syria's border with Lebanon, apparently targeting weapons destined for Hezbollah in what some called a warning to Damascus not to arm Israel's Lebanese enemy.
    (AP, 1/30/13)
2013        Jan 30, At a conference in Kuwait Gulf nations answered UN calls to boost humanitarian aid for Syria with $900 million in pledges even as more refugees poured into neighboring Jordan and its leader warned resources were strained to the limit.
    (AP, 1/30/13)

2013        Jan 31, Syria threatened to retaliate for an Israeli airstrike and its ally Iran said there will be repercussions for the Jewish state over the attack.
    (AP, 1/31/13)

2013        Feb 2, Syrian rebels captured a strategic neighborhood near Aleppo's international airport. Elsewhere fighting continued unabated, killing more than 60 people nationwide.
    (AP, 2/2/13)

2013        Feb 3, In Syria  Ibrahim Azzouz, a former parliament member, and three members of his family were killed in a rebel-held area near the northern city of Aleppo. Government troops bombarded a building in in Aleppo's rebel-held neighborhood of Eastern Ansari. The Aleppo Media Center, a network of anti-regime activists in the city, said 15 people were killed in the shelling of Eastern Ansari.
    (AP, 2/3/13)

2013        Feb 4, A Lebanese judge issued arrest warrants for a top Syrian intelligence official and his aide for their alleged involvement in a bombing plot in Lebanon. Brig. Gen. Ali Mamlouk was accused of being involved with Lebanon's former information minister, Michel Samaha, who allegedly plotted a wave of attacks in Lebanon at the behest of Syria.
    (AP, 2/4/13)

2013        Feb 5, Syrian rebels and Jordanian security officials said intense fighting has broken out near Syrian government installations and border posts near Jordan, leaving 17 civilians wounded.
    (AP, 2/5/13)

2013        Feb 6, Syria's opposition chief demanded that Bashar Assad's regime release all female political prisoners or he would scrap his offer of talks with the government.
    (AP, 2/7/13)
2013        Feb 6, In Syria heavy fighting broke out between rebels and President Bashar Assad's forces in parts of Damascus, as twin car bombs detonated in the central province of Homs, killing at least 12 people. A bombing at a bus stop near a military factory in central Syria killed 54 people, all civilian workers at the plant in the village of al-Buraq, near the central city of Hama.
    (AP, 2/6/13)(AP, 2/7/13)(AP, 2/8/13)

2013        Feb 7, Syrian troops and rebels clashed again in the capital Damascus, a day after what activists described as the heaviest fighting in months in President Bashar Assad's seat of power.
    (AP, 2/7/13)
2013        Feb 7, In Egypt an Islamic summit urged Syrian opposition forces and members of Pres. Bashar Assad's regime, whose hands are not tainted by violence, to hold talks to try to resolve the nation's civil war.
    (AP, 2/7/13)

2013        Feb 8, From Syria the Observatory reported clashes and regime shelling in the southern and eastern sectors of Damascus, including in the restive suburb of Moadamiyeh, where six people were killed by government shelling overnight.
    (AP, 2/8/13)
2013        Feb 8, Finnish customs officers confiscated a container on a Finnish freighter, en route to Syria from Russia, because it did not have a transit license and found 9.6 tons of tank spare parts.
    (AP, 2/15/13)
2013        Feb 8, The UN refugee agency said there has been a huge increase in the number of people fleeing Syria, with 5,000 refugees crossing the borders daily into neighboring countries.
    (AP, 2/8/13)

2013        Feb 9, In Syria fighting in Damascus and its suburbs raged for a fourth consecutive day. Pres. Assad reshuffled his Cabinet, appointing 7 new ministers in a move that appeared aimed at trying to shore up an economy that has been ravaged by the country's 2-year-old revolt.
    (AP, 2/9/13)

2013        Feb 10, Syrian troops and opposition forces battled for control of a key highway outside Damascus for the fifth straight day as the rebels continued their campaign to push into the capital, the seat of President Bashar Assad's power.
    (AP, 2/10/13)

2013        Feb 11, Syrian rebels captured the Furat dam, the country's largest dam, after days of intense clashes, giving them control over water and electricity supplies for much of the country in a major blow to President Assad's regime. UN human rights chief Navi Pillay said the number of people killed in Syria is probably now approaching 70,000.
    (AP, 2/11/13)(AP, 2/13/13)
2013        Feb 11, In Turkey a car bomb exploded at the Bab al-Hawa frontier post along Syria's border, killing 14 people. A Syrian opposition faction later accused the Syrian government of the bombing, saying it narrowly missed 13 leaders of the group. On March 11 Turkey’s police said five suspects have been detained.
    (AP, 2/11/13)(SFC, 2/12/13, p.A2)(AP, 3/11/13)

2013        Feb 12, In northern Syria rebels captured the Jarrah military air base in Aleppo province, their second major strategic victory in as many days.
    (AP, 2/12/13)

2013        Feb 13, Syrian rebels fought pitched battles against regime forces at the Brigade 80 military base in Aleppo that protects a major airport in the area. The fighting has left more than 40 government troops dead. Activists reported clashes outside Damascus with regime warplanes hitting several of the restive suburbs.
    (AP, 2/13/13)
2013        Feb 13, Lebanon's state-run news agency said protesters have closed two major roads in northern Lebanon to prevent fuel tankers from crossing into Syria.
    (AP, 2/13/13)
2013        Feb 13, Gen. Hassan Shateri, a senior commander of Iran’s Revolutionary Guards, was killed on the road linking Damascus with Beirut.
    (AP, 2/14/13)

2013        Feb 14, Syrian rebels took control of the town of Shadadah along the Euphrates River seized most of the nearby Jbeysa oil field. Regime warplanes pounded rebel positions near Aleppo's international airport. Rebels reportedly shot down two warplanes. Rebels stormed a small military base near the town of al-Sahwa in the southern province of Daraa. At least four fighters were killed in clashes at the base. 42 Shiites, mainly women and children, were snatched from a bus that was traveling from the Shiite villages of Foua and Kfarya to the capital Damascus.
    (AP, 2/14/13)(AP, 2/15/13)(AP, 2/16/13)

2013        Feb 15, Syrian activists said heavy fighting for control of the international airport in the northern city of Aleppo and a major military air base nearby has killed some 150 rebels and government soldiers over the past two days.
    (AP, 2/15/13)

2013        Feb 16, A Syrian activist group said pro-government gunmen have kidnapped more than 300 people Idlib province in retaliation for the abduction of 42 Shiite Muslims this week. At least one person was killed in the Palestinian refugee camp of Yarmouk by sniper fire. In the southern region of Quneitra rebels briefly controlled a military checkpoint in the town of Khan Arnaba and captured five officers before they withdrew.
    (AP, 2/16/13)
2013        Feb 16, Syrian peace activist Omar Aziz (64), detained last November, died of health complications at a military hospital.
    (AP, 2/22/13)

2013        Feb 17, A top Syrian government official said electricity has been restored in most parts of Damascus and power will gradually reach the south. The power outage plunged Damascus into darkness late the previous evening and affected much of southern Syria. Fighting raged in at least three provinces between rebels and troops loyal to Pres. Assad.
    (AP, 2/17/13)

2013        Feb 18, Syrian rebels captured a government checkpoint on the main road to the country's second-largest airport as opposition fighters pressed their campaign to capture the strategic facility in Aleppo. A new report from a UN-appointed panel said Syria's civil war is becoming increasingly sectarian and the behavior of both sides is growing more and more radicalized. A regime missile strike leveled a stretch of buildings and killed at least 19 people in Aleppo, leaving residents combing through the rubble to find those trapped beneath it.
    (AP, 2/18/13)(AP, 2/19/13)
2013        Feb 18, EU foreign ministers announced that they are keeping current sanctions against Syria in place for three months, rejecting any attempt to ease the arms embargo so military aid could be funneled to rebel forces.
    (AP, 2/18/13)

2013        Feb 19, A Syrian missile strike leveled a block of buildings in an impoverished district of Aleppo, killing at least 33 people, almost half of them children. Two mortars exploded near one of President Bashar Assad's palaces in Damascus, but no casualties were reported.
    (AP, 2/19/13)
2013        Feb 19, Russia said it had sent two jets carrying humanitarian aid to Syria and are inviting Russians who want to leave the country to take the flights back.
    (AP, 2/19/13)

2013        Feb 20, In Syria 2 mortars exploded next to a soccer stadium in central Damascus, killing one player and injuring several. The pro-government Al-Watan daily said the airport in Aleppo is still under military control and "safe" from rebels fighting to capture it.
    (AP, 2/20/13)
2013        Feb 20, A Lebanese judge indicted three people, including a former Cabinet minister and a top Syrian intelligence general, in a bombing plot in Lebanon, a move that could raise tension in Lebanon over the civil war in neighboring Syria. Judge Riad Abu Ghaida demanded the death penalty for former information minister, Michel Samaha, Syrian Brig. Gen. Ali Mamlouk and a Syrian colonel, identified only by his first name, Adnan.
    (AP, 2/20/13)

2013        Feb 21, Syrian state TV said at least 53 people were killed in a car bomb attack in Damascus near the headquarters of the ruling Baath party and the Russian Embassy. Anti-regime activists put the death toll at 59. At least 13 other people were killed on two other car bombings in Damascus. An opposition group said 18 people were killed in a government airstrike on a rebel field hospital in Daraa.
    (AP, 2/21/13)(AP, 2/22/13)SFC, 2/22/13, p.A3)

2013        Feb 22, Syrian warplanes and artillery hit targets near Damascus International Airport. Regime forces fired three missiles into a rebel-held area in eastern Aleppo, hitting several buildings. A newly released detainee reported witnessing the death of imprisoned rights activist Ayham Ghazzoul (26). Activists said gunmen from rival Sunni and Shiite Muslim villages in northern Syria have freed more than 200 people snatched in tit-for-tat kidnappings this month, easing tensions that threatened to touch off more sectarian violence. On Feb 26 Human Rights Watch said at least 141 people, half of them children, were killed when the Syrian military fired at least four missiles into eastern Aleppo.
    (AP, 2/22/13)(AP, 2/23/13)(AP, 2/24/13)(AP, 2/26/13)

2013        Feb 23, The battle for Syria's second-largest airport intensified on as government troops tried to reverse recent strategic gains the rebels have made in the northeast in their quest to topple President Bashar Assad. The army launched an offensive on opposition strongholds outside Damascus in an effort to dislodge rebels from areas around the capital that they have been trying to storm for weeks.
    (AP, 2/23/13)

2013        Feb 24, Syrian rebels used captured tanks to launch a fresh offensive on a government complex housing a police academy in Aleppo as they continued to log a string of strategic victories against President Bashar Assad's troops who countered with airstrikes.
    (AP, 2/24/13)
2013        Feb 24, Syrian comedian Yassin Bakoush (75) was killed by a mortar round that landed on his car in the Yarmouk Palestinian refugee camp in southern Damascus. SANA state news said he was killed by a rebel mortar round. The anti-regime Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said it was a rocket-propelled grenade launched by government troops.
    (AP, 2/24/13)

2013        Feb 25, Syria’s foreign minister Walid al-Moallem said his country ready to hold talks with the armed opposition trying to topple President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 2/25/13)

2013        Feb 26, In Syria combat raged near the historic Ummayad Mosque in Aleppo while anti-government activists reported fresh clashes near a police academy west of the city. The Observatory said the dead in the last two days of fighting in the area included 26 rebel fighters, 40 soldiers and five pro-government militiamen.
    (AP, 2/26/13)

2013        Feb 27, Syrian rebels clashed with government forces on two sides of Aleppo as well as near its historic mosque. At least six rebels were killed in fighting near a police academy west of the city
    (AP, 2/27/13)
2013        Feb 27, A Jordanian official said there is a new surge in Syrians fleeing across the border to Jordan as fighting intensifies in southern Syria.
    (AP, 2/27/13)

2013        Feb 28, Syrian rebels clashed with government forces around the historic 12th century Umayyad Mosque inside Aleppo. The US pledged an additional $60 million in assistance and — in a significant policy shift — will for the first time provide nonlethal aid like food and medical supplies.
    (AP, 2/28/13)

2013        Mar 1, The chief of Syrian rebel forces said that his fighters are in "desperate" need of weapons and ammunition rather than the food supplies and bandages that the US now plans to provide. Government forces fought fierce clashes with rebels attacking a police academy near Aleppo, while the bodies of 10 men — most of them shot in the head — were found dumped along the side of a road outside Damascus. State news said that government troops defending the school had killed dozens of opposition fighters and destroyed five rebel vehicles.
    (AP, 3/1/13)

2013        Mar 2, The Syrian Army's General Command said its troops have carried out special operations in towns and villages along a road between Hama and Aleppo’s airport, restoring stability there and at the airport.
    (AP, 3/2/13)

2013        Mar 3, Syrian activists said more than 200 Syrian soldiers and opposition fighters have died in the eight-day battle for a police academy near Aleppo. Rebels stormed a central prison in the northern city of Raqqa and captured a border crossing in the east along Syria's border with Iraq. Opposition fighters killed 115 police and wounded another 50 in a battle over the police academy.
    (AP, 3/3/13)(AP, 3/4/13)

2013        Mar 4, Syrian rebels pushed government troops from most of the northern city of Raqqa. Rebels launched an offensive to seize the military air base of Mannagh near the Turkish border and clashed with government forces at a historic mosque in Aleppo. Gunmen killed 48 Syrian soldiers who had crossed into Iraq for refuge. 9 Iraqi soldiers were also killed. Iraqi officials blamed the attack on al-Qaida's Iraq arm. On March 11 Al-Qaida's branch in Iraq claimed responsibility.
    (AP, 3/4/13)(AP, 3/5/13)(AP, 3/11/13)

2013        Mar 5, Syrian rebels battled pockets of regime loyalists in the northern city of Raqqa after capturing Hassan Jalili, the governor of Raqqa province in fierce clashes overnight. Syrian jets bombed opposition-held buildings in Raqqa. Activists said 16 people were killed in Raqqa, including 10 fighters who died in clashes with troops.
    (AP, 3/5/13)

2013        Mar 6, Syrian rebels detained 21 Filipino UN peacekeepers in the area in another destabilizing twist to the country's two-year-old conflict. The number of Syrian refugees topped 1 million, half of them children. Gunmen raided a Christian village near Homs, robbing houses and shops, saying they were looking for weapons.
    (AP, 3/6/13)(AP, 3/7/13)(AP, 3/11/13)
2013        Mar 6, Britain said it will provide armored vehicles, body armor and search-and-rescue equipment to Syria's opposition, but was still stopping short of arming the country's rebels.
    (AP, 3/6/13)

