Timeline Turkey thru 1960

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  Cilicia was an ancient country and later a Roman province in Asia Minor.
 (WUD, 1994, p.266)
As of 2007 Turkey was composed of 81 provinces, including 7 mainly Kurdish ones.
    (Econ, 7/28/07, p.51)

30Mil BC    In what is now Cappadocia, Turkey, 3 volcanoes: Erciyes, Melendiz and Hasan, erupted. The ash and rock later eroded and left the harder rock in formations now called "fairy chimneys."
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.T14)

10Mil BC    The Ankarapithecus skull, dating to about this time, was found in the Turkish desert in 1996. The remains show many similarities to Sivapithecus from South Asia, and have sometimes been included in that genus.
    (http://johnhawks.net/weblog/fossils/apes/ankarapithecus/ankarapithecus_overview.html)

c7000BC    The site of Catalhoyuk in south-central Turkey was settled about this time and vanished after about 1,200 years. It marks the world’s first urban center.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.72)(SFC, 4/18/05, p.A6)

5500BC    People sweeping out from Turkey colonized Europe, likely as a part of the agricultural revolution, reaching Germany about 7,500 years ago.
    (Live Science, 4/23/13)

3,0000BC    Urartu existed in eastern Anatolia starting about his time until it was defeated and destroyed by the Medes.
    (http://www.atmg.org/ArmenianFAQ.html#q6)

2500BCE    Troy II, the second oldest discernible settlement on the site of the mound of Hissarlik in northwest Turkey, a good 1200 years before the estimated date of the Trojan War.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.49)

2,000BCE    The Hittites lived around what is now Cappadocia. They mixed with the already-settled Hatti and were followed by the Lydians, Phrygians, Byzantines, Romans and Greeks. The name Cappadocia comes from the Hittite for "land of pretty horses."
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.T14)

1300BCE    The oldest know shipwreck dates to about this time, the era of the fall of Troy and reign of King Tut. It was found off the southern coast of Turkey at Uluburun (Big Nose/Cape) by Dr. George Bass in 1984. [see 4431BCE]
    (MT, 3/96, p.2)

1295-1272BCE    The Hittite king Muwatalli II signed a treaty with Alaksandu, ruler of the Arzawa land known as Wilusa (northwest Turkey), which became Wilios in Bronze Age Greece and then slurred to Ilios for Homer’s Iliad.
    (Arch, 5/04, p.40)

1275-1240BCE    The Trojan War is usually dated to this period.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.49)

1267-1237    King Hattusili III ruled the Hittites. He wrote a letter to the king of Ahhiyawa (thought to be Mycenaean Greeks) and mentioned that Wilusa was once a bone of contention.
    (Arch, 5/04, p.40)

1250BCE    Some scholars believe that the Mycenaeans waged a successful war with the Trojans of western Asia Minor.
    (eawc, p.5)

1250-1000BCE    Troy VIIa, another discernible era on the site of the Trojan War. Evidence shows that Troy V was destroyed by fire and that Troy VI saw the establishment of an entirely new principality. An earthquake hit the thriving city of 5-6 thousand people, but after the crisis, the same people returned and repaired the city. The renovated Troy VIIa lasted some seventy years and was then destroyed by a conflagration.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.49-50)

1225-1175    Earthquakes during this period toppled some city-states and centers of trade and scholarship in the Middle East. Jericho, Jerusalem, Knossos and Troy were all hit.
    (SFC,12/9/97, p.A8)(SSFC, 12/17/00, p.A19)

1184 BCE    Jun 11, Greeks finally captured Troy. This corresponds to excavation levels VIi or VIIa at the site of Hisarlik, Turkey.  [see 1150BCE]
    (SC, 6/11/02)(Arch, 5/04, p.37)

1150BCE    Troy fell. Estimated date for the beginning of the Aeneid. [see 1275-1240BCE]
    (V.D.-H.K.p.60)

c1000BCE    Troy at Hissarlik in northwest Turkey was destroyed by fire and abandoned.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.50)

c1000-800BCE    The kingdom of Habushkia was likely centered on the headwaters of the Great Zap River in western Turkey.
    (AM, 7/00, p.50)

738-696    King Midas ruled Phrygia over this period according to Eusebios.
    (AM, 7/01, p.33)

c700BCE    Nomadic Kimmerians attacked Phrygia. Strabo later reported that Midas committed suicide at the time of the Kimmerian invasion.
    (AM, 7/01, p.33)
c700BCE    A Phrygian king, possibly Midas, ruled into his 60s and was buried in what came to be called the Tumulus Midas Mound at Gordion (later central Turkey). Midas was linked with the worship of the goddess Matar.
    (AM, 7/01, p.27)

c640BCE    The 1st coins were minted in Lydia (later part of Turkey), and featured face to face heads of a bull and lion.
    (SSFC, 12/3/00, WB p.2)

585BCE    May 28, A solar eclipse, predicted by Thales of Miletus, interrupted a battle [a Persian-Lydian battle] outside of Sardis in western Turkey between the Medes and Lydians. The battle ended in a draw. [see May 25]
    (HN, 5/28/98)(HN, 5/28/99)

560-546BCE    The rule of Croesus. The first coins were produced in Lydia under the rule of Croesus. It was a kingdom in western Turkey. Croesus made a treaty with the Spartans and attacked Persia and was defeated.
    (SFEC, 1/19/96, Parade p.5)(WUD, 1994, p.345)(WSJ, 11/11/99, p.A24)

540BCE    The population of Xanthos in Lycia (later Turkey) committed mass suicide rather than face slavery under invading armies.
    (SFEC, 1/17/99, p.T5)

395BCE    Agesilaos of Sparta ravaged northwestern Turkey.
    (Arch, 7/02, p.8)

391BC-377BC        Hecatomnus, satrap of Caria, ruled over Mylasa about this time. The Persian king Artaxerxes II Mnemon appointed Hecatomnus as satrap of this part of the Achaemenid Empire. A 2,800-year-old tomb and carved coffin, decorated with reliefs of a bearded reclining man, believed to be Hecatomnus, was discovered in 2010.
    (AP, 8/13/10)(www.livius.org/he-hg/hecatomnids/hecatomnus.html)

348-345BC    Aristotle lived and taught in Assos, (later Behramkale), Turkey, before he was summoned to teach Alexander in Macedonia.
    (SFC, 10/6/05, p.E8)

334BCE    Alexander at 22 left Pella, Greece with 30,000 foot soldiers and 5,000 cavalry and proceeded to conquer western Asia including Miletus and Samos. His favorite horse was named Bucephalus. At Gordium, where King Midas is fabled to have held court, Alexander solved the puzzle of the Gordian knot by severing it with his sword.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.50)(NG, Jan, 1968 p.1,4,6)

c334        Seleukos I, a general under Alexander the Great, founded Antioch on the banks of the Orontes River.
    (AM, 11/00, p.69)

333BCE    Alexander’s forces overcame the Pisidians of Sagalassos.
    (AM, 11/04, p.38)

c333 BCE    Hittite lands and the village known as Ancyra (later Angora, Ankora) was conquered by Macedonians led by Alexander the Great.
    (HNQ, 4/15/02)

323BCE    The Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, a Graeco-Roman seaport (later in Turkey), was completed after 125 years of construction. It was acclaimed the most beautiful structure in the world and considered one of the 7 architectural wonders of the ancient world. Its ruins were discovered in 1869 by archeologist John T. Wood.
    (ON, 11/00, p.3)

323BC-30BC    During the Hellenistic Age the Grand Theater of Ephesus was built into the side of Mt. Pion and could hold 24,000 spectators.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, p.T7)

300BC    Seleucia was founded about this time in southeastern Turkey as a Greek settlement by Seleucus I Nicator one of Alexander’s generals. Seleucia was on the west bank and Apamea on the east bank of the Euphrates River. In 64 BC it was conquered and ruled by the Roman Empire and with this shift the name of the city was changed into Zeugma, meaning "bridge-passage" or "bridge of boats." 
    (Arch, 9/02, p.62)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeugma_(city))

230BC    Celtic warriors were repelled at Pergamon. The king of Bithynia had invited some 20,000 Celts as mercenaries and after 50 years of pillaging they were repelled and settled in Galatia.
    (NGM, 5/77)

200BC-100BC     The excavation of Pergamon (now Bergama, turkey) in 1876 by German archeologist  uncovered a monument called the Great Altar with a frieze of the mythological Greek hero Telephos.
    (WSJ, 1/16/96, p. A-16)

197BC-156BC    The Pergamon Altar, decorated with a marble frieze, was built between during the reign of Pergomene King Eumenes II. Pergamon later became known as the Turkish town of Bergama. In 1878 German engineer Carl Humann began official excavations on the acropolis of Pergamon. Frieze fragments following later negotiations, became the property of the Berlin museums.
    (AP, 2/18/14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pergamon_Altar)

190BC    Hipparchus was born in what is now Turkey. He calculated the length of a year to within 6 1/2 minutes and was the first to explain the Earth's rotation on its axis. He also compiled the first comprehensive catalog of the stars. [see 160-125BCE]
    (LAT, 3/30/05)

180BC        The Great Altar of Pergamon was built at Pergamos in Asia Minor (later Turkey). It depicted the battle of the gods of Olympus against the giants.
    (WSJ, 10/27/07, p.W14)

160BC-125BC     Hipparchus, Greek mathematician and astronomer, often called the father of modern astronomy. He attempted to calculate the distance to the moon and the sun. His estimate for the distance to the moon was 67r vs. the modern value of 60.267r. He estimated the sun to be 37 times farther than the moon and at least 12 times greater in diameter than the Earth. His figures were accepted for 17 centuries until the invention of the telescope and precise astronomical instruments. Together with Ptolemy he graded the visible stars into six magnitudes. The first magnitude was comprised of about 20 of the brightest stars. He compiled a stellar catalogue in Alexandria which shows the position of 1080 stars. [see 190BCE]
    (SCTS, p.7-8,137,142)

64BC        The Greek settlement of Seleucia (in southeastern Turkey) was conquered and ruled by the Roman Empire and with this shift the name of the city was changed into Zeugma, meaning "bridge-passage" or "bridge of boats."
    (Arch, 9/02, p.62)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeugma_(city))

0-100CE    In Ephesus the apostle St. John is said to be buried. The city is also said to be the final abode of the Virgin Mary.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, p.T7)

40CE        St. Ignatius Theorphorus (d.107), Apostolic Father was, born. He later served as the bishop of Antioch.
    (WUD, 1994 p.708)

50AD-60AD    The Didache, the earliest catechism of the Catholic Church, was written about this time as teachings of the 12 Apostles to the gentiles. It was later discovered in a monastery in Constantinople and published by P. Bryennios in 1883.
    (SFC, 10/27/11, p.E1)(www.earlychristianwritings.com/didache.html)

52        St. Paul of Tarsus, Christian preacher, arrived in the port city of Ephesus (Turkey) about this time and spent 3 years there. Silt from the Kaistros River ended cargo shipping by the end of the first century. By 2007 the sea was 7 miles from the former port.
    (SFC, 8/16/07, p.E2)

256        The Anatolian city of Zeugma on the Euphrates was sacked by Persian King Shapur I. This was soon followed by a devastating fire and an earthquake and Zeugma was abandoned. In 2000 the area was submerged as part of the Southeast Anatolia Project of dams for power.
    (SFEC, 5/7/00, p.A23)(Arch, 9/00, p.41)

c300-400    Nicholas of Myra (later Demre) reported as bishop to the Byzantine church in Constantinople.
    (WSJ, 8/31/98, p.B1)

330 AD    May 11, Constantine renamed the town of Byzantium to: "New Rome which is Constantine’s City." It became know as Constantinople.
    (ATC, p.31)(HN, 5/11/98)

330 AD    Constantine began the building of the Great Palace in Constantinople.
    (SFC, 7/27/98, p.A8)

330-379    Saint Basil of Caesarea. His followers erected monastic communities in Turkey.
    (SFEM, 3/12/00, p.30)

c347-407    St. John Chrysostom. He was the ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.
    (WUD, 1994 p.264)

397        In southeastern Turkey the Mor Gabriel monastery was founded by Syriac Christians. In 2009 it had just 3 monks and 14 nuns and faced the loss to the state of some 100 acres representing 60% of its core property.
    (WSJ, 3/7/09, p.A8)

407        Sep 14, Johannes Chrysostomus (b.c347), patriarch of Constantinople (398) and exiled in 404, died in Pontus (later northeast Turkey). He is generally considered the most prominent doctor of the Greek Church and the greatest preacher ever heard in a Christian pulpit.
    (http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08452b.htm)

431        The Council of Ephesus was held to deal with the heretics and heresies of the day such as Arianism and Apollinarianism. The council condemned Nestorianism, which taught that there were 2 person in Christ and that Mary was the mother of the human Christ but not of God. In 2009 Miri Rubin authored “Mother of God: A History of the Virgin Mary."
    (Usenet, 3/4/97)(PTA, 1980, p.86)(Econ, 2/21/09, p.84)

500        Ancient Turks are believed to have originated in Mongolia about this time.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.17)

526        May 20, An earthquake killed 250,000 in Antioch, Turkey. This was the capital of Syria from 300-64BCE.  [see May 29]
    (MC, 5/20/02)

526        May 29, Antioch, Turkey, was struck by an earthquake and about 250,000 died. [see May 20]
    (AM, 11/00, p.69)(SC, 5/29/02)

