Timeline Yugoslavia

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1892        May 7, Josip Broz Tito, leader of Yugoslavia (1943-80), was born.
    (HN, 5/7/98)

1903        Jun 11, King Alexander and Queen Draga of Belgrade were assassinated by members of the Serbia army.
    (HN, 6/11/98)

1912        A small Balkan War broke out and was quelled by the major powers. Albanian nationalism spurred repeated revolts against Turkish dominion and resulted in the First Balkan War in which the Turks were driven out of much of the Balkan Peninsula.   
    (V.D.-H.K.p.290)(Compuserve Online, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Albania)

1913        May 30, Conclusion of the First Balkan War.
    (HN, 5/30/98)

1915        Oct 9, Belgrade,  Serbia, surrendered to Central leaders.
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1917        Jul 20, The Pact of Corfu was signed between the Serbs, Croats & Slovenes to form Yugoslavia. [see Dec 1, 1918]
    (www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1917yugoslavia1.html)

1918        Oct 29-1918 Oct 31, The Kingdom of Greater Serbia was proclaimed at Sarajevo in Bosnia bringing that state into what was later called Yugoslavia. [see Dec 1]
    (BWH, 1988)

1918        Nov 1, Yugoslav battleship Viribus Unitis was sunk by Italians.
    (MC, 11/1/01)
 
1918         Nov 7, The Yugoslav National Conference at Geneva decided on the union of Croatia and Slovenia with Serbia and Montenegro. [see Dec 1]
    (BWH, 1988)

1918        Nov 24, Another proclamation took place of the United Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. [see Dec 1]
    (BWH, 1988)

1918        Nov 26, Montenegro deposed its king who opposed union and voted to join the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. [see Dec 1]
    (BWH, 1988)

1918        Dec 1, The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes [later in 1929 to be called Yugoslavia] was proclaimed by Alexander Karadjordjevic, the son of King Peter of Serbia. It included the previously independent kingdoms of Serbia and Macedonia, the Hungarian-controlled regions of Croatia and Slovenia, the Austrian province of Dalmatia, Carniola and parts of Styria, Carinthia and Istria. King Alexander I renamed the Balkan state called the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes to Yugoslavia in 1929.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/map/yugoslavia/1900/)(AP, 10/3/97)(HNQ, 3/26/99)

1918         Dec, Albanian leaders met at Durrės to discuss Albania's interests at the Paris Peace Conference. When World War I ended the Italian armies occupied most of Albania, and Serbian, Greek and French armies occupied the remainder. Italian and Yugoslav powers began a struggle for dominance over Albanians.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1918        Kosovo became part of the newly created Yugoslavia and was dominated by a Serbian monarchy until WW II.
    (SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)

1919        Oct 3, The Serbian, Croatian & Slavic (Yugoslavia) parliament agreed on an 8 hr work day.
    (MC, 10/3/01)

1921         Nov, Yugoslav troops invaded Albania; The League of Nations commission forced Yugoslav withdrawal and reaffirmed Albania's 1913 borders.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1923        Jun 27, Yugoslav Premier Nikola Pachitch was wounded by Serb attackers in Belgrade.
    (HN, 6/27/98)

1923        Sep 10, In response to a dispute with Yugoslavia, Mussolini mobilized Italian troops on Serb front.
    (HN, 9/10/98)

1925        Mar 30, Stalin supported rights of non-Serbian Yugoslavians.
    (MC, 3/30/02)

1927        Oct 28, Josip Broz (Tito) began a 7 months jail sentence in Croatia.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1928        Oct 6, In Yugoslavia Josip Broz (Tito) was sentenced to 5 years in jail.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1929        Oct 3, The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes formally changed its name to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. It included the regions of Serbia, Montenegro, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Macedonia. King Alexander I renamed the Balkan state called the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, Yugoslavia. The Kingdom had been formed on December 1, 1918 and was ruled by the Serbian Karageorgevic dynasty. It included the previously independent kingdoms of Serbia and Macedonia, the Hungarian-controlled regions of Croatia and Slovenia, the Austrian province of Dalmatia, Carniola and parts of Styria, Carinthia and Istria.
    (AP, 10/3/97)(HN, 10/3/98)(HNQ, 3/26/99)(LCTH, 10/3/99)

1934        Mar 12, Josip Broz (Tito of Yugoslavia) was freed from jail.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1934        Oct 9, In Marseilles, a Macedonian revolutionary associated with Croat terrorists in Hungary assassinated King Alexander of Yugoslavia and French Foreign Minister Louis Barthou. The two had been on a tour of European capitals in quest of an alliance against Nazi Germany. The assassinations brought the threat of war between Yugoslavia and Hungary, but confrontation was prevented by the League of Nations. 2 newsreel cameramen captured the assassination on film
    (HN, 10/9/98)(WSJ, 5/20/99, p.A8)

c1934        In Yugoslavia after the assassination of King Alexander Father Momcilo Djujic met with Kosta Pecanac, president of the Chetnik movement and went on to form 11 Chetnik bands in his native Tromedja region.
    (SFC, 9/14/99, p.A23)

1939-1945    During WW II Dr. Drachkovitch (1922-1996) fought the Nazis in Yugoslavia as part of the Chetnik resistance movement. He came to the US in 1958 and became a leading Serbian intellectual figure and Hoover Institute scholar.
    (SFC, 6/19/96, p.A20)

1940        Rebecca West authored “Black Lamb and Grey Falcon,” an account of her travels in Yugoslavia beginning in 1936.
    (West, BLGC, single volume 1943 ed.)