2013        Mar 7, Clashes flared between Syrian troops and rebels close to Israeli-controlled territory in the Golan Heights.
    (AP, 3/7/13)

2013        Mar 9, Syrian rebels released 21 UN Filipino peacekeepers, captured on March 6, and handed them to Jordanian authorities. Government airstrikes killed at least 14 people in the northern province of Raqqa. Gunmen kidnapped and killed a mediator's son, Kifah Bitar, and another man, Rony Elias, in a Christian village near Homs.
    (AP, 3/9/13)(AP, 3/10/13)(AP, 3/11/13)

2013        Mar 11, Syrian forces fired heavy machine guns and launched at least one airstrike on a neighborhood in the central city of Homs. The UN Human Rights Council released a report that said neither government forces nor rebels were doing enough to protect civilians. Mortar shells struck a soccer stadium in a predominantly Christian neighborhood of Damascus killing 6 civilians.
    (AP, 3/11/13)(SFC, 3/12/13, p.A2)

2013        Mar 12, In Syria new clashes erupted in an intensifying battle for control over Aleppo's international airport and nearby military bases. Fighting also raged for a second day in Homs as rebels tried to take back the poor neighborhood of Baba Amr.
    (AP, 3/12/13)

2013        Mar 13, Syrian government troops fought fierce battles with rebels for control of key neighborhoods in the north of Damascus. A European Union staff member was killed in a rocket attack in an opposition stronghold south of the capital. Fighting also raged in other cities, including in Homs, where the regime pounded rebel positions with artillery and carried out several airstrikes on the Baba Amr district.
    (AP, 3/13/13)
2013        Mar 13, Croatia's parliament approved the withdrawal of some 100 peacekeeping troops from the Golan Heights amid fears they could be targeted by Syrian government troops fighting the rebels.
    (AP, 3/13/13)

2013        Mar 14, A UN aid official said the number of registered Syrian refugees jumped 10% in just one week to more than 1.1 million. France pushed for quickly lifting an EU ban on arming Syrian rebels.
    (AP, 3/14/13)

2013        Mar 15, Gen. Salim Idris, the chief of Syria's main, Western-backed rebel group, marked the second anniversary of the start of the uprising against President Bashar Assad by pledging to fight until the "criminal" regime is gone. Leaders at a European Union summit failed to agree if they should send arms to the rebels.
    (AP, 3/15/13)
2013        Mar 15, In central Lebanon at least eight Syrians were killed and 29 were injured when the bus they were traveling in from Syria overturned in the mountains.
    (AP, 3/15/13)

2013        Mar 16, Syrian Maj. Gen. Mohammed Ezz al-Din Khalouf announced his defection from Assad's regime in a video aired on the Al-Arabiya satellite channel. Human Rights Watch said Assad’s regime is expanding its use of widely banned cluster bombs, as the deadlocked conflict entered its third year. Rebels detonated a powerful car bomb outside a high-rise building in Deir el-Zour, setting off clashes with regime troops.
    (AP, 3/16/13)

2013        Mar 18, Syria's main opposition coalition began a push to form an interim government to provide services to people living in parts of the country now controlled by rebel forces.
    (AP, 3/18/13)

2013        Mar 19, Syria's opposition coalition meeting in Istanbul elected Ghassan Hitto, a little-known American-educated IT manager and Islamic activist, to head an interim government to administer areas seized by rebel forces from President Bashar Assad's troops.
    (AP, 3/19/13)
2013        Mar 19, Syria's Deputy Foreign Minister Faysal Mekdad said 31 people were killed in an alleged rebel chemical attack in Aleppo province. Rebels denied the government claim and blamed regime forces for today’s missile attack on Khan al-Assad village.
    (AP, 3/19/13)(AP, 3/20/13)

2013        Mar 20, Syria's main opposition group demanded a full international investigation into an alleged chemical weapons attack in the country's north, calling for a team to be sent to the village where it reportedly occurred.
    (AP, 3/20/13)
2013        Mar 20, Jordan’s King Abdullah II warned that a jihadist state could emerge on his northern border in Syria with Islamic extremists trying to establish a foothold in the neighboring country.
    (AP, 3/20/13)

2013        Mar 21, Syrian state-run TV in Damascus said authorities have handed over to Beirut Hassane Serourto, a Lebanese fighter captured inside Syria in an ambush by government troops on Nov 30.
    (AP, 3/21/13)
2013        Mar 21, In Syria an explosion ripped through a mosque in the heart of Damascus, killing 42 people including Sheikh Mohammad Said Ramadan al-Buti, a top Sunni preacher. 7 more died overnight and Pres. Assad the next day vowed to rid the country of Muslim extremists whom he blamed for the suicide blast.
    (AP, 3/22/13)

2013        Mar 23, Syrian rebels seized control of the air defense base used by the regime’s 38th Division after a 16-day siege. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 35 opposition fighters died in the fighting. It lost contact with more than 20 others believed to have died in the fighting.
    (AP, 3/23/13)

2013        Mar 24, The leader of the Western-backed Syrian opposition coalition, Mouaz al-Khatib, resigned, citing what he called the lack of international support for those seeking to topple President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 3/24/13)
2013        Mar 24, Egyptian Foreign Minister Mohammed Amr Kamel said that the Syrian opposition can now send an envoy to the two-day Arab League summit beginning March 26 in Doha..
    (AP, 3/24/13)
2013        Mar 24, Israel's army fired a guided missile into Syria, destroying a military post after gunfire flew across the border and struck an Israeli vehicle.
    (AP, 3/24/13)

2013        Mar 24, The leader of the Western-backed Syrian opposition coalition, Mouaz al-Khatib, resigned, citing what he called the lack of international support for those seeking to topple President Bashar Assad. Rebel military leader Col. Riad al-Asaad, who was among the first to call openly for armed insurrection against President Bashar Assad, was wounded by a bomb planted in his car. He had his right foot amputated following a blast in the town of Mayadeen.
    (AP, 3/24/13)(AP, 3/25/13)
2013        Mar 24, Dozens of people from Syrian President Bashar Assad's own minority sect met in Cairo to send an unusual message to their fellow Alawites back home: Join the opposition before it is too late.
    (AP, 3/24/13)

2013        Mar 25, In Syria a series of mortar strikes near a downtown traffic circle in Damascus killed two people and wounded several others.
    (AP, 3/25/13)

2013        Mar 26, Syrian opposition representatives took the country's seat for the first time at an Arab League summit in Qatar. The Arab League in 2011 suspended the Syrian government's membership in the organization in response to the regime's crackdown on opponents.
    (AP, 3/26/13)
2013        Mar 26, In Syria mortars pounded at least two areas of Damascus, killing a girl and at least 2 other people. Anti-regime activists said government troops seized control of Baba Amr, a neighborhood in the central city of Homs, considered a symbol of opposition to Pres. Assad's regime. The Observatory said that at least 13 charred bodies, including those of four children and five women, were found on the outskirts of the village of Abil, southwest of Homs city.
    (AP, 3/26/13)

2013        Mar 27, Syria's Pres. Assad appealed o the leaders of a five-nation economic forum meeting in South Africa to help end his country's two-year conflict. Assad sent a letter urging the leaders of the five nation BRICS forum — Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa — to "work for an immediate cessation of violence. The Observatory said rebels overran three army posts near Bir Ajam.
    (AP, 3/27/13)

2013        Mar 28, In Syria mortar shells slammed into a cafeteria at Damascus University, killing at least 10 people and wounding 20 in what was the deadliest in a string of such attacks on President Assad's seat of power. Officials denied opposition claims that an Iranian cargo plane, allegedly carrying weapons to Assad's regime, was hit as it landed at Damascus Int’l. Airport. This day of fierce clashes killed at least 38 people.
    (AP, 3/28/13)(AP, 3/29/13)

2013        Mar 29, Syrian rebels captured a strategic town near the border with Jordan. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 16 rebels were among the dead in the fighting in and around Dael.
    (AP, 3/29/13)
2013        Mar 29, Iraqi government spokesman Ali al-Moussawi said Iraq would conduct more random searches to check for weapons heading for the forces of Syrian Pres. Assad or rebels seeking to topple his regime.
    (AP, 3/29/13)

2013        Mar 30, Syrian rebels pushed into a strategic neighborhood in the northern city of Aleppo after days of heavy clashes, seizing control of at least part of the hilltop district and killing Hassan Seifeddine, a pro-government Sunni Muslim cleric captured in the fighting. Activists reported violence in areas the southern province of Daraa, the suburbs of Damascus and the northern regions of Idlib and Raqqa.
    (AP, 3/30/13)
2013        Mar 30, In Lebanon shells from inside Syria exploded in 4 villages late today near the northern border. Residents reported an unpleasant smell after the strikes.
    (AP, 3/31/13)

2013        Mar 31, Syria's state news said rebels have set fire to 3 oil wells. SANA said that the fires would cause a daily loss of 4,670 barrels of oil and 52 cubic meters of natural gas. SANA said rebels have set fire to a total of nine wells in recent months.
    (AP, 3/31/13)

2013        Mar, Members of the Nusra Front extremist group executed 36 members of the Syrian security forces at a garbage site in the Syrian city of Tabqa. In 2017 four asylum seekers in Germany were accused of the executions and faced charges of war crimes, murder and membership in a foreign terrorist organization.
    (AP, 9/25/17)

2013        Apr 2, Syrian activists reported heavy government shelling and air raids in Damascus and its suburbs. They also reported heavy shelling of rebel-held areas in the central city of Homs and the northern city of Aleppo.
    (AP, 4/2/13)

2013        Apr 3, In Syria rebels captured a southern military base on the outskirts of the city of Daraa in the latest advance by opposition fighters near the strategic border area with Jordan.
    (AP, 4/3/13)
2013        Apr 3, a Syrian jet fired a missile that slammed into a house on the outskirts of the Lebanese border town of Arsal.
    (AP, 4/3/13)

2013        Apr 5, In Syria a barrage of rockets slammed into a contested district on the northeastern edge of Damascus, killing at least five people and trapping others under the rubble, while violence raged around suburbs of the capital.
    (AP, 4/5/13)

2013        Apr 6, A Syrian government airstrike on a heavily contested neighborhood in the city of Aleppo killed at least 15 people, including 9 children. Government troops clashed with rebels in the town of Otaybah. In Damascus several mortar rounds hit areas near the Tishrin football stadium, killing one person and wounding at least 13.
    (AP, 4/6/13)
2013        Apr 6, An Iraqi Shiite militant group, the Hezbollah Brigades, said one of its members, Arfad Mohsen al-Hemedawi, was killed in Syria.
    (AP, 4/6/13)
2013        Apr 6, Italian journalist Domencio Quirico (62), an experienced war reporter, entered Syria from Lebanon, and was heading to the Homs area when he went missing. Quirico and Belgian national Pierre Piccinin, a historian and teacher also kidnapped in April, were released in September.
    (AP, 6/27/13)(AFP, 9/9/13)

2013        Apr 7, Syrian government airstrikes killed at least 20 people as the army pressed ahead with its campaign to crush the rebellion against Pres. Bashar Assad. In Daraa a man was shot dead by an army sniper.
    (AP, 4/7/13)

2013        Apr 8, In Syria a suicide bomber detonated his explosives-packed vehicle in a busy residential and commercial district in central Damascus, killing at least 15 people. At least 53 people were wounded.
    (AP, 4/8/13)
2013        Apr 8, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, leader of the Islamic State of Iraq, Al-Qaida's branch in Iraq, announced a merger with Syria's extremist Jabhat al-Nusra, a move that shows the rising confidence of radicals within the Syrian rebel movement.
    (AP, 4/9/13)

2013        Apr 10, Syrian troops battled rebels in the outskirts of Damascus and pressed on with a counteroffensive against opposition fighters in the south to prevent their advance on the capital. At least 28 rebels and 13 soldiers were killed in the fighting around Damascus, while 15 opposition fighters and 28 government troops died in the fighting in Aleppo.
    (AP, 4/10/13)
2013        Apr 10, Jordan opened a second camp for Syrians fleeing the civil war at home. Officials feared that the number of Syrians could double in the next six months as the fighting escalates.
    (AP, 4/10/13)

2013        Apr 11, Syrian government forces launched a counteroffensive in the south, capturing Sanamein and killing at least 45 people including women and children. Human Rights Watch, a US-based rights group, accused Syria of committing war crimes by indiscriminate and sometimes deliberate airstrikes against civilians, killing at least 4,300 people since last summer. Rebels shot down a helicopter carrying food and supplies to the Wadi Deif military base, killing the pilot and 3 other soldiers.
    (AP, 4/11/13)(AP, 4/13/13)

2013        Apr 12, Syrian forces battled rebels in the central province of Homs near the border with Lebanon as part of a counteroffensive aimed at regaining control of territory around the country. Syrian warplanes carried out airstrikes around the country.
    (AP, 4/12/13)
2013        Apr 12, Israel troops shelled a position on the Syrian side of the Golan Heights from which they received fire.
    (AP, 4/12/13)

2013        Apr 13, A Syrian government airstrike on Saraqeb in the country's northwest killed at least 20 people. A government air raid on the disputed Sheikh Maqsoud neighborhood in Aleppo killed at least 3 people and wound 16 others. Syrian troops, trying to relieve a besieged military base, ambushed a rebel checkpoint, killing at least 21 opposition fighters.
    (AP, 4/13/13)(SSFC, 4/14/13, p.A4)

2013        Apr 14, Syrian government forces and aircraft attacked rebel strongholds across the country, killing at least 23 people. The Observatory said a rebel and a civilian were killed in airstrikes and fighting in the suburbs of Damascus. It also said that four civilians died after being tortured in a jail in the town of Zakyeh.
    (AP, 4/14/13)

2013        Apr 15, Syrian government aircraft hit targets in rebel-held areas near Damascus, in Aleppo, Homs and the city of Raqqa in the province by the same name along the Euphrates River.
    (AP, 4/15/13)

2013        Apr 16, Syria's Pres. Assad slashed prison terms by three quarters for an unspecified number of rebels convicted as "terrorists," as rebels and troops fought fierce battles in the country's south and north.
    (AP, 4/16/13)

2013        Apr 17, In central Syria a government rocket attack killed at least 12 people in Eastern Buwaydah outside of Homs, while rebels battled regime forces over two key military bases in the northwest where government troops broke an opposition siege last week.
    (AP, 4/17/13)
2013        Apr 17, US Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel told Congress that the Pentagon is sending about 200 soldiers from an Army headquarters unit to Jordan to assist efforts to contain violence along the Syrian border and plan for any operations needed to ensure the safety of chemical weapons in Syria.
    (AP, 4/18/13)

