Timeline Uzbekistan

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CIA Fact sheet: http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/uz.html
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http://www.emulateme.com/uzbekistan.htm
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http://www.eurasianet.org/resource/uzbekistan/index.shtml
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http://www.ukans.edu/carrie/archives_main.html
Travel Docs:
http://www.traveldocs.com/uz/index.htm
Uzbekistan covers 172,178 square miles and is slightly larger than California.
    (AP, 5/15/05)   
The capital is Tashkent. Uzbeks made up 80% of the population. 88% of the population was Muslim, mostly Sunni.
    (SFC, 10/12/01, p.A16)(WSJ, 5/4/05, p.A17)
Sogdiana was a province of ancient Persia between the Oxus and Jaxartes Rivers, later known as Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. The extinct Iranian language of Sogdiana was spoken. Their alphabet was the source of the later Uighur and Mongolian alphabets.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1264,1353)(AM, 9/01, p.50)

2300BC    A civilization later called the Bactria Margiana Archeology Complex existed about this time in what later became Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Evidence of writing was found at the Annau ruins in 2000.
    (SSFC, 5/13/01, p.A12)

355BC    Alexander the Great (d.323BC) was born about this time. Alexander III later married a barbarian princess, Roxana, the daughter of the Bactrian chief Oxyartes. Alexander also married the daughter of Darius, whom he defeated in 333, and a Sogdian princess while staying firmly attached to his comrade, Hephaistion.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.68)(Hem., 2/97, p.116)(WSJ, 5/15/98, p.W11)

329BC    Alexander the Great took Samarkand. Its ancient name was Marakanda.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1264)

36        Chinese troops defeated the Hun ruler Zhizhi in what later became Uzbekistan. Among the captives were 145 Romans.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.59)

999        Turkish dynasties became the rulers of Transoxania, and area that covered much of what later became Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan.
    (Econ, 7/26/03, p.46-4)

c1000    Turkic-speaking people wrote in Runic, the official script.
    (WSJ, 10/24/00, p.A12)

1141        Sep 8, Battle of Samarkand (Uzbekistan): Yelutashi defeated Islams.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1258        Feb 10, Huegu (Hulega Khan), a Mongol leader and grandson of Genghis Khan, seized Baghdad following a 4-day assault. Mongol invaders from Central Asia took over Baghdad and ended the Abbasid-Seljuk Empire. They included Uzbeks, Kazaks, Georgians and other groups. Some 200 to 800 thousand people were killed and looting lasted 17 days.
    (ATC, p.91)(AP, 2/10/99)(SFC, 4/12/03, p.A1)

1336-1405    Timur (aka Timur Lang or Timur Lenk or Tamerlane because of a lame leg) was a Tartar conqueror of a vast empire from southern Russia to Mongolia and southward to India, Persia, and Mesopotamia. After his death the empire fell apart. Prince Timur is a national hero of Uzbekistan.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.169)(WUD, 1994, p.1451)(WSJ, 7/3/97, p.A4)

1369-1405    Timur ruled from Samarkand.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1451)

1380        Sep 8, Prince Dmitrii of Moscow defeated the Mongols at Kulikovo Field. This marked the beginning of the decline of Mongol control over Russian lands.
    (DVD, Criterion, 1998)(http://fanaticus.org/dba/battles/Kulikovo/index.html)

1825        Feb 25, William Moorcroft, East India Co. head of 5,000 acre horse farm at Pusa, India, arrived at Bokhara, Uzbekistan, to trade for horses. He met with Khan Haydar, Emir of Bokhara.
    (ON, 1/02, p.5)

1840        May 14, English Lt. Richmond Shakespear left Herat (later Afghanistan) on a 700-mile mission to Khiva (later Uzbekistan) to persuade the ruling Khan to free all his Russian slaves. The Khan continued to hold a large number of Persian slaves.
    (ON, 4/00, p.7)

1840        Aug 3, English Lt. Richmond Shakespear was given all the Russian prisoners of the Khan in Khiva (later Uzbekistan).
    (ON, 4/00, p.8)

1840        Aug 15, English Lt. Richmond Shakespear began a 500-mile trek with 416 freed Russian slaves from Khiva (later Uzbekistan) to the Russian Fort Alexandrovsk on the Caspian Sea.
    (ON, 4/00, p.8)

1924        Stalin divided remnants of Turkestan into the current Central Asian republics.
    (SFC, 1/2/97, p.A10)

1937        Stalin ordered a major overhaul of Uzbek leadership and heads began to roll. The artist Alexander Rodchenko, who had designed the album “Ten Years of Uzbekistan," blotted out the photos of purged Uzbek leaders in his personal copy. It provided grist for the 1997 book by David King “The Commissar Vanishes," that describes how Stalin manipulated images for his benefit.
    (WSJ, 10/29/97, p.A20)

1938        Jan 30, Islom Abduganievich Karimov was born in Samarkand, Uzbekistan. He became president of Uzbek SSR in 1990.
    (http://tinyurl.com/7l6sz)

1940        Moscow imposed the Cyrillic alphabet over the Roman alphabet.
    (SFC, 1/2/97, p.A10)

1944        May 18, The Soviet Union began the expulsion of more than 200,000 Tartars from Crimea. They were accused of collaborating with the Germans. Stalin deported some 250,000 Tatars from Crimea to Uzbekistan. They did not being to return home until the fall of the USSR.
    (SC, 5/18/02)(SFC, 1/4/99, p.A8,9)

1947        Z.V. Togan (1890-1970) published “The Origins of the Kazaks and ôzbeks.
    (http://vlib.iue.it/carrie/texts/carrie_books/paksoy-5/)

1950        Between Uzbekistan and Kazakstan the surface area of the Aral Sea was 67,000 sq. km. and shrinking.
    (WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A18)

1954        In Uzbekistan the Soviet Union established a biological weapons test site on Vozrozhdeniye Island in the Aral Sea.
    (SFC, 6/2/99, p.A11)

1966        Jan 10, The Tashkent Agreement, was signed in the Soviet city of Tashkent, and officially ended a 17-day war between Pakistan and India. It required that both sides withdraw by February 26, 1966, to positions held prior to August 5, 1965, and observe the cease-fire line agreed to on June 30, 1965. The agreement was brokered by Soviet premier Aleksey Kosygin and signed by Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistan President Ayub Khan. The Indian prime minister died the day after signing the agreement.
    (HNQ, 4/26/99)(http://www.onwar.com/aced/chrono/c1900s/yr65/fkashmir1965)

1966        A major earthquake hit Tashkent, capital of Uzbekistan in the USSR.
    (WSJ, 6/21/96, p.A1)

c1968    The Aral Sea between Kazakstan and Uzbekistan began shrinking after Soviet engineers diverted water from its 2 feeder streams, the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya. The water was diverted to a massive dam and irrigation system for cotton production.
    (SFC, 11/30/98, p.A11)(SFEC, 1/31/99, p.A20)

1982        The Friendship Bridge over the Amu Darya River, connecting Afghanistan and Uzbekistan, was built by the Soviets during the Soviet occupation of that country. The bridge was closed in May 1997 when the Taliban forces took control of the city of Mazari Sharif, forcing Uzbek rebels to retreat back to Uzbekistan. It reopened on December 9, 2001.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2qbrbd)(WSJ, 11/21/01, p.A11)