1941        Mar 20, Nazi German-Yugoslav pact was drawn.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1941        Mar 25, Yugoslavia joined the Axis powers.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1941        Mar 26, In Yugoslavia the pro-Axis Prince Paul was toppled in a palace revolution in Belgrade and Prince Peter was put in as head of state.
    (SFC,10/29/97, p.A23)

1941        Mar 27, Hitler signed Directive 27 for an assault on Yugoslavia.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1941        Apr 6, German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop gave orders for the attack on Yugoslavia to roll forward. Hitler ordered the Luftwaffe to bomb Belgrade prior to the final drive into the capital. From August 6 to 10, more than 500 bombing sorties were flown against Belgrade, inflicting more than 17,500 fatalities. Most of the government officials fled, and the Yugoslav army began to collapse. German Luftwaffe Marshall Alexander Lohr commanded a surprise air attack on Belgrade and 17,000 died. Lohr was later tried and executed for the bombings.
    (www.thehistorynet.com/wwii/blbelgradebybluff/)(SFC, 4/8/99, p.A10)(WSJ, 5/20/99, p.A21)
1941        Apr 6, German troops invaded Yugoslavia and Greece. Italian and Albanian forces attacked and jointly occupied Yugoslavia. Germany, with support of Italy and other allies defeated Greece and Yugoslavia.
    (WUD, 1944, p.1683)(SFC, 4/5/97, p.A20)(www, Albania, 1998)

1941        Apr 13, German troops captured Belgrade, Yugoslavia.
    (HN, 4/13/99)

1941        Apr 17, Yugoslavia surrendered to Germany ending 11 days of futile resistance against the invading German Wehrmacht. More than 300,000 Yugoslav officers and soldiers were taken prisoner. Italian and Albanian forces attacked and jointly occupied Yugoslavia.
    (SFC, 4/5/97, p.A20)(AP, 4/17/97)(MC, 4/17/02)

1941        Jul 4, Politburo of Yugoslav communist party reorganized.
    (Maggio)

1941        Oct, Josip Broz Tito, Yugoslav communist leader, directed the organizing of Albanian communists.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1941        Nov 1, Chetniks attacked Tito's partisans in Uzice, Yugoslavia.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1941        British writer Rebecca West, pen name for Cicely Isabel Fairfield (1892-1983), authored “Black Lamb and Grey Falcon,” on the history and culture of Yugoslavia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rebecca_West)

1941        Andrija Artukovic was named the Minister of the Interior in the newly-formed NDH. He was closely involved in the mass murder  of Serbs, Jews, Roma, and other minorities, and the opening of concentration camps such as Jasenovac. His close associate was propagandist  Savić Marković Štedimlija, a publicist of Montenegrin descent.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrija_Artukovi%C4%87)

1941        Nazi documents from this year showed that the Einsatzgruppe, a Nazi-run Serbian police unit, executed 11,164 people, mostly Serbian Jewish men, suspected communists and Gypsies [see 1942]. The unit was allegedly run by Peter Egner, who emigrated to the US in 1960, and received citizenship in 1966. In 2009 Serbian authorities sought his extradition. In 2010 Serbia issued an international warrant for the arrest of Egner (88), who has denied the accusations.
    (AP, 4/14/09)(AP, 4/2/10)(AP, 11/26/10)

1941-1942    Some 97% of the Gottscheers were moved north within Slovenia from the area of Kocevje to Rann (later Brezice). Their peak population numbered some 25,000. They were driven out of their new homes by Yugoslav partisans after which they wound up in Austria and then dispersed around the world.
    (SFC, 6/16/99, p.A12)
1941-1945    Some 1600-2000 German soldiers were killed in Montenegro in clashes with Yugoslav communist partisans during WWII.
    (AP, 8/10/11)

1942        Jan 23, At Novi Sad, Serbia, some 1200 people (predominantly Jewish), rounded up over a period of three days, were shot along the shores of the Danube. Their bodies were dumped into the frozen waters. Sandor Kepiro (b.1914), a Hungarian gendarmerie officer, participated in the mass murder. In 1944 he was sentenced to 10 years in prison for his part in the atrocities, but conviction was later annulled. In 2011 Kepiro (96) was charged with war crimes in the slaughter. Kepiro, who was at the top of the Simon Wiesenthal Center's most-wanted war criminals list, returned to Hungary in 1996 after living for decades in Argentina.
    (http://tinyurl.com/o5n5j3)(AP, 9/15/09)(AP, 2/14/11)

1942        Jun, In Yugoslavia Momcilo Djujic (d.1999 at 92), warrior-priest, was conferred the title of "vojvoda" by Gen'l. Dragoljub "Draza" Mihailovic, commander of the royalist Chetniks, for bravery and devotion to the Orthodox Church and the exiled monarchy.
    (SFC, 9/14/99, p.A23)

1942        Robert St. John (1902-2003), American war journalist, authored “From the Land of Silent People,” an account of his war experiences in the Balkans.
    (SFC, 2/10/03, p.B5)

1942         Nazi documents of this year showed that the Einsatzgruppe, a Nazi-run Serbian police unit, killed 6,280 Serbian Jewish women and children who were held as prisoners. In two months, those women and children allegedly were taken from a camp and forced into a specially designed van, in which they were gassed with carbon monoxide. The unit was allegedly run by Peter Egner, who emigrated to the US in 1960, and received citizenship in 1966 [see 1941]. In 2010 Serbia issued an international warrant for the arrest of Egner (88), who has denied the accusations.
    (AP, 4/14/09)(AP, 4/2/10)(AP, 11/26/10)

1943        Nov 29, In Yugoslavia partisan Tito formed a temporary government in Jajce, Bosnia.
    (MC, 11/29/01)

1943        Fitzroy Maclean parachuted into German-occupied Yugoslavia as Brigadier commanding the British Military Mission to the Tito partisans. He later wrote his memoir: "Eastern Approaches" that described his 2-years there.
    (SFC, 4/2/99, p.A20)

