Timeline Syria 2011-Present

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Sunni Muslims comprised two thirds of Syria’s people. The Alawites, a religious group that broke away from Shiite Islam in the 9th century, comprised about 6% of Syria’s population. Pres. Hafez Assad was a member of the sect.
    (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.A11)(Econ, 3/26/11, p.53)(Econ, 4/2/11, p.22)

2011        Jan 15, The prime ministers of Iraq and Syria agreed to boost cooperation in security and economic affairs during talks aimed at improving relations strained by Baghdad's allegations that the Syrians were harboring Iraqi insurgents.
    (AP, 1/15/11)

2011        Jan 16, Syria’s first American ambassador since 2005 arrived in Damascus at a time of regional turmoil and with Syrian-US relations still mired in mutual distrust.
    (AP, 1/16/11)

2011        Jan 31, Syria's president Assad, who has resisted calls for political freedoms and jailed critics of his regime, said in an interview published today that his nation is immune from the kind of unrest roiling Tunisia and Egypt.
    (AP, 1/31/11)

2011        Feb 1, Syrians were reported organizing campaigns on Facebook and Twitter calling for a "day of rage" in Damascus on Feb 4-5, taking inspiration from Egypt and Tunisia in using social networking sites to rally their followers for sweeping political reforms.
    (AP, 2/1/11)

2011        Mar 7, Syrian authorities released Haitham al-Maleh (80), a leading lawyer and human rights activist, just hours after President Bashar Assad issued an amnesty for older prisoners and others convicted of minor crimes.
    (AP, 3/8/11)

2011        Mar 15, The Israeli navy intercepted an Egyptian-bound ship carrying a large delivery of weapons off the Mediterranean coast, saying the arms had been sent by Syria to Palestinian militants in the Gaza Strip. PM Netanyahu said the source of the weaponry was Iran.
    (AP, 3/15/11)

2011        Mar 18, In Syria human rights activists said plainclothes security officers forcefully broken up about a dozen protesters in central Damascus. Syrian security forces launched a harsh crackdown on protesters calling for political freedoms. Accounts from activists and social media say at least five people died in Daraa.
    (AP, 3/18/11)(AP, 3/19/11)

2011        Mar 20, In Syria more than 100 people were wounded as security forces fired live bullets and tear gas at thousands of demonstrators in the town of Daraa.
    (AFP, 3/20/11)

2011        Mar 21, Syrian riot police armed with batons chased the crowd off without incident. The gathering was meant to mourn those who died after security troops fired at protesters in Deraa on March 18 killing five people.
    (AP, 3/21/11)

2011        Mar 22, In Syria Gov. Faisal Kalthoum was fired from his position in Daraa. A deadly government crackdown in the southern city of has Daraa left 7 people dead in 3 days of unrest.
    (AP, 3/22/11)

2011        Mar 23, Syrian security forces shot live ammunition and tear gas near the Omari mosque in Daraa where protesters have been camped out. At least 15 people were killed in an operation that began before dawn.
    (AP, 3/23/11)(SFC, 3/24/11, p.A4)(Econ, 3/26/11, p.53)

2011        Mar 24, In Syria thousands called for liberty in the southern city of Daraa, defying a deadly government crackdown as they took to the streets in funeral marches for protesters killed by police gunfire. The Syrian government pledged to consider lifting some of the Mideast's most repressive laws in an attempt to stop the weeklong uprising from spreading and threatening its nearly 50-year rule.
    (AP, 3/24/11)(AP, 3/25/11)

2011        Mar 25, In Syria demonstrations took place in Daraa and throughout the country in what organizers called a "Day of Dignity." Thousands took to the streets demanding reforms and mourning dozens of protesters who were killed during a violent, weeklong crackdown that has brought extraordinary pressure on the country's autocratic regime. Presidential adviser Buthaina Shaaban said 34 people have been killed in the weeklong crackdown. 4 people were reported killed when armed forces fired on protesters in Latakia. Troops and soldiers opened fire in at least six places, killing some 15 protesters.
    (AP, 3/25/11)(AP, 3/26/11)

2011        Mar 26, Syrian government forces and protesters clashed in the coastal city of Latakia, where demonstrators set fire to the offices of President Bashar Assad's ruling Baath party.
    (AP, 3/26/11)

2011        Mar 27, Syria's government said that unknown gunmen firing from rooftops and prowling the streets of Latakia are to blame for two days of violence that killed 12 people. A human rights activist said authorities have released 17 political detainees in another apparent attempt to appease the protesters.
    (AP, 3/27/11)

2011        Mar 28, Syrian security forces fired tear gas and live ammunition on hundreds of protesters in Daraa as President Bashar Assad faced down the most serious unrest of his 11 years in power with a bloody, weeklong crackdown. Reuters’ photographer Khaled al-Hariri, a Syrian based in Damascus, lost with colleagues.
    (AP, 3/28/11)(SFC, 3/29/11, p.A3)(AP, 3/31/11)

2011        Mar 29, Syrian President Bashar Assad fired his 32-member Cabinet to help quell a wave of popular fury that erupted more than a week ago, threatening Assad’s 11-year rule in one of the most authoritarian nations in the Middle East. Hundreds of thousands of supporters of Syria's regime poured into the streets as the government tried to show it has mass support. Human Rights Watch said more than 60 people have died since March 18 as security forces cracked down on protesters. Reuters’ correspondent Suleiman al-Khalidi was detained by Syrian authorities in Damascus.
    (AP, 3/29/11)(AP, 3/31/11)

2011        Mar 30, Syrian President Bashar Assad blamed "conspirators" for a wave of dissent against his authoritarian rule, but he failed to lift the country's despised emergency law or offer any concessions in his first speech since the protests began nearly two weeks ago.
    (AP, 3/30/11)

2011        Mar 31, Syria's Pres. Bashar Assad, facing a massive protest movement demanding reform, set up committees to look into the deaths of civilians during nearly two weeks of unrest and replacing decades-old emergency laws.
    (AP, 3/31/11)

2011        Apr 1, Thousands of Syrians shouting "We want freedom!" marched in Daraa city, which has become the epicenter of an extraordinary protest movement as security forces deployed across the country. At least 10 people were killed as security forces cracked down on demonstrations in Douma.
    (AP, 4/1/11)(AP, 4/2/11)(SFC, 4/4/11, p.A3)

2011        Apr 2, Syrian security forces made dawn arrests as mourners prepared to bury the first of at least nine people killed in anti-government protests on the Muslim day of rest.
    (AFP, 4/2/11)

2011        Apr 3, Syrian President Bashar Assad appointed Adel Safar (58), a former agriculture minister, to form a new government. This was part of a series of overtures toward reform as the country faced a wave of anti-government protests.
    (AP, 4/3/11)

2011        Apr 5, The southern Syrian town of Daraa, the center of pro-democracy protests, was hit by a general strike and braced for fresh rallies after midday prayers.
    (AFP, 4/5/11)

2011        Apr 6, Syria closed the country's only casino and reversed a decision that bans teachers from wearing the Islamic veil, moves seen an attempt to reach out to conservative Muslims ahead of calls for pro-democracy demonstrations.
    (AP, 4/6/11)

2011        Apr 7, Syria’s Pres. Bashar Assad granted citizenship to thousands of Kurds living in a northeastern province. Kurds, the largest ethnic minority in Syria, made up 15 percent of the country's 23 million population and have long complained of neglect and discrimination. Assad also sacked Governor Mohammad Iyad Ghaza of central Homs province, the scene of clashes between anti-government protesters and security forces in the past three weeks.
    (AP, 4/7/11)

2011        Apr 8, Syrian security forces fired tear gas and live ammunition as thousands of protesters gathered in Daraa. 25 people were killed in Daraa. State-run TV said 19 policemen and security forces were killed. 37 protesters were killed nationwide.
    (AP, 4/8/11)(SFC, 4/9/11, p.A3)(AP, 4/13/11)

2011        Apr 9, Syrian security forces fired on a funeral for protesters in Daraa. Some 37 people were killed around the country with most of the deaths in Daraa as the death toll in 3 weeks of protests climbed to over 170.
    (SSFC, 4/10/11, p.A7)

2011        Apr 10, Syrian security forces and pro-government gunmen killed four protesters in the port city of Banias after the army sealed off the city as hundreds of protesters gathered. State TV reported that nine soldiers were killed in an ambush near the city.
    (AP, 4/10/11)

2011        Apr 11, Syrian troops encircled the flashpoint coastal town of Banias, where weekend shootings left 13 dead and scores wounded. An activist in Damascus said security forces have beat up and arrested several at the university's science faculty. Hundreds of students had been shouting for freedoms and unity among Syrians. Activists said security forces killed a student during the protest at Damascus University.
    (AFP, 4/11/11)(AP, 4/11/11)(AP, 4/12/11)

2011        Apr 12, Syrian pro-government gunmen launched an attack on two villages, Bayda and Beit Jnad, in the northeast.
    (AP, 4/12/11)

2011        Apr 13, In Syria thousands of women and children holding white flags and olive branches blocked a main coastal highway, demanding authorities release detainees picked up during a crackdown on opponents of President Assad's authoritarian regime. Authorities released about 100 of the detainees and brought them to the area where the protesters had gathered. Protesters turned out at Damascus University in the capital and in Aleppo University in the country's north.
    (AP, 4/13/11)

2011        Apr 15, Syrian security forces fired tear gas at thousands of protesters who were marching toward Damascus.
    (AP, 4/15/11)

2011        Apr 16, Thousands of Syrians took to the streets for the funeral of a slain protester, shouting for freedom just hours before President Bashar Assad was expected to appear in a televised speech. Assad spoke to government insiders acknowledging economic woes.
    (AP, 4/16/11)(Econ, 4/23/11, p.49)

2011        Apr 17, In southern Syria thousands of people waving flags and shouting "We Want Freedom!" took to the streets, a day after President Bashar Assad promised to end nearly 50 years of emergency rule in an attempt to quell the growing uprising. Security forces opened fire on crowds challenging authoritarian rule. 20 people were killed in Homs and 2 in Latakia.
    (AP, 4/17/11)(AP, 4/18/11)(SFC, 4/19/11, p.A3)

2011        Apr 18, In Syria at least seven people were killed when security forces fired into a crowd in the flashpoint town of Homs, as nationwide protests showed no sign of abating.
    (AFP, 4/18/11)

2011        Apr 19, Syria's government approved lifting the country's nearly 50-year-old state of emergency to meet a key demand of anti-government protesters. Syria imposed a total ban on all demonstrations after warning of a crackdown on an "armed revolt" by Islamist radicals. Security forces fired on protesters in the city of Homs, killing at least 15.
    (AP, 4/19/11)(AFP, 4/19/11)(Econ, 4/23/11, p.49)

2011        Apr 20, In Syria thousands of students held demonstrations against the authoritarian regime, brushing off President Assad's sweeping declarations of reform as the country's growing protest movement vowed to stage the biggest rallies to date on April 22.
    (AP, 4/20/11)

2011        Apr 21, Syria's President Bashar Assad ratified an end to the country's 50-year-old state of emergency. The move was a formality after the government abolished the emergency laws two days ago.
    (AP, 4/21/11)

2011        Apr 22, Syrian security forces fired live bullets and tear gas at tens of thousands of people shouting for freedom and democracy in several areas across the country. At least 109 people were killed in the clashes.
    (Reuters, 4/22/11)(AP, 4/23/11)(Reuters, 4/24/11)(SFC, 4/25/11, p.A3)

2011        Apr 23, Syrian security forces fired on tens of thousands of mourners during funeral processions killing at least 12 people including 4 in Nawa. Two members of parliament from Deraa resigned in protest against the killing of protesters. The death toll from two days of violence reached 120. Rights campaigners said the death toll rose to around 350, with scores of missing since the demonstrations broke out on March 18.
    (AP, 4/23/11)(AFP, 4/23/11)(Reuters, 4/24/11)(SFC, 4/25/11, p.A3)

2011        Apr 24, Thousands of Syrians called for the overthrow of President Bashar al-Assad at a funeral for protesters killed by security forces in the southern town of Nawa. Syrian security forces detained dozens of opposition activists and others in raids. In Jableh (Jabla) army troops and police reportedly opened fire from rooftop positions even though no protest was in progress, killing one person and wounding several others.
    (Reuters, 4/24/11)(AP, 4/24/11)

2011        Apr 25, Syria sharply escalated its already deadly campaign to crush a five-week uprising, sending troops backed by tanks, snipers and knife-wielding security forces into Daraa where the rebellion began, killing at least 25 people. Syria sealed off its border with Jordan.
    (AP, 4/25/11)(AFP, 4/25/11)(Reuters, 4/26/11)(AFP, 4/27/11)

2011        Apr 26, In Syria gunfire reverberated in the southern city of Daraa where the dead still lay unclaimed in the streets a day after a brutal government crackdown on the popular revolt against President Bashar Assad. European governments urged Syria to end violence against demonstrators. Security forces shot dead at least 6 people.
    (AP, 4/26/11)(Reuters, 4/26/11)

2011        Apr 27, Syrian troops tightened control over flashpoints of protest against President Bashar al-Assad, who faced growing international calls to end violence that a rights group said had killed over 450 people. The Syrian army sent more tanks and reinforcements into Daraa as part of a widening crackdown.
    (AP, 4/27/11)

2011        Apr 28, Syrian tanks rolled into the northern port of Latakia, a key city in the heartland of Syria's ruling elite, and security forces opened fire on anti government demonstrators, while heavy shooting rang out again in the southern protest hotbed of Daraa.
    (AP, 4/28/11)
2011        Apr 28, The UN nuclear agency said for the first time that a target destroyed by Israeli warplanes in the Syrian desert five years ago was a covertly built nuclear reactor, countering assertions by Syria that it had no atomic secrets to hide.
    (AP, 4/28/11)

2011        Apr 29, Thousands of Syrians called for the toppling of President Bashar al-Assad and pledged support for the city of Deraa where tanks and troops have tried to crush resistance to his authoritarian rule. At least 65 people were killed with 36 of the deaths in the Daraa province, 27 in the central Homs region, one in Latakia and another in the Damascus countryside. Tamer Mohammed al-Sharei (15) disappeared in Daraa. Activists on June 9 released video of his dead body and said he was tortured by security forces.
    (AP, 4/29/11)(AP, 4/30/11)(SFC, 6/10/11, p.A2)

2011        Apr 30, Syrian army troops backed by tanks and helicopters took a prominent mosque that had been controlled by residents in a besieged southern city, killing four people. Another six people were killed in separate incidents. 138 members of Assad's ruling Baath Party resigned to protest the crackdown. Troops and snipers killed six civilians as Syrians prepared to bury scores of people killed in a "day of rage", while the United States and EU imposed sanctions on Damascus.
    (AP, 4/30/11)(AFP, 4/30/11)(AP, 5/1/11)

2011        May 1, Syrian army tanks shelled the old quarter of Daraa and rolled in more reinforcements to the area, which has been under siege for nearly a week. Syrian forces arrested more dissidents in Daraa and in a Damascus suburb under siege for a week. The death toll soared to 545 nationwide from government forces firing on demonstrators.
    (AP, 5/1/11)(AFP, 5/1/11)

2011        May 2, Syrian troops conducted door-to-door raids in cities and towns across the nation, arresting scores of people in a campaign of intimidation aimed at crushing the six-week uprising against President Bashar Assad's authoritarian regime.
    (AP, 5/2/11)

2011        May 3, Syrian security forces fired tear gas in the northern city of Aleppo to disperse hundreds of students rallying and calling for an end to Daraa's siege. Rights groups said at least 545 Syrians have been killed since the uprising began in Daraa.
    (AP, 5/4/11)

2011        May 5, The Syrian army said it has begun withdrawing from Daraa, a city at the heart of the country's uprising, but the regime expanded its crackdown elsewhere by deploying soldiers and arresting hundreds ahead of a fresh wave of anti-government protests. Syrian troops arrested 300 people in a Damascus suburb.
    (AP, 5/5/11)(AFP, 5/5/11)

2011        May 6, Thousands of Syrians rallied on a "Day of Defiance" even as the regime of President Bashar al-Assad deployed tanks in at least three centers of an uprising against his autocratic rule. Security forces opened fire on protesters, killing at least 30 people, as thousands joined demonstrations across the country calling for an end to Assad's regime.
    (AFP, 5/6/11)(AP, 5/6/11)(AP, 5/7/11)
2011        May 6, The EU agreed to place sanctions on Syrian officials next week as it tries to halt a government crackdown against protesters.
    (AP, 5/6/11)

2011        May 7, Syrian tanks rolled into the Mediterranean coastal town of Banias in an escalating crackdown by President Bashar Assad. Rights groups said more than 580 civilians and 100 soldiers have been killed since the revolt began.
    (AP, 5/7/11)

2011        May 8, In Syria a 12-year-old boy was killed as gunfire and shelling erupted in the central city of Homs. An activist said the two-day death toll in Banias had risen to six. State-run SANA said authorities have seized sophisticated weapons and that the army is still hunting down "armed terrorist groups" across the country, including in Banias.
    (AP, 5/8/11)

2011        May 9, Syrian security forces arrested hundreds of activists and anti-government protesters in house-to-house raids across the country, part of an escalating government crackdown aimed at stamping out the nationwide revolt engulfing the country.
    (AP, 5/9/11)

2011        May 10, Syrian forces tightened the noose on key protest hubs, including flashpoint Banias, sealing off neighborhoods and arresting leaders of the anti-regime dissent movement. Syria’s National Organization for Human Rights said over 750 civilians have been killed in Syria since an uprising against President Bashar Assad's regime began in mid-March. Activists said three protesters were killed when government forces fired on demonstrations in Jassem. In Banias at least 7 civilians, including 4 women, were killed during military operations.
    (AFP, 5/10/11)(AP, 5/10/11)(AP, 5/11/11)

2011        May 11, The Syrian army shelled residential areas in Homs, the country's third-largest city, leaving at least 10 dead as part of an offensive to crush demonstrations against President Bashar Assad's rule. An official, who was not identified, said two soldiers were killed and five wounded during confrontations. Al-Jazeera said that Dorothy Parvaz, one of the network's journalists with extensive connections in the US and Canada, has been sent to Iran following her detention last month in Damascus.
    (AP, 5/11/11)(SFC, 5/12/11, p.A3)

2011        May 12, Syrian soldiers and tanks executing a nationwide crackdown on regime opponents surrounded the city of Hama.
    (AP, 5/12/11)

2011        May 13, Syrian security forces and snipers opened fire on thousands of protesters, killing at least 6 people as soldiers tried to head off demonstrations by occupying mosques and blocking public squares.
    (AP, 5/13/11)(SFC, 5/14/11, p.A2)

2011        May 14, Syrian troops killed three people and wounded several others in the border town of Tall Kalakh. Hundreds of Syrians, including four wounded people, crossed into Lebanon fleeing violence in their country as an uprising against President Bashar Assad's regime entered its eighth week.
    (AFP, 5/14/11)(AP, 5/14/11)

2011        May 15, In Syria at least 8 people were killed in Talkalakh, the most recent casualties from a government crackdown that already has killed 850 people nationwide since mid-March.
    (AP, 5/16/11)
2011        May 15, Israeli troops clashed with Arab protesters along three hostile borders, leaving at least 12 people dead and dozens wounded in an unprecedented wave of violence marking the anniversary of the mass displacement of Palestinians surrounding Israel's establishment in 1948. Israeli gunfire killed two protesters and wounded dozens as civilians crossed from Syria onto the annexed Golan Heights, raising tensions between Damascus and the Jewish state. 10 of the dead were Palestinian refugees living in Lebanon.
    (AP, 5/15/11)(AFP, 5/15/11)(AP, 5/16/11)
2011        May 15, A Lebanese soldier was wounded from gunfire coming from the Syrian side of the border.
    (AP, 5/15/11)

2011        May 16, Syrians fleeing their homeland described a "catastrophic" scene in the besieged border town of Talkalakh that has been largely sealed off as the army strove to crush a two-month uprising. Talkalakh is a Sunni city, surrounded by 12 Alawite villages.
    (AP, 5/16/11)

2011        May 17, Syria's opposition called for a general strike on May 18 in defiance of a government campaign to crush pro-democracy protests, as the army presses its siege of the restive town of Tall Kalakh, the latest target of its brutal crackdown. Syrian government agents chased students who were protesting against President Bashar Assad's regime at campus in Aleppo, beating them with batons and injuring dozens.
    (AFP, 5/17/11)(AP, 5/17/11)

2011        May 18, The Swiss government passed a measure restricting arms sales to Syria and freezing the assets and banning the travel to Switzerland of 13 senior Syrian officials.
    (AP, 5/18/11)
2011        May 18, The US slapped sanctions on Syrian Pres. Bashar Assad and six of his senior officials for human rights abuses.
    (SFC, 5/19/11, p.A4)

2011        May 19, The Syrian army shelled the border town of Talkalakh overnight and early today, sparking gunbattles that killed at least 8 people. The government condemned US sanctions targeting President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 5/19/11)

2011        May 20, Syrian security forces opened fire on protests around the country in the latest sign the conflict could be moving toward a long and bloody stalemate. The crackdown on protesters in different parts of the country left at least 44 people dead, making it one of the deadliest days since an uprising against Pres. Assad's regime began two months ago.
    (AP, 5/20/11)(AP, 5/21/11)

2011        May 21, In Syria at least five people were killed while marching during the funeral procession of several people among 44 killed during protests a day earlier.
    (AFP, 5/22/11)

2011        May 23, The EU imposed sanctions on Syrian President Bashar Assad because of his government's continuing crackdown on anti-government protesters, condemning the violence in which more than 900 people have reportedly been killed.
    (AP, 5/23/11)

2011        May 24, Ammar Qarabi of the National Organization for Human Rights in Syria said his group has documented the names of 1,062 people who have died since the uprising erupted in mid-March.
    (AP, 5/24/11)

2011        May 25, In Syria the body of Hamza al-Khatib (13) was returned to his family, following his disappearance after a demonstration in Daraa on April 29. The body bore multiple marks of abuse including bullet holes and castration.
    (AFP, 5/28/11)(Econ, 6/4/11, p.56)

2011        May 27, Syrian security forces opened fire on anti-government demonstrations, killing at least 12 people as thousands took to the streets despite the near-certainty they will face gunfire, tear gas and stun guns.
    (AP, 5/27/11)(AFP, 5/28/11)

2011        May 28, Syrian activists called for renewed protests in honor of Hamza al-Khatib, a 13-year-old boy who allegedly was tortured and killed by security forces.
    (AP, 5/28/11)

2011        May 29, Syrian government troops backed by tanks attacked the towns of Rastan and Talbiseh in the central province of Homs in an attempt to stop round-the-clock protests there against Pres. Assad's regime. The toll of those shot dead rose to 11 from a previously reported seven in Rastan and Talbisa. Security forces reportedly opened fire in the early hours at about 8,000 protesters in the northeastern town of Deir el-Zour, wounding several people.
    (AP, 5/29/11)(AFP, 5/30/11)

2011        May 30, Syrian troops shelled the central town of Tabliseh, and for the first time in the two-month-old revolt against the president, residents armed with automatic rifles and rocket-propelled grenades put up fierce resistance. State media said four soldiers were killed. Two bodies were found in the area of Bab Amro cemetery, raising the death toll from the two-day crackdown in the country's turbulent heartland to 11.
    (AP, 5/30/11)

2011        May 31, The Syrian military used heavy machine guns and artillery in renewed attacks on Rastan, a town in the country's turbulent heartland. Opponents of the Syrian regime gathered on Turkey's Mediterranean coast for a conference aimed at overcoming their differences and bolstering protesters who have endured a bloody crackdown under President Bashar Assad. 20 people were reported shot dead in Rastan.
    (AP, 6/1/11)(AP, 6/1/11)

2011        Jun 1, The Syrian government freed hundreds of political prisoners in an amnesty and the president set up a committee for national dialogue in an effort to end the 10-week uprising. Syrian military forces killed 42 people in raids around Homs. Over 300 Syrian exiles gathered in Antalya, Turkey, to discuss alternatives to Bashar Assad’s rule.
    (AP, 6/1/11)(AP, 6/2/11)(SFC, 6/2/11, p.A2)(Econ, 6/4/11, p.57)

2011        Jun 2, Syrian government troops pounded a central town with artillery and gunfire, renewing attacks in a restive area that has been largely cut off from outside contact for six days. At least 15 people died, bringing the total killed there to 72 since the onslaught began.
    (AP, 6/2/11)

2011        Jun 3, Syrian security forces opened fire in Hama during one of the largest anti-government protests so far in the 10-week revolt, killing at least 70 people.
    (AP, 6/3/11)(AP, 6/4/11)(SFC, 6/5/11, p.A4)(Econ, 6/11/11, p.53)

2011        Jun 4, In Syria more than 100,000 mourners turned out for the funerals of protesters killed by security forces in Hama. Authorities released Ali Abdullah, a leading opposition figure of the Damascus Declaration Group. He had been jailed since 2007.
    (AP, 6/4/11)

2011        Jun 5, Israeli troops opened fire across the Syrian frontier to disperse hundreds of pro-Palestinian protesters who stormed the border of the Israeli-controlled Golan Heights. Syrian state television said 20 people were killed by the Israeli Defense Forces. Israelis said only 10 demonstrators were killed near Kuneitra when their own Molotov cocktails triggered border anti-tank mines.
    (AP, 6/5/11)(Reuters, 6/5/11)(AFP, 6/5/11)(SFC, 6/6/11, p.A2)(Econ, 6/11/11, p.54)

2011        Jun 6, Syrian American lesbian blogger Amina Arraf was allegedly last seen in Damascus after being bundled into a car by 3 men in civilian clothes. On June 13 this story was revealed as a hoax and a 40-year old American man living in Scotland apologized for posing as Arraf.
    (SFC, 6/8/11, p.A2)(SFC, 6/14/11, p.A2)

2011        Jun 7, Syria’s government said 120 of its forces were killed in Jisr al-Shughour as people fled the area for the nearby Turkish border. Syria said armed gangs killed security personnel in the town after large demonstrations there.
    (SFC, 6/8/11, p.A4)(Reuters, 4/25/15)

2011        Jun 8, Civil strife continued in Syria, as elite troops, led by President Bashar Assad’s brother Maher, were sent to the northern region of the country to crack down on anti-government rebels, who are fighting to overthrow the Assad regime.
    (AP, 6/8/11)

2011           Jun 9, In Syria government troops surrounded Jisr al-Shughour in a crack down on rebels. Over 2,400 people fled the area escaping over the border into Turkey, where they were settled in a temporary refugee camp. Policemen turned their guns on each other and soldiers shed their uniforms rather than obey orders to fire on protesters. 3 young men from Latakia were beheaded by forces loyal to Assad.      
            (Reuters, 6/9/11)(SFC, 6/10/11, p.A5)

2011        Jun 10, Syrian government forces killed at least 32 protesters. The military fired live ammunition at a group of demonstrators in the Hauran Plain region. Government troops fanned out to quell similar protests in a number of other regions as demonstrators rose up in no fewer than 138 places calling for the overthrow of the regime of Bashar al-Assad.
            (Reuters, 6/10/11)(SFC, 6/11/11, p.A4)(Econ, 6/18/11, p.16)

2011             Jun 12, Syrian troops, led by President Assad’s brother and assisted by tanks and helicopters, successful regained control of Jisr al-Shughour, one of the first regions where anti-government protests had shown strength.  
            (AP, 6/12/11)

2011        Jun 15, Terrified Syrians ran for their lives as elite army units swept through a restive northern province.
    (SFC, 6/16/11, p.A2)
2011              Jun 15, Turkey’s president Tayyip Erdogan held talks with an envoy of Syrian president Bashar al-Assad as a growing number of Syrians fled their country seeking safety in refugee camps. Relations between Turkey and Syria strained, as Turkey wants Syria to stop its brutal crackdown on protesters.
            (Reuters, 6/15/11)

2011        Jun 16, Syrian security forces made sweeping arrests, randomly detaining males above the age of 16 in a northwestern province that has been under military siege for a week.
    (AP, 6/16/11)

2011        Jun 17, Syrian security forces killed 19 people, including a 16-year-old boy, during anti-government protests. Thousands of people poured into the streets throughout Syria after prayers calling for the downfall of President Bashar Assad's regime. Security forces opened fire on protesters in the western coastal city of Banias.
    (AP, 6/17/11)(AFP, 6/17/11)(AP, 6/18/11)

2011        Jun 18, Syrian troops backed by tanks and firing heavy machine guns swept into a village near the Turkish border, the latest in a series of intensified army operations in the northwest where there have been heavy clashes between loyalist troops and defectors. The number of Syrians who have taken refuge in Turkey to escape bloody unrest in their country increased to about 10,100. At least 19 unarmed people were killed in the day’s violence.
    (AP, 6/18/11)(AFP, 6/18/11)(SFC, 6/18/11, p.A3)

2011        Jun 19, Syrian troops tightened their grip on a restive area near the Turkish border, setting fire to homes and a bakery that was supplying bread to thousands of displaced people. The Turkish government began providing food for the first time to Syrians across the border who had fled the army campaign.
    (AP, 6/19/11)

2011        Jun 20, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad pledged political reforms within months to address a wave of protests against his rule, but blamed saboteurs for the unrest and warned that no deal could be reached with gunmen. Assad called on the 10,000 who have already crossed the frontier to come home. Demonstrations erupted overnight in the cities of Hama, Homs, Latakia, Deir al-Zor, the town of Madaya near the Lebanese border, several suburbs of the capital Damascus and in Albu Kamal on the border with Iraq.
    (Reuters, 6/20/11)

2011        Jun 21, Syria’s President Bashar al-Assad ordered a new general amnesty, a day after an offer of "national dialogue" to end Syria's deadly unrest and as a huge crowd rallied in Damascus in his support.  Government supporters and opponents clashed in at least two cities, leaving three people dead in Homs and Deir el Zour. Assad's authoritarian regime mobilized tens of thousands of people to wave flags and pictures of Assad in several major cities.
    (AP, 6/21/11)(AFP, 6/21/11)

2011        Jun 23, Syrian troops massed near the Turkish border, raising tensions with Ankara as protests against President Bashar al-Assad's rule hit the 100 day mark. Syrian forces stormed the border town of Khirbet al-Jouz. Rights groups said Syrian security forces have killed more than 130 civilians and arrested 2,000 in the military campaign southwest of Aleppo. Some 1,300 civilians have been killed across Syria since mid-March.
    (Reuters, 6/23/11)(SFC, 6/24/11, p.A3)

2011        Jun 24, In Syria at least 18 people were killed when security forces opened fire to disperse demonstrations in Damascus, the town of Kiswah, Qusair and the central city of Homs. Demonstrations rocked many Syrian cities, including the eastern oil hub of Deir Ezzor where 30,000 protesters filled the streets. The EU this week issued fresh sanctions against Syria, which expanded a blacklist targeting 23 top leaders including the embattled president Assad.
    (AFP, 6/24/11)(AFP, 6/25/11)

2011        Jun 25, Syrian tanks rolled into a village on the border with Turkey where workers are scrambling to erect a huge tent city for fear of a new exodus of refugees from the crackdown. Government forces opened fire at funerals for slain political protesters leaving two dead in al-Kaswa, a suburb of the Syrian Damascus. Two other people were killed in the village of al-Quseir. One person was killed in the Barzeh neighborhood of Damascus.
    (AFP, 6/25/11)(AP, 6/26/11)

2011        Jun 26, Syrian troops pushed towards the Lebanese border as they pressed on with a deadly crackdown on dissent in central towns, where gunfire rattled overnight.
    (AFP, 6/26/11)

2011        Jun 27, In Syria nearly 200 critics of President Bashar Assad met in Damascus for the first time during the three-month uprising against his rule, in a government-sanctioned gathering some activists complained would be exploited to give legitimacy to the regime.
    (AP, 6/27/11)

2011        Jun 28, In Syria some 50,000 to 60,000 protesters marched through the eastern town of Deir Ezzor, where demonstrations have become a daily event. Author and activist Munzer Khaddam, who a day earlier presided over a public meeting of opposition figures in Damascus, was taken to task by pro-regime supporters.
    (AP, 6/29/11)

2011        Jun 29, Syrian army tanks rolled into more northwestern villages. 10 people were shot dead when soldiers backed by tanks and armored personnel carriers swept into in the district of Jabal al-Zawiyah, including Mar-Ayan, Al-Rami, Sarja and Kafr Haya. Some 300 hundred lawyers staged a sit-in protest in the second city of Aleppo. The US Treasury issued a new list of asset freezes, targeting Syria's Political Security Directorate and air force intelligence chief Major General Jamil Hassan.
    (AP, 6/29/11)(AP, 6/30/11)

2011        Jun 30, Syria's second city Aleppo braced for a mass rally, after a call for anti-regime protesters to "light the spark of the revolution," as pro-democracy dissidents joined ranks at home and abroad. Only five Syrians made it across the border today as the death toll from a two-day military siege rose to 11 people.
    (AFP, 6/30/11)(AP, 6/30/11)

2011        Jul 1, In Syria hundreds of thousands of protesters flooded cities in one of the largest outpourings against the regime of President Bashar Assad since the uprisings. Security forces in Hama shot dead over 20 protesters.
    (AP, 7/1/11)(AP, 7/2/11)(Econ, 7/16/11, p.55)

2011        Jul 2, Syrian Pres Assad dismissed Ahmed Abdul-Aziz, the governor of the key central city of Hama, after one of the largest protest gatherings to demand an end to Assad's authoritarian regime.
    (AP, 7/2/11)

2011        Jul 3, In Syria security police reportedly shot dead two protesters in a Damascus suburb that has seen expanding protests against Pres. Assad. Armed troops returned to Hama. At least 24 people were killed in widespread demonstrations over the next 2 days.
    (Reuters, 7/4/11)(Econ, 7/9/11, p.45)

2011        Jul 4, Syrian troops stormed houses in Hama as thousands of people took to the streets shouting "God is greatest," in the city which saw huge protests last week against President Bashar al-Assad. Two adults and 12-year-old Omar Khalouf were killed in Hama.
    (Reuters, 7/4/11)(SFC, 7/6/11, p.A3)

2011        Jul 5, Syrian troops fired on residents who set up makeshift roadblocks to prevent the advance of tanks ringing the city of Hama. The London-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 14 people were killed in Hama. Another group, the National Organization for Human Rights in Syria said, as many as 22 people were shot dead and more than 80 wounded.
    (AP, 7/5/11)(AP, 7/6/11)

2011        Jul 6, In Syria security forces detained dozens of men in the town of Dumair near Damascus. Amnesty International said that Syrian security forces may have committed war crimes during a deadly siege of an opposition town in May, citing witness accounts of deaths in custody, torture and arbitrary detention.
    (AP, 7/6/11)

2011        Jul 7, Syrian protesters hurled stones and set roadblocks of burning tires against government forces trying to enter Hama, a key opposition city, where Syrian troops had killed 23 civilians since July 5. Around a hundred families fled Hama fearing a military crackdown.
    (AP, 7/7/11)(AFP, 7/7/11)

2011        Jul 8, Tens of thousands of Syrians carrying olive branches and shouting for the downfall of President Bashar Assad's regime streamed into the flashpoint city of Hama. US and French ambassadors traveled to Hama a day earlier and left today before the protests began. Security forces killed three protesters in Maaret al-Numan, a town on the highway linking Damascus, the capital, with Syria's largest city, Aleppo. Two other people were killed in Damascus' central neighborhood of Midan and in the nearby town of Dumari. Activists said the crackdown killed at least 13 people.
    (AP, 7/8/11)(AP, 7/9/11)

2011        Jul 9, Human Rights Watch, in a report citing defectors from President Bashar Assad's regime, said Syrian commanders have told security forces they were fighting terrorists and ordered them to open fire on anti-regime demonstrations even after they found unarmed protesters instead.
    (AP, 7/9/11)

2011        Jul 10, Syria's vice president Farouk al-Sharaa called for a transition to democracy and credited protesters with forcing the regime to consider reforms. Syria's Foreign Ministry said it had summoned the American and French ambassadors to protest their visits to the restive city of Hama. Security forces in Homs killed the son of an anti-regime tribal leader.
    (AP, 7/10/11)(AP, 7/11/11)

2011        Jul 11, Syrian troops stormed into Homs, the country's third-largest city with armored personnel carriers and heavy machine guns. At least 2 people were killed as a dialogue over possible government reforms moved into a second day in Damascus. The talks were boycotted by the main opposition factions. Pro-government mobs broke windows at the French and US embassies to protest a visit last week by the American and French ambassadors to the opposition stronghold of Hama.
    (AP, 7/11/11)(AP, 7/12/11)

2011        Jul 12, In northeastern Syria an explosion hit a gas pipeline in the first attack on the country's energy infrastructure since protests erupted in March.
    (AFP, 7/13/11)

2011        Jul 13, In Syria at least 7 people were killed during army raids in the Jabal al-Zawiya region in northern Idlib province. Security forces broke up a peaceful anti-government protest in Damascus, beating some protesters and arresting Syrian intellectuals, actors and artists.
    (AP, 7/14/11)

2011        Jul 14, In Syria a 45-year-old man was shot dead in Deir el-Zour province, near the border with Iraq, when security forces fired at protesters.
    (AP, 7/14/11)

2011        Jul 15, Syrian security forces killed at least 28 protesters as hundreds of thousands flooded the streets nationwide in the largest anti-government demonstrations since the uprising began more than four months ago. Casualties included 14 people in a suburb of Damascus, three in the northwestern city of Idlib, three in the central city of Homs and one in Daraa.
    (AP, 7/15/11)(AP, 7/16/11)(SFC, 7/16/11, p.A3)

2011        Jul 16, In Syria security forces continued a weekslong operation in the restive Idlib province, near the Turkish border. Authorities raided homes in the village Kfar Nabl and made scores of arrests. A civilian was killed in Al-Bukamal when security forces opened fire to break up a demonstration against the regime of President Assad. 3 security personnel were killed and two kidnapped in an attack on a government building. An opposition conference in Turkey, called the National Salvation Conference, was attended by some 400 dissidents looking to form a unified opposition to Pres. Assad, whose family has ruled Syria for more than 40 years. The corpses of 3 Alawite government supporters were dumped in Homs with their eyes gouged out.
    (AP, 7/16/11)(AP, 7/17/11)(SFC, 7/19/11, p.A5)

2011        Jul 17, Syrian troops backed by tanks stormed the town of Zabadani near the border with Lebanon. Security forces reportedly have rounded up more than 500 people, including a leading dissident, across the country over the past two days. 6 bodies from various sects were found dumped in Homs, apparently in revenge attacks. Pro-government thugs called shabiha then went on a rampage, opening fire in predominantly Sunni neighborhoods in Homs.
    (AP, 7/17/11)(AP, 7/18/11)

2011        Jul 18, In Syria the Qatari embassy in Damascus suspended operations due to recent protests outside the embassy against Al-Jazeera's coverage of the Syrian uprising. Al-Jazeera is based in Qatar. Security forces in Homs killed 10 people in raids.
    (AP, 7/18/11)(AP, 7/18/11)

2011        Jul 19, Syrian activists said security forces have fired on a funeral procession in Homs, killing at least 10 people.
    (AP, 7/18/11)

2011        Jul 20, Syrian security forces swept through restive neighborhoods, detaining dozens of people, including George Sabra, a key opposition figure. Authorities released prominent political activist Ali Abdullah of the Damascus Declaration opposition group, three days after he was taken from his home near Damascus.
    (AP, 7/20/11)

2011        Jul 21, Syrian security forces swept through neighborhoods in Homs, firing machine guns and pulling people from their homes in a series of arrests. Activists said up to 50 people have been killed in Homs since the latest crackdown and sectarian violence began on July 16. 3-4 more people were reportedly killed in Homs.
    (AP, 7/21/11)(AP, 7/21/11)

2011        Jul 22, Tens of thousands of Syrians defied a massive security crackdown and flooded the streets of Damascus and other cities, insisting their protest movement was united and demanding the downfall of President Bashar Assad's regime. At least five people were reported killed, as security forces used batons, bullets and tear gas to disperse protesters.
    (AP, 7/22/11)(AP, 7/23/11)

2011        Jul 23, A Syrian passenger train derailed and caught fire near Homs, killing the driver and injuring 14 passengers, after "saboteurs" tore out part of the tracks.
    (AP, 7/23/11)

2011        Jul 24, Syria's government endorsed a draft law that it says will allow the formation of political parties alongside President Assad's ruling Baath Party, part of a series of promised reforms that the opposition has dismissed as largely symbolic. The bill still needed to be endorsed by parliament and will likely be presented for debate at the next session on August 7. Troops stormed a northwestern village and made sweeping arrests in the region and in the capital Damascus.
    (AP, 7/25/11)

2011        Jul 25, Syrian security forces tightened their siege of neighborhoods in the city of Homs, sending military reinforcements and cutting mobile and land lines in the Khaldieh and Bayada districts. Troops shot dead three civilians in central and northern Syria.
    (AP, 7/25/11)(AP, 7/26/11)

2011        Jul 26, Syria’s Cabinet endorsed draft legislation that would enable newly formed political parties to run for parliament and local councils.
    (AP, 7/27/11)

2011        Jul 27, Syrian troops opened fire on scores of people in a Damascus suburb, killing at least 8 people trying to halt the soldiers' advance by throwing stones and burning tires. Zainab al-Hosni (18) was abducted by plainclothes individuals believed to be members of the security forces, apparently to pressure her activist brother Mohammad Deeb al-Hosni to turn himself in. On Sep 23 it was reported that her family found her corpse by chance as they searched for her activist brother's body in Homs. The family said she had been decapitated, her arms cut off, and skin removed.
    (AP, 7/27/11)(AP, 9/23/11)

2011        Jul 28, A global campaigning organization, Avaaz.org, said that one person disappears in Syria every hour and that almost 3,000 people have gone missing since the start of the uprising against President Bashar Assad more than four months ago.
    (AP, 7/28/11)

2011        Jul 29, Syrian troops fired live ammunition and tear gas on tens of thousands of protesters calling for the regime's ouster in several cities around the country, killing at least one demonstrator in Latakia. A bomb blast struck a major oil pipeline in western Syria, causing oil to spill into a nearby lake. State television said the explosion was a "terrorist" attack by a group of "saboteurs." 4 people were killed during a raid on the Damascus suburb of Kiswah. One person was killed when troops entered the eastern border town of al-Boukamal near Iraq's border.
    (AP, 7/29/11)(AP, 7/30/11)

2011        Jul 30, Syrian troops stormed the eastern city of Deir el-Zour and barraged neighborhoods with heavy machine gun fire. One person was shot dead in a nearby village.
    (AP, 7/30/11)

2011        Jul 31, Syrian security forces reportedly killed at least 74 people, including 55 in Hama, in an escalation of the crackdown on protests ahead of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. State-run news agency SANA said that gunmen in Hama and Deir el-Zour had erected barricades and sand barriers in the streets, and that extremists in Hama torched police stations and that 2 policemen, an officer and 2 soldiers were killed.
    (AP, 7/31/11)(AP, 8/1/11)

2011        Aug 1, Syrian troops kept up attacks on the restive city of Hama on the start of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. The EU expanded its sanctions against Syria, imposing asset freezes and travel bans against five more military and government officials. Some 24 people were reported killed in Hama. Activists later said 130 civilians were killed in the first day of the attack in Hama.
    (AP, 8/1/11)(AP, 8/2/11)(AP, 8/31/11)

2011        Aug 2, Syrian troops tightened their siege on the city of Hama by taking up positions near homes and sending residents fleeing for their lives.
    (AP, 8/2/11)
2011        Aug 2, Italy recalled its ambassador to Syria to protest the repression of anti-government protests and urged other European nations to do the same.
    (AP, 8/2/11)

2011        Aug 3, Syrian tanks took over a main square in the besieged city of Hama and electricity and telephone phone lines were cut off. Security forces shot dead at least 7 people who took part in anti-regime protests that erupted after nighttime Ramadan prayers across the country. A rights group that tracks death tallies reported up to 30 people were killed in Hama.
    (AP, 8/3/11)(AP, 8/4/11)(AP, 8/4/11)

2011        Aug 4, Syria’s Pres. Assad issued two legislative decrees that will allow the formation of political parties alongside the Baath Party and enable newly formed parties to run for parliament and local councils. Telephone and communication lines remained cut with the restive city of Hama, where a deadly military operation has been under way since July 31. Military operations were also under way in the central city of Homs, where heavy machine guns and automatic gunfire was heard throughout the night in the Bab Sbaa and Qalaa districts.
    (AP, 8/4/11)

2011        Aug 5, Syrian security forces opened fire on protesters, killing at least four in the Damascus suburb of Arbeen, as tens of thousands poured into streets across the country, chanting for the fall of President Bashar Assad. The six-day-old assault on Hama has killed at least 100 people. At least 24 civilians were reported killed, most of them in Damascus suburbs when security forces opened fire during daytime protests and late night demonstrations following evening Ramadan prayers. 5 people were reported killed in Hama and its surrounding countryside.
    (AP, 8/5/11)(AP, 8/6/11)

2011        Aug 6, The Syrian military tightened its suffocating siege on the city of Hama in its drive to crush the main center of the anti-regime uprising in the country. Foreign Minister Walid al-Moallem pledged to press ahead with reforms and said the new parliament "will represent the aspirations of the Syrian people."
    (AP, 8/6/11)

2011        Aug 7, Syrian government forces killed at least 59 people including 42 in the eastern city of Deir el-Zour. 10 people were reported shot dead in Idlib while taking part in a funeral. The 22-member Arab League, which had been silent since the uprising began, said it is "alarmed" by the situation in Syria and called for the immediate halt of all violence. Saudi Arabia said it is recalling its ambassador to Syria for consultations.
    (AP, 8/7/11)(AP, 8/8/11)
2011        Aug 7, Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah demanded a stop to Syria’s “killing machine."
    (Econ, 8/13/11, p.43)

2011        Aug 8, Syria’s eastern city of Deir el-Zour came under fresh artillery fire as a deadly military assault left President Bashar Assad's regime increasingly isolated, with Arab nations forcefully joining the international chorus of condemnation for the first time.
    (AP, 8/8/11)

2011        Aug 9, The Syrian army launched raids on restive areas, defying growing international reproach over the regime's deadly crackdown on a 5-month-old uprising. There was heavy machine-gun fire in the eastern city of Deir el-Zour. Human rights groups said at least 22 people were killed across the country including 8 children.
    (AP, 8/9/11)
2011        Aug 9, More than 2,000 Kuwaitis rallied outside the Syrian embassy in the Gulf state demanding the expulsion of the Syrian envoy and the "freezing" of relations with Damascus.
    (AFP, 8/10/11)

2011        Aug 10, Syrian troops launched operations in three suburbs of the capital Damascus as well as the northwestern village of Sarmin, near the Turkish border, where a woman was killed and three people wounded. Security forces also killed an activist in the northwestern town of Taftanaz, where the army is conducting a military operation. Hama appeared to be under full government control. Security forces shot dead at least 15 people in Homs. The Obama administration announced new sanctions.
    (AP, 8/10/11)(AP, 8/11/11)

2011        Aug 11, The Syrian army stormed Saraqeb, a northwestern town near Turkey's border, and shot dead 11 people in Qusair, a western town near the Lebanese border.
    (AP, 8/11/11)

2011        Aug 12, Syrian activists said troops and tanks stormed the town of Khan Sheikhon in the northern province of Idlib amid heavy gunfire. Syrian soldiers opened fire on tens of thousands of protesters who flooded the streets shouting "We will not kneel!" Security forces killed at least 15 protesters. The US stepped up calls for a global trade embargo on oil and gas from Syria. Four people were killed in Aleppo as security forces attacked protesters.
    (AP, 8/12/11)(AP, 8/13/11)(SFC, 8/13/11, p.A3)(AP, 8/15/11)

2011        Aug 13, Syrian tanks fanned out across a neighborhood in the coastal city of Latakia amid intense shooting that sent many resident fleeing to safer areas. Scores of security agents and pro-government gunmen, known as Shabiha, entered the town of Qusair near the border with Lebanon and several nearby villages, arresting scores of residents. At least two people were killed after 20 tanks and armored personnel carriers rolled into Latakia’s al-Ramel district.
    (AP, 8/13/11)(AP, 8/14/11)

2011        Aug 14, Syrian gunboats firing heavy machine guns pounded impoverished districts of Latakia, killing at least 19 people in a renewed assault on the Mediterranean coastal city. A health official said two law enforcement officials were killed in Latakia and 41 wounded in addition to a number of gunmen whose identities were not known.
    (AP, 8/14/11)

2011        Aug 15, Syrian troops besieged residential areas of Latakia and Homs, firing on residents as they fled for safety and killing at least two people during broad military assaults to root out dissent against President Bashar Assad's autocratic regime. At least 17 people were reported killed, six of them in Latakia. The other deaths were in Homs and Houla.
    (AP, 8/15/11)(AP, 8/16/11)

2011        Aug 16, In Syria heavy machine-gun fire erupted across the besieged city of Latakia as the death toll rose to 35 from a military assault now in its fourth day. Army units began withdrawing from Deir el-Zour after clearing the city of "armed terrorist gangs" in an operation that lasted several days.
    (AP, 8/16/11)

2011        Aug 17, Syrian troops detained dozens of people in a Damascus neighborhood and the coastal city of Latakia in overnight raids as President Bashar Assad's regime tried to forcefully end a five-month uprising. A woman died of her wounds two days after she was injured in Latakia. In the northwestern Idlib province, a bullet killed a man as he stood on his balcony. , Activists said security forces killed 18 people across the country including 9 in Homs.
    (AP, 8/17/11)(AP, 8/18/11)

2011        Aug 18, Syrian President Bashar Assad told the UN chief that military operations in his country have ended. The EU urged Syria's President Assad to resign amid a mounting crackdown on an anti-government revolt. Activists reported intense shooting around noon in the flashpoint city of Latakia.
    (AP, 8/18/11)
2011        Aug 18, The chief of Russia's state arms trader Rosoboronexport, Anatoly Isaikin, said Moscow will keep supplying combat jets and other military gear to Syria under contracts totaling about $3.5 billion (euro2.43 billion).
    (AP, 8/19/11)

2011        Aug 19, Syrian security forces fired at thousands of protesters who poured into the streets throughout the country, killing at least 29 people one day after the United States and its European allies demanded that President Bashar Assad step down.
    (AP, 8/19/11)(AP, 8/20/11)
2011        Aug 19, Russia's Foreign Ministry cautioned the West against encouraging the Syrian opposition, and said it doesn't support Western calls for President Bashar Assad to resign.
    (AP, 8/19/11)
2011        Aug 19, The UN released the full text of its report on the Syrian crackdown. It said Syrian government forces may have committed crimes against humanity by conducting summary executions, torturing prisoners and targeting children. The release included rebuttals from the Syrian Foreign Ministry, offering a rare firsthand look into the regime's justifications for the crackdown.
    (AP, 8/20/11)

2011        Aug 20, Syrian security forces dead two people in the town of Rastan, near the provincial capital of Homs. Troops also wounded at least 8 people in Homs, where a general strike was under way to protest the crackdown and most of the city's markets were closed. A Syrian military official said an "armed, terrorist group" ambushed a military bus in Homs, killing two officers and wounding three others.
    (AP, 8/21/11)

2011        Aug 21, Syria’s Pres. Assad promised imminent reforms, including parliamentary elections by February. The opposition rejected his remarks. Pro-regime gunmen fired their guns in celebration after Assad's appearance, killing two people overnight.
    (AP, 8/22/11)

2011        Aug 22, Syria's state-run news agency said Assad formed a committee to pave the way for the formation of political groups other than his Baath party, which has held a monopoly in Syria for decades. Thousands of anti-government protesters took to the streets across the country after a televised appearance by President Bashar Assad, shouting for him to step down and chanting "Gadhafi is gone, now it's your turn Bashar!" Syrian security forces killed at least 7 people in Homs soon after a UN humanitarian assessment team left the area because the security situation was deteriorating.
    (AP, 8/22/11)(AP, 8/23/11)
2011        Aug 22, A UN human rights expert said Arab nations have agreed to demand that Syria allow an international probe within its borders to see whether crimes against humanity have been committed. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon criticized Assad for failing to halt a military crackdown.
    (AP, 8/22/11)(AP, 8/23/11)

2011        Aug 23, The UN's top human rights body voted overwhelmingly to demand that Syria end its crackdown and cooperate with an international probe into possible crimes against humanity. The opposition took steps toward forming a national council, but serious divisions and mistrust among the members have prevented them from presenting a unified front against Assad's regime.
    (AP, 8/23/11)(AP, 8/24/11)

2011        Aug 24, Syrian activists said tanks stormed Deir el-Zour and made sweeping arrests there as the regime faced international threats of an arms embargo and new sanctions.
    (AP, 8/24/11)
2011        Aug 24, The EU announced that it was leveling sanctions against Iran’s Al Quds military force, saying it had given technical and material aid to Pres. Assad of Syria in his efforts to quell a 5-month old uprising against his rule.
    (SFC, 8/25/11, p.A2)

2011        Aug 25, Masked gunmen dragged Ali Ferzat (60), Syria's best-known political cartoonist, from his car before dawn, beat him severely and broke both his hands as a warning to stop drawing just days after he compared Syria's president to Moammar Gadhafi.
    (AP, 8/25/11)

2011        Aug 26, Syrian security forces fired on tens of thousands of anti-government protesters, killing at least two people in Deir el-Zour more than five months into the country's uprising. Another person was killed when protesters emerged from a mosque in Daraa province.
    (AP, 8/26/11)(AFP, 8/26/11)
2011        Aug 26, In Algeria a bomb explosion followed by a suicide attack outside a military academy killed 16 officers in training and 2 civilians in Cherchell. Two Syrian officers were among 18 people killed in the twin suicide bombing.
    (AP, 8/26/11)(AFP, 8/28/11)

2011        Aug 27, Iran warned that a power vacuum in Damascus could spark an unprecedented regional crisis, as thousands of protesters insisted they will defy tanks and bullets until President Bashar Assad is toppled.
    (AP, 8/27/11)

2011        Aug 28, Syrian authorities pursuing a crackdown against Pres. Assad's critics banned three prominent opposition figures from leaving the country, and security forces killed two people and arrested several others in northern Khan Sheikon village. Snipers shot dead one man in the Damascus suburb of Saqba overnight after troops deployed in the restive area. Assad endorsed a new media law that would restrict government censorship of local and foreign publications and end government control over the media.
    (AP, 8/28/11)

2011        Aug 30, Syrian security forces opened fire on thousands of anti-government protesters, killing at least seven people, including a 13-year-old boy, as worshippers poured out of mosques after prayers to mark the end of the holy month of Ramadan. The Syrian Revolution Coordinating Union grassroots activists' group said Assad's forces killed 551 people during the month of Ramadan.
    (AP, 8/30/11)

2011        Aug 31, Syrian troops backed by tanks raided houses looking for activists in two main districts of the city of Hama. Troops shot dead one villager, Hazem al-Shihadi, at a checkpoint overnight near the northwestern border town of Kfaruma. Dozens of people were arrested at Qadam and Qabun in the Damascus region, and at Zabadani. Other arrests occurred at Jizeh in the southern region of Daraa, at Hama and at Al-Jura and Quriyya. Hama province attorney general Adnan Bakkour appeared on video declaring his resignation to protest President Bashar Assad's crackdown, saying security forces killed hundreds of people in the restive city of Hama and arrested thousands of "peaceful protesters." Bakkour said security forces killed 72 prisoners on July 31 and another 420 people during a military siege on Hama, the main city in the province of the same name, in August.
    (AP, 8/31/11)(AFP, 9/1/11)(AP, 9/1/11)

2011        Sep 1, In Syria 2 civilians were killed as government security forces moved into a district of the central city of Homs and a village in the northwest.
    (AFP, 9/1/11)

2011        Sep 2, The EU banned oil imports from Syria in a move that will cost the embattled regime millions of dollars each day as it uses deadly force to try to crush a 5-month-old uprising. At least 17 people were killed, most of them in suburbs of Damascus. Pro-regime thugs reportedly attacked the convoy of Hama province attorney general Adnan Bakkour in the Maaret Hirmeh area, Idlib province, killing 4 people accompanying him and wounding 3 others.
    (AP, 9/2/11)(AP, 9/3/11)(AP, 9/5/11)

2011        Sep 3, Syrian security forces searching for an alleged high-profile defector from President Bashar Assad's regime killed two people near the town of Maaret al-Numan in the northern province of Idlib.
    (AP, 9/3/11)
2011        Sep 3, Around 50 expatriated Syrian Kurds gathered in Sweden for a two-day conference on how to strengthen Kurds inside Syria and get them more involved in efforts to overthrow Bashar al-Assad's regime.
    (AFP, 9/3/11)

2011        Sep 4, Syria saw a wave of violence and arrests as the head of the International Committee of the Red Cross visited Damascus to address issues including caring for the wounded and access to detainees. The state-run news agency reported that nine people were killed in central Syria in an ambush by armed groups.
    (AP, 9/4/11)

2011        Sep 5, Syrian soldiers raided homes and made arrests in a manhunt for Adnan Bakkour, the attorney general who appeared on video last week saying he had defected from President Bashar Assad's regime. Troops stormed the flashpoint districts of Khaldieh and in central Homs province, killing at least two people.
    (AP, 9/5/11)

2011        Sep 6, Syrian soldiers opened fire in the restive city of Homs and armored vehicles rolled through its streets, as the UN secretary-general urged the world community to take action on Syria. Security forces opened fire from a checkpoint in Rastan, just north of Homs, killing two people, including a 15-year-old boy. 5 unidentified corpses, including that of a woman, also were found dumped around the city center.
    (AP, 9/6/11)(AP, 9/7/11)

2011        Sep 7, In Syria a barrage of gunfire by security forces in Homs killed at least 29 people, wounded several others and left residents cowering in their homes. State-run news agency SANA said a "terrorist group" kidnapped two Baath party officials in Rastan. The embattled regime faced surprising calls to end the violence from its closest ally, Iran.
    (AP, 9/7/11)(AP, 9/8/11)(AFP, 9/8/11)

2011        Sep 8, Syrian security forces unleashed one of the deadliest military assaults on the rebellious city of Homs. Security forces stormed the northwestern village of Ibleen and killed three military defectors.
    (AP, 9/8/11)(AFP, 9/8/11)

2011        Sep 9, Syria's opposition leaders said they expected more support from Russia after the Russian upper house of parliament's foreign affairs chief Mikhail Margelov met a visiting Syrian delegation that included National Organization for Human Rights in Syria head Ammar Qurabi. Syrian protesters appealed for int’l. help calling for observation missions and human rights monitors to help deter attacks on civilians
    (AFP, 9/9/11)(SFC, 9/10/11, p.A2)

2011        Sep 10, Syria's President Bashar Assad and Arab League head Nabil Elaraby held talks in Damascus. Investigators at the so-called 'Polish' prison in Homs severely beat rights campaigner Najati Tayar (66).
    (AP, 9/10/11)(AFP, 9/11/11)

2011        Sep 12, In Syria raids around Hama began after security forces cut all roads leading to the area along with electricity and telephone lines. Security forces shot dead 17 people and arrested more than 60 around Hama. 3 others were reported killed in Douma and Al Rastan. Russia’s President Dmitry Medvedev defended the Russian position for “open direct talks" in talks in Moscow with British PM David Cameron even as the Syrian security forces pressed their deadly crackdown on dissent.
    (AP, 9/12/11)(AFP, 9/13/11)

2011        Sep 13, Syrian security forces riding in vehicles mounted with machine-guns raided neighborhoods outside the capital, Damascus, before dawn as Turkey's PM Erdogan said he was concerned Syria could descend into a sectarian civil war. Pro-democracy activists called a "day of anger" across Syria to protest against Russia's backing for President Bashar al-Assad. More than 20 people were reported killed throughout Syria. Syrian troops fired tear gas at a gathering of mourners just hours after U.S. Ambassador Robert Ford and other Western diplomats expressed their condolences to the family of a rights advocate killed last week.
    (AP, 9/13/11)(AFP, 9/13/11)(AP, 9/14/11)

2011        Sep 14, Syrian troops conducted raids in the northwestern province of Idlib and the central region of Homs. Security forces shot dead eight people, including a child, in a huge sweep on against anti-regime protesters in the northwest.
    (AP, 9/14/11)(AFP, 9/15/11)

2011        Sep 15, Syrian opposition members announced a national council made up of 60 exiled opponents and 70 dissidents inside Syria, in their bid to present a united front against President Bashar Assad's regime.
    (AP, 9/15/11)

2011        Sep 16, Syrian troops reportedly killed at least 17 people in raids on anti-government protesters, but failed to stop thousands from pouring into streets nationwide and taking their uprising against President Bashar Assad's autocratic rule into a seventh month.
    (AP, 9/16/11)

2011        Sep 19, Syria's security forces opened fire during a raid on political dissidents in the town of Houla in central Homs province, a flashpoint in the months-long anti-regime uprising. Syrian forces killed five people in raids on anti-government protesters.
    (AFP, 9/19/11)(AP, 9/19/11)

2011        Sep 21, Syrian security forces moved against several schools around the country and detained students who demonstrated against President Bashar Assad's regime, while troops shot dead at least four people in Homs and Rastan.
    (AP, 9/21/11)

2011        Sep 22, Syrian students chanting for revolution marched outside the capital and other areas after class in a new tactic that brought a swift response from security services, who beat up or detained many of the young protesters. The state-run news agency said an armed group ambushed a bus with policemen, killing 5 and wounding 18 officers in Daraa province. At least one person was shot dead by security forces in Homs.
    (AP, 9/22/11)

2011        Sep 23, Syrian security forces opened fire on thousands of protesters calling for the opposition to unite against Assad's regime. The high command of the Syrian armed forces announces the death of the army's deputy chief of staff, General Bassam Najm Eddin Antakiali, who succumbed after suffering a heart attack.
    (AP, 9/23/11)(AFP, 9/24/11)

2011        Sep 24, Syrian security forces security forces had killed 12 civilians in Qusseir, in the central province of Homs, and one more in Hama, further north.
    (AP, 9/25/11)

2011        Sep 25, Syria pressed on with a crackdown on anti-regiment dissent, dispatching troop reinforcements to the flashpoint province of Homs and security forces near Damascus. The British-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported the death of four people, including that of Hassan Eid, the head of the surgery department at the state-run hospital in Homs, who was shot dead outside his home. Gunmen kidnapped 14 army officers in an ambush that killed six soldiers and a security agent outside the town of Qusair near the border with Lebanon.
    (AFP, 9/25/11)(AP, 9/26/11)

2011        Sep 27, Syrian government troops firing machine guns mounted on tanks stormed the rebellious town of Rastan as part of military operations aimed at crushing the six-month-old uprising against President Assad. Security operations also took place in the northwestern region of Jabal al-Zawiya with at least two people killed.
    (AP, 9/27/11)

2011        Sep 28, Syria's state-run news agency said Aws Khalil, a nuclear engineer, has been assassinated in a hail of bullets in the restive central city of Homs. He became the fourth Syrian academic to be assassinated in Homs recently.
    (AP, 9/28/11)

2011        Sep 30, Syrian troops in Rastan fought intense battles with hundreds of fellow soldiers who have turned their weapons against the regime of Pres. Assad. Troops also clashed with armed anti-regime forces in central regions. Across the country tens of thousands of demonstrators took to the streets, braving gunfire by government forces who have waged a relentless crackdown. At least 11 protesters were killed and scores were wounded.
    (AP, 9/30/11)

2011        Oct 1, Syrian government troops retook most of Rastan after five days of intense fighting with army defectors who sided with protesters. Some 250 tanks were sent in to quell clashes between the army and deserters. Troops spread out across Rastan after defectors pulled out from the town. Mansur Atassi (63), a leader of a coalition of opposition groups, was detained in his office in Homs by security agents.
    (AP, 10/1/11)(AFP, 10/2/11)

2011        Oct 2, Syrian dissidents meeting in Turkey formally announced the creation of a broad-based council designed to overthrow President Bashar Assad's regime in what appeared to be the most serious step yet to unify a fragmented opposition. The 21-year-old son of Syria's top Sunni Muslim cleric was killed in an ambush in a restive northern area.
    (AP, 10/2/11)(AP, 10/3/11)

2011        Oct 3, Syrian troops going house to house have detained more than 3,000 people in the past three days in the rebellious town of Rastan that government forces recently retook in some of the worst fighting since the country's uprising began six months ago.
    (AP, 10/3/11)

2011        Oct 4, In Syria at least four people were killed in clashes between government troops and army defectors in the country's northwest.
    (AP, 10/4/11)
2011        Oct 4, China and Russia vetoed a UN Security Council resolution threatening action against Syria's deadly crackdown on protests.
    (AP, 10/5/11)

2011        Oct 5, A woman appeared on Syrian state television claiming that she is the young Syrian, Zainab al-Hosni, who was widely reported to have been beheaded and mutilated by security agents while in custody last month. Amnesty International issued a statement saying: "If the body was not that of Zainab al-Hosni, then clearly the Syrian authorities need to disclose whose it was, the cause and circumstances of the death, and why Zainab al-Hosni's family were informed that she was the victim."
    (AP, 10/5/11)
2011        Oct 5, Syrian Colonel Riad al-Asaad, who now heads a group of army defectors calling themselves the Free Syrian Army, said he has fled Syria and found refuge in neighboring Turkey.
    (AP, 10/5/11)
2011        Oct 5, Turkey's PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan said on Wednesday his government would announce a package of sanctions against neighboring Syria despite a UN resolution blocked by Russia and China.
    (AFP, 10/5/11)
2011        Oct 5, A US federal grand jury charged Mohamad Anas Haitham Soueid (47) with six counts for spying on activists in the United States and Syria opposed to Syrian President Bashar al-Assad's regime. Soueid of Leesburg, Va., was arrested on Oct 11.
    (AFP, 10/12/11)

2011        Oct 6, Syrian activists said clashes between troops and deserters killed 12 people, as Western powers sought to pressure Syria over its crackdown on dissent.
    (AFP, 10/6/11)

2011        Oct 7, Syrian security forces opened fire at protesters in several parts of the country, killing at least eight people and wounding scores. Leading opposition figure Riad Seif was beaten up by pro-government gunmen and rushed to a hospital in Damascus. Russia’s Pres. Dmitry Medvedev told Syrian leader Bashar al-Assad to either reform or resign. In Qamishli Mashaal Tammo, a prominent and charismatic Kurdish opposition figure, was gunned down by masked gunmen.
    (AP, 10/7/11)(AP, 10/8/11)

2011        Oct 8, Syrian security forces opened fire on tens of thousands of mourners who turned out for the funeral of a slain Kurdish opposition leader in Qamishli, killing at least 5 people. Kurds, the largest ethnic minority in Syria, make up 15% of the country's 23 million people and have long complained of neglect and discrimination.
    (AP, 10/8/11)(AP, 10/9/11)

2011        Oct 9, Syria's foreign minister warned the international community not to recognize a new umbrella council formed by the opposition, threatening "tough measures" against any country that does so. At least 7 civilians were killed in Homs province. 5 soldiers and 3 civilians were killed in Dael. Other soldiers and civilians were killed in the Jabal al-Zawiyah areas in Idlib province. A shooting at a funeral in the Damascus suburb of Dumair left three dead.
    (AP, 10/9/11)(AP, 10/10/11)

2011        Oct 11, Syrian security forces mounted an offensive in Homs where 7 people were reported killed.
    (SFC, 10/12/11, p.A2)

2011        Oct 12, In Syria tens of thousands of people rallied in central Damascus in a show of support for the regime of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad which has been shaken by mass protests for nearly seven months.
    (AFP, 10/12/11)(SFC, 10/13/11, p.A5)

2011        Oct 13, Syrian troops clashed with armed men believed to be military defectors in a southern village and a northwestern town, killing at least 13 people in the latest sign that the 7-month-old uprising against President Bashar Assad is becoming increasingly militarized.
    (AP, 10/13/11)

2011        Oct 14, Syrian forces killed 11 people as they fired on rallies supporting army defectors opposed to a crackdown that the UN said has killed more than 3,000 people. Navi Pillay, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, warned that the unrelenting crackdown by the government of President Bashar Assad could worsen unless further action is taken.
    (AP, 10/14/11)(AP, 10/15/11)

2011        Oct 15, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad announced the creation of an ad hoc committee tasked with preparing a new constitution within four months. At least five people were wounded in the central neighborhood of Midan during the funeral of a teenager killed a day earlier. Activist Ziad al-Obeidi was killed in Deir el-Zour.
    (AFP, 10/15/11)(AP, 10/15/11)(AP, 10/16/11)

2011        Oct 16, The Arab League called an emergency meeting in Cairo to discuss whether to suspend Syria. The Arab League said that it would make contact with the Damascus government and a raft of opposition groups with the aim of launching "national dialogue within the seat of the Arab League and under its guidance within 15 days." Security forces opened fire on a funeral for a slain activist in the east. Security forces arrested at least 44 people in the capital's suburbs in house-to-house raids. The Observatory for Human Rights in Syria said 923 people from Homs have been arrested in the past week.
    (AP, 10/16/11)(AFP, 10/17/11)

2011        Oct 17, Five Syrian soldiers were killed during clashes with gunmen suspected to be army defectors in the flashpoint central province of Homs. 2 civilians were also killed. UN chief Ban Ki-moon urged President Bashar al-Assad to immediately stop the killings of civilians.
    (AFP, 10/17/11)

2011        Oct 18, Syrian army cross-border raids into east Lebanon left 3 dead, including 2 in Qaa and one in Aarsal. The Lebanese government, dominated by the powerful militant group Hezbollah, a strong ally of the Syrian regime, has for the most part stayed mum on the issue.
    (AFP, 10/26/11)

2011        Oct 19, Syrian security forces and pro-government gunmen killed at least 10 people in the rebellious province of Homs. Tens of thousands of Syrians demonstrated in Aleppo, a huge show of support for the country's embattled president.
    (AP, 10/19/11)
2011        Oct 19, The UN called on Damascus to end its incursions into Lebanon, which have left three Syrians dead in recent weeks, warning the raids could ignite tensions in the region.
    (AFP, 10/20/11)

2011        Oct 23, Syrian security forces moved into villages where residents have been on strike and shot 2 people dead in the village of Qalaat al-Madeeq, Hama province. Pres. Assad named Yasser al-Shoufi, a former police general, as governor of the northwestern province of Idlib.
    (AP, 10/23/11)

2011        Oct 24, Syrian security forces killed four people in Homs, while government troops clashed with gunmen believed to be defectors from the military. The US pulled its ambassador, Robert Ford, out of Syria, saying threats against him make it no longer safe for him to remain.
    (AP, 10/24/11)

2011        Oct 26, In Syria an Arab League team held talks with President Assad at the start of a bid to mediate with the opposition. Activists said at least 15 people were killed in military operations including 12 in Homs. Tens of thousands of Assad supporters rallied in Damascus.
    (AFP, 10/26/11)(SFC, 10/27/11, p.A4)

2011        Oct 27, Tens of thousands of Syrians held a mass rally in Latakia in support of embattled President Bashar Assad, but the regime's crackdown on dissent continued in opposition areas as security forces killed at least four people. Oil Minister Sufian Allaw acknowledged Damascus was having difficulty selling its oil after the European Union banned oil imports from Syria. Syrian troops were seen planting mines along a region bordering northern Lebanon in a bid to stem weapons smuggling.
    (AP, 10/27/11)(AFP, 10/27/11)
2011        Oct 27, Five Arab Spring activists won the European parliament's Sakharov prize awarded to campaigners for freedom. They include Mohamed Bouazizi of Tunisia, awarded posthumously, Egyptian militant Asmaa Mahfouz, Libyan dissident Ahmed al-Zubair Ahmed al-Sanusi, Syrian lawyer Razan Zeitouneh and Syrian cartoonist Ali Farzat.
    (AFP, 10/27/11)

2011        Oct 28, Syrian security forces reportedly killed at least 40 people. Authorities disrupted telephone and Internet service in restive areas during mass protests calling for the downfall of President Bashar Assad's regime. Activists called for a no-fly zone to protect civilians and soldiers deserting the army.
    (AFP, 10/28/11)(AP, 10/28/11)(AP, 10/29/11)

2011        Oct 29, Syrian troops shelled the Baba Amr district of Homs killing three people. Raids and arrests also were reported around the eastern city of Deir el-Zour. Syrian soldiers were killed and 53 wounded in clashes with presumed army deserters in Homs. 10 security agents and a deserter were killed in a bus ambush. At least 12 civilians died from sniper or machinegun fire in the province.
    (AP, 10/29/11)(AFP, 10/30/11)

2011        Oct 30, The Arab League handed Syrian officials a plan for ending seven months of increasingly violent unrest against President Bashar al-Assad's rule, and Assad told Russian Television he would cooperate with the opposition. The plan involved talks in Cairo between the Syrian authorities and their opponents. At least two people were killed in fresh violence. Pres. Assad in an interview with Britain's Sunday Telegraph newspaper warned of "another Afghanistan" if foreign forces intervened in his country as they had with the Libyan uprising.
    (Reuters, 10/30/11)(AFP, 10/30/11)

2011        Nov 1, Officials and witnesses said Syria is planting landmines along parts of the country's border with Lebanon as refugees streamed out of the country to escape the crackdown on anti-government protests.
    (AP, 11/1/11)

2011        Nov 2, Arab foreign ministers met anew in Cairo to step up pressure on Syria to end nearly eight months of deadly violence. Gunmen stormed a factory in Syria’s province of Homs killing 10 workers while security forces shot dead 4 civilians in several Homs neighborhoods. Damascus pledged to withdraw its forces from protest centers under a plan put forth by the Arab league. Not timetable was set.
    (AFP, 11/2/11)(AFP, 11/3/11)
2011        Nov 2, A Syrian security official said Syria has arrested Wael Abbas, a top suspect in the kidnapping of 7 Estonians, freed four months after their abduction in Lebanon, and handed him over to Beirut.
    (AFP, 11/2/11)

2011        Nov 3, Syrian troops killed at least 18 people in a security crackdown in Homs.
    (AP, 11/4/11)

2011        Nov 4, Syrian security forces killed at least 15 people after thousands of protesters took to the streets, charging that President Bashar Assad never intended to abide by an Arab League plan to end violence.
    (AP, 11/4/11)(AP, 11/5/11)
2011        Nov 4, Lebanon’s PM Najib Mikati confirmed in a broadcast interview that opposition figures from neighboring Syria had been kidnapped in Lebanon, but said they were isolated incidents.
    (AFP, 11/4/11)

2011        Nov 5, Syrian activists reported more violence, including tank shelling, in the restive central city of Homs. Nabil Elaraby, head of the Arab League, warned that the failure of an Arab-brokered plan to end the violence in Syria would have disastrous consequences.
    (AP, 11/5/11)

2011        Nov 6, Syrians in the restive region of Homs performed special prayers for a major Muslim holiday to the sound of explosions and gunfire as government troops pushed forward their assault on the area, killing at least 16 people. The Arab League called an emergency meeting on Syria's failure to implement its peace plan. Altogether 23 people were killed in today’s crackdown.
    (AP, 11/6/11)(AFP, 11/6/11)(AP, 11/7/11)

2011        Nov 7, Syrian troops stormed a defiant neighborhood of the embattled city of Homs, kicking in doors and making arrests after nearly a week of violence pitting soldiers against army defectors and protesters demanding the downfall of President Bashar Assad. Activists said two people were killed in the city and the surrounding province, pushing the death toll from the past 24 hours to at least 18.
    (AP, 11/7/11)

2011        Nov 8, Syrian activists reported that 20 people were killed across the country, including eight soldiers and 12 civilians, among them a child. The UN said the death toll from the eight-month Syrian uprising has reached 3,500.
    (AP, 11/8/11)(AFP, 11/9/11)
2011        Nov 8, The Syrian opposition urged authorities in neighboring Lebanon to act over reports that more than a dozen of their members in that country have been kidnapped.
    (AFP, 11/9/11)

2011        Nov 9, Syrian troops killed 16 civilians as they pressed their bloody crackdown on dissent, said the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. Protesters threw eggs at a four-man delegation of the Syrian National Coordination Committee (NCC), headed by Hassan Abdul-Azim, as they tried to enter the Arab League's headquarters in downtown Cairo. The Syria-based National Coordination Committee is a rival to the broad-based Syrian National Council group that was announced in Turkey in October and rejects all forms of contact with the regime under the current crackdown.
    (AFP, 11/9/11)(AP, 11/9/11)(AFP, 11/10/11)

2011        Nov 10, In Syria a young girl and six soldiers were among 26 Syrians killed when security forces cracked down on protests and in clashes between troops and army deserters.
    (AFP, 11/10/11)
2011        Nov 10, US Senators Mark Kirk, R-Ill., and Robert Casey, D-Pa., sent a letter to the State and Commerce departments requesting an investigation into companies whose technology has been used to monitor activities of Syrian citizens. US companies included NetApp Inc. and Blue coat Systems Inc. of Sunnyvale, Ca. The Syrian Internet surveillance project, headed by the Italian company Area, was designed to intercept and catalog virtually every e-mail flowing through Syria.
    (SFC, 11/11/11, p.A5)

2011        Nov 11, In Syria at least 14 people were killed in violence, most of them in the restive city of Homs, as Human Rights Watch accused the regime of crimes against humanity.
    (AFP, 11/11/11)
2011        Nov 11, A Lebanese man had a leg blown off after stepping on a mine planted hours earlier by Syrian troops along Lebanon's northern border.
    (AFP, 11/11/11)

2011        Nov 12, The 22-member Arab League voted to suspend Syria and warned the regime could face sanctions if it does not end its bloody crackdown against anti-government protesters. The decision was a symbolic blow to a nation that prides itself on being a powerhouse of Arab nationalism. 18 countries agreed to the suspension, scheduled to take effect on Nov 16.
    (AP, 11/12/11)

2011        Nov 13, In Syria tens of thousands of government supporters poured into the streets to protest an Arab League vote to suspend the country's membership, as Turkey sent planes to evacuate diplomatic staff and their families after a night of attacks on embassies. Activists reporting at least 11 people killed in shootings by security forces in several parts of the country.
    (AP, 11/13/11)

2011        Nov 14, In southern Syria dozens of soldiers and security forces were gunned down by suspected army defectors. As many as 90 people killed across the country.
    (AP, 11/15/11)
2011        Nov 14, EU foreign ministers decided to impose additional sanctions on 18 Syrians in response to the killings of protesters by Syrian President Bashar Assad's regime. The sanctions also include suspending the disbursement of European Investment Bank loans.
    (AP, 11/14/11)
2011        Nov 14, Jordan's King Abdullah II said Syria’s Pres. Assad should step down for the good of his country, the first Arab leader to publicly make such a call.
    (AP, 11/15/11)

2011        Nov 16, The rebel Free Syrian Army announced the creation of a temporary military council with the aim of ousting the regime of President Bashar al-Assad and protecting civilians from his forces. Army defectors attacked military and intelligence bases near the capital and an army checkpoint during a spate of assaults, killing at least 8 soldiers and security forces in the central province of Hama. Arab ministers gave Damascus "three days to stop the bloody repression," as at least 23 people were killed in violence.
    (AFP, 11/16/11)(AP, 11/16/11)(AP, 11/17/11)

2011        Nov 17, Syrian rebel troops hit youth offices of Syria's ruling Baath party, a day after a spectacular raid on a military intelligence base outside Damascus. Mohammad Riad Shakfa, the leader of Syria's exiled Muslim Brotherhood, said that his compatriots would accept Turkish "intervention" in the country to resolve months of bloody unrest. Syria said it had issued a warning to its citizens that they would be arrested and prosecuted if they took part in further attacks as security forces shot dead a nine-year-old girl. Government troops made sweeping arrests in the restive Hama province.
    (AFP, 11/17/11)(AP, 11/17/11)

2011        Nov 18, Syria said it has agreed "in principle" to allow an observer mission into the country, as security forces killed at least 16 anti-government protesters and France called for tough UN Security Council action.
    (AP, 11/18/11)(AP, 11/19/11)

2011        Nov 19, Syrian troops stormed the town of Shezar in the central province of Hama and the restive Jabal al-Zawiya region near the Turkish border in search of regime opponents. At least 15 people were killed.
    (AP, 11/19/11)(SSFC, 11/20/11, p.A10)

2011        Nov 20, The Arab League said it has rejected amendments proposed by Syria to a peace plan to end the crisis in the country, saying the changes put forward by Damascus alter the "essence" of the plan. Syria's foreign minister attacked the Arab League for suspending Damascus and accused the organization of being used as a "tool" by the West.
    (AP, 11/20/11)
2011        Nov 20, Turkish President Abdullah Gul in published comments said there was "no place for authoritarian regimes" in the Mediterranean region, heaping more pressure on the embattled Syrian regime.
    (AFP, 11/20/11)

2011        Nov 21, Syria's security forces carried out a "qualitative" operation in the Bayada district of Homs in which they killed four terrorists and confiscated their weapons. A "top terrorist" nicknamed Bandar was among them. Syrian soldiers opened fire on at least two buses carrying Turkish citizens.
    (AP, 11/22/11)

2011        Nov 22, Turkey's PM Erdogan said that Syria's Pres. Bashar Assad must step down over the country's crackdown on dissent. 6 children and 5 mutinous soldiers were among 34 people killed across Syria. 122 countries voted for a resolution at the UN General Assembly's human rights committee condemning the government crackdown.
    (AP, 11/22/11)(Reuters, 11/23/11)(AFP, 11/23/11)

2011        Nov 24, The EU said that protecting civilians caught up in Syria's crackdown on anti-government protests "is an increasingly urgent and important aspect" of responding to the bloodshed there. At least three more people were killed by Syrian security forces. The British-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights and the Local Coordination Committees said 15 defectors were either killed or wounded in clashes near Rastan. 6 elite pilots and 4 technical officers were killed in an ambush in Homs. The Arab League gave Syria 24 hours to agree to an observer mission or face sanctions.
    (AP, 11/24/11)(AP, 11/25/11)

2011        Nov 25, The Syrian military vowed to "cut every evil hand that targets Syrian blood," saying recent attacks on elite security forces marked a dangerous escalation in the country's 8-month-old crisis. Damascus faced the possibility of sweeping economic sanctions from the Arab League after missing a deadline to allow hundreds of observers into the country. A UN human rights panel expressed alarm at reports it received of security forces in Syria torturing children. Syrian security forces fired outside mosques in Daraa province. At least six people were killed as protesters flooded the streets in support of the Free Syrian Army. At least 10 troops and security service agents were killed in clashes with mutinous soldiers in Deir Ezzor.
    (AP, 11/25/11)(AFP, 11/26/11)
2011        Nov 25, In Egypt Mona al-Gharib (25), the pregnant wife of Syrian dissident and journalist Thaer al-Nashef, was reportedly abducted in Egypt by Syrian intelligence agents.
    (AP, 11/26/11)

2011        Nov 26, In Syria one civilian was reported killed as security forces launched raids in Deir Ezzor and carried out arrests. At least 12 civilians were killed in Homs province.
    (AFP, 11/26/11)(SSFC, 11/27/11, p.A8)

2011        Nov 27, The Arab League, meeting in Cairo, approved unprecedented sanctions on Syria over its crackdown on 8-month uprising.
    (AP, 11/27/11)

2011        Nov 28, Syria hit out at the Arab League for the treatment it has meted out to Damascus, accusing it of ignoring the presence of "terrorists" in the country and prematurely imposing economic sanctions. Tens of thousands of supporters of President Bashar al-Assad took to the streets to protest against the Arab League sanctions.
    (AFP, 11/28/11)
2011        Nov 28, A UN investigation concluded that Syrian forces committed crimes against humanity by killing and torturing hundreds of children, including a 2-year-old girl reportedly shot to death so she wouldn't grow up to be a demonstrator.
    (AP, 11/28/11)

2011        Nov 29, Aisha Kadhafi, the daughter of the slain Libyan leader, called for the overthrow of Libya's interim government in an audio message aired on Syrian-based Arrai television.
    (AFP, 11/30/11)

2011        Nov 30, Turkey slapped tough economic sanctions on Syria, freezing assets of officials involved in the government's crackdown on an 8-month-old uprising, suspending ties with the nation's central bank and banning all military sales.
    (AP, 11/30/11)

2011        Dec 1, Syria's opposition called a general strike over President Bashar Assad's deadly crackdown as government troops stormed a village in the central province of Hama, killing six people. Arab League chief Nabil al-Arabi rejected any foreign intervention in Syria as he joined EU talks aimed at ramping up pressure on the regime over its crackdown on dissidents. The EU's latest sanctions were announced, targeting 12 more people and 11 companies. The UN high commissioner for human rights said that the violence in Syria is a civil war.
    (AP, 12/1/11)(AFP, 12/1/11)(AP, 12/2/11)
2011        Dec 1, Lebanese bankers said they have adopted strict measures to ensure compliance with international sanctions against neighboring Syria and are closely scrutinizing transactions by Syrian clients.
    (AFP, 12/1/11)

2011        Dec 2, In Syria hours of intense shooting and clashes killed at least four people and wounded dozens more, including an 11-year-old girl who was struck by stray bullets that whizzed across the border into Lebanon. The European Union released the names of Syrian officials and companies to be added to a growing sanctions blacklist.
    (AP, 12/2/11)

2011        Dec 3, Violence swept across Syria killing 25 people, most of them in a battle between troops and a growing force of army defectors who have joined the movement to oust President Bashar Assad. Syrian troops detained at least 27 people in the village of Talkalakh on the border with Lebanon and set fire to the homes of nine activists who were on the run. The Arab League approved details of sanctions against Syria aimed at pressuring the regime to end its deadly eight-month crackdown on dissent.
    (AP, 12/3/11)

2011        Dec 4, Syria signaled it still might be willing to comply with the Arab League's plan, saying its objections were simply a matter of details. In central Syria new violence killed at least six people, including a female university professor and a father and his three children.
    (AP, 12/4/11)

2011        Dec 5, In Syria 36 bodies were dumped in the streets of Homs. Syria agreed to allow Arab League observers but demanded that the Arab League scrap recent decisions taken against Damascus, including economic sanctions and suspending the country from the Arab League when a protocol allowing observers is signed.
    (AP, 12/5/11)(AP, 12/6/11)(SFC, 12/6/11, p.A5)(SFC, 12/7/11, p.A4)

2011        Dec 6, Syrian activists said a surge in violence in Homs has killed up to 50 people in the past 24 hours, leaving dozens of bodies in the streets.
    (AP, 12/6/11)

2011        Dec 7, Syria’s Pres. Assad, speaking to veteran journalist Barbara Walters in a rare interview to foreign media, said he was not responsible for the bloodshed and drew a distinction between himself and individual members of the military. Assad dismissed the death toll, estimated by the UN at more than 4,000 people, saying: "Who said that the United Nations is a credible institution?"
    (AFP, 12/7/11)

2011        Dec 8, Syrian activists launched a campaign of civil disobedience to pile pressure on President Bashar al-Assad, after he drew a stinging rebuke from the US for denying he ordered a deadly crackdown. A major Syrian pipeline carrying oil to a refinery in the restive Homs province was blown up. Security forces reportedly killed up to 14 people, most of them in Homs.
    (AFP, 12/8/11)(AP, 12/8/11)(SFC, 12/9/11, p.A6)

2011        Dec 9, Syrian forces killed 41 people, including 7 children, as they fired on anti-government demonstrations across the country. The opposition warned the regime was planning a "massacre" in Homs which has been ringed by troops for more than two months.
    (AP, 12/9/11)(AFP, 12/10/11)

2011        Dec 10, Syrian activists said 9 civilians were killed by the security forces in the flashpoint regions of Homs, Daraa and Idlib. World powers piled pressure on Syria to allow observers to monitor spiraling deadly violence as activists condemned rights violations on this anniversary of International Human Rights Day.
    (AFP, 12/10/11)

2011        Dec 11, Syrian troops battled army defectors in clashes that set several military vehicles ablaze. Opposition activists called for a general strike starting today in a bid to squeeze the government and push it to stop its bloody crackdown. About a dozen Syrians attacked their embassy in Jordan’s capital, Amman, injuring at least two diplomats and four other consulate employees. As many as 23 people were killed as government forces clashed with armed insurgents and protesters.
    (AP, 12/11/11)(SFC, 12/12/11, p.A2)