1984        In Uzbekistan an earthquake, later linked to the extraction of hydrocarbons, killed one person.
    (Econ, 5/3/14, p.72)

1985        Jul 10, A Soviet Tu-154 crashed in Uzbekistan and all 200 people aboard were killed.
    (http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19850710-0)(SFC, 7/4/01, p.A10)

1988        Mar-1988 Jun, In the Spring Soviet germ scientists transferred hundreds of tons of anthrax bacteria into canisters with bleach and sent them for storage to Vorrozhdeniye Island (Renaissance Island) in the Aral Sea, shared by Kazakstan and Uzbekistan.
    (www.phaster.com/unpretentious/uzbekistan_anthrax.html)(SFC, 6/2/99, p.A10,11)

1988-1989    Islam Karimov rose to the top spot of the Uzbek Communist Party.
    (WSJ, 9/8/98, p.A23)(SFC, 4/6/02, p.A8)

1990        Mar 24, Islom Abduganievich Karimov (b.1938) became president of Uzbek SSR.
    (http://tinyurl.com/7l6sz)

1990        Jun, In Kyrgyzstan about 300 people were killed in a violent land dispute between Kyrgyz and Uzbeks  in Osh, and only the quick deployment of Soviet troops quelled the fighting.
    (SFC, 10/21/99, p.AA5)(AP, 6/13/10)(Econ, 6/19/10, p.27)

1990        The shrinking Aral Sea between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan split in two with a patch of desert in between.
    (SFC, 11/30/98, p.A11)

1991        Aug 31, Uzbekistan and Kirghizia declared their independence, raising to 10 the number of republics seeking to secede from the Soviet Union.
    (AP, 8/31/01)

1991        Sep, A group of young, radical Muslims seizes a government building in the Fergana Valley town of Namangan in eastern Uzbekistan, demanding establishment of an Islamic state. The group's leaders, Juma Namangani and Tahir Yuldash, later set up an Islamic party Adolat, or Justice, and then the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, which grows into a terrorist group with links to al-Qaida.
    (AP, 3/30/04)

1991        Dec 13, Five Central Asian republics of the Soviet Union (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan) agreed to join the new Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) being organized by Russian President Boris Yeltsin.
    (AP, 12/13/01)(www.therussiasite.org/legal/laws/CISagreement.html)

1991        Dec, Demonstrators in Uzbekistan, calling for an Islamic state, seized the Communist headquarters in Namangan. Islam Karimov flew in and took control from Tahir Yuldash.
    (WSJ, 5/3/01, p.A8)

1991        Dec, Islam Karimov, a former Uzbekistan Communist Party boss, was elected president.
    (SFC, 11/3/00, p.D2)(AP, 3/30/04)

1991        Vozrozhdeniye Island (Renaissance Island) in the Aral Sea became the property of Kazakstan and Uzbekistan.
    (SFC, 3/24/03, p.A5)
1991        In Uzbekistan Birlik (Unity) political party was set up. It was outlawed several years later along with other opposition groups, which forced its leaders into exile. The party's several attempts to reregister in later years have failed.
    (AP, 3/15/07)
1991        In Uzbekistan Mansur Maqsudi married Gulnora Karimova, the daughter of the president.
    (WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A1)
1991        Mansur Maqsudi and his brother Fareed approached Coca Cola with an offer to bottle Coca Cola products in Uzbekistan.
    (WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A6)

1992        Mar, Uzbek Pres. Karimov banned Adolat. Authorities arrested hundreds and closed down mosques and religious schools. Namangani and Yuldash fled to Tajikistan; both later ended up in Afghanistan. Jumaboi Khojiyev, former Soviet soldier, fled the country. Tahir Yuldash fled the country as Uzbek authorities sought to arrest him. In 1996 they founded the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) operating out of Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 11/3/00, p.D2)(AP, 3/30/04)(WSJ, 5/3/01, p.A8)(WSJ, 9/24/01, p.A19)

1992        Dec 2, Uzbekistan adopted its first constitution as an independent state.
    (AP, 3/30/04)

1992        Uzbek Pres. Karimov banned two secular opposition parties, Erk and Birlik, forcing their leaders into exile.
    (AP, 3/30/04)

1992-1999    The borders of Uzbekistan were opened to Western companies.
    (WSJ, 6/21/96, p.A1)

1993        Uzbekistan adopted a 34-character Latin alphabet based on Turkey’s script to replace the Russian style Cyrillic.
    (WSJ, 10/24/00, p.A12)

1993        Pres. Karimov laid out his plans for revamping Uzbekistan’s economy in a book.
    (WSJ, 5/4/05, p.A17)

1993        Muhammad Salih, leader of Uzbekistan’s opposition Erk (Freedom) movement, fled to Turkey.
    (Econ, 6/3/06, p.48)

1994        The Uzbek government ended a multi-year relationship with Pepsi and gave Coca Cola access to a large bottling plant in Tashkent.
    (WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A6)

1995        Mar 26, Uzbek Pres. Karimov's period in office is extended by three years, to 2000, in a referendum.
    (AP, 3/30/04)

1996        Jun 28, A Texaco Inc. subsidiary formed a joint venture with the state oil company to market lubricants throughout Central Asia.
    (WSJ, 6/28/96, p.B5)

1996        Dec, Pres. Islam Karimov ran a brutal police state, but began easing his grip as self-sufficiency was established. His rule was extended by referendum to the year 2000.
    (SFC, 1/2/97, p.A10)(WSJ, 7/3/97, p.A4)

1996-1997    The Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) was formed in Namangan by Jumaboi Khojiyev and Tahir Yuldash.
    (WSJ, 9/24/01, p.A19)

1997        Mar 27, Ella Maillart (b.1903), Swiss sportswoman and travel writer, died. She chronicled the savage collectivisation of Karakalpak agriculture in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan in the 1930s.
    (Econ, 5/16/09, p.91)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ella_Maillart)

1997        Nov 13, Hillary Clinton visited in Bukhara, Uzbekistan.
    (SFC,11/14/97, p.D2)

1997        Former Soviet republics (Georgia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan and Moldova) formed GUUAM to seek cooperation outside Russian influence.
    (WSJ, 3/4/05, p.A13)

1997        Uzbekistan closed the Friendship Bridge and sealed its border with Afghanistan when Gen. Abdul Rashid Dostum fled in as the Taliban swept into Mazar-e-Sharif.
    (SFC, 11/15/01, p.A7)(SFC, 12/10/01, p.A12)

1997        Uzbekistan attracted only $60 million in foreign investment due to strict economic controls.
    (WSJ, 9/8/98, p.A23)

1997        Uzbekistan's Fergana Valley was hit by a series of slayings of senior police officials. Authorities blamed the IMU and launched a crackdown on religious extremism.
    (AP, 3/30/04)

1997        A large incidence of tuberculosis was found in the environmentally degraded area of the Aral Sea.
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, p.A20)

