Timeline Turkey 1961-2015

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1961        Sep 17, In Turkey PM Adnan Menderes (b.1899) was hanged following the 1960 military coup.
    (Econ, 6/14/08, p.65)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adnan_Menderes)

1962        Oct 27, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev offered to remove Soviet missile bases in Cuba if the U.S. removed its missile bases in Turkey.
    (HN, 10/27/98)
1963        Sep 1, Turkey moved politically closer to Europe with the Treaty of Ankara. It reduced duties and implicitly recognized Turkey’s right to join the European Economic Community.
    (http://tinyurl.com/tgab2)(WSJ, 9/7/04, p.A10)(WSJ, 10/6/04, p.A17)

1963        Dec 21, The Turk minority rioted in Cyprus to protest anti-Turkish revisions in the constitution.
    (HN, 12/21/98)

1963        Dec 24, Greeks and Turks rioted in Cyprus.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1963        Nazim Hikmet (b.1902), Salonika-born Turkish poet, died in Moscow.

1964        Aug 7, Turkey began an air attack on Greek-Cypriots.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1966        Aug 19, An earthquake struck Varko, Turkey, and some 2,400 were killed.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1967        Dec 29, A Turkish-Cypriot government formed in Cyprus.
    (MC, 12/29/01)

1968        Oct 28, Pres. Johnson named Robert Komer (d.2000 at 78) as ambassador to Turkey. Komer had served Johnson as head of the "pacification" program in Vietnam, which used information and propaganda to gain political and social control of south Vietnam.
    (http://history.state.gov/departmenthistory/people/komer-robert-william)(SFC, 4/14/00, p.D5)

1970        Jan 26, In Turkey the Islamic-oriented National Order Party was formed under the leadership of Necmettin Erbakan.
    (AP, 11/4/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Order_Party)

1970        Mar 28, 1,086 died when 7.4 quake destroyed 254 villages in Gediz, Turkey.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1970s        In Ephesus the Library of Celsus was restored by architect Friedmund Hueber.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, p.7)

1971        Mar 4, Five Turkish militants kidnapped 4 US military men at Ankara, Turkey. The kidnappers released the four airmen unharmed on March 8, and were subsequently arrested, tried and convicted. Three were hanged, one was imprisoned, and one was killed in a gunfight with Turkish authorities.

1971        Mar 12, A Turkish coup d'état took place amid worsening domestic strife. It was the second to take place since 1960. Known as the "coup by memorandum," which the military delivered in lieu of sending out tanks, as it had done previously.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1971_Turkish_coup_d'%C3%A9tat)(WSJ, 3/7/97, p.A10)

1971        May 12, A 6.3 earthquakes in western Turkey killed about 100 people.

1971        May 20, In Turkey the National Order Party was shut down by Constitutional Court for being anti-secular. Erbakan went to Switzerland in self-exile.
    (AP, 11/4/02)(http://tinyurl.com/5vabve)

1971        May 22, A 6.9 earthquake in eastern Turkey killed about a thousand people.

1971        Aug, Turkey passed a poppy licensing law. In return Turkey later accepted a US offer of $35 million, over 3 years, for farmers who agreed to stop growing opium poppies.
    (HN, 11/20/98)(http://tinyurl.com/6ov8tk)

1971        Turkey closed down the Halki Theological School on Heybeliada Island, near Istanbul, to new students under a law that put religious and military training under state control. The school closed its doors in 1985, when the last five students graduated.
    (Econ, 6/25/05, p.50)(AP, 8/28/11)
1971        Milli Gorus, an Islamic Turkish community organization, was founded in Germany as Turkische Union Deutschland.

1972        Jul 7, Athenagoras (b.1886), 268th patriarch of Constantinople, died.

1972        Oct 11, In Turkey the National Salvation Party formed as the successor of the banned National Order Party (Milli Nizam Partisi, MNP). Necmettin Erbakan returned home to take leadership.
    (AP, 11/4/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Salvation_Party)

1972        Bulent Ecevit (1925-2006) succeeded Ismet Inonu (1884-1973) as head of the Republican People’s Party. In 1974 he became prime minister of Turkey.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B%C3%BClent_Ecevit)

1973        Oct 14, In Turkey the CHP replaced the AP as the most popular party, although it did not achieve a parliamentary majority. The CHP and MSP formed a coalition government under Bulent Ecevit. The National Salvation won 11.8% of votes in general elections, winning 48 seats in the 450-member Parliament.
    (http://tinyurl.com/4hkxfc)(AP, 11/4/02)

1974        Jan 25, Bulent Ecevit (1925-2006) became prime minister of Turkey.

1974        Mar 3, A Turkish Airlines DC-10 crashed shortly after takeoff from Orly Airport in Paris and 346 people were killed. It was the worst air disaster to date.
    (AP, 3/3/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkish_Airlines_Flight_981)

1974        Jul 15, Greek troops and the Greek Cypriot National Guard staged a military coup on Cyprus and archbishop-president Makarios fled. Nikos Giorgiades Sampson (d.2001 at 66) served as president for 8 days following the military coup that overthrew Archbishop Makarios. PM Bulent Ecevit ordered Turkish troops to invade Cyprus following the Greek Cypriot coup.

1974        Jul 20, Turkey invaded Cyprus.

1974        Jul 23, Greece's military rulers announced they would turn the nation back to civilian rule. Constantine Karamanlis returned from 11 years of self-imposed exile and was sworn in as premier. Karamanlis later won a landslide election and served as prime minister until 1980. The Ioannides regime collapsed after plotting an aborted military takeover of Cyprus. The coup provoked a Turkish invasion of Cyprus.
    (AP, 7/23/97)(SFC, 4/23/98, p.B4)(SFC, 6/28/99, p.A19)

1974        Jul 30, The prime ministers of Greece and Turkey and the British Foreign Secretary signed a peace agreement to settle the Cyprus crisis.

1974        Aug 14, The Turkish army mounted a second full-scale offensive in Cyprus, despite the fact that talks were still being held in Geneva and just as agreement was about to be reached. 37% of the area of Cyprus came under Turkish military occupation.
1974        Aug 14, Greek Cypriots began a 2-day massacre that killed 83 Turkish Cypriot men in Taskent.

1975        Sep 6, A 6.8 quake along the Anatolian Fault kills over 2,000 in Lice, Turkey.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1977        Jun 8, The final run of the Paris to Istanbul Orient Express, begun in 1883, took place.

1978        The film “Midnight Express" was about an American drug runner abused by Turkish jailers. It was based on the real-life story of Billy Hayes (23), an American who spent five long, agonizing years in a Turkish prison for attempting to smuggle two kilos of hashish on his way home to the USA in 1970.
    (WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A1)(www.filmreference.com/Films-Mi-My/Midnight-Express.html)

1978        In Turkey Abdullah Ocalan and some fellow Turkish university students founded the Kurdistan Worker’s Party, PKK. It was based on a Marxist, separatist platform that targeted Kurdish landlords as well as Turkish agents.
    (SFC, 11/14/98, p.A11)(SFC, 1/6/99, p.A7)(Econ, 11/17/07, p.100)

1978        Seven leftist students were killed in Ankara. Abdullah Catli, a heroin smuggler and terror suspect, was linked to the massacre.
    (SFC, 12/10/96, p.A10)

1979        Jul 13, A 45-hour siege began at the Egyptian Embassy in Ankara, Turkey, as four Palestinian guerrillas killed two security men and seized 20 hostages.
    (AP, 7/13/97)

1979        Nov 30, John Paul II, while on a pilgrimage to Turkey, became the first pope in 1,000 years to attend an Orthodox mass.

1979        Mehmet Ali Agca made a jailbreak in Istanbul. He was being tried for the killing of Abdi Ipekci, a leading left-wing columnist. In 1981 he shot Pope John Paul in Rome. In 2006 Agca was wrongfully released from prison in Turkey due to miscalculations in his term. He was re-imprisoned 8 days later. Agca was finally released on Jan 18, 2010.
    (SFC, 12/10/96, p.A10)(AP, 1/12/06)(AP, 1/18/10)

1980        Sep 12, Turkish military took over in coup after factional fighting. All political parties were abolished. Gen. Kenan Evren led a bloodless coup in response to years of street battles between left and right-wing radical groups that left some 5,000 dead. Bulent Ecevit (1925-2006), PM of Turkey, was sent to prison following the coup and banned from active politics for a decade.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1980_Turkish_coup_d'%C3%A9tat)(Econ, 11/11/06, p.97)

1980        Oct, In Turkey Necmettin Erbakan (b.1926) and 21 National Salvation officials were imprisoned on charges of acting against secularism. They were released one year later and acquitted by court.
    (AP, 11/4/02)

1980        In Turkey some 50 people were executed following a military coup. 500,000 people were arrested and many hundreds died in jail.
    (Econ, 2/2/13, p.41)
1980        In Turkey military leaders established the Higher Education Board.
    (Econ, 5/22/04, p.48)
1980        In Turkey the wearing of headscarves was first banned in universities shortly after a military coup carried out by officers who viewed Islamists as a serious threat. But the implementation of the rule varied during the law's early years.
    (AP, 7/21/07)
1980        Abdullah Ocalan (b.1948), leader of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) crossed the border to Syria just before the September 12 Turkish military coup.
    (WSJ, 3/7/97, p.A10)(SFC, 1/6/99, p.A7)

1980-1991    Publications in Kurdish were banned.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, p.A12)

1981        The US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) instituted the 80/20 rule for opium/poppy imports. 80% of the US need for opium was set to be imported from India and Turkey. Turkish farmers provided poppy heads while Indian farmers produced gum opium.
    (WSJ, 4/3/00, p.A1,6)

1982        Mar 22, The US submarine Jacksonville collided with a Turkish freighter near Virginia.

1982        Nov 7, Gen. Kenan Evren (1917-2015) was elected president of Turkey and continued to 1989.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenan_Evren)(AP, 1/3/12)
1982        Nov 7, Turkey ratified a new constitution. It replaced the earlier Constitution of 1961.

1982        Dec 6, Turkey began celebrating St. Nicholas day.
    (WSJ, 8/31/98, p.B1)

1983        Jul, In Turkey the Welfare Party was founded by close aides of Necmettin Erbakan while he remained banned from politics. In April 1997 a coalition government led by Erbakan fell apart under pressure by the military and the party was banned in January 1998 by the Constitutional Court. Leaders of Refah immediately created a new party : "Fazilet," the Virtue Party.
    (AP, 11/4/02)(www.medea.be/index.html?page=2&lang=en&doc=285)

1983        Nov 15, Turkish Cypriots declared the northern third Cyprus a separate republic, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. It was only recognized by Turkey.
    (SFC, 3/13/02, p.A26)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkish_Republic_of_Northern_Cyprus)

1983        Turkey legalized abortions for up to 10 weeks after conception.
    (SFC, 5/30/12, p.A2)

1984        Abdullah Ocalan, founder of the PKK, turned the group toward armed struggle against the Turkish government.
    (WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A10) (SFC, 11/14/98, p.A11)

1984        Bilkent Univ. was founded just outside Ankara, Turkey.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.16)

1984-1996     Turkey was grappling with an 12-year old Kurdish insurgency. More than 21,000 people have died since fighting began.
    (WSJ, 12/27/95, p. A-6)(SFC, 9/6.96, p.A13)

1986        Sep 6, An attack on the Neve Shalom synagogue in Istanbul killed 22 people. The Palestinian Abu Nidal group was blamed.
    (NYT, 10/8/04, p.A12)

1987        Apr 14, The Turkish Government formally applied to join the European Communities.

1987        Oct, In Turkey a ban on former political leaders was lifted. Erbakan took over Welfare leadership.
    (AP, 11/4/02)

1987        The Int’l. Istanbul Biennial was founded. It is organized by the Istanbul Foundation for Culture and Arts.
1987        The NATO sec.-gen’l. negotiated a Turkish-Greek dispute.
    (WSJ, 10/8/01, p.A14)

1988        Jun 18, Turkey’s PM Turgut Ozal survived an attempted assassination. He had worked to eliminate the black market in cigarettes and suspected the cigarette smuggling mafia.
    (WSJ, 2/11/99, p.A24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turgut_%C3%96zal)

1988        At Davos, Switzerland, during the World Economic Forum, Prime Ministers Papandreou of Greece and Ozal of Turkey embarked on a peace initiative, setting up a hot-line and vowing to avoid war.
    (WSJ, 1/23/08, p.A8)

1989        Oct 1, Turkey’s PM Turgut Ozal threatened Syria to turn off the flow of the Euphrates River if Syria failed to live up to a 1987 security protocol.

1989        Nov 9, Turgut Ozal became the 8th president of Turkey elected by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.

1989        Nov, Turkey’s Pres. Turgut Ozal (1927-1993) alarmed Syria and Iraq when he announced that the flow of the Euphrates River would be held back for a month to fill the Ataturk dam. Flow was increased for 2 months before the cutback to offset the loss.
    (NG, 5/93, p.49)(http://tinyurl.com/2mmycb)

1989        Dec 20, The European Commission advised against Turkey’s membership in the EEC.
    (Econ, 10/23/10, SR p.8)(http://tinyurl.com/29sr46p)

1991        Apr 15, Turkey began moving thousands of Iraqi Kurds from a border settlement to camps farther inside Turkey, in a major policy shift for President Turgut Ozal’s government, which had previously kept the refugees in the mountains.
    (AP, 4/15/01)

1991        Jul 20,    President Bush, visiting Turkey, was cheered by thousands of people in Ankara.
    (AP, 7/20/01)

1991        Turkey abolished the price controls that propped up its state-owned tobacco company.
    (WSJ, 9/11/98, p.A1)

1991        Death-squad style killings of ethnic Kurds began. By 1998 1,500 Kurdish nationalists, journalists, politicians and businesspeople were killed.
    (WSJ, 1/26/98, p.A15)

1991        A ban on the use of the Kurdish language in unofficial settings was lifted.
    (SFC, 2/18/99, p.A10)

1992        Mar 3, In Turkey a gas explosion in underground coal mine in Kozlu, near the Black Sea port of Zonguldak, claimed 263 lives.
    (AP, 3/3/02)(AP, 5/17/10)

1992        Mar 7, An Israeli security chief was killed in a car bomb attack in Ankara, Turkey. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
    (NYT, 10/8/04, p.A12)

1992        Mar 13, Some 498 died in an earthquake at Erzincan, Turkey.

1992        Oct 7, The Ubykh language of the north-eastern Caucasus died out when Tevfik Esenc (b.1904), a Circassian exile in Turkey, died.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.137)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ubykh_language)

1992        Turkey’s Pres. Turgut Ozal (d.1993) envisioned the Black Sea as a zone of peace and cooperation. This led to the formation of the Istanbul-based organization for Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC).
    (Econ, 5/28/05, p.54)

1992        Turkey organized a regional alphabet congress and academics agreed to a 34-character Latin alphabet based on Turkish script.
    (WSJ, 10/24/00, p.A12)

1992        Yusuf Kulca founded Istanbul's 1st privately run home for children.
    (Econ, 9/27/03, p.50)

1993        Jan 27, Mumcu, a reporter for the secular daily Cumhuriyet, was killed by a car bomb while he was in his vehicle outside his home in Ankara, Turkey. Among groups that have claimed responsibility are the Islamic Liberation Organization, the Raiders of Islamic Great East, and Islamic Jihad.

1993        Apr 17, Turkish President Turgut Ozal died at age 66. In 2012 authorities investigating Ozal's death found traces of toxic material in samples from his exhumed body but could not conclude he died of poisoning.
    (AP, 4/17/98)(AP, 12/12/12)

1993        May 24, Separatist Kurdish rebels fatally shot 33 Turkish soldiers and two civilians after forcing them and about two dozen other persons off a bus in the southeastern province of Bingol. This ended a unilateral cease-fire and led the military to intensify a campaign to annihilate the PKK. Testimony in 1999 by Abdullah Ocalan said a regional PKK commander carried out the slaying.
    (www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1P2-948140.html)(SFC, 6/2/99, p.C2)

1993        May, Suleyman Demirel was elected president by the parliament for a 7-year term.
    (SFC, 4/6/00, p.C16)

1993        Jul 5, Kurd guerrillas murdered 32 villagers in East Turkey.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1993        Andrew Wheatcroft authored "The Ottomans."
    (Ot, 1993)
1993        Tansu Ciller, a US trained economist, was elected as the Prime Minister of Turkey.
    (WSJ, 10/16/95, p. A-1)
1993        Turkey sealed its land frontier with Armenia after it seized the province of Nagorno-Karabakh from their Azeri cousins. Direct air travel was still allowed.
    (Econ, 6/17/06, p.59)(Econ, 11/18/06, p.53)
1993        In the Anatolian city of Sivas, a fire, set by a mob shouting Islamic slogans, killed 37 secular writers. In 1997 33 people sere sentenced to death for their roles in the mob attack.
    (SFC, 7/3/97, p.C2)

1993-1996    In 1996 Turkey’s former PM Tansu Ciller was accused of enriching herself by $50 million through links with criminal gangs over this time.
    (SFC, 1/18/96, p.A10)

1993-1996    Turkey spent $50 million on drug dealers and assassins to kill a Kurdish rebel leader and others considered threats to the state. Abdullah Ocalan, a Kurdish rebel leader in Syria, was targeted as was Dursun Karatas, a leftist terrorist in Europe.
    (SFC, 1/24/98, p.A8)

1994        Mar 13, The oil tanker Nassia collided with an empty cargo ship at the entrance of the Bosporus. 27-29 people lost their lives. 9,000 tons of petroleum spilled and 20,000 tons burned for four days long affecting the marine environment.
    (www.bosphorusstrait.com/the-bosporus-strait/incidents/)(AP, 4/27/11)

1994        Mar, In Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdogan was elected mayor of Istanbul as candidate from Erbakan's Welfare party.
    (AP, 11/4/02)
1994        Mar, In Turkey 33 Kurdish villagers killed in an air strike in two villages in the province of Sirnak near the Iraqi border. Turkish prosecutors later determined that the attack was carried out by PKK militants. An investigation in the attack was re-opened in 2013.
    (Reuters, 11/13/13)

1994        Jul 26, The Turkish air force bombed Kurds in Iraq and 79 people were killed.

1994        Dec 29, In East Turkey a B737-400 flew into a mountain at Edremit and 55 people were killed.

1994        In Turkey Ali Erol set up KAOS-GL as a support group for gays and lesbians. In 2005 the groups sought recognition as an association.
    (Econ, 10/29/05, p.51)

1994        The $32 billion GAP hydroelectric project opened its Ataturk Dam. The project planned 22 dams and 19 hydroelectric plants on the Euphrates and Tigris rivers.
    (SFC, 7/13/98, p.A6)

1994        Inflation reached 120%.
    (WSJ, 2/12/96, p.A-1)

1995        Mar 13, Istanbul police killed at least 15 Alawi (Alevi) demonstrators.

1995         Dec, Prime Minister Tansu Ciller, head of the True Path Party, quit after the Welfare Party, which pledged to impose Islamic principles, drew the largest number of votes in parliamentary elections (21%). The leader of the Welfare Party was Necmettin  Erbakan. The Motherland leader was Mesut Yilmaz.
    (WSJ, 12/26/95, p. A-1)(WSJ, 12/27/95, p. A-1)(WSJ, 4/16/99, p.A12)
1995         Dec, Turkey grappled with an 11-year old Kurdish insurgency under President was Suleyman Demirel.
    (WSJ, 12/27/95, p. A-1)

1995        Onat Kutlar, a pro-secular writer, was killed. The militant group Great Islamic Raiders of the East Front were implicated.
    (SFC, 10/22/99, p.B6)

1996         Jan 1, A Custom's Union with the European Union was set take effect.
    (WSJ, 12/27/95, p. A-1)

1996         Jan 9, The Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front claimed responsibility for the shooting death of two businessmen in their offices.
    (WSJ, 12/26/95, p. A-1)

1996        Jan 16, Chechens hijacked a ferry with 165 passengers and crew from the Turkish port of Trabzon bound for the Russian city of Sochi. Gunmen in Trabzon, Turkey, hijacked a Black Sea ferry with more than 200 people on board, and demanded that Russian troops stop fighting Chechen rebels in Pervomayskaya. The hostages were released three days later after the Russian troops stormed Pervomaiskoye.
    (WSJ, 1/17/96, p.A-1)(AP, 1/16/01)

1996        Jan, Police clubbed people with wooden batons until they broke in a sports complex. Reporter Metin Goktepe was killed. 11 officers were charged in the reporter’s murder but none were in custody. A court ordered 5 policemen to be taken into custody in 1997. The 5 failed to appear in court. In 1998 5 policemen were jailed for 7 1/2 years for the killing.
    (SFC, 10/19/96, A12)(SFC, 5/29/97, p.A12)(SFC, 7/25/97, p.A11)(SFC, 3/20/98, p.A16)

1996        Feb 6, A Turkish-owned Boeing 757 jetliner crashed into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Puerto Plata shortly after takeoff from the Dominican Republic, killing 189 people, mostly German tourists.
    (WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-14)(AP, 2/6/01)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1996        Feb, Inflation in Turkey was down to 80% a year. It had reached 120% in 1994.
    (WSJ, 2/12/96, p.A-1)

1996        Feb, A military cooperation agreement was signed between Israel and Turkey. The agreement allows for joint military training, exchanges between military academies and participation of observers in each other’s exercises.
    (SFC, 4/13/96, p.A-10)

1996        Apr 9, Turkish troops killed 90 Kurdish rebels in a 3-day offensive. 27 of its own soldiers died. Rebels had declared a cease-fire in Nov., but the government refused to abide.
    (WSJ, 4/9/96, p.A-1)

1996        May 13, In Turkey torture rehabilitation centers set up by the country’s Human Rights Foundation were declared illegal by the government.
    (SFC, 5/14/96, A-10)

1996        May 24, In Turkey Prime Minister Tansu Ciller said that her True Path Party was pulling out of the ruling coalition. This gave the pro-Islamic Welfare Party another shot at power.
    (SFC, 5/25/96, p.A11)

1996        Jun 7, Turkey’s Pres. Suleyman Demirel again asked Islamist leader Necmettin Erbakan to form a new coalition government.
    (SFC, 6/8/96, p.A11)

1996        Jun 27, In Turkey thousands of troops poured into northern Iraq and killed dozens of separatist Kurds.
    (SFC, 6/28/96, p.A14)

1996        Jun 28, In Turkey Necmettin Erbakan became the country's 1st Islamic prime minister. His conservative Islamic Welfare Party would have to put together a new coalition government. Erbakan formed a coalition government and served as prime minister until resigning a year later after mounting pressure by secularist military.
    (WP. 6/29/96, p.A1)(AP, 11/4/02)

1996        Jun 30, In Turkey a young Kurdish rebel disguised as a pregnant woman blew herself up in the midst of a military ceremony and killed 9 soldiers.
    (SFC, 7/2/96, p.A12)

1996        Jul 9, Turkey announced a 50% raise for its 1.5 million civil servants.
    (SFC, 7/10/96, p.A8)

1996        Jul 24, it was reported that 3 prisoners in Turkey have died during a hunger strike by 1,900 inmates in 33 prisons. The protests were for government transfers of prisoners to remote locations and cancellation of visiting rights for political prisoners.
    (WSJ, 7/25/96, p.A1)

1996        Jul 28, Turkey reached an agreement with prisoners to end a hunger strike after 12 inmates died. Elsewhere soldiers clashed with Kurds and 16 died along with 28 Kurdish rebels.
    (WSJ, 7/29/96, p.A1)(SFC, 11/23/00, p.D4)

1996        Aug 11, In Turkey the prime minister approved an agreement to buy $20 billion of natural gas from Iran over 22 years.
    (WSJ, 8/12/96, p.A1)

1996        Aug 12, Iran and Turkey agreed to connect their power networks.
    (WSJ, 8/13/96, p.A7)

1996        Aug 27, The 450,000 strong army was the largest in NATO and the only one that was exclusively Muslim.
    (WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A10)

1996        Sep 5, Turkey declared a new security zone inside northern Iraq and air attacks were staged on suspected Kurdish rebel bases.
    (SFC, 9/6.96, p.A13)

1996        Sep 25, Turkey said its troops killed 47 Kurdish rebels in the eastern provinces.
    (WSJ, 9/26/96, p.A1)

1996        Oct 29, A Kurdish separatist suicide team of 2 killed themselves, 3 policemen and a civilian in the town of Sivas.
    (SFC, 10/30/96, p.A10)

1996        Nov 3, In Turkey Abdulah Catli, a convicted heroin smuggler and terror suspect; Husseyin Kocadag, a security official and deputy police chief in Istanbul; and Gonca Us, a gangster mistress, were killed in a car crash in Susurluk. Sedat Bucak, member of parliament and head of a Kurdish clan that received funds for providing guards to fight separatist Kurds, was injured in the same vehicle. The event came to be known as the Susurluk scandal.
    (SFC, 12/10/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 1/26/98, p.A16)

1996        Nov 5, Government officials announced that a gas pipeline would begin to be built in March to carry gas from Iran to Turkey.
    (SFC, 11/6/96, p.A25)

1996        Nov 21, Yasar Kemal, author, sought asylum in Sweden. He had been convicted by a Turkish court of defending Kurd’s rights.
    (SFC, 11/22/96, p.A22)

1996        Nov 27, Troops killed 27 Kurdish rebels and lost 6 soldiers in fighting over the past 2 days.
    (SFC, 11/28/96, p.B6)

1996        Dec 10, The military purged 70 officers and non-commissioned in a continuing effort to purge Muslim fundamentalists from its ranks.
    (WSJ, 12/11/96, p.A1)

1996        Dec 30, A raid by 5,000 troops into Iraq left 72 Kurdish guerrillas and 2 Turkish soldiers dead.
    (WSJ, 1/2/97, p.1)

1996        The Ankarapithecus skull was found in the Turkish desert. It dated to about 10 million years ago. The remains show many similarities to Sivapithecus from South Asia, and have sometimes been included in that genus.

1997        Feb 1, A movement began demanding an investigation in the car accident that linked government officials and gangster groups. People in cities began making noise outside their windows at 9 PM every night.
    (WSJ, 3/14/97, p.A1)

1997        cMar 2, The military submitted a 20-measure package to Prime Minister Erbakan that called for some new laws and stricter application of existing laws to protect secular principles.
    (SFC, 3/5/97, p.A8)

1997        Mar 6, Prime Minister Erbakan signed on to the list of 18 measures submitted by the military to curb ultra religious schools, publications and organizations.
    (WSJ, 3/7/97, p.A10)

1997        Apr 13, A military modernization program for $31 billion was announced to reduce dependence on Western suppliers. Turkey’s standing army numbered 639,000 men, 4,000 tanks, and 400 combat aircraft.
    (WSJ, 4/14/97, p.A12)

1997        Apr 26, Two cabinet ministers resigned over Prime Minister Erbakan’s reluctance to curb his Islamist policies.
    (SFEC, 4/27/97, p.A17)

1997        May 5, It was reported that Sefa Taskin, mayor of Bergama, Turkey, led a campaign to stop the mining of gold using cyanide for extraction. He recently published "The Issue of Gold in Bergama" and used "The Gulliver File: Mines, People, Land: A Global Battleground," to support his cause.
    (WSJ, 5/5/97, p.A13D)

1997        May 18, In the 5th day of a military offensive, the military reported 1,081 guerillas killed as 25-50 thousand Turkish troops crossed the Iraqi border to attack rebels of the Kurdistan workers Party (PKK).
    (SFC, 5/19/97, p.A14)

1997        May 21, The UN approved an agreement for equitable use of waters that flow through more than one country. Only China and Turkey refused to sign the key UN convention on transnational rivers.
    (SFC, 5/22/97, p.C2)(AP, 4/16/11)

1997        May, Turkish commando units took control of the Bikhayr mountains used by Kurdish rebels as an escape route into Syria.
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.A10)

1997        Jun 5, It was reported that the military ordered the boycott of companies that give money to the governing Muslim party and other Islamic organizations.
    (SFC, 6/7/97, p.A8)

1997        Jun 13, Under pressure it was announced that Turkey’s PM Erbakan, leader of the Welfare Party, would turn his post over to Tansu Ciller, who would lead until elections Jun 18. Turkey’s first Islamist-led government was ejected after it began investigating links between the army and organized crime.
    (SFC, 6/14/97, p.A12)(SFC, 11/26/98, p.B2)(Econ, 3/22/08, p.61)

1997        Jun 20, Pres. Demirel asked Mesut Yilmaz, leader of the Motherland Party, to form a new government. Yilmaz formed a coalition with Bulent Ecevit, head of the Democratic Left Party.
    (SFC, 6/21/97, p.A10)(WSJ, 4/16/99, p.A12)

1997        Jun 26, Turkey announced the end of the 10-week Operation Hammer, its cross-border operation against the Kurds. The Turks reported to have lost 113 men and it was estimated that 3,000 guerrillas of the PKK were killed.
    (WSJ, 6/27/97, p.A13)

1997        Jul 20, Turkish troops killed 50 Kurdish guerrillas in the southeast. That raised the weekly total to 84.
    (SFC, 7/21/97, p.A9)

1997        Jul 29, Some 15,000 people protested government plans to curb Muslim schools. At least 13 protestors were injured and 3 officers were suspended by Prime Minister Yilmaz.
    (WSJ, 7/30/97, p.A1)

1997        Aug 4, Some 76 military officers and nco’s were dismissed in a continuing effort to root out Islamic activism in the ranks.
    (WSJ, 8/5/97, p.A1)

1997        Aug 14, The parliament approved an amnesty program for some 89 journalists imprisoned for their news coverage. Pres. Demirel signed the measure.
    (SFC, 8/15/97, p.A15)

1997        Sep 4, In Turkey 33 people were killed when 2 buses collided near Ankara. Turkey has the highest incidence of road traffic deaths with 2,713 killed in the first 7 months of this year.
    (SFC, 9/5/97, p.A12)

1997        Sep 25, Iraq demanded that Turkey pull back some 15,000 troops who crossed its border in pursuit of Kurdistan Workers Party guerrillas.
    (WSJ, 9/26/97, p.A1)

1997        Sep 29, Turkish planes attacked Kurdish rebel positions in northern Iraq and drove the guerrillas toward the Iran border.
    (WSJ, 9/30/97, p.A1)

1997        Sep, There a was a renewed ban on wearing head scarves at Turkish universities. Over the next 15 months some 2,000 women were expelled for choosing to wear scarves.
    (SFEC, 12/27/98, p.A20)

1997        Oct 3, Turkish jets bombed escape routes used by Kurdish rebels in northern Iraq. Over the last 13 days the army reported 415 rebels dead vs. 6 of its own soldiers.
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.A10)

1997        Oct 19, In Germany Gunter Grass presented the peace prize of the German book-publishing industry to Yasar Kemal, a Turkish author. Grass criticized his compatriots as "closet racists."
    (SFC,10/21/97, p.A12)

1997        Dec 2, In Istanbul 33 people were sentenced to death for their roles in a 1993 mob attack that left 37 intellectuals dead.
    (SFC, 12/3/97, p.C4)

1997        Dec 5, Turkish troops began an offensive against Turkish Kurds in northern Iraq. The 20,000 man force was to be assisted by 8,000 men of the Kurdistan Democratic party, an Iraqi group.
    (SFC,12/6/97, p.A9)

1997        Dec 5, Mayor Tayyip Erdogan of Istanbul made statements in Siirt that were later called inflammatory. He was charged with inciting hatred based on religious differences. Erdogan had quoted Ziya Gokalp, a poet who had written the verse to inspire the troops of Ataturk.
    (SFC, 2/13/98, p.D5)(SFEC, 1/31/99, p.A21)

1997        Dec 17, The US and 33 other countries signed a convention in Paris aimed at eradicating bribery in international business. Turkey was one of 34 signatories of the OECD’s anti-corruption convention. By 2008 38 countries had signed on.
    (AP, 12/17/98)(Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.14)(Econ, 5/1/10, p.73)

1997        Dec 27, In Italy Some 825 illegal immigrants, mostly Kurds, were rescued by Italian tugboats from the Turkish ship Ararat. They were attempting to smuggle into Italy from Turkey.
    (SFEC,12/28/97, p.A19)
1997        Dec 27, Lower level talks between Turkish and Greek Cypriot officials were suspended by the Turkish Cypriots to protest the inclusion of the Greek side in EU membership.
    (SFEC,12/28/97, p.A22)

1997        The book "The History of the Armenia Genocide" appeared in Turkey, but copies were confiscated and the publisher Aysenur Zarakolu was arrested and fined.
    (SFC, 3/6/98, p.A12)

1997        The film "Eskiya" (Bandit) was selected by the culture ministry as Turkey’s nomination for the Academy Awards. The ministry overrules the initial selection of Hamam by the independent film board.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, DB p.60)

1997        The film "Hamam" (Turkish Bath) was produced. It was a tale of 2 men who fall in love in a Turkish bath.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, DB p.60)

1997        The film "The Heavy Novel" was directed by Mustafa Altioklar. It was about ordinary people on the back streets of Istanbul and contained scenes depicting police torture.
    (SFC, 1/31/98, p.A10)

1997        Turkey increased compulsory education from 5 years to 8.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.15)

1997        Alparslan Turkes, leader of the Nationalist Action Party, died. The party held an ideology of pan-Turkism symbolized by the legendary gray wolf that led Turkic tribes westward from their ancestral homeland in Central Asia.
    (SFC, 4/20/99, p.A8)

1998        Jan 12, It was reported that Turkish police rounded up 1,374 people, mostly Kurds, around Istanbul in an effort to stem illegal emigration.
    (SFC, 1/12/98, p.A1)
1998        Jan 15, The parliament passed legislation allowing husbands to be indicted for domestic abuse even if their wives refuse to press charges.
    (SFC, 1/16/98, p.B4)

1998        Jan 16, In Turkey the Islamist Welfare Party was banned by the Constitutional Court for "activities against the secular regime." Former Welfare deputies created the Virtue Party.
    (SFC, 1/17/98, p.A1)(AP, 11/4/02)

1998        Jan 24, From Turkey it was reported that an estimated 50,000 illegal immigrants move from Turkey to Greece each year across a sparsely populated 80 mile border.
    (SFC, 1/24/98, p.A8)

1998        Jan 25, Prime Minister Yilmaz disclosed that the Ciller government’s security forces used death squads against Kurds and engaged in drug trafficking.
    (WSJ, 1/26/98, p.A1)

1998        Feb 16, The government banned Muslim headwear by female students and teachers at religious schools. Separately the leadership of the main Kurdish political party was imprisoned on charges of links to separatist rebels.
    (WSJ, 2/17/98, p.A1)

1998        Feb 17, A UN refugee agency reported that 6,800 Kurds have fled their homes in northern Iraq following reported Turkish air raids on rebel positions.
    (SFC, 2/18/98, p.C3)

1998        Feb 24, The former Welfare Party changed its name to the Virtue Party and elected Recai Kutan as leader. Separately university students protested a  ban on Islamic dress.
    (WSJ, 2/25/98, p.A1)

1998        Apr 13, Turkish army forces captured Semdin Sakik, a field commanded of the PKK, Kurdistan Workers Party, in a secret raid in northern Iraq.
    (SFC, 4/14/98, p.C12)

1998        Apr 15, Turkish troop clashed with Kurdish separatists near the Iraqi border and claimed to have killed 64 with a loss of 11.
    (WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A1)

1998        Apr 21, A special court sentenced Recep Erdogan, the mayor of Istanbul, to 10 months in prison for a 1997 speech that the military said incited hatred of the secularist army.
    (WSJ, 4/22/98, p.A1)(Econ, 7/19/08, p.33)

1998        May 12, Akin Birdal, head of the independent Human Rights Association, was shot and injured in an attack by the Turkish Revenge Brigade, an ultranationalist group. Five ultranationalists were arrested May 22.
    (SFC, 5/13/98, p.A13)(SFC, 5/23/98, p.A14)

1998        May 21, In northwest Turkey rains caused floods and left at least 10 people dead.
    (SFC, 5/22/98, p.D4)

1998        Jun 8, It was reported that Turkish soldiers had killed 37 Kurdish insurgents in the southeast provinces of Sirnak, Siirt, and Diyarbakir.
    (SFC, 6/9/98, p.A14)

1998        Jun 24, The constitutional court ruled that adultery was no longer a crime for women. Adultery, legal for men for a long time, had been punishable for women with up to 3 years in prison.
    (SFC, 6/25/98, p.A11)

1998        Jun 27, In southern Turkey a 6.3 earthquake around Adana and Ceyhan killed at least 144 people and injured about a 1,000.
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, p.A21)(WSJ, 6/29/98, p.A1)(SFC, 7/4/98, p.A7)

1998        Jul 4, Aftershocks hit southern Turkey and some 1000 people were reportedly injured.
    (SFEC, 7/5/98, p.A14)

1998        Jul 9, An explosion in Istanbul left 7 people dead and many injured at a spice bazaar. Pinar Selek was arrested by police two days after the explosion. Four expert reports said the explosion was caused by a gas leak and there was no evidence of a bomb. Selek was tortured and spent 2.5 years in prison, but was later acquitted when a Court for Serious Crimes in Istanbul determined there was no evidence linking her to the blast. In a separate trial, however, the court found her guilty under Article 169, which covers the aiding and abetting of a crime ring, on charges of carrying explosive material used to make a bomb and keeping a bomb in her workshop. The court later dropped the charge because of the length of the trial. In 2011 Selek (40) was acquitted for a 3rd time. Selek was sentenced to life in prison in January, 2013, despite three previous acquittals. On June 11, 2014, a top Turkish court overturned the life sentence.
    (www.pinarselek.com/public/page_item.aspx?id=520)(AP, 2/9/11)(Reuters, 6/11/14)

1998        Jul 16, Some 2000 soldiers were flown into northern Iraq to hunt Kurdish rebels who fled there after killing 22 Turkish troops in a raid.
    (SFC, 7/17/98, p.A16)

1998        Sep 23, The Turkey high court jailed Istanbul Mayor Tayyip Erdogan.
    (WSJ, 9/24/98, p.A13)

1998        Oct 3, Turkey sent some 10,000 troops into northern Iraq to attack Kurdish rebels.
    (SFEC, 10/4/98, p.A11)

1998        Oct 14, The draft budget was unveiled and it was admitted that IMF targets would not be reached. Inflation for 1999 was targeted to 35% after reaching 100% in early 1998. 1998 growth was measured at 4.5%.
    (WSJ, 10/15/98, p.A20)

1998        Oct 21, The European Commission approved a $180 million aid package for Turkey.
    (SFC, 10/22/98, p.C5)

1998        Oct 21, Turkey and Syria signed an accord whereby Syria agreed to brand the Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) as a terrorist group.
    (SFC, 10/22/98, p.C5)

1998        Oct 23, In Turkey 5 Kurdish rebels burned themselves to death in loyalty to their leader Abdullah Ocalan, who was expelled from Syria.
    (SFC, 10/24/98, p.A14)

1998        Oct 29, Five nations endorsed the oil pipeline from the Caspian to the Mediterranean Sea. Turkey, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakstan and Uzbekistan committed to the 1,080 mile conduit with a push from the US.
    (SFC, 10/30/98, p.A14)

1998        Oct 30, Anti-terrorist squads shot an airline hijacker to death and freed 38 passengers.
    (SFC, 10/30/98, p.A18)

1998        Nov 11, A businessman linked to organized crime said that Prime Minister Yilmaz rigged the privatization of a state-run bank in his favor. This led to a no-confidence motion by the Republican People’s Party of the ruling coalition.
    (SFC, 11/13/98, p.A16)

1998        Nov 12, The mayor of Ankara was arrested on graft charges as secularist authorities continued a campaign against his pro-Islamic party.
    (WSJ, 11/13/98, p.A1)

1998        Nov 12, In Italy Abdullah Ocalan, head of the Kurd PKK, was arrested in Rome.
    (SFC, 11/14/98, p.A11)

1998        Nov 17, A Kurdish guerrilla killed herself and wounded 6 others in a suicide bombing in Yuksekova.
    (SFC, 11/18/98, p.A12)

1998        Nov 19, Turkey arrested the head of the main legal Kurdish party.
    (WSJ, 11/20/98, p.A1)

1998        Nov 25, The government of Mesut Yilmaz lost a vote of confidence 314-214. Pres. Demirel was expected to ask Yilmaz to stay on until an interim government is formed.
    (SFC, 11/26/98, p.B2)

1998        Dec 2, Bulent Ecevit was asked to form a new government.
    (WSJ, 12/3/98, p.A1)

1998        Dec 16, In Italy Abdullah Ocalan, leader of the Kurdistan Workers Party, was freed by an appeals court in Rome. Turkish officials were outraged and renewed threats of economic retaliation.
    (SFC, 12/17/98, p.C4)

1998        Dec 21, Prime Minister-designate Bulent Ecevit abandoned efforts to form a new government.
    (SFC, 12/22/98, p.C4)

1998        Dec 23, Pres. Demirel asked Yalim Erez, the acting trade minister of Kurdish origin, to form a new government.
    (SFC, 12/24/98, p.A12)

1998        Dec 29, In Cyprus Pres. Glafcos Clerides decided not to import Russian-made anti-aircraft missiles in order to reduce tensions with Turkey.
    (SFC, 12/30/98, p.A8)

1998        Turkish archeologists discovered what appeared to be the ruins of the Great Palace built by Constantine in 330 AD.
    (SFC, 7/27/98, p.A8)

1999        Jan 6, The Justice Ministry said authorities will no longer be allowed to force women and girls to undergo virginity tests.
    (SFC, 1/7/99, p.A10)

1999        Jan 11, A new Turkish government under Bulent Ecevit looked ready to serve until the April 18 elections.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.A1)

1999        Jan 17, The parliament voted in a new minority government under Prime Minister Bulent Ecevit.
    (WSJ, 1/18/99, p.A15)

1999        Feb 15, Abdullah Ocalan was captured in Kenya while being transferred from the Greek embassy to Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Nairobi, in an operation by the Turkey’s Millî İstihbarat Teşkilâtı reportedly with the help of CIA. George Costoulas, the Greek consul who protected him, said that his life was in danger after the operation. By 2015 Ocalan authored some 40 books including “To Kill a Man," which became something of a feminist bible.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdullah_%D6calan)(Econ., 3/7/15, p.53)

1999        Feb 16, Turkish commandoes reported the capture of Abdullah Ocalan in Kenya. Kurds seized Greek missions around Europe and took hostages. It was later reported that US data helped the Turks capture Ocalan.
    (SFC, 2/17/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 2/17/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 2/22/99, p.A1)

1999        Feb 23, Turkey formally arrested Abdullah Ocalan on treason charges.
    (SFC, 2/24/99, p.A8)

1999        Mar 3, Turkey called US raids on Iraq that cut off oil flow to Turkey unacceptable. The US planes were based in Turkey.
    (WSJ, 3/4/99, p.A1)

1999        Mar 4, A female suicide bomber killed herself and wounded 3 civilians in the town of Batman.
    (SFC, 3/5/99, p.A14)

1999        Mar 5, In Cankiri, Turkey, a car bomb attack killed 3 people and wounded provincial governor Ayhan Cevik. The Maoist guerrillas of the Turkish Workers and Peasants Liberation Army (TIKKO) claimed responsibility.
    (SFC, 3/6/99, p.A14)

1999        Mar 13, Thirteen people were killed in a bomb attack on a shopping center in the Goztepe section of Istanbul.
    (SFEC, 3/14/99, p.A24)

1999        Mar 14, A bombing in Ankara killed one person.
    (WSJ, 3/15/99, p.A1)

1999        Mar 16, Two people were killed in a car explosion in Hatay.
    (SFC, 3/17/99, p.A8)

1999        Mar 21, The Kurdish New Year began with unrest and police arrested 1,500 people across the country with the southeast under a virtual state of siege. A pipeline explosion halted the flow of oil from Iraq.
    (SFC, 3/22/99, p.A10)(WSJ, 3/22/99, p.A1)

1999        Mar 27, A young woman set off grenades strapped to her body in a suicide that wounded 10 others in Istanbul.
    (SFEC, 3/28/99, p.A25)

1999        Mar, In Turkey the Virtue Party member Erdogan was imprisoned for four months for reading pro-Islamic poem at rally.
    (AP, 11/4/02)

1999        Apr 5, A suicide bomber killed himself and a teenage girl in an apparent attempt on the life of Gov. Suleyman Kamci.
    (SFC, 4/6/99, p.A10)

1999        Feb, Nicole and Hugh Pope published "Turkey Unveiled: A History of Modern Turkey."
    (WSJ, 2/11/99, p.A24)

1999        Apr 18, Parliamentary elections were scheduled.
    (WSJ, 4/16/99, p.A12)

1999        Apr 18, In Turkey national election were held. Voters in early results gave 22% of the vote to Democratic Left Party of Bulent Ecevit, 15.4% to the Islamic Virtue Party and 18% to the Nationalist Action Party (MHP) led by Devlet Bahceli. The Motherland Party won 13% and the True Path won 12%. The People's Republican Party (CHP) received less than 9% and for the 1st time failed to win any seats.
    (SFC, 4/19/99, p.A9)(SFC, 4/20/99, p.A8)(AP, 11/4/02)(Econ, 5/3/08, p.61)
1999        Apr 18, In Turkey 7 provincial capitals in the Kurdish region elected leaders of the Kurdish nationalist party as mayors.
    (SFEC, 5/16/99, p.A18)

1999        May 3, Pres. Demirel appointed Bulent Ecevit as prime minister and asked him to form a new government. At the same time legislator Merve Kavakci incited a turmoil by wearing a forbidden scarf.
    (SFC, 5/4/99, p.A14)

1999        May 6, A Turkish court sentenced 6 policemen to over 7 years in prison for beating a journalist to death while in their custody.
    (WSJ, 5/7/99, p.A1)

1999        May 14, Prime Minister Ecevit announced that Merve Kavakci would be stripped of citizenship because she accepted US citizenship before her election to Parliament without informing Turkish authorities.
    (SFEC, 5/16/99, p.A18)

1999        May 20, Semdik Sakik, a Kurdish guerrilla commander was sentenced to death along with his brother Arif Sakik.
    (SFC, 5/21/99, p.D2)

1999        May 31, In Turkey the treason trial of Abdullah Ocalan was scheduled to begin on a prison island. Ocalan offered to urge the PKK to stop its armed struggle against Turkey and to pursue a legal process. Ocalan was later convicted and sentenced to death, but the death sentence was commuted to life in prison in 2002.
    (SFC, 5/1/99, p.A8)(SFC, 6/1/99, p.A6)(AP, 5/31/04)

1999        Jun 4, Police killed 2 members of a radical group believed to be planning a rocket attack on the US Consulate in Istanbul.
    (SFC, 6/5/99, p.A12)

1999        Jun 14, A parliamentary committee voted to dismiss military judges from security courts.
    (SFC, 6/15/99, p.C5)

1999        Jun 29, The court on Imrali Island sentenced Abdullah Ocalan to death on charges of treason.
    (SFC, 6/29/99, p.A8)

1999        Jun 30, In Germany Turkish businesses in at least 9 cities were hit by firebombs following the conviction of Kurdish leader Ocalan.
    (SFC, 7/1/99, p.A12)

1999        Jul 1, Kurdish rebels killed 3 people in a coffeehouse in Elazig. One of the attackers was killed by security forces.
    (SFC, 7/2/99, p.A18)

1999        Jul 4, PKK guerrillas planted a bomb in an Istanbul park that killed one person and injured 25.
    (SFC, 7/6/99, p.A8)

1999        Jul 5, Rusen Tabanci (19), a PKK suicide bomber, killed herself and injured 17 others in Adana. There were over 30 bombings in the last 2 days.
    (SFC, 7/6/99, p.A8)

1999        Jul 11, A bomb exploded in Van and 16 people were injured.
    (SFC, 7/12/99, p.A9)

1999        Aug 3, Abdulah Ocalan called on the PKK to abandon its armed struggle and pull forces out of Turkey by Sept. 1.
    (SFC, 8/4/99, p.A1)

1999        Aug 5, Kurdish separatist rebels agreed to accept a cease-fire call by Abdullah Ocalan.
    (SFC, 8/6/99, p.A12)

1999        Aug 13, Iran agreed under pressure to join Turkey for simultaneous military operations against the PKK.
    (SFC, 8/14/99, p.A10)

1999        Aug 13, The parliament made constitutional changes to overhaul the economy and bring in foreign investment.
    (WSJ, 8/16/99, p.A10)

1999        Aug 17, A 7.4 earthquake hit western Turkey with many killed and thousands injured. Over 17,000 were later reported killed. The quake was centered under the Sea of Armara on the North Anatolian fault. It was later reported to have pushed Turkey 4 feet closer to Europe.
    (SFC, 8/17/99, p.A1)(SFC, 8/18/99, p.A1,13)(WSJ, 8/18/99, p.A1)(SFC, 8/20/99, p.A1)(SFEC, 8/29/99, p.A17)(AP, 8/17/03)

1999        Aug 18, The Tupras oil refinery near Ismit burned out of control as the death toll passed 4,000 from the 7.4 earthquake centered on Izmit. A day after a deadly earthquake struck western Turkey, survivors denounced the rescue effort as sluggish and disorganized. The death toll eventually topped 17,000.
    (SFC, 8/19/99, p.A1,15)(AP, 8/18/00)

1999        Aug 20, Officials reported that over 10,000 bodies had been recovered from the quake and the injured list had risen to 34,000. Prime Minister Ecevit ordered that the dead be buried as soon as found.
    (SFC, 8/21/99, p.A1)

1999        Aug 21, The death toll from the Aug 17 earthquake reached 12,000. Governors in 3 of 9 stricken provinces called off searches for survivors.
    (SFEC, 8/22/99, p.A1)

1999        Aug 24, The death toll in Turkey’s August 17 earthquake was raised to near 18,000.
    (SFC, 8/25/99, p.A14)

1999        Aug 25, Lawmakers approved new taxes to help pay for earthquake damages, which included a 25% surcharge on cellular telephones.
    (SFC, 8/27/99, p.A14)

1999        Aug 26, The Turkey quake death toll was lowered to 13,040 with 26,630 injured. The parliament passed a law to give amnesty to Kurdish rebels with no criminal record. The death toll was later raised to over 17,000.
    (SFC, 8/27/99, p.A14)    (SFC, 10/15/99, p.A19)

1999        Aug 31, A 5.2 aftershock earthquake hit Izmit and killed one man and injured 166.
    (SFC, 9/1/99, p.A12)

1999        Sep 13, A 5.8 aftershock at Golcuk left at least 7 people dead and over 420 injured.
    (SFC, 9/14/99, p.A12)

1999        Sep 26, 11 leftist inmates were killed and a simmering prison uprising erupted as dozens of guards were seized across the country.
    (WSJ, 9/28/99, p.A1)

1999        Oct 21, Ahmet Taner Kislali (60), a columnist for the pro-secular newspaper Cumhuriyet, died from a bomb placed on his car windshield.
    (SFC, 10/22/99, p.B6)

1999        Oct 25, Israeli Pres. Barak visited Turkey to boost military cooperation and economic ties.
    (SFC, 10/26/99, p. B2)

1999        Nov 12, In Turkey a 7.2 [7.1] earthquake was centered at Duzce. At least 834 people were killed and 3000 injured. Damage from the last 2 quakes was later estimated at $10-25 billion.
    (SFC, 11/13/99, p.A1)(SFEC, 11/14/99, p.A1)(SFC, 11/15/99, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/17/99, p.A1)(SFC, 4/28/00, p.D6)(AP, 11/12/00)

1999        Nov 15, Pres. Clinton addressed the Turkish parliament and stressed his support for candidate membership status to the EU.
    (SFC, 11/16/99, p.A12)

1999        Nov 17, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey agreed to a US-backed plan for a Caspian oil pipeline from Baku to Ceyhan to be completed in 2004. The 1st shipment was made in 2006.
    (SFC, 11/18/99, p.C6)(AFP, 6/4/06)

1999        Nov 18, Pres. Clinton at a conference in Turkey of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe urged Pres. Yeltsin to stop the bombing and rocket attacks in Chechnya.
    (SFC, 11/19/99, p.A1)

1999        Nov 19, The 54-nation summit of the OSCE closed with a treaty that restricted the number of tanks, planes and artillery of every army across Europe.
    (SFC, 11/20/99, p.A10)

1999        Nov 28, Turkey reported that some 70 Kurdish rebels in northern Iraq had been killed over the last 5 days by Turkish forces in 15 operations.
    (SFC, 11/29/99, p.A16)

1999        Dec 10, The EU accepted Turkey as a candidate for membership.
    (SFC, 12/11/99, p.A16)

1999        Jason Goodwin authored "Lords of the Horizon," a history of the Ottoman Empire.
    (WSJ, 4/29/99, p.A24)

1999        The IMF put $4 billion into Turkey.
    (WSJ, 4/2/03, p.A14)

1999        In Turkey Guler Sabanci launched Sabanci University.
    (Econ, 1/29/05, p.64)
1999        In Turkey Guler Sabanci launched her wine label “G."
    (Econ, 1/29/05, p.64)

2000        Jan 12, Turkish leaders postponed the execution of Kurdish leader Abdullah Ocalan.
    (SFC, 1/13/00, p.A12)

2000        Jan 17, Huseyin Velioglu, founder and leader of Turkish Hezbollah, was killed in a shootout with Turkish Police during a raid in the Istanbul suburb of Beykoz.

