Timeline Togo

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  A West African nation and member of ECOWAS.
 (SFC, 5/8/96, p.A-18)

1885        May 19, German chancellor Bismarck took possession of Cameroon & Togoland.
    (MC, 5/19/02)

1959        May, Sylvanus Olympio led a push for Togo's complete independence.

1960        Apr 27, Togo, a UN Trust territory under French administration, gained independence. Sylvanus Olympio became the 1st chief of state.
    (PC, 1992, p.973)(EWH, 1st ed., p.1170)

1963        Jan 13, Togo’s first president, Sylvanus Olympio, was killed by a military junta led by Gngassigbe Eyadema (29). Eyadama suspended the constitution and instituted direct military rule. Nicholas Grunitzky succeeded Olympio. Gnassingbe went on to become the country's military dictator, ruling for nearly four decades during which time he celebrated the day of Olympio's assassination as a national holiday.
    (SFC, 6/25/98, p.A12)(EWH, 1st ed., p.1172)(AP, 3/3/10)

1967        Togo military leader Gnassingbe Eyadema (d.2005) began ruling the country.
    (AP, 9/15/11)

1975        Feb 28, The EU signed another trade deal in Lome, Togo, to keep markets open to former European colonies in Africa, the Caribbean and Pacific Islands (ACP).
    (Econ, 5/28/05, p.78)(http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1975/index_en.htm)

1975        May 25, ECOWAS Treaty1 was signed. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) was formed in Nigeria with 15 members that included: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo.
    (www.sec.ecowas.int/sitecedeao/english/achievements.htm)

1991-93    A democracy movement was suppressed, strikes ruined the economy and the infrastructure deteriorated.
    (SFC, 6/25/97, p.A8)

1993        Pres. Gnassinghe Eyadema conducted an election that was so riddled with fraud that the opposition refused to compete.
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A22)

1993        European donors suspended most aid to Togo.
    (Econ, 2/12/05, p.48)

1994        Legislative elections were marked by army violence and intimidation.
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A22)

1996        Dec 10, The US refused to provide aid to Togo because of endemic corruption and repression but France has resumed a major aid program.
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A22)

1997        Aug 22, Singer King Mensah Papavi lived in Paris and was hailed as the best African singer of 1997. He was backed by his girlfriend Tetia Oyourou of the Ivory Coast.
    (SFC, 8/22/97, p.A1,12)

1998        Jun 21, Elections were held in Togo. When returns showed Pres. Eyadama trailing one of his generals took over the ballot counting. Soldiers killed hundreds. Vote counting stopped, and Eyadema was declared winner.
    (SFC, 6/25/98, p.A12)(SFC, 7/24/99, p.C1)(AP, 6/1/03)

1998        Jun 24, In Togo thousands protested the declared victory of Pres. Gngassigbe Eyadema, who has ruled over the last 31 years. EU observers declared that the electoral process was flawed.
    (SFC, 6/25/98, p.A12)

1998        Jun 26, In the Ivory Coast Alioune Blondin Beye, a diplomat from Mali, crashed in a small plane near Abidjan. He had just met with Togo Pres. Gnassigbe Eyadema to support peace talks in Angola. Three other passengers were Koffi Adjovi of Togo, journalist Moktar Gueye of Senegal, and Baendegar Dessandre of Chad.
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, p.A18)

1999        Mar, Opposition parties boycotted parliamentary elections. The Union of Forces for Change was led by the exiled main rival, Gilchrist Olympio.
    (SFC, 7/24/99, p.C1)(SFC, 7/30/99, p.D3)

1999        Jul 29, All opposition parties signed an agreement "to rise above the past and turn toward the future." The agreement noted the decision of Pres. Eyadema not to seek another term or to rerun the March elections.
    (SFC, 7/30/99, p.D3)

2000        Mar, Pres. Blaise Compaore of Burkina Faso and Gnassinghe Eyadema of Togo were reported to have helped Jonas Savimbi of UNITA obtain arms and fuel in exchange for diamonds.
    (SFC, 4/19/00, p.A12)