2011        Dec 12, Syrians closed their businesses and kept children home from school in several parts of the country in a show of civil disobedience against the regime as a new and fierce round of clashes between troops and army defectors spread. Syrians voted in municipal elections even as violence raged in some parts of the country where security forces were pressing a deadly crackdown against dissent. Border guards intercepted 15 gunmen trying to infiltrate from Turkey. Two were reported killed in the ensuing firefight and others were injured.
    (AP, 12/12/11)(AFP, 12/12/11)(AP, 12/13/11)

2011        Dec 13, Syrian security forces fired on a funeral procession in a restive northwestern border region, killing two people. Activists reported the deaths of at least 28 civilians across Syria. State media reported that "armed terrorists" — its usual term for regime opponents — shot and killed Brig. Gen. Ghanem Ibrahim al-Hassan, who teaches at the Assad Military Engineering Academy in the town of Saraqeb in Idlib.
    (AP, 12/13/11)(AP, 12/14/11)(SFC, 12/14/11, p.A4)

2011        Dec 14, Syrian Army defectors killed at least eight Syrian troops in an act of revenge after security forces shot dead five civilians.
    (AFP, 12/14/11)

2011        Dec 15, Syrian army defectors reportedly killed at least 27 government forces in clashes in the southern province of Daraa. Human Rights Watch issued a report alleging that dozens of Syrian military commanders and officials authorized or gave direct orders for widespread killings, torture, and illegal arrests during the wave of anti-government protests.
    (AP, 12/15/11)

2011        Dec 16, Syrian security forces opened fire on anti-government protesters after Friday prayers at several locations around the country, while the army sent reinforcements into a southern area where military defectors recently launched deadly attacks on regime troops. At least 10 people were left dead.
    (AP, 12/16/11)(SFC, 12/17/11, p.A3)

2011        Dec 19, Syria signed an Arab League initiative that will allow Arab observers into the country, as part of an effort to end the nation's increasingly bloody 9-month-old crisis.
    (AP, 12/19/11)

2011        Dec 20, Syrian state-run news agency SANA said President Bashar Assad has issued a new law under which anyone found guilty of distributing weapons with the aim of committing "terrorist acts" would be sentenced to death. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said Assad's forces carried out a "massacre" by killing some 110 civilians in the northwestern town of Kfar Owaid. 12 more people were killed in Homs. In addition, at least 100 army deserters were killed or wounded over the last 24 hours in Idlib. 14 security force members were killed in southern Daraa province. An Arab League official said an advance team will arrive in Syria this week to prepare for an observer mission as a possible step toward solving the crisis. 5 Iranian engineers working at a power plant project in Homs were abducted.
    (AP, 12/20/11)(AFP, 12/21/11)(AP, 12/22/11)(Econ, 1/28/12, p.47)
2011        Dec 20,  Five Iranian engineers working on an electricity power plant in Jandar, close to the city of Homs, Syria, were abducted. Two others working for Iran Power Plant Projects Management Company (Mapna) were taken when they went to investigate their colleagues' disappearance. On Jan 2 an unknown group calling itself the "Movement Against the Expansion of Shiism in Syria" claimed responsibility for their abduction.
    (AFP, 1/4/12)

2011        Dec 21, The opposition Syrian National Council urged the UN Security Council and Arab League to hold emergency meetings after regime forces "massacred" more than 200 people in two days.
    (AP, 12/21/11)

2011        Dec 22, In Syria fresh raids and gunfire by government forces killed at least 19 people, most of them in the central city of Homs and northern Idlib province. Arab League delegates traveled to Syria to arrange the deployment of foreign monitors under a plan aimed at ending the regime's deadly 9-month-old crackdown on dissent. A total of 500 observers are planned.
    (AP, 12/22/11)

2011        Dec 23, In Syria twin suicide car bomb blasts ripped through an upscale Damascus district, killing 44 people. The blasts went off outside the main headquarters of the General Intelligence Agency and a branch of the military intelligence. Activists reported anti-government protests in several locations across Syria after Friday prayers during which security force shot dead at least eight people, mostly in the restive central province of Homs. 4 people were found dumped on the streets in Houla, also in Homs province.
    (AP, 12/23/11)(AP, 12/24/11)

2011        Dec 24, In Syria thousands of mourners carrying flags and pictures of the dead took part in a mass funeral for 44 people killed in twin suicide bombings that targeted intelligence agency compounds in Damascus. Shelling in the city of Homs killed at least three people in the Baba Amr district and set several homes and shops ablaze.
    (AP, 12/24/11)

2011        Dec 26, In Syria intense shelling by government forces was reported in the center of the country, just hours before the Arab League monitoring teams were to arrive. Security forces killed at least 42 people, most of them in Homs.
    (AP, 12/26/11)(AP, 12/27/11)

2011        Dec 27, Syria's army suspended days of attacks on the restive city of Homs and began withdrawing its tanks just as Arab League monitors visited the area. The Sudanese head of the mission to Syria, Gen. Mohamed Ahmed Mustafa al-Dabi, was leading the team of at least 12 observers to Homs. Security forces shot dead two people in the Damascus suburb of Douma, one in the southern province of Daraa and one in the northwestern province of Idlib. The Local Coordination Committees (LCC) said 23 people were killed, including six in Homs. A student at Damascus University opened fire with a pistol inside a classroom at the medical department killing one student and wounding four. He was said to be a former anti-regime detainee who had been recently beaten by the pro-regime students, including the one he shot dead.
    (AP, 12/27/11)

2011        Dec 28, Syrian security forces reportedly fired guns and tear gas at thousands of anti-government protesters in the central city of Hama and killed at least six people. At least four soldiers were killed in an ambush carried out by a group of military defectors in the country's south. Activists said two people died in the Baba Amr district of Homs. The Syrian government released 755 prisoners detained over the past nine months in the regime's crackdown on dissent as observers toured a flashpoint city to see whether authorities were complying with an Arab plan to stop the bloodshed that has killed thousands.
    (AP, 12/28/11)

2011        Dec 29, Syrian security forces opened fire on tens of thousands protesting outside a mosque in a Damascus suburb, close to a municipal building that members of the Arab League monitoring mission were visiting. Activists said at least four people were killed. The British-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said a total of 16 people have been shot by security forces and killed so far today, most of them in several suburbs of Damascus.
    (AP, 12/29/11)

2011        Dec 30, Hundreds of thousands of Syrians poured into the streets across the nation in the largest protests in months, shouting for the downfall of the regime in a defiant display invigorated by the presence of Arab observers. Activists said at least 35 people were killed across the country, most of them shot during anti-government protests. Syrian forces were accused of firing nail bombs to disperse protesters. The rebel Free Syrian Army said it has stopped its offensive against government targets during a month-long mission by Arab League monitors, saying it wants to expose how the regime is killing peaceful protesters. 5 members of the security forces were reported shot dead in a clash in Homs.
    (AP, 12/30/11)(AFP, 12/30/11)(Reuters, 12/31/11)(SFC, 12/31/11, p.A3)
2011        Dec 30, Syria's two largest opposition groups signed an agreement in Cairo on setting up a democracy after President Bashar Assad's regime falls.
    (AP, 12/31/11)

2011        Dec 31, In Syria at least six people were killed in attacks on protests, including one in Damascus. Syria's state-run TV said Arab League observers visited the southern city of Daraa and the restive central city of Homs. Three other civilians were killed by security force gunfire, two of them by snipers in the flashpoint central province of Homs.
    (AP, 12/31/11)(AFP, 1/1/12)

2011        According to the Syrian Local Coordination Committees (LCC), a total of 5,862 people were killed in the regime's crackdown during this year, including "321 male children, 74 female children and 146 women.
    (AP, 1/1/12)

2012        Jan 1, An Arab League advisory body called for the immediate withdrawal of the bloc's observers from Syria saying their presence was having no impact on the government's deadly crackdown on protests. YouTube videos circulating on the Internet showed protesters across Syria welcoming 2012 in with fireworks and holding up signs pledging "Freedom for Life" and denouncing President Bashar al-Assad as the enemy.
    (AFP, 1/1/12)

2012        Jan 2, The Arab League chief said Syria's government has withdrawn heavy weapons from inside cities and freed about 3,500 prisoners but security forces continue to kill protesters even with foreign monitors in the country. Syrian security forces fired on protesters in Hama province.
    (AP, 1/2/12)

2012        Jan 3, The Arab League called for an emergency meeting to discuss whether to withdraw the group's monitors from Syria. The British-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said security forces shot dead three people in the restive city of Homs. The LCC had a higher toll, saying security forces killed four people in Homs, one in the Damascus suburb of Kfar Batna and one in the central province of Hama. An explosion struck a gas pipeline in central Syria in an attack the government blamed on terrorists.
    (AP, 1/3/12)

2012        Jan 4, Syrian activists accused President Bashar Assad's regime of misleading Arab League observers by taking them only to areas loyal to the government and changing street signs to confuse them. Security forces and pro-government gunmen reportedly shot dead at least three people, two in the province of Homs and one in the central province of Hama.
    (AP, 1/4/12)

2012        Jan 5, Syrian state-TV reported that authorities have released more than 500 prisoners accused of involvement in anti-regime activities. Avaaz, an online global activist group, issued a report saying 617 people have been confirmed killed under torture by President Bashar Assad's forces as they cracked down on the revolt. Avaaz said that 37,000 people remain in detention.
    (AP, 1/5/12)

2012        Jan 6, In Syria an explosion ripped through a busy intersection in Damascus, hitting a bus carrying police and killing 26 people in what authorities said was the second suicide attack in as many weeks. A smaller bomb exploded in the Damascus suburb of Tal, killing a girl. Syrian troops opened fire on demonstrators holding anti-Assad sit-ins in two parts of the country, killing one and wounding at least 20. In other shootings, security forces killed at least six more people. State media SANA said terrorists blew up a pipeline that carries diesel from the central province of Homs to nearby Hama.
    (AP, 1/6/12)(AP, 1/7/12)

2012        Jan 7, In Syria troops attacked a sit-in in the restive central city of Homs, during which at least one person was killed. The British-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said security forces killed six other people.
    (AP, 1/7/12)

2012        Jan 8, Syrian security forces conducting raids on homes and pro-regime snipers on rooftops killed at least 10 civilians, including 2 teenagers, most of them in the central city of Homs. Fierce clashes in Basr al-Harir, southern Daraa province, between government troops and military defectors left 11 soldiers dead.
    (AP, 1/8/12)(AP, 1/9/12)

2012        Jan 9, Activists said Syrian troops have fired on protesters as Arab League observers toured the Khaldiyeh neighborhood of Homs province. A group of Arab League observers were attacked in the northern city of Latakia and two Kuwaiti army officers were lightly injured.
    (AP, 1/9/12)(AP, 1/10/12)

2012        Jan 10, Syrian President Bashar Assad vowed to respond to threats against him with an "iron hand" and refused to step down. Activists said Syrian security forces have shot dead at least 10 people in the eastern city of in Deir el-Zour despite the presence of an Arab observer mission in the area. The UAE's foreign minister accused the Syrian regime of not facilitating the job of Arab League observers.
    (AP, 1/10/12)(AFP, 1/10/12)

2012        Jan 11, In Syria French journalist Gilles Jacquier was killed and another wounded during a grenade barrage in Homs. President Assad joined thousands of his supporters in a rare public appearance, telling a pro-regime rally in the capital that the "conspiracy" against his country will fail.
    (AP, 1/11/12)(AP, 1/12/12)

2012        Jan 12, Turkish officials said a Russian ship, allegedly carrying tons of weapons, made a dash for Syria after Cypriot officials allowed it to leave their waters. The Chariot was ferrying cargo owned by Russia's state arms trader Rosoboronexport.
    (AP, 1/12/12)

2012        Jan 13, The head of the Arab League warned that Syria may be sliding toward civil war. The British-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said security forces killed one protester in the central city of Hama and another in the town of Ariha in the northwestern province of Idlib, where more than 20,000 people were demonstrating.
    (AP, 1/13/12)

2012        Jan 14, Top Syrian army defector General Mustafa Ahmad al-Sheikh (54) was set to take charge of the rebel army's operations. A council headed by Sheikh will oversee military operations in conjunction with the Free Syrian Army. The FSA said it has some 40,000 fighters under its command. The US accused Iran of supplying munitions to aid Damascus' bloody crackdown on protests. Violence in Homs reportedly claimed two lives.
    (AFP, 1/14/12)
2012        Jan 14, Lebanese citizen Hassan Obeid (17) died in a clinic where he was rushed after being hit in the stomach by a bullet  in his northern hometown of Bkarha coming from the Syrian side of the border.
    (AP, 1/14/12)

2012        Jan 15, Syria’s President Bashar Assad granted a general amnesty for crimes committed during the unrest of the past 10 months. State-run news agency SANA said the amnesty covers those who have peacefully demonstrated. At least six factory workers were killed when a roadside bomb detonated near the bus they were traveling in the town of Khan Sheikhoun in northern Syria. The British-based Syrian Observatory for Human Right and other activists said seven other people died in the central city of Homs, including three from indiscriminate gunfire and one in the northern province of Idlib.
    (AP, 1/15/12)(SFC, 1/18/12, p.A2)
2012        Jan 15, A member of Syria's parliament left the country to join the opposition. Imad Ghalioun, who represents the central city of Homs, said the city is a disaster after months of being a focus of the regime's fierce crackdown.
    (AP, 1/16/12)
2012        Jan 15, UN chief Ban Ki-moon, speaking in Beirut, called for an end to Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, saying the illegal building of settlements worked against a two-state solution. Ban Ki-moon also demanded that Syria's president stop killing his own people.
    (AFP, 1/15/12)(AP, 1/15/12)

2012        Jan 16, In Syria an "armed terrorist group" reportedly launched rocket-propelled grenades at an army checkpoint, killing an officer and five army personnel about 6 miles (9 km) southwest of Damascus.
    (AP, 1/17/12)

2012        Jan 17, In Syria at least 34 people were killed in several towns and cities across the country, including 6 soldiers who had defected and 3 members of the security forces.
    (SFC, 1/18/12, p.A2)

2012        Jan 18, Syria's state-owned media accused Qatar of arming and financing opponents of President Bashar al-Assad's regime. Qatar's emir, Sheikh Hamad Ben Khalifa al-Thani, said in an interview aired at the weekend that he backs sending Arab troops to Syria. Activists said Syrian troops have shelled the mountain resort of Zabadani near the border with Lebanon, and living conditions are deteriorating there after six days of siege. By nightfall government tanks and armored vehicles pulled back from Zabadani to two military barracks on the outskirts.
    (AFP, 1/18/12)(AP, 1/18/12)(AP, 1/19/12)

2012        Jan 19, In Syria at least 16 people were killed by security forces across the country. An Arab League observer mission ends today but can be renewed for another month.
    (AP, 1/19/12)(SFC, 1/20/12, p.A2)

2012        Jan 20, In Syria thousands of people held anti-government protests, chanting for the downfall of the regime. At least eight people were killed by security forces across the country. In Egypt two Arab League officials said the organization is likely to extend its observer mission.
    (AP, 1/20/12)

2012        Jan 21, In northwestern Syria a string of explosions struck a police truck transporting prisoners on the Idlib-Ariha highway, killing at least 14 people. Government troops also battled defectors in the north in fighting that left 10 people dead. Clashes erupted after security forces killed four civilians when they fired on mourners at a funeral in Douma.
    (AP, 1/21/12)(AP, 1/22/12)(AFP, 1/23/12)
2012        Jan 21, Lebanese officials said the Syrian navy arrested three Lebanese fishermen and confiscated their boat in Lebanese waters off the northern town of Arida.
    (AP, 1/21/12)

2012        Jan 22, Syrian security forces retreated from the center of Douma one of the biggest Damascus suburbs after intense clashes with anti-government army defectors. State-run news agency, SANA, said an estimated 5,255 prisoners have been released over the past week under a recent amnesty, raising the total freed since November to more than 9,000. 11 residents of Douma were either shot dead by security forces or killed in clashes between army defectors and troops.
    (AP, 1/22/12)
2012        Jan 22, The Arab League officials said its observer's mission in Syria has been extended for another month.
    (AP, 1/22/12)

2012        Jan 23, Syria rejected the Arab League's wide-ranging new plan to end the country's 10-month crisis, saying the League's call for a national unity government in two months is a clear violation of Syrian sovereignty. The EU backed the Arab plan, and it extended existing sanctions against Assad's government by adding 22 more officials and 8 companies to the blacklist. Troops and army defectors clashed near the western town of Qusair. It said five soldiers were killed and 13 were wounded. The LCC put today’s death toll at 10. Funerals in Douma drew more than 150,000 people. Radwan Rabih Hamadi (46), a prominent opposition figure, was ambushed and assassinated by gunmen.
    (AP, 1/23/12)(AP, 1/24/12)
2012        Jan 23, Russia's business daily Kommersant reported that Moscow has signed a contract to sell 36 Yak-130 combat jets to Syria, a deal that, if confirmed, would openly defy international efforts to pressure Assad's regime.
    (AP, 1/23/12)

2012        Jan 24, Syria's foreign minister said that "half the universe" is conspiring against his country, as Gulf Arab nations withdrew from a monitoring mission in Syria because the government has failed to stop 10 months of violence. Syrian troops opened fire to disperse hundreds of people in al-Barra village in the Jabal al-Zawiya region of northern Syria who had gathered for the funeral of Radwan Rabih Hamadi, assassinated a day earlier.
    (AP, 1/24/12)

2012        Jan 26, Syrian troops stormed a flashpoint suburb of Damascus, rounding people up in house-to-house raids and clashing with army defectors. Tens of thousands of backers of Pres. Assad poured into the streets of several cities in a show of support for his embattled regime. At least 200 people were reported detained in Douma. A joint army and police force was ambushed near the town of Khirbet Ghazaleh, killing four members of the security forces and wounding five more. A sniper shot dead a woman in the central city of Hama, while a stray bullet killed a 14-year-old boy in the southern province of Daraa. State-run news said an army colonel was shot dead by "an armed terrorist" in front of his home in the central city of Homs. Activists said 62 people were killed across the country including 54 in Homs and Hama.
    (AP, 1/26/12)(AFP, 1/27/12)(SFC, 1/27/12, p.A2)
2012        Jan 26, Iranian security forces killed six Pakistani traders taking goats into Iran. Gunmen in Syria kidnapped 11 Iranian pilgrims traveling by road from Turkey to Damascus.
    (AP, 1/26/12)(AFP, 2/3/12)

2012        Jan 27, In Syria heavy gunfire hammered Homs in a second day of chaos. Activists said  21 people were killed across the country. The UN Security Council held a closed-door meeting to discuss the crisis, a step toward a possible resolution against the Damascus regime. The rebel Free Syrian Army said it had captured five Iranian soldiers in Homs who it said were under orders of the Syrian intelligence service.
    (AP, 1/27/12)(AFP, 1/27/12)

2012        Jan 28, The Arab League halted its observer mission to Syria, sharply criticizing the regime of President Bashar Assad for escalating violence in recent days that has killed at least 80 people across the country. Government forces clashed with anti-regime army defectors across the country. At least nine were reported killed in the clashes and other violence. State-run news said "terrorists" ambushed a bus carrying army officers near the tense Damascus suburb of Douma, killing seven of them.
    (AP, 1/28/12)
2012        Jan 28, Iraqi Kurdish leader Massud Barzani backed minority Kurds in Syria, who have rallied against the rule of President Bashar al-Assad during 10 months of nationwide protests. He spoke at a two-day conference of Syrian Kurds in the Iraqi Kurdish capital of Arbil.
    (AFP, 1/28/12)

2012        Jan 29, The Syrian military launched an offensive to regain control of suburbs on the eastern edge of Damascus, storming neighborhoods and clashing with army defectors. Fierce fighting sent residents fleeing and killed at least 3 civilians. 6 soldiers were killed when a roadside bomb detonated near the bus they were traveling in several miles south of the capital. Some 80 people were reported killed across Syria, half of them civilians.
    (AP, 1/29/12)(AFP, 1/30/12)

2012        Jan 30, Syrian forces heavily shelled the restive city of Homs and troops pushed back dissident troops from some suburbs on the outskirts of Damascus in an offensive trying to regain control of the capital's eastern doorstep. Activists reported the discovery of a family of six, a couple and their four children, who had been killed by gunfire several days earlier in the Karm el-Zeitoun district of Damascus. SANA state news reported that a "terrorist group" blew up a gas pipeline in the province of Homs. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said almost 100 people, including 55 civilians, were killed during a regime assault on Homs.
    (AP, 1/30/12)(AFP, 1/30/12)(AFP, 1/31/12)
2012        Jan 30, Russia's Foreign Ministry said it has invited Syrian authorities and opposition for talks in Moscow.
    (AP, 1/30/12)

2012        Jan 31, Syrian government forces moved into Zamalka and Arbeen, the two remaining towns still in rebel hands. Army defectors gained full control of the central town of Rastan after days of intense clashes. Activists said the day’s death toll was at least seven, although the LCC put the figure at up to 28.
    (AP, 1/31/12)

2012        Feb 1, Syrian troops battled army defectors in a string of towns in the mountains overlooking Damascus in a new assault to crush rebellious areas around the capital. Activists said at least 6-17 people were killed in the fighting. 8 residents in Homs were reported killed. A UN Security Council resolution would give Assad 15 days to start implementing the Arab peace plan and halt the crackdown, otherwise the Council would consider "further measures."
    (AP, 2/1/12)
2012        Feb 1, Eleven Iranian pilgrims were kidnapped in the central Syrian city of Hama.
    (AFP, 2/3/12)

2012        Feb 2, Tunisia cut ties with Syria. TAP news agency said authorities have seized dozens of yachts as well as cars, company shares and houses belonging to ousted leader Zine El Abidine Ben Ali and his family. Confiscated items included 34 vehicles, shares in 117 companies, 233 property deeds and 48 yachts and two homes.
    (AFP, 2/2/12)(AP, 4/2/15)

2012        Feb 3, In Syria fighting in Jassem, in the southern province of Daraa, killed at least one soldier and wounded five. Human Rights Watch said in a new report that it has documented at least 12 cases of children detained under "inhumane" conditions and tortured, as well as children shot in their homes or on the street. The Observatory said more than 20,000 people marched in the streets of the southern villages of Dael and Nawa where security forces opened fire to disperse the crowds. The Local Coordination Committees activist group said security forces killed at least 12 people while the Observatory said four people were shot dead.
    (AP, 2/3/12)
2012        Feb 3, Iran banned its citizens from traveling to Syria by road following the recent abductions of 29 Iranians in the escalating uprising in its key Middle East ally.
    (AFP, 2/3/12)

2012        Feb 4, Syrian forces hammered restive neighborhoods in the city of Homs for hours with mortars and artillery, sending terrified residents fleeing into basements and killing more than 200 people in what appeared to be the bloodiest episode of the nearly 11-month-old uprising, Syrian security forces opened fire on funeral processions near Damascus, killing 12 people in Daraya.
    (AP, 2/4/12)(AFP, 2/4/12)
2012        Feb 4, Tunisia decided to expel Syria's ambassador in response to the "bloody massacre" in Homs. Dozens of Syrian protesters were arrested after storming their country's embassies in cities in Europe and the Middle East.
    (AP, 2/4/12)(AFP, 2/4/12)
2012        Feb 4, Western diplomats at the United Nations said they are determined to vote on a resolution condemning bloodshed in Syria, despite strong Russian objections.
    (AFP, 2/4/12)

2012        Feb 5, Syria's opposition appealed for international backing, a day after Russia and China vetoed a UN Security Council resolution aimed at pressuring President Bashar Assad to end his bloody crackdown. The Observatory also said that one person was shot dead by a sniper in the central city of Homs. Another activist group, the Local Coordination Committees said nine people were killed in different parts of the country.
    (AP, 2/5/12)

2012        Feb 6, The US closed its embassy in the Syrian capital of Damascus in a dramatic escalation of pressure on President Bashar Assad to give up power. Activists said shells slammed into a makeshift medical clinic and residential areas in Homs, killing at least 23 people in the third day of a new offensive on the epicenter of the country's uprising. Another 10 people were reported killed elsewhere. State-run news said that gunmen killed three soldiers and captured others at a checkpoint in the Jabal al-Zawiyah region of Idlib province.
    (AP, 2/6/12)

2012        Feb 7, Syrian forces renewed their assault on the flashpoint city of Homs as Russia's foreign minister stressed the need for reform and dialogue during talks in Damascus with President Bashar Assad about the country's escalating violence. Activists reported that at least 15 people, including a 15-year-old boy, were killed in violence across the country. The six-nation Gulf Cooperation Council said it is pulling its ambassadors from Syria. France said it is recalling its ambassador to Syria for consultations. Other Western powers including Britain, the United States and Italy have called back their top envoys in the wake of new violence.
    (AP, 2/7/12)
2012        Feb 7, Australia imposed new travel bans and financial sanctions on Syrian leaders on as it stepped up actions to force an end to violence against Syria's civilian population.
    (Reuters, 2/7/12)
2012        Feb 7, Turkey's PM Erdogan announced a new initiative with regional players to halt the violence in Syria, saying the veto of a UN resolution had given President Bashar al-Assad a "license to kill."
    (AFP, 2/7/12)

2012        Feb 8, A senior European Union official said the EU will impose harsher sanctions on Syria, as Russia tried to broker talks between the vice president and the opposition to calm violence. Activists reported at least 50 killed in military assaults targeting government opponents in Homs.
    (AP, 2/8/12)

2012        Feb 9, Syrian forces fired mortars and rockets that killed scores of people in the rebellious city of Homs. The Local Coordination Committees said an estimated 90 people were killed in Homs, but the death toll was impossible to independently verify. Activists also reported violence in Zabadani and Daraa.
    (AP, 2/9/12)
2012        Feb 9, China said a Syrian opposition delegation visited Beijing and met Vice Foreign Minister Zhai Jun as the country insisted it wants to maintain contacts and communication with Syrian opposition groups.
    (AP, 2/9/12)
2012        Feb 9, Germany expelled four Syrian diplomats,.
    (AP, 2/9/12)
2012        Feb 9, Swiss news reported that Hafez Makhlouf, a cousin of Syria's President Bashar Assad, has won a legal bid to unfreeze euro3 million ($4 million) held in bank accounts in Switzerland, overturning a last-ditch effort by Swiss prosecutors to block the release of the funds on suspicion of money laundering.
    (AP, 2/9/12)

2012        Feb 10, In Syria 2 explosions struck security compounds in Aleppo, killing 28 people, the first significant violence in a major city that has largely stood by President Bashar Assad in the 11-month-old uprising against his rule. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 27 civilians were killed as security forces opened fire on antigovernment protesters who streamed out of mosques. A Syria-based activist, said the regime appears to be trying to take over rebel-held areas in Homs and the northwestern restive province of Idlib before Feb. 17, when Assad's ruling Baath party is scheduled to hold its first general conference since 2005.
    (AP, 2/10/12)(SFC, 2/11/12, p.A3)
2012        Feb 10, Nearly 2,000 Syrians took part in a demonstration outside the Syrian consulate in Dubai.
    (AP, 2/26/12)

2012        Feb 11, In Syria gunmen assassinated Brig. Gen. Issa al-Khouli in Damascus in the first killing of a high ranking military officer in the capital since the uprising against President Bashar Assad's regime began in March. Al-Khouli was a doctor and the chief of a military hospital in the capital. Violence in other parts of the country left at least 11 people dead as regime troops pushed into rebel-held neighborhoods in Homs and shelled the mountain town of Zabadani. Zabadani capitulated to government forces.
    (AP, 2/11/12)(Econ, 2/18/12, p.51)

2012        Feb 12, The Arab League foreign ministers meeting in Cairo adopted a draft resolution calling for an immediate cease-fire in Syria and called on the UN Security Council to pass a resolution creating a joint peacekeeping force for Syria. Al-Qaida chief Ayman al-Zawahri threw the terror network's support behind Syrian rebels trying to topple President Bashar Assad. Arab League chief Nabil Elaraby accepted the resignation of Gen. Mohammed Ahmed Al-Dabi, the head of the Syrian observer mission, and nominated former Jordanian Foreign Minister Abdullah al-Khatib as the new envoy.
    (AP, 2/12/12)

2012        Feb 13, Syrian rebels repelled a push by government tanks into Rastan, a key central town held by forces fighting President Bashar Assad's regime. At least three soldiers were left dead. A sniper shot dead a civilian in Hama.
    (AP, 2/13/12)

2012        Feb 14, Syrian government forces renewed their assault on the rebellious city of Homs in what activists described as the heaviest shelling in days. 9 civilians, four defectors and 7 soldiers were reported killed as pro-Assad forces and army defectors battled for hours in the northern town of Atareb.
    (AP, 2/14/12)(AP, 2/15/12)

2012        Feb 15, Syrian President Bashar Assad ordered a referendum on Feb 26 on a new constitution that would allow political parties other than his ruling Baath Party, the centerpiece of reforms he has promised to ease the crisis, even as the Syrian military besieged rebellious areas. The LCC said 13 people were killed in violence around the country, while the Observatory put the death toll at five. An oil pipeline in Homs was attacked.
    (AP, 2/15/12)

2012        Feb 16, Syrian forces attacked the city of Daraa, carrying out arrests and shooting randomly in the city where the uprising against President Bashar Assad erupted 11 months ago. At least 41 people were killed as security forces bore down on focal points of dissent. UN chief Ban Ki-moon called for an end to the violence in Syria and urged the international community to find a common response to the unrest. The UN General Assembly demanded an immediate halt to Syria's brutal crackdown on dissent. In a strongly worded resolution adopted by a 137-12 vote, member states demanded Assad's government stop attacking civilian demonstrators and start pulling troops back to barracks.
    (AP, 2/16/12)(AFP, 2/16/12)(AFP, 2/17/12)

2012        Feb 17, Thousands of Syrians rallied to demand Bashar al-Assad's ouster, as the embattled president's forces unleashed their heaviest pounding yet of Homs in a brutal bid to crush dissent. Nine bodies of unidentified people were found in Homs, said the Observatory, which also reported the heaviest shelling in the city for two weeks. 4 people were killed by security forces in Damascus following protests in the area.
    (AFP, 2/17/12)(AP, 2/17/12)(AFP, 2/19/12)
2012        Feb 17, France and Britain pledged to help the Syrian opposition in its struggle against Bashar al-Assad's regime but said conditions were not right for a foreign intervention as in Libya. Pres. Sarkozy urged anti-Assad forces to unite and be better organized.
    (AFP, 2/18/12)

2012        Feb 18, Syrian security forces fired live rounds and tear gas at thousands of people marching in a funeral procession that turned into a protest in Damascus, killing at least one person. The Observatory said two other people were killed, one in Homs who died from sniper fire and another in the north, who was shot by security forces conducting raids. Visiting Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Zhai Jun called on all parties to stop violence. Jamal Bish, a city councilor in Aleppo was reported killed. Syrian authorities freed blogger Razan Ghazzawi, symbol of an 11-month uprising, and six other female activists arrested last week.
    (AP, 2/18/12)(AFP, 2/19/12)

2012        Feb 19, Syrian security forces flooded a tense neighborhood where a mourner was shot dead in the largest anti-regime rally seen in Damascus, blunting calls for a "day of defiance." Activists said 18 people were killed, with nine in Idlib and six in Homs. This included a Syrian state prosecutor, a judge and their driver in Idlib. Regime forces pounded the flashpoint central city of Homs for the 15th straight day. Leading Syrian businessman Faisal al-Qudsi told the BBC that foreign exchange reserves have tumbled from $22 billion (16.7 billion euros) to about $10 billion.
    (AFP, 2/19/12)(AP, 2/20/12)
2012        Feb 19, Egypt said it was withdrawing its ambassador to Syria, the latest Arab country to scale back its relations with the embattled regime in Damascus.
    (AP, 2/19/12)

2012        Feb 20, Syria's military sent tanks and other reinforcements toward the restive central city of Homs in what appeared to be preparations by President Bashar Assad's regime for an offensive aimed at retaking rebel-held neighborhoods. The Observatory said that shelling of the Baba Amr district killed five civilians. Troops conducted raids in the southern village of Harrah, where at least nine people were detained.
    (AP, 2/20/12)

2012        Feb 21, Syrian forces killed at least 68 people across the country, including 16 in the shelling of neighborhoods in Homs. The International Committee of the Red Cross called for a daily two-hour cease-fire so it can deliver emergency aid and evacuate people who are wounded or sick.
    (AFP, 2/21/12)(AP, 2/21/12)(AFP, 2/22/12)

2012        Feb 22, In Syria veteran American war correspondent Marie Colvin (57) of Britain's Sunday Times and freelance French photojournalist Remi Ochlik (28) were killed while fleeing a bombardment in the besieged rebel city of Homs. Freelance photographer Paul Conroy and journalist Edith Bouvier of Le Figaro were wounded. 24 others were also killed in Homs. Syrian citizen journalist Rami al-Sayyed, who provided live footage on the Internet from Baba Amr, was also killed. In 2016 documents filed in US district court in Washington said the Syrian military intercepted Colvin's communications and unleashed a barrage of rocket fire on her in Homs.
    (AP, 2/22/12)(AFP, 2/23/12)(AFP, 7/10/16)
2012        Feb 22, Russia expressed "serious concern" about the humanitarian situation in Syria and said it backed an International Committee of the Red Cross call for a daily two-hour truce that could provide help to civilians.
    (AFP, 2/22/12)

2012        Feb 23, Syrian forces launched a massive bombardment of rebel districts of Homs. Across the country, at least 16 people were killed in attacks by security forces in rebellious areas.
    (AP, 2/23/12)

2012        Feb 24, Syrian government troops shelled rebel-held areas in central Syria, killing at least 22 people. Thousands of people in dozens of towns across Syria staged anti-regime protests under the slogan: "We will revolt for your sake, Baba Amr," referring to the besieged Homs neighborhood that has become the center of the Syrian revolt. The Red Cross and the Syrian Arab Red Crescent evacuated seven Syrians wounded in shelling by regime forces as well as 20 sick women and children. They were taken to Homs' Al-Amine hospital.
    (AP, 2/24/12)(AP, 2/25/12)(SFC, 2/25/12, p.A2)
2012        Feb 24, Russia welcomed the appointment of Kofi Annan as the UN and Arab League envoy for the crisis in Syria and called for an immediate ceasefire to evacuate wounded from the city of Homs.
    (AFP, 2/24/12)
2012        Feb 24, Tunisian police wielding batons beat back several dozen pro-Syrian protesters trying to enter the venue of an international meeting on the Syria crisis. The US secretary of state and other leading Western and Arab officials were in Tunis for the "Friends of Syria" meeting aimed at increasing pressure on President Bashar al-Assad's regime over its bloody crackdown on the opposition.
    (AFP, 2/24/12)

2012        Feb 25, Syrian government forces resumed their shelling of Homs' Baba Amr district, and attacked elsewhere, killing at least 16 civilians across the country. The Red Cross made a new attempt to bring out people trapped in Homs. Activists said at least 89 people were killed  across the country.
    (AP, 2/25/12)(AFP, 2/26/12)(SSFC, 2/26/12, p.A5)

2012        Feb 26, Syria held a referendum on a new constitution. Western leaders called it a farce. The Local Coordination Committees (LCC) said attacks by government soldiers killed 55 people, most of them in Homs. On Feb 28 the Interior Ministry said the charter won 89.4 percent of votes cast with a turnout of 57.4 percent.
    (SFC, 2/27/12, p.A3)(AFP, 2/28/12)
2012        Feb 26, A Jordanian government official said more than 80,000 Syrian refugees have fled the nearly 11 months of violence in their homeland and settled in neighboring Jordan.
    (AP, 2/26/12)
2012        Feb 26, Syrian activists said Emirati authorities have cancelled the residencies of dozens of Syrians for taking part in a Feb 10 protest against their regime outside the consulate in Dubai.
    (AP, 2/26/12)

2012        Feb 27, In Syria Red Cross teams reached Hama for the first time in more than a month, delivering food and other goods to the central Syrian city battered by a military crackdown on the anti-government uprising. Syria says voters have approved a new constitution in a vote that the West has dismissed as a "farce" meant to justify deadly crackdowns on dissent. The Britain-based monitoring group reported more than 100 people killed across Syria, including 11 members of the security forces, and 68 civilians.
    (AP, 2/27/12)(AFP, 2/28/12)
2012        Feb 27, European Union foreign ministers said they were increasingly appalled by the Syrian government's ruthless campaign of repression against civilians, and imposed new sanctions in hopes of pressuring the regime to change course.
    (AP, 2/27/12)
2012        Feb 27, Iraqi Kurdistan said it has granted refugee status to 30 Kurdish Syrian troops who defected to the region in the first such instance in the revolt against Bashar al-Assad's regime.
    (AFP, 2/27/12)

2012        Feb 28, Activists of the Syrian Revolution 2011 Facebook page said that Baba Amr was bombarded for the 25th straight day by regime forces. At least five civilians died in Baba Amr. Five Syrian soldiers were killed in fighting against deserters in the southern province of Daraa. Wounded British photographer Paul Conroy (47) escaped overnight from Homs to Lebanon. 13 Syrian activists were killed trying to help Le Figaro journalist Edith Bouvier and Conroy and to bring in aid to Baba Amr. Bouvier remained trapped in Baba Amr.
    (AFP, 2/28/12)(AFP, 2/29/12)

2012        Feb 29, Syrian forces launched a ground assault on Homs to crush the last pockets of resistance in the city's rebel-held districts, a security source said, even as Washington worked on a UN Security Council draft demanding humanitarian access.
    (AFP, 2/29/12)
2012        Feb 29, Britain withdrew its diplomatic staff from Syria because of a growing risk to their safety.
    (AFP, 3/1/12)

2012        Mar 1, Syrian rebels retreated from the Baba Amr neighborhood in Homs that they had held for months, saying they were running out of weapons and humanitarian conditions were catastrophic after almost four weeks of government bombardment.
    (AP, 3/1/12)
2012        Mar 1, The opposition Syrian National Council said it wanted to organize weapons deliveries to Syrian rebels and was uniting armed factions fighting against President Bashar al-Assad's regime. Kuwait's parliament joined the call for arming the rebels, adopting a non-binding resolution urging the oil-rich Gulf state to supply weapons to the opposition and to sever diplomatic ties with Damascus.
    (AFP, 3/1/12)
2012        Mar 1, Members of the UN Human Rights Council voted 37 in favor and three against a resolution proposed by Turkey that calls on Syria to immediately stop all attacks on civilians and grant unhindered access to aid groups. Russia, China and Cuba objected to the resolution.
    (AP, 3/1/12)

2012        Mar 2, Syrian activists accused regime forces of carrying out execution-style killings and burning homes as part of a scorched-earth campaign in a restive neighborhood of Homs, while the Red Cross headed to the area following a bloody, monthlong siege to dislodge rebel forces. The Observatory said 10 people were killed in the town of Rastan near Homs when a mortar landed near marchers. The LCC said 16 were killed in the same event, among 52 reported dead nationwide.
    (AP, 3/2/12)
2012        Mar 2, France said it is closing its embassy in Syria, a day after two French journalists escaped to Lebanon.
    (AP, 3/2/12)

2012        Mar 3, Syrian forces renewed their bombardment of rebellious areas of Homs, as the Red Cross vowed to try again to reach thousands of people stranded in a district overrun by regime troops after a monthlong siege. A suicide car bomb exploded in Daraa, killing at least two people and wounding 20. Human Rights Watch said Syrian forces killed some 700 people and wounded thousands in a 27-day bombardment of Homs, with shells sometimes falling at the rate of 100 an hour. 12 civilians, including five children, were killed when a rocket slammed into a crowd of protesters in Rastan.
    (AP, 3/3/12)(AFP, 3/3/12)(AFP, 3/4/12)

2012        Mar 4, Syrian artillery gunners turned their sights on the rebel city of Rastan, killing 7 civilians, as the Red Cross delivered aid to refugees from the battered Baba Amr quarter nearby. The Syrian Observatory reported at least 44 people killed, including 14 members of the security forces who died in clashes with deserters near Daraa.
    (AFP, 3/4/12)

2012        Mar 5, Canada said it has shut its embassy in Damascus and is imposing fresh sanctions on Syria, banning all dealings with the central bank as part of a campaign to stop President Bashar al-Assad's crackdown against rebels.
    (Reuters, 3/5/12)
2012        Mar 5, China said it will send a new envoy to Syria and is ready to support international aid under the auspices of the United Nations or another "impartial" organization.
    (AFP, 3/5/12)

2012        Mar 6, Syrian troops shelled Herak and clashed with army defectors holed up inside in violence that killed a 15-year-old boy and five government soldiers. Government forces pounded rebel-held towns and blasted a bridge used by refugees to escape to Lebanon. At least 16 people were killed as regime forces launched a major assault on Herak, a town in the southern province of Daraa.
    (AP, 3/6/12)(AFP, 3/6/12)(AFP, 3/7/12)

2012        Mar 7, UN's humanitarian chief Valerie Amos arrived in Syria to try to secure aid for battered protest cities, as tanks and troops headed for a rebel bastion in Idlib. Syria's deputy oil minister, Abdo Husameldin, defected to Turkey. His online video emerged the next day, making him the highest ranking civilian official to abandon the regime since the uprising against President Bashar Assad erupted a year ago.
    (AFP, 3/7/12)(AP, 3/8/12)(Econ, 3/10/12, p.60)

2012        Mar 8, Two Syrian generals, a colonel and two sergeants defected to Turkey.
    (AP, 3/9/12)

2012        Mar 9, The leader of Syria's main opposition group, Burhan Ghalioun, rejected calls by UN envoy Kofi Annan for dialogue with President Bashar Assad's government, saying such talks are pointless and unrealistic as long as the regime massacres its own people. Activists said at least 26 people were killed across Syria today.
    (AP, 3/9/12)
2012        Mar 9, Russia said it opposed an "unbalanced" Washington-backed UN draft resolution on Syria because it failed to call for a simultaneous halt in violence by the government and rebels.
    (AFP, 3/9/12)

2012        Mar 10, Syrian troops pushed ahead with a new assault on the northern region of Idlib. 17 civilians and four regular army troops were killed in clashes in Idlib province. 28 people were reported killed nationwide. UN envoy Kofi Annan met with Pres. Assad in Damascus trying to bring a halt to fighting and arrange talks between the two sides. Assad told Annan that any political dialogue was doomed to fail "as long as there are armed terrorist groups that work to spread anarchy and destabilize the country." The opposition as well has rejected dialogue, saying it is impossible to talk to Assad's regime.
    (AP, 3/10/12)(AFP, 3/10/12)(SSFC, 3/11/12, p.A6)
2012        Mar 10, Arab and Russian foreign ministers meeting in Cairo called for an end to the violence in Syria "whatever its source," as they struggled try to find common ground on ways to resolve the deadly conflict. Qatari Foreign Minister Sheikh Hamad bin Jassim al-Thani said that it was time to send Arab and foreign troops to Syria.
    (AFP, 3/10/12)
2012        Mar 10, Turkish journalist Adem Ozkose (34) and cameraman Hamit Coskun (21) reported from Idlib as Syrian forces with tanks and artillery were preparing to move against poorly armed rebels there. They were not heard from again until May 5 when they called their families while under Syrian detention. On May 11 Iran, acting as diplomatic go-between between Syria and Turkey, negotiated their release.
    (AP, 5/11/12)

2012        Mar 11, In Syria international peace envoy Kofi Annan said he handed over a set of "concrete proposals" aimed at defusing the Syrian crisis during a second round of talks with President Bashar al-Assad. 20 bodies were discovered in the Dbeit district in Idlib. A massacre in Homs left 26 children and 21 women, some with their throats slit and others bearing stab wounds in the Karm el-Zaytoun and Al-Adawiyeh neighborhoods of Homs. Four civilians were killed in government shelling and 10 soldiers were killed when their checkpoint was attacked by defectors in Idlib province.
     (AFP, 3/11/12)(AFP, 3/12/12)(AP, 3/13/12)

2012        Mar 12, The Syrian army launched a new assault in the restive northern province of Idlib and the city itself. Security force gunfire killed at least two people in the Idlib town of Maaret al-Numan and in the Hazzan area. SANA reported that an "armed terrorist group" blew up a pipeline that transports diesel from the central province of Homs to the nearby region of Hama, setting it on fire.
    (AFP, 3/12/12)(AP, 3/12/12)
2012        Mar 12, UN-Arab League peace envoy on Syria, Kofi Annan, held talks with top Qatari officials after a weekend trip to Damascus where he urged leaders to end the bloodshed there.
    (AFP, 3/12/12)

2012        Mar 13, The Syrian army recaptured the northern rebel stronghold of Idlib near the Turkish border, a major base that military defectors had held for months. An international rights group, meanwhile, said the regime was mining the border with Turkey. The LCC and the Observatory said that bodies of six people were found today near the village of Maaret Shoureen in Idlib province.
    (AP, 3/13/12)
2012        Mar 13, Russian Deputy Defense Minister Anatoly Antonov said Russia will abide by existing contracts to deliver weapons to Syria despite Pres. Assad's yearlong crackdown on the opposition.
    (AP, 3/13/12)

2012        Mar 14, Two prominent Syrian dissidents said they have quit the main opposition group that emerged from the year-old uprising against the regime in Damascus, predicting more would soon abandon what one of the men described as an "autocratic" organization. Amnesty International said that Syrian security forces routinely torture people detained during the uprising. 37 people were reported killed in violence across Syria, 20 of them in Daraa.
    (AP, 3/14/12)(AFP, 3/15/12)
2012        Mar 14, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov accused Pres. Assad of "inertia" and said Russia's hugely controversial policy on Syria was not aimed at defending his regime.
    (AFP, 3/14/12)
2012        Mar 14, Saudi Arabia said it has closed its embassy in Damascus and pulled out its diplomats and staff as Syrian President Bashar Assad steps up attacks against the opposition.
    (AP, 3/15/12)

2012        Mar 15, In Syria 23 mutilated corpses were found near Mazraat Wadi Khaled, west of the city of Idlib. The regime's bloody crackdown entered its second year to a rising world outcry. Violent clashes broke out overnight as rebels attacked army posts in the eastern region of Deir Ezzor (Deir el-Zour). State television showed tens of thousands of people waving Syrian flags and Assad's portrait in cities including Damascus, the second-largest city Aleppo and Latakia. Tanks and snipers besieged opposition areas, including the southern city of Daraa. At least 34 other people were killed in violence, mostly in Idlib province bordering Turkey.
    (AFP, 3/15/12)(AP, 3/16/12)(AFP, 3/16/12)
2012        Mar 15, France rejected weapons requests by the Syrian rebel forces, saying that arming the Syrian opposition could lead to catastrophic civil war.
    (AP, 3/16/12)
2012        Mar 15, Turkey’s deputy prime minister said Syria has planted landmines near its border with Turkey along routes used by refugees fleeing the regime's deadly crackdown on dissent. The foreign ministry said Around 1,000 Syrian refugees, including a defecting general, flocked into Turkey in the last 24 hours.
    (AFP, 3/15/12)

2012        Mar 16, Syrian troops clashed with army defectors in several areas near Damascus in the first significant battles there since President Bashar Assad's forces regained control of the suburbs weeks ago. 7 people were reported killed in overnight fighting in Dmeir and Qatana, also in the Damascus region. Activists called for rallies across Syria to demand immediate military intervention. Two more generals fled Syria to Turkey and linked up with rebels trying to overthrow President Bashar al-Assad's regime
    (AP, 3/16/12)(AFP, 3/16/12)(AFP, 3/19/12)
2012        Mar 16, The Gulf Cooperation Council announced that all six of its member states were closing their Damascus embassies after having last month withdrawn their ambassadors.
    (AFP, 3/16/12)
2012        Mar 16, Russia said it has encouraged the Syrian government to cooperate with Kofi Annan, the envoy charged with trying to help end the violence there, and urged the West to do the same with the Syrian rebels.
    (AP, 3/16/12)
2012        Mar 16, Turkey urged its citizens in Syria to return home, saying some consular services will be halted in Damascus next week.
    (AP, 3/16/12)

2012        Mar 17, In Syria twin car bombs struck intelligence and security buildings in Damascus, killing at least 27 people and wounding nearly 100. A third blast went off near a military bus at the Palestinian refugee camp Yarmouk in Damascus, killing the two suicide bombers. On March 21 an Islamist group called the Al-Nusra Front to Protect the Levant claimed responsibility for twin suicide bombings.
    (AP, 3/17/12)(AP, 3/18/12)(AP, 3/21/12)

2012        Mar 18, In Syria an explosion ripped through a residential neighborhood in the northern city of Aleppo. State news said it was a "terrorist bombing." Two people were reported killed and 30 wounded. The opposition faced a harsh security crackdown aimed at preventing rallies marking one year since the first nationwide demonstrations of the country's uprising.
    (AP, 3/18/12)

2012        Mar 19, In Syria rare gunbattles between security forces and rebels broke out in an upscale Damascus neighborhood where embassies are located and senior officials live. It was one of the most serious confrontations in the tightly controlled capital since the anti-government uprising began a year ago. At least 4 people were killed.
    (AFP, 3/19/12)

2012        Mar 20, Russia said it is ready to support a UN resolution endorsing Kofi Annan's plan for settling the Syrian crisis, signaling it is prepared to raise the pressure on its old ally.
    (AP, 3/20/12)
2012        Mar 20, Human Rights Watch accused some in Syria's armed opposition of carrying out serious abuses, including the kidnapping and torture of security forces, in a sign of the growing complexity of the year-old uprising against President Bashar Assad. Fresh clashes broke out in the capital and security forces killed at least 30 people, all but two of them civilians, in violence elsewhere across the country. Syrian soldiers backed by tanks seized the eastern city of Deir el-Zour from rebels.
    (AP, 3/20/12)(AFP, 3/20/12)

2012        Mar 21, The UN Security Council passed a statement urging Syria’s Pres. Assad and the opposition to implement "fully and immediately" envoy Kofi Annan's peace plan. The Syrian National Council, the main opposition group, dismissed the UN statement, saying it offered "the regime the opportunity to push ahead with its repression in order to crush the revolt. Activists reported shelling by government in forces in hotspots including the central province of Homs, and fighting between army defectors and soldiers in Damascus suburbs.
    (AP, 3/21/12)(AFP, 3/22/12)
2012        Mar 21, Japan's foreign ministry said it would close its embassy in Syria, citing deteriorating security conditions amid a brutal crackdown on anti-government protestors.
    (AFP, 3/21/12)

2012        Mar 22, In Syria fierce clashes erupted with a busload of fleeing civilians among dozens killed. The army attacked a string of towns, while rebel fighters struck military posts in several provinces and announced a command structure to coordinate hit-and-run strikes in and around Damascus. Activists reported dozens of people killed including at least 12 government soldiers.
    (AFP, 3/22/12)(SFC, 3/23/12, p.A3)

2012        Mar 23, Syrian government forces fired machine guns and mortars in fierce clashes with rebel army defectors in a town near the Turkish border. EU foreign ministers imposed sanctions on the wife and three other close relatives of Syrian President Bashar Assad. The LCC said a total of at least 18 people were killed throughout the country. Tens of thousands of Syrians braved tear gas and gunfire to protest across the country, vowing to storm the capital Damascus to oust President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 3/23/12)

2012        Mar 24, Syrian troops launched raids on several rebel towns that left at least 20 people dead after raging overnight firefights with army deserters. Fighting in Saraqeb left 2 rebels and 9 government troops dead. 14 people were reported killed in Homs province.
    (AFP, 3/24/12)(SSFC, 3/25/12, p.A6)

2012        Mar 25, Syrian forces attacked flashpoint areas, carrying out raids and clashing with rebels as President Bashar Assad's allies in Russia said the country may be facing its last chance for peace. The LCC reported five troops and three mutinous soldiers killed in the southern town of Nawa.
    (AP, 3/25/12)
2012        Mar 25, Pres. Obama met with Turkish leader Recep Tayyip Erdogan ahead of a nuclear security conference in South Korea. Obama other key allies considered providing Syrian rebels with communications help, medical aid and other "non-lethal" assistance.
    (AP, 3/25/12)

2012        Mar 26, Syrian troops shelled rebel-held neighborhoods in Homs. The LCC said 19 people were killed in Syria, nine of them in Homs. The Observatory said 10 people were killed, including five in the Homs shelling. The government banned military aged males 18-42 from traveling outside the country.
    (AP, 3/26/12)(SFC, 3/27/12, p.A3)

2012        Mar 26, The Norwegian Foreign Ministry said it has decided to close down its embassy in Damascus due to security concerns.
    (AP, 3/26/12)
2012        Mar 26, Turkey closed its embassy in Damascus and recalled its ambassador as relations between the former allies continued to deteriorate.
    (AFP, 3/26/12)

2012        Mar 27, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad toured the flashpoint Baba Amr neighborhood of Homs. A spokesman for UN envoy Kofi Annan said Syria has accepted his 6-point plan to end the bloodshed in the country. Syrian security forces reportedly killed 10 people as the regime pushed to retake areas still under rebel control.
    (AFP, 3/27/12)(AP, 3/27/12)

2012        Mar 28, Syrian activists said government forces have captured the northern town of Saraqeb from rebels after four days of fighting in which more than 40 people were killed and homes were burned down. 3 Syrian soldiers were killed in clashes with rebels in the central province of Homs.
    (AP, 3/28/12)

2012        Mar 29, In Syria gunmen struck in the heart of Aleppo, Syria's largest city and a stronghold of support for President Bashar Assad, killing two army colonels at a downtown roundabout in an attack that state media blamed on terrorists. Rebels attacked an army truck in Hama province killing two soldiers. Activists said security forces killed at least 11 civilians across the country.
    (AP, 3/29/12)

2012        Mar 30, Fresh clashes between Syrian soldiers and rebels erupted across many parts of Syria as UN envoy Kofi Annan urged the government to lay down its weapons first to immediately end the nation's yearlong crisis. The Local Coordination Committees said 15 people were killed across the country, including eight who died in the town of Quriya in the eastern Deir el-Zour province. Thousands across the country held demonstrations calling for Assad's ouster as they emerged from mosques following Friday prayers.
    (AP, 3/30/12)

2012        Apr 1, Syria blasted an international conference on the country's spreading crisis before it even started in Istanbul, calling it part of an international conspiracy to kill Syrians and weaken the country. Monitors said at least 16 people were killed, including eight soldiers who died during ambushes and gun battles in the east, northwest and near Damascus. Participants at the 60-nation “Friends of the Syrian People" meeting said Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries are creating a multimillion-dollar fund to pay members of the rebel Free Syrian Army and soldiers who defect from the regime and join opposition ranks.
    (AP, 4/1/12)(AFP, 4/1/12)(SSFC, 4/1/12, p.A5)

2012        Apr 2, Syria pressed its deadly bid to crush dissent, reportedly targeting rebels near Turkey as it brushed off an Istanbul meeting of the "Friends of Syria" as a failure. Violence across the country killed at least 18 people. Gunmen in Aleppo attacked the home of the head of military institutions late today and killed two guards.
    (AFP, 4/2/12)(AP, 4/3/12)
2012        Apr 2, UN-Arab League envoy Kofi Annan said Syrian President Bashar al-Assad had accepted an April 10 deadline to start implementing a peace plan, as more than 30 people died in new clashes.
    (AFP, 4/2/12)

2012        Apr 3, Syrian opposition groups reported army raid and arrest campaigns across the country as well as clashes with local rebels. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said two civilians were killed in clashes in the northern village of Taftanaz, where rebel destroyed one army vehicle and regime forces torched a number of homes. The International Committee of the Red Cross pressed Syria to give aid workers access to civilians endangered by shelling and armed clashes. Assaults and clashes killed across the country killed at least 80 people.
    (AP, 4/3/12)(AFP, 4/4/12)
2012        Apr 3, Russia's Foreign Ministry announced that the Syrian government said it has begun implementing a UN envoy Kofi Annan’s peace plan that requires it to withdraw its forces from towns and cities within a week.
    (AP, 4/3/12)

2012        Apr 4, Syrian troops clashed with army defectors and shelled rebellious districts in Homs, a day after the government claimed it had begun a troop withdrawal ahead of the April 10 deadline to implement an international truce plan. A former political detainee identified as Ahmad al-Othman (50) and his brother Adnan (40), a lawyer, were killed overnight when troops fired on their car from a machine gun on a tank in Idlib province. 52 people were killed around the country, including 28 civilians, with most of the casualties in the city and province of Homs.
    (AP, 4/4/12)(AFP, 4/4/12)

2012        Apr 5, In Syria fierce clashes between government forces and rebels erupted near Damascus ahead of an agreed truce. Some 2,500 crossed the border today, bringing to 24,000 the number of Syrian refugees now in Turkey.
    (AFP, 4/5/12)(AP, 4/6/12)
2012        Apr 5, A team led by a Norwegian major general arrived in Damascus to negotiate the possible deployment of a UN team that would monitor a cease-fire agreement between Syrian government troops and rebel forces.
    (AP, 4/5/12)

2012        Apr 6, Syrian troops conducted raids in the suburbs of Saqba and Douma following overnight clashes with army defectors in Saqba and the nearby suburb of Arbeen, where 3 members of the military were reported killed. A cease-fire was expected to begin April 12. Tens of thousands of protesters marched in towns across Syria, calling for the ouster of the Assad regime.
    (AP, 4/6/12)

2012        Apr 7, In Syria some 86 civilians were killed as regime forces pressed a protest crackdown three days ahead of a deadline to cease fire and pull back. 16 rebels and 17 members of the security forces were also killed nationwide. The head of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation said at least one million Syrians affected by violence need urgent humanitarian aid worth $70 million. Thousands of demonstrators turned out in Damascus to show their backing for President al-Assad's ruling Baath party on the 65th anniversary of its creation.
    (AFP, 4/7/12)(AFP, 4/8/12)

2012        Apr 8, Syria's main opposition group urged UN intervention after one of the deadliest days in a year saw nearly 130 people killed, mostly civilians. 11 more people were killed today. A UN-brokered peace deal appeared to collapse as the government made a new demand that its opponents provide "written guarantees" to lay down their weapons before regime forces withdraw from cities.
    (AFP, 4/8/12)(AP, 4/8/12)

2012        Apr 9, Syrian forces fired across the border into a refugee camp in Turkey, wounding at least five people. Lebanese journalist Ali Shaaban, who works as a cameraman for Al Jadeed TV station, was shot and killed as he was filming in the northern Wadi Khaled area on the Lebanese side of the border. 12 members of the Syrian security forces were killed as clashes ensued in several regions. Human Rights Watch said it has documented the killings by Syrian forces of 85 civilians, including women and children, and the summary executions of at least 16 wounded or captured opposition fighters. The Syrian rebel army said it is ready to respect an April 10 truce brokered by UN-Arab League envoy Kofi Annan if the regime of President Bashar al-Assad abides by the peace deal.
    (AP, 4/9/12)(AFP, 4/9/12)

2012        Apr 10, Syrian troops shelled and raided opposition strongholds across Syria, activists said, denying claims by the foreign minister that regime forces have begun pulling out of some areas in compliance with a UN-brokered truce.
    (AP, 4/10/12)

2012        Apr 11, Syrian troops took control of large parts of villages and towns near the border with Turkey. The state-run news agency SANA said gunmen shot and killed army Brig. Gen. Jamal Khaled in the Damascus suburb of Aqraba. It added that Khaled's driver, a soldier, was also killed in the attack. 2 people were reported killed and dozens wounded when government troops stormed and shelled Barada valley. 2 more people were reported killed in the eastern town of Qoriah during raids by regime force. The military unleashed a lethal offensive against protest centers, killing 25 civilians today.
    (AP, 4/11/12)(AFP, 4/12/12)

2012        Apr 12, In Syria a fragile cease-fire brokered by the UN took hold with regime forces apparently halting widespread attacks on the opposition. Renewed bloodshed killed at least four people, putting to the test a hard-won ceasefire plan that was supposed to take effect at dawn.
    (AP, 4/12/12)(AFP, 4/12/12)

2012        Apr 13, In Syria tens of thousands of poured into the streets for anti-government protests in the first major test of a UN-brokered truce. Government troops fought with rebels near the border with Turkey, and other scattered violence was reported. 6 civilians were killed.
    (AFP, 4/13/12)(AFP, 4/14/12)

2012        Apr 14, Syria shelled rebel districts of Homs. A fragile truce was now in its third day. 5 people were killed, among them Samir Shalab al-Sham (26), a photographer and father of two who had been documenting the destruction. In Aleppo 3 civilians were wounded when a funeral procession came under fire. In Dmeir, outside Damascus, security forces opened fire on a car killing one civilian and wounding two. 2 soldiers were killed in an attack on their car in the southern province of Daraa. The UN Security Council in New York voted to authorize an advance team of observers to help maintain the cease-fire. UN Resolution 2042 approved the sending of 30 unarmed military observers as soon as possible and called on both the government and opposition forces to halt "armed violence in all its forms."
    (AFP, 4/14/12)(AP, 4/15/12)(AFP, 4/16/12)

2012        Apr 15, Syrian troops shelled residential neighborhoods dominated by rebels in the central city of Homs, killing at least three people hours before the first batch of United Nations observers were to arrive in Damascus to shore up a shaky truce. The bodies of two other people were found in the Deir Baalbeh and al-Dablan districts.
    (AP, 4/15/12)

2012        Apr 16, Syrian forces fought with rebels in Idlib and shelled Homs, hours after UN peacekeepers arrived to oversee a truce aimed at ending a year of bloodshed. At least 26 people were reported killed. The Local Coordination Committees said at least 55 people were killed, including 26 in Idlib.
    (AFP, 4/16/12)(AP, 4/17/12)

2012        Apr 17, The Syrian regime widened shelling attacks on opposition strongholds, targeting a second town in a new sign that a UN-brokered cease-fire is quickly unraveling despite the presence of foreign observers. Army tanks shelled the southern town of Busra al-Harir, killing at least two people.
    (AP, 4/17/12)

2012        Apr 18, Syrian troops opened fire on protesters, wounding eight in the Damascus suburb of Arbeen, visited by a UN observer team. Regime forces fired mortar shells at the central city of Homs. State news said two separate roadside bombs killed 10 members of the security forces and a civilian in northern Syria. 30 people were killed today, 22 of them civilians. In the central city of Homs alone, 13 civilians died in renewed bombardment.
    (AP, 4/18/12)(AFP, 4/19/12)
2012        Apr 18, Turkey said it has intercepted an Antigua and Barbuda-flagged vessel in the Mediterranean suspected of carrying weapons and ammunition to Syria. The "Atlantic Cruiser" belonged to a German company. The ship was chartered by a Ukrainian firm, which said that the cargo contained no weapons, but legal goods for civilian use.
    (AFP, 4/18/12)(AFP, 4/19/12)

2012        Apr 19, Syria and the UN signed a deal on the framework for observers to monitor a shaky ceasefire, as Arab and Western ministers gathered in Paris to pile pressure on Damascus. At least three people were reported killed in violence across Syria today.
    (AFP, 4/19/12)

2012        Apr 20, Syrian troops fired bullets and tear gas to disperse thousands of protesters. State media reported that bombs and shooting killed 17 soldiers in the latest violence to defy international efforts to calm the country's crisis. Activists reported at least 11 civilians killed.
    (AP, 4/20/12)(SFC, 4/21/12, p.A4)

2012        Apr 21, In Syria a group of UN cease-fire observers toured a rebel-held neighborhood in the central city of Homs as residents chanted loudly for a military intervention to protect them from President Bashar Assad's regime forces. State media said Syria has released 30 people who were detained for their alleged role in an anti-regime uprising, but who have "no blood on their hands." Fighting and government shelling stopped in Homs and troops hid tanks in advance of the visit by the UN observers. A huge explosion rocked a Syrian military airport on the outskirts of the capital.
    (AP, 4/21/12)(AFP, 4/21/12)

2012        Apr 22, In Syria UN cease-fire monitors toured the rebel-held town of Hama with army defectors, while government troops pounded a Damascus suburb with artillery and heavy machine guns. 2 people were reported killed by indiscriminate firing in Douma. 4 soldiers were also killed when a roadside bomb hit an armored personnel carrier in the town. Security forces also killed three people in the northern province of Idlib and one person in the village of Hteita outside Damascus when troops opened fire from a checkpoint.
    (AP, 4/22/12)

2012        Apr 23, Syrian state news said that "terrorists" had killed a doctor in the country's south, two military officers in the central province of Hama and two others in the south. UN observers monitoring the shaky cease-fire visited a string of rebellious Damascus suburbs. The EU banned the sale of luxury goods and products that can have military as well as civilian uses. At least 55 people were killed across Syria, most in the central city of Hama, a day after a visit by UN observers. Regime forces "summarily executed" nine activists.
    (AP, 4/23/12)(AP, 4/24/12)(AFP, 4/26/12)

2012        Apr 24, Syrian rebels seeking to topple President Bashar Assad killed three regime officers in separate attacks around Damascus.
    (AP, 4/24/12)

2012        Apr 25, In Syria an explosion in Hama killed at least 16 people. The government blamed rebels. Activists on the ground put the death toll as high as 68, including 16 children. UN envoy Kofi Annan urged the fast deployment of the full, 300-strong mission and voiced alarm about persistent violence. Observers now numbered 15. Syria was refusing to accept monitors from the Western and Arab coalition of countries in the so-called Friends of Syria group which has backed the Syrian opposition.
    (AFP, 4/25/12)(AFP, 4/26/12)(SFC, 4/27/12, p.A3)

2012        Apr 26, Syria's main opposition group called for an emergency UN Security Council meeting as it accused regime forces of having killed more than 100 people in the central city of Hama. Reports out of Lebanon said Islamist militant Abdel Ghani Jawhar, one of the country's most wanted men, was killed in Syria fighting alongside rebels against the army. At least two people were killed today, as clashes were reported in several provinces.
    (AFP, 4/26/12)

2012        Apr 27, Syrian state media said a suicide car bombing in Damascus killed 11 people. Thousands of Syrians protested elsewhere to denounce persistent violence by President Bashar Assad's regime. Damascus was hit by four explosions. At least 7 more people were killed in protests elsewhere.
    (AFP, 4/27/12)(AP, 4/28/12)(AFP, 4/30/12)

2012        Apr 28, Syrian army defectors clashed briefly with troops in the coastal town of Burj Islam, home to the presidential summer palace.
    (AP, 4/28/12)

2012        Apr 29, In Syria Maj. Gen. Robert Mood, head of the UN observer mission, arrived in Damascus to take charge of an advance team of 16 UN monitors. The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said government snipers shot dead two people in the Homs neighborhood of Joret al-Shayah. The group also said one civilian was killed and four wounded in random gunfire by security forces in the village of al-Saliha in the central Hama province.
    (AP, 4/29/12)

2012        Apr 30, In Syria twin blasts targeting security buildings killed more than 20 people in the northwest Syrian city of Idlib. Most of those killed in Idlib were members of the security forces. State television put the death toll at eight. Rockets struck the central bank in Damascus, killing nine people and wounding 100. UN monitors said at least 70 people, among them 47 civilians, were killed nationwide at the weekend.
    (AFP, 4/30/12)(AP, 5/1/12)

2012        May 1, Syrian forces fired mortar shells at the village of Mishmishan in the country's north, killing at least 10 people, including 7 from the same family. A 13-year-old was killed in the nearby town of Maaret al-Noman by random gunfire from regime forces.
    (AP, 5/1/12)

2012        May 2, Syria's army reportedly suffered its deadliest day in a ceasefire when rebel fighters killed 20 troops, in the latest violation of the three-week truce the UN says both sides are flouting. The rebels killed 15 soldiers, including two colonels, in a dawn ambush in the northern province of Aleppo, where two rebel fighters also died. Clashes near Damascus killed six troops, while the army shelled and torched activists' homes in eastern Deir Ezzor province and regime gunfire killed a civilian in southern Daraa. 24 UN monitors were currently in place. Security forces stormed dorms Aleppo University to break up anti-government protests there, killing at least four students and wounding several others with tear gas and live ammunition.
    (AFP, 5/2/12)(AP, 5/3/12)

2012        May 3, Syrian security forces arrested two sons of prominent opposition figure Fayez Sara, hauling them off to an unknown location without showing a warrant. Sara was among more than 100 journalists who founded an "Association of Syrian Journalists" in February.
    (AFP, 5/3/12)

2012        May 4, Syrian security forces killed several demonstrators.
    (AFP, 5/5/12)

2012        May 5, In Syria thousands of people took to the streets of Damascus for funerals to mourn slain protesters. An explosion in a car wash in Aleppo killed at least five people.
    (AFP, 5/5/12)(AP, 5/5/12)

2012        May 7, Syria's main opposition group slammed the regime for holding parliamentary polls "under gunfire," saying it did not have the legitimacy to run elections. Polling stations opened for Syria's first "multiparty" election in five decades. Turnout, boycotted by the opposition, was later reported at 51.26%.
    (AFP, 5/7/12)(AP, 5/15/12)

2012        May 9, In Syria bullets flying across the Syrian border into Lebanon killed a 70-year-old woman and wounded her daughter. A roadside bomb struck a Syrian military truck, wounding 6 soldiers just seconds after a convoy carrying the head of the UN observer mission passed by.
    (AP, 5/9/12)

2012        May 10, In Syria 2 suicide blasts ripped through Damascus, killing 55 people and leaving scenes of carnage in the streets in the deadliest bombing attack since the country's uprising began 14 months ago. A military intelligence building appeared to be the target. The next day a group calling itself the Al-Nusra Front said the bombing was in response to attacks on residential areas by the regime of President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 5/10/12)(AP, 5/12/12)

2012        May 11, Syrian troops opened fire on anti-regime protesters in Damascus, wounding five people, as thousands of people took part in demonstrations across Syria. In Hama province troops shot and wounded 20 demonstrators in the town of Helfaya, where two civilians were killed in a raid. At least 12 people died across the country. State TV said the army foiled a would-be suicide attack a day after twin bombings a day earlier in Damascus killed dozens.
    (AFP, 5/11/12)

2012        May 13, In Syria regime forces battled rebels and carried out raids across the country in a surge of violence that killed at least 30 people. Syrian forces killed at least five people when they raided the Sunni farming village of Al-Tamanaa Al-Ghab in Hama province. The UN mission said it now has 189 military observers on the ground, nearly two-thirds of its planned strength of 300.
    (AFP, 5/13/12)

2012        May 14, Syrian troops shelled the rebel-held town of Rastan, sparking intense clashes that sent bloodied victims flooding into hospitals and clinics. Activists said at least 23 soldiers and seven civilians died in the fierce clashes. Government troops stormed the Damascus suburb of Qaboun where they conducted raids and deployed snipers on roofs of buildings. At least three people were killed in an explosion in the coastal city of Banias.
    (AP, 5/14/12)(AP, 5/15/12)(AFP, 5/17/12)   

2012        May 15, In Rome the Syrian National Council elected Paris-based academic Burhan Ghalioun as head of the exiled opposition coalition.
    (AFP, 5/15/12)
2012        May 15, In Syria regime troops "massacred" 20 people during a funeral procession in Khan Sheikhun. A roadside bomb hit a UN convoy in the town and left them stranded overnight with rebel forces. The attack came minutes after witnesses said regime forces gunned down mourners at a funeral procession nearby. Across the country 64 people were reportedly killed, including two rebel fighters and 11 regular army soldiers.
    (AP, 5/16/12)(AFP, 5/16/12)

2012        May 16, Syrian regime troops shot dead at least five people in a new assault on the town of Khan Sheikhun and opened fire on a refugee camp in southern Daraa province. In an interview with Russian TV Pres. Assad insisted his regime is fighting back against foreign mercenaries who want to overthrow him.
    (AFP, 5/16/12)(AP, 5/16/12)

2012        May 17, Syrian regime forces sent shells crashing into rebel stronghold Rastan. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights called on UN observers to rush to the town in central Homs province. 2 blasts rocked the neighborhoods of Al-Jamila and Al-Furqan in Aleppo, while other explosions were heard across the northern city. Syrian National Council chief Burhan Ghalioun said he will step down to avert divisions within the opposition bloc, after activists on the ground accused him of monopolizing power.
    (AFP, 5/17/12)(AFP, 5/18/12)

2012        May 18, Syrian security forces fired tear gas and live ammunition to disperse thousands rallying in the northern city of Aleppo, which activists said saw the largest turnout since the start of the uprising in March 2011. Regime forces shelled the town of Rastan.
    (AP, 5/18/12)

2012        May 19, In eastern Syria a suicide vehicle bomb tore through the parking lot of a military compound in Deir al-Zour, killing nine people. A day earlier the state-run news agency SANA reported that authorities had foiled an attempt to blow up a car rigged with explosives in the city and detained those involved.
    (AP, 5/19/12)

2012        May 20, Syrian rebels claimed in an Internet statement that they carried out a sophisticated attack that killed top political and security officials meeting in the capital. Syrian officials made quick denials. At least 48 people were killed elsewhere in the country including 34 civilians slain in the village of Souran, Hama province.
    (AP, 5/20/12)(AFP, 5/21/12)

2012        May 21, Syrian forces ambushed and killed nine army deserters in a north Damascus suburb, as NATO ruled out military action against the regime of President Bashar al-Assad. A bomb struck a restaurant late in the in Damascus killing at least five people.
    (AFP, 5/21/12)(AP, 5/22/12)

2012        May 22, In Syria intense clashes were reported between troops and defectors in the towns of Atareb in Aleppo province and Kfar Rouma in Idlib. 11 Lebanese Shiites were abducted in Aleppo province.
    (AP, 5/22/12)(AP, 5/23/12)

2012        May 23, Syria's oil minister acknowledged the heavy toll international sanctions have taken on the country's oil sector, saying that they had sucked about $4 billion from the economy.
    (AP, 5/23/12)
2012        May 23, The executive committee of the Syrian National Council asked Burhan Ghalioun to pursue his duties until a new president is elected at a meeting on June 9 and 10.
    (AP, 5/24/12)

2012        May 24, Syrian opposition groups said government forces shelled the rebel-held town of Rastan, killing at least three people. The state-run news agency said an armed group assassinated a lieutenant, shooting him and his 13-year-old son outside Damascus.
    (AP, 5/24/12)

2012        May 25, Syrian forces fired tear gas and live ammunition to disperse thousands of protesters calling for Assad's ouster, killing two people in the northern city of Aleppo. Government forces shelled the Qusour and Jobar neighborhoods in Homs province as protests took place in Damascus, Aleppo and the southern Daraa province. Government troops shelled a string of villages in central Syria before pro-regime thugs swept through the area, shooting people in the streets and in their homes in attacks that killed an estimated 108 people. 34 children and 49 women were among the dead in Houla.
    (AP, 5/25/12)(AFP, 5/26/12)(AFP, 5/27/12)(AFP, 5/28/12)

2012        May 26, In Syria regime forces pounded rebel positions elsewhere in Homs province, according to the Observatory, which reported 9 people killed in violence across the country, including four civilians. UN observers rushed to Houla where scores of civilians were reportedly massacred.
    (AFP, 5/26/12)

2012        May 27, Syrian government troops shelled residential areas of central Hama and the rebel-held town of Rastan north of Homs. The government said it was "not at all" responsible for the May 25 massacre of at least 92 people in the central town of Houla.
    (AFP, 5/27/12)

2012        May 28, Syrian troops shelled several neighborhoods of Hama over night killing at least 24 people. Special UN envoy Kofi Annan arrived in Damascus for talks with Syrian President Bashar Assad and other senior officials.
    (AP, 5/28/12)

2012        May 29, In Syria monitors said at least 19 people were killed in violence as clashes between regime troops and rebels raged. One of those killed in Homs was filmmaker and photography student Bassel Shehade, who returned to Syria from the United States around three months ago. At least 7 nations, including France, Britain, Germany, Italy, Spain, Canada and Australia, expelled Syrian diplomats to protest the May 25 Houla killings, ramping up the pressure on Pres. Bashar Assad's regime. Int’l. envoy Kofi Annan met with Assad to express "grave concern" about the Houla killings and other violence.
    (AFP, 5/29/12)(AP, 5/29/12)

2012        May 30, Syrian activists said government troops shelled restive suburbs of Damascus and rebel-held areas in Homs. The monitoring mission said UN observers have discovered 13 bound corpses in Deir el-Zour province, many of them apparently shot execution-style.
    (AP, 5/30/12)
2012        May 30, Japan ordered the Syrian ambassador in Tokyo to leave the country because of concerns about violence against civilians.
    (AP, 5/30/12)
2012        May 30, Turkey said it has ordered Syrian diplomats to leave the country within 72 hours following the massacre of more than 100 civilians in Houla which has triggered global outrage.
    (AFP, 5/30/12)

2012        May 31, The rebel Free Syrian Army's command inside the country gave the president an ultimatum to halt violence by midday June 1. Syrian forces resumed shelling in Houla with a young boy killed by a sniper. Battles raged as troops and rebels clashed across the country, with the Observatory saying at least three other people were killed.
    (AFP, 5/31/12)
2012        May 31, UN chief Ban Ki-moon, speaking in Istanbul, warned that Syria risks a "catastrophic civil war" following the May 25 massacre that sparked global outrage.
    (AFP, 5/31/12)

2012        Jun 1, In Syria gunmen killed 11 workers at a state-owned fertilizer factory near Qusair, Homs province, the second execution-style shooting reported in Syria in less than a week. A previously unknown Syrian rebel group said it is holding 11 Lebanese Shiite pilgrims kidnapped on May 22 after crossing into Syria from Turkey on their way to Lebanon. State TV aired interviews with two witnesses from Houla who said the victims of the massacres were members of families that support the government and did not take part in anti-Assad protests.
    (AP, 6/1/12)(AP, 6/2/12)
2012        Jun 1, The UN Human Rights Council in Geneva voted overwhelmingly to condemn Syria over the slaughter of more than 100 civilians last week. Only Russia, China and Cuba voted against the resolution, with Uganda and Ecuador abstaining. The Philippines was absent.
    (AP, 6//12)

2012        Jun 2, Violence in Syria killed 89 people, including 57 soldiers, the largest number of casualties the military has suffered in a single day since an uprising began in March 2011.
    (AFP, 6/3/12)

2012        Jun 3, Syrian President Bashar Assad denied that his government had anything to do with last week's gruesome Houla massacre, saying not even "monsters" would carry out such an ugly crime.
    (AP, 6/3/12)

2012        Jun 4, In Syrian government forces attacked rebel strongholds in Idlib province and in and around Deir Ezzor as violence across the country claimed at least 35 lives. A Syrian opposition group, the Syrian Rebels Front, announced in Turkey that they are creating a new military structure consisting of 12,000 fighters to topple the regime.
    (AP, 6/5/12)(AFP, 6/5/12)(SFC, 6/4/12, p.A2)

2012        Jun 5, Syria barred a string of US and European diplomats, saying they were "no longer welcome" as the country plunged into its most profound international isolation in decades. Troops and pro-regime militia backed by tanks went on a new offensive against rebels, seizing the central town of Kfar Zita after three days of bombardment. UN officials announced that Syria's government has agreed to a written deal with the United Nations and other international organizations that would allow aid workers and supplies to enter four hard-hit provinces. Clashes and raids in Latakia province killed 33 people. 55 people were killed across the country, including 26 soldiers, 19 civilians and 10 rebels.
    (AP, 6/5/12)(AFP, 6/6/12)
2012        Jun 5, Some 85 Syrian military defectors and their families crossed into Turkey.
    (Econ, 7/7/12, p.46)

2012        Jun 6, Syrian President Bashar Assad appointed loyalist Riad Farid Hijab, a member of the ruling Baath Party and the former agriculture minister, as prime minister as he battles a 15-month uprising against his rule. Rebels went on the offensive in and around Damascus while 18 people were killed in shelling, blasts and clashes across the country. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least 55 people were killed in an assault on Al-Kubeir, a small Sunni farming enclave surrounded by Alawite villages in the central province of Hama.
    (AP, 6/6/12)(AFP, 6/6/12)(AFP, 6/7/12)
2012        Jun 6, Clashes broke out between Syrian troops and residents of the border town of Arsal in eastern Lebanon after a Lebanese man was killed and three wounded at dawn as they tried to cross the border into Syria.
    (AFP, 6/6/12)
2012        Jun 6, A group of expat Syrian businessmen announced in Qatar the creation of a $300 million (239 million euro) fund to support the rebellion against President Bashar al-Assad.
    (AFP, 6/6/12)

2012        Jun 7, Syrian troops blocked UN observers from reaching the site of a new mass killing. The Syrian National Council said 78 people, including women and children, were killed overnight in the village of Mazraat al-Qubair in central Hama province when government-aligned militiamen converged on the village from neighboring pro-regime villages.
    (AP, 6/7/12)

2012        Jun 8, Syrian troops heavily shelled a rebel-held neighborhood in the central city of Homs as the military appeared to be readying to storm the area. State-run media said armed "terrorist groups" attacked military units charged with protecting al-Omar oil field of al-Furat Oil Company in the oil-rich city of Deir Ezzor province. SANA also said a car bomb in the Damascus suburb of Qudsaya killed 3 policemen, while another explosion in the northern city of Idlib killed 2 soldiers and 3 civilians. In Daraa at least 17 civilians were killed in the shelling. Troops clashed with rebels from the Free Syrian Army in the Kfar Souseh district of Damascus in fierce fighting sparked when the armed fighters attacked a military checkpoint in the area.
    (AP, 6/8/12)(AP, 6/9/12)

2012        Jun 9, Syrian troops shelled the southern city of Daraa. For the first time in the uprising regime tanks opened fire in streets of Damascus, with shells slamming into residential buildings. At least four people were killed. At least 111 people, 83 civilians and 28 soldiers, were killed, according to Observatory figures.
    (AP, 6/9/12)(AFP, 6/10/12)

2012        Jun 10, In Syria clashes and shelling by midday killed at least 12 people. Kurdish activist Abdel Basset Sayda (Abdulbaset Sieda), the opposition's new leader, said that President Bashar al-Assad's regime was on its "last legs."
    (AFP, 6/10/12)(AP, 6/10/12)

2012        Jun 11, Syrian troops attacked a central, rebel-held town with helicopter gunships and shelled other restive areas across the nation. 12 people, including three children, were killed in a car bomb blast in Deir Ezzor's Al-Joura neighborhood. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said nationwide violence cost the lives of at least 111 people, including 79 civilians.
    (AP, 6/11/12)(AFP, 6/12/12)

2012        Jun 12, Syrian forces pounded a neighborhood of the eastern city of Deir Ezzor with mortar fire, killing 10 civilians including a young girl. 3 people were reported killed and dozens wounded in clashes in Al-Haffe. US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said that she had information Russia was sending attack helicopters to Syria.
    (AFP, 6/12/12)(AFP, 6/13/12)

2012        Jun 13, Syria’s the official SANA news agency quoted officials as saying the northwest region of Al-Haffe has been "cleansed" of terrorists and "calm has been restored" in the area. Rebels withdrew from the besieged town of Al-Haffe and nearby villages that had been under intense shelling by regime forces for eight days. Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov accused the United States of supplying weapons to Syria's rebels.
    (AFP, 6/13/12)
2012        Jun 13, A Turkish foreign ministry official said around 2,500 Syrians have fled to Turkey in the last 48 hours amid fresh attacks that even targeted UN observers.
    (AFP, 6/13/12)

2012        Jun 14, In Syria a suicide bomber detonated his van packed with explosives in a Damascus suburb, wounding 14 people and damaging one of Shiite Islam's holiest shrines. Troops continued to pound rebel-controlled areas in Homs, while rebels reportedly clashed with government forces in several other parts of the country. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 3 civilians were killed overnight in clashes at the entrances of the Jouret el-Shayyah neighborhood in Homs city. Another died in the rebel-held town of Rastan north of Homs. UN observers entered the nearly deserted town of Haffa and found smoldering buildings, looted shops, smashed cars and a strong stench of death. According to the Observatory at least 84 people died in clashes and bombings across Syria, 48 of them civilians.
    (AP, 6/14/12)(AP, 6/15/12)(AFP, 6/15/12)
2012        Jun 14, Syrian authorities arrested terrorist Mohamed Hossam al-Saddaqa, a member of the Al-Nusra Front of Al-Qaeda, who was planning to blow himself up inside Al-Rifai Mosque in Damascus during Friday prayers."
    (AFP, 6/15/12)

2012        Jun 15, The Syrian regime kept up a ferocious offensive on rebel areas around the country in one of the most serious escalations in violence since Annan brokered the truce. Activists said at least 10 people were reported killed when security forces opened fire on protests across the country. Syrian opposition members began a two-day meeting in Turkey to discuss a vision for a post-Assad Syria and steps need to be taken to ensure a transition to democracy. Human Rights Watch said that Syrian government forces have used sexual violence to torture men, women, girls and boys detained during the current conflict. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 9 bodies, some of them mutilated, were found in a town near Damascus.
    (AP, 6/15/12)(AFP, 6/15/12)

2012        Jun 16, UN observers suspended their mission to Syria, blaming intensifying violence as government forces shelled rebel strongholds including Douma near the capital and the central city of Homs. A watchdog 69 people were killed across the country, including 51 civilians, 16 troops and two rebels.
    (AFP, 6/16/12)(AFP, 6/17/12)

2012        Jun 17, Syrian troops intensified their shelling of rebel-held neighborhoods in the central city of Homs as living conditions there deteriorate further. A watchdog said 10 people were killed across Syria, taking the weekend death toll to nearly 80.
    (AP, 6/17/12)(AFP, 6/17/12)

2012        Jun 18, Syrian forces renewed shelling of the central city of Homs. The Observatory later said 94 people were killed today across the country.
    (AP, 6/18/12)(AFP, 6/24/12)

2012        Jun 19, Syria's government said it was ready to act on a UN call to evacuate civilians trapped in the rebellious central city of Homs for more than a week, but blamed rebels for obstructing efforts to get them out. The Observatory later said 62 people were killed today across the country.
    (AP, 6/19/12)(AFP, 6/24/12)
2012        Jun 19, A Russian ship allegedly carrying refurbished attack helicopters and missiles destined for Syria has stopped off the Scottish coast after its British insurer, Standard Club, withdrew cover for the MV Alaed. On June 24 the ship was re-flagged as a Russian vessel.
    (AFP, 6/19/12)(SFC, 7/13/12, p.A4)

2012        Jun 20, In Syria 29 soldiers were among 46 people killed in violence, as UN observers said they were "morally obliged" to stay in the country despite the risks. The mission's mandate ends on July 20. The Observatory later said 88 people were killed today across the country.
    (AFP, 6/20/12)(AFP, 6/24/12)

2012        Jun 21, Syrian pilot Colonel Hassan Merei al-Hamade sought political asylum after landing his MiG fighter jet in neighboring Jordan, in the first such defection of the revolt. 4 senior army officers also defected from the regime. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 168 people were killed today in violence across the country.
    (AFP, 6/21/12)(AP, 6/22/12)(AFP, 6/24/12)

2012        Jun 22, Syria’s state-run news agency, SANA, said terrorist groups had killed and mutilated at least 25 people in Daret Azzeh, a rebel-held area in the Aleppo countryside. A video emerged showing more than a dozen bloodied corpses, some of them piled on top of each other and in military uniforms, in what the government said was a "massacre" by rebels in the northern province of Aleppo. Activists reported that thousands of people rallied in various parts to protest the regime following afternoon prayers. Syria said it shot down a Turkish military plane that entered Syrian air space. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 116 people were killed today in violence across the country.
    (AP, 6/22/12)(AP, 6/23/12)(AFP, 6/24/12)

2012        Jun 23, Syrian President Bashar Assad issued a decree forming a new government, but it will be headed by a key loyalist and the foreign, defense and interior ministers kept their jobs.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 116 people were killed today in violence across the country.
    (AP, 6/23/12)(AFP, 6/23/12)(AFP, 6/24/12)

2012        Jun 24, Violence in Syria killed at least 34 people, more than half of them troops who died in clashes with rebels. Regime troops stormed the Neirab refugee camp in Aleppo province, where there were reports of casualties.
    (AFP, 6/24/12)
2012        Jun 24, A Russian ship that tried to deliver repaired attack helicopters to Syria entered the northern port of Murmansk after being forced to abandon its initial attempt.
    (AFP, 6/24/12)

2012        Jun 25, Dozens of Syrian soldiers defected overnight to Turkey, crossing the border with their families. The state-run Anadolu news agency said 33 soldiers defected, including a general and two colonels. Syrian troops killed 10 "terrorists" in the Damascus suburb of Douma.
    (AP, 6/25/12)(AP, 6/26/12)
2012        Jun 25, The European Union imposed fresh sanctions on President Bashar al-Assad's regime, targeting six government ministries as well as a bank and television company. This was the 16th round of sanctions agreed by the bloc's foreign ministers since the repression of anti-Assad protests began in March 2011.
    (AFP, 6/25/12)