2000        Jan 20, Authorities unearthed 3 bodies from a coal shed in Ankara a day after 10 bodies were found strangled and left in a coal bin of an Istanbul house. Hezbollah militants were blamed.
    (SFC, 1/21/00, p.D3)

2000        Jan 20, Greece and Turkey signed a series of accords to regulate commerce, provide for cooperation in fighting organized crime, preventing illegal immigration, promoting tourism and protecting the Aegean Sea environment.
    (SFC, 1/21/00, p.D2)

2000        Jan 22, The body of Konca Kuris, described as a Muslim feminist, was exhumed in Konya, 220 miles northwest of Mersin. Her body was one of 33 found at properties used by Hezbollah, a radical group dedicated to overthrowing the Turkish state and establishing an Islamic republic.
    (SFC, 1/26/00, p.A9)

2000        Jan 28, Police uncovered 7 more bodies at a Hezbollah hideout and the government ordered clerics to read a sermon denouncing violence. Captured militants in Batman led police to a cache of small arms that included 26 AK-47 assault rifles.
    (SFC, 1/29/00, p.A9)

2000        Feb 1, Three more bodies were found in Diyarbakir and one in Barman attributed to the militant Hezbollah. The total reached 51.
    (SFC, 2/2/00, p.B8)

2000        Feb 2, The bodies of 5 more Hezbollah victims were found in Diyarbakir and Gaziantep and raised the total to 55.
    (SFC, 2/3/00, p.A14)

2000        Feb 9, Kurdish rebels of the PKK announced that they had given up their war and would press their cause "within the framework of peace and democracy."
    (SFC, 2/10/00, p.A12)

2000        Feb 14, Eight people were killed in 2 clashes between Hezbollah and police.
    (SFC, 2/15/00, p.A16)

2000        Feb 28, Three Kurdish mayors were released from prison pending trial on charges that they aided Kurdish rebels.
    (SFC, 2/29/00, p.A12)

2000        Mar 10, Former prime minister Necmettin Erbakan was sentenced to one year in prison for a 1994 speech in which he criticized the secular government for drifting from its Islamic roots.
    (SFC, 3/11/00, p.A8)

2000        Apr 3, Turkish warplanes struck Kurdish rebel bases in northern Iraq.
    (SFC, 4/4/00, p.A12)

2000        Apr 25, Prime Minister Ecevit rallied opposition parties behind Ahmet Necdet Sezer, chief justice of the top court and candidate for the presidency. Sezer needed 367 of 550 parliamentary votes.
    (SFC, 4/26/00, p.A14)

2000        May 5, Turkey’s parliament elected judge Ahmet Necdet Sezer (b.1941) as the country’s 10th president. Sezer served until Aug 28, 2007.
    (SFC, 5/6/00, p.C1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahmet_Necdet_Sezer)

2000        May 26, A 6 volume report by a parliamentary human rights panel was obtained by the Associated Press. It documented cases of torture in police stations across the country.
    (SFC, 5/27/00, p.C1)

2000        May, The government banned 12 Kurdish language journals.
    (SFC, 11/10/00, p.D4)

2000        Jun 2, Delegates in Istanbul from over 150 nations concluded the latest World Radiocommunication Conference. They agreed to reserve 3 blocks of airwaves for advanced services such as wireless Internet access.
    (SFC, 6/3/00, p.B1)

2000        Jun 13, In Italy the government pardoned Mehmet Ali Agca (42), the man who wounded Pope John Paul II in 1981. Agca was flown to Turkey to finish serving 8 years for the 1979 murder of a newspaper editor.
    (SFC, 6/14/00, p.A12)

2000        Aug 21, Iraq threatened to retaliate against Turkey over airstrikes that left some 40 civilians dead.
    (WSJ, 8/22/00, p.A1)

2000        Sep 7, Turkey announced the move of some 2000 residents of Tuzkoy and Karain due to cancerous fibrous zeolite, a mineral fiber in volcanic ash.
    (SFC, 9/8/00, p.D2)

2000        Oct 20, Some 800-1000 inmates began a hunger strike to protest their possible transfer to new prisons.
    (SFC, 11/23/00, p.D4)

2000        Nov, Imprisoned gang leaders Nuri and Vedat Ergin allegedly forced some 200 inmates at Usak prison to stage a 3-day riot. The brothers allegedly ordered the death of 5 inmates from a rival gang. Turkey planned a broad amnesty that could release as many as 25,000 inmates, but excluded some 12,000 political prisoners. A prison hunger strike entered its 5th week.
    (SFC, 11/23/00, p.D4)

2000        Nov, Metin Kaplan was sentenced in Germany for operating a terrorist organization. His group had planned to bomb Ataturk’s mausoleum in Ankara with an airplane packed with explosives on Turkey’s 75th  anniversary. Kaplan, known as the “caliph of Cologne," was extradited to Turkey in 2004.
    (SFC, 2/5/02, p.A9)(Econ, 9/1/07, p.53)

2000        Dec 4, The Turkey stock market fell 8% and marked a 2-week drop of 40% as interest rates soared to 1,200%. Officials began talks with the IMF for a $5 billion loan.
    (SFC, 12/5/00, p.A15)

2000        Dec 6, The IMF agreed to grant Turkey $7.5 billion in emergency loans.
    (SFC, 12/7/00, p.C12)

2000        Dec 15, A central Turkey earthquake killed 6 people including 5 men praying at the mosque of Yasarlar village.
    (SSFC, 12/17/00, p.11)

2000        Dec 19, At least 17 people were killed when security forces stormed 20 prisons to end a 2-month hunger strike.
    (SFC, 12/20/00, p.A20)

2000        Dec 20, The fight to gain control of the prisons entered a 2nd day. The DHKP-C, a splinter group of Dev-Sol, led the hunger strike.
    (SFC, 12/21/00, p.A20)

2000        Dec 22, Government prison raids ended after 430 inmates surrendered at Umraniye. The 4-day siege left 28 people dead including 16 burned alive. Government forces had not been able to enter the leftist controlled wards of Bayrampasa prison in Istanbul for a decade.
    (SSFC, 12/24/00, p.B4)

2000        Hugh and Nicole Pope authored “Turkey Unveiled: A History of Modern Turkey."
    (Econ, 5/21/05, p.85)

2001        Jan 3, In Turkey suicide bomber Gultekin Koc (23) killed himself a 2 others in a police station in Istanbul. At least 7 people were injured. Koc was a member of the Revolutionary People’s Liberation Party-Front, a Marxist group
    (SFC, 1/4/01, p.A9)(SFC, 9/11/01, p.B3)

2001        Jan 7, Iraqi Kurdish officials reported that at least 500 Turkish troops had pushed 100 miles into northern Iraq in response to a call for help from the PUK. The PUK was fighting the PKK and had lost 200 soldiers in recent weeks. Some 10,000 Turkish troops had entered northern Iraq since Dec 20.
    (SFC, 1/8/01, p.A9)

2001        Jan 30, Mehmet Fevzi Sihanlioglu (55), member of parliament, was beaten by fellow lawmakers in the Grand National Assembly and died of a heart attack. The attack followed a debate on whether time for speeches should be extended.
    (SFC, 2/14/01, p.D18)

2001        Feb 16, Matild Manokyan, Turkey’s best known legal brothel madam, died at age 84. She had been Istanbul’s top tax payer for several years.
    (SFC, 2/19/01, p.A19)

2001        Feb 22, A financial crises in Turkey forced the government to let the lira float and it dropped 40% to 960,000 to the US dollar. By the end of the year the economy sank 9.4%.
    (SFC, 2/23/01, p.D4)(WSJ, 2/23/01, p.A11)(WSJ, 4/2/03, p.A14)

2001        Mar 19, The Cabinet approved a detailed program of political, economic and legal reforms to secure entry to the EU.
    (SFC, 3/20/01, p.A12)

2001        Mar 22, Sabiha Gokcen, Turkey's 1st woman pilot and the adopted daughter of Ataturk, died. Armenians held that she was Armenian by birth.
    (Econ, 3/27/04, p.52)

2001        Mar 31, Thousands rallied in major cities to protest a government economic recovery plan backed by the IMF.
    (SSFC, 4/1/01, p.C10)

2001        Apr 11, As many as 130,000 protesters in several cities fought with police and called for the resignation of PM Ecevit due to the economic crises.
    (SFC, 4/12/01, p.C2)

2001        Apr 22, In Istanbul pro-Chechen gunmen seized at least 30 hostages at the Swissotel luxury hotel.
    (SFC, 4/23/01, p.A8)

2001        Apr 23, In Istanbul 13 pro-Chechen rebels released 120 hostages and were arrested.
    (SFC, 4/24/01, p.A9)

2001        May 3, It was reported that 20 people in Turkey had starved themselves to death in the past 5 weeks in protest of the prison system. Some 200-400 inmates still engaged in the "death fast."
    (SFC, 5/3/01, p.B2)

2001        May 15, The IMF approved $8 billion in loans to Turkey.
    (WSJ, 5/16/01, p.A1)

2001        May 16, A Casa CN-235 military transport plane crashed and killed 34 people, mostly special-forces soldiers returning from a Kurdish region.
    (SFC, 5/17/01, p.A12)

2001        Jun 22, Turkey's top court banned the Virtue Party for violating secular laws.
    (AP, 11/4/02)

2001        Jul 4, In Izmir Mahmut Gokhan Ozocak (41) became the 27th person to die from a hunger strike protesting prisoner transfers.
    (SFC, 7/6/01, p.D6)

2001        Jul 18, It was reported that Osman Durmus, the Health Minister in Turkey, had introduced regulations for state schools to expel non-virgin girls training as health workers.
    (SFC, 7/19/01, p.A11)

2001        Aug, In Turkey Erdogan formed the Justice and Development Party with former Virtue members.
    (AP, 11/4/02)

2001        Sep 10, In Turkey a Marxist militant suicide bomber, Ugur Bulbul, killed killing himself and three others, including an Australian woman and 2 policemen near Istanbul’s historic Taksim Square. 21 were injured. Bulbul was released from prison 6 months earlier for membership in the banned Revolutionary People’s Liberation Party-Front, a Marxist group, that later claimed responsibility.
    (WSJ, 9/11/01, p.A1)(SFC, 9/11/01, p.B3)(SFC, 9/12/01, p.C4)(AP, 9/10/02)

2001        Sep 26, Turkey approved constitutional reforms that eased restrictions on broadcasting and publishing in the Kurdish language.
    (SFC, 9/27/01, p.A11)

2001        Sep 27, Two more prisoners died from a hunger strike against the new high-security prisons. This raised the total to 38.
    (SFC, 9/28/01, p.D6)

2001        Oct 10, Turkey granted the government the authority to send troops overseas and to allow foreign troops to be stationed on its soil.
    (SFC, 10/11/01, p.A7)

2001        Nov 6, In Istanbul 4 leftist militants, participants in a hunger strike, died during a police raid. The militants had threatened self-immolation.
    (SFC, 11/7/01, p.A16)

2001        Nov 22, The Turkey Parliament formally recognized men and women as equals effective Jan 1. this updated a 1926 code that designated the husband as head of the family.
    (SFC, 11/23/01, p.A21)

2001        In Turkey Ahmet Davutoglu (b.1959) authored “Strategic Depth," in which he set out a new policy of engagement in the region. In 2009 he was named Turkey’s Minister of Foreign Affairs.
    (Econ, 10/23/10, SR p.7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahmet_Davuto%C4%9Flu)
2001        Stephen Kinzer, NY Times correspondent, authored "Crescent & Star," a journalist’s view of Turkey.
    (WSJ, 9/19/01, p.A18)

2001        Turkey’s police knocked out the home-grown Hizbullah, an Islamic terrorist group.
    (Econ, 7/19/08, p.36)

2002        Jan 14, PM Bulent Ecevit began a 5-day visit to Washington.
    (WSJ, 1/14/02, p.A12)

2002        Feb 3, A 6.0-6.2 earthquake hit Turkey and as least 45 people were killed. The epicenter was about 135 miles southwest of Ankara.
    (SFC, 2/4/02, p.A3)(WSJ, 2/4/02, p.A1)

2002        Mar 21, In Diyarbakir, Turkey, thousands of Kurdish youths battled Turkish police after authorities banned the celebration of Nowruz, the Zoroastrian New Year.
    (SFC, 3/22/02, p.A10)

2002        Apr 19, The top court barred Recep Tayyip Erdogan, a leading Islamist politician, from holding a seat in parliament.
    (SFC, 4/20/02, p.A13)

2002        Apr 29, Turkey officially agreed to take command of the peacekeeping mission in Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 4/30/02, p.A15)

2002        May 30, Police near Caldiran found the bodies of 19 suspected illegal immigrants who had apparently attempted to enter during the winter from Iran.
    (SFC, 5/31/02, p.A12)

2002        May, Amateur treasure hunters stumbled upon a site in central Turkey believed to be the lost city of Sobesos.
    (Econ, 6/19/04, p.82)

2002        Jun 4, Turkish peacekeepers arrived in Afghanistan.
    (WSJ, 6/5/02, p.A1)

2002        Jun 20, Turkey took over control of the 19-member peacekeeping force in Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 6/21/02, p.A10)

2002        Jul 3, Turkey's jittery stock market fell again following reports that officials discussed a moratorium on the nation's $30 billion foreign debt.
    (AP, 7/3/02)

2002        Jul 5, In Turkey 3 police officers and a suspected Islamic militant were killed in a shootout during a raid on an apartment in the southeastern Turkish city of Elazig.
    (AP, 7/5/02)

2002        Jul 8, In Turkey 3 ministers resigned in a growing push for early elections.
    (WSJ, 7/9/02, p.A1)

2002        Jul 11, Turkey's foreign minister resigned, dealing a harsh blow to Prime Minister Bulent Ecevit, who was struggling to stay in power despite ill health and mass resignations from his party.
    (AP, 7/11/02)

2002        Jul 12, Ismail Cem, Turkey's former foreign minister, launched a new political party to topple Prime Minister Bulent Ecevit, who is fighting to stay in power despite poor health and a mutiny within his Cabinet.
    (AP, 7/12/02)

2002        Aug 3, Turkey's parliament approved a reform package aimed at boosting its chances of joining the European Union by abolishing the death penalty and granting greater rights to the nation's Kurds.
    (AP, 8/3/02)

2002        Aug 6, Israel agreed to buy about 1.75 billion cubic feet of water from Turkey annually for the next 20 years to alleviate the nation's growing water shortage and ensure the success of an arms deal with Ankara.
    (AP, 8/602)

2002        Aug 10, Kemal Dervis, Turkey's economy minister and the architect of a $16 billion, foreign-backed recovery program, to run for parliament and called on bickering politicians to join forces for a strong government.
    (AP, 8/10/02)

2002        Sep 19, German police stormed homes and froze bank accounts across the country after outlawing 16 more groups linked to a jailed Islamic militant accused of plotting an airplane attack in Turkey.
    (AP, 9/19/02)

2002        Sep 20, Necdet Kent (91), Turkish diplomat in France (1941-1944), died in Istanbul. He gave Turkish citizenship to dozens of Turkish Jews living in France who did not have proper identity papers to save them from deportation to the Nazi gas chambers.
    (AP, 9/20/02)

2002        Sep 28, In Turkey paramilitary police reported the seizure of 35 pounds of uranium near the Syrian border and arrested two Turks who they said planned to sell the weapons-grade substance. The amount was later changed to 3 ounces and then found to be inert.
    (AP, 9/29/02)(SSFC, 9/29/02, p.A12)(AP, 9/30/02)

2002        Oct 3, Turkey formally commuted Kurdish guerrilla leader Abdullah Ocalan's death sentence to life in prison after parliament abolished capital punishment two months ago in a bid to join the European Union.
    (AP, 10/3/02)

2002        Oct 9, The European Union's executive Commission declared Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, and Slovakia nearly ready for EU membership and recommended they be invited to join in 2004. Romania and Bulgaria likely will be delayed until 2007 because of weak economies, the Commission said, adding Turkey was the weakest link among candidates.
    (AP, 10/9/02)

2002        Oct 23, Turkey’s chief prosecutor moved to outlaw the Justice and Development Party for ignoring court order that Erdogan step down as leader. The moderate Islamic party, led by Recep Tayyip Erdogan, was also Turkey’s most popular party.
    (SFC, 10/24/02, p.A11)(AP, 11/4/02)

2002        Oct 26, In southeastern Turkey 3 teenagers were killed after they accidentally set off a mortar shell, where Turkish troops and Kurdish rebels battled for years.
    (AP, 10/26/02)

2002        Oct 27, Kurdish rebels clashed with Turkish soldiers in the mainly Kurdish southeast, leaving an insurgent dead and five soldiers wounded.
    (AP, 10/27/02)

2002        Oct, Turkey’s ISE stock index began to rise and increased 400% by February 2006.
    (Econ, 6/3/06, p.74)

2002        Nov 3, In Turkey the Islamic-rooted Justice and Development Party (AK) won a parliamentary majority in elections (34.2%), the first time in 15 years that any party has been in a position to govern alone. The party pledged to wipe out corruption. It also pledged to maintain the nation's pro-Western stance, quickly moving to soothe worries that this crucial U.S. ally would undergo a radical shift toward Islam; Republican People's Party (social democrats): 19.4%; True Path Party (center-rightist): 9.5%; National Action Party (nationalists): 8.3%. About 90% of incumbent members of parliament lost.
    (AP, 11/4/02)(SFC, 11/4/02, p.A1)(SFC, 11/15/02, p.J6)(Econ, 7/25/05, p.44)

2002        Nov 16, Abdullah Gul, a moderate politician from a party with Islamic roots, was chosen to be Turkey's next prime minister, but he was widely regarded as a stand-in for the party's real leader, Recep Tayyip Erdogan.
    (AP, 11/16/02)

2002        Nov 23, Turkey's new prime minister presented his program to parliament, saying his top priorities are joining the European Union and revitalizing the slumping economy.
    (AP, 11/23/02)

2002        Nov 30, Turkey lifted curfews and restrictions on gatherings in two predominantly Kurdish provinces, ending 15 years of emergency rule in southeastern Turkey and fulfilling a requirement toward joining the European Union.
    (AP, 11/30/02)

2002        Nov, In south-eastern Turkey Semse Allak, a pregnant woman, and Halil, her illicit love (or rapist), were stoned to death for shaming their families in the province of Mardin.
    (Econ, 6/28/03, p.53)

2002        Dec 1, In Istanbul, Turkey, some 10,000 people took part in a protest against a U.S.-led war in neighboring Iraq.
    (AP, 12/1/02)

2002        Dec 7, In London Azra Akin, Miss Turkey, won the Miss World Pageant bringing to a close the pageant that had incited deadly rioting in Nigeria, the original site of the event.
    (AP, 12/7/02)

2002        In Turkey Abdurrahman Dilipak, an Islamist, and Sanar Yurdatapan, an atheist, authored "Red and Green," or "Green and Red," on current questions of faith and social issues such as the role of women.
    (SFC, 11/29/02, p.K4)

2002        The World Bank committed $3.5 billion to Turkey in this year.
    (WSJ, 4/2/03, p.A14)

2003        Jan 8, In Turkey the pilot of the British Aerospace RJ-100 missed the runway because of heavy fog in the southeastern city of Diayarbakir. 75 people were killed with 5 survivors.
    (AP, 1/9/03)(WSJ, 1/9/03, p.A1)

2003        Jan 11, Another Turkish prisoner died on a hunger strike, raising the death toll in the protest against Turkey's maximum security prisons to 64 people.
    (AP, 1/12/03)

2003        Jan 17, Turkish troops killed 12 Kurdish rebels in the southeast over the past two days.
    (AP, 1/17/03)

2003        Jan 19, Syria and Iran support Turkey's proposal for a regional summit to seek a peaceful way out of the Iraq standoff. Turkey has offered to hold the summit where Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Syria would discuss the standoff over Iraq.
    (AP, 1/19/03)

2003        Feb 6, Turkey's parliament voted to allow U.S. troops to renovate Turkish bases for use in a possible war with Iraq.
    (AP, 2/6/03)

2003          Feb 18, Turkey asked the US to nearly double its multibillion dollar aid package as a condition for allowing U.S. troops on its soil in a war against neighboring Iraq.
    (AP, 2/18/03)

2003          Feb 19, NATO approved the deployment of defense equipment to Turkey in the event of a war in Iraq. Turkey and the US failed again to agree on the size of an economic aid package.
    (AP, 2/19/03)

2003          Feb 24, Turkey’s Cabinet agreed to the deployment of tens of thousands of U.S. combat troops ahead of a possible war in Iraq. The measure is expected to face a vote in Turkey’s parliament Feb 25.
    (AP, 2/24/03)

2003          Mar 1, Turkey's parliament failed to approve a bill allowing in American combat troops to open a northern front against Iraq. Lawmakers voted 264-250 in favor of stationing US troops but that was 3 votes shy of a constitutionally mandated simple majority.
    (AP, 3/2/03)(AP, 3/1/08)

2003          Mar 9, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, the leader of Turkey’s ruling party, won a by-election. He was soon confirmed as PM replacing Abdullah Gul.
    (AP, 3/9/03)(WSJ, 3/12/03, p.A1)

2003        Mar 11, In Turkey Recep Erdogan was confirmed as the prime minister.
    (WSJ, 3/12/03, p.A1)

2003        Mar 19, PM Tayyip Erdogan said Turkey was preparing to open its airspace to US warplanes but would not allow them access to airbases.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

2003        Mar 20, Turkey’s parliament approved a motion allowing over-flights for US warplanes. Turkey announced plans to send thousands of troops into Kurdish-controlled northern Iraq.
    (AP, 3/20/03)

2003        Mar 29, A Turkish man who had hijacked a Turkish Airlines flight the day before was persuaded by Turkey's prime minister to release his 204 hostages after the plane landed in Athens, Greece.
    (AP, 3/29/04)

2003        Mar, In Turkey villagers from the southeastern town of Sanliurfa hurled eggs and stones at a group of about a dozen US soldiers going to retrieve pieces of Navy-fired Tomahawk missile, which was intended for Iraq but crashed into an empty field. In 2006 charges 13 villagers were acquitted of attacking the US troops.
    (AP, 12/27/06)

2003        Apr 18, The IMF approved the release of $701 million in loans to Turkey, part of an $18 billion package approved in Feb 2002.
    (SFC, 4/19/03, p.A12)

2003        May 1, A 6.4 magnitude earthquake rumbled through southeastern Turkey. 177 people were killed and 390 injured including 80 students were trapped in the debris of their school dormitory in Bingol.
    (AP, 5/1/03)(SFC, 5/1/03, A16)(SFC, 5/2/03, p.A3)(AP, 5/4/08)

2003        May 17, Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan said Turkey will open its doors next week to Greek Cypriot tourists, signaling an end to a decades-long travel ban.
    (AP, 5/18/03)

2003        May 26, An airplane carrying Spanish peacekeepers crashed into a mountain in northeastern Turkey while making its third attempt to land in thick fog. All 74 people aboard were killed. The Yak-42 was chartered from a Ukrainian company.
    (AP, 5/26/03)(WSJ, 5/27/03, p.A1)

2003        Jun 7, In eastern Turkey a passenger bus slammed into a wall at the entrance of a tunnel, killing 27 people and injuring 33.
    (AP, 6/7/03)

2003        Jun 20, In central Turkey a student dormitory at an Islamic school exploded and collapsed, killing 10 students.
    (AP, 6/20/03)

2003        Jul 4, US forces raided a Turkish special forces office in northern Iraq and detained 11 soldiers on reports that Turks were plotting to kill the governor of the oil-rich city of Kirkuk.
    (AP, 7/5/03)

2003        Jul 10, In southeastern Turkey suspected Kurdish rebels raided a village, killing four villagers and injuring another.
    (AP, 7/11/03)

2003        Aug 22, Turkish troops clashed with Kurdish rebels in Batman province. 7 Kurds and 2 Turkish soldiers were killed.
    (SFC, 8/23/03, p.A3)

2003        Aug 24, In northern Turkey a bus in a wedding convoy veered off the road and slammed into a retaining wall, killing 19 people and injuring several others.
    (AP, 8/24/03)

2003        Oct 7, Turkey's parliament voted overwhelmingly to allow Turkish troops to be sent to Iraq.
    (AP, 10/7/04)

2003        Nov 15, In Turkey twin car bombs exploded outside Istanbul synagogues filled with worshippers during Sabbath prayers, killing at least 23 people and wounding more than 300. In all 14 Muslims were killed. 6 Jews were killed at Beth Israel.
    (AP, 11/16/03)(SSFC, 11/16/03, p.A1)

2003        Nov 19, Turkish authorities arrested six people in connection with the suicide bombings of two Istanbul synagogues.
    (AP, 11/19/03)

2003        Nov 20, In Turkey trucks packed with explosives blew up at the HSBC London-based bank and the British consulate. The 32 people killed included London's consul-general Roger Short. Some 450 people were wounded.
    (AP, 11/20/03)(WSJ, 11/21/03, p.A1)(SFC, 12/1/03, p.A16)

2003        Nov 22, A methane explosion in a Turkish coal mine killed at least three miners and trapped another seven in the collapsed mine.
    (AP, 11/22/03)

2003        Nov 30, Syria handed over 22 suspects to Turkey in connection with the Nov 16 suicide bombings in Istanbul.
    (SFC, 12/1/03, p.A16)

2003        Dec 14, Elections in northern Cyprus ended in a deadlock with the pro-EU opposition and pro-government parties splitting the 50 parliamentary seats. EU members have said that Turkey must help reunite the island before it can realize its own membership aspirations.
    (AP, 12/15/03)(WSJ, 12/15/03, p.A13)

2003        Dec 21, A vessel, carrying some 60 migrants from Jordan, Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan, left the Turkish Mediterranean resort of Marmaris late Dec 20 and was heading to the Greek island of Rhodes when it sank.
    (AP, 12/22/03)

2003        An American court awarded Motorola and Nokia $5 billion in damages, compensation and interest for money defrauded them by Turkey’s Uzan family. Turkey claimed another $6 billion from the Uzans.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.14)

2004        Jan 6, President Bashar Assad began the first-ever visit to Turkey by a Syrian head of state, hoping to further improve ties forge a joint position on growing Kurdish autonomy.
    (AP, 1/6/04)(WSJ, 1/7/04, p.A1)

2004        Jan 8, Turkey and the US agreed to reopen the Incirlik air base for Iraq operations.
    (WSJ, 1/9/04, p.A1)

2004        Feb 2, In central Turkey an 11-story apartment building collapsed in Konya, killing at least 63 people. 12 people were found alive in the rubble the next day.
    (AP, 2/3/04)(AP, 2/6/04)(AP, 2/7/04)

2004        Feb 8, Cem Karaca (58), Armenian-Turkish rock musician, died. He put together some 20 albums that mixed Turkish themes and western rock music.
    (SFC, 2/17/04, p.A18)

2004        Feb 13, Greek and Turkish Cypriot leaders agreed to resume full negotiations next week to end the 30-year division of Cyprus before it joins the European Union on May 1.
    (AP, 2/13/04)
2004        Feb 13, A Cambodian-flagged vessel that sank near the entrance of the Bosporus. A snowstorm sweeping out of the Balkans disrupted travel across Turkey and Greece, forcing rescuers to call off the search for the 20 crew members of the cargo ship.
    (AP, 2/13/04)

2004        Mar 10, In Turkey 2 suicide attackers stormed a Masonic lodge in Istanbul opening fire with automatic weapons and setting off explosions that killed one person and wounded five.
    (AP, 3/10/04)

2004        Mar 25, In eastern Turkey a 5.1 earthquake centered at Cat left at least 9 people dead.
    (AP, 3/26/04)

2004        Mar 28, Premier Recep Tayyip Erdogan's Islamic-rooted party appeared headed for a resounding victory in Turkey's local elections.
    (AP, 3/28/04)

2004        Apr 10, Sakip Sabanci (71), Turkey’s richest man and head of Sabanci Holding, died. He left his niece Guler Sabanci in charge of his business.

2004        Jun 1, In Turkey Kurdish rebels, Kongra-Gel, announced a resumption of battle saying the government had not met their terms.
    (Econ, 9/4/04, p.51)

2004        Jun 2, In southeast Turkey Kurdish guerrillas fired on troops a day after announcing an end to a 5-year cease fire.
    (WSJ, 6/3/04, p.A1)

2004        Jun 9, State-run Turkish TV aired its 1st ever broadcast in the Kurdish dialect of Kurmandji. Hours later Leyla Zana and 3 colleagues were released after spending 10 years in jail for belonging to the PKK rebel group.
    (Econ, 6/12/04, p.50)

2004        Jun 24, In Istanbul, Turkey, bombs shattered a bus and exploded outside a hotel where President Bush was to stay the following weekend, in back-to-back attacks that killed four people and wounded 17.
    (AP, 6/25/04)

2004        Jun 27, Turkey rejected the demands of Islamic militants who are threatening to behead three of its kidnapped citizens during a visit by President Bush to Turkey.
    (AP, 6/27/04)
2004        Jun 27, Over 40 thousand Turks chanting anti-Bush slogans demonstrated against the president's visit to their country and a NATO summit. NATO leaders closed ranks on a pledge to take a bigger military role in Iraq; Pres. Bush declared that the alliance was poised to "meet the threats of the 21st century." Pres. Bush called on the EU to admit Turkey as a member.
    (AP, 6/27/04)(Econ, 9/11/04, p.50)(AP, 6/27/05)

2004        Jul 2, In eastern Turkey a car bomb exploded near a governor's convoy, killing 6 people, including a 12-year-old boy, and injuring 23 others.
    (AFP, 7/2/04)(SFC, 7/3/04, p.A10)
2004        Jul 2, In an eastern Turkey a 5.0 earthquake leveled stone and mud houses, killing 18 people and injuring 27.
    (AP, 7/2/04)(SFC, 7/3/04, p.A3)

2004        Jul 22, In northwestern Turkey a new high-speed passenger train derailed killing 37 people and injuring 81 others.
    (AP, 7/23/04)(AP, 7/22/05)

2004        Jul 30, Turkish authorities seized 200 pounds of plastic explosives hidden in a truck as it crossed into Turkey from Iraq.
    (AP, 7/30/04)

2004        Aug 2, Masked gunmen killed a Turkish hostage with three gunshots to the head, according to a video posted on the Internet, and the Turkish truckers' union said it would stop bringing supplies to U.S. forces in Iraq.
    (AP, 8/2/04)

2004        Aug 11, In northwestern Turkey 2 trains collided head on, killing 8 people, injuring 55 others.
    (AP, 8/11/04)(AP, 8/12/04)

2004        Aug 31, An official said Turkish troops had killed 11 Kurdish rebels in southeastern Turkey during the past three days.
    (AP, 8/31/04)

2004        Sep 5, A Turkish company said it was withdrawing from Iraq a day after Iraqi militants threatened to behead its employee unless it ceased operations there.
    (AP, 9/5/04)

2004        Sep 8, In Turkey rescue workers started to evacuate dozens of workers trapped inside a copper mine engulfed in fire. Eight miners were rescued so far. Between 25 and 30 miners were trapped inside the mine in the town of Kure in Kastamonu province, some 185 miles north of the capital, Ankara.
    (AP, 9/8/04)

2004        Sep 21, A Turkish construction company announced that it was halting operations in neighboring Iraq in a bid to save the lives of 10 employees kidnapped by militants.
    (AP, 9/21/04)

2004        Sep 26, Turkey’s Parliament voted overwhelmingly to approve penal code reforms aimed at boosting its chances of starting membership talks with the European Union.
    (AP, 9/26/04)

2004        Oct 2, Turkish troops and Kurdish rebels clashed in southeastern Turkey in fighting that killed two soldiers and a guerrilla.
    (AP, 10/3/04)

2004        Oct 6, The EU recommended Turkey be put on the path to full membership.
    (AP, 10/7/04)

2004        Oct 11, An Arabic language television station broadcast video showing three hooded gunmen threatening to behead a Turkish hostage within three days unless the Americans release all Iraqi prisoners and all Turks leave Iraq.
    (AP, 10/11/04)

2004        Oct 14, Video that appeared on an Islamic Web site showed militants in Iraq beheading a man identified as a kidnapped Turkish driver.
    (AP, 10/14/04)

2004        Nov 20, Ugur Kaymaz (12) and his father Ahmet Kaymaz (30), a Kurdish truck driver from Kiziltepe, Turkey, were reportedly shot dead by police officers in front of their house. In 2007 all 4 members of the special forces implicated in the killings were exonerated.
    (www.extrajudicialexecutions.org/communications/turkey.html)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.60)

2004        Dec 5, President Vladimir Putin made the first official visit by a Russian leader to Turkey, seeking to boost trade and counterterrorism cooperation between the two countries.
    (AP, 12/5/04)

2004        Dec 14, In northeastern Turkey an avalanche roared down on a town, killing six people, including a 10-month-old baby.
    (AP, 12/14/04)

2004        Dec 15, In eastern Afghanistan the body of a kidnapped Turkish engineer was found, a day after he was snatched with his driver and interpreter by a band of armed men.
    (AP, 12/15/04)

2004        Dec 17, European Union leaders and Turkey agreed on a compromise formula to overcome differences over Turkish recognition of Cyprus' government as a condition for opening EU membership talks.
    (AP, 12/17/04)

2004        Dec 22, Turkey and Syria signed a free-trade accord.
    (WSJ, 12/23/04, p.A1)

2004        Dec 25, Video footage aired on Turkish television showed a Turkish ship owner saying he and a ship captain were being held hostage in Iraq and that kidnappers demanded a $25 million ransom.
    (AP, 12/25/04)

2004        Dec 26, A woman doused her body with gasoline and set herself ablaze in a busy Istanbul square to protest Turkey's maximum security prison system.
    (AP, 12/26/04)

2004        Dec 31, Bulgarian authorities picked up Suleyman Demirel, one-time owner of Egebank and nephew of former pres. Demirel, and returned him to Turkey for trial. Egebank’s collapse had caused financial losses of $1.2 billion.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.14)

2004        Dec, Turkey signed a $10 billion 3-year economic agreement with the IMF.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.12)

2004        Police in Malatya province arrested Hamit Bayram for attempting the sale of a car-load of heroin. He was taken to Van where his father, Mustafa Bayram, operated as a local kingpin. Clansmen with Kalashnikovs soon forced Hamit’s release.
    (Econ, 7/24/04, p.48)

2005        Jan 1, The New (yeni) Turkish Lira (YTL), will begin circulating, wiping out six zeroes from the current money. The old lira will keep circulating until Dec 31.
    (AP, 9/23/04)(Econ, 8/28/04, p.67)(SSFC, 12/5/04, p.F2)
2005        Jan 1, Turkey was forecast for 4.3% annual GDP growth with a population at 73.3 million and GDP per head at $4,150.
    (Econ, 1/1/05, p.90)

2005        Jan 22, Turkey’s large debt was reported to amount to about 74% of its GDP.
    (Econ, 1/22/05, p.47)

2005        Feb 16, Former Turkish PM Mesut Yilmaz rejected charges of corruption as he went on trial over a banking scandal with alleged mafia involvement, becoming the first head of government to be tried by the Supreme Court.
    (AFP, 2/16/05)

2005        Feb 23, Turkey's parliament approved legislation allowing thousands of students thrown out of universities to return, including women who violated the staunchly secular country's ban on Islamic-style head scarves.
    (AP, 2/23/05)

2005        Mar 6, In Turkey riot police kicked and beat women and young people who had gathered for an unauthorized demonstration in Istanbul marking International Women's Day.
    (AP, 3/7/05)

2005        Mar 7, A Turkish alcohol company ordered the recall of millions of bottles of Turkish liquor as the death toll from a bootleg version of the drink rose to at least 17.
    (AP, 3/7/05)

2005        Mar 11, Turkey’s state institution over religious life issued a sermon to be preached at some 75,000 officially registered mosques on the dangers posed to national unity by Christian missionaries.
    (Econ, 6/25/05, p.49)

2005        Mar 12, Turkish authorities closed the Bosporus Strait to maritime traffic after a roll-on-roll-off (ro-ro) vessel carrying 7 tanker trucks loaded with 138 tons of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sank in the narrow waterway, which separates the European and Asian sides of Istanbul.
    (AP, 3/13/05)

2005        Apr 15, Turkish troops backed by attack helicopters killed 21 Kurdish rebels near the Iraqi border overnight in the biggest clash since the rebels declared a unilateral truce more than five years ago. 3 Turkish soldiers and a village guardsman also were killed in the clash 25 miles from the Iraq border between the town of Pervari in Siirt province and Eruh in Sirnak province.
    (AP, 4/15/05)

2005        Apr 21, In western Turkey a gas explosion caused a coal mine to collapse, killing at least 17 workers deep underground.
    (AP, 4/22/05)

2005        Apr 30, In western Turkey a police officer was killed and four others were injured when a parcel bomb exploded in the hands of a bomb disposal expert in a seaside resort town.
    (AP, 4/30/05)

2005        May 1, Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan arrived in Israel for a visit seeking to mend relations with the Jewish state and join in a new wave of Middle East peace efforts.
    (AP, 5/1/05)

2005        May 13, Turkish soldiers killed 9 Kurdish rebels in Turkey's predominantly Kurdish southeast. Automatic weapons, plastic explosives, grenades, and a rocket-propelled grenade launcher were seized in the operation. A Syrian citizen was among those killed.
    (AP, 5/14/05)

2005        May 16, In Turkey 2 Kurdish guerillas trying to attack the home of a Turkish governor were killed after police fired on them as they approached the building.
    (AP, 5/16/05)

2005        May 24, World Orthodox leaders gathered in Istanbul, the ancient seat of Orthodoxy. They decided to stop recognizing the beleaguered patriarch of Jerusalem, Irineos I, for allegedly leasing sites in the Palestinian side of the city to Jewish investors. They asserted a rare unified position on the crisis facing the church in the Holy Land.
    (AP, 5/24/05)(WSJ, 5/25/05, p.A1)

2005        May 25, In Azerbaijan officials opened the first section of a $3.6 billion, 1,100-mile pipeline that will carry Caspian Sea oil to Western markets. The presidents of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia and Turkey were on hand for the ceremony at the Sangachal oil terminal.
    (AP, 5/25/05)(WSJ, 5/25/05, p.B2)

2005        Jun 5, In southeastern Turkey Kurdish rebels ambushed a Turkish commando unit overnight, killing four soldiers and wounding one near Tunceli.
    (AP, 6/5/05)

2005        Jun 27, A meeting in Istanbul of the World Tribunal on Iraq, the culmination of 20 meetings around the world over the last 2 years, called the invasion and occupation of Iraq illegal. The symbolic tribunal sought the immediate withdrawal of coalition forces from Iraq and payment of reparations for the damage caused during the conflict.
    (AP, 6/27/05)

2005        Jun, Article 301/1 of the Turkish Penal Code, the “insulting Turkishness" law, took effect. The law states “A person who explicitly insults being a Turk, the Republic or Turkish Grand National Assembly, shall be imposed to a penalty of imprisonment for a term of six months to three years."