2000        Jul 10, In Togo UN Sec. Gen. Kofi Annan opened a summit conference of the Organization of African Unity.
    (SFC, 7/11/00, p.A12)

2000        Jul 12, In Togo 36 African heads of state signed a draft treaty seen as a step toward an African Union.
    (SFC, 7/13/00, p.C4)

2002        Oct 27, Togo held parliamentary elections that were boycotted by major opposition parties but contested by 14 smaller groups.
    (AP, 10/27/02)

2003        Jan 13, Togo’s Pres. Gnassingbe Eyadema, celebrated 36 years in power Monday with a military parade, a display derided by opposition groups as "a sheer waste of time."
    (AP, 1/13/03)

2003        Jun 1, Togo's Pres. Gnassingbe Eyadema, Africa's longest reigning ruler, faced elections. Togo's per capita income fell from $600 in the 1980s to less than $300 in 2003.
    (AP, 6/1/03)

2003        Jun 3, In Togo security forces arrested opposition leaders and beat their followers, moving out in force to quell protests of an election the military ruler claimed to be winning.
    (AP, 6/3/03)

2003        Jun 4,Togo President Gen. Gnassingbe Eyadema, was declared winner of questioned presidential elections.
    (AP, 6/4/03)

2004        Sep 15, Eight French speaking African countries began retiring over 1 billion in decaying currency with new CFA francs. Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal and Togo had until Dec 31 to turn in old bills for new ones.
    (SFC, 9/15/04, p.C8)

2004        Nov 20, In Togo at least 13 people died and others were injured in a crush at a demonstration to welcome an improvement in relations with the EU.
    (Reuters, 11/20/04)

2005        Feb 5, Togo’s Pres. Gnassingbe Eyadema (69) died of a heart attack. The military quickly announced that his son would replaced him as head of state. The constitution called for the speaker of parliament to succeed the president in the event of his death.
    (SSFC, 2/6/05, p.A16)

2005        Feb 6, The African Union accused military commanders in Togo of taking advantage of the death of the country's longtime leader to stage a coup and raised the possibility that its 53 members will not recognize the West African nation's new government.
    (AP, 2/6/05)

2005        Feb 7, Faure Gnassingbe was sworn in as president of Togo, two days after the death of his father.
    (AP, 2/7/05)

2005        Feb 8, In Lome, Togo, a strike called by opposition parties shut down the capital’s main market and other businesses.
    (AP, 2/8/05)

2005        Feb 9, Faure Gnassingbe, Togo's new president, addressed the nation for the first time since succeeding his father. He offered talks with the exiled opposition and promised general elections as soon as possible.
    (AP, 2/9/05)

2005        Feb 10, Togo turned away a plane carrying Nigerian peacemakers, drawing threats of sanctions and accusations from Nigeria that it was blocking efforts to resolve a crisis widely condemned as a military coup.
    (Reuters, 2/11/05)

2005        Feb 12, In Togo thousands of demonstrators clashed with riot police in the capital for a 2nd day, protesting against the recent army-appointed president. 3 people were reportedly killed and dozens wounded when police fired at demonstrators.
    (AP, 2/12/05)

2005        Feb 14, Togo police in riot gear faced off with crowds who blocked roads and intimidated residents during a general strike to protest the army's installation of Faure Gnassingbe to succeed his late father as president.
    (AP, 2/14/05)

2005        Feb 21, Togo Lawmakers amended the constitution to allow for elections within 60 days, but left the West African nation's military-appointed ruler in power in the interim despite intensifying pressure at home and abroad.
    (AP, 2/21/05)

2005        Feb 25, In Togo Faure Gnassingbe, whose predecessor — his father — had been Africa's longest-serving leader, stepped down as a result of almost unprecedented African resolve against an old-style coup d'etat.
    (AP, 2/26/05)

2005        Feb 26, Togo’s Congress named deputy speaker Bonfoh Abbass as interim president until nationwide elections can be held in the coming months.
    (AP, 2/27/05)