2012        Jun 26, Syria's Pres. Assad announced for the first time that the country was indeed at war. His elite Republican Guard forces clashed with rebels outside the capital in some of the most intense fighting involving the special forces since an uprising against President Bashar Assad's regime began last year. The LCC reported intense shelling in the eastern city of Deir el-Zour. Rebels shot down a helicopter gunship in Idlib province.
    (AP, 6/26/12)(AP, 6/27/12)(Econ, 7/7/12, p.45)
2012        Jun 26, Turkey's PM Erdogan vowed to retaliate against Syria for its 'heinous' downing of one of its warplanes, as the head of NATO said such an attack on one of its members was unacceptable.
    (AFP, 6/26/12)

2012        Jun 27, In Syria gunmen raided the headquarters of Al-Ikhbariya, a pro-government TV station, killing seven employees, kidnapping others and demolishing buildings in Drousha. Some 30 more Syrian soldiers defected to Turkey with their families overnight. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least 10 government soldiers were killed in an ambush in the eastern province of Deir el-Zour.
    (AP, 6/27/12)

2012        Jun 28, In Syria a strong explosion rocked Damascus near a busy market and the country's highest court, wounding at least three people. Elsewhere activists reported clashes between troops and rebels. Opposition groups later reported that today’s death toll reached 190 in fighting across the country.
    (AP, 6/28/12)(AP, 6/29/12)(SFC, 6/30/12, p.A4)

2012        Jun 29, Syrian troops rained tank and artillery shells down on a rebellious suburb of Damascus, killing dozens of people during a particularly bloody week across the country. 75 people were killed nationwide.
    (AP, 6/29/12)(AFP, 6/30/12)

2012        Jun 30, Syrian activists said government troops have regained control of a rebellious Damascus suburb after a 10-day assault that left dozens dead, hundreds wounded and caused a major humanitarian crisis. Activists said at least 22 people were killed in violence today. Dozens more were reported killed and wounded in a powerful evening explosion that hit a funeral procession in a suburb of Damascus.
    (AP, 6/30/12)(AP, 7/1/12)
2012        Jun 30, In Geneva representatives of global and regional powers accepted a UN-brokered plan calling for creation of a transitional national unity government in Syria. But at Russia's insistence, the compromise agreement left the door open to Assad being part of the interim administration.
    (AP, 6/30/12)(AP, 7/1/12)

2012        Jul 1, Syrian opposition groups rejected a UN-brokered peace plan for a political transition in Syria, calling it ambiguous and a waste of time and vowing not to negotiate with President Bashar Assad or members of his "murderous" regime. 3 pro-government militiamen were killed in Hama province.
    (AP, 7/1/12)(AFP, 7/3/12)

2012        Jul 2, Syria's main exiled opposition groups met in Cairo to try to forge a common vision for a political transition in Syria. Rebel fighters and activists based in Syria announced they would boycott the Cairo meeting. At least 78 people were confirmed killed across Syria, 44 of them civilians.
    (AFP, 7/2/12)(AFP, 7/3/12)
2012        Jul 2, Lebanon's General Security agency said  a rocket fired from Lebanon wounded two Syrian border police. The Syrians pursued the gunmen and a Lebanese General Security post was hit.
    (AFP, 7/2/12)

2012        Jul 3, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said government troops pounded several rebel-held districts in the central city of Homs. The Observatory said 38 people were killed across the country.
    (AFP, 7/3/12)
2012        Jul 3, The Syrian Revolution General Commission (SRGC) pulled out of the Cairo conference, citing political disputes. The Syrian Kurdish National Council stormed out of the meeting, protesting that the final document failed to specifically mention the Kurds.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)

2012        Jul 4, Syria's fractured opposition groups wound up talks in Cairo that descended into chaos and even fist fights as they tried to forge a common vision for a transition in their country. They did agree on the final documents, which included an end to the Assad regime, support of the Free Syrian Army, and agreement on basic constitutional principles of justice, democracy and pluralism.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)
2012        Jul 4, The Swiss government temporarily blocked all arms shipments to the United Arab Emirates after a newspaper published a photograph indicating that a Swiss-made hand grenade was found in Syria. The hand grenade appearing in a photograph published July 1 by Zurich weekly Sonntagszeitung came from a shipment of 225,162 hand grenades by Swiss-based RUAG Holding AG to the United Arab Emirates in 2003.
    (AP, 7/5/12)

2012        Jul 5, Iraq's top diplomat said he had "solid information" that al-Qaida militants were crossing from Iraq to Syria to carry out attacks. Explosions in Baghdad and Mosul killed at least six people and wounded 17 more. The Baghdad attack targeted the house of a government official killing his wife and two daughters.
    (AFP, 7/5/12)

2012        Jul 6, In Syria anti-regime activists say government forces have killed at least 25 people over the last two days, arrested scores more and torched dozens of homes while seizing the northern city of Khan Sheikhoun from rebels. It emerged that General Munaf Tlass, the son of a former defense minister who was a close friend of Assad's late father and predecessor, Hafez, had defected. The United States and its international allies called for new, global sanctions against President Bashar Assad's regime.
    (AP, 7/6/12)(AP, 7/6/12)

2012        Jul 7, Syria's military began large-scale exercises simulating defense against outside "aggression." Activists struggling to topple the regime reported fierce government offensives to try to retake rebellious areas outside of Aleppo and near Damascus. Shells fired from inside Syria killed 2 Lebanese civilians and injured 10 others. 77 people were killed across Syria, among them 39 civilians, 25 soldiers and 13 rebels.
    (AP, 7/7/12)(AP, 7/8/12)(AFP, 7/8/12)

2012        Jul 8, Syrian forces pounded Aleppo and Deir Ezzor provinces as at least 35 people were killed across the country, among them 17 civilians.
    (AFP, 7/8/12)

2012        Jul 10, In Syria 82 people were killed in violence including 30 civilians, 26 soldiers and 26 rebels according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.
    (AFP, 7/11/12)
2012        Jul 10, Jordan said it has set up a camp to accommodate a growing number of refugees fleeing violence in Syria.
    (AP, 7/10/12)

2012        Jul 11, Syrian rebels and regime troops clashed in the Damascus district of Qadam as at least nine people were killed in violence across the country.
    (AFP, 7/11/12)

2012        Jul 12, Syrian troops shelled and then stormed the village of Treimsa in the central province of Hama. Pressure mounted on President Bashar al-Assad after Nawaf Fares, his ambassador to Iraq, became the first senior diplomat to defect and Western powers drew up a 10-day sanctions ultimatum. Fares urged the army to turn its guns on the regime. Syrian government troops using tanks and helicopters massacred more than 150 people in the central province of Hama, bringing the day's total death toll to over 200. Syria later denied its armed forces carried out a massacre in Treimsa but said 37 gunmen and two civilians were killed in clashes with rebels.
    (AFP, 7/12/12)(AFP, 7/13/12)(AFP, 7/15/12)

2012        Jul 13, In Syria 118 people died including dozens of civilians gunned down by troops at anti-regime protests.
    (AFP, 7/14/12)

2012        Jul 14, In Syria hundreds of soldiers backed by helicopter gunships attacked Khirbet Ghazaleh in the province of Daraa. A pregnant woman was among 115 people killed across the country. A suicide bomber blew up his car in the central town of Muhrada killing three civilians and one security officer.
    (AFP, 7/14/12)(AP, 7/14/12)(AFP, 7/15/12)

2012        Jul 15, Syrian troops bombarded rebel areas in several parts of the country as violence across the country reportedly killed 105 people. The International Committee of the Red Cross said Sunday it now considers the conflict in Syria to be a full-blown civil war, meaning international humanitarian law applies throughout the country.
    (AFP, 7/15/12)(AP, 7/15/12)(AFP, 7/16/12)

2012        Jul 16, Syrian troops resuming shelling of the southern Damascus neighborhood of Tadamon and soldiers and the Free Syrian Army (FSA) clashing in two other districts. The rebel Free Syrian Army said it has launched a large-scale operation dubbed "the Damascus volcano and earthquakes of Syria."
    (AFP, 7/16/12)(AFP, 7/17/12)

2012        Jul 17, Syrian government forces backed by helicopter gunships battled rebels in heavy clashes in Damascus. The Muslim Brotherhood urged the Syrian people to rise up and back the rebels. The Israeli army intelligence chief said al-Assad has moved army forces from the Golan Heights area next to Israel toward Damascus and other internal conflict zones.
    (AFP, 7/17/12)
2012        Jul 17, Iraq's government urged all its citizens living in Syria to return home immediately to escape the escalating civil war.
    (AP, 7/17/12)

2012        Jul 18, In Syria a bomb ripped through a high-level security meeting in Damascus, killing three top regime officials, including Gen. Assef Shawkat (62), President Bashar Assad's brother-in-law. Also killed was Defense Minister Dawoud Rajha, 65, a former army general. Hassan Turkmani (77), a former defense minister, died of his wounds in the hospital. At least 214 people, including 124 civilians, 62 soldiers and 28 rebels were killed across the country.
    (AP, 7/18/12)(AP, 7/19/12)(AFP, 7/19/12)

2012        Jul 19, Syrian government forces fired heavy machine guns and mortars in battles with rebels in a number of neighborhoods in Damascus. State-run TV warned citizens that gunmen were disguising themselves in military uniforms to carry out attacks. Activists reported that 302- 310 people were killed in violence nationwide making it the single deadliest day of fighting since the revolt began. Syrian rebels seize the Bab al-Hawa border crossing with Turkey. Rebels ransacked customs buildings and pulled cargo from the back of stranded trucks.
    (AP, 7/19/12)(AP, 7/20/12)(AFP, 7/21/12)(AFP, 7/22/12)
2012        Jul 19, At the United Nations permanent Security Council members Russia and China vetoed resolutions on Syria for the third time in nine months.
    (AFP, 7/19/12)

2012        Jul 20, Syrian troops and tanks drove rebels from a Damascus neighborhood where some of the heaviest of this week's fighting in the capital left cars gutted and fighters' bodies in the streets. A fourth member of President Bashar Assad's inner circle, national security chief Gen. Hisham Ikhtiyar, died of wounds he suffered in the July 18 bomb blast. The death toll for the last 2 days was over 470 people.
    (AFP, 7/20/12)(SFC, 7/21/12, p.A2)
2012        Jul 20, Iraqi officials said hundreds of Iraqis had flown out of Syria over the past two days to escape an escalating civil war. They said an estimated 50 buses, some 3,000 people, had so far come through al-Walid.
    (AP, 7/20/12)
2012        Jul 20, The UN refugee agency said up to 30,000 Syrians have fled into Lebanon over the past 48 hours. The UN Security Council added a "final" 30 days to the mandate of the UN Supervision Mission, tasked with overseeing a ceasefire that was supposed to have taken effect in April but which has been violated daily.
    (AFP, 7/20/12)(AFP, 7/21/12)

2012        Jul 21, Syrian troops clashed with rebels in the city of Aleppo for a second day, forcing inhabitants to flee to safer areas in some of the fiercest fighting to date. At least 20 people were killed across Syria.
    (AP, 7/21/12)(AFP, 7/21/12)

2012        Jul 22, Syrian forces headed by President Bashar al-Assad's brother used helicopters in a new offensive against rebels in Damascus, as clashes also raged in Aleppo. The death toll in fighting across Syria stood at 123, including 67 civilians, 22 rebels and 34 soldiers.
    (AFP, 7/22/12)(AFP, 7/23/12)
2012        Jul 22, A top US official said that Washington has given $100 million in aid to Jordan to help host tens of thousands of Syrians who have fled the unrest back home and taken refuge in the kingdom.
    (AFP, 7/22/12)

2012        Jul 23, The Syrian regime threatened to use its chemical and biological weapons in case of a foreign attack, in its first ever acknowledgement that it possesses weapons of mass destruction. The Arab League offered Syrian President Bashar Assad and his family a "safe exit" if he steps down. EU foreign ministers began talks in Brussels with an agreement to freeze the assets of 26 Syrians and three firms close to the Assad regime in the 17th round of sanctions since protests erupted last year.
    (AP, 7/23/12)(AFP, 7/23/12)

2012        Jul 24, Syria’s President Bashar Assad reshuffled the generals at the core of his regime's highly secretive security apparatus. Clashes continued with the Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reporting at least 33 people killed nationwide. Fierce clashes spread to new neighborhoods in Aleppo in a fourth day of fighting there. Helicopter gunships began to hammer the outskirts of Aleppo.
    (AP, 7/24/12)(AFP, 7/24/12)(Econ, 7/28/12, p.38)
2012        Jul 24, Saudi state TV announced that the government has collected about $32.5 million in donations as part of a national drive to support "our brothers in Syria."
    (AP, 7/24/12)

2012        Jul 25, The opposition Syrian National Council said 2 more Syrian diplomats, the envoy to Cyprus and her husband, the former ambassador to the UAR, have  defected. Opposition activists said fighting raged through the night in many neighborhoods of Aleppo, bringing the conflict in Syria's largest city into its fifth day. At least 19 civilians, three rebels and an unknown number of soldiers died in fighting in Aleppo. The Observatory said 143 people were killed throughout Syria, including 75 civilians, 41 soldiers and 27 rebel fighters.
    (AP, 7/25/12)(AP, 7/25/12)(AFP, 7/26/12)
2012        Jul 25, Turkey sealed its border with Syria to trucks, effectively cutting off a trade relationship once worth almost $3 billion with the embattled nation. A foreign ministry diplomat said 2 more Syrian brigadier generals crossed into Turkey, bringing to 27 the number of generals who have fled the unrest in Syria.
    (AP, 7/25/12)(AFP, 7/25/12)

2012        Jul 26, Syrian troops prepared to launch an all-out offensive on rebel-held districts across Aleppo, as pro-regime media warned of a looming "mother of all battles." Jordanian authorities reported that the Syrian army shot dead a six-year-old Syrian boy while firing at his parents and a dozen other refugees as they tried to cross the border fence. Ikhlas Badawi, a female lawmaker from Aleppo, defected to Turkey.
    (AFP, 7/26/12)(AFP, 7/27/12)(AP, 7/29/12)

2012        Jul 27, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said troops bombarded the neighborhood of Fardous (Fardoss) killing at least four people. It added that Sunni cleric Abdul-Latif al-Shami was kidnapped and killed in Aleppo. Rebels captured 150 regime troops and militia members in the northern city of Aleppo and the northwestern province of Idlib. The Observatory said that at least 148 people were killed nationwide including 90 civilians, 24 rebels and 34 soldiers.
    (AP, 7/27/12)(AFP, 7/27/12)(AFP, 7/28/12)

2012        Jul 28, The Syrian army launched a massive assault on rebels in Aleppo amid growing world concern about the risks of reprisals against the civilian population. At least 10 soldiers and six rebels were killed in fierce fighting after the assault began. The Observatory said that nationwide violence killed at least 52 people, 22 civilians, 16 rebels and 14 soldiers.
    (AFP, 7/28/12)
2012        Jul 28, Jordan opened its first tent camp for Syrians fleeing violence in their country, as government officials said a surge of refugees left them no other choice. After 3 years the Zaatari Refugee Camp held 81,000 people and was counted as the ninth-biggest city in Jordan.
    (AP, 7/29/12)(SFC, 8/3/15, p.A2)

2012        Jul 29, Syrian troops, backed by air power and tanks, pushed on in the second day of an assault on the of Aleppo, sparking international fears of a humanitarian catastrophe. The Syrian regime accused regional powerhouses Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Turkey of supporting a plot hatched by Israel to destroy the country. A group of 12 Syrian officers crossed into Turkey including a brigadier general who was deputy chief of police in Syria's Latakia region.
    (AFP, 7/29/12)(AP, 7/29/12)(AP, 7/30/12)

2012        Jul 30, Syrian government forces mounted new ground attacks against rebel-controlled neighborhoods in Aleppo, but failed to dislodge the opposition from their strongholds. The UN said 200,000 Syrians have fled the embattled city of Aleppo since intense clashes between regime forces and rebels began 10 days ago. The Observatory reported 93 people killed across the country. Khaled al-Ayoubi, Syria's top diplomat in London, said he could no longer represent the regime and defected.
    (AP, 7/30/12)(AFP, 7/31/12)

2012        Jul 31, Syrian rebels attacked key military targets and overran two police stations in Aleppo, killing 40 officers, as fighting there stretched into its 11th day. In the southern province of Daraa, regime troops shelled a camp for displaced persons as the towns of Tafas and Al-Ghariyeh also came under shelling, leaving an unknown number of casualties.
    (AFP, 7/31/12)(AP, 7/31/12)

2012        Aug 1, In Syria rebels continued battling government forces for a 12th day. The UN mission in Syria said its observers have witnessed government fighter jets opening fire on Aleppo.
    (AP, 8/1/12)
2012        Aug 1, It was reported that President Barack Obama has signed a secret order authorizing US support for rebels seeking to depose Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and his government.
    (Reuters, 8/1/12)

2012        Aug 2, Syrian opposition activists say regime forces have swept through neighborhoods south of the capital Damascus in a deadly military operation that has inflicted casualties. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said more than 179 people were killed today.
    (AP, 8/2/12)(AFP, 8/3/12)
2012        Aug 2, Kofi Annan, the UN-Arab League envoy to Syria, resigned citing divisions within the Security Council preventing a united approach to stop the fighting.
    (AP, 8/3/12)

2012        Aug 3, In Syria mortars rained down on a crowded marketplace in the Palestinian Yarmouk refugee camp Damascus, killing 21 people as regime forces and rebels clashed on the southern outskirts. Senior Syrian officials pleaded with Moscow for financial loans and supplies of oil products, an indication that international sanctions are squeezing Assad's regime.
    (AP, 8/3/12)(AP, 8/4/12)
2012        Aug 3, Britain’s Foreign Secretary William Hague pledged greater support for Syria's rebel fighters, as the battle for the country's commercial capital Aleppo intensified.
    (AFP, 8/3/12)
2012        Aug 3, The UN General Assembly denounced Syria’s crackdown on dissent voting 133 in favor, 12 against and 31 abstaining. UN Security Council resolutions have been stopped by Russian and Chinese vetoes.
    (SFC, 8/4/12, p.A3)

2012        Aug 4, In Syria heavy explosions shook Damascus and helicopters circled overhead as rebels appeared to be renewing their offensive in the city. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said Syrian television presenter Mohammed al-Saeed, kidnapped from his Damascus home on July 19, has been executed. Violence nationwide reportedly killed 205 people, 115 civilians, 38 rebel fighters and 52 soldiers.
    (AP, 8/4/12)(AFP, 8/4/12)(AFP, 8/5/12)
2012        Aug 4, In Syria gunmen snatched a bus filled with 48 Iranian pilgrims from a Damascus suburb as they headed to visit a shrine holy to Shiites.
    (AP, 8/4/12)
2012        Aug 4, Turkey reported the defection of another Syrian general, along with five colonels, who came over the border with a group of refugees.
    (AP, 8/4/12)

2012        Aug 5, The Syrian army pounded rebel positions in second city Aleppo ahead of a threatened ground assault after boasting its capture of the last rebel-held district of the capital. General Muhammed Ahmed Faris, a military aviator who became the first Syrian in space, fled to Turkey. Alawite film director Bassam Mohieddin (b.1955) was assassinated near his home on the outskirts of Damascus.
    (AFP, 8/5/12)(AFP, 8/7/12)
2012        Aug 5, Iran appealed for help from governments with ties to the Syrian opposition in securing the release of 48 of its nationals seized from a bus in Damascus. Rebel captors charged that their hostages were Revolutionary Guards.
    (AFP, 8/5/12)

2012        Aug 6, In Syria a bomb ripped through the third floor of the state TV building in Damascus. At least three people were wounded in the bomb attack targeting the building which also houses the country's state radio. Rebels claimed that three of 48 Iranian captives were killed during shelling by government forces in Damascus and its suburbs.
    (AP, 8/6/12)(AP, 8/7/12)
2012        Aug 6, A Jordanian official and a rebel spokesman said Syria's PM Riad Hijab has defected and fled to neighboring Jordan.
    (AP, 8/6/12)

2012        Aug 7, In Syria total of 225 people, mostly civilians, were reported killed. A Turkish government official said 1,328 Syrian refugees had crossed the border by midmorning, nearly double the number of refugees who reached Turkey a day earlier.
    (AFP, 8/8/12)(AP, 8/7/12)

2012        Aug 8, Syrian troops launched a broad ground assault on rebel-held areas of Aleppo and activists reported clashes as opposition forces fought back. Turkey's state-run news agency reported that some 2,400 people crossed into Turkey overnight to escape the escalating violence. Residents said Syrian fighter jets launched airstrikes on Tel Rifat, hitting a home and a high school and killing six people from one family. The Observatory said violence across Syria cost the lives of at least 167 people -- 95 civilians, 54 soldiers and 18 rebels.
    (AP, 8/8/12)(AFP, 8/9/12)(AP, 8/9/12)

2012        Aug 9, Syrian rebels staged what they called a "tactical withdrawal" as regime forces advanced into a key district of Aleppo. Pres. Assad appointed health minister Wael al-Halqi as his new premier following the defection this week of Riad Hijab. At least 191 people killed nationwide -- 107 civilians, 45 rebels and 39 soldiers.
    (AFP, 8/9/12)(AFP, 8/10/12)
2012        Aug 9, Iran hosted a 29-nation conference on Syria with the aim of stopping bloodshed there and forging a role for Tehran as peace-broker for its beleaguered Arab ally.
    (AFP, 8/9/12)

2012        Aug 10, Syrian government forces fought rebels outside Damascus and in Aleppo as more civilians streamed across the border into neighboring Turkey. Rebels operating in the town abducted a pro-government TV crew in al-Tal suburb just north of Damascus. Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least six people were killed in heavy shelling on al-Tal. At least 103 people were reported killed nationwide, including 55 civilians,
    (AP, 8/10/12)(AP, 8/11/12)(AFP, 8/11/12)
2012        Aug 10, Britain's government, meanwhile, said it was offering 5 million pounds (US$7.8 million) to Syria's rebel forces to pay for communications equipment and medical supplies in an effort to bolster ties with the Syrian opposition. World powers were set to name veteran Algerian diplomat Lakhdar Brahimi (78) as their new envoy to seek a peaceful and politically workable end to a 17-month uprising that has cost more than 21,000 lives.
    (AP, 8/10/12)(AFP, 8/10/12)
2012        Aug 10, The Obama administration set new, largely symbolic, sanctions on Syria's state-run oil company and the Hezbollah militant group, moves designed to underscore Iran's key role in propping up the Syrian regime over the span of its civil war.
    (AP, 8/10/12)

2012        Aug 11, Syrian forces pounded a suburb of the capital Damascus with mortars and artillery shells, a day after rebels operating in the town abducted a pro-government TV crew. Two Syrian journalists were killed in Damascus. A bus was attacked in a Damascus suburb, killing six passengers traveling from the central province of Hama. 15 civilians were killed in shelling and clashes in the town of Al-Tal. , the Observatory said they were among 148 people killed across Syria -- 85 civilians, 20 rebels and 43 soldiers.
    (AP, 8/11/12)(AP, 8/12/12)(AFP, 8/12/12)

2012        Aug 12, The Syrian army pressed its assault on rebels in commercial capital Aleppo, while both sides reported atrocities and Arab foreign ministers postponed a planned meeting on the 17-month conflict.
    (AFP, 8/12/12)
2012        Aug 12, In Syria Austin Tyce, an American journalist, disappeared while covering the country’s civil war.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austin_Tice)(SFC, 4/9/16, p.A2)

2012        Aug 13, Syria's top representative at the UN Human Rights Council said he has defected. Activists released a video which they claim shows a government Soviet-made MiG warplane catching fire apparently after it was hit by ground fire over the eastern province of Deir el-Zour. State-run media said the pilot ejected from the warplane after technical failure. Regime forces bombarded rebel strongholds around Damascus and launched a mass raid in the historic heart of the capital. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 160 people were killed nationwide. Gunmen abducted the correspondent of Iran's Arabic-language TV al-Alam in the central city of Homs.
    (AP, 8/13/12)(AFP, 8/13/12)(AP, 8/14/12)
2012        Aug 13, A Syrian rebel group kidnapped Hassan al-Muqdad, accusing him of being a sniper and a member of Lebanese Shiite militia Hezbollah.  American freelance journalist Austin Tice (31), a former US Marine,     disappeared in Syria.
    (AFP, 8/15/12)(AP, 11/12/12)

2012        Aug 14, In Syria activists reported clashes and shelling in the northern city of Aleppo, southern province of Daraa, suburbs of Damascus and the northwestern region of Idlib. Syria's PM Riad Hijab, who defected to the opposition, said that Bashar Assad's regime was near collapse and urged other political and military leaders to tip the scales and join the rebel side. In a video, said to have been released by rebels and aired by Arab satellite TV Al-Arabiya, a man identifies himself as Hassane Salim al-Mikdad, and says he was one of 1,500 Hezbollah fighters sent to Syria on Aug 3.
    (AP, 8/14/12)
2012        Aug 14, UN humanitarian chief Valerie Amos arrived in Syria to address the "deteriorating humanitarian situation" in the conflict-ravaged country and discuss ways of scaling-up relief efforts.
    (AFP, 8/14/12)

2012        Aug 15, In Syria a bomb attached to a fuel truck exploded outside a Damascus hotel where UN observers are staying, wounding at least three people. Fierce fighting erupted between the Syrian army and rebels near the prime minister's office in Damascus. Activists reported shelling and clashes in Aleppo. Two Syrian fighter jets bombed the rebel-held town of Azaz. Human Rights Watch said over 40 people were killed. 757 Syrians fled into Turkey. Syria TV said three journalists from the pro-regime TV station Al-Ikhbariya were freed in a "qualitative operation" in the town of al-Tal.
    (AFP, 8/15/12)(AP, 8/15/12)(AP, 8/16/12)
2012        Aug 15, The Organization of Islamic Cooperation, comprised of 57 member states, released a final statement from its two day summit in Saudi Arabia's Muslim holy city of Mecca urging support of Syria’s opposition.
    (AP, 8/15/12)
2012        Aug 15, The large Lebanese Shiite clan called Muqdad claimed it had kidnapped 33 Syrians and a Turkish man after a family member was abducted two days earlier by a Syrian rebel group which accused him of being a Hezbollah sniper. Dozens more Syrians were seized and their shops vandalized by rioters in southern Shiite areas of Beirut. Rioters closed the road to Beirut airport and to the border with Syria.
    (AFP, 8/16/12)
2012        Aug 15, A UN panel laid the groundwork for possible prosecutions in international courts against the Syrian leader and other senior government officials. It called the May 25 massacre in Houla a war crime perpetrated by the government forces and shabiha militia backing the regime of President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 8/15/12)

2012        Aug 16, Syrian forces shelling the besieged city of Aleppo struck a bread line outside a bakery killing at least 10 people. The LCC said 49 people were killed all over Aleppo.
    (AFP, 8/16/12)
2012        Aug 16, In Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, the top world Muslim body, suspended Syria, saying it can no longer accept a regime that "massacres its people", as rights groups accused Damascus of a new atrocity against civilians.
    (AFP, 8/16/12)

2012        Aug 17, Syrian forces battled rebels near the airport in Aleppo. A UN refugee agency spokesman said 3,500 people crossed into Turkey over the previous 2 days. UN officials in Syria were starting to close down their military observer mission after failed international attempts to broker a cease-fire.
    (AP, 8/17/12)
2012        Aug 17, The UN said Lakhdar Brahimi (78) of Algeria, a veteran diplomat troubleshooter, will take over from Kofi Annan as the international envoy on the Syria conflict.
    (AFP, 8/17/12)

2012        Aug 18, Syrian activists said government troops shelled and carried out air raids at rebel areas across the country, including the southern province of Daraa, the northern region of Aleppo and the suburbs of the capital, Damascus. A Syrian warplane bombed a small town partially controlled by anti-regime fighters near the Turkish border, killing eight people and wounding at least 20.
    (AP, 8/18/12)
2012        Aug 18, Lebanese security officials said that five more Syrians were abducted in Beirut's southern suburbs overnight.
    (AP, 8/18/12)

2012        Aug 19, In Syria at least 56 people died in violence on the first day of Eid al-Fitr. This included 6 children killed by shelling near their home in the rebel-held town of Maaret al-Numan in the northwestern province of Idlib. President Bashar al-Assad made a rare public appearance with top officials for Eid prayers at a Damascus mosque, while demonstrators took to the streets of the capital and other cities to vent their rage at the regime. The mandate of the UN Supervision Mission in Syria (UNSMIS) expired at midnight.
    (AFP, 8/19/12)(AFP, 8/20/12)
2012        Aug 19, Jordan's government spokesman sternly criticized Syria for artillery shelling on its northern border that wounded a Jordanian girl and panicked other civilians. Four shells landed in Jordan during clashes between the Syrian military and rebel forces on the Syrian side of the border.
    (AP, 8/20/12)

2012        Aug 20, In Syria deadly fighting rocked Daraa, the birthplace of the Syrian uprising, as rebels doggedly resisted a regime onslaught. Government forces pummeled Aleppo with airstrikes and tanks and shelled parts of Damascus and southern Syria Monday, killing at least 100 people.
    (AFP, 8/20/12)(AP, 8/20/12)
2012        Aug 20, In Syria Mika Yamamoto (45), a veteran Japanese war reporter, died after she was shot in the neck when coming under fire from up to 15 apparently pro-government troops in Aleppo.
    (AFP, 8/21/12)
2012        Aug 20, US President Barack Obama warned Syria that Washington will not tolerate any deployment of chemical weapons.
    (AFP, 8/20/12)

2012        Aug 21, Syrian government forces stormed Moadamiyeh, a rebel-held town outside Damascus after days of fierce fighting, killing at least 23 fighters. Warplanes and helicopters attacked towns and villages north of Aleppo, killing 2 civilians, including a young boy. At least 128 people were killed nationwide, among them 81 civilians.
    (AP, 8/21/12)(AFP, 8/21/12)
2012        Aug 21, Syrian deputy PM Qadri Jamil visiting Moscow held out the prospect that embattled President Bashar al-Assad could leave power as part of a negotiated settlement to the increasingly ferocious conflict.
    (AFP, 8/21/12)
2012        Aug 21, In Lebanon overnight clashes between supporters and opponents of President Bashar Assad left two dead and as many as 45 wounded.
    (AP, 8/21/12)

2012        Aug 22, Syrian regime forces shelled two Damascus districts before troops backed by tanks swept through to carry out house-to-house raids in search of opposition fighters, killing at least 41 suspected rebels. The United States and France again pushed for the embattled Assad to stand down quickly after a top Syrian official said Damascus was ready to discuss his departure as part of a negotiated settlement to the 17-month conflict. Some 200 were killed across the country.
    (AP, 8/22/12)(AFP, 8/22/12)(AFP, 8/23/12)(Reuters, 8/23/12)
2012        Aug 22, Lebanese security sources said at least eight people have been killed in clashes between rival pro- and anti-Damascus gunmen in the city of Tripoli.
    (AFP, 8/22/12)

2012        Aug 23, Syrian military planes crossed into Iraqi airspace in order to carry out air strikes against the border town of Albu Kamal, which is held by rebel forces. Rebels waged fierce battles with regime troops in a town along the Iraqi border, capturing a string of security posts and the local police headquarters despite heavy government shelling and bombing runs by warplanes. The Syrian army recaptured Christian areas in Aleppo. Artillery and helicopters hammered the Sunni Muslim town of Daraya for 24 hours, killing 15 people and wounding 150, before soldiers moved in and raided houses. A total of 149 people were killed across the country, including 14 children.
    (AFP, 8/23/12)(AP, 8/23/12)(Reuters, 8/23/12)(AFP, 8/24/12)

2012        Aug 24, Syrian forces blitzed areas in and around the northern city of Aleppo. At least 50 unidentified bodies were found shot dead in the last 24 hours, notably in Aleppo and Damascus. Prominent independent film producer Orwa Nyrabia went missing after going to Damascus airport to catch a flight to Cairo.
    (AFP, 8/24/12)(AFP, 8/25/12)
2012        Aug 24, In Lebanon new clashes between pro- and anti-Syrian factions in Tripoli killed two people holing a fragile truce and stoking fears of a spillover of bloodshed.
    (AFP, 8/24/12)

2012        Aug 25, Syrian army forces launched arrest raids and clashed with rebels in the southwestern belt of Damascus. A full scale invasion on Daraya followed 5 days of shelling. At least 380 bodies were buried following the attack. Activists said security agents have arrested television actor Mohammed Omar Oso, who opposes the Damascus regime, as well as members of his family. At least 380 bodies were buried following the attack in Daraya.
    (AFP, 8/25/12)(AFP, 8/26/12)(AP, 8/26/12)(Economist, 9/1/12, p.49)
2012        Aug 25, Syrian rebels freed one of 11 Lebanese Shiite pilgrims they have been holding since May 22, in a move aiming to ease cross-border tensions.
    (AFP, 8/25/12)

2012        Aug 26, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said that 32 dead bodies were found in the streets of Daraya and they had been killed by "gunfire and summary executions."
    (AP, 8/26/12)

2012        Aug 27, A Syrian military helicopter caught fire and crashed after it was apparently hit during fighting between government forces and rebels in the capital Damascus. SANA reported that authorities released a total of 378 people detained for their participation in street protests. A car-bomb killed 12 mourners at a funeral for two regime supporters in the largely Druze and Christian Damascus suburb of Jaramana. Some 190 people were reported killed across Syria.
    (AP, 8/27/12)(AFP, 8/28/12)(Economist, 9/1/12, p.49)
2012        Aug 27, In Syria Czech Ambassador Eva Filipi, who has overseen US interests in Syria since the US embassy was closed in February, told a Czech television station that US reporter Austin Tice (31) has been "detained by government forces on the outskirts of Damascus. Tice last communicated with his colleagues on August 13, though he did not indicate how he planned to leave Syria.
    (AFP, 8/30/12)

2012        Aug 28, Syria's army pounded parts of the eastern belt of Damascus. At least 10 people were killed in the northwestern town of Kafr Nabal in Idlib province. 7 men were reported killed by government troops in the central province of Hama. A car bomb rocked the funeral of two government loyalists in a Damascus suburb killing 27 people. The number of deaths from a 5-day onslaught in Daraya was raised to 340. According to the Observatory violence today cost 189 lives: 143 civilians, 14 rebels and 32 soldiers.
    (AFP, 8/28/12)(AFP, 8/29/12)

2012        Aug 29, Syrian rebels said they destroyed five helicopters in a raid on a military airport between the northern cities of Aleppo and Idlib. State television said the attack was repelled.
    (AFP, 8/29/12)
2012        Aug 29, Jordanian PM Fayez Tarawneh said that Syrian refugees responsible for violence in a camp near the border will be deported. About 200 of 21,000 refugees went on a rampage the previous evening at Zaatari Camp to protest conditions there.
    (AP, 8/29/12)

2012        Aug 30, Syrian rebels reportedly shot down a regime warplane over the northern province of Idlib.
    (AP, 8/30/12)
2012        Aug 30, Egypt’s Pres. Mohammed Morsi urged the world to support the rebels in Syria as he spoke in Tehran before an int’l. meeting of nonaligned nations.
    (SFC, 8/31/12, p.A3)

2012        Aug 31, Syrian rebels said they have begun a major operation in the Aleppo region. According to the Observatory there were 125 people killed in violence nationwide including 74 civilians, 29 soldiers and 22 rebels.
    (AP, 8/31/12)(AFP, 9/1/12)
2012        Aug 31, Syrian troops fired at least 25 shells overnight striking a Lebanese Christian village on the northern border, wounding one person and causing damage.
    (AFP, 8/31/12)

2012        Sep 1, Syrian rebels launched deadly attacks on the military in a campaign increasingly targeting its air power. 18 unidentified bodies were found in the Damascus area. Summary executions by both sides in the conflict were on the increase. State media said that a "terrorist" group had killed five members of a family in the central Marjeh district of Aleppo. In Idlib province rebels attacked an army roadblock in the Harem district, killing or wounding 9 soldiers. In Hama province rebels killed at least four soldiers in a similar attack. A car bomb near a Palestinian refugee camp in a suburb of Damascus killed at least 15 people.
    (AFP, 9/1/12)(AP, 9/2/12)
2012        Sep 1, Jordan and the UN's refugee agency issued an urgent call to international donors for $700 million to handle the rapidly rising number of Syrian refugees seeking safe haven in the country.
    (AP, 9/1/12)

2012        Sep 2, In Syria 2 bombs exploded near the military's joint chiefs of staff's offices in central Damascus, lightly wounding four army officers and causing damage to a building and cars. State media said a car bomb exploded near a mosque in the southern outskirts of Damascus, killing 15 people.
    (AP, 9/2/12)(AFP, 9/2/12)

2012        Sep 3, In Syria Government warplanes bombed the northern town of al-Bab killing at least 19 people.
    (AP, 9/3/12)

2012        Sep 4, Red Cross chief Peter Maurer launched a mercy mission in Syria to seek greater protection for civilians, as activists said rebel-held areas of Aleppo faced severe food shortages under a regime offensive.
    (AFP, 9/4/12)

2012        Sep 5, In Syria 45 bodies of young men with their hands bound were found by the road in a government-held area
    (Economist, 9/8/12, p.48)
2012        Sep 5, American senators visiting Iraq warned the Baghdad government that it risked damaging relations with the US if it is allowing Iran to fly over its airspace to deliver weapons to Syria.
    (AP, 9/5/12)

2012        Sep 6, Syrian troops recaptured from rebels Tel Chehab, a border town used by refugees to cross to Jordan, an apparent bid by the regime to stem the flood of Syrians fleeing their country's civil war.
    (AP, 9/6/12)

2012        Sep 7, In Syria a bomb exploded near a mosque in the northern Damascus neighborhood of Rukneddine, killing at least five people. A 2nd bomb exploded in Damascus, hitting near two government ministries with no casualties. The Observatory said the 16 bodies of men were found in the Damascus suburb of Deir al-Asafir, which it said was subjected to a major operation by the regime in the past few days. , activists and state media reported that several people were either killed or wounded when a Palestinian refugee camp in Damascus was shelled. At least 60 people were killed in violence around the country.
    (AP, 9/7/12)
2012        Sep 7, The UN nearly doubled its humanitarian appeal for Syria, seeking $347 million for people in need, including more than half a million children forced to flee their homes.
    (AP, 9/7/12)

2012        Sep 8, The Syrian government pounded Aleppo with warplanes and artillery. Some 148 people were reported killed across the country including 77 in Aleppo.
    (SSFC, 9/9/12, p.A5)
2012        Sep 8, Sierra Leone said that 10 suspected Iranian ships "hiding" under the Sierra Leonean flag "have recently been removed from the register." The action was in relation to a vessel that was seized in Lebanon recently carrying arms for Syria, and allegedly flying the Sierra Leone flag.
    (AP, 9/9/12)

2012        Sep 9, In Syria a blast ripped through the northern city of Aleppo killing at least 30 people. State-run SANA news blamed terrorists and members of the military were reported among the dead.
    (AP, 9/10/12)

2012        Sep 12, In Syria an explosion targeting regime forces killed at least three people in northern Syria, and possibly up to 18, amid rising violence ahead of a visit by the new UN-Arab League envoy who is trying to end the country's civil war. The Observatory and another activist group, the Local Coordination Committees, said at least 11 bodies were found in the central town of Halfaya in Hama province. They said the bodies were found in fields a day after government troops stormed the town.
    (AP, 9/12/12)

2012        Sep 16, Syrian activists reported heavy bombardment of rebel-held areas throughout the country. The state-run news agency said troops have captured and cleared the neighborhood of Midan in the embattled northern city of Aleppo.
    (AP, 9/16/12)

2012        Sep 17, Syrian warplanes hit Lebanese territory. 4 missiles hit the border town of Arsal, but no casualties were reported.
    (SFC, 9/18/12, p.A2)

2012        Sep 18, In Syria Fierce clashes broke out between rebels and regime forces battling for control of a border crossing on the frontier with Turkey. Turkish authorities told residents to evacuate the area.
    (AP, 9/18/12)

2012        Sep 19, Syrian rebels seized control of a border crossing on the frontier with Turkey, pulling down the Syrian flag and briefly allowing people to crawl under a barbed wire barrier between the countries. The rebel seizure of the Tal Abyad post is believed to be the first time they have overrun a frontier post in the northern province of Raqqa.
    (AP, 9/19/12)

2012        Sep 20, In Syria at least 30 people were killed and dozens wounded in regime air strikes on a gas station in the northern town of Ain Issa.
    (AP, 9/20/12)

2012        Sep 22, Syrian rebels and government troops fought a fierce battle near the border with Jordan that last several hours. The leaders of the rebel Free Syrian Army said they have moved their command center from Turkey to Syria with the aim of uniting rebels.
    (AP, 9/22/12)

2012        Sep 23, Syrian opposition figures called for the overthrow of President Bashar Assad at a rare meeting of anti-regime groups held in the government-controlled capital.
    (AP, 9/24/12)

2012        Sep 24, Syrian warplanes bombed two buildings in the northern city of Aleppo, killing at least five people including three children from the same family.
    (AP, 9/24/12)

2012        Sep 25, Syrian soldiers fought rebels in a firefight that killed nine people and sent several mortars sailing across the border into the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights.
    (AP, 9/25/12)

2012        Sep 26, In Syria two massive explosions targeting the regime's military command center were set off by two suicide car bombers killing four people. An Iranian correspondent was killed while covering the blasts in Damascus.
    (AP, 9/26/12)

2012        Sep 27, In Syria fighters from the main rebel group known as the Free Syrian Army began a new push to drive regime forces from Aleppo, Syria's commercial capital, calling it the "Decisive Battle." The Syrian military sent text message on cellular telephones to members of the armed rebellion reading: "Game over."
    (AP, 9/28/12)

2012        Sep 28, In Syria fighting over Aleppo intensified with some of the fiercest battles in two months as rebel forces launched a new offensive to rout President Bashar Assad's forces. A huge fire began in Aleppo amid heavy government shelling.
    (AP, 9/28/12)(AP, 9/29/12)
2012        Sep 28, The UN's top human rights body extended by six months the mission of its independent expert panel probing alleged war crimes in Syria's 18-month conflict.
    (AP, 9/28/12)

2012        Sep 29, Syrian rebels and residents of Aleppo struggled to contain a huge fire that destroyed parts of the city's medieval souks, or markets, following raging battles between government troops and opposition fighters there.
    (AP, 9/29/12)

2012        Sep 30, In Syria a suicide attacker in a parked car blew himself up in an area housing security offices in the northeast, killing at least four people. Activists put the death toll at eight and said it was expected to rise because 15 people sustained serious wounds. The explosion came hours after fighting between rebels and government forces killed at least five people in Aleppo.
    (AP, 9/30/12)
2012        Sep 30, Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan urged Syria's allies to stop backing the Assad regime. "We call on Russia, China and Iran, please review your stance," Erdogan told a conference of his ruling Justice and Development Party.
    (AP, 9/30/12)

2012        Oct 1, Syrian troops bombed Salqin, a northern town near the Turkish border, killing at least 12 people, including 5 children. Rebels reportedly captured an air defense base in the Eastern Ghouta area near the capital.
    (AP, 10/1/12)    (AP, 10/5/12)

2012        Oct 2, A Lebanese security official says Hezbollah commander Ali Hussein Nassif and several other fighters from the militant group have been killed in Syria.
    (AP, 10/2/12)

2012        Oct 3, In Syria 3 suicide bombers detonated cars packed with explosives in the main square of the northern city of Aleppo, killing over 40 people, leveling buildings and trapping survivors     under the rubble. Regime troops reportedly killed two more would-be suicide bombers before they could detonate their explosives. A fourth car bomb went off in the Bab Jnein area near the Old City where the Chamber of Commerce is located.
    (AP, 10/3/12)(SFC, 10/4/12, p.A3)
2012        Oct 3, Syrian-Turkish cross-border tensions escalated after a shell fired from inside Syria landed on a home in the Turkish village of Akcakale, killing two women and three of their daughters and wounding at least 10 others.
    (AP, 10/4/12)

2012        Oct 4, Turkey's Parliament authorized military operations against Syria and its military fired on targets there for a second day after deadly shelling from Syria killed five civilians in a Turkish border town.
    (AP, 10/4/12)

2012        Oct 5, Syrian warplanes and artillery pounded the central city of Homs, subjecting the rebel stronghold to its heaviest bombardment in months.
    (AP, 10/5/12)
2012        Oct 5, Turkish troops fired at Syria again, responding to another mortar shell from Syria that struck Turkish territory.
    (AP, 10/5/12)

2012        Oct 6, Syrian soldiers clashed with two armed groups that infiltrated from Lebanon, killing several of them.
    (AP, 10/7/12)
2012        Oct 6, Turkish artillery fired into Syria for the fourth day in a row, retaliating for mortar shells that landed in Turkish territory. Rebels clashed with Syrian government troops in the border area, activists said, as fears revived that the Syrian crisis could spiral into a regional conflict.
    (AP, 10/6/12)

2012        Oct 7, Syrian troops pressed their offensive to retake rebel-held areas in the northern city of Aleppo, Homs, towns around the Syrian capital of Damascus and southern villages on the border with Jordan. A car bomb exploded near the police headquarters in central Damascus, killing at least one person and damaging nearby buildings.
    (AP, 10/7/12)
2012        Oct 7, Turkish artillery fired toward Syria for a fifth day in a row, minutes after a Syrian shell landed on Turkish territory.
    (AP, 10/7/12)

2012        Oct 8, In Syria a suicide attacker detonated a car bomb near a compound of the Syrian intelligence on the outskirts of Damascus.
    (AP, 10/10/12)
2012        Oct 8, Turkey's state-run news agency said a Syrian shell landed on Turkish territory for a sixth day, but made no mention of any immediate Turkish retaliation.
    (AP, 10/8/12)

2012        Oct 9, In Syria Ankhar Kochneva, a Ukrainian woman who worked as an interpreter for a Russian TV crew, was kidnapped by rebels in the country's west. Kochneva was reported free on March 12, 2013.
    (AP, 10/16/12)(AP, 3/12/13)

2012        Oct 10, A Syrian Air A320 from Moscow that was forced to land in Ankara. Turkish state-run television TRT reported the next day that the passenger plane was carrying military communications equipment. Damascus branded the incident piracy amid growing tensions between the two countries. The plane's 37 passengers and crew were allowed to continue to Damascus after several hours, without the cargo.
    (AP, 10/11/12)

2012        Oct 12, In Syria Jabhat al-Nusra, a shadowy jihadi group believed to be linked to al-Qaida, fought alongside rebels who seized overnight the air defense base near the village of al-Taaneh.
    (AP, 10/12/12)

2012        Oct 13, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, which relies on a network of activists on the ground, said regime forces were pounding the rebel stronghold of Homs in central Syria with mortars and artillery. The southern province of Daraa also sustained shelling by the Syrian army. Fighting between army troops and rebels raged around Idlib province and in and around the northern city of Aleppo.
    (AP, 10/13/12)
2012        Oct 13, Syria's state-run news agency SANA says Syria has decided to ban Turkish Airlines flights from Syrian airspace.
    (AP, 10/13/12)

2012        Oct 14, Syrian gunmen fired on a bus transporting workers to a blanket factory, killing four and wounding eight. Syrian refugee Mustafa Ali Kassim (24) died of shrapnel wounds inflicted when the Syrian army opened fire at his group of 229 Syrian refugees while crossing a border fence into Jordan before dawn. U.S.-based Human Right Watch said it has obtained new evidence that Syrian troops are using cluster bombs — widely banned munitions that pose a grave risk to civilians because they burst into bomblets over large areas and often linger on the ground, detonating only when touched.
    (AP, 10/14/12)
2012        Oct 14, Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu announced that Turkey is barring Syrian civilian flights from Turkey's airspace, a day after Syria issued such a ban for Turkish commercial aircraft.
    (AP, 10/14/12)

2012        Oct 15, Syrian President Bashar Assad ordered immediate repairs to the historic Umayyad mosque in the city of Aleppo, a move likely aimed at containing Muslim outrage after fierce fighting between rebels and regime forces set parts of the mosque on fire over the weekend.
    (AP, 10/15/12)
2012        Oct 15, Jordan said it is planning to open a second camp for Syrian refugees, whose numbers are expected to climb to 250,000 by the year's end.
    (AP, 10/15/12)

2012        Oct 16, The Syrian military unleashed heavy artillery bombardments and airstrikes targeting rebel strongholds in Idlib and Aleppo provinces, killing at least 90 people. There were 343,871 Syrians formally registered as refugees or being helped by the UN refugee agency. The vast majority of them have found refuge in neighboring Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey.
    (AP, 10/16/12)

2012        Oct 17, Lakhdar Brahimi, the international envoy to the Syrian conflict, called on President Bashar Assad's regime to take the lead in a cease-fire during a major Muslim holiday later this month, calling it a "microscopic" step toward ending a crisis that he said could consume the whole region.
    (AP, 10/17/12)
2012        Oct 17, France's foreign minister Laurent Fabius said Syria's air force is using so-called barrel bombs — makeshift weapons consisting of containers stuffed with TNT — to heavily damage neighborhoods. Fabius met with representatives of about 20 countries to share details about a secret French aid program and encourage others to join it.
    (AP, 10/17/12)

2012        Oct 18, In northern Syria over 40 civilians, including at least 15 children, were killed in an airstrike on the town of Maarat Numan. A day earlier activist in the area posted a video showing what they said was a government helicopter shot down by rebels. In all over 200 people were reported killed in the country.
    (SFC, 10/19/12, p.A5)

2012        Oct 21, In Syria a taxi rigged with explosives blew up near a police station in Damascus, killing at least 13 people even as the UN envoy to the nation's crisis was visiting to push his call for a cease-fire in talks with President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 10/21/12)

2012        Oct 22, In Syria 42 civilians, arrested at a military checkpoint in the Damascus suburb of Moadamia Al-Sham, were soon found executed.
    (SFC, 10/24/12, p.A2)
2012        Oct 22, A Jordanian soldier was killed in clashes with armed militants trying to cross the border into Syria.
    (AP, 10/22/12)
2012        Oct 22, Lebanese troops launched a major security operation to open all roads and force gunmen off the streets. Sectarian clashes overnight left four dead as Syria's civil war spilled into neighboring countries.
    (AP, 10/22/12)

2012        Oct 23, Syrian warplanes struck Maaret al-Numan, a strategic rebel-held town in the country's north in an attempt to reopen a key supply route. At least 20 people were killed in Aleppo when a bakery was hit by a shell. Over 100 people were reported killed in fighting across the country. A UN-proposed cease-fire meant to start this week appeared increasingly unlikely to take hold.
    (AP, 10/23/12)(SFC, 10/24/12, p.A2)

2012        Oct 24, Syrian warplanes struck Mar Shureen village near a strategic rebel-held town in the country's north, killing five members of an extended family.
    (AP, 10/24/12)
2012        Oct 24, The UN-Arab League envoy to Syria said the government in Damascus and some rebel leaders have agreed to a temporary cease-fire during a four-day Muslim holiday that starts Oct 26.
    (AP, 10/24/12)

2012        Oct 25, In Syria anti-regime forces advanced in Aleppo and took control of several neighborhoods. The deputy head of the United Nations urged Syrian rebels and the regime in Damascus to observe a four-day cease-fire to observe the Muslim holy day of Eid al-Adha on Oct 26.
    (AP, 10/25/12)

2012        Oct 26, Syrians took to the streets for the largest anti-regime protests in months in several cities, taking advantage a lull in fighting as a cease-fire took effect at the start of a Muslim holiday. A few hours after the truce took effect, a car bomb in a residential area of Damascus killed at least 15 people and wounded more than 30. Another rigged car went off near an army checkpoint in the southern city of Deraa, killing 3 soldiers. In Aleppo fighting raged near the military airport, killing at least 4 people. At least 22 people were killed by regime shelling and sniper fire in the Damascus suburbs of Harasta and Douma, and in the northern Idlib province.
    (AP, 10/26/12)(AP, 10/29/12)

2012        Oct 27, Syrian warplanes bombed a building in a suburb of the capital Damascus in the first airstrike since an internationally mediated cease-fire went into effect. 8 people were reported killed and many others wounded in the airstrike in Arbeen.
    (AP, 10/27/12)

2012        Oct 28, Syrian warplanes and artillery struck rebellious suburbs east of Damascus, while rebels attacked regime positions elsewhere near Damascus. The violence marred the third day of what was meant to be a four-day holiday truce. At least 150 people were reported killed.
    (AP, 10/28/12)(AP, 10/29/12)

2012        Oct 29, Syrian warplanes launched some 60 airstrikes against rebel targets around the country. A government official said a car bomb killed 10 people on the outskirts of Damascus. Activists said more than 80 people were killed nationwide today and that at least 500 people were killed over the last four days period when a UN-backed truce was supposed to be in effect.
    (AP, 10/29/12)

2012        Oct 30, Syrian warplanes pounded Maaret al-Numan, a strategic northern city, with three airstrikes as ground troops pushed forward to recapture the area recently taken by rebels. In Damascus Syrian troops and rebels clashed in the Palestinian refugee camp of Yarmouk. At least 185 people were killed nationwide in airstrikes and artillery shelling. At least 47 soldiers were also reported killed.
    (AP, 10/30/12)(AP, 10/31/12)

2012        Oct 31, Syrian warplanes pounded opposition strongholds around Damascus and in the north, as President Bashar Assad's forces intensified airstrikes against rebels seeking to topple him. Activists said 116 were killed nationwide in airstrikes, artillery shelling and fighting. This included 41 people killed in Aleppo and 35 in the suburbs of Damascus.
    (AP, 10/31/12)(AP, 11/1/12)

2012        Nov 1, Syrian rebels killed 28 soldiers in attacks on military checkpoints in northern Idlib province, just hours after a wave of bombings hit Damascus and its outskirts. 5 rebels died in gun battles following the attacks. Rebels killed a group of captured soldiers during an assault by rebels on the northern town of Saraqeb. A video of the killings was made public and human rights groups the next day warned that the gunmen may have committed a war crime. The Observatory said 83 soldiers were killed in attacks by rebels and clashes.
    (AP, 11/1/12)    (AP, 11/2/12)

2012        Nov 3, Syrian rebels launched a dawn assault on Taftanaz airbase, a strategic site in the north of the country, trying to disrupt strikes by warplanes and helicopters that pound rebel-held towns and give the regime of Pres. Bashar Assad a major edge in the civil war.
    (AP, 11/3/12)

2012        Nov 4, In Syria a car bomb exploded near a major hotel in Damascus, wounding several people. State news agency SANA reported that gunmen assassinated a leading member of the ruling Baath party. It said the gunmen broke into the home of Ismail al-Hamadeh at dawn and sprayed him with bullets as he slept, killing him instantly. SANA also said the army destroyed some rebel vehicles fitted with machine guns in the Damascus suburbs of Harasta and al-Hajira and killed a handful of rebels. Syrian rebels overran the al-Ward oilfield in the province of Deir el-Zour near the border with Iraq.
    (AP, 11/4/12)

2012        Nov 5, The main Syrian opposition bloc, Syrian National Council, broadened its ranks to include more activists and political groups from inside the country. It had been  dominated by exiles and academics.
    (AP, 11/5/12)
2012        Nov 5, In Syria a suicide attack  in the village of Ziyara in the central province of Hama killed more than 50 Syrian soldiers and pro-government gunmen.  The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the attack was carried out by Jabhat al-Nusra, an al-Qaida-inspired Islamic militant group. The Observatory also reported that an air raid on the northern town of Harem killed at least 20 rebels. 6 regime supporters were killed when 11 mortars rounds fell near a pro-government demonstration in the northern city of Aleppo.
    (AP, 11/5/12)    (AP, 11/6/12)

2012        Nov 6, In Syria gunmen killed Mohammed Osama Laham, the brother of Syria's parliament speaker, as he drove to work in Damascus. The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said air raids on Houla, a group of villages in central province of Homs, killed seven people.
    (AP, 11/6/12)
2012        Nov 6, A spokesman for Hamas said the Syrian government has sealed its offices in Damascus, finalizing the break between the Islamic militant group and its former patron.
    (AP, 11/6/12)
2012        Nov 6, Turkey's state-run news agency reported that seven Syrian generals have defected to Turkey.
    (AP, 11/6/12)

2012        Nov 7, Syrian rebels made a new push into Damascus. A car bomb killed a judge in Damascus, the second assassination in the capital in two days targeting high-ranking supporters of President Assad. At least 104 people were killed in fighting, according to the Britain-based activist group Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. 4 rebels were killed in clashes with a pro-government faction in the Palestinian refugee camp in Damascus.  At least 30 soldiers were also killed, including 10 in Damascus and on its outskirts.
    (AP, 11/7/12)    (AP, 11/8/12)
2012        Nov 7, In Qatar Syria's main opposition bloc began electing new leaders, amid intense international pressure from critics who say the exile-dominated group does not represent those risking their lives on the frontlines to oust President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 11/7/12)
2012        Nov 7, Western efforts to oust Syrian President Bashar Assad shifted dramatically, with Britain announcing it will deal directly with rebel military leaders and Turkey saying NATO members have discussed using Patriot missiles to protect a safe zone inside Syria.
    (AP, 11/7/12)

2012        Nov 8, In Syria rebels took over the border crossing of Ras al-Ayn.
    (AP, 11/8/12)
2012        Nov 8, The Syrian National Council conference in the Qatari capital of Doha failed to promote a single woman to the decision-making group of 41 members. SNC chief Abdelbaset Sieda said he was "so sad" and would try to add four women to the general secretariat by decree.
    (AP, 11/8/12)

2012        Nov 9, Syria's president said in an interview broadcast that his country is not in a state of civil war, and that he has no regrets about any decisions he has made since the uprising against him began nearly 20 months ago. UN officials said at least 11,000 Syrian refugees have fled their country over the last 24 hours, including some 9,000 to Turkey and the rest to Jordan and Lebanon.
    (AP, 11/9/12)
2012        Nov 9, In Qatar Syria's main opposition group in exile elected George Sabra, a left-wing veteran dissident born into a Christian family, as its new president.
    (AP, 11/9/12)
2012        Nov 9, Turkey's state-run agency said a group of Syrian soldiers, including two generals and 11 colonels, have fled to Turkey with their families.
    (AP, 11/9/12)
2012        Nov 9, A UN plan to provide $836 million in emergency aid to Syrians battered by their nation's civil war ran into funding problems despite an additional US donation of $34 million.
    (AP, 11/9/12)

2012        Nov 10, In Syria suicide car bombings ripped through a government base in Daraa, killing at least 20 soldiers. George Sabra, the newly elected leader of the main opposition bloc, the Syrian National Council, urged the international community to support rebels without any conditions.
    (AP, 11/10/12)

2012        Nov 11, Israel was drawn into the Syrian civil war for the first time, firing warning shots into the neighboring country after a stray mortar shell from across the border hit an Israeli military post in the Golan Heights. Syrian army forces backed by helicopter gunships and artillery attacked a border area with Turkey after rebels captured the Ras al-Ayn crossing point.
    (AP, 11/11/12)
 2012        Nov 11, In Qatar Syrian anti-government groups struck a deal under intense international pressure to form a new 63-member opposition leadership. The delegates elected Islamic preacher Maath al-Khatib president of the new coalition. Leading opposition figures Riad Seif and Suheir Atassi were elected vice presidents. The new leadership will be called the Syrian National Coalition for Opposition and Revolutionary Forces.
    (AP, 11/11/12)(Econ, 11/17/12, p.47)

2012        Nov 12, A Syrian fighter jet bombed a rebel-held area near the Turkish border, killing at least six people and wounding a dozen others. One rocket-propelled grenade landed in Turkey. A Syrian helicopter bombed rebel positions in an area further south of Ras al-Ayn and the rebels could be heard responding with machine guns.
    (AP, 11/12/12)
2012        Nov 12, An Israeli tank scored a "direct hit" on a Syrian armored vehicle after a mortar shell landed on Israeli-held territory in the Golan Heights, in the first direct confrontation between the countries since the Syrian uprising broke out, sharpening fears that Israel could be drawn into the civil war next door.
    (AP, 11/12/12)

2012        Nov 13, Syria's air force bombed a rebel-held region near the border with Turkey for a second day, killing at least one person and wounding three others.
    (AP, 11/13/12)
2012        Nov 13, France became the first Western country to formally recognize Syria's newly formed opposition coalition as the sole legitimate representative of the Syrian people.
    (AP, 11/13/12)

2012        Nov 14, In Syria regime jet fighters targeted the rebellious suburbs of Damascus. Heavy clashes between rebel units and Assad's troops were ongoing in the northern city of Aleppo. Syrian troops used aircraft and artillery in an attempt to dislodge rebels from a town next to the border with Turkey.
    (AP, 11/14/12)
2012        Nov 14, The Israeli defense minister says "almost all" Syrian villages near the frontier with Israel have fallen into rebel hands.
    (AP, 11/14/12)

2012        Nov 15, Turkey endorsed the newly formed Syrian rebel coalition as the legitimate leader of Syria.
    (SFC, 11/16/12, p.A2)

2012        Nov 16, A Syrian general and a dozen other officers defected with their families to Turkey.
    (Reuters, 11/17/12)

2012        Nov 17, Cameraman Cuneyt Unal, captured while covering fighting in the city of Aleppo, was released returned to Turkey. Unal and reporter Bashar Fahmi, a Jordanian citizen of Palestinian origin, had been missing since August. Both were working for the US-based Alhurra TV and were believed to have been captured by Syrian government forces.
    (AP, 11/17/12)

2012        Nov 18, A group of 13 extremist Islamist factions in Syria rejected the country's new opposition coalition, saying in a video statement they have formed an "Islamic state" in the embattled city of Aleppo to underline that they want nothing to do with the Western-backed bloc.
    (AP, 11/19/12)
2012        Nov 18, Syrian rebels took over a large military base in the country's north, carting off tanks, armored vehicles and truck-loads of munitions.
    (AP, 11/20/12)
2012        Nov 18, Iran held a conference to reconcile Syria's government with some 200 opposition members and Syria's National Reconciliation Minister Ali Haidar to end the country's civil war.
    (AP, 11/18/12)

2012        Nov 20, Britain announced that it has formally recognized the newly formed Syrian opposition as the sole legitimate representative of the Syrian people.
    (AP, 11/20/12)

2012        Nov 21, Syrian warplanes bombed Damascus suburbs and rebel-held areas in the country's north as the government blasted the European Union for endorsing a newly formed opposition coalition. Syrian warplanes flattened a building next to a hospital in Aleppo, killing at least 15 people.
    (AP, 11/21/12)(AP, 11/22/12)
2012        Nov 21, Turkey's government requested the deployment of NATO's Patriot surface-to-air missiles to bolster its defenses along its border with Syria.
    (AP, 11/21/12)

2012        Nov 22, Syrian rebels seized a key military base with artillery stockpiles in the country's east, strengthening their hold in an oil-rich strategic province bordering Iraq. Fighting broke out in the city of Ras al-Ayn on the Syrian side of the border, but it was between Kurdish and Arab rebel factions. Journalist Bassil Toufic Youssef, who worked for state TV, was shot dead outside his house in Damascus.
    (AP, 11/22/12)(AP, 11/23/12)
2012        Nov 22, American  journalist James Foley (39), of Rochester, N.H., was kidnapped in northwest Syria by unknown gunmen in Idlib province.
    (AP, 1/2/13)
2012        Nov 22, The body of Syrian novelist Mohammed Rashid Roweily (65) was found in the eastern city of Deir el-Zour, nearly two months after he was kidnapped. His decomposed body was found along with four other bodies, including that of a retired army officer. All were kidnapped around the same time.
    (AP, 11/23/12)
2012        Nov 22, In Syria a bomb blast in a Palestinian refugee camp in Damascus killed four people and seriously wounded a member of a faction that has backed President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 11/23/12)

2012        Nov 23, In Syria a suicide attacker blew up his car in the northwestern Idlib province, killing at least three people and wounding four. Islamic extremists, including members of the al-Qaida inspired Jabhat al-Nusra group, battled with pro-government Kurdish gunmen in the northern town of Ras al-Ayan, near the border with Turkey.
    (AP, 11/23/12)

2012        Nov 24, Lebanese soldiers raided an apartment in the country's south and arrested five Syrian nationals for possession of explosives.
    (AP, 11/24/12)

2012        Nov 25, Syrian rebels seized control of the Marj al-Sultan base on the outskirts of Damascus. At least 15 rebels and eight soldiers were killed in the fighting that started a day earlier.
    (AP, 11/25/12)

2012        Nov 26, Syrian rebels captured a hydroelectric dam on the Euphrates River in the country's north after days of heavy clashes. Rebels and pro-government Kurdish gunmen struck a truce to end days of fighting in the town of Ras al-Ayn. Airstrikes by government warplanes killed and wounded several people in the border town Atmeh.
    (AP, 11/26/12)

2012        Nov 27, Syrian warplanes bombed an olive press factory in Idlib, killing at least 20 people and wounding dozens more. The pro-government daily Al Watan published a list of 142 Arab and foreign terrorists it said were killed in Syria in recent months. Rebels reportedly shot down a government helicopter west of Aleppo.
    (AP, 11/27/12)(SFC, 11/28/12, p.A3)(Econ, 12/1/12, p.54)

2012        Nov 28, In Syria twin suicide car bombs ripped through a Damascus suburb minutes apart, killing at least 34 people with 83 injured. Regime warplanes struck rebel-held areas in the northern Idlib province and Damascus suburbs. Rebels claimed they shot down a Syrian air force fighter jet near Daret Azzeh.
    (AP, 11/28/12)

2012        Nov 29, Syrian activists said authorities have blocked Internet and cell phone signals in parts of the nation's capital. Two US-based Internet-monitoring companies say Syria has shut off Internet nationwide. Syrian rebels in Daraa bombed the house of Hussein Rifai, a top member of the country's ruling Baath party, killing him and his three body guards.
    (AP, 11/29/12)

2012        Nov 30, Syrian rebels battled regime troops south of Damascus and Internet and most telephone lines were cut for a second day, but the government reopened the road to the capital's airport in a sign the fighting could be calming.
    (AP, 11/30/12)
2012        Nov 30, Lebanon dispatched troops to Tripoli as a precautionary measure after an announcement that 20 Lebanese Sunnis had been killed inside Syria while fighting alongside rebels, who are predominantly Sunnis as well.
    (AP, 12/1/12)

2012        Nov, British journalist John Cantlie arrived in Syria and was soon captured by a militant group. In 2014 an Internet video titled “Lend Me Your Ears" showed Cantlie delivering a message warning against the US and allies waring against the Islamic State.
    {Britain, Syria}
    (SFC, 9/19/14, p.A4)

2012        Dec 1, Syrian troops backed by helicopter gunships clashed with rebels as government forces pushed a major offensive on villages and towns near the capital's international airport. Internet and telephone service were restored across much of the country following a two-day, nationwide communications blackout.
    (AP, 12/1/12)

2012        Dec 2, Syria forces bombarded rebel strongholds in Damascus. A car bomb exploded near a mosque in the city of Homs, killing at least 15 people. The official SANA news agency claimed that, the Syrian army killed scores of rebels in an attack on their hideouts on the outskirts of Homs.
    (AP, 12/2/12)(SFC, 12/3/12, p.A3)
2012        Dec 2, The Syrian conflict spilled into Lebanon, after Lebanese troops exchanged fire with rebels across the border late today.
    (AP, 12/3/12)

2012        Dec 3, Syrian warplanes bombed a security building that had been taken over by rebels along the Turkish border, killing at least one person, wounding 20 more and sending dozens of civilians fleeing across the frontier. A regime shell attack on the Aleppo neighborhood of Bustan al-Qasr killed 12 men. 13 people were reported dead in a separate attack in Aleppo's Halak neighborhood. At least 17 unidentified bodies were found in the Damascus suburb of Thiyabiyeh.
    (AP, 12/3/12)(AP, 12/4/12)

2012        Dec 4, Syrian state media said a mortar slammed into a school in the Damascus suburbs, killing 29 students and a teacher. Syrian forces fired artillery at rebel targets in and around the capital. The international community grew increasingly alarmed about the regime's chemical weapons stocks. Naji Assaad, a journalist for the state-run Tishrin newspaper, was killed near his home in al-Tadhamon, a suburb of Damascus.
    (AP, 12/4/12)

2012        Dec 5, In Lebanon gunmen loyal to opposite sides in neighboring Syria's civil war battled in the streets of Tripoli where two days of fighting killed at least five people and wounded 45.
    (AP, 12/5/12)

2012        Dec 6, Syria's state television said a booby trapped car has exploded in a neighborhood of the capital, Damascus, killing one person.
    (AP, 12/6/12)
2012        Dec 6, NATO moved forward with its plan to place Patriot missiles and troops along Syria's border with Turkey to protect against potential attacks.
    (AP, 12/6/12)

2012        Dec 7, Syrian rebels fighting to topple President Bashar Assad declared Damascus International Airport a "legitimate target" in a bid to cut off regime supplies, as clashes between government troops and rebels forced the closure of the airport road for the second time this week.
    (AP, 12/7/12)

2012        Dec 8, An official with the rebel Free Syrian Army said commanders from all over the country have elected a new Supreme Military Council and named Brig. Gen. Salim Idriss as the group's chief of staff.
    (AP, 12/8/12)

2012        Dec 9, In Syria 9 judges in Idlib defected from the regime of Pres. Assad. They identified themselves by name and read a joint statement urging others to break ranks with Assad. Rebels captured parts of another large army base in the country's north, just west of the city of Aleppo, tightening the opposition's grip on areas close to the Turkish border.
    (AP, 12/9/12)(AP, 12/10/12)
2012        Dec 9, In Lebanon four people were killed in fighting in the city of Tripoli between gunmen loyal to opposite sides in Syria's civil war.
    (AP, 12/9/12)
2012        Dec 9, Russian and US diplomats met with UN peace envoy Lakhdar Brahimi for more talks on the civil war in Syria.
    (AP, 12/9/12)

2012        Dec 10, Syrian rebels killed 13 soldiers in an ambush near a strategic northern town along a road linking Aleppo with Damascus.
    (AP, 12/10/12)
2012        Dec 10, Germany said it has expelled four employees of the Syrian embassy in Berlin in a diplomatic move to put pressure on the regime of President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 12/10/12)

2012        Dec 11, Syrian rebels, backed by Islamic extremist fighters of Jabhat al-Nusra, took full control of the Sheik Suleiman military base near Aleppo after a two-day battle that killed at least 35 government troops. In Aleppo four mortar rounds hit the predominantly Kurdish neighborhood of Sheik Maksoud, killing 11, including 3 children and 2 women, and wounding a dozen other people.
    (AP, 12/11/12)

2012        Dec 12, French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said more than 100 countries have recognized a new Syrian opposition coalition. Fabius called the "Friends of the Syrian People" conference meeting in Marrakech, Morocco, "extraordinary progress." US and NATO said President Bashar Assad's forces had fired Scud missiles at rebel areas.
    (AP, 12/12/12)(AP, 12/13/12)

2012        Dec 13, In Syria a bomb blast near a school in a Damascus suburb killed 16 people, at least half of them women and children. Three bombs collapsed walls of the Interior Ministry building, killing 9 people. One of the dead was parliament member Abdullah Qairouz. State TV journalist Anmar Mohammed was one of 3 killed in explosions near the Palace of Justice in the suburb of Jermana and in the upscale Mezzeh 86 district. American correspondent Richard Engel and his team were kidnapped shortly after crossing the border from Turkey into Syria. They escaped on Dec 16 at a security checkpoint in Idlib province and two captors were killed.
    (AP, 12/13/12)(AP, 12/18/12)
2012        Dec 13, NATO's Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said he thinks Syria President Bashar Assad's regime is on the brink of collapse.
    (AP, 12/13/12)
2012        Dec 13, Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Mikhail Bogdanov said that President Bashar Assad is losing control of his country and the rebels might win the civil war.
    (AP, 12/13/12)

2012        Dec 14, The Pentagon said the US will send two batteries of Patriot missiles and 400 troops to Turkey as part of a NATO force meant to protect Turkish territory from potential Syrian missile attack.
    (AP, 12/14/12)

2012        Dec 16, In Syria the Al-Tawheed Brigade, an Islamist faction of rebels, captured the Hanano Barracks, an infantry base in the northern city of Aleppo. Al-Tawheed commander, Col. Youssef al-Jader, was killed. Government warplanes blasted a Palestinian refugee camp near Damascus, killing eight people and wounding dozens.
    (AP, 12/16/12)

2012        Dec 17, Syria's longtime vice president Farouk al-Sharaa said the army cannot defeat the rebels fighting to topple the regime, the first admission by a top government official that a victory by President Bashar Assad is unlikely.
    (AP, 12/17/12)
2012        Dec 17, Italy's government said an Italian technician and two other employees at a Syrian steel plant near Latakia have been kidnapped.
    (AP, 12/17/12)

2012        Dec 18, Clashes between Syrian rebels and an armed Palestinian group loyal to President Bashar Assad raged inside a Damascus refugee camp, as the Syrian military deployed tanks outside.
    (AP, 12/18/12)

2012        Dec 19, Syrian state media said government forces are carrying out a broad offensive against rebels in the suburbs of Damascus, as the UN appealed for a billion dollars to support rising numbers of Syrian refugees.
    (AP, 12/19/12)

2012        Dec 20, In Syria days of intense fighting in a Palestinian refugee camp subsided and some of the more than 100,000 residents who fled the violence in the capital Damascus began to trickle back.
    (AP, 12/20/12)

2012        Dec 21, Syrian rebels attacked a base protecting a military industrial compound in the country's north as anti-government forces pushed forward in efforts to capture wider areas near the border with Turkey. 7 rebels were reported killed in the attack on the air defense base in the town of al-Safira.
    (AP, 12/21/12)
2012        Dec 21, NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmusen said the Syrian military has continued to fire Scud-type missiles against anti-government forces, describing the move as an act of desperation of a regime nearing its end.
    (AP, 12/21/12)

2012        Dec 23, Syrian activists said a government airstrike on a bakery in a rebel-held town in Halfaya killed more than 60 people. The attack coincided with the start of a two-day visit by Lakhdar Brahimi, who represents the UN And the Arab League, to meet with top Syrian officials. 6 Syrian rebels reportedly died in two neighborhoods after inhaling white smoke that came out of shells fired by government troops in the area.
    (AP, 12/23/12)(AP, 12/25/12)

2012        Dec 25, Syrian rebels fully captured Harem, a northern town near the Turkish border, after weeks of siege and heavy fighting. In the Damascus suburb of Jaramana, opposition gunmen ambushed and wounded the head of military intelligence in the area. He died of his wounds. Maj. Gen. Abdul-Aziz Jassem al-Shallal, the head of Syria's military police, appeared in a video aired on Al Arabiya TV saying he is joining "the people's revolution."
    (AP, 12/25/12)(AP, 12/26/12)

2012        Dec 26, Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said shelling in an agricultural area of Raqqa province near the village of Qahtaniyeh killed 20, including eight children. It said at least five rebels were killed in the fighting that started after midnight and added that Syrian army warplanes attacked rebel positions in the areas.
    (AP, 12/26/12)

2012        Dec 27, Russia and Lakhdar Brahimi, UN envoy for Syria, both said that they want to revive a long-shelved peace initiative that would call for a transitional government to run the country until elections can be held.
    (AP, 12/27/12)

2012        Dec 28, Syrian rebels stepped up their siege of a military base in north of the country as government warplanes bombed surrounding areas to support the defenders. A government airstrike on al-Safira killed 14 people, including 2 woemn and 8 children.
    (AP, 12/28/12)
2012        Dec 28, Officials at Turkey's Foreign Ministry said two Syrian air force generals have defected and crossed the border.
    (AP, 12/28/12)

2012        Dec 30, Syrian rebels captured an oil pumping station and a military post that used to protect the station in the province of Raqqa after days of fighting.
    (AP, 12/30/12)

2012        Dec 31, Syrian rebels blew up a natural gas pipeline in the country's oil-rich east. The blast, some 30 km (18 miles) north of Deir el-Zour, caused the loss of around 1.5 million cubic meters of gas.
    (AP, 12/31/12)

2012        Croatian arms bought by Saudi Arabia were flown to Jordan for distribution to Syrian rebels in a deal backed by the CIA.
    (Econ, 4/16/15, p.44)
2012        In Lebanon the Beirut-based pan-Arab satellite channel Al-Mayadeen was launched. It was backed by Iran and Syria.
    (Econ, 2/14/15, p.41)

2013        Jan 1, Syrian warplanes took part in bombing Daraya, a few miles (kms) from the strategic military air base of Mazzeh, a western neighborhood of Damascus.
    (AP, 1/1/13)

2013        Jan 2, A Syrian warplane blasted a gas station near Damascus, killing and wounding dozens of people and igniting a huge fire in one of the bloodiest attacks in weeks during the 22-month civil war. Rebels attacked the sprawling Taftanaz air base. Rebels bombarded the Mannagh air base, which has been subjected to almost daily attacks since late last month.
    (AP, 1/2/13)
2013        Jan 2, The UN said more than 60,000 people have killed in the 21-months of the Syrian conflict.
    (SSFC, 1/6/13, p.A4)

2013        Jan 3, Syrian troops and rebels fought intense battles around the Taftanaz air base in the country's north and a suburb of the capital that government forces have been trying to capture since last month. Rebels reportedly killed the commander of the air base, a brigadier general. The Observatory and the LCC said 8 people were killed in Douma and nearby areas. Dozens of people were also killed or wounded in the town of Hayan in Aleppo province. A car bomb blew up in a Damascus gas station, killing at least 9 people.
    (AP, 1/3/13)(AP, 1/4/13)
2013        Jan 3, Syrian journalist Suheil al-Ali, who worked for a pro-government television station, died four days after a "terrorist" opened fire on him as he was returning home from work in the suburbs of Damascus.
    (AP, 1/5/13)

2013        Jan 4, Syrian ground and air forces bombarded rebel strongholds on the outskirts of Damascus and other areas around the country. Anti-government forces targeted a military post near the capital with a car bomb.
    (AP, 1/4/13)

2013        Jan 5, Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said rebels and government troops clashed in suburbs south of Damascus, including Harasta and Daraya. The Observatory, which relies on reports by activists on the ground, said government troops had arrested several residents in raids in the suburb of Qatana.
    (AP, 1/5/13)

2013        Jan 6, Syria’s Pres. Bashar Assad offered a national reconciliation conference, elections and a new constitution but demanded regional and Western countries stop funding and arming rebels trying to overthrow him first. Syria's opposition swiftly rejected the proposal. Fighting between rebels and government forces raged across the country.
    (AP, 1/6/13)
2013        Jan 6, Israel announced that it is building a border fence along the length of its armistice line with Syria in the Golan Heights.
    (SFC, 1/7/13, p.A3)

2013        Jan 7, The Dutch military shipped Patriot missiles to Turkey, a fellow NATO member, after the alliance agreed in December to deploy the anti-missile systems along Turkey's southern border with Syria. Fighting in Syria continued unabated.
    (AP, 1/7/13)

2013        Jan 8, Palestinian factions in Syria called for a cease-fire after fighting flared at a refugee camp in the capital, Damascus. 5 people were killed on Yarmouk Street, four of them when a shell exploded and the fifth in sniper fire.
    (AP, 1/8/13)
2013        Jan 8, In Jordan Syrian refugees in a refugee camp attacked aid workers with sticks and stones, frustrated after cold, howling winds swept away their tents and torrential rains flooded muddy streets overnight.
    (AP, 1/8/13)
2013        Jan 8, The UN World Food Program said it is unable to help 1 million Syrians who are going hungry.
    (AP, 1/8/13)

2013        Jan 9, Syrian rebels freed 48 Iranians held captive since August in exchange for the release of more than 2,000 detainees in the first major prisoner swap of the country's civil war.
    (AP, 1/9/13)
2013        Jan 9, The NATO alliance detected the launch of an unguided, short-range ballistic missile in Syria.
    (AP, 1/10/13)

2013        Jan 10, Rebels trying to topple Syrian President Bashar Assad's regime battled army troops inside an air base in the north as government forces fought opposition strongholds near the seat of his government in Damascus.
    (AP, 1/10/13)

2013        Jan 11, In Syria Islamic militants seeking to topple Pres. Bashar Assad took full control of the strategic Taftanaz air base in a significant blow to government forces, seizing helicopters, tanks and multiple rocket launchers. Government warplanes bombed the air base after the rebel takeover.
    (AP, 1/11/13)

2013        Jan 12, Syrian troops captured most of Daraya, a strategic Damascus suburb used by rebels as a base to threaten key regime facilities in the capital.
    (AP, 1/12/13)

2013        Jan 13, Syrian fighter jets Damascus suburbs in a government offensive to dislodge rebels from strategic areas around the capital. At least 45 people were killed in the government barrage. Troops battled rebels in the suburb of Daraya a day after government officials claimed the army had taken much of the strategic area. Heavy fighting was reported in the northern province of Deir el-Zour, involving attacks by warplanes.
    (AP, 1/13/13)(AP, 1/14/13)

2013        Jan 14, A Syrian airstrike slammed into a house in a rebellious suburb of Damascus, killing at least 13 people including eight children. Fighter jets also carried out fresh airstrikes on the suburb of Daraya. Regime warplanes also bombed targets in the north.
    (AP, 1/14/13)

2013        Jan 15, In Syria 2 explosions struck the main university in Aleppo, killing 87 people. Activists reported clashes in suburbs south of Damascus. In other regions government air raids and shelling killed dozens of people. Forces loyal to President Bashar Assad swept through Haswiyeh, a small farming village near Homs, torching houses and shooting and stabbing residents in an attack that killed up to 106 people. All of the dead appeared to be Sunni Muslims.
    (AP, 1/15/13)(AP, 1/16/13)(AP, 1/17/13)

2013        Jan 16, In northern Syria suicide bombers driving vehicles packed with explosives blew themselves up near security targets, killing at least 22 people in Idlib.
    (AP, 1/16/13)

2013        Jan 17, In Syria an air raid killed at least 15 people in the town of Kfar Nabouedeh in the central province of Hama. Violence continued in different parts of the country. Clashes in the northern town of Ras al-Ayn least eight rebels and one Kurdish PYD fighter.
    (AP, 1/17/13)
2013        Jan 17, French journalist, Yves Debay was shot and killed in Aleppo by a regime sniper while covering clashes between rebels and forces loyal to President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 1/18/13)
2013        Jan 17, Jordan's PM Abdullah Ensour said Jordan will prevent a mass exodus of Syrian refugees from entering its territory if President Bashar Assad's regime collapses, and will instead create a safe haven inside Syria to protect them.
    (AP, 1/17/13)

2013        Jan 18, In Syria 2 car bombs exploded in Daraa and a rocket slammed into a building in Aleppo. Fighting between rebels and Assad's loyalists flared in the Yarmouk Palestinian refugee camp in Damascus, killing 12 people and wounding at least 20 others. Syrian fighter jets pounded villages in rebel-held areas in Latakia province, dropping makeshift bombs made from hundreds of pounds (kg) of explosives stuffed into barrels.
    (AP, 1/18/13)

2013        Jan 19, Syrian troops fought intense battles against rebels who are trying to capture two military bases in the northwest. Dozens of people were killed and wounded as Syria's air force targeted a mosque and a school building that apparently was sheltering displaced Syrians in the town of Salqin in Idlib province.
    (AP, 1/19/13)

2013        Jan 20, Syrian government troops battled rebels in several areas outside Damascus. Regime warplanes bombed opposition-held areas around the capital, including an airstrike on the village of al-Barika that killed at least seven people.
    (AP, 1/20/13)

2013        Jan 21, The Syrian government blamed a rebel attack on a key power line for a blackout that hit Damascus and much of the country's south overnight. By midday power returned to more than half of the capital. At least 42 people were reported killed in a car bombing at a headquarters of a pro-government militia in Salamiya, Hama province. A week later Jabhat al-Nusra, an al-Qaida-linked group fighting, claimed responsibility for the attack.
    (AP, 1/21/13)(AP, 1/24/13)(AP, 1/28/13)

2013        Jan 22, Syrian government forces and rebels battled in the suburbs of Damascus and elsewhere. Four buses carrying Russian citizens escaping the civil war crossed into Lebanon, in the first evacuation organized by Moscow since the start of the conflict nearly two years ago.
    (AP, 1/22/13)

2013        Jan 23, In Syria a rocket fired by regime forces slammed into Abu Taltal, a northern rebel-held village, killing six members of a single family. Violence was reported elsewhere with air raids around the capital Damascus and clashes and shelling in the southern province of Daraa and the central region of Homs.
    (AP, 1/23/13)

2013        Jan 24, Syrian warplanes bombed rebel-held areas near Damascus as President Bashar Assad's troops battled opposition fighters for control of a strategic road that links the capital with the main airport. Twin car bombs in the Syrian-controlled part of the Golan Heights killed eight people in Quneitra, as thegovernment called on those who fled the country during the civil war to return, including regime opponents.
    (AP, 1/24/13)(AP, 1/25/13)

2013        Jan 25, Syrian troops shelled the city of Homs and soldiers battled rebels around the central province with the same name. An amateur video posted online by activists showed rockets slamming into buildings in the rebel-held town of Rastan. Activist groups said at least 140 people were in fighting nationwide.
    (AP, 1/25/13)(SFC, 1/26/13, p.A2)

2013        Jan 26, Syria’s Sana state news said government troops raided an opposition stronghold in Daraya, killing rebels and uncovering tunnels they used to move around and smuggle weapons. An air raid on the northern town of Al-Bab, which killed at least four people and wounded others. Activist groups reported heavy clashes in Homs and Qusair.
    (AP, 1/26/13)

2013        Jan 27, In northern Syria  at least 10 rebels were killed in fighting that erupted after the opposition fighters attacked a government checkpoint.
    (AP, 1/28/13)

2013        Jan 28, Syrian activists said troops battled rebels in several towns and villages around Damascus, including in Daraya, Arbeen and Zabadani.
    (AP, 1/28/13)

2013        Jan 29, Syrian rebels stormed a government intelligence complex in the east of the country, freeing at least 11 people held in a prison at the facility in  Deir el-Zour. Regime warplanes carried several airstrikes on rebel positions in towns and villages around Damascus, including eastern Ghouta and Yalda, and hit other suburbs with artillery. The bodies of some 80 people, some with hands tied behind their backs, were pulled from a river near Aleppo as the government and rebels trying to overthrow it blamed each other for the latest mass killing. The Observatory said a total of at least 160 people were killed today in Syria, while the LCC put the figure at 162.
    (AP, 1/29/13)(Econ, 2/2/13, p.38)
2013        Jan 29, In Syria Musa Maragha (86), a hard-line Palestinian military commander who rebelled against leader Yasser Arafat to form his own rival party, died in Damascus. Maragha was better known by his nom de guerre, "Abu Musa."
    (AP, 1/29/13)
2013        Jan 29, In Jordan a wave of 21,000 Syrian refugees arrived in the past week, moving into northern Jordan at about five times the usual daily rate. The crowded Zatari camp, already struggling with flooding, short supplies and tent fires, was overwhelmed.
    (AP, 1/29/13)

2013        Jan 30, Israeli jets bombed a convoy near Syria's border with Lebanon, apparently targeting weapons destined for Hezbollah in what some called a warning to Damascus not to arm Israel's Lebanese enemy.
    (AP, 1/30/13)
2013        Jan 30, At a conference in Kuwait Gulf nations answered UN calls to boost humanitarian aid for Syria with $900 million in pledges even as more refugees poured into neighboring Jordan and its leader warned resources were strained to the limit.
    (AP, 1/30/13)

2013        Jan 31, Syria threatened to retaliate for an Israeli airstrike and its ally Iran said there will be repercussions for the Jewish state over the attack.
    (AP, 1/31/13)

2013        Feb 2, Syrian rebels captured a strategic neighborhood near Aleppo's international airport. Elsewhere fighting continued unabated, killing more than 60 people nationwide.
    (AP, 2/2/13)