532        Jan 18, The Nika uprising at Constantinople failed and 30-40,000 died. Justinian and his wife Theodora attend festivities at the Hippodrome, a stadium for athletic competition. Team support escalated from insults to mob riots and in the end Constantinople lay in ruins. Justinian proceeded to rebuild the city with extensive commissions for religious art and architecture, including the new Hagia Sophia.
    (ATC, p.33)(MC, 1/18/02)

537        Dec 27, The Hagia Sophia Byzantine cathedral in Constantinople was consecrated. St. Sophia (meaning "the holy wisdom" in Greek) was built by Emperor Justinian. It remained a symbol of Byzantine grandeur until Istanbul was conquered by Muslim armies.
    (Sky, 4/97, p.55)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hagia_Sophia)

541-543    Plague swept Asia Minor.
    (AM, 11/04, p.38)

550-730    Ancient Turkic people flourished in Mongolia during this period.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.19)

558        May 7, The dome of the church of St. Sophia in Constantinople collapsed. Its immediate rebuilding was ordered by Justinian.
    (HN, 5/7/99)

0610        Oct 5, Heraclitus' fleet took Constantinople.
    (MC, 10/5/01)

626        Aug 7, Battle at Constantinople: Slavs, Persians and Avars were defeated. Emp. Heraclius repelled the attacks. The attacks began in 625.
    (PCh, 1992, p.60)(MC, 8/7/02)

632-661    The Rashidun Caliphate, also known as the Rightly Guided Caliphate, comprising the first four caliphs in Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death. At its height, the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant, Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and Central Asia in the east. It was the one of the largest empires in history up until that time.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rashidun_Caliphate)

700-800    Invading Slavs assimilated the Thracians in the area of modern Bulgaria and parts of Greece, Romania, Macedonia and Turkey.
    (SFC, 8/17/05, p.A2)

787        Sep 24, The 2nd Council of Nicaea (7th ecumenical council) opened in Asia Minor.
    (http://www.malaspina.com/site/person_672.asp)

787          Oct 23, Byzantine Empress Irene (c. 752-803) attended the final session of the 2nd church council at Nicaea, Bithynia [now Iznik, a city in Anatolia (now part of Turkey)]. The council formally revived the adoration of icons and reunited the Eastern church with that of Rome.
    (http://www.malaspina.com/site/person_672.asp)

c799-878    St. Ignatius Nicetas. He served as the Patriarch of Constantinople from 846-858 and 867-878.
    (WUD, 1994 p.708)

842        Feb 19, The Medieval Iconoclastic Controversy ended as a council in Constantinople formally reinstated the veneration of icons in the churches.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triumph_of_Orthodoxy)

921        In Turkey the Armenian Akdamar church, called the Church of Surp Khach, or Holy Cross, was inaugurated. Written records say the church was near a harbor and a palace on the island on Lake Van, but only the church survived. Turkey restored the church in 2007.
    (AP, 3/25/07)

969        Oct 28, After a prolonged siege, the Byzantines ended 300 years of Arab rule in Antioch.
    (HN, 10/28/98)

989-1020    Ani, a medieval city-site situated in the Turkish province of Kars, beside the border with Armenia, attained the peak of its power during the long reign of King Gagik I (989-1020). It was the capital of a medieval Armenian kingdom that covered much of present day Armenia and eastern Turkey. Armenian chroniclers such as Yeghishe  and Ghazar Parpetsi first mentioned Ani in the 5th century AD.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ani)

999        Turkish dynasties became the rulers of Transoxania, and area that covered much of what later became Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan.
    (Econ, 7/26/03, p.46-4)

1055AD    Baghdad was conquered by nomadic Turks from Central Asia who are descended from a warrior named Seljuk. The Seljuk Turks took control of the government and continue governing the empire in the tradition of Islamic law.
    (ATC, p.91)

1071        Aug 26, Turks defeated the Byzantine army under Emperor Romanus IV at Manzikert (Malaz Kard), Eastern Turkey. Romanus was taken prisoner.
    (PCh, 1992, p.85)(Ot, 1993, p.4)

1087        At Myra (Demre), Turkey, merchants from the Italian port of Bari reportedly stole the bones of St. Nicholas.
    (WSJ, 8/31/98, p.B1)

1096        Aug 1, The crusaders under Peter the Hermit reached Constantinople. Anna Comnena, a 13 year-old Christian in Constantinople, watched as the crusaders marched into the city.
    (ATC, p.18)(HN, 8/1/98)

1096        Oct 21, Seljuk Turks under Sultan Kilidj Arslan of Nicea slaughtered thousands of German crusaders at Chivitot.
    (HN, 10/21/99)(MC, 10/21/01)

1097        Jun 30, The Crusaders defeated the Turks at Dorylaeum.
    (HN, 6/30/98)

1097        Jul 1, The 1st Crusaders defeated Sultan Kilidj Arslan of Nicea.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1097        Oct 20, The 1st Crusaders arrived in Antioch.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1098        Feb 10, Crusaders defeated Prince Redwan of Aleppo at Antioch.
    (MC, 2/10/02)

1098        Jun 3, Christian Crusaders of the First Crusade seized Antioch, Turkey.
    (HN, 6/3/99)

1100-1200    Constantinople was devastated by fires in the 12th century.
    (SFC, 7/27/98, p.A8)

1147        Oct 25, At the Battle at Dorylaeum (Turkey) Arabs beat Konrad III's crusaders. Conrad III of Germany and Louis VII of France had assembled 500,000 men for the 2nd Crusade. Most of the men were lost to starvation, disease and battle wounds.
    (PCh, 1992, p.94)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Dorylaeum_%281147%29)

1162        A man in Constantinople fashioned sail-like wings from fabric into pleats and folds. He plummeted from the top of a tower and died.
    (NPub, 2002, p.2)

1182        In Constantinople a mob massacred the Latins who ruled as agents of the regent Maria of Antioch. They killed the city officials and proclaimed an uncle of Alexius II Comnenus co-emperor to rule as Andronicus I Comnenus together with his nephew.
    (PCh, 1992, p.98)

1204        Apr 9, The Venetians began their assault on Constantinople.
    (www.ellopos.net/elpenor/greek-texts/fathers/pears-constantinople-1204.asp)

1204        Apr 12, The Fourth Crusade sacked Constantinople. Constantinople fell to a combined force of Franks and Venetians. The 4th Crusade failed to reach Palestine but sacked the Byzantine Christian capital of Constantinople.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.)(NH, 9/96, p.22)(HN, 4/12/98)

1204-1205    Georgia’s Queen Tamara marched with her men to the rousing victory over the Turks at the Battle of Basiani where she is hailed with the cry, "Our King Tamara."
    (www.undelete.org/woa/woa01-18.html)

1207-1273    Jalal ud-din Rumi (Jelaluddin Rumi), Persian poet and mystic. He was born in Balkh, Afghanistan, and later fled the Mongol invasions with his family to Konya (Iconium), Anatolia. His work "Mathwani" (Spiritual Couplets) filled 6 volumes and had a great impact on Islamic civilization. He founded the Mevlevi order of Sufis, later known as the "whirling dervishes." In 1998 a film was made about the Sufi poet’s influence on the 20th century. In 1998 Kabir Helminski edited "The Rumi Collection" with translation by Robert Bly and others. His work also included the "Shams I-Tabriz" in which he dismissed the terminology of Jew, Christian and Muslim as "false distinctions." The poet Rumi was also known as Mowlana.
    (WUD, 1994, p.762)(SFC, 7/9/96, p.B5)(SFEC, 9/20/98, DB p.50)(SFEC, 10/25/98, BR p.6)(WSJ, 9/7/01, p.A14)

1216        Jul 11, Hendrik of Constantinople, emperor of Constantinople (1206-16), died.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1243        Jun 26, The Seljuk Turkish army in Asia Minor was wiped out by the Mongols.
    (HN, 6/26/98)

1244        Aug 23, Turks expelled the crusaders under Frederick II from Jerusalem.
    (HN, 8/23/98)

1244-1248    Mevlana Jalaluddin Rumi met Shams of Tabriz, a wandering dervish, and the two became mystical companions for 4 years until Shams disappeared. Rumi called his own writings "The Works of Shams of Tabriz."
    (SFEC, 10/25/98, BR p.6)

1260        Sep 3, Mamelukes under Sultan Qutuz defeated Mongols and Crusaders at Ain Jalut.
    (HN, 9/3/98)

1260        Oct 23,Koetoez, Turkish sultan of Egypt, was murdered.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1261        Aug 15, Constantinople fell to Michael VIII of Nicea and his army.
    (HN, 8/15/98)

1271        The Mamelukes under Sultan Baibars captured The Crac des Chevaliers in Syria and converted the chapel into a mosque. It had been held by the Knights Hospitallers since 1144.
    (WSJ, 1/31/09, p.W12)(SSFC, 11/1/09, p.M5)

1281         Osman I came to power at the age of 23 and began a steady campaign against the Byzantines until his death in 1326. He managed to capture many Byzantine fortresses, most notably Bursa, consolidating Ottoman power in the region. Generally regarded as the founder of the Ottoman Turkish state, Osman I (also known as Osman Gazi) led ongoing campaigns against the Byzantines in the 13th and early 14th centuries AD. Part of the migration of Turkic tribes into Anatolia, Osman was the son of Ertugrul, who had established a principality in present-day Sögüt, Turkey. In 2006 Caroline Finkel authored “Osman’s Dream: The History of the Ottoman Empire."
    (HNQ, 2/19/01)(Econ, 2/25/06, p.88)
1281-1326    Osman Gazi (1258-1326) or Othman Ghazi, ruled as Sultan of the Ottomans.
    (www.osmanli700.gen.tr/english/sultans.html)

1290        The Ottoman Empire began.
    (SSFC, 10/14/01, p.A3)

1326        Osman I (1299-1326) captured Bursa in north-western Anatolia after a 10 year siege. Osman I (also known as Osman Gazi) is generally regarded as the founder of the Ottoman Turkish state.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1018)(Ot, 1993, p.5)

1326-1359    Orhan Gazi (1226-1359) or Orchan Ghazi, ruled as Sultan of the Ottomans.
    http://www.osmanli700.gen.tr/english/sultans.html

1328        Sep 26, Taqi ad-Din Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah (b.1263), a Sunni Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, died. He lived in Damascus during the troubled times of the Mongol invasions. As a member of the school founded by Ibn Hanbal, he sought the return of Islam to its sources: the Qur'an and the Sunnah. He had adopted the notion of takfir, denouncing as apostates Muslims whom he deemed wayward, a crime punishable by death.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Taymiyyah)(Econ, 7/14/07, p.30)(Econ, 7/25/15, p.69) (http://tinyurl.com/pfxhrq3)

1348        In Istanbul Genoese merchants rebuilt an old wooden lighthouse that dated from the 6th century. The Galata Tower was rebuilt in stone.
    (Econ, 4/7/12, p.81)

1355        Dec 20, Stephen Urosh IV of Serbia died while marching to attack Constantinople.
    (HN, 12/20/98)

1361        The Ottomans under Orhan crossed into Europe and captured Adrianople (Edirne), the 2nd major city of Byzantium. Murat I (Orhan) moved the Ottoman capital to Edirne in 1366.
    (Ot, 1993, p.5)(http://www.osmanli700.gen.tr/english/sultans.html)

1385         Albanian ruler of Durrës invited Ottoman forces to intervene against a rival.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1389        Jun 15, The Serbs were defeated by Ottoman Turks in the Battle of Kosovo at the Field of the Blackbirds. In the battle, the Serb prince Lazar was captured by the Turks and beheaded. Lazar's bones were placed in the monastery at Grancanica in Kosovo. Sultan Murad, the Ottoman leader was killed in the battlefield by the wounded son-in-law of King Lazar. Serbs say that Albanians aided the Turkish invaders. Historical evidence shows that both forces were multinational and that Serbs and Albanian fought on both sides. In 1999 Ismail Kadare, Albanian author, wrote "Elegy for Kosovo," in which he retells the story of the battle. Bosnian King Tvrtko and other Balkan princes along with Albanians fought under the command of Serbian Prince Lazar.
    (SFC, 12/29/96, BR p.7)(SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 5/5/98, p.A20)(HN, 6/15/98)(WSJ, 3/25/99, p.A17)(WSJ, 5/7/99, p.A1,18)(SFEC, 7/23/00, BR p.7)

1396        Sep 25, A Christian crusade, led jointly by John the Fearless of Nevers and King Sigismund of Hungary, ended in disaster at the hands of Sultan Bajezid I's Ottoman army at Nicopolis.
    (HN, 9/25/98)(PCh, 1992, p.137)

1396        Sep 26, Sultan Bajezid I beheaded several hundred crusaders.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1402        Jul 20, In the Battle of Angora the Mongols, led by Tamerlane "the Terrible," defeated the Ottoman Turks and captured Sultan Bayezid I. The Turks eventually regained control of the city and it remained a part of the Ottoman Empire for the next five centuries. Around 2,000 BCE the site of the present day city was a Hittite village known as Ancyra. It was conquered in 333 BC by Macedonians led by Alexander the Great. Because of its central Anatolian Plateau location on the Ankara River, it became an important commercial center. Angora’s name was changed to Ankara in 1930.
    (HN, 7/20/98)(Ot, 1993, p.6)(HNQ, 4/15/02)

1403-1413    The Ottoman Empire fell into 11 years of civil war between the 4 sons of Beyazid.
    http://www.osmanli700.gen.tr/english/sultans.html