1997        Between Uzbekistan and Kazakstan the surface area of the Aral Sea was 30,000 sq. km. and shrinking.
    (WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A18)

1997        The Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program was initiated. The 8-member group included Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
    (www.adb.org/CAREC/default.asp)

1998        Jul 2, The state genetics’ institute at Tashkent, Uzbekistan, was reported to be working on a fungus to kill opium poppies. Pleospora papaveracea was a nuisance fungus that had been under development by Soviets in the 1980s.
    (SFC, 7/3/98, p.A14)

1998        Oct 29, Five nations endorsed the oil pipeline from the Caspian to the Mediterranean Sea. Turkey, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakstan and Uzbekistan committed to the 1,080 mile conduit with a push from the US.
    (SFC, 10/30/98, p.A14)

1998        Uzbek Pres. Karimov vowed to crack down on the IMU. Namangani and Yuldash were sentenced to death in absentia.
    (AP, 3/30/04)

1999        Feb 16, Six car bombs exploded in Tashkent in an assault aimed at Pres. Islam Karimov. 13-16 people were killed and at least 120 injured. Tahir Yuldash (IMU co-leader) was sentenced to death in absentia. A crackdown followed with nearly 8,000 people imprisoned.
    (SFC, 2/17/99, p.A8)(SFC, 11/3/00, p.D2)(WSJ, 5/3/01, p.A8)(SFC, 12/7/01, p.F1)

1999        Aug 18, In Uzbekistan 6 members of a banned opposition group, Erk (Freedom), were convicted for involvement in several bombings and sentenced to 8-15 years in prison.
    (SFC, 8/19/99, p.D10)

1999        Aug 23, Militants (IMU) from Tajikistan crossed into Kyrgyzstan taking hostages and claiming control of several villages. Some 1,000 religious fighters took a swath of land and 13 hostages that included a Kyrgyz general and 4 Japanese geologists.
    (SFC, 8/24/99, p.A11)(SFC, 10/21/99, p.AA5)

1999        Oct 25, In Kyrgyzstan 4 Japanese geologists were freed after 2 months of captivity by the IMU. A $2-5 million ransom was suspected.
    (SFC, 10/27/99, p.A13)(WSJ, 9/24/01, p.A19)

2000        Jan 8, Uzbek Pres. Karimov was re-elected to a five-year term with more than 90 percent of the vote.
    (AP, 3/30/04)     

2000        Apr 16, The winners of the Goldman Environmental Prize included: Oral Ataniyazova (43), for founding a clinic and fighting pesticide contamination in Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan.
    (SFC, 4/17/00, p.A2)

2000        Aug, The IMU attempted fresh incursions into Uzbekistan from Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.
    (AP, 3/30/04)

2000        Nov 3, It was reported that a 4,000 to 5,000 Muslim men had been imprisoned over the past 3 years with evidence of systemic torture and some prisoner deaths.
    (SFC, 11/3/00, p.D2)

2000        Sep, In Uzbekistan Numan Saidamirov, a Hizb-ut Tahrir leader, was arrested. His body was returned on October 8th to relatives after 2 weeks covered with bruises and with signs of sodomy. Hizb-ut Tahrir, “Party of Liberation," was banned and operated in the Fergana Valley but does not openly advocate violence.
    (SFC, 10/15/01, p.A4)(www.uzland.info/2000/december/12_21.htm)

2001        Apr, The IMF planned to shut its Uzbekistan office following years of attempts to reform the corrupt economy and disagreements with Pres. Islam Karimov.
    (WSJ, 3/27/00, p.A18)

2001        Jun 14, A forum in China inducted Uzbekistan as the 6th member of a regional group (the Shanghai Five) that included China, Russia, Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The 5-year-old group hoped to counterbalance US influence and fight Islamic separatism.
    (SFC, 6/15/01, p.D6)(WSJ, 6/14/01, p.C11)

2001        Jun 15, The Shanghai Five member nations (China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Russia), having admitted Uzbekistan, signed the Declaration of Shanghai Cooperation Organization.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shanghai_Cooperation_Organisation)

2001        Jul, Gulnora Karimova-Maqsudi (29), daughter of Pres. Karimov, separated from her husband, Mansur Maqsudi (34), president of the local Coca Cola bottling company. Government inspectors soon descended on his main bottling plant in Tashkent.
    (WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A1)

2001        Jul, The IMU attacked government troops in southern Uzbekistan and a TV transmitter in southern Kyrgyzstan.
    (AP, 3/30/04)

2001        Sep 24, Kazakstan offered air and military bases to the US for attacks on Afghanistan. Tajikistan and Uzbekistan were said to be negotiating use of their territory by the US.
    (SFC, 9/25/01, p.A6)

2001        Oct 12, The US indicated it would aid Uzbekistan if it were attacked. Uzbekistan was the first among Central Asian nations to allow the US to use its airspace and deploy troops on its territory for the anti-terrorism war in Afghanistan after the Sept. 11 attacks. The United States set up a military base in southern Uzbekistan, deploying hundreds of troops there.
    (WSJ, 10/15/01, p.A16)(AP, 3/30/04)

2001        Nov 20, Pres. Islam Karimov continued to deny aid convoys access to the Friendship Bridge over the Amu Darya River to Afghanistan and forced transfer to barges.
    (WSJ, 11/21/01, p.A11)

2001        Nov, Juma Namangani, al-Qaeda member and co-founder of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU), died following critical injuries from US bombing in Kunduz, Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 12/7/01, p.F1)

2001        Dec 9, The Friendship Bridge linking Afghanistan and Uzbekistan was opened for aid transport.
    (SFC, 12/10/01, p.A12)

2002        Jan 27, In Uzbekistan a referendum, largely regarded as rigged, extended Pres. Islam Karimov’s term to 7 years from 5.
    (WSJ, 5/13/02, p.A13)(AP, 3/30/04)

2002        Mar, Uzbekistan and the United States signed a strategic partnership agreement that boosted U.S. aid to the country.
    (AP, 3/30/04)

2002        Apr 5, The Uzbek parliament voted to hold presidential elections in Dec 2007, adding 2 years to the term of Pres. Islam Karimov (64).
    (SFC, 4/6/02, p.A8)

2002        Jun 9, U.S. military officials reported that traces of nerve agents and mustard gas were found in three locations at a U.S. base in Uzbekistan. Later tests reported no contamination.
    (AP, 6/9/02)(SFC, 6/10/02, p.A12)(SFC, 6/24/02, p.A12)

2002        Aug 8, The bodies of two Uzbek prisoners, Muzafar Avazov and Khusnuddin Olimov, who died in custody while jailed for alleged religious extremism were returned to their families for burial. Both men were jailed for membership in the banned Islamic group Hizb-ut-Tahrir.
    (AP, 8/8/02)

2002        Aug 29, Uzbek Pres. Karimov urged democratic changes.
    (SFC, 8/30/02, p.A18)

2002        Dec 6, A U.N. envoy wrapped up an inspection of Uzbekistan's prisons by saying he found signs of systematic torture despite being denied full access to two of the most notorious jails.
    (AP, 12/6/02)