2013        Feb 3, In Syria  Ibrahim Azzouz, a former parliament member, and three members of his family were killed in a rebel-held area near the northern city of Aleppo. Government troops bombarded a building in in Aleppo's rebel-held neighborhood of Eastern Ansari. The Aleppo Media Center, a network of anti-regime activists in the city, said 15 people were killed in the shelling of Eastern Ansari.
    (AP, 2/3/13)

2013        Feb 4, A Lebanese judge issued arrest warrants for a top Syrian intelligence official and his aide for their alleged involvement in a bombing plot in Lebanon. Brig. Gen. Ali Mamlouk was accused of being involved with Lebanon's former information minister, Michel Samaha, who allegedly plotted a wave of attacks in Lebanon at the behest of Syria.
    (AP, 2/4/13)

2013        Feb 5, Syrian rebels and Jordanian security officials said intense fighting has broken out near Syrian government installations and border posts near Jordan, leaving 17 civilians wounded.
    (AP, 2/5/13)

2013        Feb 6, Syria's opposition chief demanded that Bashar Assad's regime release all female political prisoners or he would scrap his offer of talks with the government.
    (AP, 2/7/13)
2013        Feb 6, In Syria heavy fighting broke out between rebels and President Bashar Assad's forces in parts of Damascus, as twin car bombs detonated in the central province of Homs, killing at least 12 people. A bombing at a bus stop near a military factory in central Syria killed 54 people, all civilian workers at the plant in the village of al-Buraq, near the central city of Hama.
    (AP, 2/6/13)(AP, 2/7/13)(AP, 2/8/13)

2013        Feb 7, Syrian troops and rebels clashed again in the capital Damascus, a day after what activists described as the heaviest fighting in months in President Bashar Assad's seat of power.
    (AP, 2/7/13)
2013        Feb 7, In Egypt an Islamic summit urged Syrian opposition forces and members of Pres. Bashar Assad's regime, whose hands are not tainted by violence, to hold talks to try to resolve the nation's civil war.
    (AP, 2/7/13)

2013        Feb 8, From Syria the Observatory reported clashes and regime shelling in the southern and eastern sectors of Damascus, including in the restive suburb of Moadamiyeh, where six people were killed by government shelling overnight.
    (AP, 2/8/13)
2013        Feb 8, Finnish customs officers confiscated a container on a Finnish freighter, en route to Syria from Russia, because it did not have a transit license and found 9.6 tons of tank spare parts.
    (AP, 2/15/13)
2013        Feb 8, The UN refugee agency said there has been a huge increase in the number of people fleeing Syria, with 5,000 refugees crossing the borders daily into neighboring countries.
    (AP, 2/8/13)

2013        Feb 9, In Syria fighting in Damascus and its suburbs raged for a fourth consecutive day. Pres. Assad reshuffled his Cabinet, appointing 7 new ministers in a move that appeared aimed at trying to shore up an economy that has been ravaged by the country's 2-year-old revolt.
    (AP, 2/9/13)

2013        Feb 10, Syrian troops and opposition forces battled for control of a key highway outside Damascus for the fifth straight day as the rebels continued their campaign to push into the capital, the seat of President Bashar Assad's power.
    (AP, 2/10/13)

2013        Feb 11, Syrian rebels captured the Furat dam, the country's largest dam, after days of intense clashes, giving them control over water and electricity supplies for much of the country in a major blow to President Assad's regime. UN human rights chief Navi Pillay said the number of people killed in Syria is probably now approaching 70,000.
    (AP, 2/11/13)(AP, 2/13/13)
2013        Feb 11, In Turkey a car bomb exploded at the Bab al-Hawa frontier post along Syria's border, killing 14 people. A Syrian opposition faction later accused the Syrian government of the bombing, saying it narrowly missed 13 leaders of the group. On March 11 Turkey’s police said five suspects have been detained.
    (AP, 2/11/13)(SFC, 2/12/13, p.A2)(AP, 3/11/13)

2013        Feb 12, In northern Syria rebels captured the Jarrah military air base in Aleppo province, their second major strategic victory in as many days.
    (AP, 2/12/13)

2013        Feb 13, Syrian rebels fought pitched battles against regime forces at the Brigade 80 military base in Aleppo that protects a major airport in the area. The fighting has left more than 40 government troops dead. Activists reported clashes outside Damascus with regime warplanes hitting several of the restive suburbs.
    (AP, 2/13/13)
2013        Feb 13, Lebanon's state-run news agency said protesters have closed two major roads in northern Lebanon to prevent fuel tankers from crossing into Syria.
    (AP, 2/13/13)
2013        Feb 13, Gen. Hassan Shateri, a senior commander of Iran’s Revolutionary Guards, was killed on the road linking Damascus with Beirut.
    (AP, 2/14/13)

2013        Feb 14, Syrian rebels took control of the town of Shadadah along the Euphrates River seized most of the nearby Jbeysa oil field. Regime warplanes pounded rebel positions near Aleppo's international airport. Rebels reportedly shot down two warplanes. Rebels stormed a small military base near the town of al-Sahwa in the southern province of Daraa. At least four fighters were killed in clashes at the base. 42 Shiites, mainly women and children, were snatched from a bus that was traveling from the Shiite villages of Foua and Kfarya to the capital Damascus.
    (AP, 2/14/13)(AP, 2/15/13)(AP, 2/16/13)

2013        Feb 15, Syrian activists said heavy fighting for control of the international airport in the northern city of Aleppo and a major military air base nearby has killed some 150 rebels and government soldiers over the past two days.
    (AP, 2/15/13)

2013        Feb 16, A Syrian activist group said pro-government gunmen have kidnapped more than 300 people Idlib province in retaliation for the abduction of 42 Shiite Muslims this week. At least one person was killed in the Palestinian refugee camp of Yarmouk by sniper fire. In the southern region of Quneitra rebels briefly controlled a military checkpoint in the town of Khan Arnaba and captured five officers before they withdrew.
    (AP, 2/16/13)
2013        Feb 16, Syrian peace activist Omar Aziz (64), detained last November, died of health complications at a military hospital.
    (AP, 2/22/13)

2013        Feb 17, A top Syrian government official said electricity has been restored in most parts of Damascus and power will gradually reach the south. The power outage plunged Damascus into darkness late the previous evening and affected much of southern Syria. Fighting raged in at least three provinces between rebels and troops loyal to Pres. Assad.
    (AP, 2/17/13)

2013        Feb 18, Syrian rebels captured a government checkpoint on the main road to the country's second-largest airport as opposition fighters pressed their campaign to capture the strategic facility in Aleppo. A new report from a UN-appointed panel said Syria's civil war is becoming increasingly sectarian and the behavior of both sides is growing more and more radicalized. A regime missile strike leveled a stretch of buildings and killed at least 19 people in Aleppo, leaving residents combing through the rubble to find those trapped beneath it.
    (AP, 2/18/13)(AP, 2/19/13)
2013        Feb 18, EU foreign ministers announced that they are keeping current sanctions against Syria in place for three months, rejecting any attempt to ease the arms embargo so military aid could be funneled to rebel forces.
    (AP, 2/18/13)

2013        Feb 19, A Syrian missile strike leveled a block of buildings in an impoverished district of Aleppo, killing at least 33 people, almost half of them children. Two mortars exploded near one of President Bashar Assad's palaces in Damascus, but no casualties were reported.
    (AP, 2/19/13)
2013        Feb 19, Russia said it had sent two jets carrying humanitarian aid to Syria and are inviting Russians who want to leave the country to take the flights back.
    (AP, 2/19/13)

2013        Feb 20, In Syria 2 mortars exploded next to a soccer stadium in central Damascus, killing one player and injuring several. The pro-government Al-Watan daily said the airport in Aleppo is still under military control and "safe" from rebels fighting to capture it.
    (AP, 2/20/13)
2013        Feb 20, A Lebanese judge indicted three people, including a former Cabinet minister and a top Syrian intelligence general, in a bombing plot in Lebanon, a move that could raise tension in Lebanon over the civil war in neighboring Syria. Judge Riad Abu Ghaida demanded the death penalty for former information minister, Michel Samaha, Syrian Brig. Gen. Ali Mamlouk and a Syrian colonel, identified only by his first name, Adnan.
    (AP, 2/20/13)

2013        Feb 21, Syrian state TV said at least 53 people were killed in a car bomb attack in Damascus near the headquarters of the ruling Baath party and the Russian Embassy. Anti-regime activists put the death toll at 59. At least 13 other people were killed on two other car bombings in Damascus. An opposition group said 18 people were killed in a government airstrike on a rebel field hospital in Daraa.
    (AP, 2/21/13)(AP, 2/22/13)SFC, 2/22/13, p.A3)

2013        Feb 22, Syrian warplanes and artillery hit targets near Damascus International Airport. Regime forces fired three missiles into a rebel-held area in eastern Aleppo, hitting several buildings. A newly released detainee reported witnessing the death of imprisoned rights activist Ayham Ghazzoul (26). Activists said gunmen from rival Sunni and Shiite Muslim villages in northern Syria have freed more than 200 people snatched in tit-for-tat kidnappings this month, easing tensions that threatened to touch off more sectarian violence. On Feb 26 Human Rights Watch said at least 141 people, half of them children, were killed when the Syrian military fired at least four missiles into eastern Aleppo.
    (AP, 2/22/13)(AP, 2/23/13)(AP, 2/24/13)(AP, 2/26/13)

2013        Feb 23, The battle for Syria's second-largest airport intensified on as government troops tried to reverse recent strategic gains the rebels have made in the northeast in their quest to topple President Bashar Assad. The army launched an offensive on opposition strongholds outside Damascus in an effort to dislodge rebels from areas around the capital that they have been trying to storm for weeks.
    (AP, 2/23/13)

2013        Feb 24, Syrian rebels used captured tanks to launch a fresh offensive on a government complex housing a police academy in Aleppo as they continued to log a string of strategic victories against President Bashar Assad's troops who countered with airstrikes.
    (AP, 2/24/13)
2013        Feb 24, Syrian comedian Yassin Bakoush (75) was killed by a mortar round that landed on his car in the Yarmouk Palestinian refugee camp in southern Damascus. SANA state news said he was killed by a rebel mortar round. The anti-regime Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said it was a rocket-propelled grenade launched by government troops.
    (AP, 2/24/13)

2013        Feb 25, Syria’s foreign minister Walid al-Moallem said his country ready to hold talks with the armed opposition trying to topple President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 2/25/13)

2013        Feb 26, In Syria combat raged near the historic Ummayad Mosque in Aleppo while anti-government activists reported fresh clashes near a police academy west of the city. The Observatory said the dead in the last two days of fighting in the area included 26 rebel fighters, 40 soldiers and five pro-government militiamen.
    (AP, 2/26/13)

2013        Feb 27, Syrian rebels clashed with government forces on two sides of Aleppo as well as near its historic mosque. At least six rebels were killed in fighting near a police academy west of the city
    (AP, 2/27/13)
2013        Feb 27, A Jordanian official said there is a new surge in Syrians fleeing across the border to Jordan as fighting intensifies in southern Syria.
    (AP, 2/27/13)

2013        Feb 28, Syrian rebels clashed with government forces around the historic 12th century Umayyad Mosque inside Aleppo. The US pledged an additional $60 million in assistance and — in a significant policy shift — will for the first time provide nonlethal aid like food and medical supplies.
    (AP, 2/28/13)

2013        Mar 1, The chief of Syrian rebel forces said that his fighters are in "desperate" need of weapons and ammunition rather than the food supplies and bandages that the US now plans to provide. Government forces fought fierce clashes with rebels attacking a police academy near Aleppo, while the bodies of 10 men — most of them shot in the head — were found dumped along the side of a road outside Damascus. State news said that government troops defending the school had killed dozens of opposition fighters and destroyed five rebel vehicles.
    (AP, 3/1/13)

2013        Mar 2, The Syrian Army's General Command said its troops have carried out special operations in towns and villages along a road between Hama and Aleppo’s airport, restoring stability there and at the airport.
    (AP, 3/2/13)

2013        Mar 3, Syrian activists said more than 200 Syrian soldiers and opposition fighters have died in the eight-day battle for a police academy near Aleppo. Rebels stormed a central prison in the northern city of Raqqa and captured a border crossing in the east along Syria's border with Iraq. Opposition fighters killed 115 police and wounded another 50 in a battle over the police academy.
    (AP, 3/3/13)(AP, 3/4/13)

2013        Mar 4, Syrian rebels pushed government troops from most of the northern city of Raqqa. Rebels launched an offensive to seize the military air base of Mannagh near the Turkish border and clashed with government forces at a historic mosque in Aleppo. Gunmen killed 48 Syrian soldiers who had crossed into Iraq for refuge. 9 Iraqi soldiers were also killed. Iraqi officials blamed the attack on al-Qaida's Iraq arm. On March 11 Al-Qaida's branch in Iraq claimed responsibility.
    (AP, 3/4/13)(AP, 3/5/13)(AP, 3/11/13)

2013        Mar 5, Syrian rebels battled pockets of regime loyalists in the northern city of Raqqa after capturing Hassan Jalili, the governor of Raqqa province in fierce clashes overnight. Syrian jets bombed opposition-held buildings in Raqqa. Activists said 16 people were killed in Raqqa, including 10 fighters who died in clashes with troops.
    (AP, 3/5/13)

2013        Mar 6, Syrian rebels detained 21 Filipino UN peacekeepers in the area in another destabilizing twist to the country's two-year-old conflict. The number of Syrian refugees topped 1 million, half of them children. Gunmen raided a Christian village near Homs, robbing houses and shops, saying they were looking for weapons.
    (AP, 3/6/13)(AP, 3/7/13)(AP, 3/11/13)
2013        Mar 6, Britain said it will provide armored vehicles, body armor and search-and-rescue equipment to Syria's opposition, but was still stopping short of arming the country's rebels.
    (AP, 3/6/13)

2013        Mar 7, Clashes flared between Syrian troops and rebels close to Israeli-controlled territory in the Golan Heights.
    (AP, 3/7/13)

2013        Mar 9, Syrian rebels released 21 UN Filipino peacekeepers, captured on March 6, and handed them to Jordanian authorities. Government airstrikes killed at least 14 people in the northern province of Raqqa. Gunmen kidnapped and killed a mediator's son, Kifah Bitar, and another man, Rony Elias, in a Christian village near Homs.
    (AP, 3/9/13)(AP, 3/10/13)(AP, 3/11/13)

2013        Mar 11, Syrian forces fired heavy machine guns and launched at least one airstrike on a neighborhood in the central city of Homs. The UN Human Rights Council released a report that said neither government forces nor rebels were doing enough to protect civilians. Mortar shells struck a soccer stadium in a predominantly Christian neighborhood of Damascus killing 6 civilians.
    (AP, 3/11/13)(SFC, 3/12/13, p.A2)

2013        Mar 12, In Syria new clashes erupted in an intensifying battle for control over Aleppo's international airport and nearby military bases. Fighting also raged for a second day in Homs as rebels tried to take back the poor neighborhood of Baba Amr.
    (AP, 3/12/13)

2013        Mar 13, Syrian government troops fought fierce battles with rebels for control of key neighborhoods in the north of Damascus. A European Union staff member was killed in a rocket attack in an opposition stronghold south of the capital. Fighting also raged in other cities, including in Homs, where the regime pounded rebel positions with artillery and carried out several airstrikes on the Baba Amr district.
    (AP, 3/13/13)
2013        Mar 13, Croatia's parliament approved the withdrawal of some 100 peacekeeping troops from the Golan Heights amid fears they could be targeted by Syrian government troops fighting the rebels.
    (AP, 3/13/13)

2013        Mar 14, A UN aid official said the number of registered Syrian refugees jumped 10% in just one week to more than 1.1 million. France pushed for quickly lifting an EU ban on arming Syrian rebels.
    (AP, 3/14/13)

2013        Mar 15, Gen. Salim Idris, the chief of Syria's main, Western-backed rebel group, marked the second anniversary of the start of the uprising against President Bashar Assad by pledging to fight until the "criminal" regime is gone. Leaders at a European Union summit failed to agree if they should send arms to the rebels.
    (AP, 3/15/13)
2013        Mar 15, In central Lebanon at least eight Syrians were killed and 29 were injured when the bus they were traveling in from Syria overturned in the mountains.
    (AP, 3/15/13)

2013        Mar 16, Syrian Maj. Gen. Mohammed Ezz al-Din Khalouf announced his defection from Assad's regime in a video aired on the Al-Arabiya satellite channel. Human Rights Watch said Assad’s regime is expanding its use of widely banned cluster bombs, as the deadlocked conflict entered its third year. Rebels detonated a powerful car bomb outside a high-rise building in Deir el-Zour, setting off clashes with regime troops.
    (AP, 3/16/13)

2013        Mar 18, Syria's main opposition coalition began a push to form an interim government to provide services to people living in parts of the country now controlled by rebel forces.
    (AP, 3/18/13)

2013        Mar 19, Syria's opposition coalition meeting in Istanbul elected Ghassan Hitto, a little-known American-educated IT manager and Islamic activist, to head an interim government to administer areas seized by rebel forces from President Bashar Assad's troops.
    (AP, 3/19/13)
2013        Mar 19, Syria's Deputy Foreign Minister Faysal Mekdad said 31 people were killed in an alleged rebel chemical attack in Aleppo province. Rebels denied the government claim and blamed regime forces for today’s missile attack on Khan al-Assad village.
    (AP, 3/19/13)(AP, 3/20/13)

2013        Mar 20, Syria's main opposition group demanded a full international investigation into an alleged chemical weapons attack in the country's north, calling for a team to be sent to the village where it reportedly occurred.
    (AP, 3/20/13)
2013        Mar 20, Jordan’s King Abdullah II warned that a jihadist state could emerge on his northern border in Syria with Islamic extremists trying to establish a foothold in the neighboring country.
    (AP, 3/20/13)

2013        Mar 21, Syrian state-run TV in Damascus said authorities have handed over to Beirut Hassane Serourto, a Lebanese fighter captured inside Syria in an ambush by government troops on Nov 30.
    (AP, 3/21/13)
2013        Mar 21, In Syria an explosion ripped through a mosque in the heart of Damascus, killing 42 people including Sheikh Mohammad Said Ramadan al-Buti, a top Sunni preacher. 7 more died overnight and Pres. Assad the next day vowed to rid the country of Muslim extremists whom he blamed for the suicide blast.
    (AP, 3/22/13)

2013        Mar 23, Syrian rebels seized control of the air defense base used by the regime’s 38th Division after a 16-day siege. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 35 opposition fighters died in the fighting. It lost contact with more than 20 others believed to have died in the fighting.
    (AP, 3/23/13)

2013        Mar 24, The leader of the Western-backed Syrian opposition coalition, Mouaz al-Khatib, resigned, citing what he called the lack of international support for those seeking to topple President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 3/24/13)
2013        Mar 24, Egyptian Foreign Minister Mohammed Amr Kamel said that the Syrian opposition can now send an envoy to the two-day Arab League summit beginning March 26 in Doha..
    (AP, 3/24/13)
2013        Mar 24, Israel's army fired a guided missile into Syria, destroying a military post after gunfire flew across the border and struck an Israeli vehicle.
    (AP, 3/24/13)

2013        Mar 24, The leader of the Western-backed Syrian opposition coalition, Mouaz al-Khatib, resigned, citing what he called the lack of international support for those seeking to topple President Bashar Assad. Rebel military leader Col. Riad al-Asaad, who was among the first to call openly for armed insurrection against President Bashar Assad, was wounded by a bomb planted in his car. He had his right foot amputated following a blast in the town of Mayadeen.
    (AP, 3/24/13)(AP, 3/25/13)
2013        Mar 24, Dozens of people from Syrian President Bashar Assad's own minority sect met in Cairo to send an unusual message to their fellow Alawites back home: Join the opposition before it is too late.
    (AP, 3/24/13)

2013        Mar 25, In Syria a series of mortar strikes near a downtown traffic circle in Damascus killed two people and wounded several others.
    (AP, 3/25/13)

2013        Mar 26, Syrian opposition representatives took the country's seat for the first time at an Arab League summit in Qatar. The Arab League in 2011 suspended the Syrian government's membership in the organization in response to the regime's crackdown on opponents.
    (AP, 3/26/13)
2013        Mar 26, In Syria mortars pounded at least two areas of Damascus, killing a girl and at least 2 other people. Anti-regime activists said government troops seized control of Baba Amr, a neighborhood in the central city of Homs, considered a symbol of opposition to Pres. Assad's regime. The Observatory said that at least 13 charred bodies, including those of four children and five women, were found on the outskirts of the village of Abil, southwest of Homs city.
    (AP, 3/26/13)

2013        Mar 27, Syria's Pres. Assad appealed o the leaders of a five-nation economic forum meeting in South Africa to help end his country's two-year conflict. Assad sent a letter urging the leaders of the five nation BRICS forum — Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa — to "work for an immediate cessation of violence. The Observatory said rebels overran three army posts near Bir Ajam.
    (AP, 3/27/13)

2013        Mar 28, In Syria mortar shells slammed into a cafeteria at Damascus University, killing at least 10 people and wounding 20 in what was the deadliest in a string of such attacks on President Assad's seat of power. Officials denied opposition claims that an Iranian cargo plane, allegedly carrying weapons to Assad's regime, was hit as it landed at Damascus Int’l. Airport. This day of fierce clashes killed at least 38 people.
    (AP, 3/28/13)(AP, 3/29/13)

2013        Mar 29, Syrian rebels captured a strategic town near the border with Jordan. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 16 rebels were among the dead in the fighting in and around Dael.
    (AP, 3/29/13)
2013        Mar 29, Iraqi government spokesman Ali al-Moussawi said Iraq would conduct more random searches to check for weapons heading for the forces of Syrian Pres. Assad or rebels seeking to topple his regime.
    (AP, 3/29/13)

2013        Mar 30, Syrian rebels pushed into a strategic neighborhood in the northern city of Aleppo after days of heavy clashes, seizing control of at least part of the hilltop district and killing Hassan Seifeddine, a pro-government Sunni Muslim cleric captured in the fighting. Activists reported violence in areas the southern province of Daraa, the suburbs of Damascus and the northern regions of Idlib and Raqqa.
    (AP, 3/30/13)
2013        Mar 30, In Lebanon shells from inside Syria exploded in 4 villages late today near the northern border. Residents reported an unpleasant smell after the strikes.
    (AP, 3/31/13)

2013        Mar 31, Syria's state news said rebels have set fire to 3 oil wells. SANA said that the fires would cause a daily loss of 4,670 barrels of oil and 52 cubic meters of natural gas. SANA said rebels have set fire to a total of nine wells in recent months.
    (AP, 3/31/13)

2013        Mar, Members of the Nusra Front extremist group executed 36 members of the Syrian security forces at a garbage site in the Syrian city of Tabqa. In 2017 four asylum seekers in Germany were accused of the executions and faced charges of war crimes, murder and membership in a foreign terrorist organization.
    (AP, 9/25/17)

2013        Apr 2, Syrian activists reported heavy government shelling and air raids in Damascus and its suburbs. They also reported heavy shelling of rebel-held areas in the central city of Homs and the northern city of Aleppo.
    (AP, 4/2/13)

2013        Apr 3, In Syria rebels captured a southern military base on the outskirts of the city of Daraa in the latest advance by opposition fighters near the strategic border area with Jordan.
    (AP, 4/3/13)
2013        Apr 3, a Syrian jet fired a missile that slammed into a house on the outskirts of the Lebanese border town of Arsal.
    (AP, 4/3/13)

2013        Apr 5, In Syria a barrage of rockets slammed into a contested district on the northeastern edge of Damascus, killing at least five people and trapping others under the rubble, while violence raged around suburbs of the capital.
    (AP, 4/5/13)

2013        Apr 6, A Syrian government airstrike on a heavily contested neighborhood in the city of Aleppo killed at least 15 people, including 9 children. Government troops clashed with rebels in the town of Otaybah. In Damascus several mortar rounds hit areas near the Tishrin football stadium, killing one person and wounding at least 13.
    (AP, 4/6/13)
2013        Apr 6, An Iraqi Shiite militant group, the Hezbollah Brigades, said one of its members, Arfad Mohsen al-Hemedawi, was killed in Syria.
    (AP, 4/6/13)
2013        Apr 6, Italian journalist Domencio Quirico (62), an experienced war reporter, entered Syria from Lebanon, and was heading to the Homs area when he went missing. Quirico and Belgian national Pierre Piccinin, a historian and teacher also kidnapped in April, were released in September.
    (AP, 6/27/13)(AFP, 9/9/13)

2013        Apr 7, Syrian government airstrikes killed at least 20 people as the army pressed ahead with its campaign to crush the rebellion against Pres. Bashar Assad. In Daraa a man was shot dead by an army sniper.
    (AP, 4/7/13)

2013        Apr 8, In Syria a suicide bomber detonated his explosives-packed vehicle in a busy residential and commercial district in central Damascus, killing at least 15 people. At least 53 people were wounded.
    (AP, 4/8/13)
2013        Apr 8, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, leader of the Islamic State of Iraq, Al-Qaida's branch in Iraq, announced a merger with Syria's extremist Jabhat al-Nusra, a move that shows the rising confidence of radicals within the Syrian rebel movement.
    (AP, 4/9/13)

2013        Apr 10, Syrian troops battled rebels in the outskirts of Damascus and pressed on with a counteroffensive against opposition fighters in the south to prevent their advance on the capital. At least 28 rebels and 13 soldiers were killed in the fighting around Damascus, while 15 opposition fighters and 28 government troops died in the fighting in Aleppo.
    (AP, 4/10/13)
2013        Apr 10, Jordan opened a second camp for Syrians fleeing the civil war at home. Officials feared that the number of Syrians could double in the next six months as the fighting escalates.
    (AP, 4/10/13)

2013        Apr 11, Syrian government forces launched a counteroffensive in the south, capturing Sanamein and killing at least 45 people including women and children. Human Rights Watch, a US-based rights group, accused Syria of committing war crimes by indiscriminate and sometimes deliberate airstrikes against civilians, killing at least 4,300 people since last summer. Rebels shot down a helicopter carrying food and supplies to the Wadi Deif military base, killing the pilot and 3 other soldiers.
    (AP, 4/11/13)(AP, 4/13/13)

2013        Apr 12, Syrian forces battled rebels in the central province of Homs near the border with Lebanon as part of a counteroffensive aimed at regaining control of territory around the country. Syrian warplanes carried out airstrikes around the country.
    (AP, 4/12/13)
2013        Apr 12, Israel troops shelled a position on the Syrian side of the Golan Heights from which they received fire.
    (AP, 4/12/13)

2013        Apr 13, A Syrian government airstrike on Saraqeb in the country's northwest killed at least 20 people. A government air raid on the disputed Sheikh Maqsoud neighborhood in Aleppo killed at least 3 people and wound 16 others. Syrian troops, trying to relieve a besieged military base, ambushed a rebel checkpoint, killing at least 21 opposition fighters.
    (AP, 4/13/13)(SSFC, 4/14/13, p.A4)

2013        Apr 14, Syrian government forces and aircraft attacked rebel strongholds across the country, killing at least 23 people. The Observatory said a rebel and a civilian were killed in airstrikes and fighting in the suburbs of Damascus. It also said that four civilians died after being tortured in a jail in the town of Zakyeh.
    (AP, 4/14/13)

2013        Apr 15, Syrian government aircraft hit targets in rebel-held areas near Damascus, in Aleppo, Homs and the city of Raqqa in the province by the same name along the Euphrates River.
    (AP, 4/15/13)

2013        Apr 16, Syria's Pres. Assad slashed prison terms by three quarters for an unspecified number of rebels convicted as "terrorists," as rebels and troops fought fierce battles in the country's south and north.
    (AP, 4/16/13)

2013        Apr 17, In central Syria a government rocket attack killed at least 12 people in Eastern Buwaydah outside of Homs, while rebels battled regime forces over two key military bases in the northwest where government troops broke an opposition siege last week.
    (AP, 4/17/13)
2013        Apr 17, US Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel told Congress that the Pentagon is sending about 200 soldiers from an Army headquarters unit to Jordan to assist efforts to contain violence along the Syrian border and plan for any operations needed to ensure the safety of chemical weapons in Syria.
    (AP, 4/18/13)

2013        Apr 18, Syrian rebels took control of the entire Dabaa military complex  in Homs province. Government forces captured the town of Abel, cutting the road between Homs and Qusair. Gunmen killed Ali Balan, head of public relations at the Ministry of Social Affairs and a member of Syria's relief agency, in a Damascus restaurant. The state-run SANA news agency reported that government troops shot down an air balloon that carried what it described as "American cameras" over the rebel-held town of Maaret al-Numan in Idlib province.
    (AP, 4/18/13)(AP, 4/19/13)(SFC, 4/20/13, p.A2)   

2013        Apr 19, Syrian regime troops and rebels fought fierce battles near the Lebanese border.
    (AP, 4/19/13)
2013        Apr 19, In Jordan about 100 Syrian refugees threw stones at Jordanian police for preventing some of them from sneaking out of their desert camp.
    (AP, 4/21/13)

2013        Apr 20, Syrian troops backed by pro-government gunmen advanced during battles with rebels in a strategic area in Homs province near the Lebanese border. SANA said government troops gained control of four key villages in Homs province: Qadesh, Mansourieh, Saadiyeh and Radwaniyeh. 6 rebels were reported killed in the fighting. SANA said a shell fell outside a sports club in Aleppo killing two children.
    (AP, 4/20/13)

2013        Apr 21, Syrian troops backed by pro-government gunmen pounded rebel-held areas near the Lebanese border.
    (AP, 4/21/13)
2013        Apr 21, In Syria over 1,000 people were killed by sarin gas in the Damascus suburb of Ghouta. The government denied responsibility.
    (Econ, 4/26/14, p.46)
2013        Apr 21, The US said that it will double its non-lethal assistance to Syria's opposition as the rebels' top supporters vowed to enhance and expand their backing of the 2-year battle to oust President Assad's regime.
    (AP, 4/21/13)

2013        Apr 22, Syrian activists said 6 days of fighting in a Damascus suburb has killed more than a hundred people and possibly many more. Most of the victims were killed in Jdaidet Artouz. 2 bombings targeted an army checkpoint and a military post in a third Damascus suburb, Mleiha, killing eight soldiers there.
    (AP, 4/22/13)
2013        Apr 22, In Syria Bishop Boulos Yazigi of the Greek Orthodox Church and John Ibrahim of the Assyrian Orthodox Church were abducted as they traveled from the Turkish border to Aleppo. Their driver was killed.
    (AP, 4/23/13)(AP, 8/3/13)

2013        Apr 23, Two Syrian rockets struck Lebanon, causing material damage and heightening tensions between Lebanese Shiite and Sunni communities over neighboring Syria's civil war.
    (AP, 4/23/13)
2013        Apr 23, A fake tweet asserted that explosions at the White House had injured Pres. Obama. For 43 minutes prices stock exchanges tumbled in what came to be called the first Twitter crash. A group calling itself the Syrian Electronic Army took credit.
    (Econ, 4/27/13, p.68)

2013        Apr 24, In Syria the minaret of the famed Umayyad Mosque in Aleppo was destroyed. Government and rebel forces blamed each other. Two mortar shells slammed into a Damascus suburb, killing at least seven people and wounding dozens. Government troops captured Otaybah, a strategic town near Damascus, cutting an arms route for rebels trying to topple President Bashar Assad's regime.
    (AP, 4/24/13)(AP, 4/25/13)

2013        Apr 26, Two Syrian officials denied that government forces had used chemical weapons against rebels, Damascus' first response to US assertions that it had. Government troops pushed into two northern neighborhoods, triggering heavy fighting with rebels as they tried to advance under air and artillery support.
    (AP, 4/26/13)

2013        Apr 27, Syrian rebels attacked the Abu Zuhour air base in the country's northwest. Rebels entered the Kweiras military air base in Aleppo province and destroyed its operations room. In the south opposition forces  launched a new offensive called "the Houran Volcano," assaulting a string of army checkpoints and positions.
    (AP, 4/27/13)

2013        Apr 28, Syrian rebels seeking to topple President Bashar Assad fought intense battles with his troops at Abu Zuhour air base in Idlib province and the Kweiras military air base in Aleppo province. At least seven fighters were killed in the fighting in Abu Zuhour, in addition to an unknown number of soldiers.
    (AP, 4/28/13)

2013        Apr 29, Syria’s PM Wael al-Halqi was unhurt in a bombing near his convoy in Damascus. At least 5 people were reported killed.
    (AP, 4/29/13)(AP, 4/30/13)

2013        Apr 30, Syrian TV reported that a powerful bomb in central Damascus has killing 13 people. The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 14 people were killed and 65 wounded in the blast. Syrian troops battled opposition fighters near a military helicopter base in Aleppo province, killing 15 rebels in a single airstrike against their positions.
    (AP, 4/30/13)
2013        Apr 30, Sheik Hassan Nasrallah, the leader of Lebanon's Hezbollah militant group, said that Syrian rebels will not be able to defeat President Bashar Assad's regime militarily, warning that Syria's "real friends," including his Iranian-backed militant group, were ready to intervene on the government's side.
    (AP, 4/30/13)

2013        May 2, Syrian government troops, backed by warplanes, pushed into the central districts of the city of Homs in an effort to oust rebels from the country's third largest urban center. In Aleppo rebels reportedly overran the headquarters of Assad's anti-terrorism forces. Regime jets also hit the northern city of Raqqa, killing eight people. Warplanes also hit several targets in Damascus province.
    (AP, 5/2/13)
2013        May 2, Syrian troops backed by pro-government gunmen swept into Bayda, a village in the mountains outside the city of Banias, and killed men, women and children and torched homes. At least 50 people, and as many as 100, were reported killed.
    (AP, 5/3/13)

2013        May 3, In Syria the death toll from sectarian killings in the coastal city of Banias, initially put at 62, was later raised to 145.
    (AP, 5/16/13)
2013        May 3, Israel's air force carried out a strike against Syria, saying it targeted a shipment of advanced missiles bound for the Lebanese militant group Hezbollah.
    (AP, 5/4/13)

2013        May 4, In Syria Alawite paramilitaries continued their rampage against Sunnis in al-Bayda and Banias leaving at least 100 dead.
    (Econ, 5/11/13, p.42)

2013        May 5, Syrian rebels moved deep inside Mannagh air base, near the border with Turkey, while under fire from government warplanes. Rebels captured a tank unit inside the base. The commander of the base was reportedly killed. Rebels shot down a military helicopter in the eastern province of Deir el-Zour, killing 8 government troops on board.
    (AP, 5/5/13)
2013        May 5, Israeli warplanes struck areas in and around Damascus, setting off a series of explosions as they targeted a shipment of highly accurate, Iranian-made guided missiles believed to be bound for Lebanon's Hezbollah militant group. At least 42 Syrian soldiers were reported killed.
    (AP, 5/5/13)(AP, 5/6/13)

2013        May 6, In Syria regime warplanes pounded rebel positions inside the Mannagh air base as clashes between rebels and government forces raged on.
    (AP, 5/6/13)

2013        May 7, In Syria opposition fighters shot down a fighter jet that was bombing rebel positions in the battle for the Mannagh airbase near the border with Turkey. Rebels detained four UN peacekeepers from the Philippines in an area that separates Syria and Israel. Rebels released the Filipinos on May 12.
    (AP, 5/7/13)(AP, 5/8/13)(AP, 5/12/13)
2013        May 7, The US and Russia agreed to try to convene an int’l. conference this month to come to a political solution in end the 2-year civil war in Syria.
    (SFC, 5/8/13, p.A2)

2013        May 8, Syrian troops pushed into Khirbet Ghazaleh, a strategic town along the highway leading to the Jordanian border. A massive Internet outage engulfed most of the country for a second day.
    (AP, 5/8/13)
2013        May 8, US officials said the Obama administration is providing $100 million in new Syria aid, but the money is for humanitarian purposes only and not linked to any decision on arming Syrian rebels.
    (AP, 5/8/13)

2013        May 9, Syrian warplanes pounded rebel targets in two northern provinces as President Bashar Assad's troops pushed on with an offensive to reclaim more territory from the opposition.
    (AP, 5/9/13)

2013        May 10, Syrian military dropped leaflets over Qusair, urging rebel fighters to surrender, but did not set a deadline for them to do so.
    (AP, 5/11/13)

2013        May 11, Activists said Syrian rebels have cut a newly built desert road linking the capital Damascus with the northern city of Aleppo. State media reported that government troops have secured the highway between the capital and the southern city of Daraa.
    (AP, 5/11/13)
2013        May 11, In Turkey 2 car bomb explosions in a town across the border from Syria killed 46 people in Reyhanli, Hatay province, a main hub for Syrian refugees. Nine Turkish citizens, believed to have links to the Syrian intelligence agency, were soon detained.
    (AP, 5/11/13)(AP, 5/12/13)

2013        May 12, In Syria 6 mortar shells struck the Damascus neighborhood of the Alawite district of Mazzeh 86 causing damage and casualties. Regime forces retook Khirbet Ghazaleh and rebels withdrew from the area. Troops reopened the Damascus-Jordan highway, restoring the supply line between Damascus and the provincial capital of Daraa.
    (AP, 5/12/13)(AP, 5/13/13)

2013        May 15, Syrian rebels launched a coordinated assault on the main prison in the northern city of Aleppo in an attempt to free hundreds of regime opponents believed to be held in the facility. An Internet blackout engulfed the country for the second time in two weeks.
    (AP, 5/15/13)

2013        May 16, Syrian rebels withdrew from a prison in the northern city of Aleppo after heavy fighting with government troops. Syrian Observatory for Human Rights more than doubled its tally of deaths from the May 3 sectarian killings in Banias. A video emerged showing a Nusra Front commander killing 11 regime soldiers execution-style for alleged crimes they committed against the Syrian people.
    (AP, 5/16/13)

2013        May 17, Human Rights Watch said in a report that its researchers have visited abandoned government prisons in Raqqa, the first Syrian city to come under rebel control, and found torture devices and other evidence that detainees were abused there.
    (AP, 5/17/13)

2013        May 18, In Syria gunmen abducted the elderly father of Faisal Mekdad, the deputy foreign minister. Activists reported a wave of tit-for-tat kidnappings between rival Islamic militant groups in Aleppo, after clashes killed at least four militants.
    (AP, 5/18/13)

2013        May 19, Syrian troops backed by tanks and warplanes launched an assault on Qusair, a rebel-held town near the Lebanese border, pounding the area with airstrikes and artillery salvos. At least 50 Syrian rebels were reported killed in the battle for Qusair, including two commanders. An official at the Homs governor's office said two suicide bombings in the town of Deir Balbaa killed at least 3 people and wounded 15 others. State news said another pair of bombings struck near a factory on a different Homs highway, killing 4 people and wounding 13.
    (AP, 5/19/13)(AP, 5/20/13)

2013        May 20, Syrian government forces pushed deeper into Qusair near the Lebanese border, battling rebels in fierce street fighting. An activist group said at least 23 elite fighters from Lebanon's Hezbollah militant group fighting alongside regime troops have been killed in the clashes.
    (AP, 5/20/13)

2013        May 21, Syrian activists said 3 members of Lebanon's militant Hezbollah group died of wounds sustained while fighting for control of Qusair, as the battle in the area raged for its third straight day. This made 31 Hezbollah fighters, at least 68 Syrian rebels and 9 Syrian army soldiers killed in the fighting since May 19. Three people were killed and 24 others wounded in mortar attacks Mleiha, near Damascus.
    (AP, 5/21/13)

2013        May 23, In Lebanon opponents and supporters of Syrian President Bashar Assad traded heavy machine gun fire and mortar shells in the port city of Tripoli, leaving five people dead in what was described as some of the heaviest fighting there in years.
    (AP, 5/23/13)
2013        May 23, In Lebanon opponents and supporters of Syrian President Bashar Assad traded heavy machine gun fire and mortar shells in the port city of Tripoli, leaving 5 people dead in what was described as some of the heaviest fighting there in years.
    (AP, 5/23/13)

2013        May 24, Syria's state media said rebels have fired mortar shells at the central prison in Aleppo, killing and wounding several inmates. Intense fighting continued in the town of Qusair.
    (AP, 5/24/13)
2013        May 24, Russia's foreign ministry said the Syrian government has agreed in principle to a conference on the country's future proposed by Russia and the United States.
    (AP, 5/24/13)

2013        May 25, Syria's fractured political opposition met for a third day in Istanbul, Turkey, to elect new leaders, try to widen its base and forge a unified position ahead of possible peace talks with the regime.
    (AP, 5/25/13)
2013        May 25, Syrian forces loyal to President Bashar Assad shelled Qusair in their heaviest barrage of a week-long battle to dislodge rebels from there. At least 22 people including 18 rebels were reported killed in the fighting, and dozens wounded.
    (AP, 5/25/13)

2013        May 27, Syrian troops gained ground in a nine-day offensive against Qusair. Syria's Information Ministry said rebels have killed Yara Abbas, a female TV correspondent who was covering clashes near the border with Lebanon. Abbas was attacked by rebels near the military air base of Dabaa in the central province of Homs. Further reports surfaced of chemical weapons attacks by President Bashar al-Assad's forces on rebel areas.
    (AP, 5/27/13)(Reuters, 5/27/13)
2013        May 27, The EU decided not to extend an arms embargo on Syria. The move enables member states to send weapons to help Syria's outgunned rebels and step up the pressure on the government of President Bashar Assad to seek a negotiated settlement to the 26-month-old conflict.
    (AP, 5/28/13)

2013        May 28, In Lebanon gunmen killed 3 soldiers in a drive-by shooting on a government checkpoint near the Syrian border. Two rockets fired from Syria struck the Lebanese town of Hermel, wounding several people.
    (AP, 5/28/13)
2013        May 28, Israel's defense minister signaled that his military is prepared to strike shipments of advanced Russian weapons to Syria, in a rare implied threat to Moscow.
    (AP, 5/28/13)

2013        May 30, Syrian President Bashar Assad said the regime has received the first shipment of sophisticated Russian anti-aircraft missiles, while the main Western-backed opposition group announced Thursday that it will not participate in peace talks — a double blow to international efforts to end the country's devastating civil war.
    (AP, 5/30/13)

2013        May 31, Syrian troops attacked a convoy trying to evacuate wounded people from Qusair, killing at least 7. Government troops captured the village of Jawadiyeh outside Qusair, closing all entrances leading to the town and tightening the government's siege.
    (AP, 5/31/13)(AP, 6/1/13)
2013        May 31, Sergei Korotkov, general director of the MiG company that makes MiG jets, told Russian news agencies that a Syrian delegation was in Moscow to discuss terms and deadlines of a new contract supplying at least 10 MiG-29 M/M2 fighters to Syria.
    (AP, 5/31/13)

2013        Jun 1, In Syria clashes between troops and Hezbollah fighters with rebels in Qusair left at least one opposition gunman dead. The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said that at least 31 detainees have been killed by rebel shelling of the city's central prison over the past two weeks.
    (AP, 6/1/13)
2013        Jun 1, Eighteen rockets and mortar rounds fired from Syria struck the Baalbek region of eastern Lebanon. There were no casualties.
    (AP, 6/1/13)

2013        Jun 2, Syria's foreign minister Walid al-Moallem told UN chief Ban Ki-moon that humanitarian aid won't be allowed into Qusair until the fighting there is over. A car bomb killed at least 3 people in Jobar, a suburb of Damascus.
    (AP, 6/2/13)
2013        Jun 2, Gunmen in Iraq killed 3 Syrian truck drivers on a main highway linking Baghdad to Syria and Jordan. The gunmen also kidnapped four Iraqis in the same area.
    (AP, 6/2/13)
2013        Jun 2, In Lebanon a Hezbollah fighter and several rebels were killed in overnight clashes in a remote area between Baalbek and the Syrian border.
    (AP, 6/2/13)

2013        Jun 3, In Syria heavy shelling pounded Qusair killing at least 3 civilians.
    (SFC, 6/4/13, p.A2)

2013        Jun 4,  In Syria  mortar shells landed near the Russian Embassy in Damascus, killing one person. State news said government forces have pushed rebels out of a key district on the edge of Damascus.
    (AP, 6/4/13)
2013        Jun 4, Britain and France made back-to-back announcements that the nerve gas sarin was used in Syria's conflict. A UN probe said it had "reasonable grounds" to suspect small-scale use of toxic chemicals in at least four attacks in March and April in Syria.
    (AP, 6/4/13)

2013        Jun 5, The Syrian army triumphantly announced the capture of a strategic border town after a three week grueling battle, telling the nation it has "cleansed" Qusair of rebels and calling it "a message" to Syria's enemies everywhere. The Qusair battle has laid bare Hezbollah's role in the Syrian conflict.
    (AP, 6/5/13)

2013        Jun 6, Syrian rebels captured a crossing point along a cease-fire line with Israel in the contested Golan Heights. Austria announced that it is withdrawing the country's 377 UN peacekeepers from the Golan Heights after the Syrian conflict briefly spilled over to an area near their position.
    (AP, 6/6/13)
2013        Jun 6, Ayman al-Zawahri, al-Qaida's leader, urged Sunni Muslims to spare no effort to join the battle in Syria.
    (AP, 6/6/13)

2013        Jun 7, Syrian troops, backed by Hezbollah fighters, pressed on with their offensive in the opposition heartland, taking two small villages near Qusair that was captured by the government this week.
    (AP, 6/7/13)
2013        Jun 7, The UN asked donor countries for $5.2 billion in humanitarian aid for refugees in Syria’s civil war.
    (SFC, 6/8/13, p.A3)

2013        Jun 8, In Syria car bomb exploded in a neighborhood outside of Homs, largely populated by Alawites, the Shiite offshoot sect that dominates the regime, killing 8 people including 3 women and a teenager.
    (AP, 6/8/13)
2013        Jun 8, Hassan Aboud, leader of the Syrian Islamic Front, revealed his name in an interview with Al Jazeera. His coalition of fighters was said to number 10-20 thousand fighters.
    (Econ, 7/20/13, p.45)

2013        Jun 9, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported that Mohammed Qatta (14) was arrested by Islamist rebel fighters in Aleppo for insulting the Prophet Mohammed, beaten and then shot in the mouth and neck in front of his family.
    (abcNEWS, 6/10/13)
2013        Jun 9, Al-Qaida leader Ayman al-Zawahri urged leaders of the Iraqi al-Qaida branch and the Nusra Front in Syria to end their disagreements and "stop any verbal or actual attacks against one another."
    (AP, 6/10/13)

2013        Jun 11, In Syria 2 suicide bombers targeted a police station in Damascus, killing at least 14 people with 31 wounded. Fighting was also reported in Aleppo and Homs. At least 60 people, mostly Shiite fighters but also ordinary villagers, were killed in the village of Hatla in the oil-rich province of Deir el-Zour that borders Iraq. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said thousands of rebels took part in the attack and at least 10 of them were killed in the fighting.
    (AP, 6/11/13)(AP, 6/12/13)

2013        Jun 12, A Syrian government helicopter fired three missiles on a border town in Lebanon, lightly wounding one person. Heavy clashes were reported in Homs, mostly in the neighborhood of Wadi Sayeh. At least 30 Shiite Muslims were killed in Hatlah, a village in Deir el-Zour province. Antigovernment activists put the total at 60 and said most of the dead were pro-government militia fighters.
    (AP, 6/12/13)(SFC, 6/13/13, p.A4)
2013        Jun 12, A UN report added 3 Malian militias and Syria’s main rebel force to an annual “list of shame." 55 armed groups from 14 countries were included. Syrian government forces were added to a list of groups that sexually abuse children.
    (SFC, 6/13/13, p.A2)

2013        Jun 13, Syrian rebels battled regime forces for control of a key military base in the central Hama province after chasing soldiers out and setting fire to installations there.
    (AP, 6/13/13)
2013        Jun 13, The UN human rights office said Syria's spiraling violence has resulted in the confirmed killings of nearly 93,000 people but the real number is likely to be far higher.
    (AP, 6/13/13)
2013        Jun 13, The US announced increased military aid to Syria and said it had conclusive evidence that Assad's regime has used chemical weapons, including the nerve agent sarin, on a small scale against opposition forces. The White House said multiple chemical attacks last year killed up to 150 people.
    (AP, 6/14/13)

2013        Jun 14, The Syrian government dismissed US charges that it used chemical weapons as "full of lies," accusing President Obama of resorting to fabrications to justify his decision to arm Syrian rebels. Government troops and rebels in Aleppo fought their heaviest battles in months. Rebel fighters walked into the Shiite mosque in Hatla and trampled on books. An explosion brought down the building, but its dome remained intact. A video of the demolition was posted on June 16.
    (AP, 6/14/13)(AP, 6/16/13)
2013        Jun 14, Hezbollah's leader Sheikh Hassan Nasrallah vowed that his Lebanon-based militants would keep fighting in Syria "wherever needed" after the US agreed to arm the rebels in the civil war.
    (AP, 6/15/13)
2013        Jun 14, Turkey’s state news reported that as many as 73 Syrian military officers — including seven generals and 20 colonels — have crossed the border into Turkey with their families "seeking refuge."
    (AP, 6/14/13)

2013        Jun 15, Syrian troops reportedly killed several rebels and destroyed their hideouts in the Ahmadiyeh area, a suburb of Damascus.
    (AP, 6/15/13)
2013        Jun 15, In an audio message posted online, a speaker identified as Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, leader of al-Qaida's Iraq arm, insisted that a merger he announced in April with Syria's Jabhat al-Nusra rebel group to create a cross-border movement known as the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant will continue.
    (AP, 6/15/13)
2013        Jun 15, Egypt’s President Mohammed Morsi told supporters at a Cairo rally that his country is severing ties with Damascus and closing its embassy in the Syrian capital. Morsi also called for a UN endorsed no-fly zone over Syria.
    (AP, 6/16/13)

2013        Jun 16, In Syria a late night car bomb targeting a checkpoint near a military airport in an upscale neighborhood of Damascus killed 10 soldiers.
    (AP, 6/17/13)

2013        Jun 17, Syrian troops clashed with rebels inside Aleppo and in the city's outskirts. A regime airstrike hit the village of Douweirina, a stronghold of an al-Qaida affiliated group fighting on the opposition's side.
    (AP, 6/17/13)
2013        Jun 17, G-8 leaders dedicated themselves to a political solution to Syria's bloody civil war, even as President Barack Obama and Russian President Vladimir Putin staked out diametrically opposite stands on which side deserves military support.
    (AP, 6/18/13)
2013        Jun 17, A Gulf source told Reuters that Saudi Arabia had equipped fighters for the first time with shoulder-fired anti-aircraft missiles. Rebels said Riyadh had also sent them anti-tank missiles.
    (Reuters, 6/17/13)

2013        Jun 18, Syrian warplanes bombed rebel positions the contested Kweiras military air base in the north. Pres. Assad's forces nearby pressed ahead with an offensive against opposition fighters in Aleppo.
    (AP, 6/18/13)

2013        Jun 19, Syrian troops backed by Lebanese Hezbollah fighters clashed with rebel forces south of a Damascus suburb that is home to the Shiite shrine of Sayida Zeinab.
    (AP, 6/19/13)
2013        Jun 19, In Jordan infiltrators from Syria clashed with Jordanian soldiers near the border. One infiltrator was killed and two wounded.
    (AP, 6/20/13)

2013        Jun 20, Syrian rebels and Kurdish gunmen reached an agreement to end a rebel siege on the northern predominantly Kurdish region of Afrin that triggered a shortage of food and medicine there. Violence was reported between government forces and rebels in different parts of the country, mostly near Damascus and in Aleppo.
    (AP, 6/20/13)
2013        Jun 20, Saudi Arabia said it plans to deport Lebanese citizens who support Hezbollah because of the militant group's role in the Syrian civil war.
    (AP, 6/20/13)

2013        Jun 21, The commander of Syria's rebels confirmed they have received new weapons, giving his forces more power in battles against government troops and Hezbollah fighters from Lebanon.
    (AP, 6/21/13)

2013        Jun 22, Syrian government forces stepped up their attack against rebel strongholds north Damascus. Opposition fighters declared their own offensive in the country's largest city Aleppo.
    (AP, 6/22/13)
2013        Jun 22, In Qatar an 11-nation group including the US met in Doha to coordinate military aid and other forms of assistance to rebels in Syria.
    (AP, 6/23/13)

2013        Jun 23, Syrian rebels assaulted a police station in Damascus shortly after a powerful explosion went off in the same neighborhood. At least 10 died in the violence in Damascus. 12 soldiers loyal to Assad were reported killed in a car explosion in the suburbs of Aleppo. Jabhat al-Nusra, a Syrian branch of al-Qaida, later claimed responsibility for the suicide attacks on security compounds in Damascus that killed at least 5 people.
    (AP, 6/23/13)(AP, 6/25/13)

2013        Jun 27, In Syria a suicide bomber hit the central neighborhood of Bab Touma in Damascus, killing a least 4 people with several more wounded.
    (Reuters, 6/27/13)

2013        Jun 28, Intense shelling by Syrian government troops on Karak village in eastern Daraa killed at least 8 women and girls overnight as forces loyal to President Bashar Assad pushed ahead with an offensive against rebels near the border with Jordan.
    (AP, 6/28/13)

2013        Jun 30, In Syria government attacks on central and northern cities killed six people. The government announced that two years of conflict has cost the public sector $15 billion. Assad's forces pounded Sunni Muslim rebels in the city of Homs with artillery and from the air for a second day in their offensive in central Syria.
    (AP, 6/30/13)(Reuters, 7/1/13)

2013        Jun, In Syria four French journalists went missing in two incidents. On April 19, 2014, French officials said Edouard Elias, Didier Francois, Nicolas Henin and Pierre Torres had been released.
    (AP, 4/19/14)

2013        Jul 1, Gulf Arab states called on the UN Security Council to meet urgently to prevent a massacre in Homs, as pro-government forces in Syria try to wrest the city from rebels fighting to topple President Assad.
    (Reuters, 7/1/13)

2013        Jul 2, In Syria activists said government troops shelled a rebel-held suburb of the capital Damascus, killing at least 11 people including women and children.
    (AP, 7/2/13)

2013        Jul 4, Syrian opposition figures met in Turkey to elect a new leadership as President Bashar Assad claims his opponents have failed to overthrow his regime.
    (AP, 7/4/13)

2013        Jul 5, Syrian troops unleashed some of the civil war's heaviest bombardments on the central city of Homs, pounding opposition-held areas with artillery and airstrikes for the sixth straight day.
    (AP, 7/5/13)
2013        Jul 5, Israel targeted advanced anti-ship cruise missiles near Latakia in an air attack targeting a type of Russian-made missile called the Yakhont that Russia had sold to the Syrian government.
    (AP, 7/13/13)

2013        Jul 6, Syrian troops advanced into rebel-held areas of the city of Homs, pushing into a heavily contested neighborhood after pummeling it with artillery that drove out opposition fighters. Fighting continued in Aleppo and there were clashes in the Damascus suburb of Qaboun.
    (AP, 7/6/13)
2013        Jul 6, In Turkey Ahmad al-Jarba, a former Syrian political prisoner with close links to Saudi Arabia, was picked to lead Syria's main Western-backed opposition group, filling a post long vacant due to divisions among President Bashar Assad's opponents.
    (AP, 7/6/13)

2013        Jul 8, Syria's ruling Baath party announced it has elected a new regional command to replace its aging leadership, including the country's longtime vice president, as its two-year civil war raged on. 2 car bombs exploded in a predominantly Alawite and Christian neighborhood of Homs, killing at least four people and wounding 29.
    (AP, 7/8/13)
2013        Jul 8, Ghassan Hitto, appointed last March as the notional prime minister of the interim government of Syria, resigned. He had been appointed to assemble an administration to govern rebel-held territory.
    (SFC, 7/9/13, p.A3)

2013        Jul 10, In Syria residents of Aleppo said rebels fired into the air to disperse a protest by civilians in a rebel-held district against a blockade preventing food and medicine reaching government-held areas.
    (Reuters, 7/10/13)
2013        Jul 10, The World Food Program said it needed $27 million every month to deal with the growing ranks of Syrians made hungry because of the war as Muslims began observing the dawn-to-dusk fast for the month of Ramadan across the Middle East.
    (AP, 7/10/13)

2013        Jul 13, In Syria Western-backed opposition fighters and a faction of al-Qaida-linked rebels turned their guns on each other in Aleppo, battling for control of a key checkpoint in the latest eruption of infighting among the forces trying to topple President Bashar Assad's regime.
    (AP, 7/13/13)

2013        Jul 14, Taliban commanders in Pakistan said they have decided to join the  anti-Assad rebellion, saying hundreds of fighters had gone to Syria to fight alongside their "Mujahedeen friends."
    (Reuters, 7/14/13)

2013        Jul 15, Syrian troops overnight pounded rebel-held villages around the city of Idlib with rockets, artillery and airstrikes, killing at least 29 people including six children. A car bomb exploded overnight outside the police headquarters in Deir Atiyeh, killing at least 13 people including 10 policemen. Government troops backed by tanks and artillery moved into Qaboun, a rebel-held district of Damascus, stepping up efforts to drive opposition fighters from the capital and build on battlefield gains elsewhere in the country. The Qaboun Coordination Committee, an activist group, said at least 60 people had been killed in Qaboun over the last few days by the shelling and subsequent clashes. Pro-government gunmen killed 7 members of a local Syrian reconciliation group near Homs, as troops shot dead 9 people including a child at a checkpoint in a suburb of the capital.
    (AP, 7/15/13)(Reuters, 7/15/13)(AP, 7/16/13)

2013        Jul 16, Syrian rebels poured reinforcements into a key Damascus suburb in an attempt to push back government troops who have renewed their campaign to secure the capital and build on battlefield gains elsewhere in the country.
    (Reuters, 7/16/13)
2013        Jul 16, A man and a 15-year-old boy were killed by stray bullets shot from Syria into a Turkish border town. Turkish troops returned fire, in the most serious spillover of violence in weeks.
    (Reuters, 7/17/13)

2013        Jul 17, Gunmen assassinated Mohammed Darrar Jammo (44), a pro-government Syrian journalist, at his home in southern Lebanon, shooting him nearly 30 times in the latest sign of Syria's civil war spilling over into its smaller neighbor. On July 19 the Lebanese army said the killers had been detained and their weapons seized, and evidence so far has implicated Jamo's wife, not Syrian rebels.
    (AP, 7/17/13)(Reuters, 7/19/13)
2013        Jul 17, The Online user database of two big companies were reportedly hacked by political hacktivists working in support of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. The private data of the users of TrueCaller and TangoMe were compromised which included private details of their social networks.
    (AP, 7/21/13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_censorship_in_Syria)
2013        Jul 17, The Turkish military said a Syrian Kurdish party with links to Kurdish militants in Turkey has seized control of a Syrian border town after days of clashes with Islamist fighters.
    (Reuters, 7/18/13)

2013        Jul 19, A Syrian Kurdish group said it aims to set up an independent council to run Kurdish regions until Syria's civil war has ended, a move likely to alarm Syrian rebels and neighboring Turkey, both wary of a possible Kurdish state.
    (Reuters, 7/19/13)

2013        Jul 20, Syrian government forces bombed Saraqeb, a strategic rebel town in the country's north for the third straight day, pounding it with airstrikes that killed at least 5 people.
    (AP, 7/20/13)

2013        Jul 21, In Syria forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad killed at least 13 members of a family in the Sunni Muslim village of Baida. 4 women and 6 children were among those killed in the village. Mortar shells struck the town of Ariha  killing at least 20 civilians. 49 rebels were killed in an ambush in Damascus' northeastern suburb of Adra. 17 rebels died in fighting in clashes in Damascus neighborhoods of Qaboun and Jobar. Another 9 were killed in clashes that have raged in the suburbs of Daraya, Harasta and Douma.
    (Reuters, 7/21/13)(AP, 7/21/13)(AP, 7/22/13)
2013        Jul 21, Syrian Kurdish forces freed a local leader linked to al Qaeda as part of an agreed ceasefire to end fierce fighting with Islamist rebels in the northern Syrian town of Tel Abyad. In return Islamist rebels promised to release hundreds of Kurds taken hostage as collateral from the leader of the Islamic State of Iraq and Sham (ISIS), known as Abu Musaab.
    (Reuters, 7/21/13)

2013        Jul 22, Syrian rebels seized Khan al-Assal, a strategic village on the edge of the northern city of Aleppo, just hours after other opposition fighters sustained some of their heaviest losses in months in battles to the south near the capital, Damascus.
    (AP, 7/22/13)

2013        Jul 23, In Syria more than 150 soldiers were killed over the last two days in and around the town of Khan al-Assal. Reports said this this included 51 soldiers and officers who were executed.
    (Reuters, 7/26/13)
2013        Jul 23, A Turkish border patrol killed one of eight civilians trying to cross illegally from Turkey into Syria. The group had been trying to cross from Hatay province into northwestern Syria and had fired on the Turkish patrol after the troops had whistled a warning.
    (Reuters, 7/23/13)

2013        Jul 24, In Syria forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad killed at least 15 Palestinians, mostly women and children, in a rocket attack on a rebel-held refugee camp on the southern edge of Damascus.
    (Reuters, 7/24/13)

2013        Jul 25, Syrian warplanes bombed an office of the main al-Qaida-linked rebel group in the northern city of Aleppo. A car bomb killed at least 10 people and wounded around 62 when it exploded on the edge of Damascus.
    (AP, 7/26/13)(Reuters, 7/25/13)
2013        Jul 25, Human Rights Watch (HRW) said Egypt has been detaining Syrian refugees without charge and threatening to deport them in a climate of growing hostility since the army seized power last month.
    (Reuters, 7/25/13)

2013        Jul 26, Syrian government troops gained ground in clashes in two rebel-held neighborhoods in the central city of Homs, edging closer to a historic mosque and closing in on opposition fighters in the area.
    (AP, 7/26/13)
2013        Jul 26, Syrian rebel leaders met with the UN Security Council for the first time to discuss the country's two-year war and appealed to Russia to stop its powerful political and military support for Syrian President Bashar al-Assad's government.
    (Reuters, 7/26/13)

2013        Jul 27, Syrian government forces captured the ancient Khalid Ibn al-Walid Mosque in Khaldiyeh, an embattled northern neighborhood in Homs.
    (AP, 7/28/13)

2013        Jul 29, Syrian government troops captured all of the district of Khaldiyeh in the embattled city of Homs. It had been a rebel stronghold since the beginning of the uprising. At least 12 rebel fighters were killed as they were taking flour from a mill on the eastern outskirts of Damascus. Paolo Dall'Oglio, an Italian Jesuit priest, went missing in the city of Raqqa.
    (AP, 7/29/13)(Reuters, 7/29/13)(AP, 8/3/13)

2013        Jul 30, In Syria Isa Huso, a prominent Syrian Kurdish politician, was assassinated early today outside his home near the Turkish border when a bomb planted in his car exploded in  Al Qamishli. Mortar attacks and air raids in two major cities killed at least 17 people.
    (Reuters, 7/30/13)(AP, 7/30/13)
2013        Jul 30, Turkish soldiers shot into the air and fired tear gas to prevent hundreds of people, many of them believed to be smugglers, from trying to cross into Turkey from Syria.
    (Reuters, 7/30/13)

2013        Jul 31, Syrian government troops launched an assault to regain control of on Khan al-Assal, a village on the outskirts of Aleppo that was the site of an alleged chemical weapons attack earlier this year.
    (AP, 7/31/13)
2013        Jul 31, Officials and bankers said  Iran and Syrian authorities signed a deal this week to activate a $3.6 billion credit facility to buy oil products with long term payment terms.
    (Reuters, 7/31/13)

2013        Aug 1, In Syria rebels sent a wave of rockets slamming into regime strongholds in Homs, triggering a succession of massive explosions in a weapons depot. At least 40 people were killed and dozens wounded.
    (AP, 8/1/13)

2013        Aug 2, In northern Syria overnight clashes between Kurdish opposition fighters and rebels linked to al-Qaida killed 12 Islamic fighters.
    (AP, 8/2/13)

2013        Aug 3, Syrian warplanes struck targets near the volatile border with Lebanon, killing at least 9 people. Rebels captured an arms depot near Damascus, seizing weapons and ammunition from the regime.
    (AP, 8/3/13)
2013        Aug 3, A Turkish man, Ramazan Zeybel (45) was killed by a stray bullet fired from Syria into the Turkish town of Ceylanpinar.
    (Reuters, 8/3/13)

2013        Aug 4, Syria’s government announced that traders who price goods in foreign currency will face up to 10 years in jail in a move aimed at stemming the increasing dollarization of an economy crippled by two years of civil war. Rebels attacked government outposts in the Jabal al-Akrad hills. At least 32 government troops and militiamen and at least 19 rebels, including foreign fighters, died in the fighting.
    (Reuters, 8/4/13)(AP, 8/5/13)
2013        Aug 4, Jihadi-led rebel fighters in Syria killed at least 190 civilians and abducted more than 200 during an offensive against pro-regime villages in Latakia province. Human Rights Watch issued a report on the attacks on Oct 11.
    (AP, 10/11/13)

2013        Aug 5, Syrian rebels captured four Alawite villages on the country's mountainous Mediterranean coast as they battled government troops in one of President Assad's strongholds for the second straight day. Rebels kidnapped Sheik Badreddine Ghazal, a prominent Alawite cleric in the region. Human Rights Watch said ballistic missiles fired by the Syrian army into populated areas have killed hundreds of civilians in recent months.
    (AP, 8/5/13)(AP, 8/6/13)
2013        Aug 5, A funeral was held for Moroccan-born Mohammed al Alami, a former prisoner at the US Guantanamo Bay naval base. He was released in 2006 and died fighting for anti-government rebels in Syria.
    (Reuters, 9/18/13)

2013        Aug 6, Syrian rebels captured Mannagh helicopter base in the north of the country after months of fighting. State TV denied that the base had fully fallen. A car bomb in a pro-regime district near Damascus killed at least 18 people. Syria fighters under Chechen jihadist Tarkhan Batirashvili, aka Omar al-Shishani, proved pivotal in taking the Syrian military's Managh air base. In 2014 al-Shishani was identified as the military commander of ISIL in Syria.
    (AP, 8/6/13)(AP, 7/2/14)

2013        Aug 7, Syrian government forces killed at least 62 rebels in an ambush near Damascus, a blow to opposition fighters confronting a regime offensive in the capital. In the north a missile struck the rebel-held city of Raqqa, killing 3 people and wounding dozens including children. Kurdish gunmen captured about 70 government troops who fled the air base of Mannagh in the northern province of Aleppo.
    (AP, 8/7/13)

2013        Aug 8, Syrian rebels targeted President Bashar al-Assad's motorcade heading to a Damascus mosque to mark the Muslim holiday of Eid al-Fitr, but state television showed him unharmed and the government denied he had been attacked.
    (Reuters, 8/8/13)

2013        Aug 9, Syrian government warplanes reportedly bombed Salma, a predominantly Sunni village in Latakia province, killing at least 20 people.
    (AP, 8/10/13)

2013        Aug 10, The president of Iraqi Kurdistan vowed to defend the large Kurdish population across the border in neighboring Syria from al-Qaida-linked fighters.
    (AP, 8/10/13)

2013        Aug 11, Syrian rebels launched an offensive in Deir el-Zour, an eastern city near the border with Iraq, in an attempt to extend their advances in the north and west of the country. Rebels reportedly killed 7 soldiers and captured several others. Regime army warplanes also conducted several air raids against rebel positions in Deir el-Zour.
    (AP, 8/11/13)

2013        Aug 13, Syrian President Bashar Assad's forces killed at least 18 rebels in overnight clashes near the country's main north-south highway near Morek in Hama province.
    (AP, 8/13/13)

2013        Aug 15, In Syria gunmen shot dead imam Mohammed Dibo in the rebel-held town of Manbij while on his way to the mosque to perform dawn prayers. Al-Qaida militants posted a video showing two male Shiite teenagers, accused of being pro-government gunmen, sitting in front of a masked gunman and then being shot dead.
    (AP, 8/15/13)
2013        Aug 15, Thousands of Syrian refugees poured into the Kurdistan region of northern Iraq, taking advantage of a new bridge along the largely closed border.
    (Reuters, 8/16/13)

2013        Aug 16, Syrian warplanes struck targets in a rebel-held district in the northern city of Aleppo, killing at least 15 people, wounding dozens of others and leaving some buried under the rubble of buildings.
    (AP, 8/16/13)

2013        Aug 17, In central Syria gunmen shot dead 11 people, mostly Christians, outside Ein al-Ajouz. The attack was described by a local resident as aimed at members of the religious minority.
    (AP, 8/17/13)

2013        Aug 18, A team of UN chemical weapons experts arrived in Damascus to investigate the possible use of chemical weapons in Syria's civil war.
    (Reuters, 8/18/13)
2013        Aug 18, An Israeli military official said Israeli forces have hit a target inside Syria that was the source of mortar fire into the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights. At least three shells had landed near the Syrian frontier the previous evening, causing no injuries.
    (AP, 8/18/13)

2013        Aug 20, In northeastern Syria Kurdish militias battled al-Qaida-linked rebel groups in the latest round of heavy fighting that has helped fuel a mass exodus of civilians from the region into neighboring Iraq.
    (AP, 8/20/13)

2013        Aug 21, Syrian anti-government activists accused the regime of carrying out a toxic gas attack that killed at least 130 people, including many children, during intense artillery and rocket barrages on the eastern suburbs of Damascus. An unclassified US intelligence report on Aug 30 said the attack killed 1,429 Syrian civilians, including 426 children.
    (AP, 8/21/13)(SFC, 8/24/13, p.A2)(Reuters, 8/30/13)

2013        Aug 22, Syrian government forces pressed on with a military offensive in eastern Damascus, bombing rebel-held suburbs where the opposition said the regime had killed over 100 people the day before in a chemical weapons attack.
    (AP, 8/22/13)

2013        Aug 23, Syrian troops and opposition fighters clashed during fierce battles in suburbs of Damascus.
    (AP, 8/23/13)
2013        Aug 23, The Lebanese government said its troops captured a truck carrying gas masks near the Syrian border.
    (AP, 8/23/13)

2013        Aug 24, Syrian state television said soldiers found chemical materials in tunnels that had been used by rebels, rejecting blame for a nerve gas attack that killed hundreds this week and heightened Western calls for foreign intervention.
    (Reuters, 8/24/13)
2013        Aug 24, Iranian President Hassan Rouhani said for the first time that chemical weapons had killed people in ally Syria and called for the international community to prevent their use.
    (Reuters, 8/24/13)
2013        Aug 24, Doctors Without Borders said some 355 people, who showed "neurotoxic symptoms," died following the suspected chemical weapons attack this week near Syria's capital.
    (AP, 8/24/13)

2013        Aug 25, Syria reached an agreement with the UN to allow a team of international experts to visit the site of alleged chemical weapons attacks last week outside Damascus.
    (AP, 8/25/13)
2013        Aug 25, In Syria the governor of Hama province was killed in a car bombing, in an attack it blamed on rebels.
    (AFP, 8/25/13)

2013        Aug 26, In Syria snipers opened fire at a UN vehicle carrying a team investigating the alleged use of chemical weapons in Damascus. The Syrian government accused the rebels of firing at the team, while a rebel representative said a pro-government militia was behind the attack. Rebel forces took control of Khanasir, a strategic town in northern Syria, killing more than 50 pro-government fighters and cutting off government forces' only supply route out of the city of Aleppo. The Britain-based Observatory said it had obtained a photograph showing the execution of Alawite cleric Badr Ghazal by hardline Islamist rebels earlier this month.
    (AP, 8/26/13)(Reuters, 8/26/13)
2013        Aug 26, In Turkey Western powers meeting in Istanbul told the Syrian opposition to expect a strike against President Bashar al-Assad's forces within days.
    (Reuters, 8/27/13)

2013        Aug 27, Syria's foreign minister said his country would defend itself using "all means available" in case of a US strike, denying his government was behind an alleged chemical weapons attack near Damascus and challenging Washington to present proof backing up its accusations.
    (AP, 8/27/13)

2013        Aug 28, UN chemical weapons experts headed to a Damascus suburb for a new tour of areas struck by a purported poison gas attack.
    (AP, 8/28/13)

2013        Aug 30, The United States found itself with France as its only major partner in a potential strike against Syria, after a stunning rejection of military force in Parliament forced Britain, America's staunchest ally, to pull out of any operation.
    (AP, 8/30/13)

2013        Aug 31, President Barack Obama said that he would seek Congress approval for a military strike on Syria.
    (Reuters, 9/1/13)

2013        Aug, In Syria two cylinders containing sarin were reportedly seized by the armed forces of the Syrian Arab Republic in an area reportedly under the control of armed opposition groups.
    (Reuters, 7/8/14)   

2013        Sep 1, In Syria at least 42 were killed after regime forces retaliated for a rebel attack on army positions  around the town of Rouhayba, northeast of Damascus.
    (AFP, 9/2/13)

2013        Sep 3, Syrian forces seized the strategic northern town of Ariha, in a move that would open the supply line between the coastal stronghold and pockets of army control in a region that is largely rebel controlled.
    (Reuters, 9/3/13)
2013        Sep 3, The Syrian opposition said a Syrian forensic medicine expert with evidence that Pres. Bashar al-Assad's administration used chemical weapons in an attack near Aleppo in March has defected to Turkey.
    (Reuters, 9/3/13)
2013        Sep 3, Former Syrian Defense Minister General Ali Habib, a senior member, a prominent member of President Bashar al-Assad's Alawite sect, defected and crossed into Turkey.
    (Reuters, 9/4/13)

2013        Sep 4, Spanish correspondent Marc Marginedas was abducted near the central Syrian city of Hama by Islamic State fighters. He was released on Mar 3, 2014.
    (AP, 3/2/14)

2013        Sep 5, Syrian government troops battled al-Qaida-linked rebels over a regime-held Christian village in western Syria for the second day.
    (AP, 9/5/13)

2013        Sep 6, Turkish PM Tayyip Erdogan said almost all leaders at the G20 summit in St. Petersburg accepted the need for an operation to be carried out against Syria following a chemical weapons attack there last month.
    (Reuters, 9/6/13)

2013        Sep 7, In Syria  heavy government shelling of rebel positions near Damascus killed 16 people.
    (AP, 9/7/13)
2013        Sep 7, The European Union's foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton said the EU's 28 nations agreed that available information seemed to show strong evidence that the Syrian government carried out a chemical attack on civilians in August.
    (Reuters, 9/7/13)

2013        Sep 8, Syrian activists said rebels including al-Qaida-linked fighters gained control of a Christian village northeast of Damascus. Government media provided a dramatically different account of the battle suggesting regime forces were winning.
    (AP, 9/8/13)

2013        Sep 9, The Syrian government accepted a Russian proposal to put its chemical weapons under international control to avoid a possible US military strike.
    (Reuters, 9/10/13)
2013        Sep 9, Syrian troops launched an attack on hills overlooking a Christian-majority village near Damascus as fighting in and around Maaloula entered its sixth day.
    (AP, 9/9/13)

2013        Sep 10, France announced it will put forward a resolution in the UN Security Council aimed at forcing Syria to ultimately dismantle its chemical weapons program, seizing on a diplomatic opening from Syrian ally Russia amid Western threats of force against President Bashar Assad's regime.
    (AP, 9/10/13)
2013        Sep 10, In central Syria Nusra Front al Qaeda-linked rebel fighters shot dead 16 Alawites and six Arab Bedouins after seizing the village of Maksar al-Hesan.
    (Reuters, 9/11/13)(Reuters, 9/12/13)

2013        Sep 11, UN rights investigators reported that they have established that Syrian government forces were almost certainly responsible for two massacres last May in which up to 450 civilians were killed.
    (Reuters, 9/11/13)

2013        Sep 12, Syrian President Bashar Assad publicly agreed to a Russian plan to secure and destroy his chemical weapons, but said the proposal would work only if the US halts threats of military action. Syria filed documents at the UN seeking to join the international convention banning chemical weapons.
    (AP, 9/12/13)(AFP, 9/12/13)
2013        Sep 12, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said clashes between Kurdish fighters and members of the al-Qaida-linked Nusra Front and the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant in the past two days left 13 Kurdish gunmen and 35 militants dead.
    (AP, 9/12/13)

2013        Sep 13, UN investigators said Syrian government forces are bombing and shelling hospitals in rebel-held areas to stop sick and wounded people getting treatment, acts which constitute war crimes.
    (Reuters, 9/13/13)

2013        Sep 14, Syrian warplanes struck rebel-held suburbs of the capital and government forces clashed with insurgents on the frontlines.
    (Reuters, 9/14/13)
2013        Sep 14, The United States and Russia agreed a "framework for elimination of Syrian chemical weapons." General Selim Idris, the head of the opposition Syrian Supreme Military Council, said a US-Russian agreement to eliminate Syria's chemical weapons was a blow to the two-and-a-half-year uprising to remove President Bashar al-Assad from power.
    (Reuters, 9/14/13)
2013        Sep 14, The opposition Syrian National Coalition elected Ahmad Tumeh (48), a moderate Islamist, as provisional prime minister, hoping to avoid being sidelined as world powers renew diplomatic efforts to end the civil war.
    (Reuters, 9/14/13)

2013        Sep 16, In Syria an al-Qaida linked group kidnapped Xavier Espinosa, a Spanish journalist, and photographer Ricardo Garcia Vilanova. Both men were released on March 30, 2014.
    (SFC, 12/11/13, p.A2)(AP, 3/30/14)
2013        Sep 16, Turkish warplanes shot down a Syrian helicopter after it crossed into Turkish airspace. Syria's army acknowledged the helicopter had strayed into Turkish airspace for a short time while monitoring "terrorists" moving across the border into Syria, but said it was an accident and that the aircraft was on its way back when it was shot down.
    (Reuters, 9/16/13)
2013        Sep 16, UN war crimes investigators said they know of 14 potential chemical attacks in Syria since they began monitoring Syrian human rights abuses in September 2011. UN inspectors confirmed that sarin was used in the mass killing near Damascus on Aug 21.
    (Reuters, 9/16/13)(SFC, 9/17/13, p.A3)

2013        Sep 17, A car bomb exploded on the Syrian side of the main Bab al-Hawa crossing with Turkey and at least a dozen people were taken to nearby hospitals.
    (Reuters, 9/17/13)
2013        Sep 17, French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said a report by UN inspectors, who investigated an August 21 chemical weapons attack in Syria, leaves no doubt about the responsibility of President Bashar al-Assad's government.
    (Reuters, 9/17/13)
2013        Sep 17, Diplomats from the United States, Russia, Britain, France and China met in New York to discuss a Western-drafted resolution on eradicating Syria's chemical arsenal in line with a US-Russian agreement.
    (Reuters, 9/17/13)

2013        Sep 18, Syrian warplanes struck rebel-held areas and clashes between militants and government forces continued unabated. Key powers meeting in NY continued to forge a deal that would eliminate Syrian chemical weapons.
    (Reuters, 9/18/13)

2013        Sep 19, In Syria a roadside bomb killed at least 14 members of President Bashar al-Assad's minority Alawite in Jabourin, Homs province. Al-Qaida militants seized a town near the Turkish border after expelling Western-backed rebels from the area.
    (Reuters, 9/19/13)(SFC, 9/20/13, p.A4)

2013        Sep 20, Syrian forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad killed at least 15 people in a late night attack on Sheik Hadid, a Sunni Muslim village north-west of Hama.
    (Reuters, 9/21/13)(SSFC, 9/22/13, p.A6)
2013        Sep 20, The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in The Hague said Syria has submitted details of its chemical weapons to the organization.
    (Reuters, 9/20/13)

2013        Sep 21, In Syria rebels seized several villages south of Aleppo as part of their efforts to cut Syria's biggest city off from Assad's forces and stop supplies and reinforcements from Damascus.
    (Reuters, 9/21/13)
2013        Sep 21, The Hague-based Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical weapons (OPCW) said Syria has handed over complete data on its chemical arsenal to the world's watchdog, meeting a deadline to avert military strikes, as regime aircraft pounded targets across the country.
    (AFP, 9/21/13)
2013        Sep 21, Italy’s coast guard said more than 400 refugees fleeing the Syrian civil war were intercepted near Sicily in the past 14 hours, and one 22-year-old woman died during the passage.
    (Reuters, 9/21/13)

2013        Sep 23, Syria’s Pres. Assad said his government will allow int’. experts access to its chemical weapons sites, but cautioned that rebels might block them from reaching some of the locations.
    (SFC, 9/24/13, p.A3)

2013        Sep 24, In Syria a car bomb killed at least 7 civilians when it exploded in a southern Damascus neighborhood.
    (Reuters, 9/24/13)

2013        Sep 25, More than a dozen key Syrian rebel groups said that they reject the authority of the Western-backed opposition coalition, as UN inspectors returned to the country to continue their probe into chemical weapons attacks. Eleven rebel factions broke with the main opposition group in exile and called for Islamic law in the country.
    (AP, 9/25/13)(SFC, 9/25/13, p.A3)

2013        Sep 26, In Syria an Iraqi woman was killed when a mortar round slammed into Iraq's consulate in Damascus.
    (AP, 9/26/13)

2013        Sep 27, In Syria a car bomb exploded near the al-Sahel mosque in the town of Rankous north of Damascus as worshippers emerged from prayers. At least 30 people were killed.
    (AP, 9/27/13)
2013        Sep 27, The UN Security Council adopted a resolution that demands the eradication of Syria's chemical weapons but does not threaten automatic punitive action against Syrian President Bashar al-Assad's government if it does not comply.
    (Reuters, 9/28/13)

2013        Sep 28, Syrian rebels including members of an al-Qaida-linked group captured a military post on the border with Jordan after four days of fighting. 26 soldiers were killed in the battle as well as a number of rebels, including 7 foreign fighters. at least 19 government fighters were reported killed in fighting on the outskirts of Damascus.
    (AP, 9/28/13)(Reuters, 9/29/13)

2013        Sep 29, Syria's Pres. Assad said his government will abide by last week's UN resolution calling for the country's chemical weapons program to be dismantled and destroyed.
    (AP, 9/29/13)
2013        Sep 29, In Syria at least 12 people, most of them students, were killed in an air strike that hit a secondary school in the rebel-held city of Raqqa. Fighting continued in provinces across the country.
    (Reuters, 9/29/13)

2013        Oct 1, An advance group of international inspectors arrived in Syria to begin the ambitious task of overseeing the destruction of President Bashar Assad's chemical weapons program. Heavy clashes between Syrian troops and al-Qaida-linked fighters in northern Damascus killed at least 12 soldiers and pro-government militiamen.
    (AP, 10/1/13)(AP, 10/2/13)

2013        Oct 2, The UN refugee agency said 17 countries including the United States, France and Australia have agreed to receive quotas of refugees fleeing the bloody conflict in Syria.
    (AFP, 10/2/13)

2013        Oct 3, In Syria experts tasked with implementing the UN resolution ordering the destruction of Syria's chemical weapons arsenal began work, as the world body demanded access to civilians trapped by the conflict.
    (AFP, 10/3/13)
2013        Oct 3, In Syria six of the most powerful rebel factions issued a joint statement telling an Al-Qaeda front group (ISIL) to withdraw from the northern town of Azaz bordering Turkey. In a separate statement, rebels in central Syria also called on the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) to leave Homs province.
    (AFP, 10/3/13)

2013        Oct 4, In Syria al-Qaida militants battled fighters linked to the Western-backed opposition along with Kurdish gunmen in towns along the Turkish border, in clashes that killed at least 19 people.
    (AP, 10/4/13)

2013        Oct 5, Syrian government forces shelled al-Mitras, a vulnerable Sunni community in a coastal province dominated by President Bashar Assad's Alawite sect, raising fears that residents of the isolated town could face mass killings by pro-Damascus militias. Government forces reached an agreement with local officials to stop the shelling of Mitras in exchange for the surrender of dozens of opposition fighters.
    (AP, 10/5/13)(SSFC, 10/6/13, p.A8)

2013        Oct 6, In Syria at least 8 people were killed by mortar fire that hit a Christian neighbourhood in central Damascus. Government forces reopened a key road leading to the embattled northern city of Aleppo after heavy fighting with rebels that left casualties on both sides.
    (AFP, 10/6/13)(AP, 10/7/13)
2013        Oct 6, In Syria international inspectors began the enormous task of destroying Syria's stockpile of chemical weapons and the machinery used to create it.
    (AP, 10/6/13)

2013        Oct 7, A French oceanographic vessel rescued 29 Syrian refugees, part of a group of 363 asylum-seekers that have landed in Italy in the past 24 hours.
    (AFP, 10/7/13)
2013        Oct 7, UN leader Ban Ki-moon said about 100 international experts will have to spend up to a year in Syria destroying its chemical weapons in a mission of unprecedented danger.
    (AFP, 10/8/13)

2013        Oct 10, In Syria fighting flared between Syrian Sunni rebels and foreign militias on the southern edge of Damascus.
    (Reuters, 10/11/13)

2013        Oct 11, Syrian air force warplanes bombarded rebel-held targets close to a major chemical weapons facility in fighting that highlights the perils facing an international mission to eliminate President Bashar al-Assad's chemical arsenal.
    (Reuters, 10/11/13)
2013        Oct 11, The Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded the Nobel Peace Prize to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons as  the global watchdog worked to destroy Syria's stockpiles of nerve gas and other poisonous agents.
    (AP, 10/11/13)
2013        Oct 11, The Egyptian coast guard rescued 72 Palestinians, 40 Syrians and 4 Egyptians when a boat carrying illegal migrants and Syrian refugees sank off Egypt's northern coast. 12 people died.
    (Reuters, 10/11/13)

2013        Oct 12, In Syria two mortar rounds slammed into the central Abu Rummaneh neighbourhood of Damascus, killing a child and wounding 11 people. Tank shells fired by Syrian government forces slammed into a building in the southern city of Daraa, killing at least 11 people, including women and children.
    (AFP, 10/12/13)(AFP, 10/13/13)

2013        Oct 13, In northwest Syria gunmen kidnapped 7 Red Cross workers after opening fire on their vehicles. 3 ICRC and a Red Crescent colleague were soon released.
    (Reuters, 10/13/13)(AFP, 10/14/13)

2013        Oct 14, In Syria a car bombing in Darkoush, a rebel-held northwestern town, killed at least 27 people and wounded dozens, setting cars on fire and sending people running in panic.
    (AFP, 10/14/13)
2013        Oct 14, In Syria a 40-foot bronze statue of Jesus went up on the Cherubim mountain, apparently under cover of a truce among three factions in the country's civil war.
    (AP, 11/2/13)

2013        Oct 15, Syrian warplanes bombed several rebel-held areas and opposition fighters fired mortar rounds and homemade rockets at Damascus on the first day of a major Muslim holiday.
    (AP, 10/15/13)
2013        Oct 15, Turkey for the first time fired four artillery rounds against a position near the town of Azaz, Syria, held by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)," an Al-Qaeda affiliated group, in retaliation for a mortar round that fell on Turkish territory.
    (AP, 10/17/13)

2013        Oct 16, In Syria 21, including 4 children and 6 women, were killed when a minibus hit a mine in the southern town of Noa. Syrian activists said that two days of heavy clashes between Kurdish fighters and al-Qaida-linked rebels in the northeast have killed at least 41 on both sides.
    (Reuters, 10/16/13)(AP, 10/16/13)

2013        Oct 17, The Syrian government said it has turned over to the United Nations Carl Campeau, a Canadian staffer, who went missing eight months ago in the Golan Heights, accusing rebels of having kidnapped him. Gen. Jameh Jameh, a top military intelligence officer was killed in clashes in Deir al-Zou.
    (AFP, 10/17/13)(AP, 10/18/13)(SFC, 10/18/13, p.A2)

2013        Oct 18, In Syria regime forces and rebels fighting for control of Tel Aran, a small but strategic town in the northern province of Aleppo, killed at least 20 people. The British-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said rebels killed at least 30 Syrian soldiers, including ten who were executed after they were captured in in Deir al-Zou.
    (AP, 10/18/13)

2013        Oct 19, Syrian rebels assaulted a checkpoint in a suburb of Damascus, setting off a suicide car bomb that killed 16 soldiers. More than 30 combatants from both sides died in the blast and ensuing clashes.
    (AP, 10/19/13)(Reuters, 10/19/13)

2013        Oct 20, In Syria a suicide bomber blew up a truck packed with explosives at an army checkpoint in the central city of Hama, killing at least 31 people.
    (AFP, 10/20/13)