1421        May 26, Mohammed I, Ottoman sultan (1413-21), died.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1422        Sep 6, Sultan Murat II ended a vain siege of Constantinople.
    (HN, 9/6/98)

1425        Jul 21, Manuel Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor (1391-1425), writer, died. He ended his days after signing a humiliating peace with the Ottoman Turks.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_II_Palaeologus)(Econ, 9/23/06, p.59)

1443        After losing a battle near Nis, Skanderbeg with a group of Albanian warriors defected from the Ottoman army and return to Kruja. Albanian resistance to Turkish rule was organized under the leadership of Skanderbeg in Kruja. He was able to keep Albania independent for more than 20 years. A baronial museum in his honor was later was designed by the daughter of Enver Hoxha.
    (CO, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Albania)(WSJ, 4/14/98, p.A21)(www, Albania, 1998)

1444            Nov 10, During the Hungarian-Turkish War (1444-1456) , Sultan Murad II beat the Crusaders in the Battle at Varna on the Black Sea.
    (DoW, 1999, p.217)

1444        The Albanian people organized a league of Albanian princes in this year under George Kastrioti, also known as Skanderbeg. As leader of this Christian league he effectively repulsed 13 Turkish invasions from 1444 to 1466, making him a hero in the Western world.
    (HNQ, 10/5/98)(www, Albania, 1998)

1444        Murad II abdicated and Mehmet II (13) briefly succeeded him.
    (Ot, 1993, p.7)

1446        Mehmet II was deposed and Murad II was recalled to the throne.
    (Ot, 1993, p.7)

1448        Oct 19, The Ottoman Sultan Murat II defeated Hungarian General Janos Hunyadi at Kosovo, Serbia.
    (HN, 10/19/98)

1449         Albanians, under Skanderbeg, routed the Ottoman forces under Sultan Murat II.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1451        Feb 3, Murad II, Ottoman sultan (1421-51), died of apoplexy. Mehmet II (19) became Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He ruled until 1481.
    (ON, 10/00, p.10)(Ot, 1993, p.7)(MC, 2/3/02)

1452        Mehmet II began construction of a new fortress called Rumeli Hisar on the Constantinople side of the Bosporus. He engaged Urban, a Hungarian engineer, to build a large canon and put him in charge of the canon foundries at Adrianople.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, BR p.8)(ON, 10/00, p.10)

1453        Apr 6, Ottoman forces under Mehmet II opened fire on Constantinople.
    (ON, 10/00, p.11)

1453        Apr 22-23, The Ottomans hauled 76 warships out of the water and dragged them on wood rails to bypass the Greek blockade of the Constantinople harbor.
    (ON, 10/00, p.12)(Ot, 1993, p.13)

1453        May 29, Constantinople fell to Muhammad II, ending the Byzantine Empire. The fall of the eastern Roman Empire, Byzantium, to the Ottoman Turks was led by Mehmed II. Emperor Constantine XI Dragases (49), the 95th ruler to sit on the throne of Constantine, was killed. The city of Constantinople fell from Christian rule and was renamed Istanbul. The Hagia Sophia was turned into a mosque. Spice prices soared in Europe. Nicolo Barbaro wrote his "Diary of the Siege of Constantinople." Manuel Chrysophes, court musician to Constantine XI, wrote a threnody for the fall of Constantinople. In 2005 Roger Crowley authored “1453 The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam and the West."
    (NH, 9/96, p.22)(Sky, 4/97, p.53)(SFC, 7/27/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(ON, 10/00, p.12)(Ot, 1993, p.6)(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A15)(SSFC, 8/14/05, p.F4)

1455        The young Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II mobilized his army to march on Belgrade--and from there, possibly move on to the European heartland.
    (HN, 6/15/98)

1456        Jul 14, Hungarians defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Belgrade, in present-day Yugoslavia. The 1456 Siege of Belgrade decided the fate of Christendom.
    (HN, 7/14/98)

1456        Jul 22, At the Battle at Nandorfehervar (Belgrade), the Hungarian army under prince Janos Hunyadi beat sultan Murad II. The siege of Belgrade had fallen into stalemate when a spontaneous fight broke out between a rabble of Crusaders, led by the Benedictine monk John of Capistrano, and the city's Ottoman besiegers. The melee soon escalated into a major battle, during which the Hungarian commander, Janos Hunyadi, led a sudden assault that overran the Turkish camp, ultimately compelling the wounded Sultan Mehmet II to lift the siege and retreat.
    (MC, 7/22/02)(PC, 1992, p.150)(HNPD, 7/23/98)

1461        Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II conquered Trabzon, a Greek port on the Black Sea. Trabzon had formed the basis of several states in its long history and was the capital city of the Empire of Trebizond between 1204 and 1461.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trabzon)

1463        The Ottomans conquered Bosnia.
    (www.bartleby.com/67/314.html)

1465        Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror moved to Topkapi.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R37)

1468        Skanderbeg of Albania died and the Turks absorbed Albania into the Ottoman Empire. Over the next five centuries most Albanians converted to Islam.
    (CO, Grolier’s / Albania)(www, Albania, 1998)

1478        Ten years after the death of Skanderbeg, his citadel at Kruje was finally taken by the Ottoman Turks and Albania fell into obscurity during several centuries of Turkish rule.
    (HNQ, 10/5/98)(www, Albania, 1998)

1479         Shkodra fell to the Ottoman Turks. Subsequently, many Albanians fled to southern Italy, Greece, Egypt, and elsewhere; many remaining were forced to convert to Islam.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1479        Venice signed a peace treaty with Ottoman Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror (1432-1481) ending 16 years of war.
    (WSJ, 3/16/06, p.D8)(www.fsmitha.com/h3/h13zt.htm)

1480        In Italy 813 people were slain in Otranto for defying demands by Turkish invaders to renounce Christianity. In 2013 the "Martyrs of Otranto" were canonized as saints by Pope Francis.
    (AP, 5/12/13)

1481        Sultan Mehmet II died at age 60. Kritovoulos authored "History of Mehmet the Conqueror" in the 15th century.
    (ON, 10/00, p.12)

1481-1512    Beyazid II followed Mehmed II in the House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1492        Sephardic Jews were welcomed by the Ottoman Empire after their expulsion from Spain.
    (SFEC, 3/28/99, p.T4)

1494        Nov 6, Suleiman I (d.1566), the Great, Ottoman sultan (1520-66), was born. Suleiman the Magnificent, ruler of the Ottoman Empire, was reported to have a harem of 2,000 women.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(MC, 11/6/01)

1499        Aug 25, Battle at Sapienza: An Ottoman fleet beat Venetians.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1500-1800    Ottoman Turk rule extended over Libya.
    (SSFC, 6/27/04, p.D12)

1512-1520    Selim I followed Beyazid II in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1513        A manuscript map was drawn by Piri Reis (1470-1554) a Turkish captain who later became the Chief Admiral of the Ottoman Navy. It was presented to Ottoman Sultan Selim I in Egypt in 1517.
    (http://turkeyinmaps.com/piri.html)(www.prep.mcneese.edu/engr/engr321/preis/afet/afet2.htm)

1514        Aug 23, Selim I (the Grim), Ottoman Sultan, routed a Persian army in the Battle of Chaldiran.
    (TL-MB, p.10)(PCh, 1992, p.168)

1514        Sep 15, Selim I entered Tabriz, Persia, and massacred much of the population.
    (PCh, 1992, p.168)

1516        Aug 24, At the Battle of Marj Dabik, north of Aleppo, the Turks beat Syria. Suliman I (Selim the Grim), the Ottoman Sultan, routed the Mamelukes (Egypt) with the support of artillery capturing Aleppo and Damascus. This opened the way to 400 years of Ottoman Turkish rule over most of the Arab world.
    (PC, 1992, p.169)(Econ, 11/14/09, p.101)

1517        Jan 20, Ottoman sultan Selim I captured Cairo. The center of power transferred then to Istanbul. The Ottoman Empire retained the Mamluks as an Egyptian ruling class.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mamluk_Sultanate)

1517        Apr 13, Tuman Bey, the last Mameluke sultan of Egypt, was hanged as Osman’s army occupied Cairo.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1520        Sep 21, Suleiman I (the Magnificent), son of Selim, became the Ottoman sultan in Constantinople. He ruled to 1566. [see Sep 30]
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(HN, 9/21/98)(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1520        Sep 22, Selim I, Sultan of Turkey (1512-20), died at 53.
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1520        Sep 30, Suleiman I succeeded his father Selim I as sultan of Turkey. [see Sep 21]
    (MC, 9/30/01)

1521        Sep 28, Turkish sultan Suleiman I's troops occupied Belgrade.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1521        Suleiman I, the Ottoman Sultan, conquered Belgrade and invaded Hungary.
    (TL-MB, p.12)

1522        Suleiman I captured Rhodes from the Knights Hospitallers of St. John. The knights surrendered after a 6-month siege. In 1530 the knights were resettled on Malta by Charles V.
    (WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1523        The Ottoman Emperor Suleiman the Magnificent successfully overcame the Knights Hospitaller, Order of St. John, from their position on the island of Rhodes in the Aegean Sea. The Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, offered the Knights the Isle of Malta. In exchange for a perpetual lease the Knights undertook to send the emperor a falcon (made famous in the mystery novel, The Maltese Falcon, and the movie of the same name) once every year as a token of their fealty. They remained there until the time of Napoleon, and became known as the Knights of Malta.
    (WSJ, 12/30/94, A-6, Review of The Knights of Malta by H.J.A. Sire)

1529        Sep 8, The Ottoman Sultan Suleiman re-entered Buda and established John Zapolyai as the puppet king of Hungary.
    (HN, 9/8/98)

1529        Oct 15, Ottoman armies under Suleiman ended their siege of Vienna and headed back to Belgrade. The Ottomans siege of Vienna was a key battle of world history. The Ottoman Empire reached its peak with the Turks settled in Buda on the left bank of the Danube after failing in their siege of Vienna.
    (WSJ, 3/27/96, p.A-16)(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)    (HN, 10/15/98)

1533        Ottoman ruler Suleiman I concluded a treaty with Austria and got time to deal with dissident elements in Anatolia.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1534        Jul 13, Ottoman armies captured Tabriz in northwestern Persia.
    (HN, 7/13/98)

1534        Aug 20, Turkish admiral Chaireddin "Barbarossa" occupied Tunis.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1534        Dec 4, Turkish sultan Suleiman occupied Baghdad.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1534        The Ottoman Empire extended from Hungary to Baghdad.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1535        France became the first country to have a permanent embassy at the Sublime Porte in Istanbul.
    (Econ, 12/12/09, p.93)

1541-1686    The Turkish Ottomans occupied Budapest, Hungary.
    (Sm, 3/06, p.76)

1543        Aug 22, French and Ottoman forces captured Nice following a siege of the city. Admiral Barbarossa led the Ottoman fleet in the campaign.
    (Econ, 12/12/09, p.93)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Nice)

1544        The Turks invaded Hungary for the third time and seized the crown jewels. (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1546        The Turks occupied Moldavia.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)
1546        Basra (Iraq) was captured by the Ottoman Empire.
    (Econ, 3/2/13, p.24)

1546        Barbarossa remained one of the great figures in the court at Istanbul until his death in 1546. Known by the European name Barbarossa, meaning Redbeard, Khayr Ad-Din was a Barbary pirate and later, as admiral of the Ottoman fleet, he united Algeria and Tunisia as military states under the Ottoman caliphate in the 1530s.
    (HNQ, 2/10/99)

1552        The Turks invaded Hungary again with a victory at the Battle Szegedin. Istvan Dobo led the defense of Eger against the Turks. The siege of Eger lasted 38 days.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(Hem., 6/98, p.126)

1565        May 19-Sep 8, In Malta the Great Siege lasted over this period as Suleyman the Magnificent sought to add the island to his conquests. The Turkish army of 40,000 men besieged the Knights of Malta, led by Grand Master Jean de la Valette, at their garrison, St. Elmo. The defenders numbered 540 knights, 400 Spanish troops, and Maltese gentry. In the initial attack 200 of 260 defenders lay dead at the end of the day but the garrison held out. The Turks continued their efforts for four months when reinforcements arrived and saved them. The arrival of a fleet from Spain, the “Gran Soccorso," turned the tide. This halted the westward advance of Islam in the Mediterranean. St. Elmo was later transformed into Valletta, the capital of Malta. The Order of St. John continues to thrive to today.
    (HNQ, 4/8/99)(WSJ, 12/30/94, p.A-6)(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.40)(WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1566        Sep 7, Suleiman I (b.1494), Great Law Giver and sultan of Turkey (1520-66), died at Szigetvar, Hungary, as his troops besieged a fortress defended by Croatian-Hungarian nobleman Miklos Zrinyi. Suleiman’s great empire began a gradual decline under his slothful son, Selim II. Suleiman the Magnificent, during his reign, had commissioned the architect Sinan to build the Suleymanye, perhaps the finest mosque ever constructed.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(WSJ, 4/29/99, p.A24)(SFC, 9/21/13, p.A3)

1566-1574    Selim II followed Suleiman I in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1568        The "Shahnameh" (Persian Book of Kings-1520-1530) by Firdawsi was given to the Ottoman Sultan. It was commissioned to be illustrated for Shah Tahmasp by more than a dozen artists. 258 miniatures were made with 750 folios of Farsi text in it.
    (WSJ, p. A-18, 10/13/94)