1943-1947    Thousands of Italians were killed by Yugoslav partisans in and around the Istrian peninsula, which had fallen to Italy after the 1st world war. Mussolini’s fascists had brutally Italianized the peninsula prior to the arrival of the partisans.
    (Econ, 8/28/04, p.48)

1944        May 25, In Yugoslavia partisan leader Tito escaped the Germans surrounding Bosnia.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1944        Aug 9, The Halyard Mission began rescuing over 500 bomber fliers shot down over Serbia. This mission was a combined project of the American Strategic Services (OSS - precursor of the CIA) under the command of General William J. Donovan, Lt. George (Guv) S. Musulin, of the OSS and an American of Serbian descent, and General Draza Mihailovich and his Serbian chetnik freedom fighters in the former Yugoslavia. In 2007 Gregory A Freeman authored “The Forgotten 500: The Untold Story of the Men Who risked All for the Greatest Rescue Mission of World War II.”    
    (www.generalmihailovich.com/2006/09/halyard-mission-rescue-operation.html)(SFC, 10/18/10, p.A5)

1944        Aug 12, British Prime Minister Churchill and Yugoslav partisan leader Tito met in Naples.
    (MC, 8/12/02)

1944        Oct 20, The Yugoslav cities of Belgrade and Dubrovnik were liberated during World War II. Russian and Yugoslavian troops were freed.
    (AP, 10/20/97)(MC, 10/20/01)

1945        Mar 7, In Yugoslavia the Communist government of Tito formed.
    (MC, 3/7/02)(AP, 10/20/02)

1945        May 2, German Army in Italy surrendered.
    (MC, 5/2/02)
1945        May 2, Yugoslav troops occupied Trieste.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1945        May-1945 Jun, The graves of some 1,000 Croatian soldiers killed at this time were found in 1999 near Maribor in eastern Slovenia. Another 6-7,000 bodies were believed to be buried in the area. Slovenia, which during the war was occupied by Italy and Germany, became a killing field, as thousands in the newly formed Yugoslavia, including Germans, Italians, Hungarians, Croatians, and Serbs, tried to escape to Austria. The Slovene government began listing "concealed graves" in 2003. By 2010 officials had a list of about 600 suspected graves, at least one in each community, amounting to perhaps 100,000 bodies.
    (SFC, 6/17/99, p.C3)(AP, 11/15/10)
1945        May-Jun, Some 40,000 anti-Soviet Cossacks, who had surrendered to the British in Austria, were turned over to the Red Army. Some 30,000 Yugoslavs were handed over to Tito under the pretense that they were being sent to Italy. The Yugoslavs (mostly Croatian soldiers) were locked into trains and taken to Slovenia, where they were shot and buried in mass graves.
    (WSJ, 3/17/98, p.A16)(SFC, 6/17/99, p.C3)

1945        Dec 22, The U.S. recognized Tito's government in Yugoslavia.
    (HN, 12/22/98)

1945        Kosovo became part of the post-war Communist Yugoslavia under Tito.
    (SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)
1945        An uprising in Kosovo, Yugoslavia, was put down by Tito’s Communists.
    (SFC, 3/14/98, p.A8)
1945        Some 13,000 pro-Nazi soldiers and civilians were executed as the WWIII ended. In 2009 Croatia asked that charges be brought against Simo Dubajic (86), a former major in the Yugoslav army, on suspicion of ordering the executions.
    (SFC, 4/1/09, p.A2)
1945        Kiro Gligorov was one of the organizers of the Anti-Fascist Assembly for the People's Liberation of Macedonia, or ASNOM. The organization worked to establish Macedonia's identity and territory within the Yugoslav federation and is considered the cornerstone of the Macedonian state.
    (AP, 1/2/12)

1946         Feb. 1, Yugoslavia declared itself a republic.
    (G&M, 2/1/96, p.A-2)

1946        Apr 18, US recognized Tito's Yugoslavia govt.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1946        Jul 17, Dragoljub "Draza" Mihailovic (53), Yugoslav general, Chetnik leader, and Nazi collaborator, was executed.
    (MC, 7/17/02)

1946        Jul, Albania signed a treaty of friendship with Yugoslavia; Yugoslav advisors and grain began pouring into Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1948        Mar 25, The Italians banned a compromise with Yugoslavia and demanded the return of Trieste.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1948        Jun, Cominform expelled Yugoslavia; Albanian leaders launched an anti-Yugoslav propaganda campaign, cut economic ties, and forced Yugoslav advisors to leave. Later on the treaty of friendship with Yugoslavia was abrogated; Hoxha began purging high-ranking party members accused of "Titoism"; Soviet Union began economic aid to Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1948         Albanian Communist Party leaders voted to merge Albanian and Yugoslav economies and militaries.
    (www, Albania, 1998)
1948         Yugoslavia set up the Goli Otok (Barren Island) prison camp off the coast of Croatia for political prisoners. In 1956 the island, known as the Adriatic Alcatraz, ended its days as a political prison and was turned into a high-security facility for the hardest criminals. Nearly 600 prisoners of all ex-Yugoslav nations, Serbs, Croats, Bosnians, Slovenes, Macedonians and Montenegrins, were later estimated to have died on the island from torture and disease.
    (AP, 7/25/12)

1949        Jun-1949 Jul, Tito concluded a treaty with the Western powers after Yugoslavia’s economic relations with the Soviet Union and satellite countries were broken off.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1684)

1949        The Yugoslav Republic received a $20 million US loan.
    (SFC, 4/24/99, p.A10)

1950-1959    In Yugoslavia Tito’s security chief, Alexander Rankovic, a Serb, repressed Kosovo separatism.
    (SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)