2005        Jul 6, Hikmet Fidan, prominent Kurdish politician and critic of Abdullah Ocalan, was killed in Diyarbakir, Turkey. Police said he was killed by the PKK.
    (Econ, 7/23/05, p.48)

2005        Jul 9, In southeastern Turkey a land mine believed to have been planted by Kurdish rebels killed 3 soldiers. Two other land mines injured seven people in separate explosions.
    (AP, 7/10/05)

2005        Jul 10, On Turkey's Aegean coast a bomb exploded in a popular resort town of Cesme, wounding about 20 people, including two foreign tourists.
    (AP, 7/10/05)

2005        Jul 11, Kurdish guerrillas kidnapped a Turkish soldier after stopping dozens of cars at a makeshift roadblock in the southeast.
    (AP, 7/11/05)

2005        Jul 16, In Turkey a bomb blast destroyed a minibus near Kusadasi, a popular Aegean Sea beach, killing 5 people, including at least 2 foreigners. Initial reports implicating a female suicide bomber were soon changed to a remote controlled or timer bomb as the cause.
    (Reuters, 7/16/05)(AP, 7/17/05)

2005        Jul 18, In Turkey 4 soldiers were killed when the PKK detonated a bomb in Hakkari.
    (Econ, 7/23/05, p.48)

2005        Jul 19, A top Turkish general said the US had given direct orders for the capture of rebel Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) leaders in Iraq.
    (AP, 7/19/05)

2005        Jul 21, Turkish forces killed 5 Kurdish rebels, including a woman, in a gunbattle in the southeast.
    (AP, 7/23/05)

2005        Jul 23, In Turkey a bomb exploded at an Istanbul cafe frequented by tourists, injuring at least two people.
    (AP, 7/23/05)

2005        Jul 29, Turkey signed an accord extending its customs union with the EU to Cyprus and other new EU members, a key step toward opening membership talks with the bloc.
    (AP, 7/29/05)

2005        Aug 1, The directors of Turkey's eight privately owned Kurdish language schools announced they were closing them due to bureaucratic hurdles and Kurdish demands for the language to be part of the regular school curriculum.
    (AP, 8/1/05)

2005        Aug 4, In Turkey an explosion in a trash can in an Istanbul suburb killed a mother and daughter and injured five others as they left a wedding party.
    (AP, 8/4/05)

2005        Aug 5, In southeastern Turkey Kurdish rebels killed 5 Turkish soldiers in a rocket attack.
    (AP, 8/5/05)

2005        Aug 6, In Turkey Lu'ai Sakra, a Syrian with links to al-Qaida, was arrested for plotting to slam speedboats packed with explosives into cruise ships filled with Israeli tourists.
    (AP, 8/11/05)

2005        Aug 12, Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan pledged to give more rights to the Kurdish minority in a speech in Diyarbakir.
    (Econ, 8/20/05, p.40)(http://tinyurl.com/cmzxz)

2005        Aug 16, Several new computer worms hit systems running MS Windows 2000. On Aug 25 authorities in Morocco arrested Farid Essebar (18) for writing the Zotob worm. Atilla Ekici (21) was arrested in Turkey for paying Essebar to write the worm. In 2006 Morocco sentenced Farid Essebar (19) to 2 years in prison and Achraf Bahlouo (21) to one year for their role in unleashing the Zotob worm. Ekici’s trial continued in Turkey.
    (SFC, 8/27/05, p.A2)(WSJ, 9/14/06, p.B3)(WSJ, 11/21/06, p.A1)

2005        Aug 19, A Kurdish rebel group fighting for autonomy in Turkey's southeast announced a one-month cease-fire and said it planned to pursue indirect negotiations with the government.
    (AP, 8/20/05)

2005        Aug 31, Orhan Pamuk, a Turkish novelist, was charged with insulting his country's national character and could face prison. In February Pamuk was quoted as saying in an interview with a Swiss newspaper magazine: "Thirty-thousand Kurds and one million Armenians were killed in these lands and nobody but me dares to talk about it."
    (AP, 8/31/05)

2005        Aug, Turkey sold a 55% share in Turk Telecom to Saudi Oger and Telecom Italia for $6.55 billion.
    (Econ, 9/17/05, p.64}

2005        Sep 1, Turkey insisted that it has fulfilled conditions for EU membership, as foreign ministers of the 25-nation group started meeting in Wales to assess the predominantly Muslim nation's efforts to join the bloc.
    (AP, 9/2/05)

2005        Sep 4, In Turkey a group of nationalist Turks attacked dozens of buses carrying pro-Kurdish demonstrators with stones, following violent clashes between Kurdish demonstrators and police in Istanbul.
    (AP, 9/4/05)

2005        Sep 5, A nuclear-powered US Navy submarine collided with a Turkish cargo ship in the Persian Gulf. Nobody was injured and both ships appeared to suffer only superficial damage.
    (AP, 9/5/05)

2005        Sep 12, Turkey sold a 51% stake in Tupras, an oil refinery, for $4.1 billion to a consortium of Koc Holding and Royal Dutch/Shell.
    (Econ, 9/17/05, p.64)

2005        Sep 21, EU nations agreed that Turkey must recognize EU member Cyprus during its membership talks, warning that non-recognition could lead to paralysis in the negotiations.
    (AP, 9/21/05)

2005        Sep 24, Turkish scholars at a twice-canceled conference on the massacre of Armenians in the early 20th century cautiously discussed the politically charged topic, avoiding inflammatory language as protesters denounced the gathering as traitorous.
    (AP, 9/24/05)

2005        Oct 3, EU nations reached a tentative agreement on pursuing full membership talks with Turkey, diplomats said. A spokesman for the Turkish prime minister denied reports that Ankara had agreed to the deal.
    (AP, 10/3/05)

2005        Oct 4, French President Jacques Chirac said that Turkey would need to undergo a "major cultural revolution" before entering the EU, and he reiterated that France would hold a referendum on admitting Ankara to the bloc.
    (AP, 10/4/05)

2005        Oct 9, The slaughter of thousands of domestic fowl in Romania and Turkey began as a precaution against the spread of bird flu after both countries confirmed their first cases of the disease over the weekend.
    (AP, 10/10/05)

2005        Oct 10, The Anatolia news agency said a suspect in a bombing plot against Israeli ships in Turkey earlier gave $50,000 to people accused of carrying out a series of bombings in Istanbul that killed 60 people in 2003, according to testimony from Burhan Kus, a suspect submitted by prosecutors to a court.
    (AP, 10/10/05)

2005        Oct 11, A Turkish company signed an agreement to build a $360 million power station in southern Israel. An Israeli Cabinet minister praised such deals as examples of strengthening ties between the Muslim and Jewish countries.
    (AP, 10/11/05)

2005        Oct 13, The EU said the bird flu virus found in Turkish poultry was the H5N1 strain that scientists worry might mutate into a human virus and spark a pandemic. Turkey's health minister said the outbreak had been contained.
    (AP, 10/13/05)

2005        Oct 14, A Turkish court convicted two brothers for the "honor killing" of their sister and sentenced one to life in prison and the other to more than 11 years behind bars.
    (AP, 10/14/05)

2005        Nov 9, In Semdinli, Turkey, 2 government intelligence officers and a PKK informant were caught trying to blow up a bookshop owned by a PKK sympathizer. The affair was said to have been organized by the “deep state," a shadowy coalition of rogue officers and bureaucrats whose powers were being sapped by EU-inspired laws.
    (Econ, 4/15/06, p.54)(Econ, 1/27/07, p.52)

2005        Nov 14, It was reported that a consortium led by Saudi Arabia's Oger Telecom has signed a deal to take a majority stake in state-owned telecommunications company Turk Telekom, sealing Turkey's largest privatization worth 6.55 billion dollars. Oger Telecom, part of the Oger group owned by the family of slain former Lebanese PM Rafiq Hariri, had won the tender for the 55% stake in July, in partnership with Italian operator Telecom Italia.
    (AFP, 11/14/05)

2005        Nov 18, Turkey’s energy minister said oil from a U.S.-backed Caspian pipeline has crossed the Turkish border from Georgia on its way to a Mediterranean port for where it will be exported to the West.
    (AP, 11/18/05)
2005        Nov 18, In Turkey a bomb placed in a trash can exploded near a fairground in Istanbul, killing one person and injuring 12.
    (AP, 11/18/05)

2005        Nov 20, In Turkey 12 people were detained after Kurdish demonstrators hurled Molotov cocktails and stones at the police during a protest in Istanbul.
    (AFP, 11/20/05)

2005        Nov 21, Turkey's prime minister rushed to the overwhelmingly Kurdish southeast and urged calm after weeks of rioting, vowing that his government would investigate charges that security forces, and not Kurdish guerrillas, were behind a recent fatal bombing.
    (AP, 11/21/05)

2005        Nov 22, A gunman opened fire with a Kalashnikov assault rifle at a primary school in Turkey's troubled southeast, killing one male teacher and wounding four other people.
    (AP, 11/22/05)

2005        Dec 8, In the first visit to Australia by a Turkish leader, PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan criticized military solutions to the so-called "war on terror", saying the US-led invasion of Iraq had transformed the country into a training ground for extremists.
    (AFP, 12/08/05)

2005        Dec 13, Britain's Vodafone Group PLC offered the highest bid, $4.55 billion, in an auction to buy Telsim, Turkey's 2nd-largest cell-phone company, from the Turkish government.
    (AP, 12/13/05)

2005        Dec 16, In Turkey a trial against novelist Orhan Pamuk opened in Istanbul. It was then adjourned to February. Charges were dropped on Jan 23.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.71)

2005        Dec 17, Turkey's PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan accused the EU of trying to pressure Turkish courts in the trial of the country's best-known novelist. Orhan Pamuk is being tried for telling a Swiss newspaper in February that "30,000 Kurds and 1 million Armenians were killed in these lands, and nobody but me dares to talk about it."
    (AP, 12/17/05)

2005        Dec 22, An Istanbul court fined an author and a journalist for insulting the Turkish state, the latest convictions under a law that European officials say limits freedom of expression and must be changed.
    (AP, 12/22/05)
2005        Dec 22, The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) ordered Turkey to put in place within three months an effective reparations mechanism for Greek Cypriots who were stripped of their possessions in the 1970s.
    (AP, 12/22/05)

2005        Dec 27, Turkey reported an outbreak of avian influenza in chickens in the eastern area of Igdir, less than a month after declaring its territory free of the virus, and said it had culled 359 birds as a precautionary measure.
    (Reuters, 12/28/05)

2005        Dec 28, The head of Turkey’s broadcasting board said Turkish TV stations will be allowed to broadcast programs in Kurdish and other minority languages beginning next month.
    (SFC, 12/29/05, p.A3)

2005        Orhan Pamuk authored “Istanbul," a personal memoir and cultural history of the city.
    (Econ, 4/9/05, p.71)
2005        Bilateral trade between Russia and Turkey reached $15 billion, making Russia Turkey’s second-largest trade partner.   
    (Econ, 6/3/06, p.48)
2005        At least 68 people, including 9 children, were killed this year in landmine blasts in Turkey’s Kurdish areas bordering Iran and Iraq.
    (Econ, 2/10/07, p.52)
2005         Turkey’s population numbered about 69.6 million.

2006        Jan 5, A Turkish teenager whose brother died of bird flu also succumbed to the disease. Fatma Kocyigit (15) died in a hospital in the eastern city of Van, four days after the death of her brother, Mehmet Ali Kocyigit (14). The children helped raise poultry on a small farm in the eastern town of Dogubeyazit, close to Iranian border, and were in close contact with sick birds. Their 11-year-old sister died the next day.
    (AP, 1/5/06)(AP, 1/6/06)

2006        Jan 8, In Turkey Anatolia news reported that a court has approved the release of Mehmet Ali Agca (46), the man who shot Pope John Paul II in 1981, saying he completed his prison term.
    (AP, 1/8/06)
2006        Jan 8, Three Turks were reported to be infected with a deadly strain of bird flu in the capital Ankara.
    (AP, 1/8/06)

2006        Jan 9, In Turkey a Health Ministry official said preliminary tests showed five more people have been infected with the deadly H5N1 strain of the bird flu virus.
    (AP, 1/9/06)

2006        Jan 10, Preliminary tests showed another person in Turkey has tested positive for a deadly strain of bird flu, raising the number in the country to 15. The number of people hospitalized with symptoms climbed to about 70.
    (AP, 1/10/06)

2006        Jan 12, Mehmet Ali Agca (48), the man who shot Pope John Paul II in 1981, was released from prison after serving more than 25 years in Italy and Turkey for the plot against the pontiff and the slaying of a Turkish journalist.
    (AP, 1/12/06)
2006        Jan 12, Turkey’s government said 2 more Turks tested positive for the deadly H5N1 strain of bird flu in preliminary tests, bringing the total number of human infections to 18.
    (AP, 1/12/06)

2006        Jan 15, A Turkish girl died from suspected bird flu, while her brother was critically ill in hospital after testing positive for the virus.
    (Reuters, 1/15/06)

2006        Jan 16, Turkish health officials said preliminary tests have confirmed that a girl (12) who died was infected with the deadly H5N1 strain of bird flu, raising Turkey's death toll to four.
    (AP, 1/16/06)

2006        Jan 20, Mehmet Ali Agca, the man who shot Pope John Paul II in 1981, returned to prison, after an appeals court ruled that he should serve more time for the killing of a Turkish journalist and other crimes.
    (AP, 1/20/06)

2006        Jan 23, A Turkish court dropped charges against Orhan Pamuk, the country's best-known novelist, for insulting "Turkishness," ending a high-profile trial that outraged Western observers and cast doubt on Turkey's commitment to free speech. He had been charged under articles 301 and 305 of the penal code.
    (AP, 1/23/06)(Econ, 1/28/06, p.50)

2006        Jan 30, In Adana, Turkey, a bomb exploded at a Turkish-American friendship association in a southern city that hosts a US air base, wounding five Turks.
    (AP, 1/30/06)

2006        Feb 3, The $10 million Turkish film "Valley of the Wolves Iraq" opened in Turkey. It fed off the increasingly negative feelings many Turks harbored toward Americans. In the most expensive Turkish movie ever made, American soldiers in Iraq crash a wedding and pump a little boy full of lead in front of his mother.
    (AP, 2/2/06)

2006        Feb 5, Andrea Santoro (60), an Italian Roman Catholic priest, was shot dead in his Santa Maria church by a 16-year-old boy in the Turkish Black Sea city of Trabzon. In 2007 the teen was sentenced to more than 18 years in prison, but was expected to serve only 10.
    (AP, 2/5/06)(AP, 10/4/07)

2006        Feb 6, In Rome, Italy, a bus loaded with Turkish tourists veered off a road in the Italian capital and slid about 50 feet down a ravine, killing 12 people.
    (AP, 2/7/06)

2006        Feb 9, In Turkey a bomb attack wounded at least 17 people at an Internet cafe in Istanbul. A hardline Kurdish militant group claimed responsibility.
    (AP, 2/9/06)

2006        Feb 10, In Turkey a Syrian was charged with masterminding suicide bombings that killed 58 people in Istanbul, and Turkish prosecutors claimed that Osama bin Laden personally ordered him to carry out terror attacks in this pro-Western country. Loa'i Mohammad Haj Bakr al-Saqa (32) was accused of serving as a point man between al-Qaida and homegrown militants behind the series of suicide bombings in Istanbul in 2003, said the indictment. It said al-Saqa gave the Turkish militants about $170,000. He was captured in Turkey in August after an alleged failed plot to attack Israeli cruise ships in the Mediterranean.
    (AP, 2/10/06)

2006        Feb 13, In Turkey a bomb exploded at an Istanbul supermarket during the afternoon rush, injuring 15 people. A Kurdish news agency reported that a Kurdish militant group claimed responsibility for the attack.
    (AP, 2/13/06)

2006        Feb 15, Kurdish protesters armed with firebombs and stones battled with Turkish police to mark the seventh anniversary of guerrilla leader Abdullah Ocalan's capture.
    (AP, 2/15/06)

2006        Feb, In Turkey the bullet-riddled body of Hikmet Oncel was found in a cave in Sanliurfa. In 2007 it was reported that Oncel was murdered on the orders of a phony, 25-year-old Islamic sheikh. In 2007 the film “Takva," which satirized mercenary sheikhs, became a hit.
    (Econ, 1/13/07, p.46)

2006        Mar 5, Tens of thousands of people massed in Pakistan and Turkey to protest cartoons of Islam's Prophet, Muhammad, that have fired anger throughout the Muslim world.
    (AP, 3/5/06)

2006        Mar 9, In Turkey a bomb set off by suspected Kurdish guerrillas killed three people and injured 18 in the Kurdish-dominated southeast.
    (AP, 3/9/06)
2006        Mar 9, In Turkey a bus carrying about 40 people drove off a road and plunged into a river before dawn, killing at least 16 passengers and injuring 11.
    (AP, 3/9/06)

2006        Mar 11, Turkish and Kurdish intellectuals gathered under tight security for a major 2-day conference in Istanbul to discuss a peaceful resolution to the 22-year-old Kurdish conflict.
    (AP, 3/11/06)

2006        Mar 16, In eastern Turkey a helicopter carrying military officers crashed, killing five officers, and seriously injuring another.
    (AP, 3/17/06)

2006        Mar 18, Anti-war protesters marched in Australia, Asia, Turkey and Europe in demonstrations that marked the third anniversary of the US-led invasion of Iraq with a demand that coalition troops pull out.
    (AP, 3/18/06)

2006        Mar 21, More than 100,000 Turkish Kurds celebrated the ancient spring festival of Newroz with dancing, singing and calls for political reform and the release of jailed Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Ocalan.
    (AP, 3/21/06)

2006        Mar 24-2006 Mar 25, In southeastern Turkey government troops killed 14 Kurdish guerrillas near the hamlet of Senyayla.
    (AP, 3/26/06)

2006        Mar 28, Thousands of Kurdish protesters rampaged after funerals for 4 Kurdish PKK guerrillas killed by Turkish troops. They hurled firebombs at armored police vehicles and smashed windows at a police station. 2 Kurds were killed and 40 people injured.
    (AP, 3/29/06)(Econ, 4/15/06, p.54)

2006        Mar 29, In southeastern Turkey riot police fired water cannons and used pepper spray to disperse stone-throwing Kurdish rioters in a second day of violence that an official said left at least three people dead and 250 injured.
    (AP, 3/29/06)

2006        Mar 30, In southeast Turkey violent protests by thousands of Kurdish demonstrators left at least 20 hurt as protesters hurled firebombs and police opened fire to disperse the crowds.
    (AP, 3/3006)

2006        Mar 31, In Turkey a bomb hidden in a garbage can exploded near an Istanbul bus stop, killing a street vendor and injuring 13 people. Fighting between Turkish soldiers and Kurdish guerrillas killed a 3-year-old boy and brought to 7 the number of fatalities in the 4th day of clashes.
    (AP, 3/31/06)(SFC, 4/1/06, p.A5)

2006        Apr 1, Fresh clashes between Kurdish protesters and police in southeast Turkey killed one protester and injured 10.
    (Reuters, 4/1/06)

2006        Apr 2, In southeastern Turkey one protester died after police opened fire to disperse Kurdish demonstrators, raising the death toll in six days of street violence to nine. A group of men stopped a passenger bus and tossed gasoline bombs at it, sending the vehicle careening into pedestrians and killing 3 in Istanbul as pro-Kurdish riots continued to spread. The countrywide death toll from nearly a week of unrest climbed to 15.
    (AP, 4/2/06)(AP, 4/3/06)

2006        Apr 3, The National Bank of Greece paid $2.8 billion for 46% of Finansbank, Turkey’s 3rd largest bank. It planned a public offer for a controlling stake.
    (Econ, 4/8/06, p.74)

2006        Apr 7, In Turkey a suicide bomber blew herself up injuring 2 people, including a suspected accomplice. Turkish forces killed 6 Kurdish rebels in Sirnak.
    (WSJ, 4/8/06, p.A1)(AP, 4/8/06)

2006        Apr 8, Turkish forces killed a Kurdish rebel outside Batman and arrested a Kurdish suspect in a deadly bombing at a seaside resort last year. 2 soldiers were killed by a land mine blast in Elazig.
    (AP, 4/8/06)

2006        Apr 27, Turkey said it has deployed more than 30,000 additional troops in its predominantly Kurdish southeast and along its rugged border with Iraq and Iran to fight Kurdish guerrillas and stop them from coming across the frontier.
    (AP, 4/27/06)

2006        May 1, In Turkey, police fired pepper spray and tear gas to disperse demonstrators denouncing the IMF and the United States.
    (AP, 5/2/06)

2006        May 13, A bomb exploded outside a garage in eastern Turkey, killing three children.
    (AP, 5/13/06)

2006        May 17, In Turkey Alparslan Arslan (29), a lawyer, stormed into a meeting at Ankara’s highest administrative court and opened fire. One pro-secular judge was killed and 4 wounded. Arslan picked on the judges because they supported a ban on the Islamic headscarf in public places, schools and universities.
    (AP, 5/17/06)(Econ, 5/27/06, p.49)(WSJ, 3/30/07, p.A1)

2006        May 19, In southern Turkey a truck carrying illegal immigrants from Afghanistan and Bangladesh crashed into a parked transport truck, killing at least 40 people.
    (AP, 5/19/06)

2006        May 23, Warplanes from Greece and Turkey collided over the Aegean Sea island of Karpathos as they shadowed each other. Officials said the Turkish pilot was rescued unhurt, and a search was launched for the Greek pilot.
    (AP, 5/23/06)

2006        May 24, A huge fire engulfed the cargo section of Istanbul's Ataturk International Airport, temporarily disrupting air traffic and causing thousands to flee nearby terminals.
    (AP, 5/24/06)

2006        May 28, Turkey’s culture and tourism minister said two pieces from the treasure of King Croesus that were returned to Turkey from the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York after a long legal battle have been stolen and replaced with fakes.
    (AP, 5/29/06)
2006        May 28, A new $4 billion pipeline from Baku, via Georgia to Ceyhan, Turkey, began pumping oil.
    (Econ, 6/3/06, p.48)

2006        Jun 1, In western Turkey a methane gas explosion ripped through a coal mine, killing 17 miners in the village of Odakoy in western Balikesir province.
    (AP, 6/2/06)

2006        Jun 3, The long-awaited first shipment of Caspian oil from the new Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline got on its way from a Turkish port.
    (AFP, 6/4/06)

2006        Jun 12, EU foreign ministers reached agreement with Cyprus on a formula to enable Turkey to take its first step in detailed accession talks with the 25-nation bloc.
    (AP, 6/12/06)

2006        Jun 18, In eastern Turkey a bomb explosion on a railway track destroyed eight carriages of a cargo train.
    (AP, 6/18/06)

2006        Jun 20, Turkey's PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan announced plans to build three nuclear power plants by 2015 to meet the country's growing energy needs.
    (AP, 6/20/06)

2006        Jun 23, Turkey's top court indefinitely suspended the corruption trial of former PM Mesut Yilmaz on technical grounds, a move that amounts to the case being dropped.
    (AP, 6/23/06)

2006        Jun 25, An explosion in the popular Turkish Mediterranean resort town of Antalya killed three people and injured about 25 others.
    (AP, 6/25/06)

2006        Jul 13, The presidents of Turkey, Azerbaijan and Georgia formally opened a pipeline designed to bypass Russia and bring Caspian oil to Europe, a route that President Bush said would bolster global energy security.
    (AP, 7/13/06)

2006        Jul 16, Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan signaled that his government was planning a tough response to mounting violence by Kurdish rebels after 13 members of the security forces were killed in the southeast over the past week.
    (AFP, 7/16/06)

2006        Jul 21, Turkey killed 4 Kurdish rebels after a soldier died in an attack.
    (WSJ, 7/22/06, p.A1)

2006        Jul 22, President Bush in Texas conferred with PM Tayyip Erdogan of Turkey about how to help the Lebanese people caught up in the conflict between Israel and Hizbollah.
    (AP, 7/22/06)

2006        Jul 30, Duygu Asena (60), a best-selling writer and crusader for women's rights in Turkey, died after a two-year battle with a brain tumor. In 1978 she founded the first women's magazine in Turkey. Asena was the first Turkish writer to explore such topics as women's rights, sexuality and wife-beating. Her 1987 book “Woman Has No Name" broke sales records when it was printed, but was soon banned by the government which found it to be too lewd and obscene. The ban was lifted after a two-year court battle. A film adaptation of the book broke box office records in Turkey.
    (AP, 7/31/06)

2006        Jul 31, Turkey named Gen. Yasar Buyukanit as the new military chief. He favored a tougher line against Kurdish rebels and negotiations on joining the EU.
    (AP, 7/31/06)

2006        Jul, Istanbul’s seventh high court reopened prosecution against Elif Shafak (b.1971), Turkish writer, for “denigrating Turkishness" in her latest novel “The Bastard of Istanbul." Her trial was set for Sep 21, 4 days she was due to give birth.

2006        Aug 4, In Turkey 2 explosives detonated within minutes of each other in a southern city of Adana, seriously wounding one person and injuring 16 others.
    (AP, 8/4/06)

2006        Aug 8, Turkey battled the largest recorded outbreak of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, which has killed at least 20 people this year, and experts said more cases of the Ebola-like disease are inevitable in coming months.
    (AP, 8/8/06)

2006        Aug 13, In Turkey the PKK killed 2 policemen in a bomb attack near Tunceli.
    (Econ, 9/2/06, p.48)

2006        Aug 18, A bus carrying Iranian tourists crashed into a truck in eastern Turkey, killing 18 and injuring 29.
    (AP, 8/18/06)

2006        Aug 19, The Turkish Foreign Ministry said that it had forced two Syria-bound Iranian planes to land and be searched for rockets and other military equipment, one on Jul 27 and the other on Aug 8, during the conflict between Israel and Hezbollah.
    (AP, 8/19/06)
2006        Aug 19, A suspected Kurdish rebel attack caused an explosion and huge fire on a natural gas pipeline in eastern Turkey.
    (AP, 8/19/06)

2006        Aug 23, A leader of Kurdish rebels battling Turkey's government said in a rare interview that his guerrillas will not give in to US pressure to disarm without a "political project" that fulfills their calls for autonomy. PKK party officials met with a group of journalists in the rugged, isolated Qandil Mountain in Iraq's northeast corner where the group is based.
    (AP, 8/24/06)

2006        Aug 27, In Turkey a bomb on a minibus injured 21 people including 10 British tourists. The explosion was in the popular Mediterranean resort town of Marmaris. 2 other bomb blasts hit at the same time in garbage cans on the main boulevard.

2006        Aug 28, In Turkey a bomb in the resort city of Antalya killed 3 people and injured 18. A group calling itself the Kurdistan Freedom Falcons claimed responsibility.
    (AP, 8/28/06)(Econ, 9/2/06, p.6)

2006        Aug 29, An extremist Kurdish militant group warned that "the fear of death will reign everywhere in Turkey" and it urged tourists to avoid travel to the country.
    (AP, 8/30/06)

2006        Aug, In Turkey a parliamentary report found that 1,091 honor-related crimes had been committed over the last 5 years. Blame for many honor of the killings was placed on the patriarchal and feudal system entrenched in the Kurdish provinces.
    (Econ, 4/14/07, p.62)

2006        Sep 1-2006 Sep 2, Separatist Kurdish guerrillas killed 7 Turkish soldiers and wounded two in stepped-up attacks against the military in southeastern Turkey.
    (AP, 9/3/06)

2006        Sep 3, In southeastern Turkey a remote-controlled bomb exploded in a tea garden, killing two people and wounding seven.
    (AP, 9/4/06)

2006        Sep 5, Turkey became the first Muslim country with diplomatic ties to Israel to pledge troops to an expanding international peacekeeping force that will monitor a fragile cease-fire between Israel and Hezbollah.
    (AP, 9/6/06)

2006        Sep 12, In Turkey a bomb exploded near a park in a primarily residential area of Diyarbakir and 10 people were killed. 7 children were among the dead. The bomb was made by hand, placed in a thermos and went off as it was being transported.
    (AP, 9/13/06)

2006        Sep 14, Turkey's top Islamic cleric asked Pope Benedict XVI to take back recent remarks he made about Islam on Sep 12. He unleashed a string of counteraccusations against Christianity, raising tensions before the pontiff's November visit.
    (AP, 9/14/06)(SFC, 9/15/06, p.A17)

2006        Sep 18, The 184-nation IMF approved reforms to increase the voice of China, South Korea, Turkey, and Mexico to reflect their growing economic sway.
    (SFC, 9/19/06, p.D2)

2006        Sep 21, Elif Shafak, one of Turkey's leading authors, was acquitted of "insulting Turkishness" in her novel "The Bastard of Istanbul," that touched on the mass killings of Armenians during the final years of the Ottoman Empire. The University of Arizona assistant professor gave birth to a daughter on Sep 16 and did not attend her trial.
    (AP, 9/21/06)

2006        Sep 23, In eastern Turkey suspected Kurdish guerrillas set off an explosive-laden minibus across from a police guest house, injuring 17 people.
    (AP, 9/23/06)

2006        Sep 26, In Turkey 56 Kurdish mayors stood trial, accused in a freedom-of-speech case on charges of helping terrorists by arguing to keep a Kurdish TV station on the air.
    (AP, 9/26/06)

2006        Sep 28, Jailed Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Ocalan has appealed to his Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) to call a ceasefire in its separatist campaign against the Turkish government.
    (AFP, 9/28/06)
2006        Sep 28, An explosion on a natural gas pipeline outside Bazargan, an Iranian border city, shut down the flow of gas to Turkey. Officials believed the explosion was an act of sabotage by separatist Kurdish rebels.
    (AP, 9/29/06)

2006        Oct 2, Turkey’s PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan began his latest push to keep EU membership hopes on track with a visit to Washington, where he received a key endorsement from the Bush administration. Turkey was the largest supplier of non-combat equipment to American forces in Iraq.
    (http://tinyurl.com/gvg4s)(Econ, 9/30/06, p.62)

2006        Oct 3, A Turkish Airlines plane carrying 113 people from Albania to Istanbul landed in Italy where a Turkish man surrendered and released all the passengers unharmed. The Turkish army deserter who hijacked the airliner sought asylum because he feared persecution in his Muslim homeland after his conversion to Christianity and wanted Pope Benedict XVI's protection.
    (AP, 10/4/06)(AP, 10/3/07)

2006        Oct 9, Turkey called on the EU to oppose French legislation that would outlaw denials that World War I-era killings of Armenians amounted to genocide.
    (AP, 10/9/06)

2006        Oct 12, Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk won the Nobel literature prize for his works dealing with the symbols of clashing cultures. His uncommon lyrical gifts and uncompromising politics have brought him acclaim worldwide and prosecution at home.
    (AP, 10/12/06)
2006        Oct 12, French lawmakers approved a bill making it a crime to deny that the 1915-1919 mass killings of Armenians in Turkey amounted to genocide. It was thought unlikely that Jacques Chirac’s government would forward the bill to the Senate.
    (AP, 10/12/06)(SFC, 10/13/06, p.A21)

2006        Oct 14, French leader Jacques Chirac told Turkish PM Tayyip Erdogan he is sorry French lawmakers approved a bill making it a crime to deny Armenians were victims of genocide at the hands of Ottoman Turks.
    (Reuters, 10/15/06)

2006        Oct 31, Flooding from torrential rains killed 22 people across Turkey, including 14 who died when a minibus carrying wedding guests was swept away.
    (AP, 11/1/06)

2006        Oct, Adnan Oktar (b.1956), a Turkish preacher who writes under the name of Harun Yahya, published his “Atlas of Creation." The book offers over 770 pages of images comparing fossils with present-day animals to argue that Allah created all life as it is and evolution never took place. In 2009 Oktar continued work on a the 5th volume of his planned 14-part masterwork.
    (Econ, 4/21/07, p.23)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adnan_Oktar)(Econ, 3/7/09, p.A1)

2006        Nov 1, In Turkey a court acquitted a 92-year-old retired archaeologist who was put on trial for writing in a book that Islamic-style head scarves date back more than 5,000 years, several millennia before the birth of Islam, and were worn by priestesses who initiated young men into sex.
    (AP, 11/1/06)

2006        Nov 4, Thousands of nationalist Turks marched in Ankara, vowing to defend the secular regime against radical Islamic influences and urging the government not to make too many concessions in order to gain EU membership.
    (AP, 11/4/06)

2006        Nov 5, Bulent Ecevit (81) former 4-time Prime Minister of Turkey (1973-2002), died. Ecevit was a political force in Turkey for almost half a century. He had ordered the invasion of Cyprus and later pushed his country toward the West.
    (AP, 11/5/06)(Econ, 11/11/06, p.97)

2006        Nov 8, The European Commission set Turkey a mid-December deadline to open its ports to shipping from Cyprus or face consequences for its troubled EU membership bid.
    (Reuters, 11/8/06)

2006        Nov 10, Asian nations reached their first international agreement to implement what has been dubbed the "Iron Silk Road." Armenia, Azerbaijan, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Laos, Russia, South Korea, Turkey and seven other nations agreed to meet at least every two years to identify vital rail routes, coordinate standards and financing and plan upgrades and expansions, among other measures. The UN first conceived the Trans-Asian Railway Network in 1960.
    (AP, 11/10/06)

2006        Nov 15, Turkey suspended military relations with France in a dispute over whether the mass killings of Armenians early in the last century amounted to genocide.
    (AP, 11/16/06)

2006        Nov 16, Turkey's PM Erdogan offered training for the Iraqi police and army, and he urged power-sharing among ethnic groups in the Iraqi oil center of Kirkuk.
    (AP, 11/16/06)

2006        Nov 20, In Turkey police arrested 29 leftist activists who broke into The Associated Press office in Ankara to protest alleged mistreatment of prisoners.
    (AP, 11/20/06)

2006        Nov 26, More than 20,000 Muslims in Istanbul held the biggest protest so far against Pope Benedict's controversial visit to Turkey this week.
    (AP, 11/26/06)

2006        Nov 28, Pope Benedict XVI began his first visit to a Muslim country with a message of dialogue and brotherhood between Christians and Muslims in an attempt to ease anger over his perceived criticism of Islam. In Turkey Benedict urged all religious leaders to "utterly refuse" to support any violence in the name of faith.
    (AP, 11/28/06)(AP, 11/28/07)

2006        Nov 30, Pope Benedict XVI visited Istanbul's famous Blue Mosque in a dramatic gesture of outreach to Muslims.
    (AP, 11/30/07)

2006        Dec 4, Turkish security forces clashed with an angry crowd trying to lynch a man accused of raping several girls and killing two of them in southeastern Turkey. One person was killed in the violence, and at least 22 were injured.
    (AP, 12/4/06)

2006        Dec 5, The EU presidency backed a proposal to partially suspend EU membership talks with Turkey because of Ankara's refusal to open up to trade with Cyprus.
    (AP, 12/5/06)

2006        Dec 7, Turkey offered to open a major seaport and an airport to longtime foe Cyprus to try to keep its EU entry talks on track. The EU called the step positive but insufficient.
    (AP, 12/7/06)
2006        Dec 7, Ali Reza Asgari, a retired general who served in Iran's Revolutionary Guard, arrived in Turkey on a private visit from Damascus, Syria. He had become involved in the olive business after retirement. Iranian officials later said that he disappeared on Dec 9. In March, 2009, a former German Defense Ministry official said Asgari had defected and was providing information to the West on Iran's nuclear program. Asgari allegedly told the West that Iran was financing North Korean steps to transform Syria into a nuclear weapons power, leading to an Israeli airstrike that targeted a site in Syria on Sept. 6, 2007. In November Iranian news Web sites reported that Asgari had been abducted by Israeli agents and is now being held in Israel.
    (AP, 11/16/09)

2006        Dec 9, In Turkey the state-run Anatolia news agency reported that police had detained 10 suspected al-Qaida militants, including a lawyer who identified himself as the group's leader.
    (AP, 12/9/06)

2006        Dec 11, In Turkey a boiler explosion knocked down part of a five-story building housing military families in Diyarbakir, killing at least four people and trapping about four others.
    (AP, 12/11/06)
2006        Dec 11, European Union foreign ministers decided to suspend 8 out of 35  parts of entry talks with Turkey over Ankara's refusal to open its ports to trade with EU member Cyprus.
    (AP, 12/11/06)(Econ, 12/16/06, p.53)

2006        Dec 19, A Turkish court acquitted Ipek Calislar, a writer of insulting the country's founder, amid calls from the EU to change repressive laws curbing freedom of expression. The book was the first comprehensive biography of Latife Ussaki, who was married to Ataturk for about two years until he divorced her in 1925.
    (AP, 12/19/06)

2006        Dec 31, Over a thousand Turks spent the first day of the Muslim feast of Eid al-Adha in emergency wards after stabbing themselves or suffering other injuries while sacrificing startled animals.
    (AP, 12/31/06)

2006        In Turkey Fethullah Gulen, a Muslim preacher, was cleared in absentia on charges of undermining secularism. Gulen had emigrated some years earlier and set up residence in Pennsylvania, from where he led a network of followers active in education.
    (Econ, 3/8/08, p.67)

2007        Jan 9, Iraqi and US soldiers, backed by American warplanes, battled suspected insurgents for hours in central Baghdad, and 50 militant fighters were killed. A cargo plane carrying Turkish construction workers crashed during landing at an airport near Baghdad, killing 32 people and injuring two.
    (AP, 1/9/07)

2007        Jan 19, Hrant Dink (53), a Turkish citizen of Armenian descent, was shot to death at the entrance to his newspaper's offices. The journalist had faced constant threats and legal proceedings as one of the most prominent voices of Turkey's shrinking Armenian community. Dink had called the 1915 massacre of Armenians by Ottoman Turks a genocide. In 2012 Yasin Hayal was sentenced to life in prison for masterminding the killing, while another 19 were acquitted of charges of acting under a terrorist organization's orders.
    (AP, 1/19/07)(AP, 1/19/12)(Econ, 1/21/12, p.58)

2007        Jan 20, Istanbul police arrested Ogun Samast, a teenage boy (16-17) and nationalist hardliner, for the Jan 19 fatal shooting of Hrant Dink, an ethnic Armenian journalist. Samast confessed to the murder. In July, 2011, a juvenile court sentenced Samast to nearly 23 years in prison for killing Dink. A prosecutor demanded life imprisonment for 7 other men accused of involvement in the killing. 19 other people were on trial, accused of instigating the killing.
    (AP, 1/20/07)(AP, 9/19/11)

2007        Jan 22, In Turkey police said Yasin Hayal, a nationalist militant convicted of bombing a McDonald's restaurant in 2004, had confessed to inciting the killing of an ethnic Armenian journalist last week. Hayal said he provided a gun and money to the teenager who is suspected of carrying out the Jan 19 shooting.
    (AP, 1/22/07)

2007        Jan 29, Turkish police arrested 46 suspected Islamic militants in operations in five provinces across the country.
    (AP, 1/29/07)

2007        Jan 31, A special committee, invited by IMF managing director Rodrigo de Rato, proposed new ways for the IMF to fund itself. A loan to Turkey at this time accounted for two-thirds of the IMF’s outstanding credit.
    (Econ, 2/3/07, p.75)

2007        Feb 16, A Turkish court sentenced seven suspected al-Qaida militants to life in prison for a pair of 2003 suicide bombings in Istanbul that killed 58 people, attacks prosecutors said were ordered by Osama bin Laden.
    (AP, 2/16/07)

2007        Feb 21, A 5.7 magnitude earthquake shook southeastern Turkey. A five-story apartment building collapsed in Istanbul, killing at least two people and injuring more than two dozen others.
    (AP, 2/21/07)

2007        Feb 23, In Turkey Hilmi Aydogdu, leader of the Democratic Society Party's branch in the mainly Kurdish city of Diyarbakir, was charged with inciting hatred and threatening public safety after suggesting that fellow Kurds would rise against the state and fight if Turkey ever attacked their Kurdish brethren in neighboring Iraq.
    (AP, 2/23/07)

2007        Mar 5, In central Turkey a rock fall caused the roof of a hillside nightclub to collapse in the Cappadocia area, killing three people.
    (AP, 3/6/07)

2007        Mar 7, Turk Telekom blocked access to Google's YouTube video-sharing site after a court ruling over videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the founder of modern Turkey.
    (AP, 3/7/07)

2007        Mar 9, Turkey lifted its ban on YouTube two days after a court ordered the Web site blocked because of videos that allegedly insulted the founder of modern Turkey.
    (AP, 3/9/07)
2007        Mar 9, A prominent Turkish politician was convicted of breaching Swiss anti-racism laws by saying that the early 20th-century killing of Armenians could not be described as genocide. Perincek was charged with breaking Swiss law by denying during a visit to Switzerland in 2005 that the World War I-era killings of up to 1.5 million Armenians amounted to genocide. He was ordered to pay a fine of $2,450 and was given a suspended penalty of $7,360.
    (AP, 3/10/07)

2007        Apr 4, Iran’s President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad freed the 15 detained British sailors and marines as an Easter holiday "gift" to the British people. Syria said it played a key role in resolving the standoff over the 15 British sailors and marines held by Iran. Turkey brokered the release of the British sailors.
    (AP, 4/4/07)(Econ, 8/21/10, p.42)

2007        Apr 6, In southern Nigeria gunmen kidnapped two Turkish engineers from their car in Port Harcourt.
    (Reuters, 4/7/07)

2007        Apr 12, Turkey's army chief said the military had launched several "large scale" offensives against rebels in the predominantly Kurdish southeast, and he asked the government for approval to launch an incursion into neighboring northern Iraq.
    (AP, 4/12/07)

2007        Apr 14, More than 200,000 Turks protested against Turkey's Islamic-rooted PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan, demonstrating the intense opposition he could face from Turkey's secular establishment if he decides to run for president next month. A bus full of second-graders crashed into a truck in central Turkey, killing at least 32 people, most of them children.
    (AP, 4/14/07)

2007        Apr 18, In central Turkey assailants in Malatya tied up three people at a publishing house that distributes Bibles and then slit their throats. Tilmann Geske (46), a German missionary, and two Turkish Christians were killed. Five young men were detained and charged with murder; they allegedly said they killed to protect Islam.
    (AP, 4/18/07)(AP, 4/24/07)

2007        Apr 24, Turkey's foreign minister Abdullah Gul was named as the ruling party's candidate for the presidency, a decision that will maintain continuity in EU reforms but fails to resolve a fight between the country's secular and Islamist camps.
    (AP, 4/24/07)

2007        Apr 26, In Turkey an eight-story apartment building collapsed in Istanbul, and some people were reportedly buried under the debris.
    (AP, 4/26/07)

2007        Apr 28, Turkey's Islamist-rooted government called the army to order, saying it is answerable to the civilian authority, after the military threatened action to defend the country's secular system.
    (AP, 4/28/07)

2007        Apr 29, Some 700,000 Turks waving the red national flag flooded central Istanbul to demand the resignation of the government, saying the Islamic roots of Turkey's leaders threatened to destroy the country's modern foundations.
    (AP, 4/29/07)

2007        Apr 30, The Turkish stock market plunged, reacting sharply to political tensions as the Islamic-rooted government comes under strong pressure from secular circles to call parliamentary elections.
    (AP, 4/30/07)
2007        Apr 30, The presidents of Afghanistan and Pakistan, a meeting arranged by Turkish leaders, agreed to share intelligence on extremist groups to bolster efforts to deny sanctuary, training and financing to terrorists in both countries. Hundreds of British troops swept into the lush poppy fields of southern Afghanistan, drawing hostile fire at the start of a NATO operation to expel the Taliban from a valley stronghold.
    (AP, 4/30/07)

2007        May 1, Turkish police charged into crowds of leftist protesters marking the anniversary of a deadly May Day rally in Istanbul, spraying tear gas and kicking and clubbing demonstrators as they fled.
    (AP, 5/1/07)

2007        May 2, The US and EU warned Turkey's military to stay out of the country's political showdown between the Islamic-rooted government and those in the secular establishment who fear the country will shift toward Islamic rule.
    (AP, 5/2/07)

2007        May 3, Turkish lawmakers moved up elections to July 22, after the Islamic-rooted ruling party and its secular opposition agreed that an early ballot was the only way out of their standoff over political Islam.
    (AP, 5/3/07)

2007        May 5, Tens of thousands of secularist flag-waving Turks rallied for the third big anti-government protest in a month as conflict rages over the role of religion in the Muslim country's politics.
    (AP, 5/5/07)

2007        May 6, Turkey’s Foreign Minister Abdullah Gul withdrew his candidacy for presidential elections after Parliament failed for the second time to vote him into office.
    (AP, 5/6/07)

2007        May 7, Turkey's Islamic-rooted government, whose presidential candidate dropped his bid in the face of protests from pro-secular lawmakers, pushed for a constitutional amendment that allows the president to be elected in a popular vote rather than in a parliamentary poll.
    (AP, 5/7/07)

2007        May 10, Turkey's parliament approved a major constitutional amendment to allow the president to be elected directly by voters, a move that could fan fresh tensions between the Islamist-rooted government and secularists.
    (AP, 5/10/07)

2007        May 12, In the Turkish port city of Izmir a bicycle bomb exploded in a market, killing one and injuring 14 people on the eve of a planned mass anti-government rally.
    (Reuters, 5/12/07)

2007        May 13, Hundreds of thousands of Turks streamed into this port city of Izmir in an enormous show of opposition to the pro-Islamic ruling party, saying it threatened to destroy the country's modern foundations.
    (AP, 5/13/07)

2007        May 20, Thousands of flag-waving Turks demonstrated in the Black Sea port city of Samsun against the Islamic-rooted government, which they fear is undermining Turkey's secular system.
    (AP, 5/20/07)

2007        May 22, Guven Akkus (28), a suicide bomber, carried out an attack that killed six people and injured dozens in Ankara, using methods similar to those of a Kurdish rebel group. Akkus had spent two years in prison for hanging illegal posters and resisting police.
    (AP, 5/23/07)

2007        May 25, Turkey's president vetoed a newly passed constitutional amendment that would have allowed the people, and not Parliament, to elect the new president.
    (AP, 5/26/07)
2007        May 25, Kurdish guerrillas bombed and derailed a Syria-bound train from Iran near the town of Genc in Turkey’s southeastern Bingol province. Turkish authorities later seized weapons hidden among construction materials found on the train following the attack.
    (AP, 5/31/07)

2007        May 26, In Turkey thousands of flag-waving protesters filled streets in Denizli, accusing the government of trying to impose Islamic values on the country's Western way of life.
    (AP, 5/26/07)

2007        May 27, Floods in eastern Turkey killed 10 people including six children aged between 18 months and 12.
    (AFP, 5/28/07)

2007        May 28, Officials said heavy storms, landslides, flash floods and lightning have killed at least 23 people in Europe and Turkey.
    (Reuters, 5/28/07)

2007        May 30, Turkish police captured 11 suspected al-Qaida militants who allegedly were planning to stage terrorist attacks in Istanbul.
    (AP, 5/30/07)

2007        May 31, Turkish lawmakers approved again a constitutional amendment that would see the president elected by popular vote, a change vetoed last week by the outgoing head of state. Turkey's top general said the military was ready to stage a cross-border offensive to fight Kurdish guerrillas in Iraq and that he already had sought government approval to mount military action.
    (AFP, 5/31/07)(AP, 5/31/07)

2007        Jun 1, In southeast Turkey soldiers killed two Kurdish militants overnight in Tunceli, where troops massed along the border threatened an incursion into Iraq.
    (AP, 6/1/07)

2007        Jun 3, Turkish troops shelled a border area in northern Iraq in an attack on Kurdish rebels based there.
    (AP, 6/3/07)

2007        Jun 4, Seven Turkish paramilitary police were killed when Kurdish militants attacked their headquarters in eastern Tunceli province.
    (AP, 6/4/07)(Econ, 6/9/07, p.58)

