Today in History - February 23

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155CE    Feb 23, Polycarp, disciple of Apostle John, was arrested and burned at stake.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

303CE    Feb 23, Emperor Diocletian ordered the general persecution of Christians in Rome.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1455        Feb 23, Johannes Gutenberg (Johan Gensfleisch, c1400-1468) printed his 1st book, the Bible. Gutenberg printed Latin Bibles of which 11 were still extant in 1987. [see 1450]
    (SFC, 2/15/97, p.D1)(MC, 2/23/02)

1507        Feb 23, Gentile Bellini, Venetian artist, died.
    (www.boglewood.com/cornaro/xgentilebellini.html)

1516        Feb 23, The Hapsburg Charles I succeeded Ferdinand in Spain.
    (HN, 2/23/99)

1530        Feb 23, Spain's Carlos I was crowned Holy Roman Emperor Charles V by Pope Clement VII in the last coronation of a German king by a Pope. Charles restored the Medici to power after capturing Florence and ceded Malta to the landless religious order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem.
    (TL-MB, p.14)(MC, 2/24/02)(PC, 1992, p.176)

1540        Feb 23, Spanish explorer Francisco Vasquez de Coronado began his unsuccessful search for the fabled Seven Cities of Gold in the American Southwest. Antonio de Mendoza, Viceroy of Mexico, sent Francisco Coronado overland to search for the fabled Seven Cities of Cibola in present day New Mexico. Coronado, Spanish explorer, introduced horses, mules, pigs, cattle, and sheep into the American southwest. An Indian guide spoke of a rich kingdom called Quivira. When no cities were found he confessed under torture that the story was false.
    (NPS-CNM, 4/1/97)(HN, 2/23/99)(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(SFC, 1/31/04, p.D1)

1554        Feb 23, Henry Grey, Duke of Suffolk and Lady Jane Grey's father, was executed.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1574        Feb 23, The 5th War of Religion, against the Huguenots, broke out in France.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(HN, 2/23/98)(MC, 2/23/02)

1615        Feb 23, The Estates-General in Paris was dissolved, having been in session since October 1614.
    (HN, 2/23/99)

1633        Feb 23, Samuel Pepys (d.1703), English diarist, was born. Pepys was an informal and spontaneous English diarist. In 1999 Ferdinand Mount wrote the novel "Jem (and Sam)," about Pepys and his drinking partner Jeremiah Mount. In 1999 Sara George authored "The Journal of Mrs. Pepys," a novel based on Pepys' young wife Elizabeth.
    (WSJ, 6/2/99, p.A24)(HN, 2/23/01)

1649        Feb 23, John Blow, composer of 1st English opera (Venus and Adonis), was baptized.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1685        Feb 23, Composer and musician George Frideric Handel (d.1759) was born in Halle, Germany.
    (LGC-HCS, p.37)(AP, 2/23/98)(HN, 2/23/98)

1689        Feb 23, Dutch prince William III was proclaimed King of England.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1716        Feb 23, Lady Nithsdale (25) planned and executed the escape of her husband, William Maxwell (36), Fifth Earl of Nithsdale, as he awaited execution in the Tower of London. They both escaped to France and settled in Rome as members of James Francis Stuart’s court-in-exile.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.10)(http://tinyurl.com/7hdz7oe)

1743        Feb 23, Meyer Amschel Rothschild, banker and founder of the Rothschild dynasty in Europe, was born.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1246)(HN, 2/23/98)

1778        Feb 23, Baron von Steuben joined the Continental Army at Valley Forge.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1787        Feb 23, Emma Hart Willard, pioneer in higher education for women, was born.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1792        Feb 23, Joseph Haydn’s 94th Symphony in G premiered.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1792        Feb 23, Humane Society of Massachusetts was incorporated. It erected life-saving stations for distressed mariners.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1792        Feb 23, Joshua Reynolds (68), English portrait painter (Simplicity), died.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1797        Feb 23, Antoine d'Auvergne (83), French opera composer (Coquette), died.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1802        Feb 23, Dewitt Clinton (1769-1828) began serving as US Senator from New York and continued to 1803.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DeWitt_Clinton)

1821        Feb 23, College of Apothecaries, the 1st US pharmacy college, was organized in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1821        Feb 23, John Keats, English poet, died of tuberculosis at the age of 26. In 1998 the biography “Keats" by Andrew Motion was published. Earlier biographies included one by Walter Jackson Bate (1963), and a novelistic psychological portrait by Aileen Ward (1963). The standard work on Keats was written by Robert Gittings in 1968.
    (WP, 1951, p.11)(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)(SFEC, 3/29/98, BR p.6)

1822        Feb 23, Boston was granted a charter to incorporate as a city.
    (AP, 2/23/98)

1824        Feb 23, Lewis Cass Hunt (d.1886), Brig General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1836        Feb 23, The Alamo was besieged by Santa Anna. Thus began the siege of the Alamo, a 13-day moment in history that turned a ruined Spanish mission in San Antonio, Texas, into a shrine known and revered the world over. In 2012 James Donovan authored “The Blood of Heroes: The 13-Day Struggle for the Alamo – and the Sacrifice That Forged a Nation.
    (AP, 2/23/98)(Econ, 6/2/12, p.99)

1838        Feb 23, Gilbert Moxley Sorrel (d.1901), Brig General (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1846        Feb 23, The Liberty Bell in Philadelphia tolled for the last time, to mark George Washington’s birthday. A hairline fracture had developed since 1817 and a failed attempt to repair it resulted in the crack. In 2010 Tristram Riley-Smith authored “"The Cracked Bell: American and the Afflictions of Liberty."
    (HN, 2/23/98)(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.T5)(Econ, 1/30/10, p.93)
1846        Feb 23, Polish revolutionaries marched on Cracow, but were defeated.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1847        Feb 23, U.S. troops under Gen. Zachary Taylor defeated Mexican Gen. Santa Anna at the Battle of Buena Vista in Mexico. The United States and Mexico had been at war over territorial disputes since May 1846.
    (AP, 2/23/98)(HN, 2/23/98)

1848        Feb 23, John Quincy Adams, the sixth president of the United States (1825-1829), died of a stroke at age 80.  Samuel Flagg Bemis wrote a biography. In 1997 Paul C. Nagel published a biography.
    (AP, 2/23/98)(WSJ, 10/22/97, p.A20)(MC, 2/23/02)

1854        Feb 23, Great Britain officially recognized the independence of the Orange Free State.
    (HN, 2/23/99)

1861        Feb 23, President-elect Lincoln arrived secretly in Washington to take office after a suspected assassination plot was foiled in Baltimore. Allan Pinkerton, founder of the Pinkerton Detective Agency, may have saved Abraham Lincoln’s life by suspecting a plot to assassinate the president-elect in Baltimore, Md. At the detective’s suggestion, Lincoln avoided the threat by secretly slipping through the city at night. A few months later, Pinkerton joined Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan’s staff as chief intelligence officer. Using the name "Major Allen," the private detective remained with McClellan until late 1862, catching southern spies and running an espionage network in Confederate territory.
    (AP, 2/23/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baltimore_Plot)
1861        Feb 23, Texas by popular referendum became the 7th state to secede from the Union.
    (HN, 2/23/98)(MC, 2/23/02)

1865        Feb 23, England’s Reform League was established to concentrate solely on manhood suffrage. The Universal League for the Material Elevation of the Industrious Classes became defunct.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reform_League)

1868        Feb 23, William Edward Burghardt Du Bois was born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. W.E.B. Du Bois was the first African American to earn a doctorate from Harvard University. As a sociologist, he focused on the problem of race for blacks in the United States. He became an influential leader of black Americans, presenting an alternative to Booker T. Washington, whose policies Du Bois considered too conservative and too accommodating to whites. Du Bois, believing that blacks could achieve progress only through protest, encouraged black nationalism and supported Pan-Africanism. He founded the National Negro Committee which eventually became the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Du Bois also founded the Niagara Movement, served as the NAACP's director of research and editor of its magazine Crisis, and taught and published his philosophy at Atlanta University from 1896-1910. In 1961 he renounced his American citizenship and spent his last remaining years in the West African country of Ghana. W.E.B. Du Bois died in Accra, Ghana at the age of 95 in 1963.
    (HNPD, 2/23/99)(HNQ, 5/11/99)

1870        Feb 23, Mississippi was readmitted to the Union.
    (AP, 2/23/98)

1883        Feb 23, Victor Fleming, director of the movie classics "The Wizard of Oz" and "Gone With the Wind", was born.
    (HN, 2/23/98)
1883        Feb 23, Karl Jaspers, existentialist philosopher, was born in Oldenburg, Germany.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1883        Feb 23, American Anti-Vivisection Society was organized in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1885        Feb 23, John Lee survived three attempts to hang him in Exeter Prison, as the trap failed to open.
    (HN, 2/23/99)

1886        Feb 23, Tchaikovsky’s symphonic poem "Manfred" premiered.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1886        Feb 23, An aluminum manufacturing process was developed.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1886        Feb 23, London Times published the world's 1st classified ad.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1898        Feb 23,  Writer Emile Zola was imprisoned in France for his letter J’accuse in which he accused the French government of anti-Semitism and the wrongful imprisonment of army captain Alfred Dreyfus.
    (HN, 2/23/01)

1899        Feb 23, Erich Kastner (d.1974), German poet, novelist and children’s author (Emil and the Detectives), was born. "The only people who attain power are those who crave it."
    (AP, 12/1/98)(HN, 2/23/01)

1900        Feb 23, William Butterfield, architect of the Gothic revival, died.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1901        Feb 23, Britain and Germany agreed on a boundary between German East Africa [later Tanganyika, Rwanda and Burundi] and Nyasaland [later Malawi].
    (HN, 2/23/98)(WUD, 1994, p.593,990)

1904        Feb 23, William Shirer, was born. He was a CBS broadcaster and wrote "The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich."
    (HN, 2/23/99)
1904        Feb 23, US acquired control of the Panama Canal Zone for $10 million.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1904        Feb 23, Japan guaranteed Korean sovereignty in exchange for military assistance.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1905        Feb 23, The Rotary Club was founded in Chicago by lawyer Paul Percy Harris and 3 friends. Montague M. Bear, an engraver and member of the Rotary Club of Chicago, sketched a wagon wheel with 13 spokes. When fellow club members began to complain that the design was static and lifeless, Bear added flourishes that made the wheel appear to ride on a bed of clouds. Unfortunately, some members felt the clouds looked like dust, defying the laws of gravity by being kicked up on both sides of the wheel.  The service club did not admit women until the 1980s.
    (http://tinyurl.com/28kd23m)(AP, 2/23/98)(SFC, 9/28/99, p.A27)(Econ, 6/27/09, p.70)

1906        Feb 23, Johann Hoch, US murderer, was executed.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1909        Feb 23, Shrove Tuesday. The Zulu Social Aid and Pleasure Society, the 1st African-American Mardi Gras organization, first marched in the New Orleans Mardi Gras parade. Members had marched in the Mardi Gras as early as 1901, but their first appearance as Zulus came in 1909, with William Story as King.
    (www.mardigras.org/Calc.html)(http://tinyurl.com/ylqbwbj)

1910        Feb 23, George Bernard Shaw's "Misalliance," premiered in London.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1911        Feb 23, G. Mennen ("Soapy") Williams, (Gov-D-Mich, 1949-60), was born in Detroit.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1915        Feb 23, Germany sank US ships Carib & Evelyn and torpedoed the Norwegian ship Regin.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1916        Feb 23, Secretary of State Lansing hinted that the U.S. might have to abandon the policy of avoiding "entangling foreign alliances".
    (HN, 2/23/98)
1916        Feb 23, French artillery killed the entire French 72nd division at Samogneux, Verdun.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1917        Feb 23, The February revolution began in Russia (OS calendar). [see Mar 8]
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1919        Feb 23, Fascist Party was formed in Italy by Benito Mussolini. [see Mar 23]
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1921        Feb 23, The 1st transcontinental airmail plane set a record of 33 hours and 20 minutes from San Francisco to New York.
    (HN, 2/23/98)(MC, 2/23/02)