1570        Jul 3, The Turks began their attack on Nicosia, Cyprus, after Venice refused to surrender the island.
    (http://historicbiography.blogspot.com/2008/01/marcantonio-bragadin.html)

1570        Apr 24, Spanish troops battled followers of Sultan Suleiman.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1570        Sep 23, The Turks began their attack on Famagusta, Cyprus, which was fortified by Venetian commander Marcantonio Bragadino (1523-1571).
    (http://historicbiography.blogspot.com/2008/01/marcantonio-bragadin.html)(WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1571        Sep 1, Famagusta, Cyprus, surrendered to Mustafa Pasha commander of the Turkish forces after nearly a one year siege. The terms of surrender appeared agreeable to Venetian Gov. Marcantonio Bragadino (b.1523), but Mustafa Pasha turned on Bragadino and had him violently tortured and finally flayed alive. 
    (http://historicbiography.blogspot.com/2008/01/marcantonio-bragadin.html)

1571        Oct 7, Spanish, Genoese and Venetian ships of the Christian League defeated an Ottoman fleet in the naval Battle of Lepanto, Greece. In the last great clash of galleys, the Ottoman navy lost 117 ships to a Christian naval coalition under the overall command of Spain's Don Juan de Austria.
    (AP, 10/7/07)(www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-religion/1760264/posts)

1571        Turks sacked the St. Sophia Cathedral in Old Nicosia, Cyprus, and turned it into the Selimiye Mosque.
    (CNT, 3/04, p.153)

1574-1595    Selim II, Sultan of Turkey, died and was succeeded by his son, Murad III in the Ottoman House of Osman. Murat III expanded the palace at Topkapi and built the famous harem there.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R37)(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1574        Turkish troops captured Tunis from the Spaniards.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1586        The Turks attacked the Hungarian fortress at Eger again. The mercenary occupants capitulated.
    (Hem., 6/98, p.126)

1574        Selim II, Sultan of Turkey, died and was succeeded by his son, Murad III. Murat III expanded the palace at Topkapi and built the famous harem there.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R37)

1579        In Istanbul the astronomical observatory of Takiyuddin Efendi, constructed from 1575-1577,  was deemed blasphemous and ordered destroyed by the Sultan. Takiyuddin Rasid (d. 1585), mathematician, physicist and mechanical scientist had united the schools of Maragha, Samarkand and Cairo-Damascus in himself and established the Istanbul Observatory.
    (www.phys.boun.edu.tr/~semiz/universe/near/04.html)(http://tinyurl.com/48rr4sq)

1590        Apr 18, Ahmed I, 14th sultan of Turkey (1603-17), was born.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1595        Oct 28, Battle at Giurgevo: Zsigmond Bathory of Transylvania beat the Turks.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1595-1603    Mehmed III succeeded Murad III in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1600-1650     In the early Seventeenth Century: Some Albanians who converted to Islam found careers in Ottoman Empire's government and military.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1600-1700    Shabettai Zvi, a Kabbalist from the Ottoman Empire, became the central figure in a widespread Messianic craze.
    (WSJ, 5/22/98, p.W11)

1601        Ottoman Sultan Mehmed III issued an order for the seizure of able youths aged 10-20 to be trained as janissaries, his special forces. "The infidel parents or anybody else who resists are to be hanged at once in front of their house gate, their blood being considered of no importance whatsoever."
    (WSJ, 9/17/01, p.A20)

1603-1617    Ahmed I succeeded Mehmed III in the Ottoman House of Osman. Ahmet I had the Blue Mosque constructed to show that Muslim architects could rival the Byzantine glories of the Haghia Sophia. Construction was completed in 1616, a year before Ahmet I died at age 27.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)(AP, 11/30/06)

1609         Sultan Ahmet commissioned the Blue Mosque to rival the other mosques of Istanbul, Turkey.
    (CAM, Nov.Dec. '95, p.29)

1617-1618    Mustafa I succeeded Ahmed I in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1618-1622    Osman II took rule in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1620        May 17, The 1st merry-go-round was seen at a fair in Philippapolis, Turkey.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1622-1623     Mustafa I took back the rule in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1623        Avedis Zildjian, alchemist, noted that a particular combination of tin and copper rang very nicely and began making musical cymbals in Constantinople. In 1929 the firm moved to Massachusetts.
    (WSJ, 5/31/96, p.B1)

1623-1640    Murad IV succeeded Mustafa I in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1638        Dec 24, The Ottomans under Murad IV recaptured Baghdad from Safavid Persia.
    (HN, 12/24/98)

1640        Feb 9, Murad IV (27), sultan of Turkey (1623-40), died in Baghdad. Ibrahim (1640-1648) succeeded Murad IV in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)(MC, 2/9/02)

1645        Turkish invaders of the Ottoman Empire captured Hania on the island of Crete and built a mosque.
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, p.T10)

1648        Aug 8, Ibrahim, the sultan of Istanbul, was thrown into prison, then assassinated.
    (HN, 8/8/98)

1648-1687    Mehmed IV succeeded Ibrahim in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1663        Apr 18, Osman declared war on Austria.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1664        Jan 21, Count Miklos of Zrinyi set out to battle the Turkish invasion army.
    (MC, 1/21/02)

1664        Aug 1, The Turkish army was defeated by French and German troops at St. Gotthard, Hungary.
    (HN, 8/1/98)

1669        Sep 27, The island of Crete in the Mediterranean Sea fell to the Ottoman Turks after a 21-year siege.
    (HN, 9/27/98)

1681        Jan 8, The treaty of Radzin ended a five year war between the Turks and the allied countries of Russia and Poland.
    (HN, 1/8/99)

1683        Feb 12, A Christian Army, led by Charles, the Duke of Lorraine and King John Sobieski of Poland, routed a huge Ottoman army surrounding Vienna.
    (HN, 2/12/99)

1683        Sep 3, Turkish troops broke through the defense of Vienna.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1683        Sep 12, A combined Austrian and Polish army defeated the Ottoman Turks at Kahlenberg and lifted the siege on Vienna, Austria. Prince Eugene of Savoy helped repel an invasion of Vienna, Austria, by Turkish forces. Marco d'Aviano, sent by Pope Innocent XI to unite the outnumbered Christian troops, spurred them to victory. The Turks left behind sacks of coffee which the Christians found too bitter, so they sweetened it with honey and milk and named the drink cappuccino after the Capuchin order of monks to which d'Aviano belonged. An Austrian baker created a crescent-shaped roll, the Kipfel, to celebrate the victory. Empress Maria Theresa later took it to France where it became the croissant. In 2006 John Stoye authored “The Siege of Vienna."
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.69)(WSJ, 3/27/96, p.A-16)(HN, 9/12/98)(SFEC, 2/6/00, p.A1)(Reuters, 4/28/03)(WSJ, 6/3/03, p.D5) (WSJ, 12/6/06, p.D12)   

1683        Dec 25, Kara Mustapha (b.~1634), chief of the Ottoman janissaries, appeared before the grand vizier in Belgrade. He was sentenced to death and executed for the military loss at Vienna.
    (WSJ, 12/5/06, p.D12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kara_Mustafa)

1686        Jul 8, The Austrians took Budapest, Hungary, from the Turks and annexed the country.
    (HN, 7/8/01)

1687        Aug 12, At the Battle of Mohacs, Hungary, Charles of Lorraine defeated the Turks.
    (HN, 8/12/98)

1687        Sep 26, The Venetian army attacked the Acropolis in Athens while trying to eject Turks. Marauding Venetians sent a mortar through a gable window of the Parthenon and ignited a Turkish store of gunpowder. This damaged the northern colonnade of the Parthenon. The Parthenon was destroyed in the war between Turks and Venetians.
    (SFEC, 6/6/99, p.A26)(MC, 9/26/01)

1687        Sep 28, Venetians took Athens from the Turks.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1687-1691    Suleiman II succeeded Mehmed IV in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1688        Sep 6, Imperial troops defeated the Turks and took Belgrade, Serbia.
    (HN, 9/6/98)

1689        The Macedonian city of Skopje, under Ottoman rule at this time, was torched by the Austrians.
    (Econ, 1/5/12, p.69)

1690        Oct 8, Belgrade was retaken by the Turks.
    (HN, 10/8/98)

1691-1695    Ahmed II succeeded Suleiman II in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1695        Jan 27, Mustafa II became the Ottoman sultan in Istanbul on the death of Amhed II. Mustafa ruled to 1703.
    (HN, 1/27/99)(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1695        Sep 11, Imperial troops under Eugene of Savoy defeated the Turks at the Battle of Zenta.
    (HN, 9/11/98)

1697        Sep 11, Prince Eugene of Savoy led the Austrians to victory over the Ottoman Turks at Senta (Serbia). This resulted in creating the conditions for the 1699 conclusion of the peace at Karlowitz.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Eug%C3%A8ne_de_Cro%C3%BF)

1698        Abraham or Ibrahim (Abram Petrovich Gannibal) was born about this time in the Eritrean highland, north of the Mareb River in a town called Logon. Abraham's father was a local chief or a "prince". Within a few years Turks invaded the area and abducted Abraham following a battle lost by his father. Abraham spent a year in Constantinople and was sold with a bribe for service to Russia’s Peter the Great.
    (www.shaebia.org/wwwboard/contributedarticles/messages/58.html)

1699        Jan 26, The Treaty of Karlowitz ended the war between Austria and the Turks.
    (HN, 1/26/99)

1700        Jun 23, Russia gave up its Black Sea fleet as part of a truce with the Ottoman Empire.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1703-1730    Ahmed III succeeded Mustafa II in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1711        Mar 19, War was declared between Russia and Turkey.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

1711        Jul 21, Russia and Turkey signed the Treaty of Pruth, ending the year-long Russo-Turkish War.
    (HN, 7/21/98)

1715        The Ottomans recaptured the Peloponnesus from the Venetians.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.56)

1717        Aug 22, The Austrian army forced the Turkish army out of Belgrade, ending the Turkish revival in the Balkans.
    (HN, 8/22/98)

1718        Jul 21, The Turkish threat to Europe was eliminated with the signing of the Treaty of Passarowitz between Austria, Venice and the Ottoman Empire.
    (HN, 7/21/98)

1730-1754    Mahmud I succeeded Ahmed III in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1737        Jul 18, The Turkish army beat the Austrians in the Battle at Banja Luka.
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1739        Sep 18, Turkey and Austria signed peace treaty-Austria ceding Belgrade to Turks. [see Sep 23]
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1739        Sep 23, The Austrians signed the Treaty of Belgrade after having lost the city to the Turks.
    (HN, 9/23/98)

1739        Oct 3, Russia signed a treaty with the Turks, ending a three-year conflict between the two countries.
    (HN, 10/3/98)

1750        Acre, a former stronghold of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, was re-built by the Ottoman Turks around this time, effectively preserving the earlier town, which had been destroyed in 1291 and hidden for centuries under rubble.
    (AP, 6/22/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Acre_%281291%29)

1754-1757    Osman III succeeded Mahmud I in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1757-1774    Mustafa III succeeded Osman III in the Ottoman House of Osman. 
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1763        Russia annexed the Crimea peninsula from Crimean Tartars and Ottoman Turks.
    (SFC, 2/4/09, p.A5)

1768-1774    The Russian and Ottoman War.
    (HNQ, 5/6/02)

1770        Jul 6, The entire Ottoman fleet was defeated and destroyed by the Russians at the battle of Chesme [Cesme] on the Aegean Sea.
    (HN, 7/6/98)(WSJ, 4/29/99, p.A24)(HNQ, 8/25/99)

1773         Sep 14, Russian forces under Aleksandr Suvorov successfully stormed a Turkish fort at Hirsov, Turkey.
    (HN, 9/14/99)

1774        Jul 16, Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed the treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji, ending their six-year war. This brought Russia for the first time to the Mediterranean as the acknowledged protector of Orthodox Christians.
    (HN, 7/16/98)(WSJ, 4/29/99, p.A24)

1774-1789    Abdul Hamid I succeeded Mustafa III in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1775        Catherine the Great of Russia received an ornament containing over 1000 diamonds, the "Sultan Feather" from the Turkish Sultan Abdulhamid.
    (WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)

1779        Mar 31, Russia and Turkey signed a treaty by which they promised to take no military action in the Crimea.
    (HN, 3/31/99)

1780        The Ottomans build the al-Ajyad Castle in Mecca to protect the city and its Muslim shrines from invaders. The castle was torn down by the Saudis in 2001 to make way for a trade center and hotel complex. Turkey called this a "cultural massacre."
    (SFC, 1/8/02, p.A6)

1785        Jul 20, Mahmud II, sultan of Turkey (1808-39), Westernizer, reformer, was born.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1787        Aug 13, The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia.
    (HN, 8/13/98)

1789        Sep 22, Russian forces under Aleksandr Suvorov drove the Turkish army under Yusuf Pasha from the Rymnik River, upsetting the Turkish invasion of Russia.
    (HN, 9/22/99)

1789        Russian soldiers under the leadership of Jose Pascual Domingo de Ribas y Boyons (aka Osip Deribas) chased Ottoman forces from the barracks hamlet of Khadjibey. He recognized the site’s potential for a military base to control the mouths of the Danube, Dniester, Dnieper and Bug rivers. Odessa became the name of the city built there.
    (Econ, 2/26/11, p.91)

1789-1807    Selim III succeeded Abdul Hamid I in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1791        Aug 4, The chief item in the Peace of Sistova agreement between the Austrian Empire and Turkey was the return of Belgrade to Turkey. The peace initiative resulted from the terms of the Convention of Reichenbach between Prussia and Austria. Belgrade had been taken in 1789 by the Holy Roman emperor Joseph II.
    (HNQ, 6/25/99)