2013        Apr 18, Syrian rebels took control of the entire Dabaa military complex  in Homs province. Government forces captured the town of Abel, cutting the road between Homs and Qusair. Gunmen killed Ali Balan, head of public relations at the Ministry of Social Affairs and a member of Syria's relief agency, in a Damascus restaurant. The state-run SANA news agency reported that government troops shot down an air balloon that carried what it described as "American cameras" over the rebel-held town of Maaret al-Numan in Idlib province.
    (AP, 4/18/13)(AP, 4/19/13)(SFC, 4/20/13, p.A2)   

2013        Apr 19, Syrian regime troops and rebels fought fierce battles near the Lebanese border.
    (AP, 4/19/13)
2013        Apr 19, In Jordan about 100 Syrian refugees threw stones at Jordanian police for preventing some of them from sneaking out of their desert camp.
    (AP, 4/21/13)

2013        Apr 20, Syrian troops backed by pro-government gunmen advanced during battles with rebels in a strategic area in Homs province near the Lebanese border. SANA said government troops gained control of four key villages in Homs province: Qadesh, Mansourieh, Saadiyeh and Radwaniyeh. 6 rebels were reported killed in the fighting. SANA said a shell fell outside a sports club in Aleppo killing two children.
    (AP, 4/20/13)

2013        Apr 21, Syrian troops backed by pro-government gunmen pounded rebel-held areas near the Lebanese border.
    (AP, 4/21/13)
2013        Apr 21, In Syria over 1,000 people were killed by sarin gas in the Damascus suburb of Ghouta. The government denied responsibility.
    (Econ, 4/26/14, p.46)
2013        Apr 21, The US said that it will double its non-lethal assistance to Syria's opposition as the rebels' top supporters vowed to enhance and expand their backing of the 2-year battle to oust President Assad's regime.
    (AP, 4/21/13)

2013        Apr 22, Syrian activists said 6 days of fighting in a Damascus suburb has killed more than a hundred people and possibly many more. Most of the victims were killed in Jdaidet Artouz. 2 bombings targeted an army checkpoint and a military post in a third Damascus suburb, Mleiha, killing eight soldiers there.
    (AP, 4/22/13)
2013        Apr 22, In Syria Bishop Boulos Yazigi of the Greek Orthodox Church and John Ibrahim of the Assyrian Orthodox Church were abducted as they traveled from the Turkish border to Aleppo. Their driver was killed.
    (AP, 4/23/13)(AP, 8/3/13)

2013        Apr 23, Two Syrian rockets struck Lebanon, causing material damage and heightening tensions between Lebanese Shiite and Sunni communities over neighboring Syria's civil war.
    (AP, 4/23/13)
2013        Apr 23, A fake tweet asserted that explosions at the White House had injured Pres. Obama. For 43 minutes prices stock exchanges tumbled in what came to be called the first Twitter crash. A group calling itself the Syrian Electronic Army took credit.
    (Econ, 4/27/13, p.68)

2013        Apr 24, In Syria the minaret of the famed Umayyad Mosque in Aleppo was destroyed. Government and rebel forces blamed each other. Two mortar shells slammed into a Damascus suburb, killing at least seven people and wounding dozens. Government troops captured Otaybah, a strategic town near Damascus, cutting an arms route for rebels trying to topple President Bashar Assad's regime.
    (AP, 4/24/13)(AP, 4/25/13)

2013        Apr 26, Two Syrian officials denied that government forces had used chemical weapons against rebels, Damascus' first response to US assertions that it had. Government troops pushed into two northern neighborhoods, triggering heavy fighting with rebels as they tried to advance under air and artillery support.
    (AP, 4/26/13)

2013        Apr 27, Syrian rebels attacked the Abu Zuhour air base in the country's northwest. Rebels entered the Kweiras military air base in Aleppo province and destroyed its operations room. In the south opposition forces  launched a new offensive called "the Houran Volcano," assaulting a string of army checkpoints and positions.
    (AP, 4/27/13)

2013        Apr 28, Syrian rebels seeking to topple President Bashar Assad fought intense battles with his troops at Abu Zuhour air base in Idlib province and the Kweiras military air base in Aleppo province. At least seven fighters were killed in the fighting in Abu Zuhour, in addition to an unknown number of soldiers.
    (AP, 4/28/13)

2013        Apr 29, Syria’s PM Wael al-Halqi was unhurt in a bombing near his convoy in Damascus. At least 5 people were reported killed.
    (AP, 4/29/13)(AP, 4/30/13)

2013        Apr 30, Syrian TV reported that a powerful bomb in central Damascus has killing 13 people. The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 14 people were killed and 65 wounded in the blast. Syrian troops battled opposition fighters near a military helicopter base in Aleppo province, killing 15 rebels in a single airstrike against their positions.
    (AP, 4/30/13)
2013        Apr 30, Sheik Hassan Nasrallah, the leader of Lebanon's Hezbollah militant group, said that Syrian rebels will not be able to defeat President Bashar Assad's regime militarily, warning that Syria's "real friends," including his Iranian-backed militant group, were ready to intervene on the government's side.
    (AP, 4/30/13)

2013        May 2, Syrian government troops, backed by warplanes, pushed into the central districts of the city of Homs in an effort to oust rebels from the country's third largest urban center. In Aleppo rebels reportedly overran the headquarters of Assad's anti-terrorism forces. Regime jets also hit the northern city of Raqqa, killing eight people. Warplanes also hit several targets in Damascus province.
    (AP, 5/2/13)
2013        May 2, Syrian troops backed by pro-government gunmen swept into Bayda, a village in the mountains outside the city of Banias, and killed men, women and children and torched homes. At least 50 people, and as many as 100, were reported killed.
    (AP, 5/3/13)

2013        May 3, In Syria the death toll from sectarian killings in the coastal city of Banias, initially put at 62, was later raised to 145.
    (AP, 5/16/13)
2013        May 3, Israel's air force carried out a strike against Syria, saying it targeted a shipment of advanced missiles bound for the Lebanese militant group Hezbollah.
    (AP, 5/4/13)

2013        May 4, In Syria Alawite paramilitaries continued their rampage against Sunnis in al-Bayda and Banias leaving at least 100 dead.
    (Econ, 5/11/13, p.42)

2013        May 5, Syrian rebels moved deep inside Mannagh air base, near the border with Turkey, while under fire from government warplanes. Rebels captured a tank unit inside the base. The commander of the base was reportedly killed. Rebels shot down a military helicopter in the eastern province of Deir el-Zour, killing 8 government troops on board.
    (AP, 5/5/13)
2013        May 5, Israeli warplanes struck areas in and around Damascus, setting off a series of explosions as they targeted a shipment of highly accurate, Iranian-made guided missiles believed to be bound for Lebanon's Hezbollah militant group. At least 42 Syrian soldiers were reported killed.
    (AP, 5/5/13)(AP, 5/6/13)

2013        May 6, In Syria regime warplanes pounded rebel positions inside the Mannagh air base as clashes between rebels and government forces raged on.
    (AP, 5/6/13)

2013        May 7, In Syria opposition fighters shot down a fighter jet that was bombing rebel positions in the battle for the Mannagh airbase near the border with Turkey. Rebels detained four UN peacekeepers from the Philippines in an area that separates Syria and Israel. Rebels released the Filipinos on May 12.
    (AP, 5/7/13)(AP, 5/8/13)(AP, 5/12/13)
2013        May 7, The US and Russia agreed to try to convene an int’l. conference this month to come to a political solution in end the 2-year civil war in Syria.
    (SFC, 5/8/13, p.A2)

2013        May 8, Syrian troops pushed into Khirbet Ghazaleh, a strategic town along the highway leading to the Jordanian border. A massive Internet outage engulfed most of the country for a second day.
    (AP, 5/8/13)
2013        May 8, US officials said the Obama administration is providing $100 million in new Syria aid, but the money is for humanitarian purposes only and not linked to any decision on arming Syrian rebels.
    (AP, 5/8/13)

2013        May 9, Syrian warplanes pounded rebel targets in two northern provinces as President Bashar Assad's troops pushed on with an offensive to reclaim more territory from the opposition.
    (AP, 5/9/13)

2013        May 10, Syrian military dropped leaflets over Qusair, urging rebel fighters to surrender, but did not set a deadline for them to do so.
    (AP, 5/11/13)

2013        May 11, Activists said Syrian rebels have cut a newly built desert road linking the capital Damascus with the northern city of Aleppo. State media reported that government troops have secured the highway between the capital and the southern city of Daraa.
    (AP, 5/11/13)
2013        May 11, In Turkey 2 car bomb explosions in a town across the border from Syria killed 46 people in Reyhanli, Hatay province, a main hub for Syrian refugees. Nine Turkish citizens, believed to have links to the Syrian intelligence agency, were soon detained.
    (AP, 5/11/13)(AP, 5/12/13)

2013        May 12, In Syria 6 mortar shells struck the Damascus neighborhood of the Alawite district of Mazzeh 86 causing damage and casualties. Regime forces retook Khirbet Ghazaleh and rebels withdrew from the area. Troops reopened the Damascus-Jordan highway, restoring the supply line between Damascus and the provincial capital of Daraa.
    (AP, 5/12/13)(AP, 5/13/13)

2013        May 15, Syrian rebels launched a coordinated assault on the main prison in the northern city of Aleppo in an attempt to free hundreds of regime opponents believed to be held in the facility. An Internet blackout engulfed the country for the second time in two weeks.
    (AP, 5/15/13)

2013        May 16, Syrian rebels withdrew from a prison in the northern city of Aleppo after heavy fighting with government troops. Syrian Observatory for Human Rights more than doubled its tally of deaths from the May 3 sectarian killings in Banias. A video emerged showing a Nusra Front commander killing 11 regime soldiers execution-style for alleged crimes they committed against the Syrian people.
    (AP, 5/16/13)

2013        May 17, Human Rights Watch said in a report that its researchers have visited abandoned government prisons in Raqqa, the first Syrian city to come under rebel control, and found torture devices and other evidence that detainees were abused there.
    (AP, 5/17/13)

2013        May 18, In Syria gunmen abducted the elderly father of Faisal Mekdad, the deputy foreign minister. Activists reported a wave of tit-for-tat kidnappings between rival Islamic militant groups in Aleppo, after clashes killed at least four militants.
    (AP, 5/18/13)

2013        May 19, Syrian troops backed by tanks and warplanes launched an assault on Qusair, a rebel-held town near the Lebanese border, pounding the area with airstrikes and artillery salvos. At least 50 Syrian rebels were reported killed in the battle for Qusair, including two commanders. An official at the Homs governor's office said two suicide bombings in the town of Deir Balbaa killed at least 3 people and wounded 15 others. State news said another pair of bombings struck near a factory on a different Homs highway, killing 4 people and wounding 13.
    (AP, 5/19/13)(AP, 5/20/13)

2013        May 20, Syrian government forces pushed deeper into Qusair near the Lebanese border, battling rebels in fierce street fighting. An activist group said at least 23 elite fighters from Lebanon's Hezbollah militant group fighting alongside regime troops have been killed in the clashes.
    (AP, 5/20/13)

2013        May 21, Syrian activists said 3 members of Lebanon's militant Hezbollah group died of wounds sustained while fighting for control of Qusair, as the battle in the area raged for its third straight day. This made 31 Hezbollah fighters, at least 68 Syrian rebels and 9 Syrian army soldiers killed in the fighting since May 19. Three people were killed and 24 others wounded in mortar attacks Mleiha, near Damascus.
    (AP, 5/21/13)

2013        May 23, In Lebanon opponents and supporters of Syrian President Bashar Assad traded heavy machine gun fire and mortar shells in the port city of Tripoli, leaving five people dead in what was described as some of the heaviest fighting there in years.
    (AP, 5/23/13)
2013        May 23, In Lebanon opponents and supporters of Syrian President Bashar Assad traded heavy machine gun fire and mortar shells in the port city of Tripoli, leaving 5 people dead in what was described as some of the heaviest fighting there in years.
    (AP, 5/23/13)

2013        May 24, Syria's state media said rebels have fired mortar shells at the central prison in Aleppo, killing and wounding several inmates. Intense fighting continued in the town of Qusair.
    (AP, 5/24/13)
2013        May 24, Russia's foreign ministry said the Syrian government has agreed in principle to a conference on the country's future proposed by Russia and the United States.
    (AP, 5/24/13)

2013        May 25, Syria's fractured political opposition met for a third day in Istanbul, Turkey, to elect new leaders, try to widen its base and forge a unified position ahead of possible peace talks with the regime.
    (AP, 5/25/13)
2013        May 25, Syrian forces loyal to President Bashar Assad shelled Qusair in their heaviest barrage of a week-long battle to dislodge rebels from there. At least 22 people including 18 rebels were reported killed in the fighting, and dozens wounded.
    (AP, 5/25/13)

2013        May 27, Syrian troops gained ground in a nine-day offensive against Qusair. Syria's Information Ministry said rebels have killed Yara Abbas, a female TV correspondent who was covering clashes near the border with Lebanon. Abbas was attacked by rebels near the military air base of Dabaa in the central province of Homs. Further reports surfaced of chemical weapons attacks by President Bashar al-Assad's forces on rebel areas.
    (AP, 5/27/13)(Reuters, 5/27/13)
2013        May 27, The EU decided not to extend an arms embargo on Syria. The move enables member states to send weapons to help Syria's outgunned rebels and step up the pressure on the government of President Bashar Assad to seek a negotiated settlement to the 26-month-old conflict.
    (AP, 5/28/13)

2013        May 28, In Lebanon gunmen killed 3 soldiers in a drive-by shooting on a government checkpoint near the Syrian border. Two rockets fired from Syria struck the Lebanese town of Hermel, wounding several people.
    (AP, 5/28/13)
2013        May 28, Israel's defense minister signaled that his military is prepared to strike shipments of advanced Russian weapons to Syria, in a rare implied threat to Moscow.
    (AP, 5/28/13)

2013        May 30, Syrian President Bashar Assad said the regime has received the first shipment of sophisticated Russian anti-aircraft missiles, while the main Western-backed opposition group announced Thursday that it will not participate in peace talks — a double blow to international efforts to end the country's devastating civil war.
    (AP, 5/30/13)