2007        Jun 6, A premature report said several thousand Turkish troops had crossed into northern Iraq to chase Kurdish guerrillas who operate from bases there. Turkey declared several areas near the border with Iraq to be "temporary security zones" in a sign of increasing activity by the military in its campaign against Kurdish rebels. Turkey's foreign minister denied there was a cross-border operation.
    (AP, 6/6/07)(AP, 6/7/07)(Econ, 6/9/07, p.58)

2007        Jun 7, The roadside bomb targeted a Turkish military vehicle near Siirt, a city 45 miles north of the Iraq border. It killed four soldiers and wounded five other security personnel, including pro-government village guards.
    (AP, 6/8/07)

2007        Jun 10, A small bomb exploded outside a clothing shop in Istanbul, injuring 14 people and shattering nearby windows.
    (AP, 6/10/07)

2007        Jun 11, In Ankara, Turkey, funerals for three soldiers killed in a roadside bombing by Kurdish rebels turned into anti-government protests as thousands of mourners called on leaders to resign over their failure to rein in the violence.
    (AP, 6/11/07)

2007        Jun 12, Kurdish separatist rebels declared a "unilateral cease-fire" in attacks against Turkey and said they were ready for peace negotiations, but the group maintained the right to defend itself.
    (AP, 6/12/07)

2007        Jun 13, In southeastern Turkey Kurdish guerrillas killed a Turkish army major and injured two other soldiers in a roadside bomb attack.
    (AP, 6/13/07)

2007        Jun 23, In Turkey a separatist Kurdish rebel and a civilian were killed in a botched suicide attack in the eastern province of Tunceli. Paramilitary troops opened fire on the truck as it was approaching a military outpost at which point the vehicle exploded. Fighting elsewhere left five rebels and a government militia member dead.
    (AFP, 6/24/07)

2007        Jun 27, Gen. Yasar Buyukanit, Turkey's military chief, asked his government to set political guidelines for an incursion into northern Iraq to fight Kurdish guerrillas.
    (AP, 6/27/07)

2007        Jul 6, Turkey's foreign minister said his government and military have agreed on plans for a possible cross-border operation against Kurdish rebels based in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 7/6/07)

2007        Jul 11, Turkey's ambassador to Washington said that US weapons have been turning up in the hands of Kurdish guerrillas staging attacks in Turkey.
    (AP, 7/11/07)

2007        Jul 22, Turks voted for a new Parliament in a contest viewed as pivotal in determining the balance between Islam and secularism in this nation of more than 70 million. The Islamic-rooted ruling party won parliamentary elections by a wide margin. The Justice and Development (AK) party won 47% of the vote. AK secured 341 of 550 seats in the parliament. Deniz Baykal’s  pro-secular Republican People’s Party (CHP) won 21%. Sebahat Tuncel (32) walked out of jail after she was elected to parliament along with 18 fellow members of the pro-Kurdish Democratic Society Party.
    (AP, 7/23/07)(Econ, 7/28/07, p.51)(Econ, 8/4/07, p.45)(Econ, 5/3/08, p.60)

2007        Jul 26, Turkish police arrested Maksym Yastremskiy (24), a Ukrainian data-theft suspect. The US Secret Service had been investigating him since 2004. Losses to US individuals from identity theft thieves, online and offline, totaled $49 billion in 2006.
    (WSJ, 8/10/07, p.A6)

2007        Aug 5, An official said Turkey's secular military expelled 10 officers for being "reactionary," a euphemism for Islamist activities, along with 13 others accused of lack of discipline.
    (AP, 8/5/07)

2007        Aug 7, Kurdish guerrillas killed a Turkish lieutenant in the southeast, as the Iraqi prime minister arrived for a visit. Turkey and Iraq agreed to try to root out a Kurdish rebel group from northern Iraq, but Iraq's prime minister said his parliament would have the final say on efforts to halt the guerrillas' cross-border attacks into Turkey. Iraq's semi-autonomous Kurdish government approved a regional oil law, paving the way for foreign investment in their northern oil and gas fields even as similar US-backed legislation for the entire country remained stalled. Two US Marines died west of Baghdad, one in fighting and the other in a non-combat incident that was under investigation.
    (AP, 8/7/07)(AP, 8/9/07)

2007        Aug 12, In southeast Turkey 12 were injured, three of them seriously, when Kurdish guerrillas detonated a roadside bomb.
    (AP, 8/12/07)

2007        Aug 14, Turkish Foreign Minister Abdullah Gul, a former Islamist, filed his candidacy for president, risking a fresh government showdown with army-backed secularist forces.
    (AP, 8/14/07)

2007        Aug 18, Two men hijacked a Turkish passenger plane from Cyprus bound for Istanbul, holding several people hostage for more than four hours before surrendering.
    (AP, 8/18/07)

2007        Aug 20, In Turkey Foreign Minister Abdullah Gul won most votes in the first round of a presidential election, but did not secure the two-thirds majority needed in parliament for an outright win.
    (Reuters, 8/20/07)
2007        Aug 20, In Turkey Festus Okey (21), a Nigerian immigrant, was shot and killed while in police custody.
    (AP, 12/13/11)(http://www.hyd.org.tr/?pid=515)

2007        Aug 24, Turkish Foreign Minister Abdullah Gul failed to win enough votes in the second round of a presidential election, but is expected to clinch the post next week. A clash between troops and Kurdish rebels near Turkey's southeast border with Iraq left 10 rebels and two soldiers dead.
    (Reuters, 8/24/07)(AP, 8/25/07)

2007        Aug 28, Turkey’s Foreign Minister Abdullah Gul (56), a devout Muslim with a background in political Islam, won the presidency, in a major triumph for the Islamic-rooted government after months of confrontation with the secular establishment.
    (AP, 8/28/07)

2007        Aug 30, Turkish legislators said that American weapons have been turning up in the hands of Kurdish guerrillas staging attacks in Turkey.
    (SFC, 8/31/07, p.A17)

2007        Aug 31, Turkey's PM Erdogan laid out a policy vision for the next five years that focuses on pursuing EU membership and defending the state's secular and democratic principles.
    (AP, 8/31/07)

2007        Aug, Iran and Turkey concluded a number of energy deals including the establishment of a joint company to carry Iranian natural gas via Turkey to Europe and the construction of three thermal power plants by Turkish companies in Iran.
    (Econ, 8/25/07, p.49)

2007        Sep 11, Turkish authorities thwarted a bombing, possibly timed to coincide with the sixth anniversary of the Sept. 11 attacks, as police found and defused more than 600 pounds of explosives in a minibus parked near an Ankara market.
    (AP, 9/11/07)

2007        Sep 12, Turkish troops killed 4 Kurdish guerrillas in a the southeastern province of Siirt.
    (AP, 9/12/07)

2007        Sep 19, Turkey's devout Muslim PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan said that the constitution should be changed to remove a ban at universities on head scarves, the most potent symbol of the national divide over the role of religion in politics.
    (AP, 9/19/07)

2007        Sep 26, Officials said Turkey and Iraq have agreed to sign a counterterrorism deal cracking down on separatist Kurdish rebels holed up in bases in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 9/26/07)

2007        Sep 28, Turkey and Iraq signed a counterterrorism pact aimed at cracking down on separatist Kurdish rebels who have been attacking Turkey from bases in Iraq.
    (AP, 9/28/07)

2007        Sep 29, In southeastern Turkey Kurdish rebels ambushed a minibus carrying pro-government village guards and civilians and killed 12 people.
    (AP, 9/29/07)

2007        Oct 7, Kurdish rebels killed 13 Turkish soldiers in a clash in the country's southeast, and troops responded by shelling an area near Iraq to try to stop the rebels from escaping across the border.
    (AP, 10/7/07)

2007        Oct 9, Turkish PM Tayyip Erdogan gave the green light for a possible military incursion into northern Iraq to crush Kurdish rebels hiding there after several deadly attacks on Turkish security forces.
    (Reuters, 10/9/07)

2007        Oct 10, It was reported that Turkey had begun shelling suspected Kurdish rebel camps across the border in northern Iraq. The government appeared unlikely to move toward sending ground troops until next week.
    (AP, 10/10/07)
2007        Oct 10, The US House Foreign Affairs Committee voted 27-21 to label as genocide the deaths of Armenians a century ago at the end of the Ottoman Empire. The Bush administration planned to pressure Democratic leaders not to schedule a vote, though it is expected to pass.
    (AP, 10/11/07)

2007        Oct 11, Turkey swiftly condemned a US House panel's approval of a bill describing the World War I-era mass killings of Armenians as genocide, and newspapers blasted the measure on their front pages. Turkey also recalled its ambassador to Washington and warned of serious repercussions if Congress labels the killing of Armenians by Turks a century ago as genocide.
    (AP, 10/11/07)(AP, 10/12/07)

2007        Oct 17, Turkey’s Parliament gave the government a one-year window in which to launch cross-border offensives against Turkish Kurd rebels who've been conducting raids into Turkey. The vote removed the last legal obstacle to an offensive.
    (AP, 10/18/07)(AP, 10/20/07)
2007        Oct 17,     Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, on a visit to Turkey, said that Damascus would back a possible Turkish incursion into northern Iraq to crack down "against terrorist activities" there.
    (AP, 10/17/07)

2007        Oct 18,     Thousands of Kurds and supporters took to the streets in northern Iraq to protest the Turkish parliament's decision to authorize the government to send troops across the border to root out Kurdish rebels who have been conducting raids into Turkey.
    (AP, 10/18/07)

2007        Oct 21, Kurdish rebels ambushed a Turkish military convoy less than three miles from the Iraqi border, killing 12 soldiers with 8 missing. The rebels said they are holding them hostage. Turkey shelled the border region in response to the attack, and Iraqi President Jalal Talabani, himself a Kurd, ordered the rebels to lay down their arms or leave Iraq.
    (AP, 10/21/07)(WSJ, 10/22/07, p.A1)(AP, 10/25/07)

2007        Oct 23,     Turkey's foreign minister rejected any cease-fire by Kurdish rebels as he met with Iraqi leaders in Baghdad to press them to crack down on the guerrillas. Turkish forces massed on the border and tensions rose over a threatened military incursion.
    (AP, 10/23/07)

2007        Oct 24, Turkish warplanes and helicopter gunships reportedly attacked positions of Kurdish rebels just inside Turkey along the border with Iraq, as Turkey's military stepped up its anti-rebel operations. Masoud Barzani, president of Iraq’s Kurdish region, called on the PKK to end its violence in Turkey.
    (AP, 10/24/07)(Econ, 10/27/07, p.61)
2007        Oct 24, Al-Sadr renewed his appeal to his followers to uphold the six-month cease-fire announced in August and threatened to expel those who do not. Nearly simultaneous bombs struck commuters in a predominantly Shiite area on the southeastern edge of Baghdad, killing at least nine people and wounding about two dozen.
    (AP, 10/24/07)(AP, 10/26/07)

2007        Oct 26, A high-level Iraqi delegation held talks with Turkish officials to try to defuse tensions over Kurdish rebels based in northern Iraq. Turkish helicopters and fighter jets pounded Kurdish rebel positions as diplomatic efforts began in Ankara.
    (AP, 10/26/07)(Reuters, 10/26/07)

2007        Oct 28, Turkish troops killed some 20 Kurdish guerrillas in fighting in eastern Tunceli province. Turkey's PM Erdogan called for unity between Turks and Kurds against the rebels.
    (Reuters, 10/28/07)(AP, 10/29/07)(WSJ, 10/29/07, p.A1)

2007        Oct 29, Turkey's state-run news said soldiers battled separatist Kurdish rebels across southeast Turkey, trapping about 100 in caves near the Iraqi border after blocking escape routes across the frontier. Helicopter gunships bombed Kurdish rebel positions in southeast Turkey and the government flexed its military muscle with big national day parades and flypasts in major cities.
    (AP, 10/29/07)(Reuters, 10/29/07)

2007        Oct 30, Turkish Cobra attack helicopters blasted suspected Kurdish rebel targets near the southeastern border with Iraq in a second day of fighting in the area. PM Erdogan said an escalation of military action was unavoidable.
    (AP, 10/30/07)

2007        Oct 31, The Turkish army said it killed 15 Kurdish separatists near the Iraqi border, as ministers discussed possible economic sanctions against Iraq's autonomous Kurdish government.
    (AFP, 10/31/07)
2007        Oct 31,     The US acknowledged that it had undertaken military moves against Kurdish rebels in Iraq, including spy planes and providing Turkey with more intelligence.
    (WSJ, 11/1/07, p.A1)

2007        Nov 2, Iraqi police found only six bodies dumped in three Iraqi cities, and no reports of shootings or bombings. The prime minister of Iraq's northern Kurdish region condemned attacks by Kurdish rebel fighters inside Turkey and said he hopes a weekend summit in Istanbul will reduce the threat of Turkish military strikes inside Iraq.
    (AP, 11/2/07)(AP, 11/3/07)

2007        Nov 3, Some 5,000 Turkish Kurds protested against a military incursion into Iraq, saying such a move would enflame ethnic tensions in the region and plunge the local economy into ruin. Iraq said it was ready to hunt down and arrest Kurdish guerrilla leaders responsible for cross-border raids into Turkey in an effort to avert a major incursion by the Turkish military.
    (AFP, 11/3/07)(Reuters, 11/3/07)

2007        Nov 4, Two carloads of gunman ambushed a top aide to Iraq's Finance Ministry in Baghdad, killing him and his driver. The two were among 15 people killed or found dead in Iraq. Kurdish rebels released eight Turkish soldiers in northern Iraq two weeks after they were captured in a deadly ambush that intensified pressure on the Turkish government to attack the guerrillas in Iraq.
    (AP, 11/4/07)

2007        Nov 9, Turkey's parliament approved a bill allowing for the construction of nuclear power plants in the country, despite opposition from environmental groups.
    (AP, 11/9/07)

2007        Nov 13, Turkish helicopter gunships attacked abandoned villages inside Iraq, the first such airstrike since border tensions have escalated in recent months. Kurdish guerrillas killed four Turkish soldiers in a clash in southeastern Turkey.
    (AP, 11/13/07)
2007        Nov 13, Shimon Peres became the 1st Israeli president to address the parliament of a Muslim government when he spoke to Turkish deputies.
    (Econ, 11/17/07, p.60)

2007        Nov 16, Turkish authorities took steps to ban the country's leading pro-Kurdish political party and expel several of its lawmakers from parliament on charges of separatism.
    (AP, 11/16/07)

2007        Nov 21, The presidents of Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey launched the construction of a railroad that will link ex-Soviet republics in the Caucasus and Central Asia with Europe, bypassing Russia.
    (AP, 11/21/07)

2007        Nov 30, Turkey’s government authorized the military to launch a cross-border offensive against Kurdish rebels based in northern Iraq at any time.
    (AP, 12/1/07)
2007        Nov 30, In southwest Turkey an Atlasjet plane crashed on a rocky mountain shortly before it was due to land, killing all 57 people on board.
    (AP, 11/30/07)

2007        Dec 1, The Turkish military said it fired on 50 to 60 Kurdish rebels inside Iraqi territory, inflicting "significant losses." Turkish troops killed four Kurdish rebels in fighting near its border with Iraq.
    (AP, 12/1/07)(AP, 12/2/07)

2007        Dec 4, Greece and Turkey agreed to joint military measures aimed at easing tensions and improving ties.
    (WSJ, 12/5/07, p.A1)

2007        Dec 5, Turkish soldiers killed eight Kurdish rebels, increasing the rebel death toll to 14 in a two-day clash near the border with Iraq.
    (AP, 12/5/07)

2007        Dec 8, An overcrowded boat carrying at least some 85 illegal migrants sank off Turkey's Aegean coast and at least 43 died. The migrants were mostly Palestinians, Somalis and Iraqis.
    (AP, 12/10/07)

2007        Dec 16, Turkish warplanes hit Kurdish rebel targets, marking an escalation of force against the outlawed separatist group. An Iraqi official said the planes attacked several villages, killing one woman. Turkey’s military later said up to 175 rebels were killed on this day. A Kurdish leader said the figure was exaggerated.
    (AP, 12/16/07)(AP, 12/25/07)

2007        Dec 18, The Turkish army sent soldiers about 1.5 miles into northern Iraq in an overnight operation. A Turkish official said the troops seeking Kurdish rebels were still in Iraq by midmorning.
    (AP, 12/18/07)

2007        Dec 22, Turkish warplanes bombed Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq in the third confirmed cross-border offensive by Turkish forces in less than a week.
    (AP, 12/22/07)

2007        Dec 23, Turkish fighter jets bombed Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 12/23/07)

2007        Dec 26, Turkish warplanes hit eight suspected Kurdish rebel hideouts in northern Iraq, the third cross-border air assault in 10 days. Troops killed 6 rebels near the Iraqi border.
    (AP, 12/26/07)(WSJ, 12/27/07, p.A1)

2007        Dec 30, Turkmenistan turned off gas supplies to Iran, citing technical problems, after Iran balked at a price increase to $140 per thousand cubic meters, almost double the contracted rate. The move had a domino effect causing Iran to halt gas shipments to Turkey, which in turn cut off gas to Greece.
    (WSJ, 2/4/08, p.A2)(http://tinyurl.com/3xmzam)

2007        Graham Fuller authored “The New Turkish Republic: Turkey As a Pivotal State in the Muslim World."
    (Econ, 10/23/10, SR p.6)
2007         The Kurdish population in Turkey numbered about 14 million.
    (Econ, 6/23/07, p.60)

2008        Jan 3, Turkey’s Parliament approved a law extending a smoking ban in this tobacco-growing nation to all bars, restaurants and coffeehouses by mid-2009.
    (AP, 1/3/08)
2008        Jan 3, In Turkey a car bomb exploded in the Kurdish-dominated southeastern city of Diyarbakir, killing 6 people, including 5 students. 67 people were wounded, including military personnel.
    (AP, 1/3/08)(Reuters, 1/4/08)(AP, 1/8/08)

2008        Jan 7, In Turkey an accused Kurdish rebel suspected of detonating a deadly car bomb last week in Diyarbakir was captured. Six other suspects also were detained.
    (AP, 1/8/08)

2008        Jan 8, Pres. Bush met with Turkey’s Pres. Abdullah Gul to discuss US policy on Turkey's fight against Kurdish rebels. Bush prepared to leave later in the day on his first major trip to the Mideast to try to build momentum for peace.
    (AP, 1/8/08)

2008        Jan 15, Turkish warplanes bombed Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq in the latest in a series of cross-border air strikes.
    (AFP, 1/15/08)

2008        Jan 16, Turkey's PM Erdogan challenged a ban on women wearing head scarves in universities and public offices, saying there is no need to wait for a constitutional change to remove the ban.
    (AP, 1/16/08)

2008        Jan 23, PM Costas Karamanlis became the first Greek premier to pay an official visit to Turkey in nearly 50 years, reflecting warmer ties between two countries that have come close to war several times.
    (AP, 1/23/08)

2008        Jan 24, Turkey's Islamist-rooted ruling AK Party and a key opposition party agreed to cooperate to lift a ban on the wearing of the Islamic headscarf in universities, a move sure to anger the secular elite.
    (AP, 1/24/08)

2008        Jan 27, In central Turkey a passenger train derailed, killing at least nine people and injuring dozens of others, possibly due to ice on the tracks.
    (AP, 1/27/08)

2008        Jan 31, In Turkey an explosion ripped through an unlicensed fireworks factory in an industrial section of Istanbul, killing 20 people and injuring 117.
    (AP, 1/31/08)

2008        Feb 2, In Turkey tens of thousands of secular Turks rallied against a plan by the government to allow women students to wear the Muslim headscarf at university, a move they say will usher in a stricter form of Islam.
    (Reuters, 2/2/08)

2008        Feb 4, Turkey’s warplanes bombed some 70 Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 2/4/08)

2008        Feb 7, Turkey’s lawmakers voted to approve a constitutional amendment allowing female students to enter universities wearing Islamic head scarves, a move that many secular Turks view as an attempt to impose religion on their daily lives.
    (AP, 2/7/08)

2008        Feb 9, Turkey’s parliament voted to amend the constitution to lift a decades-old ban on Islamic head scarves at Turkey's universities, despite fierce opposition from the secular establishment.
    (AP, 2/9/08)

2008        Feb 15, In southeast Turkey hundreds of Kurdish protesters battled police, leaving a young demonstrator dead and dozens injured on the ninth anniversary of guerrilla leader Abdullah Ocalan's capture.
    (AP, 2/16/08)

2008        Feb 21, Turkish troops launched a ground incursion across the border into Iraq in pursuit of separatist Kurdish rebels.
    (AP, 2/22/08)

2008        Feb 23, Turkish troops pressed their offensive against Kurdish PKK guerrillas in northern Iraq, two days after crossing the mountainous border.
    (AP, 2/23/08)

2008        Feb 24, Turkey's military said that eight more soldiers were killed in combat during its cross-border ground operation in northern Iraq, raising the death toll to 15. Turkish troops and Kurdish PKK rebels fought close battles in northern Iraq that left scores dead on the fourth day of a major ground offensive Baghdad and Washington fear could further destabilize Iraq.
    (AP, 2/24/08)(Reuters, 2/24/08)

2008        Feb 25, Turkey's military said it had killed 41 more separatist Kurdish rebels in clashes in northern Iraq, raising the reported guerrilla death toll in a cross-border operation to 153.
    (AP, 2/25/08)

2008        Feb 26, The Iraqi government demanded for the first time that Turkey immediately withdraw from northern Iraq, warning it feared the ongoing incursion could lead to clashes with the official forces of the semiautonomous Kurdish region.
    (AP, 2/26/08)

2008        Feb 27, Turkey said the death toll for rebels reached 230 during the operation in northern Iraq that began last week. The death toll for soldiers stood at 24. Troops killed 77 Kurdish rebels in night-long clashes with 5 Turkish soldiers killed.
    (AP, 2/27/08)

2008        Feb 29, Turkey's military said it has ended a ground offensive against Kurdish rebels in Iraq, but said that foreign influence did not play a role in its decision.
    (AP, 2/29/08)

2008        Feb, Turkey and Pakistan signed agreements to produce cluster bomb munitions.
    (Econ, 5/24/08, p.80)

2008        Mar 4, Officials said Turkey is ready to take part in a planned Mediterranean Union after winning assurances that it is not meant as a substitute for Ankara's eventual EU membership.
    (AP, 3/4/08)

2008        Mar 6, A Kurdish demonstrator wounded a day earlier in clashes with police in eastern Turkey died of his injuries.
    (AP, 3/7/08)

2008        Mar 6, About 700 Turkish school children were hospitalized for apparent food poisoning.
    (AP, 3/6/08)

2008        Mar 7, Suspected Kurdish rebels killed a civilian and took another hostage in a southern Turkish province near the border with Syria.
    (AP, 3/7/08)

2008        Mar 8, In Turkey Iraq's Pres. Jalal Talabani, on the 2nd day of his visit, said he wants a "strategic" partnership with Turkey, including getting the neighboring nation's businesses to invest in his oil-rich but war-torn country.
    (AP, 3/8/08)

2008        Mar 12, Turkish troops killed 11 Kurdish rebels during clashes near the border with Iraq.
    (WSJ, 3/13/08, p.A1)

2008        Mar 20, Turkish warplanes bombed Kurdish rebel hideouts in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 3/20/08)

2008        Mar 21, In Turkey unrest erupted when celebrations marking Newroz day, or the Kurdish new year, degenerated into demonstrations in favor of the armed separatist Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), which Ankara lists as a terrorist group.
    (AFP, 3/22/08)

2008        Mar 22, In Turkey dozens of people were injured and scores detained as police used truncheons and tear gas to break up violent Kurdish protests in several eastern cities.
    (AP, 3/22/08)

2008        Mar 23, In southeast Turkey Kurdish protesters clashed with police for a 4th day. Two people have been killed In the clashes and dozens injured.
     (WSJ, 3/24/08, p.A1)

2008        Mar 27, Turkey's armed forces killed 15 members of the outlawed Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) in northern Iraq using long-range land weapons.
    (Reuters, 3/29/08)

2008        Mar 28, Turkish warplanes hit Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 3/29/08)

2008        Mar 31, Turkey's top court decided to put the Islamist-rooted ruling party on trial for alleged anti-secular activity, in a case that could threaten national stability and Ankara's bid to join the EU. Clashes between Turkish troops and Kurdish rebels left nine rebels and three soldiers dead in Turkey's southeast.
    (AFP, 3/31/08)(AP, 4/1/08)

2008        Apr 3, A group of about 200 Uighur Muslims demonstrated against China before the Olympic torch ceremony near Istanbul's Blue Mosque, one of Turkey's most famous tourist destinations.
    (AP, 4/3/08)

2008        Apr 12, Thousands of secularist Turks rallied in Ankara against the ruling AK Party, which is facing a high court challenge by a prosecutor who wants it shut down for alleged Islamist activities.
    (AP, 4/12/08)
2008        Apr 12, Investigators in Turkey found the body of Giuseppina Pasqualino di Marineo (33), an Italian artist known as Pippa Bacca. She was last seen on March 31 hitchhiking in a wedding gown. She was on her way to Israel in a plea for peace. Police detained a man suspected of killing her. In June, 2009, Murat Karatas was sentenced to life in prison for her rape and murder.
    (AP, 4/12/08)(SSFC, 6/28/09, p.A4)

2008        Apr 16, Turkish warplanes hit a group of Kurdish rebels reportedly trying to infiltrate Turkey from the Avasin-Basyan region of northern Iraq. A clash between Turkish troops and Kurdish rebels near Turkey's southeastern border with Iraq left a Turkish soldier dead.
    (AP, 4/17/08)

2008        Apr 25, Turkish warplanes and artillery units struck Kurdish rebels in northern Iraq who were preparing to cross the border to carry out attacks. The strikes continued the next day.
    (AP, 4/26/08)

2008        Apr 26, Turkey's PM Erdogan was in Syria in a bid to restart peace negotiations between Damascus and its Mideast foe, Israel.
    (AP, 4/26/08)

2008        May 2, A rebel spokesman said Turkish warplanes bombed Kurdish rebel bases deep inside Iraq for three hours overnight. The Turkish military said the raid in northern Iraq killed more than 150 Kurdish rebels.
    (AP, 5/2/08)(AP, 5/3/08)

2008        May 9, In southeast Turkey a land mine explosion killed 3 people and injured 3 others. Air strikes launched in retaliation for a rebel raid killed 19 Kurdish fighters. Six soldiers died in the violence. The PKK denied the military's claims of 19 rebel deaths saying "not a single guerrilla was killed."
    (AP, 5/9/08)(AP, 5/10/08)

2008        May 10, Turkish warplanes and artillery units destroyed key Kurdish rebel positions in northern Iraq, including a communications center, in a second day of raids on rebel positions.
    (AP, 5/11/08)

2008        May 12, Iraqi Kurdish officials said Turkish jets overnight struck suspected Kurdish rebel targets close to the border in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 5/12/08)

2008        May 17, In eastern Turkey a clash between soldiers and Kurdish rebels left 6 rebels dead in Van province.
    (AP, 5/17/08)

2008        May 19, In Turkey a law extending a smoking ban to most enclosed areas — including taxis, ferries and shopping malls — came into effect in the nicotine-addicted nation.
    (AP, 5/19/08)

2008        May 22, Two Turkish soldiers were killed in an overnight clash with Kurdish rebels in southeastern Turkey. Troops killed two Kurdish rebels near the southeastern city of Sirnak.
    (AP, 5/22/08)(AP, 5/24/08)

2008        May 23, In Turkey one rebel and one village guard were killed in a clash near the border with Iran.
    (AP, 5/24/08)

2008        May 28, Turkey's state-run media said soldiers killed two Kurdish rebels during a clash near the border with Iran.
    (AP, 5/28/08)

2008        May 29, Turkish warplanes attacked several Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq. No casualties were immediately reported. Air raids destroyed 16 Kurdish rebel facilities.
    (AP, 5/29/08)(AP, 5/31/08)

2008        Jun 5, A Turkish TV station quoted a senior military commander as saying that Turkey and Iran have carried out coordinated strikes against Kurdish rebels in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 6/5/08)

2008        Jun 6, Turkey's ruling AK Party held an emergency meeting after the top court overturned a government-led reform which lifted a ban on Muslim headscarves at universities.
    (Reuters, 6/6/08)

2008        Jun 15, Israeli officials said that indirect peace talks between Israel and Syria have resumed, with Turkish mediation.
    (AP, 6/15/08)

2008        Jun 16, The Turkish military opened fire on 21 Kurdish PKK fighters trying to enter Turkey from northern Iraq. Most of them were "neutralized."
    (Reuters, 6/17/08)
2008        Jun 16, Officials said 2 days of peace talks in Turkey involving Israel and Syria had concluded and more talks were planned.
    (AP, 6/16/08)

2008        Jun, Turkey’s police arrested some 50 people said to be involved in Ergenekon, an ultra-nationalist gang bent on overthrowing the AKP government. Veli Kucuk, a retired general arrested last January, was alleged to be one of the ringleaders.
    (Econ, 7/19/08, p.34)(WSJ, 7/2/08, p.A1)(Econ, 1/31/09, p.58)

2008        Jul 8, In eastern Turkey Kurdish guerrillas kidnapped three German tourists on a climbing expedition. The Germans were released on July 20.
    (AP, 7/20/08)

2008        Jul 9, In Istanbul, Turkey, men armed with pistols and shotguns attacked a police guard post outside the US consulate, sparking a gunbattle that left 3 attackers and 3 officers dead.
    (AP, 7/9/08)(Reuters, 7/9/08)

2008        Jul 10, In Turkey authorities detained four suspects in connection with the July 9 attack on the US consulate in Istanbul which left 3 policemen and 3 assailants dead.
    (AP, 7/10/08)
2008        Jul 10, Iraq's Oil Ministry said that it is close to signing contracts to build two new oil refineries in southern Iraq. Turkey's PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan became the first Turkish leader to visit Iraq in nearly 20 years.
    (AP, 7/10/08)

2008        Jul 11, A Turkish news agency reported that army troops clashed with Kurdish rebels in the southeast and that 10 of the rebels were killed.
    (AP, 7/11/08)

2008        Jul 14, In Turkey prosecutors indicted 86 secular Turks, including high-ranking ex-military officials, on terrorism charges for their alleged involvement in plots to topple the Islamic-rooted government. They were suspected of being part of Ergenekon, an ultra-nationalist gang bent on overthrowing the AKP government.
    (AP, 7/14/08)(Econ, 7/19/08, p.34)

2008        Jul 15, Turkey’s military said aircraft and artillery units had shelled rebel positions in Sirnak province, killing 22 rebels.
    (AP, 7/15/08)

2008        Jul 16, Turkey’s military said 11 Kurdish rebels were killed in an ongoing operation in Hakkari province, near the border with Iraq.
    (AP, 7/16/08)
2008        Jul 16, In Turkey Ahmet Yildiz, a gay Kurd, was allegedly killed by his father for besmirching the family honor. In 2011 the film “Zenne Dancer," based on his story, won 5 awards at the Golden Orange Film Festival.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, p.64)(http://ahmetyildizismyfamily.blogspot.com/)

2008        Jul 18, In southeastern Turkey 10 members of the separatist Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) were killed in clashes with Turkish military forces.
    (Reuters, 7/19/08)

2008        Jul 23, Turkish warplanes bombed 13 Kurdish rebel targets in the Zab region of northern Iraq.
    (AP, 7/24/08)

2008        Jul 27, In Istanbul, Turkey, bomb blasts killed 17 people in a crowded square in the residential neighborhood of Gungoren. 5 of the dead were children. Turkish warplanes bombed 12 Kurdish rebel targets on Mount Qandil in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 7/28/08)(AP, 7/27/08)

2008        Jul 29, Turkish warplanes attacked Kurdish rebels in Iraq's north, killing a group of guerrillas gathered at a mountain cave.
    (AP, 7/29/08)

2008        Jul 30, Turkey’s high court narrowly voted against disbanding the ruling Justice and Development Party, but cut off millions of dollars in state aid to the Islamic-oriented party.
    (SFC, 7/31/08, p.A12)

2008        Jul 31, Turkey’s Deputy PM Cemil Cicek signaled the government would not push for a fresh round of legislation to lift the head scarf ban.
    (AP, 7/31/08)

2008        Aug 1, In central Turkey a three-story girls dormitory collapsed, killing at least 18 students and setting off a search for a half dozen people believed to be under the rubble in Balcilar. A gas leak from kitchen pipes caused the powerful explosion, leaving another 27 people injured. 3 dormitory administrators were charged on August 3 with "causing death through negligence."
    (AP, 8/1/08)(AP, 8/2/08)(AP, 8/4/08)

2008        Aug 5, In Turkey an oil pipeline that has allowed the West to tap the rich fields of Azerbaijan, bypassing Iran and Russia, was set on fire. A Kurdish rebel organization later admitted sabotaging the pipeline.
    (AP, 8/7/08)

2008        Aug 7, In Turkey a series of explosions at a municipal government building in Istanbul slightly injured three people. Shells from a mortar-like mechanism were fired from a cemetery near a municipal government building.
    (AP, 8/7/08)

2008        Aug 8, In Turkey Mehmet Dursun Uygurturkoglu (35) doused himself with gasoline and set himself alight during a protest by ethnic Uighurs outside the Chinese Embassy. Other demonstrators jumped on the man and quickly extinguished the flames with a blanket.
    (AP, 8/8/08)

2008        Aug 11, A roadside bomb exploded in eastern Turkey, killing nine soldiers who were on their way back from an operation against Kurdish rebels.
    (AP, 8/11/08)

2008        Aug 18, Heads of state and other dignitaries from African countries and Turkey started an economic cooperation summit in Istanbul.
    (AP, 8/18/08)

2008        Aug 19, Turkey's President Abdullah Gul urged Sudanese leader Omar al-Bashir, during talks at a summit of African leaders, to act responsibly and to end the suffering in the devastated Darfur region. A suicide bombing wounded 13 policemen outside the southern city of Mersin.
    (AP, 8/19/08)(AP, 8/20/08)

2008        Aug 20, In Turkey Sudan's indicted president denied that his regime is orchestrating genocide in the troubled western region of Darfur, and offered hope for an end to the violence and the dawn of reconciliation by promising free and fair elections next year.
    (AP, 8/20/08)

2008        Sep 4, Syrian President Bashar Assad announced that his country has handed over proposals for peace with Israel to Turkish mediators and would wait for Israel's response before holding any face-to-face negotiations.
    (AP, 9/4/08)

2008        Sep 6, Thousands of Armenians lined the streets of the Yerevan to protest the first-ever visit by a Turkish leader and to demand that Turkey acknowledge the World War I massacres of Armenian civilians as genocide.

2008        Sep 10, Turkish Cypriot leader Mehmet Ali Talat said he accepts a reduction of Turkey's military contingent but that his side will still need security guarantees from Ankara as part of a deal to unite the divided island.
    (AP, 9/10/08)

2008        Sep 14, A Turkish ferry carrying some 100 people sank in the Sea of Marmara, killing at least one person. At least 23 more were missing.
    (AP, 9/15/08)

2008        Sep 17, A German court convicted 3 Turkish men of siphoning $25 million from the Deniz Feneri charity, which raised fund to ostensibly help needy Muslims.
    (Econ, 9/20/08, p.69)

2008        Sep 21, In western Turkey 13 newborn, premature babies died over the weekend at Izmir's Tepecik hospital. In August, investigators looking into the deaths of 27 newborns at an Ankara hospital concluded that a staff shortage had increased the risk of infection. Tainted IV treatment was later suspected.
    (AP, 9/22/08)(AP, 9/27/08)

2008        Sep 25, Turkish warplanes bombarded Kurdish rebel territory in northern Iraq, damaging a school and wounding three people.
    (AP, 9/26/08)

2008        Oct 3, Fighting between Kurdish rebels and Turkey's army and air force in southeastern Turkey and northern Iraq killed 15 soldiers and at least 23 insurgents, in the deadliest battle between the longtime enemies this year.
    (AP, 10/4/08)

2008        Oct 5, In western Turkey a truck packed with illegal immigrants from Afghanistan and Myanmar overturned, killing 18 people and injuring 23.
    (AP, 10/5/08)

2008        Oct 6, Turkish warplanes bombed a Kurdish rebel hideout in northern Iraq, the third air strike in retaliation for an attack that killed 15 soldiers three days ago.
    (AP, 10/6/08)

2008        Oct 7, Turkish warplanes bombed suspected Kurdish rebel positions in northern Iraq and southeast Turkey, in new air strikes responding to an attack that killed 17 soldiers at a military outpost four days ago.
    (AP, 10/7/08)

2008        Oct 8, In Turkey rebels ambushed a police bus, killing four policemen and the driver in the Kurdish-dominated city of Diyarbakir, further escalating tensions.
    (AP, 10/11/08)

2008        Oct 11, Turkish warplanes and artillery bombed dozens of Kurdish rebel targets overnight in northern Iraq following an escalation in rebel attacks. Engin Ceber (29), a left-wing activist, was tortured and beaten to death in an Istanbul prison.
    (AP, 10/11/08)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.61)(http://erkansaka.net/blog2/2008/10/engin_ceber.html)

2008        Oct 15, Turkish media reported that a hijacker attempted to commandeer a Turkish Airlines plane over Belarus but that he was overpowered by passengers.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, The Turkish military clashed with Kurdish rebels near the Iraqi border in battles in which four soldiers and five rebels were killed. A Turkish helicopter crashed during the clash. A soldier was killed and 15 security personnel were slightly injured in the crash.
    (AP, 10/16/08)

2008        Oct 17, Turkish warplanes carried out successful airstrikes inside Iraq on the main bases used by Kurdish rebels. The air strikes on Qandil Mountain killed 25 Kurdish rebels and wounded many more. Earlier in the day, the military said it intercepted Kurdish rebel radio chatter indicating that up to 35 guerrillas had been killed in clashes with troops earlier this week in southeastern Sirnak province.
    (AP, 10/17/08)(AP, 10/24/08)
2008        Oct 17, The UN added Japan, Austria, Turkey, Mexico and Uganda as members to the 10 non-permanent seats of the Security Council, replacing Belgium, Indonesia, Italy, Panama and South Africa.
    (AP, 10/17/08)

2008        Oct 19, Turkish warplanes again bombed Kurdish rebel hideouts across the border in northern Iraq. The bombings targeted four towns near the Turkish border.
    (AP, 10/19/08)

2008        Oct 20, A Kurdish demonstrator died after a clash with police in eastern Turkey. Kurdish protesters staged demonstrations in many parts of Turkey over the weekend following allegations that Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Ocalan was mistreated in prison.
    (AP, 10/20/08)

2008        Oct 21, Turkish soldiers killed two Kurdish guerrillas during a clash near the village of Dallitepe in the country's southeast.
    (AP, 10/22/08)

2008        Oct 28, Turkey's warplanes and artillery struck Kurdish rebel targets inside northern Iraq.
    (AP, 10/28/08)

2008        Oct 29, Pirates hijacked the Turkish freighter MV Yasa Neslihan with a crew of 20 off the coast of Somalia. Pirates freed the Yasa Neslihan freighter on Dec 6 after paying a ransom.
    (SFC, 10/31/08, p.A8)(AP, 1/7/09)

2008        Nov 12, Pirates commandeered the Karagol, a Turkish chemical tanker, off the coast of Yemen. 14 Turkish personnel were aboard the tanker. The Russian frigate Neustrashimy and the British frigate Cumberland foiled pirates who fired automatic weapons toward a Danish ship and twice tried to seize it in the Gulf of Aden. The Karagol was released on Jan 12, 2009. 
    (AP, 11/12/08)(AP, 1/13/09)

2008        Nov 19, Turkey’s central bank cuts its core overnight borrowing rate by .5% to 16.25%.
    (WSJ, 11/20/08, p.A15)

2008        Dec 5, The leaders of Pakistan and Afghanistan met for Turkish-sponsored talks aimed at reducing tensions over militant attacks along the countries' lawless border.
    (AP, 12/5/08)

2008        Dec 7, A Kurdish rebel group declared a nine-day holiday cease-fire in their fight against Turkey, calling it a "first step toward peace."
    (AP, 12/7/08)

2008        Dec 15, A group of about 200 Turkish intellectuals issued an apology on the Internet for the World War I-era massacres of Armenians in Turkey.
    (AP, 12/16/08)

2008        Dec 24, The prime ministers of Turkey and Iraq vowed to step up their cooperation in the fight against Turkish Kurdish rebels whose presence in northern Iraq has cast a shadow over relations.
    (AP, 12/24/08)

2008        Dec 27, Turkey's parliament reduced the budget allocations of most ministries by up to 16 percent to cut overall spending as the country seeks a loan deal with the International Monetary Fund.
    (AP, 12/27/08)

2008        In Turkey working women were able to retire at age 43, and men at age 47. A newly adopted retirement age of 65 was set to become effective in 2048.
    (Econ, 8/9/08, p.50)
2008        Turkish hacker Ercan Findikoglu was taken into custody by the police after a four-year chase by the Anti-Smuggling and Organized Crime Bureau.