1792        Jan 9, The Ottomans signed a treaty with the Russians ending a five year war.
    (HN, 1/9/99)

1799        Mar 7, In Palestine, Napoleon captured the Turkish citadel at Jaffa and his men massacred more than 2,000 Albanian prisoners. [see Mar 26] The prisoners were massacred because Napoleon claimed that he could not feed them. About this time bubonic plague broke out among his troops.
    (HN, 3/7/99)(ON, 12/99, p.2)

1799        Mar 19, Napoleon Bonaparte began the siege of Acre ( later Akko, Israel), which was defended by Turks.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

1799        Mar 26, Napoleon Bonaparte captured Jaffa, Palestine. [see Mar 7]
    (HN, 3/26/99)

1799        Mar, Napoleon moved on to the Turkish fortress at Acre. His 2 month siege was unsuccessful.
    (ON, 12/99, p.2)

1799        Jul 17, Ottoman forces, supported by the British, captured Aboukir, Egypt from the French.
    (HN, 7/17/99)

1799        Jul 25, On his way back from Syria, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated the Ottomans at Aboukir, Egypt.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1800        Jan, Lord Elgin established his British embassy in Constantinople. His orders were to open the borders for trade, obtain entry for British ships to the Black Sea and to secure an alliance against French military expeditions in the eastern Mediterranean.
    (ON, 11/99, p.2)

1800        Mar 20, French army defeated Turks at Heliopolis, Turkey, and advanced to Cairo.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1800        Jul 6, The Sultan of Constantinople at the behest of Lord Elgin issued written orders to his officers in Athens for cooperation with Giovanni Lusieri and the removal of sculptures from the Parthenon.
    (ON, 11/99, p.2)

1803        Jan, Lord Elgin concluded his diplomatic mission to Constantinople.
    (ON, 11/99, p.2)

1807-1808    Mustafa IV succeeded Selim III in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1808        Jul 28, Sultan Mustapha IV of the Ottoman Empire was deposed and his cousin Mahmud II gained the throne and ruled to 1839.
    (HN, 7/28/98)(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1810        May 3, Lord Byron swam the Hellespont.
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1811        The Turks dispatched Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali to overthrow the Wahabis and reinstate Ottoman sovereignty in Arabia.
    (NW, 9/30/02, p.33)
1811        The Mamelukes remained a powerful influence in Egypt until they were massacred or dispersed by Mehemet Ali.
    (WUD, 1994, p.869)

1817        Francis Beaufort (1774-1857), Irish-born hydrogapher, authored a best-selling travel book about the southern coast of Turkey.
    (NH, 11/1/04, p.51)

1821        Mar 25, Greece gained independence from Turkey (National Day). [see Mar 28]
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1821        Mar 28, Greek Independence Day celebrates the liberation of Southern Greece from Turkish domination. In 1844 Thomas Gordon authored a study of the Greek revolution. In 2001 David Brewer authored "The Greek War of Independence."
    (SFC, 3/28/98, p.A15)(WSJ, 9/17/01, p.A20)

1821        Jun 19, The Ottomans defeated the Greeks at the Battle of Dragasani.
    (HN, 6/19/98)

1821        Oct 5, Greek rebels captured Tripolitza, the main Turkish fort in the Peloponnese area of Greece.
    (HN, 10/5/98)

1822         Albanian leader Ali Pasha of Tepelena was assassinated by Ottoman agents for promoting autonomy.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1822        There was a massacre of Greeks on the island of Chios. The event was later depicted in a painting by Delacroix.
    (WSJ, 9/17/01, p.A20)

1826        Apr 23, Missolonghi (in west Greece) fell to Egyptian-Turkish forces. [see Apr 22]
    (HN, 4/23/99)(MC, 4/23/02)

1827        Jun 5, Athens fell to the Ottomans during Greek War of Independence.
    (HN, 6/5/98)(MC, 6/5/02)

1827        Oct 20, British, French and Russian squadrons entered the harbor at Navarino, Greece, and destroyed most of the Egyptian fleet there. The Ottomans demanded reparations.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.770)(www.ipta.demokritos.gr/erl/navarino.html)

1828        Apr 26, Russia declared war on Turkey to support Greece's independence.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1830         1000 Albanian leaders were invited to meet with an Ottoman general who killed about half of them.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1835         The Ottoman Porte divided Albanian-populated lands into vilayets of Janina, Manastir, Shkodra, and Kosova with Ottoman administrators.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1839        Jul 2, Abdul Meçid, aka Abdul Mejid I (1823-1861), succeeded his father, Mahmud II, in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abd%C3%BClmecid_II)


1844        Englishman Alexander Kinglake (25) authored his travel book “Eothen." The name was from the Greek for “from the east." It told of his adventures traveling across the Ottoman Empire from Belgrade to Cairo.
    (WSJ, 9/23/06, p.P8)(Econ, 9/14/13, p.90)

1853        Jul, Supported by Britain, the Turks took a firm stand against the Russians, who occupied the Danubian principalities (modern Romania) on the Russo-Turkish border. The Crimean War got under way in October. It was fought mainly on the Crimean Peninsula between the Russians and the British, French, and Ottoman Turkish, with support, from January 1855, by the army of Sardinia-Piedmont. The war aligned Anglican England and Roman Catholic France with Islam’s sultan-caliphs against the tsars, who saw themselves as the world’s last truly Christian emperors.
    (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/143040/Crimean-War)(Econ, 10/2/10, p.89)

1853        The Sultan moved from Topkapi to Dolmabahce Palace in Constantinople.
    (Sky, 4/97, p.58)

1854        Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) nursed wounded soldiers at Scutari Hospital in Turkey during the Crimean War.
    (HNQ, 4/29/01)

1855        Sep 9, Sevastopol, under siege for nearly a year, fell to the Allies. France, England, the Ottoman Empire and Sardinia (as Italy was then known) defeated the Russians at Sevastopol in the decisive battle of the Crimean War.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crimean_War)(SFC, 7/27/13, p.C2)

1855        Nov 26, Adam Bernard Mickiewicz (b.1798) died in Constantinople. He was a poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, and political activist. Mickiewicz is regarded as national poet in Poland, Lithuania (Adomas Mickevičius) and Belarus.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adam_Mickiewicz)

1856        Feb 29, Hostilities in Russo-Turkish war ceased.
    (HN, 2/29/00)

1856        Mar 30, Russia signed the Treaty of Paris ending the Crimean War. It guaranteed the integrity of Ottoman Turkey and obliged Russia to surrender southern Bessarabia, at the mouth of the Danube. The Black Sea was neutralized, and the Danube River was opened to the shipping of all nations. In 2010 Allen Lane authored “Crimea: The Last Crusade."
    (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/143040/Crimean-War)(Econ, 10/2/10, p.89)

1856        A Turkish imperial edict lifted a ban on Christian bell-ringing in Jerusalem, whnich at this time was part of the Ottoman empire. The British were given the honor of erecting the city’s first outdoor bell since the crusades.
    (Econ, 1/5/13, p.35)

1861        Feb 2, Mohammed VI, last sultan of Ottoman Empire (1918-22), was born.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1861        Jun 25, Abdul Mejid, the 31st Ottoman sultan, died. He had dreamed of a tunnel under the Bosphorus Straits connecting Asia to Europe.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abd%C3%BClmecid_I)(Econ, 10/26/13, p.62)

1861-1876    Abdul Aziz succeeded Abdul Meçid in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1868        Bulgaria’s Buzludzha peak area was the place of the final battle between rebels led by Hadji Dimitar and Stefan Karadzha and the Ottoman Empire.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buzludzha)

1870        Apr 9, Heinrich Schliemann, German archeologist, with neither a permit nor the consent of the Turkish landowners, had his hired men sink trenches on the summit of the mound of Hissarlik, the spur of a limestone plateau on the northwest coast, where he suspected that the ancient ruins of Troy lay buried. Schliemann was hired by Frank Calvert (1828-1908), US Consular Agent at the Dardanelles, to excavate at Thymbra. In 1999 Susan Heuck Allen authored “Finding the Wall of Troy: Frank Calvert and Heinrich Schliemann at Hisarlik."
    (www.lib.duke.edu/lilly/artlibry/dah/schliemannh.htm)(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.44)(Arch, 11/04, p.8)

1870        Apr 27, Heinrich Schliemann discovered Troy.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1870        Jun 5, A fire in Constantinople killed some 900 people.
    (MC, 6/5/02)

1873             Apr 1,  M. Namik Kemal’s play " Vatan yahut Silistre " premiered in Constantinople.
    (OTD)

1873        German archeologist Heinrich Schliemann smuggled out treasures from the ancient city of Troy.
    (SSFC, 9/11/11, p.A4)

1875        Jul 29, Peasants in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Balkans rebelled against the Ottoman army.
    (HN, 7/29/98)

1875        The Ottoman Empire defaulted on its debt. This led to foreign lenders to set up the “Ottoman Public Debt Administration" in 1881.
    (Econ, 2/8/14, p.58)

1876        May 30, Murad V succeeded Abdul Aziz in the Ottoman House of Osman. His reign only lasted to August 31.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murad_V)

1876        Jul 2, Montenegro declared war on Turkey.
    (PC, 1992, p.537)

1876        Aug 31, Abdul Hamid II succeeded Murad V as the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman House of Osman. His ruled continued to April 27, 1909.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murad_V)

1876        Sep 1, The Ottomans inflicted a decisive defeat on the Serbs at Aleksinac.
    (HN, 9/1/99)

1876        The excavation of Pergamon (later Bergama, Turkey) by German archeologist uncovered a monument called the Great Altar with a frieze of the mythological Greek hero Telephos that dated to the 2nd century BC.
    (WSJ, 1/16/96, p. A-16)

1876        Russia under Alexander II invaded Ottoman-controlled Bulgaria with a mixture of humanitarian and imperialistic motives following reports that Turks were massacring Bulgarians.
    (SFC, 9/7/08, Books p.5)

1877        Apr 24, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire.
    (HN, 4/24/98)

1877        Nov 17, Russians launched a surprise night attack that overran Turkish forces at Kars, Armenia.
    (HN, 11/17/98)

1877        Dec 14, Serbia joined Russia in war on Turkey.
    (AP, 12/14/02)

1877-1878    The Russo-Turkish War.
    (AP, 7/13/97)

1878        Mar 3, Russia and the Ottomans signed the Treaty of San Stefano, granting independence to Serbia. With the Treaty of San Stefano (and subsequent negotiations in Berlin) in the wake of the last Russo-Turkish War, the Ottoman Empire lost its possession of numerous territories including Bulgaria, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia. The Russo-Turkish wars dated to the 17th century, the Russians generally gaining territory and influence over the declining Ottoman Empire. In the last war, Russia and Serbia supported rebellions in the Balkans. In concluding the Treaty of San Stefano, the Ottomans released control of Montenegro, Romania and Serbia, granted autonomy to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and allowed an autonomous state of Bulgaria to be placed under Russian control.
    (HN, 3/3/99)(HNQ, 2/23/01)
1878         Mar 3, The Treaty of San Stefano was signed after Russo-Turkish War. It assigned Albanian-populated lands to Bulgaria, Montenegro and Serbia; but Austria-Hungary and Britain blocked the treaty's implementation. Albanian leaders meet in Prizren, Kosova, to form the League of Prizren. The League initially advocated autonomy for Albania. At the Congress of Berlin, the Great Powers overturned the Treaty of San Stefano and divided Albanian lands among several states. The League of Prizren began to organize resistance to the Treaty of Berlin's provisions that affected Albanians.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_San_Stefano)

1878        Jun 4, The Ottoman Empire turned over control of Cyprus to the British. The Congress of Berlin leased Cyprus to Britain.
    (AP, 6/4/08)(Econ, 10/23/10, SR p.10)

1878        Jul 13, The Treaty of Berlin amended the terms of the Treaty of San Stefano, which had ended the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. The Congress of Berlin divided the Balkans among European powers. Austria-Hungary and Britain, alarmed at the possibilities of growing Russian power, concluded the Treaty of Berlin, reducing the military and political gains Russia had made with the San Stefano treaty.
    (AP, 7/13/97)(HN, 7/13/98)(HNQ, 2/23/01)

1878        Carl Humann led a German team in excavating an archeological site in Bergama, western Turkey. The team discovered an altar of Zeus, dating from the 2nd century BC. It was sent to Germany and became the centerpiece of the Pergamon Museum in Berlin.
    (Econ, 5/19/12, p.89)

1880        A tablet known as the Siloam inscription was found in a tunnel hewed to channel water from a spring outside Jerusalem's walls into the city and taken by the Holy Land's Ottoman rulers to Istanbul. It was later placed in the collection of the Istanbul Archaeology Museum. The tunnel was constructed around 700 BC, a project mentioned in the Old Testament's Book of Chronicles. The tablet was installed to celebrate the moment the two construction teams of King Hezekiah met underground. In 2007 Jerusalem's mayor asked the Turkish government to return the tablet.
    (AP, 7/13/07)

1881        May 19, Kemal Ataturk (d.1938), first president (1923-38) of the Republic of Turkey, later set this as his birth date. He did not know the exact day, but favored May 19, tied to his start in 1919 of the war for independence.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mustafa_Kemal_Atat%C3%BCrk)(SSFC, 5/19/13, p.N3)