2013        May 31, Syrian troops attacked a convoy trying to evacuate wounded people from Qusair, killing at least 7. Government troops captured the village of Jawadiyeh outside Qusair, closing all entrances leading to the town and tightening the government's siege.
    (AP, 5/31/13)(AP, 6/1/13)
2013        May 31, Sergei Korotkov, general director of the MiG company that makes MiG jets, told Russian news agencies that a Syrian delegation was in Moscow to discuss terms and deadlines of a new contract supplying at least 10 MiG-29 M/M2 fighters to Syria.
    (AP, 5/31/13)

2013        Jun 1, In Syria clashes between troops and Hezbollah fighters with rebels in Qusair left at least one opposition gunman dead. The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said that at least 31 detainees have been killed by rebel shelling of the city's central prison over the past two weeks.
    (AP, 6/1/13)
2013        Jun 1, Eighteen rockets and mortar rounds fired from Syria struck the Baalbek region of eastern Lebanon. There were no casualties.
    (AP, 6/1/13)

2013        Jun 2, Syria's foreign minister Walid al-Moallem told UN chief Ban Ki-moon that humanitarian aid won't be allowed into Qusair until the fighting there is over. A car bomb killed at least 3 people in Jobar, a suburb of Damascus.
    (AP, 6/2/13)
2013        Jun 2, Gunmen in Iraq killed 3 Syrian truck drivers on a main highway linking Baghdad to Syria and Jordan. The gunmen also kidnapped four Iraqis in the same area.
    (AP, 6/2/13)
2013        Jun 2, In Lebanon a Hezbollah fighter and several rebels were killed in overnight clashes in a remote area between Baalbek and the Syrian border.
    (AP, 6/2/13)

2013        Jun 3, In Syria heavy shelling pounded Qusair killing at least 3 civilians.
    (SFC, 6/4/13, p.A2)

2013        Jun 4,  In Syria  mortar shells landed near the Russian Embassy in Damascus, killing one person. State news said government forces have pushed rebels out of a key district on the edge of Damascus.
    (AP, 6/4/13)
2013        Jun 4, Britain and France made back-to-back announcements that the nerve gas sarin was used in Syria's conflict. A UN probe said it had "reasonable grounds" to suspect small-scale use of toxic chemicals in at least four attacks in March and April in Syria.
    (AP, 6/4/13)

2013        Jun 5, The Syrian army triumphantly announced the capture of a strategic border town after a three week grueling battle, telling the nation it has "cleansed" Qusair of rebels and calling it "a message" to Syria's enemies everywhere. The Qusair battle has laid bare Hezbollah's role in the Syrian conflict.
    (AP, 6/5/13)

2013        Jun 6, Syrian rebels captured a crossing point along a cease-fire line with Israel in the contested Golan Heights. Austria announced that it is withdrawing the country's 377 UN peacekeepers from the Golan Heights after the Syrian conflict briefly spilled over to an area near their position.
    (AP, 6/6/13)
2013        Jun 6, Ayman al-Zawahri, al-Qaida's leader, urged Sunni Muslims to spare no effort to join the battle in Syria.
    (AP, 6/6/13)

2013        Jun 7, Syrian troops, backed by Hezbollah fighters, pressed on with their offensive in the opposition heartland, taking two small villages near Qusair that was captured by the government this week.
    (AP, 6/7/13)
2013        Jun 7, The UN asked donor countries for $5.2 billion in humanitarian aid for refugees in Syria’s civil war.
    (SFC, 6/8/13, p.A3)

2013        Jun 8, In Syria car bomb exploded in a neighborhood outside of Homs, largely populated by Alawites, the Shiite offshoot sect that dominates the regime, killing 8 people including 3 women and a teenager.
    (AP, 6/8/13)
2013        Jun 8, Hassan Aboud, leader of the Syrian Islamic Front, revealed his name in an interview with Al Jazeera. His coalition of fighters was said to number 10-20 thousand fighters.
    (Econ, 7/20/13, p.45)

2013        Jun 9, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported that Mohammed Qatta (14) was arrested by Islamist rebel fighters in Aleppo for insulting the Prophet Mohammed, beaten and then shot in the mouth and neck in front of his family.
    (abcNEWS, 6/10/13)
2013        Jun 9, Al-Qaida leader Ayman al-Zawahri urged leaders of the Iraqi al-Qaida branch and the Nusra Front in Syria to end their disagreements and "stop any verbal or actual attacks against one another."
    (AP, 6/10/13)

2013        Jun 11, In Syria 2 suicide bombers targeted a police station in Damascus, killing at least 14 people with 31 wounded. Fighting was also reported in Aleppo and Homs. At least 60 people, mostly Shiite fighters but also ordinary villagers, were killed in the village of Hatla in the oil-rich province of Deir el-Zour that borders Iraq. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said thousands of rebels took part in the attack and at least 10 of them were killed in the fighting.
    (AP, 6/11/13)(AP, 6/12/13)

2013        Jun 12, A Syrian government helicopter fired three missiles on a border town in Lebanon, lightly wounding one person. Heavy clashes were reported in Homs, mostly in the neighborhood of Wadi Sayeh. At least 30 Shiite Muslims were killed in Hatlah, a village in Deir el-Zour province. Antigovernment activists put the total at 60 and said most of the dead were pro-government militia fighters.
    (AP, 6/12/13)(SFC, 6/13/13, p.A4)
2013        Jun 12, A UN report added 3 Malian militias and Syria’s main rebel force to an annual “list of shame." 55 armed groups from 14 countries were included. Syrian government forces were added to a list of groups that sexually abuse children.
    (SFC, 6/13/13, p.A2)

2013        Jun 13, Syrian rebels battled regime forces for control of a key military base in the central Hama province after chasing soldiers out and setting fire to installations there.
    (AP, 6/13/13)
2013        Jun 13, The UN human rights office said Syria's spiraling violence has resulted in the confirmed killings of nearly 93,000 people but the real number is likely to be far higher.
    (AP, 6/13/13)
2013        Jun 13, The US announced increased military aid to Syria and said it had conclusive evidence that Assad's regime has used chemical weapons, including the nerve agent sarin, on a small scale against opposition forces. The White House said multiple chemical attacks last year killed up to 150 people.
    (AP, 6/14/13)

2013        Jun 14, The Syrian government dismissed US charges that it used chemical weapons as "full of lies," accusing President Obama of resorting to fabrications to justify his decision to arm Syrian rebels. Government troops and rebels in Aleppo fought their heaviest battles in months. Rebel fighters walked into the Shiite mosque in Hatla and trampled on books. An explosion brought down the building, but its dome remained intact. A video of the demolition was posted on June 16.
    (AP, 6/14/13)(AP, 6/16/13)
2013        Jun 14, Hezbollah's leader Sheikh Hassan Nasrallah vowed that his Lebanon-based militants would keep fighting in Syria "wherever needed" after the US agreed to arm the rebels in the civil war.
    (AP, 6/15/13)
2013        Jun 14, Turkey’s state news reported that as many as 73 Syrian military officers — including seven generals and 20 colonels — have crossed the border into Turkey with their families "seeking refuge."
    (AP, 6/14/13)

2013        Jun 15, Syrian troops reportedly killed several rebels and destroyed their hideouts in the Ahmadiyeh area, a suburb of Damascus.
    (AP, 6/15/13)
2013        Jun 15, In an audio message posted online, a speaker identified as Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, leader of al-Qaida's Iraq arm, insisted that a merger he announced in April with Syria's Jabhat al-Nusra rebel group to create a cross-border movement known as the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant will continue.
    (AP, 6/15/13)
2013        Jun 15, Egypt’s President Mohammed Morsi told supporters at a Cairo rally that his country is severing ties with Damascus and closing its embassy in the Syrian capital. Morsi also called for a UN endorsed no-fly zone over Syria.
    (AP, 6/16/13)

2013        Jun 16, In Syria a late night car bomb targeting a checkpoint near a military airport in an upscale neighborhood of Damascus killed 10 soldiers.
    (AP, 6/17/13)

2013        Jun 17, Syrian troops clashed with rebels inside Aleppo and in the city's outskirts. A regime airstrike hit the village of Douweirina, a stronghold of an al-Qaida affiliated group fighting on the opposition's side.
    (AP, 6/17/13)
2013        Jun 17, G-8 leaders dedicated themselves to a political solution to Syria's bloody civil war, even as President Barack Obama and Russian President Vladimir Putin staked out diametrically opposite stands on which side deserves military support.
    (AP, 6/18/13)
2013        Jun 17, A Gulf source told Reuters that Saudi Arabia had equipped fighters for the first time with shoulder-fired anti-aircraft missiles. Rebels said Riyadh had also sent them anti-tank missiles.
    (Reuters, 6/17/13)

2013        Jun 18, Syrian warplanes bombed rebel positions the contested Kweiras military air base in the north. Pres. Assad's forces nearby pressed ahead with an offensive against opposition fighters in Aleppo.
    (AP, 6/18/13)

2013        Jun 19, Syrian troops backed by Lebanese Hezbollah fighters clashed with rebel forces south of a Damascus suburb that is home to the Shiite shrine of Sayida Zeinab.
    (AP, 6/19/13)
2013        Jun 19, In Jordan infiltrators from Syria clashed with Jordanian soldiers near the border. One infiltrator was killed and two wounded.
    (AP, 6/20/13)

2013        Jun 20, Syrian rebels and Kurdish gunmen reached an agreement to end a rebel siege on the northern predominantly Kurdish region of Afrin that triggered a shortage of food and medicine there. Violence was reported between government forces and rebels in different parts of the country, mostly near Damascus and in Aleppo.
    (AP, 6/20/13)
2013        Jun 20, Saudi Arabia said it plans to deport Lebanese citizens who support Hezbollah because of the militant group's role in the Syrian civil war.
    (AP, 6/20/13)

2013        Jun 21, The commander of Syria's rebels confirmed they have received new weapons, giving his forces more power in battles against government troops and Hezbollah fighters from Lebanon.
    (AP, 6/21/13)

2013        Jun 22, Syrian government forces stepped up their attack against rebel strongholds north Damascus. Opposition fighters declared their own offensive in the country's largest city Aleppo.
    (AP, 6/22/13)
2013        Jun 22, In Qatar an 11-nation group including the US met in Doha to coordinate military aid and other forms of assistance to rebels in Syria.
    (AP, 6/23/13)

2013        Jun 23, Syrian rebels assaulted a police station in Damascus shortly after a powerful explosion went off in the same neighborhood. At least 10 died in the violence in Damascus. 12 soldiers loyal to Assad were reported killed in a car explosion in the suburbs of Aleppo. Jabhat al-Nusra, a Syrian branch of al-Qaida, later claimed responsibility for the suicide attacks on security compounds in Damascus that killed at least 5 people.
    (AP, 6/23/13)(AP, 6/25/13)

2013        Jun 27, In Syria a suicide bomber hit the central neighborhood of Bab Touma in Damascus, killing a least 4 people with several more wounded.
    (Reuters, 6/27/13)

2013        Jun 28, Intense shelling by Syrian government troops on Karak village in eastern Daraa killed at least 8 women and girls overnight as forces loyal to President Bashar Assad pushed ahead with an offensive against rebels near the border with Jordan.
    (AP, 6/28/13)

2013        Jun 30, In Syria government attacks on central and northern cities killed six people. The government announced that two years of conflict has cost the public sector $15 billion. Assad's forces pounded Sunni Muslim rebels in the city of Homs with artillery and from the air for a second day in their offensive in central Syria.
    (AP, 6/30/13)(Reuters, 7/1/13)

2013        Jun, In Syria four French journalists went missing in two incidents. On April 19, 2014, French officials said Edouard Elias, Didier Francois, Nicolas Henin and Pierre Torres had been released.
    (AP, 4/19/14)

2013        Jul 1, Gulf Arab states called on the UN Security Council to meet urgently to prevent a massacre in Homs, as pro-government forces in Syria try to wrest the city from rebels fighting to topple President Assad.
    (Reuters, 7/1/13)

2013        Jul 2, In Syria activists said government troops shelled a rebel-held suburb of the capital Damascus, killing at least 11 people including women and children.
    (AP, 7/2/13)

2013        Jul 4, Syrian opposition figures met in Turkey to elect a new leadership as President Bashar Assad claims his opponents have failed to overthrow his regime.
    (AP, 7/4/13)

2013        Jul 5, Syrian troops unleashed some of the civil war's heaviest bombardments on the central city of Homs, pounding opposition-held areas with artillery and airstrikes for the sixth straight day.
    (AP, 7/5/13)
2013        Jul 5, Israel targeted advanced anti-ship cruise missiles near Latakia in an air attack targeting a type of Russian-made missile called the Yakhont that Russia had sold to the Syrian government.
    (AP, 7/13/13)

2013        Jul 6, Syrian troops advanced into rebel-held areas of the city of Homs, pushing into a heavily contested neighborhood after pummeling it with artillery that drove out opposition fighters. Fighting continued in Aleppo and there were clashes in the Damascus suburb of Qaboun.
    (AP, 7/6/13)
2013        Jul 6, In Turkey Ahmad al-Jarba, a former Syrian political prisoner with close links to Saudi Arabia, was picked to lead Syria's main Western-backed opposition group, filling a post long vacant due to divisions among President Bashar Assad's opponents.
    (AP, 7/6/13)

2013        Jul 8, Syria's ruling Baath party announced it has elected a new regional command to replace its aging leadership, including the country's longtime vice president, as its two-year civil war raged on. 2 car bombs exploded in a predominantly Alawite and Christian neighborhood of Homs, killing at least four people and wounding 29.
    (AP, 7/8/13)
2013        Jul 8, Ghassan Hitto, appointed last March as the notional prime minister of the interim government of Syria, resigned. He had been appointed to assemble an administration to govern rebel-held territory.
    (SFC, 7/9/13, p.A3)

2013        Jul 10, In Syria residents of Aleppo said rebels fired into the air to disperse a protest by civilians in a rebel-held district against a blockade preventing food and medicine reaching government-held areas.
    (Reuters, 7/10/13)
2013        Jul 10, The World Food Program said it needed $27 million every month to deal with the growing ranks of Syrians made hungry because of the war as Muslims began observing the dawn-to-dusk fast for the month of Ramadan across the Middle East.
    (AP, 7/10/13)

2013        Jul 13, In Syria Western-backed opposition fighters and a faction of al-Qaida-linked rebels turned their guns on each other in Aleppo, battling for control of a key checkpoint in the latest eruption of infighting among the forces trying to topple President Bashar Assad's regime.
    (AP, 7/13/13)