2005        Feb 27, Togo demonstrators protested against the new president, lighting flaming barricades in the capital's streets and throwing rocks at riot police who fired tear gas to keep crowds from moving toward government buildings. They claimed the position should have gone to the parliament speaker, a ruling-party loyalist, who was fired after he refused to return to the country in the early days of the crisis.
    (AP, 2/27/05)

2005        Apr 24, Voters lined up across Togo to choose a new president, hoping to establish democracy after the tiny West African nation was thrown into months of political turmoil by the death of Africa's longest-serving ruler.
    (AP, 4/24/05)

2005        Apr 26, Togo’s ballot results showed Faure Gnassingbe, the son of Togo's longtime dictator, won 60 percent of the vote. Opposition supporters upset by the results built flaming barricades in the capital and threw stones at passing cars.
    (AP, 4/26/05)

2005        Apr 27, Opposition supporters protesting the presidential election victory by the son of Togo's longtime dictator threw Molotov cocktails and rocks during street clashes with security forces in the capital, leaving at least six people dead and some foreign embassies damaged.
    (AP, 4/27/05)

2005        May 19, The leaders of Togo's bitterly divided ruling and opposition parties, meeting in Nigeria, failed to agree on a power-sharing deal to end a bloody post-election crisis.
    (AFP, 5/20/05)

2005        Sep 26, The UN high commissioner for human rights said at least 400 and as many as 500 people were killed in political violence in Togo since the Feb 5 death of Pres. Gnassingbe Eyadema, and security forces were mostly to blame.
    (AP, 9/27/05)

2006        Sep 16, Togo's Pres. Faure Gnassingbe named Yawovi Agboyibo (63), an opposition party leader, as prime minister, bringing the nation one step closer to long-delayed parliamentary elections.
    (AP, 9/17/06)

2006        Dec 28, Togo became one of few African countries to legalize abortion if the pregnancy is the result of rape or an incestuous relationship.
    (Reuters, 12/28/06)

2007        Feb 8, Benin, Nigeria, and Togo formed a new regional body aimed at fast-tracking the integration of their economies. The body, known as the Co-Prosperity Alliance Zone (COPAZ), was formally inaugurated following a mini-summit of Nigeria’s President Olusegun Obasanjo, Benin’s President Boni Yayi and Togo’s President Faure Gnassingbe.
    (AFP, 2/8/07)

2007        Jun 27, Officials said independent tests carried out in Italy have confirmed the presence for the first time of the deadly H5N1 strain of bird flu in poultry from Togo. Several thousand poultry birds have been found dead in Togo recently, most of them in the past week on the one farm in Sigbehoue.
    (AFP, 6/27/07)

2007        Aug 11, Togo national television said 3 new cases of the deadly H5N1 strain of bird flu have been detected in poultry on farms in Sigbehoue, 45 kilometers east of the capital.
    (AFP, 8/11/07)

2007        Sep 21, The Red Cross warned that a massive aid effort is needed to cope with floods in 18 countries across Africa that have already affected at least 1.5 million people and killed at least 270 in Ghana, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Togo, Uganda and other countries.
    (AFP, 9/21/07)

2007        Oct 14, Togolese voted in legislative elections that no opposition members boycotted for the first time in nearly a decade, a hopeful sign for democracy in this West African nation that has been ruled by one family for 40 years.
    (AP, 10/15/07)

2008        Sep 5, Togo’s PM Komla Mally unexpectedly resigned after less than a year in office. He had been accused of lacking initiative and of being ineffective.
    (SFC, 9/7/08, p.A3)

2008        Sep 9, Togo’s Health Ministry said an outbreak of bird flu has been confirmed for the first time since last year.
    (AP, 9/9/08)

2009        Jan 15, Togo agreed to extradite to the US Solano Cortez Jorge, an alleged druglord from Colombia, who was arrested trying to smuggle hundreds of pounds (kilograms) of cocaine through this West African nation last year.
    (AP, 1/16/09)

2009        Feb 27, The UN Children's Fund said 53 million children are being targeted by a mass immunization drive against polio in Benin, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Togo. Some 844 polio cases were reported in the 8 countries in 2008, 95% of them in Nigeria.
    (AFP, 2/27/09)