1881        Hamdi Bey (1842-1910), Ottoman statesman painter and archeologist, founded the Archeological Museum of Istanbul. It opened in 1891.
    (NH, 6/03, p.44)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osman_Hamdi_Bey)
1881         Ottoman forces crushed Albanian resistance fighters at Prizren. The League's leaders and families were arrested and deported.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1883        Oct 4, Orient Express made its 1st run linking Istanbul, Turkey, to  Paris by rail.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1884        Turkey passed a law stating that all antiquities were the property of the state and could not be taken out of the country. The law was updated in 1906.
    (Econ, 5/19/12, p.90)

1887        A Lebanese villager discovered a well near Sidon that led to two underground chambers, which turned out to be a royal tomb containing 18 marble sarcophagi dating back the 5th century BC. The largest was believed to contain the remains of Alexander the Great. Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II ordered them shipped to Istanbul.
    (Econ, 5/19/12, p.89)

1888        Dec 2, Mehmed N. Kemal Bey (47), Turkish writer and journalist (Vatan), died.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1889        The young Ottoman army and navy officers who revolted against the despotic sultan Abdulhamid, known as the Young Turks, belonged to a secret society formed in 1889 called the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP). Members of the committee worked for the union of all the various nationalities of the Ottoman Empire into a community of citizens with equal rights and duties and progress toward constitutional government along European lines.
    (HNQ, 5/28/99)

1892        In Turkey the Pera Palace was built in Istanbul by the Belgium-based Wagon-Lits company. It was acquired in 1919 by Greek wheeler dealer  Prodromos Bodosakis. In 1927 it was bought by an ethnic Arab named Muhayyes. In March, 1941, the interior was flattened by a bobm directed at British diplomats.
    (Econ, 9/13/14, p.91)

1894        Nov 16, 6,000 Armenians were massacred by Turks in Kurdistan.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1894-1896    Thousands of Armenians were massacred by the Turks after attempts for autonomy and self-defense failed. This issue was then referred to as the "Armenian Question."
    (Compuserve Online Enc. / Armenia)

1895        May 25, Ahmed Djevdet Pasja (73), Turkish minister of Justice, died.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1895        Oct 1, Romanians in Constantinople were massacred.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1896        Nov 26, Russia disclosed a plan to seize Constantinople if Britain intervenes in Crete.
    (AP, 11/26/02)

1897        Mar 9, Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (b.1838), itinerant Islamic activist and British intelligence agent, died in Istanbul. He is considered as one of the founders of Islamic modernism and an advocate of pan-Islamic unity.
    (Econ, 7/28/12, p.73)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jamal-al-Din_al-Afghani)

1897        The Greeks were defeated by Turkey at Velestino in their war over the independence of Crete.
    (WSJ, 8/6/98, p.A13)

1898        Turkey withdrew from Crete.
    (AM, 11/00, p.53)

1903        Sep 8, Between 30,000 and 50,000 Bulgarian men, women and children were massacred in Monastir by Turkish troops seeking to check a threatened Macedonian uprising.
    (HN, 9/8/98)

1903        Sep 17, Turks destroyed the town of Kastoria in Bulgaria, killing 10,000 civilians.
    (HN, 9/17/98)

1904        Apr 15, Arshile Gorky (d.1948), artist, was born as Vostanig Adoian of Armenian parents in Eastern Turkey. (The actual year was between 1902 and 1905). He came to the US in 1920 and assumed a new name in admiration of Russian writer Maxim Gorky.
    (WSJ, 5/12/99, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arshile_Gorky)

1908        Jul 23, In Turkey Ottoman Sultan Abdulhamid II (1842-1918) capitulated to the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP)m which led a rebellion against the authoritarian his regime. The revolutionary organization was popularly known as the Young Turks. Since then, the term has been applied to other insurgent groups within organizations or political parties.
    (HNQ, 11/4/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdul_Hamid_II)

1908        Sep 22, Bulgaria declared independence from Ottoman Empire (Turkey).
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1908        Dec 14, The first truly representative Turkish Parliament opened.
    (HN, 12/14/98)

1909        Apr 13, In Turkey a counter-coup, led by a certain Dervish Vahdeti, began Istanbul and continued for a few days. It was put down by Hareket Ordusu (The Army of Action) constituted with troops stationed in the Balkans, which rapidly departed from Salonika. Among the officers who entered the capital was a young captain named Mustafa Kemal. 74 soldiers were killed in the incident. The “March 31" incidents actually started on 13 April 1909, a day corresponding to 31 March 1325 in the Rumi calendar in use at the time in Turkey for official timekeeping.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/31_March_Incident)

1909        Apr 27, In Turkey April 27 Reshad Efendi, the brother of Sultan Abdulhamid II, was proclaimed Sultan Mehmed V.
    (HN, 4/27/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdul_Hamid_II)

1909        The Adana massacre occurred in Adana Province, in the Ottoman Empire. A religious-ethnic clash in the city of Adana amidst governmental upheaval resulted in a series of anti-Armenian pogroms throughout the district. Reports estimated that the massacres in Adana Province resulted in 15,000 to 30,000 deaths.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adana_massacre)

1909        Sep 7, Elia Kazan (d.2003) was born as Alia Kazanjoglous in Constantinople to Anatolian Greek parents. Kazan became a producer, screenwriter and director who won directing Oscars for "Gentleman’s Agreement" and "On the Waterfront."
    (HN, 9/7/98)(AP, 9/29/03)(SFC, 9/29/03, p.A18)

1909-1918    Mehmed V succeeded Abdul Hamid II in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1911        Aug 3, Airplanes were used for the first time in a military capacity when Italian planes reconnoitered Turkish lines near Tripoli. Italy declared war on the Ottoman Turks and became the first country to drop bombs on an enemy from an airplane.
    (SFC, 7/11/98, p.B3)(HN, 8/3/98)

1911        Sep 25, Italy declared war on Turkey. [see Sep 30]
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1911        Sep 30, Italy declared war on Turkey over control of Tripoli. [see Sep 25]
    (HN, 9/30/98)

1912        Feb 24, Italy bombed Beirut in the first act of war against the Ottoman Empire.
    (HN, 2/24/98)

1912        Mar 5, The Italians became the first to use dirigibles for military purposes, using them for reconnaissance flights behind Turkish lines west of Tripoli.
    (HN, 3/5/98)

1912         May, Albanians rose against the Ottoman authorities and seized Shkup (Skopje, Macedonia).
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1912        Oct 8, Montenegro declared war on Turkey beginning the 1st Balkan War. Balkan League members followed Montenegro 10 days later. [see Oct 18]
    (http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/bravo/balkan1912.htm)

1912        Oct 17, Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia declared war on Turkey. [see Oct 18]
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1912        Oct 18, The First Balkan War broke out between the members of the Balkan League-- Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece and Montenegro--and the Ottoman Empire. A small Balkan War broke out and was quelled by the major powers. Albanian nationalism spurred repeated revolts against Turkish dominion and resulted in the First Balkan War in which the Turks were driven out of much of the Balkan Peninsula. Austria-Hungary’s 1908 annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina spurred Serbian efforts to form the Balkan alliance with its neighbors.  As a result of the war on Turkey, Serbia doubled its territory with the award of Northern Macedonia. Albanian leaders affirmed Albania as an independent state. [see Oct 8]
    (V.D.-H.K.p.290)(CO, Grolier’s/ Albania)(HN, 10/18/98)(HNQ, 3/27/99)(www, Albania, 1998)

1912        Nov 5, Bulgarian troops in Constantinople blockaded drinking water.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1912        Dec 3, Turkey, Serbia, Montenegro, Greece & Bulgaria signed a weapons pact.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1912        Dec 4, An armistice was signed to end the First Balkan War. Following several victories over the Ottoman army, coalition forces occupied Macedonia and forced the Ottoman Empire to seek an armistice.
    (www.maknews.com/html/articles/stefov/stefov61.html)

1912-1913    During the Balkan Wars the Kingdom of Greece acquired Macedonia from the Turkish Ottoman Empire.
    (SFC, 4/23/98, p.B4)

1913        Jan 22, Turkey consented to the Balkan peace terms and gave up Adrianople.
    (HN, 1/22/99)

1913        Jan 23, The "Young Turks" revolted because they were angered by the concessions made at the London peace talks.
    (HN, 1/23/99)

1913        Feb 7, Turks lost 5,000 men in a battle with the Bulgarian army in Gallipoli.
    (HN, 2/7/99)

1913        Jul 10, Rumania entered the Second Balkan War and four days later the Ottoman Empire joined the general assault on Bulgaria. Faced with four fronts, Bulgarian armies were defeated piecemeal and the government at Sofia was forced to seek peace. Atrocities were widespread. For example, in pursuing the Bulgarian army Greek forces systematically burnt to the ground all Macedonian villages they encountered, mass-murdering their entire populations. Likewise, when the Greek army entered Kukush (Kilkis) and occupied surrounding villages, about 400 old people and children were imprisoned and killed. Nor did the Serbian "liberators" lag behind in destruction and wanton slaughter throughout Macedonia. In Bitola, Skopje, Shtip and Gevgelija, the Serbian army, police and chetniks (guerrillas) committed their own atrocities.
    (www.maknews.com/html/articles/stefov/stefov61.html)

1913        Aug 10, The Treaty of Bucharest ended the Second Balkan War. It was concluded by the delegates of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece. The entire "disputed zone" was taken by Serbia, Greece secured its position in Thessaloniki and southeastern Macedonia, the Ottomans regained all the territories lost in the First Balkan War to Bulgaria with the exception of eastern (Pirin) Macedonia, and the Romanians seized Southern Dobruja. 
    (www.maknews.com/html/articles/stefov/stefov61.html)

1913        Sep 29, The Treaty of Constantinople was signed. Turkey obtained not only Adrianople, but also Kirk Kilissé and Demotica. The Bulgarians were not even left masters of the one railway leading to Dedeagatch, their sole port on the Aegean Sea.
    (www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/boshtml/bos151.htm)

1914        Aug 3, German Admiral Souchon, commander of the battle cruisers Goeben and Breslau, received an unexpected change in his orders. After attacking the Algerian coast he was no longer to sail west to the Atlantic Ocean. Instead, he was now ordered to turn around and sail east to Turkey. His new mission was to persuade the neutral Turkish government to enter the war on the side of Germany. The 2 ships were sold to Turkey and Souchon was made commander of the Turkish navy. He took the ships into the Black Sea, where he bombarded the Russian cities of Odessa, Sebastopol and Novorossiysk without the knowledge or consent of the Turkish government.
    (http://www.worldwar1.com/sfgb.htm)(ON, Dec, 1995)

1914        Oct 29, A Turkish fleet including 2 German cruisers stormed the Black Sea and bombarded Odessa, Sevastopol and Theodosia. [see Aug 3] This marked Turkey’s full entry into WWI
    (PC, 1992, p.706)(ON, Dec, 1995)(Econ., 3/7/15, p.85)

1914        Oct 31, Great Britain and France declared war on Turkey. [see Nov 5]
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1914        Fall, Armenian volunteer bands organized themselves and fought against the Turks. "The Protestant missionaries distributed... propaganda in favor of England and stirred the Armenians to desire autonomy under British protection."
    (History of Armenia, Horen Ashikian)

1914        Nov 2, Russia declared war with Turkey. [see Oct 29]
    (HN, 11/2/98)

1914        Nov 5, The French and British declared war on Turkey. [see Oct 31]
    (HN, 11/5/98)

1914        Dec 17, Jews were expelled from Tel Aviv by Turkish authorities.
    (MC, 12/17/01)

1915        Feb 19, British and French warships began their attacks on the Turkish forts at the mouth of the Dardenelles, in an abortive expedition to force the straits of Gallipoli. Winston Churchill was the architect of the disastrous campaign. Allied forces were evacuated at the end of the year after both sides had suffered appalling hardships and losses. In 2011 Peter Hart authored “Gallipoli."
    (HN, 2/19/99)(NW, 12/24/01, p.64)(Econ, 10/8/11, p.103)

1915        Mar 2, British Vice Admiral Carden began bombing of Dardanelles forts.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1915        Mar 16, British battle cruisers Inflexible and Irresistible hit mines in Dardanelle (Turkey).
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1915        Apr 11, The Armenians of Van began a general revolt, massacring all the Turks in the vicinity so as to make possible its quick and easy conquest by the Russians.
    (http://www.atmg.org/ArmenianFAQ.html#q6)

1915        Apr 20, The Turks fired the first shot at Van; the first Armenians were deported from Zeitoun on the 8th April, and there is a record of their arrival in Syria as early as the l9th.
    (http://raven.cc.ukans.edu/~kansite/ww_one/docs/bryce2.htm)

1915        Apr 24-May 14, Turkey said Armenians had sided with Russia and issued a deportation order for the mass deportation of Armenians. Armenian organizations in Istanbul were closed and 235 members were arrested for treason. Turkish police arrested some 800 of the most prominent Armenians in Constantinople, took them into the hinterlands and shot them. With that the terror spread through "Turkish Armenia" spearheaded by the "Special Organization" of soldiers of the Turkish leader Enver. In 2006 Taner Akcam authored “A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility."
    (AP, 4/24/97)(SFC, 4/27/99, p.A10)(HNQ, 5/30/99)(Econ, 10/21/06, p.95)(AP, 4/24/10)