2013        Jul 14, Taliban commanders in Pakistan said they have decided to join the  anti-Assad rebellion, saying hundreds of fighters had gone to Syria to fight alongside their "Mujahedeen friends."
    (Reuters, 7/14/13)

2013        Jul 15, Syrian troops overnight pounded rebel-held villages around the city of Idlib with rockets, artillery and airstrikes, killing at least 29 people including six children. A car bomb exploded overnight outside the police headquarters in Deir Atiyeh, killing at least 13 people including 10 policemen. Government troops backed by tanks and artillery moved into Qaboun, a rebel-held district of Damascus, stepping up efforts to drive opposition fighters from the capital and build on battlefield gains elsewhere in the country. The Qaboun Coordination Committee, an activist group, said at least 60 people had been killed in Qaboun over the last few days by the shelling and subsequent clashes. Pro-government gunmen killed 7 members of a local Syrian reconciliation group near Homs, as troops shot dead 9 people including a child at a checkpoint in a suburb of the capital.
    (AP, 7/15/13)(Reuters, 7/15/13)(AP, 7/16/13)

2013        Jul 16, Syrian rebels poured reinforcements into a key Damascus suburb in an attempt to push back government troops who have renewed their campaign to secure the capital and build on battlefield gains elsewhere in the country.
    (Reuters, 7/16/13)
2013        Jul 16, A man and a 15-year-old boy were killed by stray bullets shot from Syria into a Turkish border town. Turkish troops returned fire, in the most serious spillover of violence in weeks.
    (Reuters, 7/17/13)

2013        Jul 17, Gunmen assassinated Mohammed Darrar Jammo (44), a pro-government Syrian journalist, at his home in southern Lebanon, shooting him nearly 30 times in the latest sign of Syria's civil war spilling over into its smaller neighbor. On July 19 the Lebanese army said the killers had been detained and their weapons seized, and evidence so far has implicated Jamo's wife, not Syrian rebels.
    (AP, 7/17/13)(Reuters, 7/19/13)
2013        Jul 17, The Online user database of two big companies were reportedly hacked by political hacktivists working in support of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. The private data of the users of TrueCaller and TangoMe were compromised which included private details of their social networks.
    (AP, 7/21/13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_censorship_in_Syria)
2013        Jul 17, The Turkish military said a Syrian Kurdish party with links to Kurdish militants in Turkey has seized control of a Syrian border town after days of clashes with Islamist fighters.
    (Reuters, 7/18/13)

2013        Jul 19, A Syrian Kurdish group said it aims to set up an independent council to run Kurdish regions until Syria's civil war has ended, a move likely to alarm Syrian rebels and neighboring Turkey, both wary of a possible Kurdish state.
    (Reuters, 7/19/13)

2013        Jul 20, Syrian government forces bombed Saraqeb, a strategic rebel town in the country's north for the third straight day, pounding it with airstrikes that killed at least 5 people.
    (AP, 7/20/13)

2013        Jul 21, In Syria forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad killed at least 13 members of a family in the Sunni Muslim village of Baida. 4 women and 6 children were among those killed in the village. Mortar shells struck the town of Ariha  killing at least 20 civilians. 49 rebels were killed in an ambush in Damascus' northeastern suburb of Adra. 17 rebels died in fighting in clashes in Damascus neighborhoods of Qaboun and Jobar. Another 9 were killed in clashes that have raged in the suburbs of Daraya, Harasta and Douma.
    (Reuters, 7/21/13)(AP, 7/21/13)(AP, 7/22/13)
2013        Jul 21, Syrian Kurdish forces freed a local leader linked to al Qaeda as part of an agreed ceasefire to end fierce fighting with Islamist rebels in the northern Syrian town of Tel Abyad. In return Islamist rebels promised to release hundreds of Kurds taken hostage as collateral from the leader of the Islamic State of Iraq and Sham (ISIS), known as Abu Musaab.
    (Reuters, 7/21/13)

2013        Jul 22, Syrian rebels seized Khan al-Assal, a strategic village on the edge of the northern city of Aleppo, just hours after other opposition fighters sustained some of their heaviest losses in months in battles to the south near the capital, Damascus.
    (AP, 7/22/13)

2013        Jul 23, In Syria more than 150 soldiers were killed over the last two days in and around the town of Khan al-Assal. Reports said this this included 51 soldiers and officers who were executed.
    (Reuters, 7/26/13)
2013        Jul 23, A Turkish border patrol killed one of eight civilians trying to cross illegally from Turkey into Syria. The group had been trying to cross from Hatay province into northwestern Syria and had fired on the Turkish patrol after the troops had whistled a warning.
    (Reuters, 7/23/13)

2013        Jul 24, In Syria forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad killed at least 15 Palestinians, mostly women and children, in a rocket attack on a rebel-held refugee camp on the southern edge of Damascus.
    (Reuters, 7/24/13)

2013        Jul 25, Syrian warplanes bombed an office of the main al-Qaida-linked rebel group in the northern city of Aleppo. A car bomb killed at least 10 people and wounded around 62 when it exploded on the edge of Damascus.
    (AP, 7/26/13)(Reuters, 7/25/13)
2013        Jul 25, Human Rights Watch (HRW) said Egypt has been detaining Syrian refugees without charge and threatening to deport them in a climate of growing hostility since the army seized power last month.
    (Reuters, 7/25/13)

2013        Jul 26, Syrian government troops gained ground in clashes in two rebel-held neighborhoods in the central city of Homs, edging closer to a historic mosque and closing in on opposition fighters in the area.
    (AP, 7/26/13)
2013        Jul 26, Syrian rebel leaders met with the UN Security Council for the first time to discuss the country's two-year war and appealed to Russia to stop its powerful political and military support for Syrian President Bashar al-Assad's government.
    (Reuters, 7/26/13)

2013        Jul 27, Syrian government forces captured the ancient Khalid Ibn al-Walid Mosque in Khaldiyeh, an embattled northern neighborhood in Homs.
    (AP, 7/28/13)

2013        Jul 29, Syrian government troops captured all of the district of Khaldiyeh in the embattled city of Homs. It had been a rebel stronghold since the beginning of the uprising. At least 12 rebel fighters were killed as they were taking flour from a mill on the eastern outskirts of Damascus. Paolo Dall'Oglio, an Italian Jesuit priest, went missing in the city of Raqqa.
    (AP, 7/29/13)(Reuters, 7/29/13)(AP, 8/3/13)

2013        Jul 30, In Syria Isa Huso, a prominent Syrian Kurdish politician, was assassinated early today outside his home near the Turkish border when a bomb planted in his car exploded in  Al Qamishli. Mortar attacks and air raids in two major cities killed at least 17 people.
    (Reuters, 7/30/13)(AP, 7/30/13)
2013        Jul 30, Turkish soldiers shot into the air and fired tear gas to prevent hundreds of people, many of them believed to be smugglers, from trying to cross into Turkey from Syria.
    (Reuters, 7/30/13)

2013        Jul 31, Syrian government troops launched an assault to regain control of on Khan al-Assal, a village on the outskirts of Aleppo that was the site of an alleged chemical weapons attack earlier this year.
    (AP, 7/31/13)
2013        Jul 31, Officials and bankers said  Iran and Syrian authorities signed a deal this week to activate a $3.6 billion credit facility to buy oil products with long term payment terms.
    (Reuters, 7/31/13)

2013        Aug 1, In Syria rebels sent a wave of rockets slamming into regime strongholds in Homs, triggering a succession of massive explosions in a weapons depot. At least 40 people were killed and dozens wounded.
    (AP, 8/1/13)

2013        Aug 2, In northern Syria overnight clashes between Kurdish opposition fighters and rebels linked to al-Qaida killed 12 Islamic fighters.
    (AP, 8/2/13)

2013        Aug 3, Syrian warplanes struck targets near the volatile border with Lebanon, killing at least 9 people. Rebels captured an arms depot near Damascus, seizing weapons and ammunition from the regime.
    (AP, 8/3/13)
2013        Aug 3, A Turkish man, Ramazan Zeybel (45) was killed by a stray bullet fired from Syria into the Turkish town of Ceylanpinar.
    (Reuters, 8/3/13)

2013        Aug 4, Syria’s government announced that traders who price goods in foreign currency will face up to 10 years in jail in a move aimed at stemming the increasing dollarization of an economy crippled by two years of civil war. Rebels attacked government outposts in the Jabal al-Akrad hills. At least 32 government troops and militiamen and at least 19 rebels, including foreign fighters, died in the fighting.
    (Reuters, 8/4/13)(AP, 8/5/13)
2013        Aug 4, Jihadi-led rebel fighters in Syria killed at least 190 civilians and abducted more than 200 during an offensive against pro-regime villages in Latakia province. Human Rights Watch issued a report on the attacks on Oct 11.
    (AP, 10/11/13)

2013        Aug 5, Syrian rebels captured four Alawite villages on the country's mountainous Mediterranean coast as they battled government troops in one of President Assad's strongholds for the second straight day. Rebels kidnapped Sheik Badreddine Ghazal, a prominent Alawite cleric in the region. Human Rights Watch said ballistic missiles fired by the Syrian army into populated areas have killed hundreds of civilians in recent months.
    (AP, 8/5/13)(AP, 8/6/13)
2013        Aug 5, A funeral was held for Moroccan-born Mohammed al Alami, a former prisoner at the US Guantanamo Bay naval base. He was released in 2006 and died fighting for anti-government rebels in Syria.
    (Reuters, 9/18/13)

2013        Aug 6, Syrian rebels captured Mannagh helicopter base in the north of the country after months of fighting. State TV denied that the base had fully fallen. A car bomb in a pro-regime district near Damascus killed at least 18 people. Syria fighters under Chechen jihadist Tarkhan Batirashvili, aka Omar al-Shishani, proved pivotal in taking the Syrian military's Managh air base. In 2014 al-Shishani was identified as the military commander of ISIL in Syria.
    (AP, 8/6/13)(AP, 7/2/14)

2013        Aug 7, Syrian government forces killed at least 62 rebels in an ambush near Damascus, a blow to opposition fighters confronting a regime offensive in the capital. In the north a missile struck the rebel-held city of Raqqa, killing 3 people and wounding dozens including children. Kurdish gunmen captured about 70 government troops who fled the air base of Mannagh in the northern province of Aleppo.
    (AP, 8/7/13)

2013        Aug 8, Syrian rebels targeted President Bashar al-Assad's motorcade heading to a Damascus mosque to mark the Muslim holiday of Eid al-Fitr, but state television showed him unharmed and the government denied he had been attacked.
    (Reuters, 8/8/13)

2013        Aug 9, Syrian government warplanes reportedly bombed Salma, a predominantly Sunni village in Latakia province, killing at least 20 people.
    (AP, 8/10/13)

2013        Aug 10, The president of Iraqi Kurdistan vowed to defend the large Kurdish population across the border in neighboring Syria from al-Qaida-linked fighters.
    (AP, 8/10/13)

2013        Aug 11, Syrian rebels launched an offensive in Deir el-Zour, an eastern city near the border with Iraq, in an attempt to extend their advances in the north and west of the country. Rebels reportedly killed 7 soldiers and captured several others. Regime army warplanes also conducted several air raids against rebel positions in Deir el-Zour.
    (AP, 8/11/13)

2013        Aug 13, Syrian President Bashar Assad's forces killed at least 18 rebels in overnight clashes near the country's main north-south highway near Morek in Hama province.
    (AP, 8/13/13)

2013        Aug 15, In Syria gunmen shot dead imam Mohammed Dibo in the rebel-held town of Manbij while on his way to the mosque to perform dawn prayers. Al-Qaida militants posted a video showing two male Shiite teenagers, accused of being pro-government gunmen, sitting in front of a masked gunman and then being shot dead.
    (AP, 8/15/13)
2013        Aug 15, Thousands of Syrian refugees poured into the Kurdistan region of northern Iraq, taking advantage of a new bridge along the largely closed border.
    (Reuters, 8/16/13)

2013        Aug 16, Syrian warplanes struck targets in a rebel-held district in the northern city of Aleppo, killing at least 15 people, wounding dozens of others and leaving some buried under the rubble of buildings.
    (AP, 8/16/13)

2013        Aug 17, In central Syria gunmen shot dead 11 people, mostly Christians, outside Ein al-Ajouz. The attack was described by a local resident as aimed at members of the religious minority.
    (AP, 8/17/13)

2013        Aug 18, A team of UN chemical weapons experts arrived in Damascus to investigate the possible use of chemical weapons in Syria's civil war.
    (Reuters, 8/18/13)
2013        Aug 18, An Israeli military official said Israeli forces have hit a target inside Syria that was the source of mortar fire into the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights. At least three shells had landed near the Syrian frontier the previous evening, causing no injuries.
    (AP, 8/18/13)

2013        Aug 20, In northeastern Syria Kurdish militias battled al-Qaida-linked rebel groups in the latest round of heavy fighting that has helped fuel a mass exodus of civilians from the region into neighboring Iraq.
    (AP, 8/20/13)

2013        Aug 21, Syrian anti-government activists accused the regime of carrying out a toxic gas attack that killed at least 130 people, including many children, during intense artillery and rocket barrages on the eastern suburbs of Damascus. An unclassified US intelligence report on Aug 30 said the attack killed 1,429 Syrian civilians, including 426 children.
    (AP, 8/21/13)(SFC, 8/24/13, p.A2)(Reuters, 8/30/13)

2013        Aug 22, Syrian government forces pressed on with a military offensive in eastern Damascus, bombing rebel-held suburbs where the opposition said the regime had killed over 100 people the day before in a chemical weapons attack.
    (AP, 8/22/13)

2013        Aug 23, Syrian troops and opposition fighters clashed during fierce battles in suburbs of Damascus.
    (AP, 8/23/13)
2013        Aug 23, The Lebanese government said its troops captured a truck carrying gas masks near the Syrian border.
    (AP, 8/23/13)

2013        Aug 24, Syrian state television said soldiers found chemical materials in tunnels that had been used by rebels, rejecting blame for a nerve gas attack that killed hundreds this week and heightened Western calls for foreign intervention.
    (Reuters, 8/24/13)
2013        Aug 24, Iranian President Hassan Rouhani said for the first time that chemical weapons had killed people in ally Syria and called for the international community to prevent their use.
    (Reuters, 8/24/13)
2013        Aug 24, Doctors Without Borders said some 355 people, who showed "neurotoxic symptoms," died following the suspected chemical weapons attack this week near Syria's capital.
    (AP, 8/24/13)