1951        Nov 14, United States and Yugoslavia signed a military aid pact.
    (HN, 11/14/98)

1952        Dec 17, Yugoslavia broke relations with the Vatican.
    (HN, 12/17/98)

1953        Jan 14, Josip Broz Tito was elected president of Yugoslavia by the country's Parliament.
    (AP, 1/14/98)

1953        Feb 28, Greece, Turkey and Yugoslavia signed a 5-year defense pact in Ankara.
    (HN, 2/28/98)

1953        Dec 5, Italy and Yugoslavia agreed to pull troops out of the disputed Trieste border.
    (HN, 12/5/98)

1955        May 26, Khrushchev arrived in Belgrade, Yugoslavia.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1961        Ivo Andric of Yugoslavia won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (AP, 10/8/09)

1961        The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) was founded in Belgrade by Third World leaders such as India's Jawaharlal Nehru, Egypt's Gamal Abdul Nasser and Indonesia's Achmad Sukarno, under the aegis of Yugoslavia's Josip Broz Tito, to try to avoid alignment with either the United States or the Soviet Union.
    (Reuters, 9/10/06)

1963        Apr 7,  Yugoslavia proclaimed itself a Socialist republic.
    (HN, 4/7/97)

1963        Jul 26, Skopje, Yugoslavia, was destroyed by earthquake and over 1,000 were killed.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1963        Dr. Ivo John Lederer (d.1998 at 68) authored “Yugoslavia at the Peace Conference.” He was the founder and director of the Center for Russian and East European Studies at Stanford Univ.
    (SFC, 6/26/98, p.D4)

1967        In Marburg, Germany, a disease believed to be caused from African monkeys infected 31 people in a laboratory. The virus came to be called the Marburg virus. Seven people died in Germany and Yugoslavia from the virus. It was traced to infected vervet monkeys from Uganda cut up for polio research.
    (SFC, 5/7/99, p.D2)(Econ, 8/18/07, p.40)

1968        In Yugoslavia Tito purged Serbian novelist Dobrica Cosic (b.1921) for nationalism. Cosic developed a complex and paradoxical theory of Serbian national persecution that later evolved into the Greater Serbian program of Slobodan Milosevic. Cosic later became the first president of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992 to 1993).
    (WSJ, 5/7/99, p.A18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dobrica_%C4%86osi%C4%87)

1970        Nov 3, King Peter II of Yugoslavia died in a hospital in Denver, Colorado. He had been forced into exile three weeks after his country was invaded by Nazi Germany. He was buried in the Liberty Easter Serbian Orthodox Monastery in Liberty, Illinois. He was the 1st European king or queen to die and be buried in the US.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_II_of_Yugoslavia)

1972        Jun 5, Yugoslav president Tito (1892-1980) visited the USSR and received the Order of Lenin, the highest national order of the USSR.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josip_Broz_Tito)

1973        Dec 2, Monica Seles, tennis star (US Open 1992), was born in Novi Sad, Yugoslavia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monica_Seles)

1974        Aug 30, In Yugoslavia an express train, traveling from Belgrade to Germany, ran full speed into a Zagreb, Croatia, rail yard killing 152.
    (www.cmj.hr/2001/42/6/12.htm)(SFC, 6/4/98, p.A15)

1974        In Yugoslavia under Tito a decentralized federal system allowed the Kosovo region to develop its own security, judiciary, defense, foreign relations and social control. Mahmut Bakalli drafted a constitution that gave the region a status equivalent in most respects to the other republics of Yugoslavia.
    (SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)(SFC, 11/11/98, p.A16)(www, Albania, 1998)(SFC, 3/27/99, p.A13)

1978        Oct 2, The first Yugo 45 was handmade. The Zastava Koral, also known simply as the Yugo, was a subcompact vehicle built in Yugoslavia by Zastava corporation. The Yugo entered the United States by means of Malcolm Bricklin, who wanted to introduce a simple, low cost car to that market. In total 141,511 cars were sold in the US from 1985 to 1991, with the most American units sold in a year peaking at 48,500 in 1987.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zastava_Koral)

1979        Jun 20, Nikola Kavaja (d.2008 at 77) hijacked a US passenger jet with the intention of crashing it into Yugoslav Communist Party headquarters in Belgrade. He abandoned his hijack mission in Ireland, saying at the time he was not sure of the exact location of the downtown party office and did not want innocent civilians to die if the jet missed the target.
    (AP, 11/12/08)(www.nytimes.com/2008/11/12/world/europe/12kavaja.html)

1980        May 4,    Marshal Josip Broz Tito (b.1892), Communist dictator of Yugoslavia (1943-1980), died three days before his 88th birthday. He was a Croat and tried to spread the Serbs out over the six Yugoslav republics so that they would not dominate the country. His policy was considered a major cause of the Bosnian war in the '90s.
    (AP, 5/4/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josip_Broz_Tito)(WSJ, 8/8/95, p. A-10)(WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A14)

1981        Mar 26, Police and Albanian demonstrators battled in Kosovo.
    (www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/8454/8454.ch01.html)

1981        Mar, Kosovar Albanian students organized protests seeking that Kosovo become a Republic within Yugoslavia. The protests were harshly contained by the centralist Yugoslav and Serbian governments.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serbs_in_Kosovo)

1981        Apr 5, It was reported that Yugoslav authorities appeared to be sending extra militia units to the southern province of Kosovo after nationalist demonstrations in which 35 people were injured and scores arrested.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2n6atk)

1981        Dec 1, 180 people were killed when a chartered Yugoslav DC-9 jetliner slammed into a mountain while approaching Ajaccio Airport in Corsica.
    (AP, 12/1/01)