2002        Uzbekistan lifted official censorship.
    (Econ, 3/27/04, p.44)

2003        Jan 21, In Uzbekistan a series of stories, posted on the Internet in early January before access was cut off, have alleged high-level corruption and the president's imminent resignation, stirring rare public debate.
    (AP, 1/21/03)

2003          Feb 17, Uzbek journalist Ergash Bobozhonov (61), who wrote articles published abroad criticizing corruption among officials, was arrested and faced charges including libel.
    (AP, 2/22/03)

2003        Sep 23, China signed agreements with Russia and four Central Asian neighbors (Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan) in an effort to strengthen a 7-year-old security alliance and encourage economic links across a largely undeveloped region.
    (AP, 9/23/03)

2003        Oct, Uzbekistan made its currency, the som, convertible, but foreign exchange was still made difficult by the banks.
    (Econ, 3/27/04, p.44)

2003        Dec 11, Uzbekistan said it will let the US station troops to help fight terrorism, but would not permit permanent deployment.
    (WSJ, 12/12/03, p.A1)

2003        Dec 29, Paul Goldman, a native of Uzbekistan, stabbed and killed Faina Zonis in the Philadelphia suburb of Bensalem. Goldman soon fled the country. Police found his parents dead by suicide on Jan 13.
    (SFC, 1/17/04, p.A4)

2003        The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development held its annual meeting in Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
    (Econ, 5/21/05, p.14)

2004        Jan 13, In Tashkent, Uzbekistan, a domestic airliner crashed on approach to the airport. All 37 people, including the top U.N. official for Uzbekistan, were killed.
    (AP, 1/13/04)

2004        Feb 24, An Uzbek court ordered the release of Fatima Mukadirova (62), a woman convicted of anti-constitutional activity after publicizing her son's death in prison from torture.
    (AP, 2/24/04)

2004        Mar 28-2004 Mar 29, In Uzbekistan 2 suicide bombings, attacks on police and an explosion at an terrorist bomb-making factory in Kakhramon killed 19 people and injured 26. The explosion led to 4 days of violence that left at least 47 people dead in including 33 militants.
    (AP, 3/29/04)(SSFC, 4/4/04, p.A22)

2004        Mar 30, In Uzbekistan gunfire and explosions resounded in Tashkent as government forces battled for hours with suspected Islamic militants after two more suicide attacks. Officials claimed 20 terrorists and three police died in the fighting.
    (AP, 3/30/04)

2004        Apr 1, In Uzbekistan a woman blew herself up in the central Bukhara region, killing a man and critically injuring herself.
    (AP, 4/1/04)

2004        Apr 19, The Uzbek government labeled the activities of George Soros' foundation "undesirable" after the billionaire philanthropist said its office was being forced to close and blasted human rights abuses in this Central Asian nation.
    (AP, 4/19/04)

2004        May 18, In Uzbekistan Andrei Shelkavenko (36) died in police custody from apparent torture. Human Rights Watch said this was the fifth death from torture in Uzbek police custody since May 2003. Shelkavenko had been arrested 3 weeks earlier on suspicion of murder.
    (AP, 5/21/04)

2004        Jun 16, President Vladimir Putin signed a strategic partnership deal with Uzbekistan, seeking to restore Russian influence.
    (AP, 6/16/04)

2004        Jun, A pilot Confucius Institute program, designed to promote the study of Chinese abroad, was established in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The first Confucius Institute was then established in Seoul on Nov 21, 2004. The 75th was established in Cracow, Poland, in 2006. By the end of 2013 there were 440 institutes in over 100 countries.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confucius_Institute)(Econ, 9/13/14, p.51)

2004        Jul 13, The US State Dept. announced that Uzbekistan had not passed the test for assistance this year.
    (Econ, 7/17/04, p.43)   

2004        Jul 30, In Uzbekistan suicide bombers hit the U.S. and Israeli embassies, killing at least two Uzbeks.
    (AP, 7/30/04)

2004        Aug 28, The foreign ministers of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan approved Russian membership to their economic block at talks in Astana, the Kazakh capital.
    (AP, 8/28/04)

2004        Oct 15, Craig Murray, Britain's former ambassador to Uzbekistan, said he is a "victim of conscience" for having dared to speak out against human rights outrages. Murray had highlighted the allegedly systematic use of torture, including the alleged boiling to death of two prisoners, by Uzbek authorities.
    (AP, 10/15/04)

2004        Nov 6, Atonazar Arifov, head of the Uzbek unregistered opposition Erk party, announced that Erk would boycott next month's parliamentary vote, saying the government has failed to embrace democracy and calling on the international community to ignore the election.
    (AP, 11/6/04)

2004        Dec 26, Uzbekistan held elections and all opposition groups were barred from running for office. Europe's top election watchdog criticized the parliamentary vote.
    (AP, 12/26/04)

2005        Mar 6, Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf, ending years of chilly relations with Uzbekistan, promised to catch and extradite any Uzbek-born terrorist hiding in his country.
    (AP, 3/6/05)

2005        May 12, In Andijan, Uzbekistan, supporters of 23 jailed local businessmen stormed the jail where they were held freeing them and other prisoners. The businessmen had been jailed as alleged Islamic extremists.
    (Econ, 10/1/05, p.39)

2005        May 13, In Andijan, Uzbekistan, soldiers opened fire on thousands of protesters after demonstrators stormed a jail to free 23 local businessmen accused of Islamic extremism. The next day Pres. Karimov said 10 soldiers were killed in the clash. An estimated 700-1000 demonstrators were killed. The Uzbek government put the death toll at 187.
    (AP, 5/13/05)(SSFC, 5/15/05, p.A10)(Econ, 10/1/05, p.39)

2005        May 14, Thousands of terrified Uzbeks waiting to flee across the border into Kyrgyzstan stormed government buildings, torched police cars and attacked border guards in a 2nd day of violence spawned by an uprising against the iron-fisted rule of US-allied Pres. Islam Karimov.
    (AP, 5/14/05)

2005        May 15, In eastern Uzbekistan groups of attackers killed several soldiers before fleeing across the border into Kyrgyzstan. About 500 bodies were laid out in nearby Tefektosh, where troops fired on a crowd of protesters.
    (AP, 5/15/05)

2005        May 16, Gunfire persisted in the eastern city of Andijan where Uzbek security forces fired on protesters last week, a clash that reportedly left several hundred dead. New accounts emerged that violence in nearby towns killed hundreds more.
    (AP, 5/16/05)

2005        May 17, Uzbekistan's top prosecutor said that 169 people were killed in last week's violence in the eastern town of Andijan. opposition activists maintained more than 700 died, most of them civilians.
    (AP, 5/17/05)(AP, 5/18/05)

2005        May 18, A Muslim rebel group claimed it had seized control of Korasuv, a small Uzbek town on the border of Kyrgyzstan, and vowed to build an Islamic state.
    (AP, 5/18/05)

2005        May 19, Uzbekistan troops retook an eastern Uzbek town from rebels who said they would build an Islamic state, arresting the group's leaders. Uzbekistan said it opposes an int’l. investigation into Andijan.
    (AP, 5/19/05)(WSJ, 9/2/05, p.A13)