1924        Feb 23, Allan MacLeod Cormack, physicist, was born. He later developed the CAT scan.
    (HN, 2/23/01)

1926        Feb 23, President Calvin Coolidge opposed a large air force, believing it would be a menace to world peace.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1927        Feb 23, President Coolidge signed the Radio Act, a bill creating the Federal Radio Commission, forerunner of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Commerce Secretary Herbert Hoover established the Federal Radio Commission to prevent interference among radio signals by allocating broadcast spectrum.
    (WSJ, 11/3/97, p.A20)(AP, 2/23/98)(Econ, 8/14/04, p.61)

1929        Feb 23, Regine Crespin, operatic soprano, was born in Marseilles, France.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1929        Feb 23, Elston Howard, Yankee catcher (1st black NY Yankee/1963 AL MVP), was born.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1929        Feb 23, Chinese rebels seized Hunan.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1930        Feb 23, Horst Wessel (22), German Nazi brawler (wrote lyrics for "Die Fahne Hoch," the Horst Wessel Song), was killed.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1931        Feb 23, Nellie Melba (Helen Mitchell), Australian soprano, died.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1934        Feb 23, Edward William Elgar (76), English composer (Coronation Ode), died.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1936        Feb 23, In Russia, an unmanned balloon rose to a record height of 25 miles.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1938        Feb 23, Twelve Chinese fighter planes dropped bombs on Japan.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1940        Feb 23, Peter Fonda, actor (Easy Rider, Lilith, Wild Angels, Trip), was born.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1940        Feb 23, Walt Disney's animated movie "Pinocchio" was released.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1940        Feb 23, Woody Guthrie dated his song “this Land Is Your Land" to this day. His original title was “God Bless America."
    (SFC, 11/27/98, p.c11)

1942        Feb 23, A Japanese submarine shelled an oil refinery at Ellwood, near Santa Barbara, Calif., the first Axis bombs to hit American soil.
    (HN, 2/23/98)(MC, 2/23/02)
1942        Feb 23, Stefan Zweig (b.1881), Austrian Jewish writer (Die Welt von Gestern), committed suicide with his wife in Brazil. Zweig's nostalgic but rather impersonal memoirs of the "Golden Age of Security", The World of Yesterday, was published posthumously in 1943. His last novel (The Ecstasy of Transformation) was published posthumously in Germany in 1982. In 2008 it was translated into English as “The Post-Office Girl." In 2014 George Prochnik authored “The Impossible Exile: Stefan Zweig at the End of the World."
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/szweig.htm)(WSJ, 6/21/08, p.W9)(Econ, 5/23/09, p.91)(Econ, 6/14/14, p.76)

1943        Feb 23, German troops pulled back through the Kasserine Pass in Tunisia.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1944        Feb 23, American bombers struck the Marianas Islands bases, only 1,300 miles from Tokyo.
    (HN, 2/23/98)
1944        Feb 23, Stalin ordered the mass deportation Caucasian Muslim nations. Chechens and Ingush to Kazakhstan were deported for resisting Soviet rule and abetting the Germans. "478,479 persons were evicted and loaded onto special railway cars, including 91,250 Ingush." More than a third of the population died before the rest were allowed to go home. Also deported were the Karachays, Balkars, and Meskhetian Turks.
    (WSJ, 9/12/02, p.A8)(WSJ, 2/23/04, p.A16)(Econ, 2/12/05, p.22)
1944        Feb 23, Leo Hendrik Baekeland (b.1863), Belgium-born inventor of Bakelite (1907), died in Beacon, NY.
    (www.yonkershistory.org/bake.html)(SSFC, 10/24/04, Par p.5)(ON, 9/05, p.12)

1945        Feb 23, Eisenhower opened a large offensive in the Rhineland.
    (HN, 2/23/98)
1945        Feb 23, During World War II, U.S. Marines on Iwo Jima captured Mount Suribachi, where they raised the American flag. Actually, there were two flag-raisings that day, the second was the one captured in the famous Associated Press photograph taken by Joe Rosenthal. John Bradley (d.1994), was one of the soldiers who raised the US flag at Iwo Jima. The carnage on the 8-sq.-mile island continued for another 31 days. One flag raising was captured by AP photographer Joseph Rosenthal (1911-2006) and inspired the 1954 sculpture by Felix de Weldon (d.2003) erected in Washington DC. Sgt. Bill Genaust filmed the event with a 16mm camera and died in combat 9 days later.
    (SFC, 9/21/00, p.C6)(SFC, 6/14/03, p.A21)(SFC, 8/21/06, p.A1)(AP, 2/23/07)
1945        Feb 23, Turkey declared war on Germany and Japan.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1946        Feb 23, Anti-British demonstration in India drew a crowd of 300,000.
    (HN, 2/23/98)
1946        Feb 23, Japanese General Tomoyuki Yamashita was hanged in Manila, the Philippines, after being found guilty by a US military commission of war crimes.
    (AH, 2/06, p.15)

1947        Feb 23, Shakira Caine, actress (Man Who be King), Miss Guyana (1967), was born in Guyana.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1947        Feb 23, Gen. Eisenhower opened a drive to raise $170M in aid for European Jews.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1947        Feb 23, Several hundred Nazi organizers were arrested in Frankfurt by U.S. and British forces.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1950        Feb 23, New York's Metropolitan Museum exhibited a collection of Hapsburg art. It was the first showing of this collection in the U.S.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1954        Feb 23, The first mass inoculation of children against polio with the Salk vaccine began in Pittsburgh. Jonas Salk created the Salk vaccine against polio. It used a killed virus to induce immunization. Poliomyelitis is a viral attack of the central nervous system and can cause paralysis and death by asphyxiation. [see Apr 26]  In 2005 David M. Oshinsky authored “Polio: An American Story – The Crusade That Mobilized the Nation Against the 20th Century’s Most Feared Disease."
    (SFC, 6/21/96, p.A10)(HN, 2/23/98)(AP, 2/23/98)(Econ, 6/18/05, p.79)
1954        Feb 23, In Egypt Pres. Naguib resigned. The popular outcry was so great that Naguib was reinstated as president. Nasser, however, took the position of prime minister, previously held by Naguib, and remained president of the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC).
    (http://countrystudies.us/egypt/32.htm)

1955        Feb 23, Eight nations (the United States, Australia, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, the Philippines, Pakistan, and Thailand) met in Bangkok for the first SEATO council.
    (HN, 2/23/98)(HN, 9/8/98)

1956        Feb 23, Russian party leader Nikita Khrushchev attacked the memory of Stalin. [see Feb 14, 25]
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1960        Feb 23, Whites joined Negro students in a sit-in at a Winston-Salem, N.C. Woolworth store.
    (HN, 2/23/98)
1960        Feb 23, Naruhito, crown prince of Japan, was born.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1964        Feb 23, The Beatles' 3rd TV appearance on the Ed Sullivan show, taped in NYC 2 weeks earlier, aired.
    (SFC, 3/6/04, p.D17)
1964        Feb 23, The U.S. and Britain recognized the new Zanzibar government.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1965        Feb 23, Stan Laurel (74), the "skinny" half of the Laurel and Hardy comedy team, died in Santa Monica, Calif.
    (AP, 2/23/00)
1965         Feb 23, Mossad agents in Uruguay assassinated Herbert Cukurs, a former deputy to the leader of the Latvian Arajs Commando, an auxiliary police unit formed after German forces captured Latvia. The unit had played a central role in the near annihilation of Latvia's Jewish community.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herberts_Cukurs)(AP, 10/30/14)

1967        Feb 23, American troops began the largest offensive of the war, near the Cambodian border. In order to deny the Vietcong cover, and allow men to see through the dense vegetation, herbicides were dumped on the forests near the South Vietnamese borders as well as Cambodia and Laos.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1969        Feb 23, Pres. Nixon ordered plans for the secret bombing of Cambodia.
    (www.historycommons.org/context.jsp?item=a04242670parrotsbeak)(SFEC, 4/23/00, p.A19)

1970        Feb 23, Guyana becomes a republic.
    (HFA, '96, p.24)

1972        Feb 23, Black activist Angela Davis was released from jail where she was held for kidnapping , conspiracy and murder.
    (HN, 2/23/99)

1974        Feb 23, William F. Knowland, former Cal. state senator and Oakland Tribune newspaper publisher and editor, committed suicide. In 1998 Gayle B. Montgomery and James W. Johnson, in collaboration with Paul G. Manolis, published the biography "One Step from the White House: The Rise and Fall of Senator William F. Knowland."
    (SFEC, 5/17/98, BR p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_F._Knowland)

1979        Feb 23, The US EPA approved ARCO Petroleum’s petition for the use of MTBE as a 2-5% blend in gasoline to boost octane .
    (SSFC, 8/26/01, p.A17)(http://tinyurl.com/34a9bg)

1980        Feb 23, Eric Heiden (21) won his 5th speed skating gold at the Lake Placid Olympics. He went on to become an orthopedic surgeon.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speed_skating_at_the_1980_Winter_Olympics)(SSFC, 9/22/02, p.E1)
1980        Feb 23, Oil tanker explosion off Pilos, Greece, caused a 37-mil-gallon spill.
    {Ship, Greece, Environment}
    (http://tinyurl.com/2lgors)

1981        Feb 23, An attempted coup began in Spain as 200 members of the Civil Guard and some of the military invaded the Parliament, taking lawmakers hostage. The attempt, led by Colonel Antonio Tejero, collapsed 18 hours later. Juan Carlos spoke to the nation on behalf of democracy and the coup collapsed. In 2011 Javier Cercas authored “The Anatomy of a Moment: Thirty-Five minutes in History and Imagination," an examination of the coup attempt.
    (SFC, 11/12/96, p.A12)(AP, 2/23/98)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.48)(Econ, 3/26/11, p.96)

1982        Feb 23, Michael Frayn's "Noises Off" premiered in London.
    (www.qsulis.demon.co.uk/Website_Louise_Gold/Noises_Off.htm)
1982        Feb 23, In SF nearly 3,500 people applied for the lottery for 162 apartments at Mei Lun Yuen, the newly completed, federally subsidized housing development in Chinatown.
    (SSFC, 2/18/07, DB p.58)
1982        Feb 23, Tucapel Jimenez, a Chilean labor leader, was found with his throat cut and face shot in his car. Gen. Humberto Gordon Rubio (d.2000), secret police chief, was implicated in the killing.
    (SFC, 6/17/00, p.A20)(www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/single.pl?query=0319822171117)
1982        Feb 23, In a consultative referendum, Greenland, which became a member of the European Community as part of Denmark, opted for withdrawal from the Community.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1982/index_en.htm)

1983        Feb 23, Adrian Boult (b.1889), British conductor, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adrian_Boult)

1984        Feb 23, Two oceanic conservation groups reported that SF Bay Area fishermen have caught only 10-12% of their 10,000 ton herring quota as they passed more than halfway through the fishing season. Quotas had doubled since 1977 and they were concerned that the herring stocks may be at the point of no return. The herring was harvested primarily for their roe, which fetched up to $500 a ton and was eagerly sought by Japanese consumers.
    (SSFC, 2/22/09, DB p.54)

1985        Feb 23, Indiana basketball coach Bobby Knight threw a chair during a game.
    (http://www2.indystar.com/library/factfiles/people/k/knight_bob/knight.html)
1985        Feb 23, US Senate confirmed Edwin Meese III as attorney general.
    (www.ashbrook.org/events/memdin/meese/home.html)

1987        Feb 23, The IMB (Irvine-Michigan-Brookhaven) radiation detector near Cleveland recorded neutrinos from the supernova. Neutrinos were also detected in Japan on a similar machine, Kamiokande II.
    (NG, 5/88, p.636)

1988        Feb 23, President Reagan named William L. Ball III to succeed James H. Webb Jr. as Navy Secretary.
    (AP, 2/23/98)
1988        Feb 23, Presidential hopeful Bob Dole defeated Vice President George Bush in the South Dakota and Minnesota Republican primaries; among Democrats, Michael S. Dukakis won in Minnesota, Dick Gephardt in South Dakota.
    (AP, 2/23/98)

1989        Feb 23, The US Senate Armed Services Committee voted against recommending the nomination of John Tower to become secretary of defense.
    (AP, 2/23/99)