1984        Feb 8, Winter Olympics opened in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia.
    (HN, 2/7/97)

1988        Oct 9, Yugoslav President Raif Dizdarevic warned citizens in a national radio and television address that continued nationalist and economic unrest could lead to a state of emergency.
    (AP, 10/9/98)

1988        In Slovenia journalists of the weekly magazine Mladina ran news stories about secret arms deals between Yugoslavia and Ethiopia as well as political corruption.
    (SFC, 4/14/97, p.A8)

1989        Iraq sent 19 Soviet-built MiG-21s and MiG-23s for maintenance to a plant in Zagreb, Croatia, which was part Yugoslavia. They were moved to Serbia in 1991 and got stuck there because of an embargo. Over the following years most were cannibalized, abandoned and rendered useless.
    (AP, 8/31/09)

1990        Feb 25, Enver Hadri, a human rights leader, was allegedly shot in the head by Veselin Vukotic and two other men while he was stopped at a traffic light in Brussels, Belgium. Hadri had papers on him incriminating former Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic in assassinations. All three gunmen were believed to be hitmen working for the Yugoslav secret service. Veselin was arrested in Spain in 2006.
    (AP, 2/27/06)

1990        Dec 23, Slovenians voted overwhelmingly in favor of independence and their republic’s secession from Yugoslavia.
    (AP, 12/23/00)(www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3407.htm)

1991        Mar 19, Ending several days of ominous silence, the Yugoslav army declares it will not permit Yugoslavia to dissolve into civil war.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

1991        Jun 21, US Secretary of State James Baker visited Yugoslavia, where he pleaded for a peaceful solution to multi-ethnic conflicts that were threatening to erupt into civil war.
    (AP, 6/21/01)

1991        Jun 24, Croatia and Slovenia voted to declare independence unless some new agreement was reached among the Yugoslav republics.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)

1991        Jun 25, In Yugoslavia the Proclamation of Independence was read to the people of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    (SSFC, 8/18/02, p.C6)
1991        Jun 25, The civil war in Yugoslavia began when Croatia and Slovenia proclaimed independence from Yugoslavia. Croatia voted to declare independence with Franjo Tudjman as president. Following months of unsuccessful talks among Yugoslavia’s six republics about the future of the federation, the western republics of Croatia and Slovenia declared their independence. Entities of Yugoslavia began to split off leaving Serbia and Montenegro.
    (SFC,10/16/97, p.A12)(AP, 6/25/01)(www.factmonster.com/ce6/world/A0857636.html)

1991        Jun 27, Yugoslav army tanks and helicopters attacked Slovenia. Fighting broke out between Serbian and Croatian militias. The Slovene militia trapped an armored column and captured 2,000 soldiers. The prisoners were released and an agreement was reached for Slovenia to control its own borders after a 90 day period of int’l. observation.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC,10/16/97, p.A12)

1991        Sep 21, Yugoslav army tanks and artillery began an invasion of eastern Croatia. The Croats said that some 600 soldiers and 1200 civilians perished in the 3-month bombardment of Vukovar by rebel Serbs.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.A10)

1991        Sep 25, The UN Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 713 that imposed a worldwide arms embargo against Yugoslavia and all its warring factions.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 6/19/96, p.A10)(AP, 9/20/01)

1991        Sep, The Croat militia unit Autumn Rains arrived in Gospic. When front-line fighting ended early this month, the unit turned its attention to the 9,000 Serbs who lived in the area. Miro Bajramovic in 1997 admitted that the unit tortured prisoners and he killed 72 people. He said that he acted on the orders of interior minister Ivan Vekic.
    {Croatia, Serbia, Yugoslavia}
    (SFC, 9/9/97, p.A10,12)

1991        Oct 8, Slovenia and Croatia began operating independently from Yugoslavia. Slovenia took over its own borders and began printing its own money.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_modern_Croatia)(http://tinyurl.com/p5rhu)(SFC, 5/26/96, T-5)

1991        Nov 23, Yugoslavia's rival leaders agreed to a new cease-fire, the 14th of the Balkan civil war.
    (AP, 11/23/01)

1991        Nov 27, The U.N. Security Council unanimously adopted a resolution paving the way for the establishment of a U.N. peacekeeping operation in war-ravaged Yugoslavia.
    (AP, 11/27/01)

1991        Dec 6, Gen. Pavle Strugar led the Yugoslav attack on Dubrovnik. At least 43 civilians were killed in the attack. Serbs had opened bombardment of the Croatian port of Dubrovnik in early October. In 2001 Strugar (68) turned himself into the war crimes tribunal at the Hague. In 2005 Strugar was convicted of two counts of willful destruction of Dubrovnik and attacking civilians. In 2008 appeals judges added two more convictions for unjustified devastation of the town and attacking civilian sites. They also cut his original sentence from eight years to seven and a half years because of his deteriorating health.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 10/22/01, p.B1)(AP, 7/17/08)

1991        Dec, Hungarian officials discovered 11 tons of rocket launchers and automatic weapons being loaded on trucks headed for Croatia in violation of a UN arms embargo. They had been labeled as Chilean humanitarian aid for Sri Lanka. In Chile Col. Gerardo Huber, who directed purchases at the army's weapons manufacturer, turned up dead shortly after testifying in a military investigation. His head had been blown apart by a blast from a machine gun. In 2009 former Chilean Army Gen. Guillermo Letelier and Air Force Gen. Vicente Rodriguez were sentenced to prison for shipping arms to Croatia at the time of its battle for independence from Yugoslavia. 11 people were sentenced by a military court in June, 2009, for their roles in the deal. In October, 2009, retired Gen. Victor Lizarraga and retired Col. Manuel Provis got 10 and eight years, respectively, for conspiracy and homicide. Gen. Carlos Krum and Col. Julio Munoz, also both retired, got nearly 2 years for conspiracy and murder, respectively. The identity of the gunman in Huber's murder remained unknown.
    (AP, 6/10/09)(AP, 10/5/09)