2013        Oct 21, In Syria government warplanes launched strikes on areas southeast of Damascus after rebels seized key regime positions there. Residents of Moadamiyeh issued an urgent plea for the int’l. community to save them from starvation and constant bombardment after efforts to evacuate civilians from the area collapsed. Yasser al-Abboud, a prominent army defector who became a rebel leader, was killed during fighting in the town of Tafas.
    (AFP, 10/21/13)(AP, 10/21/13)(SFC, 10/22/13, p.A4)

2013        Oct 22, The Syrian government released 13 jailed women, a move that may be part of an ambitious regional prisoner exchange. Government forces battled with al-Qaida-linked rebels trying to capture an ancient Christian town north of Damascus. Mortar shells struck a pro-government suburb on the outskirts of Damascus, killing 2 people.
    (AP, 10/22/13)(AP, 10/23/13)

2013        Oct 23, Syrian activists said the army has sealed the few remaining smuggling routes into the besieged Eastern Ghouta region of suburbs of Damascus. Aid workers in Damascus, who negotiated a truce to get out thousands of residents from the town, said that locals had resorted to eating leaves and grass.
    (Reuters, 10/23/13)

2013        Oct 24, Syrian forces seized a suburb of Damascus from rebels fighting to overthrow President Bashar al-Assad in a push that has shored up government control of the capital's outskirts. The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said Assad’s government had freed 61 women over the past two days.
    (Reuters, 10/24/13)(AP, 10/24/13)

2013        Oct 25, In Syria a car bomb explosion killed at least 40 people and wounded dozens more near a mosque in the Damascus province town of Suq Wadi Barada. Government troops ambushed rebels near Damascus, killing at least 40 opposition fighters.
    (AFP, 10/25/13)(AP, 10/25/13)

2013        Oct 26, Kurdish militants seized a Syrian border post on the frontier with Iraq, after three days of clashes with an al Qaeda-linked group which had held the crossing since March.
    (Reuters, 10/26/13)
2013        Oct 26, Syria's jihadist Al-Nusra Front said in a statement that its leader, Abu Mohammad al-Golani, was in good health, a day after state television had reported his death.
    (AFP, 10/26/13)

2013        Oct 27, In central Syria a rocket smashed into the home of a family in the embattled Christian town of Sadad, killing 5 people as al-Qaida-linked rebels and soldiers clashed for control.
    (AP, 10/27/13)

2013        Oct 28, Syrian government forces retook Sadad, a Christian town north of Damascus, from al-Qaida-linked rebels who seized control of part of it a week ago, touching off fierce clashes.
    (AP, 10/28/13)

2013        Oct 29, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad sacked Vice Premier Qadri Jamil saying the official had been absent without leave and carried out unauthorized meetings abroad. Jamil had met with the US pointman for Syria Robert Ford on Oct 26 to discuss proposed Geneva peace talks. Some 800 women, children and elderly civilians trapped in the besieged town of Moadamiyet al-Sham, southwest of Damascus, were evacuated.
    (AFP, 10/29/13)(AFP, 10/30/13)
2013        Oct 29, The UN's health agency said it has confirmed 10 polio cases in northeast Syria, the first confirmed outbreak of the highly contagious disease in the country in 14 years, and a top UN official urged warring sides to grant health workers access to 500,000 children who have never received immunization.
    (AP, 10/29/13)

2013        Oct 30, Israel reportedly targeted a shipment of surface-to-surface missiles in latakia, Syria, destined for Hezbollah, the powerful Lebanese Shiite movement fighting alongside the regime.
    (AFP, 11/1/13)

2013        Oct 31, The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons said Syria has destroyed critical equipment for producing chemical weapons and poison gas munitions. Fierce clashes raged in the north, close to one of the sites where toxic agents are believed to be stored.
    (AP, 10/31/13)

2013        Nov 1, Syrian troops heavily shelled rebel-held areas of southern Damascus as part of a bid to completely cut them off from rear bases in the countryside. State media said government forces have captured Safira, a northern town located near a chemical weapons site after days of heavy fighting.
    (AFP, 11/1/13)(Reuters, 11/1/13)

2013        Nov 2, Syria's air force struck Sbeineh south of Damascus, as loyalists pressed a fierce bid to crush rebel bastions around the capital. Rebels launched a counteroffensive in Aleppo.
    (AP, 11/2/13)(SSFC, 11/10/13, p.A9)

2013        Nov 4, In central Syria a suicide bomber detonated an explosives-laden truck in the Shiite village of Sabtiyeh near Homs, killing six.
    (AP, 11/4/13)
2013        Nov 4, Iranian Mehr news agency reported that commander Mohammad Jamalizade of Iran's Revolutionary Guards was recently killed in Syria after volunteering to defend a Shi'ite shrine in Damascus.
    (Reuters, 11/4/13)

2013        Nov 5, The United Nations that 40 percent of all Syrians are now in need in need of humanitarian aid.
    (AP, 11/5/13)

2013        Nov 6, In Syria a car bomb killed at least 8 security personnel in a rare attack on a military intelligence headquarters in the southern city of Suweida. A bomb exploded in a central square of Damascus, killing 8 people and wounding several others.
    (Reuters, 11/6/13)(AFP, 11/6/13)

2013        Nov 7, Syrian troops backed by Lebanese Hezbollah fighters and other pro-regime militiamen retook a major rebel enclave south of Damascus, severing a key opposition supply line.
    (AFP, 11/7/13)

2013        Nov 8, In Syria forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad backed by a dawn barrage of artillery fire and airstrikes drove rebels from a strategic military base near the disputed northern city of Aleppo.
    (Reuters, 11/8/13)
2013        Nov 8, Al-Qaeda chief Ayman al-Zawahiri has ordered the disbanding of the main jihadist faction in Syria, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, in an audio message aired on Al-Jazeera. He said the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) is to be abolished, while the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI) remains functioning.
    (AFP, 11/8/13)
2013        Nov 8, Denmark said it would provide transport and security for the international effort to destroy Syria's arsenal of chemical weapons, after receiving a request from the UN.
    (AFP, 11/8/13)

2013        Nov 9, In Syria Islamist rebels retook most of a military base in the north from forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad after two days of fighting in which at least 60 people have been killed.
    (Reuters, 11/9/13)

2013        Nov 10, Syrian government officials and rebels reached a deal to ease a weeks-long blockade on a rebel-held town of Qudsaya near Damascus, allowing food to reach civilians there for the first time in weeks. State television said govern ment troops have regained full control of a key base in northern Aleppo province near its international airport.
    (AP, 11/10/13)(AFP, 11/10/13)
2013        Nov 10, The main Western-backed Syrian opposition began the 2nd day of a two-day meeting in Istanbul to decide whether they will attend a proposed peace conference the US and Russia are trying to convene in Geneva by the end of this year.
    (AP, 11/10/13)

2013        Nov 11, Syria's main opposition grouping said it was willing to attend peace talks on the condition that President Bashar al-Assad transfer power and be excluded from any transition process. 5 children were killed and 27 people wounded when mortar rounds hit a school in Damascus.
    (AFP, 11/11/13)

2013        Nov 12, Syrian troops clashed with rebels on the southern outskirts of Damascus. The Syrian National Coalition named a provisional government for rebel-held areas.
    (AP, 11/12/13)(Reuters, 11/12/13)

2013        Nov 13, In Syria forces loyal to President Assad captured a suburb of Damascus, part of a broader advance that has brought him major gains south of the capital before proposed international peace talks. A mortar round slammed into a mainly-Christian sector of Damascus killing 2 people and wounding seven. Activists said Kurdish militias have seized another seven villages in the northeast.
    (Reuters, 11/13/13)(AFP, 11/13/13)

2013        Nov 14, In Syria twin bombings and mortar fire killed 3 people and wounded 22 near the famed Ummayad mosque in Damascus. A Syrian rebel commander in a main Islamist brigade was killed and two others were injured in an air strike by Assad's forces on Aleppo.
    (AFP, 11/14/13)(Reuters, 11/14/13)
2013        Nov 14, A video posted on the Internet showed two members of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) holding up a bearded man's head before a crowd in Aleppo in northern Syria. ISIL later admitted the rebel had been killed by mistake and said it had arrested one of its men, a Tunisian, for decapitating him.
    (AFP, 11/15/13)
2013        Nov 14, In Lebanon Hassan Nasralla, the leader of the militant Hezbollah group, showed up at a Shiite religious ceremony in southern Beirut, vowing to keep his fighters in neighboring Syria as long as needed to shore up President Bashar Assad's struggle against Syria's rebels.
    (AP, 11/14/13)

2013        Nov 16, Syrian forces went on the offensive against rebels positioned along a major highway linking the capital with the coast, a strategic road that is likely to be used to extract chemical weapons from the country.
    (Reuters, 11/16/13)
2013        Nov 16, A local official said thousands of Syrian refugees have poured into Lebanon over the past two days as fighting between government forces and rebels has flared near the border.
    (AFP, 11/16/13)

2013        Nov 17, The head of Syria's General Foreign Trade Organization (GFTO) said Syrian bank accounts frozen abroad are gradually being freed up for use to fund food purchases, with France being the most committed to releasing the money.
    (Reuters, 11/17/13)
2013        Nov 17, Syrian forces besieged Qara, a key town in the Qalamoun mountains, a region used by rebels to cross from Lebanon and which links the capital to government strongholds along the coast.
    (Reuters, 11/17/13)

2013        Nov 18, Syrian rebel leader Abdul-Qadir Saleh (34), founder of the Liwa al-Tawhid Brigade, died in Turkey of wounds sustained during a strike by government forces last week. Clashes continued around Qara.
    (AP, 11/18/13)(Econ, 11/23/13, p.51)
2013        Nov 18, Russia hosted Syrian and Iranian delegations for separate rounds of talks in a renewed diplomatic push for a Syrian peace conference in which Moscow says Tehran must also play a role.
    (Reuters, 11/18/13)

2013        Nov 19, Syrian government troops captured Qara, a key town near the Lebanese border from rebels, days after launching a broad offensive in the mountainous western region.
    (AP, 11/19/13)

2013        Nov 20, Suicide bombers targeted Syrian troops and a hospital in the rugged Qalamoun hills north of Damascus killing at least 7 soldiers, as rebels struggled to reverse government gains that threatened to cut one of their chief supply lines.
    (AP, 11/20/13)(AFP, 11/20/13)

2013        Nov 21, In Syria fighting for a key military base outside the northern city of Aleppo killed at least 15 pro-government militiamen. Troops also pressed an offensive against the last rebel-held districts of Homs where at least 12 people were killed in the exchange of fire.
    (AFP, 11/21/13)
2013        Nov 21, In Syria Jihadists cut down a 150-year-old oak tree in Atme, on Syria's border with Turkey, after they accused locals of worshipping it.
    (AFP, 11/22/13)

2013        Nov 22, The six largest Islamist rebel factions in Syria declared a new Islamic Front, forming the largest alliance of opposition fighters yet in the 2-1/2-year conflict. The merger undermined the secular Free Syrian Army (FSA) leadership, once seen as a symbolic umbrella leadership for all the rebels but weakened by infighting and defections. A fierce battle for control of Syria’s military Base 17 near Raqqa, an opposition-held city, left 24 rebels dead so far, but the government troops have managed to hold on to the complex.
    (Reuters, 11/22/13)(AP, 11/22/13)

2013        Nov 23, In Syria  Islamist rebels led by al Qaeda-linked fighters seized the al-Omar oil field in the eastern Deir al-Zor province, cutting off President Assad's access to almost all local crude reserves. Air strikes around Aleppo killed at least 44 people, most of them civilians.
    (Reuters, 11/23/13)(AP, 11/23/13)

2013        Nov 24, In Syria fierce fighting to the east of Damascus has killed more than 160 people in the past two days as rebels struggled to break a months-long blockade by forces loyal to President Assad.
    (Reuters, 11/24/13)
2013        Nov 24, The Oxford Research Group said more than 11,000 children have died in Syria's civil war, including 128 killed by chemical weapons in a notorious attack and hundreds targeted by snipers.
    (AFP, 11/24/13)

2013        Nov 25, The UN said Syria's government and opposition will hold their first peace talks on Jan. 22 in Geneva, in an attempt to halt the nearly 3-year-old civil war that has killed more than 100,000 people.
    (AP, 11/25/13)

2013        Nov 26, In Syria a suicide bomber blew up a vehicle at a bus stop west of Damascus, killing at least 15 people. An Al-Qaeda-affiliated group in Syria announced the execution of two soldiers and three "collaborators" with President Bashar al-Assad's regime near Damascus. Syria's main opposition group in exile said it had not made a final decision yet on whether it would participate in a peace conference to be held in Geneva. The commander of the rebel Free Syrian Army (FSA) said his group would not join a planned peace conference in Switzerland in January and would pursue its fight to topple President Bashar al-Assad regardless.
    (AFP, 11/26/13)(AP, 11/26/13)(Reuters, 11/26/13)
2013        Nov 26, The World Health Organization said it has discovered two additional cases of the highly contagious polio virus in Syria, bringing the total number of cases in the country to 17.
    (AP, 11/26/13)

2013        Nov 27, The Syrian government said it will participate in UN-sponsored peace talks aimed at ending the country's civil war, but insisted that it is not going to the conference to hand over power.
    (AP, 11/27/13)
2013        Nov 27, In Syria a nephew of Lebanon's agriculture minister was killed along with three other Hezbollah fighters in the Qalamoun region north of Damascus.
    (AFP, 11/28/13)

2013        Nov 28, The Syrian army recaptured the strategic town of Deir Attiyeh, less than a week after losing it, taking the advantage in its bid to crush rebels just north of Damascus.
    (AFP, 11/28/13)

2013        Nov 29, In Syria a mortar round fell in front of a historical mosque in Damascus, killing 4 people and wounding 26. Six Syrians died and nine others were rescued after a boat sank off the coast of Turkey while trying to cross to the Greek island of Lesbos.
    (AP, 11/29/13)(Reuters, 11/29/13)

2013        Nov 30, In Syria government shelling of a market in al-Baba near Aleppo killed at least six people.
    (AP, 11/30/13)
2013        Nov 30, The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons  (OPCW) said the US has offered to help destroy some of the most lethal parts of Syria's chemical weapons stockpile at an offshore facility.
    (AP, 11/30/13)

2013        Dec 1, Syrian government helicopters dropped makeshift bombs on Al-Bab, rebel-held town near Aleppo. At least 20 people, including four children, were killed in a second day of deadly air strikes there.
    (AP, 12/1/13)(AFP, 12/1/13)

2013        Dec 2, In Syria opposition fighters abducted 12 nuns from Maaloula, a predominantly Christian village near the capital that was overrun by rebels. The nuns were reported freed on March 9.
    (AP, 12/3/13)(Reuters, 3/9/14)

2013        Dec 3, Syria's state TV reported that a suicide attacker blew himself up in central Damascus, killing 4 and wounding 17 others. Syria's Greek Orthodox patriarch appealed for the quick release of 12 nuns abducted by opposition forces a day earlier.
    (AP, 12/3/13)

2013        Dec 4, In Syria fighters linked to Al-Qaeda executed Yasser Faysal al-Joumaili (32), an Iraqi freelance cameraman. He was kidnapped by fighters of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) while on his way out of Syria and executed in the northwestern border province of Idlib.
    (AFP, 12/5/13)

2013        Dec 5, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said Jihadists in northern Syria have kidnapped more than 50 Kurds in the past three days.
    (AFP, 12/5/13)

2013        Dec 7, Syria’s largest Islamist rebel force seized arms depots belonging to the mainstream Western-backed Free Syrian Army. The Observatory said the arms had been brought across the border from Turkey and that five fighters were killed. Government aircraft pounded Raqqa, a rebel-held city in the country's northeast, killing at least 18 people including five children.
    (AFP, 12/7/13)(AFP, 12/8/13)

2013        Dec 8, Syrian regime forces made gains in the key town of Nabuk, one of the last rebel-held areas in the Qalamoun region bordering Lebanon. Ali Bazzi, a high-ranking Hezbollah military commander, was killed in a combat zone.
    (AFP, 12/8/13)

2013        Dec 9, Syrian troops captured a western town near the country's main north-south highway as the government forged ahead with a punishing offensive in a mountainous region near the border with Lebanon.
    (AP, 12/9/13)
2013        Dec 9, The World Health Organisation and UNICEF announced the launch of a polio vaccination campaign for 23 million children in the Middle East after 17 cases were discovered in Syria.
    (AFP, 12/9/13)

2013        Dec 10, Syrian government troops pounded a rebel stronghold near the Lebanese border, with airstrikes and artillery hitting Yabroud in the mountainous region where they believe opposition fighters are holding a group of nuns. In the north fighters belonging to rival Islamic rebel groups battled each other, killing at least 12. Gunmen abducted Razan Zaytouni, a leading human rights lawyer, along with her husband and two other activists from Douma, a suburb of Damascus.
    (AP, 12/10/13)(SFC, 12/11/13, p.A4)
2013        Dec 10, The UN said it would for the first time begin airlifting food and other aid items across the border from Iraq to Syria after receiving the go-ahead from both governments.
    (AFP, 12/10/13)

2013        Dec 11, The United States and Britain suspended all non-lethal aid to the opposition in northern Syria after Islamist rebels seized key bases and warehouses belonging to the Western-backed Free Syrian Army.
    (Reuters, 12/11/13)

2013        Dec 11, In Syria 32 people were killed in the town of Adra northeast of Damascus after an al-Qaida-linked rebel faction attack. The dead were primarily members the Alawite sect, as well as a few Druse and Shiite Muslims.
    (Reuters, 12/15/13)

2013        Dec 12, Syria's Western-backed opposition said it had invited Islamist fighters to secure its depots on the Turkish frontier after an attack by al Qaeda militants.
    (Reuters, 12/12/13)

2013        Dec 13, Syria’s state news agency SANA reported that authorities have freed for "humanitarian reasons" 366 detainees from Aleppo prison in the north of the country which is under rebel siege. Islamist rebels linked to al Qaeda kidnapped at least 120 Kurdish civilians from a village near the Turkish border in Aleppo province.
    (AFP, 12/13/13)(Reuters, 12/13/13)
2013        Dec 13, A UN inquiry published today said chemical weapons were likely used in five out of seven attacks investigated by UN experts in Syria, where a 2 1/2-year civil war has killed more than 100,000 people.
    (Reuters, 12/13/13)

2013        Dec 15, Syrian government helicopters pounded the neighborhoods of Haidariya, Ard al-Hamra and Sukhour with barrel bombs filled with explosives. Aircraft dropped barrel bombs on the contested northern city of Aleppo. The airstrikes killed at least 76 people.
    (AFP, 12/15/13)(AP, 12/16/13)
2013        Dec 15, The first UN aid flight from Iraq landed in northeastern Syria with badly needed supplies, after a winter storm delayed it for several days.
    (AFP, 12/15/13)

2013        Dec 16, Syrian government aircraft pounded opposition areas in the northern city of Aleppo and near the southern border with Jordan.
    (AP, 12/16/13)
2013        Dec 16, Turkey’s Hurriyet Daily News reported that Turkey has shipped 47 tons of weapons to Syrian rebels since June despite repeated government denials.
    (AFP, 12/16/13)
2013        Dec 16, The UN appealed for a record $6.5 billion for Syria and its neighbors to help 16 million people, many of them hungry or homeless victims of a conflict that has lasted 33 months with no end in sight.
    (Reuters, 12/16/13)

2013        Dec 17, In Syria 2 children were among at least 18 people killed in new air strikes on a rebel-held district of Aleppo. The 3-day assault has left over 100 dead.
    (AFP, 12/17/13)(SFC, 12/18/13, p.A5)
2013        Dec 17, Guinea-Bissau's Interior Minister Antonio Suka Ntchama became the second minister to step down in the tiny West African country amid an investigation into how 74 Syrians boarded a flight to Portugal with fake passports.
    (Reuters, 12/18/13)

2013        Dec 18, Syrian government forces pummeled opposition-held neighborhoods in Aleppo for a 4th day, leveling apartment buildings, flooding hospitals with casualties and killing nearly 200 people. Syria said that British doctor Abbas Khan, alleged to have been effectively murdered in custody, had hanged himself after being arrested for "unauthorized activities." On Oct 27, 2014, a British jury found that the regime of Bashar Assad had deliberately and intentionally killed Dr. Khan.
    (AP, 12/18/13)(AFP, 12/18/13)(Econ, 11/8/14, p.51)(Econ, 11/8/14, p.51)
2013        Dec 18, The heads of the UN and European Union aid agencies called for a "humanitarian ceasefire" in Syria to allow convoys to deliver help to areas that aid workers cannot reach.
    (Reuters, 12/18/13)

2013        Dec 19, Amnesty Int’l. accused an al-Qaida-linked rebel group that controls large parts of northern Syria of running secret prisons in which torture and summary killings are common.
    (AP, 12/19/13)
2013        Dec 19, A UN panel probing war crimes in Syria reported that people around the country are systematically vanishing without a trace as part of a widespread campaign of terror against civilians.
    (AP, 12/19/13)
2013        Dec 19, Danish lawmakers approved sending a cargo ship and a warship to pick up Syria's most dangerous chemical weapons.
    (AP, 12/19/13)

2013        Dec 20, Molhem Barakat, a Syrian photographer who took pictures for Reuters on a freelance basis, was killed while covering fighting in Aleppo.
    (Reuters, 12/21/13)
2013        Dec 20, The British government said it has agreed to destroy part of Syria's chemical weapons stockpile at a commercial facility.
    (Reuters, 12/20/13)

2013        Dec 21, In Lebanon Hezbollah fighters ambushed a group of Syrian rebels as they infiltrated through a smuggler route outside Nahle. About 30 rebels were reported killed.
    (SFC, 12/25/13, p.A2)

2013        Dec 22, Syrian aircraft pummeled an opposition neighborhood in Aleppo, killing at least 65 people and extending the government's furious aerial bombardment of the rebel-held half of the divided city to an eighth consecutive day. A suicide bomber detonated his bomb-rigged truck near a primary school in the Shiite town of Umm al-Amed, killing at least 12 people, half of them children.
    (AFP, 12/22/13)(AP, 12/22/13)(CSM, 12/23/13)

2013        Dec 23, Syrian government forces widened a northern bombing campaign striking Azaz and killing 15 people.
    (SFC, 12/24/13, p.A2)
2013        Dec 23, Russia said it has sent 25 armored trucks and 50 other vehicles to Syria to help transport toxins that are to be destroyed under an international agreement to rid the nation of its chemical arsenal.
    (Reuters, 12/23/13)

2013        Dec 24, Syrian government air raids on rebel-held areas of Aleppo killed at least 15 people, including three children.
    (AP, 12/24/13)

2013        Dec 25, Syria’s government signed a major oil and gas exploration deal with a Russian company in Damascus, which will allow for exploration in a section of Syrian waters.
    (AFP, 12/25/13)

2013        Dec 27, Syrian state TV and opposition activists say government forces have ambushed members of an al-Qaida-linked group, killing dozens of the Nusra Front rebels near Maaloula, a historic Christian village north of Damascus. A monitoring group said 5 people, including an elderly man, a woman and a disabled man, have died of hunger in a besieged Palestinian refugee camp south of Damascus.
    (AP, 12/27/13)(AFP, 12/27/13)(SFC, 12/28/13, p.A2)

2013        Dec 28, A Syrian army air strike on a vegetable market in the northern city of Aleppo killed at least 25 people.
    (Reuters, 12/28/13)

2013        Dec 29, In eastern Syria at least 19 rebels were killed in clashes for control of Deir Ezzor military air base. The government evacuated some 5,000 people from an embattled industrial town near Damascus where al-Qaida-linked rebels have been battling government troops for more than two weeks.
    (AFP, 12/29/13)(AP, 12/30/13)
2013        Dec 29, The United Nations said that it has completed the first aid airlift from Iraq to Syria, providing much-needed supplies to a difficult-to-access region of the war-torn country.
    (AFP, 12/29/13)

2013        Dec 30, Lebanese forces fired on Syrian aircraft that violated the country's airspace, the first time they have done so since Syria's uprising broke out three years ago.
    (AP, 12/30/13)
2013        Dec 30, Disarmament teams returned Scandinavian escort vessels to port as they accepted an end-of-year deadline for the removal of Syrian chemical weapons could no longer be met. Norway and Denmark were providing ships to transfer the the chemical weapons to the Cape Ray, an American-owned ship fitted with equipment to break down lethal chemical agents to an industrial toxic waste.
    (AFP, 12/31/13)(Econ, 12/14/13, p.58)
2013        Dec 30, The UN appealed for the Syrian army and rebel fighters to allow urgent aid to reach a Palestinian district of southern Damascus where it said 15 people have died of malnutrition in recent months.
    (Reuters, 12/30/13)

2013        Dec 31, In Syria a missile struck a bus in a rebel-held area of Aleppo, setting it on fire and killing at least 10 people. State media reported that a rebel-fired mortar shell killed 3 people in Homs. ISIS fighters returned the torture-marked corpse of a doctor-cum-commander with Ahrar al-Sham, a Salafist rebel group which had hitherto been an ally.
    (AP, 12/31/13)(Econ, 1/11/14, p.39)

2013        Basel Rajoub, Syrian composer and saxophone player, and his ensemble Soriana launched their first CD, a meld of jazz and Middle Eastern improvisation.
    (Econ, 3/18/17, p.85)

2014        Jan 1, Syrian warplanes bombed a barren range of Lebanese hills used by Syrian rebels and refugees to cross between the two countries, wounding at least 10 Syrians who were rushed to hospital in a nearby Lebanese town.
    (AP, 1/1/14)
2014        Jan 1, The Syrian Electronic Army, an amorphous hacker collective that supports Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, claimed credit for hacking into the social media accounts of Internet calling service Skype.
    (Reuters, 1/1/14)
2014        Jan 1, An NGO said more than 73,000 people were killed in Syria in 2013.
    (AFP, 1/1/14)

2014        Jan 2, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 8 people held by the Syrian government in Aleppo's central prison have died over the past two days from malnutrition. Five staffers of Doctors Without Borders (MSF) were taken from a house they were using in Syria.
    (AFP, 1/2/14)(AFP, 1/4/14)

2014        Jan 4, The Lebanese army said Saudi citizen Majid al-Majid, the "emir" of the Abdullah Azzam Brigades fighting in Syria, died while undergoing treatment at the central military hospital.
    (AP, 1/4/14)

2014        Jan 5, Syrian opposition fighters seized a compound garrisoned by an al-Qaida-linked rebel faction, in some of the most serious infighting to date within the vast array of rebel groups trying to topple Pres. Assad.
    (AP, 1/5/14)

2014        Jan 6, In Syria rival Islamist rebel groups fought in Raqqa, as local fighters tried to drive out a foreign-led al Qaeda affiliate which has also seized towns across the border in Iraq. The al-Qaida-linked ISIL (aka ISIS) group killed 50 people before surrendering its Aleppo base.
    (Reuters, 1/6/14)(AP, 1/7/14)(Econ, 1/11/14, p.40)

2014        Jan 7, Syria's Information Minister said the Syrian people have decided President Bashar al-Assad should be nominated for another term and would pressure him to stand in elections this year.
    (Reuters, 1/7/14)
2014        Jan 7, Syria moved the first batch of chemical weapon materials out of the country after transporting it from two sites to the port city of Latakia and onto a Danish vessel.
    (Reuters, 1/7/14)
2014        Jan 7, In Syria Abu Mohammed al-Golani, the leader of the al-Qaida-linked Nusra Front, called for a ceasefire between opposition factions who have clashed for five days in the bloodiest episode of infighting since the revolt against President Bashar al-Assad began. A suicide car bombing by al-Qaida-linked ISIL fighters killed at least 20 rebels near the northern city of Darkoush. 3 staff members of Prague-based "People in Need" were killed in a mortar attack.
    (Reuters, 1/7/14)(AP, 1/8/14)(AFP, 1/9/14)

2014        Jan 8, Syrian rebels seized control of a hospital used as a headquarters by an al-Qaida affiliate in the northern city of Aleppo, part of a widening campaign against the extremist group in the country's opposition-held north. Rebels overran the Aleppo headquarters of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), as claims emerged that the Al-Qaeda linked group had massacred prisoners there in cold blood.
    (AP, 1/8/14)(AFP, 1/9/14)

2014        Jan 9, In Syria a powerful car bomb exploded near a school in al-Kaffat village, Hama province, killing at least 16 people and causing massive damage to a residential area. Jihadists battling rebels in the north fought to recover lost turf nearly a week after a new front opened in the conflict gripping the country. Syrian government forces killed dozens of rebel fighters overnight who tried to break an army siege of Homs.
    (AP, 1/9/14)(AFP, 1/9/14)(Reuters, 1/10/14)
2014        Jan 9, Disparate Syrian opposition groups, including several Islamist rebel representatives, met for the first time in the Spanish city of Cordoba to seek common ground ahead of peace talks with President Bashar al-Assad's government later this month.
    (Reuters, 1/9/14)
2014        Jan 9, Germany said it has accepted a UN request to destroy remnants of Syria's chemical weapons on its own soil as part of a bid to eliminate the arsenal by June 30.
    (AFP, 1/9/14)

2014        Jan 11, In Syria the ISIL al-Qaeda affiliate battled rival rebels across the country's north and dozens of bodies piled up in a hospital in the insurgent-held city of Raqqa. Government shelling killed more than 20 people in the central city of Homs.
    (Reuters, 1/11/14)(AP, 1/12/14)

2014        Jan 12, Syrian state media and anti-government activists said a mortar attack has killed at least 19 people in the central city of Homs. Activists said the al Qaeda-linked Islamist State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) has executed dozens of rival Islamists over the last two days as the group recaptured most territory it had lost in Raqqa province.
    (AP, 1/12/14)(Reuters, 1/12/14)

2014        Jan 13, In Syria the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) seized the northern town of al-Bab. American and Russian negotiators in Paris said Syria's government and the opposition have agreed to consider opening humanitarian access in the run-up to a peace conference that would bring the sides together for the first time. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said ISIL had executed 46 Islamists from the Ahrar al-Sham in an ambush in Kantari and killed 14 prisoners today in Homs province.
    (AP, 1/13/14)(AFP, 1/14/14)
2014        Jan 13, US and Russian envoys said Syria’s government and the main opposition group have agreed to allow humanitarian aid into some blocked-off parts of the country.
    (SFC, 1/14/14, p.A4)

2014        Jan 14, The Syrian said it has retaken territory around the northern city of Aleppo, after two weeks of rebel infighting that has weakened the insurgency against President Bashar al-Assad.
    (Reuters, 1/14/14)

2014        Jan 15, In Syria a car bomb planted by rebels linked to al Qaeda killed at least 26 people in the northern city of Jarablus, most of them rival opposition fighters.
    (Reuters, 1/15/14)
2014        Jan 15, Donors gathered in Kuwait as the UN sent out a distress signal, warning that nearly half Syria's population needs urgent humanitarian assistance and that some 245,000 Syrians faced severe food shortages. Western and Gulf Arab nations pledged $1.4 billion for UN aid efforts in Syria. This included $500 million from Kuwait and 380 million from the US.
    (AFP, 1/15/14)(Reuters, 1/15/14)

2014        Jan 17, Syria's foreign minister said his country is prepared to implement a cease-fire in the war-torn city of Aleppo and exchange detainees with the country's opposition forces as a confidence building measure ahead of a peace conference opening next week in Switzerland.
    (AP, 1/17/14)
2014        Jan 17, Syrian rebels ousted al Qaeda-linked faction ISIL, from Saraqeb, one of its northwestern bastions.
    (Reuters, 1/17/14)
2014        Jan 17, In Lebanon rocket fire into the border town of Arsal killed at 8 people, including 5 children. At least 20 rockets launched from Syria struck Lebanese frontier areas.
    (Reuters, 1/17/14)(AFP, 1/17/14)
2014        Jan 17, Sources said that Russia in recent weeks has stepped up supplies of military gear to Syria, including armored vehicles, drones and guided bombs, boosting President Bashar al-Assad just as rebel infighting has weakened the insurgency against him.
    (Reuters, 1/17/14)

2014        Jan 18, The National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces voted to send a delegation to an int’l. peace conference set to begin next week in Geneva.
    (SSFC, 1/19/14, p.A6)
2014        Jan 18, In Syria food aid entered the besieged Yarmuk Palestinian refugee camp for the first time in four months. The delivery of food followed reports that dozens of people in the camp in southern Damascus have died of hunger and lack of medical care.
    (AFP, 1/18/14)

2014        Jan 19, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon said Iran has been invited to attend a Jan 22 meeting of foreign ministers in the Swiss city of Montreux ahead of internationally brokered peace talks between Syria's warring factions. The UN invite sparked a boycott call from the opposition and President Bashar al-Assad ruled out a power-sharing deal.
    (AP, 1/19/14)(AFP, 1/20/14)

2014        Jan 20, Iran rebuffed a precondition for taking part in Syria peace talks in Geneva this week, saying it could not accept a plan for a Syrian political transition agreed at talks in the Swiss city in 2012. In response UN leader Ban Ki-moon withdrew his surprise invitation to Iran, less than 24 hours after he announced it.
    (Reuters, 1/20/14)(AFP, 1/21/14)

2014        Jan 21, A report on Syria, commissioned by the government of Qatar, detailed photographic and documentary evidence of systematic torture and killing of some 11,000 detainees between march 2011 and August 2013.
    (Econ, 1/25/14, p.38)(http://tinyurl.com/qhbyqde)
2014        Jan 21, Britain told Iran to stop supporting the Syrian government of Bashar al-Assad militarily, urging it to back efforts to broker peace in Syria instead.
    (Reuters, 1/21/14)
2014        Jan 21, Kurds in northeast Syria, on the eve of peace talks in Switzerland,  declared a provincial government in the area.
    (Reuters, 1/22/14)

2014        Jan 22, Syria hailed the reopening of Aleppo international airport after a year's closure as a military victory over rebels. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported clashes between government forces and opposition fighters in the suburbs of Damascus, Daraa in the south, Idlib and Aleppo in the north and the central province of Homs.
    (Reuters, 1/22/14)(AP, 1/22/14)
2014        Jan 22, In Switzerland peace talks intended to carve a path out of Syria's civil war got off to a rocky start as a bitter clash over President Bashar Assad's future threatened to collapse the negotiations even before they really begin.
    (AP, 1/22/14)

2014        Jan 23, Iran’s President Hassan Rouhani told the World Economic Forum in Davos that Tehran was ready to help create a new multilateral body tasked with stabilising global energy supplies. Rouhani also called for free and fair elections in Syria, saying it would respect any outcome.
    (AFP, 1/23/14)(AP, 1/23/14)

2014        Jan 24, A Syrian activist group said 63 people have died since last June in the besieged Yarmouk Palestinian refugee camp from a lack of food and medicine.
    (AP, 1/24/14)
2014        Jan 24, Direct talks in Geneva were scrapped between Syrian President Bashar Assad's government and the Western-backed opposition that wants to overthrow him. Barrel bomb attacks on Aleppo's outlying industrial city and the Sheikh Najjar districts killed 10 people,
    (AP, 1/24/14)(AFP, 1/25/14)
2014        Jan 24, Iran's foreign minister, speaking at the World Economic Forum in Davos, called for all "foreign elements" to leave Syria so its people can decide their future themselves.
    (AP, 1/24/14)

2014        Jan 25, Syria's air force struck rebel-held areas near Damascus and Aleppo.
    (AP, 1/25/14)
2014        Jan 25, In Switzerland the first face-to-face meeting between Syria's government and the opposition hoping to overthrow President Bashar Assad ended after barely a half-hour, with the two sides facing each other silently as a UN mediator laid groundwork for talks.
    (AP, 1/25/14)

2014        Jan 26, Syrians on opposite sides of their country's civil war tried again to find common ground in Geneva. The UN mediator said the two sides have reached a deal to allow women and children to leave Homs, a city under government siege for more than a year.
    (AP, 1/26/14)

2014        Jan 27, In Geneva the first meeting meant to discuss the issue of a Syrian transitional government broke up less than an hour after it began following a tense session that one delegate described as "a dialogue of the deaf." UN envoy Brahimi broke up the meeting and was scheduled to meet with both sides separately later in the day.
    (AP, 1/27/14)

2014        Jan 28, Britain announced it would take in hundreds of vulnerable Syrian refugees, targeting those most traumatized by the 3-year civil war.
    (AFP, 1/28/14)

2014        Jan 29, Syrian negotiators in Geneva discussed the establishment of a transitional government body for the first time.
    (AP, 1/29/14)

2014        Jan 30, In Syria at least 11 people, including three children, were killed by explosive-packed barrels dropped from government army helicopters over the town of Daraya.
    (AFP, 1/30/14)

2014        Jan 31, The Syrian Observatory for Human Right said fighting in Syria has killed nearly 1,900 people, including at least 430 civilians, during the week of UN-hosted peace talks in Switzerland. Negotiations in Geneva wrapped up and were likely to resume from February 10.
    (AP, 1/31/14)(AFP, 1/31/14)
2014        Jan 31, The UN distributed food in the Syrian capital's besieged Yarmuk Palestinian refugee camp for a second day in a bid to help tens of thousands of trapped civilians. Government shelling killed at least 16 people in a rebel-held area of the northern city of Aleppo.
    (AFP, 1/31/14)(AP, 1/31/14)

2014        Feb 1, In Syria at least 9 people were killed when Syrian regime helicopters dropped explosive-filled barrels on two neighborhoods of the northern city of Aleppo. At least 7 people killed in a double car bombing carried out by the jihadist Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) targeting a rebel headquarters in Aleppo.
    (AFP, 2/1/14)

2014        Feb 2, Syrian military helicopters dropped more improvised "barrel bombs" on the northern city of Aleppo, a monitoring group said, bringing the death toll to at least 83 people in the latest episode of a campaign many consider a war crime. A twin car bombing killed a senior leader in an Islamic brigade opposed to al-Qaida near Aleppo.
    (Reuters, 2/2/14)(AP, 2/2/14)
2014        Feb 2, In northern Syria ISIL fighters freed more than 400 people from a prison, who had been held by the rival Islamist Liwa al-Tawhid unit. In the eastern province of Deir al-Zor ISIL seized the Koniko gas field from the Nusra Front and other Islamist rebels who had controlled it for several weeks after wresting it from tribal gunmen.
    (Reuters, 2/3/14)

2014        Feb 3, Al Qaeda's general command said it had no links with the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), in an apparent attempt to reassert its authority over fragmented Islamist fighters in Syria's civil war.
    (Reuters, 2/3/14)

2014        Feb 4, Syrian forces dropped a barrel bomb on the Uthman Bin Affan mosque that was being used as a school in a rebel-held neighborhood of Aleppo, killing at least 5 people, including children. Barrel bombs were also dropped over other rebel-held neighborhoods in Aleppo.
    (AP, 2/4/14)

2014        Feb 5, Syria missed a deadline to hand over all the toxic materials it declared to the world's chemical weapons watchdog, putting the program several weeks behind schedule and jeopardizing a final June 30 deadline.
    (Reuters, 2/5/14)

2014        Feb 6, The Syrian government reached an agreement with the UN to secure the evacuation of hundreds of trapped civilians from besieged parts of Homs. A suicide bomber blew himself up at the gates of a prison in Aleppo and opposition fighters stormed in freeing hundreds of prisoners. State-run Syrian television said the army foiled an attempt by "terrorist groups" to attack the prison.
    (AP, 2/6/14)(SFC, 2/7/14, p.A6)

2014        Feb 7, Famished and traumatized Syrians were able to leave besieged parts of Homs for the first time in more than a year as part of a potentially ground breaking agreement between the Syrian government and the United Nations.
    (Time.com, 2/7/14)

2014        Feb 8, In Syria new aerial bombardment from explosives-packed barrel bombs in Aleppo killed at least 20 people. Renewed fighting broke a cease-fire in Homs and halted a plan to evacuate civilians and bring supplies into rebel-held areas under siege.
    (AFP, 2/8/14)(AP, 2/8/14)

2014        Feb 9, In Syria the governor Homs said that over 600 people have been evacuated from rebel-held parts of the city, in a rare 3-day cease-fire with rebels. Government aircraft dropped barrel bombs on Aleppo, killing at least 11 people. Extremist Islamic rebels overran Maan village in Hama province, populated by the Alawite minority, and killed at least 40 people
    (AP, 2/9/14)(AP, 2/10/14)

2014        Feb 10, Syria shipped out a third consignment of chemical weapons materials and has also destroyed some materials on its territory.
    (Reuters, 2/10/14)
2014        Feb 10, Peace talks between the Syrian government and the opposition resumed in Geneva.
    (AP, 2/10/14)

2014        Feb 11, In Syria the evacuation of civilians from besieged rebel-held areas of Homs was suspended, as a mediator said peace talks in Switzerland were making little progress.
    (AFP, 2/11/14)

2014        Feb 12, Syrian government forces and fighters from Lebanese ally Hezbollah pounded Syria's strategic border town of Yabroud in apparent preparation for a new offensive to flush out rebels. At least 51 people were reportedly killed in Aleppo, mainly by barrel bombs dropped on eight rebel-held districts from helicopters.
    (Reuters, 2/12/14)(AP, 2/13/14)

2014        Feb 13, Syrian activists said government shelling and airstrikes using makeshift barrel bombs have killed about 400 people in Aleppo so far this month. The governor of the central province of Homs says a cease-fire has been extended for three days as of today.
    (AP, 2/13/14)

2014        Feb 14, In Syria a car bomb killed at least 32 people the town of al-Yaduda (Yadouda) near the border with Jordan. At least 5 soldiers were killed when Islamist rebels detonated mines under the Carlton hotel in Aleppo. In Geneva Syrian government and opposition delegates said talks to end their country's civil war have reached an impasse, with the US and Russia backing the rival camps and trading accusations over the deadlock. International mediator Lakhdar Brahimi told delegates that he plans to take the talks into a third round.
    (Reuters, 2/14/14)(AP, 2/14/14)(AFP, 2/14/14)
2014        Feb 14, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said an al Qaeda splinter group (ISIL) has executed at least 13 people including relatives of fighters from rival rebel groups before withdrawing from a town near Aleppo. It did not say when the incident took place in Haritan.
    (Reuters, 2/14/14)

2014        Feb 15, Jordanian forces wounded 7 and arrested 3 after 10 gunmen from Syria opened fire on troops patrolling a northern border area.
    (AP, 2/16/14)

2014        Feb 16, The Western-backed Free Syrian Army appointed a new military chief. Brig. Gen. Abdul-Ilah al-Bashir replaces Gen. Salim Idris, who was criticized by many in the opposition for being ineffective.
    (AP, 2/17/14)

2014        Feb 17, Syrian government troops took control of the village of Maan after destroying the last "hideouts of terrorists, who came into the village and committed a massacre." Anti-Assad Islamic fighters overran the village on Feb 9.
    (AP, 2/18/14)

2014        Feb 18, A Syrian government barrel bomb landed next to a school in the village of Mzairib. 18 people were killed, including 15 Palestinian refugees.
    (Econ, 2/22/14, p.40)

2014        Feb 20, In northern Syria a powerful explosion rocked the Bab al-Salama border crossing with Turkey, killing at least 5 people and wounding many others.
    (AP, 2/20/14)

2014        Feb 21, The Syrian army intensified its aerial bombardment of southern Syria as opposition fighters were preparing to launch a wide offensive in a province bordering Jordan. In Geneva the UN’s refugee agency called on countries to make commitments to provide resettlement for an additional 100,000 Syrian refugees in 2015 and 2016. A group of 38 male evacuees from besieged parts of Homs were released after investigation, leaving almost 200 others still being held.
    (AP, 2/21/14)(AFP, 2/21/14)

2014        Feb 22, Syrian state TV said government forces have captured two rebel-held areas on the edge of the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights. In the northeast Kurdish members of the “People's Protection Units" captured Tel Brak in a battle left some 19 people dead.
    (AP, 2/22/14)
2014        Feb 22, In Syria Akram al-Bunni, a prominent leftist writer and former political prisoner, was abducted by government intelligence agents as he left a wedding reception at a Damascus hotel.
    (Reuters, 2/23/14)

2014        Feb 23, In Syria 2 suicide bombers killed a senior al-Qaida operative, blowing themselves up inside the militant leader's compound in Aleppo. Rebels said Abu Khaled al-Suri was the representative of al-Qaida chief Ayman al-Zawahri in Syria. A car bomb exploded near a charity field hospital close to the Turkish border. At least one person was killed. Another 60 boys and men, who were being held by Syrian authorities after their evacuation from besieged Homs, were released.
    (AP, 2/23/14)(AFP, 2/24/14)

2014        Feb 24, In central Syria air raids on rebel-held towns killed 18 people. Airstrikes killed some 10 people in the northern city of Sheikh Khader.
    (Reuters, 2/24/14)(AP, 2/24/14)

2014        Feb 25, In Syria Abu Mohammed al-Golani, leader of the Nusra Front, called on the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) group to agree to arbitration by religious scholars to end more than a year of feuding which has turned violent in some areas.
    (Reuters, 2/25/14)

2014        Feb 26, Syrian state media said army troops killed 175 rebels in an ambush south of Damascus, a major attack targeting mostly al-Qaida-linked fighters as part of a government effort to secure the capital.
    (AP, 2/26/14)

2014        Feb 27, Syrian TV said a mortar shell landed near a hospital in a government-controlled neighborhood of Homs, killing at least 5 people.
    (AP, 2/27/14)

2014        Feb 28, Jihadi social media said Islamist militants trying to enforce their religious strict code in rebel-held areas of Syria have cut off the hand of an alleged thief in Aleppo province. Members of an al-Qaida-breakaway group (ISIL) withdrew from parts of Aleppo, ahead of a March 1 deadline issued by another rebel group. Residents found at least two mass graves in their wake, one with 17 and the other with 5 bodies.
    (Reuters, 2/28/14)(AP, 2/28/14)(AP, 3/2/14)

2014        Mar 1, In northwest Syria government airstrikes killed at least 13 people in Kfar Takharim, Idlib province.
    (AP, 3/2/14)

2014        Mar 2, In Syria gun battles and shelling hit the Palestinian camp of Yarmuk in southern Damascus, breaking a truce in place since mid-February.
    (AFP, 3/2/14)

2014        Mar 3, Syrian troops seized control of a village near the strategic rebel bastion of Yabroud as they pushed closer to the town. Food deliveries to thousands of people living in a blockaded area in southern Damascus ground to a halt after a truce collapsed and clashes broke out between rebels and forces loyal to the government. Fighting in and around Yabroud killed dozens of people, including about 17 rebels, 15 government and allied militia fighters and at least 4 Hezbollah fighters.
    (AFP, 3/3/14)(AP, 3/3/14)(Reuters, 3/4/14)

2014        Mar 4, Syria's military fought to take Yabroud, a town that would help Pres. al-Assad seal a link between his coastal bastions and Damascus.
    (AP, 3/4/14)

2014        Mar 5, The Israeli navy seized a ship in the Red Sea that was carrying dozens of advanced Iranian-supplied rockets made in Syria and intended for Palestinian guerrillas in the Gaza Strip.
    (Reuters, 3/5/14)

2014        Mar 6, In Syria at least 15 people were killed and 12 others wounded in a car bomb blast in Homs. At least five people were killed and more than 20 wounded in a bomb blast near a security headquarters in Hama. At least 17 jihadists were killed in fighting near the rebel-held town of Yabrud.
    (AFP, 3/6/14)(AFP, 3/7/14)

2014        Mar 7, Syrian warplanes pounded an area near the rebel-held town of Yabrud near the Lebanese border.
    (AFP, 3/7/14)

2014        Mar 8, Syrian government forces seized Zara from rebels near the Lebanese border, their latest attempt to cut off opposition fighters' fluid supply lines from the country. At least 20 people were killed after gunmen loyal to Pres. Assad entered the town, one of two last strongholds for rebels along the Lebanese border leading to the city of Homs, the other being the nearby village of al-Hosn. Syrian cameraman Omar Abdelqade was killed covering clashes between government forces and opposition fighters in the eastern city of Deir al-Zor.
    (AP, 3/8/14)(Reuters, 3/9/14)(SSFC, 3/9/14, p.A6)

2014        Mar 9, In Syria Ali Moustafa, a Canadian freelance photographer, was killed alongside 7 other people after government aircraft dropped two explosive-laden containers in the rebel-held Hadariyeh area of Aleppo.
    (AP, 3/9/14)

2014        Mar 11, In northeastern Syria 3 suicide bombers detonated their explosives belts in a local administration building in a Kurdish town, killing at least 5 people.
    (AP, 3/11/14)

2014        Mar 13, Syria's parliament unanimously approved a new election law  allowing multiple candidates to run for president, opening the door — at least in theory — to other potential contenders besides President Assad. However only candidates who have lived in Syria for 10 consecutive prior to nomination can run.
    (AP, 3/13/14)(SFC, 3/14/14, p.A4)

2014        Mar 14, In Syria al Qaeda splinter group ISIL pulled out of two provinces in the country's northwest and headed to its eastern strongholds after months of clashes with rival rebels. A senior commander in the Nusra Front was killed on the outskirts of Yabroud during shelling and clashes with the army and Hezbollah fighters.
    (Reuters, 3/14/14)(Reuters, 3/15/14)

2014        Mar 15, Syrian soldiers entered eastern districts of the town of Yabroud, the last rebel bastion near the Lebanese border north of Damascus, and advanced towards the main street.
    (Reuters, 3/15/14)

2014        Mar 16, Syrian troops backed by Hezbollah fighters seized Yabroud, a key rebel supply town on the Lebanese border, driving them from the area and scoring a major blow against them in the three-year-old-conflict.
    (AP, 3/16/14)
2014        Mar 18, The Syria cabinet proudly announced the creation of a national space agency.
    (Econ, 3/22/14, p.50)
2014        Mar 18, An explosion in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights wounded four Israeli soldiers near the Syrian frontier. Israeli forces responded with artillery fire into Syrian-held territory.
    (Reuters, 3/18/14)(Reuters, 3/19/14)
2014        Mar 18, Gunmen from Lebanon's militant Hezbollah group and local Shiite residents tightened their chokehold on Arsal, a Sunni town near the Syrian border, sparking concerns the standoff would cut off aid to thousands of Syrian refugees stranded in the area.
    (AP, 3/18/14)
2014        Mar 18, United Nations human rights investigators said they have added to their list of suspected war criminals from both sides in the Syrian civil war after a new round of atrocities in recent weeks.
    (Reuters, 3/18/14)

2014        Mar 19, In Syria rebels seized took control of the Gharaz Central Prison on the outskirts of Deraa where the uprising began three years ago this month and freed dozens of inmates.
    (Reuters, 3/19/14)
2014        Mar 19, Syria and its Russian ally criticized the decision by the United States to suspend the operations of Syria's embassy in Washington and consulates in other cities.
    (Reuters, 3/19/14)
2014        Mar 19, Australia’s Courier Mail reported that Canar Temel (22), a soldier who went AWOL from his Brisbane unit two years ago, has turned up dead after fighting alongside ISIL rebels in Syria.
    (SSFC, 3/23/14, p.A4)
2014        Mar 19, Israel launched air strikes against Syrian military sites in response to a roadside bombing that wounded four of its soldiers, but both sides signaled they were not seeking further escalation. The airstrikes in the Golan Heights killed one Syrian soldier and wounded seven.
    (Reuters, 3/19/14)(AP, 3/19/14)

2014        Mar 20, Syrian troops raised the national flag on the Crac des Chevaliers, a famous Crusades-era citadel near the border with Lebanon, after days of intense fighting against opposition fighters. 93 of the opposition fighters were reported killed as they fled to Lebanon.
    (AP, 3/20/14)(AP, 3/21/14)
2014        Mar 20, Several UN aid trucks crossed the Turkish border into Syria for the first time.
    (Reuters, 3/20/14)

2014        Mar 21, In Syria 34 people were killed as Islamists sought to seize a border crossing into Turkey.
    (AFP, 3/22/14)

2014        Mar 22, In Syria fighting raged between rebels and loyalist forces in northern Latakia province. Hilal al-Assad, a first cousin of the president and president of the Syrian Arabian Horse Association, was killed in the battle for a border crossing with Turkey in the north of Latakia.
    (AFP, 3/22/14)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Assad_family)

2014        Mar 23, In Syria fighters from an array of armed opposition groups seized the predominantly Armenian Christian town of Kassab.
    (AP, 3/24/14)
2014        Mar 23, Turkish fighter jets shot down a Syrian warplane after it violated Turkey's airspace. The pilot safely ejected from the aircraft.
    (AP, 3/23/14)

2014        Mar 25, Syria's opposition fighters seized Samra a Mediterranean coastal village as they pushed to consolidate their presence in a key regime bastion near the Turkish border.
    (AFP, 3/25/14)

2014        Mar 26, In their “Kuwait Declaration" Arab leaders called for a political solution to the conflict in Syria, overlooking Saudi-backed demands for greater military support for rebel forces to tip the balance in the war. The Arab League also announced their "total rejection of the call to consider Israel a Jewish state," in the final statement.
    (AFP, 3/26/14)

2014        Mar 27, Syrian forces bombarded rebel positions with artillery and warplanes in the Mediterranean coastal province of Latakia.
    (AP, 3/27/14)

2014        Mar 28, The UN's top human rights body voted overwhelmingly to renew its war crimes investigation in Syria for another year.
    (AP, 3/28/14)

2014        Mar 29, Syrian government forces captured two villages near the border with Lebanon, continuing a weeks-long advance that has cut a major supply route for weapons and fighters from eastern Lebanon.
    (AP, 3/29/14)

2014        Mar 31, Syrian army troops recaptured a key position in coastal Latakia province. Observatory 45 is a strategic hilltop that overlooks several areas inhabited by residents from the Alawite community.
    (AP, 3/31/14)

2014        Mar, In Syria Hezbollah commandos infiltrated Syrian rebel-held territory near the Lebanese border, watching rebel fighters come and go from a two-story villa before slipping inside to plant a powerful bomb. The next morning, they detonated it as three rebel explosive experts and four assistants met inside, turning the villa to rubble in seconds.
    (AP, 4/12/14)

2014        Apr 1, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least 150,000 people have been killed in Syria's three-year-old civil war, a third of them civilians.
    (Reuters, 4/1/14)

2014        Apr 2, In Syria Brahim Benchakroun, a former Guantanamo detainee, was reportedly killed while fighting government forces in Latakia province. He was better known in Syria as Abu Ahmad al-Maghribi.
    (AP, 4/3/14)

2014        Apr 3, In Syria mortar fire killed at least six children in a suburb of Damascus.  22 opposition fighters were killed in the army's bombardment of Mleiha east of Damascus.
    (AP, 4/3/14)(AFP, 4/4/14)
2014        Apr 3, The number of Syrian refugees who have fled to Lebanon officially topped 1 million.
    (Reuters, 4/3/14)

2014        Apr 4, In Syria regime tanks and warplanes pounded besieged Mleiha east of Damascus, pressing a campaign to take control of the opposition-held town. Fighting resumed in Latakia where more than 300 fighters on both sides have been killed in the past two weeks.
    (AFP, 4/4/14)
2014        Apr 4, Syria completed the delivery of a consignment of chemical weapons materials for export and destruction overseas.
    (SFC, 4/5/14, p.A2)

2014        Apr 5, In Syria mortar shells continued to hit Damascus and the central city of Homs amid heavy fighting. A rocket hit Homs and struck a market in the western neighborhood of Inshaat, killing six people. 2 fighters from the Nusra Front, al Qaeda's affiliate in Syria, were killed in the easterly Hasaka province during fighting around the town of Markadah with an al Qaeda splinter group.
    (AP, 4/5/14)(Reuters, 4/6/14)

2014        Apr 6, In Syria at least 13 rebel fighters were killed in a vehicle explosion in Homs. At least 5 people including three children were reported killed in the Damascus suburb of Douma during shelling by government forces. 2 people were killed and eight wounded when mortar fire hit the grounds of the Damascus Opera House. Several rebels were killed while they were rigging a car with explosives in Homs.
    (Reuters, 4/6/14)(AP, 4/6/14)(AP, 4/7/14)

2014        Apr 7, In Syria the strategic area of Rankus in Qalamun went under heavy regime shelling and continuous air raids, ahead of a plan to storm it.
    (AFP, 4/8/14)
2014        Apr 7, In Syria a masked gunman assassinated Jesuit Father Francis Van Der Lugt (75), a well-known, elderly Dutch priest, shooting him in the head in the garden of a monastery where he lived in Homs.
    (AP, 4/7/14)

2014        Apr 8, Syrian state media said Iran has sent 30,000 tons of food supplies to help President Bashar Assad's government deal with shortages amid civil war.
    (AP, 4/8/14)

2014        Apr 9, In Syria forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad recaptured the rebel-held border town of Rankous. Two car bombs in Homs killed at least 25 people.
    (Reuters, 4/9/14)(SFC, 4/10/14, p.A4)
2014        Apr 9, Kuwait said three of its citizens have been kidnapped in Syria and it has asked Turkey for help in trying to secure their release. Kidnappers asked for a ransom of 1 million euros ($1.38 million).
    (Reuters, 4/10/14)

2014        Apr 10, In northeastern Syria fierce infighting between rival Islamic rebel groups along the border with Iraq killed at least 24 fighters.
    (AP, 4/10/14)

2014        Apr 11, Syria's Al-Qaeda affiliate and its allies repulsed an assault by jihadist rivals (ISIL) on Abu Kamal, a town on the Iraqi border, in fighting that killed 86 people. People choking from poisoning were hospitalized after air raids with barrel bombs on the town of Kafr Zita. State television the next day reported that Al-Qaeda affiliate Al-Nusra Front had released chlorine gas in an attack on the town that left at least two people dead.
    (AFP, 4/11/14)(AFP, 4/12/14)(SSFC, 4/13/14, p.A3)

2014        Apr 13, In Syria shelling and firefights between government forces and rebels in Aleppo killed at least 29 people over the last 24 hours. Activists from the "Syrian Revolution in Kfar Zeita" posted video footage and pictures of an unexploded canister with the chemical symbol for chlorine, Cl2, on its side which they said was found in Kfar Zeita village. Rebels and the government have blamed each other for the alleged poison gas attacks on April 11-12.
    (AP, 4/13/14)(Reuters, 4/14/14)

2014        Apr 14, Syrian troops retook the ancient Christian town of Maalula from rebels. More than 30 mortars fired from rebel areas landed on the loyalist Damascus suburb of Jaramana, killing 5 people.
    (AFP, 4/14/14)(Econ, 4/19/14, p.42)

2014        Apr 15, Syria's army launched a major ground assault on the central city of Homs, with troops entering rebel-held districts under government siege for nearly two years. Two mortar rounds landed near schools in predominantly Christian districts Damascus, killing one child and wounding 41 other people.
    (AFP, 4/15/14)(AP, 4/15/14)
2014        Apr 15, The UN Security Council met privately to view projected slides of bodies from the civil war in which more than 150,000 have died. Ten of the photos were publicly released in January in a study known as the "Caesar Report," which was funded by the government of Qatar.
    (AP, 4/15/14)

2014        Apr 16, Syrian military airstrikes killed at least four people in Zabadani, a rebel-held town along the Lebanese border.
    (AP, 4/16/14)
2014        Apr 16, Jordanian warplanes hit and destroyed several vehicles trying to cross the border from Syria. The targets appeared to have been Syrian rebels with machine guns mounted on civilian vehicles who were seeking refugee from fighting with government forces.
    (Reuters, 4/16/14)

2014        Apr 18, In Syria a bomb went off in front of a mosque on the edge of Akrama and killed 14 people. Hundreds of rebel fighters and civilians remain trapped in the ancient quarter of Homs, surrounded by government forces and pro-Assad militia. In Aleppo at least 10 people were killed in shelling and aerial bombardment of rebel-held areas.
    (Reuters, 4/18/14)(AFP, 4/19/14)(SFC, 4/19/14, p.A2)

2014        Apr 19, In central Syria two rebel car bombs targeted Homs and Salamiya, two areas controlled by government forces, killing at least ten people as opposition forces fought fiercely to hold onto territory.
    (AP, 4/19/14)

2014        Apr 20, In Syria dozens of people were killed in air strikes on Aleppo, including at least 29 people in a single neighborhood. Former German rapper Denis Mamadou Cuspert, aka Deso Dogg, was among 16 killed in a suicide attack by Al-Nusra Front in an eastern province. In Syria he had joined ISIL and taken on the name Abu Talha al-Almani.
    (Reuters, 4/21/14)(AFP, 4/22/14)

2014        Apr 21, Syria’s parliament speaker announced that presidential elections will be held on June 3. Five people were reported killed when two mortar shells struck central Damascus.
    (AP, 4/21/14)

2014        Apr 22, Turkey’s PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan said number of Syrian refugees in Turkey has reached "almost one million," while pledging to keep accepting those fleeing the war.
    (AFP, 4/22/14)

2014        Apr 24, Syrian government airstrikes targeted a vegetable market in a rebel-held town in the northern Aleppo province, killing at least 18 people and wounding scores of others according to the Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. Another activists group, the Syria-based Local Coordination Committees also reported the airstrikes on Atareb, saying that 24 people were killed.
    (AP, 4/24/14)

2014        Apr 26, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least 88 rebel and regime forces have been killed in two days of clashes for control of strategic sites in southern Daraa province.
    (AFP, 4/26/14)

2014        Apr 27, Iraqi army helicopters attacked a jihadist convoy inside eastern Syria as it tried to approach the border, killing 8 people.
    (AP, 4/27/14)

2014        Apr 29, In Syria two car bombs exploded in a pro-government neighborhood, killing at least 40 people just hours after one of the deadliest mortar strikes in the heart of Damascus killed at least 14. The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons said it will send a team to Syria to investigate recent allegations about the use of chlorine gas in the war.
    (AP, 4/29/14)(SFC, 4/30/14, p.A4)

2014        Apr 30, In Syria an air raid on a rebel-held neighborhood of Aleppo hit a school, killing 20 people, 17 of them children.
    (AFP, 4/30/14)(AP, 5/1/14)
2014        Apr 30, Jordan opened a new, sprawling tent city to accommodate tens of thousands more Syrian refugees who are expected to flee their country's fighting in the deadly war now in its fourth year.
    (AP, 4/30/14)

2014        May 1, The Syria-based Local Coordination Committees said clashes overnight  between Syrian government forces and opposition fighters killed 14 rebels along a strategic corridor between Damascus and the Lebanese border. Government aircraft struck a market in a rebel-held district of Aleppo killing at least 33 people.
    (AP, 5/1/14)(SFC, 5/2/14, p.A2)

2014        May 2, Syria's government and rebels agreed to a ceasefire in Homs to allow hundreds of fighters holed up in its old quarters to evacuate. Two car bombs struck two small villages in the central province of Hama, killing 23 people, including 14 children.
    (AP, 5/2/14)(AP, 5/3/14)

2014        May 4, The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said heavy fighting between rival Islamic rebel groups in eastern Syria has killed 62 fighters and forced tens of thousands to flee their homes over the last four days.
    (AP, 5/4/14)

2014        May 5, In Syria fierce fighting in the northern province of Aleppo killed at least 21 rebels. The clashes continued through the day and left at least 30 soldiers dead or wounded. Rockets slammed into Aleppo's residential neighborhood of Ashrafiyeh overnight, killing 9 people.
    (AP, 5/514)
2014        May 5, In Syria a least 30 soldiers were killed by the explosion of a powerful bomb in a long tunnel that scores of rebels spent weeks digging under a checkpoint on the northeastern outskirts of Maaret al-Numan.
    (AFP, 5/6/14)
2014        May 5, A yacht and a dinghy crammed with immigrants trying to enter Greece capsized in the eastern Aegean Sea, leaving at least 22 dead, including 4 children, and potentially several more missing. 36 survivors were identified as 23 Somalis, nine Syrians and three Eritreans.
    (AP, 5/514)

2014        May 6, In Syria a roadside bombing overnight killed Ali al-Nuaimi of the Nusra Front and his wife in Daraa province. The Nusra Front is al-Qaida's affiliate in Syria.
    (AP, 5/6/14)

2014        May 7, In Syria some 1200 rebels and civilians left their last remaining bastions in the heart of Homs under a ceasefire deal with government forces.
    (AP, 5/7/14)

2014        May 8, Syrian rebels detonated a huge bomb underneath an Aleppo hotel used by President Bashar al-Assad's forces, destroying it The rebel Islamic Front claimed responsibility said 50 soldiers were killed in the Carlton Hotel blast.
    (Reuters, 5/8/14)

2014        May 10, Thousands of Syrians streamed into war-battered parts of Homs for the first time in nearly two years, many making plans to move back just days after rebels surrendered their strongholds to pro-government forces.
    (AP, 5/10/14)

2014        May 11, Syrian activists said ISIL, an al Qaeda splinter group, has wrested control of key parts of the eastern province of Deir al-Zor from other rebel groups, worsening infighting that has handicapped the insurgency against President Bashar al-Assad.
    (Reuters, 5/11/14)

2014        May 12, Syrian media said rebels have agreed to free 1,500 families in Adra in exchange for food and the release of jailed opponents of President Bashar al-Assad.
    (AFP, 5/12/14)

2014        May 13, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon said Lakhdar Brahimi will resign as the joint UN-Arab League envoy on Syria after a nearly two-year effort that failed to bring peace to the war-ravaged country.
    (AP, 5/13/14)

2014        May 15, In northern Syria an explosion near a border crossing to Turkey killed at least 43 people and wounded many others. Shelling on a government-held neighborhood in Aleppo killed 3 people.
    (AP, 5/15/14)(AP, 5/16/14)(SFC, 5/16/14, p.A4)

2014        May 16, In Syria rebels fired a rocket that struck a government-held neighborhood in the northern city of Aleppo, killing 13 people.
    (AP, 5/16/14)
2014        May 16, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon condemned a cut in water supplies in the northern Syrian city of Aleppo that he said has deprived at least 2.5 million people of access to potable water. Rebels from the al-Qaida-linked Nusra Front shut down main water pumping station in Aleppo nearly two weeks ago to punish civilians living on the government-controlled side of the divided metropolis.
    (AP, 5/17/14)

2014        May 17, In Syria Lt. Gen. Hussein Ishaq, the head of air defenses, was killed in clashes near Damascus as rebels attacked an air defense base near the town of Mleiha.
    (AP, 5/18/14)

2014        May 18, Syrian rebels captured a village in the northwest, killing more than a dozen government troops in heavy clashes and prompting the military to carry out airstrikes to try to dislodge the fighters. The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least 18 pro-government troops and two rebels were killed in the fighting. The Observatory also said Islamic State fighters killed at least 19 rebels near the village of Raai in Aleppo province. Abdullah Qadour al-Hamawi, a disabled 14-year-old, was reportedly killed by a chlorine bomb in Kfar Zeita, Ha province.
    (AP, 5/18/14)(Reuters, 5/20/14)

2014        May 19, In Syria 13 people were killed after a missile smashed into a building late today in the town of Marea. Most of the dead were children. Hours later a missile fired at a building in the nearby town of Azaz killed another 10 people.
    (AP, 5/20/14)

2014        May 22, Syrian troops backed by airstrikes broke a yearlong rebel siege of a prison in Aleppo, allowing Pres. Bashar Assad's forces to close in on a nearby command center of a coalition of Islamist rebel groups. Rebels had sought to free an estimated 4,000 inmates.
    (AP, 5/22/14)
2014        May 22, In southern Syria a mortar shell struck a large tent late today where supporters of President Bashar Assad had gathered for election campaigning, killing at least 39 people in Daraa and wounding scores.
    (AP, 5/23/14)(SFC, 5/24/14, p.A4)
2014        May 22, China and Russia vetoed a draft UN Security Council resolution to refer Syria to the International Criminal Court for war crimes committed by both sides in its civil war.
    (AFP, 5/22/14)

2014        May 23, Syrian rebels and government forces began a truce in an opposition-held area near the central city of Homs. The truce in al-Waar, which lies across the Orontes River from Homs, was meant to enable the warring sites to negotiate an agreement that will allow the rebels to leave the area without being attacked, or later arrested.
    (AP, 5/24/14)

2014        May 24, Pope Francis called for urgent steps to end Syria's three-year-old civil war as he arrived in neighboring Jordan.
    (Reuters, 5/24/14)

2014        May 25, Syria's Al-Qaeda branch (Al-Nusra Front) staged four suicide bomb attacks on army positions, leaving dozens of casualties, in a bid to cut off Idlib province from the coast. The Syrian air force also struck the area, killing 2 rebels and wounding another 15. A car bomb struck a pro-government neighborhood in Homs, killing at least 10 people. One of the suicide bombers was later identified as Abu Hurayra al-Amriki, a US citizen from Florida. A jihadist from the Maldives was also among the four bombers.
    (AFP, 5/25/14)(AP, 5/25/14)(SFC, 5/31/14, p.A2)(AFP, 7/26/14)

2014        May 26, Syrian rebels made advances in the northwest, seizing several army checkpoints as they inched closer towards taking over two major bases. Fawzi Ayoub, a senior Lebanese-Canadian commander in the Shi'ite Muslim militant group Hezbollah, was killed while fighting alongside Syrian government troops against rebels. Ayoub was on the FBI's "most wanted" list for attempting to bomb Israel.
    (AFP, 5/26/14)(Reuters, 5/27/14)
2014        May 26, Jordan ordered Syria's ambassador to leave the country within 24 hours in a humiliating public announcement made on state-run media, accusing him of making "offensive" statements about the kingdom.
    (AP, 5/26/14)

2014        May 27, In Syria government barrel bombs in Aleppo killed 22 people in the eastern districts of Hay Qataneh, Tariq al-Bab, Bustan al-Qasr, Bani Zeid, Mghayer and Lairamoun.
    (AFP, 5/28/14)   

2014        May 28, In Syria 21 people died in a 2nd wave of barrel bomb strikes on the Mghayer district of Aleppo.
    (Reuters, 5/28/14)
2014        May 28, Syrians abroad voted early in an election that looks certain to give Pres. Bashar al- Assad a 3rd seven-year term as president.
    (Reuters, 5/27/14)

2014        May 29, In Syria the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) kidnapped some 153 schoolchildren. They were on their way back to Ain al-Arab from taking year-end school exams in the northern city of Aleppo.
    (AFP, 7/1/14)

2014        May 30, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said some 2,000 people have been killed since January in regime bombing of rebel-held areas of Aleppo city and nearby towns and villages.
    (AFP, 5/31/14)

2014        May 31, In Syria at least 20 government soldiers and militia were killed in a fresh attack by Islamist rebels, who planted explosives in a tunnel under an army position in Aleppo.
    (AFP, 5/31/14)

2014        Jun 2, In Syria 13 people were killed overnight when government forces dropped four barrel bombs from helicopters into rebel-held districts of Aleppo. A car bomb killed at least 10 people in a Syrian government-held area of the central province of Homs. Rebel rocket fire on government-controlled areas of Aleppo killed 50 people over the weekend.
    (Reuters, 6/2/14)

2014        Jun 3, In Syria tens of thousands pledged renewed allegiance to President Bashar Assad as they voted in a presidential election that excluded a vast swath of the pre-war population and was decried by the opposition as a charade. Assad won 88.7% of the vote.
    (AP, 6/3/14)(SFC, 6/5/14, p.A7)

2014        Jun 5, China offered $16 million in humanitarian assistance for refugees from the conflict in Syria as part of Beijing's growing engagement with the Arab world.
    (AP, 6/5/14)

2014        Jun 8, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said a couple and their four children, the youngest just six months old, were killed today in Syrian army air raids in Aleppo province. ISIS crucified 3 young men in a town near Aleppo for cooperating with rival rebels.
    (AFP, 6/8/14)(Econ, 6/14/14, p.42)

2014        Jun 9, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad announced a wide-ranging amnesty. He commuted some death sentences to life imprisonment, reduced jail terms for many offences and canceled some others altogether. Activists say rebel infighting in Syria has killed 45 opposition fighters over the past two days.
    (Reuters, 6/9/14)(AP, 6/9/14)

2014        Jun 12, In Syria a car bomb exploded in a pro-government neighborhood of Homs, killing at least 7 people. A mortar shell hit a Damascus neighborhood and killed one person. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights in Britain said about 530 detainees have been released under an amnesty program announced on June 9.
    (AP, 6/12/14)(SFC, 6/13/14, p.A5)

2014        Jun 13, Jordanian border guards opened fire on four vehicles trying to enter illegally from Syria after they ignored orders to stop. State-run news agency did not say whether anyone was killed or wounded in the incident.
    (AP, 6/14/14)

2014        Jun 14, In eastern Syria a strong explosion struck a weapons market in Mayadeen near the border with Iraq, killing at least 8 people and wounding many others. State TV said 30 terrorists were killed in the blast.
    (AP, 6/14/14)

2014        Jun 15, Syrian government forces retook Kasab, ousting rebels from the village on the Turkish border in the coastal heartland of President Bashar al-Assad's Alawite minority sect.
    (Reuters, 6/15/14)

2014        Jun 16, Syrian military helicopters dropped barrel bombs on a rebel-held neighborhood in Aleppo, cleaving the fronts of apartment buildings and killing at least 24 people. In the east a car bomb in the town of al-Shamatiyeh, likely planted by ISIL, killed 7 people including a judge from the al Qaeda-linked Nusra Front and a commander of Ahrar al-Sham, another hardline Islamist group.
    (AP, 6/16/14)(Reuters, 6/17/14)

2014        Jun 17, The Syrian Islamic Council, a group of Sunni clerics that back the mainstream rebels, formally condemned ISIS as a stooge of Pres. Assad.
    (Econ, 6/21/14, p.46)

2014        Jun 18, Syrian helicopter gunships targeted refugees near the Jordanian border killing at least 7 people.
    (SFC, 6/19/14, p.A7)

2014        Jun 19, In Syria a car bomb exploded near a school in the pro-government Nazha district of Homs, killing 3 people and wounding nine.
    (AP, 6/20/14)

2014        Jun 20, In Syria a powerful truck bomb exploded in the government-held village of Horrah, near Hama, killing at least 34 civilians and wounding more than 50. Fighters of the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) captured key towns in eastern Syria adjoining territory the al Qaeda splinter group has seized in Iraq.
    (AP, 6/20/14)(Reuters, 6/20/14)
2014        Jun 20, In Syria the bullet-riddled bodies of 3 officers of the Western and Arab-backed rebel Free Syrian Army were found, two days after suspected Islamist militants (ISIL) kidnapped them in the oil-rich eastern province of Deir Ezzor.
    (AFP, 6/21/14)
2014        Jun 20, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon urged the Security Council to impose an arms embargo on Syria, describing foreign powers and groups as "irresponsible" for giving military support to the warring parties in the three-year conflict.
    (Reuters, 6/20/14)

2014        Jun 21, In Syria Sunni militants led by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant took control of the Al-Qaim Iraq-Syria border crossing after Syrian rebels withdrew overnight. A truce struck to end deadly fighting at the Palestinian refugee camp of Yarmuk. Syrian warplanes pounded parts of Muhassan, Deir el-Zour province, a day after it was stormed by ISIL militants
    (AFP, 6/21/14)(AFP, 6/22/14)(SSFC, 6/22/14, p.A5)

2014        Jun 22, Syrian troops backed by fighters from Lebanon's Hezbollah launched an assault to oust rebels from the foothills of the Qalamun mountains north of the capital.
    (AFP, 6/22/14)
2014        Jun 22, Iraqi military officials said Sunni militants have captured the Turabil crossing with Jordan and the al-Walid crossing with Syria. Militants also seized Rutba in Anbar province, the fourth town to fall in two days.
    (AP, 6/22/14)(Econ, 6/28/14, p.40)
2014        Jun 22, Israeli tanks fired at Syrian army positions following an attack from inside Syria that killed Mohammed Qaraqara, a 13-year-old Israeli boy, on the occupied Golan Heights.
    (Reuters, 6/22/14)

2014        Jun 23, The Syrian government said a series of Israeli airstrikes early today hit nine military targets, killed 4 people and wounded nine others.
    (AP, 6/23/14)(SFC, 6/23/14, p.A2)
2014        Jun 23, Syria handed over the remaining 100 tons of toxic material it had declared to the global chemical weapons watchdog. Western governments wanted the mission to continue to investigate numerous ambiguities in Syria's chemical weapons declaration and several alleged chlorine gas attacks, which they also blame on Assad's forces.
    (Reuters, 6/23/14)

2014        Jun 25, Syrian government warplanes struck a series of targets in the northern city of Raqqa, a stronghold of an al-Qaida splinter group, killing at least 12 people. Syrian aircraft also carried out a series of airstrikes in the eastern, oil-rich province of Deir el-Zour near the border with Iraq. The US and Iraqi military officials confirmed that Syrian warplanes bombed militant’s positions in and near the border crossing in Qaim.
    (AP, 6/25/14)(SFC, 6/26/14, p.A2)

2014        Jun 26, Syria's opposition government sacked the military command of the rebel Free Syrian Army over corruption allegations, as the White House asked lawmakers for $500 million for moderate insurgents.
    (AFP, 6/27/14)

2014        Jun 28, In Syria a car bomb exploded in a busy market in Douma, a rebel-held suburb of Damascus, killing at least 2 people and wounding dozens as Muslims went shopping a day before the start of their holy month of Ramadan. Islamist rebels waged a counter-offensive in the border town of Albu Kamal, challenging the grip of the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).
    (AP, 6/28/14)(Reuters, 6/28/14)
2014        Jun 28, In Syria the ISIL jihadist group publicly executed and crucified 9 men, eight of them rebels fighting both President Bashar al-Assad's regime and the jihadists in Deir Hafer, Aleppo province.
    (AFP, 6/29/14)

2014        Jun 29, The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) proclaimed its leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi to be caliph over territory it controls in Syria and Iraq and demanded all Muslims around the world to pledge allegiance.
    (AP, 6/30/14)

2014        Jun 30, In Syria a barrage of mortar shells hit government-held areas of the northern city of Idlib, killing 14 people and wounding at least 40. Heavy clashes were reported between several Syrian rebel factions and ISIL fighting for control of a border crossing with Iraq in eastern Syria.
    (AP, 6/30/14)

2014        Jul 1, In Syria the jihadist Islamic State (IS) took control of the key border town of Albu Kamal after a fierce three-day battle with rival fighters.
    (AFP, 7/1/14)

2014        Jul 3, The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant marched across eastern Syria near the border with Iraq, seizing towns, villages and the country's largest oil field as rival rebel factions gave up the fight. ISIL released 32 Turkish truck drivers who they captured during a lightning offensive across northern and western Iraq last month.
    (AP, 7/3/14)

2014        Jul 4,  A Syrian warplane carried out three airstrikes in an area about four miles (seven km) within Lebanese territory, killing a 12-year-old boy.
    (AP, 7/4/14)
2014        Jul 4, In Syria Islamic militants seized an eastern oil field near Iraq and inched closer to the Turkish border in an attempt to consolidate their control of an area along the length of the Euphrates river stretching through Syria and Iraq.
    (AP, 7/4/14)
2014        Jul 4, At least two dozen US Delta Force commandos arrived on heavily armed Black Hawk helicopters in Akrishi, a small town near the eastern Syrian city of Raqqa on the bank of the Euphrates River in an attempt to rescue American hostages including journalist James Foley. They reportedly destroyed anti-aircraft weapons at a jihadist base about 3 miles (5 km) southeast of the city, but did not find hostages in the area.
    (Reuters, 8/22/14)

2014        Jul 6, Syrian warplanes bombed gunmen inside Lebanese territory on the border between the two countries.
    (AFP, 7/6/14)
2014        Jul 6, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the jihadist Islamic State group has "forced out" some 30,000 residents after seizing Shuheil on July 3 from Al-Qaeda affiliate Al-Nusra Front.
    (AP, 7/6/14)

2014        Jul 7, Syrian troops advanced in and around Aleppo in what appeared to be an attempt to lay siege to rebel-held parts of the city.
    (AP, 7/7/14)

2014        Jul 9, Syria's Western-backed opposition, the National Coalition, elected Hadi al-Bahra, chief negotiator at the Geneva peace talks, as its new president after a three-day meeting in Istanbul.
    (Reuters, 7/9/14)
2014        Jul 9, Syrian rebels rampaged through a Sunni village in the central province of Hama, firing indiscriminately at civilians and killing 14 people, including 7 women. At least 20 Islamic State fighters were reported killed as a result of Syrian government airstrikes targeting a training base for the group in the city of Raqqa.
    (AP, 7/9/14)
2014        Jul 9, In northern Syria the Islamic State group captured three Kurdish villages near Kobani and pressed forward toward the border town. 18 Kurdish fighters were reported killed.
    (AP, 7/10/14)
2014        Jul 9, The US Treasury Department sanctioned three companies suspected of aiding the Syrian government: Pangates International Corp., a petroleum company based in the United Arab Emirates, Expert Partners and Megatrade, two Syrian-based companies.
    (AP, 7/9/14)

2014        Jul 10, In Syria rebels, including members of the al-Qaida-linked Nusra Front, attacked the village of Rahjan, Hama province killing 18 soldiers and pro-government gunmen.
    (AP, 7/11/14)

2014        Jul 13, Syria's Kurds approved compulsory military service for their men to help ward off a push by Islamic extremists in the predominantly Kurdish areas in northern Syria.
    (AP, 7/17/14)

2014        Jul 14, In Syria the Al Qaeda offshoot Islamic State expelled rival rebels from the eastern city of Deir al-Zor, tightening its grip on the oil-producing province abutting territory it also controls in Iraq. Heavy clashes broke out between Syrian rebels and Hezbollah fighters near the Syria-Lebanon border.
    (Reuters, 7/14/14)(AP, 7/14/14)
2014        Jul 14, Hundreds of Kurdish fighters entered Kobane, northern Syria, to help battle jihadists besieging the Kurdish city of Ain al-Arab.
    (AFP, 7/15/14)

2014        Jul 15, Israeli warplanes struck three administrative and military targets in Syria's Golan at dawn, killing 2 security guards and 2 women. The air raids came after the Israeli army said a rocket fired from Syria hit the Israeli-occupied sector of the Golan Heights.
    (AFP, 7/15/14)

2014        Jul 16, Syria’s President Bashar Assad (48) was sworn in, marking the start of his third seven-year term in office. Syria's civil war, now in its fourth year, has killed more than 170,000 people and displaced one third of the country's population.
    (AP, 7/16/14)

2014        Jul 17, In central Syria Islamic militants killed as many as 270 Syrian troops, guards and workers as they captured the Shaar (Shaer) gas field in the desert region of Palmyra following daylong clashes. At least 40 militants were also reported killed. The fate of more than 200 people captured in the facility was unknown. Military helicopters dropped barrels packed with explosives on Morek. More than 20 bombs were dropped by aircraft and least 15 people, including 4 civilians, were killed in the fighting.
    (AFP, 7/17/14)(AP, 7/17/14)(AP, 7/18/14)(SFC, 7/19/14, p.A2)(Reuters, 7/19/14)
2014        Jul 17, In northern Syria Jihadists in Tabaqa, Raqa province, accused a woman of adultery and stoned her to death.
    (AFP, 7/18/14)

2014        Jul 18, Syrian government forces launched a counter-attack to recapture the Shaer gas field seized by Islamic extremists, as the death toll from three days of fighting there rose to more than 200 people killed.
    (AP, 7/19/14)
2014        Jul 18, In Syria jihadi fighters, mostly foreign extremists, pelted Faddah Ahmad with stones for alleged adultery in Raqqa until her body was dragged away.
    (AP, 8/9/14)

2014        Jul 21, Syrian rebels battled jihadists from the Islamic State (IS) near Damascus, pressing their bid to expel them from their strongholds.
    (AP, 7/21/14)

2014        Jul 22, In Syria 6 children from the same family were killed in an air strike by government forces on Wahshiyeh village, Aleppo province. A 15-year-old was killed in an air raid on Latamneh, Hama province. A girl (7) died in army shelling near Jisr al-Shughur, Idlib province.
    (AFP, 7/23/14)
2014        Jul 22, The Western-backed National Coalition of Syrian opposition members said it had voted to force out its "interim government" and form a new one within a month.
    (Reuters, 7/22/14)

2014        Jul 24, In northern Syria fighters from the extremist Islamic State group stormed parts of the besieged Division 17 army base, setting off clashes that left dozens killed or wounded on both sides in Raqqa province.
    (AP, 7/24/14)

2014        Jul 25, In Syria an offensive by the jihadist Islamic State group against government-held territory killed at least 85 people in the past 24 hours mainly in Hasakeh and Raqa. Rebels decapitated most of the soldiers and hung several heads outside the base gates. Rebels shot down a helicopter gunship over Camp Nairab, a slum in Aleppo, killing 3 crew members and a child.
    (AFP, 7/25/14)(AP, 7/26/14)(Reuters, 7/27/14)

2014        Jul 26, In northern Syria a car bomb exploded in Azaz town near the Turkish border, killing and wounding a number of people. The Syrian army recaptured the Shaar (Shaer) gas field east of Homs that was seized by hardline Islamic State fighters earlier this month. The Islamic State said the fighters pulled out after destroying the field's equipment and capturing at least 15 tanks and dozens of rockets which were used to guard the field.
    (AP, 7/26/14)(Reuters, 7/27/14)

2014        Jul 27, In Syria the Islamic State killed 15 Syrian rebels in an ambush as the jihadists tried to advance on Aleppo province. Rebels in Hama province captured Khattab and Rahbeh villages. In Homs city 7 people were killed and 20 wounded in a car bomb attack on an Alawite district.
    (Reuters, 7/27/14)(AFP, 7/27/14)

2014        Jul 28, Opposition activists said more than 2,000 Syrians — almost half of them pro-government forces — have been killed in just over two weeks of fighting in Syria, making it one of the worst death tolls in the country's civil war.
    (AP, 7/28/14)

2014        Jul 30, In Syria the number of people killed in army shelling on Douma, an opposition-held town northeast of Damascus, rose to 17. Fighting between the IS and Kurds killed 14 members of the Kurdish People's Protection Units (PYG) and 35 IS members.
    (AFP, 7/31/14)
2014        Jul 30, Human Rights Watch said the Syrian government has escalated its use of barrel bombs against densely populated areas near Aleppo in defiance of a UN Security Council resolution banning their use.
    (SFC, 7/31/14, p.A5)

2014        Aug 2, In Syria Yaacub al-Omar, the local chief of Al-Qaeda's affiliate Al-Nusra Front, was killed overnight died in an apparent assassination after a bomb went off in his car in Idlib province. Syrian troops backed by Hezbollah fighters killed at least 50 jihadists from the Islamic State and Al-Nusra Front groups in overnight clashes near the border with Lebanon.
    (AP, 8/2/14)(AFP, 8/2/14)
2014        Aug 2, In Lebanon fighting began in the eastern border town of Arsal after troops detained Syrian citizen Imad Ahmad Jomaa, who identified himself as a member of the Nusra Front.
    (AP, 8/3/14)

2014        Aug 3, In Syria regime air strikes and rebel mortar fire killed 17 people in Douma, 15 in Kfar Batna, and 12 in Damascus.
    (AP, 8/4/14)
2014        Aug 3, Syrian rebels killed 8 Lebanese soldiers and claimed to have captured a dozen security force members in a cross-border raid. Lebanese soldiers traded fire with Islamist gunmen and shelled areas around the border town of Arsal aiming to roll back the biggest incursion by militants into Lebanon since Syria's civil war began.
    (AP, 8/3/14)(Reuters, 8/3/14)

2014        Aug 4, In eastern Lebanon thousands of civilians and Syrian refugees crammed into cars and pickup trucks fled Arsal as troops battled al-Qaida-linked militants from neighboring Syria who overran the border region. Several days of fighting killed 19 soldiers, 16 civilians and dozens of jihadists.
    (AP, 8/4/14)(AFP, 8/28/14)

2014        Aug 5, Saudi Arabian King Abdullah granted $1 billion to help the Lebanese army to bolster security as they battle militants who have seized the border town of Arsal on the Syrian frontier.
    (Reuters, 8/6/14)

2014        Aug 6, In Syria Jihadists from the Islamic State group seized parts of a military base in Raqa province after launching triple suicide bomb attacks at its gates. Heavy fighting with troops continued at Brigade 93 in Raqa.
    (AFP, 8/7/14)
2014        Aug 6, The Italian foreign ministry said two Italian aid workers have been kidnapped while working on humanitarian projects in Aleppo, Syria.
    (Reuters, 8/6/14)