2005        May 20, The EU and NATO called for an int’l. investigation into the May 13 suppression of protestors at Andijan, Uzbekistan.
    (WSJ, 9/2/05, p.A13)

2005        May 22, A top Kyrgyz official said Uzbeks who fled into neighboring Kyrgyzstan to escape violence in their Central Asian country are not refugees and must return home.
    (AP, 5/22/05)

2005        May 25, China rolled out the red carpet for Uzbekistan's Pres. Karimov, underscoring the importance it places on curbing the rise of Islamic militancy as it welcomed the authoritarian leader criticized in the West for a bloody crackdown on protesters. China signed a $600 million joint oil venture with Uzbekistan.
    (AP, 5/25/05)(WSJ, 5/26/05, p.A1)

2005        Jun 9, Russia said it will not back an int’l. investigation into the May 13 suppression of protestors at Andijan, Uzbekistan.
    (WSJ, 9/2/05, p.A13)

2005        Jun 27, The UN said it wanted to move hundreds of Uzbek refugees to third countries from camps in Kyrgyzstan because there were fears Uzbekistan might try to snatch them and take them home by force.
    (AP, 6/27/05)

2005        Jul 5, An alliance of Russia, China and central Asian nations called for the US and coalition members in Afghanistan to set a date for withdrawing from member states, reflecting growing unease over America's regional military presence. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization includes China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
    (AP, 7/5/05)

2005        Jul 27, The UN started evacuating more than 400 refugees from a camp in Kyrgyzstan and will fly them to a third country to keep them from being sent home to Uzbekistan where they fear prosecution. Uzbekistan has been pressuring Kyrgyzstan to hand over the refugees, and Kyrgyz officials relented in recent weeks, sending at least 87 of them back.
    (AP, 7/27/05)

2005        Jul 29, A plane with 440 Uzbek refugees left Kyrgyzstan for Romania.
    (AP, 7/29/05)
2005        Jul 29, Uzbekistan notified the State Department that US military aircraft and personnel must leave Karshi-Khanabad air base, commonly referred to as K2, that has been an important hub for American military operations in Afghanistan.
    (AP, 7/30/05)

2005        Aug 1, A prosecutor said that Kyrgyzstan will send 15 Uzbeks asylum seekers back to their home country, despite pleas from the United Nations and rights groups that it violates international treaties on refugees.
    (AP, 8/1/05)

2005        Sep 12, Uzbekistan, increasingly hostile toward foreign non-governmental organizations it accuses of fomenting revolution in the ex-Soviet state, shut a second US charity in four days.
    (AP, 9/13/05)

2005        Sep 20, In Tashkent 15 men pleaded guilty to participating in an uprising in eastern Uzbekistan in May that led to what human rights groups say was a government crackdown that left more than 700 dead.
    (AP, 9/20/05)

2005        Sep 26, In Tashkent 3 defendants accused of launching a revolt to bring Islamic rule to Uzbekistan told a court they trained at military camps in neighboring Kyrgyzstan, backing the government's claim of a conspiracy that included foreign fighters and funding.
    (AP, 9/26/05)

2005        Sep 27, A senior US State Department official said the president of Uzbekistan made it clear that American forces must leave their air base in the Central Asian country, and the U.S. intends to do so "without further discussion."
    (AP, 9/27/05)

2005        Oct 3, The EU imposed an arms embargo on Uzbekistan, cut aid, and suspended a cooperation accord to punish the increasingly isolated country for refusing to investigate the violent suppression of an uprising in May.
    (AP, 10/3/05)
2005        Oct 3, The UN ambassadors of Britain, France and the US sent a letter emphasizing their continued opposition to a proposal to create a nuclear-weapons free zone in Central Asia. The letter, sent to the UN ambassadors of the five Central Asian nations, says that a draft treaty to create the zone still does not address their biggest concerns and that further discussions are needed. It calls for consultations "very soon." The five nations agreed to the draft text for a Central Asian nuclear-free zone in February. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan had originally put forward a proposal for a nuclear-weapon free zone in 1997, but divisions both internal and external over the text have stalled progress. Moscow claims that a 1992 treaty that Russia signed with Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan could allow missiles to be deployed in the region.
    (AP, 10/4/05)

2005        Oct 5, In a move meant to send a message to Uzbekistan, the US Senate voted to block the payment of $23 million for past use of an air base that the Uzbek government recently said will no longer host U.S. aircraft and troops.
    (AP, 10/5/05)

2005        Oct 24, Sanjar Umarov, an Uzbek opposition leader, was arrested on embezzlement charges. Umarov, chairman of the Sunshine Coalition, pushed for an easing of the country's autocratic rule.
    (AP, 10/24/05)

2005        Nov 14, Uzbekistan's highest court convicted 15 men of organizing a May uprising that ended when troops fired into the crowd, killing more than 180 people. They were sentenced to prison terms of up to 20 years.
    (AP, 11/14/05)
2005        Nov 14, Russia and Uzbekistan signed a far-reaching treaty opening the way for a Russian military deployment in the Central Asian nation that evicted U.S. forces and bristled at Western criticism of the brutal suppression of a May uprising.
    (AP, 11/15/05)

2005        Nov 23, A NATO official said Uzbekistan has told NATO allies they can no longer use its territory or airspace to support peacekeeping missions in neighboring Afghanistan.
    (AP, 11/23/05)

2005        Nov 24, Uzbek authorities arrested Rukhitdin Fahrutdinov (38), an alleged Islamic radical and their most wanted fugitive, who had been hiding out in neighboring Kazakhstan. Human Rights Watch said Fahrutdinov was detained in Shymkent with at least 8 other Uzbek suspects and that all were extradited secretly and forcibly.
    (AP, 12/24/05)

2005        Dec 5, Officials said courts in Uzbekistan have convicted another 58 alleged participants of the May uprising in Andijan and sentenced them to up to 20 years in prison.
    (AP, 12/05/05)

2005        Dec 21, Uzbekistan courts sentenced 42 people to between 12 and 20 years in prison in connection with the May uprising in the eastern city of Andijan, which was brutally suppressed by government troops.
    (AP, 12/21/05)(SFC, 12/22/05, p.A3)

2005        Dec 28, Uzbekistan's highest court sentenced 11 policemen, soldiers and prison doctors to up to 11 years in prison in connection with the May uprising in the eastern city of Andijan.
    (AP, 12/29/05)

2005        The population of Uzbekistan was about 26 million.
    (SFC, 10/12/01, p.A16)(WSJ, 5/4/05, p.A17)

2006        Mar 6, Sandjar Umarov, chairman of the opposition Sunshine Uzbekistan group, was sentenced to more than 10 years in prison on charges of organizing a criminal group, tax evasion and money laundering. Umarov pleaded innocent to all charges.
    (AP, 3/6/06)

2006        Jun 15, The Shanghai Cooperation Organization, a Russian and Chinese-led bloc of Asian states, said it plans to set up an expert group to boost computer security and help guard against threats to their regimes from the Internet. SCO members (China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) are mostly authoritarian states that maintain tight controls on communications technology, including the Internet.
    (AP, 6/15/06)