1990        Feb 23, James Gavin (b.1907), US commander 82nd Airborne Div (Normandy), died. He was known as “the jumping general" for parachuting along with combat troops in WW II.
    (www.britannica.com/dday/article-9000825)
1990        Feb 23, Former Salvadoran President Jose Napoleon Duarte died at age 64.
    (AP, 2/23/00)

1991        Feb 23, President Bush announced that the allied ground offensive against Iraqi forces had begun (because of the time difference, it was already the early morning of February 24th in the Persian Gulf).
    (AP, 2/23/01)
1991        Feb 23, French forces unofficially started the Persian Gulf ground war by crossing the Saudi-Iraqi border. Lessons learned in the savage 1972 Eastertide Offensive paid off at the Battle of Khafji in the Gulf War.
    (HN, 2/23/98)
1991        Feb 23, Tanks rolled in the streets of Bangkok and a coup was held to get rid of the corrupt government of Chatichai Choonhavan. After months of investigations a military-appointed committee seized the assets of 10 men from the ousted administration. Gen. Suchinda Kraprayoon toppled a civilian government in a bloodless takeover. He was ousted in 1992 following street demonstrations.
    (WSJ, 12/11/96, p.A16)(AP, 9/20/06)

1992        Feb 23, The XVI Winter Olympic Games ended in Albertville, France.
    (AP, 2/23/02)
1992        Feb 23, Paul Tsongas won a narrow victory over Jerry Brown in the Maine Democratic caucuses.
    (AP, 2/23/02)
1992        Feb 23 In Jamaica Lester Coke (aka Jim Brown), head of the infamous Shower Posse, died in a mysterious prison cell fire.
    (www.islandmix.com/backchat/f6/jamaicans-rope-131061/)
1992        Feb 23, In Moscow, thousands of pro-communist demonstrators, some shouting, “Down with the Russian government!," clashed with police.
    (AP, 2/23/02)

1993        Feb 23, President Clinton won United Nations support for a plan to airdrop relief supplies to starving Bosnians during an Oval Office meeting with Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali.
    (AP, 2/23/98)

1994        Feb 23, Nancy Kerrigan led the women's figure skating short program at the Winter Olympics in Norway, while Tonya Harding placed tenth.
    (AP, 2/23/99)
1994        Feb 23, Military chiefs of Bosnia's Muslim-led government and their second-strongest foes, Bosnia's Croats, signed a truce.
    (AP, 2/23/99)
1994        Feb 23, In Egypt, an explosion hit a train in Assiut. 6 foreign tourists were hurt. The militant Islamic group Gama’a al-Islamiya claimed responsibility.
    (WSJ, 10/11/04, p.A17)
1994        Feb 23, Russia's new parliament took a swipe at President Boris Yeltsin by granting amnesty to leaders of the 1991 Soviet coup and the hard-liners who'd fought him in 1993.
    (AP, 2/23/99)

1995        Feb 23, Administration officials said President Clinton would review dozens of affirmative action programs.
    (AP, 2/23/00)
1995        Feb 23, The Dow Jones industrial average closed above the 4,000 mark for the first time, ending the day at 4,003.33.
    (WSJ, 12/16/96, p.C1) (AP, 2/23/00)
1995        Feb 23, Former U.S. President Jimmy Carter arrived in Haiti to help prepare for peaceful elections.
    (AP, 2/23/00)
1995        Feb 23, James Alfred Wight (b.1916), Scottish author Yorkshire veterinarian, died. His penname was James Herriot and his work included "All Creatures Great and Small," which was later made into a BBC TV series. His first book was "If Only They Could Talk." His home and shop in Thirsk was opened for visitors in 1999.
    {Scotland, Writer, TV}
    (www.todayinliterature.com/biography/james.herriot.asp)(SFC, 7/19/99, p.A22)

1996        Feb 23, FBI agents arrested Robert Lipka, a former army clerk at the National Security Agency, for espionage in the late 1960s.
    (WSJ, 11/21/96, p.A1)
1996        Feb 23, Juan Pablo Roque, Cuban defector and author of "The Deserter," vanished from Miami and returned to Cuba. In 1999 his wife sued the Cuban government for sexual battery.
    (SFEC, 8/15/99, p.A5)
1996        Feb 23, William George Bonin (49), known as the "Freeway Killer," was executed for the robbery, torture, rape and strangulation of 14 Southern California boys.
    (SFC, 7/11/97, p.A16)(SFEC, 2/7/99, p.A1)(SFC, 3/13/00, p.A8)
1996        Feb 23, Dutch tourist Tosca Dieperink, 39, was killed in a holdup at a Miami service station. Two men later pleaded guilty to the slaying and were sentenced to prison.
    (AP, 2/23/01)
1996        Feb 23, Chechen rebels blew up a big gas pipeline in southern Chechnya. Russia was bringing in troops ahead of today’s anniversary of mass deportations of Chechens to Central Asia in World War II.
    (WSJ, 2/22/96, p.A-1)
1996        Feb 23, Two Iraqi defectors were killed in Baghdad, reportedly by members of their own clan who accused them of betraying Saddam Hussein by fleeing to Jordan. The Iraqi News Agency reported that Lieutenant General Hussein Kamel al-Majid and his brother Saddam Kamel al-Majid, a pair of defectors who were also the sons-in-law of Saddam Hussein, were killed by clan members after returning to their homeland.
    (WSJ, 2/26/96, p.A-1)(AP, 2/23/01)

1997        Feb 23, NBC TV showed "Schindler's List," completely uncensored and 65M watched.
    (www.answers.com/topic/schindler-s-list)
1997        Feb 23, Former NAACP leader Benjamin Chavis announced that he had joined the Nation of Islam led by ailing Louis Farrakhan.
    (SFC, 2/25/97, p.A10)
1997        Feb 23, In Philadelphia a group of white men attacked a black family in the Grays Ferry section. Nine men were tried in 1998 and 6 were convicted on a variety of felony accounts.
    (SFC, 2/10/98, p.A3)
1997        Feb 23, Ali Hassan Abu Kamal (69), a Palestinian teacher, opened fire on the 86th-floor observation deck of New York City's Empire State Building, killing one person and wounding six others before shooting himself to death. He was said to have acted on personal motives not associated to any political group.
    (SFC, 2/24/97, p.A1)(AP, 2/23/98)
1997        Feb 23, China’s legislature voted to dilute Hong Kong’s civil liberties laws.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, p.A14)
1997        Feb 23, There was a flash fire aboard the 11-year-old Russian space station Mir. New fire extinguishers were brought up on Apr 8 along with oxygen generators and carbon-dioxide removal canisters and other provisions by the crewless Progress-34 ship.
    (SFE, 4/9/97, p.A15)
1997        Feb 23, In eastern India a fire in Baripada killed 190 worshippers at the 46th annual festival in honor of the late Swami Nigamananda.
    (SFC, 2/24/97, p.A10)(SFC, 2/25/97, p.a14)(AP, 2/23/98)
1997        Feb 23, In Israel PM Netenyahu  hired a lawyer as he faced charges of participating in a deal to quash corruption charges against Aryeh Deri, the leader of the religious Shas party, in order to get the party’s support for the Hebron agreement.
    (WSJ, 2/24/97, p.A1)(SFC, 2/25/97, p.a12)
1997        Feb 23, It was announced that researchers under Dr. Ian Wilmut at Edinburgh, Scotland, created a clone lamb from adult sheep DNA. The lamb was born in Jul, 1996, and named Dolly after Dolly Pardon. Dolly was put down Feb. 14, 2003, after a short life marred by premature aging and disease.
    (SFEC, 2/23/97, p.C1)(AP, 2/23/98)

1998        Feb 23, President Clinton gave cautious approval to a U.N. agreement reached by Secretary-General Kofi Annan with Saddam Hussein for monitoring suspected weapons sites in Iraq.
    (AP, 2/23/99)
1998        Feb 23, The California State Supreme Court ruled that anybody can sue a corner store or gas station for selling cigarettes to minors.
    (SFC, 2/24/98, p.A22)
1998        Feb 23, In Florida 6-10 tornadoes killed forty-two people. Some 2,600 homes and businesses damaged or destroyed, by tornadoes in Seminole, Osceola, Orange, Brevard and Volusia counties Florida.
    (SFC, 2/24/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 2/24/98, p.A1)(AP, 2/23/99)
1998        Feb 23, In Afghanistan Osama bin Laden declared a holy war on the US. Bin Laden announced the formation of the World Islamic Front for Jihad against Jews and Crusaders. It called on Muslims worldwide to attack Americans. The Al Quds Al-Arabi newspaper published a statement that announced an alliance between Dr. Zawahri, head of the Egyptian Jihad, and Osama bin Laden. "We—with God’s help—call on every Muslim…to comply with God’s order to kill Americans."
    (WSJ, 4/2/02, p.A18)(WSJ, 7/2/02, p.A8)(SFC, 2/22/00, p.A8)
1998        Jan 23, In Albania troops stormed into Shkorda to end 2 days of looting and burnings. Rioters were demanding the release from jail of 2 men loyal to former Pres. Berisha. Berisha denounced the violence and ties to the jailed men.
    (SFC, 2/24/98, p.A10)
1998        Feb 23, A bomb exploded under a passing train near El Affroune, Algeria. Ten people were killed and 25 injured.
    (SFC, 2/24/98, p.A10)
1998        Feb 23, In Columbia Pres. Samper denied his weekend offer to resign in order to improve relations with the US.
    (SFC, 2/23/98, p.A12)
1998        Feb 23, In India in Andhra Pradesh state leftist guerrillas set off a mine that killed 5 soldiers sent to guard polling stations.
    (SFC, 2/24/98, p.A8)
1998        Feb 23, In Northern Ireland a bomb leveled 2 buildings in Portadown. The Continuity IRA was suspected in the blast that started a fire and damaged roofs and windows across the town.
    (SFC, 2/24/98, p.A8)
1998        Feb 23, South Korea’s Pres.-elect Kim Dae Jung named Kim Jong Pil, founder of the Korea Central Intelligence Agency, as prime minister.
    (SFC, 2/23/98, p.A12)

1999        Feb 23, A jury in Jasper, Texas convicted white supremacist John William King of murder in the gruesome dragging death of a black man, James Byrd Jr.; King was sentenced to death two days later.
    (SFC, 2/24/99, p.A1)(AP, 2/23/00)
1999        Feb 23, Federal authorities reported that Jay Scott Ballinger (36) of Indiana had admitted to burning as many as 50 churches in the last 5 years. He was charged with arson in 7 burnings in southern Indiana. In 2000 Ballinger pleaded guilty to setting 26 church fires in Alabama, California, Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, Missouri, South Carolina and Tennessee.
    (SFC, 2/24/99, p.A5)(SFC, 7/12/00, p.A2)
1999        Feb 23, In Brazil the $5 billion Sergio Motta Dam on the Parana River, 370 miles northwest of Sao Paulo, was inaugurated. Full power to 18 turbines was expected in 2003.
    (SFC, 2/24/99, p.C3)
1999        Feb 23, The Disney film "Mulan" premiered in China. Only 10 foreign films per year were allowed into China so as to protect its own industry.
    (SFC, 2/24/99, p.E3)
1999        Feb 23, Heavy rain and snow in the Alps left 5 people dead and 13 missing in Austria, Switzerland, France and Germany. An avalanche in the Austrian Alps at Galtuer killed 9 people and at least 30 were missing. The death toll in Austria rose to 33 by Feb 25.
    (WSJ, 2/23/99, p.A1)(SFC, 2/24/99, p.A8)(WSJ, 2/26/99, p.A1)
1999        Feb 23, Ethiopian troops attacked Eritrea with tanks and aircraft.
    (WSJ, 2/24/99, p.A1)
1999        Feb 23, In France the Kosovo Albanians agreed in principle to a peace settlement but asked for 2 more weeks for consultations at home.
    (SFC, 2/24/99, p.A1)
1999        Feb 23, Police fired on warring Christians and Muslims on the island of Ambon and at least 5 people were killed and 12 wounded.
    (WSJ, 2/24/99, p.A1)
1999        Feb 23, In Lebanon Hezbollah guerrillas ambushed an Israeli commando squad and killed the commander and 2 officers.
    (SFC, 2/24/99, p.C3)
1999        Feb 23, Serbs agreed in principle to give limited self-rule to majority ethnic Albanians in Kosovo, thereby temporarily heading off NATO air strikes, but during their talks in Rambouillet, France, the two sides failed to conclude a deal for ending their yearlong conflict.
    (AP, 2/23/00)
1999        Feb 23, In Somalia militiamen loyal to Hussein Aidid reported that they had killed 60 civilians in the Baidoa town and the village of Daynunay.
    (SFC, 2/24/99, p.C3)
1999        Feb 23, In Khartoum, Sudan, health officials reported that some 140 people had died from meningitis and that another 1000 suffered from the disease.
    (SFC, 2/24/99, p.C3)
1999        Feb 23, Turkey formally arrested Abdullah Ocalan on treason charges.
    (SFC, 2/24/99, p.A8)