1991        Macedonia gained independence from the former Yugoslavia. Its president was Kiro Glogorov. A quarter to a third of the population is Albanian. Its population is about 2 mil. Its capital is Skopje.
    (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/mk.html)
1991        Entities of Yugoslavia began to split off leaving Serbia and Montenegro.
    (SFC, 10/18/96, A16)
1991        Mile Mrksic, Miroslav Radic, and Veselin Sljivan-Canin, officers in the Yugoslav National Army, ordered the massacre of 261 Croats taken out of a Vukovar hospital.
    (SFC, 11/30/96, p.A15)
1991        Stipe Mesic of Croatia was the last leader of the collective Yugoslav presidency before the country splintered.
    (SFC, 2/8/00, p.A14)
1991        Yugoslavia exported 149 M-84 tanks to Kuwait. They were assembled in Croatia from components made throughout Yugoslavia.
    (Econ, 1/8/11, p.52)

1991-1995    Yugoslavia was put under a UN arms embargo.
    (SFC, 7/2/02, p.A6)

1992        Jan 15, The Yugoslav federation, founded in 1918, effectively collapsed as the European Community recognized the republics of Croatia and Slovenia.
    (AP, 1/15/98)

1992        Apr 27, The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was proclaimed in Belgrade by the Republic of Serbia and its lone ally, Montenegro.
    (AP, 4/27/97)

1992        May 2, Ejup Ganic took over as Bosnia's acting president. Serbian prosecutors later alleged that Ganic personally commanded a series of attacks on illegal targets across Sarajevo, including an officers' club, a military hospital and what the Serbs describe as a medical convoy making its way out of town.
    (AP, 3/4/11)

1992        May 3, Yugoslav Army seized Bosnian Pres. Alija Izetbegovic on his return from peace talks in Lisbon. He was released the next day.
    (www.nytimes.com/specials/bosnia/context/apchrono.html)

1992        May 5, Yugoslav troops evacuated Sarajevo under a deal struck with the UN. The troops  clashed with Bosnians under the leadership of Ejup Ganic. Some 42 soldiers were killed.
    (Econ, 3/6/10, p.70)(www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/comexpert/ANX/VI-01.htm#II.B.1)

1992        May 30, President Bush ordered the seizure of Yugoslav government assets in the United States after the United Nations imposed sanctions in an effort to force Yugoslavia to observe a cease-fire in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
    (AP, 5/30/97)

1992        May, Ilija Jurisic, a Bosnian security officer, ordered an attack on a Yugoslav army convoy that killed at least 50 soldiers. In 2009 Jurisic was found guilty of ordering the attack against the Serb-led army convoy consisting of dozens of army trucks carrying some 100 soldiers withdrawing from the predominantly Muslim Bosnian town of Tuzla. The Serbian court sentenced him to 12 years in prison. On Oct 11, 2010, an appeals court overturned the conviction and 12-year prison sentence.
    (AP, 9/28/09)(AP, 10/11/10)

1992        Jul 7, Group of Seven leaders meeting in Munich, Germany, condemned the carnage in former Yugoslavia and warned Serb-led troops that U.N. military force would be used if needed to keep relief operations going.
    (AP, 7/7/97)

1992        Jul, Yugoslavia was suspended from the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) for fomenting war in Bosnia.
    (SFC, 3/28/98, p.A8)(www.hrw.org/wr2k1/europe/yugoslavia3.html)

1992        Sep 22, The U.N. General Assembly voted to expel Yugoslavia.
    (AP, 9/22/97)

1992        Nov 5, Bobby Fischer beat Boris Spassky to win Chess title in Belgrade. Fischer received $3.5 million for his win, but violated UN sanctions and an embargo on doing business in Yugoslavia. In 2004 he was arrested in Japan for traveling on a revoked USD passport.
    (www.ishipress.com/bobby-in.htm)(SFC, 7/17/04, p.A2)

1992        Nov 16, United Nations Security Council voted to authorize a naval blockade on the Danube River and the Adriatic coast to tighten economic sanctions on Yugoslavia.
    (AP, 11/1697)

1992        Dec 20, Serbia held elections. Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic won re-election. He defeated the American entrepreneur Milan Panic in elections that were "decidedly unfair."
    (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_democracy/election_watch/v004/)

1992        Dec 26, Milan Panic conceded defeat to Slobodan Milosevic almost a week after Yugoslavia's presidential election.
    (AP, 12/26/97)

1992        Yugoslavia under Milosevic began stashing funds in front companies. Some $658 million was put into 8 front companies in Cyprus alone.
    (SFC, 7/2/02, p.A6)

1992-1995    The war between Bosnia's Croats, Muslims and Serbs claimed some 100,000 lives. Government officials estimated that at least 20,000 mostly Muslim women were raped during the conflict.
    (AFP, 11/29/10)

1993            Feb 22, The UN passed Resolution 808 that established the Hague Int'l. War Crimes Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1 January 1991.
    (www.helsinki.org.yu/pubs_text.php?lang=en&idteksta=417)

1993        May 25, The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was established by Resolution 827 of the UN Security Council. Judges were elected on 15 September 1993 and on 15 August 1994 the Prosecutor was appointed.
    (SFC, 5/8/96, p.A-11)(www.un.org/icty/glance-e/index.htm)