2006        Jun 23, The leaders of EurAsEC countries convened in Minsk, Belarus, for the 16th session of the Interstate Council of Eurasian Economic Community. The Summit was attended by the President of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov, Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko, President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev, President of Russia Vladimir Putin, President of Kyrgyzstan Kurmanbek Bakiyeva and the President of Tajikistan Emomali Rakhmonov.
    (www.press-service.uz/en/content.scm?contentId=22610)

2006        Jul 18, Kyrgyz police in Osh arrested six men suspected of taking part in an uprising in neighboring Uzbekistan last year and seized 14 ounces of TNT from them.
    (AP, 7/19/06)

2006        Sep 9, Five central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan) signed a nuclear-free zone treaty, but it did not cancel out a 1992 agreement to allow Russia to transport and deploy nuclear weapons there under certain circumstances.
    (SSFC, 9/10/06, p.A18)

2006        Oct 5, In Uzbekistan a court sentenced Ulugbek Khaidarov, an independent rights activist and journalist, to six years in jail for extortion amid a sweeping government crackdown on dissidents in the tightly controlled ex-Soviet state.
    (AP, 10/6/06)

2006        Nov 20, Uzbekistan blocked a UN resolution backed by the US and Western nations criticizing its human rights violations, including the harassment, beatings and arrests of journalists and civil activists.
    (AP, 11/20/06)

2007        Jan 4, In Uzbekistan Elena Urlayeva, a prominent human rights advocate, was attacked and beaten by a group of women she said were sent by police. Urlayeva has accused the tightly controlled ex-Soviet state of abuse and torture.
    (AP, 1/5/07)

2007        Jan 14, Gulbakhor Turayeva, an Uzbek doctor and rights advocate, was arrested for allegedly possessing banned literature. She claimed to have seen hundreds of bodies in the bloody crackdown of the 2005 Andijan uprising.
    (AP, 1/17/07)

2007        Mar 15, A rights group said Mukhammadali Karabayev, an Uzbek opposition activist, has been sentenced to six years in prison on extortion and fraud charges amid a sweeping crackdown on dissent in the tightly controlled ex-Soviet republic.
    (AP, 3/15/07)

2007        Mar 19, In northwestern Pakistan pro-government tribesman and Uzbek militants clashed, leaving about 30 dead in fighting that began after an Arab was found shot to death in the area.
    (AP, 3/20/07)

2007        Mar 23, In Pakistan Ali Mohammed Jan Aurakzai, the North West Frontier Province governor, said clashes between Pakistani tribesmen and foreign militants near the Afghan border this week have left up to 160 people dead, including about 130 Uzbek and Chechen fighters. Officials said warring tribesmen and foreign Al-Qaeda militants have agreed to a ceasefire after four days of bloodshed in the border region.
    (AP, 3/23/07)

2007        Apr 4, Heavy fighting between Pakistani tribesmen and foreign militants allegedly linked to al-Qaida killed 60 people near the Afghan border. About 50 of those killed in the past 24 hours in the South Waziristan region were Uzbeks. The main commander of the tribal militia battling the foreign militants is Maulvi Nazir, a known Taliban sympathizer who the government says has come over to its side.
    (AP, 4/4/07)

2007        May 14, EU foreign ministers decided to drop a visa ban against four Uzbek officials, while extending other sanctions against the Central Asian nation imposed after a crackdown on an uprising in 2005.
    (AP, 5/14/07)

2007        May 23, Yuri Chernogayev, an Uzbek reporter for German broadcaster, said he faces up to 10 years in prison after being accused of defaming President Islam Karimov.
    (AP, 5/23/07)

2007        Aug 17, The six members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) held their first joint maneuvers on Russian land in a demonstration of their growing military ties and a shared desire to counter US global clout. The presidents of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan attended the unprecedented joint military exercises in Chelyabinsk near the Kazakh border.
    (AFP, 8/17/07)

2007        Sep 6, Mark Weil (55), an Uzbek theater director whose productions caused controversy in the tightly controlled former Soviet republic, was stabbed to death outside his home in Tashkent. The llkhom Theater of Tashkent, which Weil founded in 1(SFC, 5/16/08, p.)976, was the first independent theater in the Soviet Union.
    (AP, 9/8/07)(SFC, 5/17/08, p.E10)

2007        Oct 23,     In Uzbekistan Karim Bozorboyev, leader of the Esguliq rights group in the central city of Syrdarya, was arrested and charged with fraud. Bozorboyev joined the group in 2004, after he left Fidokorlar, a government-affiliated political party, saying he was disgusted by the amount of corruption among Uzbek officials.
    (AP, 10/24/07)

2007        Oct 24,     In southern Kyrgyzstan Alisher Saipov (26), a prominent independent ethnic-Uzbek journalist, was shot to death. He had close ties to the opposition to the authoritarian regime in neighboring Uzbekistan.
    (AP, 10/24/07)(Econ, 6/19/10, p.28)

2007        Nov 13, In Uzbekistan the body of Fitrat Salakhiddinov (40), a prisoner convicted of Islamic extremism, was delivered to his family with signs of torture.
    (AP, 11/22/07)

2007        Nov 15, In Uzbekistan the body of Takhir Nurmukhammedov (42) was delivered to his family and it was clear he had been brutally tortured. Nurmukhammedov was arrested in April 2002 and convicted of membership in Hizb-ut Tahrir, a banned Islamic sect, and of plotting to overthrow the government. He was sentenced to eight years in prison.
    (AP, 11/22/07)

2007        Nov 19, Uzbekistan's electoral commission said Pres. Karimov (69) has registered as a candidate in next month's election, even though the constitution bars him from seeking a third consecutive term.
    (AP, 11/19/07)

2007        Dec 3, A colleague said Karim Bozorboyev, a prominent Uzbek human rights activist, has been sentenced to six years and three months in jail as part of a crackdown on dissidents and government critics.
    (AP, 12/3/07)

2007        Dec 23, Uzbeks cast ballots in a tightly controlled presidential vote. Authoritarian President Islam Karimov won a new term in office with 88.1 percent of the votes in an election dismissed by critics as a sham.
    (AP, 12/24/07)
2008        Jan 1, In Uzbekistan as of this day execution by firing squad will no longer be legal, and the maximum sentence will be life or long-term imprisonment. The reforms have been incorporated into new criminal code and were sanctioned by a presidential decree signed by Islam Karimov.
    (http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=40819)

2008        Jan 16, Uzbekistan's President Islam Karimov was sworn in for a third presidential term, despite a constitutional two-term limit. Freedom House, a US-based democracy watchdog, said in its annual report that Uzbekistan remains among the world's most repressive societies.
    (AP, 1/16/08)

2008        Jan 25, The commander of US forces in Central Asia met with Uzbek President Islam Karimov, the first visit by a high-level US military officer since the authoritarian leader evicted American troops amid Western criticism of a bloody government crackdown.
    (AP, 1/25/08)

2008        Mar 5, A NATO official said that Uzbekistan has allowed some members of the alliance, including the US, to use an air base on its territory in a signal of thawing relations with the West.
    (AP, 3/5/08)

2008        Jul 10, In Uzbekistan a fire at a Soviet-era military base spread to an ammunition depot, igniting a series of powerful explosions that killed three people and injured 21 others.
    (AP, 7/10/08)