2009        Apr, In Togo former defense minister Kpatcha Gnassingbe was arrested for being the alleged mastermind of a coup plot against his half-brother. His house was raided by elite troops in an operation that led to a bloody gunfight. In 2011 the two half-brothers of President Faure Gnassingbe and 30 others appeared in court over the alleged coup plot. On Sep 15 a Togo court sentenced former defense minister Kpatcha Gnassingbe, Gen. Assani Tidjani and Abi Atti to 20 years each for their role in the plot.
    (AFP, 8/30/11)(AP, 9/15/11)

2010        Jan 8, In Angola hooded gunmen sprayed the Togo soccer team’s bus with gunfire as it traveled through the restive northern Cabinda enclave. The bus driver was killed and 7 others were injured. The attack was claimed by the separatist Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC), which has been fighting for decades for the independence of the oil-rich territory. The next day media officer Stanislas Ocloo and assistant coach Amalete Abalo died from their wounds. Virgilio Santos, an official with the African Nations Cup local organizing committee COCAN, said teams had been told explicitly not to travel to the tournament by road.
    (Reuters, 1/9/10)

2010        Jan 9, Togo's national soccer team, devastated by a shooting attack on its bus in Angola that killed at least 3 and left 8 gravely injured, withdrew from the African Cup of Nations.
    (AP, 1/9/10)

2010        Jan 11, Angola said it had arrested two people suspected of taking part in an attack on a bus carrying the Togo national soccer team to the African Nations Cup in which two delegation members were killed.
    (Reuters, 1/11/10)

2010        Mar 4, Togo held presidential elections. Jean-Pierre Fabre (57), a deputy in the National Assembly and the top opposition candidate, said that this time around the people will not let the ruling party steal the election. Provisional results on March 6 indicated that Gnassingbe won 1.2 million votes, representing 60.9% of the roughly 2 million votes cast.
    (AP, 3/4/10)(AP, 3/7/10)

2010        Mar 7, Togo's top opposition party said they have proof that the ruling party committed fraud to win the country's contentious presidential election and that they will show their evidence in court.
    (AP, 3/7/10)

2010        Mar 8, In Togo security forces blocked off three roads leading to the opposition party headquarters, a day after the group had staged protests claiming presidential elections last week were rigged to favor the son of the country's longtime dictator.
    (AP, 3/8/10)

2010        Mar 20, In Togo thousands of opposition demonstrators took to the streets in the West African nation to protest presidential election results.
    (AP, 3/20/10)

2010        Mar 26, Togo's government and the opposition coalition signed a temporary truce committing both sides to peace, law and order following opposition protests against presidential election results.
    (AP, 3/27/10)

2010        Apr 10, In Togo more than 6,000 opposition demonstrators took to the streets in the West African nation to protest the March presidential election results.
    (AP, 4/10/10)

2010        May 26, A UN official said some 3,200 Ghanaians fleeing ethnic strife have crossed into Togo in recent days.
    (AP, 5/26/10)

2010        Sep 20, In New Jersey a woman from Togo was been sentenced to 27 years in prison after being convicted of running a human smuggling operation and forcing women to work at New Jersey hair braiding salons. Akouavi Afolabi ran a scheme to bring at least 20 girls and women ages 10 to 19 from West Africa to the US on fraudulent visas. Victims were made to work at the salons for no pay. Afolabi was also ordered to pay restitution totaling $3.9 million. Her ex-husband and son had already pleaded guilty. Her son received a 55-month prison term. Her ex-husband was sentenced to 24 years.
    (AP, 9/21/10)

2010        Oct 29, Togo’s government said flooding has killed 21 people and affected more than 82,000 in recent months and that aid was needed.
    (AFP, 10/29/10)

2010        Dec 14, The IMF said Togo's foreign debt will be slashed more than 80% after the African nation took steps to recover from economic crisis.
    (AP, 12/14/10)

2010        Dec 29, An Angolan court sentenced Jean Antuan Pwaty (42) a Congolese citizen, to 24 years in prison following the Jan 8 attack on Togo's national soccer team that killed two people and left eight others wounded including a goalkeeper. Pwaty was convicted of murder, armed rebellion and attempted murder.
    (AP, 12/30/10)