2000        Feb 23, Carlos Santana won eight Grammy awards, including album of the year for “Supernatural," tying the record set by Michael Jackson in 1983 for most trophies in one night.
    (SFC, 2/24/00, p.A1)(AP, 2/23/01)
2000        Feb 23, At Pelican Bay State Prison in California guards shot and killed one prisoner and wounded 15 others as they quelled a prison yard riot between some 150 black and Latino inmates. Prison officials found 89 knives made by inmates at the site of the brawl.
    (SFC, 2/24/00, p.A1)(SFC, 2/25/00, p.A1)
2000        Feb 23, It was reported that Ethiopia faced severe famine and the UN World Food Program planned an appeal to raise $50 million for emergency aid.
    (SFC, 2/24/00, p.A14)
2000        Feb 23, In Nigeria residents fled Kaduna after 2 days of religious clashes left at least 200 people dead.
    (SFC, 2/24/00, p.A12)

2001        Feb 23, Pres. Bush opened a two-day summit with British Prime Minister Tony Blair at Camp David. They endorsed a European rapid-action force as long as it is secondary to Nato.
    (SFC, 2/24/01, p.A3)(AP, 2/23/02)
2001        Feb 23, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld ordered an indefinite moratorium on civilian visitors operating military equipment, a possible factor in the collision of a U.S. submarine collision with a Japanese fishing boat.
    (AP, 2/23/02)
2001        Feb 23, A US federal appeals court upheld that the US government mismanaged and neglected Native American trust funds.
    (SFC, 2/24/01, p.A5)
2001        Feb 23, David Edward Attias (18), a freshman at UC Santa Barbara, rammed his Saab into a crowd in Isla Vista and killed 4 students, Nicholas Shaw Bourdakis (20), Christopher Edward Divis (20), Ruth Dasha Golda Levy (20) and Elie Israel (27). A 5th victim, Albert Arthur Levy (27), was severely battered. Attias was charged with murder the next day. Attias was convicted on 2nd degree murder in 2002 and jurors found him insane.
    (SFC, 2/26/01, p.A1)(SFC, 2/27/01, p.A13)(SFC, 6/13/02, p.A1)(SFC, 6/21/02, p.A17)
2001        Feb 23, Anthony Giacalone, Detroit mobster, died at age 82.
    (SFC, 5/3/01, p.B7)
2001        Feb 23, In Indonesia Madurese refugees fled Borneo as the death toll from clashes with the native Dayaks approached 200.
    (SFC, 2/24/01, p.A1)
2001        Feb 23, Palestinians demonstrated against the visit of Colin Powell and one was killed in clashes with Israeli security forces.
    (SFC, 2/24/01, p.A10)
2001        Feb 23, In Russia a Moscow court threw out charges by prosecutors who attempted to ban the Jehovah’s Witnesses under a 1997 law that prohibited religious sects that incite hatred and violence.
    (SFC, 2/24/01, p.A11)

2002        Feb 23, The US government said it had clues that Osama bin Laden was still alive in Afghanistan.
    (SSFC, 2/24/02, p.A16)
2002        Feb 23, It was reported that Bergen and Hudson counties of New Jersey were placed on water restrictions as the worst drought in 75 years lingered on along the East Coast.
    (SFC, 2/23/02, p.A24)
2002        Feb 23, Penn State pole vaulter Kevin Dare died after landing on his head during the Big Ten indoor championships in Minneapolis.
    (AP, 2/23/07)
2002        Feb 23, In Colombia FARC rebels kidnapped Ingrid Betancourt (40), a presidential candidate, near La Montanita enroute to San Vicente del Caguan. She was the author of “Until Death do us Part: My Struggle to Reclaim Colombia." Clara Rojas (37) was also kidnapped. Rohas gave birth to a son in 2004 from whom she was separated. She was released in Jan 2008. Betancourt and other hostages were freed in a military operation in July, 2008.
    (SFC, 2/25/02, p.A6)(Econ, 3/20/04, p.37)(SFC, 12/19/08, p.A1)
2002        Feb 23, Switzerland largest bank said it was freezing accounts containing money of the family of Sani Abacha of Nigeria, dictator from 1993-1998. The total blocked now reached $720 million.
    (SSFC, 2/24/02, p.A20)

2003          Feb 23, In the 45th US Grammy's in NYC Norah Jones won 3 awards as did Bruce Springsteen for his 9/11-inspired album "The Rising."
    (SFC, 2/24/03, p.D1)
2003        Feb 23, Robert K. Merton (b.1910), writer and sociologist, died. In 1965 he authored “On the Shoulders of Giants" (OTSOG), wherein he traced the eponymous title, usually attributed to Isaac Newton, to Bernard of Chartres in about 1130. [see 1159]
    (www.asanet.org/footnotes/mar03/indextwo.html)
2003          Feb 23, In northern Greece a bus plunged off a highway bridge, killing at least 14 people.
    (AP, 2/23/03)
2003          Feb 23, In Iraq Saddam Hussein met separately with Russian Yevgeny Primakov and former US attorney gen'l. Ramsay Clark. Clark said Hussein feared that Pres. Bush had made up his mind to attack and that there was nothing he could do to prevent it.
    (SFC, 2/25/03, A10)
2003          Feb 23, The UN Children's Fund and Iraqi health teams began a five-day campaign to vaccinate 4 million Iraqi children against polio.
    (AP, 2/23/03)
2003          Feb 23, Israeli troops raided Beit Hanoun in Gaza, blew up five homes of suspected militants, battled masked gunmen and shot from tank-mounted machine guns toward dozens of stone throwers. Six Palestinians were killed and 28 wounded. 2 more Palestinians were killed elsewhere in Gaza.
    (AP, 2/23/03)
2003          Feb 23, In Malawi a lion, who escaped from Kasungu National Park and attacked and killed about 7 people, was shot and killed by game hunters.
    (AP, 2/24/03)
2003          Feb 23, The Philippine government said it will not permit U.S. forces to join Filipino troops in combat against Muslim extremists.
    (AP, 2/23/03)

2004        Feb 23, Pentagon officials opened a criminal fraud investigation of Halliburton on fuel overpricing in Iraq.
    (SFC, 2/24/04, p.A8)
2004        Feb 23, The US Army cancelled a $39 billion Comanche helicopter program after spending $6.9 billion. Boeing and Sikorsky were the main contractors.
    (SFC, 2/24/04, p.A5)
2004        Feb 23, US Education Secretary Rod Paige likened the National Education Association, the nation's largest teachers union, to a "terrorist organization" during a private White House meeting with governors. Paige later called it a poor choice of words, but stood by his claim the NEA was using "obstructionist scare tactics" in its fight over the nation's education law.
    (AP, 2/23/05)
2004        Feb 23, James Joseph Minder (74) resigned as chairman of Smith & Wessen Holding Corp. following revelations that he had served years in prison for armed robbery in Michigan, where he was once known as the "Shotgun Bandit."
    (WSJ, 3/8/04, p.A1)
2004        Feb 23, British law changed to allow immigrants to work but not claim most welfare benefits.
    (Econ, 2/28/04, p.52)
2004        Feb 23, Envoys from 6 nations gathered in Beijing for talks on the North Korean nuclear crisis.
    (WSJ, 2/24/04, p.A1)
2004        Feb 23, In northeastern China a coal mine explosion killed at least 24 miners as rescue workers scrambled to find 13 more trapped miners.
    (AP, 2/24/04)
2004        Feb 23, Rebels who overran Haiti's second-largest city began detaining people identified as supporters of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, and said they soon will attack Haiti's capital. Fifty combat-ready U.S. Marines were on their way to Port-au-Prince to secure the U.S. Embassy and its staff.
    (AP, 2/23/04)
2004        Feb 23, In India an explosion and fire at India's main space center killed at least six people. The accident took place at the solid propellant fuel plant at the government's Dhawan Space Center, on Sriharikota Island just off India's southeastern coast.
    (AP, 2/23/04)
2004        Feb 23, In Iran conservatives formally reclaimed control of parliament after disputed elections that were boycotted by reformists who called the vote a "historical fiasco" without free choice.
    (AP, 2/23/04)
2004        Feb 23, In Iraq a suicide bomber detonated an explosive-packed vehicle outside an Iraqi police station in a Kurdish neighborhood of Kirkuk, killing at least seven people and wounding at least 35 others.
    (AP, 2/23/04)
2004        Feb 23, The World Health Organization launched a massive immunization campaign targeting 63 million children in 10 African countries as a polio outbreak spread from heavily Muslim northern Nigeria.
    (AP, 2/21/04)

2005        Feb 23, Pres. Bush and German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder pledged to help developing nations cut back on their output of greenhouse gases. They also agreed to turn down the volume on their disagreements about Iraq and Iran.
    (SFC, 2/26/05, p.A1)(AP, 2/23/06)
2005        Feb 23, A real estate report said uptown Manhattan, condo and co-op apartments sold for a median price of $305,490 in 2004, up a whopping 349.3 percent from $68,000 in 1995.
    (Reuters, 2/23/05)
2005        Feb 23, In Homosassa, Florida, Jessica Marie Lunsford (9), was last seen when her grandmother tucked her into bed. The next morning, her father discovered she was gone. [see Mar 19]
    (AP, 2/27/05)
2005        Feb 23, In Afghanistan 2 Afghan relief workers were found shot to death on a remote southern desert road.
    (SFC, 2/24/05, p.A10)
2005        Feb 23, A military jury convicted two British servicemen on charges of involvement in abusing Iraqi civilians.
    (AP, 2/23/05)
2005        Feb 23, Colombia's Supreme Court authorized the extradition to the US of Miguel Rodriguez Orejuela, who along with his brother Gilberto helped found the Cali drug cartel. In central Colombia a leftist rebel deserter killed 7 of his comrades before fleeing his clandestine camp.
    (AP, 2/23/05)
2005        Feb 23, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak said that he expects further Syrian troop redeployments in Lebanon, and he dispatched his intelligence chief to Damascus to meet with President Bashar Assad to discuss increasing American and European pressure on Syria.
    (AP, 2/23/05)
2005        Feb 23, French film star Simone Simon (b.1910) died in Paris.
    (AP, 2/23/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simon)
2005        Feb 23, India and Pakistan agreed to cut red tape and ease barriers that hamper bilateral trade.
    (AP, 2/23/05)
2005        Feb 23, In India 4 people were killed in police firing and a blast in Jharkhand and Bihar in the final round of assembly elections.
    (AP, 2/23/05)
2005        Feb 23, In Iraq a car bomb exploded in Mosul, killing 2 people and wounding 14 others.
    (AP, 2/23/05)
2005        Feb 23, Mexico’s high court blocked prosecution of ex-President Echeverria for “dirty war" crimes in the 1970s ruling that the statute of limitations has run out.
    (WSJ, 2/24/05, p.A1)
2005        Feb 23, In northern Nigeria hunters burning land to flush out game set fire to a munitions dump, triggering a string of explosions which damaged military buildings and spread panic in the city of Kaduna.
    (AP, 2/24/05)
2005        Feb 23, Paraguay President Nicanor Duarte sacked his interior minister and 31 police officers, shaking up his security forces a week after the kidnapped daughter of a former Paraguayan leader was found dead.
    (AP, 2/23/05)
2005        Feb 23, Serbia's prime minister and other top officials flatly rejected Montenegro's proposal for a final split of their joint state.
    (AP, 2/23/05)
2005        Feb 23, In Sudan an explosion at an ammunition dump in the southern town of Juba killed 24 people.
    (Reuters, 2/23/05)
2005        Feb 23, Turkey's parliament approved legislation allowing thousands of students thrown out of universities to return, including women who violated the staunchly secular country's ban on Islamic-style head scarves.
    (AP, 2/23/05)