2009        Jan 20, The head of US Central Command said the US has struck deals with Russia and neighboring countries allowing it to transport supplies to American troops in Afghanistan through their territory. US officials have said that one likely route is overland from Russia through Kazakhstan and on through Uzbekistan using trucks and trains. Another possible route is via Azerbaijan across the Caspian Sea to the Kazakh port of Aktau and then through Uzbekistan.
    (AP, 1/20/09)

2009        Feb 4, Russia sought to bolster its security alliance with six other ex-Soviet nations (Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) by forming a joint rapid reaction force in a continuing effort to curb US influence in energy-rich Central Asia.
    (AP, 2/4/09)

2009        Feb 20, Kyrgyzstan ordered US forces to depart within six months from an air base key to military operations in Afghanistan, complicating plans to send more troops to battle rising Taliban and al-Qaida violence. A US military official said Uzbekistan will allow non-lethal US military cargo heading to Afghanistan to transit through the country.
    (AP, 2/20/09)

2009        Feb 25, Uzbek President Islam Karimov said he would allow the US to transport non-military supplies through his country as part of a new supply route to Afghanistan.
    (AP, 2/25/09)

2009        Jun 16, China’s Pres. Hu Jintao announced a $10 billion loan to the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, founded in 2001. The SCO grouped China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.
    (Econ, 1/30/10, p.51)(http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-06/16/content_11552439.htm)

2009        Jun 21, Ukrainian border guards seized 250 turtles being smuggled into the country on a train from Uzbekistan, where they had been hidden and strapped down with tape to prevent them from moving.
    (AFP, 6/22/09)

2009        Sep 27, Two Uzbeks, including Oybek Jabbarov (31), freed from the Guantanamo Bay prison arrived in Ireland. Amnesty International appealed to other EU nations to deliver on pledges to give new homes to US terror detainees.
    (AP, 9/27/09)

2009        Nov 30, Tajikistan unveiled a Chinese-built 500-kilowatt transmission line that will link the northern and central parts of the country. This would add to the poor nation's debt to China but reduce reliance on Uzbekistan, which planned to withdraw on Dec 1 from the Soviet-era power grid that unites four Central Asian countries. This prompted fears of electricity shortages that could make for a winter of hardship in impoverished Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. Tajikistan, said the move will cut it off from gas-rich Turkmenistan.
    (AP, 11/30/09)

2009        Dec 14, China’s Pres. Hu Jintao and the leaders of Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan gathered at the Saman-Depe gas field in Turkmenistan and inaugurated a 1,139-mile gas pipeline running through Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan to China’s Xinjiang province.
    (Econ, 1/30/10, p.51)(www.wsws.org/articles/2009/dec2009/pipe-d21.shtml)

2009        Dilip Hiro authored “Inside Central Asia: A Political and Cultural History of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkey and Iran."
    (Econ, 9/26/09, p.98)
2009        Daniel Metcalfe authored “Out of Steppe: The Lost Peoples of Central Asia." He describes such people as the Karakalpak in Uzbekistan, the Yaghnobi in people of Tajikistan, the Jews of Bukhara and the Germans of Kazakhstan.
    (Econ, 5/16/09, p.91)

2010        Jan 27, NATO's top officer said that Russia had agreed to boost cooperation with the alliance in Afghanistan, including opening more transit routes for supplies to international troops and helping service Soviet-built helicopters used by the security forces. NATO said it had finalized an agreement with Kazakhstan to open the last leg on an overland route to Afghanistan from Europe via Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, offering an alternative to the one through Pakistan.
    (AP, 1/27/10)(AP, 1/28/10)

2010        Feb, In Uzbekistan the health ministry ordered all medical facilities to “strengthen control over the medical examination of women of childbearing age." Rights groups later alleged that hundreds of Uzbek women have been surgically sterilized without their knowledge or consent
    (SSFC, 7/18/10, p.A6)

2010        Mar 1, A Russian human rights group said the government of Uzbekistan has falsely accused about 200 people of killing officials and plotting a coup in the authoritarian Central Asian nation.
    (AP, 3/1/10)

2010        Mar 2, In Uzbekistan an independent think-tank and a rights group claimed that authorities have instructed health workers to surgically sterilize women as part of a government campaign to reduce the birth rate.
    (AP, 3/2/10)

2010        Apr 4, In Uzbekistan UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon called the drying up of the Aral Sea one of the planet's most shocking disasters and urged Central Asian leaders to step up efforts to solve the problem.
    (AP, 4/4/10)

2010        Apr 5, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon urged Uzbekistan to fulfill its international human rights commitments and take further steps toward improving the repressive political climate in the Central Asian nation.
    (AP, 4/5/10)

2010        Apr 6, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon criticized as "unacceptable" Uzbekistan's placing of land mines along parts of its border with Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan that have not been delineated.
    (AP, 4/6/10)

2010        May 28, US Gen. Stanley McChrystal, and other dignitaries officially launched the construction of a rail link between northern Afghanistan and neighboring Uzbekistan.
    (AP, 5/28/10)

2010        Jun 10, In Kyrgyzstan five simultaneous attacks by masked men carrying guns took place in Osh. The perpetrators were said to be Bakiyev-financed criminal gangs and ethnic Uzbek groups financed by someone else.
    (Econ, 6/19/10, p.27)

2010        Jun 13, Kyrgyz mobs burned Uzbek villages and slaughtered their residents in the worst ethnic rioting this Central Asian nation has seen in 20 years. Officials said more than 75,000 Uzbek refugees have fled the rising ethnic violence, amid reports of Kyrgyz mobs torching Uzbek villages and slaughtering their residents. At least 371 people were killed in the rioting that began on June 10.
    (AP, 6/13/10)(Econ, 10/2/10, p.44)

2010        Jun 14, Some 100,000 minority Uzbeks fleeing a purge by mobs of Kyrgyz massed at the border, as the deadliest ethnic violence to hit this Central Asian nation in decades as fires raged in the southern city of Osh for a fourth day.
    (AP, 6/14/10)

2010        Jun 15, The Int’l. Red Cross said several hundred people have been killed in Kyrgyzstan since rioting began on June 10. The interim government blamed the inner circle of former Pres. Bakiyev for inciting the rioting. Uzbekistan closed its borders saying it could take no more refugees.
    (AP, 6/15/10)(SFC, 6/16/10, p.A5)(Econ, 6/19/10, p.26)

2010        Jun 17, The United Nations said some 400,000 people have been displaced by ethnic violence in southern Kyrgyzstan, dramatically increasing the official estimate of a crisis that has left throngs of desperate, fearful refugees without enough food and water in grim camps along the Uzbek border.
    (AP, 6/17/10)

2010        Jun 19, A top US envoy called for an independent investigation into the violence that has devastated southern Kyrgyzstan, as amateur video emerged of unarmed Uzbeks gathering to defend their town during the attacks.
    (AP, 6/19/10)