2013        Aug 25, Syria reached an agreement with the UN to allow a team of international experts to visit the site of alleged chemical weapons attacks last week outside Damascus.
    (AP, 8/25/13)
2013        Aug 25, In Syria the governor of Hama province was killed in a car bombing, in an attack it blamed on rebels.
    (AFP, 8/25/13)

2013        Aug 26, In Syria snipers opened fire at a UN vehicle carrying a team investigating the alleged use of chemical weapons in Damascus. The Syrian government accused the rebels of firing at the team, while a rebel representative said a pro-government militia was behind the attack. Rebel forces took control of Khanasir, a strategic town in northern Syria, killing more than 50 pro-government fighters and cutting off government forces' only supply route out of the city of Aleppo. The Britain-based Observatory said it had obtained a photograph showing the execution of Alawite cleric Badr Ghazal by hardline Islamist rebels earlier this month.
    (AP, 8/26/13)(Reuters, 8/26/13)
2013        Aug 26, In Turkey Western powers meeting in Istanbul told the Syrian opposition to expect a strike against President Bashar al-Assad's forces within days.
    (Reuters, 8/27/13)

2013        Aug 27, Syria's foreign minister said his country would defend itself using "all means available" in case of a US strike, denying his government was behind an alleged chemical weapons attack near Damascus and challenging Washington to present proof backing up its accusations.
    (AP, 8/27/13)

2013        Aug 28, UN chemical weapons experts headed to a Damascus suburb for a new tour of areas struck by a purported poison gas attack.
    (AP, 8/28/13)

2013        Aug 30, The United States found itself with France as its only major partner in a potential strike against Syria, after a stunning rejection of military force in Parliament forced Britain, America's staunchest ally, to pull out of any operation.
    (AP, 8/30/13)

2013        Aug 31, President Barack Obama said that he would seek Congress approval for a military strike on Syria.
    (Reuters, 9/1/13)

2013        Aug, In Syria two cylinders containing sarin were reportedly seized by the armed forces of the Syrian Arab Republic in an area reportedly under the control of armed opposition groups.
    (Reuters, 7/8/14)   

2013        Sep 1, In Syria at least 42 were killed after regime forces retaliated for a rebel attack on army positions  around the town of Rouhayba, northeast of Damascus.
    (AFP, 9/2/13)

2013        Sep 3, Syrian forces seized the strategic northern town of Ariha, in a move that would open the supply line between the coastal stronghold and pockets of army control in a region that is largely rebel controlled.
    (Reuters, 9/3/13)
2013        Sep 3, The Syrian opposition said a Syrian forensic medicine expert with evidence that Pres. Bashar al-Assad's administration used chemical weapons in an attack near Aleppo in March has defected to Turkey.
    (Reuters, 9/3/13)
2013        Sep 3, Former Syrian Defense Minister General Ali Habib, a senior member, a prominent member of President Bashar al-Assad's Alawite sect, defected and crossed into Turkey.
    (Reuters, 9/4/13)

2013        Sep 4, Spanish correspondent Marc Marginedas was abducted near the central Syrian city of Hama by Islamic State fighters. He was released on Mar 3, 2014.
    (AP, 3/2/14)

2013        Sep 5, Syrian government troops battled al-Qaida-linked rebels over a regime-held Christian village in western Syria for the second day.
    (AP, 9/5/13)

2013        Sep 6, Turkish PM Tayyip Erdogan said almost all leaders at the G20 summit in St. Petersburg accepted the need for an operation to be carried out against Syria following a chemical weapons attack there last month.
    (Reuters, 9/6/13)

2013        Sep 7, In Syria  heavy government shelling of rebel positions near Damascus killed 16 people.
    (AP, 9/7/13)
2013        Sep 7, The European Union's foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton said the EU's 28 nations agreed that available information seemed to show strong evidence that the Syrian government carried out a chemical attack on civilians in August.
    (Reuters, 9/7/13)

2013        Sep 8, Syrian activists said rebels including al-Qaida-linked fighters gained control of a Christian village northeast of Damascus. Government media provided a dramatically different account of the battle suggesting regime forces were winning.
    (AP, 9/8/13)

2013        Sep 9, The Syrian government accepted a Russian proposal to put its chemical weapons under international control to avoid a possible US military strike.
    (Reuters, 9/10/13)
2013        Sep 9, Syrian troops launched an attack on hills overlooking a Christian-majority village near Damascus as fighting in and around Maaloula entered its sixth day.
    (AP, 9/9/13)

2013        Sep 10, France announced it will put forward a resolution in the UN Security Council aimed at forcing Syria to ultimately dismantle its chemical weapons program, seizing on a diplomatic opening from Syrian ally Russia amid Western threats of force against President Bashar Assad's regime.
    (AP, 9/10/13)
2013        Sep 10, In central Syria Nusra Front al Qaeda-linked rebel fighters shot dead 16 Alawites and six Arab Bedouins after seizing the village of Maksar al-Hesan.
    (Reuters, 9/11/13)(Reuters, 9/12/13)

2013        Sep 11, UN rights investigators reported that they have established that Syrian government forces were almost certainly responsible for two massacres last May in which up to 450 civilians were killed.
    (Reuters, 9/11/13)

2013        Sep 12, Syrian President Bashar Assad publicly agreed to a Russian plan to secure and destroy his chemical weapons, but said the proposal would work only if the US halts threats of military action. Syria filed documents at the UN seeking to join the international convention banning chemical weapons.
    (AP, 9/12/13)(AFP, 9/12/13)
2013        Sep 12, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said clashes between Kurdish fighters and members of the al-Qaida-linked Nusra Front and the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant in the past two days left 13 Kurdish gunmen and 35 militants dead.
    (AP, 9/12/13)

2013        Sep 13, UN investigators said Syrian government forces are bombing and shelling hospitals in rebel-held areas to stop sick and wounded people getting treatment, acts which constitute war crimes.
    (Reuters, 9/13/13)

2013        Sep 14, Syrian warplanes struck rebel-held suburbs of the capital and government forces clashed with insurgents on the frontlines.
    (Reuters, 9/14/13)
2013        Sep 14, The United States and Russia agreed a "framework for elimination of Syrian chemical weapons." General Selim Idris, the head of the opposition Syrian Supreme Military Council, said a US-Russian agreement to eliminate Syria's chemical weapons was a blow to the two-and-a-half-year uprising to remove President Bashar al-Assad from power.
    (Reuters, 9/14/13)
2013        Sep 14, The opposition Syrian National Coalition elected Ahmad Tumeh (48), a moderate Islamist, as provisional prime minister, hoping to avoid being sidelined as world powers renew diplomatic efforts to end the civil war.
    (Reuters, 9/14/13)

2013        Sep 16, In Syria an al-Qaida linked group kidnapped Xavier Espinosa, a Spanish journalist, and photographer Ricardo Garcia Vilanova. Both men were released on March 30, 2014.
    (SFC, 12/11/13, p.A2)(AP, 3/30/14)
2013        Sep 16, Turkish warplanes shot down a Syrian helicopter after it crossed into Turkish airspace. Syria's army acknowledged the helicopter had strayed into Turkish airspace for a short time while monitoring "terrorists" moving across the border into Syria, but said it was an accident and that the aircraft was on its way back when it was shot down.
    (Reuters, 9/16/13)
2013        Sep 16, UN war crimes investigators said they know of 14 potential chemical attacks in Syria since they began monitoring Syrian human rights abuses in September 2011. UN inspectors confirmed that sarin was used in the mass killing near Damascus on Aug 21.
    (Reuters, 9/16/13)(SFC, 9/17/13, p.A3)

2013        Sep 17, A car bomb exploded on the Syrian side of the main Bab al-Hawa crossing with Turkey and at least a dozen people were taken to nearby hospitals.
    (Reuters, 9/17/13)
2013        Sep 17, French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said a report by UN inspectors, who investigated an August 21 chemical weapons attack in Syria, leaves no doubt about the responsibility of President Bashar al-Assad's government.
    (Reuters, 9/17/13)
2013        Sep 17, Diplomats from the United States, Russia, Britain, France and China met in New York to discuss a Western-drafted resolution on eradicating Syria's chemical arsenal in line with a US-Russian agreement.
    (Reuters, 9/17/13)

2013        Sep 18, Syrian warplanes struck rebel-held areas and clashes between militants and government forces continued unabated. Key powers meeting in NY continued to forge a deal that would eliminate Syrian chemical weapons.
    (Reuters, 9/18/13)

2013        Sep 19, In Syria a roadside bomb killed at least 14 members of President Bashar al-Assad's minority Alawite in Jabourin, Homs province. Al-Qaida militants seized a town near the Turkish border after expelling Western-backed rebels from the area.
    (Reuters, 9/19/13)(SFC, 9/20/13, p.A4)

2013        Sep 20, Syrian forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad killed at least 15 people in a late night attack on Sheik Hadid, a Sunni Muslim village north-west of Hama.
    (Reuters, 9/21/13)(SSFC, 9/22/13, p.A6)
2013        Sep 20, The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in The Hague said Syria has submitted details of its chemical weapons to the organization.
    (Reuters, 9/20/13)

2013        Sep 21, In Syria rebels seized several villages south of Aleppo as part of their efforts to cut Syria's biggest city off from Assad's forces and stop supplies and reinforcements from Damascus.
    (Reuters, 9/21/13)
2013        Sep 21, The Hague-based Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical weapons (OPCW) said Syria has handed over complete data on its chemical arsenal to the world's watchdog, meeting a deadline to avert military strikes, as regime aircraft pounded targets across the country.
    (AFP, 9/21/13)
2013        Sep 21, Italy’s coast guard said more than 400 refugees fleeing the Syrian civil war were intercepted near Sicily in the past 14 hours, and one 22-year-old woman died during the passage.
    (Reuters, 9/21/13)

2013        Sep 23, Syria’s Pres. Assad said his government will allow int’. experts access to its chemical weapons sites, but cautioned that rebels might block them from reaching some of the locations.
    (SFC, 9/24/13, p.A3)

2013        Sep 24, In Syria a car bomb killed at least 7 civilians when it exploded in a southern Damascus neighborhood.
    (Reuters, 9/24/13)

2013        Sep 25, More than a dozen key Syrian rebel groups said that they reject the authority of the Western-backed opposition coalition, as UN inspectors returned to the country to continue their probe into chemical weapons attacks. Eleven rebel factions broke with the main opposition group in exile and called for Islamic law in the country.
    (AP, 9/25/13)(SFC, 9/25/13, p.A3)

2013        Sep 26, In Syria an Iraqi woman was killed when a mortar round slammed into Iraq's consulate in Damascus.
    (AP, 9/26/13)

2013        Sep 27, In Syria a car bomb exploded near the al-Sahel mosque in the town of Rankous north of Damascus as worshippers emerged from prayers. At least 30 people were killed.
    (AP, 9/27/13)
2013        Sep 27, The UN Security Council adopted a resolution that demands the eradication of Syria's chemical weapons but does not threaten automatic punitive action against Syrian President Bashar al-Assad's government if it does not comply.
    (Reuters, 9/28/13)

2013        Sep 28, Syrian rebels including members of an al-Qaida-linked group captured a military post on the border with Jordan after four days of fighting. 26 soldiers were killed in the battle as well as a number of rebels, including 7 foreign fighters. at least 19 government fighters were reported killed in fighting on the outskirts of Damascus.
    (AP, 9/28/13)(Reuters, 9/29/13)

2013        Sep 29, Syria's Pres. Assad said his government will abide by last week's UN resolution calling for the country's chemical weapons program to be dismantled and destroyed.
    (AP, 9/29/13)
2013        Sep 29, In Syria at least 12 people, most of them students, were killed in an air strike that hit a secondary school in the rebel-held city of Raqqa. Fighting continued in provinces across the country.
    (Reuters, 9/29/13)

2013        Oct 1, An advance group of international inspectors arrived in Syria to begin the ambitious task of overseeing the destruction of President Bashar Assad's chemical weapons program. Heavy clashes between Syrian troops and al-Qaida-linked fighters in northern Damascus killed at least 12 soldiers and pro-government militiamen.
    (AP, 10/1/13)(AP, 10/2/13)

2013        Oct 2, The UN refugee agency said 17 countries including the United States, France and Australia have agreed to receive quotas of refugees fleeing the bloody conflict in Syria.
    (AFP, 10/2/13)

2013        Oct 3, In Syria experts tasked with implementing the UN resolution ordering the destruction of Syria's chemical weapons arsenal began work, as the world body demanded access to civilians trapped by the conflict.
    (AFP, 10/3/13)
2013        Oct 3, In Syria six of the most powerful rebel factions issued a joint statement telling an Al-Qaeda front group (ISIL) to withdraw from the northern town of Azaz bordering Turkey. In a separate statement, rebels in central Syria also called on the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) to leave Homs province.
    (AFP, 10/3/13)

2013        Oct 4, In Syria al-Qaida militants battled fighters linked to the Western-backed opposition along with Kurdish gunmen in towns along the Turkish border, in clashes that killed at least 19 people.
    (AP, 10/4/13)

2013        Oct 5, Syrian government forces shelled al-Mitras, a vulnerable Sunni community in a coastal province dominated by President Bashar Assad's Alawite sect, raising fears that residents of the isolated town could face mass killings by pro-Damascus militias. Government forces reached an agreement with local officials to stop the shelling of Mitras in exchange for the surrender of dozens of opposition fighters.
    (AP, 10/5/13)(SSFC, 10/6/13, p.A8)

2013        Oct 6, In Syria at least 8 people were killed by mortar fire that hit a Christian neighbourhood in central Damascus. Government forces reopened a key road leading to the embattled northern city of Aleppo after heavy fighting with rebels that left casualties on both sides.
    (AFP, 10/6/13)(AP, 10/7/13)
2013        Oct 6, In Syria international inspectors began the enormous task of destroying Syria's stockpile of chemical weapons and the machinery used to create it.
    (AP, 10/6/13)

2013        Oct 7, A French oceanographic vessel rescued 29 Syrian refugees, part of a group of 363 asylum-seekers that have landed in Italy in the past 24 hours.
    (AFP, 10/7/13)
2013        Oct 7, UN leader Ban Ki-moon said about 100 international experts will have to spend up to a year in Syria destroying its chemical weapons in a mission of unprecedented danger.
    (AFP, 10/8/13)

2013        Oct 10, In Syria fighting flared between Syrian Sunni rebels and foreign militias on the southern edge of Damascus.
    (Reuters, 10/11/13)