2006        Feb 23, A US federal judge ordered the Pentagon on to release the identities of hundreds of detainees at Guantanamo Bay to The Associated Press by March 3, a move which would force the government to break its secrecy and reveal the most comprehensive list yet of those who have been imprisoned there.
    (AP, 2/23/06)
2006        Feb 23, The US State Department said that North Korea has agreed to hold talks with the US on its alleged counterfeiting and money laundering activities that led to US sanctions and a breakdown in six-nation nuclear negotiations.
    (AP, 2/23/06)
2006        Feb 23, A United Arab Emirates company volunteered to postpone its takeover of significant operations at six major US seaports, giving the White House more time to convince skeptical lawmakers the deal posed no increased risks from terrorism.
    (AP, 2/23/07)
2006        Feb 23, In NYC Michael Mastromarino, owner of Biomedical Tissue Services in New Jersey, was charged along with 3 others of selling body parts for use in transplants across the US. Joseph Nicelli, owner of a Brooklyn funeral home, was among those charged.
    (SFC, 2/24/06, p.A2)
2006        Feb 23, A New Zealand teenager hacked into the University of Pennsylvania computer system. Owen Thor Walker (18), known by his online name "AKILL," also was linked to a network accused of infiltrating 1.3 million computers and skimming millions of dollars from victims' bank accounts. In 2008 Walker was ordered to pay more than $11,000 in fines but avoided a conviction so that he can help police solve computer crimes.
    (AP, 7/15/08)
2006        Feb 23, Environmental Health published a study that found the chromium industry had withheld key data from the government involving the health risks of workers exposed to the carcinogenic metal.
    (SFC, 2/24/06, p.A6)
2006        Feb 23, A fire raged through a Bangladesh textile mill, killing at least 54 people in the three-story building inside an industrial park in Chittagong.
    (AP, 2/25/06)
2006        Feb 23, China warned Hong Kong’s new Cardinal Joseph Zen that he should avoid mixing religion and politics.
    (WSJ, 2/24/06, p.A4)
2006        Feb 23, China’s Lenovo Group, the world’s 3rd largest computer maker, announced it was introducing low-priced desktop an notebook computers in the US and other countries.
    (SFC, 2/24/06, p.D1)
2006        Feb 23, In China a coal mine explosion in eastern Shandong province killed 15 miners and injured 12 others. The mine belonged to the Zaozhuang Mining Group Co.
    (AP, 2/23/06)
2006        Feb 23, A top UN humanitarian official said thousands of civilians have taken refuge on floating islands in the lakes of Congo's Katanga province to escape rape and murder by government and militia fighters.
    (Reuters, 2/23/06)
2006        Feb 23, Greece's seamen's union called off a crippling eight-day strike and said it would allow ships to begin sailing.
    (AP, 2/23/06)
2006        Feb 23, Gunmen pulled factory workers off buses northeast of Baghdad and shot dead 47 of them. They left their bodies in a ditch as militia battles and sectarian reprisals followed the bombing of a sacred Shiite shrine. Sunni Arabs suspended their participation in talks on a new government. The bodies of 23 men were found dumped at six sites in Baghdad, most of them in predominantly Shiite parts of the city. In total over 100 people were killed across Iraq.
    (AP, 2/23/06)(SFC, 2/24/06, p.A1)
2006        Feb 23, The bodies of 3 Iraqi Sunni journalists were found near Samarra. They included Atwar Bahjat, a well-known correspondent for Al-Arabiya television, and her colleagues engineer Adnan Khairullah and cameraman Khalid Mahmoud.
    (AP, 2/24/06)
2006        Feb 23, Israeli troops killed five Palestinians, including three fugitive gunmen, and seriously wounded a sixth man during an arrest sweep in the Balata refugee camp. The sweep, which began Feb 20, left a total of 8 Palestinians dead and over 50 injured.
    (AP, 2/23/06)
2006        Feb 23, Japan's Shizuka Arakawa stunned favorites Sasha Cohen of the United States and Irina Slutskaya of Russia to claim the women's figure skating gold medal at the Turin Winter Olympics.
    (AP, 2/23/07)
2006        Feb 23, Tens of thousands of Lebanese Shiites beat their chests in mourning and shouted anti-American slogans in a rally to protest the bombing of a Muslim shrine in Iraq.
    (AP, 2/23/06)
2006        Feb 23, A powerful earthquake sent thousands of panicking people fleeing from swaying buildings in Mozambique and Zimbabwe, and killed at least two people.
    (AP, 2/23/06)
2006        Feb 23, Christians in the southern Nigerian city of Onitsha burned Muslim corpses and defaced wrecked mosques, showing little repentance after days of sectarian violence that has killed more than 120 people across the country.
    (AP, 2/23/06)
2006        Feb 23, In Russia the concave, snow-covered roof of Moscow’s Basmanny market collapsed, killing at least 66 people.
    (WSJ, 2/24/06, p.A1)(AP, 2/25/06)
2006        Feb 23, Ugandan voters lined up to choose between a leader who has ruled for 20 years and four challengers in the country's first multiparty elections in two decades.
    (AP, 2/23/06)
2006        Feb 23, Venezuela said it will prohibit Continental and Delta Airlines from flying into this South American nation. Initially effective March 1, the ban was soon delayed to Mar 30. The ban was in response to a 1996 FAA ban on commercial jets registered in Venezuela, because Venezuela allegedly didn't meet international safety standards. Venezuelan officials say they have improved safety standards since then.
    (AP, 2/24/06)(WSJ, 2/27/06, p.A6)

2007        Feb 23, A Mississippi grand jury refused to bring any new charges in the 1955 slaying of Emmett Till, a black teenager who was beaten and shot after whistling at a white woman, declining to indict the woman, Carolyn Bryant Donham, for manslaughter. Democrat Tom Vilsack abandoned his bid for the presidency.
    (AP, 2/23/08)
2007        Feb 23, Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport became the first in the United States to begin testing new X-ray screening technology that can see through people's clothes.
    (AP, 2/23/08)
2007        Feb 23, In Kabul some 25,000 people, including top government figures and former fighters, rallied to support a proposed amnesty for Afghans suspected of war crimes.
    (AP, 2/23/07)
2007        Feb 23, An Australian soldier opened fire on a group of East Timorese attacking him with steel arrows, killing one of the youths and critically wounding two.
    (AP, 2/23/07)
2007        Feb 23, In northern England one commuter died and five were seriously injured when the high-speed London to Glasgow Virgin train, packed with 120 passengers and staff, derailed in the county of Cumbria.
    (AP, 2/24/07)
2007        Feb 23, Canada's Supreme Court struck down the government's right to detain foreign terrorism suspects indefinitely and without trial, ruling that the system violates the country's bill of rights.
    (AP, 2/23/07)
2007        Feb 23, Chadian PM Pascal Yoadimnadji (56) died at a Paris hospital following a brain hemorrhage.
    (AP, 2/23/07)
2007        Feb 23, It was reported that China had established clinics to treat teens addicted to the Internet.
    (SFC, 2/23/07, p.A16)
2007        Feb 23, It was reported that Cuban press authorities have told certain Havana correspondents for the Chicago Tribune, the BBC and a major Mexican newspaper that they can no longer report from the island.
    (AP, 2/23/07)
2007        Feb 23, Egyptian security forces discovered approximately 1 ton of explosives hidden underground near Egypt's border with Gaza.
    (AP, 2/23/07)
2007        Feb 23, In Guatemala a 330-foot-deep sinkhole killed two teenage siblings when it swallowed about a dozen homes and forced the evacuation of nearly 1,000 people in a crowded Guatemala City neighborhood. A 3rd body was found the next day.
    (AP, 2/24/07)
2007        Feb 23, In India the Toxics Link environmental group said India has generated 150,000 tons of electronic waste each year for the last 3 years, with no laws to regulate its disposal.
    (AP, 2/23/07)
2007        Feb 23, In Iraq US troops arrested Amar al-Hakim, the son of Iraq's top Shiite politician, as he returned to the country from Iran. He was later released and US Ambassador Zalmay Khalilzad issued a rapid apology.
    (AP, 2/23/07)(AP, 2/24/07)
2007        Feb 23, A fire raced through a home for the elderly and disabled in western Latvia leaving 25 people dead or missing.
    (AP, 2/23/07)
2007        Feb 23, In Myanmar at least five protesters who took part in a rare demonstration that urged the ruling military junta to improve health care, education and economic conditions were taken into custody.
    (AP, 2/23/07)
2007        Feb 23, In Nigeria gunmen shot dead a Lebanese engineer and kidnapped two Italians in two separate incidents in the southern oil city of Port Harcourt.
    (Reuters, 2/23/07)
2007        Feb 23, North Korea asked the chief UN atomic inspector to visit four years after expelling his experts and dropping out of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.
    (AP, 2/23/07)
2007        Feb 23, In Norway 46 of 49 nations adopted a declaration calling for a 2008 treaty banning cluster bombs, saying the weapons kill and maim long after conflicts end and inflict "unacceptable harm" on civilians, particularly children. Some key arms makers including the US, Russia, Israel and China, snubbed the conference of 49 nations. Of those attending, Poland, Romania and Japan did not approve the final text.
    (AP, 2/23/07)
2007        Feb 23, Pakistan successfully test-fired a new version of its long-range nuclear-capable missile, two days after Pakistani and Indian officials signed an agreement in New Delhi to reduce the risk of an accidental nuclear war between them.
    (AP, 2/23/07)
2007        Feb 23-2007 Feb 24, In Gaza City Mohammed Ghelban, a 28-year-old commander from Hamas' military wing, was killed in a drive-by shooting outside his home. A 22-year-old man from a Fatah family, Hazem Karouah, was killed several hours later, as was 75-year-old Ismail Sabah, who was caught in the cross-fire.
    (AP, 2/24/07)
2007        Feb 23, A Somali official said Uganda's top military officials promised to help train a national army for Somalia and help provide security for its government.
    (AP, 2/23/07)
2007        Feb 23, European cease-fire monitors said that nearly 4,000 people were killed in Sri Lanka in the past 15 months and they emphasized the importance that the government and the rebels adhere to the cease-fire.
    (AP, 2/23/07)
2007        Feb 23, In Turkey Hilmi Aydogdu, leader of the Democratic Society Party's branch in the mainly Kurdish city of Diyarbakir, was charged with inciting hatred and threatening public safety after suggesting that fellow Kurds would rise against the state and fight if Turkey ever attacked their Kurdish brethren in neighboring Iraq.
    (AP, 2/23/07)
2007        Feb 23, Uganda's army said that 400 rebel Lord's Resistance Army fighters and their leaders have moved into the Central African Republic, dashing hopes of a renewal of stalled peace talks.
    (AP, 2/23/07)
2007        Feb 23, Teachers across Zimbabwe called off a 3-week strike for better wages and working conditions after the government agreed to a near four-fold increase in their pay.
    (AP, 2/23/07)