2014        Aug 8, In Syria Islamic State jihadists captured the key Brigade 93 Syrian army base in Raqa province overnight. 36 soldiers were killed, some of whom were beheaded, while others died in the fighting or in the initial triple suicide bombing that launched the attack.
    (AFP, 8/8/14)

2014        Aug 10, In eastern Syria Islamic militants crushed a tribal uprising against their rule after three days of clashes in three eastern villages near the border with Iraq.
    (AP, 8/11/14)

2014        Aug 13, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said Islamic State insurgents have seized eight towns and villages from rival Islamist groups in Aleppo province. The fighting left 52 people dead. The Observatory also reported two more crucifixions by Islamic State in Deir al-Zor overnight.
    (Reuters, 8/13/14)(AFP, 8/13/14)

2014        Aug 14, Syrian government troops captured Mleiha, a fiercely contested suburb of Damascus, after five months of heavy fighting.
    (AP, 8/14/14)

2014        Aug 16, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the Islamic State militant group has executed 700 members of the al-Sheitaat (Shueitat) tribe it has been battling in eastern Syria during the past two weeks.
    (Reuters, 8/16/14)(SFC, 8/19/14, p.A5)

2014        Aug 17, In Syria forces loyal to Pres. Bashar al-Assad hammered the eastern city of Raqqa with more than two dozen air strikes. At least 31 Islamic State militants and 8 civilians died in the air force raids in Raqa province, a stronghold of the jihadist fighters.
    (Reuters, 8/17/14)(AFP, 8/17/14)

2014        Aug 18, The Syrian authorities and rebels agreed to a truce in the southern Damascus district of Qadam which was a battlefield for more than a year.
    (AFP, 8/18/14)

2014        Aug 19, In eastern Syria government forces stepped up air strikes on Islamic State positions in and around the city of Raqqa. The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the jihadist Islamic State has more than 50,000 fighters in Syria and recruited 6,000 last month alone.
    (Reuters, 8/19/14)(AFP, 8/19/14)
2014        Aug 19, Japan’s Kyodo news agency reported that the Islamic State militant group has claimed responsibility for detaining Haruna Yukawa, a doctor an d a journalist, in Syria in a post on the Internet.
    (Reuters, 8/19/14)
2014        Aug 19, Fighters from Lebanon's Hezbollah reportedly killed Abu Abdullah al-Iraqi, a top jihadist from the Islamic State group in Syria, who allegedly planned bloody attacks in Lebanon.
    (AFP, 8/19/14)
2014        Aug 19, Islamic State militants posted a video that showed the beheading of American journalist James Foley in revenge for US air strikes against the insurgents in Iraq. Foley (40) was kidnapped by armed men on Nov. 22, 2012, in northern Syria while on his way to the Turkish border. Prior to the execution militants had sent an e-mail demanding $132.5 million in exchange for Foley. Steven Sotloff, who appeared at the end of the video, went missing in northern Syria while reporting in July 2013.
    (Reuters, 8/20/14)(SFC, 8/21/14, p.A3)

2014        Aug 20, In Syria Islamic extremists fired rockets and tank shells at a the Taqba air base in the northeast, kicking off a long-anticipated offensive to seize the last position held by the Syrian government in Raqqa province, a stronghold of the Islamic State group.
    (AP, 8/20/14)
2014        Aug 20, The United States launched a new barrage of airstrikes against the Islamic State extremist group that beheaded American journalist James Foley and that has seized a swath of territory across Iraq and Syria.
    (AP, 8/20/14)

2014        Aug 21, Syrian troops killed dozens of jihadi fighters, including a prominent media activist, in heavy clashes around Tabqa air base, Raqa province, that the Islamic State group is trying to seize. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least 70 Islamic State jihadist fighters have been killed in 48 hours of clashes with Syrian army troops.
    (AP, 8/21/14)(AFP, 8/22/14)

2014        Aug 22, The UN reported that the death toll from three years of Syria's civil war has risen to more than 191,000 people.
    (AP, 8/22/14)
2014        Aug 22, The US imposed sanctions on Abdul Mohsen Abdallah Ibrahim al Sharekh, a Saudi citizen and allegedly the head of Al-Qaeda operations in Syria, and Hamid Hamad Hamid al-Ali of Kuwait.
    (AFP, 8/22/14)

2014        Aug 23, In Syria jihadists from the Islamic State group seized Tabqa military airport. 346 Islamic State fighters were killed and more some 200 members of the security forces died in five days of fighting over the base.
    (Reuters, 8/27/14)(AFP, 8/28/14)

2014        Aug 24, In Syria at least 32 rebels were reported killed in an army ambush on a rebel convoy in the southern province of Daraa.
    (AFP, 8/24/14)
2014        Aug 24, Peter Theo Curtis (45), an American journalist kidnapped and held hostage for nearly two years by an al-Qaida-linked group in Syria, was released in the Golan Heights. Curtis Massachusetts wrote under the byline Theo Padnos.
    (AP, 8/24/14)

2014        Aug 27, Syrian rebels, including fighters from an al-Qaida-linked group, seized control of a frontier crossing with Israel in the Golan Heights after heavy clashes with Pres. Assad's forces. The heavy fighting that left at least 20 Syrian soldiers and an unknown number of rebels dead. Dozens of Syrian soldiers escaping Tabqa were captured as they attempted to cross the desert to government-held territory in the Orontes Valley to the west.
    (AP, 8/27/14)(AFP, 8/28/14)

2014        Aug 28, Syrian regime air strikes killed six IS leaders. The Islamic State said it has executed more than 160 Syrian soldiers in three different places in Raqa province yesterday and at dawn today.
    (AFP, 8/28/14)
2014        Aug 28, In the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights a group of 44 UN peacekeepers from Fiji were detained by militants fighting the Syrian army in the vicinity of Al Qunaytirah. 81 troops from the Philippines had their movements restricted.
    (Reuters, 8/28/14)(SFC, 8/30/14, p.A6)

2014        Aug 29, Syrian lawyer Mudar Hassan Khadur, a pro-government activist who launched a social media campaign calling on officials to provide information about hundreds of missing soldier, was arrested.
    (Reuters, 9/1/14)
2014        Aug 29, In Syria 44 Fijian soldiers working as UN peacekeepers remained captive to a militant group while 75 Philippine soldiers were in tense standoff with the rebels.
    (AP, 8/29/14)

2014        Aug 30, In Syria a firefight erupted between a group of Philippine peacekeepers trapped on the Syrian side of the Golan Heights and Islamist militants surrounding their position. 44 Fijian peacekeepers were captured on Aug 28 at their post about eight km away from the Philippine troops. 35 Filipino peacekeepers were escorted out of a UN encampment in Breiqa by Irish and Filipino forces on armored vehicles.
    (Reuters, 8/30/14)
2014        Aug 30, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said several dozen Yazidi women, kidnapped by Islamic State jihadists in Iraq, have been taken to Syria, forced to convert and sold into marriage to militants.
    (AFP, 8/30/14)
2014        Aug 30, A video posted on social media showed Islamic State militants beheading a Lebanese soldier who was one of 19 captured by hardline Syrian Islamists when they seized a Lebanese border town for few days this month. Hours later, the group posted a second video showing nine other soldiers begging for their lives.
    (Reuters, 8/30/14)
2014        Aug 30, Syria’s Nusra Front, an al-Qaida affiliate, freed five members of the Lebanese security forces seized in Arsal earlier this month.
    (AP, 8/31/14)

2014        Aug 31, In Syria 40 Filipino peacekeepers escaped their besieged outpost in the Golan Heights after a seven-hour gunbattle with Syrian rebels. The al-Qaida-linked Nusra Front acknowledged holding Fijian troops and displayed 45 ID cards.
    (AP, 8/31/14)
2014        Aug 31, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights monitoring group said at least 42 children have been killed in government air strikes and shelling across Syria in the last 36 hours.
    (AFP, 8/31/14)

2014        Sep 1, In Syria heavy fighting erupted between the Syrian army and Islamist rebels on the Golan Heights, where 44 peacekeepers from Fiji were being held by militants.
    (Reuters, 9/1/14)
2014        Sep 1, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said raids by government forces hunting suspected Islamic State infiltrators in the northeast town of Hasakeh have sparked an exodus of more than 60,000 civilians in three days.
    (AFP, 9/1/14)

2014        Sep 2, Syrian government air strikes in the eastern province of Deir Ezzor killed 16 people, including 10 children.
    (AFP, 9/6/14)
2014        Sep 2, Islamic State militants issued a threat to President Vladimir Putin, vowing to oust him and "liberate" the volatile North Caucasus over his support of the Syrian regime.
    (AFP, 9/4/14)
2014        Sep 2, Fiji military commander Brig. Gen. Mosese Tikoitoga said the Nusra Front has made three demands for the release of peacekeepers: to be taken off the UN terrorist list; the delivery of humanitarian aid to parts of the Syrian capital of Damascus; and payment for three of its fighters it says were killed in a shootout with UN officers.
    (AP, 9/2/14)

2014        Sep 3, In eastern Syria 16 people, among them 10 children, were reported killed as a government air strike hit a bus on the road between eastern Deir Ezzor province and Damascus as it passed through the Shula area. State television said that the jihadist Islamic State group had killed the passengers, putting the death toll at 13.
    (AFP, 9/3/14)

2014        Sep 4, In eastern Syria 18 foreign fighters from the Islamic State, including an American jihadist, were killed in a Syrian air raid on a town near the militant group's main stronghold city of Raqqa. Top Islamic State leaders who happened to be in the municipal building of Gharbiya at the time of the raid were among the foreign fighters killed. Two raids on southern and northern parts of Raqqa killed 53 people including 31 civilians. Another air raid hit a former intelligence headquarters in Abu Kamal also killed an undisclosed number of IS members. Residents of Ashara, in the mostly IS-controlled eastern province of Deir Ezzor, protested in front of an IS headquarters, hours after government air strikes killed 2 children, 5 women and a man.
    (Reuters, 9/4/14)(AFP, 9/5/14)(AFP, 9/6/14)

2014        Sep 5, In Ashara, Syria, the Islamic State publicly executed and crucified a young man identified as Ali Khalaf, accusing him of "heresy and apostasy."
    (AFP, 9/5/14)

2014        Sep 6, Syria launched a series of airstrikes targeting Raqqa, a stronghold of the Islamic State extremist group, killing at least 41 people, most of whom died when one missile slammed into a crowded bakery.
    (AP, 9/6/14)(SSFC, 9/7/14, p.A5)(Reuters, 9/8/14)

2014        Sep 8, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said government warplanes killed at least 60 civilians including a dozen children in two days of air strikes on Islamic State-held territory at the weekend.
    (Reuters, 9/8/14)

2014        Sep 9, In northwest Syria a blast hit a meeting of Islamist insurgent group Ahrar al-Sham in Idlib province. Hassan Aboud, the group's leader, was among 47 top members killed.
    (Reuters, 9/10/14)(AFP, 9/10/14)

2014        Sep 10, Syria's Islamist Ahrar al-Sham rebel brigade named new chiefs after a devastating blast killed 47 members of its leadership at Ram Hamdan, northeast of Idlib city.
    (AFP, 9/10/14)

2014        Sep 11, In Syria the al-Qaida-linked Nusra Front released all 45 Fijian peacekeepers held captive for the last two weeks.
    (SFC, 9/12/14, p.A4)

2014        Sep 16,  In Syria a government warplane crashed into the city of Raqqa, the defacto capital of the Islamic State. At least 8 people were killed. Jihadists claimed to have shot it down. At least 48 people were killed by government airstrikes over the last two days in Talbiseh. In Damascus at least 18 fighters were killed after two groups of rebels crawled into the city through sewers to attack a government checkpoint.
    (AFP, 9/16/14)(AP, 9/17/14)(SFC, 9/17/14, p.A4)
2014        Sep 16, In Syria at least 15 children died after receiving vaccinations for measles in the northwestern province of Idlib.
    (AP, 9/17/14)

2014        Sep 17, Syrian regime air strikes on Talbiseh killed as many as 50 people.
    (Econ, 9/27/14, p.25)

2014        Sep 18, Islamic State fighters backed by tanks captured 21 Kurdish villages over the past 24 hours in northern Syria near the Turkish border, prompting civilians to flee their homes amid fears of retribution by the extremists sweeping through the area.
    (AP, 9/18/14)
2014        Sep 18, Turkish PKK rebels, who have spent three decades fighting for autonomy for Turkey's Kurds, called for the youth of the country's mostly Kurdish southeast to join the fight against Islamic State militants in northern Syria.
    (Reuters, 9/18/14)

2014        Sep 20, In northern Syria the Islamic State executed at least 11 civilians, including at least two boys. It has seized at least 64 villages around Kobani since Sep 16, using heavy arms and thousands of fighters. At least 300 Kurdish fighters crossed from Turkey into Syria overnight to battle jihadists from the Islamic State group trying to seize Kobani, a strategic border town.
    (AFP, 9/20/14)(Reuters, 9/21/14)

2014        Sep 21, Syrian government air raids reportedly killed 19 people, including 6 children, outside the city of Saraqeb, and another 23 people, among them 10 children, in the town of Ehsim.
    (AFP, 9/22/14)
2014        Sep 21, Kurdish militants in Turkey issued a new call to arms to defend the border town of Kobani, Syria, from advancing Islamic State fighters. Turkish authorities and the UN prepared for a surge in refugees. Clashes overnight reportedly killed 10 insurgents, bringing the number of IS fighters killed to at least 39. At least 27 Kurdish fighters have died.
    (Reuters, 9/21/14)

2014        Sep 22, Syrian Kurds battled to defend Kobani, a key border town from an Islamic State advance, as Kurdish youths from neighboring Turkey rushed to their aid, heightening the pressure on Ankara to act against the Islamist insurgents.
    (Reuters, 9/22/14)

2014        Sep 23, The Syrian military pressed its campaign against the rebels unabated, shelling and carrying out air strikes in the southern province of Deraa and the outskirts of Damascus, as well as Raqqa and Idlib provinces.
    (Reuters, 9/23/14)
2014        Sep 23, Israel downed a Syrian warplane over the Golan Heights in the first such incident in three decades and warned it would respond "forcefully" if its security is threatened.
    (AFP, 9/23/14)
2014        Sep 23, The United States and its Arab allies bombed Syria for the first time. Bahrain, Jordan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates participated in or supported the strikes against Islamic State targets. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least 70 Islamic State fighters were killed in strikes that hit at least 50 targets in Raqqa and Deir al-Zor and Hasakah provinces. It also said at least 50 fighters and 8 civilians were killed in strikes targeting al Qaeda's Syrian affiliate, the Nusra Front, in northern Aleppo and Idlib provinces.
    (Reuters, 9/23/14)
2014        Sep 23, In Syria Mohsin al-Fadhli, a leader of the al Qaeda-linked Khorasan group, was killed in a US airstrike. The group had been labelled by US intelligence based on an ancient name for a region that includes parts of Afghanistan, Iran and Turkmenistan. Some people have said the Prophet Muhammad predicted the region would produce a triumphant army under black flags. 
    (AP, 9/28/14)(TIME, 10/20/14, p.12)

2014        Sep 24, American warplanes pounded Islamic State positions in Syria for a 2nd day at a strategic post on the Iraqi border, but the campaign did nothing to halt the fighters' advance on the Kurdish town of Kobani where nearly 140,000 refugees have fled. Al Qaeda's Syrian affiliate, the Nusra Front, evacuated its bases in populated areas of the Idlib region after US-led forces carried out air strikes on the group.
    (Reuters, 9/24/14)

2014        Sep 25, French fighter jets struck targets in Iraq and the US and its allies stepped up air raids in Syria against Islamic State militants. The strikes reportedly killed 14 Islamic State fighters and at least 5 civilians. US-led airstrikes targeted Syrian oil installations held by the extremist Islamic State group.
    (Reuters, 9/25/14)(AP, 9/25/14)

2014        Sep 27, Air strikes hit Islamic State and other Islamist groups in eastern Syria. US strikes hit the besieged area around Kobani and forces from Saudi Arabia, Jordan and the UAE contributed to strikes around the country. 
    (Reuters, 9/27/14)(SSFC, 9/28/14, p.A8)

2014        Sep 28, In Syria airstrikes likely carried out by the US-led coalition struck an oil refinery held by the Islamic State group, shaking buildings and sending flames shooting into the air near the Turkish border.
    (AP, 9/28/14)

2014        Sep 29, In Syria US-led coalition air raids overnight and today targeted towns and villages in northern and eastern Syria controlled by the Islamic State group, including one strike that hit a grain silo and reportedly killed civilians.
    (AP, 9/29/14)
2014        Sep 29, Turkish tanks and armored vehicles took up positions on a hill overlooking the besieged Syrian border town of Kobani as shelling by Islamic State insurgents intensified and stray fire hit Turkish soil.
    (Reuters, 9/29/14)

2014        Sep 30, In Syria US-led coalition airstrikes targeted Islamic State fighters pressing their offensive against Kobani near the Syrian-Turkish border in an attempt to halt the militants' advance. Islamic State militants captured the deserted Kurdish village of Siftek and appeared to be using it as a headquarters from which to launch attacks on Kobani itself. 5 anti-Islamic State Kurdish fighters, including 3 women, and 4 Syrian Arab rebels were detained and beheaded 14 km west of Kobani.
    (AP, 9/30/14)(Reuters, 10/1/14)

2014        Oct 1, In Syria coalition jets launched air strikes on insurgents besieging Kobani, a town on the southern border of Turkey. Dozens of militants and Kurdish fighters were killed in clashes overnight. Twin car bombings near a school killed at least 32 people, including 25 children in a government-controlled area of Homs.
    (Reuters, 10/1/14)(AP, 10/1/14)(SFC, 10/3/14, p.A2)
2014        Oct 1, Turkish Pres. Tayyip Erdogan said Turkey will fight against Islamic State and other "terrorist" groups in the region but will stick to its aim of seeing Syrian President Bashar al-Assad removed from power.
    (Reuters, 10/1/14)

2014        Oct 2, In Syria Islamic State insurgents tightened their grip on Kobani despite coalition air strikes meant to weaken them, sending thousands more Kurdish refugees into Turkey and dragging Ankara deeper into the conflict.
    (Reuters, 10/2/14)

2014        Oct 3, In Syria coalition warplanes destroyed one insurgent vehicle and killed 5 fighters during raids in the countryside to the east and south of Kobani. 10 Kurdish fighters were also killed in heavy fighting that carried on long into the night.
    (Reuters, 10/4/14)
2014        Oct 3, A video was posted on YouTube showing Alan Henning (47), a British taxi driver, kneeling before a masked knife man against a desert setting. Henning had been part of an aid convoy taking medical supplies to a hospital in northwest Syria in December last year when it was stopped by gunmen and he was abducted. He was the fourth hostage to have been beheaded by Islamic State (IS).
    (Reuters, 10/4/14)

2014        Oct 5, Kurdish forces battled overnight with Islamists trying to seize a hill overlooking a Syrian border town with Turkey as US-led coalition warplanes carried out raids on the militants. At least 11 Kurdish fighters and 16 Islamic State insurgents were killed in the overnight clashes.
    (Reuters, 10/5/14)
2014        Oct 5, Gunmen crossed from Syria into eastern Lebanon and attacked posts of the Shiite movement Hezbollah, sparking fierce clashes. The Nusra Front attacked several Hezbollah positions on the Lebanese and Syrian side of the border simultaneously. At least 8 Hezbollah fighters were reported killed.
    (AFP, 10/5/14)(AP, 10/6/14)
2014        Oct 5, In northwestern Syria Franciscan Father Hanna Jallouf and 20 other Christians were seized by Al-Qaeda affiliate Al-Nusra Front at Qunyeh village, Idlib province. Father Jallouf was released on Oct 9.
    (AFP, 10/7/14)(AP, 10/9/14)

2014        Oct 6, Syrian government forces seized control of a strategic area outside Damascus used by rebels to fire mortar shells at the capital. The Islamic State raised its flag on a building on the outskirts of the frontier town of Kobani after an assault of almost three weeks, but the town's Kurdish defenders said its fighters had not reached the city center. At least 30 people were killed in two suicide attacks on two checkpoints run by Kurdish fighters in the northeastern city of Hasakah.
    (AFP, 10/6/14)(Reuters, 10/6/14)

2014        Oct 7, Turkey's president said Kobani was "about to fall" after Islamic State fighters advanced into the south west of the Syrian Kurdish town, pressing home a three-week assault has cost a reported 412 lives. More than 2,000 Syrian Kurds including women and children were evacuated from the town after the latest fighting.
    (Reuters, 10/7/14)

2014        Oct 8, In southeast Turkey at least 21 people were killed in riots, the deadliest street unrest in years, after the Kurdish minority rose up in fury at the government's refusal to protect a besieged Syrian town from Islamic State. US-led air strikes appeared to have pushed Islamic State fighters back to the edges of Kobani.
    (Reuters, 10/8/14)(Reuters, 10/9/14)

2014        Oct 9, Islamic State fighters seized more than a third of the Syrian border town of Kobani, as US-led air strikes failed to halt their advance and Turkish forces nearby looked on without intervening. Two police officers were shot dead in an apparent attempt to assassinate a police chief in Turkey’s eastern province of Bingol. Four of the alleged attackers were later killed and two more caught after a shootout with security forces. In Gaziantep province 4 people killed and 20 wounded as armed clashes broke out overnight between protesters calling for solidarity with Kobani.
    (Reuters, 10/9/14)(Reuters, 10/10/14)

2014        Oct 10, In Syria militants fought deeper into the Syrian Kurdish town of Kobani in full view of Turkish tanks that have done nothing to intervene. At least 31 people have been killed in three days of riots and street violence across Turkey’s mainly Kurdish southeast.
    (Reuters, 10/10/14)

2014        Oct 11, Kurdish forces defending Kobani urged a US-led coalition to escalate air strikes on Islamic State fighters who controlled more than a third of the Syrian town at the border with Turkey. 36 jihadi fighters were reportedly killed in Kobani.
    (Reuters, 10/11/14)(AP, 10/12/14)

2014        Oct 12, The US Central Command said warplanes from the United States, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates conducted four airstrikes in Syria over the weekend, including three in Kobani that destroyed an Islamic State fighting position and staging area.
    (AP, 10/12/14)

2014        Oct 13, In Syria Abu Aboud, the head of "White Shroud," said the group has killed more than 100 Islamic State fighters in attacks in Deir al-Zor province in recent months and that the group’s main aim is to generate fear in Islamic State's ranks. The government carried out some 40 air strikes in Hama and Idlib provinces.
    (Reuters, 10/13/14)(Econ, 10/18/14, p.47)
2014        Oct 13, Kurdish fighters engaged in fierce clashes with jihadists on the Turkish border near Kobane, as Ankara denied allowing Washington to use its bases against the Islamic State group.
    (AFP, 10/13/14)
2014        Oct 13, US Central Command said the US and Saudi Arabia launched eight airstrikes yesterday and today against Islamic State targets in Syria, including seven near Kobani.
    (Reuters, 10/13/14)

2014        Oct 14, At least 10 Syrian soldiers were killed in clashes with Islamic State group jihadists in the eastern province of Deir Ezzor. At least 12 people killed in Syrian regime air strikes on the Ain Tarma area outside the capital Damascus. The regime also carried out air strikes against Irbin, where at least 5 people were killed.
    (AFP, 10/14/14)

2014        Oct 15, Kurdish militiamen, bolstered by intensified US-led coalition airstrikes, fought pitched street battles with the extremists in Kobani, a Syrian Kurdish border town near Turkey, making small advances. US military fighter and bomber planes carried out 14 air strikes against Islamic State targets near Kobani.
    (AP, 10/15/14)(Reuters, 10/16/14)
2014        Oct 15, The US Pentagon named it fight against Islamic State militants in Iraq and Syria as Operation Inherent Resolve.
    (SFC, 10/16/14, p.A3)

2014        Oct 17, It was reported that Iraqi pilots who have joined Islamic State in Syria are training members of the group to fly in three fighter jets captured from the Syrian military. In eastern Syria a US-led coalition airstrike on a gas distribution facility in Khasham, Deir el-Zour province, a stronghold of the Islamic State group, set off a series of secondary explosions and killed at least 8 people.
    (Reuters, 10/17/14)(AP, 10/18/14)

2014        Oct 18, In Syria US-led coalition jets pounded suspected Islamic State targets at least six times in Kobani after the fiercest shelling in days by the insurgents shook the town's center and hit border areas within Turkey. Syrian government forces shelled neighborhoods in Damascus, the southern province of Deraa and the central province of Homs. Islamic State militants fired 44 mortars at Kurdish parts of Kobani. Two Islamic State car bombs hit Kurdish positions leading to casualties.
    (Reuters, 10/18/14)(AP, 10/19/14)

2014        Oct 19, In Syria Islamic State fighters continued to hit Kurdish defenders in Kobani with mortars. The Observatory said 70 Islamic State fighters had been killed in the past two days.
    (Reuters, 10/19/14)

2014        Oct 20, Turkey said it would allow Iraqi Kurdish fighters to reinforce fellow Kurds in the Syrian town of Kobani, while the US air-dropped arms for the first time to help the defenders resist an Islamic State assault. At least one cache of the US airdropped weapons were seized by Islamioc State fighters.
    (Reuters, 10/20/14)(SFC, 10/22/14, p.A4)

2014        Oct 21, In Syria Islamic State won territory from government forces in the eastern city of Deir al-Zor, its first gain there in about two months. A monitoring group reported that a man and a woman have been stoned to death for adultery in separate executions in jihadist-controlled areas. Government airstrikes hit the rebel-held town of Nasib, along the country's southern border with Jordan, killing at least 8 people.
    (Reuters, 10/21/14)(AP, 10/21/14)(SFC, 10/22/14, p.A4)

2014        Oct 22, Syria said its air force has destroyed two of three warplanes reportedly seized by fighters of the Islamic State group in the north of the country.
    (AFP, 10/22/14)

2014        Oct 23, In Syria government shelling in the northern village of Tel Qrah killed at least 9 people.
    (AP, 10/24/14)
2014        Oct 23, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan said that 200 Iraqi Kurd peshmerga fighters would travel through Turkey to join the battle in Kobane, where about 1,000 IS militants are believed to be fighting. US-led air strikes in Syria were reported to have killed more than 521 jihadists and 32 civilians over the last month.
    (AFP, 10/23/14)(Reuters, 10/23/14)

2014        Oct 24, Turkey's president said that Ankara would allow hundreds of Syrian rebels to travel to the embattled border town of Kobani in order to help Kurdish fighters there fend off an Islamic State onslaught. During a state visit in Estonia, Erdogan said the Western-backed Free Syrian Army would send 1,300 fighters to the Syrian town. A spokesman for the Western-backed Syrian opposition in exile, Kenan Mohammed, said there were no plans to send fighters to Kobani.
    (AP, 10/24/14)

2014        Oct 25, Syrian rebels fought fierce clashes with loyalist troops as they tried to secure their supply line to second city Aleppo against advances by the army. US warplanes over the last 24 hours destroyed an Islamic State artillery piece near Kobani.
    (AFP, 10/25/14)(Reuters, 10/25/14)

2014        Oct 26, In Syria Kurdish forces in Kobane thwarted a new attempt by fighters from the Islamic State group to cut off the border with Turkey before Iraqi Kurdish reinforcements can deploy. The jihadists have lost 481 dead, while 313 Kurds have been killed fighting to defend the area. Civilians accounted for 21 of the dead.
     (AFP, 10/26/14)
2014        Oct 26, In Syria 16 members of the same family were among 24 people killed in overnight government air strikes on the town of Talbisseh. Air strikes on the Waer district on the outskirts of Homs killed 7 people. 12 civilians from the same family were killed in government barrel bomb strikes on the rebel town of Busra al-Sham in southern Daraa province. Rebel fire on a school in Aleppo killed a child and a man.
    (AFP, 10/26/14)

2014        Oct 27, In Syria members of the al-Qaida-linked Nusra Front and other rebel factions launched simultaneous attacks on army checkpoints and the governor's office in the northwest, triggering hours-long clashes that left 19 troops and rebels dead.
    (AP, 10/27/14)

2014        Oct 28, Iraqi peshmerga fighters left Iraq for the besieged Syrian town of Kobani to help fellow Kurds in their battle against Islamic State militants. US forces staged four air strikes on Islamic State militants in Syria and allies joined in nine strikes on the group in Iraq.
    (Reuters, 10/28/14)

2014        Oct 29, Iraqi peshmerga fighters arrived in southeastern Turkey en route for the Syrian town of Kobani to try to help fellow Kurds break an Islamic State siege. The US military conducted 14 air strikes over the last 2 days against the IS in Syria and Iraq. Eight of the strikes were near Kobani.
    (Reuters, 10/29/14)

2014        Oct 30, A first group of Iraqi Kurdish peshmerga fighters entered the besieged Syrian town of Kobani to help push back Islamic State militants who have defied US air strikes. The Free Syrian Army (FSA) said it already has 400 fighters in Kobane and more are on the way.
    (Reuters, 10/30/14)(AFP, 10/30/14)

2014        Oct 31, In Syria US-led air strikes hit Islamic State positions around the border town of Kobani in an apparent bid to pave the way for heavily-armed Kurdish peshmerga forces to enter from neighboring Turkey.
    (Reuters, 10/31/14)

2014        Oct, Kenji Goto, a veteran Japanese war correspondent was captured by the militants late this month when he went to Syria seeking the release of Haruna Yukawa. Yukawa was seized by militants in August after going to Syria to launch a security company.
    (Reuters, 2/1/15)
2014        Oct, Syrian rebels released footage of the involvement of Russian intelligence officers at a Syrian military listening post on the Golan Heights.
    (Econ., 4/18/15, p.41)

2014        Nov 1, In Syria Islamist militants affiliated to al Qaeda seized the last remaining stronghold of Western-backed rebels in the northwest province of Idlib after days of fighting.
    (Reuters, 11/1/14)
2014        Nov 1, Some 150 Iraqi Kurdish forces arrived in the Syrian town of Kobani with heavy weapons to help Syrian Kurds fend off attempts by Islamic State insurgents to seize the town. Around 200 fighters from the Free Syrian Army (FSA) have also arrived in Kobani to help defend the town. The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least 100 Islamic State fighters were killed in the past three days.
    (Reuters, 11/1/14)

2014        Nov 2, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said nearly 2,000 people have died in Syrian prisons of torture, starvation and lack of medical treatment so far this year. Al-Qaeda affiliate Al-Nusra Front seized a town and several villages in Idlib province overnight.
    (AFP, 11/2/14)
2014        Nov 2, In Syria US military forces staged seven air strikes on Islamic State targets over the last 24 hours and were joined by allies in two more attacks in Iraq.
    (Reuters, 11/2/14)

2014        Nov 3, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 8 men were beheaded last week and their bodies hung on makeshift crucifixes in Albu Kamal, Deir Ezzor province. IS jihadists also decapitated another 3 men, again hanging their corpses from crosses in the city of Deir Ezzor.
    (AFP, 11/3/14)
2014        Nov 3, The militant Islamic State group released 93 Syrian Kurds it captured in February as they made their way from northern Syria to neighboring Iraq. A day later Human Rights Watch said Islamic State militants had forced children as young as 14 to watch videos of beheadings and beat them with cables during six months of captivity.
    (Reuters, 11/4/14)
2014        Nov 3, The United States targeted Islamic State militants with five air strikes in Syria and nine in Iraq over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 11/3/14)

2014        Nov 5, In Syria mortar rounds slammed into a school in a rebel-held suburb east of Damascus, killing at least 13 children. In Kurdish-dominated north and northeastern regions, Kurdish forces distributed leaflets to residents, ordering them to report for compulsory military service.
    (AP, 11/5/14)
2014        Nov 5, The Islamic State said has shut all schools in areas it controls in eastern Syria pending a religious revision of the curriculum.
    (Reuters, 11/7/14)

2014        Nov 6, In northwest Syria a US-led coalition, set up to fight Islamic State, bombed the al Qaeda-linked Nusra Front and the Ahrar al-Sham radical faction. One strike on a base near the northern city of Aleppo killed at least six Nusra fighters. Residents of Harem said at least 4 children were killed and dozens injured in an attack they believed was launched by the coalition. Fighting in a majority Druze region near Lebanon killed 31 combatants loyal to Syria's President Bashar al-Assad and 14 rebels, including Al-Qaeda militants.
    (Reuters, 11/6/14)(AFP, 11/7/14)(AFP, 11/8/14)

2014        Nov 7, In Syria al-Qaida fighters of the Nusra Front seized three villages: Safuhan, Fatira and Hazari, in northwestern Idlib province, and were pushing to take others.
    (AP, 11/7/14)

2014        Nov 8, In Syria Islamic State shelling killed 2 civilians and wounded four others, including a child, at a camp for people forced by violence from Kobane to the west of the town. US-led air strikes overnight hit jihadist positions in the north and east, including an oil field. 2 people were killed.
    (AFP, 11/8/14)

2014        Nov 9, In Syria 5 nuclear scientists were killed in a machine gun ambush outside Damascus. One of the men was an Iranian nuclear technician. Syrian rebels working for Israel were blamed.
    (SFC, 11/11/14, p.A4)
2014        Nov 9, In Syria at least 21 people were killed and around 100 wounded overnight when regime army planes bombed al-Bab, a town controlled by Islamic State militants northeast of Aleppo.
    (Reuters, 11/9/14)
2014        Nov 9, Monitors said that that officials in a predominantly Kurdish province of northeastern Syria have issued a women's rights decree, in an apparent rebuke to the hardline views of Islamic State insurgents who have advanced in the region.
    (Reuters, 11/9/14)

2014        Nov 10, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad said he was ready to study a UN plan to "freeze" fighting in the northern city of Aleppo. National Reconciliation Minister Ali Haidar said Syria has freed around 11,000 detainees since President Bashar al-Assad declared a general amnesty in June. The British-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights disputed the government's figures, saying the number of people released was closer to 7,000 people.
    (AFP, 11/10/14)(AFP, 11/11/14)
2014        Nov 10, US Central Command said it launched 23 air strikes in Syria over the weekend including 13 aimed near the key border town of Kobani and 10 hit near Dayr Az Zawr. Another 18 air strikes were launched against the Islamic State in Iraq.
    (Reuters, 11/10/14)

2014        Nov 11, Syrian Kurds backed by fighters from northern Iraq gained ground towards breaking the siege of the Syrian border town of Kobani but are drawing heavy fire from Islamic State insurgents and have yet to win back control.
    (Reuters, 11/11/14)

2014        Nov 13, In Syria a US strike targeted the Khorasan group near the town of Harem, Idlib province. The US says the group is a special cell within al-Qaida's Syrian branch — known as the Nusra Front.
    (AP, 11/14/14)
2014        Nov 13, A website affiliated with the Islamic State group said IS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi has ordered the terror organization to start minting gold, silver and copper coins for its own currency, the Islamic dinar.
    (AP, 11/14/14)

2014        Nov 14, In Syria armed clashes erupted in Douma after hungry residents stormed food warehouses belonging to an Islamist rebel group. Residents said the Army of Islam only distributes food and medical supplies to its fighters.
    (AFP, 11/15/14)
2014        Nov 14, UN investigators said Islamic State commanders are liable for war crimes on a "massive scale" in northeast Syria where they spread terror by beheading, stoning and shooting civilians and captured fighters.
    (Reuters, 11/14/14)

2014        Nov 15, Turkish media reported that Turkey and the United States have agreed a plan under which some 2,000 fighters from the moderate Syrian opposition would be trained on Turkish soil.
    (AFP, 11/15/14)

2014        Nov 16, In Syria the US-led coalition against the Islamic State jihadist group carried out a series of air strikes overnight on Kobane. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said that the toll since fighting began had risen to 1,153, including 27 civilians, 398 Kurdish YPG fighters, 16 non-Kurdish rebels backing the YPG and 712 Islamic State fighters.
    (AFP, 11/16/14)
2014        Nov 16, An Islamic State group video released today purported to show extremists beheading a dozen Syrian soldiers. It ended with a militant claiming to have killed US aid worker Peter Kassig (26). Kassig had formed the aid organization Special Emergency Response and Assistance, or SERA, in Turkey to aid Syrian refugees. He delivered food and medical supplies and provided trauma care to wounded Syrian civilians before being captured in eastern Syria last year.
    (AP, 11/16/14)

2014        Nov 17, US Central Command said US military forces conducted 11 air strikes against Islamic militants in Syria and 20 in Iraq since Nov 14.
    (Reuters, 11/17/14)

2014        Nov 18, A Syrian military airstrike killed at least 13 people, including children, and wounded another 20 in the northern province of Aleppo after striking a neighborhood with crude bombs. Kurds captured six IS-controlled buildings in Kobani and confiscated a large amount of weapons and ammunition.
    (AP, 11/18/14)(AP, 11/19/14)

2014        Nov 22, US Vice President Joe Biden announced nearly $135 million in humanitarian aid to help feed civilians affected by Syria's war.
    (AP, 11/22/14)

2014        Nov 23, In northern Syria members of al Qaeda wing Nusra Front and other Sunni Islamist battalions seized an area south of a Shi'ite Muslim village after deadly clashes with pro-government fighters. The clashes killed at least 8 of the fighters advancing on al-Zahra and a number of fighters from the pro-government National Defense Force.
    (Reuters, 11/23/14)

2014        Nov 25, Syrian warplanes conducted a series of airstrikes on the northeastern city of Raqqa, killing at least 95 people. Some of the airstrikes hit a popular market near a museum and an industrial neighborhood, causing many civilian casualties.
    (AP, 11/25/14)(AP, 11/26/14)

2014        Nov 26, Syrian government forces killed at least 30 rebels in an ambush in the suburbs of Damascus where troops and allied gunmen have been on the offensive for weeks.
    (AP, 11/27/14)
2014        Nov 26, US Central Command said the US led 17 air strikes on Islamic State targets in Iraq and Syria since Nov 24 as part of Operation Inherent Resolve.
    (Reuters, 11/26/14)
2014        Nov 26, It was reported that Qatar is covertly training moderate Syrian rebels with US help to fight both President Bashar al-Assad and Islamic State and that the program has been running for nearly a year.
    (Reuters, 11/26/14)

2014        Nov 27, Syrian government warplanes kept up air raids on the northern city of Raqqa, the de facto capital of the Islamic State group, killing at least 7 people.
    (AP, 11/27/14)

2014        Nov 28, In Iraq bombings and a shooting killed 9 people around the capital, Baghdad. US Central Command said the US military and its allies have hit Islamic State forces with 15 air strikes in Iraq and Syria during a three-day period.
    (AP, 11/28/14)(Reuters, 11/27/14)

2014        Nov 29, The Islamic State group launched an attack on the Syrian border town of Kobani. The latest fighting killed at least 8 Kurdish fighters and 17 jihadis. The US-led coalition launched an airstrike morning on the eastern side of the town. Turkey denied that IS fighters had used its territory for the raid.
    (AP, 11/29/14)

2014        Nov 30, Syrian government aircraft targeted the southern town of Jasim, Daraa province, with a series of airstrikes, killing at least a dozen people including women and children. US-led coalition warplanes carried out as many as 30 airstrikes overnight against Islamic State militants in and around Raqqa, the group's de facto northeastern capital.
    (AP, 11/30/14)

2014        Dec 1, The UN World Food Program suspended a food voucher program serving more than 1.7 million Syrian refugees, citing a funding crisis after many donors failed to meet their commitments.
    (AP, 12/1/14)

2014        Dec 2, Lebanese security officials said that Lebanon’s army detained Saja al-Dulaimi, an alleged wife and daughter of Islamic State leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, as they crossed from Syria nine days ago. They said authorities have also detained the wife of Anas Shirkas, senior Nusra Front leader from Syria. On Dec 3 a statement by Iraq's Interior Ministry spokesman Saad Maan said Saja al-Dulaimi is not a wife of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi and that she is the sister of a terror suspect being held in Iraq.
    (Reuters, 12/2/14)(AP, 12/3/14)

2014        Dec 3, Human Rights Watch urged Turkey to remove from its border with Syria landmines which have killed 3 people and wounded nine among more than 2,000 Syrian refugees camped in a minefield.
    (Reuters, 12/3/14)

2014        Dec 4, In Syria at least 19 government soldiers and militiamen were reported killed after Islamic State launched an overnight attack on one of the government's last remaining strongholds in Deir al-Zor province. 7 IS fighters were reported killed.
    (AP, 12/4/14)
2014        Dec 4, Kurdish sources said a second group of 150 Iraqi Kurdish peshmerga forces has entered the Syrian border town of Kobani from Turkey to replace a first group helping Kurdish forces fight off a siege by Islamic State militants.
    (Reuters, 12/4/14)

2014        Dec 5, In Syria clashes continued for a 2nd day as IS militants pushed to capture the Syrian air base at Deor el-Zour. 30 government troops and 27 jihadists were said to have died so far.
    (SFC, 12/6/14, p.A3)

2014        Dec 6, Rebels in southern Syria signed an agreement toward unity that may attract more support from their Western and Arab backers, forging a joint defense pact to help shield them from government forces and Islamic State. It followed an agreement among the southern groups on a transition plan for Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/11/14)

2014        Dec 7, Israeli warplanes struck near Damascus' international airport, as well as outside a town close to the Lebanese border.
    (AP, 12/8/14)

2014        Dec 8, In northern Syria the militant Islamic State group beheaded a man in Solouk, Raqqa province, after accusing him of blasphemy. 3 journalists from the opposition television channel Orient News were killed in the southwest when a missile hit their vehicle in Deraa province.
    (AP, 12/9/14)(Reuters, 12/10/14)

2014        Dec 9, The UN World Food Program said it has reinstated a food aid program to help feed over 1.7 million Syrian refugees following a significan cash infusion.
    (SFC, 12/10/14, p.A3)

2014        Dec 10, US military officials said the United States and partner nations have launched 20 airstrikes against Islamic State militants in recent days with seven strikes in Syria and led 13 strikes in Iraq.
    (Reuters, 12/10/14)

2014        Dec 12, In Syria the Islamic State group's police force beheaded four men in the central province of Homs for blasphemy.
    (AP, 12/13/14)
2014        Dec 12, Syrian rebels using improvised mortar bombs made of cooking gas canisters killed 311 civilians between July and December this year according to The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.
    (Reuters, 12/12/14)
2014        Dec 12, EU governments agreed to ban the export of jet fuel to Syria from Dec 14, saying it was being used by the Syrian air force for indiscriminate attacks against civilians.
    (Reuters, 12/12/14)
2014        Dec 12, The US and its allies carried out 7 airstrikes on Islamic State targets in Syria and 20 in Iraq in the past three days.
    (Reuters, 12/12/14)

2014        Dec 13, Hazem Sherif, a Syrian from war-torn Aleppo, was declared the winner of this year's "Arab Idol" singing contest at the grand finale of the grueling four-month television competition in Beirut.
    (AFP, 12/14/14)

2014        Dec 14, In northwestern Syria rebels and al-Qaida militants took over at least three government checkpoints around a pair of military bases. At least 15 pro-government troops and 8 opposition fighters were killed in the clashes. Government forces killed at least 21 rebels in the Handarat area.
    (AP, 12/14/14)

2014        Dec 15, In Syria the al-Qaeda-linked Nusra Front dealt a major blow to the government by seizing Hamidiyeh and Wadi al-Deif, two key army bases, giving them control over most of Idlib province. Around 100 government soldiers and 80 Islamist fighters were killed during the two-day battle. Around 120 soldiers were captured in the assault.
    (AFP, 12/15/14)(Reuters, 12/16/14)

2014        Dec 16, Syria's state news agency SANA said that the army had killed more than 60 "terrorists" from the Islamic State militant group in the province of Deir al-Zor.
    (Reuters, 12/16/14)

2014        Dec 17, The UN Security Council renewed for 12 months its authorization for humanitarian access without Syrian government consent into rebel-held areas of Syria at four border crossings from Turkey, Iraq and Jordan.
    (Reuters, 12/17/14)

2014        Dec 19, The US-led coalition conducted 11 air strikes against Islamic State militants in Iraq and 4 in Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/19/14)

2014        Dec 20, In Syria an activist opposed to both the Islamic State and the regime of President Bashar al-Assad said he had "verified 100 executions" of foreign IS fighters trying to leave Raqqa, the jihadist group's de facto capital. Kurdish fighters advanced in the contested northern town of Kobani after heavy clashes with the Islamic State group.
    (AFP, 12/20/14)(AP, 12/20/14)

2014        Dec 21, A Syrian military source announced that an Israeli unmanned Skylark-1 model drone has been shot down in Quneitra province, close to the village of Hader" near the Golan Heights.
    (AFP, 12/22/14)
2014        Dec 21, US-led forces attacked Islamic State targets with 13 air strikes in Iraq and three in Syria, using fighter, bomber and other aircraft.
    (Reuters, 12/21/14)

2014        Dec 22, The World Health Organization said the Syrian government has approved the delivery of medicine and surgical supplies to three areas of the country aid workers were previously unable to reach regularly, including opposition-held Aleppo.
    (Reuters, 12/22/14)

2014        Dec 23, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported the deaths of 29 civilians in regime air raids across Syria. It also said US-led air strikes in Syria have killed more than 1,000 jihadists in the past three months, nearly all of them from the Islamic State group.
    (AFP, 12/23/14)
2014        Dec 23, The UN said nearly 300 sites of incalculable value for Syria and human history have been destroyed, damaged or looted in almost four years of war.
    (AFP, 12/23/14)

2014        Dec 24, In nofthern Syria the Islamic State group captured a Jordanian pilot after his warplane from the US-led coalition was reportedly shot down while on a mission against the jihadists.
    (AP, 12/24/14)
2014        Dec 24, The US-led campaign against Islamic State in Syria and Iraq included 10 air strikes in Syria and seven in Iraq.
    (Reuters, 12/24/14)

2014        Dec 25, It was reported that rebel groups fighting in Syria's northern Aleppo province have agreed to form an alliance called the Shamiyya Front. Government airstrikes on al-Bab and neighboring Qabasin killed at least 53 people, including 7 children in the northern province of Aleppo. At least 44 members of the Islamic State group were killed in clashes with Kurdish forces. 30 were killed Qassiab, Hasakeh province, and 14 in Kobane. 3 Kurdish fighters were also killed in the clashes.
    (Reuters, 12/25/14)(AFP, 12/25/14)(AP, 12/26/14)

2014        Dec 26, The US-led coalition pounded the Islamic State jihadist group with 31 air strikes, including 16 in Syria with 13 in the flashpoint Syrian town of Kobane and 15 in Iraq.
    (AFP, 12/26/14)
2014        Dec 26, Syrian forces killed Mohammed al-Ghazzawi, a former Sidney resident and the latest Australian jihadist to be killed fighting for the Islamic State.
    (SSFC, 1/3/15, p.A4)

2014        Dec 28, US-led forces conducted eight air strikes against Islamic State militants in Syria and five strikes on IS targets in Iraq.
    (Reuters, 12/28/14)

2014        Dec 29, The US-led coalition launched 18 air strikes against Islamic State, including 12 in Syria and six in Iraq.
    (Reuters, 12/29/14)

2014        Dec 30, The United States and its allies conducted 15 air strikes against Islamic State militants in Syria and Iraq, hitting several units of fighters and buildings.
    (Reuters, 12/30/14)

2014        Dec 31, Some 970 mostly Syrian migrants arrived in Italy on the Blue Sky M cargo ship after apparently being abandoned by its crew in the Adriatic Sea.
    (Reuters, 12/31/14)
2014        Dec 31, Kurdish forces were reported to have regained control of around 70 percent of the Syrian town of Kobani after pushing back Islamic State fighters that have spent months besieging it.
    (Reuters, 12/31/14)
2014        Dec 31, Kurdish Iraqi forces launched a large-scale offensive to push Islamic State group extremists from an area outside the militant-held northern city of Mosul. The United States and its allies staged 29 air strikes on Islamic State targets in Syria and Iraq.
    (Reuters, 1/1/15)(AP, 12/31/14)

2014        Dec, The United Arab Emirates dropped out of the group of countries conducting airstrikes against IS targets in Syria.
    (AP, 2/4/15)

2014        Syria ranked 159 out of 175 countries for corruption, according to Transparency International, with graft endemic at all levels.
    (AFP, 8/27/15)

2015        Jan 1, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, a monitoring group, recorded 76,021 deaths for 2014.
    (AFP, 1/1/15)

2015        Jan 2, in northeastern Syria US-led coalition warplanes carried out at least 13 airstrikes overnight in and around Raqqa, the Islamic State group's de facto capital. At least 19 people were killed overnight by Syrian rebel fire on government-controlled parts of the northern city of Aleppo.
    (AP, 1/2/15)(AFP, 1/2/15)
2015        Jan 2, In Turkey the main Western-backed Syrian opposition group opened a three-day meeting to discuss a range of issues, including a Russian initiative to hold peace talks in Moscow to broker a resolution to Syria's civil war.
    (AP, 1/2/15)

2015        Jan 4, In Syria Islamist fighters seized a suburb east of Damascus after driving out a smaller rival insurgent group in deadly clashes.
    (Reuters, 1/4/15)
2015        Jan 4, Syria's western-backed opposition group elected Khalid Khoja as its new leader during a three-day meeting in Istanbul of the National Coalition. Khalid Khoja announced the next day that his group is not yet willing to go to peace talks in Moscow.
    (AP, 1/5/15)

2015        Jan 5, Lebanon began imposing unprecedented restrictions on the entry of Syrians, as it struggled to cope with well over a million refugees feeling the civil war next door.
    (AP, 1/5/15)
2015        Jan 5, The US-led coalition launched 20 more air strikes against Islamic State in Syria and Iraq over the last 24 hours, targeting fighters for the militant group and hitting its crude oil operations.
    (Reuters, 1/5/15)

2015        Jan 6, Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said a top figure in Islamic State's self-declared police force, which has carried out beheadings, was himself found decapitated in eastern Syria.
    (Reuters, 1/6/15)
2015        Jan 6, The UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) said an estimated 670,000 children in Syria are being deprived of education after Islamic State forces ordered schools closed while the curriculum is made to conform with religious rules.
    (Reuters, 1/6/15)
2015        Jan 6, The US-led coalition conducted 10 air strikes against Islamic State in Syria, mostly targeting the contested city of Kobani, and two strikes in Iraq over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 1/6/15)

2015        Jan 8, In southern Syria al-Qaida Nusra Front militants blew up the 13th century tomb of a revered Islamic scholar.
    (Reuters, 1/8/15)
2015        Jan 8, Canada announced that it would welcome 10,000 Syrians over three years and 3,000 more Iraqis fleeing war and Islamic State militants.
    (SSFC, 1/11/15, p.A4)

2015        Jan 11, The US military said American-led forces launched 19 air strikes against Islamic State militants in Syria and Iraq over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 1/11/15)

2015        Jan 12, Hacker group CyberCaliphate took over the Twitter and YouTube accounts of US Central Command. The Pentagon called it an annoying prank that did not breach military networks.
    (AP, 1/13/15)(SFC, 1/13/15, p.A6)

2015        Jan 13, The Islamic State jihadist group released a video purporting to show a young boy executing two men accused of working for Russian intelligence services in Syria.
    (AFP, 1/13/15)

2015        Jan 14, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said that in total 14 people had been executed for alleged adultery or homosexuality in the war-torn country since July, half of them women. A new video showed fighters from Al-Nusra Front, Al-Qaeda's Syrian affiliate, tying up a woman and shooting her in a square for alleged adultery.
    (AFP, 1/14/15)
2015        Jan 14, In Turkey, a child (12) was allegedly shot and killed by security forces in the old southeastern Kurdish settlement of Cizre.
    (Econ, 2/14/15, p.46)

2015        Jan 15, Syrian rebels and government forces began observing a 10-day truce in the last rebel-held area of the central city of Homs, marking another setback for opposition fighters.
    (AP, 1/15/15)

2015        Jan 16, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the Islamic State has beheaded or shot 17 men in Syria in the past two days as it faces increasing attacks from unidentified gunmen in areas it controls.
    (Reuters, 1/16/15)
2015        Jan 16, A senior Russian diplomat said far more than 800 Russians are fighting alongside the Islamic State group. Those who have joined the group include people from Chechnya and some other regions in the volatile North Caucasus.
    (AP, 1/16/15)

2015        Jan 17, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said clashes broke out in the northeastern city of Hassakeh after members of a Kurdish militia detained 10 Syrian soldiers and pro-government gunmen after they deployed in areas controlled by the Kurds.
    (AP, 1/17/15)
2015        Jan 17, At least 35 Syrian soldiers were killed when an army cargo plane crashed in bad night weather in the northwest of the country. Al-Nusra Front claimed on Twitter that it had shot down the aircraft.
    (AFP, 1/18/15)
2015        Jan 17, Morocco said it has dismantled an Islamist militant cell sending fighters to Syria and Iraq to join Islamic State and mount attacks on returning home. A security source said the government thinks nearly 2,000 Moroccans have fought in Syria's civil war and in Iraq with Islamic State.
    (Reuters, 1/17/15)
2015        Jan 17, A Turkish intelligence report said around 3,000 people in Turkey are believed to be linked to the Islamic State (IS) jihadist group.
    (AFP, 1/17/15)
2015        Jan 17, The United States and its allies conducted 29 airstrikes on Islamic State targets in Syria and Iraq over the last 24-hours.
    (Reuters, 1/17/15)

2015        Jan 18, In Syria at least 18 people were killed in unprecedented fighting between Kurdish forces and Syrian government troops in the northeastern city of Hasakeh over the last 24 hours.
    (AFP, 1/18/15)
2015        Jan 18, An Israel air strike on the Syrian side of the Golan Heights killed Hezbollah military commander Mohammed Issa, responsible for Hezbollah's operations in Syria and Iraq, and Jihad Mughniyeh, the son of an assassinated commander from the group. General Mohammad Ali Allahdadi was among 6 Iranians killed in the attack.
    (AFP, 1/18/15)(AP, 1/19/15)

2015        Jan 19, In Syria Kurdish fighters captured a strategic hill overlooking the town of Kobani after intense clashes with the Islamic State group.
    (AP, 1/19/15)

2015        Jan 20, Syrian government air strikes killed at least 12 civilians in two towns in Idlib province. An airstrike in the village of Khansaa, in far eastern Syria near the Iraq border reportedly killed dozens.
    (AFP, 1/20/15)(AP, 1/20/15)
2015        Jan 20, The US-led coalition conducted nearly 20 more air strikes against Islamic State militants in Syria and Iraq over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 1/20/15)

2015        Jan 21, In Syria a car bomb on a shopping street in the government-controlled third city of Homs killed 7 people and wounded 30.
    (AFP, 1/21/15)
2015        Jan 21, Kurdish security forces launched an offensive on the Islamic State (IS) group in northern Iraq and retook villages the jihadists used to launch attacks. The US and its partners launched 23 air strikes in Syria and Iraq against Islamic State in the last 24 hours.
    (AFP, 1/21/15)

2015        Jan 22, Kurdish officials claimed they had cut a key road linking the IS stronghold of Mosul with Tal Afar to the west as US and coalition bombers, fighter jets and drones carried out a total of 31 air raids over the last 24 hours, including ten in Syria and 21 in Iraq.
    (AFP, 1/22/15)

2015        Jan 23, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said a government air strike killed at least 32 people including 6 children in a rebel-held area near Damascus.
    (Reuters, 1/23/15)(AP, 1/23/15)
2015        Jan 23, The United States and its coalition partners launched another round of air strikes against Islamic State, conducting 25 strikes in Iraq and Syria in the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 1/23/15)

2015        Jan 24, In Syria a rebel mortar attack on Damascus killed at least 3 people and wounded 11.
    (AP, 1/24/15)
2015        Jan 24, The United States and its coalition partners launched another round of air strikes against Islamic State militants in Iraq and Syria, conducting 26 strikes in the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 1/24/15)

2015        Jan 25, In Syria Islamist fighters struck Damascus with at least 38 rockets, killing 7 people. The Saudi-backed Islam Army, based in the eastern Ghouta region near Damascus, had warned earlier that it would hit back against an air strike last week in Ghouta in which more than 40 people were killed.
    (Reuters, 1/25/15)

2015        Jan 26, In Syria Kurdish forces took full control of Kobani, driving out remaining Islamic State fighters to end a four-month battle. Half the city was completely destroyed and much of the rest had suffered damage.  Turkish locals said 17 fighters had been killed in fighting jihadists in Kobane.
    (Reuters, 1/26/15)(Econ, 2/14/15, p.46)
2015        Jan 26, US and partner nations launched 21 air strikes in Syria and 13 in Iraq over the last 24-hours.
    (Reuters, 1/26/15)

2015        Jan 27, At least two rockets from Syria hit the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights and Israel returned fire.
    (Reuters, 1/27/15)

2015        Jan 28, In Israel missiles fired by the Lebanese Hezbollah group struck an Israeli military convoy, killing two soldiers in an apparent retaliation for a deadly airstrike attributed to Israel that killed six Hezbollah fighters in Syria earlier this month. Israeli warplanes struck Syrian army targets on the Golan Heights hours after rockets hit the Israeli-held sector.
    (AP, 1/28/15)(AFP, 1/28/15)
2015        Jan 28, A new study said an estimated 550 women who have traveled to Iraq and Syria are expected to marry, keep house and bear children.
    (AFP, 1/28/15)

2015        Jan 29, The Syrian arm of al Qaeda attacked a Western-backed rebel group near Aleppo. The Nusra Front seized positions from the Hazzm movement west of Aleppo. Government airstrikes killed at least 8 people in the northern town of al-Bab held by the Islamic State.
    (Reuters, 1/29/15)(AP, 1/29/15)
2015        Jan 29, Representatives of the Syrian government and the opposition wrapped up four days of consultations in Russia with a general statement avoiding any sharp issues.
    (AP, 1/29/15)

2015        Jan 30, Syria's Al-Qaeda affiliate Al-Nusra Front fought Western-backed rebels as the jihadists pressed to take control of a northern area. Syrian opposition fighters detonated a cache of explosives in a tunnel under an army post in the northwestern province of Idlib, inflicting heavy casualties among government troops. The government denied the casualties and said the targeted post was empty.
    (AFP, 1/30/15)(AP, 1/30/15)
2015        Jan 30, The US-led coalition said it launched six air strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 1/30/15)

2015        Jan 31, Islamic State militants said they had beheaded a second Japanese hostage, journalist Kenji Goto, prompting PM Shinzo Abe to vow to step up humanitarian aid to the group's opponents in the Middle East and help bring his killers to justice.
    (Reuters, 2/1/15)
2015        Jan 31, In Syria a pro-government faction known as the National Resistance Movement shot dead an army defector in Daraa province after accusing him of spying for Israel.
    (AP, 2/2/15)

2015        Feb 1, In Syria a bomb tore apart a bus thought to be carrying Lebanese Shi'ite Muslim pilgrims in Damascus, killing at least 7 people and wounding 19. A Nusra Front Twitter feed said one of the group's members blew himself up inside a bus at the market.
    (Reuters, 2/1/15)(AFP, 2/1/15)
2015        Feb 1, The United States and its allies have carried out 26 air strikes in Iraq and eight in Syria over the last 24 hours in continued attacks on Islamic State targets.
    (Reuters, 2/1/15)

2015        Feb 2, Syrian government warplanes carried out several air raids on a rebel-held village in the country's south, killing at least 15 people and wounding dozens in Daraa province.
    (AP, 2/2/15)(AFP, 2/2/15)

2015        Feb 3, Supporters of the Islamic State insurgent group circulated photos on social media purporting to show captive Jordanian pilot Muath al-Kasaesbeh being burnt alive.
    (Reuters, 2/3/15)
2015        Feb 3, US and allied forces staged airstrikes on 14 Islamic State targets in Iraq and Syria in the last 24-hour period.
    (Reuters, 2/3/15)
2015        Feb 3, The United Nations World Food Program (WFP) declared itself "extremely concerned" by photographs showing its food parcels being handed out in Syria with Islamic State logos on them.
    (Reuters, 2/3/15)

2015        Feb 4, The United States and its allies staged 11 airstrikes near the Syrian city of Kobani, and also targeted the insurgent group with six strikes in Iraq over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 2/4/15)

2015        Feb 5, Syrian government forces and rebel forces traded salvos of rockets and mortar shells around Damascus, killing at least 21 people. Syrian army helicopters dropped two barrel bombs on a crowded square in a rebel-held neighborhood in the northern city of Aleppo.
    (AP, 2/5/15)(AP, 2/6/15)
2015        Feb 5, Jordanian fighter jets pounded Islamic State hideouts in Syria and then roared over the hometown of a pilot killed by the militants while King Abdullah consoled the victim's family below.
    (Reuters, 2/5/15)

2015        Feb 6, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the government air force conducted 60 strikes on the Eastern Ghouta district outside Damascus leaving 82 dead over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 2/6/15)
2015        Feb 6, The American military said US-led forces have launched 10 air strikes in Syria and eight in Iraq against Islamic State militants over the last 24 hrs.  A purported statement by the Islamic State group claimed that an American female hostage was killed in a Jordanian airstrike on the outskirts of Raqqa, the militant group's main stronghold. Kayla Jean Mueller (26), an aid worker, was captured in 2013. On May 14 it was reported that Mueller had been raped repeatedly by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the self-proclaimed caliph of the IS.
    (Reuters, 2/6/15)(AP, 2/6/15)(AP, 8/15/15)

2015        Feb 7, Jordan carried out a third straight day of air strikes on Islamic State targets.
    (Reuters, 2/7/15)
2015        Feb 7, The United Arab Emirates said it has ordered a squadron of F-16 fighters to Jordan, which would participate in airstrikes on the Islamic State group after the UAE earlier suspended its involvement.
    (AP, 2/7/15)
2015        Feb 7, US-led forces launched 15 air strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and 11 in Syria over the last 24 hours. Nine targets in Syria centered around the border city of Kobani.
    (Reuters, 2/7/15)

2015        Feb 8, Jordan said it has launched 56 airstrikes against Islamic State group weapons depots, training centers and military barracks since militants released a video on Feb 3 of them burning a Jordanian pilot to death.
    (AP, 2/8/15)

2015        Feb 9, In Syria at least 15 people were reported killed and dozens wounded on in government air strikes on an area outside Damascus. Barrel bombs over the next 48 hours left at least 18 people dead in Douma, a rebel-held area of Damascus.
    (AFP, 2/9/15)(Econ., 2/21/15, p.45)

2015        Feb 10, Syria's army gained ground from rebels in the south in what a monitoring group described as a large-scale offensive in the region backed by Lebanese Hezbollah fighters against insurgents including al Qaeda's Syrian wing. The operation began two days earlier.
    (Reuters, 2/10/15)
2015        Feb 10, The United Arab Emirates launched airstrikes against the Islamic State group from an air base in Jordan.
    (AP, 2/10/15)

2015        Feb 11, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said government air force raids have killed at least 183 people in insurgent strongholds east of the capital in the past 10 days.
    (Reuters, 2/11/15)
2015        Feb 11, US President Barack Obama sent Congress his text for an authorization to use military force in the campaign against Islamic State, limiting operations against the militants to three years and barring use of US troops in "enduring offensive ground combat."
    (Reuters, 2/11/15)

2015        Feb 12, US-led forces hit Islamic State targets in Iraq with 12 air strikes and three air strikes in Syria over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 2/12/15)
2015        Feb 12, The UN Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 2199 aimed at choking off earnings from oil smuggling, antiquities trafficking and ransom payments to the Islamic State group.
    (AFP, 2/12/15)(Econ, 6/13/15, p.46)

2015        Feb 15, In Iraq and Syria the United States and its coalition partners conducted 11 air strikes against Islamic State militants, three in Syria and eight in Iraq over the last 24 hours.
    (AP, 2/15/15)

2015        Feb 16, Syrian state news said 9 people, including three children, were killed today in rebel fire on a government-held neighborhood in the northern city of Aleppo.
    (AFP, 2/16/15)
2015        Feb 16, In Iraq and Syria the United States and its coalition partners launched air strikes against Islamic State targets; two in Syria and 13 in Iraq over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 2/16/15)

2015        Feb 17, Syrian government forces backed by Lebanese militant Hezbollah fighters captured several villages near the northern city of Aleppo in lightning advances. Regime forces executed six families of rebel fighters. Ten children, 5 women and 13 rebels from the six families were among at least 48 people killed in the village of Rityan.
    (AP, 2/17/15)(AFP, 2/21/15)
2015        Feb 17, In Iraq and Syria the United States and its allies staged six airstrikes around the Syrian town of Kobani and eight strikes on Islamic State in Iraq over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 2/17/15)
2015        Feb 17, Three British girls (Kadiza Sultana (16) and 15-year-olds Shamima Begum and Amira Abase) flew from London to Turkey in a suspected bid to join the Islamic State group. On March 12 Turkey announced the arrest of an agent who helped the girls cross into Syria. The agent also worked as a courier to transfer money to jihadists.
    (SSFC, 2/22/15, p.A5)(AP, 3/15/15)(AFP, 3/15/15)

2015        Feb 18, Syrian rebels regained much of the territory north of the city of Aleppo lost to government troops in fierce fighting the previous day in clashes that left more than 100 dead on both sides. UN envoy Staffan de Mistura said he received a government commitment to suspend airstrikes on the city of Aleppo for six weeks. Rebels captured 32 soldiers and pro-government gunmen near Aleppo, where fighting raged as the two sides tried to grab new territory ahead of a possible truce.
    (AP, 2/18/15)(AP, 2/19/15)

2015        Feb 19, In Syria rebels recaptured the village of Hardatnein, two days after it was taken by government forces. The Observatory said 90 troops and pro-government gunmen, in addition to 81 rebels, have been killed since the fighting began near Aleppo on Feb 17.
    (AP, 2/19/15)
2015        Feb 19, In Iraq and Syria the US-led coalition staged 15 air strikes on Islamic State forces over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 2/19/15)

2015        Feb 20, UN war crimes investigators announced a radical change of strategy, saying they would publish names of suspects involved in Syria's four-year war and push for new routes towards international justice.
    (Reuters, 2/20/15)

2015        Feb 21, In Syria 8 people, including 2 women and 2 children, were killed when a barrel bomb hit a building in an opposition-held area of Aleppo. 5 more people were reported killed in rebel shelling of regime-held areas of the city. Syria’s air force also killed at least 7 people in rebel areas east of Damascus. A car bomb attack in the parking of Qardaha hospital killed four citizens and wounded several others.
    (AFP, 2/21/15)
2015        Feb 21, In Iraq and Syria the US-led coalition said it has staged six air strikes against Islamic State targets over the past 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 2/21/15)

2015        Feb 22, Almost 600 Turkish troops pushed deep into Syria evacuating Turkish soldiers guarding a historic tomb who had been stranded in territory controlled by Islamic State jihadists. They brought back the tomb containing the remains of Suleyman Shah, grandfather of the Ottoman empire's founder, Osman I.
    (AFP, 2/22/15)
2015        Feb 22, A Syrian man was shown beheaded in a video posted to Facebook. Malaysian authorities later Mohd Faris Anuar (20) and Muhamad Wanndy Muhammad Jedi (25) of Malaysia as the men involved in the beheading by the Islamic State.
    (Reuters, 3/4/15)

2015        Feb 23, In Syria a rocket struck a prison in a suburb of Damascus, killing at least 4 people.
    (AP, 2/23/15)
2015        Feb 23, In northeast Syria jihadists from the Islamic State group kidnapped at least 90 Assyrian Christians, after overrunning two villages in Hassakeh province. The abducted number rose to 220 over the next few days as militants rounded up more hostages from a chain of villages along the strategic Khabur River. In 2016 the int’l. Assyrian Christian community raised millions in ransom and freed 226 kidnapped members.
    (AFP, 2/24/15)(Reuters, 2/25/15)(AP, 2/26/15)(SFC, 12/7/16, p.A2)
2015        Feb 23, In Iraq and Syria the United States and its allies staged 25 air strikes on Islamic State fighters over the last 24 hours. About 800 Iraqi forces backed by US warplanes waged a battle to retake the western town of Al-Baghdadi from Islamic State jihadists.
    (Reuters, 2/23/15)(AFP, 2/23/15)

2015        Feb 25, In Iraq and Syria the US and its partner nations launched 15 air strikes against the Islamic State with six in Iraq and nine in Syria over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 2/25/15)

2015        Feb 26, In northeastern Syria the US-led coalition carried out air strikes against the Islamic State group, where the jihadists have launched a new offensive and kidnapped 220 Assyrian Christians.
    (AFP, 2/26/15)
2015        Feb 26, “Jihadi John," a member of the Islamic State and the beheader of at least 5 Western hostages, was identified as a British Islamist named Mohammed Emwazi. He first appeared in a video last August, when he apparently killed the US journalist James Foley.
    (www.bbc.com/news/uk-31637090)(Econ., 3/7/15, p.59)

2015        Feb 27, In northeast Syria Kurdish forces dealt a blow to Islamic State by capturing Tel Hamis in the latest stage of a powerful offensive. Kurdish forces killed at least 175 members and commanders of the ultra-hardline Islamist militants in an offensive which began last weekend. Nusra Front commander Samir Hijazi was among three fellow leaders killed in an apparent airstrike.
    (Reuters, 2/27/15)(SFC, 3/7/15, p.A2)
2015        Feb 27, Britain and France dismissed any suggestion of restoring relations with Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, saying this would likely end all hope of a political transition and push moderates into the arms of radical Islamist groups.
    (Reuters, 2/27/15)

2015        Feb 28, In Syria Al-Qaeda's affiliate drove US-backed rebels out of Base 46, a northern military base west of Aleppo. At least 29 fighters from the Western-armed Hazm movement were killed along with 6 Al-Nusra Front jihadists.
    (AFP, 2/28/15)

2015        Mar 1, The Islamic State released at least 19 Christians, whoi were among over 220 people taken captive last week in northeastern Syria.
    (SFC, 3/2/15, p.A2)
2015        Mar 1, In Iraq and Syria a US-led coalition launched 9 air strikes including seven in Iraq and two in Syria against Islamic State militants over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 3/1/15)

2015        Mar 2, Syrian regime forces and Kurdish militia fought separate battles with the Islamic State group in a strategic area near the Iraqi and Turkish borders.
    (AFP, 3/2/15)
2015        Mar 2, Konstandinos Erik Scurfield (25), a former Royal Marine, died in a battle with IS militants, becoming the first Briton to be killed while fighting with Kurdish forces battling Islamic State jihadists in Syria.
    (AFP, 3/4/15)

2015        Mar 4, In Iraq and Syria the US and its allies staged 12 air strikes on Islamic State targets over the last 24-hours.
    (Reuters, 3/4/15)

2015        Mar 5, Syrian government helicopter gunships bombed the northern city of Aleppo, killing at least 18 people and wounding dozens.
    (AP, 3/5/15)
2015        Mar 5, In Syria Abu Hammam al-Shami, the military chief of the Al-Qaeda-affiliated Al-Nusra, reportedly died of injuries believed to have suffered from an air strike on Feb 27.
    (AFP, 3/6/15)

2015        Mar 6, In Iraq and Syria coalition forces led by the US military targeted Islamic State militants with 16 air strikes over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 3/6/15)

2015        Mar 7, In northeastern Syria Islamic State militants attacked a string of predominantly Christian villages. At least 8 militants were killed in the fighting and an unknown number of Kurds. At least 9 members of Islamic State were killed during infighting near the town of al-Bab after some of them tried to flee over the Turkish border.
    (AP, 3/7/15)(Reuters, 3/9/15)
2015        Mar 7, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the Syrian army has killed Deeb Hedijan al-Otaibi, an Islamic State commander, in an air strike. 26 Islamic State militants were reported killed in the air strike near the town of Hamadi Omar.
    (Reuters, 3/7/15)
2015        Mar 7, In Iraq and Syria US and coalition forces conducted 17 air strikes against Islamic State fighters over the past 24 hours with 6 in Syria and 11 in Iraq.
    (Reuters, 3/7/15)

2015        Mar 8, In northern Syria at least 40 Kurdish fighters and Islamic State group jihadists were killed in clashes over the last 24 hours for control of Tal Tamr in Hasakeh province. 11 civilians were killed in a government air raid on the rebel-held town of Irbin northeast of Damascus. Clashes continued around the Aleppo province villages of Handarat and Bashkoy between regime forces and fighters from the Al-Qaeda affiliate, Al-Nusra Front. Unidentified gunmen attacked Islamic State militants in the eastern town of al-Mayadin overnight, killing more than 12.
    (AFP, 3/8/15)(Reuters, 3/8/15)
2015        Mar 8, In Iraq and Syria US and coalition forces conducted 12 air strikes against Islamic State fighters over the past 24 hours. Coalition warplanes bombed a refinery near the Syrian town of Tel Abyad on the Turkish border late today. The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the strikes killed some 30 people.
    (Reuters, 3/8/15)(AP, 3/9/15)
2015        Mar 8, The European Union said it has imposed sanctions on Syrian businessman George Haswani, who it says bought oil for the Syrian government from Islamic State militants who have seized wide areas of the country including its oil-producing regions.
    (Reuters, 3/8/15)

2015        Mar 9, About 95 captives, including Kurdish fighters, escaped from an Islamic State-run prison in northern Syria but most were recaptured.
    (Reuters, 3/10/15)

2015        Mar 10, In Iraq and Syria US and coalition forces conducted 12 air strikes against Islamic State fighters over the last 24 hours including eight in Iraq and four in Syria.
    (Reuters, 3/10/15)
2015        Mar 10, An Islamic State propaganda video showed the killing of East Jerusalem Palestinian Mohammad Musallam (19). A man introduces a child shown shooting the captive in the head. The man in the video speaks with a southern French accent and looks like the step-brother of Mohammed Merah, who killed 7 people in attacks on a Jewish school and paratroopers in the south of France beginning on March 11, 2012.
    (AP, 3/11/15)(SSFC, 3/15/15, p.A6)

2015        Mar 11, In Syria the Islamic State jihadist group launched a major offensive to try to capture the strategic town of Ras al-Ain on the Syrian-Turkish border, leaving dozens dead in clashes. At least 12 fighters from the Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG), which control Ras al-Ain and the surrounding villages, were killed in the IS onslaught.
    (AFP, 3/11/15)
2015        Mar 11, In Iraq and Syria US and coalition forces conducted 13 air strikes against Islamic State militants over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 3/11/15)

2015        Mar 12, Islamic State spokesman Abu Mohammed al-Adnani said that a pledge by Nigeria-based Boko Haram has been accepted and that now “no one can stand in its path." The agreement mirrors the steps taken by other Sunni jihadist groups in Libya and Egypt.
    (AP, 3/13/15)
2015        Mar 12, The Turkish coastguard opened fire to stop a cargo vessel carrying 337 mainly Syrian migrants heading towards European Union waters and arrested the suspected traffickers.
    (AFP, 3/13/15)

2015        Mar 14, In northeast Syria US-led coalition jets struck Islamic State positions for the second day in a row, in an area where the militants are battling Kurdish forces. The US and its coalition partners staged 10 air strikes on Islamic State militants in Iraq and Syria over the last 24 hours.
    (AP, 3/14/15)(Reuters, 3/14/15)

2015        Mar 15, Syrian government warplanes pounded a Damascus suburb, killing at least 18 people and scattering shattered concrete blocks and mangled cars in the streets.
    (AP, 3/15/15)

2015        Mar 17, A Syrian army statement said dozens of militants were killed in other areas of Idlib province overnight in clashes and attacks. A monitoring group said government forces carried out a poison gas attack that killed six people in the northwest. Medics posted videos of children suffering what they said was suffocation.
    (Reuters, 3/17/15)
2015        Mar 17, The Syrian army shot down a US drone over Latakia province, part of the western region where Damascus has been consolidating state control.
    (Reuters, 3/18/15)

2015        Mar 20, In Syria a twin bombing targeting Kurds celebrating their new year in the northeastern city of Hassakeh killed 49 people and wounded 177 others.
    (AP, 3/21/15)
2015        Mar 20, Islamic State published a video purporting to show the beheading of three Kurdish peshmerga fighters in northern Iraq by militants who threatened to kill "dozens" more of those being held captive. The population under Islamic State control was about eight million people.
    (Reuters, 3/20/15)(Econ., 3/21/15, p.17)

2015        Mar 22, In Syria Islamist rebels captured four crew members when a regime helicopter crashed in the northwest province of Idlib. Another airman survived the crash, but was reported killed by his captors.
    (AFP, 3/22/15)(SFC, 3/23/15, p.A2)
2015        Mar 22, A Turkish opposition lawmaker said he is helping the families of nine British medical students and doctors of Sudanese origin believed to have crossed into Syria from Turkey.
    (AP, 3/22/15)(AFP, 3/22/15)

2015        Mar 24, Syrian rebels launched an offensive against a major government-held city in northwestern Syria, shelling the outskirts and warning residents to remain indoors in the coming days.
    (AP, 3/24/15)

2015        Mar 25, Syrian rebels seized an ancient town near the Jordan border that is a key government stronghold, ousting Syrian soldiers and allied militiamen from the region after four days of intense battles. 11 soldiers and allied militia as well as 17 insurgents were killed as an alliance of Islamist rebels including al Qaeda's Nusra Front overran 17 defense posts around Idlib in an offensive to take the city from the army and allied militia.
    (AP, 3/25/15)    (Reuters, 3/26/15)
2015        Mar 25, The United States and its allies staged 19 air strikes on Islamic State targets in Syria and Iraq over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 3/25/15)

2015        Mar 27, In Syria Islamist rebels made fresh advances on the edges of Idlib city, after fierce clashes that have left dozens of dead.
    (AFP, 3/27/15)

2015        Mar 28, In Syria Islamist groups including al Qaeda's Nusra Front seized the city of Idlib for the first time since the conflict in the country began. The bodies of least 15 detainees were found, apparently executed by government forces, after Idlib was taken.
    (Reuters, 3/28/15)(AP, 3/29/15)(AFP, 3/29/15)

2015        Mar 29, A video posted by the Islamic State group showed its fighters beheading 8 men, said to be Shiite Muslims, in Syria’s Hama province.
    (SFC, 3/30/15, p.A4)
2015        Mar 29, Saudi Arabia accused Russian President Vladimir Putin of hypocrisy, telling an Arab summit that he should not express support for the Middle East while fuelling instability by supporting Syrian leader Bashar al-Assad.
    (Reuters, 3/29/15)
2015        Mar 31, In central Syria the Islamic State jihadist group killed at least 46 civilians, including two children, in a raid on a regime-held village in Hama province. Jihadist fighters from the IS group took hostage at least 50 civilians, almost half of them women, seized in a raid on Mabujeh village, Hama province.
    (AFP, 3/31/15)(AP, 4/10/15)(Econ., 4/11/15, p.43)
2015        Mar 31, The US Treasury Dept. imposed new sanctions on Syria's government aimed at blunting its weapons programs and pushing it into negotiations with rebels. The action targeted Batoul Rida, a Syrian central bank official, and three "front companies" that help fund Syria's development of ballistic missiles and nonconventional weapons.
    (AP, 3/31/15)
2015        Mar 31, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon said donors meeting in Kuwait have pledged $3.8 billion in humanitarian aid for the people of war-wracked Syria.
    (AFP, 3/31/15)

2015        Apr 1, In Syria Islamic State militants infiltrated the Yarmouk Palestinian refugee camp in Damascus, marking the deepest foray yet by the extremist group into the capital.
    (AP, 4/1/15)
2015        Apr 1, Jordan closed its main border crossing with Syria amid fierce clashes between rebels and pro-regime forces for control of the Jaber post.
    (AFP, 4/1/15)

2015        Apr 2, Syrian rebels and fighters from the al-Qaida-affiliated Nusra Front captured the Nasib crossing, the only functioning border crossing with Jordan, as well as three nearby military posts. Palestinian fighters and Syrian rebels retook control of large parts of a refugee camp in Damascus that had been seized by IS jihadists.
    (AP, 4/2/15)(AFP, 4/2/15)
2015        Apr 2, Tunisia's foreign minister said that diplomatic relations with Syria will be restored at a consular level, following a long hiatus that began during the Arab Spring.
    (AP, 4/2/15)

2015        Apr 3, In Syria Islamic State militants battled against armed groups inside the Yarmouk refugee camp in Damascus, and have made new advances inside the camp.
    (AP, 4/3/15)

2015        Apr 4, In Syria civilians trapped in the Yarmouk Palestinian refugee camp in Damascus fled to safer areas amid intense shelling and clashes between Palestinian armed factions and Islamic militants who took over most of the camp.
    (AP, 4/4/15)

2015        Apr 5, A Palestinian official said around 2,000 people have been evacuated from the Yarmouk refugee camp in Damascus after the Islamic State group seized large parts of it.
    (AFP, 4/5/15)

2015        Apr 6, In Syria Palestinian fighters clashed with Islamic State militants in the heavily contested Yarmouk refugee camp in Damascus as a UN official described the situation in the embattled camp as "beyond inhumane" for some 18,000 residents.
    (AP, 4/6/15)
2015        Apr 6, In northwestern Syria Islamist fighters kidnapped some 300 Kurdish civilians at a checkpoint in Dana, Idlib province.
    (AFP, 4/6/15)
2015        Apr 6, In Iraq US-led forces targeted Islamic State militants with eight air strikes and conducted five air strikes in Syria over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 4/6/15)
2015        Apr 6, In Russia talks began in Moscow on ending the war in Syria, but the absence of key opposition groups meant there was little hope of progress in resolving the conflict.
    (AFP, 4/6/15)

2015        Apr 7, The Islamic State group launched English-language radio news bulletins on its al-Bayan radio network. The first bulletin provided an overview of their activities in Iraq, Syria and Libya. An IS group online propaganda video showed the beheading of four men for armed robbery and murder in the northern Iraqi province of Nineveh.
    (AP, 4/7/15)(AFP, 4/7/15)
2015        Apr 7, In northern Syria two car bombs set off by Islamic State insurgents killed at least 32 people in Marea, including a senior rival fighter from al Qaeda's Nusra Front.
    (Reuters, 4/8/15)(AFP, 4/8/15)

2015        Apr 8, In Syria the toll from two alleged Islamic State group car bombings overnight of rebels in Aleppo province rose to at least 32.
    (AFP, 4/8/15)
2015        Apr 8, In Iraq and Syria US-led forces targeted Islamic State militants with four air strikes in Iraq and two in Syria over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 4/8/15)

2015        Apr 9, A group of 14 Palestinian factions said they backed a joint military operation with the Syrian government to expel Islamic State group jihadists from the Yarmouk camp in southern Damascus.
    (AFP, 4/9/15)

2015        Apr 10, In Syria pro-government forces repelled an attack on the Khalkhalah military airport in Sweida province by Islamic State group affiliated militants, losing 20 fighters. At least 15 IS jihadists were killed. The Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG) "retook at least four checkpoints and a number of neighborhoods" around the town of Tal Tamr. 10 members of the Kurdish YPG militia were killed in the fighting.  The US-led coalition fighting conducted air strikes on IS positions around Tal Tamr.
    (AFP, 4/11/15)(Reuters, 4/11/15)
2015        Apr 10, Talks in Moscow between the Syrian government and members of the domestic opposition tolerated by President Bashar al-Assad broke up with no progress made towards ending the war.
    (AFP, 4/10/15)

2015        Apr 11, In Syria at least 35 people were killed on both sides of the divided city of Aleppo as government forces and rebel fighters exchanged fire. The dead included 18 civilians -- two of them children -- killed in regime air strikes on the Al-Maadi and Sheikh al-Lutfi neighborhoods.
    (AFP, 4/11/15)(AP, 4/12/15)

2015        Apr 12, A Syrian government air raid struck near a school in an opposition-held neighborhood in Aleppo, killing at least 9 people, including 5 children.
    (AP, 4/12/15)

2015        Apr 14, Syrian militants, including members of al-Qaida's local branch, attacked a government Air Force intelligence center in Aleppo overnight, damaging much of the building by blowing up a tunnel under it. The fighting reportedly killed 13 militants and killed and wounded more than 20 troops and pro-government gunmen.
    (AP, 4/14/15)
2015        Apr 14, The US Central Command said the international coalition carried out 18 airstrikes on militants in Iraq and Syria in the past two days. Of those, 15 were in Iraq, including three near Ramadi.
    (AP, 4/15/15)

2015        Apr 15, In Syria local fighters in a Palestinian refugee camp in Damascus advanced in clashes with Islamic State militants two weeks after the extremist group stormed the area in its deepest foray into the capital.
    (AP, 4/15/15)

2015        Apr 18, In Iraq and Syria the US and its allies reported the launch of 20 air strikes targeting Islamic State militants over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 4/18/15)

2015        Apr 19, Syrian government airstrikes on three opposition-held towns near the Jordanian border reportedly killed at least 16 people, including five children.
    (AP, 4/19/15)
2015        Apr 19, In Iraq and Syria the US and its coalition partners targeted Islamic State militants with 13 air strikes over the last 24 hours with 12 of the strikes in Iraq.
    (Reuters, 4/19/15)

2015        Apr 20, In Syria fighting began in the southern province of Daraa with at least 27 people killed. By the next day 37 rebels as well as 22 government troops were reported killed as opposition fighters clawed back most of the territory lost the previous day.
    (AP, 4/21/15)
2015        Apr 20, In Iraq and Syria the United States and its allies launched 36 air strikes targeting Islamic State militants over the last 24 hours with 10 in Syria and 26 in Iraq.
    (Reuters, 4/20/15)

2015        Apr 22, In Syria airstrikes in Harasta and Douma, suburbs of Damascus, killed at least 11 people, including two women, and wounded others.
    (AP, 4/22/15)
2015        Apr 22, In Iraq and Syria US-led forces targeted Islamic State militants with 18 air strikes over the last 24 hours including 7 in Syria and 11 in Iraq.
    (Reuters, 4/22/15)
2015        Apr 22, Russia said it is arming Iraq and Syria to help them fight Islamic State, calling the radical militant group the main threat to his own country's security.
    (Reuters, 4/22/15)

2015        Apr 24, In southern Syria the Islamic State shot down a regime aircraft east of the Khalkhalah military airport in Sweida province. Pro-IS Twitter accounts said the group had captured the pilot.
    (AFP, 4/24/15)
2015        Apr 24, In Iraq and Syria the US and its allies conducted 15 air strikes over the last 24 hours including eleven in Iraq and four in Syria.
    (AP, 4/24/15)
2015        Apr 24, Rostom Ghazali, a powerful Syrian general, was reported to have died in a hospital in the capital Damascus. He had been clinically dead for weeks after being beaten by the bodyguards of another Syrian general. Ghazali was once considered the most powerful man in Lebanon and was suspected of involvement in the 2005 assassination of a former Lebanese PM Rafik Harriri.
    (AP, 4/24/15)
2015        Apr 24, An Israeli air striked hit a Syrian army missile base in the Qalamoun  mouintains near the Lebanese border.
    (Econ., 5/2/15, p.40)

2015        Apr 25, In Syria Islamist insurgents including al-Qaeda's wing, Nusra Front, captured the northwestern town of Jisr al-Shughour, for the first time in the four-year-old conflict. At least 27 people, including at least 20 fighters, were killed in the strikes.
    (Reuters, 4/25/15)(AP, 4/26/15)

2015        Apr 26, Syrian military aircraft bombed the northwestern town of Jisr al-Shughour, a day after insurgents seized control of it. Airstrikes on Darkoush (Darkush), some 20 km north of Jisr al-Shughour, killed and wounded at least 34 civilians.
    (AP, 4/26/15)(AFP, 4/26/15)
2015        Apr 26, Israel’s military said it launched an airstrike on its border with Syria after spotting militants carrying a bomb in the Golan Heights. 4 men were reported killed.
    (SFC, 4/27/15, p.A4)(Econ., 5/2/15, p.40)

2015        Apr 27, In Syria Islamic insurgents overran a military base at the former Qarmeed factory in northwestern Idlib province, carting off tanks and other weapons in the latest blow to President Bashar Assad's forces in the region.
    (AP, 4/27/15)
2015        Apr 27, French investigators provided details to AFP of their year-long probe into the finances of Rifaat al-Assad, the younger brother of Syria’s late dictator Hafez al-Assad. He was under investigation for amassing a 90-million-euro fortune, including a stud farm and luxury apartments, despite being kicked out of Syria "with nothing" 30 years ago.
    (AFP, 4/27/15)

2015        Apr 29, Syrian government air raids in Aleppo and its suburbs killed 11 civilians, including at least one child.
    (AP, 4/30/15)