1915        Apr 25, Australian and New Zealand troops landed at Gallipoli in Turkey in hopes of attacking the Central Powers from below. Allied soldiers, ANZAC, invaded the Gallipoli Peninsula in Turkey in an unsuccessful attempt to take the Ottoman Turkish Empire out of the war. The allies were defeated in one of the deadliest battles of the war. In 1965 Sir Robert Rhodes James authored "Gallipoli," a definitive account of the Allied expedition.
    (AP, 4/25/97)(SFC, 2/18/98, p.A18)(HN, 4/25/99)

1915        Jun-Jul, Aleppo and Ourfa [were] the assemblage-places for the convoys of exiles. There were about 5,000 of them in Aleppo, while during the whole period from April to July many more than 50,000 must have passed through the city. The girls were abducted almost without exception by the soldiers and their Arab hangers-on.
    (http://www.ku.edu/~kansite/ww_one/docs/bryce.htm)

1915        Jun 1, A forced exodus [of Armenians] from Baibourt [Turkey] took place. All the villages, as well as three-fourths of the town, had already been evacuated. A 3rd convoy included from 4,000 to 5,000 people. Within six or seven days from the start, all males down to below fifteen years of age had been murdered.
    (http://www.ku.edu/~kansite/ww_one/docs/bryce.htm)

1915        Aug 7, In the assault up Russell's Top at Gallipoli 232 Australians died.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1915        Aug 21, Italy declared war on Turkey.
    (HN, 8/21/98)

1915        Aug 29, Syriac Catholic bishop Flavien Michel Melki (b.1858) and his Chaldean counterpart, Monsignor Philippe-Jacques Abraham, were murdered in Cizre by Ottoman forces for refusing to renounce Christianity. In 2015 Melki was officially recognized as a "martyr" of the Catholic church and beatified by Pope Francis.
    (https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flavien_Michel_Melki)(AP, 8/30/15)

1915        Sep 28, At the Battle of Kut-el-Amara the British defeated the Turks in Mesopotamia.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1915        Nov 6, An order from Constantinople reached the local authorities, at any rate in the Cilician plain, directing them to refrain from further [Armenian] deportations.
    (http://raven.cc.ukans.edu/~kansite/ww_one/docs/bryce2.htm)

1915        Nov 22, The Anglo-Indian army, led by British General Sir Charles Townshend, attacked a larger Turkish force under General Nur-ud-Din at Ctesiphon, Iraq, but was repulsed.
    (HN, 11/22/98)

1915        Dec 18, In a single night, about 20,000 Australian and New Zealand troops slipped away from Gallipoli, undetected by the Turks defending the peninsula.
    (HN, 12/18/98)

1915        In 2003 Peter Balakian, Prof. at Colgate Univ., authored "The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America's Response," a one-sided account of the 1915 Armenian genocide and the Turkish massacres of Armenians in the 1890s.
    (SSFC, 10/11/03, p.M4)
1915        Kurdish tribes took part in the mass slaughter by the Ottomans of around 1 million Armenians. Tens of thousands of Syriacs fell with them.
    (Econ, 12/4/10, p.64)(Econ, 11/3/12, p.52)

1915-1917    Of the 1.75 million Armenians in Turkey at the outset of World War I, 250,000 fled into Russia. Some 600,000 starved to death in the Mesopotamian desert. Henry Morgenthau, US ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, alerted Pres. Wilson of a massacre of Armenians by the Turks. Evidence and photographs of the camps were provided to Morgenthau by Armin Wegner, German Red Cross official and Johannes Lepsius, a German missionary. British diplomat Lord Bryce hired Arnold Toynbee to document the slaughter. In 2004 Turkey's Culture Ministry allowed the film "Ararat" by Atom Egoyan, which recalled the plight of Armenians in Ottoman Turkey during this time, to be shown in Turkey with one rape scene cut. In 2004 Armenian descendants of some of the dead, who held 2,400 insurance policies, reached a $20 million settlement with New York Life Insurance Co.
    (AP, 4/24/97)(HN, 4/24/98)(SFC, 4/27/99, p.A10)(HNQ, 5/30/99)(PC, 1992, p.711)(SFC, 1/2/04, p.D15)(SFC, 1/29/04, p.A3)

1916        Jan 18, The Russians forced the Turkish 3rd Army back to Erzurum.
    (HN, 1/18/99)

1916        Jun 10, Mecca, under control of the Turks, fell to the Arabs during the Great Arab Revolt.
    (HFA, '96, p.32)(HN, 6/10/98)

1916        Aug 5, The British navy defeated the Ottomans at the naval battle off Port Said, Egypt.
    (HN, 8/5/98)

1916        Tahsin Yazici served as a division commander fighting the British at Gallipoli.
    (HNQ, 7//00)

1916        C.F. Dixon-Johnson authored "The Armenians," with the aim of "presenting the public an opportunity of judging whether or not 'the Armenian Question' has another side than that which has been recently so assiduously promulgated throughout the Western World."
    (www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh08/06.htm)

1916        Arnold Toynbee edited a document titled: "The Treatment of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire: 1915-1916."
    (http://www.ku.edu/~kansite/ww_one/docs/bryce.htm)

1916        Britain appointed a Royal Commission to investigate the calamitous attack on the Dardanelles.
    (Econ, 11/4/06, p.67)

1917        Mar 28, Jews were expelled from Tel Aviv and Jaffa by Turkish authorities.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1917        May 20, Turkish government authorized Jews to return to Tel Aviv and Jaffa.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1917        Jul 6, During World War I, Arab forces led by T.E. Lawrence and Auda Abu Tayi captured the port of Aqaba from the Turks.
    (AP, 7/6/08)

1917        Nov 7, British General Sir Edmond Allenby broke the Turkish defensive line in the Third Battle of Gaza.
    (HN, 11/7/98)

1917        Dec 9, British forces under General Allenby captured Jerusalem. He liberated the city from Turkish control.
    (WSJ, 4/4/96, A-12)(SFC, 10/18/96, C8)(MC, 12/9/01)

1918          Mar 3, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which ended Russian participation in World War I. Germany and Austria forced Soviet Russia to sign the Peace of Brest, which called for the establishment of 5 independent countries: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Ukraine. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which ended Russian participation in World War I, was annulled by the November 1918 armistice. The treaty deprived the Soviets of White Russia.
    (HN, 3/3/99)(LHC, 3/1/03)(AP, 3/3/08)

1918        Jun, The Ottomans became the first to recognize the first and short-lived Republic of Armenia.
    (Econ., 4/18/15, p.76)

1918        Jul 3, Ottoman Sultan Mehmet Resad died and Vahdettin (1861-1926) became the new Sultan.
    (www.turkeyswar.com/whoswho/who-vahidettin.htm)

1918        Sep 22, General Allenby led the British army against the Turks, taking Haifa and Nazareth, Palestine.
    (HN, 9/22/98)

1918        Oct 1, Damascus (Syria) fell to Arab forces as Turkish Ottoman officials surrendered the city.
    (ON, 10/05, p.9)(AP, 10/1/08)

1918        Oct 30, Turkey signed the Mondros Armistice with the Allies, agreeing to end hostilities at noon October 31.
    (HN, 10/30/98)

1918        Dec 2, Armenia proclaimed independence from Turkey.
    (HN, 12/2/98)

1918        The Yazidis of Sinjar (Iraq) saved hundreds of Armenians and Assyrian Christians as they were being slaughtered by Ottoman Turks and their Kurdish proxies.  The Ottomans retaliated by sending a small army to Sinjar and capturing the revered Yazidi leader, Hamo Sharro, who was sentenced to five years of har labor.
    (Econ, 8/23/14, p.38)

1918-1922    Mehmed VI succeeded Mehmed V in the Ottoman House of Osman. 
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1919        May 19, Mustafa Kemal arrived in Samsun, Anatolia, to start the National Struggle.
    http://www.osmanli700.gen.tr/english/sultans.html

1919        Jun 19, Mustafa Kemal founded the Turkish National Congress at Angora (later Ankara) and denounced the Treaty of Versailles.
    (HN, 6/19/98)

1919-1922    The Greco-Turkish war. After the war ethnic Greeks were forced to leave Turkey and ethnic Turks were forced to leave Greece.
    (SFEM, 3/12/00, p.28)

1920        Mar 20, Britain and its allies formally occupied Istanbul.
    (Econ, 10/21/06, p.95)

1920        Apr 23, The Turkish Grand National Assembly held its first meeting in Ankara.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1920        Jun 25, The Greeks took 8,000 Turkish prisoners in Smyrna.
    (HN, 6/25/98)

1920        Aug 10, The Ottoman sultanate at Constantinople signed the Treaty of Sevres with the Allies and associated powers. It promised a homeland for the Kurds, but the nationalist government in Ankara did not sign the treaty. It set the borders of Turkey recognized Armenia as an independent state. France and Britain backed the treaty and a Kurdish state, but refused to allow Kurds in Iraq and Syria to join it.
    (SFC, 2/17/99, p.A10)(www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/versa/sevres1.html) (EWH, 4th ed, p.1086)(Econ, 7/13/13, SR p.5)
1920        Aug 10, Turkish government renounced its claim to Israel and recognized the British mandate.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1920s        A census in Turkey in the early 1920s counted the Alevi as about 35% of the 13 million population. Alevi claimed to be a purely Anatolian faith based on Shaman and Zoroastrian beliefs going back 6,000 years with Christian, Jewish and Islamic influences. By this time the Shiite Islamic influence was the strongest.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.11)

1920-1990    Turkey virtually outlawed the Kurdish language.
    (WSJ, 5/24/00, p.A1)

1921        Feb 8, The Turkish Parliament gave the city of Antep the title Gazi ("victorious warrior" – “warrior of the faith"), a day before the city surrendered to the French, in recognition of the valor of its inhabitants during the Turkish War of Independence. Gaziantep, amongst the oldest continually inhabited cities in the world, had withstood a 10-month siege by French forces.
    (Econ, 10/23/10, SR p.14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaziantep)

1921        Jun 19, Turks and Christians of Palestine signed a friendship treaty against Jews.
    (MC, 6/19/02)

1921        Jul 10, Greek forces launched a frontal attack with five divisions on Sakarya, Turkey.
    (www.allaboutturkey.com/ata_life.htm)

1921        Aug 23, In the great battle of Sakarya, which continued without interruption from the 23rd of August to the 13th of September, Turkey defeated the Greek Army.
    (www.allaboutturkey.com/ata_life.htm)

1921        Oct 13, In the Treaty of Kars Turkey formally recognized the Armenian Soviet Republic.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.1086)
1921        Oct 13, The Daily Colonist in Victoria BC mentioned the term "cold turkey" in reference to quitting an addiction. This was the first know use of the term in print.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.8)

1921        Kemal Ataturk, a Muslim general, called for sustained military action to "chase the enemy out of our land." He referred to British, French and Italian forces that had helped defeat the Ottoman Empire and were stationed in Istanbul.
    (SSFC, 10/14/01, p.A3)
1921        The Turkish town of Gaziantep withstood a 10-month siege by French forces.
    (Econ, 10/23/10, SR p.14)

1922        Jul 21, Djemal Pasha, dictator of Turkey, was murdered.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1922        Sep 9, Turkish troops under Mustafa Kemal conquered Smyrna, Greece. This effectively ended in the field the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922) more than three years after the Greek army had landed on Smyrna on 15 May, 1919.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Fire_of_Smyrna)
1922        Sep 13, A major fire began to ravage Smyrna, Greece, shortly following occupation by Turkish troops under Mustafa Kemal. The fire lasted 4 days.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Fire_of_Smyrna)

1922        Nov 1, The Ottoman Empire ended as Turkey’s Grand National Assembly abolished the sultanate. In 2006 Caroline Finkel authored “Osman’s Dream: The History of the Ottoman Empire."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_Empire)(WSJ, 4/11/06, p.D8)

1922        Nov 17, Mahmet VI (1861-1926), the last Ottoman Sultan (aka Sultan Vahdettin), left the Dolmabahce Palace on board the British gunship Malaya and went to Malta. He spent just 37 days on this island and went to Mecca upon the invitation of a local leader. His subsequent attempts to restore himself as Caliph in Hejaz proved a failure. He died in San Remo, Italy.
    (AP, 4/3/12)(www.turkeyswar.com/whoswho/who-vahidettin.htm)

1923        Mar 6, The Turkish National Assembly rejected the Lausanne Treaty in Angora.
    (HN, 3/6/98)

1923        Jul 24, The Treaty of Lausanne, which settled the boundaries of modern Greece and Turkey, was concluded in Switzerland. It replaced the Treaty of Sevres and divided the lands inhabited by the Kurds between Turkey, Iraq and Syria. Article 39 allowed Turkish nationals to use any language they wished in commerce, public and private meetings, and publications. The treaty specifically protected the rights of the Armenian, Greek and Jewish communities. The former provinces of Baghdad, Basra and Mosul were lumped together to form Iraq. Both countries agreed to a massive exchange of religious minorities. Christians were deported from Turkey to Greece and Muslims from Greece to Turkey. A Muslim community of at least 100,000 was allowed in northern Greece. In 2006 Bruce Clark authored “Twice a Stranger: The Mass Expulsions that Forged Modern Greece and Turkey."
    (WSJ, 3/20/97, p.A17)(AP, 7/24/97)(SSFC, 12/22/02, p.A14)(Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.9)(Econ, 10/14/06, p.50)(Econ, 12/9/06, p.92)(Econ, 10/16/10, p.72)