2008        Feb 23, In Santa Monica, California, "Juno," a runaway hit comedy about a wisecracking pregnant teen, picked up the top prize at the Spirit Awards, the independent film community's version of the Oscars.
    (Reuters, 2/23/08)
2008        Feb 23, It was reported that Dr. Nathan Wolfe, a virologist at UCLA, was pushing for the creation of the Global Viral Forecasting Initiative, a planet-wide network to forecast epidemics before they happen.
    (Econ, 2/23/08, p.97)
2008        Feb 23, A B-2 stealth bomber crashed on take-off from the Pacific island of Guam, the first such incident involving the futuristic craft. Both pilots on board ejected safely as the 1.2-billion-dollar radar-evading plane went down at Andersen airbase.
    (AFP, 2/23/08)
2008        Feb 23, In eastern Afghanistan 7 Afghan security guards died when their car hit a roadside bomb in the Sarkano district of Kunar province. A gunman killed a district police chief in the region.
    (AP, 2/23/08)
2008        Feb 23, The presidents of Argentina, Brazil and Bolivia gathered in Buenos Aires to try to agree on how to divide scarce supplies of Bolivian natural gas.
    (WSJ, 2/23/08, p.A6)
2008        Feb 23, Police on the Channel Island of Jersey found a child's buried remains at Haut de la Garenne, a former children's home. They soon widened their search for bodies to six more sites in and around the home.
    (AFP, 2/25/08)(Econ, 3/1/08, p.58)
2008        Feb 23, A senior Chinese official said the freakish winter storms that coated much of central and southern China in snow and ice have left 129 people dead so far this year.
    (AP, 2/23/08)
2008        Feb 23, In Iraq rockets or mortars hit the US-protected Green Zone. Shihab al-Timimi, the head of the Iraqi Journalists Union, was shot and wounded. A boat carrying 11 Shiites to the holy city of Karbala overturned in the Tigris river and six people drowned. a suicide bomb attack killed Sheik Ibrahim Mutayri al-Mohamaday, the leader of one Awakening Council in Saqlawiyah, in Anbar province. A group of gunmen first opened fire on a checkpoint, killing one police officer. Then three of the attackers armed with explosives belts stormed the checkpoint, two blowing themselves up.
    (AP, 2/23/08)(AP, 2/24/08)
2008        Feb 23, An Israeli army missile strike killed 3 Palestinians in the northern Gaza Strip. Militants from Gaza had fired 4 mortar shells at Israel earlier in the day.
    (SSFC, 2/24/08, p.A8)
2008        Feb 23, Japan's space agency launched an experimental communications satellite designed to enable super high-speed data transmission at home and in Southeast Asia.
    (AP, 2/24/08)
2008        Feb 23, In northern Kosovo up to 2,000 Serb protesters chanting "Kosovo is Serbia!" marched through Kosovska Mitrovica, an ethnically divided town, in a sixth day of demonstrations against Kosovo's declaration of independence.
    (AP, 2/23/08)(SFC, 2/23/08, p.A3)
2008        Feb 23, in Puerto Rico Eddie Maco Campbells (b.1970) of Oakland, Ca., was shot and killed after an argument at a bar in the popular tourist area of Isla Verde. On March 13, 2009, a judge in Puerto Rico found Jose Perez Pagan guilty of murdering Campbells.
    (AP, 3/14/09)(http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4176/is_20080304/ai_n24373929)
2008        Feb 23, In Saudi Arabia bus plunged over a cliff, killing at least 25 people on board.
    (AP, 2/24/08)
2008        Feb 23, Janez Drnovsek (57), former president of Slovenia, died. He helped lead Slovenia to independence from Yugoslavia and later enthralled many of his countrymen by adopting a New Age lifestyle.
    (AP, 2/23/08)
2008        Feb 23, In Sri Lanka fighting erupted in northeastern Welioya region, where soldiers killed at least eight guerrillas. A bomb explosion on a bus wounded at least 14 people in Mount Lavinia, near the Colombo.
    (AP, 2/23/08)
2008        Feb 23, Turkish troops pressed their offensive against Kurdish PKK guerrillas in northern Iraq, two days after crossing the mountainous border.
    (AP, 2/23/08)

2009        Feb 23, A government official said US aid for the Gaza Strip's reconstruction will likely top $900 million, as Secretary of State Hillary Clinton prepared to make her first Mideast trip as America's top diplomat.
    (AP, 2/24/09)
2009        Feb 23, The FBI said it has rescued more than 45 suspected teenage prostitutes, some as young as 13, in a nationwide 3-night sweep, Operation Cross Country, to remove kids from the illegal sex trade and punish their accused pimps.
    (AP, 2/23/09)
2009        Feb 23, The DJIA fell 250.89 (3.4%) to 7114.78, nearly half the peak it hit 16 months ago, and its lowest close in over 11 years.
    (WSJ, 2/24/09, p.A1)
2009        Feb 23, California’s Assemblyman Tom Ammiano of San Francisco introduced a bill to legalize the recreational use of marijuana.
    (SFC, 2/24/09, p.B1)
2009        Feb 23, In SF Leticia Hunter (33) was shot and killed in the Tenderloin district. On March 17 three men were charged with murder, assault and cocaine trafficking conspiracy.
    (SFC, 3/18/09, p.B3)
2009        Feb 23, In Florida the Rev. Francis Guinan (66) was convicted of 2nd degree grand theft for embezzling thousands of dollars from his Delray Beach church.
    (SFC, 2/24/09, p.A4)
2009        Feb 23, In Vassalboro, Maine, the Grand View Topless Coffee Shop began operations with a staff of 3 topless waitresses and one bare-chested waiter.
    (www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/02/24/grand-view-topless-coffee_n_169670.html)
2009        Feb 23, Ford Motor Co. said it has reached a tentative deal with the United Auto Workers union on changes to retiree health care, becoming the first Detroit automaker to secure union concessions on the key issue.
    (Reuters, 2/23/09)
2009        Feb 23, Binyam Mohamed (b.1978), Ethiopian-born former British resident, was freed from Guantanamo after nearly seven year in US captivity without facing trial. He claimed that he was tortured at a covert CIA site in Morocco. He was arrested at the Karachi airport in April, 2002, while trying to fly back to Britain on a false passport. During three months of detention in Pakistan, he was allegedly tortured by Pakistani agents. In 2004 he was taken to the US prison at Bagram Air Base in Afghanistan and signed a confession, which he later claimed was extracted under duress. On Sep 20, 2004, he was flown to the US military detention center at Guantanamo Bay.
    (AP, 2/23/09)
2009        Feb 23, In Afghanistan a NATO air strike killed up to 16 militants overnight in Badghis province. In Nimrod province a twin suicide attack killed a policeman outside the counter-narcotics office of the provincial capital of Zaranj. Lt. General Jim Dutton, the deputy NATO force commander, said around 17,000 extra US troops earmarked for Afghanistan will deploy as fast as possible and thousands more are requested for August elections. 3 Afghan children died when a shell blew up. Canada's army later said the children had died after they brought back a Taliban improvised explosive device to their village.
    (AFP, 2/23/09)(AP, 3/2/09)
2009        Feb 23, In southern Australia more than 100 people evacuated their homes in Victoria state when new bushfires threatened communities, two weeks after the nation's worst fire disaster killed more than 200 people.
    (AP, 2/23/09)
2009        Feb 23, China’s state media said pig organs contaminated by a banned animal feed additive have been blamed for sickening at least 70 people in southern China. The pig organs tainted by the steroid clenbuterol were sold last week in markets in Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong province. Another 14 cases  in Guangzhou were reported on Feb 25.
    (AP, 2/23/09)(AP, 2/26/09)
2009        Feb 23, Denmark seized control of Fionia Bank A/S by injecting about $172 million in a deal that will take away shareholder control and split the bank into two parts until a sale can be realized. The bank was hit by mounting losses on bad loans to property developers.
    (WSJ, 2/24/09, p.C2)
2009        Feb 23, Finance Minister Christine Lagarde said the French government is to provide 2.5-5.0 billion euros in loans to support the merger of banks Caisse d'Epargne and Banque Populaire.
    (AP, 2/23/09)
2009        Feb 23, Iraq's restored National Museum was formally dedicated, nearly six years after looters carried away priceless antiquities and treasures in the chaos following the US-led invasion. Iraq's Interior Ministry said it has arrested a Shiite police gang accused of killing the Sunni vice president's sister. 3 US soldiers and an interpreter were killed during fighting north of Baghdad.
    (AP, 2/23/09)(AP, 2/24/09)
2009        Feb 23, Honda Motor Co. named Takanobu Ito (55), head of core automaking operations, as its new chief executive, in an effort to provide fresh leadership to battle a global crisis in the auto industry. He replaced Takeo Fukui (64) as CEO and president.
    (AP, 2/23/09)
2009        Feb 23, Norwegian architect Sverre Fehn (b.1924) died in Oslo. His unique style of blending modern forms with Scandinavian traditions earned him the prestigious Pritzker Architecture Prize (1997). His white concrete Glacier Museum (1991), which has been hailed as a landmark within contemporary architecture. It stands on a plain carved by Norway's Jostedal Glacier at Fjaerland Fjord.
    (AP, 2/28/09)
2009        Feb 23, Pakistani paramilitary forces killed 10 Taliban militants in a tribal area bordering Afghanistan and destroyed more than a dozen vehicles and a main communications system.
    (AFP, 2/23/09)
2009        Feb 23, South Korea's Defense Ministry said North Korea recently deployed a new type of medium-range ballistic missile capable of reaching northern Australia and the US territory of Guam.
    (AP, 2/23/09)
2009        Feb 23, Sri Lanka's Tamil rebels, facing likely defeat on the battlefield, appealed for a cease-fire, a call immediately rejected by the government. Rebels said more than 30 civilians were killed and many more injured as the government advanced on Puthukkudirirppu.
    (AP, 2/23/09)(AP, 2/24/09)
2009        Feb 23, Swedish power company Vattenfall said it had made a friendly 8.5-billion-euro (10.9-billion-dollar) offer for Nuon of the Netherlands in a takeover aimed at creating one of Europe's biggest energy groups.
    (AP, 2/23/09)