2010        Jun 21, Kyrgyz government forces swept into an ethnic Uzbek village, beating men and women with rifle butts in an assault that left at least two dead and more than 20 wounded.
    (AP, 6/21/10)
2010        Jul 21, Kyrgyzstan police detained Akhmat Bakiyev, a brother of deposed President Kurmanbek Bakiyev, in the latest effort to solidify control over the country's tense south and dismantle the former leader's entourage. International health and rights groups said that minority ethnic Uzbeks in southern Kyrgyzstan are being deprived of medical treatment and opportunities to seek refuge in neighboring Uzbekistan.
    (AP, 7/21/10)(AP, 7/22/10)

2010        Nov 24, A court in southern Kyrgyzstan sentenced 17 people to life in jail for violence that wracked the region in June. Judge Damirbek Nazarov ruled the men killed 16 people on the highway linking the south with the capital, Bishkek. All defendants in the trial that ended the previous day were ethnic Uzbeks. International rights activists largely agree the Uzbek minority sustained the bulk of the violence that left 370 people dead.
    (AP, 11/24/10)

2010        Dec 30, The Independent Human Rights Defenders Group said at least 39 people have died of torture in prisons of authoritarian Uzbekistan this year amid a spiraling crackdown on religious groups and government critics.
    (AP, 12/30/10)

2010        The population of Uzbekistan was about 27 million.
    (SSFC, 7/18/10, p.A6)

2011        Jan 20, The Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan said in an online post that Bekkay Harrach, known by the pseudonym Abu Talha al-Almani, "Abu Talha the German," was killed leading an attack on the Bagram Air Field in Afghanistan. It didn't specify when.
    (AP, 1/20/11)

2011        Feb 22, German authorities arrested two Germans suspected of involvement with the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, a terrorist group suspected of links to al-Qaida.
    (AP, 2/23/11)

2011        Mar 15, Human Rights Watch said that it has been forced to close its office in Uzbekistan after facing years of harassment by the Central Asian nation's authorities.
    (AP, 3/15/11)

2011        Jun, UN Statistics Division said 70 territories would be holding censuses in 2011. Only Iraq, Lebanon, Myanmar, Somalia, Uzbekistan and Western Sahara would fail to hold a count in this ten-year round.
    (Econ, 6/4/11, p.71)

2011        Jul 20, A magnitude-6.1 temblor centered in Kyrgyzstan hit shortly after midnight in a mountainous area some 20 miles (35 km) away from the eastern Uzbek city of Ferghana, which has a population of more than 200,000. The earthquake killed at least 14 people, including 13 in Uzbekistan and one in Tajikistan.
    (AP, 7/20/11)

2011        Aug 11, Online media said authorities in Uzbekistan have blocked dozens of Internet sites in an apparent attempt to further stem the flow of information into the authoritarian Central Asian nation.
    (AP, 8/11/11)

2011        Aug 24, South Korean President Lee Myung-bak wrapped up a two-day state visit to Uzbekistan that was crowned by an agreement to develop a major gas field and build a chemicals plant in the country, energy deals worth a total of around $4.1 billion.
    (AP, 8/24/11)

2011        Sep 3, In Tajikistan leaders from eight former Soviet states (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan) gathered to celebrate enduring cooperation over the two decades since their nations collectively gained independence, but mutual acrimony and recriminations cast a shadow over the event.
    (AP, 9/3/11)

2011        Dec 21, Operators ran the first train down Afghanistan's first major railroad, clearing the way for a long-awaited service from the northern border that should speed up the US military's crucial supply flow and become a hub for future trade. Uzbekistan's state-owned SE Sogdiana Trans will run the commercial train service.
    (AP, 12/21/11)

2012        Feb 10, In Alabama Uzbekistan-born Ulugbek Kodirov (22) pleaded guilty to plotting to kill Pres. Obama with a rifle. He claimed to be acting on behalf of a terror group in his home country.
    (SFC, 2/11/12, p.A5)

2012        Mar 26, In Afghanistan a member of the Afghan national army opened fire at entrance gate to the British headquarters at Lashkar Gah city, killing the two British service personnel. The assailant was killed by return fire. A joint Afghan and coalition force in Faryab province killed Makhdum Nusrat, leader of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan.
    (Reuters, 3/26/12)(AP, 4/7/12)
2012        Apr 6, Four Afghan policemen were killed in 3 separate incidents in Helmand province. A fuel tanker overturned and caught fire, killing 7 people. A suicide bomber assassinated the head of the peace council in Kunar province. His son died in a hospital where he and the bodyguard were treated for their injuries. A NATO service member died following an insurgent attack in the east. A member of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU), an al-Qaida-linked group who helped finance attacks against Afghan and foreign forces, was captured in Faryab province.
    (AP, 4/6/12)(AP, 4/7/12)

2014        Apr, Russia-based Gasprom took over Kyrgyzstan’s gas network, pledging a stable gas supply. Days later Uzbekistan stopped exporting gas to Kyrgyzstan saying it had no contract to sell to Gasprom.
    (Econ, 7/26/14, p.35)

2012        Jun 4, NATO concluded agreements with Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan to allow it to evacuate military equipment from Afghanistan and completely bypass Pakistan.
    (SFC, 6/5/12, p.A2)

2012        Jul 13, A federal judge in Birmingham, Alabama, sentenced Ulugbek Kodirov (22) of Uzbekistan to 15 years in prison for plotting to kill Pres. Obama.
    (SFC, 7/14/12, p.A4)

2012        Dec 16, Pakistani security forces cornered the last members of a group of Taliban militants who staged a deadly raid on an airport in Peshawar city. All five, believed to be Uzbeks, died in the ensuing firefight.
    {Pakistan, Uzbekistan}
    (AP, 12/16/12)

2013        Oct 30, In Uzbekistan Gulnara Karimova (41), the eldest daughter of President Islam Karimov, acknowledged for the first time that the authorities had closed television channels she is believed to control, further stoking rumours of a rift in the ruling family.
    (AFP, 10/30/13)(Econ, 11/2/13, p.44)

2013        Nov 22, The UN Committee against Torture said torture is rife in prisons and police stations in Uzbekistan, where activists are rounded up and routinely mistreated.
    (Reuters, 11/22/13)

2014        Mar 12, Swiss authorities said they have opened a money laundering investigation into Gulnara Karimova, the eldest daughter of Uzbekistan's Pres. Islam Karimov, related to the country's telecommunications market.
    (AFP, 3/12/14)

2014        Sep 11, The Shanghai Co-operation Organization (SCO) opened its 14th annual summit. The 2-day meeting in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, included the groups six member countries: China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The SCO agreed to adopt procedures for expansion with India and Pakistan likely to join next year.
    (Econ, 9/20/14, p.39)

2014        Sep 26, Human Rights Watch said in a report that torture of political prisoners is widespread in ex-Soviet Uzbekistan, a Central Asian country courted by the West as a transit point for forces fighting in Afghanistan.
    (AP, 9/26/14)

2014        Dec 21, Uzbekistan voters cast ballots in parliamentary elections in the ex-Soviet Central Asian state where all four competing parties support President Islam Karimov's policies.
    (AFP, 12/21/14)

2015        Between Uzbekistan and Kazakstan the surface area of the Aral Sea was projected to be down to13,000 sq. km.
    (WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A18)

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