1923        Aug 13, The Turkish National Congress selected Mustafa Kemal Pasha (Ataturk) as president.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1923        Oct 13, Angora (Ankara) became Turkey's capital.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1923        Oct 29, The Republic of Turkey was proclaimed under Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. Turkey established secular government under Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. He introduced the policy known as Kemalism, which bars any mixing of religious and public life. The country was predominantly Sunni Muslim.
    (WSJ, 12/27/95, p. A-6)(SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-9)(WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A10)(AP, 10/29/97)
1923        Oct 29, Kemal Ataturk (b.1881) was the founder and first president (1923-38) of the Republic of Turkey. Ataturk grew up to become a soldier, coming to international prominence for his defense of the Gallipoli peninsula during World War I. The Allied powers, eager to claim Ottoman territory, began to occupy territory before the official peace treaty--actions which hardened Ataturk's resolve. Beginning in 1919, Kemal--having resigned his commission--gained military support for a Turkish nationalist movement. He also established a government in Ankara, some 300 miles from the Sultan in Istanbul. Nationalist forces eventually found victory with the Treaty of Lausanne, signed in 1923. As president, Ataturk instituted a number of legal and educational reforms, expanded women’s rights and encouraged adoption of some European customs (such as the use of the Latin alphabet). He died in 1938 of cirrhosis of the liver.
    (HNQ, 3/11/01)

1923        In Turkey Mustafa Kemal Ataturk formed the pro-secular Republican People’s Party (CHP).
    (Econ, 5/3/08, p.61)

1924        Mar 3, Kemal Ataturk forced the abolition of the Muslim caliphate through the protesting assembly and banned all Kurdish schools, publications and associations. This ended the Ottoman Empire and created the modern Middle East, though Iraq, Jordan, Syria and Saudi Arabia were still colonies of Britain and France.
    (WSJ, 2/11/99, p.A24)(SSFC, 10/14/01, p.A3)
1924        Mar 3, German and Turkish friendship and trade treaty was signed.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1924        Sep 6, Forty teenagers from Armenia, who had escaped from the Armenian genocide in Turkey, arrived in Addis Ababa. They along with their bandleader Kevork Nalbandian became the first official orchestra of Ethiopia. Nalbandian composed the music for Ethiopia’s Imperial National Anthem, Marsh Teferi (words by Yoftahé Negusé), official from 1930 to 1974.
    (www.armeniapedia.org/index.php?title=Arba_Lijoch)

1924        In Turkey the Presidency of Religious Affairs, normally referred as Diyanet, was founded by the Grand National Assembly as a successor to Sheikh ul-Islam. Its duties were to execute the works concerning the beliefs, worship, and ethics of Islam. Its budget in 2014 was $2.3 billion.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presidency_of_Religious_Affairs)(Econ, 12/13/14, p.52)
c1924    Vehbi Koç (d.1996) started what later became the Koc Group in Ankara, Turkey. In 2004 it had grown to employ 54,000 people.
    (WSJ, 9/7/04, p.A10)

1925        Jan 30, Turkish government threw out Constantine VI, the Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople.
    (MC, 1/30/02)

1925        Feb 26, Jihad-Saint war against Turkish government.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1925        Apr 28, Kurd rebels surrendered to Turkish army.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1925        Nov, In Turkey Ataturk outlawed the tasseled fez headwear for men. He also outlawed the wearing of veils by women but the tradition continued.
    (WSJ, 3/27/96, p.A-16)(WSJ, 11/6/97, p.B1)(EWH, 4th ed, p.1087)

1925        Turkey’s Pres. Kemal Ataturk divorced his wife, Latife Ussaki, following a 2-year marriage. In 2006 Ipek Calislar authored a biography of Ussaki.
    (Econ, 6/24/06, p.60)

1926        Ataturk introduced a civil code in Turkey that ended the Muslim law allowing husbands to divorce their wives unilaterally.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.10)
1926        A Turkish state code designated the husband as head of the family. The wife had no legal say in decisions concerning the home or children. Equal status was attained in 2001 and made effective Jan 1, 2002.
    (SFC, 11/23/01, p.A21)

1928        Nov 1, Under Pres. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk the Turkish Republic's law number 1353, the Law on the Adoption and Implementation of the Turkish Alphabet, was passed. It replaced Arabic script with Latin script and went into effect on Jan 1, 1929.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkish_alphabet)

1928        Frederick Bruce Thomas (b.1872), an American-born black businessman, died in Constantinople. Thomas had made Moscow his home in 1899 where he renamed himself Fyodor Fyodorovich Tomas and became one of the city’s richest owners of variety theaters and restaurants. The Bolshevik Revolution ruined him. He escaped with his family to Constantinople in 1919. He made a second fortune by opening nightclubs that introduced jazz to Turkey. The long arm of American racism, the xenophobia of the new Turkish Republic, and Frederick’s own extravagance landed him in debtor’s prison. In 2012 Vladimir Alexandrov authored “The Black Russian," a biography of Thomas.
    (SSFC, 2/10/13, p.F2)

1929        Jan 31, Leon Trotsky was expelled from Russia to Turkey.
    (WSJ, 2/29/96, p. A-14)(MC, 1/31/02)

1929        Dec 6, Turkey introduced female suffrage.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1929        A group of historians found an amazing map drawn on a gazelle skin, which showed continents people had never seen before! The map accurately depicts longitude, something the Europeans were only capable. Research showed that it was a genuine document drawn in 1513 by Piri Reis, a famous admiral of the Turkish fleet in the sixteenth century. It was discovered in 1929 while Topkapi Palace was being converted into a museum.
    (http://turkeyinmaps.com/piri.html)

1930        Mar 28, The names of the Turkish cities of Constantinople and Angora were changed to Istanbul and Ankara.
    (AP, 3/28/97)(HN, 3/28/98)

1930-1937    Kurdish revolts in Turkey were harshly suppressed.
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.A14)

1933         Franz Werfel (1890-1945), Czech-born Austrian writer, authored "The Forty Days of Musa Dagh," an account of the 1915 Armenian resistance to Turkey. The author's friend, Rabbi Albert Amateau, testified in 1989 that Werfel was ashamed for having written the book, learning that he had extensively relied on the forgeries of Aram Andonian, which provides the only "evidence" of extermination orders.
    (http://www.tallarmeniantale.com/musa-dagh.htm)

1934         Greece’s PM Elevtherios Venizelos nominated Kemal Ataturk for a Nobel Prize. Ataturk had proposed that the Turkish mainland should be Turk (Muslim) and that the islands should be Greek (Christian).
    (WSJ, 7/24/98, p.W11)

1934        Turkey passed legislation that allowed the government to deny citizenship to gypsies. Turkey was home to one of the largest Roma populations.
    (Econ, 8/19/06, p.48)

1934        Women in Turkey were given the right to vote and to jettison their veils.
    (Econ, 11/8/03, p.49)

1935        Feb 6, Turkey held its 1st election that allowed women to vote.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1935        In Istanbul, Turkey, the Hagia Sophia Byzantine cathedral was turned into a museum. Also called the Church of Holy Wisdom, it was built in 537 and remained a symbol of Byzantine grandeur until Istanbul was conquered by Muslim armies.
    (AP, 7/24/09)

1936        Jul 20, Turkey signed a treaty, the Montreux Convention, by which it agreed not to interfere with transit through the Bosporus. It granted ships unrestricted passage except in times of war.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, p.A23)(WSJ, 7/28/05, p.A7)(http://tinyurl.com/6lyog2)

1936-1939    Turkish forces used a bombing and strafing campaign to crush a Kurdish rebellion. Some 13,806 people were killed in the southeastern town of Dersim, now known as Tunceli. The military's campaign in Dersim was followed by forced migrations and massacres as well as policies of assimilation.
    (AP, 11/23/11)   

1938        Jul 4, France-Turkish friendship treaty.
    (Maggio, 98)

1938        Nov 10, Kemal Ataturk (57), [Mustafa Kemal], marshal and president Turkey, died of cirrhosis of the liver. He was succeeded by Ismet Inonu (d.1973).
    (WSJ, 11/6/97, p.B1)(EWH, 4th ed, p.1088)(Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.4)

1938        Turkey’s army crushed a rebellion in the southeastern province of Tunceli and villagers were burned alive of gassed. The government later admitted that some 15,000 Alevi Kurds died. Survivors spoke of least twice as many dead. In 2010 documentary titled ‘Two Locks of Hair: The Missing Girls of Dersim,’ which sheds light on the painful incidents of the 1938 Dersim Operation, four 80-year-old women tell of the trauma they experienced during the tragedy. 
    (Econ, 4/30/11, p.55)(www.kurdishcinema.com/DersimsLostGirls.html)

1939        Dec 26-27, In Turkey a series of vicious earthquakes in Erzincan province, magnitude 7.9, took some 33,000 lives in Turkey.
    (HN, 12/27/98)(MC, 12/27/01)(SFEC, 8/22/99, p.A17)(AP, 6/22/02)

1940-1945    Turkey supplied Germany and the Allies with chromite ore, an essential metal for stainless steel.
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, p.A13)
1940-1945    Turkey placed a wealth tax on all non-Muslims during WW II; those who could not pay were sent to labor camps.
    (Econ, 8/5/06, p.46)

1941-1944    Necdet Kent (d.2002), Turkish diplomat, was posted to Marseilles, France, and gave Turkish citizenship to dozens of Turkish Jews living in France who did not have proper identity papers to save them from deportation to the Nazi gas chambers.
    (AP, 9/20/02)

1941        Jun 18, Turkey signed a peace treaty with Nazi Germany.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1941        Aug 10, Great Britain and the Soviet Union promised aid to Turkey if it was attacked by the Axis.
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1942        Feb 24, The SS Struma was sunk in the Black Sea by a Soviet torpedo. The ship with over 750 Jewish passengers fleeing Romania, had docked in Istanbul, but was denied entry to Palestinian territory by colonial power Britain. On Feb 23 Turkey towed the vessel to the Black Sea and set it adrift. Only one person survived.
    (AP, 2/24/12)

1945        Feb 23, Turkey declared war on Germany and Japan.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1947        Mar 12, Pres. Truman outlined the Truman Doctrine of economic and military aid to nations threatened by Communism. He specifically requested aid for Greece and Turkey to resist Communism.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1207) (AP, 3/12/98)

1947        May 22, The Truman Doctrine was enacted as Congress appropriated military and economic aid for Greece and Turkey.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1207)(AP, 5/22/97)

1950        May 14, In Turkey the Democratic Party won 52% of the votes in its first free elections and Adnan Menderes (b.1899) became prime minister.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adnan_Menderes)

1950        Nov, Inexperienced but well trained and eager to show their mettle, the first Turkish troops arrived in Korea just in time to face the Chinese onslaught.
    (HN, 6/27/98)
1950        Nov, The 1st Turkish Brigade was commanded by Brig. Gen. Tahsin Yazici.  He was highly regarded in the Turkish military establishment and willingly stepped down a rank in order to command the first contingent of Turks in Korea. He had only one drawback—no real command of English—yet he was attached to an American division. Later, that lack of language proficiency would prove to be a major hindrance to his understanding of orders and troop deployments.
    (HNQ, 7/27/00)

1950        In Turkey PM Adnan Menderes was warned of an impending coup and sacked 15 generals and 150 colonels.
    (Econ, 8/6/11, p.43)

1952        Jun 7, Orhan Pamuk, Turkish novelist, was born in Istanbul. In 2003 he won the IMPACV Dublin Literary Award for his book "My Name Is Red." In 2004 he authored the highly acclaimed “Snow."
    (WSJ, 8/13/03, p.D4)(SFC, 10/20/04, p.E1)

1952        Turkey and Greece joined NATO.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NATO)

1953        Feb 28, Greece, Turkey and Yugoslavia signed a 5-year defense pact in Ankara.
    (HN, 2/28/98)

1955        Sep 6-1955 Sep 7, Well-orchestrated mobs ran amok in the Greek sections of Istanbul. Churches, shops and cemeteries were looted and desecrated and some people were killed. Provocation, believed to have been orchestrated by the Tactical Mobilization Group of the Special Forces command, led to a mass exodus of ethnic Greeks from Istanbul. In 2005 Speros Vryonis Jr. authored  “The Mechanisms of Catastrophe: The Turkish Pogrom of September 6-7, 1955, and the Destruction of the Greek Community of Istanbul.
    (Econ, 8/27/05, p.67)(Econ, 1/2/10, p.38)

1955        Turkey built the Incirlik air base near Adana.
    (WSJ, 4/2/03, p.A1)

1955        Iraq joined with Britain, Turkey, Iran and Pakistan in the Baghdad Pact, a loose alliance intended to check soviet influence in the region. The Baghdad Pact was formed at the prompting of the U.S. in an effort to block Soviet pressures on the northern tier of Middle Eastern states. The U.S. provided military and economic aid to the pact members.
    (HNQ, 7/28/98)(SFC, 9/24/02, p.A10)

1958        Jun 15, Greece severed military ties to Turkey because of the Cypress issue.
    (HN, 6/15/98)

1958        Israeli Premier David Ben-Gurion made a secret visit to Ankara, Turkey.
    (SFC, 10/26/99, p.B2)

1959        Feb 19, An agreement was signed by Britain, Turkey and Greece granting Cyprus its independence.
    (AP, 2/19/98)

1959        Turkey applied to join the European Economic community.
    (Econ, 9/17/05, p.54)

1960        May 27, In Turkey a military coup organized by 37 "young officers" deposed the government PM Menderes, who was arrested along with all the leading party members.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adnan_Menderes)

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