2010        Feb 23, Intel CEO Paul Otellini unveiled a broad initiative, the “Invest in America Alliance," to create jobs and boost the nation’s competitiveness. Intel and 24 venture capital firms planned to invest $3.5 billion in US technology startups over the next 2 years.
    (SFC, 2/24/10, p.D1)
2010        Feb 23, In Littleton, Colorado, gunman Bruco Strongeagle Eastwood (32) wounded two students at Deer Creek Middle School before math teacher David Benke (57) subdued him.
    (AP, 2/24/10)(SFC, 2/25/10, p.A9)
2010        Feb 23, It was reported that Florida wildlife officials have created a special python hunting season to stop the spread of the nonnative snakes throughout the Everglades. A $26 permit allow hunters to kill the reptiles from March 8 to April 17.
    (SFC, 2/23/10, p.A6)
2010        Feb 23, In Afghan Gen. Stanley McChrystal apologized for the Feb 21 strike in central Uruzgan province that Afghan officials say killed at least 21 people. The Afghan Cabinet said 27 civilians were killed including 4 women and a child. The video was also posted on a NATO Web site. The civilian deaths occurred as 15,000 NATO, US and Afghan soldiers were in their 10th day of fighting insurgents in Marjah, Helmand province. A Romanian soldier was killed and another was wounded in a bombing in the south unrelated to the offensive. A morning explosion in Lashkar Gah, the capital of Helmand, left eight people dead and at least 16 others wounded. The death toll of US troops in the Afghan war surpassed the grim milestone of 1,000.
    (AP, 2/23/10)(SFC, 2/23/10, p.A3)
2010        Feb 23, PM Kevin Rudd said Australia plans to fingerprint and face-scan visitors from about 10 high-risk countries in a bid to combat extremism, which is now a "permanent" threat. He added that Australia will spend 69 million dollars (62 million US) on new biometric facilities and will set up a national control centre to coordinate efforts to fight extremism.
    (AFP, 2/23/10)
2010        Feb 23, In Bangladesh at least 20 people were injured and dozens of houses torched in fresh clashes between tribal groups and Bengali settlers in the insurgency-hit southeastern hills.
    (AFP, 2/23/10)
2010        Feb 23, The Chinese Communist Party issued a new code of ethics as the country's fight against widespread corruption intensifies.
    (AP, 2/23/10)
2010        Feb 23, In Cuba Orlando Zapata Tamayo (42), an opposition political activist imprisoned since 2003, died after a lengthy hunger strike. His 3 year prison sentence for disrespecting authority had been lengthened to 25 years, in part because of his political activism while behind bars. The next day Cuban President Raul Castro issued an unprecedented statement of regret over the death of Tamayo.
    (AP, 2/24/10)(AP, 2/24/10)
2010        Feb 23, Denmark's PM Lars Loekke Rasmussen (45) announced a major government shake-up, changing more than a dozen Cabinet posts including the ministers of defense, justice and foreign affairs to build his own team 10 months after taking office.
    (AP, 2/23/10)
2010        Feb 23, Egyptian newspapers reported that former UN atomic watchdog chief Mohammed ElBaradei has said he is prepared to run for president of Egypt. He said Mubarak, head of state since 1981, would not necessarily win a free election and went on to criticize corruption and poverty in Egypt. The constitution as it stands barred an ElBaradei candidacy. It requires candidates to have been a leading member of a party for at least one year and for the party to have existed for at least five years.
    (AFP, 2/23/10)
2010        Feb 23, India responded cautiously to an offer by a top Maoist guerrilla leader for a cease-fire and talks with the government, with the home minister saying he would wait for a formal proposal before considering the offer.
    (AP, 2/23/10)
2010        Feb 23, India's biggest carmaker Maruti Suzuki India announced it has recalled 100,000 of its best-selling A-Star hatchback cars due to a fuel leakage problem.
    (AFP, 2/23/10)
2010        Feb 23, In Indonesia a rain-triggered landslide at a tea plantation on the main island of Java buried scores of workers. At least 46 people were killed or missing.
    (AP, 2/23/10)(AP, 2/24/10)
2010        Feb 23, Iran formally set out its terms for giving up most of its cache of enriched uranium in a confidential document, and the conditions fall short of what has been demanded by the United States and other world powers.
    (AP, 2/23/10)
2010        Feb 23, Iran said that its security forces have captured Abdulmalik Rigi, leader of the Jundallah group (Soldiers of God), an armed Sunni group whose insurgency in the southeast has destabilized the border region with Pakistan. State-run English-language Press TV said that Rigi was captured on a flight from Dubai to Kyrgyzstan.
    (AP, 2/23/10)
2010        Feb 23, In Iraq an American soldier died in a vehicle related accident in Baghdad.
    (AP, 2/24/10)
2010        Feb 23, In Italy an oil spill began and spread south down the Lambro to Piacenza and Cremona overnight, despite efforts to contain it. By the next day if reached the Po River, with officials warning of an ecological disaster as they scrambled to contain the sludge before it contaminated Italy's longest and most important river. Milan regional officials said the cause was certainly sabotage at a former refinery turned oil depot, since the cisterns were opened and the oil allowed to flow unimpeded into the Lambro River near Monza.
    (AP, 2/24/10)
2010        Feb 23, Ivory Coast PM Guillaume announced a new unity government. The opposition coalition said it will participate in a new government, raising hope for an end to nearly two weeks of deadly protests after the president dissolved the previous one.
    (AP, 2/23/10)(SFC, 2/24/10, p.A2)
2010        Feb 23, In Mexico Latin America and Caribbean leaders, gathered at a summit in Playa de Carmen, united to create a regional bloc excluding Canada and the United States. The bloc's formation is expected to take years and faces many challenges. The leaders agreed to meet again in Venezuela in 2011.
    (AP, 2/24/10)
2010        Feb 23, In Mexico gunmen stormed the southern town of San Vicente Camalote and killed 13 people, including a rancher and his 3 sons. Gunmen attacked the police headquarters in the town of Miguel Aleman. 6 officers were missing and presumed to have been kidnapped. A series of clashes along the northern border killed 6 gunmen and one soldier. 10 soldiers and a police officer were wounded. A small military anti-drug patrol plane was reported missing in northern Mexico. Wreckage of the plane with 3 dead occupants was reported found on Feb 26.
    (AP, 2/24/10)(AP, 2/25/10)(AP, 2/26/10)(AP, 2/26/10)
2010        Feb 23, In Myanmar a Cameroon football player fled temporarily to the French embassy in Yangon as he was being taken to court by police for allegedly counterfeiting currency notes. He surrendered to police a short time later could face life imprisonment.
    (AP, 3/1/10)
2010        Feb 23, The New York Times and Washington Post cited unnamed Pakistani security officials saying Mullah Abdul Kabir, a member of the militia's ruling council, was picked up several days ago in Nowshera district in Pakistan's northwest.
    (AP, 2/23/10)
2010        Feb 23, A Polish court said a government move to slash the pensions of communist leaders who imposed martial law in 1981 was illegal. The Constitutional Tribunal ruled the move violated the constitution. It said the portion of the pensions earned during the crackdown itself could be cut but the rest could not. The cut, which took effect Jan 1, was part of a wider law intended to punish former officials and security agents for supporting the communist regime.
    (AP, 2/25/10)
2010        Feb 23, South African’s National Energy Regulator said approved electricity rate increases of about 25% would become effective April 1, and that the increases would continue for each of the next three years.
    (AP, 2/24/10)
2010        Feb 23, Darfur's most powerful rebel group and the Sudanese government signed a truce in Cairo after a year of internationally sponsored negotiations, raising hopes the bloody seven-year conflict could draw to a close. According to the framework agreement, JEM would take part in the government's executive, judicial and legislative branches.
    (Reuters, 2/23/10)(AP, 2/24/10)(SFC, 2/24/10, p.A2)
2010        Feb 23, In Turkey prosecutors interrogated 51 Turkish military commanders over alleged plans to destabilize the country by blowing up mosques to trigger a coup and topple the Islamic-rooted government.
    (AP, 2/23/10)
2010        Feb 23, In Turkey 13 workers were killed after a methane gas explosion caused a coal mine collapse near Dursunbey, in  northwest Balikesir province.
    (AP, 2/24/10)(SFC, 2/24/10, p.A2)

2011        Feb 23, The Obama administration decided to stop defending a 1996 federal law banning marital benefits for same-sex couples.
    (SFC, 2/24/11, p.A1)
2011        Feb 23, The US National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Republic of Lithuania today announced that they have signed an Implementation Agreement on Cooperation in Preventing Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material.
    (http://tinyurl.com/4dplcz7)
2011        Feb 23, In Texas Khalid Ali-M Aldawasari (20), a native of Saudi Arabia and student at South Plains College, was arrested on a federal charge of attempted use of a weapon of mass destruction in connection with purchases of chemicals and equipment necessary to make an improvised explosive device. His potential targets included the home of George W. Bush in Dallas and at least 12 reservoir dams in California and Colorado.
    (SFC, 2/25/11, p.A7)
2011        Feb 23, Allen Willis (b.1916), African American filmmaker, died in Oakland, Ca. His work included “Have You Sold Your Dozen Roses" (1955), produced with San Francisco poet Lawrence Ferlinghetti, and “Stagger Lee" (1970), a documentary interview with incarcerated Black Panther leader Bobby Seale.
    (SFC, 3/7/11, p.C3)
2011        Feb 23, Bahrain released at least 100 prisoners, including 23 Shiite activists on trial since last year for plotting against the state. Protesters vowed not to budge from Pearl Square, the epicenter of anti-regime demonstrations, despite the release of leading Shiite opposition activists and renewed calls by the king for talks.
    (AFP, 2/23/11)(AP, 2/24/11)
2011        Feb 23, Britain said separating couples will be ordered to try mediation to resolve disputes over their break up before heading to court, in a move aimed at reducing the number of people who end up embroiled in costly divorce battles.
    (AP, 2/23/11)
2011        Feb 23, Chinese activists said officials have rounded up Internet users who had reposted a call for protests and charged them with subversion as the authoritarian government continued its campaign to crush any Middle East-style democracy movement. Unidentified organizers had issued a renewed appeal to gather peacefully in parks or near monuments at 2 p.m. on Sundays. China's Vice President Xi Jinping urged greater outreach by the ruling Communist Party to handle issues related to education, employment, health care and housing.
    (AP, 2/23/11)(AP, 2/24/11)
2011        Feb 23, In China Xinjiang-based wlmqwb.com website reported that the country’s highest court has approved the executions of four men convicted in a series of murders in the restive western region of Xinjiang described as acts of "terrorist violence." The four were accused of killing 9 people in 3 separate incidents between August and November of last year.
    (AP, 2/23/11)
2011        Feb 23, In Egypt a security official said hundreds of low-ranking police have set fire to parts of the security headquarters in Cairo after four days of protests to demand better salaries. The killing of a Coptic Christian priest in southern Egypt triggered street demonstrations by several thousand Christians.
    (AP, 2/23/11)
2011        Feb 23, France and Germany threatened to hit Libya with EU sanctions for Moammar Gadhafi's fierce crackdown on protesters, while the European Union said the violence in Libya could constitute "crimes against humanity" and urged an independent probe into it.
    (AP, 2/23/11)
2011        Feb 23, In Greece young demonstrators hurled rocks and fire bombs at riot police as clashes broke out in Athens during a mass rally against austerity measures, part of a general strike that crippled services and public transportation around the country.
    (AP, 2/23/11)
2011        Feb 23, Indian police arrested Commonwealth Games’ director general, V. K. Verma and its secretary general, Lalit Bhanot, two top organizers of last year's tainted games, as part of a widening probe into alleged graft.
    (AFP, 2/23/11)
2011        Feb 23, Israeli tank fire wounded 11 people in the Gaza Strip, including at least six militants. The military said it opened fire after the militants detonated a bomb targeting a passing Israeli patrol near the border and then fired mortars at the soldiers.
    (AP, 2/23/11)
2011        Feb 23, In Libya militiamen loyal to Moammar Gadhafi clamped down in Tripoli, but cracks in his regime spread elsewhere across the nation, as the protest-fueled rebellion controlling much of eastern Libya claimed new gains closer to the capital. Two pilots let their warplane crash in the desert, parachuting to safety, rather than bomb an opposition-held city. The International Federation for Human Rights (IFHR) said at least 640 people have been killed in Libya in protests against the regime of Moamer Kadhafi since they started on February 14.
    (AP, 2/23/11)(AFP, 2/23/11)
2011        Feb 23, A UN spokesman said  Aisha al-Khadafy, the daughter of Libyan leader Moammar Khadafy, has been terminated as good will ambassador for the UN Development Program (UNDP).
    (SFC, 2/24/11, p.A2)
2011        Feb 23, In Mexico Julian Zapata Espinoza and the five others, including a Honduran citizen, were arrested. The army quoted Espinoza as saying two of the five had participated in the Feb 15 attack on American ICE agents. Those arrested included suspect Sergio Antonio Mora, who oversaw the man suspected of carrying out the Feb 15 attack the left agent Jaime Zapata dead. Gunmen opened fire on six children playing in the yard of a home in the border city of Ciudad Juarez, killing three girls aged 12, 14 and 15. Espinoza was extradited to the US in December. 
    (AP, 2/24/11)(AP, 2/28/11)(SFC, 12/22/11, p.A10)
2011        Feb 23, In Nigeria two men on a motorbike killed a senior police officer inspector after following him to his home in Maiduguri, Borno state.
    (AP, 2/24/11)
2011        Feb 23, Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah (86) announced an unprecedented economic aid package, including interest-free home loans totaling some $37 billion.
    (Reuters, 2/23/11)(AP, 2/24/11)
2011        Feb 23, Senegal said it will cut diplomatic ties with Iran after an investigation that showed that a seized Iranian arms shipment was intended for rebels fighting Senegalese troops. The arms shipment was discovered in Nigeria in October.
    (AP, 2/23/11)
2011        Feb 23, Somali government forces backed by African Union troops launched a fresh offensive against Al Qaeda-inspired rebels, claiming forays into parts of Mogadishu long held by the insurgents. Militants paraded the bodies of five African Union peacekeepers. They also claimed they captured an AU soldier from Burundi.
    (AFP, 2/23/11)(AP, 2/24/11)
2011        Feb 23, The UN Yugoslav war crimes tribunal in the Hague sentenced Vlastimir Djordjevic (62) to 27 years in prison after pronouncing him guilty of murdering at least 724 Kosovo Albanians, as well as committing inhumane acts, persecution and deportations.
    (AP, 2/23/11)
2011        Feb 23, In Yemen thousands streamed into a square in Sanaa, trying to strengthen the hold of anti-government protesters after club-wielding backers of President Ali Abdullah Saleh tried to drive them out. 7 legislators, who belonged to Saleh's ruling party, resigned from the group because of the situation in the country and said they will form their own independent bloc. The resignations raised to nine the number of legislators who left Saleh's Congress Party since protests began earlier this month. In the port city of Aden, a 19-year-old man wounded last week died of his injuries. His death brought to 13 the number of demonstrators killed since the crisis began nearly a month ago.
    (AP, 2/23/11)