2013        Oct 11, Syrian air force warplanes bombarded rebel-held targets close to a major chemical weapons facility in fighting that highlights the perils facing an international mission to eliminate President Bashar al-Assad's chemical arsenal.
    (Reuters, 10/11/13)
2013        Oct 11, The Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded the Nobel Peace Prize to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons as  the global watchdog worked to destroy Syria's stockpiles of nerve gas and other poisonous agents.
    (AP, 10/11/13)
2013        Oct 11, The Egyptian coast guard rescued 72 Palestinians, 40 Syrians and 4 Egyptians when a boat carrying illegal migrants and Syrian refugees sank off Egypt's northern coast. 12 people died.
    (Reuters, 10/11/13)

2013        Oct 12, In Syria two mortar rounds slammed into the central Abu Rummaneh neighbourhood of Damascus, killing a child and wounding 11 people. Tank shells fired by Syrian government forces slammed into a building in the southern city of Daraa, killing at least 11 people, including women and children.
    (AFP, 10/12/13)(AFP, 10/13/13)

2013        Oct 13, In northwest Syria gunmen kidnapped 7 Red Cross workers after opening fire on their vehicles. 3 ICRC and a Red Crescent colleague were soon released.
    (Reuters, 10/13/13)(AFP, 10/14/13)

2013        Oct 14, In Syria a car bombing in Darkoush, a rebel-held northwestern town, killed at least 27 people and wounded dozens, setting cars on fire and sending people running in panic.
    (AFP, 10/14/13)
2013        Oct 14, In Syria a 40-foot bronze statue of Jesus went up on the Cherubim mountain, apparently under cover of a truce among three factions in the country's civil war.
    (AP, 11/2/13)

2013        Oct 15, Syrian warplanes bombed several rebel-held areas and opposition fighters fired mortar rounds and homemade rockets at Damascus on the first day of a major Muslim holiday.
    (AP, 10/15/13)
2013        Oct 15, Turkey for the first time fired four artillery rounds against a position near the town of Azaz, Syria, held by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)," an Al-Qaeda affiliated group, in retaliation for a mortar round that fell on Turkish territory.
    (AP, 10/17/13)

2013        Oct 16, In Syria 21, including 4 children and 6 women, were killed when a minibus hit a mine in the southern town of Noa. Syrian activists said that two days of heavy clashes between Kurdish fighters and al-Qaida-linked rebels in the northeast have killed at least 41 on both sides.
    (Reuters, 10/16/13)(AP, 10/16/13)

2013        Oct 17, The Syrian government said it has turned over to the United Nations Carl Campeau, a Canadian staffer, who went missing eight months ago in the Golan Heights, accusing rebels of having kidnapped him. Gen. Jameh Jameh, a top military intelligence officer was killed in clashes in Deir al-Zou.
    (AFP, 10/17/13)(AP, 10/18/13)(SFC, 10/18/13, p.A2)

2013        Oct 18, In Syria regime forces and rebels fighting for control of Tel Aran, a small but strategic town in the northern province of Aleppo, killed at least 20 people. The British-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said rebels killed at least 30 Syrian soldiers, including ten who were executed after they were captured in in Deir al-Zou.
    (AP, 10/18/13)

2013        Oct 19, Syrian rebels assaulted a checkpoint in a suburb of Damascus, setting off a suicide car bomb that killed 16 soldiers. More than 30 combatants from both sides died in the blast and ensuing clashes.
    (AP, 10/19/13)(Reuters, 10/19/13)

2013        Oct 20, In Syria a suicide bomber blew up a truck packed with explosives at an army checkpoint in the central city of Hama, killing at least 31 people.
    (AFP, 10/20/13)

2013        Oct 21, In Syria government warplanes launched strikes on areas southeast of Damascus after rebels seized key regime positions there. Residents of Moadamiyeh issued an urgent plea for the int’l. community to save them from starvation and constant bombardment after efforts to evacuate civilians from the area collapsed. Yasser al-Abboud, a prominent army defector who became a rebel leader, was killed during fighting in the town of Tafas.
    (AFP, 10/21/13)(AP, 10/21/13)(SFC, 10/22/13, p.A4)

2013        Oct 22, The Syrian government released 13 jailed women, a move that may be part of an ambitious regional prisoner exchange. Government forces battled with al-Qaida-linked rebels trying to capture an ancient Christian town north of Damascus. Mortar shells struck a pro-government suburb on the outskirts of Damascus, killing 2 people.
    (AP, 10/22/13)(AP, 10/23/13)

2013        Oct 23, Syrian activists said the army has sealed the few remaining smuggling routes into the besieged Eastern Ghouta region of suburbs of Damascus. Aid workers in Damascus, who negotiated a truce to get out thousands of residents from the town, said that locals had resorted to eating leaves and grass.
    (Reuters, 10/23/13)

2013        Oct 24, Syrian forces seized a suburb of Damascus from rebels fighting to overthrow President Bashar al-Assad in a push that has shored up government control of the capital's outskirts. The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said Assad’s government had freed 61 women over the past two days.
    (Reuters, 10/24/13)(AP, 10/24/13)

2013        Oct 25, In Syria a car bomb explosion killed at least 40 people and wounded dozens more near a mosque in the Damascus province town of Suq Wadi Barada. Government troops ambushed rebels near Damascus, killing at least 40 opposition fighters.
    (AFP, 10/25/13)(AP, 10/25/13)

2013        Oct 26, Kurdish militants seized a Syrian border post on the frontier with Iraq, after three days of clashes with an al Qaeda-linked group which had held the crossing since March.
    (Reuters, 10/26/13)
2013        Oct 26, Syria's jihadist Al-Nusra Front said in a statement that its leader, Abu Mohammad al-Golani, was in good health, a day after state television had reported his death.
    (AFP, 10/26/13)

2013        Oct 27, In central Syria a rocket smashed into the home of a family in the embattled Christian town of Sadad, killing 5 people as al-Qaida-linked rebels and soldiers clashed for control.
    (AP, 10/27/13)

2013        Oct 28, Syrian government forces retook Sadad, a Christian town north of Damascus, from al-Qaida-linked rebels who seized control of part of it a week ago, touching off fierce clashes.
    (AP, 10/28/13)

2013        Oct 29, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad sacked Vice Premier Qadri Jamil saying the official had been absent without leave and carried out unauthorized meetings abroad. Jamil had met with the US pointman for Syria Robert Ford on Oct 26 to discuss proposed Geneva peace talks. Some 800 women, children and elderly civilians trapped in the besieged town of Moadamiyet al-Sham, southwest of Damascus, were evacuated.
    (AFP, 10/29/13)(AFP, 10/30/13)
2013        Oct 29, The UN's health agency said it has confirmed 10 polio cases in northeast Syria, the first confirmed outbreak of the highly contagious disease in the country in 14 years, and a top UN official urged warring sides to grant health workers access to 500,000 children who have never received immunization.
    (AP, 10/29/13)

2013        Oct 30, Israel reportedly targeted a shipment of surface-to-surface missiles in latakia, Syria, destined for Hezbollah, the powerful Lebanese Shiite movement fighting alongside the regime.
    (AFP, 11/1/13)

2013        Oct 31, The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons said Syria has destroyed critical equipment for producing chemical weapons and poison gas munitions. Fierce clashes raged in the north, close to one of the sites where toxic agents are believed to be stored.
    (AP, 10/31/13)

2013        Nov 1, Syrian troops heavily shelled rebel-held areas of southern Damascus as part of a bid to completely cut them off from rear bases in the countryside. State media said government forces have captured Safira, a northern town located near a chemical weapons site after days of heavy fighting.
    (AFP, 11/1/13)(Reuters, 11/1/13)

2013        Nov 2, Syria's air force struck Sbeineh south of Damascus, as loyalists pressed a fierce bid to crush rebel bastions around the capital. Rebels launched a counteroffensive in Aleppo.
    (AP, 11/2/13)(SSFC, 11/10/13, p.A9)

2013        Nov 4, In central Syria a suicide bomber detonated an explosives-laden truck in the Shiite village of Sabtiyeh near Homs, killing six.
    (AP, 11/4/13)
2013        Nov 4, Iranian Mehr news agency reported that commander Mohammad Jamalizade of Iran's Revolutionary Guards was recently killed in Syria after volunteering to defend a Shi'ite shrine in Damascus.
    (Reuters, 11/4/13)

2013        Nov 5, The United Nations that 40 percent of all Syrians are now in need in need of humanitarian aid.
    (AP, 11/5/13)

2013        Nov 6, In Syria a car bomb killed at least 8 security personnel in a rare attack on a military intelligence headquarters in the southern city of Suweida. A bomb exploded in a central square of Damascus, killing 8 people and wounding several others.
    (Reuters, 11/6/13)(AFP, 11/6/13)

2013        Nov 7, Syrian troops backed by Lebanese Hezbollah fighters and other pro-regime militiamen retook a major rebel enclave south of Damascus, severing a key opposition supply line.
    (AFP, 11/7/13)

2013        Nov 8, In Syria forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad backed by a dawn barrage of artillery fire and airstrikes drove rebels from a strategic military base near the disputed northern city of Aleppo.
    (Reuters, 11/8/13)
2013        Nov 8, Al-Qaeda chief Ayman al-Zawahiri has ordered the disbanding of the main jihadist faction in Syria, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, in an audio message aired on Al-Jazeera. He said the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) is to be abolished, while the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI) remains functioning.
    (AFP, 11/8/13)
2013        Nov 8, Denmark said it would provide transport and security for the international effort to destroy Syria's arsenal of chemical weapons, after receiving a request from the UN.
    (AFP, 11/8/13)

2013        Nov 9, In Syria Islamist rebels retook most of a military base in the north from forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad after two days of fighting in which at least 60 people have been killed.
    (Reuters, 11/9/13)

2013        Nov 10, Syrian government officials and rebels reached a deal to ease a weeks-long blockade on a rebel-held town of Qudsaya near Damascus, allowing food to reach civilians there for the first time in weeks. State television said govern ment troops have regained full control of a key base in northern Aleppo province near its international airport.
    (AP, 11/10/13)(AFP, 11/10/13)
2013        Nov 10, The main Western-backed Syrian opposition began the 2nd day of a two-day meeting in Istanbul to decide whether they will attend a proposed peace conference the US and Russia are trying to convene in Geneva by the end of this year.
    (AP, 11/10/13)

2013        Nov 11, Syria's main opposition grouping said it was willing to attend peace talks on the condition that President Bashar al-Assad transfer power and be excluded from any transition process. 5 children were killed and 27 people wounded when mortar rounds hit a school in Damascus.
    (AFP, 11/11/13)

2013        Nov 12, Syrian troops clashed with rebels on the southern outskirts of Damascus. The Syrian National Coalition named a provisional government for rebel-held areas.
    (AP, 11/12/13)(Reuters, 11/12/13)

2013        Nov 13, In Syria forces loyal to President Assad captured a suburb of Damascus, part of a broader advance that has brought him major gains south of the capital before proposed international peace talks. A mortar round slammed into a mainly-Christian sector of Damascus killing 2 people and wounding seven. Activists said Kurdish militias have seized another seven villages in the northeast.
    (Reuters, 11/13/13)(AFP, 11/13/13)

2013        Nov 14, In Syria twin bombings and mortar fire killed 3 people and wounded 22 near the famed Ummayad mosque in Damascus. A Syrian rebel commander in a main Islamist brigade was killed and two others were injured in an air strike by Assad's forces on Aleppo.
    (AFP, 11/14/13)(Reuters, 11/14/13)
2013        Nov 14, A video posted on the Internet showed two members of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) holding up a bearded man's head before a crowd in Aleppo in northern Syria. ISIL later admitted the rebel had been killed by mistake and said it had arrested one of its men, a Tunisian, for decapitating him.
    (AFP, 11/15/13)
2013        Nov 14, In Lebanon Hassan Nasralla, the leader of the militant Hezbollah group, showed up at a Shiite religious ceremony in southern Beirut, vowing to keep his fighters in neighboring Syria as long as needed to shore up President Bashar Assad's struggle against Syria's rebels.
    (AP, 11/14/13)

2013        Nov 16, Syrian forces went on the offensive against rebels positioned along a major highway linking the capital with the coast, a strategic road that is likely to be used to extract chemical weapons from the country.
    (Reuters, 11/16/13)
2013        Nov 16, A local official said thousands of Syrian refugees have poured into Lebanon over the past two days as fighting between government forces and rebels has flared near the border.
    (AFP, 11/16/13)

2013        Nov 17, The head of Syria's General Foreign Trade Organization (GFTO) said Syrian bank accounts frozen abroad are gradually being freed up for use to fund food purchases, with France being the most committed to releasing the money.
    (Reuters, 11/17/13)
2013        Nov 17, Syrian forces besieged Qara, a key town in the Qalamoun mountains, a region used by rebels to cross from Lebanon and which links the capital to government strongholds along the coast.
    (Reuters, 11/17/13)

2013        Nov 18, Syrian rebel leader Abdul-Qadir Saleh (34), founder of the Liwa al-Tawhid Brigade, died in Turkey of wounds sustained during a strike by government forces last week. Clashes continued around Qara.
    (AP, 11/18/13)(Econ, 11/23/13, p.51)
2013        Nov 18, Russia hosted Syrian and Iranian delegations for separate rounds of talks in a renewed diplomatic push for a Syrian peace conference in which Moscow says Tehran must also play a role.
    (Reuters, 11/18/13)

2013        Nov 19, Syrian government troops captured Qara, a key town near the Lebanese border from rebels, days after launching a broad offensive in the mountainous western region.
    (AP, 11/19/13)

2013        Nov 20, Suicide bombers targeted Syrian troops and a hospital in the rugged Qalamoun hills north of Damascus killing at least 7 soldiers, as rebels struggled to reverse government gains that threatened to cut one of their chief supply lines.
    (AP, 11/20/13)(AFP, 11/20/13)

2013        Nov 21, In Syria fighting for a key military base outside the northern city of Aleppo killed at least 15 pro-government militiamen. Troops also pressed an offensive against the last rebel-held districts of Homs where at least 12 people were killed in the exchange of fire.
    (AFP, 11/21/13)
2013        Nov 21, In Syria Jihadists cut down a 150-year-old oak tree in Atme, on Syria's border with Turkey, after they accused locals of worshipping it.
    (AFP, 11/22/13)

2013        Nov 22, The six largest Islamist rebel factions in Syria declared a new Islamic Front, forming the largest alliance of opposition fighters yet in the 2-1/2-year conflict. The merger undermined the secular Free Syrian Army (FSA) leadership, once seen as a symbolic umbrella leadership for all the rebels but weakened by infighting and defections. A fierce battle for control of Syria’s military Base 17 near Raqqa, an opposition-held city, left 24 rebels dead so far, but the government troops have managed to hold on to the complex.
    (Reuters, 11/22/13)(AP, 11/22/13)