2009        Jan 4, Russia asked the EU to provide monitoring of Ukraine's gas transit system and charged Ukraine was stealing gas bound for Europe, as Kiev leveled its own charges. Gazprom CEO Alexei Miller said that the state-controlled company wanted $450 per 1,000 cubic meters, up from its last offer of $418. The reductions in gas supplies spread to the Czech Republic and Turkey.
    (AP, 1/4/09)(Reuters, 1/4/09)

2009        Jan 5, Turkey restored the citizenship of its most famous poet Monday in a symbolic step meant to show it was addressing criticism of its human rights record in hopes of joining the European Union. Turkey had stripped Nazim Hikmet of his nationality in 1951 at the height of the Cold War because of his communist views, branded him a traitor and imprisoned him for more than a decade. He died in exile in Moscow in 1963.
    (AP, 1/5/09)

2009        Jan 6, Turkey held a shipment bound for Venezuela from Iran saying it contains equipment that can make explosives.
    (WSJ, 1/7/09, p.A1)
2009        Jan 6, A natural gas crisis loomed over Europe, as a contract dispute between Russia and Ukraine shut off Russian gas supplies to six countries and reduced gas deliveries to several others. Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Romania, Croatia and Turkey all reported a halt in gas shipments.
    (AP, 1/6/09)

2009        Jan 7, Turkey’s state news said police had detained about 40 people, including 3 retired generals, in a probe of an alleged plot to overthrow the Islamist-rooted AK Party government.
    (WSJ, 1/8/09, p.A1)

2009        Jan 11, A Turkish court formally arrested 12 more people for ties to an alleged secularist plot by ultranationalists to bring down the Islamic-rooted government, bringing the total of people implicated in the case to more than 100.
    (AP, 1/11/09)

2009        Jan 19, In Turkey Abdulkarim Kirca committed suicide. He was found shot in the head in his apartment in Ankara, following allegations in the Turkish press that he had been involved in extra-judicial killings of Kurds.
    (Econ, 1/31/09, p.58)(www.journalistinturkey.com/date/2009/01/)

2009        Jan 22, Turkey’s police detained 39 more suspects in a new wave of arrests connected with Ergenekon, an alleged secularist plot to bring down the Islamic-rooted government.
    (AP, 1/22/09)(Econ, 1/31/09, p.58)

2009        Jan 23, Iraqi Foreign Minister Hoshiyar Zebari said Turkey, Iraq and the United States have agreed to set up a joint command center in northern Iraq to gather intelligence to fight Kurdish PKK rebels in the region.
    (Reuters, 1/23/09)

2009        Jan 25, An avalanche slammed into a group of Turkish hikers on a trip to a remote mountain plateau, dragging them more than (1640 feet) 500 meters into a valley and fatally burying 10 of them.
    (AP, 1/25/09)

2009        Jan 29, At the economic forum in Davos, Switzerland, Israel’s Pres. Peres (85) traded accusations with Turkey’s PM Erdogan, who declared: “You kill people," and criticized Israel’s blockade of Gaza. Erdogan stalked off stage after being cut short during the exchange.
    (SFC, 1/30/09, p.A4)(WSJ, 1/30/09, p.A1)

2009        Feb 5, Turkey's parliament approved the Kyoto Protocol on cutting greenhouse gas emissions. The parliament voted 243-3 after the Cabinet signed the protocol.
    (AP, 2/5/09)

2009        Feb 15, In Turkey police clashed with stone-throwing demonstrators across the country's predominantly Kurdish southeast during protests marking the 10th anniversary of a separatist rebel leader's capture.
    (AP, 2/15/09)

2009        Feb 22, In Turkey Aydin Dogan (72), chairman of Dogan Sirketler Grubu Holdings AS, a conglomerate that controls 7 newspapers, 28 magazines and 3 Turkish television channels as well as energy interests, accused PM Erdogan of seeking to muzzle criticism. Dogan was recently hit with a corporate tax bill of around $500 million. Most of the bill centered on the 2007 sale of a stake in Dogan to Germany’s Axel Springer AG. Dogan was forced to shrink his empire and dump some critics of pres. Erdogan before pressure on him ceased.
    (WSJ, 2/23/09, p.A9)(Econ, 4/6/13, p.62)

2009        Feb 24, A Kurdish politician spoke to lawmakers in Turkey's parliament in the Kurdish language, openly defying the law, to celebrate UNESCO world languages week. State-run television immediately cut off the live broadcast.
    (AP, 2/24/09)

2009        Feb 25, A Turkish Airlines plane with 135 people aboard slammed into a muddy field while attempting to land at Amsterdam's main airport. Nine people were killed and more than 50 were injured, many in serious condition.
    (AP, 2/25/09)

2009        Mar 5, The Israeli and Turkish foreign ministers met secretly on the sidelines of a NATO conference, the first high-level contact between the countries since friction erupted over Israel's recent offensive in the Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 3/5/09)

2009        Mar 10, Turkey indicted 56 more people on charges of plotting to topple the Islamic-rooted AK Party government. The 56 suspects, including 2 retired four-star generals, were formally indicted on March 25.
    (WSJ, 3/11/09, p.A11)(WSJ, 3/26/09, p.A8)

2009        Mar 12, Turkish warplanes carried out new bombing raids against Kurdish rebel positions in northern Iraq. The strike targeted hideouts of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) in the Zap-Avashin region of the Kurdish-held autonomous north of Iraq.
    (AFP, 3/13/09)

2009        Mar 16, In Turkey a UN global forum on water opened in Istanbul. The UN said global demand for water is rising as access to safe drinking water remains inadequate in much of the developing world.
    (SFC, 3/17/09, p.A2)

2009        Mar 19, Pirates off the coast of Somalia seized the St. Vincent-flagged Titan, with 24 crew members on board, including a Greek captain and 3 Greek crew members. A Turkish warship foiled a pirate attack on a Turkish commercial ship in the Gulf of Aden.
    (AP, 3/20/09)

2009        Mar 23, Turkey's president began the first visit to Iraq by a Turkish head of state in more than 30 years, seeking to press Iraqi leaders to stop Kurdish rebels from launching cross-border attacks on Turkey. In northern Iraq a suicide bombing against a Kurdish funeral in Jalula killed 27 people. 8 people were killed in a bombing at a bus stop west of Baghdad. A suicide blast in Tel Afar killed police officer and wounded 8 people.
    (AP, 3/23/09)(AP, 3/24/09)(SFC, 3/24/09, p.A2)

2009        Mar 24, Kurdish rebels rejected calls by Iraq's president to stop fighting against Turkey and leave Iraqi territory as the visiting Turkish president stepped up pressure on the Baghdad government to act against the group.
    (AP, 3/24/09)

2009        Mar 25, In Turkey a helicopter crashed in the snow-covered mountains of southern Turkey. Muhsin Yazicioglu, leader of the small conservative Great Unity Party, was one of six people on board. Authorities the next day released a recording of an emergency call made after the crash by journalist Ismail Gunes, who said he thought he was the only survivor. Rescue workers found the wreckage on March 27. All 6 people aboard were found dead.
    (AP, 3/26/09)(AP, 3/27/09)

2009        Mar 29, Turks voted in local elections. PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan's Islamic-oriented party emerged as the leading party in local elections, but saw a slide in its support compared with a landslide victory two years ago.
    (AP, 3/29/09)(AP, 3/30/09)

2009        Apr 4, In Turkey several thousand leftists staged anti-U.S. and anti-NATO protests, with shouts of "Yankee Go Home!" the day before President Barack Obama's visit.
    (AP, 4/4/09)

2009        Apr 6, In Turkey Pres. Obama, making his first visit to a Muslim nation as president, declared that the United States "is not and will never be at war with Islam."
    (AP, 4/6/09)

2009        Apr 7, In Turkey Pres. Obama wrapped up his first European trip as president with a request of the world: Look past his nation's stereotypes and flaws. "You will find a partner and a supporter and a friend in the United States of America."
    (AP, 4/7/09)

2009        Apr 11, Turkey’s agriculture ministry said 11 people have died in Turkey over the past three weeks, including three young Germans, after drinking bootleg spirits.
    (AP, 4/11/09)

2009        Apr 16, Turkey’s central bank cut is interest rate to 9.75% from 10.5% in a bid to combat a record surge in unemployment.
    (WSJ, 4/17/09, p.A8)

2009        Apr 18, In Turkey thousands of people marched to the mausoleum of the country’s secular founder to protest the arrests of university professors and other secularists accused of involvement in an alleged plot to topple the Islamic-rooted government.
    (AP, 4/18/09)
2009        Apr 18, About 140 migrants remained stranded aboard a Turkish cargo ship for a third day as Malta and Italy argued about which country should accept them.
    (AP, 4/18/09)

2009        Apr 19, Italy agreed to accept 140 migrants stranded aboard a Turkish cargo ship that rescued them in the Mediterranean, ending a four-day standoff with Malta about who would take them in.
    (AP, 4/20/09)

2009        Apr 21, Turkish anti-terror police detained 37 suspects accused of links to the al-Qaida terror network.
    (AP, 4/21/09)(WSJ, 4/22/09, p.A10)

2009        Apr 22, The Turkish Foreign Ministry said Turkey and Armenia have agreed on a roadmap for normalizing relations and reaching reconciliation, but it wasn't immediately clear how they would tackle their bitter dispute over Ottoman-era killings of ethnic Armenians.
    (AP, 4/22/09)

2009        Apr 27, In Turkey a five-hour police shootout with a leftist militant in Istanbul left three people dead, including the militant described as a top member of a group tied to the Kurdish separatist PKK. The militant was identified as Orhan Yilmazkaya, one of three top members of the Revolutionary Headquarters.
    (AP, 4/27/09)

2009        Apr 29, In southeastern Turkey suspected Kurdish rebels detonated a roadside bomb that killed nine soldiers in a US-made armored personnel carrier.
    (AP, 4/29/09)

2009        Apr 30, Turkey's military said its warplanes struck Kurdish rebel targets overnight in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 4/30/09)

2009        May 1, May Day protesters clashed with riot police in Germany, Turkey and Greece, while thousands angry at the government's responses to the global financial crisis took to the streets in France. Riot police battled 700 stone-throwing left-wing militants in Berlin for more than five hours in May Day clashes that stretched into early pre-dawn hours.
    (Reuters, 5/1/09)(AP, 5/2/09)

2009        May 4, In Turkey masked assailants with automatic weapons attacked an engagement celebration in the village of Bilge, near the city of Mardin, fatally shooting 44 people.
    (AP, 5/5/09)

2009        May 5, Turkish security forces detained 8 gunmen suspected of fatally shooting 44 people at an engagement ceremony in the southeastern village of Bilge. PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan said "the result of a feud between two families" had led to the deaths of six children, 17 women and 21 men.
    (AP, 5/5/09)

2009        May 18, A Turkish court ruled that President Abdullah Gul should stand trial for a fraud case dating back to the late 1990s, when the Welfare Party, a predecessor to the AK Party, was accused of misappropriating funds from the Treasury. A court of appeals will have the final say on the case.
    (Reuters, 5/18/09)

2009        May 26, A fire at a western Turkish hospital killed eight patients in an intensive care unit.
    (AP, 5/26/09)

2009        May 28, Turkish warplanes attacked Kurdish rebels in northern Iraq, hours after a land mine blast on the Turkish side of the border killed six soldiers.
    (AP, 5/28/09)

2009        Jun 12, In Turkey the liberal Taraf newspaper published a copy of “Plan to Combat Islamic Fundamentalism," an alleged military plan hatched last April to overthrow the AK party and to incriminate Turkey’s largest Islamist brotherhood, led by Fetullah Gulen. It was signed by Dursun Cicek, a colonel serving in the army’s psychological warfare unit.
    (Econ, 6/20/09, p.56)

2009        Jun 13, A Turkish soldier and a Kurdish rebel were killed in fighting in the southeast of Turkey near the border with Iraq.
    (AFP, 6/14/09)

2009        Jun 26, Turkey's parliament passed legislation aimed at meeting European Union membership criteria to ensure military personnel are tried in civilian courts during peacetime rather than in military courts.
    (Reuters, 6/27/09)

2009        Jun 30, In Turkey a civilian prosecutor charged and briefly arrested Col. Dursun Cicek for his alleged involvement in a plan to overthrow the AK party. The army ordered an investigation but declared the colonel innocent.
    (Econ, 7/4/09, p.49)

2009        Jul 8, Somali pirates seized a Turkish ship with 23 crew and were being shadowed by a Turkish warship in the Gulf of Aden. The pirates first surrounded the Horizon-1 in speed boats and then boarded the ship, which was carrying sulfate from Saudi Arabia to Jordan.
    (AP, 7/8/09)

2009        Jul 13, Turkey and four EU countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary) formally agreed to route the Nabucco natural gas pipeline across their territories, pushing ahead with a US- and EU-backed attempt to make Europe less dependent on Russian gas.
    (AP, 7/13/09)(Econ, 7/18/09, p.47)

2009        Jul 19, In Turkey patrons of a usually smoke-filled hookah bar stepped outside to light up as a ban on indoor public smoking extended to bars, restaurants and coffeehouses.
    (AP, 7/19/09)

2009        Jul 21, In Turkey a father and two sons allegedly opened fire in the eastern village in Elazig province, killing six people and wounding seven others. They were soon captured.
    (AP, 7/22/09)

2009        Jul 24, Turkish commandos captured five pirates in the Gulf of Aden as part of an international mission to curb piracy off the coast of Somalia.
    (AP, 7/24/09)

2009        Jul 29, Turkey's government said it is prepared to grant more rights to the nation's Kurds in an effort to end the 25-year insurgency by Kurdish rebels.
    (AP, 7/29/09)

2009        Jul 31, Turkey's navy commandos aboard a frigate captured seven pirates in the Gulf of Aden off Somalia's coast. Turkish commandos had captured five other pirates in a similar operation in the Gulf of Aden a week ago.
    (AP, 7/31/09)

2009        Aug 6, Russia’s PM Putin and his Turkish counterpart, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, signed an agreements in Ankara that included the construction of part of the South Stream gas pipeline through the Black Sea.
    (AP, 8/6/09)(Econ, 8/15/09, p.47)

2009        Aug 25, Turkey's military indicated that it would back government efforts to grant more rights to Kurds and improve the economy of their region. The military, however, drew the line at moves that would involve negotiating with Kurdish rebels, harm Turkey's unity or make Kurdish an official language.
    (AP, 8/25/09)
2009        Aug 25, An international forum in Turkey sought to boost aid and investment in Pakistan as a way to support its democratic institutions and curb violence there.
    (AP, 8/25/09)

2009        Aug 27, A Turkish train collided with a construction vehicle during a journey from Ankara to Istanbul, derailing several carriages and leaving many people injured.
    (AP, 8/27/09)

2009        Aug 28, NATO’s Sec. Gen. Fogh Rasmussen ended a 2-day visit to Turkey where he got a commitment for more Turkish troops to work on reconstruction projects in Afghanistan.
    (Econ, 9/12/09, p.57)(www.novinite.com/view_news.php?id=107181)
2009        Aug 28, Mehdi-Muhammed Ghezali, a Swedish national and former Guantanamo detainee, was arrested on the outskirts of Dera Ghazi Khan in southern Pakistani town along with a group of foreigners, including 7 Turks and 3 other Swedes, who lacked proper immigration stamps. They were allegedly trying to join al-Qaida in the lawless tribal areas.
    (AP, 9/14/09)

2009        Aug 31, A Georgian court sentenced a Turkish cargo ship captain to 24 years in prison for smuggling and border violations.
    (AP, 9/3/09)

2009        Sep 3, A water rights battle over the historic Tigris and Euphrates rivers simmered, as Iraq and Syria appealed for increased water flows to cope with severe drought but Turkey said it was already too overstretched.
    (AP, 9/3/09)

2009        Sep 7, Turkish military police stormed an Istanbul villa to rescue nine captive women whose scantily clad images were posted online after they were recruited for a television reality show. The women had been held captive for about two months. About 14 people had been working on the show for the Istanbul Grup Bilisim Electronic, Trade, Communication and Advertisement company.
    (AP, 9/10/09)

2009        Sep 8, The Turkish conglomerate, Dogan Yayin, was slapped with a 3.75 lira ($2.5 billion) fine for allegedly evading taxes in the transfer of assets from one of its companies to another. This followed a $609 million fine levied in February against Aydin Dogan’s conglomerate.
    (http://tinyurl.com/mkkebw)(Econ, 9/12/09, p.72)
2009        Sep 8, In northwestern Turkey flash floods triggered by torrential rains killed six people and left swaths of lands awash. At least three people were reported missing.
    (AP, 9/8/09)

2009        Sep 9, In Turkey flash floods roared across a major highway and a commercial district in Istanbul, killing at least 32 people and forcing dozens to scramble onto the roofs of cars and trucks. Some of the dead drowned inside their vehicles.
    (Reuters, 9/9/09)(AFP, 9/10/09)

2009        Sep 15, In Turkey security talks failed over Syria's refusal to extradite some suspects accused of deadly bombings in Baghdad. Senior Iraqi and Syrian diplomats attended the talks.
    (AP, 9/16/09)

2009        Sep 16, Syrian President Bashar Assad met with Turkey's PM Erdogan in Istanbul to discuss ways to revive the stalled peace process between Syria and Israel, a day after security talks with Iraq collapsed.
    (AP, 9/16/09)

2009        Sep 18, Turkey's military said it was planning to spend close to $1 billion (euro680 million) for its first long-range missile defense system.
    (AP, 9/18/09)

2009        Sep 23, In Turkey heavy rains in the northeast triggered floods and a landslide that killed 4 people. One person was reported missing.
    (AP, 9/24/09)

2009        Sep 26, Turkey's navy commandos aboard a frigate captured seven pirates in the Gulf of Aden off Somalia's coast.
    (AP, 9/26/09)

2009        Sep, Turkey banned MySpace, an Internet-based social networking site.
    (Econ, 10/3/09, p.67)

2009        Oct 6, Turkish police used water cannons, tear gas and pepper spray to disperse hundreds of demonstrators protesting against the annual meetings of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank held in Istanbul.
    (AP, 10/6/09)

2009        Oct 7, In Turkey protesters hurled firebombs at banks and police and smashed shop windows in a second day of protests against the International Monetary Fund.
    (AP, 10/7/09)

2009        Oct 10, Armenia and Turkey signed a deal in Switzerland to establish diplomatic ties ending a century of enmity. To take effect, the agreements must be ratified by the Turkish and Armenian parliaments, but it faced stiff opposition in both countries.
    (AP, 10/11/09)

2009        Oct 11, Turkish PM Erdogan called on Armenia to withdraw from the disputed enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh, saying that a deal to establish diplomatic ties, signed a day earlier, cannot come into force until that happens.
    (AP, 10/11/09)

2009        Oct 14, Armenian President Serzh Sarkisian arrived in Turkey to attend a World Cup football game as the two nations pressed ahead with painstaking efforts to overcome a bloody history.
    (AFP, 10/14/09)
2009        Oct 14, Israel's foreign minister has ordered ministry officials to summon Turkey's ambassador in Israel and protest to him over a Turkish TV series that reportedly portrays Israeli soldiers murdering children.
    (AP, 10/14/09)

2009        Oct 15, Turkish police detained over 30 suspects allegedly linked to Al-Qaida, saying they were planning to stage attacks on NATO facilities as well as US and Israeli missions.
    (SFC, 10/16/09, p.A2)
2009        Oct 15, Iraq’s PM Nouri al-Maliki warned Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan to stop conducting military operations across Iraq's northern border targeting Kurdish rebels and stressed that Iraq's sovereignty can not be violated. The two met in Baghdad and were to sign agreements boosting economic ties between their countries. A roadside bomb struck an Iraqi army patrol in Baghdad, killing one Iraqi soldier.
    (AP, 10/15/09)

2009        Oct 19, In Turkey tens of thousands of Kurds flocked to the Iraqi border to greet 34 PKK fighters and their sympathizers, who gave themselves up following a call by PM Erdogan to return home.
    (Econ, 10/24/09, p.63)

2009        Oct 20, Turkish prosecutors sought charges against 5 Kurdish rebels who surrendered in a peace gesture, raising questions about whether thousands of other guerrillas can be persuaded to end their decades-long fight. The 5 were later released on the orders of a judge.
    (AP, 10/20/09)(Econ, 10/24/09, p.63)

2009        Oct, Turkish ministers traveled to Baghdad and Damascus to sign a package of 48 co-operation deals with Iraq and 40 with Syria, covering everything from tourism to counter-terrorism and joint military exercises.
    (Econ, 10/31/09, p.57)

2009        Nov 6, Turkey rebuffed an EU call to reconsider its decision to allow Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir, who is accused of war crimes in Darfur, to attend a summit in Istanbul. Turkey has not signed the Rome Statute which set up the ICC and has said previously the ICC arrest warrant for Beshir could hurt moves to end the conflict in Darfur.
    (AFP, 11/6/09)

2009        Nov 8, Turkey said that Sudan's internationally indicted leader, President Omar al-Bashir, will not attend the Nov 9 Istanbul summit of the 57-nation Organization of the Islamic Conference.
    (AP, 11/9/09)

2009        Nov 13, Turkey's government announced new measures aimed at reconciling with minority Kurds and ending a 25-year-old insurgency, but there was no mention of the sweeping amnesty sought by Kurdish rebels.
    (AP, 11/13/09)

2009        Dec 1, Turkey's government approved a plan to open the country's first Kurdish-language department at a university as part of its efforts to reconcile with the Kurdish minority. Small scale violence continued for the third day in a row as stone-throwing Kurdish militants clashed with police across the nation in the wake of last week's anniversary of the 1978 founding of the PKK rebel group.
    (AP, 12/1/09)

2009        Dec 2, Turkish diplomat Ahmet Uzumcu was elected to be director of the 188-nation Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, based in The Hague. He takes over next July. He said that he will pursue the last seven holdouts (Angola, Egypt, Israel, North Korean, Myanmar, Somalia and Syria) to get them to sign a disarmament treaty and submit weapons stockpiles for inspection.
    (AP, 12/3/09)

2009        Dec 7, In Turkey a Kurdish rebel group, acting on its own initiative, carried out an assault in the central city of Tokat killing 7 Turkish soldiers. 3 soldiers were also wounded in the rebel ambush on a military vehicle.
    (AP, 12/10/09)
2009        Dec 7, Pres. Obama met with Turkey’s PM Recep Erdogan, who stressed the role of diplomacy in persuading Iran to give up its nuclear ambitions. Erdogan made clear his unwillingness to back new coercion and said he was willing to mediate negotiations.
    (SFC, 12/8/09, p.A9)

2009        Dec 10, In Turkey an explosion caused the collapse of an underground chamber of a coal mine, killing 19 workers in western Bursa province.
    (AP, 12/11/09)

2009        Dec 12, In Turkey angry Kurds battled Turkish police with rocks and firebombs to protest a decision by the country's top court to shut down a pro-Kurdish political party on charges of ties to militants.
    (AP, 12/12/09)

2009        Dec 13, Turkish nationalists and Kurdish activists clashed in Istanbul, leaving at least one person injured from a gunshot during street battles.
    (AFP, 12/13/09)

2009        Dec 15, In Turkey two Kurds were killed in Bulanik after a shop-keeper fired on protesters.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.91)

2009        Dec 24, Turkish police detained 31 people, including eight Kurdish mayors, in a sweeping dawn operation targeting Kurdish separatists.
    (AP, 12/24/09)

2009        Dec 26, Turkey's military arrested eight of its officers in connection with an alleged plot to assassinate Bulent Arinc, the country's deputy prime minister.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yhgzlkp)(Econ, 1/2/10, p.38)

2009        Dilip Hiro authored “Inside Central Asia: A Political and Cultural History of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkey and Iran."
    (Econ, 9/26/09, p.98)
2009        Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk, 2006 Nobel literature prize winner, authored his 8th novel: “The Museum of Innocence.
    (AP, 10/12/06)
2009        The Turkish lira replaced the New Turkish lira, in use since 2005. The exchange of New Turkish lira for Turkish lira would continue at the Central Bank thru 2019.
    (SSFC, 3/27/11, p.M3)

2010        Jan 3, In northwestern Turkey a passenger train crashed head-on into another train, killing one of the engine drivers and injuring 14 other people.
    (AP, 1/3/10)

2010        Jan 17, Israel's Defence Minister Ehud Barak began a one-day visit to Turkey. Israel and Turkey said they had smoothed over differences following a diplomatic spat and were working to develop relations and further military projects.
    (AFP, 1/17/10)(AP, 1/17/10)

2010        Jan 18, Mehmet Ali Agca (52), the Turk who shot Pope John Paul II in 1981, was released from prison after more than 29 years behind bars. Doctors at military hospital concluded that he was unfit for compulsory military service because of "severe anti-social personality disorder as Agca proclaimed that he was a messenger of God and that the world will end in this century.
    (AP, 1/18/10)
2010        Jan 18, The OSCE, Europe's main security and human rights watchdog, said that Turkey was blocking some 3,700 Internet sites for "arbitrary and political reasons" and urged reforms to show its commitment to freedom of expression.
    (Reuters, 1/18/10)

2010        Jan 20, In Turkey the independent Taraf newspaper exposed an alleged military plan, codenamed “Sledgehammer," which sought to create chaos and panic to justify a military takeover of the government.
    (Econ, 2/13/10, p.56)(http://tinyurl.com/yhwj9sb)

2010        Jan 21, In Turkey a July, 2009, constitutional amendment paving the way for military officers to be tried in civilian courts was struck down by the constitutional court.
    (Econ, 2/13/10, p.57)(http://tinyurl.com/ybprno6)

2010        Jan 22, Turkish police launched a nationwide crackdown on suspected militants linked to the al-Qaida terror network, rounding up 120 people in simultaneous pre-dawn raids.
    (AP, 1/22/10)

2010        Feb 4, Turkey’s government scrapped its controversial security and public order “Emsya") protocol, which allowed the army to take charge in the provinces when law and order breaks down.
    (Econ, 2/13/10, p.56)

2010        Feb 22, Turkish police detained more than 40 high-ranking military commanders for allegedly plotting to overthrow the Islamic-rooted government. The detentions followed the gathering of wiretap evidence and the discovery of secret weapons caches, revelations that dealt a blow to the military's credibility.
    (AP, 2/22/10)

2010        Feb 23, In Turkey prosecutors interrogated 51 Turkish military commanders over alleged plans to destabilize the country by blowing up mosques to trigger a coup and topple the Islamic-rooted government.
    (AP, 2/23/10)
2010        Feb 23, In Turkey 13 workers were killed after a methane gas explosion caused a coal mine collapse near Dursunbey, in  northwest Balikesir province.
    (AP, 2/24/10)(SFC, 2/24/10, p.A2)

2010        Feb 24, A Turkish court formally charged and jailed seven senior Turkish military officers for allegedly plotting years ago to overthrow the country's Islamic-leaning government.
    (AP, 2/24/10)

2010        Feb 26, Turkey's PM Erdogan vowed to put everyone who conspired against the country's democracy on trial, as the number of military officers charged and jailed for allegedly plotting a 2003 coup against his Islamic-based government rose to 31.
    (AP, 2/26/10)

2010        Mar 4, A US congressional panel voted to label as "genocide" the World War One-era massacre of Armenians by Ottoman Turkish forces, prompting Turkey to recall its ambassador from Washington.
    (Reuters, 3/4/10)

2010        Mar 8, In Turkey a 5.9 magnitude, pre-dawn earthquake struck near the village of Basyurt in the remote, sparsely populated area of eastern Elazig province. 51 people were killed as it knocked down stone and mud-brick houses and minarets in at least six villages.
    (AP, 3/8/10)(SFC, 3/9/10, p.A2)

2010        Mar 11, Sweden's parliament narrowly approved a resolution recognizing the 1915 mass killing of Armenians in Turkey as genocide, prompting the Turkish government to recall its ambassador in protest.
    (AP, 3/11/10)

2010        Mar 16, Pakistan and Iran signed a $7.6 billion deal in Turkey paving the way for the construction of a much-delayed pipeline pumping Iranian natural gas to the energy-starved South Asian country.
    (AP, 3/17/10)

2010        Mar 19, Turkish authorities indicted 33 people in an alleged secularist plot to destabilize Turkey and overthrow the government. The suspects included three retired or active-duty admirals and dozens of other military officers.
    (AP, 3/19/10)

2010        Mar 27, Iran used an ancient new year celebration to reach out to Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Turkey at a summit meeting that projected Iranian leadership in the strategic region straddling the Middle East and Central Asia.
    (AP, 3/27/10)

2010        Apr 5, Turkish police detained 19 officers, including four generals, as part of an investigation into an alleged plot by elements of the fiercely secular military seeking to topple the Islamic-rooted government.
    (AP, 4/5/10)

2010        Apr 8, Greece and Turkey agreed to strengthen contacts between their militaries to reduce the chance of conflict between two countries that almost went to war in the mid-1990s.
    (Reuters, 4/8/10)

2010        Apr 18, Turkey's navy commandos aboard the TCG Gelibolu frigate captured 13 Somali-based pirates in the Indian Ocean. They destroyed two skiffs and confiscated other pirate material.
    (AP, 4/18/10)

2010        Apr 22, Armenia suspended ratification of peace accords with Turkey, setting back to square one US-backed efforts to bury a century of hostility between the neighbors.
    (Reuters, 4/22/10)

2010        Apr 30, Kurdish rebels killed four Turkish soldiers and wounded seven others in eastern Turkey in the largest attack on troops in several months.
    (AP, 5/1/10)

2010        May 7, The Turkish parliament narrowly approved a series of constitutional amendments that opposition parties say are designed to give the Islamic-rooted government leverage over the largely secular judiciary.
    (AP, 5/7/10)
2010        May 7, The Turkish air force struck Kurdish rebel hideouts in neighboring northern Iraq after an attack inside Turkey left two soldiers dead.
    (AFP, 5/8/10)

2010        May 8, Iran voiced optimism about Turkish and Brazilian mediation efforts in its nuclear dispute with the West, welcoming in principle ideas aimed at reviving a stalled fuel deal with major powers.
    (Reuters, 5/8/10)

2010        May 11, Volcanic ash from Iceland wound its way down to North Africa and curled over to Turkey, forcing authorities to shut down Casablanca airport in Morocco as well as airports in Spain and airspace over Turkey.
    (AP, 5/11/10)

2010        May 12, Turkey and Russia signed agreements for the construction of Turkey's first nuclear power plant and the development of a pipeline project to carry Russian oil from the Black Sea, through Turkey to the Mediterranean.
    (AP, 5/12/10)

2010        May 14, Greece and Turkey held a joint cabinet meeting in Athens in a new effort to overcome old grudges and economic cooperation amidst the Greek debt crises. A powerful bomb exploded inside a courthouse in the northern city of Thessaloniki, sending smoke billowing in the building and wounding one person.
    (AP, 5/14/10)(SFC, 5/15/10, p.A2)

2010        May 17, In northern Turkey rescue teams strived to reach workers trapped hundreds of meters underground after a powerful methane gas explosion in the Karadon state-run coal mine near the northern Black Sea port of Zonguldak. On May 20 rescuers found the bodies of 28 miners. 2 miners remained missing.
    (AFP, 5/17/10)(AP, 5/20/10)
2010        May 17, Iran agreed to ship most of its low-enriched uranium to Turkey in a surprise nuclear fuel swap deal that could ease the international standoff over the country's disputed atomic program and deflate a US-led push for tougher sanctions. The deal was reached in talks between Brazils’ Pres. Silva, Turkey’s PM Erdogan and Iran’s Pres. Ahmadinejad.
    (AP, 5/17/10)(SFC, 5/17/10, p.A2)

2010        May 20, Twenty Turkish warplanes bombed Kurdish rebels in northwestern Iraq.
    (SFC, 5/21/10, p.A2)

2010        May 22, Dozens of nations, meeting in Istanbul at a UN-sponsored conference for Somalia, pledged to help Somalia build a strong police and military, achieve peace and stability and eradicate piracy that has plagued international maritime trade.
    (AP, 5/23/10)

2010        May 25, In southern Turkey a bus carrying Russian tourists skidded off a highway and fell off a bridge, killing 16 people and injuring 25 others.
    (AP, 5/25/10)

2010        May 26, In Turkey four rebels were killed in a clash in eastern Tunceli province, bringing the overall rebel death toll to 23 since last week's air assault on rebel camps in northern Iraq's Hakurk, Zap and Qandil Mountain regions.
    (AP, 5/27/10)

2010        May 27, In Turkey one soldier was killed and four others were wounded in a clash near the town of Uludere, close to the Iraqi border.
    (AP, 5/27/10)

2010        May 29, Turkey’s military said 3 security forces members were killed and two soldiers were wounded in clashes with Kurdish rebels in southeast Turkey.
    (Reuters, 5/29/10)
2010        May 29, A Kurdish newspaper said imprisoned Kurdish rebel chief Abdullah Ocalan has accused Turkey of ignoring his calls to establish dialogue with his rebels and that he would withdraw from the process, leaving his rebel command in charge.
    (AP, 5/29/10)

2010        May 31, Israeli naval commandos stormed a flotilla of ships carrying aid and hundreds of pro-Palestinian activists to the blockaded Gaza Strip, killing 9 passengers on the Mavi Marmara in a predawn raid that set off worldwide condemnation and a diplomatic crisis. At least 4 of the 9 dead were Turkish. A massive protest broke out in Turkey, Israel's longtime Muslim ally, which unofficially supported the mission. Ankara announced it would recall its ambassador and call off military exercises with the Jewish state. The flotilla of three cargo ships and three passenger ships carrying 10,000 tons of aid and 700 activists was carrying items that Israel bars from reaching Gaza, like cement and other building materials. Israeli police said 16 pro-Palestinian activists from the flotilla were sent to jail following the deadly confrontation. Turkey sent three planes to bring back some 20 Turks wounded during clashes that broke out when Israeli commandos raided the Turkish vessel.
    (AP, 5/31/10)(AP, 6/1/10)(Econ, 1/28/12, p.54)
2010        May 31, Kurdish rebels launched a rocket attack on a military vehicle near naval base in southern Turkey, killing six soldiers and wounding seven.
    (AP, 5/31/10)

2010        Jun 1, Turkey's prime minister declared that Israel had carried out a "bloody massacre" by killing nine people on a Gaza-bound Turkish aid ship and said the two countries had reached a turning point in their long-standing alliance.
    (AP, 6/1/10)

2010        Jun 2, France's former top anti-terrorism judge said the Turkish Islamic charity behind the flotilla of aid ships that was raided by Israeli forces on its way to Gaza had ties to terrorism networks, including a 1999 al-Qaida plot to bomb Los Angeles International Airport.
    (AP, 6/2/10)

2010        Jun 3, In Turkey Luigi Padovese, the pope's apostolic vicar in Anatolia, was stabbed to death in his home in the Mediterranean port of Iskenderun. Police detained suspect Murat A, the bishop's driver who worked for him for the past four and a half years.
    (AP, 6/3/10)

2010        Jun 4, Turkey’s Deputy PM Bulent Arinc said Turkey will reduce economic and defense ties with Israel, but bilateral cooperation will not be entirely frozen after the Gaza ship raid.
    (AP, 6/4/10)
2010        Jun 4, Kurdish rebels based in northern Iraq announced they had ended their unilateral ceasefire with Turkey a day after Iraqi Kurdish leader Massoud Barzani met Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu and pledged "all efforts" to stop rising rebel violence.
    (AP, 6/4/10)

2010        Jun 7, Turkey and Azerbaijan signed a long-awaited deal on the transit of gas to Europe seen as crucial to plans to reduce the continent's dependence on Russian gas.
    (AFP, 6/7/10)

2010        Jun 10, Turkey called the imposition of UN sanctions on Iran a "mistake" and said that it and Brazil would continue to seek a diplomatic solution to remove concerns over Iran's nuclear program.
    (Reuters, 6/10/10)

2010        Jun 18, Turkey's military said it killed as many as 120 Kurdish rebels in an air raid on rebel hideouts in northern Iraq last month and a daylong incursion by elite commandos into Iraq this week. Maj. Gen. Fahri Kir said another 30 Kurdish rebels were killed inside Turkey since March in anti-rebel operations. He said the Turkish losses were 43 in the same period.
    (AP, 6/18/10)

2010        Jun 19, Turkish warplanes launched air raids at suspected Kurdish rebel positions in northern Iraq after a rebel attack on a military outpost in Turkey touched off clashes in which eight soldiers and 12 PKK rebel fighters died.
    (AP, 6/19/10)

2010        Jun 20, Turkish forces pushed into northern Iraq, killing 4 people, including a girl (15), as they hit back against hideouts of Kurdish rebels who killed 12 soldiers over the last 2 days.
    (AFP, 6/20/10)

2010        Jun 21, Turkish commando units rappelled down from helicopters and mechanized infantry units blocked escape routes of Kurdish rebels in a major operation along the Iraqi border.
    (AP, 6/21/10)

2010        Jun 22, In Turkey Kurdish rebels detonated a remote-controlled bomb in Istanbul, killing 5 people and wounding 12 on a bus carrying military personnel and their families.
    (AP, 6/22/10)

2010        Jul 1, The Turkish military said fighting near the border with Iraq killed 12 Kurdish guerrillas, 2 government soldiers and 3 government-paid village guards. Clashes erupted after rebels fired long range weapons and rockets at a military unit in Slirt province.
    (WSJ, 7/2/10, p.A10)

2010        Jul 13, Turkey extradited a man identified only as Salih S. to Germany to face charges of supporting a terrorist organization and membership in a terrorist organization. The German citizen, a member of the radical Islamic Jihad Union, had trained at a terrorist camp in Pakistan. He was accused of procuring GPS devices, night vision goggles and other items for Adem Yilmaz, who was convicted with 3 others earlier this year of plotting a thwarted attack that a judge said could have killed large numbers of US soldiers and civilians in Germany.
    (AP, 7/14/10)

2010        Jul 16, Turkey unveiled its first drone airplane, a surveillance craft able to fly for 24-hour stretches over the rugged mountains where Kurdish rebels are waging a deadly insurgency.
    (AP, 7/16/10)

2010        Jul 19, A Turkish court indicted 196 people, including four retired military commanders, of conspiring in 2003 to overthrow the Islamic-oriented government in an alleged plot that highlights tension between Turkey's pious leadership and its secular opponents.
    (AP, 7/19/10)

2010        Jul 20, Kurdish rebels killed six Turkish soldiers and wounded 15 in an overnight raid on a military outpost along the border with Iraq. Another soldier died in a separate attack.
    (AP, 7/20/10)
2010        Jul 20, Israel canceled a warning to its people to avoid traveling to Turkey, citing an end to stormy protests over Israel's deadly raid on a Gaza-bound flotilla.
    (AP, 7/20/10)

2010        Jul 21, The leaders of Egypt and Turkey met in Cairo to discuss stuttering international efforts to coax Israeli and Palestinian leaders back to the negotiating table.
    (AFP, 7/21/10)

2010        Jul 25, In Turkey foreign ministers of Turkey and Brazil urged Iran to be flexible and open in dealings with the West over its atomic program as Iran renewed its readiness to resume frozen nuclear talks. Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu said Iran has expressed willingness to have talks with the European Union on its nuclear program after the month of Ramadan ends in early September.
    (AFP, 7/25/10)(Reuters, 7/25/10)

2010        Jul 27, British PM David Cameron visited Turkey, saying the world needs Turkey's help in pushing Iran to address concerns about its nuclear program and harshly criticizing Israel's raid on a Gaza-bound flotilla that killed nine Turkish activists.
    (AP, 7/27/10)

2010        Jul 28, A Turkish tour boat caught fire and sank in the Mediterranean. 18 tourists and five crew jumped into the water after flames engulfed the Kayhan-9 on its way from the Turkish resort of Marmaris to Fethiye. One Spanish tourist was missing.
    (AP, 7/29/10)

2010        Aug 1, Turkish media reported that 4 civilians died when their vehicle hit a landmine that Kurdish rebels are suspected of planting in southeastern Turkey.
    (AP, 8/1/10)

2010        Aug 2, UN chief Ban Ki-moon announced a four-member panel, including an Israeli and a Turk, to probe Israel's deadly raid in May on a Gaza-bound aid flotilla.
    (AP, 8/2/10)

2010        Aug 10, In Turkey suspected Kurdish rebels blew up part of an Iraqi-Kurdish pipeline killing 2 people and cutting the flow of oil in Sirnak province.
    (SFC, 8/11/10, p.A2)

2010        Aug 11, Turkey said it will support petrol sales by Turkish companies to Iran, despite US sanctions that aim to squeeze the Islamic Republic's fuel imports.
    (Reuters, 8/11/10)

2010        Aug 13, Turkish officials said police have raided a house used by people suspected of digging illegally for antiquities and discovered two tunnels leading to an underground tomb that housed an ancient marble coffin and frescoes. The tomb was believed to be that of Hecatomnus, satrap of Caria (391BC-377BC).
    (AP, 8/13/10)(www.livius.org/he-hg/hecatomnids/hecatomnus.html)

2010        Aug 27, In northern Turkey overnight torrential rains triggered landslides and floods in Gundogdu, killing at least 12 people.
    (AP, 8/27/10)

2010        Sep 12, Turks voted on whether to amend a military-era constitution in what the government says is a key step in Turkey's path to full democracy, despite opposition claims that the proposed reforms would shackle the independence of the courts. Some 58 percent of voters approved a package of 26 amendments to the constitution crafted after a 1980 military coup, making the military more accountable to civilian courts, backing gender equality and other citizens' rights and lifting immunity from prosecution of the coup leaders.
    (AP, 9/12/10)(AP, 9/13/10)

2010        Sep 16, Turkey's PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan said his country was seeking closer commercial ties with Iran and aims to triple trade volumes in the next five years while still respecting the limits set by UN sanctions.
    (AP, 9/16/10) 
2010        Sep 16, In Turkey a roadside bomb attack killed 10 people traveling on a minibus near the village of Gecitli in the rugged Hakkari province, where Kurdish guerrillas have been fighting for autonomy for decades.
    (AP, 9/16/10)

2010        Sep 19, Iraq signed a deal with Turkey to extend for 15 years the use of the main pipeline linking its northern oilfields to the Mediterranean port of Ceyhan. 3 car bombs tore through Baghdad and the former insurgent stronghold of Fallujah, killing at least 36 people. Al-Qaida's front group in Iraq later claimed responsibility for the two Baghdad bombings that killed at least 31 people at a government security agency and what it called an "evil" mobile phone provider.
    (AFP, 9/19/10)(AP, 9/19/10)(AP, 9/24/10)

2010        Sep 21, In Turkey a gang of several dozen men with sticks and pepper spray moved methodically from one art gallery to the next, assaulting overflow crowds that had spilled into the streets during the joint opening of several exhibitions in the center of Istanbul. Half a dozen suspects were detained.
    (AP, 9/26/10)

2010        Sep 30, The Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) rebel group extended a ceasefire with Turkey by one month in a move it said is aimed at giving a chance to efforts to end a war that has killed 40,000 people.
    (Reuters, 9/30/10)

2010        Oct 20, In Turkey police detained five people, including three university students, suspected of providing financial and technical support to the al-Qaida network in Afghanistan.
    (AP, 10/22/10)

2010        Oct 30, Turkey said it was lifting a ban on YouTube more than two years after it blocked the site because of videos deemed insulting to the country’s founder.
    (SSFC, 10/31/10, p.A2)

2010        Oct 31, In Turkey a suspected suicide bomber wounded 15 officers and 17 civilians in Istanbul's main square, as an extended unilateral ceasefire by the separatist PKK came to an end. The radical Kurdistan Freedom Falcons (TAK) later claimed responsibility.
    (AFP, 10/31/10)(AP, 11/1/10)(AFP, 11/4/10)

2010        Nov 1, Turkey's main Kurdish rebel group extended a truce until elections next summer, denying responsibility for a suicide attack in Istanbul thought to have been the work of its own hardliners.
    (AP, 11/1/10)

2010        Nov 9, Turkey’s Pres. Abdullah Gul received this year’s Chatham House prize from Britain’s queen.
    (Econ, 11/13/10, p.60)

2010        Nov 10, In an extensive interview with the Die Presse daily, Ambassador Kadri Ecved Tezcan said Austria was pushing people of Turkish origin to the fringes of society instead of learning to live with them and benefiting from their skills.
    (AP, 11/10/10)

2010        Nov 28, More than 250,000 classified US State Department documents were released by online whistleblower WikiLeaks. Among the leaked memos was information that Iranian Red Crescent ambulances were used to smuggle weapons to Lebanon's militant Hezbollah group during its 2006 war with Israel. Memos said the "IRC shipments of medical supplies served also to facilitate weapons shipments." Documents also detailed concerns by US officials in Baghdad about Iran’s influence on Iraq. Memos also said King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia had repeatedly urged the United States to attack Iran to destroy its nuclear program to stop Tehran from developing a nuclear weapon. One cable revealed that the US kept nuclear weapons in Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany and Turkey.
    (AP, 11/28/10)(Econ, 12/4/10, p.35)

2010        Nov 29, Turkey complied with a European Court of Human Rights ruling and returned a 19th-century orphanage to the Ecumenical Patriarchate in Istanbul, the center of Orthodox Christianity around the world. Turkey took control of the building in 1997, many years after it was abandoned, on the grounds that it belonged to another foundation and had fallen into disuse. The Patriarchate said the government had refused to issue necessary permits for the maintenance and repair of the structure, one of the largest wooden buildings in the world.
    (AP, 11/29/10)

2010        Dec 1, Turkey’s PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan said a US diplomat who reported claims in a State Department memo that he has Swiss bank accounts should be punished for making a false allegation. A classified cable, released this week by WikiLeaks and dated Dec. 30, 2004, from then-U.S. Ambassador Eric Edelman said: "We have heard from two contacts that Erdogan has eight accounts in Swiss banks; his explanations that his wealth comes from the wedding presents guests gave his son and that a Turkish businessman is paying the educational expenses of all four Erdogan children in the U.S. purely altruistically are lame."
    (AP, 12/1/10)

2010        Dec 8, A top Israeli official said his government is holding talks with Turkey aimed at mending relations, seven months after a deadly Israeli raid on a Gaza-bound flotilla sent ties into a chill.
    (AP, 12/8/10)

2010        Dec 23, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad joined regional leaders for a summit on economic cooperation in Istanbul, just a month ahead of nuclear talks with world powers.
    (AFP, 12/23/10)

2010        Dec 24, The leaders of Afghanistan and Pakistan met in Istanbul for a new round of talks aimed at building trust between the two neighbors. Turkey’s Pres. Gul said a railroad between Turkey and Pakistan should be extended to Afghanistan and flights between the three countries should be expanded for better cooperation.
    (AP, 12/24/10)

2010        Dec 30, Turkey’s the state-run Anatolia news agency said police have detained 10 people suspected of links to the al-Qaida terror network and accused of preparing to stage an attack before New Year's Eve.
    (AP, 12/30/10)

2010        Stephen Kinzer authored “Reset: Iran, Turkey and America’s Future."
    (Econ, 7/17/10, p.87)

2010        Mehmet Emin Karamehmet (b.1944), founder of Turkcell and Turkey’s 2nd richest man, was sentenced to almost 12 years in jail for having used Pamukbank as a cash cow for Cukurova Holding, his family owned group. The sentence was suspended pending retrial.
    (Econ, 4/21/12, p.83)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mehmet_Emin_Karamehmet)

2011        Jan 5, In Turkey authorities searching for mass graves of Kurds, who disappeared in the 1990s, unearthed the bones of eight people in a field in Bitlis province in southeast Turkey.
    (AP, 1/5/11)

2011        Jan 9, In Turkey PM Erdogan visited Kars and called for the destruction of a local monument near the Armenian border. The monument featured a divided human figure, with one half extending a hand to the other half. It was meant to symbolize the pain of division and the hope of reconciliation, and was sculpted from stone by Mehmet Aksoy, a prominent Turkish artist. Local authorities halted its construction on grounds that it was built on a historic military site, Timur Pasha emplacement, used to defend the city in the 16th century.
    (AP, 1/10/11)(Econ, 1/15/11, p.56)(http://tinyurl.com/4g4kpya)

2011        Jan 18, It was reported that around 187,000 women in Turkey are in polygamous marriages even though polygamy is illegal.
    (AFP, 1/18/11)

2011        Jan 21, Two-day talks between Iran and six world powers started in Istanbul. A senior Iranian official said suspending uranium enrichment is not up for discussion.
    (AFP, 1/21/11)

2011        Jan 22, In Turkey talks meant to nudge Iran toward meeting UN Security Council demands to stop uranium enrichment collapsed, with Tehran shrugging off calls by six world powers to cease the activity that could be harnessed to make nuclear weapons.
    (AP, 1/22/11)

2011        Feb 3, In Turkey a powerful explosion in Ankara collapsed two stories of a factory, leaving at least six people dead and injuring some 30 others. Hours later another explosion killed 6 more people at a paint shop in the same industrial district.
    (AP, 2/3/11)(SFC, 2/4/11, p.A2)

2011        Feb 7, Iran and Turkey said they plan to triple two-way annual trade to $30 billion by 2015, ahead of a visit by Turkish President Abdullah Gul to the Islamic republic.
    (AFP, 2/7/11)

2011        Feb 11, A Turkish court ruled that 133 current and former military officers must be jailed pending the outcome of their trial on charges of plotting to overthrow the government and issued warrants for the arrests of 29 other officers.
    (AP, 2/12/11)

2011        Feb 13, Abdullah Gul arrived in Tehran on his first trip as Turkish president aimed at boosting economic and political ties with the Islamic republic.
    (AFP, 2/13/11)

2011        Feb 14, Iran’s security forces cut phone lines and blockaded the home of an Iranian opposition leader in attempts to stop him attending a planned rally in support of Egypt's uprising. Eyewitnesses reported sporadic clashes in central Tehran's Enghelab or Revolution square between security forces and opposition protesters. Turkish President Abdullah Gul, who is on a visit to Iran, urged governments in the Middle East to listen to the demands of their people. Student Sanee Zhaleh (26) was shot dead during the opposition rally.
    (AP, 2/14/11)(AP, 2/16/11)

2011        Feb 21, British-based Diageo announced the takeover of Mey Icki, Turkey’s largest maker of raki, an aniseed drink, for $2.1 billion.
    (Econ, 3/5/11, p.70)

2011        Feb 27, In Turkey Necmettin Erbakan (85), a longtime leader of Turkey's Islamic political movement, died. He briefly served the country's prime minister (1996-1997) in the first Islamic-led coalition in Turkey's modern history.
    (AP, 2/27/11)

2011        Mar 3, Turkish police detained 13 people, mostly journalists, in a crackdown on an alleged secularist network accused of conspiring to topple the Islamic-rooted government. Critics say the case is part of a government assault on press freedom. 4 of the journalists were released on March 12, 2012.
    (AP, 3/3/11)(AP, 3/13/12)

2011        Mar 4, In Turkey several thousand demonstrators, some covering their mouths with black ribbons, protested against the detention of eight journalists in a case that has drawn expressions of concern from Western governments and international media rights groups.
    (AP, 3/4/11)

2011        Mar 6, A Turkish court ordered Ahmet Sik and Nedim Sener, two leading investigative journalists, jailed pending the outcome of a trial into an alleged plot to topple the Islamic-rooted government, raising further concerns over media freedom in the country. Ahmet Sik was arrested as he prepared a book about the alleged infiltration of Islamists into the Turkish police, a sensitive theme in a nation divided over the role of religion. Sener and three other journalists were freed on bail in March, 2012.
    (AP, 3/6/11)(Econ, 3/12/11, p.61)(AP, 4/14/11)(Econ, 3/17/12, p.63)

2011        Mar 13, In Turkey hundreds of journalists, joined by members of some non-governmental organizations, protested the detention of reporters that the authorities allege were involved in an attempt to bring the government down in 2003.
    (AP, 3/13/11)

2011        Mar 16, An Iranian cargo plane en route to Syria was forced to land in Turkey's southeastern Diyarbakir airport for an inspection. The plane was found to be carrying 150 tons of food but "no material contrary to international standards.
    (AFP, 3/16/11)(AP, 3/23/11)

2011        Mar 19, An Iranian plane bound for Syria landed in Turkey’s southeastern city of Diyarbakir for a search of its cargo. The plane carried light weapons, including automatic rifles, rocket launchers and mortars, which were seized. The plane returned to Iran March 22 without the seized cargo.
    (AP, 3/23/11)