2012        Feb 23, President Barack Obama apologized over the burning of Korans at a US airbase in Afghanistan, where three days of protests have killed 14 people, including two American soldiers.
    (AFP, 2/23/12)
2012        Feb 23, California officials said about a third of an estimated 50,000 hens at A&L Poultry, west of Turlock, died after about two weeks without feed, and most of the rest are being euthanized because of their weak condition.
    (www.modbee.com/2012/02/23/2083371/turlock-poultry-farm-owner-likely.html)
2012        Feb 23, A Cameroon park official said nearly 500 elephants have been killed in Bouba Ndjida National Park in less than two months by poachers from Sudan and Chad.
    (AFP, 2/24/12)
2012        Feb 23, Chad's supreme court confirmed victory for President Idriss Deby Itno's ruling party in the country's first local elections.
    (AP, 2/24/12)
2012        Feb 23, In China the United States and North Korea resumed talks delayed by the death of North Korea's longtime leader Kim Jong Il two months ago, with the US envoy saying he and his counterpart covered US food aid and other topics.
    (AP, 2/23/12)
2012        Feb 23, Fifteen Cuban migrants were rescued and one died after the group tried to swim to two tiny islands just west of Puerto Rico. The migrants had jumped into the water as federal agents and Dominican Navy officers approached a makeshift boat that had departed from the Dominican Republic.
    (AP, 2/24/12)
2012        Feb 23, In Egypt Abdel-Moneim Abolfotoh, a leading Islamist and presidential hopeful, suffered a concussion after a carjacking attack on a highway to Cairo.
    (AP, 2/24/12)
2012        Feb 23, The Greek Parliament approved a massive bond swap that would wipe €107 billion ($142 billion) off the country's privately-held debt, as new projections showed the economy will suffer the worst contraction in Europe this year.
    (AP, 2/23/12)
2012        Feb 23, In Iraq A rapid series of attacks spread over a wide swath of Iraqi territory killed 55 people, targeting mostly security forces in what appeared to be a vicious strike by al-Qaida militants bent on destabilizing the country. 225 were wounded. The Islamic State of Iraq said in an Internet message that it targeted security forces and government officials in "revenge for the elimination and torture campaigns that Sunni men and women face in the prisons of Baghdad and other cities."
    (AP, 2/23/12)(AP, 2/24/12)
2012        Feb 23, Human rights activists said more than 20 traditional chiefs of Namibia's nomadic Himba people have appealed to the UN to stop construction of a huge dam in their area. Their ancestors migrated from the Great Lakes region of central Africa about 200 years ago, and they have survived with their traditions despite wars and droughts. About 18,000 Himbas live in northwestern Namibia, with another 9,000 just across the border with Angola.
    (AFP, 2/23/12)
2012        Feb 23, In Nigeria gunmen on four motorcycles shot dead 4 policemen on foot patrol in Kano. 15 suspects were arrested.
    (AFP, 2/23/12)
2012        Feb 23, In Pakistan a dozen people, including 2 children were killed in a blast at a Peshawar bus terminal for passengers wanting to travel to the lawless border regions.
    (AP, 2/23/12)
2012        Feb 23, Somali and int’l. participants at a conference in London agreed to develop a federal system in Somalia based on 5-6 zones of influence.
    (Econ, 2/25/12, p.58) 
2012        Feb 23, Syrian forces launched a massive bombardment of rebel districts of Homs. Across the country, at least 16 people were killed in attacks by security forces in rebellious areas.
    (AP, 2/23/12)

2013        Feb 23, An Algerian army patrol reportedly killed 8 extremists in Boumerdes, about 50 km (30 miles) outside Algiers. Four fighters were killed reported in the northern Boukadir forest.
    (AP, 2/23/13)
2013        Feb 23, China reported a 2nd fatality from the H5N1 bird flu in the city of Guiyang.
    (SSFC, 2/24/13, p.A5)
2013        Feb 23, Iran said it has selected 16 locations as suitable for new nuclear power plants it intends to build to boost its energy production over the next 15 years. State TV said the country has discovered new uranium resources.
    (AP, 2/23/13)
2013        Feb 23, In Mexico a Belgian citizen, Jan Sarens (59), was shot to death in the Pacific resort of Acapulco near the site of the Mexican Open tennis tournament. He was a resident businessman working for a transnational firm.
    (AP, 2/24/13)
2013        Feb 23, In in northeastern Nigeria at least six people were killed in an attack in Ngalba, Yobe state. Local residents suspected the radical Islamic sect known as Boko Haram.
    (AP, 2/24/13)
2013        Feb 23, In Nigeria concrete and other structures in "a densely populated area" of Lagos were razed to the ground. On Aug 12 Amnesty International published satellite images and said 9,000 people have lost homes and livelihoods and thousands more were threatened in the slum destroyed by armed police and bulldozers.
    (AP, 8/12/13)
2013        Feb 23, In Pakistan a bus carrying a wedding party plunged into a canal in Peshawar, killing 17 people.
    (AP, 3/16/13)
2013        Feb 23, Some 150 Palestinian villagers and 25 Jewish settlers clashed in the northern West Bank village of Kusra, wounding one demonstrator who protesters say was shot in the stomach. The clashes began when a group of Jewish settlers chased a Palestinian farmer and his family off land in the village.
    (AP, 2/23/13)
2013        Feb 23, Palestinian Arafat Jaradat (30) died while under Israeli custody at Megiddo Prison. His family alleged Jaradat was mistreated by the Shin Bet, saying he was healthy at the time of his arrest last week. Israeli officials said Jaradat died of an apparent heart attack and denied he was beaten or subjected to any treatment that could have led to his death. A Palestinian doctor present at the autopsy said marks on Jaradat’s body indicated torture.
    (AP, 2/24/13)(SSFC, 2/3/13, p.A4)
2013        Feb 23, In Sudan renewed fighting between two Arab tribes over mining rights left 60 people dead in the northern Darfur region.
    (AP, 2/24/13)
2013        Feb 23, The battle for Syria's second-largest airport intensified on as government troops tried to reverse recent strategic gains the rebels have made in the northeast in their quest to topple President Bashar Assad. The army launched an offensive on opposition strongholds outside Damascus in an effort to dislodge rebels from areas around the capital that they have been trying to storm for weeks.
    (AP, 2/23/13)
2013        Feb 23, In eastern Zimbabwe an arson attack on the home of an election candidate killed the politician's 12-year-old son.
    (AP, 2/26/13)

2014        Feb 23, In Wisconsin three men broke into a Madison home looking for money, found a couple lying in bed and assaulted the woman, who was six months pregnant. Efemia A. Neumaier told the assailants they'd find at least $1,500 in cash in the home of the man she was seeing, but that the men broke into the wrong home. Michon A. Thomas, Eric D. Bass and Kristopher J. Hughes all faced robbery and sexual assault charges.
    (AP, 3/12/14)
2014        Feb 23, The Afghan Taliban killed 21 soldiers in an assault on in a remote mountainous region in Kunar province. Six soldiers were missing after the militants' most deadly assault on the security forces in months.
    (Reuters, 2/23/14)
2014        Feb 23, In Sidney, Australia, finance chiefs from the 20 largest economies (G-20) agreed to implement policies that will boost world GDP by more than $2 trillion over the coming five years.
    (AP, 2/23/14)
2014        Feb 23, In Bangladesh gunmen opened fire and tossed bombs at a prison van carrying militants of a banned Islamist movement to a court house, freeing three of their colleagues and killing a policeman.
    (Reuters, 2/23/14)
2014        Feb 23, In Brazil a 34-year-old football fan was beaten to death by supporters from a rival team following a high-profile match in the Sao Paulo state championship.
    (AP, 2/24/14)
2014        Feb 23, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi held talks in Baghdad on issues ranging from trade to arming Iraq's hard-pressed security forces, on the first such visit in over a decade.
    (AFP, 2/23/14)
2014        Feb 23, In Hong Kong thousands rallied outside government headquarters demanding the city's leader uphold media freedoms amid growing anger towards perceived behind-the-scenes intrusions on local media outlets.
    (Reuters, 2/23/14)
2014        Feb 23, In Israel Samuel Sheinbein (34), an American-Israeli prisoner, reportedly stole a gun from one of his guards before special forces shot him dead. An initial investigation revealed that the weapon was actually brought in from the outside. Sheinbein, was tried in Israel in 1999, and sentenced to 24 years for his slaying and dismemberment in Maryland of 19-year-old Alfredo Enrique Tello Jr.
    (AP, 2/24/14)
2014        Feb 23, In the Ivory Coast at least 4 soldiers and several attackers were killed when suspected gunmen from Liberia raided a border town in the west of the country.
    (Reuters, 2/23/14)
2014        Feb 23, In southern Lebanon 2 UN peacekeepers died and three were injured in a car accident.
    (AFP, 2/23/14) 
2014        Feb 23, In northern Mali a miner said that 8 armed men closed the large Taoudenie salt mine by forcing more than 800 workers to leave.
    (AP, 2/23/14)
2014        Feb 23, In  Mali 5 bodies were discovered in two graves near the Kati military barracks outside Bamako. The victims were wearing military clothing but their identities had not been confirmed.
    (AP, 2/24/14)
2014        Feb 23, Nigeria’s military said it has sealed its northern border with Cameroon in an effort to shut out Islamist militants using its neighbor as a launch pad for attacks.
    (Reuters, 2/23/14)
2014        Feb 23, Shell Nigeria closed a 6,000-km (3,700-mile) oil pipeline to repair leaks from oil theft.
    (AP, 2/27/14)
2014        Feb 23, In northwest Pakistan a bomb planted at a busy bus terminal near a police station exploded, killing 14 people and wounding 15 in Kohat near the country's lawless tribal region. Pakistani fighter jets attacked suspected militant hideouts in Tirah valley, killing at least 18 insurgents.
    (AP, 2/23/14)(Reuters, 2/23/14)(SFC, 2/24/14, p.A2)
2014        Feb 23, Vladimir Putin ordered officials to start work on taking control of Crimea. This was weeks before a referendum which, the Kremlin later asserted, prompted the region's annexation from Ukraine. This information was not made public until March 8. , 2015.
    (Reuters, 3/9/15)
2014        Feb 23, The Winter Olympics In Sochi, Russia, ended after 17 days with a handoff to the next Winter Games host city, Pyeongchang in South Korea. Russian athletes claimed 33 medals, their largest haul ever.
    (AP, 2/24/14)
2014        Feb 23, In Saudi Arabia a woman (81) died from a new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing to 61 the number of deaths in the kingdom at the center of the outbreak.
    (AP, 2/23/14)
2014        Feb 23, In Syria 2 suicide bombers killed a senior al-Qaida operative, blowing themselves up inside the militant leader's compound in Aleppo. Rebels said Abu Khaled al-Suri was the representative of al-Qaida chief Ayman al-Zawahri in Syria. A car bomb exploded near a charity field hospital close to the Turkish border. At least one person was killed. Another 60 boys and men, who were being held by Syrian authorities after their evacuation from besieged Homs, were released.
    (AP, 2/23/14)(AFP, 2/24/14)
2014        Feb 23, In Thailand an apparent grenade attack against anti-government protesters occupying an upscale shopping area of Bangkok killed 3 people, including 2 children. On Sep 4, 2015, a court sentenced four men to life imprisonment over the deaths. The verdict was commuted from the death sentence because they had confessed to the charges.
    (AP, 2/23/14)(AFP, 9/4/15)
2014        Feb 23, In Togo 18 people were killed and 40 others injured, 25 of them seriously, in a collision between a bus and a lorry.
    (AFP, 2/23/14)
2014        Feb 23, Ukraine’s Parliament voted to hand the president’s power to speaker  Oleksandr Turchinov, a top opposition figure, plunging Ukraine into new uncertainty after a deadly political standoff.
    (AP, 2/23/14)

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