2013        Nov 23, In Syria  Islamist rebels led by al Qaeda-linked fighters seized the al-Omar oil field in the eastern Deir al-Zor province, cutting off President Assad's access to almost all local crude reserves. Air strikes around Aleppo killed at least 44 people, most of them civilians.
    (Reuters, 11/23/13)(AP, 11/23/13)

2013        Nov 24, In Syria fierce fighting to the east of Damascus has killed more than 160 people in the past two days as rebels struggled to break a months-long blockade by forces loyal to President Assad.
    (Reuters, 11/24/13)
2013        Nov 24, The Oxford Research Group said more than 11,000 children have died in Syria's civil war, including 128 killed by chemical weapons in a notorious attack and hundreds targeted by snipers.
    (AFP, 11/24/13)

2013        Nov 25, The UN said Syria's government and opposition will hold their first peace talks on Jan. 22 in Geneva, in an attempt to halt the nearly 3-year-old civil war that has killed more than 100,000 people.
    (AP, 11/25/13)

2013        Nov 26, In Syria a suicide bomber blew up a vehicle at a bus stop west of Damascus, killing at least 15 people. An Al-Qaeda-affiliated group in Syria announced the execution of two soldiers and three "collaborators" with President Bashar al-Assad's regime near Damascus. Syria's main opposition group in exile said it had not made a final decision yet on whether it would participate in a peace conference to be held in Geneva. The commander of the rebel Free Syrian Army (FSA) said his group would not join a planned peace conference in Switzerland in January and would pursue its fight to topple President Bashar al-Assad regardless.
    (AFP, 11/26/13)(AP, 11/26/13)(Reuters, 11/26/13)
2013        Nov 26, The World Health Organization said it has discovered two additional cases of the highly contagious polio virus in Syria, bringing the total number of cases in the country to 17.
    (AP, 11/26/13)

2013        Nov 27, The Syrian government said it will participate in UN-sponsored peace talks aimed at ending the country's civil war, but insisted that it is not going to the conference to hand over power.
    (AP, 11/27/13)
2013        Nov 27, In Syria a nephew of Lebanon's agriculture minister was killed along with three other Hezbollah fighters in the Qalamoun region north of Damascus.
    (AFP, 11/28/13)

2013        Nov 28, The Syrian army recaptured the strategic town of Deir Attiyeh, less than a week after losing it, taking the advantage in its bid to crush rebels just north of Damascus.
    (AFP, 11/28/13)

2013        Nov 29, In Syria a mortar round fell in front of a historical mosque in Damascus, killing 4 people and wounding 26. Six Syrians died and nine others were rescued after a boat sank off the coast of Turkey while trying to cross to the Greek island of Lesbos.
    (AP, 11/29/13)(Reuters, 11/29/13)

2013        Nov 30, In Syria government shelling of a market in al-Baba near Aleppo killed at least six people.
    (AP, 11/30/13)
2013        Nov 30, The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons  (OPCW) said the US has offered to help destroy some of the most lethal parts of Syria's chemical weapons stockpile at an offshore facility.
    (AP, 11/30/13)

2013        Dec 1, Syrian government helicopters dropped makeshift bombs on Al-Bab, rebel-held town near Aleppo. At least 20 people, including four children, were killed in a second day of deadly air strikes there.
    (AP, 12/1/13)(AFP, 12/1/13)

2013        Dec 2, In Syria opposition fighters abducted 12 nuns from Maaloula, a predominantly Christian village near the capital that was overrun by rebels. The nuns were reported freed on March 9.
    (AP, 12/3/13)(Reuters, 3/9/14)

2013        Dec 3, Syria's state TV reported that a suicide attacker blew himself up in central Damascus, killing 4 and wounding 17 others. Syria's Greek Orthodox patriarch appealed for the quick release of 12 nuns abducted by opposition forces a day earlier.
    (AP, 12/3/13)

2013        Dec 4, In Syria fighters linked to Al-Qaeda executed Yasser Faysal al-Joumaili (32), an Iraqi freelance cameraman. He was kidnapped by fighters of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) while on his way out of Syria and executed in the northwestern border province of Idlib.
    (AFP, 12/5/13)

2013        Dec 5, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said Jihadists in northern Syria have kidnapped more than 50 Kurds in the past three days.
    (AFP, 12/5/13)

2013        Dec 7, Syria’s largest Islamist rebel force seized arms depots belonging to the mainstream Western-backed Free Syrian Army. The Observatory said the arms had been brought across the border from Turkey and that five fighters were killed. Government aircraft pounded Raqqa, a rebel-held city in the country's northeast, killing at least 18 people including five children.
    (AFP, 12/7/13)(AFP, 12/8/13)

2013        Dec 8, Syrian regime forces made gains in the key town of Nabuk, one of the last rebel-held areas in the Qalamoun region bordering Lebanon. Ali Bazzi, a high-ranking Hezbollah military commander, was killed in a combat zone.
    (AFP, 12/8/13)

2013        Dec 9, Syrian troops captured a western town near the country's main north-south highway as the government forged ahead with a punishing offensive in a mountainous region near the border with Lebanon.
    (AP, 12/9/13)
2013        Dec 9, The World Health Organisation and UNICEF announced the launch of a polio vaccination campaign for 23 million children in the Middle East after 17 cases were discovered in Syria.
    (AFP, 12/9/13)

2013        Dec 10, Syrian government troops pounded a rebel stronghold near the Lebanese border, with airstrikes and artillery hitting Yabroud in the mountainous region where they believe opposition fighters are holding a group of nuns. In the north fighters belonging to rival Islamic rebel groups battled each other, killing at least 12. Gunmen abducted Razan Zaytouni, a leading human rights lawyer, along with her husband and two other activists from Douma, a suburb of Damascus.
    (AP, 12/10/13)(SFC, 12/11/13, p.A4)
2013        Dec 10, The UN said it would for the first time begin airlifting food and other aid items across the border from Iraq to Syria after receiving the go-ahead from both governments.
    (AFP, 12/10/13)

2013        Dec 11, The United States and Britain suspended all non-lethal aid to the opposition in northern Syria after Islamist rebels seized key bases and warehouses belonging to the Western-backed Free Syrian Army.
    (Reuters, 12/11/13)

2013        Dec 11, In Syria 32 people were killed in the town of Adra northeast of Damascus after an al-Qaida-linked rebel faction attack. The dead were primarily members the Alawite sect, as well as a few Druse and Shiite Muslims.
    (Reuters, 12/15/13)

2013        Dec 12, Syria's Western-backed opposition said it had invited Islamist fighters to secure its depots on the Turkish frontier after an attack by al Qaeda militants.
    (Reuters, 12/12/13)

2013        Dec 13, Syria’s state news agency SANA reported that authorities have freed for "humanitarian reasons" 366 detainees from Aleppo prison in the north of the country which is under rebel siege. Islamist rebels linked to al Qaeda kidnapped at least 120 Kurdish civilians from a village near the Turkish border in Aleppo province.
    (AFP, 12/13/13)(Reuters, 12/13/13)
2013        Dec 13, A UN inquiry published today said chemical weapons were likely used in five out of seven attacks investigated by UN experts in Syria, where a 2 1/2-year civil war has killed more than 100,000 people.
    (Reuters, 12/13/13)

2013        Dec 15, Syrian government helicopters pounded the neighborhoods of Haidariya, Ard al-Hamra and Sukhour with barrel bombs filled with explosives. Aircraft dropped barrel bombs on the contested northern city of Aleppo. The airstrikes killed at least 76 people.
    (AFP, 12/15/13)(AP, 12/16/13)
2013        Dec 15, The first UN aid flight from Iraq landed in northeastern Syria with badly needed supplies, after a winter storm delayed it for several days.
    (AFP, 12/15/13)

2013        Dec 16, Syrian government aircraft pounded opposition areas in the northern city of Aleppo and near the southern border with Jordan.
    (AP, 12/16/13)
2013        Dec 16, Turkey’s Hurriyet Daily News reported that Turkey has shipped 47 tons of weapons to Syrian rebels since June despite repeated government denials.
    (AFP, 12/16/13)
2013        Dec 16, The UN appealed for a record $6.5 billion for Syria and its neighbors to help 16 million people, many of them hungry or homeless victims of a conflict that has lasted 33 months with no end in sight.
    (Reuters, 12/16/13)

2013        Dec 17, In Syria 2 children were among at least 18 people killed in new air strikes on a rebel-held district of Aleppo. The 3-day assault has left over 100 dead.
    (AFP, 12/17/13)(SFC, 12/18/13, p.A5)
2013        Dec 17, Guinea-Bissau's Interior Minister Antonio Suka Ntchama became the second minister to step down in the tiny West African country amid an investigation into how 74 Syrians boarded a flight to Portugal with fake passports.
    (Reuters, 12/18/13)

2013        Dec 18, Syrian government forces pummeled opposition-held neighborhoods in Aleppo for a 4th day, leveling apartment buildings, flooding hospitals with casualties and killing nearly 200 people. Syria said that British doctor Abbas Khan, alleged to have been effectively murdered in custody, had hanged himself after being arrested for "unauthorized activities." On Oct 27, 2014, a British jury found that the regime of Bashar Assad had deliberately and intentionally killed Dr. Khan.
    (AP, 12/18/13)(AFP, 12/18/13)(Econ, 11/8/14, p.51)(Econ, 11/8/14, p.51)
2013        Dec 18, The heads of the UN and European Union aid agencies called for a "humanitarian ceasefire" in Syria to allow convoys to deliver help to areas that aid workers cannot reach.
    (Reuters, 12/18/13)

2013        Dec 19, Amnesty Int’l. accused an al-Qaida-linked rebel group that controls large parts of northern Syria of running secret prisons in which torture and summary killings are common.
    (AP, 12/19/13)
2013        Dec 19, A UN panel probing war crimes in Syria reported that people around the country are systematically vanishing without a trace as part of a widespread campaign of terror against civilians.
    (AP, 12/19/13)
2013        Dec 19, Danish lawmakers approved sending a cargo ship and a warship to pick up Syria's most dangerous chemical weapons.
    (AP, 12/19/13)

2013        Dec 20, Molhem Barakat, a Syrian photographer who took pictures for Reuters on a freelance basis, was killed while covering fighting in Aleppo.
    (Reuters, 12/21/13)
2013        Dec 20, The British government said it has agreed to destroy part of Syria's chemical weapons stockpile at a commercial facility.
    (Reuters, 12/20/13)

2013        Dec 21, In Lebanon Hezbollah fighters ambushed a group of Syrian rebels as they infiltrated through a smuggler route outside Nahle. About 30 rebels were reported killed.
    (SFC, 12/25/13, p.A2)

2013        Dec 22, Syrian aircraft pummeled an opposition neighborhood in Aleppo, killing at least 65 people and extending the government's furious aerial bombardment of the rebel-held half of the divided city to an eighth consecutive day. A suicide bomber detonated his bomb-rigged truck near a primary school in the Shiite town of Umm al-Amed, killing at least 12 people, half of them children.
    (AFP, 12/22/13)(AP, 12/22/13)(CSM, 12/23/13)

2013        Dec 23, Syrian government forces widened a northern bombing campaign striking Azaz and killing 15 people.
    (SFC, 12/24/13, p.A2)
2013        Dec 23, Russia said it has sent 25 armored trucks and 50 other vehicles to Syria to help transport toxins that are to be destroyed under an international agreement to rid the nation of its chemical arsenal.
    (Reuters, 12/23/13)

2013        Dec 24, Syrian government air raids on rebel-held areas of Aleppo killed at least 15 people, including three children.
    (AP, 12/24/13)

2013        Dec 25, Syria’s government signed a major oil and gas exploration deal with a Russian company in Damascus, which will allow for exploration in a section of Syrian waters.
    (AFP, 12/25/13)

2013        Dec 27, Syrian state TV and opposition activists say government forces have ambushed members of an al-Qaida-linked group, killing dozens of the Nusra Front rebels near Maaloula, a historic Christian village north of Damascus. A monitoring group said 5 people, including an elderly man, a woman and a disabled man, have died of hunger in a besieged Palestinian refugee camp south of Damascus.
    (AP, 12/27/13)(AFP, 12/27/13)(SFC, 12/28/13, p.A2)

2013        Dec 28, A Syrian army air strike on a vegetable market in the northern city of Aleppo killed at least 25 people.
    (Reuters, 12/28/13)

2013        Dec 29, In eastern Syria at least 19 rebels were killed in clashes for control of Deir Ezzor military air base. The government evacuated some 5,000 people from an embattled industrial town near Damascus where al-Qaida-linked rebels have been battling government troops for more than two weeks.
    (AFP, 12/29/13)(AP, 12/30/13)
2013        Dec 29, The United Nations said that it has completed the first aid airlift from Iraq to Syria, providing much-needed supplies to a difficult-to-access region of the war-torn country.
    (AFP, 12/29/13)

2013        Dec 30, Lebanese forces fired on Syrian aircraft that violated the country's airspace, the first time they have done so since Syria's uprising broke out three years ago.
    (AP, 12/30/13)
2013        Dec 30, Disarmament teams returned Scandinavian escort vessels to port as they accepted an end-of-year deadline for the removal of Syrian chemical weapons could no longer be met. Norway and Denmark were providing ships to transfer the the chemical weapons to the Cape Ray, an American-owned ship fitted with equipment to break down lethal chemical agents to an industrial toxic waste.
    (AFP, 12/31/13)(Econ, 12/14/13, p.58)
2013        Dec 30, The UN appealed for the Syrian army and rebel fighters to allow urgent aid to reach a Palestinian district of southern Damascus where it said 15 people have died of malnutrition in recent months.
    (Reuters, 12/30/13)

2013        Dec 31, In Syria a missile struck a bus in a rebel-held area of Aleppo, setting it on fire and killing at least 10 people. State media reported that a rebel-fired mortar shell killed 3 people in Homs. ISIS fighters returned the torture-marked corpse of a doctor-cum-commander with Ahrar al-Sham, a Salafist rebel group which had hitherto been an ally.
    (AP, 12/31/13)(Econ, 1/11/14, p.39)

2013        Basel Rajoub, Syrian composer and saxophone player, and his ensemble Soriana launched their first CD, a meld of jazz and Middle Eastern improvisation.
    (Econ, 3/18/17, p.85)

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