2015        Apr 30, Syrian government forces carried out a series of overnight air raids and shelled several areas in the country's northwest in an apparent attempt to halt a rebel advance, killing at least 20 civilians. State media said "terrorists" shelled a district in the government-controlled part of Aleppo, killing at least seven civilians.
    (AP, 4/30/15)
2015        Apr 30, Norway said it would increase its financial aid to Syrian refugees to nearly 120 million euros ($134 million) and would send another vessel to help patrol the Mediterranean.
    (AFP, 4/30/15)

2015        May 1, In Syria Islamist rebels and the government army fought fierce battles in Latakia province overnight close to Pres. Bashar al-Assad's ancestral home. At least 5 insurgents were killed and an unidentified number from the pro-government side. Syrian television said army units targeted "groups of terrorists" in the eastern and southern Idlib countryside and "eliminated a great number of them and destroyed their weapons and munitions."
    (Reuters, 5/1/15)
2015        May 1, In Iraq and Syria the US-led military coalition launched 18 air strikes against Islamic State over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 5/1/15)
2015        May 1, In northern Syria an air strike by US-led forces on Bir Mahli village, Aleppo province, reportedly killed at least 64 civilians including 31 children.
    (Reuters, 5/2/15)(SFC, 5/5/15, p.A2)

2015        May 2, In Syria fighting continued between government forces and Islamist fighters in government-held Latakia, heartland of Assad's minority Alawite community. Rebels shelled government-held districts in Aleppo, killing at least 12 civilians, including 3 children.
    (Reuters, 5/2/15)(AP, 5/2/15)

2015        May 3, Syria's army cut the last main supply route for a rebel bastion east of Damascus. A barrel bomb killed at least 7 civilians, including a teacher and 4 children, when it hit a school in the city of Aleppo.
    (AFP, 5/3/15)
2015        May 3, In Iraq and Syria the United States and its allies staged 17 strikes on Islamic State targets over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 5/3/15)

2015        May 4, In Syria a small group of insurgents, including a suicide bomber, carried out an attack in Damascus targeting a Syrian military logistics and supply facility.
    (AP, 5/4/15)

2015        May 5, In eastern Lebanon Hezbollah fighters and gunmen from al Qaeda's Syria wing Nusra Front clashed near the border with Syria. Hezbollah fighters captured a Syrian village near the border with Lebanon.
    (Reuters, 5/5/15)(AP, 5/5/15)

2015        May 6, In Syria at least 16 members of the Syrian Kurdish security forces were killed in an Islamic State group attack on a base in the northeastern province of Hasakeh.
    (AFP, 5/6/15)
2015        May 6, Lebanese Hezbollah militants attacked a gathering of leaders of Syria's Nusra Front and other insurgents in an area near Lebanon's eastern border with Syria, killing 3 of them.
    (Reuters, 5/6/15)

2015        May 7, The Syrian army and Hezbollah fighters captured a mountainous area on Syria's border with Lebanon and killed dozens of insurgents including from al Qaeda's Nusra Front wing. 4 government soldiers were beheaded by IS as the jihadists seized a key checkpoint in Deir Ezzor near its military air base. At least six civilians were killed in attacks in Aleppo city. In Aleppo province a fierce attack by IS on the regime's Kweyris military airport left 7 pro-government forces dead. An explosion in the Billi military airport killed 13 regime soldiers, including the base's head.   
    (Reuters, 5/7/15)(Reuters, 5/8/15)

2015        May 8, In Syria fierce battles between regime forces and the Islamic State jihadist group continued in eastern Syria with 34 fighters dead in the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 5/8/15)
2015        May 8, Syria's state news agency quoted an archaeology official as saying that authorities have confiscated and reclaimed 6,000 looted antiquities trafficked by smugglers outside the country.
    (AP, 5/8/15)

2015        May 9, In Iraq and Syria the United States and its allies conducted 28 air strikes against Islamic State with 15 in Syria and 13 in Iraq in the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 5/9/15)

2015        May 10, In Syria rebels including an Al-Qaeda affiliate stormed the hospital complex in Jisr al-Shughur, Idlib province, where some 250 regime forces and civilians have been trapped for two weeks. At least 40 rebels and 32 government troops were killed as the Syrian army battled to relieve some 250 besieged regime loyalists under rebel assault.
    (AFP, 5/10/15)(AFP, 5/11/15)
2015        May 10, The Lebanese Shi'ite group Hezbollah said it had killed over 20 fighters from Syria's al Qaeda wing and destroyed several hideouts and training camps the fighters had set up to launch attacks in Lebanon across the rugged border with Syria.
    (Reuters, 5/10/15)

2015        May 12, Syrian government helicopters dropped barrel bombs in a neighborhood in the northern city of Aleppo, killing at least 15 people. The Aleppo Media Center, based in the city, said at least 35 people were killed. At least 4 people were killed and 17 wounded in a double bomb blast in the central city of Homs.
    (AP, 5/12/15)(AFP, 5/12/15)

2015        May 13, In Syria at least 28 regime forces and 20 IS fighters were reported killed in overnight battles in Homs province as IS militants captured areas of Al-Sukhnah town and its surroundings.
    (AFP, 5/13/15)
2015        May 13, The London Guardian reported that a three-year operation to smuggle official documents out of Syria has produced enough evidence to prosecute pres. Bashar Asad and 24 senior members of his government on war crimes.
    (SSFC, 5/17/15, p.A4)

2015        May 14, In Syria jihadists from the Islamic State group executed 26 civilians after overrunning their villages near the ancient city of Palmyra.
    (AFP, 5/14/15)

2015        May 15, Syria's army dispatched reinforcements to Palmyra in a bid to push back jihadists who advanced to within touching distance of the ancient city.
    (AFP, 5/15/15)
2015        May 15, US special forces carried out a late night raid inside Syria at al-Omar. A man identified as Abu Sayyaf, a senior Islamic State leader who helped direct the group's oil, gas and financial operations, was among those killed. The US operation killed 32 members of IS, among them four officials.
    (Reuters, 5/16/15)(AFP, 5/17/15)

2015        May 16, In Syria Islamic State group said that its fighters have seized full control of Saker Island in the Euphrates River north of Deir el-Zour, the northeastern province divided between areas held by the group and the government. The Islamic State group seized control of the northern part of Syria's ancient desert city of Palmyra after fierce clashes with government forces.
    (AP, 5/16/15)(AFP, 5/16/15)
2015        May 16, Turkish military jets shot down a Syrian aircraft after it violated Turkey's airspace.
    (Reuters, 5/16/15)

2015        May 17, Syrian troops pushed Islamic State group jihadists back from Palmyra. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said nearly 300 people have been killed in several days of fighting since the Islamic State group launched an attack against the ancient city of Palmyra. The dead included 123 soldiers and loyalist militiamen, 115 IS fighters and 57 civilians.
    (AFP, 5/17/15)
2015        May 17, In Syria US and coalition forces launched eight air strikes against Islamic State targets over the last 24 hours, including near al Hasakah and Kobani.
    (Reuters, 5/17/15)

2015        May 19, In Syria rebels including Al-Qaeda's local affiliate seized Al-Mastumah base, the government’s largest remaining military base in northwestern Idlib province. IS jihadists attacked a village in the Druze heartland of southern Syria, killing 6 people before local pro-regime gunmen expelled them. An air strike on a village in Deir Ezzor province killed at least 8 civilians, including 3 children.
    (AFP, 5/19/15)

2015        May 20, In central Syria Islamic State militants seized parts of the ancient town of Palmyra after fierce clashes with government troops. A mortar shelled smashed into an elementary school in an upscale neighborhood of Damascus, killing a female teacher and wounding 23 students.
    (AP, 5/20/15)
2015        May 20, The US-led coalition staged 25 air strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 5/20/15)

2015        May 21, In Syria Islamic State said in a statement it was in full charge of Palmyra, including its military bases, marking the first time it had taken a city directly from the Syrian military and allied forces. Clashes in the Palmyra area over the last 24 hours reportedly killed at least 100 pro-government fighters.
    (Reuters, 5/21/15)

2015        May 23, In Syria the United States and its allies staged 5 air strikes on Islamic State targets over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 5/23/15)

2015        May 24, Syrian state media reported that Islamic State fighters have executed at least 400 people in Palmyra since capturing the ancient city four days ago. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said least 300 soldiers were killed in the days of fighting before the city was captured. Syrian state television said its air force had killed 300 insurgents in strikes that broke the siege of the Jisr al-Shughour hospital in Idlib province.
    (Reuters, 5/24/15)
2015        May 24, A Syrian military helicopter crashed at the northern air base of Kweiras, killing all of its crew. An activist group said it was shot down by Islamic State militants.
    (AP, 5/24/15)

2015        May 25, The Syrian air force leveled Islamic State "hideouts" and killed a large number of its members around Palmyra's military air base. The British-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the Islamic State has killed at least 217 people execution-style, including children, since it moved into the Palmyra area 10 days ago. The United States and its allies carried out 10 air strikes against Islamic State militants in Syria in the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 5/25/15)

2015        May 26, Syrian government aircraft carried out strikes against the IS group in and around Palmyra after its fall to the jihadists. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least 4 civilians had been killed in the raids. State media said the air force hit an IS-controlled air base in Raqqa province, killing more than 140 militants.
    (AFP, 5/26/15)(Reuters, 5/26/15)
2015        May 26, In Syria Hezbollah field commander, Ghassan Faqih, was killed along with several other fighters in clashes in the Qalamoun region.
    (AP, 5/27/15)

2015        May 27, In Syria Islamic State militants shot dead around 20 men inside an ancient amphitheater in Palmyra. A monitor said Kurdish forces have driven the IS group from more than a dozen Assyrian Christian villages that the jihadists had captured in the northeast.
    (Reuters, 5/27/15)(AFP, 5/27/15)
2015        May 27, Lebanon's Hezbollah said it has struck a group of al-Qaida-linked Nusra Front militants near the border with Syria with the help of a drone for the first time.
    (AP, 5/27/15)

2015        May 28, The EU added a high-ranking Syrian military official to its sanctions list as it extended measures against supporters of Pres. Bashar al-Assad for another year.
    (Reuters, 5/28/15)
2015        May 28, A US official said the US military has started training Syrian opposition fighters in Turkey to combat Islamic State, an expected expansion of a program that first launched in Jordan weeks ago.
    (Reuters, 5/28/15)

2015        May 29, In Syria Kurdish militia executed at least 20 civilians, including two children, after accusing them of being IS supporters in a northern provincial town.
    (AFP, 5/31/15)
2015        May 29, The US-led coalition conducted 20 air strikes in Iraq and four in Syria targeting Islamic State militants over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 5/29/15)

2015        May 30, In Syria barrel bombs dropped from regime helicopters killed at least 71 civilians in Aleppo province, after forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad retreated from the neighboring northwestern region of Idlib. Islamic State group jihadists demolished a notorious government prison in Palmyra. At least 10 pro-government forces and 10 jihadists were killed as the IS launched an assault on Hasakeh city, which has a large Kurdish population.
    (AFP, 5/30/15)(AFP, 5/31/15)

2015        May 31, In Syria a fuel tank exploded inside a clinic in the predominantly Kurdish northeastern town of Qamishli, killing at least 27 people, mostly children.
    (AFP, 5/31/15)
2015        May 31, In Syria Islamic State fighters pushed back rival insurgents north of Aleppo near the Turkish border, threatening their supply route to the city. On June 1 The United States accused the Syrian military of carrying out air strikes to help Islamic State fighters advance around Aleppo.
    (Reuters, 6/2/15)

2015        May, In Syria leading Algerian jihadist Said Arif (49) was killed by a US drone. Arif was a deserter from the Algerian army who first joined Al-Qaeda camps in Afghanistan in the 1990s.
    (AFP, 9/17/15)

2015        Jun 2, Syrian militants sent reinforcements to fight the Islamic State group in the northern province of Aleppo, where rival factions battled near the Turkish border.
    (AP, 6/2/15)
2015        Jun 2, The United States and its allies launched 10 air strikes against Islamic State targets in Iraq and five in Syria over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 6/2/15)

2015        Jun 3, Syrian troops and militia battled to repel an Islamic State attack on the city of Hasaka in the northeast.
    (Reuters, 6/3/15)
2015        Jun 3, A Syrian security source said thousands of Iranian and Iraqi fighters have been deployed in past weeks to bolster the defenses of Damascus and its surroundings.
     (AFP, 6/3/15)
2015        Jun 3, In Syria Keith Broomfield (36), an American from Massachusetts, was killed while fighting with Kurdish forces against the Islamic State near Kobani.
    (SFC, 6/12/15, p.A2)(SFC, 6/15/15, p.A10)

2015        Jun 4, In Syria Islamic State group jihadists, emboldened by a string of battlefield victories, advanced to the gates of Hasakeh after intense fighting with regime troops.
    (AFP, 6/4/15)
2015        Jun 4, Turkish government official said more than 3,300 Syrians have crossed into Turkey in the past two days fleeing fighting between Islamic State militants and Kurdish forces in northern Syria's Tel Abyad region.
    (AP, 6/4/15)

2015        Jun 5, Syrian war planes bombed Islamic State fighters trying to advance into the northeastern city of Hasaka.
    (Reuters, 6/5/15)

2015        Jun 7, The Syrian army said it had repulsed a major offensive by Islamic State militants in the northeastern city of Hasaka and driven out fighters who had taken over key installations on the southern edge of the city. US-led aircraft bombed Islamic State group fighters as they battled rival Syrian rebels, including Al-Qaeda loyalists, for the first time overnight.
    (Reuters, 6/7/15)(AFP, 6/7/15)
2015        Jun 7, In Syria an airstrike by the U.S.-led coalition in the northern province of Aleppo killed 7 family members, including a couple and their five children.
    (AP, 6/8/15)

2015        Jun 8, In northwest Syria at least 49 civilians, including six children, were killed in government air strikes on the town of Al-Janudiyah, Idlib province. Syria's PM Wael al-Halaki said the government would give a monthly bonus of 10,000 Syrian pounds ($37) to soldiers fighting on the frontlines.
    (AFP, 6/8/15)(AP, 6/8/15)

2015        Jun 9, In Syria rebel fighters captured Liwa 52, a major Syrian army base in the south of the country. Hezbollah fighters came under attack from Islamic State militants for the first time in the Qalamoun campaign. 11 IS fighters were reported killed.
    (Reuters, 6/9/15)
2015        Jun 9, US and allied forces reported 14 air strikes in Iraq and nine in Syria against Islamic State militants over the last 24 hours.
    (AP, 6/9/15)

2015        Jun 10, In Syria at least 20 Druze residents were reportedly killed by Al-Qaeda affiliate Al-Nusra Front in Idlib province.
    (AFP, 6/11/15)

2015        Jun 11, Syrian rebels of the Southern Front seized most of Al-Thaala military airport in regime-controlled Sweida province and shot down a warplane nearby. Syrian Kurdish fighters advanced towards the Islamic State group-held town of Tal Abyad on the Turkish border, backed by US-led coalition strikes.
    (AFP, 6/11/15)
2015        Jun 11, US and coalition forces conducted 13 air strikes targeting Islamic State in Iraq, as well as 10 strikes against the militant group in Syria.
    (Reuters, 6/12/15)

2015        Jun 12, Syrian army troops regained full control of an airbase in southern Sweida province, a day after rebels overran large parts of it.
    (AFP, 6/12/15)
2015        Jun 12, US and coalition forces conducted 12 air strikes targeting Islamic State in Iraq and three strikes against the militant group in Syria.
    (Reuters, 6/13/15)

2015        Jun 13, The Syrian Kurdish YPG militia said it began an advance towards an Islamic State-held town at the Turkish border, thrusting deeper into the jihadists' stronghold of Raqqa province in a campaign backed by US-led air strikes.
    (Reuters, 6/13/15)
2015        Jun 13, Turkish security forces used water cannon and fired warning shots to push Syrians away from the frontier as thousands massed at a border crossing to escape escalating fighting.
    (AFP, 6/13/15)
2015        Jun 13, US-led forces conducted 12 air strikes against Islamic State targets in seven Iraqi cities. One strike was conducted in Syria.
    (Reuters, 6/14/15)

2015        Jun 14, Syrian state television said dozens of civilians were wounded when two bombs exploded in the central city of Homs. Kurdish forces advanced to the gates of Tal Abyad and clashed with Islamic State jihadists. The upsurge in violence saw Turkey open its border to fleeing civilians.
    (Reuters, 6/14/15)(AFP, 6/14/15)

2015        Jun 15, The Syrian Kurdish YPG militia said it has seized a major road that brought reinforcements from Islamic State's defacto capital of Raqqa, enabling YPG fighters to lay siege to the militant's stronghold of Tel Abyad. Syrian rebels shelled a government-held neighborhood in Aleppo killing at least 34 civilians and wounding some 190.
    (Reuters, 6/15/15)(AP, 6/15/15)(AFP, 6/16/15)
2015        Jun 15, Syria's best-known mosaic museum in the northern rebel-held town of Maaret al-Numan was seriously damaged in a regime barrel bomb attack.
    (AFP, 6/20/15)

2015        Jun 16, In Syria Kurdish militia, backed by Syrian rebel forces, seized full control of the key border town of Tal Abyad from Islamic State group jihadists.
    (AFP, 6/16/15)
2015        Jun 16, Syrian government forces earlier fired Iranian-made "elephant" rockets on the rebel-held suburb of Douma, killing 24 people, including 5 children and 14 women. Two shells struck Arnous Park in Damascus late today, killing 9 people and wounding 13.
    (AP, 6/17/15)
2015        Jun 16, Turkey accused Kurdish militia in northern Syria of persecuting civilians and said it saw signs of "a kind of ethnic cleansing", drawing a parallel to the actions of Islamic State militants and forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad.
    (Reuters, 6/16/15)

2015        Jun 17, Rebels surrounded a government-held Druze village on the Syrian side of the ceasefire line on the Golan Heights after heavy fighting. The fighting killed a soldier and one insurgent, after 6 rebels were killed the day before.
    (AFP, 6/17/15)(AP, 6/17/15)

2015        Jun 18, Syrian rebels advanced into a second government-held neighborhood in the northern city of Aleppo.
    (AP, 6/18/15)
2015        Jun 18, In Iraq and Syria the United States and coalition allies staged 22 air strikes on Islamic State targets.
    (Reuters, 6/18/15)

2015        Jun 19, Britain said it will take in "several hundred more" vulnerable Syrian refugees, after PM David Cameron said London was expanding a resettlement program for the conflict-ravaged country.
    (Reuters, 6/19/15)
2015        Jun 19, US and coalition forces targeted the Islamic State with 16 air strikes in Iraq and six in Syria.
    (Reuters, 6/20/15)

2015        Jun 20, Islamic State planted mines and bombs in the ancient part of the central Syrian city of Palmyra, home to Roman-era ruins.
    (Reuters, 6/21/15)
2015        Jun 20, In Syria three US and coalition forces air strikes near Tal Abyad hit three Islamic State tactical units.
    (Reuters, 6/21/15)

2015        Jun 21, US-led coalition forces targeted Islamic State militants with seven air strikes in Syria and 22 in Iraq.
    (Reuters, 6/22/15)

2015        Jun 22, In Syria Kurdish-led forces advanced deep into territory in Syria held by Islamic State, showing new momentum after they unexpectedly swiftly seized a border crossing from the jihadists last week.
    (Reuters, 6/22/15)
2015        Jun 22, Dozens of Druze residents of the annexed Golan Heights attacked a military ambulance carrying two injured Syrians, beating one to death on suspicion that they were Islamic militants. Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu pledged the next day to track down the Druze rioters responsible for the "lynching" of a wounded Syrian.
    (AP, 6/23/15)(AFP, 6/23/15)

2015        Jun 23, Syrian Kurds and allied rebels advanced against the Islamic State group. Anti-IS forces took Ain Issa after capturing the nearby Brigade 93 base overnight.
    (AFP, 6/23/15)
2015        Jun 23, In Syria 2 suicide attacks from the Islamic State group killed 10 government soldiers in the northeastern city of Hasakeh. At least 13 civilians were killed in a car bomb attack against a mosque in a village near the capital Damascus. US-led forces carried out air strikes against IS in Hasaka and near the town of Tel Abyad.
    (AFP, 6/24/15)(Reuters, 6/25/15)
2015        Jun 23, Islamic State militants said they have blown up two shrines they consider sacrilegious in Palmyra, a 2,000-year-old UNESCO World Heritage site. The extremists destroyed the grave of Mohammad Bin Ali, a descendant of Imam Ali, cousin of Islam's Prophet Muhammad and a deeply revered Shiite saint, and the final resting place of Sufi scholar, Nizar Abu Bahaa Eddine, who lived in Palmyra some 500 years ago.
    (Reuters, 6/23/15)(AP, 6/24/15)

2015        Jun 25, In Syria Islamic State fighters launched simultaneous attacks against the government forces and Kurdish militia, moving back onto the offensive after losing ground in recent days to Kurdish-led forces near Raqqa. At least 15 Islamic State fighters were reported killed in Kobani. IS militants mounted a bloody surprise attack on the Kurdish-held border town of Kobane, killing at least 164. IS forces shot dead at least 23 people in the Kurdish village of Barkh Butan.
    (Reuters, 6/25/15)(AFP, 6/25/15)(AFP, 6/27/15)

2015        Jun 26, In Syria Some 40 people were reported killed in the fighting for Daraa.
    (AFP, 6/26/15)(Reuters, 6/26/15)

2015        Jun 27, In Syria Kurdish forces drove out Islamic State fighters who had infiltrated the Syrian border town of Kobani, but clashes continued outside the town. The number of civilians killed since bands of elite IS fighters infiltrated the town early June 25 exceeded 200 and was likely to rise as the search for bodies continues.
    (AP, 6/27/15)
2015        Jun 27, In Iraq and Syria the United States and its allies staged air strikes against Islamic State positions with 10 strikes in Iraq and 17 in Syria.
    (Reuters, 6/28/15)

2015        Jun 28, In Syria a mortar bomb killed 3 people and wounded 12 more in a market place in Saroujah district of northeast Damascus.
    (AP, 6/28/15)

2015        Jun 29, Syrian regime forces took back several parts of a neighborhood in the northeastern city of Hasakeh from the Islamic State group, but heavy clashes continued.
    (AFP, 6/29/15)
2015        Jun 29, In Iraq and Syria the United States and its allies staged 18 air strikes on Islamic State targets.
    (Reuters, 6/30/15)
2015        Jun 29, Russian President Vladimir Putin met with Syria's foreign minister and pledged his support for Syrian President Bashar Assad. Putin called on all Middle East nations to join forces to fight Islamic State militants.
    (AP, 6/29/15)

2015        Jun 30, A Syrian government air raid killed at least 17 people and wounded many others in the northwestern town of Ihsim, Idlib province.
    (AP, 6/30/15)
2015        Jun 30, It was reported that the Islamic State in Syria has beheaded one women this week along with her husband in Deir al-Zor city. In al-Mayadeen city to the south east, the group beheaded another woman and her husband. All were accused of sorcery.
    (Reuters, 6/30/15)

2015        Jul 1, Syrian Kurdish forces regained full control of Tal Abyad, expelling Islamic State group fighters who had seized a district of the strategic border town.
    (AFP, 7/1/15)
2015        Jul 1, In Syria at least 18 people were killed in government strikes across Daraa province. The strikes included raids in and around the town of Saida that left 13 dead, and 5 killed in a barrel bomb attack in Tafas.
    (AFP, 7/2/15)
2015        Jul 1, In Iraq and Syria US-led coalition forces conducted against Islamic State with 18 in Iraq and 10 in Syria.
    (AP, 7/2/15)

2015        Jul 3, Syrian government forces carried out heavy air strikes on rebel positions in and around the northern city of Aleppo. Rebel forces seized some buildings from government control on the northwestern city outskirts of Jamiyat al-Zahra. At least 35 insurgents were killed in that area, including a dozen Syrians and many others of central Asian origin. A bomb exploded inside a mosque in an opposition-held suburb of Damascus, killing a Sunni Muslim cleric.
    (Reuters, 7/3/15)(AP, 7/3/15)

2015        Jul 5, In Iraq and Syria US-led forces conducted air strikes against Islamic State forces with 11 in Iraq and 8 in Syria over the last 24 hours.
    (AP, 7/6/15)(SFC, 7/6/15, p.A2)

2015        Jul 6, In Syria a suicide bomber from the Nusra Front blew himself up in a government army outpost in a contested neighborhood in the divided city of Aleppo and killed at least 25 soldiers and allied militia and injured scores. Islamic State fighters stormed the town of Ain Issa held by Kurdish-led forces near Raqqa city. In the northeast least 37 Islamic State fighters were reported killed and scores injured in air strikes by the US-led coalition and in clashes with Kurdish YPG militia.
    (Reuters, 7/6/15)

2015        Jul 7, In Syria intense clashes broke out in the northern city of Aleppo after militants attacked a government-held neighborhood there, capturing several buildings.
    (AP, 7/7/15)
2015        Jul 7, In Iraq and Syria the United States and its allies staged 25 air strikes on Islamic State targets with 14 in Iraq and 11 in Syria.
    (Reuters, 7/8/15)
2015        Jul 7, Turkey's army said it had detained 768 people trying to cross illegally from Syria, including three suspected Islamic State militants, after bolstering security in border areas near where the radical Islamists hold ground.
    (Reuters, 7/7/15)

2015        Jul 8, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said a drone strike as part of a US-led campaign against Islamic State militants has killed a senior IS-Uzbek figure in Raqqa. Muhsin Al-Fadhli, leader of the Khorasan al-Qaeda cell, was killed while traveling in a vehicle near Sarmada. Hackers claiming to be affiliated with the Islamic State group took down the website of the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights monitor and threatened its director. At least 19 civilians, including 5 children, were killed by a regime barrel bomb attack and rebel rocket fire in Aleppo.
    (Reuters, 7/8/15)(AFP, 7/8/15)(AFP, 7/9/15)(SFC, 7/23/15, p.A4)

2015        Jul 9, Syrian army troops backed by war planes advanced to within several kilometers of Palmyra, battling Islamic State group fighters outside the ancient city. New UN figures said the number of people who have fled Syria has surpassed 4 million.
    (AFP, 7/9/15)(SFC, 7/10/15, p.A3)

2015        Jul 10, In Iraq and Syria the United States and its allies carried out 34 air strikes against Islamic State militants with 17 in Iraq and 17 in Syria.
    (Reuters, 7/11/15)

2015        Jul 11, Syria monitors said a helicopter strike on the Islamic State-controlled town of al-Bab killed at least 28 people including 3 children. A Syrian military source said the army had not carried out any air strikes today in al-Bab.
    (Reuters, 7/11/15)

2015        Jul 14, In northern Syria a double suicide bombing in Idlib targeting the heqdquarters of Ahrar-al-Sham, an ultraconservative Islamic rebel group, killed its leader Abu Abdelrahman Salqeen, as well as 6 other high-ranking members.
    (SFC, 7/15/15, p.A2)
2015        Jul 14, In Iraq and Syria the United States and its coalition partners targeted Islamic State forces with 17 air strikes in Iraq and 16 Syria.
    (Reuters, 7/15/15)

2015        Jul 15, In Syria 13 civilians, among them 7 children, were killed in aerial attacks by the government on the northern province of Aleppo. 22 IS fighters were killed when regime warplanes struck a convoy traveling between the provinces of Deir Ezzor in the east and Hasakeh in the northeast. Al-Qaeda's Syrian affiliate and its Islamist allies launched an attack on the last two Shiite Muslim villages under regime control in northwest Idlib province.
    (AFP, 7/15/15)
2015        Jul 15, The Lebanese army said troops have confiscated a drone in the eastern Bekaa Valley as it was being taken to insurgents on the Syrian side of the border.
    (AP, 7/15/15)

2015        Jul 16, In Syria Kurdish fighters besieged members of the Islamic State group in the northeastern city of Hassakeh as they pushed forward under the cover of airstrikes by the US-led coalition. At least 11 civilians, among them 3 children, were killed in regime barrel bomb attacks on jihadist-held Al-Bab.
    (AP, 7/16/15)(AFP, 7/16/15)

2015        Jul 17, Syrian authorities released more than 240 prisoners, many of whom were detained under "anti-terror" laws, to mark the Muslim Eid al-Fitr holiday.
    (AFP, 7/18/15)

2015        Jul 18, British-based organizations — Conflict Armament Research and Sahan Research — reported that Islamic State forces used chemical agents delivered through what appears to be locally manufactured shells to attack Iraqi peshmerga forces and Syrian Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG), on June 21, 22 and 28.
    (AP, 7/18/15)
2015        Jul 18, In Iraq and Syria US-led forces targeted Islamic State militants with 16 air strikes in Iraq and nine in Syria.
    (Reuters, 7/19/15)

2015        Jul 20, A Syrian Kurdish militia said it was in near full control of the northeastern city of Hasaka, expanding its sway at the expense of the Damascus government in the wake of an Islamic State attack in the area.
    (Reuters, 7/20/15)

2015        Jul 20, Activists said the Islamic State group is banning private internet access in its Syrian bastion Raqa, forcing residents and even its own fighters to use internet cafes where they can be monitored.
    (AFP, 7/20/15)

2015        Jul 21, In northern Syria a missile attack on a rebel-held neighborhood in the city of Aleppo reportedly killed at least 18 people and wounded many others. At least 7 people were reported killed in the shelling by the Army of Conquest alliance on the regime-held villages of Fuaa and Kafraya over the last 24 hours.
    (AFP, 7/21/15)

2015        Jul 23, In Turkey suspected Islamic State militants fired at a Turkish military outpost from inside Syrian territory, killing a Turkish soldier and wounding two others. 5 members of Islamic State were also killed during the exchange of fire.
    (AP, 7/23/15)(Reuters, 7/24/15)
2015        Jul 23, US defense officials said that Turkey has agreed to allow manned US planes to stage air strikes against Islamic State militants from an air base at Incirlik, close to the Syrian border. US drones are already launched from the base.
    (Reuters, 7/24/15)

2015        Jul 24, Syria's two main political opposition groups, long at odds, announced that they have agreed on a "roadmap" to end their country's long-running civil war, starting with establishment of a transitional governing body.
    (AP, 7/24/15)
2015        Jul 24, Turkish warplanes pounded Islamic State targets in Syria for the first time, with President Tayyip Erdogan promising more decisive action against both the jihadists and Kurdish militants at home. Police rounded up nearly 300 people in raids against suspected Islamic State and Kurdish militants.
    (Reuters, 7/24/15)

2015        Jul 25, Syria's President Bashar Assad granted a general amnesty for army deserters and draft dodgers. The decree stipulated that deserters must turn themselves within two months to benefit from the amnesty. Rebel rocket fire on a government-held area of Aleppo killed 5 children, four of them brothers.
    (AP, 7/25/15)(AFP, 7/26/15)
2015        Jul 25, In Syria the Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG) advanced in Hasakeh city against IS and at the expense of the regime. The YPG was now said to control 70 percent of Hasakeh city, the IS 10 percent and the regime 20 percent. Islamic State militants detonated explosive laden trucks in two villages near the Kurdish-controlled border town of Tel Abyad, with reports of casualties.
    (AFP, 7/25/15)(Reuters, 7/25/15)
2015        Jul 25, Turkish fighter jets and ground forces hit Islamic State militants in Syria and Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) camps in Iraq overnight, in a campaign Ankara said would help create a "safe zone" across swathes of northern Syria. Kurdish militants said the conditions for maintaining a ceasefire with Turkey were no longer in place, after Turkish warplanes bombed their stronghold in northern Iraq.
    (Reuters, 7/25/15)(AFP, 7/25/15)

2015        Jul 26, Syrian President Bashar Assad, in his first public address in a year, vowed to win his country's long-running civil war while acknowledging his troops had lost territory because of a shortage of manpower.
    (AP, 7/26/15)

2015        Jul 27, In northern Syria the YPG made further gains against Islamic State, capturing a town near the Euphrates River after a month-long offensive aimed at cutting their supply lines. Kurdish fighters in northern Syria accused the Turkish army of shelling their positions.
    (Reuters, 7/27/15)
2015        Jul 27, Syrian journalist Thaer al-Ajlani, working for pro-government media, was killed early today as he was reporting on clashes in the Jobar area of east Damascus.
    (AFP, 7/27/15)
2015        Jul 27, A senior US official said United States and Turkey have agreed to work together to clear the Islamic State group from northern Syria.
    (AFP, 7/27/15)

2015        Jul 29, An Israeli air strike on a government-held village on the Syrian side of the Golan Heights ceasefire line killed five pro-regime forces. An Israeli drone attack in southern Syria killed at least three pro-government gunmen.
    (AFP, 7/29/15)(AP, 7/29/15)
2015        Jul 29, Syrian commander Nadeem Hassan and seven of his fighters, trained by the US, were kidnapped by the al-Nusra Front as they returned from a meeting in Turkey. On August 16 Division 30 said seven of its members had been freed by Al-Nusra. In late July 13 were kidnapped by Al-Nusra, including a commander, and at least 3 more were killed in clashes with the jihadist group.
    (SFC, 7/31/15, p.A2)(AFP, 8/4/15)(AFP, 8/16/15)

2015        Jul 30, In northern Syria at least 10 Kurdish fighters and 8 Islamic state members were killed when IS jihadists attacked Sarrin, a town recently captured by Kurdish forces.
    (AFP, 7/30/15)
2015        Jul 30, In Iraq and Syria the United States and its allies hit Islamic State forces. 17 air strikes hit Iraq. In Syria 17 strikes hit Deir ez-Zor and 7 near Hasakeh.
    (Reuters, 7/31/15)

2015        Jul 31, In Syria members of al-Qaida launched an attack on the command headquarters of a US-backed rebel faction in northern Syria, killing at least five fighters. US-led coalition air strikes destroyed two key bridges used by the Islamic State group on the Syrian side of the Iraqi border. 25 rebels, including 3 senior commanders, were killed in a failed attack on a makeshift army base outside the northern city of Aleppo. 9 regime forces were also killed in the fighting that erupted after several rebel groups launched the attack late today.
    (AP, 7/31/15)(AFP, 7/31/15)(AFP, 8/1/15)
2015        Jul 31, In Iraq and Syria the United States and its allies launched air strikes with 19 in Iraq and 11 in Syria in the coalition campaign against Islamic State militants.
    (Reuters, 8/1/15)

2015        Jul, Spanish journalists Antonio Pampliega, Jose Manuel Lopez and Angel Sastre went missing a few days after crossing into Syria from Turkey. They had gone to the northern city of Aleppo to report on fighting there. All three arrived in Madrid on May 8, 2016, in apparent good health after nearly 10 months in captivity.
    (Reuters, 5/8/16)

2015        Aug 1, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least 20 regime forces and 19 rebels from the Army of Conquest alliance had been killed in 24 hours of clashes in Hama province's Sahl al-Ghab region.
    (AFP, 8/1/15)

2015        Aug 2, US officials said the United States has decided to allow airstrikes to defend Syrian rebels trained by the US military from any attackers, even if the enemies hail from forces loyal to Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.
    (Reuters, 8/2/15)

2015        Aug 3, Syrian government air raids in the northwestern town of Ariha and a subsequent crash by a Syrian warplane that slammed into a residential area there killed at least 31 people.
    (AFP, 8/3/15)

2015        Aug 4, Al-Qaeda's Syria affiliate captured at least five more US-trained rebel fighters in overnight raids in northwestern village of Qah.
    (AFP, 8/4/15)

2015        Aug 5, In central Syria three IS suicide bombers targeted army checkpoints at the entrance of Qaryatain, setting off a fierce battle.
    (AP, 8/6/15)
2015        Aug 5, Two German-speaking jihadists claiming to belong to the Islamic State militant group, threatened Germany with attacks in an execution video broadcast online. The five-minute clip shows the men use assault rifles to kill two bound and kneeling male hostages in the Syrian ancient city of Palmyra.
    (AFP, 8/5/15)
2015        Aug 5, Turkey said a US-led coalition will soon launch a "comprehensive battle" against Islamic State militants from Turkish air bases, but Syria said any military action not coordinated with Damascus would breach its sovereignty.
    (Reuters, 8/5/15)

2015        Aug 6, The Islamic State group seized Qaryatain, a key town in central Syria, following heavy clashes with President Bashar Assad's forces, in the militants' biggest advance since capturing the historic town of Palmyra in May.
    (AP, 8/6/15)
2015        Aug 6, In Syria a cousin of President Bashar al-Assad shot dead a senior air force officer in a road rage incident in the Latakia coastal heartland of their minority Alawite community. On August 10 Latakia's Gov. Khodr al-Salem said Suleiman Assad has been arrested. On Jan 21, 2016, a court in Latakia sentenced Suleiman al-Assad to 20 years in prison for the murder of Colonel Hassan al-Sheikh.
    (AP, 8/7/15)(AP, 8/11/15)(AFP, 1/22/16)

2015        Aug 7, The UK-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least 230 people were kidnapped or detained, including dozens of Christians, some of whom were taken from a church in Qaryatain, the town captured overnight after heavy fighting with the Syrian army.
    (Reuters, 8/7/15)
2015        Aug 7, In Iraq and Syria the US-led coalition conducted 19 air strikes on Islamic State targets with 10 in Iraq and nine in Syria.
    (Reuters, 8/8/15)
2015        Aug 7, The UN Security Council unanimously adopted a resolution aimed at identifying those responsible for using chlorine and other chemical weapons in attacks in Syria.
    (SFC, 8/8/15, p.A3)

2015        Aug 8, Syrian activists said hundreds of Christian families have fled the central town of Sadad toward the government-held central city of Homs and Damascus, as Islamic State fighters advanced toward it. A shell hit a street in central Damascus, killing 5 people and wounding 36.
    (AP, 8/8/15)
2015        Aug 8, Today marked the anniversary of the US beginning airstrikes against the extremists in Iraq. US-led forces conducted 16 air strikes in Iraq and seven in Syria against Islamic State targets.
    (AP, 8/8/15)(AP, 8/9/15)

2015        Aug 9, In Syria at least 9 people were killed and several wounded in a series of mortar bomb attacks on Damascus. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said an Islamist fighters' counter-offensive had forced the Syrian army to withdraw from such villages as Mansoura, Zeyara and Tal Waset toward bases northwest of Hama city.
    (Reuters, 8/9/15)
2015        Aug 9, In Syria the al Qaeda-linked Nusra Front said it has quit frontline positions against Islamic State north of Aleppo and ceded them to other rebels, leaving a northern area where Turkey wants to set up a buffer zone. Rebels began heavy shelling on Fuaa and Kafraya, among the last regime-held outposts in the northwestern province of Idlib. At least 20 people were killed, including 8 civilians.
    (Reuters, 8/10/15)(AFP, 8/10/15)(AP, 8/11/15)

2015        Aug 11, Russia and Saudi Arabia failed in talks to overcome their differences on the fate of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, a central dispute in Syria's civil war that shows no sign of abating despite renewed diplomacy.
    (Reuters, 8/11/15)

2015        Aug 11, A Syrian army airstrike hit a busy vegetable market in the northern city of Idlib, killing at least 7 people and wounding more than 23. The Islamic State launched a new offensive against Syrian rebels north of Aleppo. IS suicide attackers detonated four car bombs overnight. The IS said its fighters had attacked two buildings in Marea. At least 25 Syrian rebels were killed overnight in an attack by Islamic State group fighters on an insurgent stronghold in Aleppo province. At least 8 IS fighters died.
    (AP, 8/11/15)(Reuters, 8/11/15)(AFP, 8/11/15)

2015        Aug 12, In Syria heavy rebel shelling and government airstrikes around Damascus killed at least 36 people and wounded scores more in a surge in violence just hours before the arrival of Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif.
    (AP, 8/12/15)
2015        Aug 12, Syria's warring parties declared a 48-hour ceasefire in two frontline areas after unprecedented mediation from Turkey and Iran. The ceasefire halted fighting in the rebel-held town of Zabadani and in a pair of Shi'ite Muslim villages in Idlib province.
    (Reuters, 8/12/15)

2015        Aug 13, In Syria rockets hit several districts in Latakia, a stronghold of Pres. Bashar Assad, killing 2 civilians and wounding 13. A two-day cease-fire between Hezbollah fighters and rebel groups in Zabadani, as well as in Foua and Kfarya, two Shiite villages in Idlib province, was extended for another 48 hours.
    (AP, 8/13/15)
2015        Aug 13, Russia's foreign minister hosted a delegation of the main Syrian opposition group, part of the Kremlin's new push for a mediation role in the Syrian conflict.
    (AP, 8/13/15)

2015        Aug 15, In Syria a temporary ceasefire between warring parties collapsed as negotiations failed to reach a more permanent agreement to end fighting in a town near the Lebanese border and two villages in the northwest.
    (Reuters, 8/15/15)

2015        Aug 16, A Syrian government air strike northeast of Damascus killed at least 96 people in a marketplace in Douma. A Syrian military source said air force strikes on Douma and nearby Harasta targeted the headquarters of the rebel group Islam Army.
    (Reuters, 8/16/15)(AFP, 8/17/15)

2015        Aug 17, In Syria rockets fired by insurgents killed 3 people in the coastal city of Latakia, a government stronghold.
    (AP, 8/17/15)

2015        Aug 18, Syrian government forces recaptured four northwestern villages as they pounded the area with air strikes in a counter-attack on insurgents threatening strongholds of President Bashar al-Assad.
    (Reuters, 8/18/15)
2015        Aug 18, In Syria Islamic State militants beheaded Khaled al-Asaad (81), a leading antiquities scholar who spent most of his life looking after the ancient ruins of Palmyra, then hung his body from a pole in a main square of the historic town and then reportedly cut into pieces.
    (AP, 8/19/15)(AFP, 8/23/15)
2015        Aug 18, Six Syrian migrants, including an infant, drowned off the Turkish coast as they tried to reach the Greek island of Kos.
    (SFC, 8/19/15, p.A2)

2015        Aug 19, In northeastern Syria a suicide bomber killed at least 16 people in an attack on Kurdish security forces. The blast in Qamishli killed 10 members of the Kurdish forces, called the Asayish, and 6 civilians. IS claimed responsibility. Aerial bombardment by the government of Harasta, a rebel stronghold east of Damascus, left at least 10 people dead.
    (AFP, 8/19/15)
2015        Aug 19, The UN said typhoid has broken out among residents of the Yarmouk Palestinian refugee camp in Syria.
    (Reuters, 8/19/15)

2015        Aug 20, A car ferry carrying just over 2,400 Syrian refugees arrived on the Greek mainland as a wave of migrants fleeing conflict and poverty continued unabated.
    (Reuters, 8/20/15)
2015        Aug 20, Israel hit 14 Syrian army positions in the Syrian-controlled sector of the Golan in response to the rocket attacks.
    (AFP, 8/20/15)

2015        Aug 21, In central Syria the Islamic State group demolished the Saint Elian Monastery founded more than 1,500 years ago, near Qaryatain, a town where the extremists abducted dozens of Christians earlier this month.
    (AP, 8/20/15)
2015        Aug 21, A UK military drone strike killed 3 fighters in Syria, including 2 British men, Reyaad Khan and Ruhul Amin, who had joined Islamic State militants. This was the first such drone strike acknowledged by the British government.
    (AP, 9/7/15)(Econ, 9/12/15, p.44)(AP, 4/26/17)
2015        Aug 21, Israel said it carried out an air raid that killed up to 5 Iran-backed militants it said were behind a rare rocket attack from across the border in Syria. Syrian television identified the victims as unarmed civilians.
    (AFP, 8/20/15)

2015        Aug 22, Syrian airstrikes on the Damascus suburb of Douma killed 34 civilians and wounded dozens in the latest wave of government attacks on the crowded rebel-held area.
    (AP, 8/22/15)    (AFP, 8/23/15)
2015        Aug 22, Turkey said its security forces have detained 435 migrants and Syrian refugees along with three suspected people smugglers, before they embarked on an attempt to cross the Aegean Sea to Greece.
    (AFP, 8/22/15)

2015        Aug 23, In Syria separate rocket attacks killed 11 people in the regime-held, Eastern Ghouta neighborhood northeast of Damascus. One person was killed in the capital itself. Airstrikes hit the town of Arbin, killing 4 civilians.
    (AFP, 8/23/15)
2015        Aug 23, In Syria the Islamic State group blew up a famed temple in Palmyra, in an act the UN condemned as a war crime and an "immense loss" for humanity.
    (AFP, 8/24/15)

2015        Aug 24, In Syria a US air strike outside Raqqa killed Junaid Hussain (21), an Islamic State hacker from Birmingham, England. The strike also killed 3 civilians.
    (SFC, 8/28/15, p.A4)(AFP, 1/29/16)

2015        Aug 26, In Turkey Jamil Raadoun, the commander of Sukour al-Ghab from the rebel Free Syrian Army, died in a bomb attack on his car in the southern province of Hatay. Raadoun, who defected from the Syrian army early on in the four-year-old civil war, had been in Turkey for about a year.
    (Reuters, 8/26/15)

2015        Aug 27, A Syrian judge said courts are hearing a series of cases against officials accused of corruption and mismanagement.
    (AFP, 8/27/15)

2015        Aug 28, Syria's Al-Qaeda offshoot and other rebel groups advanced towards a military airport that is the last remaining government-held facility in the northwestern province of Idlib.
    (AFP, 8/28/15)
2015        Aug 28, Turkish jets took part in US-led coalition air strikes against Islamic State in Syria for the first time.
    (AP, 8/29/15)

2015        Aug 29, A truce between Syrian regime forces and rebel groups in three key towns ended early today as the warring parties resumed clashes and shelling.
    (AFP, 8/29/15)
2015        Aug 29, In Syria 8 IS fighters were killed in a coalition air raid on Raqa, the de facto "capital" of their caliphate. An IS car bomb on Tal Rifaat, in Aleppo province, left 11 fighters and 8 civilians dead.
    (AFP, 8/30/15)

2015        Aug 30, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 32 civilians were among 91 people executed for "crimes" in the jihadist group's self-proclaimed caliphate between July 29 and August 29.
    (AFP, 8/30/15)
2015        Aug 30, In central Syria Islamic State militants in Syria destroyed the main building of the 2,000-year-old Bel Temple in Palmyra, considered one of the greatest sites of the ancient world.
    (AP, 8/30/15)    (SFC, 8/31/15, p.A2)(Reuters, 9/1/15)
2015        Aug 30, The United States and its allies staged 15 airstrikes on Islamic State targets in Iraq and seven in Syria over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 8/30/15)

2015        Sep 2, In Syria at least 10 people were killed and dozens wounded when a car bomb exploded in Latakia. Syrian air force strikes killed at least 14 people east of Damascus. A mortar attack on part of the campus of Damascus University killed at least 2 students and wounded several. Heavy shelling killed 3 civilians and wounded 45 in Jaramana city, east of Damascus.
    (Reuters, 9/2/15)

2015        Sep 4, In Syria two explosions late today and ensuing protests killed at least 37 people including Druze leader Sheikh Wahid al-Balous in and around the town of Sweida.
    (Reuters, 9/5/15)

2015        Sep 4, In Syria two explosions late today and ensuing protests killed at least 37 people including Druze leader Sheikh Wahid al-Balous in and around the town of Sweida. 20 Islamist and other rebel fighters were killed in the clashes throughout the day centered on the town of Marea, Aleppo province, along with 27 IS jihadists.
    (Reuters, 9/5/15)(AFP, 9/5/15)

2015        Sep 6, Syria arrested an Islamist insurgent from the al Qaeda-linked Nusra Front, who confessed to the two car bombs on Sep 4 and involvement in unrest that followed.
    (Reuters, 9/6/15)
2015        Sep 6, In Iraq the US-led coalition conducted 11 air strikes against the Islamic State, as well as four strikes targeting the militant group in Syria.
    (AP, 9/7/15)

2015        Sep 7, Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said Islamic State fighters have seized the Jazal oil field, last major oilfield under Syrian government control during battles over a vast central desert zone. The Observatory also said US-led coalition bombing raids in areas in the militant's de facto capital of Raqqa had killed at least 16 militants, including five foreign jihadists.
    (Reuters, 9/7/15)
2015        Sep 7, A Greek official said the United States has asked Greece to deny Russia the use of its airspace for supply flights to Syria.
    (Reuters, 9/7/15)

2015        Sep 8, A sandstorm blanketed Beirut and Damascus causing at least 5 deaths.
    (SFC, 9/9/15, p.A2)
2015        Sep 8, France carried out its first surveillance flights over Syria to prepare possible attacks on Islamic State jihadists.
    (AFP, 9/8/15)

2015        Sep 9, The Syrian army withdrew completely from Idlib province after insurgents captured the Abu al-Duhur military airport there. In eastern Syria jihadists of the Islamic State group edged closer to the regime-held military airbase outside Deir Ezzor in heavy clashes that killed 36 IS fighters. 56 soldiers either died in combat or were killed afterwards by the insurgents. A coalition air raid west of Raqqa reportedly killed as many as 20 civilians drafted to dig trenches for the jihadists. On Sep 19 the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said a total of 71 members of government forces had been executed at Abu al-Duhur air base since its capture.
    (Reuters, 9/9/15)(AFP, 9/10/15)(Reuters, 9/10/15)(Reuters, 9/19/15)(Econ, 9/12/15, p.44)
2015        Sep 9, A Syrian military official said Russian military experts have expanded their presence in Syria over the last year. US officials said Russia has sent two tank landing ships and additional aircraft to Syria in the past day or so and has deployed a small number of naval infantry forces. Germany's foreign minister warned Russia against increased military intervention in Syria.
    (Reuters, 9/9/15)
2015        Sep 9, Russia’s Foreign Ministry confirmed that Russian military advisers were in Syria as part of a long-standing agreement to provide military aid to the government.
    (SFC, 9/10/15, p.A3)

2015        Sep 11, In Syria 11 people were reportedly killed in rebel rocket fire on Damascus. State news said the shelling on the area had killed 4 people and injured 25.
    (AP, 9/12/15)
2015        Sep 11, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov called on world powers to help arm the Syrian army, describing it as the most efficient force against the Islamic State group.
    (AP, 9/11/15)

2015        Sep 14, In Syria at least 26 people including 2 children were killed in twin suicide car bomb attacks in the northeastern city of Hasakeh. IS claimed responsibility for the two attacks.
    (AFP, 9/14/15)

2015        Sep 16, US and allied forces conducted 21 air strikes in Iraq and one in Syria against Islamic State militants.
    (Reuters, 9/18/15)

2015        Sep 17, In Syria at least 53 people were killed in air raids by Syrian government forces in rebel-held areas of the northern city of Aleppo over the last 24 hours. Syrian warplanes carried out at least 12 airstrikes across Raqqa, the self-declared capital of the Islamic State group. In the south regime barrel bombs killed at least 17 people in Bosra Sham.
    (Reuters, 9/17/15)(AP, 9/17/15)(SFC, 9/18/15, p.A2)

2015        Sep 18, Syrian regime aircraft carried out at least 25 strikes on jihadist-controlled Palmyra, the country's famed ancient city, with 8 civilians among the dead.
    (AFP, 9/18/15)
2015        Sep 18, Russia delivered new arms including warplanes as the regime increases attacks on jihadists.
    (AFP, 9/22/15)
2015        Sep 18, The United States and Russian militaries renewed high-level contacts to discuss their roles in the conflict in Syria.
    (AFP, 9/18/15)

2015        Sep 20, In Syria warring parties agreed local ceasefires in two Shi'ite villages in northwestern Syria and a town near the Lebanese border.
    (Reuters, 9/20/15)

2015        Sep 20, In Syria warring parties agreed local ceasefires in two Shi'ite villages in northwestern Syria and a town near the Lebanese border. At least 14 civilians, including seven children, were killed when rebels shelled a government-controlled neighborhood in the northern city of Aleppo.
    (Reuters, 9/20/15)(AP, 9/20/15)

2015        Sep 21, In Syria heavy bombardment by forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad killed at least 18 civilians in a residential district of the northern city of Aleppo. 4 people were reported killed in twin car bomb attacks on the frontier town of Ras al-Ain. Kurdish security forces were among the dead. At least 38 Islamic State group fighters were killed in air strikes by the Damascus regime against Palmyra and two other towns in Homs province.
    (AFP, 9/21/15)(AFP, 9/22/15)
2015        Sep 21, In Syria the Islamic State group executed 7 men in Rastan, Homs province, and 2 men and a boy in Hreitan, Aleppo province, it accused of being gay.
    (AFP, 9/22/15)
2015        Sep 21, Islamic State militants released Massoud Aqeel, who was kidnapped last year in northern Syria, as part of a prisoner swap with a Kurdish militia. The IS group still held reporter Farhad Hamo.
    (Reuters, 9/26/15)

2015        Sep 23, A senior adviser to Syrian President Bashar al-Assad said Russia and the United States have reached a "tacit agreement" on ending Syria's bloody crisis.
    (AFP, 9/24/15)

2015        Sep 24, Syrian government planes carried out several airstrikes and dropped barrel bombs on the IS-controlled city of Palmyra for the third straight day, forcing hundreds of civilians to flee their homes in the ancient city.
    (AP, 9/24/15)
2015        Sep 24, The United States and its coalition partners targeted Islamic State with 22 fresh airstrikes in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 9/25/15)

2015        Sep 25, In Syria a UN-backed truce deal for two key front-lines was reached. The deal allows rebels to evacuate from an area besieged by pro-government forces in exchange for an evacuation of thousands of Shiites from two villages surrounded by militants in northern Idlib province.
    (AP, 9/25/15)

2015        Sep 26, The Syrian army fired a missile into the last rebel-held neighborhood of the central city of Homs killing 17 people, most of them civilians.
    (AFP, 9/27/15)
2015        Sep 26, Moscow pressed its military buildup at a new airbase in Syria. The US trained Division 30 of the New Syrian Forces handed over US provided military equipment to the al-Qaeda affiliated al-Nusra Front in exchange for safe passage in northern Syria.
    (AFP, 9/26/15)(Reuters, 9/26/15)
2015        Sep 26, A coalition led by the United States conducted 20 air strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and three against the militant group in Syria.
    (Reuters, 9/27/15)

2015        Sep 27, Syrian regime air strikes killed 4 civilians in Kfarbatna. 2 people died inside Damascus when opposition fighters fired shells onto the Adwa district.
    (AFP, 9/28/15)
2015        Sep 27, France launched its first air strikes against Islamic State in Syria in an act of "self-defense" to stop to the militant group from carrying out attacks inside France.
    (AP, 9/27/15)
2015        Sep 27, An Iraqi spokesman said Iraq, Russia, Iran and Syria have agreed to set up an intelligence committee in Baghdad aimed at sharing and analyzing information.
    (AFP, 9/27/15)

2015        Sep 28, In eastern Syria 15 civilians, including 5 children, were killed in regime air raids on a popular market in the jihadist-held city of Mayadeen, Deir Ezzor province.
    (AFP, 9/28/15)
2015        Sep 28, Prers. Obama said the United States is willing to work with Iran and Russia to try to end the Syrian conflict, but insisted there could not be a return to the status quo under Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.
    (Reuters, 9/28/15)
2015        Sep 28, UN Sec. Gen. Ban Ki-Moon for the first time called for the civil war in Syria to be referred to the Int’l. Criminal Court. Pres. Obama and Russian Pres. Vladimir Putin sharply disagreed over the chaos in Syria.
    (SFC, 9/29/15, p.A4)

2015        Sep 29, The United States imposed sanctions against more than 30 Islamic State leaders, financial figures, supporters and affiliated groups in an effort to block the militants from the international financial system. The newly designated individuals included citizens of Britain, France, Russia, Syria, Morocco, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia.
    (Reuters, 9/29/15)

2015        Sep 30, Russia launched air strikes against Islamic State in Syria after Pres. Vladimir Putin secured his parliament's unanimous backing to intervene to prop up the Kremlin's closest Middle East ally. Russian air strikes, which Moscow said targeted Islamic State fighters, hit a rebel group in Hama province supported by Western opponents of Pres. Bashar al-Assad. The Russian air strikes killed at least 36 civilians and targeted areas where Islamic State and al Qaeda-linked fighters were not present.
    (Reuters, 9/30/15)

   2015    Sep, UN figures showed that Syria’s population has shrunk to just 16.6 million, down from a pre-war level of 22 million.
    (Econ, 9/26/15, p.46)

2015        Oct 1, In Iraq and Syria the US-led coalition conducted 28 air strikes on Islamic State targets.
    (Reuters, 10/2/15)
2015        Oct 1, Two Lebanese sources said hundreds of Iranian troops had reached Syria in the past 10 days with weapons to mount a major ground offensive. Russian jets struck targets near the cities of Hama and Homs in western Syria on the second day of their surprise air campaign. The area where it struck is held by a rival insurgent alliance, which unlike Islamic State is supported by US allies including Arab states and Turkey.
    (Reuters, 10/1/15)
2015        Oct 1, The Pentagon launched talks with the Russian military to discuss ways to avoid mishaps in Syria between planes from the US-led coalition and Moscow.
    (AFP, 10/1/15)

2015        Oct 2, In Syria Islamic State attacked government-held areas in the eastern city of Deir al-Zor and an air base south of the city.
    (Reuters, 10/2/15)
2015        Oct 2, Russia bombed Syria for a third day, mainly hitting areas held by rival insurgent groups rather than the Islamic State fighters it said it was targeting. The US-led coalition called on the Russians to halt strikes on targets other than Islamic State. Russia said it had bombed the Islamic State stronghold of Raqa for the first time.
    (Reuters, 10/2/15)(AFP, 10/2/15)
2015        Oct 2, In Iraq and Syria the US-led coalition targeted Islamic State insurgents in 27 air strikes.
    (Reuters, 10/3/15)

2015        Oct 3, Russian jets hit Islamic State targets and other rebel groups in Syria, on a fourth day of air strikes by Moscow in support of President Bashar al-Assad which have dramatically escalated foreign intervention in Syria. Russia said its air strikes have sown "panic", forcing some 600 "militants" to abandon their positions and head to Europe.
    (Reuters, 10/3/15)(AFP, 10/3/15)
2015        Oct 3, In Iraq and Syria the United States and its allies carried out 16 air strikes against Islamic State militants.
    (Reuters, 10/4/15)

2015        Oct 4, Syrian activists said that Islamic State militants have destroyed the Arch of Triumph, a nearly 2,000-year-old arch in the ancient city of Palmyra.
    (AP, 10/4/15)   
2015        Oct 4, In western Syria air strikes by suspected Russian jets hit targets around the town of Talbiseh. One resident said at least 5 bodies had been recovered from the western part of the town. Russian planes also struck in Homs and Hama provinces.
    (Reuters, 10/4/15)
2015        Oct 4, The US-led coalition targeted Islamic State with 13 airstrikes in Iraq and eight in Syria.
    (Reuters, 10/5/15)

2015        Oct 5, More than 40 Syrian insurgent groups vowed to attack Russian forces in retaliation for Moscow's air campaign in a show of unity among the usually fragmented rebels against what they called the "occupiers" of Syria.
    (AP, 10/5/15)
2015        Oct 5, In an online statement dozens of Islamist Saudi Arabian clerics called on Arab and Muslim countries to "give all moral, material, political and military" support to what they term a jihad, or holy war, against Syria's government and its Iranian and Russian backers.
    (Reuters, 10/5/15)
2015        Oct 5, UNESCO's director-general condemned the destruction of the Arch of Triumph in the ancient Syrian city of Palmyra by Islamic State jihadists, saying "extremists are terrified by history and culture".
    (AFP, 10/5/15)
2015        Oct 5, In Iraq and Syria the United States and its allies carried out 24 air strikes on Islamic State targets.
    (Reuters, 10/6/15)

2015        Oct 6, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said Russian strikes at Palmyra killed 15 Islamic State fighters and destroyed 20 vehicles and three weapons depots. Another 4 Islamic State fighters were reported killed near Raqqa. The Observatory said Russian jets carried out at least 34 air strikes in the last 24 hours. Russia’s defense ministry dismissed reports that its planes had launched air strikes against Palmyra.
    (Reuters, 10/6/15)
2015        Oct 6, Russian strikes in Syria targeted the main weapons depots of Liwa Suqour al-Jabal, US-trained rebel group, in western Aleppo province and completely destroyed them.
    (Reuters, 10/7/15)
2015        Oct 6, In Iraq and Syria the United States and its allies staged 23 air strikes on Islamic State forces in the latest daily round of attacks on the militant group.
    (Reuters, 10/7/15)

2015        Oct 7, Russia and Syria carried out what appeared to be the first major coordinated assaults on Syrian insurgents. Moscow said its warships fired 26 missiles at them from the Caspian Sea, a sign of its new military reach. In Hama province at least 13 regime forces were killed in clashes that also killed 11 rebel fighters.
    (AP, 10/7/15)    (Reuters, 10/8/15)   

2015        Oct 8, Syrian troops and allied militia backed by a fresh wave of Russian air strikes and cruise missiles fired from warships attacked rebel forces as the government extended a major offensive to recapture territory in the west of the country. Insurgents shot down a helicopter in Hama province. Iranian Gen. Hossein Hamedani of the elite Revolutionary Guard Corps was killed late today near Aleppo.
    (Reuters, 10/8/15)(Reuters, 10/9/15)

2015        Oct 9, In Syria Islamic State fighters seized villages close to the city of Aleppo from rival insurgents. The Russian defense ministry said air strikes on rebel positions in the north had killed 300 anti-Assad insurgents in nearly 70 sorties over the last day.
    (Reuters, 10/9/15)
2015        Oct 9, France launched a new air strike overnight in Syria against an Islamic State training camp and said further strikes will follow.
    (Reuters, 10/9/15)

2015        Oct 10, Russia said it had stepped up its bombing campaign against Islamic State militants in Syria, while local observers said several of the air strikes had hit areas in western Syria where the hardline group has little presence.
    (Reuters, 10/10/15)

2015        Oct 11, Russian war planes pounded Syrian rebels unaffiliated with Islamic State, helping Moscow's ally Bashar al-Assad reclaim territory and dealing a fresh setback to the strategy of Washington and its allies. A senior Hezbollah commander was killed in the battle while fighting on the Syrian government's behalf.
    (Reuters, 10/11/15)
2015        Oct 11, Russian President Vladimir Putin met with Abu Dhabi Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Zayed al-Nahyan to discuss security in the Middle East and the conflict in Syria.
    (Reuters, 10/11/15)

2015        Oct 12, Syrian army and allied forces supported by Russian warplanes made further advances as they pressed an offensive against insurgents, in the fiercest clashes for nearly a week. Two Iranian senior Revolutionary Guards officers were killed fighting Islamic State. Pro-government forces including the Lebanese group Hezbollah captured the southern part of Kafr Nabuda. At least 25 government fighters were killed.
    (Reuters, 10/12/15)(Reuters, 10/13/15)(Reuters, 10/14/15)
2015        Oct 12, The EU demanded the "immediate" halt of Russian air strikes against moderate Syrian rebel groups and warned a lasting peace was impossible under Moscow-backed President Bashar al-Assad.
    (AFP, 10/12/15)
2015        Oct 12, A Kurdish militia that has been fighting Islamic State in Syria with help from US-led air strikes has joined forces with Arab groups in an alliance announced on that may be a prelude to an attack on the jihadists' base of operations in Raqqa.
    (Reuters, 10/12/15)

2015        Oct 13, Insurgents in Syria deployed more men and weapons, including significant quantities of anti-tank missiles, to resist ground attacks by the Syrian army and its allies, backed by Russian air strikes.
    (Reuters, 10/13/15)
2015        Oct 13, Russia said its air force hit 86 "terrorist" targets in Syria in the past 24 hours.
    (AFP, 10/13/15)
2015        Oct 13, The United States and its allies carried out 18 air strikes on Islamic State targets in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 10/14/15)

2015        Oct 14, In Syria Islamic State militants battled rival insurgent groups north of the city of Aleppo, where officials say the Syrian army is preparing an offensive of its own backed by Iranian soldiers and Russian jets. Russia said its jets hit 40 Islamic State targets in new strikes in Syria over the past 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 10/14/15)(AFP, 10/14/15)
2015        Oct 14, The United States and its allies conducted 25 air strikes on Islamic State forces in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 10/15/15)

2015        Oct 15, Syrian troops and their allies, backed by Russian jets, attacked rebel-held towns north of the city of Homs, targeting a long-held and strategic enclave of opposition to President Bashar al-Assad. A resident of Teir Malla said at least 25 people were killed including, Rawad al Aksah, a commander of insurgent group Liwaa al-Tawhid.   
    (Reuters, 10/15/15)
2015        Oct 15, A coalition led by the United States conducted three air strikes against Islamic State in Syria and bombarded the militant group with 21 strikes in Iraq.
    (Reuters, 10/16/15)
2015        Oct 15, In Syria Abdul Mohsen Abdallah Ibrahim al-Charekh, a Saudi better known as Sanafi al-Nasr, was killed in a US airstrike near the northern town of Dana, along with another Saudi and a Moroccan member of al-Qaida's local affiliate, known as the Nusra Front.
    (AP, 10/17/15)(Reuters, 10/18/15)

2015        Oct 16, In Syria Denis Cuspert, also known by his artist name Deso Dogg, was killed in a US air strike. He used to rap in Berlin and was one of the most famous Western fighters for the IS extremist group.
    (AFP, 10/30/15)
2015        Oct 16, Turkey shot down a drone in an incident highlighting the dangers of multiple air combat operations over Syria. Russian warplanes hit areas in support of the Syrian army's offensive south of Aleppo, around 35 km (20 miles) from the Turkish border.
    (Reuters, 10/16/15)
2015        Oct 16, UN experts said the Islamic State group is paying supporters up to $10,000 for each person that they recruit to wage jihad in Syria and Iraq.
    (AFP, 10/16/15)

2015        Oct 17, Syrian troops backed by Hezbollah and Iranian fighters made advances in their offensive to retake territory around the northern city of Aleppo from insurgents and jihadist fighters.
    (Reuters, 10/17/15)
2015        Oct 17, Russia said its air force has made 36 sorties, hitting 49 Islamic State targets in Syria in the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 10/17/15)
2015        Oct 17, The US-led coalition conducted 18 air strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and five in Syria, according to the task force organizing the military operation.
    (Reuters, 10/18/15)

2015        Oct 18, In Syria warplanes believed to be Russian targeted mourners in al-Ghanto village who were burying people killed a day earlier, killing four civilians.
    (AP, 10/18/15)
2015        Oct 18, A US-led coalition conducted 17 air strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and also targeted the militant group in Syria with a single strike near Manbij.
    (Reuters, 10/19/15)

2015        Oct 19, Syrian government forces advanced under the cover of Russian airstrikes toward an air base besieged by the Islamic State group in the north. Rebels battling the Syrian army and its allies near Aleppo said they had received new supplies of US-made anti-tank missiles from states opposed to President Bashar al-Assad since the start of a major government offensive last week. The commander of the Nour al Din al-Zinki Brigades was killed in fighting south of Aleppo.
    (AP, 10/19/15)(Reuters, 10/19/15)(Reuters, 10/20/15)
2015        Oct 19, In Syria Russian jets hit an Islamic State training camp and command post of Al-Qaeda affiliate Al-Nusra Front as they bombed 49 targets in the latest wave of strikes. Russian air strikes in Latakia province killed rebel commander Basil Zamo and 4 other fighters from First Coastal Division, a group armed by Pres. Bashar al-Assad's foreign enemies. A further 15 civilians were killed in the air strike in Jabal Akrad. At least 3 Russians fighting alongside Syrian government forces were killed and several more wounded when a shell hit their position in Latakia province.
    (AFP, 10/19/15)(Reuters, 10/20/15)
2015        Oct 19, In Lebanon 8 people were killed and many wounded when the army targeted militant positions along the eastern border with war-torn Syria.
    (AFP, 10/19/15)
2015        Oct 19, US-led forces conducted 15 air strikes against Islamic State in Iraq, eight of them near the contested Sinjar area, and two air strikes in Syria.
    (Reuters, 10/20/15)

2015        Oct 20, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad flew to Moscow to thank Russia's Vladimir Putin personally for his military support, in a surprise visit that underlined how Russia has become a major player in the Middle East.
    (Reuters, 10/21/15)
2015        Oct 20, In Syria 13 people including medical staff were reportedly killed in Russian air strikes against a field hospital in the northwestern province of Idlib that was run by the Syrian-American Medical Society. Russia later called the reports fake.
    (AFP, 10/22/15)
2015        Oct 20, Russia's defense ministry said its planes had flown 55 sorties and struck 60 Islamist militant targets in Syria in the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 10/20/15)
2015        Oct 20, The US and Russia signed an agreement designed to minimize the risk of collisions and other dangers as both countries carry out air strikes in Syria.
    (SFC, 10/21/15, p.A2)

2015        Oct 21, In northern Syria a new administration was formed for a majority Sunni-Arab town controlled by Syrian Kurds, expanding the ethnic group's semi-autonomous administration. A local leadership council including representatives of Tel Abyad's Arab, Kurdish, Turkmen and Armenian communities declared it part of the system of autonomous self-government established by the Kurds.
    (AP, 10/21/15)(Reuters, 10/21/15)
2015        Oct 21, Russia said its jets have hit 83 targets in Syria over the past 24 hours.
    (AFP, 10/21/15)
2015        Oct 21, The US-led coalition fighting Islamic State targeted the militant group with 22 air strikes in Syria and Iraq.
    (Reuters, 10/22/15)

2015        Oct 22, The Russian defense ministry said its planes had flown 53 sorties and struck 72 militant targets in Syria in the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 10/22/15)
2015        Oct 22, The United States and its allies carried out 16 air strikes against Islamic State militants in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 10/23/15)

2015        Oct 23, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said Russian air strikes in Syria have killed at least 446 people, more than a third of them civilians, since they began end-September.
    (AFP, 10/23/15)
2015        Oct 23, The United States, Russia, Turkey and Saudi Arabia met in Vienna to explore a political solution to the Syrian civil war despite the basic US-Russian disagreement over Syrian President Bashar al-Assad's fate.
    (AP, 10/23/15)

2015        Oct 24, Syrian troops backed by Russian air strikes battled Islamic State group fighters in a bid to restore a key supply line to Aleppo. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least 28 IS fighters and 21 troops and militia have been killed in the battle for the road that leads to the government-held sector of Aleppo.
    (AFP, 10/24/15)
2015        Oct 24, In Syria Vadim Kostenko (19) a Russian soldier, reportedly hanged himself at a base on the Syrian coast because of problems in his personal life. At his funeral his father said there were no signs on the body to support the official account.
    (Reuters, 10/28/15)
2015        Oct 24, The Russian defense ministry said its planes had flown 934 sorties and destroyed 819 militant targets in Syria since the start of its operation there on Sept. 30.
    (Reuters, 10/24/15)
2015        Oct 24, The United States and Saudi Arabia agreed to increase support to Syria's moderate opposition while seeking a political resolution of the four-year conflict as Secretary of State John Kerry met with King Salman.
    (Reuters, 10/2515)
2015        Oct 24, The US-led coalition fighting Islamic State militants in Iraq and Syria carried out 22 air strikes.
    (AP, 10/2515)

2015        Oct 25, Turkish military shot at Kurdish forces deployed in the town of Tal Abyad, Syria, using mostly machine guns. There were no casualties in the shooting and the Kurdish forces didn't return fire.
    (AP, 10/27/15)

2015        Oct 26, In Syria the Islamic State group killed 3 of its captives in the ancient city of Palmyra by tying them to Roman-era columns at the site, then blowing the structures up with explosives.
    (AP, 10/27/15)
2015        Oct 26, The Russian defense ministry said its planes had flown 164 sorties and struck 285 Islamic State and Jabhat al-Nusra militant targets in Syria in the last three days.
    (Reuters, 10/2615)

2015        Oct 27, The Syrian presidency said political initiatives could not work in Syria before terrorism had been wiped out, sticking by its long-held position on how to end the war after its Russian allies called for new elections.
    (Reuters, 10/27/15)

2015        Oct 28, Iran said Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif and three of his deputies will attend multilateral talks on Oct 29 in Vienna aimed at resolving the conflict in Syria. Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, the European Union and France also said they would attend the talks.
    (Reuters, 10/28/15)
2015        Oct 28, Russia said its air force flew 71 sorties over Syria in the last two days, carrying out 118 strikes on militant targets.
    (Reuters, 10/28/15)

2015        Oct 29, The British-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said there had been 595 deaths in Syria from Russian air strikes since September 30. Russian warplanes renewed strikes, including in the central province of Homs and the northwestern province of Idlib.
    (AFP, 10/29/15)
2015        Oct 29, In southern Turkey Syrian activists Ibrahim Abdelqader, aka Ibrahim Abdul-Qadir (22), and Fares Hamadi (20), journalists for the "Raqqa is being slaughtered silently" collective, were murdered by Islamic State operatives in Sanliurfa.
    (AP, 10/30/15)(AP, 12/17/15)(AP, 8/14/17)
2015        Oct 29, The United States and its allies conducted 11 air strikes against Islamic State militants in Iraq and one in Syria.
    (Reuters, 10/30/15)

2015        Oct 30, In Syria at least 47 people were killed and about 100 wounded when government forces fired missiles into a marketplace at Douma, a town 10 miles from Damascus. In the northeast a coalition of US-backed Kurdish militia and rebel groups launched its first operation against territory controlled by the IS jihadist group.
    (Reuters, 10/30/15)(AFP, 10/31/15)
2015        Oct 30, Iran signaled it backed a six-month transition period in Syria followed by elections to decide Bashar al-Assad's fate, a proposal floated at peace talks as a concession but which the president's foes rejected as a trick to keep him in power. Multilateral talks in Vienna failed, as expected, to reach a consensus on the future of President Bashar al-Assad.
    (Reuters, 10/30/15)(Reuters, 11/2/15)
2015        Oct 30, In southern Turkey Syrian activists Ibrahim Abdul-Qadir and Fares Hamadi, belonging to a collective that reports on Islamic State atrocities, were found slain in the city of Sanliurfa.
    (AP, 10/30/15)
2015        Oct 30, US sources said President Barack Obama plans to deploy a small number of special operations forces to Syria to advise moderate rebels, a step he has long resisted to avoid getting dragged into another war in the Middle East.
    (Reuters, 10/30/15)
2015        Oct 30, The US-led coalition launched seven air strikes against Islamic State targets in Syria and 14 in Iraq.
    (Reuters, 10/31/15)

2015        Oct 31, The US pledged nearly $100 million in fresh aid to support the Syrian opposition as Western and Arab officials gathered in Bahrain for the Manama Dialogue security conference.
    (SSFC, 11/1/15, p.A4)
2015        Oct 31, The US-led coalition conducted nine air strikes against Islamic State targets in Syria and 16 in Iraq. Air strikes by Turkish and US aircraft in Syria killed more than 50 Islamic State militants and wounded around 30.
    (Reuters, 11/1/15)

2015        Oct, Five Syrian media activists were captured by the Islamic State group. They were later believed to have been killed in December over their coverage of events in the eastern city of Deir el-Zour, half of which is held by IS. On June 26, 2016, a graphic video emerged showing their killing.
    (AP, 6/26/16)
2015        Oct, Syrian security services executed Bassel Khartabil (aka Bassel Safadi), a Palestinian-Syrian software pioneer, after torturing him in prison. In 2017 his widow Noura Ghazi Safadi wrote on Facebook that she received confirmation of his execution.
    (AP, 8/2/17)

2015        Nov 1, Islamic State fighters seized the Syrian town of Maheen in Homs province from government forces, expanding their presence in Syria's west despite a Russian-backed bombing campaign against them. At least 50 fighters on the government side were killed or wounded.
    (Reuters, 11/1/15)
2015        Nov 1, The US-led coalition conducted 10 air strikes against Islamic State in Syria on Sunday and 17 in Iraq.
    (Reuters, 11/2/15)

2015        Nov 2, Russia said its air force flew 131 sorties and hit 237 targets in Syria in the last two days.
    (Reuters, 11/2/15)
2015        Nov 2, The United States and its allies conducted 15 air strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and seven in Syria.
    (Reuters, 11/3/15)

2015        Nov 3, Syrian journalist Batoul Mokhles al-Warar was killed in a suburb of Damascus, amid clashes and shelling between government troops and rebel fighters.
    (AP, 11/3/15)
2015        Nov 3, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said it has confirmed 185 civilians killed in Russian airstrikes in the past month. It also reported and 131 IS fighters as well as 279 rebels not connected to IS killed in the Russian airstrikes. Air strikes by Russian warplanes on the Islamic State-held city of Raqqa killed 42 people, including 27 civilians.
    (SFC, 11/4/15, p.A3)(Reuters, 11/6/15)
2015        Nov 3, Iran's semi-official news agency Fars said Col. Mostafa Ezzatollah Soleimani, an officer with the elite Revolutionary Guard force, had died in fighting in Syria's contested province of Aleppo.
    (AP, 11/3/15)
2015        Nov 3, The United States and its allies targeted Islamic State with 25 air strikes in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 11/4/15)

2015        Nov 4, Syria's army recaptured the only road into the government-held side of Aleppo city from Islamic State group fighters. Rebels shot down a government MiG warplane with anti-aircraft fire in Hama province, forcing its pilot to eject. The pilot died after his parachute failed. Warplanes believed to be Russian carried out several air strikes on areas of the northwest that were included in a local ceasefire agreed by warring sides in September.
    (AFP, 11/4/15)(Reuters, 11/4/15)

2015        Nov 5, Syrian rebels, including jihadists, seized the last government-held town on the main highway between second city Aleppo and the city of Hama. Air strikes on the town on Albu Kamal on the Syrian border with Iraq killed 49 people, at least 31 of them civilians.
    (AFP, 11/5/15)(AFP, 11/7/15)
2015        Nov 5, France announced it would deploy an aircraft carrier to boost its fight against the Islamic State group, which has seized control of large parts of Iraq and Syria.
    (AFP, 11/5/15)
2015        Nov 5, Turkey, said it was planning to soon launch a military campaign against IS. Turkey shares an 800-km (500-mile) border with northern Syria.
    (AFP, 11/5/15)
2015        Nov 5, The United States and its allies targeted Islamic State in Iraq with 14 air strikes, and also hit the militant group with nine air strikes in Syria.
    (Reuters, 11/6/15)
    (AP, 11/7/15)

2015        Nov 7, The Islamic State group released 37 Syrian Christians, most of them women, who were among more than 200 people kidnapped in February. The Britain-based Observatory said at least 23 civilians, were killed in suspected Russian air strikes on rebel-held Douma, outside Damascus.
    (AFP, 11/7/15)

2015        Nov 8, In northwestern Syria suspected Russian air strikes killed at least 11 civilians in two towns in Idlib province. At least 10 people were killed in government air strikes on a town held by the Islamic State group in Aleppo province. Another 4 people, including a child, were killed in rebel fire on the government-held area of Aleppo city.
    (AFP, 11/8/15)

2015        Nov 9, In Syria pro-government gunmen captured the village of Sheikh Ahmad in Aleppo province. The troops advanced under the cover of Russian and Syrian airstrikes.
    (AP, 11/9/15)
2015        Nov 9, In eastern Syria the French army bombed an oil supply center near Deir Ezzor held by the Islamic State group, targeting part of an oil distribution station and secondly a gas separation plant.
    (AFP, 11/9/15)(AFP, 11/10/15)
2015        Nov 9, Russia's Defense Ministry said its air force flew 137 sorties and hit 448 targets in Syria in the last three days.
    (Reuters, 11/9/15)

2015        Nov 10, Syrian army troops reached the northern Kweires air base in Aleppo province, breaking a nearly two-year siege by insurgents on the facility. At least 100 soldiers and fighters were killed in just over 24 hours of fierce fighting as pro-government forces reached the Kweires airbase. At least 22 people were killed in mortar fire on the coastal city of Latakia. One person was killed and five wounded in a mortar attack on residential areas of Damascus. Another 4 people, including a child, were killed in government rocket fire on Douma.
    (AFP, 11/10/15)(Reuters, 11/12/15)
2015        Nov 10, The United States and its allies conducted 11 strikes against Islamic State in Syria and 17 in Iraq.
    (Reuters, 11/11/15)

2015        Nov 11, Syrian opposition figures and Gulf commentators dismissed a Russian draft proposal for a process to solve the Syrian crisis, saying Moscow's aim was to keep President Bashar al-Assad in power and marginalize dissenting voices.
    (Reuters, 11/11/15)
2015        Nov 11, Russia's Defense Ministry said its air force flew 85 sorties and hit 277 terrorist targets in Syria in the last two days.
    (Reuters, 11/11/15)

2015        Nov 12, The Islamic State released a Russian-language video threatening attacks in Russia "very soon".
    (Reuters, 11/12/15)
2015        Nov 12, A US attack in the Syrian town of Raqqa reportedly killed Mohammed Emwazi, aka British Islamic State leader "Jihadi John." The air strike resulted from a combined effort between Britain and the United States.
    (Reuters, 11/13/15)

2015        Nov 13, Russia said its air force flew 107 sorties and hit 289 terrorist targets in Syria on November 11-12.
    (Reuters, 11/13/15)
2015        Nov 13, The United States and its allies targeted Islamic State in Iraq with 20 air strikes, and also hit the militant group with seven air strikes in Syria.
    (AP, 11/14/15)

2015        Nov 14, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad said that French policy had contributed to the "spread of terrorism" that culminated in attacks claimed by the Islamic State group which killed 128 people in Paris.
    (AFP, 11/14/15)
2015        Nov 14, The Islamic State group claimed responsibility for a wave of attacks in Paris that killed 127 people.
    (AP, 11/14/15)
2015        Nov 14, Syria's al Qaeda offshoot, the Nusra Front, said it had captured three Lebanese Hezbollah fighters in northern Syria.
    (Reuters, 11/14/15)

2015        Nov 15, In Syria coalition strikes destroyed 116 fuel trucks used by the jihadist group near Albu Kamal, an IS-held town in Deir Ezzor province on the border with Iraq. French raids hit the IS stronghold of Raqa. A coalition strike destroyed 116 jihadists' oil trucks. 11 pro-government forces were killed and 45 were wounded when rebels, including Islamists, attacked them in Aleppo city. Warplanes believed to be Russian carried out 40 air strikes, including on the ancient city of Palmyra.
    (AFP, 11/16/15)
2015        Nov 15, In Syria Abu Ali al-Baridi, the leader of Al-Yarmuk Martyrs Brigade, a militant Syrian faction that had pledged allegiance to the Islamic State group, was killed along with two other leaders in a suicide attack by rival jihadists of al-Nusra.
    (AFP, 11/15/15)

2015        Nov 16, Islamic State warned in a new video that countries taking part in air strikes against Syria would suffer the same fate as France, and threatened to attack in Washington.
    (Reuters, 11/16/15)

2015        Nov 17, In Syria Al-Qaeda's Syrian affiliate Al-Nusra Front said it had downed two Russian reconnaissance drones over a military airport it controls in the northwest.
    (AFP, 11/18/15)
2015        Nov 17, France and Russia staged air strikes on Islamic State targets in northern Syria, punishing the group for the Nov 13 attacks in Paris and against a Russian airliner on Oct 31 that together killed 353 people.
    (Reuters, 11/17/15)
2015        Nov 17, The US-led coalition fighting Islamic State conducted 16 air strikes in Iraq and 13 in Syria.
    (Reuters, 11/18/15)

2015        Nov 18, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights monitoring group said French and Russian bombardments on Raqqa have killed at least 33 Islamic State militants over the past three days.
    (Reuters, 11/18/15)
2015        Nov 18, The Islamic State said in its magazine that it had killed a Chinese and a Norwegian captive, showing what appeared to be pictures of the dead men with a banner reading "executed."
    (Reuters, 11/18/15)
2015        Nov 18, Physicians for Human Rights said Syrian government attacks on hospitals in Aleppo have devastated the frontline city's health care, with roughly 95 percent of doctors having fled, been detained or killed.
    (AFP, 11/18/15)
2015        Nov 18, An international coalition led by the United States conducted 19 air strikes against Islamic State in Iraq, targeting the militant group near Kirkuk, Kisik, Mosul, Ramadi and Sinjar. The coalition targeted Islamic State in Syria with eight strikes, including four that hit tactical units and destroyed buildings near Al Hasaka. One strike near Ar Raqqa hit a storage facility.
    (Reuters, 11/19/15)

2015        Nov 19, Syrian warplanes carried out airstrikes on a suburb of Damascus after talks for a two-week truce between the government and rebels collapsed.
    (AP, 11/19/15)
2015        Nov 19, An international coalition led by the United States targeted Islamic State in Iraq with 20 air strikes. There were no strikes in Syria.
    (Reuters, 11/20/15)
2015        Nov 19, Russian's military blasted targets across Syria with long-range strategic bombers for a third day.
    (AFP, 11/19/15)

2015        Nov 20, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said more than 1,300 people, around two-thirds of them combatants, have been killed in Russian air strikes in Syria since Moscow's aerial campaign began on September 30.
    (AFP, 11/20/15)
2015        Nov 20, Russian and Syrian warplanes carried out more than 70 strikes in eastern Deir Ezzor province, killing at least 36 people including 10 children. Dozens of oil tankers were destroyed. Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu said that more than 600 rebels had been eliminated as a result of a cruise missile strike a target in Syrian Deir ez-Zour province.
    (AFP, 11/20/15)(Reuters, 11/20/15)(AFP, 11/21/15)
2015        Nov 20, Turkish media reported that authorities have seized close to the Syrian border a record haul of almost 11 million pills of the synthetic stimulant drug captagon which is believed to play a crucial part in Syria's civil war. It has been repeatedly dubbed as the drug fueling Syria's civil war since its production provides income for the warring factions and also keeps fighters awake and energized over long periods.
    (AFP, 11/20/15)

2015        Nov 21, Syrian rebels backed by Turkey and the United States seized two villages from Islamic State (IS) jihadists close to the Turkish border after fierce fighting.
    (AFP, 11/21/15)
2015        Nov 21, Syrian journalist Wasim al-Nuqari (38) was killed while covering the army's operations against Islamic State militants in the country's central region.
    (AP, 11/21/15)
2015        Nov 21, The United States and its allies conducted 16 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and nine in Syria. The US military destroyed 283 tanker trucks used by the militants to transport oil from producing fields in eastern Syria to smuggling points.
    (Reuters, 11/22/15)(AP, 11/23/15)

2015        Nov 22, In Syria a bomb placed on a motorcycle exploded in Tel Abyad, a Kurdish-held town along the Turkish border, killing at least 3 and wounded 20 others.
    (Reuters, 11/22/15)

2015        Nov 23, Syrian troops backed by Russian airstrikes captured areas from the Islamic State group in the central province of Homs, in the latest push since the aerial campaign began nearly two months ago. A US official said recent attacks with chlorine and mustard gas on the battlefield in Syria show that the use chemical weapons in the civil war is becoming routine.
    (AP, 11/23/15)(Reuters, 11/23/15)
2015        Nov 23, Russia said its warplanes had hit 472 targets in war-torn Syria in the past two days, including tanker trucks and oil infrastructure in territory controlled by the Islamic State group.
    (AFP, 11/23/15)
2015        Nov 23, A US-led coalition targeted Islamic State in Iraq and Syria with 26 air strikes against the militant group.
    (Reuters, 11/24/15)

2015        Nov 24, Syrian fighters destroyed a Russian helicopter with a missile, shortly after they forced it to make an emergency landing in a nearby government-held area in Latakia province.
    (Reuters, 11/24/15)
2015        Nov 24, Turkey shot down a Russian warplane near the Syrian border, saying it had repeatedly violated its air space, one of the most serious publicly acknowledged clashes between a NATO member country and Russia for half a century. The pilot was shot dead by rebels as he parachuted to the ground.
    (Reuters, 11/24/15)(Reuters, 11/25/15)

2015        Nov 25, Russian forces launched a heavy bombardment against insurgent-held areas in Syria's Latakia province, near where a Russian warplane had been shot down by Turkey the day before. Air strikes hit a crossing on the Syrian side of the border with Turkey's southern province of Kilis. The strikes reportedly hit a garage for commercial trailers, killing 3 people.
    (Reuters, 11/25/15)(AP, 11/25/15)
2015        Nov 25, Russia sent an advanced missile system to Syria to protect its jets operating there and pledged its air force would keep flying missions near Turkish air space, sounding a defiant note after Turkey shot down a Russian fighter jet.
    (Reuters, 11/25/15)
2015        Nov 25, The surviving crew member of a Russian warplane shot down by Turkey said the plane received no warnings from the Turkish Air Force and did not fly over Turkish air space. Navigator Konstantin Murakhtin was rescued by Russian and Syrian special forces after ejecting from the plane. The US said data showed the Russian aircraft had transited Turkish airspace.
    (Reuters, 11/25/15)(SFC, 11/26/15, p.A4)
2015        Nov 25, The United States and its allies staged 27 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 11/26/15)