2010        Dec, The Paris Club decided to cancel $203 million in debt to Togo. The informal group of 19 creditor countries included the world's most industrialized nations.
    (AP, 5/12/11)

2011        May 6, In Togo 26 people died after their bus crashed. The victims were mainly merchants from Burkina Faso who were traveling to the Togolese capital for business.
    (AP, 5/6/11)

2011        May 8, In Togo seven boats capsized in a storm on lake Togo, leaving at least 36 people dead.
    (AFP, 5/9/11)

2011        May 11, France canceled all of Togo's debt, amounting to 101.1 million euros, in a bid to encourage the West African nation to pursue economic reforms.
    (AFP, 5/12/11)

2011        Jul 21, Eugene Koffi Adoboli (76), Togo’s former prime minister (1998-2000) was sentenced to five years in prison in absentia for allegedly embezzling some 1.2 million euros of the budget allocated for the construction of villas in the capital Lome in 1999. Adoboli, who has lived in Switzerland since 2002, strongly denied the accusations. Two other people were also sentenced in absentia over the allegations.
    (AFP, 7/27/11)(http://tinyurl.com/3wxoron)

2011        Dec 8, Togo authorities temporarily shut down the country's two public universities after security forces fired teargas to break up student protests over a new financial aid policy. The government last month introduced a new policy awarding payouts only to brilliant students instead of all scholars as was in the past.
    (AFP, 12/9/11)

2012        Feb 2, Togo official Lt. Col. Yark Damehane said authorities are holding more than 150 Sri Lankan refugees who entered the West African nation en route to Canada. Damehane said most of the group arrived in Togo in 2011 and overstayed their one-week tourist visas.
    (AP, 2/2/12)

2012        Apr 3, Togo's President Faure Gnassingbe received the first part of a report by Togo's Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission, charged with investigating political violence between 1958 and 2005. Gnassingbe begged for pardon from victims of political violence committed in the country between 1958 and 2005, part of which covered the period his father ruled (1967-2005).
    (AFP, 4/3/12)

2012        May 1, In Togo a Singapore-managed product tanker with valuable gasoline cargo was reported missing and suspected to have been hijacked by pirates while at anchor off Lome.
    (AFP, 5/1/12)

2012        Jun 6, In Togo Moise Lida Kouassi, the former defense minister of Ivory Coast's disgraced ex-president Laurent Gbagbo, was arrested. He was accused of trying to destabilize the new Ivorian regime.
    (AFP, 6/6/12)

2012        Jun 13, Togo security forces broke up a demonstration to protest changes to the electoral law with tear gas. The opposition claimed 119 people were wounded over the two days amid government "repression."
    (AFP, 6/14/12)

2012        Jun 17, Togolese authorities released three protest leaders, including the coordinator of Let's Save Togo.
    (AFP, 6/19/12)

2012        Jun 19, Togolese authorities detained former prime minister and opposition figure Agbeyome Kodjo in the wake of protests last week. He was released later in the day.
    (AFP, 6/19/12)

2012        Jul 2, In Togo Atayi Ayi, a reporter for the daily Forum de la Semaine, was taking photographs of a protest in the capital Lome when he was attacked by two groups of unidentified demonstrators.
    (AFP, 7/7/12)

2012        Jul 11, Togo’s PM Gilbert Houngbo resigned.
    (AFP, 7/22/12)

2012        Jul 19, Togo’s President Faure Gnassingbe named his commerce minister, Kwesi Ahoomey-Zunu, to lead the new government.
    (AFP, 7/22/12)

2012        Jul 21, In Togo several thousands anti-government demonstrators rallied in the capital to protest what they say is a crackdown on the opposition movement.
    (AFP, 7/22/12)

2012        Aug 21, Togolese authorities fired tear gas to disperse a protest by several thousand people in the capital Lome. This was the first of three days of demonstrations planned by Let's Save Togo, a coalition of opposition and civil society groups. A week earlier Togo's government banned street demonstrations in commercial centers.
    (AFP, 8/21/12)