2011        Mar 20, Britain said its air and sea strikes on Libya had been "very successful" and stressed it was doing everything it could to avoid civilian casualties as it enforces a UN-sanctioned no-fly zone. at least seven demolished tanks smoldered in a field 12 miles (20 km) south of Benghazi, many of them with their turrets and treads blown off. Turkey was blocking NATO action, which requires agreement by all 28 members of the alliance.
    (AFP, 3/20/11)(AP, 3/21/11)

2011        Mar 21, A Turkish court ordered five military officers and two civilians jailed in a probe into the 2007 killing of three Christians, including a German national, over allegations that the attack was part of an alleged plot to topple the government.
    (AP, 3/21/11)
2011        Mar 21, President Barack Obama, seeking to shore up participation and clarify leadership of the military attacks on Libyan forces, spoke with Turkish and Qatari leaders.
    (Reuters, 3/22/11)

2011        Mar 24, Dubai police said the Gulf emirate has seized thousands of small arms being smuggled in a sea cargo shipment bound for Yemen. The weapons were discovered in a Dubai warehouse about two weeks ago. The shipment originated in Turkey.
    (AP, 3/24/11)

2011        Apr 6, Turkey launched a probe into allegations that the state agency which makes the university entrance exams had devised a code so that students deemed to be pro-government could score high points. Some 1.7 million students took the exam March 27, and those who pass will take another exam in June.
    (AP, 4/6/11)

2011        Apr 11, Turkey said it is willing to consider the idea of hosting a political office for Taliban militants from Afghanistan in order to promote talks to end the war there, and an Afghan official said Turkish planning is already in progress.
    (AP, 4/11/11)

2011        Apr 13, The presidents of Turkey and Pakistan, meeting in Ankara, said they would support initiatives designed to end the war in Afghanistan, but they declined to confirm that a plan is under way to open a political office for Taliban in Turkey to promote peace talks.
    (AP, 4/13/11)

2011        Apr 18, In Turkey Bedri Baykam, a prominent government critic, was hospitalized after a stabbing assault, which followed a speech in which he condemned plans to tear down the "Monument to Humanity," a sculpture near the Armenian border.
    (AP, 4/19/11)

2011        Apr 19, In Turkey Kurdish protesters clashed with police in two cities and the main Kurdish party threatened to boycott the upcoming election because of a decision the previous day to bar some Kurdish candidates.
    (AP, 4/19/11)

2011        Apr 20, In southeastern Turkey one person was killed when police opened fire on Kurdish protestors in Bismil town.
    (AFP, 4/20/11)

2011        Apr 21, US helicopter maker Sikorsky Aircraft won a Turkish contract worth $3.5 billion (2.4 billion euros).
    (AP, 4/21/11)

2011        Apr 26, Turkey began to demolish the 100-foot "Peace and Brotherhood" monument near its eastern border dedicated to friendship with Armenia after PM Erdogan called it a "monstrosity" on Jan 9. The statue was commissioned in 2006 to highlight friendship between Turkey and Armenia, two countries with a history of enmity and suspicion.
    (AFP, 4/26/11)

2011        Apr 27, Turkey's PM Erdogan announced what he called a "crazy and magnificent" plan to build a new waterway to the Black Sea, to be completed by 2023, promising that the tanker-clogged Bosporus through Istanbul would soon be used for sports and boat trips.
    (AP, 4/27/11)

2011        May 1, In Turkey activists flooded Istanbul‘s Taksim Square and marked international workers' day around the world with marches demanding more jobs, better working conditions and higher wages.
    (AP, 5/1/11)

2011        May 4, A Turkish police officer was shot dead by unidentified assailants in the northern city of Kastamonu, where PM Tayyip Erdogan had been speaking earlier in the day.
    (Reuters, 5/4/11)

2011        May 9, In Turkey a five-day UN-backed conference of the 48-member "least-developed countries" opened to address the problems of the world's poorest countries. The last such conference was hosted by the EU in Brussels in 2001. France hosted the two previous ones in 1990 and 1981.
    (AP, 5/9/11)

2011        May 10, Two more top Turkish opposition politicians resigned, a month before the country's general election, over secretly filmed tapes posted on the Internet that reportedly showed them having extramarital affairs.
    (AP, 5/10/11)

2011        May 11, Turkey announced plans to build two earthquake-resistant developments in the Istanbul area to lure residents away from dangerous neighborhoods.
    (AP, 5/11/11)
2011        May 11, In Istanbul 13 European countries signed a Council of Europe convention on combating violence against women.
    (Econ, 5/14/11, p.68)(https://wcd.coe.int/wcd/ViewDoc.jsp?id=1785485&Site=DC)

2011        May 14, Turkey's military in Sirnak province killed 12 Kurdish rebels over the last 24 hours who trying to infiltrate the country from northern Iraq.
    (AP, 5/14/11)

2011        May 18, A Turkish website that posted compromising videos which forced four far-right politicians to resign threatened to post new sex videos that could hurt more opposition politicians ahead of next month's election.
    (AP, 5/18/11)

2011        May 20, In western Turkey a 5.9-magnitude earthquake damaged buildings in Simav. At least three people were killed in the region.
    (AP, 5/20/11)

2011        May 21, Six senior politicians in a Turkish opposition party resigned amid a sex video scandal that could have far-reaching consequences in elections on June 12.
    (AP, 5/21/11)

2011        May 26, In Turkey a bomb mounted on a bicycle near a bus stop exploded during morning rush hour in Istanbul, wounding eight people, including a police officer.
    (AP, 5/26/11)

2011        May 31, Turkey's government defended a new regulation that will filter the Internet and restrict access to websites that show pornography, bomb-making and violent content. The new regulation was set to come into effect in August.
    (AP, 5/31/11)
2011        May 31, The Syrian military used heavy machine guns and artillery in renewed attacks on Rastan, a town in the country's turbulent heartland. At least one person was killed. Opponents of the Syrian regime gathered on Turkey's Mediterranean coast for a conference aimed at overcoming their differences and bolstering protesters who have endured a bloody crackdown under President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 5/31/11)

2011        Jun 1, The Syrian government freed hundreds of political prisoners in an amnesty and the president set up a committee for national dialogue in an effort to end the 10-week uprising. Syrian military forces killed 42 people in raids around Homs. Over 300 Syrian exiles gathered in Antalya, Turkey, to discuss alternatives to Bashar Assad’s rule.
    (AP, 6/1/11)(AP, 6/2/11)(SFC, 6/2/11, p.A2)(Econ, 6/4/11, p.57)

2011        Jun 8, Turkey’s PM Erdogan said he would scrap the ministry for women along with 7 other cabinet jobs.
    (Econ, 6/11/11, p.59)(http://tinyurl.com/3tw6omd)

2011        Jun 10, Libyan rebels staged an uprising in the western city of Zlitan. 22 fighters were reported killed. Turkey’s PM Erdogan said his country has offered to help Khadafy leave.
    (SFC, 6/11/11, p.A4)

2011            Jun 12, In Turkey PM Tayyip Erdogan and his AK party won a decisive victory over rivals, as Erdogan was re-elected for the third consecutive time. The AK took nearly 50% of the votes, but failed to secure a two-thirds majority. This will force it to seek support for constitutional changes. The Republican People’s Party, the main opposition won 26%.
            (Reuters, 6/12/11)(SFC, 6/13/11, p.A3)(Econ, 6/18/11, p.16)

2011        Jun 13, Police in Turkey rounded up 32 alleged members of Anonymous, hacker group, which had recently attacked a couple of official websites.
    (Econ, 6/18/11, p.67)

2011              Jun 15, Turkey’s president Tayyip Erdogan held talks with an envoy of Syrian president Bashar al-Assad as a growing number of Syrians fled their country seeking safety in refugee camps. Relations between Turkey and Syria strained, as Turkey wants Syria to stop its brutal crackdown on protesters.
            (Reuters, 6/15/11)

2011        Jun 18, Syrian troops backed by tanks and firing heavy machine guns swept into a village near the Turkish border, the latest in a series of intensified army operations in the northwest where there have been heavy clashes between loyalist troops and defectors. The number of Syrians who have taken refuge in Turkey to escape bloody unrest in their country increased to about 10,100.
    (AP, 6/18/11)(AFP, 6/18/11)

2011        Jun 22, In Turkey Hamas chief Khaled Meshaal held talks with Turkish officials on efforts to achieve Palestinian unity during a two-day visit to Istanbul.
    (AFP, 6/22/11)

2011        Jul 3, Turkey's foreign minister visited Libya and recognized the rebel leaders as the country's legitimate representatives and promised them an additional $200 million in aid.
    (AP, 7/3/11)

2011        Jul 4, Turkey froze Libya's holdings in a Turkish bank, a day after it recognized Libya's rebel leaders as the country's legitimate representatives and quietly removed its ambassador from Tripoli.
    (AP, 7/4/11)

2011        Jul 14, An umbrella group that includes Turkey's Kurdish party proclaimed Kurdish autonomy in Diyarbakir, hours after a clash left 13 soldiers and seven Kurdish guerrillas dead.
    (AP, 7/15/11)

2011        Jul 15, Turkish prosecutors launched an investigation into a Kurdish proclamation of autonomy in the country's southeast as the military deployed elite forces to the region where tensions are running high following the deadliest clash between troops and rebels in about three years.
    (AP, 7/15/11)
2011        Jul 15, A Turkish court charged 14 suspected al-Qaida militants for allegedly planning to attack the US Embassy in the Turkish capital.
    (AP, 7/16/11)
2011        Jul 16, In Syria security forces continued a weekslong operation in the restive Idlib province, near the Turkish border. Authorities raided homes in the village Kfar Nabl and made scores of arrests. A civilian was killed in Al-Bukamal when security forces opened fire to break up a demonstration against the regime of President Assad. 3 security personnel were killed and two kidnapped in an attack on a government building. An opposition conference in Turkey, called the National Salvation Conference, was attended by some 400 dissidents looking to form a unified opposition to Pres. Assad, whose family has ruled Syria for more than 40 years.
    (AP, 7/16/11)(AP, 7/17/11)

2011        Jul 29, Turkey’s top commanders suddenly quit to protest the arrest of dozens of generals as suspects in an alleged plot to overthrow the country's Islamic-rooted government. Gen. Isik Kosaner resigned as the military's chief of staff along with the commanders of the navy, the army and the air force.
    (AP, 7/30/11)

2011        Aug 3, Turkey said it would put 106 more Kurdish politicians on trial for alleged terrorist propaganda, choosing to go ahead with prosecutions despite lingering tensions over the trial of dozens of others accused of fanning separatist violence.
    (AP, 8/3/11)

2011        Aug 4, Turkey appointed commanders to posts left vacant by the resignation of the military's top brass in a dispute with the government that showcased the elected leaders' strengthening control over the once-mighty military.
    (AP, 8/4/11)

2011        Aug 17, In Turkey Kurdish PKK rebels ambushed a military convoy in Cukurca township near the border with Iraq killing 9 soldiers. Officials vowed strong military retaliation. Turkey's air force attacked 60 suspected Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq. The military it vowed to continue the assault until the guerrilla group is "rendered ineffective."
    (AP, 8/17/11)(AP, 8/18/11)(Econ, 8/27/11, p.43)

2011        Aug 18, In southern Turkey the PKK attacked police and military stations in simultaneous overnight rocket strikes in Siirt province, killing two soldiers and wounding three civilians. Turkey's air force attacked 28 suspected Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq, in a second day of cross-border strikes in retaliation for stepped up attacks by the guerrillas.
    (AP, 8/19/11)

2011        Aug 19, Turkey's military hit 85 rebel targets with artillery fire. Warplanes bombed 20 suspected Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq in a third day of cross-border strikes.
    (AP, 8/20/11)

2011        Aug 21, Turkish airstrikes on suspected rebel targets in northern Iraq killed seven Iraqi civilians, including five children and a woman, in an attack on Kortak mountain. Police used tear gas and pepper spray to disperse Kurdish protesters who tried to march to a main square in Istanbul to denounce the Turkish raids. In demonstrators marched to protest the PKK.
    (AP, 8/21/11)

2011        Aug 23, Turkey's military said air strikes on suspected Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq this week have killed an estimated 90 to 100 guerrillas and warned that it would press ahead with offensives against the group both inside Turkey and across the border.
    (AP, 8/23/11)

2011        Aug 29, Turkey’s military said its air strikes and artillery fire on suspected Kurdish rebel targets this month  killed up to 160 guerrillas.
    (SFC, 8/30/11, p.A2)

2011        Sep 2, Turkey expelled the Israeli ambassador to Ankara and suspended all military ties with its one-time ally after a UN report slammed the "excessive" force used in the  May 31, 2010, raid on a Gaza aid flotilla.
    (AFP, 9/2/11)

2011        Sep 12, Kurdish rebels attacked a police station and a paramilitary police headquarters near Turkey’s border with Iraq killing 5 people including 3 civilians.
    (SFC, 9/13/11, p.A2)

2011        Sep 13, Syrian security forces riding in vehicles mounted with machine-guns raided neighborhoods outside the capital, Damascus, before dawn as Turkey's PM Erdogan said he was concerned Syria could descend into a sectarian civil war. Pro-democracy activists called a "day of anger" across Syria to protest against Russia's backing for President Bashar al-Assad. More than 20 people were reported killed throughout Syria. Syrian troops fired tear gas at a gathering of mourners just hours after U.S. Ambassador Robert Ford and other Western diplomats expressed their condolences to the family of a rights advocate killed last week.
    (AP, 9/13/11)(AFP, 9/13/11)(AP, 9/14/11)

2011        Sep 14, Turkey’s foreign ministry announced that an early warning radar will be stationed in Kurecik in the southeast as part of NATO's missile defense system.
    (AP, 9/14/11)

2011        Sep 16, In Turkey 3 Chechens were gunned down near a park in Istanbul. Chechen groups blamed Russia's secret service for the killings of the three, who were allegedly involved with Chechen militants.
    (AP, 10/12/11) 

2011        Sep 19, Turkey escalated a dispute with Cyprus over oil and gas drilling in the eastern Mediterranean, saying that it would send warships to protect its claims to resources off the coast of the divided island. US energy firm, Nobel Energy, had just exploratory drilling for oil and gas off the coast of Cyprus despite strong warnings from Turkey not to do so.
    (AP, 9/19/11)

2011        Sep 20, In Turkey a car bomb went off near a high school in Ankara, killing 3 people in a nearby building and wounding 34 others. Soon after 4 women died in an attack Siirt province.
    (AP, 9/20/11)(Econ, 9/24/11, p.63)

2011        Sep 21, Turkey’s Pres. Erdogan signed a deal with Turkish-controlled north Cyprus to begin drilling for oil and gas.
    (Econ, 9/24/11, p.63)
2011        Sep 21, Turkey reportedly bombed the main Kurdish rebel base in northern Iraq and chased rebels in a mountainous area in the southeast in response to escalated attacks by the autonomy-seeking guerrillas.
    (AP, 9/21/11)

2011        Sep 24, Kurdish rebels attacked a Turkish army outpost, killing 5 soldiers and wounding 10 in the country's southeast. Three rebels also were killed.
    (AP, 9/25/11)

2011        Sep 28, In Turkey a pro-Kurdish party said it is ending its four-month-old boycott of parliament, even as tensions grew over a surge in attacks by Kurdish separatist rebels.
    (AP, 9/28/11)

2011        Oct 2, Syrian dissidents meeting in Turkey formally announced the creation of a broad-based council designed to overthrow President Bashar Assad's regime in what appeared to be the most serious step yet to unify a fragmented opposition. The 21-year-old son of Syria's top Sunni Muslim cleric was killed in an ambush in a restive northern area.
    (AP, 10/2/11)(AP, 10/3/11)

2011        Oct 4, Turkish police detained over 140 pro-Kurdish political activists in a nationwide sweep. The detainees included a number of elected mayors in the Kurdish southeast.
    (SFC, 10/5/11, p.A2)

2011        Oct 5, Turkey's PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan said his government would announce a package of sanctions against neighboring Syria despite a UN resolution blocked by Russia and China.
    (AFP, 10/5/11)

2011        Oct 10, Turkish air raids in northern Iraq reportedly killed 7 Kurdish rebels including three senior operatives.
    (AP, 10/22/11)

2011        Oct 12, A Turkish court began questioning a man and three alleged accomplices suspected of attempting to kill Shamsuddin Batukayev (55), a former Chechen separatist leader, in Istanbul earlier this week.
    (AP, 10/12/11)

2011        Oct 13, Turkey's foreign minister said that Iraq should move to prevent Kurdish attacks on his country from Iraqi soil as the two countries renewed their commitment to fight the rebels.
    (AP, 10/13/11)

2011        Oct 18, Turkey shelled northern Iraq's autonomous Kurdistan region, in the first report of Turkish bombardment there in more than two weeks. The shelling began the previous evening. A roadside blast killed five policemen and 3 civilians in Turkey's southeast Bitlis province.
    (AFP, 10/18/11)(AP, 10/19/11)

2011        Oct 19, Turkish soldiers, air force bombers and helicopter gunships launched an incursion into northern Iraq, hours after Kurdish rebels killed 24 soldiers and wounded 18 in attacks along the border. The United States and NATO both issued statements supporting the offensive, the largest in more than three years.
    (AP, 10/19/11)(AFP, 10/21/11)

2011        Oct 20, About 10,000 elite Turkish soldiers took part in a ground offensive against Kurdish rebels in southeastern Turkey and across the border in Iraq, making it the nation's largest attack on the insurgents in more than three years.
    (AP, 10/20/11)
2011        Oct 20, Albanian port authorities said 3 sailors died and five others are missing after their Turkish merchant ship, Reina 1, collided with a passenger ferry and sank in the Adriatic some 20 miles (30 km) from the Albanian port of Durres. No injuries were reported on the ferry Ankara, which had left Durres en route for the Italian port of Bari with about 200 passengers.
    (AP, 10/20/11)

2011        Oct 21, Turkish jets kept up bombing raids on Kurdish rebel bases in northern Iraq overnight, as the rebels confirmed that some Turkish troops crossed into Iraq. Turkey and Iran vowed to collaborate against the PKK and its Iranian wing, the Party of Free Life of Kurdistan, or PJAK, during a visit by Iranian Foreign Minister Ali Akbar Salehi.
    (AFP, 10/21/11)(AP, 10/22/11)

2011        Oct 22, Turkey’s military said its troops over the last 2 days have killed at least 49 Kurdish rebels in a valley near the Iraqi border, as hundreds of troops also pursued Kurdish fighters within northern Iraq.
    (AP, 10/22/11)

2011        Oct 23, A powerful 7.2-magnitude earthquake struck eastern Turkey, collapsing about 45 buildings. It was estimated that up to 1,000 people could have been killed. The worst damage was caused to the town of Ercis, in the mountainous eastern province of Van where 80 multi-story buildings collapsed with people trapped in 40 of them. By Nov 4 the death toll reached 603 with some 2500 injured and thousands homeless.
    (AP, 10/23/11)(AP, 10/24/11)(AP, 11/4/11)

2011        Oct 25, In Turkey crowds of Kurds pelted journalists and police with stones in the quake-hit city of Van as their anger at the media's coverage of the disaster boiled over. The stoning of the reporters in the eponymous provincial capital, which left several people injured, was brought to a halt only after police used pepper-spray.
    (AFP, 10/26/11)

2011        Oct 29, In Turkey a female suicide bomber killed two people in Bingol, in the southeastern Kurdish region and wounded 12 others.
    (AP, 10/29/11)

2011        Nov 1, Turkey hosted the presidents of Afghanistan and Pakistan for a trilateral summit designed to reduce tensions and promote cooperation between the two neighbors amid stepped-up Taliban attacks.
    (AFP, 11/1/11)

2011        Nov 2, In Turkey regional leaders pledged to find ways to improve security and economic development in Afghanistan as international combat forces prepared to leave by the end of 2014. Afghan President Hamid Karzai and his Pakistani counterpart, Asif Ali Zardari, discussed a joint inquiry into the Sept. 20 killing by a suicide bomber of Burhanuddin Rabbani, a former Afghan president and peace council leader.
    (AP, 11/2/11)

2011        Nov 9, In eastern Turkey another earthquake, measuring 5.7, struck 9 miles (16km) south of Van. A Japanese aid worker was among 39 people killed by the earthquake. All the fatalities occurred in the Bayram Hotel and the low-budget Aslan Hotel. It hit the same region slammed by an Oct. 23 temblor that left 600 people dead.
    (AP, 11/10/11)(AP, 11/11/11)(AP, 11/13/11)

2011        Nov 12, Turkish commandos in civilian clothes slipped onto the Kartepe, a hijacked passenger ferry, and posed as hostages before fatally shooting a suspected Kurdish rebel carrying explosives in a 12-hour drama that ended before dawn.
    (AP, 11/12/11)

2011        Nov 13, Turkish warplanes bombed the Qandil border area in Iraqi Kurdistan for about an hour.
    (AFP, 11/13/11)
2011        Nov 13, In Syria tens of thousands of government supporters poured into the streets to protest an Arab League vote to suspend the country's membership, as Turkey sent planes to evacuate diplomatic staff and their families after a night of attacks on embassies. Activists reporting at least 11 people killed in shootings by security forces in several parts of the country.
    (AP, 11/13/11)

2011        Nov 19, In Turkey delegates at an international conservation meeting agreed on a measure mandating that silky sharks accidentally caught in fishing gear be released back into the sea alive. The 48-member International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) failed to reach consensus on other threatened shark species. To fight illegal fishing, ICCAT members decided that vessels measuring 12 meters or more, instead of the previous 20 meters or more, would be inspected on arrival to port.
    (AP, 11/19/11)

2011        Nov 20, Turkish President Abdullah Gul in published comments said there was "no place for authoritarian regimes" in the Mediterranean region, heaping more pressure on the embattled Syrian regime.
    (AFP, 11/20/11)

2011        Nov 21, Syria's security forces carried out a "qualitative" operation in the Bayada district of Homs in which they killed four terrorists and confiscated their weapons. A "top terrorist" nicknamed Bandar was among them. Syrian soldiers opened fire on at least two buses carrying Turkish citizens.
    (AP, 11/22/11)

2011        Nov 22, Turkey's PM Erdogan said that Syria's Pres. Bashar Assad must step down over the country's crackdown on dissent. 6 children and 5 mutinous soldiers were among 34 people killed across Syria. 122 countries voted for a resolution at the UN General Assembly's human rights committee condemning the government crackdown.
    (AP, 11/22/11)(Reuters, 11/23/11)(AFP, 11/23/11)

2011        Nov 23, Turkey's PM Erdogan apologized for the first time for the killings of nearly 14,000 people in a bombing and strafing campaign to crush a Kurdish rebellion in the 1930s. He offered his apology for the killings of 13,806 people in the southeastern town of Dersim, now known as Tunceli, between 1936 and 1939.
    (AP, 11/23/11)
2011        Nov 23, Turkish President Abdullah Gul warned that President Bashar al-Assad's violent crackdown on an eight-month-old revolt in Syria threatened to "drag the whole region into turmoil and bloodshed."
    (Reuters, 11/23/11)

2011        Nov 30, Turkey slapped tough economic sanctions on Syria, freezing assets of officials involved in the government's crackdown on an 8-month-old uprising, suspending ties with the nation's central bank and banning all military sales.
    (AP, 11/30/11)
2011        Nov 30, In Turkey a heavily armed man opened fire at Istanbul's Topkapi Palace, wounding a Turkish soldier and a security guard before police snipers killed the attacker. Hw was identified as Samir Salem Ali Elmadhavri (36), a Libyan with Syrian citizenship.
    (AP, 11/30/11)

2011        Dec 13, Turkey’s Anatolia news reported that court has jailed a policeman for four years and two months over the killing of Festus Okey (21), a Nigerian immigrant, who was shot Aug 20, 2007, while in custody.
    (AP, 12/13/11)(http://www.hyd.org.tr/?pid=515)

2011        Dec 19, A Turkish news agency reported that security forces may have killed as many as 20 Kurdish separatist rebels in the country's southeast.
    (AP, 12/19/11)

2011        Dec 20, Turkish police detained 48 people, including journalists, as part of a growing investigation into a Kurdish group that prosecutors accuse of links to Kurdish rebels.
    (AP, 12/20/11)(AP, 12/24/11)

2011        Dec 22, Turkey's PM Erdogan said his country is recalling its ambassador to France and halting official contact in retaliation for a vote in the French Parliament making it a crime to deny the 1915 mass killings of Armenians was a genocide. The bill, just passed in France's lower house, still needed approval in the Senate.
    (AP, 12/22/11)

2011        Dec 23, Turkey responded to French genocide allegations with a charge of its own, accusing France of committing genocide during its colonial occupation of Algeria. He alleged that beginning in 1945, about 15 percent of the population of Algeria was massacred by the French. He also said Algerians were burned in ovens. Most historians contend the Ottoman killings of up to 1.5 million Armenians constituted the first genocide of the 20th century.
    (AP, 12/23/11)

2011        Dec 24, Turkish authorities released an AFP photographer, along with 12 other people who were detained as part of an investigation into a group prosecutors accuse of having links to Kurdish rebels. A court ordered 35 other suspects formally arrested pending trial over their alleged involvement in the Union of Kurdistan Communities.
    (AP, 12/24/11)

2011        Dec 28, Turkish warplanes killed at least 34 people and 59 mules in an air strike on the Iraq border in an attack which a pro-Kurdish political party described as a "massacre" of civilians. Ankara's joint military command said in a statement that its jets bombed an area inside Iraq "regularly used" by PKK rebels. Those killed were smugglers aged 18-28, who routinely brought in Iraqi fuel and cigarettes with the full knowledge of local authorities. On Jan 2 Turkey said it will compensate the families of the civilians mistakenly killed in the airstrike in Uludere township.
    (AFP, 12/29/11)(AP, 1/3/12)(Econ, 1/7/12, p.46)(Econ, 6/9/12, p.59)(Econ, 5/9/15, p.49)

2011        Turkey’s population was about 73 million.
    (AFP, 1/18/11)

2012        Jan 3, In Turkey Kenan Evren (94), a former president (1982-1989), and former air force commander Tahsin Sahinkaya faced charges of crimes against the state. A court will now have to decide whether to accept the indictment and order a trial. Their trial began on April 4.
    (AP, 1/3/12)(AP, 4/4/12)

2012        Jan 6, A former Turkish military chief, Gen. Ilker Basbug (68), suspected of leading an Internet campaign to stir revolt, was jailed in a sweeping investigation of alleged conspiracies to topple a civilian government that has stripped the armed forces of political clout.
    (AP, 1/6/12)

2012        Jan 12, A Turkish court files charges against Britain’s Duchess of York for secretly filming orphanages in the country in 2008 for a British TV program.
    (SFC, 1/13/12, p.A2)

2012        Jan 19, Turkish authorities exhumed the bodies of three Kurds near the village of Yagizoymak as part of their investigation into alleged extrajudicial killings by Turkish security forces in the 1990s. Lawyer Ridvan Dalmis, who witnessed the excavation, said the remains allegedly are those of civilians who were killed by security forces in June 1993 and hastily buried by Kurdish villagers before they were forced to evacuate the area.
    (AP, 1/20/12)

2012        Jan 23, Turkey threatened more sanctions for France if the Senate in Paris votes later today to make it a crime to deny the 20th-century killing of Armenians by Ottoman Turks constitutes a genocide. France's parliament approved the bill later in the day.
    (AP, 1/23/12)(AP, 1/24/12)

2012        Jan 24, Turkey warned the French president against signing a law that makes it a crime to deny that the killings of Armenians by Ottoman Turks nearly a century ago constituted genocide, saying such a move would deal a heavy blow to the relations between the two countries.
    (AP, 1/24/12)

2012        Feb 7, Turkey's PM Erdogan announced a new initiative with regional players to halt the violence in Syria, saying the veto of a UN resolution had given President Bashar al-Assad a "license to kill."
    (AFP, 2/7/12)

2012        Feb 10, Turkey Interior Minister Idris Naim Sahin said that five Turks, including a former intelligence officer, were being questioned for allegedly kidnapping and handing over to Damascus Lt. Col. Hussein Harmoush, a Syrian army officer, who had sought refuge in Turkey.
    (AP, 2/11/12)

2012        Feb 11, Turkish warplanes bombed suspected Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 2/12/12)

2012        Feb 13, A clash in Turkey's mostly Kurdish southeast has left 15 Kurdish rebels and two Turkish soldiers dead.
    (AP, 2/14/12)

2012        Feb 24, In Turkey doctors at Hacettepe University transplanted two arms and two legs on Sevket Cavdar (27).  He had lost his arms and legs in 1998 when he was accidentally electrocuted. The world's 1st quadruple limb transplant soon failed due to tissue incompatibility.
    (AP, 2/27/12)

2012        Feb, In Turkey followers of Fethullah Gulen, a Pennsylvania-base imam, were said to have infiltrated Turkey’s judiciary and police force. The Gulenists were reportedly now targeting Turkey’s MIT spy agency.
    (Econ, 2/25/12, p.61)(http://tinyurl.com/7fde22d)

2012        Mar 6, Turkish Airlines started flying into Somalia's war-torn capital, becoming the first international company to fly passenger planes into Mogadishu in more than 20 years. Flights were scheduled for twice a week.
    (AP, 3/6/12)

2012        Mar 8, Turkey's air force carried out air strikes on border areas of north Iraq.
    (AFP, 3/9/12)

2012        Mar 10, Turkish journalist Adem Ozkose (34) and cameraman Hamit Coskun (21) reported from Idlib as Syrian forces with tanks and artillery were preparing to move against poorly armed rebels there. They were not heard from again until May 5 when they called their families while under Syrian detention. On May 11 Iran, acting as diplomatic go-between between Syria and Turkey, negotiated their release.
    (AP, 5/11/12)

2012        Mar 12, Four Turkish journalists were freed from jail, a year after they were detained in a case that has raised fears for press freedom in the country. Two pledged to immediately tackle sensitive subjects again, including the killing of an ethnic Armenian journalist.
    (AP, 3/13/12)

2012        Mar 15, Turkey’s deputy prime minister said Syria has planted landmines near its border with Turkey along routes used by refugees fleeing the regime's deadly crackdown on dissent. The foreign ministry said Around 1,000 Syrian refugees, including a defecting general, flocked into Turkey in the last 24 hours.
    (AFP, 3/15/12)

2012        Mar 16, Turkey urged its citizens in Syria to return home, saying some consular services will be halted in Damascus next week.
    (AP, 3/16/12)
2012        Mar 16, In Afghanistan a Turkish helicopter crashed into a house on the outskirts of Kabul, killing 12 Turkish soldiers and two Afghan civilians.
    (AFP, 3/16/12)

2012        Mar 18, In Turkey thousands of Kurds massed in Diyarbakir and Istanbul to celebrate the Kurdish new year (Nowruz). A Kurdish politician and Turkish policeman died as riot police fired tear gas to disperse the crowds.
    (Econ, 3/24/12, p.54)

2012        Mar 22, Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan on urged UEFA to award his country the right to host the 2020 European football championships.
    (AFP, 3/22/12)

2012        Mar 23, Turkish police detained two people of Iranian descent after an attack on the Iranian embassy in the capital Ankara. The suspects are said to have carried out the attack because of slow processing of their visa applications by the embassy.
    (AFP, 3/23/12)
2012        Mar 23, Turkish forces killed 15 female Kurdish rebel fighters in Bitlis province.
    (SSFC, 3/25/12, p.A6)

2012        Mar 25, Pres. Obama met with Turkish leader Recep Tayyip Erdogan ahead of a nuclear security conference in South Korea. Obama other key allies considered providing Syrian rebels with communications help, medical aid and other "non-lethal" assistance.
    (AP, 3/25/12)

2012        Mar 26, Turkey closed its embassy in Damascus and recalled its ambassador as relations between the former allies continued to deteriorate.
    (AFP, 3/26/12)

2012        Mar 29, Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan voiced his country's unwavering support for Tehran's nuclear ambitions in a meeting with Iran's President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Turkey relies on Iran for 30% of its oil imports, and has refused to go along with sanctions imposed by the US and Europe, saying it will observe only UN-mandated restrictions on Iran. Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei said Tehran strongly supports reforms in Syria under Pres. Assad, but visiting Turkish PM Erdogan said Assad can't be trusted and must step down.
    (AFP, 3/29/12)(AP, 3/30/12)

2012        Apr 1, Syria blasted an international conference on the country's spreading crisis before it even started in Istanbul, calling it part of an international conspiracy to kill Syrians and weaken the country. Monitors said at least 16 people were killed, including eight soldiers who died during ambushes and gun battles in the east, northwest and near Damascus. Participants at the 60-nation “Friends of the Syrian People" meeting said Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries are creating a multimillion-dollar fund to pay members of the rebel Free Syrian Army and soldiers who defect from the regime and join opposition ranks.
    (AP, 4/1/12)(AFP, 4/1/12)(SSFC, 4/1/12, p.A5)

2012        Apr 2, In Turkey Neslisah Osmanoglu (b.1921), an Ottoman princess who married an Egyptian prince (1940), died. She was twice forced into exile when both royal households were abolished.
    (AFP, 4/3/12)

2012        Apr 4, British officials said a new batch of counterfeit cancer drug Avastin discovered in the United States was bought in Turkey and shipped through Britain by a UK-based business. Avastin, made by Roche, is a complex injectable biotech drug with annual sales of $6 billion.
    (Reuters, 4/4/12)

2012        Apr 5, In south-eastern Turkey overnight blasts temporarily shut down a pipeline pumping oil from Iraq. Kurdish rebels were suspected to be behind the explosions.
    (AFP, 4/5/12)
2012        Apr 5, In Syria fierce clashes between government forces and rebels erupted near Damascus ahead of an agreed truce. Some 2,500 crossed the border today, bringing to 24,000 the number of Syrian refugees now in Turkey.
    (AFP, 4/5/12)(AP, 4/6/12)

2012        Apr 9, Syrian forces fired across the border into a refugee camp in Turkey, wounding at least five people. Lebanese journalist Ali Shaaban, who works as a cameraman for Al Jadeed TV station, was shot and killed as he was filming in the northern Wadi Khaled area on the Lebanese side of the border. 12 members of the Syrian security forces were killed as clashes ensued in several regions. Human Rights Watch said it has documented the killings by Syrian forces of 85 civilians, including women and children, and the summary executions of at least 16 wounded or captured opposition fighters. The Syrian rebel army said it is ready to respect an April 10 truce brokered by UN-Arab League envoy Kofi Annan if the regime of President Bashar al-Assad abides by the peace deal.
    (AP, 4/9/12)(AFP, 4/9/12)

2012        Apr 12, Turkish prosecutors ordered the arrest of dozens of former military officers, including four retired generals, over their role in forcing the resignation in 1997 of an Islamist PM Necmettin Erbakan.
    (AP, 4/12/12)

2012        Apr 14, Iran and senior diplomats from the United States, Russia, China, Britain, France and Germany, known as the P5+1, gathered at the negotiating table in Istanbul for their first meeting in 15 months hoping to ease tensions over Tehran's nuclear program.
    (AFP, 4/14/12)

2012        Apr 18, Turkey said it has intercepted an Antigua and Barbuda-flagged vessel in the Mediterranean suspected of carrying weapons and ammunition to Syria. The "Atlantic Cruiser" belonged to a German company. The ship was chartered by a Ukrainian firm, which said that the cargo contained no weapons, but legal goods for civilian use.
    (AFP, 4/18/12)(AFP, 4/19/12)

2012        May 10, A Turkish court placed in custody six active and five retired generals as part of a widening probe into the 1997 bloodless coup that toppled the country's first Islamist-led government.
    (AFP, 5/10/12)

2012        May 18, Leaders of Bulgaria, Qatar and Turkey agreed to study joint infrastructure projects like the construction of a new motorway from Istanbul across Bulgaria.
    (AFP, 5/18/12)

2012        May 19, In northeastern Turkey a 22-meter (72-foot) high copper statue of Ataturk, the country's biggest of the iconic figure, was inaugurated in Artvin. It was a tribute to the near-mystical hold that Ataturk exerts over his fervent believers, whose admiration is rooted in his success in imposing secular values on a largely Muslim nation.
    (AP, 6/10/12)

2012        May 25, In central Turkey a car bomb attack killed a policeman and wounded 17 people. The Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) later claimed responsibility.
    (AP, 5/27/12)

2012        May 27, In southeast Turkey Kurdish rebels killed a soldier in a clash, prompting the military to launch a large-scale offensive in the area.
    (AP, 5/27/12)

2012        May 29, Turkey’s PM Erdogan called for legislation to restrict women’s access to abortions.
    (SFC, 5/30/12, p.A2)

2012        May 30, Turkey said it has ordered Syrian diplomats to leave the country within 72 hours following the massacre of more than 100 civilians in Houla which has triggered global outrage.
    (AFP, 5/30/12)

2012        May 31, In Turkey representatives from 54 countries gathered in Istanbul for a 2-day conference to find a path towards a better future for Somalia for which the term "failed state" was coined two decades ago.
    (AFP, 5/31/12)

2012        Jun 4, Turkish security officials said two security personnel were killed when they stepped on an improvised explosive device laid by PKK militants in the Lice district of Diyarbakir province. One of the men killed was the commander of Lice's military police force.
    (Reuters, 6/4/12)

2012        Jun 5, Some 85 Syrian military defectors and their families crossed into Turkey.
    (Econ, 7/7/12, p.46)

2012        Jun 12, Turkey announced plans to introduce elective Kurdish language instruction in schools, a step aimed at easing tension that Kurdish minority activists argued didn't go far enough. Activists and Kurdish politicians insisted on full Kurdish education in schools.
    (AP, 6/12/12)

2012        Jun 13, A Turkish foreign ministry official said around 2,500 Syrians have fled to Turkey in the last 48 hours amid fresh attacks that even targeted UN observers.
    (AFP, 6/13/12)

2012        Jun 17, In southeastern Turkey prison inmates set mattresses and blankets alight overnight, starting a fire that killed 13 prisoners in the mostly-Kurdish and Arabic-speaking city of Sanliurfa.
    (AP, 6/17/12)

2012        Jun 19, In Turkey thousands of feminists and activists sent a petition to several government ministries to protest a bill that would ban abortions beyond the first six weeks of pregnancy.
    (AFP, 6/19/12)
2012        Jun 19, Kurdish rebels attacked Turkish military units with mortars and rocket-propelled grenades in southeastern Turkey, sparking clashes in which 10 rebels and eight soldiers died.
    (AP, 6/19/12)

2012        Jun 22, Syria’s state-run news agency, SANA, said terrorist groups had killed and mutilated at least 25 people in Daret Azzeh, a rebel-held area in the Aleppo countryside. A video emerged showing more than a dozen bloodied corpses, some of them piled on top of each other and in military uniforms, in what the government said was a "massacre" by rebels in the northern province of Aleppo. Activists reported that thousands of people rallied in various parts to protest the regime following afternoon prayers. Syria said it shot down a Turkish military plane that entered Syrian air space.
    (AP, 6/22/12)(AP, 6/23/12)

2012        Jun 24, Turkey’s army said its warplanes have carried out strikes on suspected Kurdish militant targets in northern Iraq. Air strikes had hit 9 PKK targets over the last 3 days. Kurdish rebels killed one policeman and wounded 3 others in a roadside bomb attack.
    (AFP, 6/24/12)(SFC, 6/25/12, p.A2)

2012        Jun 25, Dozens of Syrian soldiers defected overnight to Turkey, crossing the border with their families. The state-run Anadolu news agency said 33 soldiers defected, including a general and two colonels. Syrian troops killed 10 "terrorists" in the Damascus suburb of Douma.
    (AP, 6/25/12)(AP, 6/26/12)

2012        Jun 26, Turkey's PM Erdogan vowed to retaliate against Syria for its 'heinous' downing of one of its warplanes, as the head of NATO said such an attack on one of its members was unacceptable.
    (AFP, 6/26/12)

2012        Jun 27, In eastern Turkey an explosion targeting a pipeline cut off Iranian natural gas shipments to the country. The pipeline was expected to be back in operation within 4 to 5 days. Turkey received 27 million cubic meters of gas a day via the Iranian pipeline. The gas flow was reported restored on July 3.
    (AFP, 6/28/12)(AFP, 7/3/12)

2012        Jul 20, In Turkey an explosion and fire shut down twin pipelines that carry oil from Iraq to the Mediterranean.
    (AP, 7/21/12)

2012        Jul 25, Turkey sealed its border with Syria to trucks, effectively cutting off a trade relationship once worth almost $3 billion with the embattled nation. A foreign ministry diplomat said 2 more Syrian brigadier generals crossed into Turkey, bringing to 27 the number of generals who have fled the unrest in Syria.
    (AP, 7/25/12)(AFP, 7/25/12)

2012        Aug 2, Turkish warplanes and attack helicopters are pounding Kurdish rebel positions in a major clash in a rugged area near Turkey's borders with Iraq and Iran. Turkish troops and Kurdish rebels have been clashing in the area for about two weeks.
    (AP, 8/2/12)

2012        Aug 4, Turkish officials said the military has retired all 40 generals on trial on charges of plotting to overthrow the Muslim-led government.
    (SSFC, 8/5/12, p.A7)
2012        Aug 4, Turkey reported the defection of another Syrian general, along with five colonels, who came over the border with a group of refugees.
    (AP, 8/4/12)

2012        Aug 5, Turkey’s interior minister said security forces have killed as many as 115 Kurdish rebels during a major offensive over the past 2 weeks near the southeastern town of Semdinli. Rebels fired on military posts in Hakkari on the Iraq border triggering clashes that left dead 22 rebels, soldiers and village guards.
    (AFP, 8/5/12)(SFC, 8/6/12, p.A2)

2012        Aug 6, In southeastern Turkey an overnight blast interrupted oil flow from Iraq. Kurdish rebels were suspected to be behind the explosions. The blast hit the Kirkuk-Ceyhan pipeline in Mardin province close to the border with Syria. Repairs were expected to take up to 10 days. The oil flow was reported restored on August 28.
    (AFP, 8/6/12)(AFP, 8/28/12)

2012        Aug 7, In Syria total of 225 people, mostly civilians, were reported killed. A Turkish government official said 1,328 Syrian refugees had crossed the border by midmorning, nearly double the number of refugees who reached Turkey a day earlier.
    (AFP, 8/8/12)(AP, 8/7/12)

2012        Aug 9, In Turkey 2 roadside bombs struck a bus carrying troops to a navy base, killing one soldier and wounding 11 people on the outskirts of the Aegean resort town of Foca.
    (AP, 8/9/12)

2012        Aug 15, In Syria a bomb attached to a fuel truck exploded outside a Damascus hotel where UN observers are staying, wounding at least three people. Fierce fighting erupted between the Syrian army and rebels near the prime minister's office in Damascus. Activists reported shelling and clashes in Aleppo. Two Syrian fighter jets bombed the rebel-held town of Azaz. Human Rights Watch said over 40 people were killed. 757 Syrians fled into Turkey.
    (AFP, 8/15/12)(AP, 8/15/12)(AP, 8/16/12)

2012        Aug 20, In Turkey a car bomb in a southeastern Turkish city of Gaziantap left 9 people dead. Authorities blamed rebels of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) of being behind the powerful blast that went off close to a police station. The PKK denied the attack.
    (AFP, 8/21/12)

2012        Aug 23, Turkish media reported that Kurdish rebels have ambushed a military convoy in the southeast, setting off clashes that killed 16 militants and five soldiers.
    (AFP, 8/23/12)

2012        Aug 25, Turkish warplanes bombed areas of northern Iraq in a bid to target rear bases of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK).
    (AFP, 8/25/12)

2012        Sep 2, In Turkey Kurdish militants killed 10 police and soldiers in an assault in Sirnak province. Some Kurdish guerrillas were also killed.
    (SFC, 9/4/12, p.A2)

2012        Sep 5, In western Turkey an explosion and blaze triggered by an accidentally dropped hand grenade killed 25 soldiers during a stock check at an ammunition depot near the town of Afyonkarahisar.
    (AP, 9/6/12)

2012        Sep 6, Off the coast of western Turkey 61 people drowned when a fishing boat carrying migrants that smugglers had promised refuge in Europe sank after hitting rocks. At least 46 survivors, mostly from Iraq and Syria, were able to swim through the Aegean waters to shore 50 meters away.
    (AP, 9/6/12)(SSFC, 9/9/12, p.A4)

2012        Sep 10, Turkey’s military announced that it had conducted air strikes over the past week in northern Iraq, where Kurdish rebels have bases. Some 25 guerrillas were reported killed in the operation.
    (AP, 9/11/12)

2012        Sep 11, In Turkey a suicide bomber threw a hand grenade and then blew himself up at the entrance to a police station in a suburb of Istanbul. One police officer was killed, and seven others were wounded. Police identified the bomber as a member of the Revolutionary People's Liberation Party-Front (DHKP-C).
    (AP, 9/11/12)

2012        Sep 12, In Turkey hundreds of Kurds began a hunger strike in prisons across the country.
    (Econ, 11/17/12, p.2)

2012        Sep 15, In southeast Turkey an attack on a military convoy killed four soldiers and wounded five in Hakkari province.
    (AP, 9/16/12)

2012        Sep 16, In eastern Turkey suspected Kurdish rebels detonated a landmine along a highway in Bingol province, killing eight police officers and wounding nine. Officials in southeastern Hakkari province said a total of 123 "terrorists," a reference to Kurdish rebels, had been killed in military operations in the past 10 days.
    (AP, 9/16/12)

2012        Sep 18, In Turkey suspected Kurdish rebels in Bingol province attacked a military convoy with a rocket killing 10 soldiers and wounded over 70 others.
    (SFC, 9/19/12, p.A2)
2012        Sep 18, In Syria fierce clashes broke out between rebels and regime forces battling for control of a border crossing on the frontier with Turkey. Turkish authorities told residents to evacuate the area.
    (AP, 9/18/12)

2012        Sep 21, A Turkish court convicted 326 military officers, including the former air force and navy chiefs, of plotting to overthrow the PM Erdogan’s Islamic-based government in 2003.
    (AP, 9/21/12)(Economist, 9/29/12, p.59)

2012        Sep 26, A Turkish court issued an order allowing authorities in the country to block Internet access to the "Innocence of Muslims," an anti-Islam movie that has sparked violent protests across the Muslim world.
    (AP, 9/26/12)

2012        Sep 30, Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan urged Syria's allies to stop backing the Assad regime. "We call on Russia, China and Iran, please review your stance," Erdogan told a conference of his ruling Justice and Development Party.
    (AP, 9/30/12)