2015        Nov 26, Syrian residents said that Russian warplanes bombed the rebel-held town of Saraqeb, Idlib province, along the Turkish border a day after hitting a truck depot near a crossing between the two countries.
    (Reuters, 11/26/15)
2015        Nov 26, French President Francois Hollande arrived in Moscow for talks on Syria with Russia's Vladimir Putin. They agreed to tighten cooperation in the fight against the Islamic State group, although they remained at odds over their approach toward Syrian President Bashar Assad.
    (AFP, 11/26/15)(AP, 11/27/15)
2015        Nov 26, Germany confirmed that it will deploy Tornado reconnaissance jets to support France in the fight against Islamic State militants in Syria.
    (Reuters, 11/26/15)

2015        Nov 27, In Syria suspected Russian warplanes carried out several air strikes on the town of Azaz near the Turkish border, killing an estimated 5 people including a child. A series of airstrikes on Raqqa killed at least 8 people including 5 children.
    (Reuters, 11/27/15)(SFC, 11/28/15, p.A2)
2015        Nov 27, Turkish media said the government has "temporarily" suspended air strikes against Islamic State targets in Syria after the downing of a Russian warplane on the Syrian border sparked a major row with Moscow.
    (AFP, 11/27/15)

2015        Nov 28, Syrian state reported that the Syrian army has captured territory from Islamic State east of Aleppo including several kilometers of highway linking the city with the jihadists' de facto capital of Raqqa. One person was killed and 30 wounded in rocket and mortar attacks on two neighborhoods of Damascus.
    (Reuters, 11/28/15)(AFP, 11/28/15)
2015        Nov 28, The United States and its allies conducted 19 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and three in Syria.
    (Reuters, 11/29/15)

2015        Nov 29, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said airstrikes believed to have been carried out by Russian warplanes killed at least 18 people and wounded dozens in the insurgent held town of Ariha. Ariha Today, a Facebook page that covers events in the town, said the airstrikes killed 40 people and wounding more than 70.
    (AP, 11/29/15)
2015        Nov 29, Turkey recovered the body of Russian pilot Oleg Peshkov from northern Syria and presented it to Russian diplomats, five days after shooting down his warplane in an incident that wrecked relations between the two countries.
    (Reuters, 11/29/15)
2015        Nov 29, The United States and its allies conducted 15 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 11/30/15)

2015        Nov 30, In northern Syria 15 militants, 8 DFS fighters and 20 civilians were reported killed over the last 24 hours near the border area near Azaz.
    (AP, 11/30/15)
2015        Nov 30, A coalition led by the United States conducted 12 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq, and hit the militant group with a single strike in Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/1/15)

2015        Nov, The number of Islamic State fighters in Iraq and Syria was estimated at 30 to 100 thousand. Pentagon sources said coalition airstrikes have killed 20,000 IS fighters over the last 14 months. Coalition airstrikes against the IS this month alone numbered more than 3,000.
    (Econ, 11/21/15, p.23)(Econ, 12/12/15, p.47)

2015        Dec 1, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights and a Syrian official said a deal has been reached for thousands of insurgents to leave the last opposition-held neighborhood in the city of Homs. Implementation of the deal will begin early next week.
    (AP, 12/1/15)
2015        Dec 1, Al Qaeda's Syrian wing freed 16 Lebanese soldiers and policemen in exchange for the release of jailed Islamists including the ex-wife of Islamic State leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi.
    (Reuters, 12/1/15)
2015        Dec 1, The German cabinet approved a mandate offering military assistance to back the international fight against the Islamic State jihadist group following the Paris attacks.
    (AFP, 12/1/15)
2015        Dec 1, The United States and its allies staged 17 air strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/2/15)
2015        Dec 1, US Defense Secretary Ash Carter said the United States is deploying a specialized expeditionary targeting force to help Iraq put additional pressure on Islamic State and be positioned to conduct unilateral operations into Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/1/15)
2015        Dec 1, US General Joe Dunford, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said that approximately 43 percent of the revenue stream that ISIL derives from oil has been affected over the past 30 days.
    (Reuters, 12/1/15)

2015        Dec 2, In Syria rebel shelling of Damascus reportedly killed two women and wounded 26 people, including 16 students.
    (AP, 12/2/15)
2015        Dec 2, The Islamic State posted footage online of Magomed Khasiev (23) in an orange jump suit kneeling beside a lake in Syria and confessing in Russian to spying on Islamic State militants. Another Russian speaker, this one in camouflage fatigues, then uses a hunting knife to hack off the kneeling man's head.
    (Reuters, 12/29/15)
2015        Dec 2, Britain voted to extend airstrikes to Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/3/15)
2015        Dec 2, Russia's defense ministry said it had proof that Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan and his family were benefiting from the illegal smuggling of oil from Islamic State-held territory in Syria and Iraq.
    (Reuters, 12/2/15)
2015        Dec 2, A coalition led by the United States bombarded Islamic State in Syria with 14 air strikes, and also hit the militant group in Iraq with 18 strikes.
    (Reuters, 12/3/15)

2015        Dec 3, Britain joined the US-led air strikes against Islamic State in Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/3/15)

2015        Dec 4, In Syria at least 35 civilians were killed and dozens wounded in a series of regime raids on a rebel stronghold east of Damascus.
    (AFP, 12/4/15)
2015        Dec 4, British bombers made their second round of strikes on Islamic State targets in Syria late today, again hitting oil fields.
    (Reuters, 12/5/15)
2015        Dec 4, Germany's lower house of parliament approved government plans to join the military campaign against Islamic State in Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/4/15)
2015        Dec 4, The United States and its allies targeted Islamic State with 12 strikes in Iraq and 11 in Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/5/15)

2015        Dec 5, Syrian Turkmen rebel fighters seized three villages from the Islamic State group near the Turkish border in clashes over the last 24 hours that killed 13 from the ethnic minority.
    (AFP, 12/5/15)
2015        Dec 5, The United States and its allies conducted 17 air strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and 12 in Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/6/15)

2015        Dec 6, At least 32 Islamic State fighters were killed and 40 more wounded in Syria's Raqqa province, in a series of air strikes believed to be carried out by a US-led coalition targeting the jihadists.
    (Reuters, 12/6/15)

2015        Dec 7, Syria's government accused the US-led coalition of launching airstrikes a day earlier on an army camp in Der el-Zour that killed 3 soldiers and wounded 13, which if confirmed would mark the first time US-led forces have struck troops loyal to President Bashar Assad. A US military official said the strike was from a Russian warplane.
    (AP, 12/7/15)(SFC, 12/8/15, p.A4)
2015        Dec 7, Syrian authorities released 35 opposition detainees in Homs, ahead of a deal that will lead to the departure of thousands of opposition fighters.
    (AP, 12/7/15)

2015        Dec 8, Syria said it will export more than 700,000 tons of citrus fruits to Russia to "fill the gap" left by Moscow's ban on Turkish agricultural products.
    (AFP, 12/8/15)
2015        Dec 8, Former British spy chief Richard Barrett said Syria has become the pre-eminent global incubator for a new generation of militants after Islamist groups more than doubled their recruitment of foreign fighters to as much as 31,000 over the past 18 months.
    (Reuters, 12/8/15)
2015        Dec 8, Russia said that recent air strikes against targets in Syria included the new Kalibre cruise missile from its Rostov-on-Don submarine in the Mediterranean Sea.
    (SFC, 12/9/15, p.A4)
2015        Dec 8, The United Nations called on Jordan to allow in 12,000 Syrian refugees stranded at the border in deteriorating humanitarian conditions and offered to help reinforce security at registration points.
    (Reuters, 12/8/15)
2015        Dec 8, The United States and its allies staged 26 air strikes against the Islamic State militant group in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/9/15)

2015        Dec 9, Syrian rebels began evacuating the last opposition-held district in Homs, paving the way for President Bashar al-Assad's regime to take full control of the country's third-largest city.
    (AFP, 12/9/15)
2015        Dec 9, Representatives from Syria's fragmented opposition began an unprecedented meeting hosted by Saudi Arabia, seeking a united front for potential talks with President Bashar al-Assad's regime.
    (AFP, 12/9/15)
2015        Dec 9, Russia said its air force flew 82 sorties against 204 targets in Syria in the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 12/9/15)
2015        Dec 9, The United States and its allies conducted 23 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/10/15)

2015        Dec 10, In northern Syria the Islamic State staged attacks in the predominantly Kurdish province of Hassakeh targeting offices of the main Kurdish militia known as YPG. At least 26 people were reported killed.
    (AP, 12/11/15)
2015        Dec 10, In Saudi Arabia opponents of Syria's President Bashar al-Assad agreed to bring together political and armed factions in a single body in preparation for possible peace talks with his government. Ahrar al-Sham pulled out of opposition talks. The group had insisted the priority should be overthrowing the regime, preserving Syria's unity and rejecting sectarianism.
    (Reuters, 12/10/15)(AFP, 12/10/15)
2015        Dec 10, A Turkish news agency said authorities have begun constructing a wall along a 82-km (50-mile) stretch of Turkey's border with Syria that is under the control of the Islamic State group on the Syrian side.
    (AP, 12/10/15)
2015        Dec 10, The first Canadian government plane carrying Syrian refugees arrived in Toronto late today where they were greeted by PM Justin Trudeau.
    (AP, 12/11/15)
2015        Dec 10, The United States and its allies staged 25 air strikes against the Islamic State militant group in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/11/15)

2015        Dec 11, President Vladimir Putin said that Russia has provided air cover, weapons and supplies to a leading Western-backed opposition group in Syria and called for closer coordination with the US-allied coalition.
    (AP, 12/11/15)
2015        Dec 11, The United States and its allies targeted Islamic State with 12 strikes in Iraq and five in Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/12/15)

2015        Dec 12, In Syria a powerful car bomb exploded near a hospital in the central city of Homs, killing 16 people and wounding dozens. Most residents belong to the same Alawite sect as Pres. Assad.
    (AFP, 12/12/15)

2015        Dec 13, In Syria rebels entrenched in an eastern suburb of Damascus fired volleys of mortar shells into Damascus. 6 civilians died in rebel fire on government-held areas in and near Damascus. At least 45 civilians were killed in four Eastern Ghouta towns in air strikes and rocket fire by pro-regime forces,
    (AP, 12/13/15)(Reuters, 12/13/15)(AFP, 12/14/15)
2015        Dec 13, The United States and its allies conducted 16 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/14/15)

2015        Dec 14, Syrian troops recaptured Marj al-Sultan and its airport east of Damascus, more than three years after they were overrun by rebel groups.
    (AFP, 12/14/15)

2015        Dec 15, In northern Syria airstrikes on a fuel market in a rebel-held village killed and wounded dozens and destroyed several tanker trucks. Warplanes also struck a market in Maskaneh killing at least 18 people.
    (AP, 12/15/15)(SFC, 12/16/15, p.A2)
2015        Dec 15, The United States and its allies staged a fresh round of air strikes against Islamic State, with six in Syria and 11 in Iraq.
    (Reuters, 12/16/15)

2015        Dec 16, Syrian government forces captured the strategic Noba Mountain, inching closer to a rebel-held stronghold in the coastal province of Latakia.
    (AP, 12/16/15)
2015        Dec 16, Russia said its air force made 59 sorties in Syria in the past 24 hours and hit 212 Islamic State targets in the Syrian provinces of Aleppo, Idlib, Latakia, Hama, Homs, Khaseke and Raqqa.
    (Reuters, 12/16/15)
2015        Dec 16, The United States and its allies conducted 18 air strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/17/15)

2015        Dec 17, The Syrian opposition hosted by Saudi Arabia elected former PM Riad Hijab as a coordinator of a body that is expected to lead future peace talks.
    (Reuters, 12/17/15)
2015        Dec 17, Finance ministers from the 15 UN Security Council nations adopted a plan aimed at disrupting outside revenue that the Islamic State extremist group gets from oil and antiquities sales, ransom payments and other criminal activities.
    (AP, 12/17/15)
2015        Dec 17, The United States and its allies conducted 22 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/18/15)

2015        Dec 18, In NYC some 20 foreign ministers gathered for the latest conference on Syria's civil war. The UN Security Council unanimously approved a resolution endorsing an international road map for a Syria peace process, a rare show of unity among major powers on a conflict that has claimed more than a quarter million lives.
    (AP, 12/18/15)(Reuters, 12/19/15)
2015        Dec 18, The United States and its allies staged 20 strikes against Islamic State militants in Iraq and Syria, including one near the Iraqi city of Fallujah that is being investigated as a possible friendly fire incident.
    (Reuters, 12/19/15)

2015        Dec 19, An Israeli air strike killed Samir Qantar, a Hezbollah militant leader, in Damascus. Kantar, a Lebanese who was convicted of carrying out one of the most notorious attacks in Israeli history, had spent nearly three decades in an Israeli prison.
    (Reuters, 12/20/15)(AP, 12/20/15)

2015        Dec 20, The Syrian army with the backing of Russian air power said it had seized the rebel held town of Khan Touman in southern Aleppo. In northwest Syria air strikes believed to have been carried out by Russian warplanes killed 58 people in the center of the rebel-held city of Idlib. At least 10 people were wounded in an explosion that hit a military bus in the Mazzeh residential district of western Damascus.
    (Reuters, 12/20/15)(AFP, 12/20/15)(AFP, 12/23/15)
2015        Dec 20, The United States and its allies conducted 15 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/21/15)

2015        Dec 22, In Syria Islamic State group jihadists killed 9 students when they shelled a school in the eastern city of Deir Ezzor.
    (AFP, 12/22/15)

2015        Dec 23, In Syria clashes and suicide attacks by the Islamic State group killed at least 26 pro-government fighters in the eastern city of Deir Ezzor.
    (AFP, 12/23/15)(AFP, 12/24/15)
2015        Dec 23, Russia's Defense Ministry said its air force has carried out 302 sorties in Syria between Dec. 18 and 23, hitting 1,093 Islamic State targets.
    (Reuters, 12/23/15)
2015        Dec 23, The United States and its allies conducted 18 air strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and six in Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/24/15)

2015        Dec 24, Syria's regime said it was ready to take part in new talks in Geneva aimed at ending the war but appeared to make its participation conditional on which opposition groups will attend.
    (AFP, 12/24/15)
2015        Dec 24, In Syria air raids by government warplanes killed 20 civilians, including 7 children, in an area southeast of Damascus. A US-backed alliance of Syrian Kurds and Arab rebel groups advanced toward a dam in northern Syria held by Islamic State fighters, in an assault aimed at capturing the militants' stronghold of Raqqa.
    (AFP, 12/24/15)(Reuters, 12/24/15)
2015        Dec 24, In Syria French national Charaffe al Mouadan (26) was killed in a US-led coalition air strike. He had "direct" ties to the alleged mastermind of the Nov 13 Paris attacks.
    (AFP, 12/29/15)
2015        Dec 24, The United States and its allies conducted 31 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/25/15)

2015        Dec 25, Rebel sources in Syria said Zahran Aloush (44), the head of Jaysh al Islam, one of the most powerful insurgent groups in the rebel-held suburbs of Damascus, was killed in a Russian aerial raid that targeted his group's headquarters. Abu Hammam al Buwaidani was soon chosen as the group’s new leader.
    (Reuters, 12/25/15)
2015        Dec 25, In northern Syria fierce clashes between regime loyalists and rebels including Al-Qaeda fighters left more than 70 dead.
    (AFP, 12/26/15)
2015        Dec 25, In Syria Islamic State militants released 25 more Assyrian Christian hostages they had held captive for 10 months.
    (AP, 12/25/15)
2015        Dec 25, The United States hit Islamic State group targets in Iraq and Syria with 17 airstrikes on Christmas Day.
    (AP, 12/26/15)

2015        Dec 26, Syrian government forces booby trapped a cluster of farm buildings in the southern Daraa province and detonated the explosives as several Islamic rebel factions gathered at the venue, killing 17 militants.
    (AP, 12/27/15)
2015        Dec 26, A US-backed alliance of Syrian Kurds and Arab rebel groups, backed by US coalition planes, captured Tishreen Dam from Islamic State.
    (Reuters, 12/26/15)(AFP, 1/2/16)
2015        Dec 26, The United States and its allies conducted 28 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and five in Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/27/15)

2015        Dec 27, The United States and its allies conducted 37 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/28/15)
2015        Dec 27, In Turkey Naji Jerf, a Syrian journalist and filmmaker who documented atrocities by the Islamic State, was killed in Gaziantep.
    (SFC, 12/25/15, p.A2)

2015        Dec 28, In Syria at least 32 people were killed and 90 wounded in two bomb explosions in Homs. It was the second major attack in the city since a ceasefire deal took effect earlier this month. Homs-based activist Bebars Al-Talawy later said Abu Bilal al-Homsi most likely carried out one of the bombings.
    (Reuters, 12/28/15)(AP, 1/1/16)
2015        Dec 28, In Syria buses and ambulances carrying around 450 fighters and civilians evacuated from two besieged areas crossed into Turkey and Lebanon.
    (Reuters, 12/28/15)
2015        Dec 28, The United States and its allies targeted Islamic State with 31 air strikes in their latest daily operations against the militant group in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/29/15)

2015        Dec 29, The United States and its allies staged 28 air strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/30/15)

2015        Dec 30, Syrian authorities arrested Ahmad al-Asrawi and Munir al-Bitar, prominent members of the country's domestic opposition, as they traveled to Riyadh to meet other regime opponents.
    (AFP, 12/30/15)
2015        Dec 30, Syrian troops fought their way into a rebel-held town in the southern province of Deraa in an assault which rebels said was supported by the heaviest Russian aerial bombing campaign so far in the south.
    (Reuters, 12/30/15)
2015        Dec 30, In northeastern Syria two restaurants were bombed in a predominantly Kurdish city of Qamishli. The attack killed at least 16 people and wounded more than 30.
    (AP, 12/31/15)
2015        Dec 30, Russia said its air force made 121 sorties and hit 424 targets in Syria during December 28-29.
    (Reuters, 12/30/15)
2015        Dec 30, The US-led coalition carried out 24 strikes against Islamic State militants, in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/31/15)

2015        Charles Glass authored “Syria Burning: ISIS and the Death of the Arab Spring."
    (Econ, 7/11/15, p.73)
2015        Leon Goldsmith authored “Cycle of Fear: Syria’s Alawites in War and Peace."
    (Econ, 7/11/15, p.74)
2015        Journalists Hassan Hassan and Michael Weiss authored "ISIS: Inside the Army of Terror." The authors spoke to dozens of fighters and members of the group to understand its allure and how it justifies its brutal tactics.
    (AFP, 2/5/15)
2015        William McCants authored “"The ISIS Apocalypse: The History, Strategy, and Doomsday Vision of the Islamic State."
    (Econ, 9/26/15, p.86)
2015        In Jordan incoming Syrian refugees now made up a fifth of the population.
    (Econ, 7/4/15, p.40)

2016        Jan 2, In Syria 16 jihadists were reported killed and 19 wounded in clashes with Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) near Ain Issa.
    (AFP, 1/2/16)
2016        Jan 2, The United States and its allies conducted 26 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 1/3/16)

2016        Jan 3, The Islamic State released a new video in which five purported British spies are shot dead by masked extremists as propaganda from a group that is losing control of territory in Syria and Iraq. Newspapers named Siddhartha Dhar, a British Indian, as the speaker in the tape.
    (AP, 1/4/16)(SFC, 1/4/16, p.A4)(Econ, 1/9/16, p.50)

2016        Jan 5, Gunmen in Syria shot and killed Abu Rateb al-Homsy, the commander of an ultraconservative rebel group in the central Homs province.
    (AP, 1/6/16)

2016        Jan 6, In Syria several mortar rounds struck residential neighborhoods in the capital, Damascus, killing at least 8 people and wounding at least two dozen others. State media said "terrorists" from the Army of Islam rebel group fired the shells from the suburb of Eastern Ghouta.
    (AP, 1/6/16)
2016        Jan 6, In Syria Ali Saqr (21) executed his mother near the post office building where she worked in front of hundreds of people in Raqqa because she had encouraged him to leave the Islamic State group.
    (Reuters, 1/8/16)(SFC, 1/9/16, p.A2)
2016        Jan 6, The United States and its allies staged 36 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 1/7/16)

2016        Jan 7, The US-led coalition launched 23 air strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and three in Syria.
    (Reuters, 1/8/16)

2016        Jan 9, In Syria Russian strikes on a prison complex run by the Nusra Front, Al-Qaeda's Syrian affiliate in the country's northwest, killed at least 81 people, including 23 Al-Qaeda fighters.
    (AFP, 1/9/16)(AFP, 1/10/16)
2016        Jan 9, The US-led coalition conducted 11 air strikes against Islamic State forces in Syria and 15 in Iraq.
    (Reuters, 1/10/16)

2016        Jan 10, In Syria the Nusra Front Al-Qaeda affiliate abducted Hadi al-Abdallah and Raed Fares, two of the country's most prominent media activists from a radio station in the northwestern Idlib province.
    (AFP, 1/10/16)

2016        Jan 11, Syria's opposition coordinator Riad Hijab accused Russia of killing dozens of children after a bombing raid today and said such action meant the opposition could not negotiate with President Bashar al-Assad's government. He put the death toll at 35 children and said the Russian strikes had hit three schools in total.
    (AFP, 1/11/16)
2016        Jan 11, In Syria an aid convoy entered the besieged town of Madaya. 40,000 people were trapped by encircling government forces and local doctors said some residents have starved to death.
    (Reuters, 1/11/16)(Reuters, 1/12/16)

2016        Jan 11, The United States and its allies conducted 23 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 1/12/16)

2016        Jan 12, Syrian state media said the government’s army and allied forces has taken full control of the rebel-held town of Salma, Latakia province.
    (AFP, 1/12/16)

2016        Jan 13, The US-led coalition conducted 20 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 1/14/16)

2016        Jan 14, In Syria a convoy carrying desperately needed food and medicine entered the hunger-stricken town of Madaya, the second delivery of aid this week after months of government siege.
    (AFP, 1/14/16)

2016        Jan 15, Turkey announced that it is to grant work permits to Syrian refugees, in a key move which could allow Syrians to build more prosperous and stable lives in the country.
    (AFP, 1/15/16)
2016        Jan 15, The UN children's fund UNICEF confirmed cases of severe malnutrition among children in the besieged Syrian town of Madaya, where local relief workers reported 32 deaths of starvation in the past month.
    (Reuters, 1/15/16)

2016        Jan 16, In Syria Islamic State militants kidnapped at least 400 civilians when they attacked government-held areas in the eastern city of Deir al-Zor. Air strikes on the Islamic State group's bastion of Raqa killed 40 civilians, including 8 children. It was unclear if the strikes were carried out by regime or Russian planes. The UN said it has unverified reports that 15-20 people died of starvation in the Syrian city of Deir Al-Zor in 2015, where 200,000 people face sharply deteriorating conditions and a severe food shortage.
    (Reuters, 1/16/16)(Reuters, 1/17/16)(AFP, 1/17/16)

2016        Jan 18, In Syria Islamic State advanced against government forces near the city of Deir al-Zor after attacking the towns of Ayyash and Begayliya. The Britain-based Observatory said 120 members of the Syrian government forces and 70 Islamic State fighters had been killed in clashes since Jan 16.
    (Reuters, 1/19/16)
2016        Jan 18, In Turkey at least one person was killed and one more seriously wounded when a rocket fired from a jihadist-controlled area in Syria slammed into a schoolyard in the border town of Kilis.
    (AFP, 1/18/16)
2016        Jan 18, The United States and its allies staged two dozen strikes against the Islamic State militant group in Syria and Iraq.
    (Reuters, 1/19/16)

2016        Jan 19, Russia said its air force has delivered more than 40 tons of humanitarian aid to areas of Syria which are blocked by “terrorists."
    (Reuters, 1/19/16)

2016        Jan 20, Syria's state-run news agency and opposition activists said some 500 displaced families have returned to their homes in a neighborhood on the southwestern edge of Damascus. They had fled their homes fled in 2013-2014 battles.
    (AP, 1/20/16)
2016        Jan 20, The US-led coalition staged 16 strikes in Iraq and Syria targeting the against Islamic State militant group.
    (Reuters, 1/21/16)

2016        Jan 23, In eastern Syria at least 29 civilians were killed in air strikes suspected to have been carried by Russian warplanes in the village of Khasham, Deir Ezzor province. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least 63 people, including 9 children, died in the air strikes.
    (AFP, 1/23/16)(Reuters, 1/24/16)

2016        Jan 24, Syrian pro-government forces recaptured a key rebel-held town in coastal Latakia province, building on battlefield advances in the area just a day ahead of planned peace talks in Geneva between Damascus and Syria's opposition.
    (AFP, 1/24/16)
2016        Jan 24, The United States and its allies staged 19 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria in the coalition's latest round of daily attacks on the militant group.
    (Reuters, 1/25/16)

2016        Jan 25, The coalition of the United States and its allies conducted 18 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 1/26/16)

2016        Jan 26, Syria's regime seized a strategic southern town from rebel forces, as leading opposition representatives debated whether to attend peace talks in Geneva this week. A bomb attack claimed by Islamic State in the Syrian government-controlled city of Homs killed at least 24 people. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights monitoring group put the death toll at 29.
    (AFP, 1/26/16)(Reuters, 1/26/16)

2016        Jan 27, In Syria suspected Russian air strikes killed at least 54 civilians in rebel- and jihadist-held areas in the eastern Deir Ezzor province and its provincial capital of the same name.
    (AFP, 1/28/16)

2016        Jan 29, The UN Syria envoy Staffan de Mistura will meet a Syrian government delegation in Geneva to kick off the first peace talks for almost two years and will later meet other participants in the talks, his office said in a statement.
    (Reuters, 1/29/16)
2016        Jan 29, Human Rights Watch said Iran's Revolutionary Guards has recruited thousands of Afghans, some by coercion, to fight in Syria's war alongside forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad.
    (AFP, 1/29/16)

2016        Jan 30, Doctors Without Borders said 16 recent deaths have brought the number of people reported to have died of starvation in Madaya, Syria, to 46 since December.
    (AFP, 1/30/16)

2016        Jan 30, A delegation from Syria's main opposition group arrived in Geneva to join UN-mediated peace talks, demanding President Bashar al-Assad's government be made to comply with a UN resolution on humanitarian aid and human rights.
    (Reuters, 1/30/16)
2016        Jan 30, In Syria suspected Russian air strikes killed at least 10 civilians in a village held by the Islamic State group in the eastern province of Deir Ezzor.
    (AFP, 1/30/16)

2016        Jan 31, In Syria at least 70 people were killed and scores wounded when a car bomb and two suicide bombers blew them themselves up in the Sayeda Zeinab district of Damascus, where Syria's holiest Shi'ite shrine is located.
    (Reuters, 1/31/16)(Reuters, 2/1/16)

2016        Feb 1, Syrian peace talks gained a small measure of momentum with the UN special envoy formally declaring the start of indirect negotiations, even as the opposition spokesman accused Russia of producing a "new Hitler" in Moscow and supporting another Hitler in Damascus.
    (AP, 2/1/16)
2016        Feb 1, Russia's Defense Ministry said its air force has carried out 468 sorties in Syria over the past week, hitting more than 1,300 "terrorist" targets.
    (Reuters, 2/1/16)

2016        Feb 2, Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), an alliance of Kurdish and Arab fighters under the umbrella of the PYD, the main Syrian Kurdish force, severed the corridor between Aleppo and the Turkish border critical for rebel supplies, in tacit alliance with the Assad regime.
    (Econ, 2/20/16, p.39)

2016        Feb 3, The Syrian army cut the last supply route linking opposition forces in the northern city of Aleppo to the Turkish border, as Russia vowed no let-up in its aerial bombardment in support of the regime.
    (AFP, 2/3/16)
2016        Feb 3, Lebanon said its army killed six gunmen and arrested 16 suspected militants, including a commander from the Islamic State group, in a raid in the town of Arsal near the border with Syria.
    (Reuters, 2/3/16)

2016        Feb 4, A US defense official said Libya has seen an influx of Islamic State extremists in recent months, while the number of jihadists in Iraq and Syria has dropped by several thousand.
    (AFP, 2/4/16)
2016        Feb 4, Donor nations meeting in London pledged to give billions of dollars in aid to Syrians as world leaders gathered for a conference to tackle the world's worst humanitarian crisis. The British government announced £1.2 billion (1.6 million euros, $1.74 billion) in aid for war-torn Syria and its neighbours.
    (Reuters, 2/4/16)(AFP, 2/4/16)
2016        Feb 4, Turkish PM Ahmet Davutoglu said tens of thousands of Syrians are moving toward the Turkish border from the Syrian city of Aleppo due to increased aerial bombardment.
    (Reuters, 2/4/16)
2016        Feb 4, A UN envoy halted his attempts to conduct Syrian peace talks after the army, backed by Russian air strikes, advanced against rebel forces north of Aleppo, choking opposition supply lines from Turkey to the city.
    (Reuters, 2/4/16)

2016        Feb 5, In Syria pro-government troops retook another northern community as part of a weeklong offensive aimed at encircling the country's largest city, Aleppo. The capture was backed by shelling and airstrikes, including by Russian warplanes. Tens of thousands were apparently streaming towards Turkey as regime troops pressed a major Russian-backed offensive around Aleppo.
    (AP, 2/5/16)(AFP, 2/5/16)
2016        Feb 5, Iranian mdia said a high-ranking member of the elite Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC) and 6 Iranian Basij militia volunteers have been killed in fighting in Syria’s northern Aleppo province.
    (Reuters, 2/5/16)
2016        Feb 5, A UN report said thirty-four militant groups from around the world had reportedly pledged allegiance to the Islamic State extremist group as of mid-December — and that number will only grow in 2016.
    (AP, 2/5/16)

2016        Feb 7, Aid trucks and ambulances entered Syria from Turkey to deliver food and supplies to tens of thousands of people fleeing an escalating government assault on Aleppo, as air strikes targeted villages on the road north to the Turkish border. 45 pro-regime fighters killed by gunfire and another 31 killed when landmines were detonated during clashes near Damascus.
    (Reuters, 2/7/16)(AP, 2/13/16)
2016        Feb 7, A top official in the United Arab Emirates said that his country is prepared to send ground troops to Syria to fight Islamic State militants as part of an international coalition.
    (AP, 2/7/16)
2016        Feb 7, The United States and its allies conducted ten strikes against Islamic State militants in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 2/8/16)

2016        Feb 8, Syrian army troops recaptured a new village north of Aleppo, bringing troops and allied militiamen to within a few kilometers of the Turkish border as part of a major Russian-backed offensive in the area.
    (AP, 2/8/16)
2016        Feb 8, Canada announced it will end air strikes targeting the Islamic State group in Iraq and Syria and bring home its six fighter jets on February 22.
    (AFP, 2/8/16)

2016        Feb 9, In Syria a suicide car bomber blew himself up at a police officers' club in a residential district of Damascus, killing at least 10 people and causing wide material damage.
    (AP, 2/9/16)

2016        Feb 10, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least 500 people have been killed on all sides during fighting in Aleppo province since the start of a Syrian army and allied forces offensive began in early February.
    (Reuters, 2/10/16)
2016        Feb 10, In northern Syria Kurdish fighters backed by Russian airstrikes launched an attack in an attempt to capture a military air base held by Syrian insurgents. An international aid group warned that the health system is close to collapse in parts of northern Syria.
    (AP, 2/10/16)

2016        Feb 11, In Syria Kurdish-led fighters aided by Russian bombing captured the rebel-held Menagh military airport near the border with Turkey. Russian warplanes staged at least 30 raids against the rebels holding out there.
    (Reuters, 2/11/16)
2016        Feb 11, The Syrian Center for Policy Research (SCPR) estimated that the death toll in the current Syrian civil war has reached 470,000.
    (Econ, 2/20/16, p.41)
2016        Feb 11, Russia's Defense Ministry said that two US aircraft had bombed the Syrian city of Aleppo on Feb. 10, and that Russian planes had not been operating in the area.
    (Reuters, 2/11/16)

2016        Feb 12, Meeting in Germany major powers agreed to a cessation of hostilities in Syria set to begin in a week and to provide rapid humanitarian access to besieged Syrian towns, but failed to secure a complete ceasefire or an end to Russian bombing.
    (Reuters, 2/12/16)
2016        Feb 12, A Turkish deputy prime minister said up to 40,000 refugees have settled in camps on the Turkish border inside Syria in the latest wave of migration.
    (Reuters, 2/12/16)

2016        Feb 13, Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu said Saudi Arabia will send aircraft to NATO-member Turkey's Incirlik air base for the fight against Islamic State militants in Syria.
    (Reuters, 2/13/16)

2016        Feb 14, The Syrian Kurdish PYD party rejected Turkish demands that allied militia withdraw from positions near the border that are being shelled by Turkish army.
    (Reuters, 2/14/16)
2016        Feb 14, Russia said President Vladimir Putin and US President Barack Obama agreed to intensify diplomatic and other cooperation to implement an agreement on Syria struck at talks in Munich.
    (Reuters, 2/14/16)
2016        Feb 14, The Turkish army shelled positions held by Kurdish-backed militia in northern Syria for a second day, killing two fighters.
    (Reuters, 2/14/16)

2016        Feb 15, In Syria almost 50 civilians were killed when missiles hit at least five medical facilities and two schools in rebel-held areas. At least 14 people were killed on in the northern Syrian town of Azaz. French charity Doctors Without Borders said in a statement that at least eight staff were missing after four rockets hit a hospital that it supported in the province of Idlib.
    (Reuters, 2/15/16)(Reuters, 2/15/16)
2016        Feb 15, Turkish security forces hit Kurdish militia targets in Syria for the third day in a row after a border security outpost on the border was attacked this morning.
    (Reuters, 2/15/16)

2016        Feb 16, In Syria 15 civilians were killed in US-led strikes on the town of Al-Shadadi.
    (AFP, 2/18/16)

2016        Feb 17, In Syria 8 civilians, including one woman, were killed in US-led strikes on another IS-controlled village in in Hasakeh province. Strikes elsewhere in the province also killed 26 IS fighters.
    (AFP, 2/18/16)
2016        Feb 17, Nine Kurdish soldiers were admitted with symptoms including vomiting, nausea, shortness of breath and itching. It wasbelieved that Islamic State militants fired mortar shells believed to have been filled with a chemical substance, possibly chlorine, at Kurdish troops close to the Iraqi town of Sinjar.
    (AP, 2/18/16)
2016        Feb 17, The United States and its allies conducted 19 air strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 2/18/16)

2016        Feb 18, EU leaders began meeting to thrash out a deal that aims to keep Britain in the bloc.
    (AP, 2/18/16)
2016        Feb 18, In India a protest that rocked a New Delhi university this week spread across the country, with students and teachers in at least 10 cities demanding the release of student leader Kanhaiya Kumar arrested on sedition charges and accused of being anti-Indian.
    (AP, 2/18/16)
2016        Feb 18, An Iraqi militia group said the government has decided to cut the number of state-financed paramilitary forces due to a shortage of funds as the international oil price declines.
    (AP, 2/18/16)
2016        Feb 18, Japan-based Toyota said it is recalling nearly 2.9 million sports utility vehicles, including more than 1.1 million in the US, because of seat belts that might fail in a crash.
    (AP, 2/18/16)
2016        Feb 18, The Syrian army backed by heavy Russian aerial bombing said it had captured the town of Kansaba in the northern countryside of the coastal province of Latakia.
    (Reuters, 2/18/16)
2016        Feb 18, In northeastern Syria strikes by a US-led coalition against the Islamic State group killed at least 15 civilians, including 3 children. 9 IS fighters were also killed in the strikes on the four villages in Hasakeh province.
    (AFP, 2/18/16)
2016        Feb 18, Ugandans began voting in a presidential election that pits President Yoweri Museveni (71), in power for three decades, against a long-time rival Kizza Besigye.
    (Reuters, 2/18/16)

2016        Feb 19, A task force set up to discuss a planned cessation of hostilities in Syria met for the first time in Geneva. Western powers rejected a Russian bid at the UN to halt Turkey's military actions in Syria, as France warned of a dangerous escalation in the nearly five-year conflict.
    (Reuters, 2/19/16)(AFP, 2/19/16)
2016        Feb 19, The United States and its allies targeted Islamic State militants in Iraq with 16 strikes and nine in Syria.
    (AFP, 2/20/16)

2016        Feb 20, Syria's army and allies, backed by Russian air strikes, recaptured 18 villages from Islamic State fighters in eastern Aleppo province.
    (Reuters, 2/20/16)
2016        Feb 20, A source close to peace talks said Syria's opposition has agreed to a two- to three-week truce on condition that Russia stops its air strikes, sieges are ended and access for aid allowed across the country. President Bashar al-Assad said he was ready for a ceasefire, on condition "terrorists" did not use a lull in fighting to their advantage and that countries backing insurgents halted support for them.
    (Reuters, 2/20/16)(Reuters, 2/21/16)

2016        Feb 21, In Syria a string of suicide bombings near a Shiite shrine outside Dmascus and in Homs claimed by jihadists killed more than 150 people.
    (AFP, 2/21/16)

2016        Feb 22, In Syria the Islamic State group and other jihadists cut a vital supply route linking the west of Syria's second city Aleppo with other government-held territory.
    (AFP, 2/22/16)
2016        Feb 22, Syria's main opposition umbrella group was meeting in the Saudi capital as Washington and Moscow worked to secure a ceasefire..
    (AFP, 2/22/16)
2016        Feb 22, A Christian official in northeastern Syria said the Islamic State group has released the last group of Assyrian Christians taken hostage last year. The 43 freed Christians were part of about 230 Assyrian Christians captured last February by the extremists after they overran Assyrian communities on the southern bank of the Khabur River in northeastern Hassakeh province.
    (AP, 2/22/16)

2016        Feb 23, The Syrian government said it accepted a halt to "combat operations" that does not include the Islamic State group, the al Qaeda-linked Nusra Front, or groups connected to it, in line with a US-Russian plan.
    (Reuters, 2/23/16)
2016        Feb 23, Britain said it had seen disturbing evidence that Syrian Kurds were coordinating with the Syrian government of President Bashar al-Assad and the Russian air force.
    (Reuters, 2/23/16)

2016        Feb 24, The United States and its allies said they have conducted 18 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 2/24/16)

2016        Feb 25, Syrian government troops backed by Russian airstrikes recaptured a town in Aleppo province from Islamic State militants in a key advance just two days ahead of a US and Russia-engineered cease-fire.
    (AP, 2/25/16)

2016        Feb 26, Russian warplanes carried out intense air strikes on rebel strongholds in Syria hours before a ceasefire was due to come into force.
    (AFP, 2/26/16)

2016        Feb 27, Fighting mostly stopped across western and northern Syria and Russia halted its air raids, under a cessation of hostilities which the United Nations called the best hope for peace since civil war began five years ago. The Syrian rebel group Jaish al-Islam said government forces dropped two barrel bombs and opened fire on its positions during several violations of a cessation of hostilities agreement in the Eastern Ghouta near Damascus. At least two people were killed and several wounded when a car bomb exploded at the entrance of Salamiya, Hama province.
    (Reuters, 2/27/16)
2016        Feb 27, Islamic State fighters attacked the town of Tel Abyad controlled by the Syrian Kurdish YPG militia at the Turkish border as well as the nearby town of Suluk. The attack was crushed and dozens of Islamic State fighters were reported killed.
    (Reuters, 2/27/16)

2016        Feb 28, Syria's main opposition grouping said it recorded 15 violations by government troops and allied forces on the first day of a landmark truce.
    (AFP, 2/28/16)
2016        Feb 28, Russian news media reported that the Russian coordination center in Syria has registered nine violations of a cessation of hostilities in the past 24 hours, but that the cessation of hostilities was holding in general.
    (Reuters, 2/28/16)
2016        Feb 28, The United States and its allies conducted 24 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 2/29/16)

2016        Feb 29, A senior official from Syria's main opposition group said that a fragile international attempt to halt nearly five years of fighting was in danger of total collapse because of attacks by government forces. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said the shaky cease-fire is holding "by and large" on its third day despite sporadic fighting and growing accusations of violations.
    (AP, 2/29/16)
2016        Feb 29, Turkish armed forces shelled positions of the Islamic State (IS) group in Syria in coordination with the US-led international anti-jihadist coalition.
    (AFP, 2/29/16)

2016        Feb 29, The US-led coalition conducted 27 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria in its latest round of daily attacks.
    (Reuters, 3/1/16)

2016        Mar 1, Russia called for the Syrian-Turkish border to be closed, saying arms were being hidden in humanitarian aid convoys and channeled to fighters of Islamic State and its allies.
    (Reuters, 3/1/16)
2016        Mar 1, The United States and its allies staged 21 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 3/2/16)

2016        Mar 2, In Syria a Kurdish-led fighting alliance captured a hill overlooking a main road in Aleppo from the militant Nusra Front group and its allies. In southern Syria a car bomb targeted a meeting of commanders of a US-backed moderate rebel group, killing 18, including the faction's top commander.
    (AP, 3/2/16)
2016        Mar 2, The US and its allies in Iraq and Syria staged 29 strikes against Islamic State.
    (Reuters, 3/3/16)

2016        Mar 3, Russia's Defense Ministry said in a statement it had registered 14 ceasefire violations in Syria over the past 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 3/3/16)
2016        Mar 3, The United States and its allies conducted 14 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 3/4/16)

2016        Mar 4, In Syria demonstrators in opposition-held areas of Aleppo, Damascus, Daraa and Homs called for the downfall of President Bashar al-Assad's regime.
    (AFP, 3/4/16)
2016        Mar 4, Major Syrian insurgent group Jaish al-Islam group said the government was mobilizing forces to capture more territory, and a ceasefire was not possible while Damascus and its allies kept up attacks, signaling risks to an agreement that has slowed fighting. Jaish al-Islam denied Russian reports that some of its members had signed ceasefire agreements.
    (Reuters, 3/4/16)
2016        Mar 4, In Syria two air strikes hit the edge of the town of Douma in Eastern Ghouta and one person was killed. The strikes were reportedly conducted by either Syrian or Russian planes. US-backed fighters from the Free Syrian Army's Southern Front killed one IS fighter and wounded several others in the process of taking the Tanaf border crossing late today.
    (AFP, 3/4/16)(AP, 3/5/16)
2016        Mar 4, Russia's Defense Ministry said Turkey is shelling Kurdish units fighting against the Nusra Front in Syria, while columns of trucks with various cargo and weapons for rebels cross into Syria from Turkey daily.
    (Reuters, 3/4/16)
2016        Mar 4, The United States and its allies targeted Islamic State militants in Iraq with 12 strikes and two in Syria. Abu Omar al-Shishani (b.1986), also known as Omar the Chechen and described by the Pentagon as the group's "minister of war", was targeted near the town of al-Shadadi in Syria. Al-Shishani was critically wounded and reportedly died on March 14. The IS confirmed his death on July 13.
    (Reuters, 3/5/16)(AFP, 3/13/16)(SFC, 3/16/16, p.A2)(Reuters, 7/14/16)

2016        Mar 5, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said a total of 135 people were killed in the first week of a fragile truce in Syria in areas covered by the cessation of hostilities agreement.
    (Reuters, 3/5/16)
2016        Mar 5, Russia's Defense Ministry said it had registered nine ceasefire violations in Syria over the past 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 3/5/16)
2016        Mar 5, The United States and its allies conducted 19 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 3/6/16)

2016        Mar 6, The United States and its allies conducted 18 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 3/7/16)

2016        Mar 7, In northern Syria warplanes bombed a fuel depot in an opposition-held town in Idlib province, killing at least 12 people. The al Qaeda-affiliated Nusra Front and Islamist group Jund al-Aqsa and others took the village of al-Ais.
    (AP, 3/7/16)(Reuters, 3/8/16)
2016        Mar 7, An official in YPG, the Syrian Kurdish militia, said that Turkey was firing artillery shells at its fighters in northern Aleppo province.
    (Reuters, 3/7/16)
2016        Mar 7, Russia's Defense Ministry said that eight ceasefire violations had been registered in Syria over the past 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 3/7/16)

2016        Mar 8, Russia's Defense Ministry said it had registered seven ceasefire violations in Syria over the past 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 3/8/16)

2016        Mar 10, It was reported that Abu Hamed, a disillusioned former member of Islamic State, has passed a stolen memory stick of documents identifying 22,000 supporters in over 50 countries to a British journalist, a leak that could help the West target Islamist fighters planning attacks.
    (Reuters, 3/10/16)

2016        Mar 12, The Syrian government ruled out any discussion of presidential elections at peace talks due to start next week.
    (Reuters, 3/12/16)
2016        Mar 12, In western Syria rebels shot down a Syrian government warplane, although there were conflicting accounts on whether it had been brought down by a missile or anti-aircraft guns.
    (Reuters, 3/12/16)
2016        Mar 12, The United States and its allies carried out more than a dozen air strikes on Islamic State forces in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 3/13/16)

2016        Mar 13, In northern Syria Al-Qaeda militants swept through the rebel-held town of Maarat Numan in a display of dominance, arresting US-backed fighters and looting weapons stores belonging to the Free Syrian Army. 7 FSA Division 13 fighters died in the clashes.
    (AP, 3/13/16)

2016        Mar 14, Russia's defense ministry said it had recorded 14 ceasefire violations in Syria in the past 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 3/14/16)
2016        Mar 14, In Switzerland UN mediator Staffan de Mistura opened talks to end a five-year war in Syria. The first of three rounds of talks aimed to agree a "clear roadmap" for Syria fail to make progress. Syria's government submitted an document entitled "Basic Elements for a Political Solution" to the UN mediator in Geneva.
    (Reuters, 3/14/16)

2016        Mar 15, Russian warplanes began leaving Syria as Moscow started to draw down forces that have tipped the war President Bashar al-Assad's way. Russian Deputy Defense Minister Nikolai Pankov said the air force will continue striking targets in Syria linked to Islamic State and other terrorist groups despite a partial withdrawal.
    (Reuters, 3/15/16)
2016        Mar 15, The United States and its allies carried out 11 air strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 3/16/16)

2016        Mar 16, A powerful Syrian Kurdish political party announced plans to declare a federal region in northern Syria, a model it hopes can be applied to the entire country.
    (AP, 3/16/16)
2016        Mar 16, Denmark's TV2 broadcaster opened an office in the Syrian capital, Damascus, claiming to be the only western media to do so.
    (AP, 3/16/16)
2016        Mar 16, A second group of Russian warplanes flew out of Syria in line with Moscow's decision to withdraw most of its forces.
    (AFP, 3/16/16)

2016        Mar 17, Syria's three Kurdish-controlled autonomous regions voted to approve the establishment of a federal system in the north of the country, defying warnings from Damascus and neighboring Turkey against any such unilateral move.
    (Reuters, 3/17/16)
2016        Mar 17, The United States declared that the Islamic State group's slaughter of Christians, Yazidis and Shiites amounts to a genocide and vowed to halt it.
    (AFP, 3/17/16)
2016        Mar 17, The United States and its allies conducted 20 strikes against Islamic State militants in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 3/18/16)

2016        Mar 18, In Syria Russian warplanes flew in support of government troops in an offensive to recapture the historic town of Palmyra from the hands of the Islamic State group. 16 civilians were killed in air strikes on Raqa, the main stronghold of the Islamic State jihadist group.
    (AP, 3/18/16)(AFP, 3/19/16)
2016        Mar 18, The UN World Food Program said some Syrians in the besieged areas of Daraya and Deir al-Zor have been reduced to eating grass because food supplies are cut off.
    (Reuters, 3/18/16)

2016        Mar 19, In northern Syria at least 39 civilians were killed in a series of air strikes on Raqqa as Damascus and Moscow waged attacks on areas controlled by Islamic State. The death toll soon climbed to at least 55.
    (Reuters, 3/19/16)(AFP, 3/19/16)(AP, 3/20/16)

2016        Mar 20, The Russian Defense Ministry recorded five violations of a tentative ceasefire agreement in Syria in the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 3/20/16)
2016        Mar 20, The United States and its allies carried out 11 strikes against Islamic State militants in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 3/21/16)

2016        Mar 21, The United States and its allies conducted 15 strikes against Islamic State militants in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 3/22/16)

2016        Mar 23, Syrian soldiers and their allies advanced to within 1 km (half a mile) of Palmyra and soldiers speaking from the outskirts of the historic city said they hoped to recapture it from Islamic State fighters within hours.
    (Reuters, 3/23/16)

2016        Mar 24, Syrian troops backed by Russian warplanes advanced into the ancient city of Palmyra, which has been under jihadist control for nearly a year. A Russian special forces officer was killed in the combat operation.
    (AFP, 3/24/16)(Reuters, 3/25/16)

2016        Mar 25, Syrian government forces recaptured a Mamluk-era citadel in Palmyra from the extremist Islamic State group, as the fierce battle for control of the historic town entered its third day.
    (AP, 3/25/16)
2016        Mar 25, News reports said that Abd ar-Rahman Mustafa al-Qaduli (aka Haji Imam), the Islamic State group's second in command, was killed earlier this month. US Defense Secretary Ash Carter said US forces killed Haji Imam, a senior Islamic State leader described as the group's finance minister, among several key members of the militant group eliminated this week.
    (AFP, 3/25/16)(AP, 3/25/16)
2016        Mar 25, The United States and its allies targeted Islamic State militants in Iraq with 22 strikes and four in Syria.
    (Reuters, 3/26/16)

2016        Mar 27, Syrian troops recaptured the ancient city of Palmyra from the Islamic State group and pledged to build on the win with an advance against other jihadist strongholds.
    (AFP, 3/27/16)

2016        Mar 28, Syrian government forces backed by Russian air strikes battled Islamic State insurgents around Palmyra, trying to extend their gains after taking back control of a city whose ancient temples were dynamited by the ultra-radical militants.
    (Reuters, 3/28/16)
2016        Mar 28, The presidents of Russia and Iran agreed to step up bilateral contacts, including over the Syrian conflict, in which both countries are allies of President Bashar al-Assad.
    (Reuters, 3/28/16)

2016        Mar 30, Syria’s President Bashar al-Assad said that any transitional government should include both the regime and opposition, as UN chief Ban Ki-moon urged greater efforts to tackle the country's refugee crisis.
    (AFP, 3/30/16)
2016        Mar 30, In Syria airstrikes hit near a school and a hospital east of Damascus killing at least 23 people. A drone strike, likely by the coalition, killed Abu al-Haija, a Tunisian commander summoned by IS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi from Iraq.
    (AP, 3/31/16)(AP, 4/3/16)

2016        Mar 31, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad told Russia's RIA news agency that the army of Turkish Pres. Erdogan is fighting in Syria. RIA also reported that Assad said he was ready to hold early presidential elections if the Syrian people wanted it.
    (Reuters, 3/31/16)
2016        Mar 31, Syria, airstrikes in the Deir al-Asafir district southeast of Damascus killed 33 people, mostly women and children.
    (Reuters, 4/1/16)
2016        Mar 31, The United States and its allies staged 17 strikes against Islamic State in their latest round of daily attacks in Iraq and Syria against the militant group.
    (Reuters, 4/1/16)

2016        Mar, Abu Hayjaa Al-Tunsi, a "Tunisian jihadi" and a senior commander with the Daesh group was targeted by a drone missile when driving through northern Syria in order to lead terrorists in the fighting there. His death led to Daesh executing dozens of its own terrorist in search of informants.
    (http://en.alalam.ir/news/1825651)(SFC, 6/6/16, p.A4)

2016        Apr 1, Syrian state news said troops have identified 45 bodies so far in a mass grave found in the city of Palmyra after it was recaptured from Islamic State.
    (Reuters, 4/2/16)
2016        Apr 1, The Syrian government released freelance photographer Patrick Dawes (33), who was captured in 2012.
    (SFC, 4/9/16, p.A2)

2016        Apr 2, Syria's partial cease-fire was unravelling, as fierce fighting between government forces and opposition fighters, including members of the al-Qaida affiliated Nusra Front, erupted outside the country's second largest city of Aleppo. At least 25 pro-government fighters died in clashes south of Aleppo, where the Nusra Front and rebel militias captured a hill overlooking a major highway.
    (AP, 4/2/16)

2016        Apr 3, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the Islamic State has killed 15 of its members in the largest execution of the militant group's security services so far in Syria. The killings followed the arrest a day earlier of 35 members in Raqqa. The members were killed in connection with the assassination of senior Islamic State figure Abu Hija al-Tunisi, who died in an air strike on  March 30.
    (Reuters, 4/3/16)
2016        Apr 3, In Syria several Al-Qaeda-linked Al-Nusra Front members including its spokesman were killed in US-led coalition air strikes. Abu Firas al-Suri (aka Radwan Nammous), his son and at least 20 jihadists of Al-Nusra and Jund al-Aqsa and other fighters from Uzbekistan were killed in strikes on positions in Idlib province.
    (AFP, 4/4/16)(Reuters, 4/6/16)
2016        Apr 3, The United States and its allies conducted two dozen strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 4/4/16)

2016        Apr 4, Syrian troops and allied militiamen pressed on with an offensive against Islamic State militants in central Syria, clashing with the extremists around the town of Qaryatain a day after it was captured by pro-government forces.
    (AP, 4/4/16)
2016        Apr 4, Syria’s state news agency SANA said the Islamic State group has mounted a deadly gas attack against Syrian troops at a besieged eastern airbase, the latest report of the jihadists' use of chemical weapons.
    (AFP, 4/5/16)
2016        Apr 4, An Iranian military official said Iran has sent commandos to Syria as advisers, suggesting it is using its army as well as paramilitary forces to help President Bashar al-Assad's forces in the country's civil war.
    (Reuters, 4/4/16)
2016        Apr 4, The United States and its allies conducted 25 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, focusing on rebel forces near towns that guard the approach to the key Iraqi city of Mosul.
    (Reuters, 4/5/16)

2016        Apr 5, Syrian insurgents shot down a government warplane in the north of the country and shelled a predominantly Kurdish neighborhood in the city of Aleppo. A pregnant woman and three children were among 18 civilians killed when Syrian rebels shelled a Kurdish neighborhood in Aleppo.
    (AP, 4/5/16)(AFP, 4/6/16)
2016        Apr 5, In Syria Rifai Ahmad Taha, a senior Egyptian al-Qaida figure, was killed along with several others in a US drone strike. Before joining al-Qaida, Taha was a top figure in Egypt's notorious militant group Gamaa Islamiya, which massacred 58 foreign tourists in the ancient Egyptian city of Luxor in 1997.
    (AP, 4/8/16)
2016        Apr 5, The United States and its allies conducted 23 strikes against Islamic State in Syria and Iraq.
    (Reuters, 4/6/16)

2016        Apr 6, The Syrian army and its allies launched a major attack on insurgents south of Aleppo, described as the fiercest government assault in the area since an agreement to ease the fighting came into effect in February. Islamic State fighters launched attacks on government-held areas near Damascus overnight.
    (Reuters, 4/6/16)
2016        Apr 6, It was reported that the Panama Papers revealed that Syria’s regime has avoided int’l. sanctions and funded its war effort through three shadowy companies in the Seychelles.
    (SSFC, 4/10/16, p.A7)
2016        Apr 6, The United States and its allies conducted 27 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 4/7/16)

2016        Apr 7, Syrian state television reported that Islamic State fighters have kidnapped 300 cement workers in an area northeast of Damascus where the militants launched an assault against government forces this week.
    (Reuters, 4/7/16)
2016        Apr 7, The United States and its allies conducted 26 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 4/8/16)

2016        Apr 9, A Syrian opposition monitoring group said the Islamic State group has released most of the 300 cement workers it abducted near Damascus after questioning them to find out who were Muslims and killing 4 who were members of the minority Druze sect. The fate of 30 people who were guards at the factory was unknown.
    (AP, 4/9/16)
2016        Apr 9, The US Air Force deployed B-52 bombers to Qatar to join the fight against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, the first time they have been based in the Middle East since the end of the Gulf War in 1991.
    (Reuters, 4/9/16)

2016        Apr 10, Syrian government forces and rebels clashed across the country's north in the latest indication that a monthlong cease-fire may be breaking down, as the Islamic State group seized two villages along the Turkish border from other insurgents. Clashes around Aleppo killed at least 16 pro-regime fighters and 19 members of Al-Qaeda's affiliate and allied rebel groups over the last 24-hours.
    (AP, 4/10/16)(AFP, 4/10/16)

2016        Apr 11, In Syria Islamic State fighters retook the northern town of al-Rai along the border with Turkey from rebels and government forces and rebels clashed across northern and western Syria.
    (AP, 4/11/16)
2016        Apr 11, Iran’s Tasnim news agency reported that 4 soldiers in its regular army were killed in Syria, the, only a week after Tehran announced the deployment of army commandos to help President Bashar al-Assad in the civil war there.
    (Reuters, 4/11/16)
2016        Apr 11, The United States and its allies stages 13 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 4/12/16)

2016        Apr 12, Syrian troops and their allies launched an offensive to retake an important hilltop village south of the city of Aleppo from militants, including al-Qaida's local affiliate, as President Bashar Assad's government prepared for parliamentary elections the following day.
    (AP, 4/12/16)
2016        Apr 12, The Turkish army hit Islamic State targets in northern Syria, in response to cross-border rocket fire that struck a border town in southeastern Turkey for the second day in a row.
    (Reuters, 4/12/16)
2016        Apr 12, Syrian journalist Mohammed Zahir al-Sherqat died from wounds after being shot April 10 in the Turkish city of Gaziantep. The shooting attack was claimed by the Islamic State.
    (SFC, 4/13/16, p.A2)

2016        Apr 13, Syrians in government-controlled areas cast ballots for a new 250-member parliament. Western leaders and members of Syria's opposition have denounced the vote as a sham and a provocation that undermines the Geneva peace talks. Syria's ruling Baath party and its allies won a majority of seats in parliamentary elections across government-held parts of the country.
    (AP, 4/13/16)(AFP, 4/17/16)
2016        Apr 13, Turkey's armed forces launched new artillery strikes on jihadist positions in Syria, after three days of deadly fire on a Turkish border town that has left residents on edge.
    (AFP, 4/13/16)
2016        Apr 13, The U.S.-led coalition staged 21 strikes against the Islamic State militant group, according to the coalition leading the operations in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 4/14/16)

2016        Apr 14, Syria's army backed by Russian warplanes launched an assault north of Aleppo, threatening to block a vital rebel route into the city in fighting that has cast new clouds over Geneva peace talks.
    (Reuters, 4/14/16)

2016        Apr 15, In Syria fierce fighting raged around Aleppo as a surge in violence forced tens of thousands more to flee their homes, overshadowing the latest round of peace talks in Geneva. Syrian government air strikes hit rebel-held areas north of Homs for a second day, forcing authorities to cancel Friday prayers for the first time in six months.
    (AFP, 4/15/16)(Reuters, 4/15/16)

2016        Apr 16, In northern Syria the Islamic State group captured more than a dozen villages and hills during a fresh offensive. IS also clashed with rival insurgent groups near the border with Turkey where they have been on the offensive for days, forcing tens of thousands of residents to flee toward safer areas near Turkey. 22 civilians were killed in an exchange of fire in Aleppo.
    (AP, 4/16/16)(AFP, 4/17/16)

2016        Apr 17, The United States and its allies conducted 26 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 4/17/16)

2016        Apr 18, Syrian rebel groups announced a new battle against government forces, a sign of escalating violence that has undermined a ceasefire deal and threatens to derail UN-led peace talks.
    (Reuters, 4/18/16)
2016        Apr 18, In Turkey rocket projectiles fired from Syria killed 4 Syrians, three of them children, in the Turkish border town of Kilis.
    (AP, 4/18/16)

2016        Apr 19, In Syria bombing by government forces killed 50 people in two towns of Idlib province.
    (Econ, 4/23/16, p.40)

2016        Apr 20, In north-eastern Syria 2 members of the Syrian Kurdish security force, known as the Asayish, were killed after being targeted by government forces in Qamishli.
    (Reuters, 4/20/16)

2016        Apr 21, In Syria at least 40 pro-Syrian government fighters surrendered to Kurdish forces in the city of Qamishli in mostly Kurdish-controlled Hasaka province.
    (Reuters, 4/21/16)

2016        Apr 22, In Syria at least 18 people were killed when airstrikes hit several rebel-held neighborhoods in Aleppo and neighboring Idlib province. Islamic State fighters captured Syrian pilot Azzam Eid after he fell by parachute near the site where his plane crashed east of Damascus.
    (AP, 4/22/16)(AFP, 4/22/16)(Reuters, 4/22/16)
2016        Apr 22, In northeastern Syria regional Kurdish security forces and pro-Syrian government forces declared a ceasefire, calming a three-day outbreak of violence which killed more than 26 people.
    (Reuters, 4/23/16)
2016        Apr 22, The US military acknowledged that its air strikes killed 20 civilians in Iraq and Syria between Sep 10, 2015, and Feb 2, 2016. Six of the strikes were in Iraq and three were in Syria.
    (SFC, 4/23/16, p.A2)

2016        Apr 23, Syrian government strikes hit opposition-held areas near Damascus and in Aleppo. At least 27 civilian deaths were reported in regime bombardment across the country.
    (AP, 4/23/16)(AFP, 4/24/16)
2016        Apr 23, The United States and its allies conducted 28 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 4/24/16)

2016        Apr 24, In Syria regime and rebel bombardment killed 26 civilians in Aleppo despite an increasingly troubled ceasefire.
    (AFP, 4/24/16)
2016        Apr 24, In northeastern Syria, a truce document announced today showed that regional Kurdish security forces will keep territory taken from pro-Syrian government forces during a three-day outbreak of violence, with both sides to release prisoners taken during the clashes.
    (Reuters, 4/24/16)
2016        Apr 24, The United States and its allies conducted 14 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 4/25/16)

2016        Apr 25, In Syria a car bomb on the outskirts of the Sayeda Zeinab district south of Damascus killed at least 6 people, the third bombing attack in the area this year.
    (Reuters, 4/25/16)
2016        Apr 25, Turkey's military said it has destroyed Islamic State's missile launcher in Syria some 20 km from the border town of Kilis which has been repeatedly his by rockets from the border.
    (Reuters, 4/25/16)
2016        Apr 25, President Barack Obama announced the deployment of up to 250 US military personnel to Syria, mostly special operations forces, to assist local troops trying to dislodge Islamic State extremists. He called the move essential to keeping up momentum against the group.
    (AP, 4/25/16)
2016        Apr 25, The United States and its allies targeted Islamic State with 25 strikes in their latest assault against the militant group in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 4/26/16)

2016        Apr 26, In Syria attacks by government forces and rebels killed at least 30 people, including 8 children, in the last 24 hours in Aleppo. 5 Civil Defense workers were killed west of Aleppo by air strikes and a rocket attack on their center.
    (Reuters, 4/26/16)

2016        Apr 27, The US-led military coalition targeted Islamic State in Iraq and Syria with 22 strikes.
    (Reuters, 4/28/16)

2016        Apr 28, In Syria rebel rocket and artillery fire on government-held neighborhoods of Aleppo killed 18 civilians. Regime air strikes on rebel-held districts, including the densely populated Bustan al-Qasr neighborhood, killed 31 civilians as the Syrian army prepared an offensive to retake the city. Monitors and activists say at least 60 people have been killed in airstrikes on Aleppo in the last 24 hours, including at least 27 who were killed when an MSF-supported hospital and nearby buildings were hit.
    (AFP, 4/28/16)(AP, 4/28/16)(SFC, 4/30/16, p.A3)

2016        Apr 29, Syria called local truces near Damascus and in a northern province but no halt to combat on the main battlefield in Aleppo. Crude barrel bombs crashed into residential neighborhoods of Aleppo. At least 17 people were killed in regime bombardment of the city's eastern districts. Rebel groups fired a barrage of rockets on government-controlled western neighborhoods. At least 15 people were killed when rockets struck the Malla Khan mosque in the government held Bab al-Faraj district.
    (Reuters, 4/29/16)(AFP, 4/29/16)(SFC, 4/30/16, p.A3)
2016        Apr 29, The United States and Russia agreed on a "freeze" in fighting along two major fronts in Syria, but not in war-ravaged Aleppo as of midnight.
    (AP, 4/29/16)

2016        Apr 30, In Syria terrified residents fled a new wave of air strikes on rebel-held areas of Aleppo, as a "freeze" in fighting held on two other fronts.
    (AFP, 4/30/16)
2016        Apr 30, In Syria a suicide bomber killed five Kurdish policemen at a checkpoint in the divided northeastern city of Qamishli.
    (AFP, 4/30/16)

2016        May 1, The United States and its allies conducted 25 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 5/2/16)

2016        May 2, Syria's military extended a unilateral cease-fire around Damascus and opposition strongholds in the eastern suburbs of the capital for another 48 hours, as a humanitarian convoy delivered aid to 12,000 families trapped in a government-besieged area in central Syria.
    (AP, 5/2/16)
2016        May 2, The United States and its allies targeted Islamic State on Monday with 29 strikes against the militants in Syrian and Iraq, including the northern city of Mosul under militant control.
    (Reuters, 5/3/16)

2016        May 3, In Syria heavy air strikes throughout the night on the Islamic State group's de facto capital Raqa killed 19 civilians and 10 jihadists. Syrian opposition fighters shelled government-held parts of Aleppo. Battles in the city killed at least 20 people.
    (AFP, 5/3/16)    (AP, 5/3/16)(SFC, 5/4/16, p.A3)

2016        May 4, In Syria at least 22 suspected regime air strikes pounded a key rebel bastion east of Damascus after a local freeze on fighting expired overnight. Rebel forces pressed an offensive against regime troops on the western outskirts of Aleppo.
    (AFP, 5/4/16)
2016        May 4, A truce was announced for Aleppo, Syria, by US officials in agreement with Russia, in an effort to extend a fragile cease-fire to the deeply contested city. The Syrian military said the truce would last only 48 hours.
    (AP, 5/5/16)
2016        May 4, Russia said it has withdrawn around 30 aircraft from Syria, including all of its Su-25 attack planes stationed in the country.
    (Reuters, 5/4/16)
2016        May 4, The United States and its allies conducted 18 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 5/5/16)

2016        May 5, In Syria a car bomb exploded in the main square of a village in Homs province. As people gathered to help the victims, a suicide bomber riding a motorcycle detonated his explosives belt nearby, killing at least 10 people and wounding scores. Air strikes near Sarmada on a camp near the Turkish border killed at least 28 people.
    (AP, 5/5/16)(Reuters, 5/6/16)
2016        May 5, In eastern Syria Islamic State militants captured the main Shaer gas field in the first gain for the ultra hardline jihadists in the Palmyra desert area since they lost the ancient city in March.
    (Reuters, 5/5/16)
2016        May 5, Jordanian border guards said around 64,000 Syrians are stranded at the border with Jordan after intensified violence around Aleppo.
    (AFP, 5/5/16)
2016        May 5, The United States and its allies conducted 24 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 5/6/16)

2016        May 6, In Syria rebels seized a village from government forces near Aleppo overnight. 43 rebels and 30 government forces were reported killed in the battle for Khan Touman, some 15 km (9 miles) southwest of Aleppo. 13 military advisers with the Iranian Revolutionary Guards were killed as rebels seized the village of Khan Touman. 18 others wounded and five to six were captured.
    (Reuters, 5/6/16)(AFP, 5/7/16)(Reuters, 5/9/16)
2016        May 6, The US government said it has suspended millions of dollars in funding to several organizations providing aid for Syria after discovering they were systematically overpaying Turkish companies for basic goods with the collusion of some of their staff.
    (AFP, 5/10/16)

2016        May 7, Syrian state news agency SANA reported that Russia's defense ministry said a "regime of calm" truce in the northern city of Aleppo and parts of Latakia province had been extended "for 72 hours beginning at 1 am on Saturday" (1700 ET on Friday).
    (Reuters, 5/7/16)
2016        May 7, Turkish artillery fired at the Islamic State group across the border in Syria, killing 55 militants and destroying three rocket launchers and three vehicles.
    (AP, 5/8/16)
2016        May 7, The United States and its allies targeted Islamic State in Iraq with 17 air strikes, and hit the militant group with eight air strikes in Syria.
    (Reuters, 5/8/16)

2016        May 8, Syrian warplanes attacked Islamist militants near Aleppo.
    (Reuters, 5/8/16)

2016        May 9, In Syria multiple air raids struck rebel-held areas while shelling hit government-controlled parts of Aleppo, hours before a five-day cease-fire was to expire.
    (AP, 5/9/16)

2016        May 10, In Syria two airstrikes struck the northwestern town of Binnish, killing at least 10 people, wounding many others and knocking out the dome of a mosque. The LCC said the warplanes were Syrian while the Observatory said it wasn't clear if they were Syrian or Russian.
    (AP, 5/10/16)

2016        May 11, Syrian regime forces battled jihadists who cut a key supply route west of ancient Palmyra, after new bombardments hit Aleppo city where a ceasefire is due to expire at midnight.
    (AFP, 5/11/16)

2016        May 12, Syrian government forces battled rebels north of Aleppo as a ceasefire expired in the city itself. Insurgents captured the Alawite village of al-Zara from government control in western Syria and abducted civilians living there.   
    (Reuters, 5/12/16)
2016        May 12, In Syria Lebanon’s top Hezbollah commander Mustafa Badreddine (55) was killed in an explosion in Damascus.
    (AP, 5/13/16)

2016        May 13, Suspected Syrian government airstrikes in the northern city of Idlib killed at least 5 people.
    (AP, 5/13/16)
2016        May 13, Belgium said it will extend its F-16 air strikes against Islamic State jihadists in Iraq into Syria, as it grapples with the aftermath of deadly IS-claimed bomb attacks in Brussels in March.
    (AFP, 5/13/16)
2016        May 13, Turkish fighter jets carried out nine airstrikes against Kurdish rebels in the southeast of the country and northern Iraq. The warplanes reportedly destroyed 98 targets of the outlawed Kurdistan Workers' Party.
    (AP, 5/14/16)
2016        May 13, The United States and its allies targeted Islamic State militants in Iraq with 17 strikes and five in Syria.
    (Reuters, 5/14/16)

2016        May 14, In Syria the Islamic State attacked a hospital in Deir al-Zor and seized territory on the edge of the besieged city still partly controlled by the government. The fighting killed at least 20 members of the Syrian government forces and at least six Islamic State fighters.
    (Reuters, 5/14/16)
2016        May 14, Turkey’s state-run Anadolu Agency reported that Turkish military and US-led coalition forces killed 45 Islamic State militants in shelling and an air strike north of the Syrian city of Aleppo.
    (Reuters, 5/14/16)

2016        May 15, Turkish and US-led coalition forces struck Islamic State targets north of the Syrian city of Aleppo, killing 27 fighters. The United States and its allies conducted 14 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 5/16/16)

2016        May 16, The United States and its allies conducted 12 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 5/17/16)

2016        May 17, World and regional powers meeting in Vienna agreed to try and turn Syria's shaky pause in fighting into a comprehensive cease-fire as a step toward ending the five-year war that left hundreds of thousands dead and fueled the rise of Islamic extremists.
    (AP, 5/17/16)

2016        May 18, In central Syria a regime air strike killed at least 13 members of the same family, including eight children in Rastan.
    (AFP, 5/18/16)
2016        May 18, The United States and its allies staged 17 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 5/19/16)

2016        May 19, Syrian government forces and allied militias made a swift advance into Damascus's rebel-held suburbs, threatening to disrupt a years-long stalemate in the war around the Syrian capital.
    (AP, 5/19/16)
2016        May 19, The United States and its allies conducted 17 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 5/20/16)

2016        May 20, Moscow proposed that Russia and United States, which have been flying separate bombing campaigns in Syria, launch joint air strikes against jihadists in the war-torn country from next week.
    (AFP, 5/20/16)

2016        May 21, In northeastern Syria bombings suspected to have been carried out by the Islamic State group killed at least 8 people hours after a top US commander visited.
    (AFP, 5/22/16)

2016        May 22, In Syria Russian warplanes hit a key rebel supply route to Aleppo in Moscow's first strikes on Syria's battleground second city since a February ceasefire.
    (AFP, 5/22/16)

2016        May 23, In Syria bomb blasts killed scores of people in Jableh and Tartous and wounded many others in the government-controlled territory that hosts Russian military bases. 161 people were killed in attacks by at least five suicide bombers and two devices planted in cars. The Islamic State claimed responsibility for the attacks. Those killed included 43 people at the Jableh National Hospital.
    (Reuters, 5/23/16)(AP, 5/24/16)

2016        May 24, The Syrian Democratic Forces, a Kurdish-Arab alliance, announced the launch of a major assault against the Islamic State group north of the jihadists' Syrian bastion of Raqa.
    (AFP, 5/24/16)
2016        May 24, The United States and its allies staged 17 strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 5/25/16)

2016        May 26, US-backed Syrian fighters (SDF) and Iraqi forces pursued twin assaults against the Islamic State group, but experts warned the battles will be drawn out.
    (AFP, 5/26/16)

2016        May 27, In Syria at least 100,000 people were trapped along the border with Turkey after the Islamic State group swept through rebel territory in Aleppo province. IS fighters captured territory from Syrian rebels near the border and inched closer to a town on a supply route for foreign-backed insurgents fighting the jihadists.
    (AFP, 5/27/16)(Reuters, 5/27/16)
2016        May 27, Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said warplanes from the US-led coalition have pounded the Islamic State group with at least 150 strikes to bolster a major offensive on the jihadists' Syrian stronghold of Raqa. Coalition warplanes dropped leaflets encouraging residents to flee Raqa.
    (AFP, 5/27/16)
2016        May 27, US-led coalition airstrikes and Turkish artillery fire against the Islamic State group in Syria killed 104 militants.
    (AP, 5/28/16)

2016        May 28, In northeastern Syria heavy fighting between the Islamic State group and rebels gripped the town of Marea.
    (AFP, 5/28/16)

2016        May 29, Syrian rebels retook the villages of Kafr Shoush and Braghida from Islamic State militants, expanding their buffer around the rebel-held town of Azaz. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said thousands of civilians have fled an offensive by the IS group against non-jihadist rebels in the north into territory controlled by a US-backed Kurdish-led alliance.
    (AP, 5/29/16)(AFP, 5/29/16)

2016        May 31, In Syria a wave of overnight airstrikes pummeled the northwestern city of Idlib, killing at least 23 people, wounding dozens and trapping several under the rubble of their homes. Russia denied the strikes.
    (AP, 5/31/16)
2016        May 31, In Syria thousands of US-backed fighters opened a major new front, launching an offensive to drive Islamic State out of a swathe of northern Syria it uses as a logistics base, and were reported to be making rapid progress.
    (Reuters, 6/1/16)

2016        Jun 1, In Syria Kurdish-led Syrian fighters launched a new advance on Manbij. The US-led international coalition fighting the Islamic State group said it had conducted 18 air strikes near the strategic town of Manbij in northern Syria over the last 24 hours with at least 15 civilians killed. The strikes destroyed an IS headquarters, six IS-used bridges, communication towers, and eight IS fighting positions, among other targets. The Kurdish militia also launched an offensive to capture the IS-held Tabqa air base.
    (AFP, 6/1/16)(SFC, 6/2/16, p.A2)
2016        Jun 1, The Russian Defense Ministry said that a temporary ceasefire, which it called a "regime of calm", had taken effect for 48 hours in the Damascus suburb of Daraya to allow for the distribution of humanitarian aid to civilians.
    (Reuters, 6/1/16)

2016        Jun 2, Jordan's border guards killed two suspected infiltrators trying to enter the kingdom from Syria.
    (AP, 6/3/16)

2016        Jun 3, Syrian regime air strikes killed dozens of civilians in Aleppo and nearby areas as the UN Security Council prepared to discuss emergency aid drops to besieged areas. Heavy Russian air strikes hit Islamic State-held territory in eastern areas of Syria's Hama province, near the boundary of Raqqa province.
    (AFP, 6/3/16)(Reuters, 6/3/16)

2016        Jun 4, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the Syrian army has crossed the boundary of Raqqa province, home to the de facto capital of Islamic State.
    (Reuters, 6/4/16)
2016        Jun 4, Russian news agencies reported that more than 40 people have been killed and around a hundred injured by Al Nusra militants shelling in the Syrian city of Aleppo.
    (Reuters, 6/4/16)
2016        Jun 4, Turkey’s military said cross-border shelling by the Turkish army and air strikes by US-led coalition aircraft have killed 14 Islamic State militants in Syria.
    (AP, 6/4/16)
2016        Jun 4, The United States and its allies conducted a total of 23 military strikes against Islamic State in Syria and Iraq.
    (Reuters, 6/5/16)
2016        Jun 4, Top US Navy Adm. John Richardson said the aircraft carrier USS Harry S. Truman has begun launching airstrikes against the Islamic State group from the Mediterranean Sea.
    (AP, 6/4/16)

2016        Jun 5, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said dozens of Syrian regime strikes on Aleppo killed at least 16 civilians. Nearly 40 strikes hit rebel-held areas in and around Aleppo city in some of the heaviest recent raids by Russian and Syrian government war-planes.
    (AFP, 6/5/16)(Reuters, 6/5/16)
2016        Jun 5, A top Syrian Kurdish commander died. Abu Layla, who commanded a brigade inside the predominantly-Kurdish Syrian Democratic Forces, was hit by IS sniper fire on the outskirts of Manbij, several days earlier during a US-backed campaign to unseat the Islamic State group from its de-facto Syrian capital, Raqqa.
    (AP, 6/5/16)

2016        Jun 6, Syrian regime troops supported by Russia and US-backed fighters pressed twin offensives against the Islamic State group as pressure built on the jihadists' northern strongholds in the war-torn country. 17 civilians, including 8 children, were killed in air strikes on Al-Shaara, an IS-held town in eastern Deir Ezzor province.
    (AFP, 6/6/16)
2016        Jun 6, In Syria Hadiyeh al-Abbas (58), a woman who is a member of President Bashar Assad's Baath party, was chosen as the new parliament speaker, becoming the first woman to ever hold the post.
    (AP, 6/6/16)
2016        Jun 6, Turkey’s state-run Anadolu news agency reported that shelling by Turkey's military and attacks by US-led coalition aircraft have killed 7 Islamic State militants in Syria.
    (Reuters, 6/6/16)

2016        Jun 7, In northern Syria  thousands of civilians fled Mambij, a key town along the Islamic State group's supply lifeline, as US-backed fighters closed in from three sides. Syrian government troops backed by Russian air power moved to within 25 km of Tabqa, an Islamic State-held town in Raqqa province.
    (AFP, 6/7/16)(Reuters, 6/7/16)

2016        Jun 8, In Syria airstrikes on rebel-held districts of Aleppo, including one that struck near a hospital, killed 15 civilians and wounded many others. Rebels backed by Islamist groups launched simultaneous attacks from both Marea and Azaz, squeezing IS jihadists out of the villages of Kafr Kalbin and Kaljibrin and reopening the road.
    (AP, 6/8/16)(AFP, 6/8/16)
2016        Jun 8, In Syria US-led coalition airstrikes and Turkish artillery fire against Islamic State group targets reportedly killed 18 militants.
    (AP, 6/9/16)
2016        Jun 8, RIA news agency, citing the Russian coordination center in Syria, reported that Russia's Defense Ministry has spotted the movement of over 160 Nusra Front fighters from Turkey into Syria to reinforce "terrorists" around the city of Aleppo.
    (Reuters, 6/8/16)

2016        Jun 9, In northern Syria US-backed fighters closed all major roads leading to Manbij, a stronghold of the Islamic State group, and surrounded it from three sides.
    (AP, 6/9/16)
2016        Jun 9, In France Rifaat al-Assad (78), Syrian President Bashar al-Assad's uncle, was charged with corruption. He was suspected of using ill-gotten gains to build a real estate empire in France. He had commanded Syria's notorious internal security forces in the 1970s and early 1980s.
    (AFP, 6/28/16)

2016        Jun 10, Syria's regime bombarded Daraya, a rebel-held town outside Damascus, preventing besieged residents from receiving food aid after its first such delivery in years. US-backed forces seized control of the last route into the IS-held city of Manbij, completing their encirclement of the main target in a major advance against the militants.
    (AFP, 6/10/16)(Reuters, 6/10/16)

2016        Jun 11, In Syria suicide and car bomb blasts struck the Damascus suburb of Sayyidah Zaynab near the Sayeda Zeinab shrine, the country’s holiest Shi'ite Muslim shrine. At least 20 people were reported killed. The Islamic State claimed responsibility. Sayyidah Zeinab was the daughter of the first Shiite imam, Ali, and granddaughter of the Prophet Muhammad.
    (Reuters, 6/11/16)(SSFC, 6/12/16, p.A5)
2016        Jun 11, In northern Syria  a siege by US-backed Kurdish and Arab forces of the key jihadist-held city of Manbij left tens of thousands of civilians trapped. At least 159 IS fighters and 22 SDF troops were reported killed as well as 37 civilians, most of the last group in coalition air raids, since the alliance launched its Manbij offensive on May 31.
    (AFP, 6/11/16)

2016        Jun 12, In Syria at least 12 people were killed when several airstrikes struck the insurgent-held city of Idlib. Hundreds of civilians escaped the besieged jihadist bastion of Manbij helped by a US-backed Kurdish-Arab alliance surrounding the town.
    (AP, 6/12/16)(AFP, 6/12/16)

2016        Jun 15, In Syria at least 70 fighters were reported killed in less than 24 hours of fierce clashes between pro-regime forces, jihadists and rebels in Aleppo province.
    (AFP, 6/15/16)

2016        Jun 16, The Russian Defense Ministry said a 48-hour cessation of hostilities has been declared in the divided northern Syrian city of Aleppo and activists reported a relative calm in the city. Barrels bombs hit Aleppo just hours after a temporary truce came into effect in the war-torn city. Russian warplanes struck at rebels battling Islamic State militants, including forces backed by the United States, in southern Syria.
    (AP, 6/16/16)(AFP, 6/16/16)(Reuters, 6/17/16)
2016        Jun 16, United Nations investigators said the Islamic State is committing genocide against the Yazidis in Syria and Iraq to destroy the religious community of 400,000 people through killings, sexual slavery and other crimes.
    (Reuters, 6/16/16)

2016        Jun 17, In Syria the Islamic State carried out two suicide attacks and five car bombings in the southwestern suburbs of Manbij. 6 members of the same family were killed when they were targeted by jihadists while fleeing.
    (AFP, 6/18/16)
2016        Jun 17, It was reported that 51 US State Department diplomats have signed an internal memo critical of US policy in Syria, calling for military strikes against President Bashar al-Assad's government to stop its persistent violations of a civil war ceasefire.
    (Reuters, 6/17/16)

2016        Jun 18, In Syria at least 7 people died in rebel shelling of a neighborhood of Aleppo held by the Kurdish YPG militia. Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said a four-day offensive by different militant groups, including the al-Qaida-affiliated Nusra Front, killed 86 troops and pro-government gunmen, including 25 members of Lebanon's Hezbollah group. Militants now controlled the villages of Zeitan and Khalsa, south of Aleppo city.
    (Reuters, 6/18/16)(AP, 6/18/16)
2016        Jun 18, In Syria US-led coalition jets and Turkish artillery killed 13 Islamic State militants.
    (Reuters, 6/18/16)
2016        Jun 18, At least 8 Syrian refugees, including four children were allegedly shot dead by border guards while trying to cross the frontier into Turkey’s Hatay province.
    (AP, 6/19/16)

2016        Jun 19, Syrian media reported that a government jet bomber crashed just after take-off from Hama airport after it encountered a technical problem.
    (Reuters, 6/19/16)
2016        Jun 19, In Syria a suicide blast targeted the entrance to a park in Qamishli, which is shared between government and Kurdish forces, killing three people, an hour after a memorial was held there for victims of the 1915 Armenian genocide.
    (AP, 6/19/16)
2016        Jun 19, Russia said it had reached an agreement with the United States to improve coordination between their military operations in Syria, where they are backing opposing sides of a civil war and launching air strikes.
    (Reuters, 6/19/16)

2016        Jun 21, Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said government forces have lost all the territory they gained in Raqqa province since launching their offensive on June 2. It also said 40 troops were killed over the past two days, raising to 93 the number of troops killed since the offensive began. It added that 126 IS militants have been killed in the area so far, including 21 since June 19.
    (AP, 6/21/16)
2016        Jun 21, A car bomb exploded on the Syrian-Jordanian border early today, killing 6 Jordanian border guards. The blast went off close to a makeshift tent encampment where tens of thousands of Syrian refugees are stranded, awaiting entry to Jordan. Sonn after Jordan's army chief of staff announced that the country's northern and northeastern borders with Syria were closed military zones.
    (AP, 6/21/16)(Reuters, 6/21/16)
2016        Jun 21, A rescue plane from a British base on the Antarctic peninsula landed at the South Pole to evacuate sick workers from the remote US Amundson-Scott science station. The two sick workers were transported to Chile.
    (AP, 6/22/16)(SFC, 6/23/16, p.A3)

2016        Jun 22, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad named electricity minister Imad Khamis (54) as the new prime minister and tasked him with forming a cabinet.
    (AFP, 6/22/16)

2016        Jun 23, In Syria US-backed forces fought Islamic State militants inside Manbij for the first time since they laid siege to the militant stronghold near the Turkish border.
    (Reuters, 6/23/16)

2016        Jun 25, Syrian and Russian warplanes pounded rebel-held areas of divided city Aleppo as government forces closed in on the rebels' sole remaining supply line.
    (AfP, 6/25/16)
2016        Jun 25, A Kurdish official and opposition activists said hundreds of Kurds fleeing villages controlled by the Islamic State group in northern Syria have come under fire that killed and wounded several of them, amid mass abductions by the extremist group. Over the past three weeks some 900 Kurdish civilians have been abducted in Aleppo province. At least 26 were reported killed for refusing to follow Islamic State orders.
    (AP, 6/25/16)(SFC, 6/25/16, p.A2)

2016        Jun 26, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least 82 people including 58 civilians were killed in Russian and regime air strikes on an Islamic State group-held region of Al-Quriyah, southeast of Deir Ezzor city.
    (AFP, 6/26/16)

2016        Jun 28, In Syria the US-led coalition carried out eight air strikes near Albu Kamal and five near Al-Qaim, on the Iraqi side. The New Syrian Army (NSA) advanced overnight on IS territory near the Albu Kamal border crossing and adjacent town, but IS recaptured it by the following afternoon.
    (AFP, 6/29/16)
2016        Jun 28, A Turkish official said military rules of engagement have been adjusted to allow NATO allies to carry out more patrol flights along its border with northern Syria. NATO was told about the move around three weeks ago.
    (Reuters, 6/28/16)

2016        Jun 29, In Syria a joint convoy of UN, the Red Cross and Syrian Red Crescent trucks carrying medical and food aid entered two blockaded towns near Damascus.
    (AP, 6/29/16)
2016        Jun 29, In Syria a car bomb killed at least 10 people in Tal Abyad town, held by US-backed Kurdish-led forces, near the Turkish border. Fighters from the New Syrian Army returned to their base in Tanf having lost 4 fighters and four vehicles in a failed effort to capture Boukamal, an IS border crossing between Iraq and Syria.
    (AFP, 6/29/16)(SFC, 7/4/16, p.A4)

2016        Jun 30, Doctors Without Borders said tens of thousands of Syrians are stranded on the Jordanian border and face starvation and dehydration.
    (SFC, 7/1/16, p.A2)

2016        Jul 1, A Syrian warplane crashed northeast of Damascus and its pilot was captured by Jaish al-Islam rebels in Jeiroud.
    (Reuters, 7/1/16)(AP, 7/2/16)

2016        Jul 2, In Syria government airstrikes killed 43 people in a rebel-held area where militants had captured and killed a government fighter pilot. 7 medical personnel were among those killed in the town of Jeiroud (Jayrud).
    (AP, 7/2/16)(AFP, 7/2/16)(AFP, 7/3/16)
2016        Jul 2, Syria's al Qaeda-linked Nusra Front abducted Mohammad al Ghabi, the commander of the Western-backed Jaish al-Tahrir brigade, and a number of his aides in a house raid in Kfr Nubl in Idlib province. Jaish al Tahrir has about 4,000 well trained fighters.
    (Reu