1994        Istria was the first region of the former Yugoslavia to be officially designated as a "Region of Europe". The Istria of 2005, alternatively called Istra and Istrija, is politically divided into three separate countries: Croatia, Slovenia and Italy.
    (www.istrians.com/istria/maps/)

1995        The film “Underground” was made by Yugoslavian director Emir Kusturica. It won a the Palme d’Or at Cannes. It covered 50 years of social chaos in Yugoslavia from the bombing of Belgrade by the Nazis to the fall of Communism.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, DB p.11)(SFC, 3/14/98, p.B3)

1998        Milovan Djilas, Yugoslav author and politician: "The strongest are those who renounce their own times and become a living part of those yet to come. The strongest, and the rarest."
    (AP, 10/18/98)

1999        Mar 24, In Serbia NATO forces sent a broad wave of air attacks against Yugoslav forces in an attempt to halt the Serbian offensive in Kosovo. Cruise missiles and planes targeted military sites near Belgrade and some 40 sites in total. Initial reports said 10 people were killed and 38 wounded in the bombing. The airstrikes marked the first time in its 50-year existence that NATO had ever attacked a sovereign country. NATO’s 78-day bombing ended on June 10.
    (SFC, 3/25/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 3/25/99, p.A1)(SFC, 3/26/99, p.A6)(AP, 3/24/00)(Econ, 5/23/09, p.51)

1999        Apr 23, NATO forces bombed Nis and a broad swath of Yugoslavia on the 31st day of attacks. 16 civilians were killed and 16 others injured during the attack on the headquarters and studios of Radio Television Serbia in central Belgrade. In 2009 Amnesty International demanded that NATO be held accountable for civilian casualties in the bombing.
    (SFC, 4/24/99, p.A11)(AP, 4/23/09)

1999        May 13, NATO bombs struck a group of some 500 refugees in Korisa (Kosovo) and at least 79 people were killed. Some 700 hundreds refugees had been locked up by the Serbs inside the grounds of a warehouse in Korisa.
    (SFC, 5/15/99, p.A1)(SFC, 5/31/99, p.A8)

1999        May 14, In Kosovo paramilitary fighters looted homes and killed 41 ethnic Albanian civilians in the village of Cuska. In 2002 Fred Abrahams and Eric Stover authored “A Village Destroyed, May 14, 1999: War Crimes in Kosovo.” In 2010 9 men, suspected in the killings in Cuska, were detained and indicted by Serbian police.
    (AP, 3/13/10)(www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/9685.php)(Reuters, 9/11/10)

1999        May 28, In Yugoslavia Viktor Chernomyrdin declared the Yugoslav president key to a Kosovo peace plan despite complications caused by his indictment for war crimes. It was reported that Pres. Milosevic had agreed to the general principles of a peace settlement following a nine hour long discussion with the Russian envoy.
    (SFEC, 5/30/99, p.A8)(AP, 5/28/00)

1999        Jun 9, Yugoslav and Western generals signed a military agreement to end the 78-day NATO air war against Yugoslavia based on a demonstrable withdrawal of Yugoslav forces from Kosovo and a complete pullout in 11 days.
    (SFC, 6/10/99, p.A1)(SFC, 10/6/00, p.A19)

2000        Apr 3, In Bosnia NATO troops arrested Momcilo Krajisnik, former speaker of the Bosnian Serb assembly, for war crimes and flew him to the Netherlands to stand trial. Momcilo Krajisnik was convicted by the Yugoslav war crimes tribunal in The Hague for persecuting and forcibly expelling non-Serbs during the 1992-95 war in Bosnia. He was released in 2013 after serving two-thirds of a reduced 20-year sentence.
    (SFC, 4/4/00, p.A10)(SFC, 8/31/13, p.A6)

2001        Feb 22, A UN tribunal on Yugoslav War Crimes found 3 Bosnian Serbs guilty of crimes against humanity for the rape, torture and enslavement of Muslim women in Foca between 1992-1993. The landmark case established rape and sexual enslavement as a crime against humanity. They were sentenced to 28, 20 and 12 years, respectively.
    (SFC, 2/23/01, p.A1)(AP, 11/1/07)

2001        Nov 23, In Belgium the UN war crimes tribunal announced that Slobodan Milosevic, former Yugoslav president, would stand trial on charges of genocide in the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia. Milosevic died in March 2006 while his trial was in progress.
    (SFC, 11/24/01, p.A11)(AP, 11/23/06)

[see Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia, Macedonia for continuity]

2002        Mar 14, Yugoslavia was declared dead as Serbia and Montenegro agreed to rename their federation: “Serbia and Montenegro.”
    (SFC, 3/15/02, p.A6)

2002        May 21, The Bush administration announced that it would resume economic aid to Yugoslavia because it had met requirements to cooperate with the war crimes tribunal in The Hague.
    (SFC, 5/22/02, p.A15)

2002        Oct 3, The United States forgave two-thirds of Yugoslavia's debt on in a sign of improving relations with the country's reformist leadership.
    (AP, 10/3/02)

2003        Jan 29, Montenegro lawmakers voted to abolish Yugoslavia and replace it with a loose union of semi-independent states called Serbia and Montenegro.
    (SFC, 1/30/03, p.A8)

2003        Feb 4, Yugoslavia’s parliament transformed the federation into a loose union between Montenegro and Serbia and retired the name “Yugoslavia.”
    (WSJ, 2/5/03, p.A1)

2006        Mar 11, In the Netherlands former Yugoslav leader Slobodan Milosevic (b.1941), the so-called "butcher of the Balkans" being tried for war crimes after orchestrating a decade of bloodshed during his country's breakup, was found dead in his prison cell. Milosevic spent nearly five years at a UN detention facility in Scheveningen, a suburb of The Hague.
    (AP, 3/11/06)