2012        Oct 3, Turkish authorities arrested Ali Harzi for reported links to the Sep 11 attack on a US consulate in Libya. He was repatriated to Tunisia on Oct 11 and faced terrorism charges there. Harzi was one of two Tunisians reportedly arrested in Turkey when they tried to enter the country with false passports.
    (AP, 10/25/12)
2012        Oct 3, Syrian-Turkish cross-border tensions escalated after a shell fired from inside Syria landed on a home in the Turkish village of Akcakale, killing two women and three of their daughters and wounding at least 10 others.
    (AP, 10/4/12)

2012        Oct 4, Turkey's Parliament authorized military operations against Syria and its military fired on targets there for a second day after deadly shelling from Syria killed five civilians in a Turkish border town.
    (AP, 10/4/12)

2012        Oct 5, Turkish troops fired at Syria again, responding to another mortar shell from Syria that struck Turkish territory.
    (AP, 10/5/12)

2012        Oct 6, Turkish artillery fired into Syria for the fourth day in a row, retaliating for mortar shells that landed in Turkish territory. Rebels clashed with Syrian government troops in the border area, activists said, as fears revived that the Syrian crisis could spiral into a regional conflict.
    (AP, 10/6/12)

2012        Oct 7, Turkish artillery fired toward Syria for a fifth day in a row, minutes after a Syrian shell landed on Turkish territory.
    (AP, 10/7/12)
2012        Oct 7, Turkish jets struck suspected Kurdish rebel targets in two separate cross-border raids in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 10/8/12)

2012        Oct 8, Turkey's state-run news agency said a Syrian shell landed on Turkish territory for a sixth day, but made no mention of any immediate Turkish retaliation.
    (AP, 10/8/12)

2012        Oct 9, NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said NATO is ready to defend alliance member Turkey amid artillery exchanges along its tense southeastern border with Syria.
    (AP, 10/9/12)

2012        Oct 10, Turkey's military chief vowed day to respond with more force to any further shelling from Syria, keeping up the pressure on its southern neighbor a day after NATO said it stood ready to defend Turkey.
    (AP, 10/10/12)
2012        Oct 10, A Syrian Air A320 from Moscow that was forced to land in Ankara. Turkish state-run television TRT reported the next day that the passenger plane was carrying military communications equipment. Damascus branded the incident piracy amid growing tensions between the two countries. The plane's 37 passengers and crew were allowed to continue to Damascus after several hours, without the cargo.
    (AP, 10/11/12)

2012        Oct 13, Syria's state-run news agency SANA says Syria has decided to ban Turkish Airlines flights from Syrian airspace.
    (AP, 10/13/12)

2012        Oct 14, Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu announced that Turkey is barring Syrian civilian flights from Turkey's airspace, a day after Syria issued such a ban for Turkish commercial aircraft.
    (AP, 10/14/12)

2012        Oct 18, Turkey's state-run news said security forces have killed 12 Kurdish rebels in clashes in the southeast, raising the two-day death toll in the fighting to 18.
    (AP, 10/18/12)

2012        Oct 20, Turkey's state-run agency said clashes between Turkish security forces and Kurdish rebels in Hakkari province, have left nine people dead.
    (AP, 10/20/12)

2012        Oct 22, The New York-based Committee to Protect Journalists said in a report that 76 journalists are in prison in Turkey and at least 61 of them are held because for "their published work or newsgathering activities."
    (AP, 10/22/12)

2012        Oct 29, In Turkey police used tear gas and water cannons to try to break up a demonstration by tens of thousands of pro-secular protesters, but the march to mark the founding of the Turkish republic went on in defiance of a government ban.
    (AP, 10/29/12)

2012        Nov 6, A Turkish court opened a trial in absentia of four former Israeli military commanders in the killing of nine people aboard a Turkish aid ship that tried to break a Gaza blockade in 2010.
    (AP, 11/6/12)
2012        Nov 6, Turkey's state-run news agency reported that seven Syrian generals have defected to Turkey.
    (AP, 11/6/12)

2012        Nov 9, Turkey's state-run agency said a group of Syrian soldiers, including two generals and 11 colonels, have fled to Turkey with their families.
    (AP, 11/9/12)
2012        Nov 9, In Turkey the office for the governor for Hakkari province said as many as 42 Kurdish rebels have been killed in the past three days in operations that were backed by airpower.
    (AP, 11/10/12)

2012        Nov 10, A Turkish military helicopter carrying soldiers on a mission against Kurdish rebels crashed because of bad weather, killing all 17 troops onboard.
    (AP, 11/10/12)

2012        Nov 12, A Syrian fighter jet bombed a rebel-held area near the Turkish border, killing at least six people and wounding a dozen others. One rocket-propelled grenade landed in Turkey. A Syrian helicopter bombed rebel positions in an area further south of Ras al-Ayn and the rebels could be heard responding with machine guns.
    (AP, 11/12/12)

2012        Nov 15, Turkey endorsed the newly formed Syrian rebel coalition as the legitimate leader of Syria.
    (SFC, 11/16/12, p.A2)

2012        Nov 16, A Syrian general and a dozen other officers defected with their families to Turkey.
    (Reuters, 11/17/12)

2012        Nov 17, Cameraman Cuneyt Unal, captured while covering fighting in the city of Aleppo, was released returned to Turkey. Unal and reporter Bashar Fahmi, a Jordanian citizen of Palestinian origin, had been missing since August. Both were working for the US-based Alhurra TV and were believed to have been captured by Syrian government forces.
    (AP, 11/17/12)

2012        Nov 21, Turkey's government requested the deployment of NATO's Patriot surface-to-air missiles to bolster its defenses along its border with Syria.
    (AP, 11/21/12)

2012        Dec 4, Off the coast of Istanbul a cargo ship sank in a severe storm in the Black Sea and a Turkish rescue boat searching for its missing crew hit nearby rocks and also went down. At least three people were killed and 10 others were missing in the two sinkings.
    (AP, 12/4/12)

2012        Dec 6, NATO moved forward with its plan to place Patriot missiles and troops along Syria's border with Turkey to protect against potential attacks.
    (AP, 12/6/12)

2012        Dec 7, The Dutch government approved a NATO request to send two batteries of Patriot missile defense systems to Turkey, following in Germany's footsteps.
    (AP, 12/7/12)

2012        Dec 14, The Pentagon said the US will send two batteries of Patriot missiles and 400 troops to Turkey as part of a NATO force meant to protect Turkish territory from potential Syrian missile attack.
    (AP, 12/14/12)

2012        Dec 14, A boat capsized early today off the northeastern island of Lesvos, near the Turkish coast. Greek coast guard officials found the bodies of 18 Asian people who were trying to cross illegally into Greece.
    (AP, 12/15/12)

2012        Dec 28, Officials at Turkey's Foreign Ministry said two Syrian air force generals have defected and crossed the border.
    (AP, 12/28/12)

2012        Dec, In Turkey Huda-Par (Party of Allah) was launched on a platform of Islamic values and greater rights for the country’s 14 million Sunni Kurds.
    (Econ, 11/23/13, p.55)

2013        Jan 7, In northern Turkey a gas leak inside a coal mine killed five workers and injured one. Two other miners are missing and feared dead in Zonguldak province.
    (AP, 1/7/13)
2013        Jan 7, The Dutch military shipped Patriot missiles to Turkey, a fellow NATO member, after the alliance agreed in December to deploy the anti-missile systems along Turkey's southern border with Syria. Fighting in Syria continued unabated.
    (AP, 1/7/13)

2013        Jan 14, Turkish jets struck suspected Kurdish rebel targets in a cross-border raid in northern Iraq, even as Turkey prepared to start peace talks with the rebels' imprisoned leader.
    (AP, 1/15/13)

2013        Jan 21, Turkey's state-run news agency said a court has charged 9 lawyers, including prominent human rights defenders, with membership in an outlawed leftist militant group and ordered them arrested pending trial.
    (AP, 1/21/13)
2013        Jan 21, In Turkey Sarai Sierra (33) went missing, when she was supposed to return to New York City but was not on her flight back home. She had arrived in Istanbul on Jan 7. Her body was discovered Feb 2 evening near the remnants of ancient city walls. She had suffered a fatal blow to the head. On March 17 a suspect, identified only as Ziya T, was caught in Syria in a joint operation by Syrian rebels and Turkish officials.
    (AP, 1/29/13)(AP, 2/3/13)(AP, 3/18/13)

2013        Feb 1, In Turkey a suspected suicide bomber detonated an explosive device at the entrance of the US Embassy in Ankara, killing himself and a guard.
    (AP, 2/1/13)

2013        Feb 11, In Turkey a car bomb exploded at the Bab al-Hawa frontier post along Syria's border, killing 14 people. A Syrian opposition faction later accused the Syrian government of the bombing, saying it narrowly missed 13 leaders of the group. On March 11 Turkey’s police said five suspects have been detained.
    (AP, 2/11/13)(SFC, 2/12/13, p.A2)(AP, 3/11/13)

2013        Feb 25, In Turkey German Chancellor Angela Merkel held talks with Turkish leaders amid growing frustration in Turkey over its slow-moving EU membership and a perceived reluctance by European nations to crackdown on Turkish militants operating in their nations.
    (AP, 2/25/13)

2013        Feb 28, A Turkish news agency said police have detained 11 people suspected of al-Qaida links and seized 25 kg (55 pounds) of plastic explosives. Police reportedly found charts and photographs of the US Consulate, a synagogue and a church in Istanbul.
    (AP, 2/28/13)

2013        Mar 13, Kurdish rebels based in northern Iraq freed eight captured Turkish soldiers and officials as part of peace efforts between Turkey and the rebel group aimed at ending a decades-long conflict.
    (AP, 3/13/13)

2013        Mar 19, In Turkey assailants fired a rocket at PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan's party headquarters and hurled two hand-grenades at the Justice Ministry's parking lot, wounding one person. The outlawed Revolutionary People's Liberation Party-Front, or DHKP-C, soon said it carried out the attacks in retaliation for a recent police crackdown on its members.
    (AP, 3/20/13)
2013        Mar 19, In Turkey Mohamed Mahmoud (27), an Islamic extremist wanted by Germany for allegedly calling for terrorist attacks, was arrested in Hatay province. Berlin soon began negotiating his extradition.
    (AP, 3/22/13)

2013        Mar 21, Jailed Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Ocalan called for an immediate cease-fire and for thousands of his fighters to withdraw from Turkish territory, a major step toward ending one of the world's bloodiest insurgencies.
    (AP, 3/21/13)

2013        Mar 22, Israel and Turkey agreed to restore full diplomatic relations after PM Benjamin Netanyahu apologized in a phone call for a deadly naval raid against a Gaza-bound international flotilla in a dramatic turnaround partly brokered by President Barack Obama.
    (AP, 3/22/13)

2013        Apr 8, Turkish police used water cannons, tear gas and pepper spray to disperse thousands of people protesting outside a court house in support of 275 people who are on trial for allegedly plotting to overthrow Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan's government.
    (AP, 4/8/13)

2013        Apr 15, A Turkish court convicted Fazil Say (43), a top pianist and composer, of denigrating religion through his comments on Twitter. He was given a 10-month suspended prison sentence.
    (SFC, 4/16/13, p.A2)(Econ, 4/20/13, p.58)

2013        Apr 21, In eastern Afghanistan a Turkish civilian helicopter was forced to make an emergency landing in a Taliban-controlled area of Logar province. Insurgents took all 11 people aboard the aircraft hostage, including 8 Turks, one Afghan translator and 2 foreign pilots. Four of the Turks were freed on May 12.
    (AP, 4/22/13)(AP, 5/13/13)

2013        Apr 25, A pro-Kurdish news agency said Kurdish rebels will start withdrawing thousands of guerrilla fighters from Turkey on May 8 and retreat across the border to northern Iraq, in an important milestone toward ending the nearly three-decade old insurgency that has cost tens of thousands of lives.
    (AP, 4/25/13)

2013        May 9, Iraq rejected a key element of an accord to bring an end to a long Kurdish uprising in Turkey — offering refuge to rebel fighters in country's north.
    (AP, 5/9/13)

2013        May 11, In Turkey 2 car bomb explosions in a town across the border from Syria killed 51 people in Reyhanli, Hatay province, a main hub for Syrian refugees. 13 Turkish citizens, believed to have links to the Syrian intelligence agency, were soon detained.
    (AP, 5/11/13)(AP, 5/12/13)(AP, 5/14/13)

2013        May 14, The first Kurdish fighters crossed from Turkey into northern Iraq as part of a peace deal to end a long uprising despite Iraqi objections to the transfer. The Iraqi Cabinet reiterated its rejection of the deal and of the presence of PKK fighters.
    (AP, 5/14/13)

2013        May 17, In Turkey a container of fuel being smuggled into the country from Syria exploded, killing 10 people in Tunisma village, Hatay province.
    (AP, 5/17/13)

2013        May 20, In Turkey a hot air balloon collided with another balloon mid-air during a sightseeing tour in the Cappadocia region and crashed to the ground, killing two Brazilian tourists and injuring 23 other people on board.
    (AP, 5/20/13)

2013        May 24, Turkey's parliament passed legislation that would ban all alcohol advertising and tighten restrictions on the sale of such beverages.
    (AP, 5/24/13)

2013        May 25, In Turkey some 100 people kissed for several minutes at a subway stop in Ankara after subway officials earlier in the week made an announcement asking passengers "to act in accordance with moral rules" after security cameras spotted a couple kissing.
    (AP, 5/26/13)
2013        May 25, Syria's fractured political opposition met for a third day in Istanbul, Turkey, to elect new leaders, try to widen its base and forge a unified position ahead of possible peace talks with the regime.
    (AP, 5/25/13)

2013        May 31, In Turkey riot police used tear gas and pressurized water in a dawn raid to rout a peaceful demonstration by hundreds of people staging a sit-in to prevent the uprooting of trees at Istanbul’s Gezi Park. Some 5,000 people gathered in Ankara in solidarity with those in Istanbul. In Izmir clashes broke out as thousands also marched in solidarity. The government planned to build a replica of ottoman-era army barracks and a mall atop the park.
    (AP, 5/31/13)(SFC, 6/1/13, p.A3)(SSFC, 6/9/13, p.A4)

2013        Jun 1, In Turkey Ethem Sarisuluk (26) was shot in the head during protests in Ankara. He was kept alive but later declared brain-dead. A court later released his alleged killer on the grounds of self-defence.
    (Econ, 6/29/13, p.49)(http://tinyurl.com/kztouxn)

2013        Jun 3, Turkey's Pres. Abdullah Gul  defended the right of citizens to protest, in contrast to the dismissive stance of PM Erdogan, as police used tear gas for a fourth day in an attempt to disperse demonstrations that grew out of a sit-in to prevent the uprooting of trees at Istanbul's main square. A 20-year-old man died in a hospital in Istanbul from injuries after a vehicle slammed into a crowd of protesters a day earlier. By now most of Turkey’s 81 provinces had seen protests.
    (AP, 6/3/13)(Econ, 6/8/13, p.25)

2013        Jun 4, Turkey's deputy prime minister Bulent Arinc offered an apology for a violent crackdown on an environmental protest, in a bid to appease days of anti-government rallies across the country as hundreds of riot police deployed around the prime minister's office in Ankara.
    (AP, 6/4/13)

2013        Jun 5, Turkish activists presented a list of demands they said could end days of anti-government demonstrations, as police detained 25 people they accused of using social media to stoke the outpouring of anger. A protester was killed in Antakya from an apparent blow to the head.
    (AP, 6/5/13)

2013        Jun 6, In southern Turkey a police officer died after falling into an underpass while trying to subdue a protest, bringing the death toll in a week of protests to three.
    (AP, 6/6/13)

2013        Jun 7, Turkey's PM Erdogan took a combative stance on his return from a visit to Tunisia, telling supporters who thronged to greet him that the protests that have swept the country must come to an end.
    (AP, 6/7/13)

2013        Jun 8, In Turkey police in Ankara fired tear gas and used water cannons to disperse thousands of people protesting near government buildings. Pro- and anti-government protesters also clashed in Adana.
    (AP, 6/9/13)

2013        Jun 11, In Turkey hundreds of riot police overran improvised barricades at Istanbul's Taksim Square, firing tear gas, rubber bullets and water cannon in running battles with protesters who have been occupying the area for more than a week. The raid came on the 12th day of nationwide protests. The Turkish Human Rights Foundation raised the number of deaths in more than a week of protests to four.
    (AP, 6/11/13)

2013        Jun 12, In Turkey riot police clashed in the early hours with demonstrators occupying Istanbul’s Taksim Square. The government proposed a referendum on the development project that has triggered the protests. Thousands of black-robed Turkish lawyers stormed out of their courthouses, shouting about the rough treatment police dished out to their colleagues amid Turkey's biggest anti-government protests in years.
    (SFC, 6/12/13, p.A3)(AP, 6/12/13)(SFC, 6/13/13, p.A5)

2013        Jun 13, Turkey’s PM Erdogan declared "lawbreakers" will be removed from Istanbul's Taksim Square." Ethem Sarisuluk (26), who had been on life support for days, was pronounced dead. He was believed to have been hit in the head by a tear gas canister on June 1 during protests in Ankara. This raised the death toll to 5 from the two-week standoff.
    (AP, 6/13/13)

2013        Jun 14, Turkey’s state news reported that as many as 73 Syrian military officers — including seven generals and 20 colonels — have crossed the border into Turkey with their families "seeking refuge."
    (AP, 6/14/13)

2013        Jun 15, In Turkey protesters at Istanbul's Gezi Park vowed to press on with their 2-week sit-in, defying government appeals and a warning from Erdogan for an end to the standoff. Tens of thousands of supporters of PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan rallied in Sincan, a suburb of Ankara. In the evening riot police cleared Gezi Park and Taksim Square of thousands of peaceful protesters in a swift but muscular operation.
    (AP, 6/15/13)(AP, 6/16/13)

2013        Jun 16, In Turkey thousands of defiant protesters attempting to converge on central Istanbul's Taksim Square were kept away by police firing repeated rounds of tear gas, as the government maintained a hard line against rekindled demonstrations. Protesters vowed the group would retake Gezi Park.
    (AP, 6/16/13)

2013        Jun 17, In Turkey labor unions and political foes of PM Recep Erdogan rallied by the thousands across the country, hoping to capitalize on weeks of initially small-scale protest to register broader discontent. The call to walk off the job had limited fallout beyond the demonstrations.
    (AP, 6/17/13)
2013        Jun 17, In Turkey Erdem Gunduz, a choreographer, began a silent and motionless stand in Taksim Square to protest police use of tear gas and water cannon to clear both the square and Gezi Park of thousands of demonstrators.
    (Econ, 6/22/13, p.56)(http://tinyurl.com/kh3yqve)

2013        Jun 18, Turkey’s PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan defended the nation's police and vowed to increase their powers to deal with unrest. News reports said police were carrying out raids and detaining people suspected of involvement in violence against police. 4 protesters and one police officer have been killed and Turkey's doctors association said an investigation was underway into the death of a fifth protester who was exposed to tear gas.
    (AP, 6/18/13)

2013        Jun 22, Turkish police used water cannon to disperse thousands gathered in Istanbul's Taksim Square to observe a memorial for four people killed during recent anti-government protests. The officers later fired tear gas and rubber bullets, and in some cases beat people with batons, to scatter demonstrators who regrouped in side streets.
    (AP, 6/22/13)

2013        Jun 25, Turkish police detained at least 20 people allegedly involved in violent protests, as the country's prime minister continued to lash out at protesters, and BBC journalist Selin Girit, he claimed were part of a conspiracy to harm Turkey.
    (AP, 6/25/13)(SFC, 6/26/13, p.A2)

2013        Jun 28, Turkish security forces killed one person and wounded ten when they fired on a group protesting against the construction of a new gendarmerie outpost in Kayacik village, Diyarbakir province.
    (Reuters, 6/29/13)

2013        Jun 29, In Turkey thousands of protesters marched to Istanbul's Taksim Square chanting slogans against the government and police after security forces killed a Kurdish demonstrator in the southeast.
    (Reuters, 6/29/13)

2013        Jun 30, In Turkey police fired teargas and water cannon to disperse thousands of protesters in Diyarbakir, the main city in Turkey's Kurdish-dominated southeast, during demonstrations across the country to pressure the government to carry out reforms.
    (Reuters, 6/30/13)

2013        Jul 4, Syrian opposition figures met in Turkey to elect a new leadership as President Bashar Assad claims his opponents have failed to overthrow his regime.
    (AP, 7/4/13)

2013        Jul 6, Turkish police fired teargas and water cannon to disperse hundreds of protesters in an Istanbul square as they gathered to enter Gezi Park, the center of protests against PM Tayyip Erdogan last month.
    (Reuters, 7/6/13)
2013        Jul 6, In Turkey Ahmad al-Jarba, a former Syrian political prisoner with close links to Saudi Arabia, was picked to lead Syria's main Western-backed opposition group, filling a post long vacant due to divisions among President Bashar Assad's opponents.
    (AP, 7/6/13)

2013        Jul 8, Turkey reopened Istanbul’s Gezi Park at the heart of last month's demonstrations against PM Tayyip Erdogan. Protest leaders called a rally there for this evening in defiance of the city governor. Hours later police forced people out due to concerns about a planned protest rally. Clashes ensued in nearby streets before police allowed people back into the park around midnight.
    (AP, 7/8/13)(Reuters, 7/9/13)

2013        Jul 9, In Turkey Gezi Park in Istanbul, at the center of protests against PM Tayyip Erdogan's government, reopened after a night of clashes between police and protesters, but the mood among the small groups of visitors was calm.
    (Reuters, 7/9/13)

2013        Jul 13, Turkey’s state-run Anadolu news agency said the parliament has amended an internal armed forces’ regulation that further strips the military of its political influence.
    (SSFC, 7/14/13, p.A5)
2013        Jul 13, Turkish police fired water cannon and tear gas to disperse hundreds of protesters who gathered to march to Gezi Park, which has been at the heart of fierce unrest against PM Erdogan's rule.
    (Reuters, 7/13/13)

2013        Jul 16, Turkish police arrested about 30 people in Istanbul after briefly detaining more than 1,000 in a widening crackdown after weeks of violent anti-government protests.
    (Reuters, 7/16/13)
2013        Jul 16, A man and a 15-year-old boy were killed by stray bullets shot from Syria into a Turkish border town. Turkish troops returned fire, in the most serious spillover of violence in weeks.
    (Reuters, 7/17/13)

2013        Jul 17, The Turkish military said a Syrian Kurdish party with links to Kurdish militants in Turkey has seized control of a Syrian border town after days of clashes with Islamist fighters.
    (Reuters, 7/18/13)

2013        Jul 19, In Turkey a landslide triggered by heavy rains killed at least five people near Turkey's border with Syria.
    (AP, 7/19/13)

2013        Jul 20, In Turkey police fired water cannon and tear gas in downtown Istanbul to disperse anti-government demonstrators after barring them from entering a park where they had hoped to celebrate the wedding of a couple who met during last month's widespread protests.
    (AP, 7/20/13)

2013        Jul 23, A Turkish border patrol killed one of eight civilians trying to cross illegally from Turkey into Syria. The group had been trying to cross from Hatay province into northwestern Syria and had fired on the Turkish patrol after the troops had whistled a warning.
    (Reuters, 7/23/13)

2013        Jul 27, In Somalia a Turkish security official and a Somali student were killed in a terrorist attack on the Turkish consulate and relief mission. Three suicide bombers also died in the attack in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 7/28/13)

2013        Jul 30, Turkish soldiers shot into the air and fired tear gas to prevent hundreds of people, many of them believed to be smugglers, from trying to cross into Turkey from Syria.
    (Reuters, 7/30/13)

2013        Aug 3, Turkish police fired teargas and water cannon to disperse small groups of anti-government protesters in central Istanbul.
    (Reuters, 8/3/13)
2013        Aug 3, A Turkish man, Ramazan Zeybel (45) was killed by a stray bullet fired from Syria into the Turkish town of Ceylanpinar.
    (Reuters, 8/3/13)

2013        Aug 5, Turkey's former military chief, retired Gen. Ilker Basbug, was convicted of trying to overthrow the government in 2002 and sentenced to life in prison. 18 other defendants were sentenced to life in prison, including 10 retired military officers, while 60 other defendants received sentences ranging from a year to 47 years.
    (AP, 8/5/13)(Econ, 8/10/13, p.46)

2013        Aug 6, Eighteen Turkish soldiers were injured when a group of several thousand alleged smugglers clashed with the army as they tried to cross into Turkey from Syria.
    (Reuters, 8/6/13)

2013        Aug 9, In Lebanon gunmen abducted a Turkish Airlines pilot and his assistant in Beirut, forcing them from a bus as it took them from the airport in the early hours of the morning. A group claimed responsibility for the abduction in the name of nine Lebanese Shi'ite Muslims kidnapped last year in Azaz near the Turkish-Syrian border.
    (Reuters, 8/9/13)

2013        Aug 21, In Iraq two bomb attacks halted the flow of crude oil through a pipeline running from the Kirkuk oil fields to the Mediterranean port of Ceyhan in Turkey, causing severe damage.
    (Reuters, 8/21/13)

2013        Aug 26, In Turkey Western powers meeting in Istanbul told the Syrian opposition to expect a strike against President Bashar al-Assad's forces within days.
    (Reuters, 8/27/13)

2013        Sep 2, The first of more than 100 senior Turkish army officers began testifying in court over their alleged role in ousting Turkey's first Islamist-led government in 1997.
    (Reuters, 9/2/13)

2013        Sep 6, Turkish PM Tayyip Erdogan said almost all leaders at the G20 summit in St. Petersburg accepted the need for an operation to be carried out against Syria following a chemical weapons attack there last month.
    (Reuters, 9/6/13)

2013        Sep 9, Kurdish rebels announced they are suspending their withdrawal from Turkey into bases in northern Iraq over what they say is the Turkish government's failure to advance peace talks aimed at ending a nearly 30-year-old conflict.
    (AP, 9/9/13)
2013        Sep 9, In central Turkey Japanese tourist Mai Kurkiharac (22) was stabbed to death and her friend seriously wounded in an attack in Cappadocia.
    (Reuters, 9/10/13)

2013        Sep 10, Turkish police fired tear gas and plastic bullets at thousands of people who gathered in Istanbul to protest the death of a 22-year-old demonstrator. Ahmet Atakan died in hospital after being hit in the head by a tear gas canister during clashes between police and around 150 protesters in the southeastern city of Antakya in Hatay province.
    (AFP, 9/10/13)

2013        Sep 16, Turkish warplanes shot down a Syrian helicopter after it crossed into Turkish airspace. Syria's army acknowledged the helicopter had strayed into Turkish airspace for a short time while monitoring "terrorists" moving across the border into Syria, but said it was an accident and that the aircraft was on its way back when it was shot down.
    (Reuters, 9/16/13)

2013        Sep 20, Turkish authorities shot and killed one suspect and wounded another after a rocket attack on a police headquarters in Ankara. The suspects were believed to be members of the far-left Revolutionary People's Liberation Party-Front (DHKP-C).
    (AP, 9/21/13)

2013        Sep 25, In Turkey 18 members of the outlawed Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) escaped overnight from prison in the southeast by digging a 70-meter-long tunnel. All but one were caught by the next day.
    (Reuters, 9/25/13)(Reuters, 9/26/13)

2013        Sep 30, Turkish PM Tayyip Erdogan announced long-anticipated reforms seen as designed to salvage a fragile peace process with Kurdish insurgents, including changes to the electoral system and increasing language rights.
    (Reuters, 9/30/13)
2013        Sep 30, Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan announced that his government would lift a ban on wearing headscarves in public institutions as part of reforms to boost rights.
    (AFP, 9/30/13)

2013        Oct 8, Turkey lifted a 90-year-old ban on Islamic headscarves in the civil service as part of wide-ranging reforms driven by the Islamic-rooted government.
    (AFP, 10/8/13)(SFC, 10/9/13, p.A2)

2013        Oct 9, Turkey’s Supreme Court upheld the convictions of 237 military officers accused of plotting to overthrow the government in 2003.
    (SFC, 10/10/13, p.A4)

2013        Oct 15, Turkey for the first time fired four artillery rounds against a position near the town of Azaz, Syria, held by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)," an Al-Qaeda affiliated group, in retaliation for a mortar round that fell on Turkish territory.
    (AP, 10/17/13)

2013        Oct 28, Turkish police fired water cannon and teargas to break up a protest by around 2,000 people outside an Ankara court over the handling of the trial of a policeman accused of killing a demonstrator earlier this year. Officer Ahmet Sahbaz is accused of killing Ethem Sarisuluk, shot dead June 1 during a wave of nationwide anti-government demonstrations.
    (Reuters, 10/28/13)

2013        Oct 29, Turkey opened its Marmaray tunnel, the world's first underwater rail link connecting Asia and Europe. The 8.5 mile tunnel allowed PM Tayyip Erdogan to realize a project dreamed up by Ottoman sultans more than a century ago.
    (Reuters, 10/29/13)(SFC, 10/30/13, p.A3)

2013        Nov 5, The European Union resumed membership talks with Turkey. They were stalled for 3½ years mainly because of the country's ongoing dispute with Cyprus.
    (AP, 11/5/13)

2013        Nov 7, Turkish riot police fired tear gas to disperse Kurdish protesters demonstrating against government plans to build a wall along part of the border with Syria.
    (AP, 11/7/13)

2013        Nov 10, Turkey and Iraq pledged greater cooperation on trade and counter-terrorism while admitting to disagreements over Syria's war during a landmark visit to Baghdad by the Turkish foreign minister.
    (AFP, 11/10/13)
2013        Nov 10, The main Western-backed Syrian opposition began the 2nd day of a two-day meeting in Istanbul to decide whether they will attend a proposed peace conference the US and Russia are trying to convene in Geneva by the end of this year.
    (AP, 11/10/13)

2013        Nov 13, Turkey's parliament lifted a ban on women lawmakers wearing trousers in the assembly, in a further liberalization of dress rules following a landmark decision to allow female deputies to wear the Islamic headscarf.
    (Reuters, 11/14/13)

2013        Nov 16, Masoud Barzani, the president of Iraqi Kurdistan, called on Turkey's Kurds to back a flagging peace process with Ankara, making his first visit to southeastern Turkey in two decades in a show of support for PM Tayyip Erdogan.
    (Reuters, 11/16/13)

2013        Nov 23, Egypt said it was expelling Turkey's ambassador and accused Ankara of backing organizations bent on spreading instability - an apparent reference to the Muslim Brotherhood of ousted Egyptian president Mohamed Mursi.
    (Reuters, 11/23/13)

2013        Nov 27, Turkey and Iraqi Kurdistan signed a package of landmark contracts that will see the semi-autonomous region's oil and gas exported via pipelines through Turkey.
    (Reuters, 11/29/13)

2013        Dec 2, Turkey said it stood by a bilateral oil deal with Iraq's Kurdistan region that bypassed central government but sought to appease Baghdad by drawing it into the arrangement.
    (Reuters, 12/2/13)

2013        Dec 6, In southeastern Turkey two Kurdish protesters, aged 34 and 32, were shot dead in a violent confrontation with police. The clashes were sparked by claims that Kurdish rebel cemeteries had been destroyed.
    (AFP, 12/7/13)

2013        Dec 9, Kurdish rebels freed four Turkish soldiers abducted in the southeast of the country in the worst flareup of violence since a fragile ceasefire nine months ago.
    (AFP, 12/9/13)

2013        Dec 10, Officials in Istanbul, Turkey, said they plan to introduce floating car parks to try to resolve the chronic traffic problems. They will use out-of-service ferries anchored in the Bosphorus to create multi-storey lots near traffic hotspots.
    (AFP, 12/10/13)

2013        Dec 16, Turkey’s Hurriyet Daily News reported that Turkey has shipped 47 tons of weapons to Syrian rebels since June despite repeated government denials.
    (AFP, 12/16/13)
2013        Dec 16, Turkey signed a long-awaited deal with the European Union to send back people who enter the bloc illegally from its territory in exchange for talks on visa-free travel for its citizens.
    (AFP, 12/16/13)

2013        Dec 17, Turkish police detained the sons of three cabinet ministers and several well-known businessmen as part of investigations into alleged corruption. Police seized shoeboxes stashed with $4.5 million in cash at the home of Suleyman Aslan, a state-owned bank's chief executive. Police arrested some 50 people altogether on suspicion of tender rigging, covert gold transfers to Iran and bribery.
    (Reuters, 12/17/13)(AP, 12/18/13)(Econ, 1/4/14, p.37)

2013        Dec 18, Turkey's PM Tayyip Erdogan denounced a corruption crackdown on his allies months ahead of elections as a "dirty operation" to smear his administration and undermine the country's progress.
    (Reuters, 12/18/13)

2013        Dec 19, In Turkey Istanbul's most senior police official was dismissed, days after police launched raids that detained dozens of people.
    (AP, 12/19/13)

2013        Dec 20, Turkey’s PM Tayyip Erdogan pressed a widening purge of the police command, tackling the biggest challenge of his rule from what he describes as a foreign-backed conspiracy to undermine him and create a state within a state.
    (Reuters, 12/20/13)

2013        Dec 21, Turkey’s PM Tayyip Erdogan denounced "international groups" and "dark alliances" for entangling Turkey in a corruption scandal that has exposed deep rifts between him and Fethullah Gulen, a US-based Muslim cleric who helped him rise to power.
    (Reuters, 12/21/13)

2013        Dec 22, Turkish media reported that authorities have removed another 25 police chiefs from their posts, widening a crackdown on the force since it launched a corruption investigation that PM Tayyip Erdogan has called a "dirty operation" against his rule. Turkey's interior minister said he has offered his resignation to PM Erdogan over a corruption scandal that has resulted in his son's arrest. Police in Istanbul clashed with protesters denouncing Erdogan's government over a corruption and bribery scandal targeting his allies.
    (Reuters, 12/22/13)(AP, 12/22/13)

2013        Dec 24, Turkey’s President Abdullah Gul sought to salve furor over a high-level corruption case by assuring the public there would be no cover-up and that the courts were free to investigate.
    (Reuters, 12/24/13)

2013        Dec 25, In Turkey three Cabinet ministers resigned, days after their sons were taken into custody in a sweeping corruption and bribery scandal that has targeted PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan's allies in one of the worst political crises of his more than 10 years in power.
    (AP, 12/25/13)

2013        Dec 26, A Turkish prosecutor said he had been prevented from expanding a corruption investigation that has touched the heart of the government, alleging pressure on the judiciary.
    (AFP, 12/26/13)

2013        Dec 27, In Turkey three lawmakers, including a former minister, resigned from the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP). A Turkish court blocked a government attempt to force police to disclose investigations to their superiors.
    (AFP, 12/27/13)(Reuters, 12/27/13)

2013        Dec 31, In Turkey another lawmaker from the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) announced his resignation amid a high-level bribery and corruption probe. Hasan Hami Yildirim had criticised the government forfor exerting pressure on the judiciary over the corruption.
    (AFP, 12/31/13)

2014        Jan 3, A Turkish court ordered the release from jail of two Kurdish lawmakers being tried for links to militants in a potential boost to a fragile peace process. Turkish prosecutors said they have charged 36 protesters with terrorism over mass anti-government demonstrations that swept the country last year.
    (Reuters, 1/3/14)(AFP, 1/3/14)

2014        Jan 4, A Turkish court ordered the release from jail of three Kurdish lawmakers, in addition to two freed a day earlier.
    (Reuters, 1/4/14)

2014        Jan 7, Turkish PM Tayyip Erdogan's government purged hundreds of police officers overnight, as part of a crackdown on a rival he accuses of trying to usurp state power by tarring him with a specious corruption investigation. Despite the dismissals police and prosecutors continued arrests, targeting the state railway company and a western port. Police detained some 25 people in the city of Izmir for questioning over a new bribery and fraud investigation.
    (Reuters, 1/7/14)(AP, 1/8/14)
2014        Jan 7, Turkey’s Anadolu state news said military prosecutors have dropped a case against five officers who were being investigated for negligence in the military air strike on Dec 11, 2011, that killed 34 smugglers mistaken for Kurdish rebels, saying there was no ground for any legal action.
    (AP, 1/7/14)

2014        Jan 8, Turkey's deputy police chief was sacked overnight, the most senior commander yet targeted in a purge of a force heavily influenced by cleric Fethullah Gulen PM Tayyip Erdogan accuses of plotting to seize the levers of state power. The police chief of Izmir was among 16 senior police officials reassigned to new posts.
    (Reuters, 1/8/14)(AP, 1/8/14)

2014        Jan 10, Turkey's top judicial body hit back at government's plans to curb its powers, adding fuel to a bitter row over a vast corruption probe engulfing Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan.
    (AFP, 1/10/14)

2014        Jan 11, Turkish politicians threw punches and water bottles during a debate about government control over the appointment of judges and prosecutors. Tens of thousands of demonstrators took to the streets of Ankara in protest against PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan's government.
    (Reuters, 1/11/14)(AFP, 1/11/14)

2014        Jan 14, Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan said he was ready to withdraw a contentious bill aimed at curbing the powers of the judiciary as he battled to contain the worst crisis of his 11 years in office.
    (AFP, 1/14/14)
2014        Jan 14, Turkish anti-terrorism police carried out raids in six cities, detaining at least five people with alleged links to al-Qaida.
    (AP, 1/14/14)

2014        Jan 15, Turkey's embattled Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan declared open war on what he labelled an "empire of fear" created by an Islamic rival at the heart of a deepening political crisis.
    (AFP, 1/15/14)

2014        Jan 17, Turkish authorities seized the assets of the main opposition candidate for the post of Istanbul mayor in the run-up to local polls in March. Turkey's Savings Deposit Insurance Fund announced the decision after Mustafa Sarigul and nine other people failed to repay a loan worth $3.5 million (2.6 million euros) dating back to 1998.
    (AFP, 1/18/14)

2014        Jan 18, In Turkey riot police in Istanbul used water canons against hundreds of people protesting a government plan to expand controls over the public’s use of the Internet.
    (SSFC, 1/19/14, p.A6)
2014        Jan 18, State media said Turkey has extended a purge of official bodies to the banking and telecoms regulators and state TV, firing dozens of executives in moves that appear to broaden PM Tayyip Erdogan's backlash against a corruption investigation.
    (Reuters, 1/18/14)

2014        Jan 23, In central Turkey at least 21 people were killed when a bus tipped over on an icy road.
    (AFP, 1/23/14)

2014        Jan 28, Turkey's central bank hiked all of its key interest rates in dramatic fashion at an emergency midnight policy meeting, ignoring opposition from PM Tayyip Erdogan as it battles to defend the country's crumbling lira currency. The key rate rose from 4.5% to 10%.
    (Reuters, 1/28/14)(Econ, 2/1/14, p.59)

2014        Jan 29, Turkish PM Tayyip Erdogan arrived in Iran to bolster trade and energy relations.
    (Reuters, 1/29/14)

2014        Jan 30, In Turkey hundreds of police were transferred from their posts in Ankara and Izmir, and dozens more were affected in Istanbul and the southeastern city of Gaziantep. Altogether, more than 5,000 police officers have been dismissed or transferred since the graft inquiry became public on December 17 with the arrest of businessmen close to PM Tayyip Erdogan and three cabinet ministers' sons.
    (Reuters, 1/31/14)

2014        Feb 3, Haaretz newspaper said Israel has offered Turkey $20 million in compensation to the families of those killed and wounded in its botched 2010 raid on a Gaza-bound flotilla.
    (AFP, 2/3/14)

2014        Feb 5, Turkey's parliament approved internet controls enabling web pages to be blocked within hours in what the opposition decried as part of a government bid to stifle a corruption scandal.
    (Reuters, 2/6/14)

2014        Feb 7, Turkish newspaper Today's Zaman said one of its journalists, Mahir Zeynalov (27) from Azerbaijan, has been ordered to leave the country for criticizing PM Tayyip Erdogan on Twitter.
    (Reuters, 2/7/14)

2014        Feb 15, Turkey's parliament approved a law boosting government control over the appointment of judges and prosecutors, after a heated debate and a brawl that left one opposition lawmaker hospitalized.
    (Reuters, 2/15/14)
2014        Feb 15, In Turkey thousands of Kurds demonstrated in towns across the south east, some clashing violently with riot police as they called for the release of Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Ocalan on the 15th anniversary of his capture.
    (Reuters, 2/15/14)

2014        Feb 22, Turkey's interior ministry said 1,000 police officers have been removed in the wake of a major corruption probe against key government allies but said these were only "routine" re-assignments.
    (AFP, 2/22/14)

2014        Feb 24, A taped conversation of Turkey’s PM Erdogan speaking with his younger son Bilal was posted on You Tube. It dated to Dec 17 when police raided the homes of several members of Erdogan’s cabinet and business allies as part of a corruption probe.
    (Econ, 3/1/14, p.53)

2014        Feb 25, Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan condemned leaked recordings of him and his son allegedly discussing how to hide large sums of money as a "vile attack" by rivals, as calls mounted for his beleaguered government to resign. Riot police fired tear gas and water cannon to disperse several hundred people protesting against the government at an Ankara university.
    (AFP, 2/25/14)(Reuters, 2/25/14)

2014        Feb 26, Turkey's president approved a controversial bill limiting the independence of the judiciary — a law that is widely interpreted as a government response to corruption allegations brought by prosecutors that have recently implicated PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan. Parliament approved a watered-down version of a new Internet law that would give Turkey's telecommunications authority the power to shut down websites for privacy violations, although it would have to obtain court approval within 24 hours.
    (AP, 2/26/14)

2014        Feb 28, Turkey's state-run news agency said five remaining suspects jailed in a vast corruption investigation have been released on parole pending trial. Turkey's main opposition party asked the top court to overturn a law tightening government control of the judiciary, which it sees as a bid by PM Tayyip Erdogan to snuff out a corruption scandal.
    (AP, 2/28/14)(Reuters, 2/28/14)
2014        Feb 28, Turkey's parliament passed legislation to shut down private preparatory schools many of which are an important source of income and influence for an Islamic cleric PM Tayyip Erdogan accuses of running a covert campaign to topple him. Lawmakers set a deadline of September 1, 2015, to close the schools.
    (Reuters, 3/1/14)
2014        Feb 28, In southeastern Turkey suspected PKK gunmen abducted Abdurrahman Ecer (50), the top elected official of Cigli village.
    (Reuters, 3/2/14)

2014        Mar 5, Turkey’s PM Erdogan confirmed the authenticity of a tape asking his then-justice minister Sadullah Ergin to pressure a court into convicting media mogul Aydin Dogan, a long-time foe. The tape included a slight to the country’s large Alevi community. The tape followed the publication last month in local daily Taraf of internal government documents that appeared to show anti-Alevi discrimination in the recruitment process for civil servants.
    (AFP, 3/7/14)

2014        Mar 7, A Turkish court ordered the release of former army chief Ilker Basbug from a life sentence.
    (Reuters, 3/7/14)

2014        Mar 11, In Turkey police and protesters clashed in Ankara and Istanbul following the death of Berkin Elvan, a 15-year-old boy who suffered a head injury during anti-government demonstrations last summer. Elvan was the sixth person to die in violence surrounding nationwide protests in late May and June over Erdogan's plans to tear down a park in central Istanbul.
    (Reuters, 3/11/14)

2014        Mar 12, In Turkey tens of thousands of mourners chanting anti-government slogans marched through central Istanbul for the funeral of a teenager wounded in street protests last summer whose death has sparked renewed unrest across Turkey. Police clashed with protesters in at least 11 cities and at least two people were killed.
    (Reuters, 3/12/14)(SFC, 3/12/14, p.A2)(AFP, 3/13/14)

2014        Mar 13, Thai authorities detained 220 suspected Turkish migrants hiding in a secluded camp in the deep south and believed to be victims of a trafficking ring.
    (AP, 3/13/14)

2014        Mar 19, In Turkey Veysi Erim, a worker at a statistics office in the eastern province of Kars, shot dead six people before committing suicide.
    (Reuters, 3/19/14)

2014        Mar 20, Turkey’s PM Tayyip Erdogan's defiantly vowed, on the campaign trail ahead of March 30 local polls, to "wipe out" Twitter, whatever the international community had to say about it.
    (Reuters, 3/21/14)

2014        Mar 21, Turkey blocked access to Twitter after Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan threatened to "rip out the roots" of the social network where links have proliferated to recordings that appear to incriminate him and other top officials in corruption.
    (AP, 3/21/14)

2014        Mar 22, Turkish authorities sought to tighten a clampdown on Twitter after social media users easily evaded the government's attempt to block access to the service.
    (AP, 3/22/14)

2014        Mar 23, Turkish fighter jets shot down a Syrian warplane after it violated Turkey's airspace. The pilot safely ejected from the aircraft.
    (AP, 3/23/14)

2014        Mar 25, Turkish special forces raided buildings in Istanbul used by suspected members of an Islamist militant group active in neighboring Syria and Iraq, leaving three policemen and two suspects wounded.
    (Reuters, 3/26/14)

2014        Mar 26, A Turkish court ordered the telecommunications authority to restore access to Twitter, issuing an injunction five days after the government blocked access to the social network.
    (AP, 3/26/14)

2014        Mar 27, In Turkey KanalTurk television station, linked to opponents of PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan, said authorities have withdrawn its license to broadcast nationally just days before crucial local elections.
    (AP, 3/27/14)
2014        Mar 27, Israel said it will allow into the Gaza Strip construction materials and electric equipment to help build a Turkish-sponsored hospital, in a possible sign of improving ties with Ankara.
    (Reuters, 3/27/14)

2014        Mar 30, In Turkey violent feuds broke out in local elections for village and neighborhood leaders, leaving 6 people dead in the village of Yuvacik, Sanliurfa province, and 2 dead in the southern city of Hatay. PM Erdogan’s AK Party led the polls with 46%, retaining control of the two biggest cities Istanbul and Ankara and increasing its share of the national vote.
    (AP, 3/30/14)(Reuters, 3/31/14)(SSFC, 4/6/14, p.A4)

2014        Apr 1, In Turkey riot police fired water cannon in Ankara to disperse thousands of people protesting outside the Supreme Electoral Council (YSK) against local election results which saw the ruling party dominate the electoral map. Election results in Ankara were particularly close.
    (Reuters, 4/1/14)

2014        Apr 3, Turkey's telecoms authority lifted a two-week-old ban on Twitter, after the constitutional court ruled the block breached freedom of expression.
    (Reuters, 4/3/14)

2014        Apr 4, A Turkish court ruled that a blanket ban of social-media website YouTube violated human rights and ordered most of the restrictions be lifted, citing a top court ruling this week that scrapped a similar ban on microblogging site Twitter. But the court soon reversed the YouTube decision, saying the block would remain in place until the audio recordings allegedly showing top-level security talks on Syria are removed.
    (Reuters, 4/4/14)(AFP, 4/5/14)