2012        Aug 22, Togolese security forces clashed with protesters in the capital Lome for a second straight day, with officers firing tear gas on demonstrators who responded by throwing rocks and burning tires.
    (AFP, 8/22/12)

2012        Aug 25, In Togo thousands of protesters marched without incident in the capital Lome after two days of rallies earlier in the week that saw clashes between demonstrators and police.
    (AFP, 8/25/12)

2012        Aug 26, In Togo women in the civil rights group "Let's Save Togo" said they will have a week long sex strike to demand the resignation of President Faure Gnassingbé.
    (AFP, 8/26/12)

2012        Aug 28, Pirates attacked a Greek oil tanker off the coast of Togo, taking control of its bridge and kidnapping 24 Russian sailors before escaping amid an exchange of gunfire with a naval patrol boat.
    (AP, 8/28/12)(SFC, 8/29/12, p.A2)

2012        Togo’s population was about 6 million.
    (AFP, 7/7/12)

2013        Apr 10, Togolese trade unions started a three-day protest. The unions are under the umbrella of the "Togolese Workers Synergy" or " Synergie des Travailleurs Togolais.
    (AP, 4/11/13)

2013        Apr 11, In Togo over 20,000 school children from primary, secondary and high schools marched in the capital, Lome, in support of teachers who were on strike to seek better working conditions.
    (AP, 4/11/13)

2013        Apr 15, The Togolese government closed all public and private primary and secondary schools in the capital, Lome, following protests that rocked the tiny West Africa nation's education system last week. One student was fatally shot by security forces in the town of Dapaong.
    (AP, 4/15/13)

2013        May 13, In Togo opposition activists protested the death of one of their leaders in state custody. Authorities said Kodjo Yakanou suffered a heart attack in jail, but his supporters maintain he was denied access to adequate medical care. He was among the opposition supporters detained for months in questioning with the January burning of two central markets.
    (AP, 5/13/13)

2013        May 23, Togo police fired tear gas to disperse protesters in the latest confrontation between the ruling party and the increasingly active opposition. Demonstrators were gathering to protest the death of an opposition member, who died in jail.
    (AP, 5/23/13)

2013        Jul 16, Pirates looted a chemical tanker and injured some of its crew off the coast of Togo. Gunmen in speedboats boarded the Marshall Islands-flagged MT Ocean Centurion and grabbed money and possessions of the ship and its crew. Togo detained Captain Sunil James and a crew member known only as Vijayan on charges of aiding the pirates.
    (Reuters, 7/18/13)(AFP, 12/19/13)

2013        Jul 25, Togo began voting in twice-delayed legislative elections in a test of whether mounting discontent with the West African nation's long-ruling family dynasty will translate into electoral gains for the opposition.
    (AP, 7/25/13)

2013        Jul 28, Togo’s electoral commission said President Faure Gnassingbe's Union for the Republic party has won 62 of 91 seats, up from 50 of the legislature's 81 seats in 2007.
    (AP, 7/28/13)

2013        Aug 7, Togo’s environment minister said Emile N'Bouke, a high-profile ivory trafficker, has been arrested. Activists said his work has fueled the slaughter of more than 10,000 elephants dating back to the 1970s.
    (AP, 8/8/13)

2013        Aug 28, A Togo government statement said PM Kwesi Seleagodji Ahoomey-Zunu and his government have resigned their posts a month after parliamentary polls that saw the ruling party win a two-thirds majority.
    (AFP, 8/28/13)

2013        Dec 19, Togo freed two Indian sailors imprisoned since July after India appealed to President Faure Gnassingbe for their release on compassionate grounds.
    (AFP, 12/19/13)

2014        Jan 28, Togo police said they have arrested 3 men after discovering nearly two tons of ivory in a container marked for shipping to Vietnam.
    (AP, 1/28/14)

2014        Feb 23, In Togo 18 people were killed and 40 others injured, 25 of them seriously, in a collision between a bus and a lorry.
    (AFP, 2/23/14)

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