2008        Carla Del Ponte, a Swiss prosecutor, authored (with Chuck Sudetic) “Madame Prosecutor: Confrontations with Humanity’s Worst Criminals and the Culture of Impunity.” It covered her 8 years chasing Balkan war criminals. In 2009 this Italian edition was made available in English.
    (Econ, 1/24/09, p.88)

2009        Feb 11, Judges at the Yugoslav war crimes tribunal voted to suspend the trial of ultranationalist Serb leader Vojislav Seselj after the prosecution said its case was being undermined by witness intimidation. The decision came after 71 prosecution witnesses had already been heard and with only a handful still to testify.
    (AP, 2/11/09)

2009        Feb 26,  At The Hague UN judges in the Yugoslav war crimes tribunal acquitted former Serb President Milan Milutinovic of ordering a deadly campaign of terror by Serb forces against Kosovo Albanians in 1999. The court convicted five other senior Serbs and gave them prison sentences of between 15 and 22 years. The marathon trial started July 10, 2006.
    (AP, 2/26/09)

2009        Mar 17, In the Netherlands the UN criminal tribunal for the former Yugoslavia reduced the jail sentence of Bosnian Serb leader Momcilo Krajisnik from 27 to 20 years, quashing some convictions from a 2006 judgment.
    (AP, 3/17/09)

2010        Mar 20, Croatia and Slovenia hosted the 1st locally organized conference of the heads of government of the former Yugoslavia.
    (Econ, 4/3/10, p.54)

2010        Jul 21, The Yugoslav war crimes tribunal ruled that Kosovo's former prime minister must be retried on murder and torture charges related to the country's 1998-99 war with Serbia, calling his acquittal two years ago "a miscarriage of justice." Tribunal President Patrick Robinson said the original trial for Ramush Haradinaj and two former Kosovo Liberation Army comrades was marred by intimidation that left two prosecution witnesses too scared to testify.
    (AP, 7/21/10)

2010        Nov 26, Serbia sent a formal request for the extradition of Peter Egner (88), a naturalized American citizen who is suspected of serving in a Nazi unit that killed some 17,000 Jewish and other civilians here during World War II. Egner was born in Yugoslavia and emigrated to the United States in 1960, gaining American citizenship six years later.
    (AP, 11/26/10)

2010        Jason Vuic authored “The Yugo: The Rise and Fall of the Worst Car in History.”
    (Econ, 1/16/10, p.83)

2011        Feb 22, Serb nationalist Vojislav Seselj deliberately revealed the names of 11 witnesses whose identities were being shielded by the Yugoslav war crimes tribunal at the start of his contempt of court trial. Seselj has been in custody at the tribunal for eight years since turning himself in to face charges of plotting ethnic cleansing and inciting atrocities by Serb forces in Bosnia and Croatia as the former Yugoslavia crumbled in the 1990s.
    (AP, 2/22/11)

2011        Feb 23, The UN Yugoslav war crimes tribunal in the Hague sentenced Vlastimir Djordjevic (62) to 27 years in prison after pronouncing him guilty of murdering at least 724 Kosovo Albanians, as well as committing inhumane acts, persecution and deportations.
    (AP, 2/23/11)

2011        Mar 16, US federal agents arrested Azra Basic (52), a Croatian woman in small-town Kentucky for alleged war crimes two decades ago in the former Yugoslavia. A complaint accused Basic of committing crimes at three camps near the majority-Serbian settlement of Cardak in Derventa. Authorities said that, as a soldier in the Croatian army, she killed a prisoner and tortured others by forcing them to drink human blood and gasoline.
    (AP, 3/18/11)

2011        Sep 6, At the Hague, Netherlands, the Yugoslav war crimes tribunal sentenced Gen. Momcilo Perisic, the former chief of the Yugoslav army, to 27 years imprisonment for providing crucial military aid to Bosnian Serb forces responsible for the 1995 Srebrenica massacre and for a deadly four-year campaign of shelling and sniping in Sarajevo.
    (AP, 9/6/11)

2011        Nov 28, Yugoslavia's last PM Ante Markovic (87) died in Zagreb, Croatia. He tried to prevent the former country's bloody breakup in the 1990s.
    (AP, 11/28/11)

2012        Jun 28, The Yugoslav war crimes tribunal at The Hague acquitted former Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic of one charge of genocide but upheld 10 other war crimes counts related to atrocities in Bosnia's bloody war.
    (AP, 6/28/12)

2012        Nov 16, The Yugoslav war crimes tribunal in The Hague overturned the convictions of Ante Gotovina and Mladen Markac, two Croat generals for murdering and illegally expelling Serb civilians in a 1995 military blit. Both men returned home to a hero's welcome. The acquittals enraged hardline opponents of the UN court in Serbia who accuse its judges of anti-Serb bias.
    (AP, 11/16/12)

2013        Mar 27, The Yugoslav war crimes tribunal in The Hague convicted two senior Bosnian Serbs of war crimes in the 1992-1995 Bosnian war. Mico Stanisic and Stojan Zupljanin were each sented to 22 years in prison.
    (SFC, 3/28/13, p.A3)

2013        May 30, The Int’l. Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) acquitted Jovica Stanisic, the former head of Serbia’s secret police, and his right hand man Franko Simatovic, ruling that they cannot be held responsible for crimes of special forces units in early 1990s.
    (Econ, 6/8/13, p.58)(http://tinyurl.com/lq9cjgp)

2013        Jul 11, Appeals judges at the UN Yugoslav war crimes tribunal at The Hague reinstated a genocide charge against Radovan Karadzic linked to a campaign of killing and mistreating non-Serbs at the start of the Bosnian war in 1992.
    (AP, 7/11/13)

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