2014        Apr 9, Kuwait said three of its citizens have been kidnapped in Syria and it has asked Turkey for help in trying to secure their release. Kidnappers asked for a ransom of 1 million euros ($1.38 million).
    (Reuters, 4/10/14)

2014        Apr 10, Turkey’s government said a charity at which PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan's son sits on the board received more than $100 million of aid over a four-year period. The government sought parliamentary approval to boost the powers of the secret service, a move seen by PM Erdogan's critics as a bid to tighten his grip on the apparatus of state as he wages a bitter power struggle.
    (AFP, 4/10/14)(Reuters, 4/10/14)

2014        Apr 11, Turkey's constitutional court dealt another blow to PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan by annulling sections of a controversial law tightening the government's control over the judiciary.
    (AFP, 4/11/14)
2014        Apr 11, Turkey condemned a US Senate committee resolution branding the massacre of Armenians by Ottoman forces during World War One as genocide and warned Congress against taking steps that would harm Turkish-American ties.
    (Reuters, 4/11/14)

2014        Apr 12, Turkey's PM Erdogan said he will "go after" Twitter, accusing the site of tax-evasion, after it was used to spread damaging leaks implicating his inner circle in corruption scandals.
    (AFP, 4/12/14)

2014        Apr 21, Turkey's energy minister said an oil pipeline carrying crude from Iraq's Kirkuk oil fields to Turkey's Mediterranean port of Ceyhan is unusable because of persistent militant attacks.
    (Reuters, 4/21/14)

2014        Apr 22, Turkey’s PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan said number of Syrian refugees in Turkey has reached "almost one million," while pledging to keep accepting those fleeing the war.
    (AFP, 4/22/14)

2014        Apr 23, Turkish PM Tayyip Erdogan offered what the government said were unprecedented condolences on Wednesday to the grandchildren of Armenians killed in World War One by Ottoman soldiers on the eve of the 99th anniversary of the deeply contested deaths.
    (Reuters, 4/23/14)

2014        Apr 26, Turkish President Abdullah Gul approved a controversial law expanding the powers of the spy agency, a move critics say will tighten the graft-tainted government's control over state institutions.
    (AFP, 4/26/14)

2014        Apr 29, Turkey’s PM Tayyip Erdogan said he would ask the United States to extradite Islamic cleric Fethullah Gulen, whom he accuses of plotting to topple him and undermine Turkey with concocted graft accusations and secret wire taps. Gulen has lived in self-imposed exile in Pennsylvania since 1997.
    (Reuters, 4/29/14)

2014        Apr, Germany’s Pres. Joachim Gauck visited Turkey and criticized the erosion of civil liberties there.
    (Econ, 5/24/14, p.45)

2014        May 1, Turkish police fired tear gas, water cannon and rubber pellets to stop May Day protesters, some armed with fire bombs, from defying PM Tayyip Erdogan and reaching Istanbul's central Taksim square.
    (Reuters, 5/1/14)

2014        May 2, Turkish media said prosecutors have dismissed a case against 60 suspects, among them a former minister's son and a construction tycoon, in the graft scandal swirling around PM Tayyip Erdogan's inner circle.
    (Reuters, 5/2/14)

2014        May 12, The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) ordered Turkey to pay 90 million euros ($124 million) in damages for its 1974 invasion of Cyprus, the largest such ruling in its history. Turkish officials the next day said that the country will not pay the fine.
    (CSM, 5/13/14)

2014        May 13, In western Turkey at least 282 people were killed underground after an explosion and fire at the Soma coal mine in Manisa province. The death toll soon rose to 302, making it the worst industrial accident in Turkish history.
    (AP, 5/13/14)(Reuters, 5/14/14)(Reuters, 5/17/14)(Econ, 11/29/14, p.49)

2014        May 16, Turkish police fired water cannon and tear gas to disperse a crowd of several thousand protesters in the town of Soma, where 301 people died in the country's worst ever mining disaster this week.
    (Reuters, 5/16/14)

2014        May 18, Turkish police detained 24 people, including mining company executives and personnel, as an investigation into last week's mine disaster in Soma got underway. The last of 301 victims were buried.
    (Reuters, 5/18/14)(SSFC, 5/25/14, p.A6)

2014        May 22, In Turkey violence erupted when police fired live ammunition as well as tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse protesters who denounced the death of a teenage boy who fell into a coma during anti-government unrest last year. At least one person was killed by gunshot and another died of wounds from a grenade explosion.
    (AFP, 5/23/14)

2014        May 23, Iraq took legal action against Turkey after Ankara announced that oil from Iraq's autonomous Kurdish region was being exported to international markets.
    (AFP, 5/23/14)

2014        May 24, A magnitude 6.9 earthquake struck northern Greece and western Turkey. Over 250 people were reported injured.
    (SSFC, 5/25/14, p.A4)

2014        May 26, A Turkish court ordered the arrests of four former Israeli military commanders being tried in absentia over the killing of 9 people aboard a Turkish aid ship that tried to break a Gaza blockade on May 31, 2010.
    (AP, 5/26/14)

2014        May 27, In Somalia a Turkish man, Saadettin Dogan, was shot dead in Mogadishu when gunmen attacked the car he was traveling in with a senior manager from Turkish Airlines.
    (Reuters, 5/27/14)

2014        May 28, In southeast Turkey Kurdish guerrillas shot dead a state-sponsored militia member in the southeastern province of Mardin.
    (Reuters, 5/29/14)

2014        May 31, Turkish police shut Gezi Park, the Istanbul square at the center of mass demonstrations in 2013, to prevent any efforts to mark the anniversary of the biggest anti-government protests in decades.
    (Reuters, 5/31/14)

2014        Jun 7, In Turkey 2 people were killed in southeast Diyarbakir province as Kurdish protesters, demonstrating against the construction of new military outposts, threw petrol bombs at security forces who then opened fire.
    (Reuters, 6/8/14)

2014        Jun 9, Iranian President Hassan Rouhani met with Turkish officials, including PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan, in the first official Iranian presidential visit to Turkey since 1996.
    (AP, 6/9/14)

2014        Jun 10, In Iraq ISIL militants seized 48 Turks from the Turkish consulate in Mosul, including the consul-general, three children and several members of Turkey's special forces. ISIL, numbering some 7-10 thousand fighters, was led by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi.
    (Reuters, 6/11/14)(SFC, 6/12/14, p.A8)(Econ, 8/2/14, p.41)

2014        Jun 14, Turkey said it has temporarily pulled its diplomatic staff out of the Libyan city of Benghazi and urged its nationals to leave the east of the country amid mounting security concerns.
    (AP, 6/14/14)

2014        Jun 18, A Turkish court convicted the only two surviving leaders of the country's 1980 military coup of crimes against the state and sentenced them to life imprisonment. Kenan Evren (96), the military chief of staff who led the takeover and went on to serve as president until 1989, and Tahsin Sahinkaya (89), a former air force chief, had been on trial since 2012.
    (AP, 6/18/14)(Econ, 6/28/14, p.45)
2014        Jun 18, A criminal court in Istanbul ordered the release of 230 military officers convicted of plotting to topple PM Tayyip Erdogan, a day after the country's top court ruled their trial was flawed. A retrial was ordered.
    (Reuters, 6/19/14)(Econ, 6/28/14, p.45)
2014        Jun 18, The Indian government said 40 Indian construction workers have been seized near Iraq's second-largest city, Mosul, which ISIL and allied Sunni fighters captured last week. The Turkish Foreign Ministry said its diplomats were investigating a Turkish media report that militants grabbed 60 foreign construction workers, including some 15 Turks, near the northern Iraqi oil city of Kirkuk.
    (AP, 6/18/14)

2014        Jul 1, Turkey's ruling party nominated PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan to run in Turkey's first directly elected presidential race in August, announcing his candidacy to thousands of cheering supporters.
    (AP, 7/1/14)

2014        Jul 3, The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant marched across eastern Syria near the border with Iraq, seizing towns, villages and the country's largest oil field as rival rebel factions gave up the fight. ISIL released 32 Turkish truck drivers who they captured during a lightning offensive across northern and western Iraq last month.
    (AP, 7/3/14)

2014        Jul 5, Turkish media said Kurdish rebels will begin a stalled withdrawal from Turkey into their safe haven in northern Iraq after parliament passes reforms aimed at ending a decades-long insurgency.
    (AFP, 7/5/14)

2014        Jul 21, Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan said he has stopped talking to US President Barack Obama on the phone, amid growing strains between Ankara and Washington over Syria and the Gaza conflict.
    (AFP, 7/22/14)

2014        Jul 22, Turkish authorities arrested dozens of senior police officers in a criminal probe over alleged illegal wire-tapping and forgery, the latest crackdown on opponents of PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan ahead of presidential polls.
    (AFP, 7/22/14)

2014        Jul 25, Turkey inaugurated a high-speed rail service linking the capital Ankara to Istanbul which will cut travel time between the country's main two cities by half.
    (AP, 7/25/14)

2014        Jul 26, A Turkish court ordered the formal arrest of 12 more police officers, including the former head of Istanbul's intelligence unit, pending charges they may have illegally wiretapped PM Tayyip Erdogan.
    (Reuters, 7/26/14)

2014        Aug 5, In Turkey dozens of police officers were detained in a widening probe of wiretapping allegedly targeting PM Tayyip Erdogan.
    (Reuters, 8/5/14)

2014        Aug 7, Turkish officials said up to 800 people from Iraq's Yazidi community have fled across the border to Turkey after escaping a lightning offensive by jihadists from the Islamic State (IS) group.
    (AFP, 8/7/14)

2014        Aug 7, Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan branded Amberin Zaman, a prominent female journalist, a "shameless woman" and told her "to know your place".
    (AFP, 8/8/14)

2014        Aug 10, Turkey held presidential elections. PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan became Turkey’s first elected pre3sident and extended his domination despite warnings by opponents that the country is moving towards a one-man autocracy. Erdogan received 52% of the vote marking his 9th electoral victory during 12 years of power.
    (AFP, 8/10/14)(AFP, 8/11/14)(Econ, 8/16/14, p.42)(Econ, 9/13/14, p.61)

2014        Aug 12, In northern Turkey a coal mine collapse trapped up to nine people inside.
    (AP, 8/12/14)

2014        Aug 19, Turkish President Abdullah Gul said that Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu is set to take over from Recep Tayyip Erdogan as the country's next prime minister.
    (AFP, 8/19/14)

2014        Aug 24, In southeast Turkey Kurdish rebels abducted three Chinese workers and attacked a thermal power plant where they worked. They were seized while grocery shopping near the town Silopi and security forces soon launched an operation to rescue them.
    (AP, 8/26/14)

2014        Aug 25, In Turkey hundreds of residents angered by the presence of Syrian refugees clashed with police in a violent protest in the Ikitelli district of Istanbul. Syrian refugees in Turkey have now swelled to 1.2 million.
    (AFP, 8/25/14)

2014        Aug 28, Turkey's new Pres. Recep Erdogan took the oath of office. New PM Ahmet Davutoglu reappointed all key ministers who served under  Erdogan, setting a course of continuity for the new government.
    (AP, 8/29/14)(SFC, 8/29/14, p.A2)

2014        Sep 1, Turkish authorities detained at least 20 police officers in new nationwide raids over an alleged plot to overthrow the government of President Recep Tayyip Erdogan. Istanbul prosecutors announced they were dropping all legal proceedings against 96 people probed as a result of the corruption allegations, including Erdogan's son Bilal. Turkey's top judge issued a thinly-veiled warning to Erdogan to refrain from interfering in the judiciary.
    (AFP, 9/2/14)

2014        Sep 3, Turkish policeman Ahmet Sahbaz was jailed for seven years and nine months after being convicted of shooting dead protester Ethem Sarisuluk (26), during 2013 anti-government protests. The court had agreed he was provoked by the protesters.
    (AFP, 9/3/14)

2014        Sep 4, In Turkey Gaziantep province governor Erdal Ata said 19 militants affiliated with the Islamic State have been arrested. Ata also said police had caught suspected IS-linked jihadists coming from Europe or Caucasus, carrying backpacks, at the Gaziantep airport or at the border.
    (AFP, 9/4/14)

2014        Sep 10, Turkey’s parliament approved legislation to tighten the government’s control over the Internet.
    (Econ, 9/13/14, p.61)

2014        Sep 11, Turkey refused to sign the “Jeddah Communique," in which various Arab nations promised to back America’s military action against the Islamic State. On Sep 23 Pres. Erdogan said his country was ready to give necessary support to attacks on the IS.
    (Econ, 9/27/14, p.24)

2014        Sep 18, Turkish PKK rebels, who have spent three decades fighting for autonomy for Turkey's Kurds, called for the youth of the country's mostly Kurdish southeast to join the fight against Islamic State militants in northern Syria.
    (Reuters, 9/18/14)

2014        Sep 19, Turkey reopened its border with Syria to Kurds fleeing Islamic State (IS) militants, saying a "worst-case scenario" could drive as many as 100,000 more refugees into the country.
    (AFP, 9/19/14)

2014        Sep 20, Turkish intelligence agents brought 46 hostages, seized by Islamic State militants in Mosul on June 11, back to Turkey after more than three months in captivity.
    (Reuters, 9/20/14)
2014        Sep 20, In northern Syria the Islamic State executed at least 11 civilians, including at least two boys. It has seized at least 64 villages around Kobani since Sep 16, using heavy arms and thousands of fighters. At least 300 Kurdish fighters crossed from Turkey into Syria overnight to battle jihadists from the Islamic State group trying to seize Kobani, a strategic border town.
    (AFP, 9/20/14)(Reuters, 9/21/14)

2014        Sep 21, Kurdish militants in Turkey issued a new call to arms to defend the border town of Kobani, Syria, from advancing Islamic State fighters. Turkish authorities and the UN prepared for a surge in refugees. Clashes overnight reportedly killed 10 insurgents, bringing the number of IS fighters killed to at least 39. At least 27 Kurdish fighters have died.
    (Reuters, 9/21/14)

2014        Sep 22, Syrian Kurds battled to defend Kobani, a key border town from an Islamic State advance, as Kurdish youths from neighboring Turkey rushed to their aid, heightening the pressure on Ankara to act against the Islamist insurgents.
    (Reuters, 9/22/14)

2014        Sep 26, Islamic State fighters tightened their siege of the strategic town of Kobani on Syria's border with Turkey, pushing back Kurdish forces and sending at least two shells into Turkish territory.
    (Reuters, 9/26/14)

2014        Sep 27, Three Turkish police were killed after an ambush in the overwhelmingly Kurdish southeast, in an attack claimed by armed Kurdish militants despite a one-and-a-half-year ceasefire.
    (AFP, 9/27/14)

2014        Sep 29, Turkish tanks and armored vehicles took up positions on a hill overlooking the besieged Syrian border town of Kobani as shelling by Islamic State insurgents intensified and stray fire hit Turkish soil.
    (Reuters, 9/29/14)

2014        Oct 1, Turkish Pres. Tayyip Erdogan said Turkey will fight against Islamic State and other "terrorist" groups in the region but will stick to its aim of seeing Syrian President Bashar al-Assad removed from power.
    (Reuters, 10/1/14)

2014        Oct 2, The Turkish government won parliamentary approval to deploy troops against the Islamic State group.
    (AFP, 10/3/14)

2014        Oct 7, Turkey's president said Kobani was "about to fall" after Islamic State fighters advanced into the south west of the Syrian Kurdish town, pressing home a three-week assault has cost a reported 412 lives. More than 2,000 Syrian Kurds including women and children were evacuated from the town after the latest fighting.
    (Reuters, 10/7/14)
2014        Oct 7, In Turkey Kurdish protesters clashed with police. 20 protesters were killed in the clashes, mostly between sympathizers of rival Kurdish groups. Kurdish protesters also forced their way into the European Parliament in Brussels, part of Europe-wide demonstrations against the Islamic State group's advance on a town on the Syrian-Turkish border.
    (AP, 10/7/14)(Econ, 10/11/14, p.59)
2014        Oct 7, Cyprus' president suspended talks on reunifying the ethnically divided island in response to Turkey's plans to search for oil and gas in waters where the Cypriot government has already licensed Italy's Eni and South Korea's Kogas to drill.
    (AP, 10/7/14)

2014        Oct 8, In southeast Turkey at least 21 people were killed in riots, the deadliest street unrest in years, after the Kurdish minority rose up in fury at the government's refusal to protect a besieged Syrian town from Islamic State. US-led air strikes appeared to have pushed Islamic State fighters back to the edges of Kobani.
    (Reuters, 10/8/14)(Reuters, 10/9/14)

2014        Oct 9, Islamic State fighters seized more than a third of the Syrian border town of Kobani, as US-led air strikes failed to halt their advance and Turkish forces nearby looked on without intervening. Two police officers were shot dead in an apparent attempt to assassinate a police chief in Turkey’s eastern province of Bingol. Four of the alleged attackers were later killed and two more caught after a shootout with security forces. In Gaziantep province 4 people killed and 20 wounded as armed clashes broke out overnight between protesters calling for solidarity with Kobani.
    (Reuters, 10/9/14)(Reuters, 10/10/14)

2014        Oct 10, In Syria militants fought deeper into the Syrian Kurdish town of Kobani in full view of Turkish tanks that have done nothing to intervene. At least 31 people have been killed in three days of riots and street violence across Turkey’s mainly Kurdish southeast.
    (Reuters, 10/10/14)

2014        Oct 11, Kurdish forces defending Kobani urged a US-led coalition to escalate air strikes on Islamic State fighters who controlled more than a third of the Syrian town at the border with Turkey. 36 jihadi fighters were reportedly killed in Kobani.
    (Reuters, 10/11/14)(AP, 10/12/14)

2014        Oct 12, US Defense officials said Turkey will allow American and coalition troops to use its bases against Islamic State militants in Syria.
    (SFC, 10/13/14, p.A2)

2014        Oct 13, Turkish air force bombed Kurdish fighters furious over Ankara's refusal to help protect their kin in Syria. Bombs on PKK targets after they reportedly attacked a military outpost in the Daglica region.
    (Reuters, 10/14/14)
2014        Oct 13, Kurdish fighters engaged in fierce clashes with jihadists on the Turkish border near Kobane, as Ankara denied allowing Washington to use its bases against the Islamic State group.
    (AFP, 10/13/14)

2014        Oct 17, Prosecutors in Istanbul ruled that there were no grounds for legal action against 53 suspects, including the sons of two former government ministers and a prominent Iranian businessman, who were suspected of bribery and corruption in a case that shook the country in December.
    (AP, 10/18/14)

2014        Oct 18, Afghanistan’s leadership greeted the arrival of Turkish Pres. Recep Tayyip Erdogan. Pres. Ashraf Ghani and Erdogan signed an agreement on closer bilateral relationship between the two countries.
    (AFP, 10/19/14)
2014        Oct 18, In Syria US-led coalition jets pounded suspected Islamic State targets at least six times in Kobani after the fiercest shelling in days by the insurgents shook the town's center and hit border areas within Turkey. Syrian government forces shelled neighborhoods in Damascus, the southern province of Deraa and the central province of Homs. Islamic State militants fired 44 mortars at Kurdish parts of Kobani. Two Islamic State car bombs hit Kurdish positions leading to casualties.
    (Reuters, 10/18/14)(AP, 10/19/14)

2014        Oct 20, Turkey said it would allow Iraqi Kurdish fighters to reinforce fellow Kurds in the Syrian town of Kobani, while the US air-dropped arms for the first time to help the defenders resist an Islamic State assault. At least one cache of the US airdropped weapons were seized by Islamioc State fighters.
    (Reuters, 10/20/14)(SFC, 10/22/14, p.A4)

2014        Oct 22, In southeastern Turkey suspected Kurdish militants kidnapped 10 power company workers. A politician from a Kurdish Islamist party was shot dead in the eastern city of Bingol.
    (Reuters, 10/22/14)

2014        Oct 23, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan said that 200 Iraqi Kurd peshmerga fighters would travel through Turkey to join the battle in Kobane, where about 1,000 IS militants are believed to be fighting. US-led air strikes in Syria were reported to have killed more than 521 jihadists and 32 civilians over the last month.
    (AFP, 10/23/14)(Reuters, 10/23/14)

2014        Oct 24, Turkey's president said that Ankara would allow hundreds of Syrian rebels to travel to the embattled border town of Kobani in order to help Kurdish fighters there fend off an Islamic State onslaught. During a state visit in Estonia, Erdogan said the Western-backed Free Syrian Army would send 1,300 fighters to the Syrian town. A spokesman for the Western-backed Syrian opposition in exile, Kenan Mohammed, said there were no plans to send fighters to Kobani.
    (AP, 10/24/14)
2014        Oct 24, Turkey’s soldiers shot dead 3 PKK guerrillas after fighters from the outlawed group set fire to two vehicles and a power plant in the eastern province of Kars and shot at soldiers who returned fire.
    (Reuters, 10/25/14)

2014        Oct 25, In southeastern Turkey Kurdish militants killed 3 Turkish soldiers.
    (Reuters, 10/25/14)

2014        Oct 28, In southern Turkey a coal mine collapsed, trapping 18 workers underground at the Has Sekerler mine near the town of Ermenek in Karaman province. The bodies of the last 5 miners were recovered on Dec 4.
    (AP, 10/28/14)(AP, 12/4/14)

2014        Oct 29, Iraqi peshmerga fighters arrived in southeastern Turkey en route for the Syrian town of Kobani to try to help fellow Kurds break an Islamic State siege. The US military conducted 14 air strikes over the last 2 days against the IS in Syria and Iraq. Eight of the strikes were near Kobani.
    (Reuters, 10/29/14)

2014        Oct 31, In Syria US-led air strikes hit Islamic State positions around the border town of Kobani in an apparent bid to pave the way for heavily-armed Kurdish peshmerga forces to enter from neighboring Turkey.
    (Reuters, 10/31/14)

2014        Nov 3, Turkish rescuers pulled 24 bodies from the sea at the mouth of Istanbul's Bosphorus strait and rescued seven people after the sinking of a boat carrying migrants including children. The capsized boat was loaded with 42 illegal migrants from Afghan and Syria.
    (Reuters, 11/3/14)(SFC, 11/4/14, p.A2)

2014        Nov 4, Turkish politician Ahmet Karatas, a member of the opposition Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP), was stabbed repeatedly in the capital Ankara, in an attack that his pro-Kurdish party blamed on a government-led 'lynch campaign' against it.
    (Reuters, 11/4/14)

2014        Nov 12, Turkey's national election board said it has penalized the state-run broadcaster for favoring President Tayyip Erdogan in its coverage of the country's first popular vote for head of state.
    (Reuters, 11/12/14)
2014        Nov 12, Members of the nationalist Turkish Youth Union attacked three US sailors on a crowded street in Istanbul, shouting "Yankee go home", throwing paint and trying to pull hoods over their heads. Twelve people were detained but released by an Istanbul court the next day.
    (Reuters, 11/14/14)

2014        Nov 13, Turkey said it will issue work permits for some of the 1.5 million Syrian war refugees it is hosting, dismissing fears it would harm local workers.
    (AFP, 11/13/14)

2014        Nov 15, Turkish media reported that Turkey and the United States have agreed a plan under which some 2,000 fighters from the moderate Syrian opposition would be trained on Turkish soil.
    (AFP, 11/15/14)

2014        Nov 20, Iraq PM Haider al-Abadi said that Iraq and Turkey have agred on closer security and intelligence cooperation in the face of threats posed by the Islamic State group.
    (SFC, 11/21/14, p.A4)

2014        Nov 21, In Turkey Marko Ivkovic (25), a Serbian basketball fan, was killed before a Euroleague basketball match between Turkish team Galatasaray and Serbia's Red Star in Istanbul. On Nov 26 Istanbul police arrested a Turkish man for the stabbing death.
    (AP, 11/28/14)

2014        Nov 24, Turkey’s Pres. Erdogan set off a new controversy, declaring that women are not equal to men and accusing feminists of not understanding the special status that Islam attributes to mothers.
    (AP, 11/24/14)

2014        Nov 28, Pope Francis arrived in Turkey to encourage Muslim leaders to take a stronger stand against extremists who twist religion to justify terrorism. He condemned the Islamic State group's assault on Christians and other religious minorities in Iraq and Syria.
    (AP, 11/28/14)

2014        Nov 29, The Islamic State group launched an attack on the Syrian border town of Kobani. The latest fighting killed at least 8 Kurdish fighters and 17 jihadis. The US-led coalition launched an airstrike morning on the eastern side of the town. Turkey denied that IS fighters had used its territory for the raid.
    (AP, 11/29/14)

2014        Dec 3, Human Rights Watch urged Turkey to remove from its border with Syria landmines which have killed 3 people and wounded nine among more than 2,000 Syrian refugees camped in a minefield.
    (Reuters, 12/3/14)

2014        Dec 4, Kurdish sources said a second group of 150 Iraqi Kurdish peshmerga forces has entered the Syrian border town of Kobani from Turkey to replace a first group helping Kurdish forces fight off a siege by Islamic State militants.
    (Reuters, 12/4/14)

2014         Dec 6, The leaders of Greece and Turkey glossed over key differences between the nations and expressed support for close affairs between the often irritable neighbours.

2014        Dec 13, Mehmet Gormez, the head of Turkey's Religious Affairs Directorate, came under fire over reports that a luxury Mercedes had been purchased at public expense to serve as his official car. This came amid ongoing controversy over President Recep Tayyip Erdogan's new presidential palace, a 1,150-room complex in Ankara that cost taxpayers more than $600 million.
    (AFP, 12/13/14)

2014        Dec 14, Turkish police arrested Ekrem Dumanli, the editor of the country's biggest selling newspaper (Zaman), and at least two dozen other media figures in a new crackdown on supporters of President Recep Tayyip Erdogan's exiled rival, Fethullah Gulen.
    (AFP, 12/14/14)

2014        Dec 16, In Turkey dozens of football fans who took part in last year's mass anti-government protests went on trial accused of an attempted coup.
    (AP, 12/16/14)

2014        Dec 17, German prosecutors arrested three Turkish men accused of spying on compatriots in Germany for Turkish intelligence.
    (AP, 12/18/14)
2014        Dec 17, The UN Security Council renewed for 12 months its authorization for humanitarian access without Syrian government consent into rebel-held areas of Syria at four border crossings from Turkey, Iraq and Jordan.
    (Reuters, 12/17/14)

2014        Dec 19, A Turkish court kept Hidayet Karaca, head of Samanyolu Television, and three other people in custody pending trial on accusations of belonging to a terrorist group.
    (Reuters, 12/19/14)

2014        Dec 24, In Turkey a 16-year-old high school student was arrested in in the central Anatolian city of Konya for "insulting" President Recep Tayyip Erdogan by accusing him and his ruling party of corruption. Mehmet Emin Altunses was released on Dec 26 following a complaint by his lawyer, but he still faced trial in the future.
    (AFP, 12/25/14)(AFP, 12/26/14)

2014        Dec 25, Turkish media reported that Mustafa Ali Tonbul (17), who survived a severe head injury from police in last year's anti-government protests, has been sentenced to more than three months in jail.
    (AFP, 12/25/14)

2014        Dec 27, In Turkey 3 people, including a teenager (15), died and three others were wounded in clashes between Islamists and Kurdish youths in the southeastern town of Cizre.
    (Reuters, 12/27/14)(Reuters, 12/28/14)

2014        Dec 28, The Turkish ship Gokbel with 11 crew members sank after the collision with the Belize flagged Lady Aziza in poor visibility a mile from the Italian Adriatic port of Ravenna. Two people drowned and four were missing at sea and feared dead.
    (Reuters, 12/28/14)

2014        Charles King authored “Midnight at the Pera Palace: The Birth of Modern Istanbul."
    (Econ, 9/13/14, p.90)
2014        Turkish TV producers created the 15-part drama “Dragunov," named after a Soviet-made sniper rifle. They reportedly hoped it would act as a balm for Libya’s soul as it struggles in the aftermath of Qaddafi’s rule.
    (Econ, 7/19/14, p.42)
2014        Turkish proverb: He who holds the money is bound to lick his fingers.
    {Turkey, Proverb}
    (Econ, 7/12/14, p.55)

2015        Jan 1, In Turkey a man carrying an automatic weapon was detained near the historic Dolmabahce Palace in Istanbul after he threw a grenade at police. The Turkish far-left group DHKP-C soon claimed responsibility for the grenade attack.
    (Reuters, 1/2/15)

2015        Jan 2, In Turkey the main Western-backed Syrian opposition group opened a three-day meeting to discuss a range of issues, including a Russian initiative to hold peace talks in Moscow to broker a resolution to Syria's civil war.
    (AP, 1/2/15)

2015        Jan 5, Police in Turkey detained 20 more police officers suspected of conducting illegal wiretaps in a new wave of raids in twelve cities.
    (AP, 1/5/15)

2015        Jan 6, In Turkey a female suicide bomber entered a police station and blew herself up in Istanbul's historic Sultanahmet district, killing one officer and wounding another. The leftist Revolutionary People's Liberation Party-Front, or DHKP-C, said it carried out the attack.
    (Reuters, 1/6/15)(AP, 1/7/15)

2015        Jan 9, In Turkey security forces detained 13 foreigners and a Turkish citizen attempting to cross into Syria from a village in the southeastern province of Gaziantep to join the Islamic State (IS) jihadist group.
    (AFP, 2/11/15)

2015        Jan 14, A Turkish court ordered the telecommunications authority to ban access to websites showing Charlie Hebdo's front cover with the image of the Prophet Muhammad.
    (AP, 1/14/15)
2015        Jan 14, In Turkey, a child (12) was allegedly shot and killed by security forces in the old southeastern Kurdish settlement of Cizre. 17 locals have been reportedly killed in fighting jihadists across the border in the Syrian town of Kobane.
    (Econ, 2/14/15, p.46)

2015        Jan 17, A Turkish intelligence report said around 3,000 people in Turkey are believed to be linked to the Islamic State (IS) jihadist group.
    (AFP, 1/17/15)

2015        Jan 21, A Turkish court sentenced two police officers to 10 years in prison each for their involvement in the beating death of student Ali Ismail Korkmaz (19) during anti-government protests in 2013. Four other civilian defendants were sentenced to up to six years. The victim's supporters said the verdict was too lenient and staged immediate protests outside and inside the courthouse.
    (AP, 1/21/15)

2015        Jan 24, In southeast Turkey some 70,000 Kurds staged a protest in Diyarbakir against French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo's cartoon portrayal of the Prophet Mohammed.
    (AFP, 1/24/15)

2015        Jan 28, Turkey informed US officials that it was revoking the passport of Fethullah Gulen because it was issued based on a "false statement". Gulen has lived in self-imposed exile in Pennsylvania since 1999.
    (Reuters, 2/3/15)

2015        Feb 2, In Turkey at least 8 people were killed and many more rescued from high winds and flooding caused by a huge storm, a southwesterly known locally as a Lodos.
    (Reuters, 2/3/15)

2015        Feb 8, A Turkish court ordered the arrest of 21 police officers as part of an investigation into the illegal wiretapping of politicians, civil servants and businessmen.
    (Reuters, 2/8/15)

2015        Feb 9, In Turkey G20 finance ministers met in Istanbul. Britain and the United States called on leading world powers to overhaul their economies and keep budgets in line to encourage growth.
    (AFP, 2/9/15)

2015        Feb 11, In Turkey female student Ozgecan Aslan (20) was raped and beaten to death by bus driver Ahmet Suphi Altindoken (26). Her body was burned in a wooded area in a bid to hide the evidence but the corpse was found by police on Feb 13.
    (AFP, 2/16/15)

2015        Feb 13, Turkish police used water cannon in the western coastal city of Izmir to disperse scores of protesters boycotting schools over the growing influence of religion in the classroom.
    (Reuters, 2/13/15)

2015        Feb 16, Turkey said it was temporarily closing its embassy in Yemen, the latest foreign mission to do so following the takeover of power by Shiite Huthi militiamen.
    (AFP, 2/16/15)
2015        Feb 16, The Armenian president asked the country's parliament speaker to withdraw his signature from a groundbreaking 2009 agreement with Turkey meant to restore ties between the two nations due to "preconditions" that Turkey put in place before it ratifies its part of the deal.
    (AP, 2/16/15)

2015        Feb 17, Three British girls (Kadiza Sultana (16) and 15-year-olds Shamima Begum and Amira Abase) flew from London to Turkey in a suspected bid to join the Islamic State group. On March 12 Turkey announced the arrest of an agent who helped the girls cross into Syria. The agent also worked as a courier to transfer money to jihadists.
    (SSFC, 2/22/15, p.A5)(AP, 3/15/15)(AFP, 3/15/15)

2015        Feb 18, The Turkish parliament descended into chaos when a furious brawl erupted as the country's ruling party sought to push through a controversial bill boosting the powers of police in protests.
    (AFP, 2/18/15)
2015        Feb 18, In Turkey a snowstorm in Istanbul grounded planes, halted traffic and forced the closure of the Bosphorus Strait shipping channel.
    (Reuters, 2/18/15)

2015        Feb 19, Turkish media quoted the national intelligence agency (MIT) as saying that Islamic State militants have entered Turkey and are plotting to attack diplomatic missions in Ankara and Istanbul.
    (Reuters, 2/19/15)
2015        Feb 19, Turkish legislators scuffled for a second day in parliament over a new security bill which critics say aims to crush dissent.
    (AP, 2/19/15)

2015        Feb 22, Almost 600 Turkish troops pushed deep into Syria evacuating Turkish soldiers guarding a historic tomb who had been stranded in territory controlled by Islamic State jihadists. They brought back the tomb containing the remains of Suleyman Shah, grandfather of the Ottoman empire's founder, Osman I.
    (AFP, 2/22/15)
2015        Feb 22, Libya's internationally recognized government said it will end all contracts with companies from Turkey, a country it has accused of supporting a rival administration.
    (Reuters, 2/23/15)

2015        Feb 26, Libya's internationally recognized PM Abdullah al-Thinni said his government would stop dealing with Turkey as it was sending weapons to a rival group in Tripoli so "the Libyan people kill each other", ramping up his rhetoric against Ankara.
    (Reuters, 2/27/15)

2015        Feb 28, In Turkey Abdullah Ocalan, the head of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) imprisoned on an island near Istanbul, urged separatists to hold a congress on disarmament in the coming months.
    (AFP, 3/1/15)
2015        Feb 28, In Turkey Yasar Kemal (91), one of the country’s best-known novelists with worldwide readership, died. His books included of "Memed, My Hawk" (1955) a story about feudal relations in Turkey's traditional southern regions. Nine of his novels were made into films. Kemal never promoted his Kurdish background. In the mid-1990s he was convicted for an article denouncing racism against minorities in Turkey, especially Kurds.
    (AP, 2/28/15)

2015        Mar 2, Turkey detained an intelligence agent working for one of the states in the US-led coalition fighting Islamic State (IS) for helping three British teenage girls cross into Syria to join the jihadists. This was only made public on March 12. Kadiza Sultana, 16, and 15-year-olds Shamima Begum and Amira Abase, crossed into Syria after boarding a flight from London to Istanbul on February 17.
    (AFP, 3/12/15)

2015        Mar 3, Turkey's state-run news agency said a court has ordered President Recep Tayyip Erdogan to pay 10,000 Turkish Lira (US$ 4,000) in compensation to artist Mehmet Aksoy for calling his sculpture — meant to promote reconciliation between Turkey and Armenia — a "monstrosity." Erdogan expressed his dislike in 2011 of the giant "Monument to Humanity," which was being erected in the eastern city of Kars.
    (AP, 3/3/15)

2015        Mar 5, In Turkey Umarali Kuvatov, leader of a Tajik movement called Group 24, was shot in the back of the head outside a restaurant in Istanbul. Kuvatov had fled Tajikistan in 2012 reportedly after a deal with the president’s son went wrong.
    (www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-31760810)(Econ., 3/14/15, p.42)

2015        Mar 11, Turkish authorities said they have detained 16 Indonesians from three families who were trying to cross into Syria, a route frequently used by sympathizers of Islamic State militants.
    (Reuters, 3/11/15)

2015        Mar 12, The Turkish coastguard opened fire to stop a cargo vessel carrying 337 mainly Syrian migrants heading towards European Union waters and arrested the suspected traffickers.
    (AFP, 3/13/15)

2015        Mar 13, In Turkey three male British teenagers planning to join Islamic State militants in Syria were detained in Istanbul.
    (Reuters, 3/15/15)

2015        Mar 20, Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko said Turkey has offered a $50 million loan to Ukraine to help cover its budget deficit in a joint press conference in Kiev with Turkish counterpart Tayyip Erdogan. Turkey also offered Ukraine $10 million in humanitarian assistance.
    (Reuters, 3/20/15)

2015        Mar 21, Jailed Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Ocalan called for Kurds to hold a historic congress to end a decades-long armed struggle against the Turkish state that has claimed tens of thousands of lives.
    (AFP, 3/21/15)

2015        Mar 22, A Turkish opposition lawmaker said he is helping the families of nine British medical students and doctors of Sudanese origin believed to have crossed into Syria from Turkey.
    (AP, 3/22/15)(AFP, 3/22/15)

2015        Mar 27, The Turkish parliament passed a stripped down version of its controversial homeland security bill that has enraged the opposition, after a 16-hour debate that lasted all night.
    (AFP, 3/27/15)

2015        Mar 29, A Turkish court charged former policemen Sedat Zavar and Ilker Usta with illegally eavesdropping on President Recep Tayyip Erdogan following their extradition from Romania.
    (AFP, 3/29/15)

2015        Mar 31, In Turkey an Istanbul court acquitted 236 military officers of charges of plotting a 2003 coup to overthrow the government of then-PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan.
    (AP, 3/31/15)
2015        Mar 31, In Turkey a massive power cut caused chaos and shut down public transport across the country, with the government refusing to rule out that the electricity system had been the victim of an attack.
    (AFP, 3/31/15)
2015        Mar 31, In Turkey two members of a banned left-wing group, DHKP-C, held prosecutor Mehmet Selim Kiraz hostage in an Istanbul courthouse for six hours. All three died in a shootout between the hostage-takers and police.
    (AP, 4/1/15)(SFC, 4/7/15, p.A2)

2015        Apr 1, In Turkey a militant tried to storm the police headquarters in Istanbul. Police opened fire in response, killing the female assailant who was armed with grenades and guns. Turkish media named the dead woman as Elif Sultan Kalsen (28), saying she was a known member of the DHKP-C.
    (AFP, 4/2/15)

2015        Apr 2, Turkish police launched early morning raids against suspected members of an ultra-leftist group in Istanbul. At least 10 people were arrested in the raids in the Okmeydani district of Istanbul.
    (AP, 4/2/15)

2015        Apr 6, A wooden migrant boat sank in the Aegean off the Turkish coast of Datca late today. The Turkish Coast Guard recovered 8 bodies, rescued nine people and three remained missing.
    (AP, 4/7/15)

2015        Apr 7, Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan and Iranian counterpart Hassan Rouhani agreed to boost trade and signed a slew of deals at a meeting, but steered clear of directly addressing differences over conflict-ridden Yemen.
    (Reuters, 4/7/15)

2015        Apr 11, Turkish troops engaged in clashes with over two dozen rebels from the outlawed Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK). 5 Kurdish rebels and a civilian were reported killed at Yukari Tutek village.
    (AFP, 4/11/15)(AP, 4/12/15)

2015        Apr 12, In the Vatican Pope Francis described the 1915 massacre of as many as 1.5 million Armenians as "the first genocide of the 20th century" at a 100th anniversary Mass. Turkey swiftly summoned the Vatican's ambassador in Ankara to protest.
    (Reuters, 4/12/15)

2015        Apr 14, Turkey deported nine Britons, including the son of a local councilor, two weeks after arresting them for attempting to cross into Syria.
    (AFP, 4/14/15)

2015        Apr 22, Austrian lawmakers condemned as "genocide" for the first time the massacre of Armenians by Ottoman Turks during World War I, ahead of the 100th anniversary of the violence.
    (AFP, 4/22/15)

2015        Apr 24, Turkey hosted leaders from the former Allied powers of World War I to pay tribute to the tens of thousands killed in the Battle of Gallipoli, drawing accusations from Armenians that it was deliberately overshadowing the Yerevan ceremonies.
    (AFP, 4/24/15)
2015        Apr 24, In Armenia the leaders of France and Russia joined ceremonies marking the centenary of the massacre of some 1.5 million Armenians by Ottoman forces.
    (AFP, 4/24/15)

2015        Apr 29, A Turkish court acquitted 26 activists who helped launch mass protests in May-June 2013 against President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, after a trial slammed by rights campaigners.
    (AFP, 4/29/15)

2015        Apr 30, Turkish authorities issued arrest warrants for two judges in a legal standoff over an order to release 75 suspects detained on suspicion of plotting to overthrow President Recep Tayyip Erdogan.
    (AFP, 4/30/15)

2015        May 1, Turkish police fired tear gas and water cannon at hundreds of stone-throwing May Day protesters. Left-wing groups and trade unions staged rallies around the world to mark International Workers Day.
    (Reuters, 5/1/15)(AP, 5/1/15)

2015        May 9, Turkish former president Kenan Evren (97), convicted last year for his key role in the country's bloody 1980 coup, died in Ankara.
    (AFP, 5/10/15)

2015        May 16, Turkish military jets shot down a Syrian aircraft after it violated Turkey's airspace.
    (Reuters, 5/16/15)

2015        May 18, In Turkey twin bomb attacks hit the regional headquarters of the main pro-Kurdish HDP party in two cities, injuring more than half a dozen people and escalating tensions ahead of June 7 legislative elections.
    (AFP, 5/18/15)

2015        May 21, It was reported that testimony from Turkish gendarmerie officers in court documents alleged that Turkey's state intelligence agency helped deliver arms to parts of Syria under Islamist rebel control during late 2013 and early 2014. The witness testimony contradicted Turkey's denials that it sent arms to Syrian rebels.
    (Reuters, 5/21/15)
2015        May 21, Turkey's main opposition party unveiled a plan to build a new mega-city in the center of the country, in a bid to outflank the ambitious infrastructure projects of the ruling party ahead of elections.
    (AFP, 5/21/15)

2015        May 28, A US official said the US military has started training Syrian opposition fighters in Turkey to combat Islamic State, an expected expansion of a program that first launched in Jordan weeks ago.
    (Reuters, 5/28/15)

2015        May 29, In Turkey the opposition daily Cumhuriyet published footage from January 2014 showing Turkish security forces discovering boxes of what it described as weapons and ammunition being sent to Syria on National Intelligence Organization (MIT) trucks intercepted near the Syrian border.
    (AFP, 6/2/15)

2015        May 31, In northwestern Turkey 3 assailants opened fire at a street party celebrating the wedding of a Roma community couple, killing 3 guests near Bursa.
    (AP, 6/1/15)

2015        Jun 2, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan filed a criminal complaint against the opposition daily Cumhuriyet newspaper and its editor for publishing images allegedly showing trucks belonging to the state intelligence service helping send weapons to rebels in Syria. The New York-based Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) and the Paris-based Reporters Without Borders condemned Erdogan over his recent attacks on the journalists.
    (AFP, 6/2/15)

2015        Jun 3, In Turkey assailants fired on a campaign vehicle belonging to a pro-Kurdish party and killed its driver, in the latest violence against politicians or political parties ahead of the June 7 general election.
    (AP, 6/4/15)

2015        Jun 4, Turkish government official said more than 3,300 Syrians have crossed into Turkey in the past two days fleeing fighting between Islamic State militants and Kurdish forces in northern Syria's Tel Abyad region.
    (AP, 6/4/15)

2015        Jun 5, In Turkey two explosions tore through a rally of the pro-Kurdish Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP) in Diyarbakir. 2 people were killed and some 200 wounded.
    (Reuters, 6/6/15)

2015        Jun 7, Turkey held parliamentary elections. President Tayyip Erdogan's ruling AK Party lost its parliamentary majority. The pro-Kurdish Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP), crossed a 10 percent threshold to enter parliament for the first time.
    (Reuters, 6/7/15)(Reuters, 6/8/15)

2015        Jun 9, In southeastern Turkey an Islamic aid group leader was shot dead as he left his office in the Diyarbakir 3 people were killed in the mainly Kurdish southeast when a clash broke out after the head of an Islamic aid group was shot dead outside his office.
    (Reuters, 6/9/15)

2015        Jun 11, Turkey said it was taking measures to limit the flow of Syrian refugees onto its territory after an influx of thousands more over the last days due to fighting between Kurds and jihadists.
    (AFP, 6/11/15)

2015        Jun 13, Turkish security forces used water cannon and fired warning shots to push Syrians away from the frontier as thousands massed at a border crossing to escape escalating fighting.
    (AFP, 6/13/15)
2015        Jun 13, In Azerbaijan Russian President Vladimir Putin met Turkish counterpart Recep Tayyip Erdogan for talks expected to touch on energy issues and the Syria crisis. They met a day after attending the opening ceremony of the inaugural European Games, hosted by Azerbaijan.
    (AFP, 6/13/15)

2015        Jun 14, Syrian state television said dozens of civilians were wounded when two bombs exploded in the central city of Homs. Kurdish forces advanced to the gates of Tal Abyad and clashed with Islamic State jihadists. The upsurge in violence saw Turkey open its border to fleeing civilians.
    (Reuters, 6/14/15)(AFP, 6/14/15)

2015        Jun 16, Turkey accused Kurdish militia in northern Syria of persecuting civilians and said it saw signs of "a kind of ethnic cleansing", drawing a parallel to the actions of Islamic State militants and forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad.
    (Reuters, 6/16/15)

2015        Jun 17, In Turkey Suleyman Demirel (b.1924), a former president (1993-2000) and seven-time prime minister, died in Ankara.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S%C3%BCleyman_Demirel)(SFC, 6/18/15, p.A2)

2015        Jun 19, Turkish authorities arrested two Georgian citizens who tried to enter the country with radioactive material, including 1.2 kilos of cesium.
    (AP, 6/19/15)

2015        Jun 23, Turkey’s coast guard rescued 70 migrants off a sinking ship as 6 migrants drowned in waters off the Greek island of Kos.
    (AP, 6/24/15)

2015        Jun 26, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan said that Turkey will never allow the establishment of a Kurdish state in Syria after major gains by Kurdish fighters.
    (AFP, 6/27/15)

2015        Jun 28, In Turkey riot police in Istanbul used teargas and water cannon to disperse thousands of participants in the Gay Pride parade in the Turkish after demonstrators began shouting slogans accusing the social conservative President Recep Tayyip Erdogan of "fascism".
    (AFP, 6/28/15)

2015        Eugene Rogan authored “The Fall of the Ottomans: The Great War in the Middle East."
    (Econ., 3/7/15, p.85)
2015        Thomas de Waal authored “Great Catastrophe: Armenians and Turks in the Shadow of Genocide."
    (Econ., 4/18/15, p.75)

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